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DAI ois»i55.i^ 


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/^ ^ '^c^. 4 //>^-^, 






IN THE YEAR 1605, 







1808. A ■ 

[J. G. Barnard, Printer, Snow- Hill 1 


X - 

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XHERE is no desire more natural to the 
mind of civilized man> than that of retracing the 
transactions of former ages. Curiosity stamps a 
value on the most trifling records of antiquity^ 
^d we attend with pleasure to the recital of oc- 
currences, in which we are no longer iiiterested. 
Like every other affection of the human soul, this 
propensity gathers strength, and becomes more 
ardent, as its energies are more concentrated, and 
its object is more limited. Hence we pursue, with 
e^acreased eagerness,, the inquiry which leads to the 
knowledge of those events that have occurred in 
the country ifphich we claim as our own* ^ To gratify 

a 2 

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this laudable and rational Guriosity, > is the object of 
the present undertakings in which I have endeap* 
voured to give, with historic fidelity, a Warrativeof 
the most remarkable Events and Legislative Transac- 
tions of my nath^ Cbuntry^ ' 

' It will readily be perceived, that the annals of a 
small colony can furnish but few particulars m orthy 
the attention of the general historian, or the pro- 
found politician, 'wiiose enlarged vieNvs are occupied 
yviih the fate of mtidns, or the complicated interests 
of empires.' Bqt^ '* no period in the history of 
one's own country>f' says' a celebrated autlior,' '* can 
be considered as altogether uninteresting. Such 
transactions as tdnd to 'illustrate the progress of its 
constitution, laws^ and manners, merit the utmost 
attention. Even remote and minute events are 
objects of a curiosity, which, being natural to the 
human mind, the gratification of it is attended 
with pleasure.^' Encouraged ' by this opinion of 
Robertson,' the first historian of the stge, I have 
presumed to submit the following W<Mrk to the 

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candour of the public^ in the hope that it will not be 
deemed wholly unimportant^ or unworthy of their 

To others^ I willingly resign the brilUant meed 
which crowiis the efforts of comprehensive genius^ 
^employed in recording* the splendid achieyements 
of warriors, the actions of heroes, or liie beneficent 
institutions of statesmen. My ambition soars not 
beyond the humble task of presenting my country- 
men with a mot^ ' complete and impartial Histwy 
of Barbadoes than has hitberto appear^d^ In the 
progress of the work, due notice'has been taken of 
the civil, military, ' and ecclesiastical establishments 
of the colony, its latvs, and cotistitution. Their 
errors and imperfections are illustrated, and the 
abuses 'which have crept into the public admini- 
stratioh Wre noted with decent freedom, in- which 
candour has not been forgotten. 

In the performance of this delicate and essential 
jpa]4'of my plan, I am apprehensive thatil fihall be. 

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%>^i^t ob^oxipus. to cei^ure; fi)r Wi^ig deyjUiAe4 
£(0I» l^e' strict ralef of bj^tqi^ qoi^^ppsitlioifu Tlji^ 
reflections scattered through the book^ auid tjbu^ d^r 
(*ussions of political subjects, into which I have 
oocasionsdly d^^^i^4» ^}^ufr^y ioterr^p^ the 
|2»EnitirQ> .«wd di«ei;t tbe ai^^oiii from iit9 pi:c^r 
olj^t. ' I was i^ojt aw;are of th» imc;onyeiuence tiU 
it waa too 1^ to qialqe any alteration in the ar- 
isuAgem^^ Y^ t^eriQ are many iate])igej:\t readers, 
by wAiCNn, I ain .{^ersuf^ed^ tbe^e will be .cojisidered 
the belt p»r|«f F^f^^r Fajiigufid wiljh a tedi- 
i»j» «iurrat(ive (tf f^vei^ts, which it is fei^ed will n^t 
be g^R^s^ly iB^tere^ting, tl\e , mind w.}\^ repose and 
untod ,t^)f Jin tb^ c;»r^yan^eras of rest and refresl^- 
mw^' JUke ejfwode^ in an epic poem, they will 
r0li^eyQ the ajtjteqliQpir, ^d a^use the . imagination 
with tb'eir v^ety. Afkd, .^ven vi^h respect to 
tbf^ utility, jif.tbe sentiments, of the ?iuthor should be 
found worthy of atteftt.iQi;^, it is prejsumed ihat their 
effect must be increased, by preserving the natural 
.\^l^^e reflectiion at^d the ^ct, by which 
M v^ smgges^edk The^e dig;re^ions sure vinflicated , 

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hf ttd mitliof ^ tHe fitst daSs in tiiis departmettt of 
Htcdi-aftufe; and 1 may t^ture to affirm, ^itb 
Gihhoti, that ih&^ will be censured only by those 
I'eiidef^ y^/bo are it^nsible to thfe hn;p(j)rtance of laws 
sthd inatinidrs, whilfe they petUse, with eagei- cu- 
riosity, the transient intrigues of a court, or the 
accidental event of a battle. 


T&e fiT^feddm of liiy rettiiiria may probahty give 
offence* ko miiny respectable |>ersons in high officiai 
situatioiis; and I iMa^ evfetibe accused of betray- 
ihg the interests of my country, by the representa- 
tion which 1 have drawn of itN intemdl gdvet'rfment. 
But t utterly discMtti the smallest personal allusion 
\<^hatever. Measures, and hot men, wtere they 
can be separated, ai^ the objects of reprobation; 
and in comnientirig on the errors df our establish- 
ment, it is not my intention to wound the feelings 
of any honest man, to whom the abuses of office 
have been transmitted through successive genera- 
tions. Nor is tt tr'^acheiy, but patriotism, which 
calls the attention of persons in authority to the 

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causes of those abuses which exist in the subordi- 
nate departments of the state. The purity of t^e, 
motive will, I hope, entitle me to the indulgence 
of the public, and extepuate any imperfection which 
may be perceptible in the execution of ^hi^ plart of 
my design. r ' 

J J ' ■ ' # 

Had I foreseen the difficulties which I baye had 
to encounter^ I must confess, that I should nev6r . , 
have engaged in this undertaking. Sensibly how 
little I had to expect i^om the ordinary sour^^s of 
information, I flattered myself that, as doon ,as my 
design was known, the lovers of literature would 
have facilitated, by every coipmunication in their 
power, a Work, tne \f ant of which was universally 
acknowledged. But I have met with, discourage- 
ment and disappointment, where I expected to have 
found support and assists^ncc . ,, , . ^ 

Notwithsianding several h^ktoncal .accounts of 
Barbadoes have been published, its genuine nis- 
tory remains involved in great obscurity. Of these. 

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publications^ thatof Ligos is little more thana journal 
of his voyage to and from the island^ including an 
account of what happened during the few years he 
resided in the country. Mr. Hughs's Natural His- 
tory is entirely barren of events; and the Memoirs 
of' Barbadoes^ published in the year 1742> though 
they contain some valuable information, are too con- 
cise to re\^^d the search of the curiouH inquirer. 
The best and most copious account of this country 
extant, is said to have been published by Oldmixon, 
in his History of the British Empire ip America. 
This publication I have never., seen. Anxious to 
consult every author who had written oq t^ie sub- 
ject, I offered, by public advertisement^ any price 
for the book, but those who had it irere not liberal 
enough to indulge me with the use of it. 

This disappointment has been, in a great mea« 
sure, compensated by the Account of Barbadoes 
contained in the forty-^rst volume of the Universal 
History, m hich seems to have been compiled from 
01dmixon*6 book. Here I found a sufficient stock 


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ribbmimt.i '• 'Utafe- dariited mudh.coilaterai ia^HUha- 


ixSon fami on i tesd^lknt . H^aHuBetipi .'oJ^QMitii i>r /iff 
JRtns^ Seitietkeut , ff Burhad&gs, "wniti^iir by. • HaU^ 
die', editor .of the •Laws; niHc^ wtw; kindly cmnmiir 
picBtetl to vk&hyi lAie .Hbiwoiable Ahjamiii fimds^ 
^hief JHsticb of jkcoibI of lOoiaiHiciB ploai^ «nd ierbBu- 
, funr of die island; a gende]imi> ■ whose stem peti-^ 
tioal reetitade aiM integrity are, 8ofixn«d hy k Hai^ 
]^-aiiiitAi Iwitii the inost annlsle domestic viitqas: 
Many offllheiBPOBtimportairt trails rf^SirBer 

inXi OraiiHlie's aiid Mr. Crowe's adiiiiiiistratioiis> axe 
V detailed £rom an old journal of the prooeediiigis bf 
diea8SQ»ibly^ lent ine^ widi liis usual urfoaniiy> hf 
fliy esteemed and iqgentouB frieiid Mr. Abrahmm 
JHiirtlq. < For many mteveating ^lactiadar^ I im 
ukdeliited tb' 7ti»a .' valusible nianidscnpti^ > wHicii 
were pciitely put iiitoi my bands % Willimn lEvers*- 
hj, Esq.: an' eminckit ahxuney^ whose integnty 
«aid 'professional kiuiwli^dg^ Isure podcur^d 1bh» . 
die oonfide^e and esteem; iiot mdy of his clt- 
eai^, but of ill ivlio «njoy thft pleasure of Ids ao- 

b 2 

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to acfenowjedge my obligatioS. The iirieiidship 

of soich men is a aistmetion of whkh I am; justly 

■ yam, and amply compensates ;me for. the envMus 

. maligmty whith has- endeavoured to^ obstruct my 



'i: -.".'f V. i' /idn vcj 

impediments tW have lain, in mV way, t submit 

.'^v,/. V'^" ^•"^^..'- - .v>-, J-'-.j-T/^ iJ'^^d T 1... 
to the candour ot aa enlightened community, with> 

' aljL those tender hopes and tears which are- ivatural 
to the mind of a maii,. anxious for the success of a 

" ^ prorfuciioii>; oia.' which ne has bestowed- 'much time* 
and paihsi. Gonsciaiis of my own df^ficienoies, I 
CMi scarcely "expect a favourable reception from the- 
world. Denied the advantages' of an academical 
edi^ation,. I cannot pretend- lib those ornameQtsof 
"style which are neceissary to embellish, and recom> 
mend a work,, which,' from the nature of the sub- 
ject, it'isapprehended^ will prove dry anduneniber* 
ikining. I have endeavoured, however, to supply 
, ^wai]d:^f. learning ah() talents W diligence and' 
iqpplica^n; and 1 twVt tpat, as'my/^iilts hav« 

^j.* , . # . *• • ,.-•,>,,, i : :''*.•*•>*. / I / 

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xiv PREFACk/ 


not' b«en aggmvated by presumption^ they will not 
bt puni^d m1^ ^ sererity of literary criticism. ^ 

, from the liviely intOf«sl; taken by pe<^le o£ every 
description^ in whatever relates to the condkion of 
the enslaved Mncasx, it may, perhaps, appear strange 
that I shofM have taken no notice of die general 
state of West ibidian. slavery. But the isnli^ct has 
been so fiilly and ably treated, by Mr. Bryan £d- 
wardsy the degaat. aiid angenious faistonan of the 
West Incbci^ . as to preclude the Meecssity of an^ 
ulterior discussioD* .And, as. his viduable work is 
in general circulation, it would be superfluous to 
repeat what he has adinanced with so much greater 
ability. It has, doubtless, been expected, that I 
should take notice of die torrent of illiberal inflective 
with wliich our mistaken, misiitformed, transatlantic 
feRoW'Subjects continue to over^^Im a peaceful, 
unoffending conMnunity, with whose intemdl »tn- 
ation. thfey are very imperfectly acquainted; and 
thait I ^loidd vindicate the character of my injured 
country, Irom the gross calumnies which are daily 

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propagMedf ^hcc;rmii^ the tfc^t|H€at<i tif>slstl^/ 
Bui I home . fodbsraet td ^femark iip^ fhii tiii^^tti^ 
raataUe abii9e> Vfthtlts^t hoif^iincH^M^tidfi Whi^k 
ai-chur seii^ of aocofliulited tdjim^-kid if»l^ 
tnight mtBralJy inspire ati«l<excttfi&; mid thiiU klM^ 
lim d»t 't9 tfeedilioiii/'khefte by whclni khst^he&cut^ 
UnjustlyAndinfeelingfy ihrowiiui Ima}^, J«$«»ete|^ 
be pQl-mitted to* r<^ to* the c^di^iepite^rstk^Kfm 
vi' ff Jew ittteifigeiit travelbsre, hr ai i^fertation -(^ fhi^ 
charges of tohuiinaity,- too indnscAmiifmtdljr ittt^ 
pvted to- the West Indians to bejnst* 

I shall begin with the tssdshony o^ the Re^ftei^MHi 
Mr. WiHiaomsy vicar of Exning, in Siiifb&. Thi^ 
re9pectal>l« Hiiraster of the gospel, was cfaapkftf of 
Sir John Jerris's ^Ag-Mp, when that eelebrated 
eommandex and Sir Charles Grey were en^Ioyecl 
in eittencbiig the glory of the Biritish arina ill i^ 
western hemisphefe. While the fleet lay at Bar- 
badoes, he had an opportunity ol observing th^ 
condition of skves, smd the result of hm observations^- 
is. related wifb a candour beeoiMn^ his hdy vocft^ 

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xyi PRErACB. 

tion: i' Dunng «ur residence at this idand^ xurW 
osity led me to be present at a sale of slaves^ just 
imported from Africa. As this hoitid traffic in 
human fletdi has been the topic of public investi- 
gation for some time past, and niuch learning and 
ingenuity have been displayed on both sides of the 
question, I shall not give any opinion, but 
merely state hcts ^at came within my own ^now-> 
ledge. The sale is proclaimed by beat of dhim, 
and is held, ait Barbadoes at least, not in the open 
air, as I had been taught to beheve, but in a com- 
modious: house, appointed for that purpose^ As 
soon as the planter has fixed on a slave, he retires 
with the salesman to another room, there concludes 
the bargain, and departs with his purchase to his 
plantation, where the new comer, being clothed in 
a coarse jacket, and provided with a hat, knife, 
and other trifles, is placed with one of the old 'ne- 
groes, by whom he is instructed in his business. 
In regard to the severity exercised by the slave- 
owners on their slaves, vi^hatever may have been 
the case, I am well assured that now there are sel- 

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di^'imttaaak^s^M i^i)^ ^^^ been 

so f«eliilgly described, at le«6t in tllfe-.yftads vre vi-' 
sited on this .^sq^editioQ. ' At l^ha^ittA, tbey Up-' 
peared to be in as ^6mfoi:M^ble>'«ituastion:aslii0 lower 
ranks of society generally are; and«^ ibe climate 
is peculiarly fevourable to poverty, dothea siod firr 
ing> the greaf article^ of expose- to the ^fitta in 
o^er countries, b^Qg hardly rjliwte ionised) I may 
ventU^'e to a£|imi,r that the ^alaves 'm ^ Weet In- 
dies are in a better situation, aa t(| : the ^eoessaoies 
of life, than iAi€ labouring poor iniJbigliiad, <» ^y 
odier country in Em»pe*." 

On the comparative feliciiy of the 'West bidian 
slaves, we have the candid declaration 4i another 
clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Munn> who was sent to 
Jamaica as a missipnary. He acknowledged that 
he had received, in England, very unfav«lixakle 
impressions respecting the treatment of slaves ; 
but, from what he had himself witnessed, be saw 

* WillaupiM's CMOfWDghiafheWeit laliw, p. 12. 

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ware «f the cMii£>rtB. 9f life aniAiig tbeiii,*iiiom 
appoROt coBtentment^ more htippmm, than-bie 
had oner seen among tbe labomang ordtr of. pe^le 

Twiiieoe Teoerabk' autboiities let jm add tkait 
of Doctor' Piackasd. This g«fitletiiaii , ww em* 
ployed in a' prc^mional capacity ta: atftuid- tbe 
troDpd lindoTitbe cDmmBBd o£ Sir Balph Abencrom- 
bie>r «i' iibe;^Kpfditio« ib» the W^ Ipdiei^ and 
hrMight if^ biw , l4A ttme^ invt^^er^d^ preji;bdices> 
generated by ignorance and fetsehioocU aad^ nur- 
tured by humanity^ which prevail against the 
crfufituated slave owner. . JSoon af^r; his arrival^ 
at B«rbadoe«> he had an. <]pporil»unity ^ visiting «a 
slave shii^ '' to witness,'* as he explains \m design^ 
'' the oMn^er <^ treating those poor beings <»f sable 
6kin>..vdbo vpe tM^ fr<Rin their native, hmne 1^ the 
iron hand of «em»eraej to be lanjiisported to a 
hmk^ of slavcjry.'^ After a minute detail of 1^ 

* D^lksV UUmty ot lim M a w pi, yA «» p. 4*u 

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.rB£FAC£. xk 

{MttiGiilars x>6 duscnoi^l aightv the d(>ctDr assures 
liis cofrospoadeBt— '^ I am mottt? happy tOr ochI'" 
dtide my feport, by inlbFiaiiig 3ridiu;..that we olv 
served no UKurks of liiose horrorakaSKt) cmekies said 
t^ be pi9cticed on board tbe ships occupied in 
thil^ sflid traffic of human flesh, aad wbiek ave re- 
presented as frightfully augmenting the mmifold 
iSis of staveiy*.*' And in a aobsequent.ietter, the 
doctor adds, '^Ihe difference^ in poind: of heahb, 
is peeulia]4y siriking, between ikit troops^ conwyed 
in trail^iorts^rom £ngland> and tbeslaM^s brought in 
the Gtifnear sK^ fr6m Africa. The «fe^ are- in 
more ctowded dian the soldierS) yet for ^oove 
hesiMiy. Tmtght venture it as an optnien; ihat a 
Guinea ship'TrouM carry with less danger of -dis- 
ease being generated among them, a cargo of slaves 
more* ihan thrice as numemus as a transport Would 
carry of soldiersf;*' No better evidence can be had 
than ihls of a gentleman of professional eminence,. 

* 'Pinckard's Notes qn the Wes\ la&et, TC^t h p< S^t* 
t Ibid, vol. «, p. 9- 

C « 

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•who had a Ikir oppo^nity of esftmihing both iht 

transport an4- slave ships^ and ^o^ spontaneoas 

declaratbn in favour of the latter mode of coii«- 

^eyance. proves, that so far from augmenting, as 

had biceii r^tesented, ,the manifold ills of slavery, 

it -waa, tn fact, an amelioration of human liiisepy. • 

In the course of this traveller's peregrinations in 

.this countiy> he met with, what he is pleased to 

tern^, a happy negro yard. ** We contemplated 

this spot with much satisfaction, and were gratified 

in observing the high degree of atteiition which wias 

here given: to the comfort and accommodation of 

the negroes; who had little cause to lament their 

removal from the wild woods of Africa to an opposite 

shore, and could ^ as little desire to exchange their 

present lot for the high-rated freedom of European 

paupers. No thought have they to. provide for their 

infants or their aged parents, nor have they to seek 

either food, habitation, or apparel. To each &- 

mily is allotted a separate home ; the necessary 

food and clothing are issued to them; and they 

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knowrUdpe-ctf: tiie ansious c^res w Hifficulti^ of the 
wodd^r .No feofifiil concem, iiiar. haf^siAg incum- 
faBBM|Kse» <cMi. arise, to diem> oii aiccouat^^f their off- 
sfffing, ^who> like, Utemselii^Sy sAe fiirm^hed.vnth 
all that is needful ;■ and those who havendost chil- 
dreii> find, themselitefi. mdist valued and esteemed* 
In sickness, medical attendance is- provided fox 
them, and wfa^tev^r k necessary is. admimster^d 
without thqught or lamaety on their Qwn ^ftrt. -j Sox 
d£^. labour. is dtmanded fi:om,tfa^em in.die'week, 
hut the seventh i^ giveu.thw.afifAday' pf r^t and. 
relaxatioiil ; and £rom the total ajbsmce; of c^re, it is 
usually spent in fxmbounded mirth and festiidty^." 
Is there any particular ha^hip 'in this species of 
s^^tude?. To labour, is the common lot of man> 
kind. Tq. . eat bread earned by the sweat of bis 
brow^ \¥as the sentence pronounced by an incensed 
Ood against fallen/ disobedient man. And is the 
sable African less guilty than all the other descend- 
ants of Adam> ^hai: he alone should be exempted 
from the operation of Divine law ? ' / , 

'— ^^— — — ' ' ' ' ' ■ I * I ^ I. .11 ^ I , I 1 1 I I II I I — — — — i» 

* Pinckard 8 Notes on the West Indies^ vol. I, p. £88. 

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Agatn, speaking •^'th^rslav^i on Mr. D»iigftii*« 
pbmtetion^ in Demarftniy DoctM Piuckard it 
ftffced tt> ackflKndMlg^ /^lliat the Uboanug p9ar 
of Europe can attain no state at all adequate to 
such 'flkneiy') ' htt bad tbe^ equal <joinfoiiti still 
ccmld tliey never be equailf free ficom care.^ . :And 
at a- f^ .'giyseo hy- Goineraov BattenbuFg> of Beiv 
lHee> rtD his> slaves^ the doctor 9siyh ** While look^* 
ing upDath6n»' at this- jio^^ous moment, I bent a 
<JM|i^t to £un^, and wished that the tattered, 
ilkhgent son? of liberty could fed as* happy. Ee* 
fleeting, l^at tb« peasMitsiof ExKtopei niio toil iii 
^edom. ^ their daily btead, hove not >ri&in tfaeir 
reach sucb complete aBd>cheerfid selaxstionjis ^vas 
procured for ihfise contented ^aanas^ I became fised 
in c^mfcemplation of the acene before me, until thfe 
comforts and advantages had ueariy concealed &om 
my mind the bitter ills of slavery*^" No condi* 
tion of human life is exempt from niiiny i^fterMlii 
and it vere^ perhaps, a ta^k as impi^ma m it would 

* Pmckaid's Notea> vol. 2, p. S5S. 

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||^A^9Ui^j9,liltes(^4»^e«i ^N)i« <jfche comn^oB lot of 
humaiiity thoaet wh^^ m •ink^ ^slav^yj ^Defial-* 
ftiling th« mysterious dispensations of Providence. 

It mof possibly be said^ that: ^Mse ase « imw par* 
tioiilar iii8taace»t>f negro fidieity, vbence an ii^ci^ 
enee <an be justly dravm m fimmr a£ tiie s^istem. 
But I aflseirt; and I doit without Abe ?fear of iom- 
ItadiciioM^ tbut tbe.pic^^u^e which I>r» IHiokaFd has 
^wb: of 1^ condition of slayes^ i^ a cdrviict k!epre- 
soiitation of tlie geoeral state of alaveryt in Barbar^ 
does. Indeed the point is astabtisbed, by faistO'iirD 
confession^ '< that the slaves o^naany pereons whom 
he visited in this country niu^t be envied . by the 
poor of nBtions wfaese fireeden is better knovm*.** 
Atid^ though he hui selee^ied Mr. Waith from the 
group, aopd held bitn iip to public admiration, I . 
am happy to say> that, among the plMrters of Bar^^ 
badoes, there are thousands whose heaits thixib with 
the finest sensibilities of humanity; and who poe* 

* Piackard's Notes, vol. i, p. K>§. 

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xxir PREFACE. 

sess as much of the milk df human kindiiess as any 
men upon the fia.ce of the earth. 

I shall conclude with the flattering attestation of 
an illustrious Prince of the Bloody his Royal High- 
ness the Duke of Clarence; who, in his place, as i 
peer of the realm, asserted, that he knew, from per- 
sonal observation on the spot, ||iat the situation of 
slav^ isi tfa^ WfeSt IMies, Wds more desirable thttii 
that of the lower classes of ]svhites in Great Britain. 
To dedstfatidilis SO" e^jcpticit, to testiiftony so unques- 
tionable, it would be impertinent, in one labouring 
und^ the opprobrium of a West Indian character, 
to add one single syllable. . If the people of Eng- 
land believe not these, what chance is there, that 
my feeble voice will command attention amidst the 
clamour which has. been raised by prejudice smcl 
perverted philanthropy ? The obdurate ear of partial 
incredulity cannot be penetrated by the distant, 
unharmonious accents of trulli. 

its Town, f 
16, 1807. y 

Spe^bts Town, 

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1 HE Island discovered. Granted to the Eari WMailboroiigb. A teitlement 
made by Sir W. Courteen. Granted to Lord Carlisle. A second settkment ' 
made by a company of Merchants. Disputes between the settlers. Sir W. ' 
Tufton appointed Governor. Superseded by Hawley. Tofton executed for 
mutiny. Prudent administration of Mt. BelL Sagir cane introduced. ' Afri* 
can sl afes. Story of Inkle and Yarico. A conspir acy among the negroes... 1 

CHAP. 11. 

Lord Witloughby sueceedi to the Government. Restraints on trade. Sir George 
Ajscue attacks the Island. Gallant defence made by the Governor. Resto- 
ration. Colonel Modiford appointed Governor. Succeeded by President 
Walrond. Digression concerning Courts of Law •...•••.. 4B 


DiArontentrof the Barbadians. Origin of the four and a. half diAy« LordWth? 
looghby.resumca the Government. The Assembly grant n perpetual, ni-. 
tcnue to the Crown. Mr. Fanner's spirited conduct. Hostile desigos ff tJif, 
Dutch. L(Mrd Willoughby perishes at sea. Succeeded by his brother, Pre« 
sWbncy of Mr. Codrington. Sir Jonathan Atkins governor. Dreadfu^ Jmri*; 
cane. Semacka on forestalling. Jhe Barbadians grievously cwressed*^.,.;^ 7<? 


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Sir B* DujttoQ'8 ifnva^ieBi adminintr^tion. , Appoints Sir Jobn Witham bis De» 
puty GoYcirnon Newiduty on. sngar. Disputes betw<M& Dufcton and Witham. 
The fimprpot rcqilled. Soi^edf^ by 9dwin,Stfde# A cgaspiracy among 
t^esUvw A redew, of tbeslate laws. .••«..•.....««...•••••.. ........ 115 


'^ ' 

iir Timothy Thomhill's gaDant exploits. Colonel Kendal appointed Governor. 
Tl^ c<^tQf suffers fr^m an epidemio disease. A new plot among the negroes. 
Un((^fi|8fttl ^tack 911 M^rtiiucQ. Coionel Russel succeeds to the Govern* 
ma^^ Hif death.-......— —. ^ ^. 145 


Presidency of Mr* Bond. Arrival of Governor Grey, ' He resigns the govern- 
ment Mr. Farmer, President. A Co ffpiracy o fjhe slaves. Sir Bevill 
Granville appointed Governor. The <o »ifttry t ona by factions. Attempt on 
/ the Governor's life. Mr. Ullfngton prosecuted. Memorial against the Go^ 
vernor. Several Metabers of the Assetnbly expelled. A Bank eaiablisbtd. 
Departure of the Goveimor.....^...............*...^.....— ...1...^ l67 


President Sharpens administration. Succeeded by Mitford Crowe. Disqubition 
. concerning the criminal judicature^ beath of Mr. Codrington. Mr. Lilling- 
ton admMiten iltc goverMnnt. IL Lowther appointed G#veroor. His ty* 
ramicirit^oildtlcti Mr. ShHrpc tuiecteds to tiie F resMkno y . Lowlber rasldfsdi' 
Wkl arbtlVary artd oppressive ne«stires. Pei se cutcs My« Gordon. Tha case <! 
Behiard€DQi[e. Itbt t^bv^fdo? fecaUed. Bfr. Frer^ ^mrnXM^ik^ ta ce amlytf 
attlltority. feftupers^ded'by'Afr. Osol tUuMu 4a 4bc ftrtiBaatioisy^Mi 
■M- tliie ' of the cdtHiia) ie)pMaiitiiiliMk*.««.*4«^M««»^i>to*j^»«»te««i^*..^r,to«« 200 

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Governor WowleyV t^iiiiatraitoii. Mr. Cox diqprtced. Violent disMmoot 

in the country. The people reftiie toCpay their tajct. Mr. Worsley retomi ^ 

to Engknd. The gofemment deroWes oi^ Mr. Barwick, I>iiOTderly conduct 

of the Assembly. Case of Mr. Bennelt The Preiident dk^, luut is toe* 

ceeded by Mr. Dotin*.,,,..*^^^..^...^., ..„„,,.,,, .,^,4,,,^., ^44 


Lord Hoire*s popular administration. Payment of Mr.lR^onley'a salary en- 
forced. Establishment of a press. Murder conmitted by Mac Mahon^' 
Death of LonI Howe. Pftsidenty of Mr. Dotin. Mae Mahon"! trial Jf^r-^ 
riral of Governor Byng. Disputes between the Governor and the Assemblj. 
Death of Mr. Byng. Legislative proceedii^j............ — — f7I 

CHAP. X. , . ; 

Administration of Sir Thomas Hobinson. Disputes between the <9t>trernor atiA 
the Assembly. Commodore Snowies. An inquiry into the state of CharW'^f^ 
Tort. "Sir Thomas is superseded by Mr. GrenviRe. The Government devolves 
on Mr. Weelces. He is succeeded by Doctor Pinfold. Loyal and spirited 
conduct of the Barbadians. Mr. Adams 'C^eUed die Assembly. The Go- 
vernor's reu§piiation.....«.»«...«««.—..»««.«..— «••••.••— ••••••• 302 


The Honourable Samuel Bon«» President. The AssemUy^s first claim to Priyi- 
1^^. Doctor W. Spry appmnted Governor. The Speaker of the Assembly 
vacates his seat. The Frediolders refuse to elect another Representative. 
Death of Mr.l^. Mr. Rous's re-ascension to the Chair^^«..«,.«.i,«..^.«, 33S 



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xxviii CONTENTS. 

CHAP.' xir. 

IVIr. Hay assumes t&e Government. Pistressed condition of (be inbabttantfe.' 
Eeprckentation to tbe Throne. Opposed by the Gotemop. Suspends the tSb- 
licitor-General and tbe Judge of the Court of Vice- Admiralty. His improper 
interposition in favour of Captain Dotih. War with France. Danger of tbe' 
Country. Apathy of tbe Assembly. The Govemor^s Death .— — . .,-,. 563- 



The government devolves on tbe Hon. John Dotin. Succeeded by Msjjor-Genft-' 
ral James Cunninghame. The governor disappointed in his salary. Qaar<^ 
rels with tbe Assembly. The Council sanctions bis illegal claim of fees. The 
island almost desolated by a dreadful hurricane... •«..«••••••••. ...J.;..' 405' 


Addiest from the Legidatare to the Throne. Extraordinary proposal to suspend 
tbe prooeediDgs of juitice. Petition to tbe King for the Governor's removal. 
Hk £ic«Ueacy pentvcics-in bU illegal and arbitrary Qiea8ure8.r.......^.... 457 

CHAP. XV. u 

lAmiBeckit grant «f PftrliameBt for tbe relief of the auflerers by tbe stormy 
SialrHmtioa delayed* Message from the Governor. Tbe Assembly refuse to 
raise tbe soppliea» Alarming prospect of affain. Obstinacy of the Assembly. 
Patviotisiiiofthepe^e. Dissolution of the Assembly. New election. Cop- 
tiDual altercationt between the Governor and the Assenibly. Plans for the 
distribuUoo of tbe Parliamentary bounty. Tbe Assembly prorogued. Final 
airaogemenU for tbe diftributi^m...,. — .— ...•..•••..^.•..•— .. 490 

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CHAP, xvr. 

The Cknreraor recalled. Mr. Dotin utmnes the Goremment Extrtordimry 
eondttctof the OtunciL Mr. Estwickfs conduct censured. Mr. Darid Parry 
racceedi to the Govemmeni. Legislative proceedings. An atrocious murder 
committed. ...... ..•.^.•....•^•... .. •.•••••...•.••...•.••.•«. 525 

* - -.^ • 


iUtercation iKtweenr the two Hbusai cdnderning the Excise-bill. Appointment 
•f a new Agent. .Augmentation of 4be . Governor's salai^, Sipgulaff ph^o*- . * 
menon. A Lottery. . Arrival of Prince William Henry. Commercial rq(li*; 
lalious. Legislative proceedings. Military outrage. :The Govemof vetumS' 
to England. Presidency of Mr. Frere. The Governor's return. He regulated 
ibe currency of the Go^ Coin. His Excellency resigns the Government to 
ffr. Bishop* Suspension ff Judge Wedges. Military operations* The Pre*, 
sidenfs extraordinary zeal for, the service— ^••••.••.••.•...••...••••^Si 


emerge Vomiz Eiclcetts^Esq. i^ppoinled Governor. 'Auipiekmfi ooMiiieneckmnic 
of bis Administration. Judge Weekes convicted of extortion. Militia esta« . 
blished. A reform of the Court/i of Law attempted. The Storekeeper's de* 
mand revived. Alarming state of afiairs in the West Indies. Murd<^r com-* 
mitted by Joe Denny. Extraordinary'interp^ilticBfr mliis fatout. ' Vklftnt ; 
commotion in Bridge*town. Denny transported. Mr. <Sii8i)ies AtopendeA 
government adopts the dangerous scheme 6f : eoiployiixg }iAz&i tfoofii.' Sir 
John Gay Alleyne retires from public life. Mr. Ricketts irisfgW the Gtfperii* 
ment* Is succeeded by Plresident Bishop. A compendinmcf diee<ttbtifatkil. (R>i 

Digitized by 



• A. • 
The R^. ThMhtt AlIineM. 
The Rev. WSIliam AWw. 
The tloti. Jok Porster Aileyud* 
James Anstie^ fesq. 
Samuel Applewhaite^ JEsq, 
Mr. focharcl Archer. 
3ar. Charles BarnQ^rton A^B. 
Mr. Jphn Ajg^d^ Jud. 
Mr. John Archer. 
Mr. Israel Armstrong. 
Mr. Richard Austin. ^ 
Doctor Abel Alleyne. 
Haynes Gibbes Alleyne^ Esq. 
Mr. Thomas G^t Armstroq^. 
Mr BeiyAoun Armativoiigk 
M r. Howard Armstroog* . 
Mr. Josaph Taitte AganL 
Mr. Edwia Agard. 
Mr. Abel Archer. 
Robert C. Ashby, Esq. 
Mr. V iliiam Adamson^ Jun« 
John AUeyne^ Esq. 

John P. F. Affiistrbng^ Esq. 
Mr. Tbotfiiss AgKri. 
Mr. WWiam Ame^^ 

The Hon. and ReV. Jobti Brd^e, S <^es 
The Hon. John BecHeS, Attwuey-^fenc- 

n(t and Speaker of the Assembly. 
The Hon. John Alleyne Beckles. 
Jolm WXIiam Bovell, M. D. 
William Bovell, Esq Demerara. 
Stephen Bla^kett, Esq. S Copied. 
Mr. James Bovetl.' 
Mr. Howard Bo veil. 
Mr. Waiiam Ball. 
George Barclay^ Esq. 2 co|>ies. 
William Barton^ Esq. Liverpool. 
Mr. Jacob Belgrave. 
Joeeph Bute, Esq. Demerara. 
The Hon. Miles Brathwaite. 
Geiteral Henry Bowyer, £ copies. 
Colonel Pinson Bonham. 
The Hon. John Barrow. 

Digitized by 



Mr. Clmrks BNi%b, 

Mr. John B. Browor 

Mr. James Butefaec 

Mr. Tiiomas Burton. 

Mr. Finch Bo¥«H* . - 

Jehu Caudle Bendj Esq. 

Mr. Thomas Beard. 

Samuel Berrisfordy "Efiq. Berbice. 

Francis Shorey Bajley, Esq. 

Ouu-l^ Kyd Bishop^ Esq. 

Joseph Bayne^ Esq. 

Mr. William Bosie Baker. 

Andrew Boyce, Esq; 

Jcmathan Boyce, Esq^ 

John Brathwaite^ Esq. 

Mr. Matthew Bojcew 

t/lr. Israel Bo wen 

Mr. Samuel Boyce. 

Mr. Thompson Boyce. 

John Bowen, Esq. 

John Bowen, Jun. Esq. 

Mr. John Birmhigham* 

Mr. Harbourhe Bamwetl/D^merara 

Mr. Francis A. 6arrbw. 

Mr. J. L. %noe. 

Mr. Thomas Briggs. 

Mr. James Buhol 

Mr. J^mes Thomas fiascom. 

Mr. Henry CroFts Baley. 

c.' [^' ;''''[ ' 

John Cobham, Esq. 
Thfi Hon. Tht'Iuas Chase. 
Mr. Thomasj Chase; Breedies.. 

Mr. R. S. Carter. 

William Alleyne Culpejperj Esq. 

Mr. John Cricblow. 

Ward Cadogan^ Esq. 2 copieft» 

John Q^^^, Esq. . , 

Hamlet Alexander Chase, 1^. 

Jacob Perry Clarke, Esq. 

Mr. Samuel Clarke. 

Mr. James Clinkett. 

Mr. Richard Cock, Jun. 

John Charles Colenum, Esq. 2 copies. 

Mr. Bernard Canol^. 

Mr. Othniel Crane. 

Mr. Henry Thomas Crane^ 

Hairy S. Cumvuns, Esq. 8 eopietb. 

Doctor John Cuttingr 

James Cummins, Esq. 

Mr. George Cragg. 

Mr. Christopher P. CarmicBaeT. 

Matthew Coulthurs^ !Esq.' Advocate^ 

General, 2 copies^ 
The Rev. Henry Ckddelt. 
Philip CaddeU^ Esq. 
Philip Crick, Esq. 
James Cook, Esq. 
Mr. Abel Clinckett 
Mr. John Ckiadderton» 
WiUiam Cadogan, Esq. 
Charles (j. Coiletod, Esq. 
James Cavan, Esq. 
Charles Cadogan, Esq. 
Mr. Renn P. CollyteM.^ 
Mr« J4>hn Carter. 


Digitized by 



Kicholas Rice Calleoder^ Esq. 
Foreter Clark, £sq. ; 
Beiijainia Colljnns, M. D. ^ 
Lawrence T. Cumberbatch, Esq. 
Mr. Thomas Connelly Pie Corner. 
Mr. John Crone. 
X Mn Christopher Chandler. 
Thomas Challenor^ Esq. 
Richard Clement^ Esq. 
Mr. Michael Corbifi. 
Mr. George Clinton. 
John Cumminsy Esq. 
Mr. Joseph Crick. ^ 

Mr. John Crick. 
Mr. W. Ashby Capleman. 
Mrs. Anna Maria^ Clinton: . 


Allen Dalzell, ^^v^ cbpits. 
Francis Dixon^Esq. 
Thomas Dummett, Esq. 
Thomas Dayrell, Esq. 
James Douglas, Esq. . 
Thomas Whilaker Drake^ 1^. 
John Perrott Devonishj Esq. 
Mr. William Dovnrich, Jun* 
Mr. William Drake. 
Thomas Daniel, Esq. 2 copies. 
John Daniel, Esq. 

Grant Ellcock^M.Df 

John Gittens £astmon4» ^* .- 

John William Edward Elder, Esq, 

Mr. Samuel Evans. 

Mr. Samuel French Edwards. 

Nathaniel Evanson, Esq. 

Mr. William Grant Ellis. 

William Eversley, Esq. 

William Foderingham, Esq. 

William Newton Firebrace, Esq. Deme- 

Charles Davis Forrester, Esq. Demerara. 
Mr. Joseph Farnum. 
Mr. John R. Farrell. 
Mr. Christopher Porte. 
Doctor Nathaniel Forte. 
Doctor Samuel Forte. 
Doctor Christopher Forte. 
Mr. Thomas Carmichael Forte. 

G. ; 

The ^on. Joshua Gitteos« ... 

The Rev. William Gamett. 

Doctor Nicholas R. Gamer. 

William Gill, Esq. [ 

Mr. Isaac Gittens. 

James Grasett^ Esq. 

Robert Grtbbons^ Esq. £ copies. 

William Grasett, Esq. 

Doctor Parris Greaves; 

Mr. Howard Griflltb, St. Lucy's. 

John Jordan Griffith, Esq. 

Digitized by 


Williim Griffith, Esq. 

Mr. Edward Greenidge. 

Mr. Hawaid Griffith, Speight's Town. 

Messrs. J^n and William Groodridge. 

Alexander Graham, Esq. 

William Graham, Eiq. 

John Gay Goding, Esq. 

Mr. William Greenidge. 

Francis BdU Grant, Esq. 

Mr. Thbmas G'iL 

Jacob Qoodridge^ Esq. Qirist Church* 

Mr. John Goring. 

Mr. Ri^ard Graonimi. 

Mr. Robert Manly Gaskio. 


The Hon. Rob. Aug. Hjfndman. 
Thomas Hollingsworih, Esq. 
The Hon. WUltam Hinds. 
Mr. John Boyce Harri^^ 
Mr. WiUiam HaU. 
Mr. John Hussej Hendy. 
Mr. Richard Hawkesworth 
Mrs. Mary Sims Howell.' 
.The Rev. WiUiam M.llarte. 
John Hamden, Esq. 
Mr. Edward J. Henery, Demeraca 
Mr. William HaUstead, Detnerara 


Mr. William Jaekibik 
Samuel Jackmian, Esq \ 

The Hon. Benjamin Hinds, 2 copies. 

Messrs. David and George HaU, 4 copies! | Gabriel Jemmett, Esq, 

The Rev. Henry Evans Ho^ands. 

The Hob. Robert Hayn^ 

) Benjamin Ifill, Esq. 2 copied^ 
Geoige Iriam, Esq. liverpool. 

Mr. William M. Harris. 

M. Jacob Hinds. 

Mr. Robert Harris. 

Mr. John Hawfceiwortk * 

Mr. John Heycs^ . , . . . . 

John Higpnson, Esq 

Mr. Samuel Hinds, Jun. 

Richard Hooton, Esq. 

Comrade Adams Howell, Esq. 2 copies. 

John Humpleby, Esq. 

Mr. Daniel Hunte. 

Joseph Dotin Husbands, Esq. 

Mr. John IronnKNDf ef • 

Jqhn Johnson, Esq. 0tmenira; 

Mr. Johnlnniss. . ' « 

Joseph Johnson, Esq. 

Doctor WiUiam Howao^ Jordan. 

Mr. Joseph Jotimi 

Mr. Joseph Johnson, Jun-. 

Mr. Nadianiel M. Jemott. 

John F. D Jones, M. D. 

Benjamin Jones, Esq 

Frere Jones, Esq. 

Gibbes Walker Jordan, Esq. F. K. S. 

Digitized by 



Kr. Alez«p(ter Kmg^ Jun. 
Mr. Samael Km^t, Jotu 
Mr. Samuel Knigte. 
Mr. Samuel Knigliti Jm^; 
Ouistopher Knigbt, Eb^ t «cq|4^ 
Mr. James C. ISOman. . 
John Keir, Esq. * 
Mr. Francb Ktrtcm. • 

literary Society of Barbadoeft^ 2 copies. 

Mr. Edward LintoD. 

Thomas M. Lovell^ Esf • 

JNatbaniel Lucas, Esq. 

€!apt. Fraoeis lightboume. 

WiUiam Draper lAoyi, Esq. 2 copies* 

John Wrong Lcacock, Esq. 

Mr. Edward Licoriab. 

Mr. William C> Xeslie* 

Joseph Leacock^Esq. 

Lble Uoyd, Esq* 

Mr. Wffliam licorisb.^ 

Mr. Richard A^Arpft l^ayw^ 

Mr. George Law. 

Joseph Lowe> Esq. 

JcAiii Ltwi^ Esq^ 

M.- ' ' '"'• 
WiUiam MiHer> Esq. 2 Copies, 
James Maxwdil> Esq, 6 copies. 
John Pollard Mayers^ tlsq.S copies. . 

Daivid Martuidalei Esq. ; 

Mr. John M'Pherson^ 

Mr. Henry M'^Gratk 

Mr. William Morris. 

Lawrance Mudie, Esf^ 

John M'Leay^ Esq. 

William Moore^ Esq# 

Jthe Hon. George Mj^aardi 

Mr- Francis M'CIum,^ 

Silieser Montefi^ri, Esq. Z COpiea* 

Mr. John H/bdmL 

Mir. Henry Madden. 

Tliomas Mcintosh, Esq. 

the Rev. Mark Nicholson. 
The Rev. James Fowler Neblelt. 
Nathaniel Nowell, Esq. 
Mr. Joshua Nurse. 
Mf* Robert Norris. 
,Mr. Samuel O. Nurse. 
Mr. Richard Nurse. 


The Rev. Thoito H. Ordersoh. 
Mr. Isaac Williamson Orderson. 
Mrs. Isaac W. Orderson. 
Arthur Oughterson, Esq. 
Mr. Wilfiam Oidey. 
Thomas Whilfeot O* N^ale, ^. ^ 
Hipmas Ostrebfid, Esq; 

Digitized by 


%ja^ Off suBsctiBjms. 

Heorjr Piggott^ Esq; 
Mrs. Sarah Poyer. 
The Rev. John F. P^S^/ 
Airt Heniy SttiiiMi'lf* 
Mr. Lionel Parks. 
Joseph Alleyne Payile^ £s^, 
Peter Phillips, &4. 
Stephen Phiflipg, 1t^. 
Mr. Nathaniel PhiUips. ' ' 
Mr. John I^iillips. 
Thomas Pierrepont, £sq[. 
^TiUhun Hmds Prescoc)^ ^. 
John Hoth^rd^ Pbldeo Ssq. 
Frands Forf l^^f^ fis^. 
Mr. John W. Perch. 
John Randall Phillips, fisqi 
Thomas Piggott^ Eiq/ 
Jtti^ StdttPftybe, fisq, 
Mr. James PaimuuDU 
Mr. Conrade Pile. 
Joseph Paynei Esq^ 
Mr. Edward Parris* 



Mr. James Reid. .;,. _ i , . , 

I^ilkry RplM^ flsq. • 

Messrs. liodmmtiSla^limkj^tnU 

JDoctcMT Charles SM^i lUMgt^ 

Thomas ite^^/Bsq, 

S; • 

The Hon. John Sp^iaa*, PtdAiett of the 

Doctor John William Sober. 
The Hon. John SpoQIier^ Jan. 
Mr. John Soper. 
Thomas Spencer, Esq, 
John Straker, Esq. . 
John C. Straker, Eiq. 
Mr. John Seed. 
Mr. Thomas H. §h<^fpF^. 
Thomas Sealyj. Jltm. Xa;^ 
Henry Sealy/Esqr 
Mr. Christopher Saint jpU 
Mr. JameaR^Siampie. 
Waiiam Shand, IB^ Im^rpotit. 
John Sober, Esq. 
John Springer, Esq^ Gs^^^hCmo^. 
Mr. Horatio Nelson Spca^. 
^Gebiige WaUwyn ShifteH^Si,, ; 
Mn William SiHtiopr* 
Mr; Richard Smitten. 
:Mn John Springer/ JUn. 
Mn ThomasJMiikbtf ipri^t 
Mr. Benjanun Stoift*. 
Mr. Enos Skinner. 
Ediirard Skeete, Esq. ' 

Jacob Skmner, Esq. 
:Mr. Richard StdMf^JM 
Hugh Williams Straghatt> "B^. 
Richard Skinner, Esq. 

Digitized by 



Jolm Simpsoii, Esq^r 
John Sulevan^ Ei)q« . - 
Henry P. Simmons, Esq. 
Mrs. Alice Southwell 

. • ■■ • T. ; • ■• •■ 

Samuel Taylor, Esq. 
William Carter Thomas, JSsq. 
George Toosey, Esq. ' ' 
Mr. Henry Skeete Thomas; • ' 
Mr. Henry Taitte. 
Timothy ThomfciB, Esq. ' 
Thb Rev. Anthoqy'K. Thomas. 
Mr. John Howell Todd; 
Mr. Henry Thbipe. 
Thomas Clarke Trcitmm, Esq. 
Dowding ThomhiU, 1^. 
Henry Thomhill, Esq. 
Doctor Joseph Taylor* 
Mr. John Taylor. 
Henry Trptflia^y Esq/ 
Thompson Isly Thornp, Esq. 

Mr. William WUsQD/ Baited. 
Benjamin Walrond,,£iq.' 
John Walton, Esq. 
Mr. James Wallcott. 
Mr. William Wayne. . 
Mr. Henry ThoiMif.Waidj^ 
Mr. Samuel^Watt. 
Capt. Bees Webb. . 
Capt. William Wilson. 

Mr. John Williams/: 

Mr. Jonas Wilkinson. : | . 

Mr. Richard WaU. . : . 

Stephen Wallc^tx Esq. 

Robert James Wallcott|£sqi , 

Thomas Went, Esq. 

Hamlet Wilsop, Esq. 

Mr. William Welch, London. 

Mr. Thomas Waiiapui, St. Joseph's. 
Mr. Richard Wood. . . . * 

WiUiam Welch, M.D. 
Mr. John Ward, Jun. 
Mr. William Wilkinson. . 
L Thomas Williams, Esq. ^U Thpmaa's. 
James Thomas Williams^ Esq. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Williams. 
Miss Ruth Whitfoot. 
Geoi^e Williams, E^. - ^ 
1 Mr, Thomas Willianis, Jun«^t. l^omas'f 
John Walton, Esq. 
Mr. Thomas W. White. 

n h 


Thomas Yaid, Esq. 

Mr. William T. YewnvoOd'. 

Mr. Lewis Young. 

iMr. Samuel Yearwood. ^ 

•Mr. James Johnson YearWood; - 
Doctor Jpho Ceily Y^aimood i 
Mr. Geoige.D, YofJjM-^ ,. ) 
Mr. Howard Griffith .Yqmvpgdj 

: ' T 

Digitized by 








7h£ discoYery of Barbadoes is involYed in greater ob« chap. 
scanty than that of any of the adjacent island?. Placed 
at the southeastern extremity of the great AmMicaa Ar-» 
chipelago, it remained unknown^ or unnoticed, for upwards 
of a century after the bold and enterprisjing genius of Colum- 


Digitized by 



CHARir bus had extended the bounds of the habitable globe, and 
added a new world to the dQi][iinions.of Spain. No mention 
is made of this island in the journals or charts of any Eu- 
ropean navigator earlier than the year one thousand six 
hundred. Hence there is reason to believe that it was the 
last known of all the Caribbees. From its geographical po« 
sition*, it seems most likely that Barbadoes was first seen 
and visited by the Portugwes*- These advedturers, in their 
voyages to the coast of Africa, or to their settlements 
in South America, might have been driven by contrary 
winds, or adverse currents, within sight of its shores. Cu« 
riosity, or the want of refreshment, probably induced their 
nearer approach; but the rude, uncultivated aspect of the 
(country, which they found without inhabitants, and desti- 
tute of ev^ry article necessary for hutnan accommodation, 
was little cakulated ta induce these travellers to remain 
long QVk s^spot incapable of yielding those advantages which 
wew tlMm the piincipal objects of European pursuit in 
the wjestem henispheie. Its natural beauties and favour- 
*Me sfituation for commereiat purposes were overlooked by 
men whose sordid minds were wholly occupied with the hope 
of obtaining the immediate possession of gold and silver. To 
Kodtf their diaeorery, howevef , i^ some mcasuve useful Id 
AemMlvea, oc to suck of their countsymen. as should have 
oceasioa tft t^dk here^ in.any of their fdtuie voyages, ^ef 

* In ht 13 deg. 5. mui. N. and IPDgitiide 59 deg, 41 min. VT. 

Digitized by 



piaitted »oa» vegetabfes, and left a €tw swine for the pur- ^^^^- ^ 
pof e of propa^T&tioa. 

from the P(»tugii«se the i^md obtained tiie name of 
Im Bta^kadasi in alluwMky as tome writers have supposed* 
to l^e barbarous, inhoepitable state of the couatry. Tk» 
feaxaed author of the Natnral Htstorj of Barbadoes, how- 
ever, with much greater pzobabilitj, coi^ectares thiv sp* 
pellatioci to have aignified ihc Bearded Idmtd^ from the raifc 
number of Indian fig-treeg vith which, it abounded. The 
widfi spreading branches of this TeneraUe tree send lbrt& 
JnnuaaeraWe fifaaea whidi^ by the help of a warn imagina- 
tion, mighl^ not unreasonably, have beco ^mpposed to m- 
semble those luxuriant beards wdiich wereso nrach is rogue 
in those- days.*. 

*O0tfr«» ^liA cpicport KpwMOs flu tiee » afbrding ^ first corertny 
HMdeiueof b;^ Adaa aad fee, aftas. haring •xdNngtitlnt inmiaa«r ftr • aoH. 
■cioumess of shame, and thus accurately dascribcs iu growth.; 

Thefgrtrte^ not that kindfarfrmt mom'd^ 
But $uek as at tUi day to Indidut Ibunos, 
ik BTalabar or Decan ^prtoib l<r arms; 
J^*»timg tubman and kng^ t^PmtlWgrmmi 
The htnding twigt take root, and daughters grmo 
About the mother tree, a fiUar'd Aade ! 
High veer'ord^d mdechoifig tmlks between. 

" Itkunder thiatneeth^tbo QKih«»w«adt^» in<4»^ cithek nH^om Mbh^ 
their rites. The pagodas are usually erected iiktha MghiWMitMA «( t)H» fiaeq% 

B- 2 

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CHAJPL^ Abandoned by its original discoverers, Barbadoes conti- 
nued unfrequented till the year one thousand six hundred 
and five. At that time a vessel, called the Olive, belong- 
to Shr Olive Leigh, returning- from Guinea, accidentally 
put in. here, and landed a part of her crew near the spot on 
which the Hole-town was afterwards built Here they 
erected a cross, and took possession of the island in the 
name of their sover^gn ; inscribing these words on a tree 
in the vicinity of the place where they landed, " James, 
King of England and of this Island/' They then proceeded 
along the coast until their progress was obstructed by the 
stream since called Indiani River, from the Indian imple- 
ments and utensils found there. Here, again, they fixed 
some memorial of the title which the right of occupancy 
conferred on the crown, to this distant and hitherto neg- 
lected territory. But finding no refreshments necessary for 
persons in their situation, not even fresh water, (no springs 
or reservoirs of that useful element being at that time ac- 
cessible to strangers) they qiiitted their new acquisition and 
sailed for Saint Christopher's, where the establishment of 
a colony had been recently attempted by thirty-three Eng- 
lish settlers. 

•iMide. It is CMBinoii fi)r the Indian to take up bit abodt under this tree, and to re. 
main stretched at hit ease in the thade^ whiff e? ery thing, exposed to the rayt of the 
tun, ia^tooffched with intolerahk heal.'' 

ffdr PmRC&TAL't AcaouNT or Cbtlow. 

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Google I 


After this visit Barbadoes appears to have been thought ^^J^^ 
of no more, until some Dutch men of war, which had been 
employed on a secret expedition against the Spaniards, re- 
turning home, chanced to stop here*. It may be proper 
to observe, that this account does not agree with that given 
by the compilers of the Universal History-f-; by which it 
would seem that these vessels were particularly licensed by 
the Spanish court to trade to BrasiL But, notwithstanding 
the Spaniards and Portuguese endeavoured to exclude the 
other nations of Europe from any participation in the com- 
merce with their settlements in the new world, if we may 
credit the Abb6 Raynal, the Dutch had long been engaged 
in an illicit intercourse with BrasiL At length the West 
India company, established in Holland, had, about this 
time, wrested that valuable country from the Spaniards, 
under whose yoke it had fallen by the subjugation of Por- 
tugal. Whether these vessels were fair. traders, smugglers, 
or ships of war, is inunaterial. Certain it is, that their 
crews, having procured some refreshments at Barbadoes, 
and finding the soil capable of cultivation, were induced, 
on their return to £urope, to speak of it in the most jfa^ 
vourable terms. 

These particulars having been coroibiinicated to Sir Wil- 
liam Courteen, a priilcipal merchant of the city <^ X,pn- 
don, by his correspondent in Zealand, his oiterprising ge* 

* Memoin of Barbad4)^ p, 5. f UniT.HwU vol 41,p. 191. 

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OH^^ ^jm vmfi fe:^ vitH tbej n)4^;m£c«iit ^eol of oakmg an 

1625. ^(Botui^ sQiU^ec^t oi^ the iplraod. la th» ^ign Iiq was 

aqpn cQQfiroMd bgr thf axriva) of a ^ip of hkt own, wlvicb 

^turning froQ) Pemsoohucca, ii) Bra»il> v«i dciveD, hy 

ftire«& Qf fr^t])ev» oa ^he coa&t of Barbadoes, TW aMwcn 

Ipielm^g to thi» ve^l, l^aviog explored Um eoontry, wers 

pka«ed mth tb^ Uoom bjkI voicliue which cv«rjr wbeM aoot 

then viewl and having jsocqrod some ptofvUkiDfi^ probabfy 

pavt of the hoga fcunnerljr left here by the PoPtitguaie, th^ 

proceeded oa their voyage« Th^ repeesestation made by 

the^ inaiiQeni} oo their rqtmn to £BgkKBd» of the beanty 

and fertility of the islaiad, and of ita advantageous, position 

iat difiosing the commodities and maaufaotures of £tHt>pe 

among the rising colonies in the Caribbean Sea, made such 

an impxession on the minds of people, that the Ear) of 

Madborougbi, afterwajrds Lord High Treasiirer, obtained 

fnaa. James I. a patent for the island, to lum and his- h^rs 

fiw ever*. 

This geant did not obstract the eseeution of Sir Wiinam 
Conftem's design. Fcrsbtiag in hi» original iotentioft of 
Bttddag a settlement whiich promised fair to improve Ms for> 
tune ; and having obtained the sanction of Hie nol!^ pa- 
tttiitee^ he fitted out twa large ships at his biro expence, 
supplied with men> anus, atumuni^diH), and every thing 
lequisitfrfQr establishiBg a eolo»y, and securing it ftom in- 

* Unin Hitt. vol 41% p. l«l'. Idmid**! HiA Wtit htdkt, Tot I. p. St9. 

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vmnon. Of these sliips one only, the Johti and 'William, <^^ap. t 
commanded by John Powell, arrived at Barbadoea. Thirty ^^-J^ 
men wei«» immediately landed* on the spot which had been 
taken pbAe^sion of nearly twenty yean before by the crew of 
the Olive. Here these adventurers commenced their opera* 
tions, aiid laid the foundation of a town, which, in honour 
of the prince on the throne, they called James Town, since 
denominated the Hole^town. 

In all enterprises, in which numbers are concerned, 1ii6 
necessity of submitting to the guidance and authority of 
• purticolar chief, or leader, whose power may control the 
actions^ and whose judgment may direct the efforts of 
every individual to the advancement of the common good', 
is a principle of the most obvious utility, whether the as- 
sociation be dvtl or political. The first step taken by these 
cariy coIofnst» was the appointment of a proper person to 
fuperintend and govern the infant settlement. Tot this 
par pose, William Deane was unanimously chosen and in- 
vested with the authority of commander in chief. The 
Biitish flag was tb^ diirplayed, and they proceeded to fof- 
Hiy themselves as well a» the nature of their circumstances 
would permit. 

In reviewing this early period of our colonial history, 
every libeml mind mus> glow with conscious satisfketi«nct 

* Memoirs of Bwb«doe% p. S. Of these settkrs William AnuAi wm among the 
first who landed. 

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on reflecting,: tliat the settlement which we have been con- 
templating wa» quietly effected without the perpetration 
of tl^ose ^trpcious acts of cruelty and injuatioe which 
marked the progress of the Europeans in every other part 
of the new ^orld. Abandoned by its aboriginal inhabi- 
tants, if any such tl^ere weye, for some cause wholly un- 
known to us,^ Barbados, according to ev&ty principle of 
natural law, became the rightful and legitimate property of 
the first occupants. , ., , . ^ . 

Although the Eiigjlis^ found the island uninhabited, the 
Heverend ]Vfr. Hughes seems ^very unwil^ng to. relinquish 
the idea of its leaving been formerly occupied by spme sa- 
vage trjbeji. ^ He has prosecujbed the inquiry cpnoerning 
thes^ pecjpl^. with} much ipdustry, and CQUegted every cir- 
cumstance^, that could give weight or ^dd probability to 
his opinion. He relies, however, on facts, which, though 
indisputable, are by no means conclusive; ;" that there are 
several places in the island called after th^ir. names; aqd 
that in these very places there are daily dug up such marks 
of their former residence as were peculiar to the Indians*/' 
But after all the pains which the learped divine has takep, 
the proofs that he has collected are insufScient to, establish 
the point in dispute. They only shelv that the neighbour- 
ing Caribs occasionally visited this delightful spot for the 
purpose of hunting and fishing ; and, perhaps, to procure 

* Natural Hirt. of Barbadoct, p. 5 and 7- 

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0Qitable day for manu&ctaring Che Tarioiif doartsto «tei> cvk?. i. 
sils with which, he asserttt the . Leeward labiids were kup« ^^0. 
plied from hence. Of tins there is the m9ti indubi^le 

Ligon, who "mitedthis island aboni twenty yeatB after 
the arrival of the first wttlera, relaAeSt that tibe nativcB of 
the neighbouring iatamdn, Hibet likely of Saint Vincent ai|d 
Saint Lucia, from thdr proximity of situation, frequently 
e^me hither in their canoes or periaguas, £» the sake «f 
hunting the hogs that had been left here by the Port«- 
guese ; which, he observes, famished them wiih jMk ^ « 
tweei and txelUnt jlavour. In these excursions they would 
sometimes spend a month or longer; and tbea retiuming 
home, leave behind them many tools and other iropletientiit 
ehiefly pots of several siaes, in which they boiUeii^ thear 
meat, tliese pots were made of clay» sdi Jitfuiy tempos 
and turned with such art^ that our author affirms, b€ hiid wt 
wtn m^ like iktm^fmrfinmenofmaUtnnd cwrk^ ^Utm-^ 
irn^ m Engtand^. 

This account of these desultory visits is corroborated b^ 
the ingenious natuml histoviaa htnudf^ who adds, that th^ 
fUequent arrivals and departoies were alwaya in the waile 
of tito moQi?, fbr the benefit o£ H^ nighti ; that wfhen any 
diflferencr arose between thenn said the BnglisK the Jsr 
dians retired to the woods until they were presented with 

« ligottli Hist. <^ "BarbadoMT, ]p, 29. 

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CHAPj^ « ftlvoiimUe opportunity of feturt^ home ; and that then, 
*^^- in their >way dcmh to theincanoes^' 'they would coyer them- 
ftel'ves wtth^gt-een' boUghB ^to^ elude: tho searoh of the Eng- 
lish. During their tran^ent residence in the country* they 
inadethe earthen-Vinre already mentioned ; and,, like the 
ancient idolatets of Etttope and rAsia, formed, out of the 
jl^wi^' fiiiiEUierials, sensible rdpvesentatkiiQS of the iQvblble 
idi^iti^. - whom thej -aidoFed, ' and .absurdly worshipped . the 
<#drk of their'owQ hands; > Manrpof tirase im»g^ were; seea 
^ Htighe^ aj^'late sis th^ jcarioiie 'tlioufiand s^ven hupdrfid 
«ui'd fertj-eight. ' Among ttaeili .was one, of which' tbebe^ 
^one weighed above sixty 'poahds*«. Tkv» it seeips eaiyr to 
^acccNiht'fcn' the htimber bf ''lQdiaa>i»maios; whio^ ]|ay«.^;>f^ 
loiind in diffeireht 'pMrt^ '' bi the eottntry^ aiod. i to .ifpc,o//^i^ 
the tnSeliiih hamei ^U borni9 by toakiy. pkboes ,wiMi ,thi9 imiftr 
luibit^ state ' of the blabd Wh^ fink . discov^re^ ; by JByj. 
irbp^n'toavigatonf."' ^'^ ' '>>■■'•'';_'.:»>-.).,;; 'i nf. •,-,•: i r/j 
• j^me yeu^'prev'ibti^ to'CtJoufteen'^ atttoipt Ui mfifi^ki^jf. 
fL colony in i^arbadoe^, Mr. Thottias Wamev ihad .«i^3»^ 
in a similar undertaiiiiig W' St. Chnstdphec's. r This mttl»ai-> 
n^ni was in^ a 'ph)sper6ti« 'cdnditipii, wfaea the-jhop^s,,^^ 
the planters '\^m suddenly' desbnyed by a klre^dfvl'jhuiin^- 
ti(ne, wHidli dbiit^ated their plantalooB&i i To: repmi ^ lAr 

jury 8t&taine(i by thi^ calaneuty^ IVamer waso^ig^ U^J^ 

■'■ i " -^ i ; ... . .,-) I, ,.- .:: ., ...,., •■ 

• ' • ' • • ■\ 
_■_ ' / ' 'I • ii nil, I i i , , ,) .).,,; . _ ' , 

* NtU Hiat. «r Bubadocs, p. 7. , 

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tjurti t6 England toi9<dkntitbe;a98i9tanc»iO^^ 
. Upon thhi occasicm be applied to JjasqiQa^H^fji!^^ pf Car* 
]kh; whb readify pafcroniMd the adve9tUFo|a|it3e(#ef,^and» 
by bis powerful ' supiport,. pieacsryefl tbe oolony from 
ipiiin*' ;•'.*-• . '.'',.• -t; . ..''.,- :./ - c,. ^. , . , ,- .•'. ■ 

VTam^r's appKcatioii xipetaied a^ new and spl^did jprospe^: t 
to th9 ambitions peer. He- saw very clearly the ppwer and 
opulence trhich* bet might, L by prudent management deiiim 
fh>m ato esKMive estafoii^hoient ih; the. Wesit Indies ; .wd^, 
to seeure the importent aidvantagpes tbm accidentally tbioi^a, 

, ih'his i^ay, itnmediately ^applied to Charles L who.bad^Fer 
bentfy ascended 'thtt tlirone^ for<a.gBaht,;of all the Caribbee 
ista^s^ to»b«''l)»rm€!dinto .a< palatinate, x^*! proprietary go* 
Temmenty'^nder* the name of Cariiola. The unfortuQater 
taohhmiij'to i^boMwafBiof fomaess qiay be^ijaspribe^ oaiofit: 
df ib^ raisfdHtiioefr that^mbitteyed: hiff reiga^ readily abided' 

' to the importunity of a powerful favouritfj,, and ^ve the- 
lieeessaty orders?^for'pFepaling hi^psUe&^ .This ^nt was 
rtreittiOUsljroppbsetf by* the Earl- of Marlborough, as. af-^ 
ifecttngiiisf priortight^ the island of Barbadoes, and p«K 
ihiccld a^tedii[)miitigatson between the two claimants, which' 
Dras at' length cdn^^mHed^ 4Mi iiOrd CarlisleV i^reeilig: to 
pSLj to the Lord Treaswwr,- attd his^ heirs v for ev^ a& ap- 
unity of three h«nired^ pounds, in lieu of hii claim. > lim^ 

' dispute being thus adjusted, the^ Earl of Carlisle's* i^gtent 
passed the Great SeaT wTlfae irocond^ jay-^tf. Juafe.ioae 

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^J^S^ tltmifttiid sifx liinictTad and tirentj-^seveB, ftnd his Loodiilrip 

. 7^6' j^M^mble of ttiifr celebrated cfaaiter assigns the r«a-. 
softHon whiHDh; U wias granted^ia thete vords : *' Whereas our 
WjsUrbelOved cousin ^od counseUor, James Lord Hay, Ba-. 
r^A-oC-Sawl^y, Viscount iXDnearter* and Ei^rl of Carlisle, 
efi^li^ev6wfvag, m^ a lauidabie and pious design of propa- 
gating' the' Chnstiaa rdig^,. and, aho .of the eQlai'g^ment 
olr Uie t«m^Mies of onr dominioos, hath humblj petiliooed 
lis K)r-a Cettnun tegum of it^nds in our diKvinioos after* 
tma^ir lyihg tbwafniii &e north part of tbe iiorld, a% yet 
yft^d^ and idaatated, in spniA (dapes, with /savago^* who 
hAven<^.fcnQwlQdjge of Ifaediriiw power* oomq^iQnljr ca^ 
the Caribba^ Iidaad;!^ oontsdntog the' iskutds MiS^di^ Chris- 
to^ry dnsAadm' Saint Vincent, Sai«t l^^c'i9^ Bajrhadoas^. 
Martia^iuev T>rvminka, .Marigalaote* Posc^d^, lodosan- 
tMy Cttadaloyipe^ ikatigfta, .Mo^tsevrat, JUdfwdp^ ^ari^u^ 
dm- Vhm» £ustaiaii> S^mU. P^rtholop^^, S^int M>u:tin» 
Anguiila) ^embran^ and. iQnegadas a^ viany other i;iU^»ds» 
foiwid out aA his giimtcofX and ohai^gesx an^ now brought 
ta lh«]t,pA8fi;ti^ be inhsUsiited by 9, b);cge^ and copious jcolonj 
o£' %n|^ifljk^ yfii^ <}«rtav».privilpj^ aiul jjvrisdictlons bebng? 
ii^tQ..tb».9ai4 govoj^infpt ipijl sUW of a colony and re- 
gMii tahin»- hia heiis 904* utitsw*i to bieg^nted." 

'" ' -^^™ — ■ Til '*■■* i"'"::r^ s^ n 1 , ." - ; 

Vol 41, p. 132. 

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By the sacceeding clauses, fab Majegty did, by the said chat>. i. 
grant, for him, his heirs and successors, make, create i^^- 
and constitute the said £iu4 of Carlisle, kis hein aad 
assign^, absolute |>ropri«tor abdr lord of the said region ; 
reserving still the allegiance due to his Majesty, his heirs 
and successors.' It Was theft tfdded, ** And because we 
halve made and appointed the said James Earl of CaAi^, 
true lord of all the aforesaid province, as he to whom, the 
r^htbelongeth, know ye, -that we hate aititherissed add iip^ 
pointed the ^aid' Jafne» Earl of Carlisle, and hk heir*, of 
wtiose fiddityi prudence, justi^e^nd wisdom, we 'have 
gt^t confidence, for the godA ttid hkppy gor^nment of 
tfie siid provlnfee, or the private utility «<' every man; to 
mak^, ettdt and set fdtfh ; and ntid^r hfil or l^efar sigiieiC to 
pul^h such law^ as lie, the said Eaii' of CmttiAe, 9t Ifeis 
heifs; ti^fh thetonsetlt, assent mtdappfb^H^ 'of ike'fi^e in* 
heMittnh tf the mid' "pkiyoiwue^ ot- (^ greatet pari ^ them 
iKeireunto to -be calltd, and' iii such' fottti, attd if4idB and 
as dfteii a^ hd ot titey, in his or titeir dlsc'r^tiiMii shall think 
fit And be^ti. And these laws Aittst all men, for fShe tittie 
being, that do live withiii' the Ihnits of the stkl prorince, 
observe ; whether they be bound to isea or from thence te* 
turning to !fin^iid. Or any other of ^ouf dominion^ or any 
oth^r place appointed,' upon such impo%itioaB} peaalttot^ 
imprisotiment, orrestrakt, t^atitbehcrreth, aiHl-the'ipii^jr 
of die offence reqnht^ ^ either tipon '#ie bddy,^ of dcatil 
Itself, to h6 executed by the sftid JMiid» £arl of Ciriiaie^ 

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aiid his Iieirs; or by feis or their deputy, judges^ magis* 
tr&tes; officers and ministers, according to the tenor and 
true meaning of these presents, in what case soever; and 
trithsnch power, as td him, the said James Earl of Car* 
Usle,' or hii( heirs, shkll deem best. And to dispose of all 
^ ofiences or riots whatsoever, either by sea or by land, .whe- 
ther' before judgment received, or afker remitted, freed, 
patdbned, 6r forgiven. And to, do and perform all atid 
ev6ry thing ;or things, which, to the ful611ing of justice, 
icouils; or madner of proceeding, in their tribunals may or 
doth belong or appertain, although express mention of them 
in^hese presents be not made; yet we have granted, full 
power, -^by virtue of these presents, thete to be made; 
which ' 1^5 so absolutely proclatmed^ a&d by strength of 
tight supported, iw they: j^re ^nted, we will ^joib, diarge, 
and cbmdkthd, all. a&d etnely subject and liege people of 
us, our heirs and succeissors, as far aa them they do ooncern, 
isMcXtXAy to keep and dbA^rv^ under the paina therein ex- 
preaseSyM ax^ tootWithstandiiGigi,' the af&ise$aid hm$ be t^ec' 
ieNk, knd Mt rqtugnani mta reiuotil mfrttf^muttibfUMcott" 
wniiM and't^eeable. as maa/ ic; ^o: the Icim^ gta(uta,\ nu' 

i.;¥. And because in thegovMnment.ef to greiwt: a :pn6vi^e 
ofteAtioies sudden oc4»8iocM dofall ont,,.tQ which it shall be 
jMiSdAlltoiapply a remedy: befi^re. the £»e/uili^db!;taata of 
Hie said •pio'tf^Baee can becalled ;. and fo? that it ahdl not al* 
ways be neediiil, in sudi leafM, 4iat;aU the.p^ple be- cal- 


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led together, we will and ordem, and bj these presents, for chap. i. 
w, .our heii? and successors, ^aye granted to the said James i^^- 
Earl of. Carlisle, and his I>eh«, .that he bj himself or his 
nuH^gtmtes ^nd qtfficers, in that . ease lawful!^,, preferred, 
i»ay-;^Aake- decree caM ordinanci^ both fit and profitable, 
hosnf titne> t<^4Hi«> tb^\ th?y piay bip esteiemed, kept, and 
obaervied^ within the ^aid prchrincer ^ well for keeping the 
peace as.fpr the better, gOivernment of the p<?opl? there 
liv^ngl sa't^ they .i^ay be pubKcIy. known 'to ^\\ whcwa .they, 
dc^'ipf^et^^ t^^hieh'^dln^ci^s we will^ within jt^e. sai^ 
ptrdHnc^Javiqlibly to be -kept,; 'opotfi pain in tliem e^ press-- 
ed i, sp'ilhat 4bo9e Iju^s \>p agitable \tp reaspn, .i^nd pot^re-^ 
pigD^t^i|6r jag^t it> ^1^ as. faq af , may , he, agre^bj^ 
tp.>tli^|h|(W8,apji:?|j>^,ut^fjf pnjrlfin^^ ajf(j 

- *• W^ alscb/ i of*; oWi pnnfielf; .igr«i*e, ;ft>r u^ : our heirs ,an^ 
8uoeMB<Hrs»,?inlK.'StRai^htlyi'Cl}ftrg6v si^i^tand ordain, thai 
iht. 8aul:pQrOTiiM».'.Jb«;^ of .oiir, allegiance, -find , fchat.alj . and 
every subject and.liege people x^ us, > our. heirs , and's.ucqeSr 
sors, brought ck tolil^'brijiuigfait,' and their- chrldrln/' whether 
thMebc^t ior flftefWfirds tci' be. born,. .'become jiativres, an^ 
sttbj6ctit of^usv our^hdirsi land -isiiccessors^ and be a» frte^ 
theyiwh^ wtve* baitit ml ' Brtgkmd-i] )ando so the(ir;:in1ieTit|aDC^ 
witMa oiarikkigdoltf Of I Jk>gl&nd« oc'-lother >'oiir ii9ommion4« 
toseek^ tsoeiv^, >tdl4e^Uoldv bn^^^nld posstesfeyrahd.usf; <axui 

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CHAR^ eojojr tbem as bU oiro ; and ip |^ve, ^ell, ijjuen. and be^* 
^^' queath them at their pleasi^re ; and abojrfcfy^ T'^'^kf* '"^ 
peaciobly to have and po$iei$, aU the Ubertkst frawi4bi$m, tmd 
privii€ge9of thU kingdttmf ami them i9 01909 ag Utgcpptpk 
^ Engkm^t whether bore or to be bo|i>» without iAp<^ 
mept, molestatioQ, vexation, injury or trovble <^.»$»W* 
heirs and successors ; any ac|; or statute to tl^e contrfu*/ 99t< 
withstanding." ., .. * 

"While this business was transacting in i^n^wdj^ the 
young settlers were diligently proi^uting their enterppse* 
In this hazardous undertaking, it is easy to im^^ne,: that 
they were exposed to ii^numejable h^rdships^ aqd ^Mygenr^ 
^tht cQxxntvjy overgrown with thick i^nptsBe^hle woodb^ 
exhibited the most gloomy prpsjpect that the iioagiQajtiQn 
■ can possibly conceive. No trac^ of hunaaa society cheered 
th^ solitary scene ; ^no ^\^ M cultivatioo esliveaed th« 
lurid i^ce of nature. One immense forest, crowned with 
att Exuberant foliage^ i^pread itself in >c^ry dif^tion. 
Withih its dark recess^ no beasts of lvuthej|.w<eQeiiMiiulto 
lessen the toil pf m^ ai^ but ityt quadmmds lor his 
domestic use^ / .r 

Koiwithstaoding these discouragements, 0|^i; a^YfflaltuMni 
upplied thdmselves to clearing the wood» aijtd pl^tt^^g ppo* 
visions, with a diligence mmI ])«rs^veranpe fipt JesQ com- 
iBiendable th«|i astonishing, l^ this Mc^sAfur^ ;^pf>k>yaaciit, 
' liowevei;, they proceeded tiut slowly and with difficulty, 
for, as the tsees were in geneial cxifemely hard and he«vy» 

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ftAtt the labfiffions ti4k of fdlmg tbem wa» accompUslied, ^^^^^ 
tiiere wi^ not' sufficient' strength to remoFC them; thej *^^' 
wett^ ' thenfefdre/ suffix to rbmain on the ground; the 
pla&tevs' contenting themselves with cultivating in the inter- 
m^diite ' Gfjakces, such iosculent plaab as were necesikirj for 

. Ibrkunateljr^ the wpods aflPbrded lignum vitsB an4 fui[tiC|k^ 
which became articles of immediate export to En^^la^, 
and^ pi^dbuf^d/ in return, suoh commodities as \f^re most 
wanted In the colony. And as the climate^ esp^sciatl^t at 
4hit se^ou' of th^ yeair iit which tiie ^rst settlers arriy^). 
was^fb^cl and pleasant; and the soil appeared to be fertite. 
and iviell lidapted for the cuttivation of ebtton and tobaccd. 
tbe^'^titi&rj^sing f^ek^ resblutety persisted in the laudable ^ 
d^gh' <tf Adding' Wilesira a spot to the comCorts of, 
socfcd'life.' 'jffae 'fii^t fruits of th6 |and vrpfe inadequate, , 
both in i^uadti'ty Wd^ qu^htyi, to their suppprt. Potatoes, 
plaiittiilk^* and Indian corn were little Suited to EuropeaQb; 
habitii (^ Irving;' and 'as' their supplii^ from home wpre , 

etii^taAfi^it6kti6tik Mnd unbertiun,' tliB distreuet of the 
eariy coloninta weie pro port ionably grievous and pppces^y^. 
N<Nrckd^«i sul^cieiitly'adinire th^ pa,iieiiGe. and £in|iuiess . 
pi^wiAetiiiii^'peinnieA in 'e6mhaiiikff tlie vaiious hatd^,. 
ships and difbbultlesiacictent' to their sitaatlon. , 

Fldtterea witSi the presaites of success, which he re- . 

* iigon't Hitt. Bairb. p. 24. FciiiiiDg'« Geogr»pti^« rol. 2. p. ' 


Digitized by 



CHAPj. ceived from the iofeiit' setflctAent, Sir Wiftiitm eoufteen 
1027. determined to prosecute hb scheoie with' vigoor. De- 
serted, as we have seen, by his fortner jpiltron, he now 
sought the protection of the Earl of Pembroke, kMrd 
chiamberlain t>f the housdi6ld. Tliis nobleiriatt, encou- 
raged by the favouraUe representation made to him <)f 
the condition of the new settlement, generously undertook 
to (demote the interest of the worthy ctti2en, by whom 
it had been established, by aa imodddiate Upplication to 
the King*. Charles, who ip generally «dlowed: to have hod 
sagacity enongh to perceive what ^wat rights though ^he sd* 
dom had resolntioQ' to practise it^ thou^ no more of the 
grant to Lord Carlisle thaii if it had ttever* existed i and as 
his lordship was at that moment employed i(n'a.|di|rfomatic 
' character abroad, he could give no opposition to an apjfrii^ 
cation so repugnant to his prior right The field being thus 
left open, the Lord Chamberlain pies^ his suit with aoeh 

Feb. 25t. successful assjduity, that he soon obtained a grant £r«iD-tiis 
royal roaster, fm the island of Barbadoes, in th»t lor Sir 
William Courteen« It is scarcely possible to account for 

' ' - ' '■ ' - 


^ ♦ Mem: of Birb. p. 9. Ubit. Hint. r<A. 41, p. ISfl. ^ 

t lb anticipate toy miitpprehemion concenuDg tbe.^hm^elogj of theie e«fly 
events, it mutt be rememberecl, thit until the introductioB of tbe new style in 1752^ 
the year was reckoned to commenae on the 25tb day of March. Hence all transac- 
tions between the first of January and the twenty-fcurth day of March, are dated as 
if they had taken place, according to the present computation, one whole year earlier. 
Thus, for example^ the grant mentioned in the text, agreeable to the new style, would 
bear date, February 2^, )S28. 

Digitized by 




gnob verai^iUty and inootosiateEice in the king's conduct, ^2iLI* 
ftherwi^^. tjiaa ky supposing Hm^ ,tbe. opulent merchant 
mighK hf^j»;l)een'«JbJe, to relieve t^e vaiits pf his necessitous 
sQT^r^ignv Thiis conjec^ture will appear .the moKe .probable, 
ifjwf) recollepti the mean shifts aQd.iUegal .enactions to 
whjpb tl»ecpecnniaf7..en4>an«^mi^itS;.9f that unlbrtunafce 
ii^(iparffh:coinp^Ue4 hij»rtp:i?e8p)rt., . . . ., : , ; 

..THejJKfM* of Qarlirifi ^n.«fterjJifl|>W8W|; of, ikp» grant, 
re|i|TO^# ftopatbt* ewbftssyj ^he^^^beipgijinfj^rnied of the 
settlomi^nt; which JMibecin iinad?^ upop^anis^land wt^in his 
province, he deterpoiped to adopt; swhmeawrp* . w would 
frustrate jthe designs of his powpntitor, ^nd.^^^blisli.a co- 
hay of bisQval;, Jp<i«n»ed fttithe;grW?^tiWhich;had been so 
surcef^iitiQttsIijr obtainftd^ hiec^a^li^flfd to.tbe.l^gof.the 
^dvai^ljige w.hie^.;fe^d> bew^teHflft-Of !ili8,*fewnce,to|^priyfi 
hinv of j his pijopaqty. i ,T4»e ;in»sQlHt§iOh«rl^»»i .^ho,}hr9ugli- 
out ihit whole tran«oe^on, :«;as ; Qvore , cnlpable , th^p anj 
body ,clse»> jegUiibitod : aofi«ah instewe^ of ^ ■ ^^smt^,oi - fiun- 
igi&^i fifMl; |0 appease) dhe] reseiit»entt of, ihis jrriuted .iat 
tourifc9> ffii«iik^»l»;fate»trAo the JiOrd Chwaber^aijfl,,aiid 
icin9tated,thei.£arl of . Carlblein the possession of. the. tenir 
tory pf. which, he. hiad .so ^reqen^aod^ unjustly derived 

Having gmned this point, the next steps to be taketi by 
the esurl, were to n^kp, an eff<?ctual settlement on- the island, 
and to concert proper measurea for securing to himself the 
advantages it was capable of jrieldjng. With this view he 

Digitized by 




March 29. 


coAtraoted with a oompanj of London merofaanti, consigt* 
ing of Marmadpke Brandon, Wiliiiini PerkiM^ Atexander , 
Banister^ Robert Wheatly^ Edmund Foratenr, Robert Swiii^ 
nertoft, H«nr3^ Wbeiitlj^ Jolm Chatleft, and John Farring- 
don, for a grant of ten tbotnand acres of land, on condition 
of his receiying from ieach settler forty pounds of cotton 
annually; and allowing tbetaft the privilege of (tending <Mit» 
in quality of gov^nor, a proper person to supermtefiid the 
settlement and conduct their concerns. For this purpose 
Charies Wolferstone, a native of Bermuda, was made 
dboice of, and received a commissMm from the noble pro^ 
jmetary ^^ empowering him to use, exercise, and put in eic^ 
ecution^ ^ oi&ce of governor, coramandei^in^hief, and 
«aptaki, in doing justice^ deciding contrdvecdies, keeping 
his Majest/s peace, and punishing otfender^ accOiding to 
the quality of their crimes, and according to the laws of 

Armed with these powers, Wolferslone^ accompanied by 
siiLtyHFow persons, arrived in Carlislei-bay^ attd landed on 
fhe twenty-Alth day of Jufy, one thousand six hundned iltA 
twenty-eigbt Each of thoe settlers was cmtiUed; on his 
arrival^ to one hundnd acres of landf . They fixed their 
residence in the vicinity of the bay, where they built houses 

« Mtm. Barb. p. 10. Uoif. Hiat fuL 4J, p, ISO. 

t Of Uiete adTcntoreriy the ntmes of t^o only btre reacbedfiis : is, BuIUcj and J. 
SoiBttn, wbo crtaUbbed UieiBidfti in St. G^^ 

Digitized by 


S^^$^Tp«<n*>.' -.; io - J •'•.' ''';,••.■ --»:• .:■: • ': ' .-.^.-.v. ;,• ■) ;; ,... >. 

filfibiislKii ^; CoRiite^ aanpocd the appellation <^| mndr 
if)ardHaMia>:. while tb9.ptben wjere deDomtoated Icen^ardrAieD. 
yf^UfffBUwa np^ afl^r hip. ^vBlyM o^afaaa^ I iifi^ 
miif9Ct^m^ ai^poiott^ ioha^ {Swan to lie hjslteii^ORaptVi. mcI 
«f«ated a codnci^y mhMi l» iaveitad: wU^ a pf i<tion of . legis- 
lative And executive aiitbprit>». Before thi» firibanal the 
gdverMr $u«»{i|0|)«^;;4^ jp^^bfaket^gett^ to appear; 
aflnrimQg,.ih4t4b«y had no 1^1 title to thelaads wluch 
-Aey held} aftd treating their ftettl^efit as a palpable 
eQcroafh^tifiijteti Ihe rights, of las pattoii. The/ accord- 
iogf J made their appearance at the time and place ap- 
petiai0ii; -bfij^ fioft.hi a temper to listen to any proposais 
made WoU^stooe. They utterly disclaimed all 
€if peii^O<;e opt: |he Elarf of Carlisle ; and» peremptorily re^ 
feting, t0 ^Qtbrnlt either to has authority or (bat of his gover- 
nor, fetamed home thai nigfat. 

* ligon'k Hirt. Bwrb. p. 25. Hughes. Bowtvevi, U of opinion, tbat thit town dfcrlMd: 
laAmminatla* fmovM /i«K«»b«id|gefh>Mm ontnttmrn iie^ of A* toy l^^lhe 
Qinib«. IVo/. Htir. p. 6. Hence it it evident, that thi> capital wa> always known by 
the appellatioD of BridgfTown ; yet in alliegitlative and judicial proceedings* it is. 
Boat absurdly called SeiBt Michacll Town : • nane equally unknown to bistoriaM. 
and geo gjap hei s . 1 

Digitized by 



Upon this occasion, Deaoe, who, It seems, was also a 
Bertnudian, deserted them; and having submitted to the 
governor, was intrusted with the command of a party qf( 
armed men, who were detached in order to reduce them to 
subjection. Abandoned by their faithless leader, the lee- 
ward settlers arrayed themselves under the direction of 
John Powell, son of the mariner who brought them to Bar- 

5ept u. badoes, and marched out to meet their adversaries. The 
hostile parties met at Palmeto fort, near the Hole Town ; 
and, prompted by mutual animosity, prepared for action. 
Happily the effusion of human blood was prevented by the 
humane interposition of Mr. Kentlane, a pious clergyman, 
who, rushing between the angry disputants, prevailed on 
them to suspend their mutual resentment, and refer their 
differences to the determination of the noble personages, 
whose opposite interests bad occasioned the contest. 

Peace being thus restored, the Pembroke settlers acknow- 
ledged Wolferstone's authority, and Powell became thp 
prisoner of his fortunate rival*. The calm, however, wi^ 

Ian. 14. not of long duration. Henry Powell, soon after this ar- 
rangement, arrived, and brought with him a commission 
from the Earl of Pembroke, appointing John Powell gover- 
nor of the colony. Wolferstone now, in turn, became the 
prisoner of his former captive. Taken by surprise, he ajid 
the perfidious Deane ware conveyed on board ship, loaded 

^ Mem. of Barb. p. 12. 

Digitized by 



witlifetierS) and sfent to England. Powell enjoyed his tri- chap, i 
umph but a short time before he experienced the mutability ^^'^ 
of fortune* Hearing of the disturbances which existed in 
Ihe colony, Hobert Wheatly, one of the merchants con- 
cerned in the contract with Lord Carlisle, determined on 
Making a voys^ to Barbadoes, accompanied by Captain 
H^ry Hawley, in the hope of being able, by his presence 
and prudent management, to adjust all differences* This 
gentleman, artfully concealing his intentions, on his ar- 
rival, invited Powell on board his ship, where he was kept April 9. 
uvder confinement until he could be sent to England to 
answer for his conduct. 

Incensed at this injurious treatment, the leeward settlers April 16. 
instantly resumed their arms, with the desigu of avenging 
the insult offered them in the person of their chiefs and of 
extirpating the Carlisle settlemenC* In this spirited attack, 
however, they met with such a vigorous resistance as com- 
pelled them to a precipitate retreat. For this gallant de- 
fence, the windward-men were honoured with the thanks of 
their noble patron, who farther rewarded their bravery by 
allowing them their goods free from any charge qf storage 
for the term of seven years. 

In the mean time, the noble peers, whose opposite 
claims had produced these contentions, did not reinain 
indifferent spectators of the disputes. They appealed to 

■ I ■ . ■ I I I ■ I I ■ I ■ I K— H— — III 

. ♦ Unif. HUt. fOl. 41. p. 134. 

Digitized by 



^^^ the King; each oomplained of the inju^ce vith which h& 

1^^ had been treated, and endeavoured, by pkuttUe objee** 

. tions, to invalidate his competitort pmteiEdons. Finding 

thAt the Lord Chambeiiain'g title rested priocipalij mi 

some informaiity in the original charter granted to Lord 

Cariisle, his Majesty ordered a seoond patent, made out om 

. Uie seventh day of April, correcting and expbnning the 

errors imputed to the first ; and confiniiing, in the most ex« 

plicitand unequivocal manner, the fomoer gcant to Loixl 


The Earl of Carlisle, having thus overcome aH oppositicHi, 
and rendered himself lord paramount of Barfaadoes, thought 
novr of providing for the security of his subjects. To this 
esid he gave a commission to Sir Williatn Tuflon^ appoint 
ing him commander*in-chief of the island. Hiis gende« 
man, accompanied vrith a^ufficient force to reduce the dis^ 
contented settlers to obedience, arrived at his government 

Z>eceni. 2i« eaiiy in December, and immediately applied himself to 
business. The first step taken after his arrival, vras the 
appointment of a council*, with whom he hdd a court or 
general sessions of the peace. He issued one hundi^ 
jand forty grants for nearly sixteen thousand acres ^f 

* Coiioiitj will not, U it prannnecL qaanel with as tor inserting a list of the 
flnemben of this, boardf in which it is easy to recognise the origin of the second 
ImiiehofAelegiihtore; AAoArtw^-Oapteto Tidbot» T. Pstw, ft. Hall> A. Imb*. 
ard« A. Marbury, H. Bmov Q^ptMn Htjynn^ T, iiibbes, D. Fletcher and W. 

Digitized by 



tofid) alid oonfifmed those "which imd been alvetMly giren. chap.i. 
Durii^ his ibort Admimgtmtion many laws were enacted, *^^- 
with ^ coaseht of hit conndl; and the part of 4he 
tmiAiry whidh had first yidded to the arts of opkiva- 
thM, ws» ^Ainded iato «be six parishes of Chnst Chuvdi, 
Df Saiut Midiad> ^iat Jaates, Sakit Itunaas, Saint Ba- 
leT) tmd Saoait Lucy*. 

liie JgOPOOMt was proceniiiig ia the adoptioa of «uoh 
m^sores as appeared ti^ be moat oneMtial to the welBve of 
^lose W0t whOA ins ^esided^ when he m loexpeotedty 
4bti9A«ipted ^ the antral of Henrf Bamlef, viho tuwigfat Jne. 
with hiltt n (power to vopersede 'Xaftm and ito «siawe the 
-govfemmoat. It has hoea^ooojcctareMl kfaot Sir WiAtianidad 
^^PMAi «fb& biMfs^fDho di^pkasure of 4ihe noble jw<h 
ij^^kiry { ^^lA, as itto cause iias been 'asaigned for thisiffis« 
like, it is hi^y fAFobtttile that his Tsmoval iwas not •owing 
^ 4^S 'OWn fiMscondaet. IDbe ^ct lis, ihat Jharkeg:, a«rho 
"en his 'royalgb home, ^^e la A year, iiad Hofeeo x^qitured 
^ >the Spaaiai^, had, on His :retttni to ^glaoid* ip»- 
^eattd <A«Om ^vA lOaalKsle a grant fur a oonsiikraiifettract 
Hif iatiiL. Ohi ii^gdtiafting t^s busioocss, iit is laot lUnliiaBly 
'Vbat -an titiM ntati, >8uch as Howkgr rappeam to^hane 
'Amelia, i^fOttld have 'bad t^cottiae 'to aome un&ir ^naans to 
pr e voil ona nobl e man ,-goveHiod-only-by his interest, JoJp- 
#fst him <^tnth 'the impiditie .ttutfaodty .over Jtbk distant 

* Metnoin of Butudost, p. 14, 

Digitized by. 



25^^ Tv^^^^^oi^ calmly submitted to the arrangement which 
>*«*• deprived him of his employment ; but, suspecting that 
some improper influence had been Used to prejudice him, 
he appears to have cherished a secret resentment against 
the suspected author of his downfall.* Nor was it long 
before he was furnished with an opportunity of she w- 
ing his animosity. About this time the colony suffered 
very severely from the eflfects'of a long continued drought, 
which occasioned so great a scarcity of provisions, that 
the planters were reduced to the utmost extremity. Ac- 
tuated, as ¥ras alle^ged, by motives of personal enmity 
to the goverdor,. Sir William prevailed on many of the 
inhabitants to join in a petition to his excellency, com- 
plaining blf^^is^ withholding from. tHem certain stores, 
which had been sent out by the Earl of Carlisle for 
the relief of the sufferers, during the late calamity. 

li\censed at thiis proceeding, Hawley now determined 
to, destroy the man whom he had already injured. A 
council of twelve persons* had been previously appointed 
. to assist him in framing such ordinances^ as should be 
deemed expoiient for the public welfare, and. to serve 
as a court of judicature. Before this tribunal Tufton 
was arraigned, on a charge of mutiny. Although Sir 

* These penont, whose names d^erre to be remembered with ezecratioD« were Sir 
R. Calvily, T. Peers, T. Gibbes, Edm. Reed, J. Yates, T. Blis, Wi lUley, R. Leonard. 
V. Kitterich, F. Langdon, Reynold AUeyne, and W. Ddin. 

Digitized by 



Williani^s conduct was not altogether free from blame^ chap, j, 
there certainly was not the smallest foundation for the '*'^' 
charge exhibited against him. Nevertheless, the servile 
court, awed into a mean compliance with the sanguinary 
designs of their arbitrary principal, found the prisoner 
guilty of the crime with which he stood accused, and April n. 
condemned him to be shot to death. This iniquitous sen- 
tence was suspended until the next month, and then exe- 
cuted without remorse*. . 

A transaction so cruel and illegal, excited the most lively 
indignation and discontent throuj^out the {nrovinc6. The 
death of this unfortunate gentleman was universally regard- 
ed, as an act of the greatest cruelty and injustice! The 
governor himself was abhorred as a tyrant and a murderer; 
and in the subsequent fate of the base instruments of his 
revenge, the superstitious, who, in the dispensations of 
Providence, always pretend to discern the retributive arm 
of Omnipotence, were persuaded, that they beheld the Dip 
vine justice particularly displayed in the punishment of the 
guilty judges. . 

The innummtble emigrations froni Europe, added to the 
natural fecundity of the human species, had, by this time;, 
so increased the population of Barbadoes, that it became 

' , " . . , ' 

^. Mem. of Barbadoes, p. 17.- Univ; Hist vol. il/p. 1S5. It may,' perhaps, lie 

tlwught strange that, notwithsUnding the indUputable authority on which these fac^s 

are related, the author of the Short Histocy of Barbadoes, should Jiay^ passec| over 

l)iese and many other important particulars in total silence. 

E 2 

, Digitized by 



iace in civil cases, Jtcoarddngly ^ 'mlemd nm ^s -y^ti^ 
dSvided :itit6 iota' 'precmcta, in taeh <i N^i(& a covii of 
tttmnaii^eas, aamistbi^ df at "iefaiof Joidige imd lour asaiotp 
mt», ims fqipDintaid tb tie :ho3den evi^ fiUH)lk» ^ fibeipor^ 
ipMe 4)f '^letiermtiiing sdJ canaes of Mig^imci, swt wcqedui^ 
-Ite latobvf -fiiire iiiincljed iJoiuidBieef tcd^saacfi, ifti&iect.tottft 
•flpp0ad4t>itiie si^fnene ioouiil, liii iwhi^ ^tbe gonr^nwr jm«»> 
sided in person. Inr this Institution, •ms^Bdmy fttawvi^ ii» 

r»neo}ajuiiDei^s^tdmi'kAniAih donmilptthe 

3pMsie!ilt^dag(^'»Braotioii«d7i»ih^ 'ligr^tiieibreetaf^deepoiOQtM 
gprejudioca(^ 4uid ilie. roapect doe tD>aBcieht izustoms, * I^Mmito 
VaDjr ieo^Bitlsitcc 'df iits ntisdoni )fla^iftffinBcy( ' 

'^'l^siiilikaaae^court^'atTpr^entj^tboi^ tofitbe^goivefQor 
Wdiobtoictl, riibd TtEtkes eo^izaiMs of qU ;gnQvaQ«c» :«od 
'^fi»iiftfoUB^iF««tteedings}inifae:in{ei^ .^i«e.f|i$mbeis 

'6f-tlt& MtttSn, iritbith^^gbvwiior, ^akei.aqttoftifli fijr 
eti^n^th^dtaBiitessiii .ibttrjiidtiiial, rfts ih'^ii? ikgitlftttAte 
' capacity. They eonstitu te a court of "erroi- eund > <W[il^5r, in 
i^iCh4keJgov«irfibr,( though 'JieVhtts fthe is^iM^ titfe of 
ld^dtlltT,^prendesrddly:a9 iiTMnteis rMie^ jMf^ ; ^4ii$(volei«r 
£<^ii^<»i 4»eing <of ^joo gka^ritmpovtanoe^^iBn febat ,bf lany 
ethelTfiieiinber. • ISeme^rnters on West Indian-politics have 
it&a^nd- tln8:^pratti«ejiias a radical. im{MrfcMi«n)in^ the con- 
IftitOtion'df thec^onial chancery. They conceive that jus- 
tice would 1^ i^Qiore juu^Qimly^ promptly and impaitiall^ 

Digitized by 


♦dminwi^pedj vei?e .^ ^9y«n¥»r. bere, ^» iii.n^94 vQ^i^llc JJ^fj 
other €QlQQ«e^ sp)^ cI^^c^Qr. .; . . T^J-' 

^flv^og;*)'*^ 3Ue?r<ir^ Jslands, the comnofii^^ i^i f^^i^ ^ 
Chwft^ftr.of i^ch, ,t^y rvtup ^ jiis ofit<?e* ;" Ateoj)^ ^^ 
k9e» jm4fiM 3t Clhi;|Atc{)|l;usr> to jo^l,t|le.c;o^nc^ wij^i ^m* 
h\kt w»thout.suc4ie^; : ^ wiv^ts^sKt9.c}wmp^Xf^T. tpAyi^r 
mit to the e^pence aijid dela^.of folio wiog .U)e oh^o^Q]: 
io Antigua, the seat pf ^ovetorof nt, , wihete xthe xojwt of 
.GiiaBciwjr?is , usually jhel4 for those islands, tbao. .sq^iw jj^ 
incoi^j^oieftcy. of su^)w4ttinjs. their suits tp ^hp.j^Qf^i^pri.oiP 
jrtdgiea, who, jfroBithw" ^itua^wm ^4 90flflP?i9*w> 4Pfty ^ 
iQt^mssiod.iii the 4<!y^pt of eTftryq^vw^.-th^ s^p^l^^^q^ipi^e 

M«wethe»*/- ■• .-M , ... ,;,;.• ;.■.-■ . , • ■-. , _..,,„. ,, .;, 

Qu'tiiis^i^bjeot ib«,ft?ii,tiw9ivt!».x>f w 
our colonial constitutkxis js^rit attention^ ,*^A^W^T»-' 
Mjf3 be, .^I'bAsifewi^r coooesuons in .the country^iuid i».less 
ilimb}»ii& iufluen(?e:than.o)thei; of the ,cowcil^„vho .for .^l^ 
jiio«t{M«t ftren^t^cs. : A eoatifimaawho has.intecestto ob- 
!taukdi^V'«nu9ei)t,piust,b&.a man of some character aiid 
jfUs^ivc^n. He is responsible for bis conduct, and has .at 
»take;tl*ftJlwRM .Qi5<3ev JWbefl he.$its,^lQne, let>K<<iia|^ 
sition be iwfaat it may, he will hardly venture to commit 
Aoy«flagnt«itact;of 4(^tice; But TCh^i-a doeen coun^el- 
IjBtn are placed «m theibenchwitjh'him, 4«fendii numerm^ if 
4heyare iiieliaedr^ do miischief, they l^eep each, other in 


.•^fdwwda't HitU tf 41m W««» Indies^ vof. 1, p. 431. 

Digitized by 


30 THE fflSTORr 

countenance. It very seldom happens that either of these 
counsellors has been bred to the law, and a governor can 
liave little assistance, and the country little benefit, from 
twelve gentlemen being placed oh the chancery bench, with 
no knowledge of law. Besides, in small commijinities^ 
scarce any cause can <^bme on, in which all who sit oh the 
bench are totally disinterested*.** 

1633. The clamours of the people, occasioned by the violent 
and arbitrary proceedings of the Governor, having at 
length reached the proprietary's ears, Mr. Hawley was 
called home. Though it was generally expected Aat he 
would there meet with the. punishment which he so justly 
deserved, for the murder of Sir William Tufton, he found 
an unmerited protection under the influence of his patron, 
who prevented any inquiry into the affair. 

April 3. On the departure of Hawley, his brother-in-law, RTchard 
Peers, assumed the government. Of the deputy-governor's 
fidministration nothing is recorded, except, that under his 
authority two persons were condemned, by a court martial, 
to suffer death for treasonable practices against the colonial 
government, and that they were executed pursuant to their 

\6s^.^ Hawley returned the next year with fresh powers from 
the Eari of Carlisle, and particular instructions concerning 
the issuing of grants for land. He was positively enjoined 

April 7. 

* SWics't View of the Con^lituUoii of the Cdoniis, p. 197. 

Digitized by 



to make no grants for a longer tejrm than seven years; or, CHAP.i. 
on any Conditioii beyond the life of the grantee; reserving ^^^^' 
to the earl the payment of an annual tribute, and seconng 
to the governor and the i?lergy their respective dues ; other* 
wise the estate so granted was to determioe, an(l the ^pd to 
revert to the' proprietary. Neglect pf cultivation^ ?in(i 
x)mitting to provide a servant for every ten acres, were ^l^p 
.declared to be causes of forfeiture*. These particulars .are 
worthy of attention, as they serve to elucidate th^ natiHTP 
of the tenijre by which the early settlers held their planta- 
tions, and to throw, some light on th^ delicate qvi^ation 
which occurred on the island's revertii^ tQ the crown* . By 
an order of the governor and council, a tax x)f twenty shil- 
lings, for his exceliepcy's use, was injpo^ed 9n every fo- 
reign vessel which stipuld arrive at this island, for ^rade.iOr 
refreshment; with ^n additional d\ity of seyen shilling; per 
, cent, ad valorem^, on all goods which they, should ^offer ffif ***y ^^• 
sale, to be applied to the use of the ha,]:bour ; a ^dip^^s 
application of an impolitic impost. 

Hawley soon afterwards resigned his authority a s^copfi 
time to Mr. Peers, and returned to Englan^L The adi^i- 
nistration of this gentleman was again stained with bloo^. 
At a general sessions of the peace, William E^tt^rich, one ^^ ^* 
of Tufton's judges, ,was convicted of the. mu|*d^ q^ C^p- 
tain Birch, and sentenced, to be. hanged;. bu^in.Gpps^d^ir? 

r ' ' - L - - 

' ' ^ Mem. of Barbadoet, p. 19. 

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cjiAP. r. itloh of bU hdting botiig arffl* ds dii dfficgJ^ the eduH 
16^8. witigatiBa the «eiiteftce, and he Was ttWjfered tt» be shtft; 

tta^tej^ quickly tfettihited W BaHJadJWS^ fttfd^ aftfefr apt 
ptHfatlng a fae^ cbuii'cll*, redoc^d the t6vm df cbtiitii^A 
}>leaS to t^b ptedttc^, ^ttehdiWg tHei^ jutfedic^rdte tb MitI 
liOt elt^dlpg the Value of 'one thousand potHkds 6f cOttdft 
<b^ tobdjcto; ^nd appointed ihf^iktoeirii in e&ch ^krMr. Thi 
|>b|)iiratii9ti Md ti9W grektly encreai^d, knd olT the inha&i:^ 
ta»ts thei*e Werie sfe'vfen hundred tind Sixty-dik person's, feich 
<if Whorift ^'dsiessed teii tucte^ ttf hind or irtote. Slavery wto 
9)0^ co'unteuaoicfedv dnd ti law passed, VtAhloriain^ themtb 
oi negt^tn^ and Ii^dian^ ic^ life. 
1838. jifterMtiing M'anjgrani^ fof !attd, Hatd^^y undertook 
^noth^ Voykge to Engl&nd, leaving the gdVerntierit ift this 
fi^Adfe^fhw fepot'herWittiana Hiwley, Lord^Gai^tei «b6m 
YUs Xithht Began to 'eStithale the Value df tearbfedoes Irighly, 
iaid ifo ^li^'ct thkt the VeVeiiue Which he di'ew frofei it Wfto 
liiot^rO^ortidi^ed to its i^pld Mvance in ntMibei^ a'nd cui- 
tivation. Hawley, finding his '^tron di^skti^fied at 1^ 
^aa^^taten't of hfe colonial concern, prtvatety left the 

^%^ kingdom and 'retDiriiC& t6 fikrbaddes. Sir Henry Hunks -wsfe 
Iniftk^tfy di»^tdied ij^y the ^r^ilprietiai^ With a >c<»Mbi^on 
to sdjiefS^fie^the ^goVCTnor, and to asSftttie the sflifection -of 
afiairs. 'Ifewley,h6\^ver,'ittiwilling to part' with 'his'pdwferi 

* The new council' was conpoted of R. Peer*, J. HoMip, W. Fbrtetcoe, T. Gibbe*. 
T. Eilii, W, H&wley, G. Bowyer.. W. Sondiford, £. Ctanefield, S. Andiewt and T. 

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peremptorily refused to submit to ihb authority of his su<J- ^JJl^" 
cesMMr; who, unable to resist the force with whicli he was *®^*' 
opposed, quietly proceeded to Antigua. As so(hi as Lord 
Carlisle was made acquainted with these particulars, he 
appointed five ' commissioner!*, with full power to reduce 
the refiiictory goveriM>r to obedience. In pursuance of his 
iordship's ctMumands, Hawley was arrested, sent home pri- Dec «. 
9oaer, and his estate confiscated. The commiasioBers theh 
Bes^t fos Huaks, and inrested him with the gdvemmeDtf. 
.. .The short period during which this gentleman exercised 
the supreme authimty seeitaa to h^ve been distinguished by 
no occuireace wcnrth recording. The power, which ho fio- 
quired with difficulty, he resigned without rductance; and i64i. 
deputipg Philip Bell to b» his lieutenanthgovembr, em- ""^ * • 
barked fox Europe. The prudence and modemtieb of Mr. 
Bell's conduct in the exercise of this delegated trust, while it 
engaged! him tUe approbation and. e»teem of all ranks <^ 
people, recommended him In the strongest manner. ta the 
pK^letftvy as the properest person to promote the prospe- 
rity pf ^he ilising colony. ; H^, therefore^ sent him a com- 
l|upi(M% as cOTunandsir ia chief. 

'^. civU waf, which at this time raged wi^ the utaioit i645. 
.-violence .m Ef^^li^d,. as well aa the religious disputes which 
precfde^i and^ia a great measuie produced it, contributed 

■ 1 1 it mar 

• Thts^ were H. Ashton, F. llnjfth W. Powry, B. FIctchar, «nd J. Hanroen 


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CHAP. I. in a considerable degree to the rapid population of tiie 
if)45. jj^^ world. And while the puritans and fanatics, whose 
principles were inimical to regal jpower and the established 
hierarchy, fled to the inhospitable wilds of North America, 
many respectable families, attached to the royal cattset 
found in this delightful little spot an asylum from religious 
persecution and republican "tjrrantiy. Hiis emigration o{ 
the royalists, and their settlefnent in this country, may pos-» 
etbiy account for that altachmeht to the parent state, and 
loyalty to their sovereign, which have ever been the cha* 
nicteristics of Barbadians. And, in justice to tdj own feel* 
ings, while I assign the cause, I hope I'lnay be permitted 
to exiilt in the sentiment. 

At this calamitous period, when the viotence of contend- 

^^ ing parties threatened the total subversion of the British con- 

stitution, and the entire annihilation of the most invalu* 
able distinctions of tivil society, it may be readily supposed 
that the Earl of Cariisle, whose rank and fortune depended 
. upon the issue of the fatal coiitests between the repubticahs 
•and the defenders of monarchy and social order, had but 
little leisure to attend to his less impcMftaiit coMifertts io 
this remote quarter of the globe. His authority^ th^ftefore, 
daily lost ground, and was, at length, scarcely lefSogni^ 
in the colony. Barbadoes, tiius teft to ils ^own councils, 
.enjoyed idl the advantages of commercial freedom* To this 
cause we gq^ay ]^x>perly assign . the extraordinary opulence 
alid prosperity which it attained, whilQ Great Britain was 

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d^olaied hy the folly and wickedness of her unnatural ^JJ:^* 

, 'I3i6 Ifi^ard part of the island seems to have been the 
SrstaiMl )>et»t. settled ^ .Many of the planters had at this 
time amassed considerable fortunes. Hence the penetrating 
ey^ of Mr. Bell perceived the necessity of adopting a more 
ragular anfl efficapious system than had been hitherto ol>» 
served. Under the mild and beneficent administration of 
this prudent chief, a new and auspicious era is presented to 
our yiew. \ His enlaigisd mind embraced a greater variety 
of jntieresting objects than had; ever engaged the attention, 
of his predecea3Qrs; and it was now. that the Biui>adians 
began :Jto .enjoy the benefits of equal laws and social order. 
Sensible of the influence of religion in harmonising the 
pfission^ and softening the inanners of mankind, ,Mr. Bellas 
first . care. was to .provide. for the uniformity of common 
pcay^, and the;eBtabliishment of pubhc worship; Assisted 
by the ^dvipe of a coanciUconsbting often persons. Whose 
aaoi^ arenqt transmitted, to us, he divided ihe.island into 
eleven parishesf , in each of which a church was built and 
a minister appointed to oflSciate at the altar. To secure 
to the people the grand and inestimable privilege of parti- 
cipating, by their representatives, in the business of legis- 
latioQ, a general assembly wa^ instituted, composed (^ two 

* St Geoi^% St. Philip's, St. John's, and St. Andrew's, b«iog ww added to the 
ilxalready mentioned* Fi<fc ante, p. iO. . 

f2 ' 

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36^ TIffi HESTORY 

^JJJJj deputies from each parish*, duly elected bj a majority of 

*^*^* tlie freeholders. And, that justice should be brought home 

to every man's own door, the islahd wi^ agdo divided into 

four circuits, in each of which a court of law was duly 


From tbe number and utility of the laws passed dur- 
ing this period, Mr. Bell may, with some {Nropriety, be 
styled tiie Barbadian Justinian. Few of hw ordinances 
have reacheid the present generation, but no ibfeieace 
caa thence be drawn to their prejudice. Many l^gudfttive 
acts might then have been necessary and propety which 
from the lapse of time, change <^ circumstance, and 
alteratimi of mann^ps, would now be useless an4 inex- 
pedient. This enlightened legislator very early saw the 
necessity of prescribing soaie bo^inds to the rapacity oC 
public officers^ by asoctftaining their fees. The law which 
passed for this purpose*^ sjtiH remains in the statut*-bacrfc, 
as being in ftiA force, though it is disregarded. It is 
ifodeed raEOce than probable that iAte fees which are 
there specified, are inadequate to affrad men of talents 

* Hut may justly be thought a very unequal representation of the countfy* In the 
pescnt sule of popdBtion and iticrene of coB iuie r ce , it It biit reaioiiaMe that the 
■MKbiitsmttradqvi sbouM be alknM » cboite dMsci ftom tbe ktid.boMer; 
and that tbe repretentatires of the several towns should be proportioned to the num- 
ber of electors. Such an accession to the popular branch of the legislature might 
possibly infuse a fresh'portion of strength and vigour into that assembly, and render it 
more independent of the executive power. 

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and respectabiliiy A reasonable c<Mnpen8fit;ipn for tbe^r chap/I. 
mnrices. ^^**- 

This evil is principaUy owing to the mischievous 
policy of bestowing the most lucrative' emplojjoieiits ix|u 
the island on persons resident in England. , These offices 
Ere executed by deputies^, who farm them fiK>m^the 
patentees at an annual rent^ far exceeding Hjiejit le^t 
Tidue. The remedy is obvious^ Were all patent <^kres 
executed by tl^ir principals, the legal emoluments of 
each would foe a efficient ccmipensation to an dlbhp 
upright officer, without resoortiug to tiie unjustifiable 
means now ptactised; the money, which is now re^i^ 
mitted to Great Britain, to pamper the needy minioni 
of a court favourite, would be expended at home; 
and, in the course of its circulaticm, Feplenish the souroes 
from whence it had been drawn. The executive auiho#^ 
rity would be strengthened, and the country, in. gene^ 
ral; benefited by the accesnon of the talents of a 
number of intelligent men, employed in the various de-^ 
patlniients of governments 

Nor was Mr. Bell inattentive to the means of de*^}^^;^. 
fending the island againtjt the attempts of an exteroa) 
foe. In the list ^f expired laws, we find m^j acts 
mentioned ftr^ot^fying the Sea eoasts. Bot this pw^ 
pose -the produce of the excise act was granted^ to 
Captain Burrowes for seven years. But the fbrtifica* 
tions which he erected, were so unskilfully contrived. 

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9^^^^' that they were after*^arc[& demolished bj order of a 
1647. more able engineer, who was appointed to inspect tfac»; 
The militia was rendered formidable by its nunibers, which 
^t this thne amounted to a thousand cairaJry and ten tiiou«> 
sand infantry. ' . 

* The misfortunes of the mother country contributed ma- 

terially to the prosperity of the infant colony. Its po^ 
pulatioh had encreased to the amazing ei^tent of fifty 
thousand persons of both sexes; and the value of land 
haii encreased in proportion to the number of inh|tbi« 
tants« It is asserted by a contemporary historiiui; that 
Colonel Modiford, in the course of this yeai^ purchased 
half of a plantation, containing five hundred acres of 
land, ninety-ruine slaves, and twenty-eight white servants, 
with the stock and buildings, for seven thousand pounds; 
which will doubtless be thought a cheap purchase, until it is 
added, that the ssme land had been sold, seven years 
before, for only two thousand pounds** - 

The um^estraiQed . intercourse which subsisted between 
the merchants of Barbadoes and those of Holland, was 
attended with great advantages to the inhabitants of 
both countries; but particularly to the Barbadians, who 
were supplicxl by. the Dutch with the articles required 
for internal consumption, upon better and dieaper terms 

than they could have obtained them from home. One 


* ligon'i Hist of B«rb« p. 22. 

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incoavenience must bitve been severely felt— the want ^^:^i^^* 
of. a circulating medium^ to facilitate tbe .meniantile *^*^' 
transactioDS of the country. Moneys the untversal re- 
presentative of the value of commoditiest was so scarce^ 
that both merchants and, planters were frequently obliged 
to barter one commodity for another*. All fees of officei 
and even the emcduments which the governor derived from 
his appointment, wexe, at ilrst, payable in cotton or 
tobacco, and in later time^, insugox. i 

. At, what time the/ sugar-cane was fir^t introduced into 
Barbadoes^ it. is. now impossible to ascertain exactly* 
It could not, however, have been long before the pe- 
riod we are now contemplating ; for we arp, informed by 
Ligoo, that on his arrival here^ in 1647» the great 
business of sugar-malting had been, recently begun and 
was but .imp^ectly / undeistood^ An. author, whom' we 
have had frequent occasion to quotet .spi^^ of the duie 

* Of this ligQn relates jl ludicrous iostance. ** Nei^ghbour/' safd one planter to 
tnoftct, '' I bear you ha?e lately bouglit good store of serrants out of the Iftst shipa 
fi«iBj%glaDdv«ndi heif'lliat you want pwr^ions; I iraiflbegMtoiiiake i^es* 
cb^i|Bge. If gro^ will kt o^ hare «oine pf your, woiii^n'p Sesh you shall have some of 
my bog's flesh/' The price fixed upon was a groat a pound for the hog's flesh, and 
silc-pence for the woman's. The scales 'were set up ; the planter fi'ad a maid whose 
Mine Wsa Hdmor, hi, laty, abd g^od for nothing* ^Tfale mtm bioUght ii gUsatfiit Mr; 
and put it intp one sqale, 9a^ Honor was put into tl^ other> but wh^ be saw how 
i&ucb the hog outweighed the maid, he broke off the bargain. Vide UguCt UuU 
Barb.f. 5$. 

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^B^i- AS )mi«ajs4>dsn i first ibrougbt to thk isVuSd "■ by Mr. James 
^^' vHbMi|>^ ia «/sfai^ fioiti Ottiaeai*^^ Bat {« 'seistiis much 
UlDri likely t#-'|iaW')yeen impicatiBd, bs i9«to(Bil4^re as* 
Mrtwd; ftou Feitiambtioca, in Brasilf. < ( . > n./ 

Tbdr traluftbte plant/ grew- Vuxurkntly, and ^as ed^j 
piropMgaled. Tkie pla&tidrB'w«l« at'finit isdr extrehidy ig« 
Horasl of ' tiie proper -manageStnent.'fif the caae -and the 
miiniilaetufe of- ingv, that it wm several "y^ars before 
it became a profitable 'article of export. It "was, lioit>:i> 
evar, tttetul in eappiying thi^ ityeans bf preparing knd 
f^tmeoting those refVesbiog bererageSj \rhicb, is tbe iieadt 
<of;a('iropioal cU<nate))irere both agreeable 'and salutary^ 
By ■ peraevsMiMe thd^ pktitefs at' length* acquired sbfil<> 
cieftt. tbitl iOJfenable Hiem to' proceed with greater adL 
ViCtittage./^ Bor Mncerfd ytarl^ the* ait Of sugar-bofling rel. 
tnaitied A 8ecF0l«^ known onl^ 'to Mt^.-Bm and a fnr 
««lier g^BtlfliM»j who bad) employed a Dutch' planted 
from Bnlsil, to superintend their works. The improve- 
ments viiach he introduced in the management of- their 
plantations enriched his employers, and. excited fioi aaour 
lation among otherS) to whom the. mystery w^^yet-oi^ 
known. Sevei^ pknters were induced to tuider^ tSle 
hazard and fatigue' of a voyage to Brasil, to acquire 
the best informatibn respecting the treatmefit of a plant 

^ Mem« of Baib. Appen. p. 1. f Ligon's Hist, of Barbadoes, p. t$. 

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wbich, by pro|>6r manageooi^it, was found capable Of chap. r. 
producing the mpBt solid benefits. At length, when the ^^^'^* 
Portuguese, after the revolution which pUlced the Duke 
of Bragansa on the throne of Portugal, had recovered 
possession of their territories on the southern continent^ 
the Dutch, expelled from Brasil, became our masters 
in the art of making sugar. Many of these exiles, set* 
tling on the island, instructed the Barbadians in the 
proper culture of the plant, the season of its maturity, 
dnd in tlie construction of works suitable for the me^ 
nufacture of this valuable staple* 

The field thus opened to the industry of ihe island^ 
ers necessarily required an encrease of labourers. Euro- 
pean constitutions were found by experience unequal to 
the laborious occupations of agriculture, in a climate 
continually exposed to the scorching rays of a vertical 
sun* Recourse was therefore had, of necessity, to the 
shocking rapedient suggested by the partial kitmanity 
of Las Casas*^ who, to preserve tbe scanty remains of 

* Bartholomew de lat Casas^ the benevolent bishop o^ Chiapa, was a native ot Se^ 
vine, and. held a curacy in Cuba; where he was distinguished by his hamanity and 
zeal for the conversiod of the Indians. He eterted himself with unremitting a6^« 
duity in behalf of that ii\jured and oppressed people. At last the Emperor Cfaatles V. 
moved by his continual remonstrances, made some laws in favour of the Indians ; 
Ahd» to relieve them from a part of the burthen under which they groaned, g^nted a 
patent to certain persons to suppTy the islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, PoriO'Rico, and 
Jamaica with 4000 negroes annually. The active part taken by the bishop has in* 

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CHAP. I. ths aborigines of the Amerip^in UlcR from destarucjtioD, pro- 
^^»««^ (posed to the Spai[>i^rds the project of supplying their pkn- 
totiops with negroes, from Africa. T^s early apostle of hu- 
iw^nity.ji^tly copcMv«d that there would be less immorali- 
' j^y. ^11 cpiploy fng v^ ^}^ labours pf the field, a0 unfortunate, 
but-har% race, -who »re Sjlaves from tlieir biyth; than in 
enslaving thie effeminate, but free-bom sons of America. 
Birbado^, Wjas, therefore, obliged to imitate the example 
of the French an4 Spaniards in her neighbourhood, and 
to import fropi Africa those wretched negro labourers, 
whom the pjjfsterious dispensations of Providence had 
,^ppa^tJ^,^Ofefl(ied to perpetual slavery. 

purrtduBincritcd censure. " While be contended," wys the great Dr. Robinton, 

"for the liberty of the people born in one quarter of the globe, he laboured to enslave 

th^ inhabitants of another region V ahd in ^e warmth of his zeal to save the Ameri- 

' cans from the j[oke, JM-onofcrtted it to bt lawful atM expedient to impose one, still 

heatier» ^pop the, Afci^Mii/' ? But At-copdu^t *f las Casas/' sajrs the etegant his- 

,ipri«n/)C.the*W^J''w|Jes^j''as.potffiirly stated in t^c fwegoing rejw^ent^ion; for 

it supposes that each dass 9f, people was fcund in a similar condition and situatioa of 

life ; whereas it is notorious, that most of the negroes imported from Africa arc bom 

of insfaT^ pir^U; are' brctf up as^Vei tbwb^is, a^haM b^to; haliitoatod to 

rtAvefy ftomtb«iririfc»cy.: JO**f 9lh^r,i4and,.^^^ fe^c 

. UtuMQ us^ the eiuoympnV<^ libefty in a life of plenty and pastigic, that the yoke 

of servitude is insupportable to them. Las Casas therefcre contended reasonably enough, 

that men, inured to servitude and drudgery; who could experience no alteration of 

iircomstanees from it change rfmasters, KndWhoi felt iwlttcsetitimeols which free; 

dom ahme inspires^ were Q0tjM>.gr$at objects of commiseration as those who having 

always eigoyed the sweets of unbounded liberty, were suddenly deprived of it and 

urged lo tasks of labour, which their strength was unable to perform/' 

Edwards's HistoaY op thb Wist Imdiis, vou 2. p. S9. 

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But dm supply proving inadequate to the eflfectoal jcukH ^^J^^f 
vatioa of tlie soil, recourse was had to the mere crtoel ajid *^*'' 
less justifiable practice of kidnapping and enslaving the 
neighbouring Indians and Caribs. These baTfoarians, tw* 
jjatient of subjection, and too indolent ta endure the hard- 
sliips of a life of slavery, pined themselves to death, or ex- 
pired under the rigour of servitude ; thus depriving avarice 
of its reward, and punishing treachery for its deceit and 
cruelty. These acts of injustice and inhumanity, far from 
benefiting the cruel perpetrators of them, entailed on the 
English the perpetual animosity of those savage tribes. A 
British vessel, engaged in this odious cothnierce; lying at 
Dominica^ was visited by many of the Caribs, for the pur- 
J pose of exchanging their „conMnodities for such articles a^ 
. they wanted. Itiecupt^in, having made them drunk, put 
to sea with them^ but the I savagesi notwithstanding tbefir 
intoxicaVion; pen^viii execrable desigrt, leaped over- 

board, and r^gainedTthe shore i teJtcept two, who Were cbn-^^ 
fined and afterwards sold for slaves. To avenge this injury, 
the Caribs, tlispArsed through the Windward islands^ landed 
npidh the English sbttlekkifenfeaecelMble to their canoes, and 
massacred the urtsuspicioiis inhabitants with the moSt in- 
discrtmipate fury an4 remorseless vengeance*/ 
^ Among the -ttiany > instimces : of treachery practised on 
"; ' •;- ^ '' ^ '"'" — --^ '' - 'w. . — :^-- ^^-^'-- "■'■, -^ 

. ♦UniV, Hist, vol.41, p. 215. ^ 

G 2 

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cHAi^i. t]^ ^rejU5^e^:^|q^tim§^^^^ ^Hpi4itj, %h«m^ is tow 

i$4^: nientionea by a contemporary b^^pi;ii^ny, ivJiiQ^i; ^ »t ha^ 

/ e«?|4o^dthe^ degan^^ p&thetM pei> of A4dis0Q, and 

bafif e^citec^ ^t^^ jpqst liyely sentinjpi^U ^f iQd:igl)«tio||Min thei 
breast of the philapthrapic Abbe^^aji^alvii^Ut. notolo:^ 
omitted in this place* I sliall, however^ diveatlhe affect- 
ing^ naoiative of the fanciful embellishments ^ with which it 
has^een decorated by . othqrs, and recite, it, wit^lv historic 
fidelity, in the w^rd? of the origin^ .and art^sg writef by 
whom the $tQry wa» fii*st told*^ '^ An J^^Ush ship having 
put into a bay, sent some of her men ashoro to ^y lyljat vic- 
tual? or water thcgr could find ; but, the Indiaqs peroeiviog 
them to gQ &J into th& countryt inAetceptod 4;he(B op th^ 
return and. fi^li upon th^m,^ cl^^ing ^he^ into a woo4^ wl^r^. 
some were Wl^en, a^nd ^uie lulled^ A young jnan, wh^sss 
name was Inck^^ A^T^gg^^^gt ^^^^''^ ^^ ^^P^ ^^^ \J3^^^y> ^T^; 
lodiaiv maid, who» ^F>9^ ^^ ^1^1 ^^^ J^^li J^* M'^t^I)' 
him, aod hi4 him cjose^ from her comxtrjrmeB; in ,a^ c^ve, afx^ 
th^re fe4 him t^U ,tbey could safely, go <ilQy?i|, tp.^t^; ^tiQi;e)i 
where the ^hip j^y 9-t. aochor^ . ^xpepting, ^b(? fffiw^v of: thek. 
friends. But at last s^ing tl^QOd tMPQift) t^tflt^f^ .^iiei (^fi^^J:^ 
was 8en|; for tbiem» to^Jt th^m on lM>;^4;an^ {brought them; 
away. But the youths whj^ he i^ai^e tq; ,]^]|Adi09^ foTtgot 
the kindnei¥» o^ the^opr n^aid, whp, J^^4 jii^Uii^ .her life 

• jMgop;* m!^.,qf;P»*.f>.«5: 

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for hi» safijty, and icHA her for a slare* * And so poor Fa- ,^J^- 
ria> for her hyft test her liberty." ^^*^ . 

* It will rfeadily be perceived, how ranch this simple tale 
has beieii ^HitieUished by the creative iraagination and de* . 
scinptivb powers of Addison*. And it is painful to add> 
though it is too obvious to escape observation^ that simi- 
lar artifices and exaggerations have, been snccessfuUy em- 
ployed in later times to inflame the passions and prejudice 
the minds of the credulous misinformed Europeans on the 
siuhjiect of West Jndian slavery. It does not, hoVever,. ap- 
pear, thai. die lady possessed any remarkable share of 


delicacy, since it is reported by Ligon, who was personally 
acquainted Wfth'her, and received many bifices oi^^ciminess 
at her hands, ♦* Ihat she -would not be wooed by any means 
to wear ck)the»i*^ Nor docs she seem to have been'mucli 
a£fe(:ted l^-the iagraJtitude of her perfidious betmyer. 
*♦ Her ex^llent "shape andxblom^, which was a pure bright 
bay; and anofMr^reasts^' with nipples of . porphyrie,'\were 
iirreststibi^'attraetions,^ and she soon ;c<wsoled herself in the 
aimps (^ afi^her lover. In sh6rfc,^^he chanced to be with 
child by a chmfiaa servant, and lodging in an Indiaa house, 
anoitgAt the otitef women of her bw^ country, ' and ^eing 
irery great with cflMldi ^ that faerlime vnad come to be^le- 
livered, shewalk^ down to a wood, and there, by the side 

■■^ mtfi « ■— m i» i l l i '[ I ^i : 

Vide Ihc SRecUtor, No. j 1, 

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of a pon4*^ ^brought be^tf a-bed; And presentJj wosliing 
hcF child» in three hours time came home withainsty boy, 
fmlic ^aiyi Jivalyt-'' Who could .suppose that this is tlie 
saixieiuifortimate. female^ of whomso'much has been said 
93tdb sung by mofalists, poets and historians ; whose hapless 
£»te;baa'Oau«(ed such lively sensations in the tender minds of 
£iurppQ'» phiIar4thropic sons? No apology, it is presu|3fied^ 
]riU^^^.^ho^ght necessary for this minute and authentic ac- 
i^fw^t^ ^icel&brat^ JfieUn Saumge^ ^vbo3e wrongs hare 
^e^ -amplified and recorded by the ablest pens; and 
whoaeJmaginaryjKxrrbws have drawn the tear of sympathy 
^ftomrt^ebrightest^yes. : ^ . , 

i6«. ^ ' Tbf>,.^l(^aa(^ . though: inaccurate, Abbe .Raynal, -eiro- 
neaufi^.jEu^cribes a conspiracy among the negroes, ivl^ich wBi» 
jferaied ab0ut.tlu& time,^to a design of avenging tlie (|uarr 
jFel'of this much inji^red woman. The fact is related, and 
jlTjsiydifiirMQtlyaccpuQied for, by an eye^ witness:|:, thojigh 
jBOt in a manper^ more favourable to the character of the 
colpnjr. . llie.Bl^^ lately imported * from A^ica^ whose 
savage manners and natural. fierocity had not yielded tt> the 
arts of civilization^ nor been softened by the influence of 
European . habits, probably conscious of their superiority 
of numbiers, and groaning under ^ new and^ toilsome species^ 

*j . 

* There it a pond in Kindall't pUnUtion, whkb^ from thk etreumstftoce, is ctUe<l» 
At Ibis day« Yarioo's Pond. 

t Ligon's Hist of Barb. pp. 54 aad 55; ' % Ibid. 54« 

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of bondage, determined to make an effort to throw off 
the galling chain- With this tiew a oongfwrairf wists 
entered into by the bold and discontented; and a day ap- 
pointed for a general insurrection ; when they proposed to 
hiassacre all the, white inhabitarits^ arid to imatke themseiTes 
tffastfers of the island. This horrid pk>t was coriducted with 
Such inviolable secrecy, that no doubt wais S^tltertained- h^ 
the cbnspiititors of its successftil coitipYetidni But mi' tli^ 
diy jpreceding tite execution of theif diabolifiiiJ de8%tt,'4 Nor. 15. 
sefvknt of Judge HothersaUi filled wil!h hoitor'M the^phW* 
pedt of the dreadful scene 4hich was iabbut t6 ifettftftnttwre; 
dismayed by the apprehension of A ikifuTe, or attiiated by 
gratitude for the kindness with which 'he liaU'-bei^n treftted, 
^Avuljgedf tile" f^Wsecret; With^whi(^ x 

\o\\s master. \^roper measiires'^ere irrtniediately i^keh 
to fhistrate tii^^ scheme; many ^of the Voh^pir^tofrs beih^ 
^ec\ired; tuldferxvent i legal exaniinati6d;a(faa'^i^^^ 
of ^Ke ptincipat leader^, Who' were the 'most tiirbufeht ^fid 
sanguinary, were condemned to expiafe their'^uill oh & gib^- 
1}et'; ah awfiil example, dictated by the imperious Taw of 
self-preservatioh. * ; 


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CHAP. IL During the fatal disputes between the king and par- 
1649. liament) which distracted and desolated the kingdom, the 
interest of the proprietary appears to have been entirely 
n^lected and forgotten in ^ Barbadoes. After the death of 
Lord Carlisle, the reputation of its amazing wealth and 
prosperity encouraged his son to claim the island under the 
original grant made to his father. But the great difficulty 
was how to secure the bene6ts arising from a property so 
distant. At length, the noble patentee executed a lease to 
Francis Lord Willoughby, of Parham, by which he con- 
veyed to his lordship all his right and title to the colony for 
the term of twenty-one years, upon condition that the pro* 
fits arising from his claiin, during the existence of the 
contract, should be applied to their mutual advantage. In 
ooMequence of this arrangement, the Earl appointed Lord 

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OF.IUilfiAliCiES. 49 

W:fllo«gJbbgr ^vfimor of the whole province of Carliola. ^^^i^:^ 
Bii»tap(«eheiin¥je that the inhahitants might be indined to ^^^^' 
dispute his authoiity, it was thought necessary, as a pru- 
jdent ppeeaution, to obtain a commission from the king, 
ciHifinning his lordship's appointnient*. Tlie unhappy pos- 
ture of the king'ftafeirs, at thfs critical period, probably 
.sssptoded the' execution of this desfgn. * But 'when the 
blind fury 6f an mfetualed people had sated itself with the 
blood of their legitimate, hereditary sovereign, the ptmect 
msLM revived and carried into full effect. . . , 

Lord WiUoughby was a brave and active officer. As a 
presbytfrian, be had been fonneriy initoictL to th6*t6y^ 
cause; but disapproving of tbe violeot lIlelbsureavp^^nled 
hy the republican party,, he had jepouifteed'thekiirfticipks; 
ai)d, after the execution of the- unfortunate .fOhafle&b' d«s» 
gusted at the infajnous pqnduc^ pf . tihe;regicid^^ he pasited „ 
over i^atq Holland, jandopeply espoused tbfteaiBejof the 
resiled prince, . But^ajs there was no pi^ospect t>f his being ^ 
serviceable to his royal master, binder his, present unfortu^ , 
nate circumstance^, hQ requested the king's permission to 
assume the government of Barbadoes,, in the hope of being 
inore ijsefuily employed in that q^uarter. The afllairs of th« 
illustrious exile now wore so gloomy an aspect, that his 
most sanguine friends despaired of being ever abie to place 

♦ Caribbianna, vol. 2. pref. p. ru Mem. of Barb. p. 27. 


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^JJi^RM. hiiaon tl» throne, which the enemiea of hb family had 
^ ^^^- whverted. It wa» deemed an. object of great importance 
to secure even the West Indian settlements in their alle- 
giance to the crown; and for this undertaking no one was' 
better qualified than Lord Willoiighby. His Majestj, 
therefore, readily complied with his desire, and appointed 
him governor and lieutenant-general of Barbado^es, and all 
the Caribbee islands* Could the effect of this mission have 
been accomplished, and the ix>lonies in North America, 
induced to reject the authority of parliament, it Was con- 
jectured, that his Majesty would have retired to that conti- 
nent, to avoid the dangers and persecutions to which he was 
continually exposed in Europe*. 
May 7. Lord Willoughby^ on his arrival at Barhadoes, found the 
colony in the most prosperous circumstances ; rich, popu- 
lous, and tranquiU Many of the republicans, who had 
fled from the rage of civil contention at home, concluding 
that the interest of the royal party was entirely mined by 
the murder of their sovereign^ returned to England, allured 
by the prospect of deriving greater advantages from their 
friend':S accession to power, than they could expect to en- 
joy in this obscure part of the worid, under a proprietaiy 
government. This partial emigration afforded a wider field 
for the royalists, who at this time formed by far the most 
considemble part of the people. But, as many of the pu- 

* Univ. HUt. vol. 41. p. 139. 

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ritans, or parliamentarians, remaiaed in the island, the two JJi^JlJJ^ 
parties had mutuaUy agreed to avoid all political contro- ^^^ 
veraj, an,d live together oa terms of reciprocal friendship 
and goodfwill. 

Tins' harmony and unanimity were, in some measure, ib> 
tBBTupled, by. the arrival of 'Lord Willoughby. -His extel- 
leney was too zealously attached to the royal cause to tem- 
porize with the opposite party; The first step taken by 
his. lopdship was to pr-ockira the accession of Charles II. ' , 
to thocpown, jandto the 'sovereignty of all the dominions 
thereto belonging. Hi* next care wias to convene the le- kot. i. 
gislature, who entered' into all his lordship's views ' With ar- 
dour and alacrity. An act was knirtiediately passed, ac- 
knowledging^ his majest/s ri^t to the sovereignty of the 
island, -and that of the Earl of Carlisle, derived frdm his 
maje&ty, 'and transferred to his exctlliency Lord Willoughby. 
It also enjoined the. iMianimous profession of the true, reli- 
gion, and provided 'for imposing coridign punishment on 
all oppqsers of the established church. No less than 
twenty-five laws received the governor's assent iri the course 
of this year ; a circumstance which manifests much diligence 
and attention to business, on the part of the members of 
the general assembly. Among, these laws are many salu- 
tary regulations for preserving peace and- tranquillity ; for 
trainings the militia, and' fortify ing tJie maritime parts of the ' 
island : all of them- useful objects, and well worthy the at- 
tention of an enlightened* administration. Availing him- 


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2^»;i setf.of tbe s^ ofliyafty which prevailed Aroiighout 

itso. , ti,^ ,5^0trj^ Lord Willoughbj raised a body of mea, and 

e([|Uipped le|*«»»l «hipsf, with which he eonif>etted (beneigh» 

bouring islands, within his commission, to subnh to the 

royal auth^ty. 

Meanwhile, Colonei ^Iteyne, aod flieveral otter ofndent 
planters) attached to the fmrtiatnentwy nteiMt» fcianug. 
that these stroi^ measures might d'Ta'w on the eplony the re« 
sentment of the ruHog pow^ on the o&es aide of the AC- 
Iaiitic» removed to England^ to escape the stores wbkh 
they saw gathering ; and whieh thej thought thetnaelves 
unable to widistand. The council of state, whiah. Uiefr 
directed the nalional ooncems, having obtained from tbeso 
persons the most ample information conocrnidg the state of 
afiSursinthe West indies, immediately determined upon 
punishmg tiie refractory colonists* and redQCii^ them to 
obedience.. A formidable body of troopp vim ftecordingly 
embarked on board a squadron^ under the command of 
Sir George Ayscue, fcN* the; purpose of giving effiect to this 
determination^ But this was not enough. Hitherto the' 
colonies had enjoyed the most, unbounded freedom of com- 
m^ce with the Dutch. This furoished the coun<^il of qtate 
with a favourable opportunity of mortifyii^ and oppressing, 
the obstinate planteis, by prohiiMtiag the lucrative inter- 
course which subsisted between the sugar cc^niesand the 
United Provinces; and^ at the same time, checking the 
growing prosperity of those wealthy republicans, the 

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Butoh. With these vie^r tb< loog ptuUamcsit pasied) an 

act, which laid tht fbtiint«tioa of thei celeteted iiav%«tion: 
sjrstem, to' wiiioli Chreeat ^itaia: is ciuefly indebted: for her 
|jresieat>d(iu)eiM}ei^ gnu»4ew« sad mari<ame strengUit. 

By this: femoiM act all 8^p» beloagiog to-aiiy foveigR 
nation/ Wer^ prohibited ihxai tmdiog wi^ iaAjp ^ the 
EngltlJi plMottftionsr >w4!Cho4t' H liceii8e^ froni^ t)ie cotiiietf 
of slat^' I'Noti'gh thfei U'^^ vfosf ei^pressed in gdemi^ terms, 
the l^iftdb ytere rAoit partioakifiy' affbcted hy it, because 
t^^ e^oyeid tl^ greatest ^^tiave' of the benefib' Accnung^ 
from the- tfakle tcy tbe Btiti^li WesHadian islaadsy ftlie 
merehfattts of Ho]lci»d^ bj whoili the injury wasf iaost 
sc^tely f^U pFesented a memorial to- tbe &atei» G^ie- 
rttf, ai^sf^ftirbfed at ttie Hague, aganst this proceedings 
o^plttitling, that tiiey i<^ho»}d-<btt Ttiitied bj a probibi" 
tion which destroyed the most lucrative branch of itheir 
ct>mmer^» aind ptwfiftg their High Mightinesses to ex- 
postulate irith the- Btoftishi goreminent oa a ' measutte ^ro 
fatal to the iirteie^te of the republic. But the approach 
c€ hostititielr between the^ tM^o commonwealths, i^ndered 
s^t negomflonr A<eiUesS' and' unavailing; thongh it is as^ 
serted by ah attthor«iF much cTedi^^f•, tfeat sotne Dutch 
merchants had the atfilress to obtain, from Cmtittr^att 
efxclusiveindulgoiceof 'ttading to' the Wcst«-Indie8. 

* Univ. Hist, vol 41. pp. 141 and 289. Blackstone'* Comment vol. f. p. 418. 
t Vide Univ. Hist vel. 41. p. 141. 

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Nor did the Barbadians remain calm spectators of a: 
measure so hostile and oppressive to. themselves. The 
greatest cooBteroatidn, mingled, with resentment^ ^ was .raised ■ 
in the colony by an. act, which the people saw rery. clearly- 
was intended as tL punishment .for, their attachment to 
their king» ,and which, in its operation,, must. prove ex>; 
tremeJLy injurious to tl^ .lai)^ comm^cial iqt^P^ts. 
of the country. Neyertheles?, with a, spirit, aiyl firmoessri 
w:hicb nothing but their weakness rendered blai^eabl^ they ; 
dete]fmined, to encpupt^r every, danger M the maintenance 
of their .rights; : The ^'tMving been. slant out to the -colo- 
nieS|,a spirit^; declaration wa.% d<^n ttp.aqd subscrihied hy.: 
Feb. 18. Lord WillQughby,; the merobei;s pf^oiptcilan^ t)fe^9eml3ly»> 
stating tt^^ifobj^ctipfi^ and exprepsi^g ,thfM: firiD;X99o}i\tian 
of 0[pp9fiii^ the act .^f p^lifim^qt tp the\itmQ|t<ex;tent of, 
their ;power. j . :.,. ,. ' . . ■. ', ...••-- . <. h-..' ;;' 
.1(1 this; declaration t^y de^iy that the <is)a(vd had been> 
settle4, by ^e British goyernmeot, ait . the .ejcpeiise of the- 
crown., , It is per^in,.they, aay, :tjbat ,the pi:esoi^ inlyahit^n^ . 
hady.aJ; the manifest l^b9^d,pf t|^u: .lives, iresorteii to %hif„ 
disjtanjt an^ desplate spot, , whicl^j the^,,hftd> ajt their qvm, 
ptfirtiqular.pQst and. ti5i?pb^,.cle^ed„ fl^ttle4» a^d brought, 
to its.pfcjseqt profjp^ous.^qn^tion- )T|iey ^tallyndis-; 
claimed the authority of the British parjiiament, in which, 
they were not represented. To submit to such a jurisdic- 
tion, they asserted,^ would H?e a species of sl?ivery far ex- 
ceeding any thmg which the natioij . had, jret suffered; ai^ 

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they affected t»ot'to tloubt that the courage which had ena- \^^;i^:^^ 
bled them- to sustain the hardships and dangers which Ihey ^®*^' 

:had enconnteifed in a region rembte firdfti their- nkiive clime, 

! would oontintie td' support them in the maintenance of that 
freedom, withtout which life iUdf would be uncomfortable 

. and of little Tahie. .= : ' . t . 1 . . 

' They proceed with observing, "^ that by this act all out- 
landish nations are forbidden tp hold any correspondeq(9e 

.tM: traffic with/ I3ie inhabitiomts of. this island ; although all 

• 4h^ ancient inhabttants know veny well, how greatly they 
have been obliged td. those cf tbe Low Countiies for their 
;8iibsist^ee; and-faow difficult it wauld Have been for" us, 
'.without their assistance,^¥e inhabited these places, 
- w to4aave brougjht them into order. ' And we are yet sensible, 

• wlwit necessary comfort theyribring- to ui xlaily^ and ;tbat 
; they sell their commoditiesi a/giieat deal leheaper than bur 
,owil nation will dou : But this cbmfort must be takert from 

us by thode whose -frills aue set u(v as a law for us. But we ' 
' declare that wb wiH nearen be sd^ unlha^kful to the^ Nether- 
knders for tileir •foi'nier Help arid assistance, as to deny ' 6r 
ibrbid them, ot any other nation^ the freedom of our 

• ha^Kyurs iand the protection of our laws; by whidi they may 
; contirinei if they^please, - w all frebddm of 'Gomtnfeftre land 

traffic with us. To perfect and accomplish diit ititendod 
slavery, and to make our necks pliable to the yoke, they 
forbid our own countrymen to hold any commerce or traffic 
with us, nor suffer any one to come to us, but such who have 
obtained particular licenses from some persons who are ' 

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.56 ^H& UaSKJBT 

!£S^2* ^^PJ*^^ Mereii ior ifchat ptopose ; bj (irl«we ineanB it miy 
1640. lie i»Toagbt:t0|>a»8,;that no o&erlgoodft Of merchamdiflesh^^ 

.|)e Aiarou^hit hitli^r nbui juoh as t^ licenced ' peorsoiin shall 
pl^iase joid-think M toigwre twe^^ to; nod that (they aie to sell 
ibe sattie<^:ft«ch ajprioe as thegr tfiafi:pleafl&i6 impose upon 
fliemr and suffer ho ships to come hither but' idieir owal 

.^>Bketnfte that no inhabitantsof^ie ijatand inojisenk home 
iipon^liieir'on'n acGOhhtaa^ i$]diid.^codai;of tbii plsu!^; init 
tiasXtlbeisidAH^jes^ 1^.*<jtnnpftngr ir^Iuxahafl'hare Abelic^nBe, 
^iiSKi W 4tor jiegfette^'ki^ tb n, ajidi sutnait'tortitehi^die -li^hdle 

ifuttteiatagebf oor^aiiour and iodnstii^.^ - 

. r*^ ^VflBerafote^ ;fiaViog rightly xfddbid<asd» tire^«cfeifiKtihai 

.iaritns^yiMMiuAhe'i^^ use ^Ihoaeat means ^tori^b 

;]Bttqp4iuietice i^lkowe cpunfiy; -sd wt n^l^ncrt AKcinal^ out- 
iadve»from ti^ trae En^ishmen, to 
r^n^ttiule^ Qtnr HEoadote-iand' pii^ileges Uy #h^ <wea^'b<Aii, 
.lo l&e wIR and «pinl6n «f any «he.' I Netflie^ «tb- i^e think 
iMir itumlH^r sd'oODtenfrptible, ^noromt r eabltdion^ so weak as 
ibht ^roed-oi'^pefsutuied to so agnoUe a-submission; abd 
mt^timwt thiak that tiiet)6ai< any amongst' u» 'vt'lia &te ttt 
;stfb]^leaiids6 unvoptMIy'iBiikied, that ^y'trdnldiaotiaitli^ 
jehoQ»e« nob]e'de«ftb ilha;niT0iBake ithflir >>Id %l^irties add 
l>wilflgfefc''« ■ -.-o-- '•■••• ••^■■•■•-' ' '■• :-'•■■ "- 

., J.'"...,. ■.. .. .; ■>;.;..;". 1.- *<,. •,■'.•_■•> ,-.^ ■_;.... 
* firev's Hurt, of the Puriian'*, vel. 4. Append. 12. Politicpl Register for 1701. 

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This roanifKlbo if,ajf ^prodwtive of po bm&^% U> Ijhe c<itlo- ^JJ^y* 
nies. ..Tbft coudcU. of. sitate ha<J ii^en ^fifectut^l pteasui^ for *®*^' 
reducio^ thpn^tQ obedlejace; £^|(id.theBarba<liaiis were soon 
call^ .uifoQ t<^ giy^ jpf)re BpHy^ and iivdubitaUe proofs of 
the»r. loyalty and. e<»uiC9g9f ;1^e:^Uijp)g of the ara^am^ 
destiDed fpr the^vii;i<») ©^ the West |ndi^ hfiv^ng beei) 
delayed, bejQi)d;th^ie;2q)fP(e4 time. Sir Oe<»^ Ayscue^ tp 
vrhpm the. commaitd Qf theexpeditifm was entrusted,, did 
jiot i:ea<^\B9rJwdQeft l>$^^ thci e^tfcn d^yjof Octobei^ 
.wh^.i^ppeatrif^gpf Qa|^sle>J3^, ^.9eiit ^a.Q^ 
of. the : Apiity ti:^t^ who papt^ced seyent^Qn ' I)u|x:ti 
mefch^at 9hi>ps> mfikingj^eir offic«|^apd .crews prisoaers. of 
w^r. , Sir Georgf;, however, fou^ .-the enterp^se in which 
Jie W99 e<^;^^Ced» fttejadfdwith gcealer diScjilty. a^ mor^ 
daag^r ^th^o had .been, apprehended. Losd WiUpi^g^y 
niade. such an ex£§lle^t diipqsitioo of .tiie auliti^ under bift 
cocnmai^: amoan^iog to five thousand mei^ 4hat the £sil)aQt 
admiral f<M}nd^ it i^pr^^caUe to lai>d h^ t^ps^.. ^The 
' coiiQcil and assembly ifesotveid .to; support, ,tb9,govemor with jjw. ♦. * 
all their stirength. They published a. loyal and patriotip 
deplaravtig^^ in. wjhiich ^tibey. expressed their ..unfilteiaible 
deteriniAajtion to defend his Majesty's lawM.r^gbtfti»<the 
possesitt99 of the island; to proteict the pei^on of the^ 
governor; and to vindicate the liberties and ijp^mnnit^ 
which they had enjoyed under t^ ancient eopstitution*. . 

* Mem. of Barb^p. 27. Lmn of Barb. Halh Edit. f. 4$i^ ' 

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^>>^^' VLsjtf^y^ «ti «p)>o$ttk);ii m «ta«rpeeldl, Sir George, 
t^V l)Ajf^,be««i ^Ht^tlse^ id kefteiial iMli&iti{)i|» to effect a UmIu 
^g, «tM^ivdif^^ lb <»b4iii) by intrigtie^ ^HiKt lie cooM 
wot%tcain|il«H fey ftyrce. To this «4d> lift ^jp^ned 4 wigo*. 
itatkto'with (tie Bwrbftdift&^; i«4id, «l%hoagh titey 'W«}i 
f^ ocifl^.<^fl)cih0wtedgb %li6 Ml^^iM^cly «ifthe^<idiw>- 
^e6t> pdi<dpbsed ;^at C&totiel All^]^«e^ ieiikl t1^<^ (Ahftf ¥^ 
^^iiciift ^nten, who, in tlife eicpetftwiiod of subduing 
il3iis Mi&nci^, liitd jcttiied M fl6e€, «%i0«i1d t)^«ie' tl«e p^acies 
flitte p6«i«ftiit)f tMH-^sl^tes. Has pr&poiifl tv{4fe"tdo fit- 
ydurAie telM5 refuscia by sttch «s wferfe >*/^ 
^eir prificiples to %h^ iKriCTesl. It w«w ^agesrly ^aibmced 
fby all except Afleyhe, ■Who having been appoiflted'to c6ij- 
^(jft 1^ laflidiag of ll»e traops, i^heinever a !at>ottr^b!e op^ 
^poiiiuhity 'slic^M present itsdf ibr that purpose, <^stiaale}y 
%tdhered to tlie-'Causfe in trfcich be had emblEirked. ]!rfeiri*>- 
%!nley Sir George, finding that his forees were ^adequate 
to 'the tdnqnest of the ishuxd, prudently desisted firom any 
^osiile attempt -nntH ht shou^^d hare a better prospect iof 
tetidering-his eHbrts tfftcecssftii. 

Yhh inactron onlifae part of t)iat aitfoT cctomiander yn^ 
t»AcnIa*ted to impress die Barbadians with &ti idea that tfi^ 
ttai^ger'was over. ^Wbether it produced that eflfect is no^ 
tmceitain ; \ttX the assembly, oh Cniistmas-d^) passed 
two acts; llie'firstforBettli&g the peskee and quiet of the 
isl^oid ■; Hre isecond ■fijr retumiug thanks to the welt-allected 
to has Mtjesty, idio \aA htttHy appeared in airms. But 

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tltougH tbe ref>«)b)icaT[' cannnani^ bad saapebdecl the oee* 
cutiQn of his-eotctiwiscv lie bad not wboHy le tiiKprith cd ImB' 
deslgii. He broagbt U%. squa^io* to aiusncfaor otf SpeigMV 
Towa, with a view of availing himself of the first <'PP^ 
ttmily^^ ^li9embafki»t. B»t tb» foraaidabte. appearance 
of hoxA Wajottghhy's 9sm disconcerted ail his schenje«i 
M the amvtkl of a. Aeet £eo» Vkginia, bjF vhickhctpi&- 
tended behad recenned a considerable rerofor^iftjiwft. 

Rrofitinff by this fortunate qonjunction, the admiral made 
tli^ Bcoeasary preparatioDa fqr landing, the troopsj^ ^Dlaunt;* 
in^ to^neadji tlsqmftllMraihwd^ The desfiealira&efibcted 
under the dSrecftbtr of fcotenel Allfeyne, wktf was kilfed hy 
a musket ball: before he reached the shore. Notiyithstand- 
ipg. ^b& los& of tl^U lea^Cn the repi^l^licamsk advai»jped wiiUii 

stronger posted near the fortr after a sharp conflict, tik 
lordship was driven from m^ intrenchmehts and the tort 
w^aft tttk^ea po^€;s4i9iv o£ Uy. tbe.9SiHiU«witft|i liiw im km of 
abemt »i«1?y ef 1^^ 
Far from being dispirited at this misfortune, Cord tTit- 

compQse(|. pnncipB^ly of the comn^oi^ people ; who, thocvh 

they have the least fti fcse, wiff, on e yeiv' simirar* ocpasion, 

/ be found the jnost firm and steady in the, hour of danffer. 

From the example below u^r 1^ Qufi l4MB$btWP» kam to ap- 

.^"-: — — :: ' . ■ ■■ '■ ' 'i'''.' '' ; ,' ■ ! ■ '. , ^ ' .* . . ■ ■ < ■ 

^ UniTer. Hist. ?ol 41. p. U2.— Naval Bist toV 2. p. 85. 


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^»^i- J)redate*tlte value of b Hardy peasinti^j; Und influehcecf by 
eiierj prihcif)le of sound policy, eacourftjge a dassof ptt>- 
ple irlio, in- reality, form the physical strength of tliq 

country tv-r ..-r ;,- ?-.- ^ .-r ,..., ^ ^ ^., . 

r ' - - • ■ ^ ^ . 1' ■ . .; - ' '■■•'*•/> ' — j,^.^,:^ 

'^ Sf ivy ttMiV '<« Afo tf4;«liiiMv obfltertatiOd, nuistlie tsonvincad tbat i^e dcdin^oC the 
BaVbad^^^DoHftia^L fo owlq; tn the jdUtaatfobt eniigratlett of 4be kntcr cbMca aT pto|ik; 
Thit^gVcMi^^vM^nqditt Miae l^giflafti^e rtn^y. La aoouotry poasasMd iof .6 po* 
]^iili(l^to'k><exietiti>re^ tbb is, and €ifcumacn|>ed wMiin lodi nafittw boimdamr; 
ev^p0i6M««|ica«mgiiMDtAa«d4b^^ Ubod^ut, tm ncrt 

tbeir tndiiitYy g^dJbgentiity innidt osefUl euptojments at areauitad to thnr hwo^ 
Ue'e^ldilioii;' These men are M(t onlythenal dfective dtreDgili<of their eeiuit^; 
l^ejrWo^Madd to ha opulence ivere tbeyplaced In .a sitiiati«fi taearnaaubaiitv 
cAe^ fiir their ' familici. Bm; tinformaatelyi a difierent ^ policy firevails among UMt 
Kw phntationa have a sofficienl munberof IdMureva^oeoHiiate their.fields, yet 
Biany ilavet are enij^loyed a» tradesmeti^ who wenU be equrily a&profitaWy engaged 
. in.aglricvltiiral occupfdions, white the industriont iticehanie U destknteof .eo^filoyneQt. 
No wobder that» under such dSicouira^ments, be ia coMpcUed to fi>regQ ,bif /oiiA at- 
tachi)B^nt to his natire a6iH ttnd emigrate to^the neighbanring cokmiet^jirbere his;d(iU 
andditigenoe^re better rewarded.' fThutthe physical atrrnglb n^.tbr country. i^ 
daily dkliinished ; ^tnd the ^ommott etock deprived of a due propprlion fF labour 
and industiy. '' The decay of papulation/' according to an ensineail /p<^<M^a) pbite- 
sopher« /' is the greatest evil that a stale ciin suffer; and the impromneot^ ic.lbe 
ol^ect'Nirhlcb ought, in all coantries, tot>'prefe(encel»ne)irery alkicp4^ < 
tiad porpoie whatever. Goldsmith has adorned thii sentiment with mUt the gnM^es of 
poetry. -^ '• "j^ ^ ■'• » -•< ■> .. 

' '^JUf»€$tkeUmdiokatfnmg iiitapre]^; i.. i '.'::U . 

JWacirs and i(^i9mmfjhiimh or fMayJiuU ; • >. ; > . 

Buiaholdpeasanlfjftih^re4nmt9y'Mpri^ ... ^ 

Wh€Him€€d€9trcjf'dcMn never b€ wp^fy'd/* . . ♦ 

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<»' fiABaAD0£6. 61 

squadron^ it is more thap pr9b^ble .tpat.the.gQv;ej;^o!:, %9i^ 



To chedc this alarming decrease of population two things are obviously t^edetaarjri 
J^i top^ovide homes for the joo^jnd^ctnpkjynient for the industrious. Among the 
ancienl Romans we find frequent mention of Agrarian laws for the relief of the poort 
3atkiriiiiiMid'p6titir people ^ouf^.t^ scpiifidd^)ittl«»if>.whil^!ti)» ^eMi*nd 
pilridsiw lived in «ffluoD€e, t]ievetenm.,aoUiivphied in: ^praiK and- obKmrily^^ ;U;i» 
nol hiiended to interrupt -our tik>derh pafricians in the i|uittpoi0fmo»^ibeii^4|^M9^ 
{qr ttcommeiidiTig this taoLmnflis^io theur imkatiofi i;. iiut^ itna^vskhMllfiff fdK4l^ Affttj 
^vt »ry few phntatisar which c^mnot^/ witbou^i^^Qf3r:iDitbet9^;(Mr»»ll^^ f«|f« 

ef.iodiftreiiC hmd at^beir eitrenrilies fist the acodmnodtilioD.^ «fa|l i$mfttK$w,i 7M^ 
uq^brtuoate, but usdMclasi of jKOple^ ought to tie aaiist^; tbqr d^^ft^d m^o^-^ 
lageoienl. On the sctmty glcbek wfakh riiay fae aiaigned %p Ibetti iWjr v^Ht 
iod rest wliea tbelr lalnMira wiws. d^§t^ ^»i jM^Jram 1^^ 
qf tie 4^m^ Hera tbey wodUtoiV «>d^ e^<Qrt9gi^«^frvits ^f ^bfii? M^^^ 
become useftilmcmbemof thecommuuity*.. Sme^tp the nun^ of tb%inost humbl^t 
is the lit^ native oot> ^tttider wboielowly roof p«ace aild«eciiri4y imM ; Aqolher im,. 
portant4)l^ctls, lofiddeibploymeht fiirtheindustrioivr* iTo.fQect thtsgr^ntf dm* 
denttum, one thing only is ntMsimry^ tb^confipe tmf^t^mt/ bty<>a|| tb^.kgi^ 
ture, to fbe faibonts of did 6eML 'This iMl fiirtii^ thfe tnfwov orders ^f^ocqsle wifib 
an qipotlimity of gahiing $x^ honest bteiifasod in tim mt'ims imfih^m$l prioftstiaps 
w&ieh kixury aiid nceessity haine introduced ior the oonvenfempe or ornament of so- 
ticty. Were this done, Bftrbadoet would fur^iifh employ pmd 8ubsistei|oa fer- bf r iiu- 
veromr sons at liome ; ikt secprity oi the country vo^ b?> MilfnglbeD^ by the 9g^ 
gregation of fkiAfiil loyal subfe^ ; thecorirauotty jmoUo^joy^ the 9dirao|Mijgf»^ of a 
general circulation of the wages of industry ; and our planters would no longer, re*, 
quire fresh importations of Africans (or, the cultivatiotiiofi tb4 ^i^ iPenfectly aware of 
the objections to the execution of thir pbq:»> Loan only Ufoftmi tkt, 4i»K9cible obstacles 
yvbicb dfcp-i^ted prejudices 'a4i,miMak^ti Mf^Ci bwiF^fsiijed ;ti^ ^c^pppse its accom<^ 
plishrocnt : for I fed the stronf^estoonvktiDa ^Vthc day i|).|iot^l)iMF^di^ant, when the 
proposed regulations, bad they been early adopted, would ^ prated die salration 
of the country. . » , - 

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cj^^JJJ- lia«e¥eeBi ev«it«allj tedttc»d to the necessity of cdpitulat- 
i^K iiig; yet it Si. ei^ideQt^ ftowi ©very aQ<;ou»t of tbia afiak» that 
the parliamentary forces could have made no effectual im- 
pression on the Barbadians had they continued united firmly 
. anK)Qg themselves* Sen&ible of this, trutl^ and impatieikt 
of delay. Sir Gteorge Ay^cue adc^xled the only pkin wkiclr, 
in his circumstances, i^as likely to prove successful. ^ His 
ttqaps^ which were quartered at Speiglit's Town> under 
the eatxunaad a£ CaptaiB Mondce^ oiade frequieaL iaewv 
•siotos htto lAie adjacent parts of the owmtry / {rfuriderihg 
and destroying the neighbouring plantations; a species of 
wacfaret, ^hich saou produced the desired effect. IVIaiay df 
'thepnoci|)iBln>>j/aHsts, who were Ws& fiohcitous i»bout tb(ni> 
feing arid iconstftutioh than anxious ifot'tfer presenration dC 
'theiir estates, despaiiririg of^ a successful termination of the 
conl^,, anidiigtiujidHted by the prospect of impending ruiri, 
efttored irIxk a sucrel conrespottdence "wi^ the aday<al. ' The 
negociiition on the part' dP 'the BlarrbacKmis, #as cottdftbted 
Ijy. Colonel Modifdrd, wfijo. engaged, in case^ iLord' l^lj*- 
Ifiugkb^ dMMiid coi^ue to^ ctject^ ail o^rtuires of accoio,* 
ttodfttion, litatlkeaiMbaliilns^iiieiids woulid j«iii^th«l(Mu|«( 
of the republican fopcesi and conipeT'hSi'tordi^lp'''tb suf- 
xes^ Qtt feir awd eqjiitable conditions. Lord "V^ilfeug^by^ 
itMliiig^ htOBseUf alMBdoB^^ b^ji tboae &^tti, wh^ hiet ^<aL 
pectedliieTnostpowerftil'stippwti had n^zA^goMtmfi' left; 
£teL wai cQmpelled to agijee tp\ <essatiOir of &ost9itiear, sfad 

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to appgint ooanmssjo^eKs to aitaoge •rticles ti xt^n^ ^^SS^ 
hAidn*. ' *««• 

The circmmtaiices/wiuch led to this pacifioatioaL tie V9^ 
tioutdj lelated foy (lifierent auttwn. Xwdloivf, wbo hmd,c«i> 
jtauMy the be$t opportiuMties of ooUectuig comxtiiifoEo»*^ 
' tioo, duMij^ hi* veracity is reiuiered liable t& suipici^ ^Nai 
his coQiiexioo with CromtineU, nbitcss, that Uond WiJUcni^ 
b^ had intended to make one ixdd ^effiort Id tenoimate tha 
dtepute, by clMut^og hiB edri^sanes'^itli a bod^ honCv 
ta^rhifc^^ was greatly xxxpen^Tt had. isot a <caiint»np4tail^ 
ftvedtft landom, beateh open tbfrdo^of a r<K)mwhraeiia 
sotd I»jB couacti of ii»ar wer^ sitting; wfaith, taking. dE. ti^ 
head of Uye centi&dL whd was placed ai the door, soalamied 
the g<yveraor, thM-hs changed his desig^^ and cetrefiiedtik 
adistanoe of t#b ia^e» tt&m the faatboor^ Aa^ dn tkm 
republican anaiiy matchkg totirards bam^ ^ tredct 
for the sutuender of tha i$landf . . ^ - . « 

The coftmitaaiaem appMiilad -pif: Jjh^ Wi^ta^)^ tteiie 
SirRicfaafd Peen, Cfaariss 1^, Coliaa^ E^md M^ 
Byfaaoi. l^ose on the part of tkm Admiral ^noee. jQaptaia 
i^eck, Itfr.SeaiV Colonel jModifonct^ ^ Jaiaffs ((^^oHrtKnij; 
tdl of «i»«ait excepting Piw>«. ■«r|sreQ|>uietit hindh<iilde»<^ 

day of Janaary, andpropeeclcd tp adjust the points ref^nred 

■ ' ■ ■ •■'■>• - '- - i_ ■ ■ - , 

■ ' ' ' I I , i ll ' I ' ". ''' ' ' "... ' , ' ' ., i ' I ' , I 

• • — <• •■• - ■ V . u . .... ^, ' _• . 

t Lodk>w'« Mcmoirsr T<A. 1, p. SM. Xitaaj^lPt Um of i!be lAblnit, V(i« 4, 
► 269. 

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CHAPjJi; lo their determinatioD» with great temper and moderation* 
iW*. -pjj^ terms were soon settled by persons so much inclined to 
inutual concession ^nd accommodation; and were certainly 
€is favourable to the governor and his adherents as could 
have been expected. It was agreed, that the island should 
be. ddivered up to Sir George Ayscue, in behalf of the 
connnonWealth of England; that the government should 
consist of a govempr, council and assembly, according to 
ihe ancient custom ;. the assembly to be chosen by a free 
and voluntary election, of the freeh9lders in. the several pat 
rishes. That no taxes, imposts, customs, loans or ext^ise^ 
should be laid on the inhabitants of the island without their 
own consent in general assembly; .and .that all law? which 
tsid been made by former general' ass^i^bties, not repugn 
iiant to the laws of Eogland, should still .be; valid- It wa^ 
also stipulated, that both parties should conti^iie in tb^ 
uninterrupted enjoymept ofjiberty and pTQperty.** . : 

But, whatever eulogies mi^t have been bestowed onihe 
mildness and equity of the terms prescribed or igranted by 
the conquerors, it is evident, that, after, their accession to 
powCT, they assumed a much han[her and, more . imperious 
tone* Two months had.not elapsed, from the signing of 
ihe treaty, which, as be imagined> granted him indemnity; 

« Uniy. Hitt vol. 41, p. 142. Mem. id Barb. p. 28. Edwards's Wett lodit^ JVoL 
Kp.34S. CtinpbeH'sJUTcsof UieJUimnls,ToI. 2.P.209. 

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freedom of perton,' ani security of property, wheii Lord ^^[^|^ 
Willoughby wias bauisrhed for life, by aa act of the legislate mI^* 
ture; and Colonel Humphrey Walrond, with several odier 
femineiit loyalists^ was exiled for one year*, 
' iAfter tlie reducdoh of Barbadoes, the reins of govern- i65«. 
xnentweid& placed in Ifee-iiands ef Sit* (Ge Aysciie. Her 
hofwever; soon relinquished thena, and proceeded to the con- 
quest of the othcir colonics, which had maintained their 
aliegfan^e to the cro'wb.* 'before his departure, he caused 
fSe passfaig of sevenrl lawsi oy dne of which Daniel Searle 
was appointed' ^eputy-gbvebidr; Under this gentleman s 1^55. 
auspie^s the liegisiative * cotmtiis were actively employed 
in providing for thri" public siafety. ITie statute book con- 
tains' a long fist of Ia#s ebacted diiiihg his adininistration, 
which; hating pakseduhder the usurper's authority, were 
afterwards dedared ntall and void, except a few particular 
acts, which appeaiirig to be of Superior utility, w^re, foi* 
thatiteasoh, confirmed aifer the iestb^ ' 

\ Tite i noi?dihate ambition of Cromwell hating prompted 
hiitn^td assunie thegoverhment of the kingdoin, liiider the 
tWe of lorti profedtoT* the politics of Eu'rope received a neW - 
cftfeeiiiotf. ^"fhe grekt dontineh^ pb^er^itc¥nbwledged his * 
a:trt&Otilyi''iihd cbuii^d^M 'aLlliarice-'but the polity of the 
ambitious usurper soon plunged him into a vr&r with Spain. 
All the English historical writers concur in condemriing this 

* Vide IIM'b Laws of Baibadoes^ p. 404-. 

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THE HiSTdar 

measure as uiijugt^ dishonourable, piitttica}, and am open 
Yk>lation of the most soknm treaties. The degant hbto^ 
fiafli of the West Indies'^ alone vindicates the conduct of 
Cromwell; and proves, by the nKwt unquestionable evL 
dance, that he was principal}/ induced to undertake the 
yfBx for the purpose of chastisii^g the Spaniards, for the cruct» 
ties which they weite daily committing oa the subjects of 
Britaia^ tn the western heoiispheiie. 

Be diis as it may, the Protector, Jiawing determined oa 
war, lost no lime in equipping a strong . squadron^ under 
llie cooimaQd of Admiral Pevin, with the design of attacH-^ 
ing diQ eneijiy in that quarter, whence he expected to obt* 
tain the greatest advantages ; and in which the Spaniards 
had perpetrated <^e greatest enormities on the English set« 
tiers. ' Utiis fleet, in its passage to Hispaniola, touched! at 
Barfoadoes, where the troops, under Ccdouel Venabies, were 
sU^ngthened with a reinforcen^nt of three thousand five 
hundred effective -men; an kicontestible jw^oof of the hn* 
menise population of the country at that time. The attack 
en H^spdniola having failed, the British commanders turned 
their arras against Jamaica, where their operations wern 
more successfuL The conquest of that island,, while it 
opened a wider ield for speculation and the exercise of in^ 
dustry, served to lessen the population c^ Barbadoes io no 
inconsiderable degree. Allured by the prospect of greater 

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ftdva&tag^ »n a ibeatre so much mote extetsive, tauuay <J!|)«- ^iJ^JJ* 
lent planters and otbel: adventorers rem^yed ten Jamaica, *^^* 
where land could be procured in greater plekitj> daeap^, 
and trith less difficuhy. 

After tilie death ^f Oettwetl, and tlie dep^osition of his 1660. 
pttsiUammotts ion, f be cemtnittee iff pubUt iMfety, who 
assttined the aianagraient of the aational coaoems, appoiatecl 
Colonel Thomas Modifotd, gorerftor ^ datbadoe.<k TWd J^^y^*- 
gentfeman is represented as a steady adherent fi6' tb€ foyaf 
CAuke; but the prudence and ttoddfation tt( tris cfdn^a^t 
had, it seettis, recommended him to the cdnfidt^nce of <bi* 
persons then in potirer. His adminbtnation, hcrweftef, #a* 
short and tmproductive of amy interesting HcCtatetsxHt, 
Hie only law which received his sanction wa* aft act li-* 
miting the existence of the generd assembly td tme yea* i 
a terai much too short for tire dispatch of puHic bu8iVie«». 
The annual dissolution of the pop«daT branch crf the legitf. 
lature has been often found prejudicial to the ptrblic, fty 
impeding the progress of many salutary lawis tat tfee secu- 
rity and welfare of the commtmity ; yet th6 etil remains 
unredfessed ; the membets fbaring to begin the nfcCtesary 
reform, leSt they sWufd ihCUt the fesfentmcut of then* Con- 
stituents, for atternpting to render thd representative body 
less dependant on the elective, ^ .. - 

Hie infatuation whichfead long bliiylted the English, having 
gradually subsided, Xhailes IL ascended the throne amidst 
the accfamations &f the vei-y peopte who had led his father 

K 2 

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to the block. This happy event was soon followed by some 
important changes in the government of Barbadoes. Lord 
IVillougliby, by virtue of the authority which he derived 
from his contract with the Earl of Carlisle, immediately ap« 
pointed his friend, Colonel Humphrey Walrond, the faiths 
ful old royalist, who had been banished for his loyalty, de-- 
puty-governor of Barbadoes. To strengthen this commis* 
sion, he obtained from the king a mandamus, appointing 
Walrond, president of the council, with directions to su- 
Dec. 17. persede Colonel Modiford, who, after, a short reign of 
three months, calmly resigned his authority to his successor. 
Modiford, .who had made a large fortune in Barbadoes, 
now went to Jamaica, where he found ^n ample field for 
employing his capital, talents, and industry. The people 
of that country, addicted to a military life, and animated 
by the piratical spirit of buccaneering, had attended but 
little to commerce and agriculture. But as Modiford tho- 
roughly understood the true interest of the colonies, he in- 
troduced the arts of civili2Eation, and instructed the inhabit- 
ants of Jamaica in the proper culture and management of 
pimento, or allspice; in the manner of making sugar; of 
planting cocoa groves,, and erecting salt works* ; so that in 
a short time the arts of industry began to prevail over the 
fierce and immoral habits of the islanders; and Modiford, 
as a just reward for his services, was created an English 

»—i1^i— ^1i^^— — I III i^lji^^ I !■ 11 ■ ill I — — .i^M^W^i— ,1— ^> 

• XteiT. HiiU ToL 41, p. 352. Rajml'j Pbilot.. Hist vol. 0, p. 332. 

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baronet, and-protnoted to tile government of the island^ chap. 11. 
wLich he had civilized and improved. ^^^ 

- While Sir Thomas Modiford was thus noblj employed in 
diffusing the blessings of social life in one part of the em- 
pire^ President Walrond was no less attentive to thei means 
of providing for the security of the country, and promot- 
ing the peace and happiness of the people committed to 
his care. Some of the laws which were passed under his - 
presidency appear to have been founded on the purest prin- 
ciples of justice and patriotism; though, as is too often 
the case, the means were not exactly proportioned to the 
end. Among the most important of these laws i&^ ^^ An act 
for establishing courts of common plea^, and regulating the 
manner of proceeding in all civil causes/*" By this, act, 
the island is divided into five precincts, in qach of which a 
chief judge, and four assiistants, appointed by the governor, 
durante bene pladtOy are empowered to hold courts, once in 
every four weeks, from the last Monday in January to the 
twenty-fifth day of September, for the decision of all con- 
troversies concerning property and other matters of litiga- 
tion, not cognizable by the criminal judicature**. 

* It has been obserYed by a learned writer^ wbo had been hinnelf a provincial chief 
justice, that " It is absurd to have many distinct superior courts in an island so small. 
Had there been but one established in the centre of it, for the whole island, five gen- 
lienien^ who had sonie experience in the law, might have been found to fill the o£Sce 
•f Judges: biitk is n^t coiiceinible>« that sucb a^ sdnil Island can afibrd to pi^ proper 

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70 tllZ fltfftORt Among *h« Mdwlngs df civil so(Ji*ty, ^hd pw^ mA !te- 
16^0. partial administration ef justice is eettainly ohft of the 
" moot jmportaDt The security of prop^rty^ which is fen- 
joyed tthder the protection ef just and eqnal tawi^ faith'- 
foHy And Imp^itiaHy administered, is the strongest link ^H 
the social chairt ; and the facility of obtaining a speedy re- 
paration of injuries, is the most effectual meAns trf TccoticiJ^ . 
ing t^e ^b^t to a cbeerAil sUbnrnsiMi to the restrarnti ttf 
civil poHty. But, unfortunately, the legal institutions of 
Barbadoes are not calcnlaled to advance the attainment of 
^se objects. The laws by which out judicial tribunals 
' were first established, And their proceedings have been 
svnce reflated, are, in nUany instances partial, absurd, 
HUjUst a Ad oppressive; particularly the act abov^ 
iiflkided to, which, in many material points, is fun- 
damentally bad. The first thing obnoxious to censufe ii 
the extraordinary nunrber of judges which it establishes ; 
-itrho compose a legal corps nrore than twice as numerous* as 
the whole judicature of England. In the appointment o^ 
these gentlemen, little regard is paid to the mental quali- 
fications, or scientific acquirements of the diflFerent candi- 
dates for preferment. Though the solemn oflSce of a dis- 
penser of justice is generally filled by a man of character 

M I r ■ ■ ■ I ' ' » ■■ — ,■ I I ml 

4flla«le«)tot«NrBty4tocj«dlg«»; by u4iieb means none liiita n«» f»bo !■» littlo know* 
Mge, tad taicii MiiitgF, WtVi aod^tan «ffce whkb jli «ll«nded iriA little er m 

Digitized by 

,y Google 


md fovtnor^ it is soihetimes^ bestowed as a dmicktir to se- 
OHHBitb tim^ cammaiider in diiefati undue iafluenoe over 
the pabiic coicricils^ or as a gent^ estabhshmenfc &a mxBM 
Dstative or depebdant 

Lesd caution is xuied in thr choice of assistants* The ap*- 
pointmentof these is cl&iined asdie pri?ilege of the chief 
jud^9> vhO' does not alivays exercise the delegated paw«|r 
with beoomiog dboretiott ;. but frequently makcB his elec- 
tion as do^nce^ caprice^ orp»SDnal favour may suggest. 
The^e puisne judgesV postessod of an offioe without power 
or profit, are httle more thani cyphers on the bench; and| 
howetier respeotable they may be as private, gentkmco; 
&w of tibem are qualified, by dieir learning or abilities^ 
to determine abetruse points of law» iaYolYtng^ perhapd, 
the ruiik of famitids in their decision^. 

Thus a judicature is formed- of men possossiag. neithtr 
legal erudition, nor forensic knoj^vledge; who suspend the 
golden balaoice with timid hands, and wield the sivkied 
of justice with trembling nerves. Ko wonder thei^ thai thf 
administratioa of justice should be^ irr(^ulaf, precarioua, 

♦ " Whenever jadieial commiMions are rendered so cheap and common, they be* 
gm to hwe much of their di]pntty and vahie in the eyes of mtnj; e re a amoiy tht 
wiser planters ; and, by this means, very unworthy and illiterate persons may pie* 
sume to aspire 10 them, and tboa make the office of an asstalant disgraceful and 
Qteless/^ LoNc^'HtaT-o9jAiffAfeiiyv#IJ1,|^.r^ 

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CHAP^. and uncertain. Unacquainted with the principles ^of' civii 
aaao. jurispradence ; ignorant of their power, and conscious of 
tbeir deficiencies, the judges are thrown into a servile de^ 
pendance on the gentlemen of the bar, and even the mom 
humble retainers of the law, who are thus enabled to clog 
the streams of justice, and obstruct their course. No im« 
putation is intended to be thrown on the common seqse, or 
tiie integrity of the magistrates ivho preside in our courts. 
The censure is levelled at the conttituHon of the public tribu* 
nals, and not at the morality of the judge. Were integrity 
all that was required, no men in the world would be het^ 
ter qualified to sit in judgment than the judges of Barba- 
doeft« But, with every allowance for probity and moral 
Jbonesty^ it cannot be doubted that they often fall into er^ 
ror^ from an inability to discern what is legally right. Nor 
iet it be said that it matters not, whether the judge be wise 
m simple, learned or illiterate, since the point at issue is 
to be determined ultimately by a jury. It is the peculiar 
province, tlie bounden duty of the judge, in all cases, civil 
and criminal, to sum up the evidence, explain the law,, and 
instruct the jury, in the verdict which they are to return*. 
Bjut our juries have no such assistance. In civil cases they 

* " The judge imparts to the jury the benefit of hi« experience and erudition : the 
jucgr, by their disintere«tednef8» check any corrupt partialities, which previous appli- 
^cation may have produc ed in the judge." Palet's Phxlosopitv; vol. % p. 241. 

Digitized by 



aire left to fimn ike feest judgmeat which tb«y asm oathcittost ^jSiS' 
ab9fcrti9e porate of law; pupated ^nd pOT|^x€<8 by the '*''^- 
cobtradictarj oplnioits atkd tui^akait (^oquen^e i»F yentA 
advotxitss ; mth hp other guide td lead tiiem Hiraugk the 
laaaey laJbyrintfas of deecentB and coaveyati^, dian the 
f»tblD light of uninfiMtned wsusors tnd the dictates <^ fr good 
cottsdenoe^ •'' , . ' . 

> Attiovoit^ rcfottt ki fh6 eofi&titution of our eotttts of 
IflOT it a,fasolutdj»eceB6aty, to cotreet %he evils ivMch «re 
now obvious to the most superficial observer; to promote 
Ahef^guiar di^hutibatif justices aod to support i(die dig- 
Ktity of the {inbtic ttibsttiala. Fev firecdncts ;ha<ie Hmtt- 
mesB enough to requiie a lepasate juck|dietipa { Mid in 
Aone^ Uittt of Saint Miobad'a eaoceptod* ars Hat «m€Aa- 
joeats-of l)he oSo^ flui£cient to eaoourage. thti judge to n 
jpuQctual laMitttidafiQe 'Ot jils idiiiy. Jt Kjaoaat, tl^oeitM, 
•be doubted) tJbat ^ jHQgross of ju&fiioe nroiildl>e «ce«le- 
rated by redacifiig tke tiUMUfator «f /coedU t^ 4wof*. ^nt 
this alooie. wcwdd not hse suffioteut. Xhe aici«taat5iudfds 
should bf seated Item -among gmtfemen «f libend mA^- 

kM*Hi>4 Y*^-*- "- ^-^^^^, 

*^ ^^tVTicnevcr thcte is in any country a number of courU independ^nt,of e^<Sk 
-Aifelv tte Me^ JMinfioh is ftdt tarffottn^ und ^heife Acre are many judges in a 
^cakH^><^rce ^y )3i«!|tiofi kmi Mmeinbat todue if Aetaart it*ertsl6Jtin 0^4** 
eWic^, •• friro^^oseof tbe parties/' 

Vide Stokes's CoNSTiTirrioif op the Coywijift p..2d. 

■ L 

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CH^^JI* cation> distinguished abiJities, and known integrity. As 
)^- ^ recpnxpence for their time and trouble, tibcy may be al» 
lowed the customary fees on probates and the examination 
pf femmei^cawfrtes. The office Of chief justice should 
be; conferred on some aUe banristar of probity, study and 
;expedence» or reserved to reward either of the inferior 
judges, whose diligence and learning may entitle him 
to promotion ; with permanent salaries, sufficiently li* 
beral to render .the appointment respectable and lucrai- 

^ A laudable ambition would thus be excited in men of 
rank s^id professional eminence to devote their time and 
.talents to the. public service. The ingenuous youth of 
the island may« then be induced to apply themselves 
to the study of the laws and constitution of their coun* 
^tcy, .by which they may acquire both honour and profit. 
^^ It has been urged,"* says an enlightened historian, ^^ that 
a gentleman, liberally educated in England, and bred to 
the bar, who comes iiither to earn a subsistence by hra 
profession, and by merit is advanced in time to the of* 
fice of chief justice, cannot be suspected of any undue 
partiality arising from family connections ; nor be. so, lit- 
tle skilled in thfe practice of a court of la,w as agpntl^ 
man bom and educated in the island; that the making 
this post an object of emulation and pursuit, to able, honest 
and expecifiBeed iawyers, may prove an encouragement 

' 4 

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for spch to come over and practice here ; by which means chap. i|. 
the supreme court of justice will always be supplied with ^^^* 
men learned in the science, whose knowledge will be an 
acquisition to the public stock, and redound greatly to the 
credit and advantage of the isI^Bihd*/' 

* Long's History of J«auuoa» ¥ol« I, p. 70« 

* . ) / I 

i ' .' ^ 

t . ) 

Digitized by 



CHAP, in- 


1 HOUGH Mr. Walrond was advanced to the president 
cy, on the restoration, as a reward for his zeal and fidelity 
to the king, the royal favour was not confined to him alone* 
FcU 18. His Majesty was pleased to confer the dignity of knight-* 
hood on thirteen gentlemen of the island*, in consideration 
of the difficulties and hardships to which they had been 
exposed by their loyalty and attachment to his family and 
person. But these honours and distinctions were not suf^ 

*'* These were Sir John CoHetony Sir Thomas Modiford, Sir James Draz, Sir Ro- 
bert DaTers, Sir R. Hadcett, Sir John Teamans, Sir Timothy Thorahill^ l^ir John 
yritfiam. Sir Robert Le Gard^ Sir John Worsam, Sir John Rawdbn^ Sir Edwin 
^ledti «aB Sir Vitfeughby Chamberliyno^ 

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not to adopt so |wiM^^» » §ikm> fof ^(^nf^mgf^ fi#^fm^ 

9f9»pm^y* i\¥mgh biY^te4 hy 4feeir po^am^* ^f^m^- 

ii^tm h^ s^ «^t)t«ir q4 <to fim'^x^i^ ^ y^y fri^q% f^i 
nf p«iH{jr» )M \(^9 mmkfPii # Jt>F ^i^$«il* vJa» jib«P Mi 

^nbtttiect bcv Abe M«^b.an4 (€»f>vdww ^ fk» ^(n^Pnr> :»p4 

lifW of a^ flflKkfowtff ^f^.fMifni^rUin^t infti^^ ^9^ |bfW 
4iw «Ui{yw40g ^ :^«|bftfit/' of 1^ h9rd f^Kfift^px* m» ^h- 
lei l^itb CDvatefBotiio* and i«scaitmeoit, oa ifiadiBg a «mifti:M# 
•0 ]fet|il ite itb^ur ADtesMt^ confilmfld etfid adQjited j)/ iUie^ 
jilMremg^ i>a iat :si»slmBtlk.ion* Tbtiy isodipiatD^d «f. ^ 
J^MiMk^ idjui i^jttstko ,«f f«t^rj«g their eotloxmvfiti ;vi% 
such arbitrary restraiDts, and deprecated tiw riua t» 
iKbit^ ^y ^vouVd t>e fii^gmeA b^ tk0 |0pfiiatkka cf ihe 

I Digitized by VjOOQIC 


CHAP. in. double monopoly of iinpcnt and export, claimed by Great 
im. Britain* But these complaints were unavailing. The oV 
jects coiltended for were of two much importance to be 
abandoned; nor wi^ it reasonable to expect, that the pa-^ 
rent dtate, in compliance with the wayward whims and 
sims(ter dedres of sel6sh individuals, or from a regard to 
the petty interests of the colonies, should consent to* relink 
i[{utsh the solid and permanent advtotages of an iexcludv<^ 
icominerce with her West Indian settlements. 
1662. « From reflecting on this calamity, the Barbadians #er* 
soon called to die Contemplation of new and grater itte; 
The miiids of the planters were iat this time perplexed Wnd 
agitated with doubts tespecting the legality of the (enured 
by which they held their estates; Lord Willoughby, whos^ 
lease from tbe^E^ of C^ilfele had eight 0^ wirie years' y^t 
to run, applied to the itihg for a renewal Of -his «otilimsL 
sion as governor of Barbadoes, intending to rfetiim to the* 
island, for the pttrpose of enfordinfg his claitti^^tiilder the prdt 
prietary grant. As his lordship^s vifews in'making this^ ap* 
plication w^re gencfafly ikftoWn,: the plftrtteirs saw v€¥^ 
clearly that they were regarded by these powerful noblehSeA 
us mere tenants at will. This opinion seems to have 1t)^eik* 
entertained by the great Lord Ciarwidon himself,-: wbft 
affirms, that ^ these adventurers liad; dmring the eivilfwats^ 
planted, without ^any body's leave, and Hwithdut^oppositioA 
or contradiction.'* . :. ; : :k 

Nor were the planters theflw^^es^ free frorai a}ip#eh4* • 

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sions of thii? sort, as is evident frqm the precautions which chap. Uk 
were taken, at different time^ to S;tre^then and confirni ^^^ 
Iheir titles. Under the administration of Mr* Be)l, an act 
had been passed for settling the estates and ; titles , of th0 
inhalpitaiits of this jslandf to their possessions in their plant- 
ations. And, again, fiv? year? aftejwards, another law was 
enac^d, with this title, ^^ An act iipporting the customs im^ 
posed and .granted by the council 9ru4 assembly to the Rigbt 
Honourable Francis J^ord ^ Ayilloughby, lord lieutenant* 
general pf the pifovic^e of Carliols^ and gpvemoc <?f BajF-r 
b^does; a^ also hislord^h^'a..<^firiQatiio(i of the rights of 
the people of this island to their several estates^, with the 
fmure and rent thereon created* J' 

, But, from the calamitous »/^ in whtch the former of th^9 
)aws was passed, and the peculiar circumstances which ac« 
companied the passing of the kUter,^ th^ir validky might 
Jbave been disputable. It might have beei^ uisisted, that 
these acts^ had not b^a sanctioned^ i^mt confirmed, by 
legal authority. To remove, all doubt on. a point sa inter^ 
^sting to themselves and their posterity^ the inhabitants 
appealed ta the King, humbly beseeching his Mt^esty tp 
take the colony under his immediate prof^tipn. They 
stated, that as subjects o^ Great Britain, they h^d. repaired 
to Barbadoes, which they foond desolate $mdupf;ultivated; 

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dl^ltiiifiia '%&»b M^aab of i«hd«H«g life «6&forM^I>}e, WhM 

Eii^i^d ; bitt bdd iklsdl^ouglft il ti» a <^iak idf btiHivatiotl 

p«ii«UwKte t» lift tabthetr toautitry, oift a^^outiv • ot Ite pi«d4ie* 

^wik. If tlf!^ mis».ktfn ^4 thejr ^^tid^ j^ im^dt^ ihnsm* 
s^iwsi, AtiA d«mpoii:bi for ttidr «i«ales» MCh^ thbn sttl^Wit 
tft ihe Jtai)^idi9itibttb ^tiid :«j(<«dtti>fts bf the proprietory, they 
i^ttld te «dm^ene4 «& ilAifhd6U %kd seftil&ffi^ift; <^dv bi* 
oOdrt^ tli« Iri^Maifi^ Wo»)d 4)6 kl^foyed^ to tlie Afttiilbst 
injury of his Majesty's revenue. Thfe giUftt to the ©art of 
Cadlsle, they:ia»i&fe(d, ttaii 4bid«ii ^tmptitidia^ly *dbmifled, 
tmd^r A pfdCi^ifde^ ^(ii)«drl6ii»ly ^fee, that tike inland htsui 
bdeita %^%)ed ^ liis ^wA c^t and W^^d ; %hbl>&aft they hkd, 
ih Iftieti tostJiiilM (ihfe ^^^Ife tv^hfc of ^k^cydir i^d ^acp^frc6 
hf eAl^Hshibg liMi celk^y> %ilhotit diy iasfsii^ftfice Wfaat6v^ 
fhjiftthto i>M«b»e; tlj^ycfotteliid^ With ptetopttsihg, thai 
hUls Mkj^ty ^biM pmkt thi^fai tb cbui^feiltce a suit, ift 
^stibme, hxil kt Ib^ ^Wh i^^hde, in tbft Court df E&.. 
4Bh^4uer« tb Itftt is^&t ^^ ^ttUt ^ade lb Ihe Ealrl of O^HsIe; 
dr %h«{t1ie #^atd h«iittile Ihb sov^i^ght^ of ^ island, amd 
l^ffeiftle ^Ittiitittntd^, iinidi^ Ithdt grafit, ib seek'Aiteilr tt!i»edy 
against the planters by due course of law*. These propp- 

* Mem. of BMb. ^-SO, €«riUieill», 'nL'2.ifttL^A. Bd««i«s'8 Hist of the 
VTett ladies, toL I. p. 332. 

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nlB^wem fiEiir and teesouabla; but thfc king» imwUUfig;t6 ^^l^^^* 
ict porecipitarteryy or unadvisedly in ai case of lo much man '^^ 
nwnt^ detennincd tin tefer tbe matter to the comideratioti 
oi a cotnniittee of the londs of the privy council. 
- Upon a full and candid investigation 6f the claims and 
allegations of the opposite parties it appeared, that the 
Earl of Carlisle's patent bad been obtained by a misrepre^ 
jientation of fects, and was, therefore, pronounced to b^ 
null and void ; and, in order to quiet the miilds of the peo<« 
pie, and secure th^ni in thb possession of their estates, the 
lords of the council advised his Maje$ty to revoke tiiier 
grant. ' But; the king declared his resolution of receiving 
no emolument from it until all claims, affecting the pro- 
perty in dispute, dmuld be satisfied ; and that he would 
make no other use of annulling the charter than to daspbse 
of the j^^rofits df the plantation to those who, in lnw and 
equity, were entitled to receive them*. 

The Earl of Garlisle, dying la the interim, bequeathed 
hb property in the West Indies to h}s kinsman, (fie Eerl of 
Kinnoul ; and his creditors b^Might forWatxl demabds t» the 
amount of eighty thousand pounds, which could only be 
paid by the profits arising from those distant possessions. 
Thefaeirtof the Karl of Mdirtbck-ough, as has been already 
sicstiteed, were eMitled to iEtpeifpetu^l annuity from the satne 
qutiiter, on which no incofasiderkble arrears' were due. Lord 


Digitized by 



CH^JTO Wnipugbbj demanded one moiety of the profits vbicli 
^^^r should accrue dnring the unexpired terni <>f bi^ lease; and 
the other moiety was claimed by Lord Kionoul, who iNttur 
rally expected an equivalent for t^Iinqwshing his Tight to 
flie whole' in reversion. To satisfy th^ecl^imSs and to in- 
duce the King to assume the. wtire soycr^jgnty of the 
island, it was proposed by Mr. Kendall, on the part of t|f^ 
Barbadians, to lay an internal duty of four ^nd a half pet^ 
cent, on all counmodities of the native grpwth and produce 
of .the country, on exportation J which it was suppose^ 
would raise an amplQ fund for the support of the colonial 
government, and leave a large surplus to be disposed of at 
th^ Kipg's pleasure. Charles, who was never able to recqn- 
ciJe himself to an entire dependance on a parliamont but 
little incliaed to indulge his extravagant diaposition, re- 
ceived the proposal with unaffected satisfaction, il^nd 4lie 
first care of the committee, according to Lord Chaxicellpc: 
Clarendon, Hvho' assisted ou the occasion, was to ascertain, as^ 
sy^^ly as possible, the probable amount of the retemie jbhaft 
might be raised by; this inapost. . ; 

But when the planters of ^arbadoes, resident in: £iig-( 
lajid^ were called upon to confirnathe propc^al^ th.ey pc? 
reroptorily refused tq xnakeasjy specific agrdenient;iiisia^ 
ing, that Mr. Kendall , was not ^uthorii^ed to enter into aajr, 
^uch engagement for them, or the other inhabitants of the 
island. They declared that the island was unable to bear 

the weight of so heavy an impost; whidr, they calculated, 

Digitized by 



woiild aihount to th^ eiioi'moUs suai of tfeh thousand pounds ^^'S^llLl"* 
aiiiiuajiy rana lirdiild operate as a perpetual rent charge of *^^^ 
at least ten per cent on the pfofiM of . their * planta* 
tioiis; Wiet^ anjr settlement; they said, to I 
coiild be doti^ only by ah act of the colonial 
who alone, they contended, were competent! 
A question o£ so much importance, and . to ais 
to te granted* They, however, agreed to use their. en- 
deavours to prevail on their friends in Barbado^sito iconseiqt 
to such a plan of raising a revenue for the . use oJF the 
crown as should appear to them consistent with , the piibUb 
service, and the real circumstances of th6 country. ^ . | 
To accomplish this desirable object. Lord Willoughby Iwas 
ordered instantly to repair to Barbadoes, and ^ endeavour tp 
obtain from the assembly such an impost on! their natlire 
commodities as ^^^ should be reasonable, in consideration of i ^ 
the great benefits they would enjoy in being continued, in th^ 
possession of their plantations, of which, , as :yet, theyi z^erc 
but'tencekts at wiU*/' It was agreed by the Lor^di o£ the 
cpminittee, that this fund should be ^applied towards pmi' 
<viding. a sufficient compensation to the Earl of JCimioul, 
for surrendering his right . to the Carlisle Xlhartec ; lahd;. t^ 
.provide for discharging the Earl of MariBorou^h|s aihntmtjv. 
One moiety of the surplus was directed to be.paidLtoXond 

, • .' . '- .\ i \ . ^1 ') i 

* Caribl>ea9a> vol. 2, pref. p. x\l 
M 2 

Digitized by 



*?>vi** ^'^^*^^**y» ^ *^ reiwajtnder of hit lease.; &e oih«r 
1403V 'D^oiety to be paid to th» pvedhatB of Lord Carlisle^ watA ' 
the expiration of Lord Wiiloughby's oonttact ;* vhea, after 
proiridiAg for tiie payment of a calory of tntirc tiuodred 
jpouiidg a year to tbe futane gotenaor of Barbadoes, tho 
«»>editorftof Hhe Earl «f Caiitfil^ i««rfr to receive ih&euiam 
t^alance un^i -their '^eiqandir were oonqAetely Uep&iedbfid* 
With'tbibamuigevient all parties -vere ^)erfecUy setutfied. 
The pjioprieiaTy governmebt was acdordiiigly diisMlired;' and 
the sbveveignfy of the i^nd annexed to idie Droirn.' Lbi^ 
WiAloiighby Koon a£ber receiired the^Kuag's comnUs^i/cm, ap** 
pointing ham' captajb^^eaeral, and governor ' of Barbaidoe* 
auad aff iUie £ngli«h Caribbee jls/Iandft, Ibt the tienui^of siix^ea 
^Ms, liesexvibg tobn'MbjealtyattegatiTle oh airfttttineiicts 
vf Ihe i^&latnre. -^ . " •' ' -: 

Aug- It- iKftd WaUottghi»y Ibond the people t>f i^drbaidbcft^^Hi lib. 
tie triKsposed to concair dn a propbsitibn; £(y^#lMlch ith^y>tvfire 
retfttired, ifi ^ieirx>«Baccept8tion'b:^the.jmeB^u«/'tto'4M^ 
«diain8 fiDrifaeoisehrcis and tiaeir Jatett pbsterity^ s ^Thasevwho 
•had cu'ffiared in their persons or ifdrtuaes,' &il tlHirteittBidi*> 
JneMtitolfae faoaily on the IhiJabe^ 6cmibl<te^ ^It <as ' W iiiv* 
^atefiftl letasn jfbr i^ieir fidelity^ aiid seMc^ } abdvthttse <c£ 
^orppwBlc f>dittoal ponciipfkB, ite|>naBtel(Bd tine |>n}po8ed^ taf 
JIB iUi lucbctraiy atid>o{3f»ea)keimpOMi(aoil which UMaght to 
be resisted. ' The ^murmurs anrd objections df the people, 
however, were as fruitless and utnayailing as they were rea- 
sonable and just 'OoVetnoi^nt had,' 'in fslct, gon6 too far 

Digitized by 


Of.BAfiaM>OS$; 09 

taredede.. "Kij pctjeot of * perpe(t»^ wvciliu5, tfeoug^ ^S^J^'* 

)oiig)d>j.ftniin^i.was too deeplly jj^ eT«ofc 

^KteoQi t lin' eKertfidm icMr aeciiriqg ^i 
«f Hke ^^lUua.: Id Ip ^l I5»r itttaiiiuxi^ 
lii npiiBioo lie ^e^ected to oafl a 
8«lMi4t^ ^s popposals ,tQ tdie one -vk 
bgr /Mrtiigi ^ iririts issued ttoder (the ; 
K'O aiti of pcnuaoipa w<re spared 
ia)«qkbMi vkoas ^OttCw^Dce; qpuid b 
itieiiticr doftreatj; in«r wtxe menaxtet; omitted to in^^uejace 
amch as might ^ awed into a •iXMbpiianc'e hj lihe frown of 
.:powfiv Sudi meaos coUld^ 1^% lail -fff f^od vicing^ their 
-wonted' effect i and the assembly^ •a.fter «mch hesitaii^) 

"^iHhy, hik lordship had -recourse to a measttre as crud and 
^n^uit, is ^ Vras * iilegal and imcom^tutionad. He eansed 

Digitized by 


^^ y^y^<^ Sng^A^ <i$% ^s&M ^nMtidti ittkitireimiendmg ibAt. 

<»uld''b^ bl^ght^i«i«l»^ t)ettlsr4»ui|!ier. ^ il%fis;iiTbitrarj^ step 
tK^«^a^}jr4ri|;i»0C)Cis ^aiul ut^i^tcfiabte., • Had Famtte bs^eui 
aisttndijf ' ginlt^ <tf :}the iximio* iutpviteiihito't kkml hei /6ii^ dni 
la^eiiieen.' tned>dabis4nniracniixtr^,i!bj,a]jiic)^iQf Idiipteks^ 

noctaDosp aixtcbcxpoae ];)im^o «htriAld»q£»«im uoknoTui tfi* 
bunal, \rai contrary jk) dvm^ piinoiple .^ crimio^l jufk[H!Hrt 
dence ; . it was, id &ct» to . cood^asiQ him unbeatrd* aoid jtp 
■piuii»h him feefote conviclaeiv. ' j :. . .. .; { 

Farmer, on his arriy^l ii3^ ^QgUnd, wa« earned .b«&H^ 
the king in jcouncil, where he assorted the rights of an Eng* 
Jidhman with manly. freedom. Hft-.c^nti^^^d that hi; cop| 
d«ct had been. ^ric^Iy lojal andcpn^tutjopa^; and tbsy^ 
-f^jBi Brijbish su.bjc(;t,, be.was warranted ,i^, .^PPP^iqg. fmj 
measure jnimical. to the interests of hh cpi)i)^y. ; W^hfff>t 
ever. truth there ^wght .h[aye be^sf ^ the^g.^ej^op^, ^,^jf 
ffu^te |bap;pipl)a^^ that ]V]rr.F^fn^ j)C^;(:^ nf^t^^ilh.^t 
modesty apd decorum whiqh were proper, upon sucb 99 ocf 
siQs.; since so great aivd food, a. manias the Earl of Clare^ 
don declare4» ' ^^^ hj^.' hc^Y'^^ur.waSiijcisc^ept f^n^ presunipr 
tuotts ; ^i^fl'^hia-^heottglittp;. be ^cojxui)ilttefi.t|i)ttl Jie. cqi)]/^ 
be sent back to Barbadp^s to be proceeded -againsf in thp 
colonial crinui;ial court. He was accordingly reinan4€d Uf 
prison ; i»>r (id be i^aio bis iiber^jr till^ s^ft^^ ja . 1^ 
tedious confinement. 

Digitized by 


Notwithstanding Ihepm^iQUSrftnwigMQf^ ««d^.>jr ^JJAJ^V^ 
th^ .]ord9:Qf tb^ privy conncU, it ia eTideot, from tiie wei3cl«.^ ^^^' 
th^ statute, that the representativet- of ithe peo^ conld not 
be preYatled.upeo to bttfthenr tfadr constitaenta /with: the 
pajmeatof i& heavy an imp(»t» 1^ t^pwrposeai^bi^i^^ 
mentioned; Their ^vi^ws were very diffevelM frem; tjipsei/of 
the British mimstfy, and are best explained- by tfajomiidves 
intbe preambte^to the dause by wMeh the iduty- wfo iKu- 
posed. It is there expressly declared, that f*- fonsnntdi as 
nothing condncethinore tothe peace aikd pwMperityfof tirtiy 
place, and the protection of erei^y person' therein;- thtun 'that 
the public revenue tbereoT may be, hi'«ttaae nattasure/pr^ 
portioned to the pablie^chiBirged: atfd' expeficeis; <aiid <alBo 
well Weighing tlie grbat eharget^ that there nVoait be of ne- 
cessity in maintaining the dignity and honofu* of iis Majes* 
ty's eutiiority here ; the public meeting- of t^e-sessidnir ; the 
ofteh attendance of the cottncil; iAie repaititidh of 'the forts; 
the biiilding of a se^ohs-houseand ^son i and'aR othet 
charges inctimbent on the government t we do*,- in CCtisider^ 
ation thereof, giveand grant unto his Majesty, his 4ieirs, 
and ^ticcessoi^, upon all dead cotkim'odities thiit sb^lf be 
shipfied olF the same, four and' a' half, ' in specie, fdt' eveify 
•fifeiJcore*.*' •■'■■- '' • ■■-■■'■-'■■" 'J - - - ■ - ■;•/'•.,.,■•..••■. 

This enormous duty on ' the' prbduce 6f 'tlib country has 




Digitized by 


^HAlP. At b«ett geneiAttj egmAemaod by evdvy hifttoriaii vfho has 
' 1^- tteated'Cf 4>m cdloaiA]; epBCftrns ; and from its fir^t im(K)4)< 
4kn]tothe|XKii^nt nilofiieDU it. J»f^^^^ bec^ a favouiritp 
th^me of dteclatofclion with) *U West Indian patpriots. To 
ftodioritie^so respectable ihe utmost defei^ace, , and sub- 
Minion are cert»i6)jr d«e. B^t difierent ; men will some- 
' times riew th* sanle. object tbrpiigh different mediums. 
The imdeTStaBdirig jls often darJtened by partiality, prpjw- 
dice, or miseonceptioii ; and it «eldonj, happens that men 
irili, -or indeed ci^. Cjftlmly and dispassionately examine 
both sides of a Question whiph involves thoir interest,, when 
• ^e result may prove ^isagreealjle or injurious. In such 
', 4»ijes,it becomes the duty of the candid historical inqi^irer, 
to Anpd the mtsl4 of prejudice, and, by a faithful nar- 
CBtion oi factsy enable the unbiassed mind to form aright 
indgment. And now, when after repeated unsuccessful 
endeavours to obtain the xepeal of this odious tax, thir^ 
pltrnteor i^ precluded froni every hope of relief from the 
I^Hing ch^Uy the aa^hor presumes^ that he shall escapp 
^0 imputation of betraying the interests of his native 
coiiAtiy, if) in expressing his own -sentiments on this mor 
inentous subject, he should 8u^^;est a few considerations 
which may induce the Barbadian reader to submit, wit}i 
patience, to the load which he is lu^able to ^remove. 

According to the laws and usage of all civilized nations, 
ihe soil, in every newly discovered, or conquered cbunfryy 
becomes the propeAy «f ikib IkMlttigB ify whose subjects 

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the disciovefy, or*cOiifq«e»t wjm iwiijbri'<Mafccl he Uj^s an indo- ^.JJ^i^^JJ: 
bitaUe right to grant oc dispose of the kud; thi|ft Jicquii^ed* ^^^^ 
on what tenns apd conditMins he thinka proper* JPrnauqajLt 
to this ri^lit, Charles I. granted the i&hiad <>f Barbadoes 
to the Earl of Carlisle,^ vfho thence, became entitled taaa 
absolute dottiinim), ai proprietor ov^r the soil ; .to be dis* 
posed'of in like manner^ as he should find most can\sem* 
ent or advantageous. If welookinta the preamble of tbe 
act, whece alone we can expect to find the reasons which 
induced the legislature to consent to lay such an extraordi* 
nary impost on the produce of their estates, we shall soon 
perceive that, " by virtue of the Earl of Carlisle's patent, 
divers governors and agents, properly authorized lor that 
purpose^ had laid out, granted, or conveyed in parcels, the 
lands in this island to different persons many of whom had 
lost their grants^ warrants j and other evidences of their titles; 
others, from the ignorance of the times, wanted sufficient 
words to freate an inheritable right to their estates ; others 
had never recorded their warrants or grants; and othersy 
again, never had any warriants or grants to record, for the 
lands which they occupied*." 

To supply th6se defects it was enacted, " that all rigthful 
possessors of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, within 
the island,'^* should be confirmed in the full and peaceable 

« HMb Laws of Barb. p. 5& 

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^ii^^^^' enjoymentf of their several estates ; and that they should be 
^^ released from the annual capitation tribute of forty pounds 
of cotton, to which they had been hitherto* subject; and 
aU other duties^ rents^ or arrears of rents to which they 
were liable. Hence the act appears in the light of a coiv-f 
tract betweea the King and the people ; by which, in con* 
sideration of his Majesty's having confirmed their doubtful 
and uncertain titles to their plantations, and released thenx 
ftom the payment of other accustomed duties, they agree 
to raise ^ p^pet\xa\ xeyenue itppiicahicy however^ to the ma- 
ternal espenees (^ gofverrtmenf. • The ooAy veaacxnabde grotradi 
q£ coAipJiaiQt, therefoxe,. isr to the nnsacppKcation of this 
fimd ; no pttrt cf which has^ been a-pprophated to thernsefi^ 
for wlbdii it was^ grantfed, except the sum oi two thomondr 
potinda» sterling,! ainn£n(Uy paid to the governor as m salary 
ftomtke^ cro(\yn; aa^d one Imadred pmtnds curreiiey, di^ 
Mete«l to be j>cud„ eveiy six Haosrtha,. otcti of tlw KingVca*- 
mxad levetme, ariaing within: tlie ialaiftd, foe defiraQ^cng tb® 
* expenees attendong the Comft of Grand Sessions. Tliis nrasO 
ever be c«i9id«rcd as a flagrant violation of the engagement 
entered into on the part of the ctt>wn. 
1661.. The^ conmwrciali rivalry jwid national jealoipsy which, 

at this juncture, subsistisd between Great Brieain« and the 
Unrated Provinces^ had m inflamed tlie rMiiinds. of Uie £ng« 
hsh against their old allies the Dutch,^ that CharksJl^was 
forced, in compliance with the wishes of his people, to de- 
clare war against those friends who had hospitably enter- 


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tained him in the hour of dwtress. The States General, ^^^^^ 
sensible of the value of Barbadoes, delayed not to dis- **^*- 
patch a squadron, commanded by the celebrated Do Ruy- 
tef, with a view of subduing the isjand. But Lord Wil- 
Jpughby, having taken the field at the head of the militia, 
mad^ such a judicious vrangement of the forces under his 
directions that the gallant admiral, after an ineffectuaL at- 
tempt on the forts which guarded Carlisle Bay, abandoned 
the entprprizc*. 

Notwithstanding the florid declamations of modern, par- 
simonious politicians, concerning the inutility of the militia, 
afld thq ^^p^nce of maintaining the fortifications, we have 
here ^ sQirqnd instance,. in the short space of thirteen years, 
of the u^^fulnesa of those forts, which it is now the fashion 
to decry ; and of the real importance of a well-regulated 
militia. And» although, oin the former memorable occa- 
^pn, U>e spirited resistt^nci^ of the militia was not crowned 
with suceft$»^ it should be remembered, that the failure 
wa? n?or^ owing to the intrigues and dissentiohs of a sinister 
p^r^ wi^hip* than to the snperior.strength of the adversary 
who assailed them from without. 

JjQV^ WyiQUgfeby doon rasobred to retnrq this visit ; and 1666. 
gi^pordtipg^y prepaiFcd an expedition for the purpose of tak- 
iPg vepgOftniUQ Oft Ae enemies of his country. The French 

* Hume's Hist, of England, vol. 7, p. 4Q9. XJwv^ ^igL voL 41, p. 148. 

N 2 

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CHAP. ni. about this time had committed frequent depredations on the 
10&6. British Caribbec Islands. They liad dispossessed the Eng- 
lish of tlie small colony of the Saints, carrying the settlei-s 
prisoners to Guadaloupe; and, in conjunction with the 
Dutch, had expelled them from their plantations io Saint 
Christopher's. These outrages, committed within his go- 
vernment, determined Lord AVilloughby to go, in person, 
and chastise the aggressors. With this view he resigned the 
government of Barbadoes into the hands of Henry AVil- 
loughby, Henry Hawley, and Samuel Barwick, whom his 
AJajesty had appointed joint commissioners to execute the 
office of commander in chief, in his lordship's absence. The 
£rst attack was made on Saint Lucia, the English inhabi- 
tants of wliich, reduced by various casualties to eighty- 
nine persons, liad been forced to evacuate their settlement; 
nevertheless. Lord Willoughby took possession of the island 
in the name of hi& Britannic Majesty. He then proceeded 
to the small islands of the Saints, which having retaken, 
he sailed for Saint Christopher's ; but, encountering a hur- 
ricane, he perished at sea in the streight between Guada«* 
loupe and the Saints*. 

Notwithstanding the prejudices entertained against this 
nobleman, for the active part taken by him in procuring the 
settlement of an internal revenue on the crown, except the 
severity and illegality of his proceedings against the patriotic 

• Unirer. Hiit. toL 41. if. 218 and 257. 


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Mr. Farmer, it must be confessed, that his conduct was chap, hl 
prudent, mild and equitable. Throughout the whole of ^*^r 
his administration, Lord Willoughby manifested the warm- 
est zeal for the security of the island, and the most sedu« 
)ous attention to the administration of justice. Many or- 
dinances, were framed by him and his councils for regulating 
the courts of law and equity. One of these, for re- 
ducing the Courts of Common Pleas to two precincts, 
seems to have occasioned some dissatisfaction; but, the 
people no sooner remonstrated against the innovation, than 
his excellency rescinded the ordinance, and again di- 
vided the island into four precincts; appointing, however, 
but two judges ; one of whom, with his assistants, was 
empowered to preside in the courts at Bridge Town and 
Oistin's*; and the jurisdiction of the other extended equally 
to Speight's and James Town. 

These ordinances having been made without the partici- 
pation or ccmcurrence of the representatives of the people, 
we are left to conjecture, that Lord Willoughby, after pre- 
vailing with the assembly to shackle their constituents with 
the four and half per cent duty, had neglected to convene 
that branch of the legislature as long as he could do with- 
out them. But finding their assistance necessary to grant 

* This town was originally called Austin's, not in commemoration of the saint of 
that name, hat of a wild, drunken fellow^ whose lewd^dissijpated conduct has damned . 
\km to iMftostiiigfam^ Lxtson's Bia^. p. 2^ 

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CHAP. ui. gupplies for the public service, he summooecj a naeetihg of 
im. p^Q General Aspembly^ ea^ly ia.t;Uie present year, wl^en they 
pgjssed ap act for cojiecting i^ve hupdr^d thousand pounds 
of .3ijgar, to Aetfay tl^ expeojce of fortifying th« island. 
Thus, in little more U?a^ two ye^i^, jthe ji^ftsk was tbroiva 
.aside : and the repres^eotative^ of jtlje people hwi scarcely 
revetted tjie chaii) bcfpr^ thpy ^ere qalled upon to impose 
fresh bnrthpns on their copstitpents^ tp gn^swer onie of the 
very purpQs^es for wjych the fornier he^vy duty had been 
expressly. ypjLed. 
1^67. WJiile the jexecutive power w^s giioftinistered by commissi 

/sipners, a yery nqce?sary i^ij4 wefiiil work \f»8 undertaken* 
In every coqam^nity it is pf the highest importanee that 
^he laws, fi^bich are prescribecj a? rul^ of p\y'i\ i^^d^cU 
shpyld be accurately dc^fined afu| flujy pfpipu)gated# 
that the people, who are boun4 to obey iheio^ may h» ftp^ 
ppaed pf vl^^t th/ej axe ^joii^ed to pprforrot or what they 
are prohibited frpn^ dping. Tfeflse of BarbwJpss are be-r 
cpRje extrenwely vplv^IniI)p^§ ; many of thp original record* 
^^a4 been de^oye^ by various acqidmts: and, in thp seve* 
^^1 ypyjojlptiom e^ gpv^mm^nt which the island had expe^ 
ri^n^ed, iftapy pu)3l^ fi^cis were rendered, at leaat of dn^ 
^oxi^ jtytljority- It bf^fraiike neoess^y, therefore, to col- 
lect and arrange them, in order to separate those that were 
valid and beneficial, from those that were obsolete, void, 
or no longer useful. Comniissipners were accordingly j^p- 
poy^ted. Ipy ^ act of the legislature, with iUreckiooa 'ta 

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ftf^igW aridi eoiapite iA\ the* laws and statutes theii in force. *^,^^^^;^ . 
Protie^ding on th^ir task with becottiing diligence and as-- '**®^' 
giduitj'^ ^6^ soon accomplished the business*; and, having 
feitly transcribed all those' which Werd thought worthy of 
Reservation, the c<Mttn4issidn6rs rejiorted them as laws pro- 
pfer to* be obsfetved. 

But they cduM #ot let fliis of^i^tu-nity j^ass without malk- 
ing oncJ feeble effort lb relieve their country fVoni the but'-' 
Iben Ittid ein' its staple pi^tt^f ions', by declaring ftaf ihd 
as^eiobfy/wM^hadicon^^AScid^ ik> the foui* afnld< a half pet 
etnt dwty^ was soe c^^ually* ^6tiVeil€^d? a« the tiaiej «h€ afc« 
piBSsed fofl theft purpose. TMis c^i^je^ddri, wftith' wab speteiouS 
a«d ingenidus, w*s-ftrtrti<fed'on tfte cireoftistjtnce tAat? Ldril 
Willooghby held A^gfedttfd, oil the dfesolutioit 6f thd 
pi«dprifettW>goT^ttiittenf, ftystirtrtttn a' A<S\v aisfeiJSfrfy tndei^ 
the royal authority, and had accepted, the grant froitt' tiid 
^dseadbly' Whi!6h^ Had' befen-corivtoied' under ^e'prefeidfericy of 
Mr. Walk>hA R' rHiky^ hd^veVer, be ofcs^rverf, that th^ 
coii^6iition' parHkiherit, by ^hbttt ttte' rtfstbiatfott' of Charfes 
in was atCdrttpiistted, iii6t WirtibUt dtfy le^al' authorify 
abdVfe*armoh«!t' M6fe tU KTing^s r^tttWi, and* CottdriUdd' sif- 
ting s^v^rtll nibii^hs' attleh^ardk If/entdAiiny'etaiiSentlaw- ^ 
yers doubted whether it was a good parliament. But ac- 
cording to Justice Blackstone, this was too nice a scruple ; 
for the Bficetisiitji, o5. the- thing, justifiefi ther isreguWit^ of 
the proceedingl 

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CHAP. III. Again, the convention which placed the British sceptre 
1607. jii the hands of tlie Prince of Orange, was composed of 
the remnant of several parliaments assembled in the reign 
of Charles II. convened, without any constitutional autho- 
rity* ; yet their legblative acts have been con6rmed, and 
we enjoy the benefits of them to this day. But the objec- 
tion started by the commissioners, whatever might have 
been its intrinsic value, was wholly disregarded ; and the 
reason assigned by the learned commentator on the laws of 
England, in the memorable cases just mentioned, may be 
applied with equal propriety in the present instance; ** As 
the royal prerogative was chiefly wounded by their so meet- 
ing, and as the King himself, who alone bad a right to pb-. 
ject, consented to wave the objection, thjs cannot be 
drawn into an example in prejudice of the rights of the 


An account of the deafih of Francis Lord Willoughby 
having reached England, the King bestowed the vacant 
government on his brother William Lord Willoughby. 
His excellency was accompanied to Barbadoes by a regi- 
j«n. i. ment, under the command of Sir Tobias Bridge. This cir- 
cumstance seems to have been misunderstood by forme! 

• Hume't Hirt. of Engknd, toI 7, pp. 32$ and $60. ♦ol. 8. p. 298. fltoolkf. 
ContilittatigDi vol I, p. 7. Bbckstoae's Comment voL 1, p. liU 

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colonial historians. One* supposes it tohavebeea occa- ^^J^;^:^* 
sioned by some distrust of the loyalty and attachment of ^^^^' 
the inhabitants. Another -f- affects not to know " how they 
were destined, or of what use they were to the country/' 
The fact is, that the nation was then at war with Holland, 
and that these troops were sent out for the protection of the 
colony, and to act against the enemies of their country in 
this quarter of the globe. Tliis detachment, during a long « 

stay in the island, was provided for at a considerable ex- 
pence to the people J. It was at length employed in making 
a descent on Tobago, then in the possession of the Dutch; 
aikl> notwithstanding the place was strongly fortified, the 
British troops plundered the inhabitants, and carried oft' 
four hundred prisonersH. 

Soon after Lord Willoughby's arrival, the House of As- 
sembly liberally appropriated a considerable part of the 
excise duty to the purchase of a set of jewels ito be pre- 
sented to his lady, as a testimony of their esteem foi- her 
ladyship, and as a mark of the pleasure which they derived 
from her residence among them. 

The fortifications seem to have occupied no inconsider*- 
able portion of the governor's attention ; nor does his lor4^ 
ship appear to have been negligent in respect to the admi- 
nistration of justice, and the regulation of the police^ 

" ' ' ' I ' ■ !■■■ 

* Universal Hist. vol. 41, p. 1 49. t Frere's Short History of Barb. p. S 1 . 
X Hall's Laws at BaA. p. 475. tl Fcnning's Geography, (6L edit, vol, 2. p. 703. 


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^^^I^^ Many of the laws which were passed at that period have 
1668. been continued down to the present day. . > >v 

Lord Wil lough by had been merely appointed to the go- 
vernment for the remainder of his brother's term; and as 
that was near expiring, he determined to return to England, 
probably intending to solicit a renewal of his commission* 
He, therefore, resigned the administration to Colonel Chris- 
November, topher Codrington, as deputy-governor, and embarked for 
Europe* But as the English colony at Dominica had been 
lately much annoyed by the French, his lordship resolved 
to visit that island in his way home with a sufficient force 
to redress the injuries which the inhabitants had sustained. 
1669. This vigorous measure produced the desired eflfect, and his 
lordship procured from the Caraibs a formal surrender of 
the island to his Britannic Majesty*. 

Mr. Codrington continued to act under Lord Willough* 
bys appointment, until the expiration of his lordship's 
contract, as heir to his brother, with Lord Carlisle, which 
determined his authority under the royal commission. But 
no new appointment being made, the legislature met, audi, 
Dec. 23. ^y ^^ ^^* passed for settling the government, declared 
themselves to be Governor, Council and Assembly, until his 
Majesty's pleasure should be known-f. Lord WilToughby 
soon afterwards arrived with a new commission, appointing 

f Uni?. Hist v*. 41. p. 285. + Mcmb. of Barb. p. 42. 

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Jam. governor of Barbadoes, and all the Caribbee islands ^^JJ^J:^- 
to windward of Guadaloupe. The Leeward Islands were *^^^ 
ijow;, fpr the first time, formed into a distinct government, 
^d the commaQd given to Sir William Stapleton. Hence 
comes the distinction of Windward and Leeward Islands; 
Guadaloupe being the point of demarcation. 

Lord Willoughby remained but a short time in Barba- ^^^^ 
jdo^ before he again resolved on recrossing the Atlantic, 
leaving Mr. Codrington, a second time, commander m April?. 
chief. The administration of this illustrious West Indian 
is distinguished by his vigilance, circumspection, and pru- 
dent attention to the duties of his exalted station. He. con? 
sidered the power with which he. was invested as a sacred de- 
posit, to be employed for the benefit of the people ; and the 
many salptary laws which were parsed under his administra** 
tion, evince the rectitude and propriety of his ponduct. 
This enlightened statesman early saw the necessity of check- 
ing the rapacity and collusive practices of the lawyers; and 
jeadily assented to an " Act for preventing the abuses of 
lawyers and the multiplicity of law-suits.'' 

After an absence of more than two years. Lord Wil- juil^i. 
loughby returned to Barbadoes. On this occasion, the 
King nominated the persons who were to compose the 
^econd branch of the legislature, honouring them with the 
title of His Mqjestjf's Council ; and directing, in case of 
the death or absence of the governor, that they should 
exercise the whole executive authority.' By » his commission 

o 2 

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€HAP. IH. the governor was required to tmosait to Englaiid alL^wsj, 

^^^^ within three months after, their passings for the rojal ap-r 

probation or rejection; akid, although they^ were alli^wect 

to be in force until the King's pleasuHe was known, hi» 

excellency was forbidden . to give his assent . to any act of 

the legislature ta continue in force longer thanlliree jrears^ 

nnless it should receive his^ Majesty ^9^ ccmfirmation within^ 

that time. As some compensation, perhaps, for tbi»^ 

abridgment of legislative authority, tlie executive powec* 

became more enlarged. The governor, besides being: 

appointed ordinary and vice-admira)r ^^^^ authorised to^: 

remit all fines or forfeitures^ before or after sentence givenr 

if the persons* were proper objects of mercy ; treason,, and^ 

' tfiilful murdeiv^xeepted ; and ia these e^ses he was allowed. 

to reprieve^ until the result of an application to^ihe throne^ 


idTs. I'he impaired state of his health rendering him incapable 

^" ' of attending to the arduous duties of government. Lord 

Willoughby finally resigned his authority into tfie hands ol 

Sir Peter Colleton, senior member of the council , having,: for 

some reason, not now known, removed Colonel Codrington. 

from that board, and returned to England,^ where his^ 

Iprdship died the ensuing yean 

167 \ After the. govcroorfs departure^ the council, pufsoaot to, 

the royal instrttction,^ assumed the direction of ike puUiii)^ 

♦ mllVrini Settfcmlmtrf-BaTbadeeii ^. «8. 'Mm. •CBtob.f . 4?. ' 


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COficern^ afypointia^ Sir Beter CoHetoiK captaiit*genefal of ohap.ift^ 
the militia. This^ is the acooabt given . by the author of the i^Ti 
Hemoin of. ^arbadoesv But it ia evident^ from the statute 
Vook, that Sir Peter's authority wu not confined to the 
sulitwy department^ he contimied to exercise the 4n>nsti» 
tutioiud iunctio&s-of first magistrate, %aitii he was supers ' Not^u 
seded by the amral of Sir Jonathan Atkias, ivho wa^ 
appointed by bift M^e»iy to tbe government of Barbadoe* 

«m1 die Wijidwarxl Islaiijds.^ ^ 

. The u€fw gov^tior fixed the «eat of govemmeot at Fon^ 1075, 
tabe^le; but' he had aoi enjoyed this sitoation ioog, .^dieo^ ^^' '^" 
ihe country Mras almos-t laid waste by one of the most 
tremendous hurricanes the* ever epoMr^^ b. guilty ; la<id*^ 
Neither the palace, nor the cot^. escaped /^bedeatmctlve 
violence of this aw^ visitation.. Neitfaertiee, nor JhotiBe,. 
was left fitandiBg, ^Lcept the tew which were jhetterwL by 
fl^me fieighbouring hiti or dift. 'Th€r%&ce of : tbe-cotmtry 
^hibited one ccmtimied ^oene of desolation. So eom.^ei^' 
was the destructioi^ of the 'Sugar worics^ on the sei^ra]^ 
plantations, that it ^^s nearly two yeam before they could; 
be repaired, or put into a condition te^iaenew abe iMisiitegs 
of^ugar making* . Nor was the crop of pr^^visions sf»yed; 
from the genend devastation ; and^ to add ta the ea^amity^ 
ei^ht valuable ship^, laden with the>produce of the country^ 
were SjUnk or stranded^ in Carlisle Bay« InSpei^ilfB Towtf 
evei^ house wa^^ either blown . down or materially injured*. 
Several, ftjmpdltes ^^(e kxifkd^ iq j;^ Q;uns of their fallen 

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^sll^v^* hfabitations ; and there was scarcely one but lamei^tedi scun© 
W5. ^ relation, friend) or acquaintance, swept to an untimeljc 
grave*. Amidst this scene of ruin and misery, theifate.of 
Major Streate and his fair bride deserves to be leineQCH 
bered for its whimsical singularity. They bad been nmrricMl 
that evening, at the plantation called Anderson's, but the 
pitiless storm, regardless of the sanctity of the marriage, 
bed, blew them from their bridal chamber; and, with 
relentless fury, lodged them in a pimploe hedge. In this^ 
bed of thorns they were found the next nroming, incapable 
^f manifesting those tender attentiops whiqh their new* 
formed relation demanded, or affording each other th^ 
assistance which their comfortless craMlUion required^i 

This calamity called for the most ^udient counsels tQ 
ii^ert the consequences which were expected to result from 
a disaster so fatal. It was apprehended that the prppertj^ 
which had been saved fiiom the.fury of the elements, would 
be wrested from the half-ruined planters, by the rapaciousr 
ne^^oi their credilprs; ^d that many of theni, to avoid a consumnos^on of their misfortunes^ would leav^ 
jhe island^ with their effects, exposed .to all the horrors an4 
dangers pf insurrection. Filled with these gloomy appre- 
hensions, the goverqor convened the council and assembly, 
^nd stated to them his sentiment? on the posture of affiairs,^ 
jtnd reconimended them to devise some means of guarding 


-^Hiis(hes'« Nat; Hht^. ^. 

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Google I 


against tlie evils to which they would be exposed, m case ^J^^J:^^* 

df any considerable emigration 06 the white inhabitants, ^^'^^* 

who, partly destitute of commodious habitations, should 

be induced to seek an asylum elsewhere. But whatevei? 

ground there might have been for these apprehensions, no 

measures were taken to remove or obviate them. 

* A considerable quantity of sugar, which had been 

shipped op board the vessels, in the harbour, baving beeit 

lost u> the late sterm, and the custom^iouse officers refusing 

to admit sugar to the san^ amount to be exported, dutjK 

free, the assembly passed aa ^ Act for allowing a second 

free «ntry of the dead productions of the Island, lost or 

taken/ The season ef distress was thought to be. a favour* 

able moment for endeavouring to- obtain itelief from the 

odious^ and oppressive impost on the merchaatable com^ 

modities of the country. An humble and pathetic address 

was accordingly presented to the King, describing the 

deplorable condition to^ which the colony was. reduced by the 

late destructive tempest rand stating that the entire remission 

of the four and a half per cent duty, was the only means 

of saving the planters from impending min. But the pe* 

cuniary embarrassments of the extravagant, dissolute mo* 

narch, rendered him deaf to" the complaints and entreaties 

of hisi injxued and oppressed subjects. So. far. from grants 

ing the solicited immunity,, the partial relief which they 

sought, ta obtain, was denied them; and the.act^ which 

had been passed for that purpose, was repe^ed by. hia^ 

Majesty's positive orders. 

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^£ivw* The situation of the Barbadians^ a* this junctors, -was^ 
^^^^- in the highest degree, calamitous and deplorable* Theit 
habitations were levelled with the earth ; and the owners,^ 
unable to rebuild them, or dismayed at the destructioQ 
they had recently escaped; ^oid a^id to rentdre theii 
perscms in houses under whose ruins they might be again 
loverw helmed, lived many months ynd^r no better shelter 
than that of huts lightly and hastily constructed. Artful 
and designing traders, taking ^vantage of ihe g^ieial 
calannty, monopolized' what provisions <rere brought to 
tnadiet, and heightened the distrlesses of their unfortunate 
lellow-su&pers, by tbdHr unconscionable *aiid villainous 
exactions. To rcq^ress this dangearous and tniqaitous. pcac-r 
tice, the legislature inconsiderately enacted an absurd and 
impotitit law to prevettt Jbrestalling^ ^engr^m$^^ tmd re* 
jgratmg ; a short-sighted precaution^ which, however, ap« 
l^arently calculated to afford immediate relief would, if 
striefly enforced, inevitably produce the scarcity, it was 
intended to prevent. By thb cumms law none were 
allowed to sell or bart^ any foreign provisions whatever^ 
but those to whom they wepe honajide consigned; or who 
had imported ti^em at their own risk, and upon their 
{>roper account Tkus qo merchant, or 8hop4ceeper, was 
permitted to purchase cargoeff from the importers, for the 
purpose of selling them again^ without incurring the heavy 
punishiMttt attached to the crime of finrestalling. 

To check tbd nefarious practices <si forestallers and mo^ 
nopolizers ; to diffuse the blessings of plenty » and to avert 

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01? MRBADOES. 105 

|^4iOTron of ftimine; or even to guard against the dis- ^^^^:J^ 
tresses attending a partial faUure of the means of «ub- ^^^^* 
wtcnce, are undertakings of so much humanity and 
lienefie^ice, that any proposal for effecting them will readily 
meet the approbation of benevolent minds, and gain the 
applame df those superficial thinkers who compose the 
fanlk of mankind* But these important objects ace not.t^ 
lieratttiined by arbitrary prohibitions. Commerce visits only 
ihfist climes in which it is cherished by the genius of liberty^ 
Xraele; like waiter; shouldbe left to form its own Jevd-; 
and, although many moderate and sensible men may object 
io iMt raajcim, to deciding too great latitude to commercial 
fBohopoly^ • there certainly ;is less . dajoger in leaving the 
inerdbnat 1o exercise his own discretion, than' in crampiug 
and depressing the spirit -of 'mwcantile ispocmlation; by 
figorousr and injudicious^ restrictions. . Highrpric^/ and a 
scarcity, of provisioiiSt ^iU be the fatal cooaequeiK:^ 
of :> destrojring or discouraging a competition ija .the 
malrket^ by . prohibitory regulations. .Theimulual^atitaof 
mankind, form . the active principle which gives life . to 
commerce, ind by which alone it can be safely regulated. ; 
The traders of Barbadoea may he divided^ into ; three 
-distinct classes ; 1;he importer, the retailer, and the huckpt^r; 
all of wbom are useful in^tKeir several vocations. Through 
them, the commodities imported* from abroad are disperseji 
among the people, ill sneh quantities, and upon^4»DjQh terms, 
asaoe^best suited tdthe n^essities aad coQveoicncies of the 

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'CHAy.BL oobsnttets. Hie two former classes me tat lo^vequen^ 

M»7*. 4itiited in the sarae pereem. Tbeyottgbt, iM^evier, to Jift 
COflsidered separate. The merduun:, who is tn^ 
Bktensiye coBoems, and imports 1ai||ertai|;aeB't>f -piio«si«Mi» 
gebersliy finds it more convement said advantagaoas te 
dispose 0f iiis xsomiaaodities to the vdteileK, -in large ifiuicB^ 
4)ti!e8, and at a pro^fcnitiianaMe redtctiohiaf |iiiba, iba* 
t6flw4dtthe tedaoos and ifnrecanoas «fltte 9€4ixtm to tkt 
4X)nsumer. Some^Khes fbe' case aa^tiej dtffa we Kl ; irt siny 
tate; 'it i«muM be tjrraitnkal m€ snijtut i* 4epEh« iiJM Kjf 
:tiie '^ptiod . ' ■ ; 

Vheittmht, agisii, 6a«fiDtd «»aiy«iAMid.tmfte, l^4h» 
MUallhessdf tldsct^ilid, ^.ft <3bQiildi(|f tto advQit«pe«'<}eii9«i 
«i^idiitfiti^' kf 'buj^iiig ^he anrtiiclefe m itdticlk:^4e«i8iif 
^btesdile, 'dad ^reveodnig ithem Mt .an^avviiae* iiiMah yet 
«x«Mid8 luit;' the 'prices ist n^hieh itiiey might luwe in«a 
4^dapt Itolst ^ie iimport^ hMl iw jetaiiad theoi. Urn 
pM&h caMkt4(ti-^A^ diifeNiic»is8tai«en'4hesid|alni[aeaad 
WtiXl ptiiMi. 7%is ex«Ms k OMbiiaRidly lest tnilaMMMlMi 

the ^Qittpetkioii ^^<ih ptevwls among tiiat ahesoriptioovof 

(^IMl^le 4il "^ iilabd: ^a x^uiMtaMe th^ inii«ver:^n>Te 

3ttteiBeisf' ^fi(lK;tuiU iie«JHM»poiBeH»'e6mbiaaftiaMen^^ 

«lil8ett anil ^tegMi^nt «iid is 'the .maia ^^ling % «ihidi 

ilM^twfll <Mri«wlf<its diwiiiibemMkHis. 

Wo ehMldieiteltfiis doetttne, l^t «s Advertito a oaee .wUdi 

^q<iieistiy>lM»pp«iis. >i)uidttg a-i^emnll «cMdty.of4tftk]at 


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fi£#»fii|ii iweefs%» « veaael laden vit& eon 99ti %tw «y ^£i!^ 
iifi«(i'willi«-wyM|Bc«rg04>m board. It-may not he conform* ^^'^ 
«Met-ibotk»oiii^fin, xun'-foil ^ ooBveiiiiencQ of ^ factiqr 
,l!»:i«f;sH^s c«Kgo, TM»p»tgh it tbe life of huaioeas, and 
Ake^ipsal^Baay t>e i»quti«dto.diaol)4U!ge bei|<tai^ and Ip 
iwlwii '«ilbQi|t4eia9i;t yet, trer0 4fae aioawrd j|^a 4gw|i«jt 
«MmepolifiBg,^4}iee««ed ^vildi a ^Brat«qaal to di^ wbii^ 
4M«M 4)iai|i» ao laerchauteoiild ventuae ta. puchaff 
41mi l»lif(e» 4)r Qagr<,||aft 4»f 4ba caiiso, bjr vrb^lfiHi^s^ ^ a^ 
"WMii lto q aul e« i9j0^if^,:l«t ^vtwuid r^ar Jwrneif «^ 
noouDus'to {nui|sl»ient as * f<iiwftaiier» The ooiweqiienpy 
iMiiB^M^jli tlN»-ivtM«al» by •« •futlcBioos jpoUQr3r«.|g <li^[vea 
Aam:aii«{i«rtt» aikI 4ike(pea|i}e,io « Jll^;0^4a^ 
fifeHi«&4ti «ta| a# «bMeiiip)ptias a4u6hyl^p,| ^ 
bad>beeB- ^pitlMi Aeir ««aeli« ; Oi^upfoae ^.i^i^Mf^f^ «lMw|i 
(ispauftaitet^ ^eaAjifiiig to 'iMkee «lie aii^epai^ ^ -I^mI 
iS^ gooiis ; to eompensdte y&ia^ for bift, trouWipii, axpomai 
landMAeteotfoD^ 'be wiU'M^ them atlbe bt^iest ret«l|»pieda. 
VUtK ia*d6»nger wiIl>eBJej'tiio9e lucmtiFe asivaataget whialiv 
tklkder a^ w»er and inore eqitkaUe ifBtoa* would ba<i« 
'Centered anioiig our ew^B.^ceuntryaieiiv % 
' This t^iecies of traffic irhieh ^ law, uader 4he spadoui 
pretext at preventb^ foreataUing and vegratiag, aMst m* 
wisely ^KCQantenances, far* from being, ia 
&ct, highly beneficial to ^ public. A laige eapitaJ it 
tbds eaipkyed, wblc|), ia so saiaM a eomoMMHty, wmld 
othecwiie |tma^ itaxsbh!e and «)B^e8s;tiie importer is ac« 

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CHAP.m. comroodated and benefited by fiaciliteting histtks ;:it givtv^ 
1675. energy to industry ; affords bread to a considerable nunir 
berof useful citizens; and furnisbes.thecKmsumer willi.^be 
articles of domestic acconimodationi ia< mwe coDveitiefiJb 
quantities^ and as cheap as he 6ould; have purchased them 
from the original importer; . It sometime happen&^that the 
value of die itercbEUidise k enftancfcdjaliep getting into .this 
intermediate channel of difiuBioii ;. but this }b nbt io- much 
owing to any radical deibctr in the system for whieh.'I 
contend^ as to;the:idt&rvention.ol' casualties to which mer* 
eantile a&urs are peculiad(y^ liable. The pric^ .of goods 
an& augmented' by Taij^ws- liaunes indepaodant of nqio0opo« 
liaers^ Supplies from dboToad may beiotejoepted by the 
enemy, ior may ^pbrieace a temporary susp^EUMoil from 
itppos^Qg elements, and x%ther . disastrous^ iiMan?.. . In. all 
these oases ihe holders of proyisiens will, unq«estioiiably^ 
embrace the farourable opportunity of reinibuprsing them^ 
^Ives f(X[ the losses which both importer and retailar too; of- 
ten sustain from accidents^.whii^, no huntan sagacity;, ean 
foresee, nor human judgment prcFent. Aa^ where is. the 
harm in this? The planter strives to obtain the best {udce 
that he can get for the produce of his fields, ami surely the 
m^chant is entitled to the same privilege in the disposal of 
his commodities. : ..';.; 

The distresses and d)fficulti^s^ui]fader which, as we haye 
seen, the Barbadians, were, at this time, struggling, were 

sufficient to have affected the feelings of the most obdu« 

6 " 

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tHJtehoattf botllie measure of itheir nu8^un^w ^S^J^f* 

fiilL Scvcely had they lecorei^ foam the oonstematkni ^^^* 
iijto which: they had been thronrn by the late awM visitar 
Hon q§ Pcovideace, and begun to recover, from their losses; 
to rebuild their houses ; to repair their fortifications, and to 
provide for. the security of the country before they were 
C0|i^U«cl to submit to t^ie. retentlet^ gripe of ,pawen The 
principles of qommi^rce, until lately^ had b^en but very 
ioiperfeptly upderstood^ia Eoglaiid* Be&re the restoration^ 
the iniportant objected which occupied the thoughts, of both 
King and parliament, afforded either but little leisure for at- 
tf^nding to the minor cqnsiderations of colonial affuis» 
iVom the freedom of trade whioh Barbadoes, thus, left to 
herself, was permitted to enjoy, she attained a dfegree oiT 
projsperity almost unparalleled in the annals of mankind. 
The cppimenceqient of the. Navigation Act^ however essen^^ 
tialto the interests of the empire at lai^, is^ the memo* 
table epoch whence we may date the rafud decline of her 
population, and consequently of her stsength and opu- 
l^ce* . . 

After the restoration, the ministers of Charlds^ sensible of 
the value of the colonies, pradendy deteraiined to act upon 
Cromwell's plan with regard to navigation and trade. 
Gr^at Britain now begaatO: perceive the advantages arising 
£rom the exclusive right of colonial supply; and, in the 
same spirit which dictated the navigation laws, sought to 

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tkmipfl(tty,iistaMi8faed tender 'die pstrotage ef the Dcdce of 
¥tirk, ti]iei"ett«>ltim'efldfc» t]if iSiis tucnrdve Irttindi 'tif.cMia!* 
tnoree, -wJiwih, ttccordmg to wwy pnncipltstif tnt« polled, 
^fa^iahsfte-bccA ^wtA -open tetbe tmtion «t large. Th€ 
cixchu^re dMaittiT gtaiAed tothis compan j 'for tfctppily iii^4lt^ 
Ifeit In^Cia 'irhh n eg r oes, t»penrtcd ^most poirerftiHy cgaiint 
CDC tmcreSt or tne uafuacnaHt, una acrouipiiBiieQtuic mni 
bf ttiimyndto 'trere i"ecw«tingilrott'tbeirr*cdfl« l€S^e». "Thej^ 
\irere uo tenger tdlowsd to import their o^^n ^aihiTee, dr td 
pptcbue thcfn 4rom fUe' Butcii ; *btit -«rer<; compeMed^ sub- 
BM]t to the rapaciMn «hmI ex6ilHt«Ett dewandB OftheKievI^ 

r ' $Kr JreBatnftft ACh4iii 'Tbo^vecl' fne KUMt positif'e 4)raen ttt 
«c(iee«iid^coQfisettte aU-Toesels, with "their eai^goei, 4Mlottg^ 
hig to {>»v>ftte adventnrerB, engaged in this pb>faillited'tpa$> 
fie. In' addition -to 'these directions; (he Wamriek 'taan ef 
aivifwas eonstBfiO/ stationed 4rt Barbadoes for ibe«xpae^ 
purpose of seizing all interlopers, as thej^ Were <:allcldj in 
tite4isade<to<^<]dnea. ' fliesefigoreiM orders were exeotrted 
3M<^ equal aeowaey aadeeverky^. All -vess^ bdeagittg' to 
{aitate mctcbants met •with on 4iie'cQft6t of Aftica, ^r'fbunel 
|n.«tie^^Wef(t' Indies with^^V^s on ^>oapd, ^v^ete cdptnred 
withasli^jUe hesitation as if they. had been the property of 
open en^aues ; and wece condamned with as little oeseraon y 

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of judged Bjr ibmti mul^trnf |^rQcM»9gR> lAfiny pp^t 
IiUmiM. il»9«««*l^ 9fll!H(tti»d» iP^gft h^s>g9vm)miBAt^^4 

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*HAPj^iv fie mind. in England, concerning the King's preposseB^cm 
^^- for the Romijsh commimion, and the inconsiderate bi^otrf 
vf the Duke of York, pr<)d need coKeapondent sen wtioois in 
©arbadoeft. On the discovery made by Titus. Oates, koA 
other miscreants, of -the pretended; plot formed by the 
itoittdh Catholics for the subversion ^ the Protestant relL^ 
giop, ^ Barbadians^ not to be behind band in suitableeiH 
^^fLYOUTfto guard the ^dnstitution, both civil and cqclesoas^ 
IfcicaU^frqm the dangers -^hich.thresrtened th&m> passed aii 
act to enforce the statute of Great Britain, for preventing the 
dan^rs which may happen frooi Popish nescuants. ^ ^Their 
zeal for the true faith i?ras not confined to this attempt to 
represg the errors of popery. The Quakers had been assir 
duously endeavouring to cop vert the negroes; but, as it 
-Was apprehended that the prgmulgation of thek pacific te^ 
nets might endanger the safety of a colony -exposed to ini 
vasion, the legislatuiie prohibited, by law, the attendance 
of slaves on the meetings of that mild and inoflleiisive so- 
ciety . To preserve the jninds of the rising^enerati«i' fhtta 
improper impressions, a clause was added, restricting the 
."keeping of schools for the instruction of youth, to such 
persons only as should take the state oath9> and- be duly 
licensed by the commander in chief This^ ^ay^. an* emi- 
jaent historian*, was a precaution not quite impolitic among 

f Vide Uniy, Hi^ yoU 41, p. 152, 

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. OF BARBADpES. 118 

planters, to whom labour was of more utility than learning. ^^*j!^^ 
feut it should be observed, that the object of the law was *^^^- 
not discouragement of learning, but to take the business 
of education out of the hands of those dissenters, whose 
principles were supposed to be hostile to the establishments 
of government in church and state. 

While other religious sects were thus restrained, the 
civil riglits of the Jews were very properly extended. This 
extraordinary people, once the most favoured nation of 
the only true God ; at one timQ groaning under the cruelty 
and oppression of their Egyptian task-masters, then deso- 
lating the kingdoms that lay in their way to the land of pro- 
mise ; alternately abject in slavery and tyrannical in autbo* 
4:ity ; once a powerful nati&n, now a tribe of fugitives, wan- 
dering from pole to pole ; in all their migrations honourably 
distinguished by their invincible attachment to the religion 
of their forefathers ; in all their changes affording the 
most irrefragable evidence of the Divine tmths, which 
sceptics vainly oppose; here sought an asylum from 
the odium and detestation which universally, though un^ 
justly, pursued them whithersoever they travelled. Here* 
too, these unfortunate victims of bigotry and intolerance, 
were persecuted and oppressed. Their testimony had long 
been rejected in the courts of law ; but a more enhghtened 
policy prevailing overv an unjust prejudice, thdy were now 
admitted, by a law which was passed for that purpose, to 


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^^^^^;^' give their testimony in all civil suits, and not othenrtsct 
^^^- upon oQtb, on the five books of Moses, according to the 
tenets of their religion*. 

* The Abb^ Raynal relates, that tbe Jews of Jamaica vholly disregarded the 
solemn ol^gatioa of an oath thus administered. " A magistrate imagined^ that 
tbis evil might arise from tbe circumstance of tbe Bible, which was presented to 
' iktm, being in English. It was (fteo deteroikied, that tbey should) in fiiture, take 
Aeir ^atiba upon the Hebrew text, and after this precaution- perjwies became infi* 
nitely kss frequent*'' Hist, op the East and West Indies, vol. 6, p. 322, This, 
iias % species of casuistry worthy only of the most pcofligate of mankind*. 


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or BAIWAIX^. ti$ 




Charles ll. Laving formed the dangerous design of CHAP. Vf. 
subverting ^ the constitution in church and state, and* of ^^^^' 
establishing Popery and despotism on the ruins of civil H- 
bertj and rational religion, Sir Richard Dutton, an abject 
minion of the court, was selected as a proper in^trunent 
for effecting tiie purpose of the royal brothcJrs, and wa«, 
therefore, appointed to the govemiMent of Barbadoes. 'Hie 
namfes^of the mfemfoers of his Majesty's council' were now, 
for the second time, inserted in the governor's comnaission* . 
Wi4h directions, in cafie of the d^ath or absence of his «&- 
cdlency, tiiat the govemmeat ahotild devolvfs oa the senior 
member of that board. Sir Richard arrived at Barbadoes. 

^ Hiese were Benrf WskoidL h Xei4« Sk T. Thmabiii^ J. 0i1bbM.Fr»cj» Bond, 
Jdm Famtr^ Osprgt IMmgtoi}^ <h /jdr^m, W.^ ,9|iaiyc« T^i%i frtu«» Micbiel 
T^rril, and the Rev. William Walker, 

Q 2 

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CH^]^^. onfjthevsevejnth day of. March, and was received with ihe 
fUBi; most .lively expressions of loyalty and satisfaction ; which^ 
as is very common^ produced no adequate return of grati-? 
tude. He immediately issued writs for a general electipn;, 
and,, on the, meeting , of the new assembly % prevailed 90. 
the house to insert a clause in the militia law, requiring the, 
men to ^ear scarlet uniforms. With such trifling innova- 
tions were men then displeased, that tjiis was generally . 
complained of as an imnecessiary and expensive regulation •: 
The aqnals of this period are barren of a^y interesting; 
particular respecting the public concerns of the colony*. 
It is briefly stated, that the conduct of Governor Dutton 
was SO extremely ty^nnicaland oppressive, J^hat many fa- 
milies, tinable to endure the,rigqur of ,bis administnttion^ 
abaiuloned the country,^ and sought ekewh^ . an asylum 
£rom the persecution which they suffered at home- This 
disastrous enrigr^tion required legislative interpositiortpto 
check the consequent decline of population ; an act was 
tlierefb|:e passed, to regulate the issuing of tickets for per- 
sons intending to leave the island. 

* The iDenibers present on Hkt r^urn jof Ihe writft w€gK> for , $^. JtfMor^ Xieorgi^ 
PeeiB^, WUliasn Wheeler.;^ CkciH- Omrck^^. Maxwell^ IXu^ Hooper; St. Philiff$^ 
Vf. Fortescue/H. MaHdand; St. Jokf$, John Leslie, James Colleton; St, Oeargt^i, 
KIchaid' Salter, Mfknf Tofi^itk^.^Sk^oiepVi, Jobn Holder/ Henry Gallop; &/iAiJ 
^brem\ Wi1|i^ Pf^i^ Rmliaird^aHeri ». nkwm^/ JcMatfaao fioMto^ T; SadUcrf 
at. Jamu\ AM Alleynet W, Holder;^ F^€t^H 8amiieiMajroai4^ BobcjEt Hard** 
iWS &. JLMC|f'#j T. Merrick^ John (Ubbet. 

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Charles II. was, at this time, much perplexed with the chap. iv. 
JQumber of petitions priesented to him from all parts of the ^^^^• 
kingdom, insisting on a new session of parliament ; com* 
plaining of the increase of popery; and deprecating the 
dangers apprehended from plots continually forming by 
persons of the Romish communion. Unable to withstand 
or to elude these importunate, and, as they were termed^ 
disrespectful solicitations, the court party had recourse to 
counter-addresses, professing the utmost abhorrence of thofe' 
who presumptuously endeavoured to encroach oh tlie royal 
prerogative, by an improper interference in public ihea^'. 
sures. ^Diitton, lo manifest his zeal in* the service of the 
crowti, prevailed on the assembly of Barbadoes' to traM^^ 
iliit one of these abhorring addresses to t^e throoe ; whicli^ 
was honoured by his Majesty with the most particular 
niarks of approbation/ ' - ^ . . .. . 

The favourable reception with 'which thw address was iq$x 
distinguished, encouraged the grand-jury to emulate the 
Idyafl ' example ' of the assermWy . They accordiiigly pre- 
pared a pompous address to the. King, in which his Ma* 
jesty was Congfafulated 6n* the vigour and prudence of his 
miptese^iitdtwe m stiJKfi^^ fatfim andfdnaii^ 

cismin Imbrno. Tiie histpry of the British colonies affords 
many instance? of th^ facility with whiqh similar addresses 
are obtained from the contemptible sycophants, who wish 
to raiae^hemselvfes to a tempotary distinction on the ruin of 
their couotty, by flattering the most weak and profligate 

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<2£i^:3' ^^^ ^^ ^^^ swayed the rod* of power^ Tb^ jury pro- 
^^^- .ceeded to iafonn his Majesty, " that their minds had bee» 
infinitely ruffled and disturbed at the notice ivhich they 
liad received of the many attempts and offers lately made 
hy the rebellious heat of some spirits hatched in helU to shake 
liis Majesty'^ throne;* and concluded with declaring them- 
selves ** hearty lovers and warm admirers of his dearest bro^ 
ther^r Sir Richard Button's affairs requiring his presence 
^ay $• in England, this notable address, on his leaving tl^e island^ 
was committed to his care. Previous to his departure, and 
an direct opposition to the royal instruction concerning the 
i^ucQessiou to the gavemment, Dutton appointed Sir John 
.Witham, deputy-governor; restricting him from enacting^ 
«ipy new laws, or even from calUng an assembly -f-. 
'1684. Thegovera^r returned the next year, and endeavoured 

] ' to acquire an ill-founded popularity, by assuring the a&- 
jsembly, that the King, ever willing to lessen the burthens 
t>f liis faithful subjects, was ready to commute the four and 
A half per cent, duty, on fair arid equal terms of mutual 
accomniodation. Rejoiced at the prospect of eveu a par- 
tial. reUef from this hateful and oppressive impost, the coun- 
cil and assen^bly propps^ to farm tlie duty at ^x thoi^- 
«and pounds sterling a year. For this purpose, the^ paiiged 
•a bill, laying a tax of twenty-one pence an acre on ^ 

-^ Ibiv. Hist vol. 41, p. 153. f Megi. of B«rb. p. U. 

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land beloDging to persoas possessed of not less than ten crap. iv« 
acres, and appointed Jokn Codriogton, treasurer, to coUect ^^^ 
tlie money, and remit the stipulated sum to England. But 
the pleasing illusion soon vanished. On the act being sent 
kome, for hh Majesty's confirmation, the lords of the com* 
mittee for trade and plantations,- to whose consideration it 
was referred, reported that the commissioners were theii 
iocapable of making an accurate estimate of the annual 
produce of ^e duty ;. but, from the best information which 
tiiey could obtain, they were of opinion that it was worth 
from eight to ten thousand pounds steriing, at least, clear 
df all expense attending the collection. The offer of the , 
legislature was therefore rejected, and the bill which had 
passed the two houses wa» repealed by order of the King. 

James If. having, on the death of his brother,! succeeded i6g5. 
to the throne, his accession was celebrated by Sir Richard 
DuttoB with unusual pomp and magnificence. But all the 
demonstrations of joy with which the news- of this event 
Avas received in Barbadoes, were insufficient to conciliate 
tfcc fovour of government. Tlie wealth^ acquired by the 
W^t Indians, with which they made lAien no small parade 
m iiD^and, attracted the notice, and probably the envy,, 
ef people in power ; a«d the pK>doce of tlieir plantatiiMis^ 
ims deemed a legitimate object of taxation. Sugar, being 
a Ittxiury o£ life, was SMpfWosei able to bear additional bur- 
thens with leaA irieonvenieftce to the consumers; while,. 
iu6m ito.genenk u^, the tan watf likel^r to be bimb piMcUut— 

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CHAP. IV- t{ye tbaa any other that could be proposed. Parliamentt 
is»5. therefore, laid a duty of two shillings and four-pence upon 
every hundred weight of Muscovado sugar^ and seven shil* 
lings upon refined. Thus was laid the foundation of a mode 
of taxation, on which succeeding ministers have reared a 
fabric of colonial oppression, as ruinous, in the apprehension 
of the best-informed West Indians, as it is partial and 

The Barbadians were far from beholding^ with indiflfer- 
ence, a measure, which, by lessening the value of their 
staple products, would ultimately depreciate that of their 
estates. They remonstrated against this aew grievance, but 
with no better success than that which attendpd their former 
complaints. If new taxes were absolutely necessary for 
th^ support of government, it was contended that such 
imposts ought to be preferred as would (equally affect air 
commodities ; that a small advance upon the customs would 
be equally productive, and less oppressive, than a heavy 
impost upon any particular article, 'as the general partici- 
pation, in that case, would render the tax comparatively 
-easy; and^ howevei" unnecessary, its operation would be 
less insupportable than when confined to the cane planters 
alone. But all reasoning, or complaining, was precluded 
i>y the predilection which the ministry betrayed for their 
project They could only be prevailed on to promise, in 
his Majesty's name, that if the tax should be found op- 
pressive to the planters, it should be taken off. But when 

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the planters claimed the performance of this engagement, *2^J:^- 
and endeavoured tO' prove the injustice and impolicy of an ^^^^' 
impost- so disproportioned tq their ability, and the circum- 
stances of the country, they were briefly told, ** That it was 
very indecent, not to say undtitifiil, to t^x the King with 
his promise*. 

Sir RicKard Button seems, upon all occasions, to have 
encouraged every proposal for burthening and distressing 
the jpebplife placed lindei' his care; and, although his ad- 
ministration has be^ generally reputed grievous and op- 
pressive,' the House of ^Assembly, oh his late return from 
England, voted Captain "Jones, of the Diamond frigate, 
a present of one hundred pounds, for having brought over 
tlie^ govei*ii6*r-f ; ^circumstance which, considering the 
character of the man, is scarcely credible, if, besides po« 
sitive evidence, the fact were not corroborated by many 
later instances, of the respect and adulation with which 
the worst rulers are treated by men whose rank and Station, 
in the community, ought to place them above every sinister 
tonsideration of hope or fear, and render th^m the 
faithful; as they are the delegated, guardikns of their 
country s nghts. 

' Upon Sir Richard Button's late return to England, his 
'Majesty ^as pleased to order, t^t biie-half the salary arid 
perijuisitfcs, claring his' absence/ should be paid to the de- 

Uni?. Hist. vol. 41. p. 154. t Hall's Laws of Barb. ^. 414. 

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CHAP. IV. puty-govemor* Sych an arrao^emcnt was by no meMU 
ioe5. agreeable to his excellency's mercenary disposition; and 
Witham, who was little disposed to relinquish the reward 
of his services, incurred the enmity of lus chief, by insist- 
ing on a strict compliance with his Majesty's favourable, ia-% 
tention towards him. Nor, was Button long at a loss for « 
pretext to evade the payment of the eaoney. He accused 
Witham of mal-administration ; that he had toiitted to 
take tiie usual oath for observing trade and navi^tion ; 
that he had assumed the title of lieuteoant-^governor; ai^d 
altered decrees of the Court of Chancery in his chamber. 
Upon these frivolous charges, Witham was committed to pri^ 
Nov, e. son, by an order of council*, and bound to appear at the next 
court of grand sessions, where be* was tried on three sepa^ 

''^ It i« now dearly ascertained, that the council do not possess this power over the 
liberties of their fellow-subjects* " Commitments of the subject for arbitrary causes 
and contempts of their boards which they were sufiered to order till very lately, are 
BOW entirely at an endi The privy council ^f Great Britain h found to possess no^ 
freater authority in tbiacase than a cemnion jiiatice of the i^ce, with this furtheii 
limitation, that the persons they commit cannot legally be apprehended, in the first 
instance, by their warrant, except for treasonable practices, or designs against the 
state, either violently presumed, or actually charged upon oath. For the explication 
tit tiiis we are indebted to Lord Camden, in the case of Wilkes. In the oase of Mr^ 
Di9«glas, 4jf Jammta, who was imprisoned by a warrant of Ike privy-eautteil of that 
island, and released by the chief justice, on bis writ of iMbeuicorfm, th^ were ad^ 
judged, by tha supreme court, to have no right of restraining public liberty, vested in 
Ihefli 1^ the ktwa and eoBstitiiiioB of tbeir oouatqF*.'' 

Long's Hut* of Jamaica^ voI*^ l.p, 174. 

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Tate indi<^»ient!*, coavicted^ and condemned to pay a fine 9^1^^^:^^ 
of el6ven hundred pounds sterling. From this jsentenct ^^^* 
Witham appealed to the justice of his sovereign; and the 
governor, with Mr. Henry Walrond, chief justice of the 
xourt of grand sessions^ were immediately ordered home to 
vindicate their coiidttct. Upon a full investigation of the. 
alikir before the King and council, the sentence of the 
court was annulled, and the fine remitted. 

Witham, not satisfied with this victory, immediately 
commenced a prosecution against Dutton and Wakond, as . 
president of the council, for an assault and false imprieo»- 
inent. l\\e governor, in his defence, alledged, that thfe 
plaintiff^s incarceration had been inflicted, with the con- 
currenceof the council, for malversation in the execution 
of his ofSce as d^uty-governor. .The council, it was 
contended, were competent to commit for ofiences proved 
to their satisfaction ; and that the inhabitants of Barba* 
does were not entitled to the benefit of any particular sta- 
tute,* or even of the common law of England; but that 
they might be governed by any rule or ordinance that his 
Majesty should think proper to direct*. To this it was re- 

* '* JUa-ooamiitoa^ ihelordfl of cmmnU March^ Ih lOBO^ their lordships re* 
ferred this q[uesti<m to the attorney and solicitor genera] ; whether his Majesty's sub- 
Jects inhabiting and trading to Jamaica, had a right to the laws of. England as Eng* 
lishmen ? To which it was answered^ The people of Jamaica haVe no right to be go^ 

• n 2 

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CHAP. IV. plied, that Sir John was responsible to his Sovereign alone 
i6>5. for any misdemeanour of which he might bare been guilty 
in his government: that after the King had given to any 
people under Ids allegiance, or subjection, a constitution of 
their own, no succeeding monarch hart a right to alter it 
without an act of parlian:ient; and, therefore, as the inha» 
bitants of Barbadoes were, by the charter granted t-q the 
Earl of Carlisle, invested with all the rights, privileges and 
franchises of British subjects, they were not to be governed 
by the biws of England; but by their owa, particular, law^ 
and customs. The court concurring in thisreasoningi judg- 
ment was given for Sir John Witham ;.but it was afterwards, 
in^tha 5th of William and Mary, reversed by the House of 
Peers. President Walrond was yet more unfortunate ; for 
although a verdict of only thirty pounds damages was 
given against him, the suit terminated in his ruin.' His long 
detention from home, the expenccs of the suit and other 
charges incident to an European voyage, proved a load toa 
heavy for his fortune to bear. As, some reparation for the 
injury he had sustained, and as a tribute of gratitude for 
his former meritorious services, the assembly, on his re- 
turn, voted him a present of five hundred pounds ; and ad- 
ded their testimony to the integrity and rectitude of his 
— ' ■ ■ . . I ■■ ^ . .., ■ 

veroed by the laws of England^ but by such laws as are made there and established 
by his Majesty's authority.'* 

Edwards's Hist, of the West Indies, vol. 1, p. 304,^ 

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conduct in th0 particular aflFair which had drawn on him ^yjjij:^' 
the prosecution that had ended so fatally*. ^^^^• 

Notwithstanding the King's order that the executive au^ 
thority, in case of the Governor's death or absence, should 
devolve oa the senior member of council, Sir Richard, as 
afresh proof of his hostihty to the interests of the coun* 
try, on his being recalled, -appointed IVIr. Edwin Stede, de- 
I puty-governor.. This gentleman had. officiated in the seve- 

I ral characters of his Majesty's casual receiver, the gover* 

j nor's secretary, a commissioner for collecting the duty of 

four and a half per cent* and agent; for the African com- 
pany^ whose measures had been so iiymical to the prospe- 
rity of Barbadoes* To complete the climax, he was soon 
confirnaed in hi& present situatk)n'by a commissicm from his July 1 5,. 
Majesty, constituting him- commander in chief. 
The rash dnd ill-concerted enterprise against James II. 

♦ Univ. Hist. vol. 41, p. 154. Mem. of Barb. p. 44. This transaction is very in- 
correctly related by the compilers of the Universal History. They awert, contrary to 
tbe plain matter of fact, that Colonel Walrond, who had been left deputy-governor 
by Dutton, fell under his displeasure, and was sent to England to answer a charge 
against him, on account of a trial before a court of oyer and terminer, in which 
Walrond presided. This inconsistent stdry is implicitly adopted by the author of the 
Short History, p. 37, wHo asserts, that Walrond's prosecutor was vigowusly supported 
by the governor. ' Strange that Dutton should have supported his bitterest enemy in 
a prosecution against the man who had promoted his views ! I hive been enabled to 
correct these misstat*unenlt> on the authority of Hall, the editor of thelaWs^ who, in 
his manuscript account of the 6rst settlement of pdrbadoe>, <;ives the relation of thifr 
af&ir, which I have adopted as the most accurate and consistent. 

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€H>p.iv. which temiiaated in tiie ciestraction af the Duke of Mon«» 
168^. mouth and his adherents, having been frustrated by the 
bravery and activity of the king's troops^ many of the 
wretched victims of ambition and tyranny were transported 
to Barbadoes. An&iouB to display their seal and loyalty, 
the assembly passed a law for governing and retaining 
within the island all such rebel convicts as, by hk Majes- 
ty's most sacrod order, have been, or shall be, transported 
to th»$ pl^ce*/' By the rigorous proviftiont of this statute, 
the condition of these men, whose only crime was [H^ma^ 
turely attempting to do that which, in three short years af- 
i^erwards,. was happily accomplished by the Prince of 
Orange, with the approbatipa and assistance of a large 
majwity of the nationt was raadered scarcely less miser^- 
^ble than that of the plantation slaves. 

Notwithstanding the appearance of attachment to the 
Prince on the throne, the sentiments of some^of the prin- 
tcipal men. in the country were, in reality, extremely iniml- 
wcal to tlie existing government, both in England and Bar- 
'l>adoes. Among these, Sir Timothy Thomhiil, a memb^ 
iof council, and major-general of the militia ; a gentleman 
most deservedly possessed of great popularity, having 
^xpiessed his opinion on the state of public affairs with more 

♦ Hall's Law8« p. 484-. This act was repealed after the revolution, by an order 
from his Majesty, for tilie enlai^g^ment of the rebels transported to Barbadoes. 


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warmth than discretioD^ was prctoecfuted by of d«: of th^ ^2^J;w* 
governor for sedition, a»d condemned to pay a fine of five ^^^* . 
hundred pounds to the king, and fifteen hundred pounds to 
his exqeUenoy. Tbomhill appeal^ to the King in coun- 
cil, but without *succejis: the judgment of thi6 court was 

Mr.Stedehad enjoyed the honour of his appointment i687* 
nearly two y^ars, as all his predecessors bad done, without 
peceiving any subf^tantial reward from the country ; but. at 
length he had the address to ingratiate hitnsdf with the 
council and assembly, who generously made him a present, 
of one thousand pounds! sterling, which act of generosity 
was successively* repeated in tfcelatteh years of his adminis- 
tration. A precedent was thus established, pregnant with 
much future mischief and internal dissension. . The Barba- 
dians can, witJi little propriety, complain tljiat none of tho 
patriotic purposes for which the four and a half duty was 
imposed, have been complied with,since.they so eagerly con- 
tribute to the abuse of the grant, , by providing otherwise 
ftM'the service to which it ought to be applied. This sea- 
sonable donative enabled Mr. Stede to support the dignity 
of his station with suitable splendour; and was the more 
acceptable, as he soon had occasion to make a grand dis- 
]^ay of hospitality. The Duke of Albemarle, on his pas- . 

...■.■■ . ■ . ■ ■■ ■ ^ 

♦ Hall V first settlement rf Barb. p. 30. M. S. 

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CHAR IV. sage to Jamaica, of which he had been recently appoirited 
ia^7. governor*, having jrtopped at Barbadoes, was received at. 
Fontabelle with all the honours due to *his Tank arid qua- 
lity ; and was entertained by the governor several days 
with great pomp and magnificence. 
1688- ^he island was the next year alarmed by the report of a 

conspiracy, among the -slaves, to make themselves masters of 
the country, by murdering all the male inhabttants, or re- 
ducing them to slavery, and reserving the women for the 
gratification of their brutal appetites. The accomplish- 
ment of this dreadful design was happily prevented by the 
timely discovery of the plot ; and ^bout twenty of 4he most 
daring conspirators were sacrificed to the public safety. 
The calamity from which the people had been thus provi- 
dentiaUy delivered seems to have awakened the legislature 
to a sense of their danger, and the necessity of encou- 
raging the population of the country. To this end they 

* This nobleman aHbrds a retnarkable instance of the anitability of fortune;, the 
vanity of human grandeur, and the fiattal effects of vicious habits and profligate oian- 
ners He was the only son of Genera) Monk, the principal agent in the restoration 
of Charles II. The services performed by his father were re\i^arded with a dukedom, 
the garter, and a princely fortune; but the son, reduced to indigence by extrava* ^ 
gance and debauchery, was compelled to solicit bread from James II. who, to be freed 
from his importunities, bestowed on him the government of Jamaica, where, dying 
without issue, the title became extinct ; and the honours acquired by the virtue of 
the father, were lost by the vices of the degenerate son. 

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enacted a law '* to encourage the importation 6f CMstian chAp^. 
servants, and for retaining them within the island/' What* ^^^^' 
ever might hare been the advantages propcteed by this plan 
it was far from afibrding an effectual counterpoise to that 
preponderance which the negroes must necessarily possess- 
in the scale of numbers. 

To provide a remedy suitable to the tria^itude of this^ 
evil^ the best policy which could be adopted in a country 
where slavery prevails, is to hold oiit' every possible en- 
couragement t6 that hardy and usefiil, tihdugh humble,* 
class of people, known by the Colonial iappellatioh bf tl»' 
tenantry. ITie only legitimate aim of human politics is* 
the extension of human felicity ; and this cannot be ef- 
fected except by the encrease of numbert, provided with th^i 
comfortable nieatas oiT subsistence*.- To aCc^tiirfe and mkm^ 
tain an extent of population essential to theseciiiiiy ^d* 
prosperity of the country, the rich, whose individual in- 
terest is inseparably connected with the pubjic w^^feje, 
should be made toyield^.in some points, to the support andi 
accommodation of the poor. The proprietors of planta- 
tions may be compelled, by the militia law, instead of bil- 
letted men, to furnish tenants^ in proportion to tbeic quan-^ 
tity of land, who should be legally confirmed in the unmo^ 

♦VacPriey'iHiilo8q)h5r, fol.2, p, 34i. * 

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laot • THE HEyro^Y 

cBAjuv. lotted ODyoymeal ol" iS^r litUe tf ueiBtents*. It wa» tlio 
**^ wi^ of Heoxy IV. of Fraaoe^ juroajEoed the Father of his 
People, that hecoigh^ Uv^ to see a fow?! in the pot oi ewiy 
peasant in hi» biogdom. Let it be the aim of ererjF Bais 
badlani etnul^tt!» of the saooe gloriiws appdlati^ifw to ejfect 
a cottage over the head of every peasant in Bs^rbad^i^H 9q4 
gratitude iviU inifigQiate th^ vm up49V yvia/^ ^l^rdljr 
possepqr wiU fii^ 1^ be^t seQurit; in the; hoi|v <9f danger. 
Th# trifling property thw be*to?^ed Qn the h'JJwWe hws^ 
1^9^i^4i^n, tl^ loTjulj r^f ende<^ tP him by ths spei^y 
^ a wifi» ^94 chUdreih the partqe^ of hisr toils and the 
%c>I%pe of hif d*yst» ^fould biftd hi<% by the njopt invincible 
ties tq hU oative soil j, and impel hin>,. Yhen led on by his 
ge^qroy^ landlord, to risque bis lile with ardour, in defence 
of a gauntry to. which he is, attached by the Boost indis^ 
i^ubl/c connexions* 

' -^ The present militia law has made some provisions for tenants ; but it seems to 
kaxe hutk iaefibctuai. Tbcy are either ehided with fiunlity, er violated with impu- 
nitjf.. Otmm^ i4a«tati«Da, widioaiMgard t^ jmticet policy, or hn»MBtlj« tht tcoNrti 
have, been wantonly and cruelly driven from tb^ir honci^. and sha9» leatKS given t<> 
tbe white servants for the vacant tenements. In others, the poor tenant, be«ides taif 
personal services, is compelled to provide himself with uniibrm, arms, and ammu- 
ajtiM, a^ bit qm^k C4tt, which is more, iamany instanecs, than Hhe rent of the barren 
heath which he occupies u worth. Some men have a strange propension to evade 
the legal institutes of their country, merely to shew their superior cunning and dex- 
terity. Bat what minds mnst these m^i possess, w4io can find satisftction in such 
pitiful evasions ; who, while they waste thousands in riot and debaucheiy, deny bread 

to tbe labourer, and refuse rest and shelter to tbe houseles* wanderer i ,. 


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flicse atte the men on wliose strength and courage we chap. 4y. 
may tdy trttti confidence to defend us from All aUempls ctf ^**'*'* , 
bur en^&iied^ foreign or domestic. Their liumility irendeii 
thj^i more tractabte and obedient, under the restraints ck 
military didtiplihfe, than the Wealthy or luxurious, whosfe 
fs^e^ n&istakeh pride, cailnot submit to the subordination 
tie<;^8al7 iik the field oi: the camp; atid who§e effeminacii^ 
renders them incapable ojF taartial exetcis^* It is nek 
ehcnigh 'to permit the jioor to erect their temperary haiji- 
t^tidnS on Ufteleiis skirts c^ barren land. They should be 
«ticduiraged to wotk> and puacitually paid fdr their labou^i 
Slaves should no longef be employed in mechadical oecii- 
-pAtiimut those employments shbuld be reserved for poor 
freemen, whence they tbight derive the medns of subsi&^ 
ence,attd the public ^njoy the benefit arising ftom agenerd 
diffusion oF the wages of industry. In Jamaica there feSr- 
ists a law to oblige all owners of nogroes to employ od^ 
white servant for every thirty slaves ; one to -every hundred 
Abd fifty h^d of cattle ; obe to etei^y ta^^thj and a likb 
proportion for every boat, wherry, and tanoe^. This la^. 

* This law b justly commended by a judicious historian, thoroughly acquainted 
WiUi the ttue interests of Ac eokmt^s. Fide Lm^s tinti of Jamaica^ w/. I, p 3lO.» 
His retaarks on (his subject are too dHfine to be inserted in a note. I ^ah ohly, tfaer^- 
fere, recoibmend bis book to the perusal ot my reader, as a pMormaiice trhioh^ 
thmiS;b less elqfant Qiati Edwards's splendid Histoid of the West Indies, ^ontain^ mcftt 
useful bformation on colonial politics, thfln any other woAwbicb has tofae willii^ 
my observation, 

8 2 

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132 . THE HrSTORT 

CHAP. IV. though perverted into a mere regulation of finance, is acT- 
^^^^' mirably calculated to preserve the legitimate population of 
,the country ;> and, under the preBent circumstances ofBar- 
badoesy may, perhaps, be thought worthy of adoption^ 
with a penalty sufficient' to enforce its observance. ' ' 
,; It was at this juncture, and upon (his occasion, t^tthe 
legislature of Barbadoes enacted that famous statute^ Nwn^ 
ber Eighty-two, for the government of negroes,, which lias 
of late years^ becomie a popular theme of decktmatio.u in 
England; and subject^ th^ peaceable^ unoffeading' West 
Indians, to the mpf^t illiberal invectives and the most virur- 
Jent ab,u$e. By thisr l^w, amocig many provisions made for 
the prevention of crimes, and the punishment of offences ; 
which,, to the honour of the people, ai^e executed with a 
spirit as mild and lenient as the object is just and laudable^ 
it was ordained, " That if any slave, under punislmient by 
his master, or his ord^sr, shall suffer in life or member, no 
ppip shall ]ye liable to any fine for it. ' But if any person 
w^^Bly pr cruelty kill his own slave, he shall pay into the 
public. treasury fifteen pounds*. If he intentionally kill the 
slave of another, besides paying the owner double the value, 

* Though the punishment here prescribed^ mty appear disproportioiied to the 
enormity of the crime, it should be rememhered, that in a country where slaves com- 
pose the principal part of the property of the inhabitants : and where their labour, 
or hire, is, in many cases, the only means of their owner's support; the loss of a 
slave is, of itself, a very heavy forfeiture, without any additional penalty. ^ It never 
once entered into the imagination of the legislature, that any reasonable being. 

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and twenty-five pounds to the treasurer, he shall be bound ^hap. Wi 
to hi3 good behayiour, during tte pleasure of the governor ^^*^* 
and^councU. And if any person kill another man's slave by 
accident, he shall only be Uable to the owner's action at 
law*. But' if any person kiU a negro,, by night,, out of the 
road) stealing or attempting toi steal his provisions or othec 
goodss he shall not be accountable for it-f;^ 

The lenity of has been generally condemned 
with indecent asperity by the bumanie, mistaken, and mis^ 
informed Europeans, for its reputed insufficiency to afford 
protection to a hapless race of beings. Nor is it surprising: 

Ipvemed by those considerations of interest which commonly influence mankind, 
would wilfully sacrifice the life of a valuable slave. People abroad may indulge their 
talents for conjecture, and reason hypotbetically concerning the repnted^inhumaintj^ 
of the West Indians ^ but, hitppily,. such: instancrs of extreme crudty are uokiioim^ 

* A sufficient punishment, surely, for accidental homicide I *' This homicide is 
not felony, because it is not accompanied with a felonious intent, which is necessary 
in every felony/' (1* Hawkins 75.)' '"But in all'caseg of homicide, by miiadventure#^ 
il- is nevertheless a tresspass, spid the person hurt shall recover his damages ; for* 
thou(^ the chance excuse from felony, yet it.excuseth not from itegffiM.*^ {\ Mule's 
Eisi, 472.) Bum*s Justice, v. 2, pi 505, 

t ''If a thief be fbfund breaking up, and he Be smittlsn, that he die, there shall no 
Mood be spilt for him«'' Exodus, c. xxii. «. 2. ''If any evil disposed person shal( 
feloniously attempt ta rob, or murder, any person, in any dwelhng'house or Jdgkwa^^ 
or feloniously attempt to break any dwelling-house in thcnigkt tme, and shall happen 
in such felonious attempt to be slain, the slayer shall be discharged, and forfeit no 
lands or goods.'' Bwm's Justice^ v. 2. p. 502. 

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<2^*:2- fhat a uation, Twbitiiated to the fcontemplatioii of pxibtic 
16$$. executions, without perceiving thiit i^rimes are not dhni* 
nisbed by excessive severity, should erroneously coticlude 
that no puftislnnent, shott of death, is capable of restraift-i 
ing the violfence and impetuosity of turbulent, licenttoua 
man. But the children of the sun, incapable of thosft 
deliberate acts of cruelty, injustice, and treachery, ^*tech 
Are frequetitly perpetrated by the gloomy phlegmatic ihba- 
bitants of more northern climates, have found a milder 
isiystem of jurisprudence, sufficiently efficacious in promoting 
the ultimate object of all penal laws, the prevention of 

It is not pretended that no murders whatever have beeii 
committed. I only mean to assert, and I do it with con- 
fidence and exultation, that they are less frequent in B^ri 
badoes thati in any county of Great Britain, or, petiiaps^ 
In any part of the world, where they are capitally punished: 
llie population of Barbadoes consists of seventy-five thou-^ 
sand blacks, and fifteen thousand white inhabitants; con- 
sequently, allowing the provocations offered by both classes 
to be equal, thfe number of liegro homicides committed by 
freemen, compared with those of the white, should be in 
the proportion of five to one. But, however incredible it 
may appear to our European calumniators, it is an indifr* 
putable fact, that homicide among the white inhabitants, 
though far from being a common occurrence, and notwith- 
<standing it is usually punished here in the same exemplary 

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OF BARBADOE&. 135^. 

vpwmtier (o at the OW Bailqy, ia ydt n much mom frecpieiit ^^JJJJJ^ 
9£S3Qce than the murder of a sI^m^ b/ a free man. ^^^ 

- Ia a pmod of thirty-foor years^ there have bee^no^au-^ 
theotic accocmts^ of mofe thaa nxteen n^oes killed bjF 
white nieii> and of these only ait come .mthin tiier legale 
description of that species of homicide whick even^ the 
English crinHnal judicature would punish with aeatb. 
Lord Seaforthy during, his administration,, instituted, a mi- 
nute inc|aify into offences of this sort ; and, though he^ 
emplajed no ordinary: diegree of industry in pursuing tha 
mquisitionv three instances of extreme cruelty were all' that 
he couid ascertain to have been committed for several years. . 
Now let the candid and impartial reader take these fects- 
mUy consideration, and then let him say in what' happy 
KfporL of the habitable globe it is possible to meet with so 
few instances of criminality^ in the same space of time,, 
among a people so numerous. Such is ^e lamentably 
fr^ijty of imperfect man, that ia every socieky,^ composedt 
qC s«ch. fallible beings, whether under the rigour of thd 
l(rijlish criiplnal code, or thenhilder influence of Wiestlndiati; 
poljuqy,, ofieooes mmi come. That they are p«nushedv imw 
p^^ but little merit m the system of legislation by which^ 
the pKtiishmdnt is^sa&ctibned^;if they are not prevented; cur, 
Ht'leost,^ rendered comparatively ibw«>i: 

^3Mt;aU discussionon thibsubject isnsow) at an endl The 
legislature have passed a law to punish the wilAd murder 
of arsls^ve with deaths NOT'Was it from' any ytt&toS hu« 

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<<^^2£J toanhj^ x>r regard for justice, that this measure has bcfew 
jaa^. ^^ iQug delayed. The infrequency of the crime proved the 
cflSLciency of the existing law, in restraining the hand of 
viblence ks eflfiectaally as could have been done by ainore 
sanguinary mode of punishment Barbadians require not 
tlie terror of capital inflictions to restrain them from those 
atrocities which disturb the domestic peace and happiness 
pf pritate society, in nations who extol the perfection 
pf their •criminal -code. In the natural mildness and be- 
nignity of their tempers, the weak and defenseless find 
security and protection from violence and injustice. 

In a review of this meniorable la^r, th6 cruelty and in- 
justice of some sections cannot escape observation*. The 
negro is here denied the natural right of defending himself 
against the attacks of his fellow slave. In assaults and 
affrays the innocent and the guilty are equally liable to 
pnnishmei][t ; and in homicide here are no legal gradations 
of guilt /The dave, who i kills, ^nollier, shall surely die. 
Self-preservation is naiure^s primary law. WheniGod be-* 
stowed existetice upoaiUiabJihe gav.e liitxi the right xrf' c^lf- 
defenice \ and no human jnriidiction has a legitimate pdwer 
to deprive kim. of this sacred {Mivilege. This law of nature, 
being coeval with mankind,iiaEidi dictated by God hlinself^ 
is of superior obligation to anyitxtfaei;. .' No huinad Idws-laM 
of any validity, if jcontmry to. ^tWs*!. • Such a law is^an 

■ ■ ■ ; ■! 1 1 I I I 1 1 ■ J I II 1 1 1 ■ I < ■ I ■ i» I I ' , ' ■ ■ f ; I ■ ' . 1 ' n * I t r , 1 1 I ' I I I'l l I , gT « 

.tn act of parliament^ made «ontrary to natural justice^ u void in itself. 

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OF BAia^ADO^. 337 

^u'tra^' 'Oij' th^. patural feelings of 'tnaokin^, and re--*JJJJ:^- 
■ pugttaQt to every principle of natural and political jus- ****• 
'tice..: •...,'■ , . _ ... •...• : : .: ;..' 
, "Jt c^pnqt J>e :di$seiiiblec|, that some other clauses of 
the statute evince a harshness aiad severity unworthy 
o^ a' christian legislature. • Capital offence* ar^ cfeatejd 
withr a facility and heedlessness ^^ly Gul^al>Ie> aiji^ ;the 
* Jni^s^ shocking a«nd iroraodefatq pjuc^hmentsare ai^nex 
tiivial pffences. It ig enacted, That ^f ajcijy ^lave strike a 
christian, he shall, for the first offence, be severely; whipped, 
1?;^ ordey of the jasti<?g o| J;h^ p^^jt» whom the complm 
shall baye been made tfppnoaih; and fpr;t^fj^cQnd pffgpc^ 
hfe shall j besides being whipped, laave his nose sUtt aii.d be 
burned in the face with an .hot .irpn. This clause breathjes 
the sanguinary spirit pf r a,Nerp or I^oniitian ; but let me 
add,^A^tl».constOipu^ipptnUation^ yxiit4|lj.iji,9§fo^9e<^ vvith. the 
mildness and cl^fnpuc^ /^f st, Titjjf. ^^^^,si^^.ix\;^pft oi" 
the horrid inflic^tifji) pr^c^ljed jfarjthe^.sjecond, q^pce» is 
unkno,wn to the jc^d^^t jgjjajj^lj^ gf fji.e.. country. It is 
adraitje4..^vcn ,b^. .an. ,enf;pi| J^^^^f hi? piiesjeut; raqq ^f .Bar- 
badians is more humane, and incomparably mor^ e^igh^ 
tened, than their^jsmcestor^ . TUQ.genercf^r i^atives of the 
t?.^^(?P??e,,,Yrh(^,l|j^rjg ^^.^a^ yf^m^ 9^. ^Ip^^pt^ospjier^ 

* ' " • - I * I 1 ' ' ' 

.; Li:; !'-> t-iiiijicksAhr^Idetytirs'fchSlaVeiy, p/us;- ' ' . '• 

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^^li^' ^» which they breathe, disdain to cypress the sable laticmrer 
16W. ^|jp contributed to their luxury, or provides for their sub- 
sistence. But this is not enough. It is not enough that 
this barbarous law should be neglected; it ought tobeex* 
punged from the statute book. But while, from the purest 
knotives of humanity, I reprobate this sanguinary clause, 
with what propriety^ may I be pemiitted to ask, can those 
condemn it^ who, in a land of freedom, sanction and prac*^ 
tise punishments more severe for offences not more atro^ 
cious ? Is the soldier, who fights the battles of his country, 
axid lifts lus hand against bis commanding office, mor6 
erimma]> or punislied with less sdv^rrty, than the audacious 
slare who strikes his master? Is th^ gallant sailor, who 
uphdds the nation's glory, and protects it by his valour and 
prowess, subject to a milder punishment, if, in a moment of 
unguarded resentitifent, he should strike Ifhe officer wliose 

t r 

orden he is bottnd to obey? No, an ignominious: death 
awaits the rash offender : his former seizes are forgotten, 
and he is consigned to a premature grave for his temerity, 
while the slave lives to lepeat hisf crime and '^x'tili in his 

Of the mode of proceeding on tiie trial of slaves, it may 

be proper to take some notice Hi thi^ place. In alt C6i!ntiicui 

cases, a justice of the peace ia .empowered.- to. hear the 

' complaint, and proceed to judgment; wuiy on the most 

ordinary and trivial aggressions, the evidence of the first 

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OF BAl^PADOES. 135> 

g^tii«lpaa,m%rbadoe9, agaiast the worst, negro, >^«t>en ^^2^^;^^" 
«!• 09th. But in. cases of JFelony, two justices pf the peace " "8». 
are ijequired tp take cognisance of the offence; an4 to 
sumnaoq. a jury, of three freeholders; not merely of Uw 
vkxqiiij, , lest any {»rtiaU^ should he vsed in the^ selecfioft, 
fafQt «rho ate nearest to the sdol; were the felonious -'act 
was committed. Here the satoe formnlity iji piracttae4i>f 
in alLother judicial proceedings\ iThe ajccn&ed is coofiionte^ 
with his accusek: and. the wiitnes^ ; hie Imus coims^^ fk39ig9d4 
. hma at thtes-feuMe of his fda»(£r, ^nd, evfrj m^w kniatfD 
to the oonrts at Westminstfur H^II; are ^mpk>ye4 in tiie-iuU 
and iair investigation of the charge. When the evideoce 
is closfsd, the magis^tes. and the piajp coltectiv«ly« ai'e 
left to decide » a^' » sin^ dissentient -ab^olFes l^ pnaaoer 
from guilt If he i& convicted, tiiare ye^ temains anoEtlKf 
cliance (^ saving lumTrom' the sentence of -the Iftw> the 
right of appeal ta' the go^ertjor and couiKil; a Tight^wb|c^ 
is usually exercned^ wheneret :the£e is theledst' pimp^^ 
oiF its being successful*.'"' • - . ■■■ , ^ 

To this form of trial, the' only objisetido vbifli ims pes- 
sibly exist, is to ihe iitiinl)jer of the jury:iaecl'fiertAi«l-y>it 
would be mote conformabb to tise priacifdefi of £nf liiih 
jurisprudence, were tbfe jtiry^ on thesis eeoaiuoits; do^^iofiftd 
of the same nunibib- of fi«eh(Jders axf in; oUur -o^au^ il^t 
no inconvenience' has ^i&f b^«n expcrieho^ ffonii^4^ 
lonial deviation fh)ai' iM^'foddamental .iyi|e =af.«rinafi*l 

T 2 

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CHAP. IV. judicature. Infallibility is not the property of any precise 
i«88. number of persons. Tratb may be as thoroughly inves- 
tigated, and justice as faithfotly administered, by five, as 
by twelve. Let" liie not be Hfrisurtderstood. I mean mA tQ 
speak Kghtly, nor irreverently, o,f the established i^^^.qi 
trial by juiy. "With enthusiastic Veneration, I regard it as 
the palladium of all our Civil and political rights. These 
remarks are merely intended to establish this position,' that 
the formi prescribed by the colonial lawi for the trial, of 
slaves^ is, iii'aU resects, cofittpeterit to the JKgnlsMf.'aiid im^ 
partial administration of' justiwft ; add «aildid iBen;inay 
probably think, th&t a tribunal, consisting of two/ihagi?* 
tirates and three jnryipen, may be as capable of deciding 
justly, as the military and naval courts mactiaj, which are 
allowed to decide upon tlie.liVeis of freemen.' 
' To th/e eflSciency of the code of Barbadoes for the pro- 
tection <rf slaves it is objected, that if allows not the eyi- 
'dehce' of coloured people,^ in arty cause, of • complatut 
against the white inhabitants. Evdn i the .advocates for 
iht admission of such testimony seiem stDr^ed at the ex- 
travagance of ' their own proposition, and suggest,, by ..way 
of modiiSlcation, tfaap this testimicHLy of :two ormord i^egroes 
-should be made equivalent to that ' of otte , white person . 
and that such as profess Christianity, might be sworn on the ^ 
-£vaiigdists. God forbid that$uch'a dirieful calai^ty should 
^heSail thk bajppy land. Tli« avf^i^. sword of the, conque- 

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ror; the famine that spreads desolation in its progress ; or the ^^^^: 
pestilence that precipitates tHoasands to.eternity, isRcarcWy ^^^''* , 
more terrible to the ioaaginalibn than the idea of admiUaiig 
seventy dr eighty thousand teatJien slaves to bfear witnesa 
^gainjt their christian masters* A proposal so preposterous : 
can originate only in the most consiiinraate ignorance of ■ 
the character bf the negroes*. ;' ' . •• . . . 

They are pagans in the most extensive signification Of- 
Uhat dpprobriouB appellative. Without even the advantage! ■ - 
of idolatry; they faat^e 310. system of mOr^ity,. po sense of • 
i«Iiwioii»' liar, faith: in it» doctrines ;. thisir. cijeed is witclt. 
eraft, and their oi]dy religious rit^ the practice of Obealu v 
Travellers r^port^ that the Africans are believer^ in the - 
Supreme being; that they have modea of worship, and 
many religious ceremonies-. But those wjip^ have beea ' 
brought to Barbadoeis seem to have left their ^atiottai faith 
and household goods behind ; and, what ip fay more uur 
fortunate^ the^; hav^ adopted no others ii^ . thejy stead- 
Somt3; imdeed, profess Christianity, thatis,: they have, been 
baptiz^, but tAieit" hearts are as void of any religious inv 
pressions as if they had continued in the wilds of Africa. 
Frequent attempts have beep niade by some humane 
owners to. convert their: favourite slaves to Christian- 
ity, and though many of them are treated with parental 
fondness and indulgence, no benefits have been derived 
from the pious endeavours to effect their conversion. 

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14^ ^HE mSTORY 

c^j^^jj^- It <vas laid d&xm hy Lord Coke; that an ififide! -cannot 
168B. t^re received as b witness; and in a sntt for a 'diverte^ in 
Docfor^s tomriioiis, the evidence of a negrd^ in nuch 
later times, was tejected, because he wasnot of ^theChcwr 
ttan r6ligioi3» Again/' ill the Case of Admiral iMattbMF^ 
againsft the Iiidia Company, in the Exchequte,. the teati- 
mony of Orangee, a black nian, was rejescted, by the '^4* 
Vice of tlie Goiirt of King'J} Beneli, upon the ^ame ffrinci- 
pl6. It seem^, however, to b)e gi^netaily^ Emitted, that 
heatliens and idolaters tnay foe s\^^om upon irhatcb^con- 
"35id^r the most sacreiJ parts of tlieir religii^.^ ^This^ipoint 
wris hot long since daborately airgubd in Chancory,'.;liy 
some of the mdst etiiinent tatryers in £nglaaiMl^* and it: M^% 
finally decided by Lord H^rdwicke, assisted by QuiefB^y 
Ton Parker, and the Chief Justices of the Kiog^'s Bench mid 
the Court of Common Pieas^ that tlie tekimony , of DF«(r 
uesses of the OeiVtoo i^ligi^ii, fttmra accordingt ta , tjmr 
particular ceremonies, should ti^ received*. But.lJififtit 
was proved to their Lordship's entif^ 3ilti«lactioti . .thirib/xtike 
Gentoos believe in God, the ^resUor of ^ba vnivenie^ and 
in the doctrhie of future retribution. Upcm •this oceMion, 
Lord Chief Justice WilUs, in ^ehVeting his opinion^ Mfd, 
^ though I am of opinibn ^at infidds, who believe a <}od 

■ '■ ■ I . ' u ■ ■■.. ' ' . ' ! " ' " ' . 

« AtUns's Keports, 'Omyc^hand f . Bntcr. 

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and fotore rewards and punishments, may be ititneBSMj ^ivS* 
yet I am as clearly of opioioD, that if they da not beHeire ***•• 
in Gii>d,. or fu4are rewards and pmnishinents^ they ought 
lUft to>be adjoitted a& witnesses: neither ou£^ the 
sasoe djedit ta be gi^eato the evidence of an ifffidel » 
of a Christian^ becaiase hci i» not under. Ike same ofaii* 

I hare already shewn that the negroes are not possessed 
of those religious sentiments which can inspire them with 
a just sense of the sacred oblig^ion of an oath^. Besides 
an obvious distinction presents itself to the mind, between 
the testimony of infidel witnesses, in particular cases, and 
that of slaves admitted generally against their masters. 
The admission of such testimony, in special cases, in Eu- 
rope, can be attended with^ no material inconvenience to 
the people^ With us there is a difference; and it would be 
almost madness to expose the lives^ the liberties, and pro- 
perties, of the West Indians, to a savage multitude, who 
have not the fear of God before their eyes to restrain them 
as witnesses, from glutting their revenge by the most horrid 
perjuries. Were the testimony of slaves once allowed,. 
Barbadoes would be no place of abode for any honest 
man who had a regard for his reputation, his interest, or 
his personal safety. No innocence of life, no integrity of 
hearty would afford security from criminal prosecutions, sup- 
ported by such evidence* If in civilized society, in the 

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chAJ^, ancMBt poKshed ^roviDces of Europe, the most barefdoed 
*^^*- |)erjurie8 are daily committed by men educated in the prin- 
iciples of Chjistianity, it is easy to foresee what must be^ the 
iktal jconsequeoces o£ legalising tihe testimony of aa igoor- 
sant,' superstitious, vindiotiye race, whom no feligtous nor 
*moml obligatk>a can bind to^ speak i^e truth. ! ! ;; . 3 

v/ I 

ii y> /' J V : t i 

\" J 1:' 


t ft 


modi niiJi's', f . ^ '^ /^ri './»! ;^* !..-.) 'o,Ti,'>k 3iij ion avi^il 

.;, ■ /• : 

; ':. 


1 1 ■ 


Ja-i.: ..; 

• r f . % 

* »r 

:, ■^> 

-^ ' 


1.". :.■■■'■ 

* - 1 

. I 

i '■ 

i:. .V 

.; ^ 

"' )l*il* 

( /.' 



Digitized by 



r CHAP. V. 


In the course of this year an event had taken place in chap, v* 
England which diffused a general, though short-livtid, sa- i6si. 
tisfaction among the King's friends. The royal consort, to 
the inexpressible joy of the court and the Roman Catholics, 
both at home and abroad, was safely delivered of a son. 
The birth of a Prince of Wales, it was vainly hoped^ 
would give stability to the tottering throne. An occurrence 
of so much importance did not fail to draw forth the niost 
lively demonstrations of joy in Barbadoes. But the pub- 
lie rejoicings on this occasion had scarcely ceased before 
the Revolution placed the Crown of Great Britain on the 
heads of William and Mary, Prince and Princess of Orange. 
Mr. Stede*§ principles of loyalty arid fidelity readily accom- 
modated themselves to this change of circumstances, and 
he chearfully proclaimed the accession of the new sove- 
teigns; observing, that if they tvere King and Queen at 


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CHAP. V. Whitehall, they ought to be so here. For this service his^ 
lew, excelleacy had the honour oT havkig his commission re- 
newed, induefonn, by King William. 

Thi^ evept soon presented the Barbadians with an oppor- 
tuuity of displayixig thei? zeal and spirit in defence of his* 
Majesty's rights in the western hemisphere. The French^, 
who were professedly the friends and protectors of the un- 
fortunate family of the Stuarts during their exite, in ton- 
junctioa with some Irish Roman Catholics, attacked the 
English settlers at St. Christopher's, immediately after the 
abdication of James. This hostile proceeding, which was 
afterwards extended to the other British plantations,, was- 
conducted with such an unusual degree of animosity and 
savage barbarity, that General Codrington, who had heext 
recently appointed by King William to the government of 
the Leeward Islands, was forced to apply to Bai^^adoes^ 

; 'for succour, to enable. bim to repel these diaring acts of 
The Barbadians,, generously participating in the resent- 

. ment of their injured fellow subjects, consented, without 
hesitation, to contribute their assistance. Sir Timothy 
Thomhill, major-general of the militia, gallantly volun- 
teered hb services, and quickly raised a regiment of seven 
hundred men, who were accoutered, armed and embarked 
at the public expence. This expedition sailed from Car- 
lisle-bay, on the first day of August; and arrived at Anti- 
gua on the fifth of the same month. Here Sir Timothy had 

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the mortification to learn that the people of St. Chmto^er's 2JJ5;J^* 
had been obliged tp capitulate two days before he left Bar- **^^' 
badoes, on condition of their being transported to Nevis. 
His force being insufficient to attempt the recovery of the 
i^apd, General Codriqgton and himself determined to 
await ithejBurival of a flee.t from England, which was daily • 
jB^pected with troops for the defence of the islands; But 
t)iis reinforcement not arriving at the time it was expected, 
the^ spirited commanders embarked a part of the Barba* 

.dian militia on board sonjie small sloops, and dispatched 
ti^m Jx? A<^wil^« whence they brought off the remains t>f 
tjuit jifluall, colony, w^ich had suffered greatly from the 
fjpu^ty, ,and rapacity of the French and Irish Catholics, NaTcmberw 

.After this, Thornhill proceeded with his regiment to N^evis, 
.which w^tsmenaped by the enemy, but the timely arrival of 
thi9. mn^orceai^t effectually relieved the inhabitants froia 
their fi?ar of invasioji. 

General Cpdrington, finding the posture of affairs woiili 
admit of no delay, hastened after him ; and, though the 
armament from Europe had not arrived, these brave and 
active officers soon planned an expedition, in wliich their 
cojobined forces might be usefully employed. Pursuant to 
this plan, Thornhill, with a detachment of three hundred Dec. 15. 
Barbadian, and two hundred Nevisans, sailed to the at- 
tack of Saint Bartholomew's. Having landed his men, he 
pushed forward with such alacrity that in four days time 
the island surrendered to his victorious arms. This acqui- 

. u 2 

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'^^[J^P;^- sition was obtained ^vith the loss of onlj tea men killeil' 
^^^ and wounded. On this occasion the general does not ap^- 
pear to have acted with beconfting moderation. The pi!i^on* 
ere, to the amount of neai-fj^ seven hundred wen^ .wi^b^hair 
negroes^ live stock and pther«ffec;t»^ were coaveye4 to Nc^ 
vi?, w^ile the unhappy women and children, torn from thj? 
embraces of their husbands and fathers, were, sent, to Saint 
Christopher's. This unnecessary cruelty was iseverely re^ 
probated in England, ^nd the inliab^tants were restpr^ to 
1690. *t^ possession of their property as Britisti subjects*. . 
Jan. 19. I'lushed with victory, Sir Tipiothy next attempted the. 
reduction of Saint Martin's ; where, though he wa^ wW* 
mately unsuccessful, he gained fresh laurels Thje.di^^Qj^t 
was effected without opposition; but his progress w;a» \itn^,: 
peded by greater difficulties than had been foreseen^ < He 
nevertheless succeeded in destroying the principal fortifica^, 
tions, and was prevented from accomplishing the conquest 
of the island only by the unexpected arrival of M. du 
Casse, the-French admiral, with a strong armament^ from 
St. Christopher's. . Thomhill was now compelled to xon? 
tract his posts', and to concert proper measures for his owe 
safety. General Codrington, apprized of his critical situa* 
tion, immediately detached Colond Hewitson, to Saint 
Martinis, with two hundred men, under the convoy of 

♦ Univcwtl Hist. vol. 41, p. 155, 259, 273, 290, 30 k 


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three sloops 'ofwai*. After a smart action between the hos- chap. v. 
tile ^sqitadirdrts; Which terminated in favour of the British,, ^^^°- 
Thdffihill conveyed a'll his' artillery, baggage, and plunder^ 
on h>6kid the fleet ; arid th^, ordering his tents to be struck, 
began HiS'TMareh'to a cbnVenient place fot eniibarking hisK 
trobpi; but" the en6my;* p&rceWmg liis design, commenced 
a ftii*i6ujt attack upoa hirri, in which, however, they were 
beaten back to the woods. The general having made good 
his retifeat, with a triftirfg loss, reimbarked bis gallant little 
army, and returned to Nevis/ where he was joined by Gre- Feb. «. 
rieral Codringtoti,- with twelve hundred men. 
The ardourof'th^se congenial spirits urged them to. the 
, most vigbrotfe opehitions against the enemy; nor was it 
loiig'befdte'tfieyHtisre enabled to ac6oinj 
ject of thi^ir Wislies^ Commodore Wrigh 
arrived' with the l6ng expected succou 
Codrifaglbn, "whb'was appointed coniman 

troops,' immediately fiali^d from Nevis Junci9t 

Saint Christopher's. • The descent was c 
neral ThornhiTl, who, at the head of I 
strengthened by one hundred and fifty men, drawn from 
the othert, landed at tlie foot of a hill, which the French, 
deeming inaccessible, had left unguarded* Sensible of 
the importance of this post, Thomhill, with his usual viva- 
city, proceeded to take possession of the height; but this 
was not effected without much danger and some bloodv- 
shed. When he had gained the sunrnxit^ unexpectedly eu^ 

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CHAP.v* countering n detachment of the enemy, his corps sufitaioed 
1690. an arduous conflict, with! great firmness, till ihe anivol - of 
Colonel Holt, with the Duke of Bolton's r^im^t, wheA 
the French were driven, in the utmost concision, from thdr 
trenches. In this engagemtent, ThomhiU was «o^ grbvot^Iy 
wounded, that he was forced to retire on boahcl: otte ^f tht» 
ships. The command of his regiment, after. -this aeddept, 
-dcTolved on Colonel Thomas, who was ohiered Uy pisde* 
trate into the country, supported by Colonel WHUams, at 
the head of a regiment of AhtegOmans. On^ tliis service 
the Barbadians were exposed to a spirited attack from h svi^ 
perior body of the enemy, and, from their imprudence in 
Jadvancing with too great temwity, must hiive beei inevi- 
lablj cut off, but for the seiasoiiable advance of WilHamif^ 
jrewanre. The timely approach of tbcir friends impiitd ti»e 
'Barbadians with fresh courage, and the eneinj wem soon 
<;onipelIed to take refuge in the woodsy and other strcmg 
1)olds. Sir Timothy lliombill, having sufficiently recovered 
of his wounds, -soon after resumed the command of his -re- 
i^iment, and contributed materially, by Im bravery and 

July 12. conduct, to the redaction of the island, wjiich at kogtb 
capitulated to ijieneral Codrington, as commander in 

Aftgr the conquest of Saint Christopher's, ThomhiU pro- 
ceeded with tfae marines and his own regiment to Saint 
£us^u5, whbnee the Dutch had been r«centfy a^pelled 
hjf ^ fiew^, With th« triflmg loss of ^ txmei than 

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u^tmeD* be stonned the principal fort, a place of don- 
siderable. strefigtlH mouoting sixteea guns, drove out the 
Fj[i9iiicl\ WAd restored tbe islajotd to iia former proprietors, 
yim vif^tocj: closed SirTimotbjr Thomhill's brilliant career,^ he could be of no farther use in the Leeward 
J,^jk»^4»-. hft faatbarked bi» trqops and returned to Barbadoes. 
.^^Mse. ejitorpriacs were so judiciously: pUoned and con- 
duelled . If itibk such coosununate pradence and courage* that 
^ey, reflected, the highest honour on the character of tfaft 
'West.Ioditftns iu' geoeral, but more particulady on the iUus^ 
tnous^.p«^iot, Genentl Codringto^ and the uttvefitid. hero, 
9M Tivm>t]^. Thonihill, by whoiob they had bei^ri. disinter* 
e^edly; undertaken and' gallantly p^<CHined. These trans- 
acMPW .h^^Q heeii the mor^ eixcumstant^lly detailed, be- 
(^u^ iadepfjMlent of .tl>e gratification, r^ultii^g fVom t^ 
coi;di«g the gallant exploits of a meritorious- o6Scerj and' Mr 
«f(^u»tryiBW»> thpy .t^^rve to correct a popular errpr. intti^ 
which n^ftpy ec(«AO«aical politicians have fallen with respect 
to thie.expeikGe'O^ ooaintaining the militia; which, in their 
a{i$>reh$in8M»i, is inadequate to= the purposes of e^ectcud 
de^ce. !We have before us the most iudubitabte evidence, 
not only of the court^^e of th&.West XndiaiiS) bi^t of thei|« 
having been successfully eeajdoyed in ofensive opeiations 
ogBOaat their enemies abroad.. As in, this service, atj^ded 
with no inconsiderable difficulty and danger» tl»ey ac(luitted 
themselves with a firmness aid discipline ei^^al to . Vetentn 
tKK>pe> we may^ wilka. well-gsoandei MAfideace» vexpecf 

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^^^J^Jj^ no less spirited exertions, wh^i called on to defend their 
^^^ country, thdr liberty and property. 

On ThornhilFs return to his native country, the legisla** 
ture, impressed with a just sense of his extraordinary merit, 
voted him a present of one thousand pounds, in coosi* 
deration of the courage, skill and address, which be had 
displayed in his late command against their IVAajesties' 
enemies, and for his services iji the care and dtsciptit^of 
the militia. Sir Timothy had the further satis^ction to 
find, that, during his absence, his implacable enemy, Mr. 
Stede, had been superseded by Colonel James Kendal, a 
native of Barbadoe^ who had been promoted by his 
Sovereign to the government of the island. 
* The appointment of this gentleman seems to have been 
TK) Jess acceptable to his countrymen than beneficial to the 
Colony. By his candid repreSfentation ' of the loyalty and 
'quiet disposition of the people, he diectually removed the 
prejudice which had been expited against them on the 
other «ide of the Atlantic, by the partial and unjust ac- 
trounts -transmitted by his predecessors ; and Bevend mem- 
bers of council, wTio had been suspended in consequence 
of the misrepresentations which had been made to the crown, 
were now restored to their former rank and dignity. The 
tegi^lartwre, as a testimony of their respect for the person 
find character of their new governor, within two months 
after his anival, voted him a present of fifteen hundred 
pounds. This liberality was occasionally reputed during 

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their esteem for him by aa aoauaJ,. tl^ough irr^ular,- doosi^ ^^^^■ 
tiye.;.whi(^ fluc^liuated» acpording tp the humour of the 
day^ or |;hf^.cirf;vvfP$t^QCfspf thq country, froi^ fixe hux^dred 
pqvuuls <^n:^npj,,,to;two tjbjpusa^d ppunds s^rim^ 

^1 pur colppial historians .ag^ee, that; Barbadoe$ h£id iv>.w, 1692. 
at^ipttj l^e ^quith of .pff)sp^rily. ; i^h^oce she Yf^fi 
sceodjby a. gradual hut.qertftiu depUpe. Richt poweifuU 
and j^pulpus, she.pos^sed all that po^ld n)#ke her happjt 
at ')|on^e. £^d respected abroad* Bi^l^ th^ pleasing acaoe 
\v;asiKt^/oyercast wif^ .the clojada of c^apiity, tl^at, lpur« 
mgov^i: hsf -l)^.x ob^i\red.the gay sumhute which .iliuf 
mined the horizpQ. ; ^oturitjist^nding , the st^cc^gp^ wltiol) 
attpn^^d the. military operaUoiis of the "W^^t Indifms,, the 
inhabitants of ^l^arbskdoes pu^jed seyei^^y, ftpm the dejjre- 
d^tion§ eomypi j^tjed on their coroxnerce. /Conuoodom Wrigh/t* 
y^ $e9im ,to bftv e paespsaed |iei fiher . the. cjoujage. nor , th<i 
co^dirgt; c^^ntial to. the phftxac;^]; .€^ % oftTipJt commaBdec, 
adopted np.npjc^^ures.for th? prptect^n 9f trade, while thft 
French rQn%^iRed.B)agt§f^ .of .the.sea,, .and diily.iiitfircepted 
the si^ppli^s^jijfi^geft^ ior. tfep .»H^pprt df the pfantatiouss: 
Tlje Bar|>^9n£i, tl^us U^ \ojd^^^ th^n)aely?S,.w^?e.MndflB 

cost, tp,gij^d thw 8l)fx?^^,,,a»ii afE^^^ ,^ ,f§fiWe,seQ^?i3ty t© 
the remains of their almost ruined commerce. These disas- 
ters were aggravated by the avarice of the ship-owners, 
wh0| availing tkefi»3elvda of th^ waat <^^v.essels to transpoit 

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^^^JJ;^ the produce of the island to Europe, demanded the most 
^^^^ exorbitant prices for the carriage of sugar and other com- 
modities. To check this evil/ it was deemed expedient td 
pass a law, ascertaining the freight of sugar, cotton, and 
ginger. This regulation naturally failed to produce the 
mtended effect. The ship*masters, whcr could not be com- 
pelled to send their ressels to Barbadoes, or to receive 
freight upon the terms prescribed by the act^ went to other 
ports, where they were Bable to^no resteictibns; and the 
planters suffered more from the operation of the remedy 
than from the evil which they had vainly sought to redr^s ; 
a convincing proof that trade will not be bound nor confined 
by arbitrary restraints. The folly and expediency of the 
law having been thus demonstrated, it was soon repeded; 

The calamities of war were^ new accompanied by the 
lavages of pestUeiice. An epidemic disease^ supposed ta 
have been introduced by the troops from Europe, but whieh 
was more pvobaMy, imported with liie negroes from Afnca; 
faged throughout <iie island with such fury that the number 
of bmiak in Bridge-town s^ne* were commonly twenty iir 
a day*« The^ soil, depru^ed of a- considemble^ portion of 
the labour required for its^<kie cultivation, na longer -yielded 
Its fruits with it» accustomed liberality ; and a total failure 
of the crop added to the- general misfortune. Ta completer 

* Enrtpeaa Settknaaim AflAeriea* ¥ol. 2. 

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the climax of ills with which the Barbadians were afflicted, CHAP. v. 
the hoiTors of insurrection seemed ready to overwhelm ^'^^• 
them. * 

. Encouraged by the public distress, the discontented slaves 
entered into a well concerted plan for exterminating the 
white inhabitants, whose numbers were considerably dimi* 
niahed by the contagious distemper which prevailed. This 
conspiracy appears to have been planned with more judg- 
ment than had been hitherto displayed by these ignorant, 
infatuated creatui*es, in any of their former criminal at« 
tempts. A particular day was appointed for a general re- 
volt of the slaves throughout the island ; those on each plan^ 
tation were, at a certain hour, to massacre their masters 
and all the white servants. The .carnage was to have com- 
menced with the governor; the store-keeper was to have 
been assassinated by his waiting-man, who, after perpe- 
trating the atrocious deed, was to supply the conspirators ' 
with arms and . ammunition from the public magazine. 
Proper officers were appointed, under whose conduct the 
insurgents proposed surprising the forts which commanded 
Carlisle-bay, whence they might have been enabled to se- 
cure the shipping. 

The project was nearly ripe for execution, when that gra- 
cious Providence, which wisely governs all things, miracu- 
lously interposed to save the unconscious Barbadians from 
the destruction just ready to burst on their heads. Two of 
the principal conspu*ators, in a state of fancied security^ 

X 2 

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Tferte accidentally overheard, conversing on their diabolical 
scheme. These wretches were instantly arrested j but, ex-* 
pecting that their confederates would make an eflfort for 
their relief, they obstinately refused to make any confession 
which might implicate their friends ; and, with a firmness 
worthy of a better cause, submitted to be hung in chains 
four days, without meat or drink; when, finding al! 
hopes of a rescue Tain, they cflfered to impeach their ac- 
complices, on consideration of receiving a full pardon fat 
themselves. This proposal being acceded to, they made an 
unreserved discovery of the whole plot. Their confederates^ 
were immediately apprehended, and put upon their trial ; 
and, upon the most incontestible evidence of their guilt; 
many of theto, to the great injury of their owners, were 
condemned to sufier death. 

The next object of the public attention was to provide 
some effectual s.ecurity against the recurrence of the 
danger^ from which tb*y had been roost providentially 
deliviered. But this seems rather to have been an object 
of deep-felt solicitude than of easy or perfect attainment. 
It is scarcely possible, in a country where slavery subsists, 
to guard against the dark designs of secret treachery, or 
the more daring attacks of open violence. In every dis- 
pute between parties of whom neither possess the advan- 
tages of military discipline, numbers must finally prevail. 
This single consideration is sufficient to convince our co- 
lonial statesmen of the imperious necessity of a strict atten- 

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tion to the maintenance of a well-regulated militia, and of €fiAP. v. 
the folly of putting arrps into the hands of those, who, at *^^^ 
DO distant period of time, may employ them in the de- 
struction of their unwise rulers. 

Whether the legislature of that day OTeriooked diese inr- 
portant points, is now difficult to determine ; it is, however, 
certain that they contented themselves with passing t^vp^ 
laws, offering indemnity and emancipation to the slave, wha^ 
should give information of any conspiracy among the ne* 
groes; the other prohibiting 1^ selling of rum, or any kind^ 
of strong liquor, to any negro or other slave. The policy 
of this latter law, was founded on a supposition that plot^ 
and conspiracies were commonly entered into upon occa- 
sions of negro festivity, and were facilitated by the power 
of intoxication. But, whatever m'ight then have been the 
opinion entertained of, the propriety and eflScacy of this 
prohibition, it is now suffered to slumber in oblivion. The 
utility of this particular act is at last extremely doubtful ; 
for, exclusive of the absurdity of formally proliibiting what 
is still openly pemiitted ; and was, perhaps, never intended 
to have been entirely prevented, it would be crael to deny 
the servile labourer the use of the cafe-drowning draught, 
the opiate of affliction ; which, taken in moderation, en- 
livens- the heavy hours that roll over his head; obtunds^ 
the sense of pain, reanimates the spirits exhausted by fa- 
tigue, and invigorates the constitution exposed to the 
vicissitudes of a rigorous and variable climate^ 

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Par from being disheartened by mwfortunes, thfc Barbtf- 
dians considered every, new calamity as an additional mo- 
tive for vigQrou3 exertion. The naval superiority of tlkj, 
French, in the West Indies, filled them with the most serious 
apprehensions of invasion. Under this impression, they 
wasted no time in fruitless discussions concerning the mis- 
application of the duty on their staple commodities, nor 
invoh'ed themselves in unavailing disputes with the mini- 
sters of the crown, on the injustice of diverting the produce 
of that impost to purposes foreign from those for which it 
was granted; but with a truly patriotic spirit, they pru- 
dently determined to employ what means were in their 
power, in providing for the safety of their country. With 
this view, the old fortifications were repaired, and new 
ones erected wherever they were required. Two armed 
ships were equipped^ at the public expense, for the pro- 
tection of trade; and their agents*, in England, wete 
directed to apply lo the ministry for a regiment to be sta- 
tioned on the island for its- defence. This request was 
readily complied with, and the troops on their arrival were 
quartered on such of the inhabitants as were deficient of 
men to serve in the militia. Each soldier was allowed, by 
the person on whom he was quartered, six. pounds of salt 

^ Edward Littleton and William Bridges were appointed agents for the colony in 
September 1691. They were the first persons employed in that character, andfaad 
leachof them, a salary of two hundred and fifqr pounds a year allowed Ihenu 

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Meat or fish, each week, besides piaiitation provisions ready chap, v; 
prest, and comfortable lodgings* . ^^^• 

^All these precautions were deemed inadeqnate to the 
aa&ty of the island^ while the French remained in posses^ 
iooa of Martinico. Tte proximity of such formidaWe 
neighbours^ necessarily occasioned continual alarm; the- 
British ministry^ therefore, determined to annihilate the 
power of France in the West Indies. But as a sufficient 
force could not be spared from England, the colonies were* 
lequired to contribute a proportion of troops for the ser^ 
yfice ; the contingent demanded of Barbadoea, was one* 
^usand men. The Barbadians entered into the scheme 
with alacrity. Independent of every other consideration^ 
their resentment against the French was sharpened by re- 
cent injuries,, and particularly by tlie mope than probable 
ojNinion that the late insurrection, among the blacks hadf« 
been contrived and promoted by emissaries from Mavtinico;. 
Two regiments, consisting of five hundred meaeach), were 
accordin^y raised^ and the command given to Colonel StptemW^ 
Sdikec and Qolonel Boteler, two gentlemen, of distingubhedr 
rank and fortune in the. country .. The expense of this uo-^- 
dertaking^ amounted to the sum of thirty thousand^ pounds^ 
a. burthen too great to be borne by a small colony, aireadif 
labouring under a heavy load of taxes, for tibe svipport p£ 

» HftirsLawB ^ Baxb.p.4t0^ 

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The wmament which Great Britaia allotted for the expe^ 
dition against Martinico, consisted of eight ships of thee 
, line and four frigates, under the command of Sir Francis 
Wheeler, an offi<:er of high reputation in the navy, with 
.eighteen transports, haying on board fifteen hundred troops,^^ 
commanded by ColoBcl Foulk. These, on their arrival at 
Barbadoes^ wei^ joined by two regiments raised within the 
island, and foor huadred volunteers^ who gallantly offiered 
their services on the occasion. No unnecessary delays 
were suffered to impede the sailing^ of the squadron^ which 
left Carlisle Bay on the thirtieth day of March, and arrived 
at ^Jartinico two days afterwards. The fleet Came to an 
anchor in the tJul de sac Royale; and, after some time 
spent in mqiking the necessary preparations, Colonel Foulk 
April 42. sftade A descent with fifteen hundred men, whom he em- 
ployed in^stroying some defenceless houses ahd^serted 
batteries. Having spent one entire day in these acts ot 
wanton cruelty and useless hostility, against an unresisting 
\ ^nesiy, he reimbarked his troops, and took no farth^ share 
m the operations of the army. The commodore, at the 
h€*ki of five hundred seamen, now landed,, at Diamond 
Bayi aftd pursued the work of destruction ; burning antf 
destwying, several plantations in that neighbourfioodj and 
dtiVmgtbe uttanaed, dismayeid inhabitants, into the woods. 
Another detachment, led by Colonel Lillington, penetrated 
ti» open country, which they ravaged without oppo- 

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sition and returned without performing any essential ser- chap. v. 
vice*. >W- 

The army was how reinforced, by the arrival of General 
€odrington, with Lloyd's regitnent, from Antigua, and a 
body of troops raised within his government. This acces- 
sion of strength was deemed sufficient to enable the 
British commander to attempt the reduction of the capital 
of Martinico. Sir Francis Wheeler accordingly proceeded April is. 
with the fleet ta Saint Pierre's, and resolutely anchored 
within musket shot of the shore. Here* the Barbadians, 
Supported by the troops from the Leeward Islands, emi- 
nently distinguished themselves. Having effected a land- 
ing, they immediately occupied an eminence which com- 
manded the town; they scoured the couatry, drove the 
enemy from all their advanced posts, and com|x^lled them 
to seek security within their entrenchments. Tlie garrison April id. 
made one effort, by a vigorous sortie, to dislodge the 
assailants, but they were repulsed, and retired under shel- 
ter of their cannon. 

While the troops were thus employed on shore, most of 
the principal officers of the army remained on board the 
ships, where they died ingloriously of pestilential diseases. 
Victory, however, seemed ready to crown.the invaders with 
success, and to reward them with the possession of Saiat 
Pierre's, when the attack was most unaccountably aban- 

* Vmw. Hist rol K p. 16a Campbell't Lives of the Ateiralt, vol 2* p. 447. 


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CHAj^v. <ioned. A council of war having met, they resolved, that 
i^^v in the sickly condition of the army and navy, and from 
many unforeseen difficulties which must be encountered in 
the progress of the siege, the conquest of the place was 
impracticable. In consequence of this resolution, the 
troops and artillery were immediately reimbarked ; and 
thu9, under the most .encouraging prospects of success, 
ended an expedition which nothing could have defeated, 
•but the flagrant misconduct of those to whom it was in- 
trusted- Many of the officers were Irish Roman Catholics, 
notoriously disaffected to the family on the throne, and 
were employed on this service merely as a pretext for send- 
ing them out of the kingdom. To the honour of the West 
Indians, it is generally allowed, that if the European 
troops had behaved as well as they did, not only Martinico, 
but all the French islands must have fallen into the hands 
of the British*. 
1694. Upon the change of ministry in England, Colonel Francis 

Russel, brother to the Earl of Orford, was appointed to 
the government of Barbadoes, and his regiment ordered to 
be stationed there, Mr. Kendall, by a particular order 
from the Kingi took his seat at the council, as president 
of that board-f-, but was soon after recalled, and made one 
of the commissioners of the admiralty, l^e new governor 

♦ UniT.HisU vol. 41.. p* 160. f Hmll's JFim Settljem. of^aA. p. 29, M& 

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was received with the usual demanstrations of respect ; ^2vw ' 
and iK>twithstanding the accumulated distressed of the peo* septanber. 
pie, the assembly voted him a present of two thousand 
pounds. Precedents, though dangerous, are easily esta^t 
bltshed; and attempts are sometimes made to justify the 
worst measures by cases originally innocent and commend-.- 
able* Thus the liberal largesses bestowed on former gc 
veraors,^ under circumstances widely different, had formed 
a precedent from which the legislature could not depart, 
witliout making an invidious distinctiou ta the disadvan* 
tage of their pffeaent comaumder m chief ' But Colonel 
Russel was to be distinguished by i a innoifioence which 
none of his predecessors, had ester enjoyed. Though the 
country was impovensbed by a succession of calamities, it 
was resolved to provide his regiment with quarlerf^atftlm 
public charge. The soldiers, by an act of the legialat^rBi 
were quartered on the plantations, to serve in the militia^ 
and were enti lied to receive from each person, for whom 
they seirved, the same rations as were allowed 4uripg 
the late a^mtiiisiratiQii. The inhabitants received nine^ 
pence a day from the treasuTjr, for each soldier quartered 
on them; and in lieu df provisions, it was optional with - 
the landlord, to pay the soldi^rs^ while ou duty,, one jifac^ 
ling a day. 

The next yiear wjaa :marked with acts of still .greater j^^^ 
genjorosity. In addition to another benevofenoe pf tmo 
thousand pounds, ills escelkacy was .presentfid wiA tkcm 

T 2 

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CfTAi^.v. Iiundred pounds sterlings for the; purpose of repleptsliing 
1605. }|]g cellars ; and, by an extraordinary stretch of complai- 
i^ance, anothenr act was soon after passed, for supplying the 
commissioned officers of bis regiment with provisions at 
the public expense. For this purpose, the niajor was al* 
lowed four shillings a day,. each captain two shillings and 
sixpence, the lieutenants, quarter-master, and surgeon, 
each two shitlings, to be paid out of the treasray. The 
bulk of the people were extremely discontented at this ex- 
cessive profusion. Tbeir complaints were, however, but 
little regarded by the parasites who wished to ingratiate 
themselres with the governor, and to bask in the sun-shine 
of <x>urt favour. Those who hold the strings of the public 
purse, seldom reflect on tiie condition of the lower classes 
* of people. Clad with authority, and indulging in the 
pleasures of affluence, they, are strangers to the misery of 
those from whom they exact the last shilling, to pamper 
Iheirown luxurious appetites, or to promote their schemes 
of ambition. They can well afford to gratify the liberality 
of their tempers, whose extravagance is supported by a 
#hole comtnunity ; and to purchasie. the patronage of a 
venal chief, when the price is p^id out of- the public trea» 
' sury. A few Teading members of the Je^slature enjoy all 
' the merit, and receive the exclusive reward of their muni- 
ficence, while the poor labourer, and the humble house- 
holder, from whose starving mouth the scanty morsel is 
snatched, and from whose shivering limbs the tattered weed 

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is torn, are inBulted and despi^d by tlie ppoud> unfeeling chap. v. 
greats tvhom tlicy contribute to support. ^^^• 

Tlie extfaord^miFy igeneiosity t>f the Barbadians proeared 
them no favour nor indulgence^ Indeed; any expeoiatioa 
of conciUating the^ friendship of governnoent, by i. such 
nieansV vrill ever terminate in disappointment. Tlie ceadi*- 
ness with which the colonial assemblies dispose of the 
money belonging to their constituents, is generally con- 
sid^^d as an evidence of their wealth, rather than of the 
liberality of their minds; and the demands^ on their gene- 
rosity, will always be proportioned to the facility with which 
they are granted. 

The epidemic disease, already mentioned, still continued 

to spread desolation throughout the island. On board the 

men of war, the mortality was so great, that the legislature, 

notwithstanding the enormous expense which they had 

-J * 

lately incurred, wctc obliged to fit out the Marigold brig, 
to bring home a part of the troops employed on the late 
unsuccessful expedition against JUartinico, which had been 
left at Antigua, by Commodore Wheeler. They granted 
the sum of fourteen hundred and eighty-four pounds ster- 
ling, for victualling and manning tlie Bristol frigate, and 
the Playfair prize, to cruise against the enemy*, and were 
under the necessity of paying the very ships appointed to 
convoy their trade to Europe. Yet so little attention was 

* Hall's Laws of Barb. p. 488, 489« 

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cHj^J^* shewn to the security of the islandi that on the appearance 
liM. of a French fleet, bound for Carthagena, there were not 
teven rounds of powder in all the forts upon the island^. 
In this state of things, the governior, who was much ad*^ 
dieted to the pleasures of the table, was seized with a fever^ 
generated by intemperance, which soon put a period to 
his existencef*. 

* thiT. Hist, voV 41. p. 161. f Memoira of Barb^^p. A§. 

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U PON the death of Colonel Russel, the executive antho- chap. vi. 
rity devolved on the Honourable Francis Bdnd, senior 1096. 
meqiber of council, resident on the islaml. The Barba«- 
dians appear to have <exhausted their whole stock of gene^ 
rosity oi^ their late governor, and to have reserved nothing 
to bestow on the presiident^ to whom they gave neither 
salary nor present 

i! Under ^ auspices of Mr« Bond^ the assembly ventured lag?. 
to encroach on the prerogative of the crown. They passed 
an act, laying an impost of powder on 4;be tonnage oi 
vessels, in which they assumed the annual right of nomi- 
nating a store-keeper, of the magazipe, allowing to the 


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CHAP. VI. other branches of the legislature the power only of con- 
;()97. finning or rejecting their choice. Whether the appoint- 
ment of public officers is more beneficially exercised by the 
representatives of the people, than by the representative of 
the crown, is a question which admits not of an easy so- 
lution. One thing, however, is certain, that the assembly 
have, in this instance, violated the Sovereign's constitutional 
right of appointing to all offices, in the state, civil and 

. The presidency of Mr. Bond was productive of no in- 
teresting event, though many salutary measures were 
' adopted during his administration. Hence, a colonial his- 
torian*, who afterwards sustained, on his own shohlders, 
the weight of government, takes occasion to remark, ^* That 
a man who has an interest in a country, and is a native 

^ thereof, will be more concerned for the good government 

, of it, and more attentive to its prosperity, than one who 
considers it as a^ temporary dwelling, whither he has pro- 
cured himself to be sent to raise a fortune, or to patch up 
one going to decay/' This is one of the many plausible 
theories, whose fallacy is demonstrated by experience. The 
reasoning by which it is supported is specious, but candour 
inust acknowledge, that the security and prosperity of the 
country have been seldom more neglected than when the 
administration of public affairs has been confided to a oa. 

■ '■■■■■- ■■— ^-^ 

^ Mr. Frerer— Short Hist, of Barb. p. 45. 

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tive, possessing an interest in it. Self-love and social ^j^^^;^* 
are not here the same : many persons of rank and fortune ^^^^* 
conceive that they have an interest distinct from the pub- 
lic goody and often sacrifice the welfare of their country 
to their private emolument, the fleeting breath of popula- 
rity, or the gratification of their ambition. It is not, how- 
ever, intended to detract from the particular merit of Mr. 
Bond, who, to his own honour, and the satisfaction of his 
countrymen, held the reins of government for the term of 
two years. And happy would it have been for Barbadoes 
if many succeeding presidents had acquitted themselves in 
the same high trust with equal reputation and fidelity. 

The Honourable Ralph Grey, brother to the Earl of ^^^^• 
Tankerville, having been appointed governor of all the 
Windward Islands, arrived at Barbadoes, on the twenty* 
sixth day of July- His excellency found the country sufr, 
fering under the accumulated evils of tempest, pestilence 
and war. The epidemic disease, formerly mentioned, 
though somewhat abated, continued to rage with consider* 
able violence; and many valuable plantations were de- 
stroyed by a hurricane. The enormous expense, injudi- 
ciously incurred on account of the late unsuccessful expedi- 
tion, against Martinico, and other expensive measures which 
the inhabitants, wholly neglected by the parent state, had 
l>een compelled to adopt for their internal safety, had been 
defrayed by such oppressive taxes, that many principal 
plant6rs were entirely ruined, or at least rendered incapa- 


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CHAP. VL bie of supporting their plantations. Above forty sugar 
1098. works were totally abandoned , and land, to a considerable 
extent, lay waste and unproductive for the want of labour- 
ers to cultivate it. Yet, under all these discouragements, 
thfe Barbadians maintained the dignity of their government 
with great spirit and constancy. 

The governor was received with every possible mark of 
respect, Mr. Maxwell, the speaker of the assembly, in 
aa appropriate speech, offered him the congratulations of 
the house on his safe arrival ; and the legislature readily 
furnished his excellency with much more substantial proofs 
of their regard. FontabcUe had been hitherto leased by 
the public for the residence of the first magistrate; but in 
. their solicitude for the safety and accommodation of their 
new commander in chief, the Assembly now discovered that 
the gOTemrocnt-house was not only much out of repair, but 
that, from its proximity to the sea, it was exposed to tlie 
depredations of privateers : five hundred pounds a year was 
therefore settled on Mr. Grey, for the purpose of providing 
lum with a more eligible and commodious mansion. Though 
his excellency had a salary of twelve hundred pounds ster- 
ling allowed him by the Crown, out of the four and a half 
per cent, duty, to be paid on the spot by the collector of 
the customs, the assembly, within two months after liis ar- 
Sept. J. rival, made him a present of two thousand pounds to de- 
fray the expenses of his voyage. 
Mr. Grey was particularly directed by his Majesty's in- 

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structions not to suffer any money, or value of money, ^ to ^hap^ vi. 
be given or granted by any act or order of the assembly, to ^*^®* 
any governor or commander in chief, whkh shall not, ac- 
cording to the style of the acts of parliament in England, 
be mentioned to be given o^ granted unto us, with the 
humble desire of such assembly, that the same be applied 
to the use of such governor, if we shall think fit. Or if 
we shall not approve of such gift or i4)plication, that the 
said money, or value of money, be then disposed of and 
appropriated to such other u&es as in the said act, or oir 
der shall be mentioned.'" 

His excellency was also instructed " not lo puffer atty 
public money whatsoever to be issued or disposed of, other^ 
wise than by warrant, under his hand, by and with the ajd^ 
vice and consent of the council. But the assembly may^ 
nevertheless, be permitted, from time to time, to view aod 
examine all accounts of money or valufe of money disposed 
of by virtue of such laws as they shall make,'* which he 
was directed to signify to them as occasion should offer*. 

This year is rendered particularly remarkable by th^ 
establishment of the first patent oflice in Barbadoes. Th^ 
person selected for this distinction was a Mr. S^ene, who 
was honoured with his Majesty's letters patent, appdinting 
him secretary of the island, and private secretary t^ the go- 
vernor. This appointment occasioned a dispute betwe^ 

i» Mdn. of Barb. p. 47. 

z 2 

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^^^^^^' his excellency and the new secretary, on the score of fees. 
^^^' As.m^&t of the papers issued from thiat office require^ tl^ 
govejSrno^s figa manual, either as chancellor or ordinary, 
fbnxier: comjnanders in chief, to expedite the bus^aesp of 
those departments, had appointed private secretaries xjf 
their own, who were usually recompensed with gratuitous 
fees for their trouble and attendance. These fees^ from tlue 
increase of business, soon became an object of attention 
to the governor himself^ who demanded an annual sum 
from the secretary, as his share of the profits* But Mr. 
Skene, holding his appointment under the crown, demanded 
these fees^ which had been established o^ily by common cjon- 
sent, as the legal perquisites of his office. The gpvejJi^Qr 
opposed this claim, and insisted upon his rig^t to nomiq^te 
his own private secretary. An appeal to the Crown w^s the 
natural consequence of this, misunderstawdingt but the 
events which soon after took place prevented the matter 
from being brought to an issue. 

The administration of Mr. Grey was rendered extremely 
popular by the generosity of hb temper -and the suavity of 
his manners. These qualities, whether they soften the au- 
sterity of office^ or sweeten tlie social intercourse which, sub- 
sists between men in the sequestered walks of private life, 
will ever engage the esteem of mankind. Qf a disposition 
liberal and disinterested, he sought not to enrich himself by 
the spoil of those whom ^he was sent to protect ; but sedu- 
lously endeavoured to promote their prosperity ; and, by 

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the firm but temperate exercise of authority, gained the chap, vr.- 
hearts of the peopje whom he governed. Nor were they ^^^^* 
deficient in gratitude* In each successive year of his mild 
and equitable administration, the representatives* of the 
people testified their esteem for his virtues^ by . ia. liberal 
gratuity of two thousand pounds^ At length, having suc- 
ceeded to the barony of Werke, on the death of his bro- 
ther, and finding his health declining, he resigned the en- December^ 
signs of authority into the hands of John Fanner, son to 
the patriotic opponent of Lord Willoughby, and returned 
to England. 

Soon after the governor's departure, Mr. Farmer received 1702. 
official information of the King's death, and of the acces^ 
sion of Queen Anne. These events were celebrated with 
the usual ceremonies, and the assembly, with the concur- 
rence of the council, transmitted a loyal and dutiful ad^ 
dress of condolence to her Majesty on the death of her au- 
gust relative, and of congratulation on her joyful accession 
to the throne of her ancestors, which was prevented by the 
late governor, now Lord Grey. 

Upon the commencement of hostilities between France 
and Great Britain, Commodore Walker was dispatched to 
the West Indies with six ships of the line, having four regi- 
ments on board. Their arnval in Carlisle Bay was greeted by 
an act of the general assembly for the acconmiodation of the 
troops. They were billetted on the inhabitants for two 
months, each man to be allowed six pounds of salted 


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chap: vl jueat or fish, a week, with plantation prorisions and beds 
*''^^* of plantain leaves, or in lieu of food, to receive sixpence 
per day, at the option of the landlord. - Walker soon after* 
wards sailed for Antigua, where he was joined by Colonel 
Codrington, with some troops collected among the islands, 
and proceeded to the invasion of Guadaloupe; but, in con- 
sequence of some misunderstanding between the command^ 
ing ^officers, the enterprise was abandoned^ after demolish* 
ing the fort, burning the town, and ravaging die country. 

The Barbadians, recovering from their misfortunes, now 
entered deeply into schemes of privateering. A fleet of 
sixteen of their armed vessels, cruizing off Guadaloupe, 
emboldened by the defenceless state of the island, landed 
their crews, and, after destroying many plantations, brought 
away a considerable number of slaves^. But their atten^ 
tion was soon called off to the means of providing for thda 
internal security. The turbulent,^licentious blacks, entered 
into a fresh conspiracy for throwing off the yoke of slaveryt 
and getting possession of the forts. Bat their diabolical 
scheme was again frastrated by the interposition of Provi* 
dence, and many of the infatuated wretches suffered the 
dreadful punishment incurred by their criminal designs. 
i703. When Lord Grey resigned the government of Barbadoes^ 

the king appointed Mitfbrd Crowe, s^ opulent London 
merchant, to be bis successor ; but, on the death of his 

♦ Unif. Hi»t. Tol. 41, p. IW. 

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Majesty, Queen Aime, to the great disappointment of the ^^^^^* 
Barbadians, committed the important trust to Major-Gene« ^^^'* 
lal Sir Bevill Granville. During the whole reign of that 
illustrious princess the affairs of the colonies were regarded 
with greater attention than at any former period. Her 
Majesty, upon every occasion, seems to have manifested 
the most maternal solicitude for the happiness of her svih^ 
jeqts in this remote part of the empire, and an anxiety to 
relieve them, as much as possible, from the heavy burthens 
which had been imposed upon them. A petition had beenr 
presented to the House of Commons by several merchants 
and planters of Barbadoes, praying that the money arising 
from the four and a half per cent, duty, might be applied 
to the uses for which it had been granted. The petition^^ 
being referred to a committee, an address was presented to. 
her Majesty^ recommending her to comply with the wishes 
of the Barbadians; and she was accordingly graciously 
pleased to order^ that the produce of the duty should be 
appropriated to the repairing and erecting of fortifications 
for the safety of the island; and that an annual account of 
the expenditure should be laid before parliament. 

The next proof which her Majesty gave of her benignant 
disposition was an attanpt to relieve the island from the- 
distresses occasioned by the usual presents to governors. 
Sir Bevill Granville was strictly prohibited, by his instruc- 
tions, from receiving any gift or present from the assembly, . 
upon any account, or in manner, whatever, onpainof in« 


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176 THE fflSTORY 

^^JJ^^I;^- cuning her Majesty's highest dbpleasure5 and of being re- 
^^^^- cidJed from the government. To provide a competent main- 
tenance for the governor, her Majesty was graciously 
pleased to augment his excellency's salary to two thousand 
,^^ pounds sterling, payable out of the duty of four and a half 

"^ per cent. ** according to the meaning of the act of the as* 

sembly, whereby the same is granted for maintaining the 
honour and dignity of the government, and for other pub- 
iic uses*/* 

Notwithstanding these liberal concessions on the part of 
the Crown, the public mind was kept in a continual state 
of agitation during the whole time of General Granville's 
administration. In the face of the royal order, the assem- 
bly settled five hundred pounds per annum on the governor; 
and it is generally allowed that his friends contrived, under 
various pretences, to appropriate several large sums of the 
public money to his use. They erected an elegant house 
for him on a small plantation above Bridge-town, 'called 
Pilgrim, containing about twenty acres of land, which they 
leased for twenty-one years, at the annual rent of one hun- 
dred and twenty pounds. And, by an extraordinary ex- 
ercise of complaisance, they nominated his brother-in-law. 
Sir John Stanley, one of their agents in London. It was 
certainly highly reprehensible thus to trifle with an employ- 
ment of so much real importance. Among the many quali- 

♦ Mem of Barb. p. 50. Univ. HbU vol. 41. p. 64. HaU'i First Settle, of Barb. 

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fic^rtiolis necesa»fy in a caftdidate for the colonial ageney; cfiAP. Vi. 
it ii Bi0t one of the least that be should be thoroughly ^e- *^'^^- 
qtijkmted with the internal policy and general interest of 
tke i^kmd which he represents. Yek these were points with noi. 
wMdi' Sir John, as a stranger to the West Indies, must * t^* 

ha*e b6en very imperfectly aeqaainted, if not whoHy igno- 
rant On the other hand, it may be sard, th<? htmouraMfe 
Baronet's incotopetence could not have been very prqudicial 
to the interest of his employers, since they had at that 
time the benefit of the wisfdonai and diligence of no less 
than ibur agents at once. 

TWi amicable dispoBition unfortunately was not of long 
contkiucuKfe. Sir BevilVs tory principles and supercilious 
behaviooy rendered him extaremely impopular ; an eilect to 
whkh it is more than probable the measures that he thought 
proper to lake for the safety of the country might greatly 
have contributed. Under the apprehensions of invasion, 
tlie;goven»r called out the militia and employed them on 
th0 tedious ajad irksome duty of guarding the accessible 
parte of the coast. This w€w a strong measwe, whicfh no- 
thing could justify bu£ absolute necessitjs and it diffused 
a spirit of, discontent throughout the country. To relieve 
the body of the people from the hardships a^ ^itigue of 
this species of ;aervitude, which fell heaviest upon those 
who were least able to bear them, a bill was introduced into 

A a 

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CHAP. VI. the house of assembly*, to empower his excellency to em^ 
i7Q4p* body two companies of grenadiers at the public expense, 
to be employed on this particular service. The measure 
was strenuously opposed by some factious members; from aoi 
objection to the expense^ and. from apprehension that part 
of the money to be raised for the pay and subsistence ofthe 
men wxjuld be converted to the governor's private ^nolu- 
metit. Finding that a majority of the assembly were fa*- 
voucable to the bill, the m^Qibers in opposition seceded,, 
expecting their absence would; effectually obstruct its puro- 
gressby the difficulty of making a house,, as fifteen mem- 
bers, at that time, constituted a quorum.. The defection 
of nearly one*third of the iepf;e9e»ta,tive bady . ttsoesBaxily 
impede the proceedings of the legislature,, and oooaAioned 
an entire stagnatipn of public business^ Tim govclrdor^ex- 
postulated warmly with the assembly on such a deretictu>ni 
of the trust reposed ia them^ and * cautioried them against: 
the qonseqnences^ of a conduct so comtwuaeious and dis- 
honourable*, ^t length, findJB^ all milder expedients inef-* 
fectual, he dismissed the seceders from all their civil andi 

' ■ ' ' - ' - ' ' . ' ' ' , ' ' , ' L ' „ J ' '■■ ' ■ '! ;■ '! i 1*. J / ' ■- 

♦ The asserobly was oompogcd of the fdltowUig. racmbeij ;. G, Peer« a^d . Q. Tho- 
mas, St, Mtchael's; A.Walker and S. Maynard, St. Peter's; W. AUambjr and GL^ 
Harper, 9i. Th&mat^i; J.LesUe andC. Esiwick; St. John*^; P. Kirtoii and 1. jMax^ 
vtt\\,.Chris$ehiMch; T^ Mayoocfc awJ.W, TerriU^ 5^,.X4a;jc'ju- \5L Holder .and- R. 
Wayte, St.Jamei^,; T. Ince and Enoch GTretton, St. Philip' i; Rob. Morriaand Reyn^ 
Alleyne, St. Aniretb't; Paul Lyteand H. Harding, 5^ George si John Holder apd, 
W.. Grants St, Ioseph% 

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military employments under the crown, and dissolved the ^JJ^^:^' 
assembly*. ^'^^• 

The spirit of discard was not confined to the popular 
branch of the legislature alone; the most violent dissen- 
,tions prevailed. in the council chamber. Here the evil was 
more immediately within the sphere of the governor's ob- 
servation and controul ; nor did he hesitate long to apply 
the proper remedy. Availing himself of his prerogative, 
he suspended the four most turbulent members, George Lil- 
lington^ David Ramsay, Benjamin Cryer, and Michael „ 
Terril. These acts of resentment were not calculated to ap- 
pease the popular discontent ; and in the midst of these 
feuds and dissentions, an attempt to assassinate the gover- June. 
nor was made by some unknown person, in the road, firing 
a pistol at his excellency as he sat in a window at Pilgrim. 
Upon this occasion, the assembly presented a respectful 
address to the governor, declaring their tttter abhorrence of 
an act so stupendously villainous as that ofattemptingy through 
his excellency's sides^ to wound and destroy her Majesty's re- 
gality here. 

Of this offence Mr. Lillington was accused, and endured, 
notwithstanding his ill-health, a long and rigorous confine- 
ment. He was at length indicted at the court of grand ses- 

♦ Many of the most important trantactionsof this period I am, enabled to detail, 
on the authority of the manuscript jourpal, of the proceedings of the assembly, men- 
tioned in the preface. 

A a 2 

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by Google 

lao THE inSTORY 

^^JJAPjVl. MOQ99 aed sentenced^ pay a fine of two thousand po|i»d8» 
17G4. Qf the justice of this sentence it is impossible to speak witk 
c^tainty^ No evideQce of his innocence^ or his guilty can 
sow be found, and little confidence is due to the coatradi;(> 
iory representations of opposite parties* The Honourable 
William Sharpe, the chief justice, who presided at the trial, 
and at several succeeding courts of grand sessions, was ho« 
noured with the thanks of the house of assembly, for the 
candour and integrity of his conduct. Hence we may infer 
that Mr. LilUngton was fairly tried^ and legally conricted. 
l^t, on the other hand, it has been asserted, that the 
prosecution was malicious*, and that after the heats 
and prejudices of party bad, in some measure, subsided^ 
the fine was remitted, and the money ordered to be return* 
<iA. Mr- LilUngton^ bow^erer, was forced to submit to the 
sentence whether just or unjust. 
Aujuft. Meanwhile, the governor having issued writs for calling 
a »ew assembly, the election in several parishes was con- 
tested with great warmth and earnestness. In St. Lucy's 
Maycock and Terrill, the late representatives, were guilty 
of some acts of illegal violence ; they grossly insulted and 
obsilructed Mr. Gordon, the sheriff, in the execution of 
his duty, and encouraged a Mr. Curl to assume and exer- 
cise the oflice of sheriff. The election, of course, was con- 
troverted by Colonel Pickering and Major Lambert, the 
■ ' ■ ^ ' ■ III ■■ I ■ 

* HaU'j Fint Settlement of Btrb. p. 30. M. S. 

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*th«r<5aiMHdatee^ in whose favour the *h(Htte of a«strabljt '^^iJ^JJ* 

tittknatdy decided; Mayooefc and Terril ivere ordered to ^^^- 

he prosecuted by the attorney^generajl, for high crimefe aftd 

-iftiBderaeattort; and Ourrl, who had given a false te&tibiotty 

at «Jie bar of the house^ was directed- to be indieted foir 

peipvjr. . B«t brfore the day of trial tbey w^ere clandes* 

^neiy takea from the s&kad, by C^a^pts^^iii Martin^ of the 

SiacckwaU iVigate. 

' On the meeting of the assemrbly, tfc^govern«flr opened^ • 

the session, in the u^nal ibftm, with a speech, in which he 

iwreigh^, Hrith equal justice and asperity, against the - 

^awduct of tfeose members of the former assem My ; who, 

m, contempt of t^ Queen^s authority, and in violation of 

the Mcred trust leposed in thetn, had^ pertinaciously, ab* 

pmted thamsdvca fron tbcU: bquse ; whence the legislature 

JmA been prevented from the exeiciiEtS'ctf its fiinotions» and 

the.aditiittbtrattian of govemupent ha4 beea suspe^ided. To 

thi9 cause; he. aacvibed the declioe of public credit, and the 

great hardships fiOBstaioed by the gunners^and iaa«ro$s«r, 

9iad oihcar public ^editors, whose sabvies were unjieutiy 

withbBoldea from, them* Henoe, he said, l^e ikeamen* on 

board a brig, in the service of ihe co«ntry, had been pix>. 

voked to run away with the vessel^ as •» feir .reprwal on 

those who had employed them without payings thdr wages. ' 

By the onwaarantabJe secession oi some of tbdr members, 

^^isramblyy be said^ had been prevented froiii making 

the jmrnBua ieq3iisi>te for tiie repair of the f ortificatiaaa. 

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CHAP. VI. ^xid for relieving the militia from Uie toilsome and dppres- 
i704r. ^\yQ duty Qf guarding the coasts ; nor had they beep able 
to make any inquiry into the expenditure of the pu^blic 
money. To this omission he attributed the failure of Com- 
modore Walkers attempt on Guadaloupe, the treasurer 
having pretended that he had .not the means of hiring a 
vessel to carry dispatches to General Cod ring tpn, on whase 
receiving timely notice of the design, the success of the 
expedition principally depended; though it was evident, 
that had there been no jnisapplication of it, there would 
have been money enough in. the treasury for that and other 
public exigencies- ; He next accused the assembly of neg- 
lecting to avail themselves of her Majesty's gracious inten- 
tion of appropriating the four and a half duty to the use 
of the fortifications, no application having been made for 
thtf money then due upon that score. He admonished them 
to beware of slighting the proffered boon, lest by their 
criminal negligence they should lose the golden opportunity 
of rendering their country the most essential services. His 
excellency concluded with desiring that the house would 
continue to sit from day to day, and consult, with linani- 
4nity, on the means of promoting the security and pro* 
sperity of the country. 

The answer of the assembly was modest and respectful. 
They admitted the justice of his excellency's animadver- 
. sions on the misconduct of a part of their house, and con- 
demned, in the strongest terms, the pertinacious opposition 

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which he had experienced ia the legal exercise of his au^ ^^^J:^^* 
thoritj. His excellency was represented in this address^ ^*^** 
s^ possessing all the virtues which could adorn the character 
of the most accomplished ruler. His administration waV 
compared to the dispensations of that Providence which even 
designs the happiness of nmnkind ; and. was asserted to have 
heenfvee from spat or blemish^, except that with patience- and: . 
temper he had striven, to reclaim a people of a stuhhornyobsti'^ 
note disposition^ 

The address; having been agreed to, and presentedi the^ 
house proceeded to the revisal of their rul^s, when Mr- 
John Holder suggested, that the irregularity so justly/com-^- 
plained of in^ the proceedings of the late^ assembly^ was* 
occasioned by the rule which required the presence of two-^ 
thirds of the representative* body to* rnfake^ a liou^e;. To 
obviate this inconvenience, he moved, that thirteen mem-^- 
bers should^ in future, be a^ quorum suffici^ent to pass all: 
la^vs, either of a public ! or private nature; : The rootioiv 
was vehemently oppc^ed^by those* members whose turbulent 
behaviour had been produetivc of so .much confusion,, audi 
had ^esCTvedly' incurred: such sevete- reprehension.. JBui^ 
finding .^l.oppositioii;vainj.;tlTcy, rose from their seats ; . and>. 
in contempt ofi the speakcr!s authority; .quittfed. the house,:, 
expecting that Iheic : xetiring . would dissolve the meeting i ; 
the other membersj.however,;continBied sitting, , and -agreed! 
to the treasurer's motion* 

The attention of the assembly was now directed to aa-^- Not, lo.. 

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184 THE HffiTORY 

CHAP. VI. other object. The speaker, by his cxceWency's directions, 
170*- laid before tiie lioute the copy of a memcMrial which had 
been presented to tlie Qtieen by aereral factious m««ber», 
of the former wsembTy, exhibiting a vBriety of charges 
against the governor atid a mjifority of that honae^ The 
memomliite, . after a pompous panftgyric on their own 
loyal and peaceable demeanor^ in the feithftil disdiajrge of 
many offices 6( high irust and responsibihty, h^ment that 
they should be compelled, by their fidelity* to their con- 
stitnents, to comphiin of the injurious and oppressive con- 
duct of her Majesty's governor. Sir Beviil Granville, They* 
alledged that the mihtia had been kept oa guard, at the 
dfflferent baya» and. accessible parts of the coasrt, to the 
maMfest injury of her Majesty's subjects, conttary to law> 
aQd without eveo tkfi |ireviou« coasent of the eoMncil ; for 
the ostensible neasob of defending the country from inva- 
sion, and to prevent evii*dispo0ed pa'soDs from riittning 
away with boats ; hui that the real design of this arbitrary 
and iUegal piHEieeduFe was to coropei the rcpnssentatives of 
the people to coBsent to an act £m raising two compaiues 
of soldien, for the pratection of the towns and adjacent 
landing places, with a secret view to the gov«mor^s [wivftte 
emolument. The annual expense of maintaining this body 
«of men, was estimated at nine thousand pouiKk ; and, as 
the money was to be entirely at the governor s disposal, 
they asserted that he would be able to sat^e, for his own 
mcp at Irast^. onei>*tiiird af( the sisa. 

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To thdf own patriotic oppoftitbtt to thi» measui^e, the 
memorieilist^ HScribiB their remdral firom offices of tr««t and i'^**- 
profit, which thej had enjoyed mUtoitt blemisik fer above 
ihirly years. They add thal^ 'in consequence of the dis- 
missal of many officers' of respectability from their raiUtary. 
command, the militia' had been disorgittkedaiid the iskind 
exposed defenceless to the tenroW ^ 'invasion. It was 
stated that the governor, in direct disobedience to her Ma- 
jesty's commands, forbidding his accepting any gift -or 
present from the aftseitibly, had , at «De -time, received from 
them a present of six hundred pounds; and, at another,- of 
five hundred pounds; besides, a pr^eni) of two hundred 
pounds from the Jerws,^ who had in consequence many pri-^ 
viieges-aod indulgence* gmnted to themcoatrary ^-law? 
That he bad accepted sev^ralvalaable gifts of pfate, honesy 
and negroes from private persons, especially tlie natives of 
Nmth Britain; on whom, notwithstanding their- known 
aversion to the family on the -ferdne," he hfed beistowed many 
of 1^ most important civil and miUtary.employmentg; 
Against these afrangeihents tiie oMD^odiil ists Inveighed with 
great bittenwfps. Iliey complained that in the room of 
officers of rank and takat who had been^d^niiid^^ram'tbti 
service, perdoiis had beem flf^pdnted it^l^ u^cftiaMed, im 
perienced, of mean capacity -arid low estate. But of none 
did they speak With more asperity than -of the HotoouraM^ 
William Holder, speaker of the assembly; who hfed been re- 
cently appointed diief' justice -ef ^Saint MlehrttSSI yt&kta^ 


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186 . , THE HISTORY 

CHAP. vi. though, to use .their own phraseology, he was never Icnown to 
^^^^ he i)f any christian comrriunity^ neither had he been baptized. 
After several other frivolous accusations, the memorial con- 
eluded with praying her Majesty would be graciously 
pleased to institute an inquiry into the conduct of Sir 
Bevill Granville, and offering to support the truth of their 
allegations by, the most unquestionable evidence. The me-' 
, morial was subscribed by John Leslie, Philip Kirton, 
Thomas Maycock, William Terrill, Christopher Estwick, 
Enoch Gretton, and Thomas Maxwell, late speaker of the 

The reading of this paper [produced the most lively emo- 
ti(ms of anger and resentment in both chambers of the 
l^islature. They voted it to be a £aJse, scandalous and 
seditious libel on the goi^ernment of the island, and vindi- 
cated themselves from the imputations which it contained^ 
in a counter-address to the throne* In this address they 
expressed the most grateful sense of her Majesty's maternal 
kindness in ^he prudent choice of a governor of general 
Granville-8 " probplty, good qonduct, unspotted integrity, 
and exemplary, life; who, by his extraordinary vigilance 
and prudeaqi^j had wrested the govemmeilt out pf the 
^ h^nds pf a cor^pt faction, whose wi warrantable behaviour 
would have involved the country in ruin and misery, but for 
the wisdom and vigour of his administration/' 

The assembly now thought it Dec68B^y,i;Q vin<|ic%te their 
riglji^tg by ponisfaing ^e oontjutnacy of thoscTelractory mem- 

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bers, whose secession was considered as a contempt of le- chap, vl 
gislative authority. With this view the speaker, by order ^^^*- 
of the house, issued a summons,! conimanding their attend* 
ance at the next meeting of the legislature. In obedience 
to this summons the seceders met, at the time and place March 2a 
appointed, and put into the speaker's hands a written paper, 
in which they assigned as a reason for their non-attend- 
ance, the innovation, which, as they termed it, bad been 
made on the rights of the people, in respect to the number 
of members required to make a house. They added, thai 
they had submitted the whole affair to her Majesty's consi- 
deration, and were in daily e f receiving her 
commands, to which they wo ifully conform ; 
and, in the interim, they utte d the authority 
and competence of the other members to act as the general 
assembly of the island. . These rejoins not appearing satifr^ 
factory, the speaker demanded) of them severally, whether 
.they would resume. their seats 5»nd enter, upon business coni- 
form ably to thcTules of the hojuse; to which they declined 
;giying any answer and abxupUy retired; To di^counteujaqce 
such a dangerous spirit of insub^rdiQfttion, the house, unaiiit- 
mously voted for the expulsipo ^f John JLeslie, Philip Kir- 
ton, Joseph Brown, John Frere, and Christopher Estwick,* 

^ Gretton, who was^alao one of the seceden, died before the matter wu decided* 
Neither of the expelled members was re-elected until the general election ^ when Mr. 
Frere was returned for St Philip^ and took hit seat accordingly* 

Bb 3 

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188 • THE aisiDty 

OHSP;^. ^ch of whom was dedared iacapable ot sitting again duri' 

^'^^^ ing the contiiiQaBce of that assembly ; and nevr writs were 

immediately issued, by the goreraor, fbr the particular 

election of other ttiembcrs to ' supply the vacancies occa* 

* fiioned by tiieir expulsion. And to prevent, in future, any 

factious attempt' to impede the public business, by the 
abrupt, indecorous departure of any member daring tl» 
session, it became a standing rule of the assembly, that, 
whenever a sufficient number of members bad met to make 
a house, the door should be locked, and the key given to 
the speaker, without whose permission no member should 
be allowed to depart under pain of expulsion.' - ^ 

yiQS. It was not long before the governor had the satisfkction 
of receiving the most unequivocal testimony of hfer Ma- 
jesty's approbation of his conduct. In addition to thfe 
A^Morial alre^y mentioned, the four suspended ibembers 
of council had exhibited a cotiiplaint agftinst; his excdlency , 
to which was ad^^d, a petition from Mr, Richard Downes*, 
coi!nplaining' that^ notwithU^Mding he bad been Jbonouted 
^thhey-Miijesti^s ikfer <)f:krt»nd«dKft^ appointirig hiift'» 
^aeraber of cotwieitj^he had' b^en prevented by the gc^emor 
from taking his seat alt ihat board, lliese complaints were 

■ ■ I I *■ ■ ■ ■ I I ■ I ■■ ■ ^ I I 

^ .* Mr Downfi had been trf a^irf r of thf. islanA axul ^aH prPMim^^^ yp^p^ his own 
authority, to pay money to the amount of several thousand pounds, without the usual 
tdrdersfrom the governor: this conduct naturaRy gave d£^ce, and he was removed 
from the office; lind several yean dapsed bcibre he fettled Uif accounts, or paid tife 
balance due to 4he public. ' « 

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all referre4 to the cowideration of the lords comraisf iotters ^JJJ^'* 
oftrade and plantations; who^ after ar due investigatioii of ^^' 
the several charges, together with the govereors defence, 
xaade the necessarj reports to the Qoeen in council. And, 
opon reading these reports^ her Majesty was pleased to 
order one of her pandpal secretaries of state to command 
cate to &H0 Bevill Granville her Majesty 'a royal approbation 
o£ his proceedings^ in the suspension of the four coun* 
sellofSi irfao had countenanced and abetted those members 
af the assembly^ from whose ' irregular behaviour^ and cii'-^ 
minal select of d^ty; much inconvenience had arisen. 
He was, however, empowered, lipon their application and 
mxhmissioG, ta admit them^ if he* should think proper, to 
iSMame tiieir seate at the council board. But with respect 
tOi D&wnea, her Majesty declared her absolute will and 
pleasuce, that he Js^iouid. be eostirely exduded from the 
cooncsl diamber. 

AlteD eKprossing, her. concera aad indignation, at the 
cmfiasiMt and disortdar that haid happened, fdomitlie cepre- 
^entativeivof the peopte wilfully abseiiting themselves from 
their duty,^^foy which means the administration of g^vem- 
^ment had been greaitiy embarrassed and obstns^ted;^ her 
Majesty directed that his esodHency should, in ho^naiene, 
represent to both. branches of the legiskitupe, tjie evils aiid 
inconveniences that must necessarily result from such culp- 
able neglect^ and to recotmnend their making some efieo- 
tual provision for preventing such al>iises 'iri i^ttire; ' ' 

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The joy of the assembly, on this occasion, was un- 
bounded. To such of the members of hep Majesty's privy 
council, as were present on the inquiry, they voted a pre- 
.sent of Citron water, in the following proportion: six 
dozen bottles to the Duke of Marlborough, five dozen to 
^ the Lord Treasurer, four dozen to the Lord President, and 
to the <3hancellor of the Exchequer three dozen. ' They 
-also Toted their agent the sum of one hundred pounds 
^sterling, to defray the expenses of an entertainment, which 
they directed he should give in honour of the Royal 
African Company, for their interposition in his excellency "d 

The public mind was again violently agitated by the fear 
of invasion. In consequence of some alarming intelligence 
Apra 9. from Antigua, tlie governor called the legislature together, 
and submitted to their consideration the danger to which 
the island was exposed by the proximity of a formidable 
French force ; and recommended their putting the fortifica- 
tions in the best possible state of defence. In this emer- 
gency, the council proposed calling out the militia, and 
laying them under martial law for fourteen days. To the 
fonner part of the proposal the assembly readily agreed^ 
but they refused to sanction the declaration of martial law, 
though they were wilUng to suspend the proceedings of the 
.courts of justice during the time the militia should remain 
embodied ; a most extraordinsu'y proposition, for which no 
sufficient reason can possibly be assigned. To this plan the 

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governor otgected, that without the restraints of martial law ^JJ^^^O?* 
the jcailiti^, if called out, would be no better than a tumult ^'^^^• 
tupjuHSy undisciplined rabble; where there was no power to 
pipiish, no order, nor subordination could be expected ; 
9nd that a suspension of the functions of the courts 
qf justice, under such circunistances, would leave the 
people without any rule of conduct, without any legal 
measure of good or eviL After several conferences between 
the; two houses, in which various expedients were suggested 
to supply the absence of martial law, the bill to enable his 
excellency to embody the militia^ was finally rejected by 
the assembly. 

The, coipm^cial intercourse between Great Britain and 

her colpoii^s had pow become an object of great national 

importance. . It wa& found necessary, for the regulation of 

tljie pecuniary transactions between the people of England 

ami her American dependencies, to establish a legal cur«* 

i:ency among, the islands ; and to ^cectain the true parity of 

exchange, between the different parts of the empire. Sir 

Isaac Newton, who was then master of the mint, had, by 

order of the privy council, made an actual assay on' most 

foreiga coins^- and ascertained the intrinsic value of the 

bullion contained in each.. To obviate the inconveniences 

arising from the want of an uniform currency in the planta-* 

tions, the Queen, by proclamation, dated the fourth diay 

of June, in the year one thousand seven hundred and fouiv 

fixed the rate at which they should pass in the colomes. Ry 

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ctiAf.^Vi. tlih proclAi«atk>tt, which was afterwards^confinned by actt 
"^Ks^^ df parliament, 6 Anne, ch, dO, the value of thie dolteri 
which, by ««say, had been found to be irorth four shillings 
and sixpence sterling, ^a» estliblished at six shillings colo- 
nial curfency ; and the vabuA of x)ther eoins was regulated 
according <» that standardi Hence the true parity «>f.ex- 
cliange betw^ieh Londwi and Barbadoes was-tixed atime 
hundred and Urirty-thtee and a tfeifd per cent. 

Hitherto doll*i% had passed in the West Indies at eiglrt 
shillings ; and, as the theory of nion^y was, at that time, bat 
hnperfectly understood in the «o!oiiie*, the • money-hewers 
highly disapproved of the alteration. Withoat peHectittg 
that the value of cottimodities, of which BKmej is but the 
repwsentative, must be aflfected in proportion to any depre- 
ciation in- tfee nominal value of the coin, they considered 
the defiUcatioh in the nameral value of the dollar as a real 
diminution of ti>eir' wealth. To avert a calamity, merely 
idekl, the monied men, on the arrival of the proclamations 
exported almost the whole of the circulating silver coin of 
the country. This absurd expedient produced much in- 
. eoBvenience among the mercantile people, which, by a 
Batural cotununication, was. soon fdt by the planters i and 
iha want of a circulating medium became a geneval Cfom" 

The evil, however, wasof a temporary nature; and, had 
it been left to itself, would soon have found a remedy. A 
country abouiiding with valuable prodttcticns, can kifev«t< 

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Jabour under a -permanient scarcity of precious metals. 
Money will always be brought into exchange for those com- 
modities which the luxury, or necessities of mankind re- 
<juire for their gratification. No considerable nor lasting in- 
convenience will ever be felt for the want of specie in iet 
country whose balance of trade, if not in its favour, is not 
greatly against it. ^ Large crops, for exportation, will ne- 
cessarily furnish the means of paying for those articles 
which may be required from abroad ; and the excess of its 
exports, should there be any, will afford an unfailing sup- 
ply of cash. These truths were either unknown or neg- 
lected by the legislature of Barbadoes, and they adopted 
the worst expedient that could have been devised for afford- 
ing relief suited to the circumstances of the country. 

To supply tl^e want of cash, a Mr. Dudley Woodbridge 
suggested a scheme for the establishment of a bank, pro- 
posing, himself to be the sole manager. The project was 
countenanced by the governor, who laid the proposal before 
the assembly for their consideration. Here it met with a 
very cold reception; not so much from a dislike to the 
scheme as from an objection to Mr. Woodbridge's enjoying 
the whole emoluments of the ofl&ce, as sole director of the 
bank. As the pkn, however, was pregnant with advan- 
,tages to those who should be concerned in the management 
of the business, it was soon revived, with a few trifling al- 
terations, to give it the appearance of Originality, and 
brought forward in the assembly by Mr. John Holder, 

c c 


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cBA^.Vi. ti^dsurer of tlie istamt, supported hy'^Mr.'Steffpe aiyd'Mr. 
1706. AleKHuder Walker, twb mexttbers t)f the <JGuridl. " ' 'f > " 

The influence of tbb ti^inmvirftte' vas Hot to tpe*4@&iete4;. 
and^froEh^ rootiTes the tndst ccwriij^t^t «iM!4U]tti«t<!'<bbe 
human mind, they procure Ib^ pttism^<>f<k l«>Tlr'to/stip|y)y 
• the deficiency of gold • tod ^hrei: com- by a 'fifdatiou^ jecir- 
rency of paper ntooey.' By tiiiis ki-W" %he '^'eae^r^p #a9iaa- 
thorized toissibe biUa to ih6 amotmt otsixtySvt th<»QiKnd 
poundsy to be lent to the plantets oo the securhly'ii^^lbttir- 
knds and negroes, and fiift tfa^iSactlng- ^a hviMdm bc> kvas 
entitled to. a commissfdn o{-^9i^eemU 'HolAet^-^us'Wkt 
alTowed the ejtelusiTe cnjoyinent <# tliis^ adirigiitagei: • rife- 
Wad content Id sfaarenthe profits* iMlir JusHdeitdft'^Sbarpt^aad 
Walker^ as ^recompense for ^eir s^cvkes^in pflotnotKig th& 
^cheoie.;^ M'^lker, nofsatibsfiM^i^ hi» pr^^ition^ insibted 
that hfe brother. Williwnr 'WaUter,:of tlte inMmbljf, sfaimid fae- 
Ullow^d to participate ia (&d gaiii; and in^thfei tnenti.ikteae 
honest, disiniere^t<dd ^{M>diati»- <tf tke pebple jqiMUvlied 
about dividing the «poil, tnd Uie ^ectei was disdoaed. 

This measure, the offspring of igsaranbe aad OfomptioBr 
encfeased the etU it affected* to remoire, and .'idiflitsed the 
most lively diseoiAenI thr^oghout^tfae; oowitsryk v Xb« plan- 
ters, who had sufficient seevrity to ofier,; inem enable^ b^^ 
the loan 6f these bilk to wityidd .tfaeir ciop» irom inarket, 
or to demand the 'most ^xoj^lMtaiit fnices ikas their .produce;: 
while die merchajit, whe et^uld neither yeaiit d&eai to 
Europe, nor pass them id );Myme&t tx> tlie JVmenean-tradevsL 

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for their cargoes, found them of no ffmtet value than so 
much waste paper, .and> of course,, refused toreceive thent '?•** 
in exchange for their conuaodities. At length,, the diffi- 
culty of ne^ociating the, bills, wWch.might haye been easiljr 
foreseen from ^e>&rit^ opeafd the eyes of the people to the 
deception thftt had been practised npon thenu Thejcontr 
plained of the act as a fraud «iid resented it as a job, in« 
tended merely to promote the interest of a few mercenary 
individuals. , 

The' odium of tiie measure having drawn on the. pro* 
moters of the* bank theexectations of an mjuned and ia^ 
oensed people, the assraibly, justly dreading the jresentment 
49f their constituents, passed, a > law to prolong th^ politic^ 
existence^ by Teodenog the election of representatives tjiea.- 
niaj. While the bill: was pending, petitiims weie presented 
against it from ail parts of .tb0 idand, except Saint Pet^n. 
The assembly, howevi<»r, were not to be diverted firom their 
purpose, though, as we shall soon see, thdr sinister designs 
were frustrated, and they wiere denied the in^tmiby which 
tfaey sought to^ obtain. 

Sir Bevill Granville continued to exercise the rigjbt 
-claimed by his pvedecessor, of appointittg his private secse* 
tary, and of daiaring with hiia in ike enoloaeatts of his 
•office. This produced «i second remonstraoce from tbe pa^ 
tentee to the queen, which was referred to the Ixmls Com- 
missioners of Trade; and, after a lapse of some considerable 
time, withifi which Sir Bevill resigned U)e govamnentt. ' 

c c 2 

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CHAP.- VI. th«if lordships rep<«ted to her Majesty that- th6 g'oVeHibr 
17M. . bttd^ao right to appoint a private tccretaty but at* \M own 
esEpehse, and recommended' that 'Mf. Sfcetneshorftd' be Re- 
placed and coofictped- in the tec^lpl of .all 'tlie itjk'atod 
pofit» belonging to the^oflk*. ' InsooflsequeBd^'fef'^ W^ 
pt^esitatkm Mr. Skeene, by hef Majesty 9 liters M^a- 
toryrims:Testcired to ithe pestession-of ' all HisTighfe a^ 
pev^isttes both as private amd public secifetaty.* " ' '' • 

TSie •governor finding his sitnfation rendered extremely 
mipleasaiit'by the- eonttmial contention of parties', aiid hi» 
G«Ni8titutioii impaiied by the iofluenee of k tropibal climate, 

Septeoiber. resigned has autbertfty into the hands of William 8&ar^». 
piesklent of the botmcil, withi the v'ieir of iretcttnihg'to- 
England for the benefit of his health ; but he livM' iiot ix> 
accomplish his design.. Death arrested irim on his passage, 
and removed him to a state -where his virtiies and bis faults 
will receiye their appropriate recompence from' the only 
ocHKipetent Judge. . 

' NotMdthfitoDdmg the animosities and disputes whidi dis- 
tracted the councils at this period, several salutary laws were- 
enacted under the authority of general Granville. Among 
these the most des^ving of attention is the act for the en- 
couragement of the clergy. As this venerable body of men 
ha^-e been separated from the busy part of raaiikind,. that 

• In latter times, however, the commandier in chief has been allowed a private 
' Mcretaiy, wtiote lalary, two fauodred pounds sterXng, is paid by the tkttiti. . ■ i. • * 


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t^yjjwy, pursue thiwe 3tudie$ which womW qualify thena to chapel 
ijofttei^ct^ ot])€^fSv in ' ibo* great duties \of roligion^ reason :aod ^^^oe. 
'J9stip04«caaQd thji^ th& rendes^d emit- 
Joij(ta\Ap aflnd r^spectuble by n cowpet^ot provisioh for^* their 
jffs^ifin^no^^ . fl^herto: [the eia^uments of the racecdotal 
p^^Hiroa^isted; i;i tbf annual receJ^pl ef an ^ssmmm&itof 
02]tepM3»iidj9f sugar on exc^Fy aare.€f land, unl of such fees 
on marriag^si^t baptisQi^^ ^d burifilB as custom hadjuittho- 
ri^fidr This, was^ far fjjow * l?eing a decent op an adequate 
. njaintenanpe jfoT the clergy • Jt wa« therefore enacted, thafe, 
il^;^0^ti^oii tQ; their glebes^ most of which are considendiole, 
/tJtff^il^Uv;?; Qf/Jthe^ ditfereot parishes should receive^a salany 
v^f^Qnft fc^ijiijdi^d »ntl fifty po^iads^ b^ides^t&es for the per- 
formaqp^.pf occasjoq^l duty. This proviaion is CCTtainly 
inade<inafie ^o m^et the advance which the lapse^of a cea- 
.turj has made in the h^bit^ and expense of hving; but it is 
to be observed, that among the. fees of office, to the augmen- 
tation of which the people have patiently submitted, those 
' of the clergy have not been aegjeeted ; and ia most parishes 
the rector's fees exceed one hundred poundjsi a year. Be- 
sides, in the liberality of, the vestry, thei incumbent generally 
finds an ample compensation for the smaUness of the legal 
stipends The annual, presents voted to the rectors af e com^ 
monly equal to the established salary, and frequently ex- 
ceed it. Hence the least valuable ""church living in the 
islahd may be moderately rated at four hundred pounds; 

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^^J^]^^'- a year. In addition to this revenue there is on every glebe 
^^^^' a conunodious, nay in most instances an elegant mansion, 
built and kept in excellenrt lepair^.at the expense of the 
parish^ for the acconamodati^tt of the laimster, . 

^Xt has lately been doAibted whether eveni this is a suffix 
cient provision for the support of the clergy^- of whom many 
appear extremely anxious to be made indepemknt of the 
bmmty of their vestries. Those who are satisfied with 
what they receive, need neither wish for more nor for any 
alteration in the aiode by which it is granted; and the mi-- 
Ulster who is ^termined to perform his duty diligently, 
and to conduct himself with bumility and decorum, need 
not fear the i^esentment of those from whom he expects his 
reward. It were, however, much to be wished, for the «ake 
of preserving the purity and dignity of the sacred function, 
;tbat the rectors of the several parishes were rendered inde- 
pendent of occasional ^tuities from their vestries. As 
jights of the world they should be placed above the cares 
and perplexities of oTjdinary men. The clergy would then 
l>e no longer under the necessity of temportsrng, as some 
o( them too i^tea do, with the principal inhabitants of 
■flieir cure. But in providing for the independence of 
the cleargy, we <bouId not lose sight of the circumstances of 

^ The legislature have just pasted a law, augmenting tbe annual stipend of the 
Erectors to^ree hundred poun^ 

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tlK*e l^y^hMit' they are l>aid.V should no longer ^^ij^^* 

be inmited iwitfc a power, tb& fitequfently abused, of itidtilg- ^ ' ^• 
ing to jostentatiotis generosity ^io the injury of their pa- 
rishionersy whose means <Sf subsistence are often abridged to 
p^xmf^ llife ttutes which airfe levied onl them, for the sup^ 
poet^^of the pasodbial establishment. 

\ 1 . .'.■ 

...; / ' , ■ 

I 'i .) >.. . • t * I > .M. 

\ ) ; ' , ' ■ . ' 

J.. . 


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THE COLONIAL REPRESENTATION. 1 HE Honourable William Sharpe, having succeeded to 
1706. the government, on the departure of Sir Bevill Granville, 
commenced his short, but turbulent, administration, by 
dissolving that assembly to -whose triennial existence he had 
lately contributed, by his vote, as a member of council. 
The public mind was, at this time, so irritated by political 
disputes, and personal animosities, that the elections, in 
many parts of the island, vrere contested with an unusual 
<)egree of warmth and violence ; and, in most instances, 

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^ OF BAIQ8AD0ES.. ^01 

terminated ift favour of those wlio were known to be hostile ^^JiS^* 
to the measures of the late executive government. Such ^'^^* 
^as the^ general disapprobation of the proceedings of the 
Jate assembly, that only seven of the old members vrere 
re*elected*. • 

In this violent collision of parties, Mr. W: Holder, speaker 
of the laic assembly ; Colonel J. Holder, treasurer of the 
island; his colleague, E. Holder, Mr. W. Walker, and kll 
who were known to be immediately concerned in the busi- 
ness of the bank, were rejected by their former constituents. 
In Saint Joseph's, Colonel Holder endeavoured to prevent 
the publication of the election writ, alledging that it had 
been illegally issued. Disappointed in his aim, he wreaked 
his vengeance on Mr. Tullw6od> the rector of the parishs 
whom, chancing to meet on the road, in company with \m 
wife, he assaulted and violently beat. Nor did the lady 
^cape his brutal violence; ibr^ upon her interposing, he 
iuriously tore off hCT head^^ress and otherwise unmanfuHy 
abased heu Colonel Cleland not only refused Jo execute 
the office of sheriff at Saint Andrew's, but appeared at thift 

* The new assembly consisted of Mr. Wheeler and G. Pe^rs, for St^MichaeVs; T. 
Maxwell and S. Adams, for Christ Church ; J. Frefe^and N. Webb, for St. PhiUp'ss 
H. Peert and T. Nerie, for St. Otorgei; R. Ddwnes and W. LesBe, for St. John's; 
W. Cole and W, <!:artor, ht it. Tk^Ms^^ T. dandlfi»rd Mid ii Gibtts, f^ ft. AHdrcrtt's-. 
It Sandiford and S. Maynard, for St. Peters; T« Maycook and J. Mi^iODd^ fcr tt. 
Lucy's; E. Suttofi and B. Yeamans, for St. Jameis; J. Vaughan and W^. Grant, Ibc 
St, Joseph's : on their first meetbig, Mr. Wheeler was ehosen speaker. 

i D d 

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CHARVii. poll and protested against the election. ^ He, afterwards, in 
^"^^^^ concert with the Holders, Waite and several others, drew up 
a remonstrance, which they presented to the assembly, de^ 
nying the president's authority to dissolve the late assembly, 
declaring the house to be an illegal convention, and protest- 
ing against its proceedings. This paper was treated by 
both branches of the legislature as a factious attempt to 
excite sedition; and Cleland for his disorderly behaviour 
was removed from the council board. 

Fired with resentment, Cleland presented a memorial to 
the assembly, offering to make a full disclosure of the cor- 
ruption and bribery which had been practised by some 
persons in liigh responsible situations,, for promoting the 
establishment of a bank; in which, as has been already 
shewn, the president, and Mr. Walker, of the council, were 
strongly implicated. The encouragement given to this pro- 
posal in the lower house, gave great oflfence in the council 
. chamber, and the president sent a message to the assembly, 
clisclaiming their authority to proceed on Cleland's infor- 
mation; it being inconsistent, he said, with the dignity of 
the government, that a member of council should appear 
before that house to vindicate himself against a criminal 
charge; and contrary to natural justice to proceed against 
him unheard. To this the assembly replied, that it was 
the undoubted right of the representative body of the 
people to receive information against any member of the 
other branch of the legislature for oppression, bribery, ex- 

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tortion, or other heinous offences, and to bring the offender ^^^^^' 
to condign punishment. ^^^' 

In the midst of this altercation, Mr, Vaughan brought 
forward a fresh ?iccusatioa against the members of the late 
administration. A contribution^ it seems, had been raised 
among the practitioners in physic and surgery, for the pur- 
pose of bribing, certain members of both houses to con- 
sent to the passing of a law, allowing them to prove their 
accounts by their own oaths. Doctor Gamble, being ex- 
amined at the bar of the house, confirmed the information 
received from Mr. Vaughan; but the charge was so vague 
and obscure, that it only served to fan the embers of dis"" 
cord, without giving suflficient light to discover the offen- 
ders. The council, who were deeply involved in these 
criminal imputations, warmly resented the proceedings of 
the assembly, as tending to encourage factious, evil-minded 
persons to calumniate the most respectable characters in the 
country. Much time was thus spent in angry contentions, 
odious Tecriminations, and mutual revilings, which answered 
no other end than to expose both houses to general contempt. 

In the mean while, the assembly were not negligent in 
their endeavours to reUeve their country from the operation 
of the Paper Credit Act. Their remonstrances against it October, 
were so judicious, that it was repealed by her Majesty's 
order in council*. Justice, however, required that pro- 

* Univ. Hist. vol. 41. p. 1 W. lUlPi Settlem. of Barb. p. SO. Uws of Barb. p. 495. 

D d 2 

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CHAP. Vit. ^isioD ahoold be made &x the payment of suchbiU^ as^liad 
>7o6. been negotiated; the assembly accordii^ly passed a lav 
&r that purpose. At the same time. Holder was com- 
pelled to reAmd the premium which he had received for 
^aneactiiig the business. This, however, was not effected 
without a struggle. He applied to tlie Queen to be per- 
mitted to retain bis ill-gotten gains, but without success. 
1707. Ha^ng administered the government for the short space 

[ ef nine raonths^^ Mr. Sharpe was superseded bj the arrival 
«f Mitibid Cfowe, Esquire, whose appointment had beea 
formerly postponed, to make way for Sir Bevill Granville. 
Tlie goveraof found the public miad in a considerable siate^ 
of irritation, occasioned by the dispcttes concerning the 
banking business. In pursuance of the royal instructions^ 
his excellency immediately removed from the council-board, 
^ and from all offices at his disposed, every person who had 
promoted or encouraged the late project for supplying the 
want of cash. Holder had, however, the address to obtain 
a seat in council ; a circumstance which gave great ofience 
to the assembly. They presented an address to the gover- 
nor, thanking him for the alacrity with which he bad obeyed 
her Majesty^s commands ; and insisting on the removal of 
Mr; Holder. To this address, his excellency, after censuring 
their conduct in presuming, as he said, to meddle with mat* 
ters not immediately within their jurisdiction, replied, that 
Mr. Holder had received his mandamus subsequent to the 
Queen'^ order for the removal of those counsellors who had 


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01? BARBADoi:^. m$ 

beat initruokOBitsl m promotiBg the bwiikiag scbenoy^; i»b4 *^*J5^* 
timt he should^ thefefore» take no notice of thqir ^ppUc^s^ ^^^^- 
tiaa. Petefmined on effecting his downfall^ they presented 
ft petiticmt through their agent, to the Qi^^A^ in whiqhr 
besides representing Holder aa the ortgiaa) contriver and 
pcsncipal promoter of the bank, they accused him of many, 
other enormities. Her Majesty^ ever attentive to the com^ 
plaints of her smbjeets^ readily oomphed with their request^ 
and' Mr. Holder^ by her Majesty's offder, was degraded 
fttm his reeeot elevation. This act of jnstic^ far fron^ ^ 
spying the popular ferment, served only to kiorease thi^ 
spirit of dissension. In the effervescence of party, many 
complaints were eisdiibited against Mr. Cbowe; and, upoa 
the memorable change of ministry^ which was effected in nio. 
England, at this period, he was removed fi»>ai his g/^ 

Amidst the rage oS faction^y luod the contention of par^ 
lies, the legislative councils of the country were occa^ 
siohaUy employed in framing and digesting various laws 
fer the government of slaves, the security of property, ai*4 
tiie administratitwi of justice; subjects every Wjay deserving 
tbe matuce attention of an ^ilighten^ legislature. But 
the »)ean& provided for the attainment of these Qoble ob- 
ject* aie, in some instances, v»y inadequate tp the en4 

The establishment of a supreme court of cfimia^l jwjii" 
cature, is a cicoamstance of considerable importaof $i' stfH^ 

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CH^;^H. may reasoDablj excite an inquiry, whether it is calculated 
^'^*^- to answer the purposes of its institutions. From the first 
settlement of the colony, there had been a tribunal for the 
punishment of offences against the public peace; but how, 
or by what rules, its proceedings were regulated, does not- 
. appear by the statute book. It is probable, that the plan 
was erroneous or defective, since we find, that very soon 
after Mr. Crowe's arrival, this important subject attracted 
the attention of the colonial parliament ; and an act was 
passed, for establishing a court of grand sessions, of oyer 
and terminer, and general sessions .of the peace. By this 
law it is directed, that a court shall be holden once in every 
six months, by the governor, as chief justice, assisted by 
the members of council, the judges of the courts of com- 
mon pleas, and the justices of the peace. But should his 
excellency decline the seat, he is authorized to appoint 
a chief justice, with the consent of his council. From the 
obvious impropriety of the governor's presiding in this 
court, the jurisdiction of chief-justice is always delegated 
to one or other of members of council, or of the judges of 
the common pleas, who succeed to the chair in regular 
rotation, without the smallest regard to the legal ability, or 
forensic skill of the pergon on whom the appointment de- 
volves. Few of these gentlemen have laid up any stores of 
knowledge to qualify them for the arduous undertaking; 
they have never drunk at the fountain of science ; but trust* 
ing to natural intuition, they assume an awful ofiice, and 

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grasp the avenging sword of justice. Every ordinary jus* chap.vil 
tice oF the peace, whose vanity prompts him tositinjudg- ^^^^* 
ment on the lives and liberties of his fellow creatures, is 
eligible to a seat on the bench. A court of criminal judi* 
cature is thug formed of men unat^quainted with the laws 
which they are bound, by the most solemn obligations, to 
to administer faithfully. In a court so absurdly constituted, 
prejudice and partiality may safely exert their deleterious 
influence, secure within the dark immunities of a crowd *. 
In every court, according to an eminent jurisconsult f-, 
there must be at least three constituent parts ; the actar^ 
reuSy and judex : the actor ^ or plaintiff, who complains of 
an injury done ; the reuSy or defendant, who is called to 
make satisfaction for it ; and the judex^ or judicial power, 
which is to examine the truth, and to determine the law 
arising upon that feet ; and, if any injury be done, to as- 
certain and apply the proper remedy. Under the two 
foilnerof these heads the whole bar is included, while the 
jury is admitted to a participation of the duties of the 
third. To each, the constitution of the parent state has 
assigned its peculiar function. It is the province of the 

* •* This court is inconvenient, for the judges are in general' unacquainted with the 
law, and often commit mistakes. Their number is so greats that should they do 
wroBfi^y there is no getting' at them; and as most of the principal men in the colony sit 
jn this couvt, hardly any thing can come on but some of them are connected with cue 
or other of the parties.'' Stokes's Constit. qfthe Colonies, p. 262. 

t Blackstone's Comment yol. 3. p. 25« 

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e08 THE IfiKTORy 

<3HAJ?^. jury caudklly and impartially to inquire into the law «ad 
^^*^' the fact; and, by their verdict, to determine the guilt or 
the innocence of the accused. The judge^ by his superior 
skili and learning, supplies their deficieodes; he directs 
their attention to the proper objects ; leads them throtigh 
the labyrinths of legal sophistry and obscurity, and instructs 
tibem in the principles of the law by which they are bound 

But very different is the case in Barbadoes. Here we 
have only die Semblance of this noble bulwark o^ pefsonal 
security. We have indeed a judge, a bar, and a jury ; 
terms of high significance, but differing widely from their 
original import. If, in the course of their inquiries, the 
jury should find themselves involved in difficulties and un- 
certainty, to whom can they apply for assistance? Reason 
and common sense point to the bench. But from tiiat 
quarter no information can be expected to elucidate tibeir 
doubts. Deprived of this constitutional source of infbr- 
mation, they are forced to seek among the veiml advocates 
of the litigants themselves, a solution of the doubts which 
perplex their minds and render their decision uncertaivi and 
irresolute. But what confidence can a conscientious jury 
place in such partial, interested guides, whose contradic- 
tory opinions are calculated to deceive the judgment, when 
the star, from the bench, whose sober, steady light, should 
lead them in the way of truth, is eclipsed by the clouds of 
legal ignorance ? 

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Juries of the present day happily have the advice of an chap, vil 
attorney-general*, whose professional talents, luniinous un- ^''^^' 
demanding, and legal erudition^ are his least excJellencies. 
His candour, hninanity, and undeviating rectitude of con-* 
dnct, in the senate and at tlie bar, justly claiin the admira-* 
tion and esteem of his contemporaries; Bnt it is surely a 
solecism in criminal jurisprudence to require that the pro- 
secutor for the crown should quit his station at the bar and 
assume the judicial function of charging and instructing a 
juty. It is too much to eicpect, that aftet the faithftil per- 
formance of his duty to his client, in the support of a cri- 
minal charge, he should turn about and gravely assure the 
jury that the prisoner is less criminal than he had been la- 
bouring to make him appear; or tlmt he should instruct 
them, with candour, in the nature of the verdict which 
they are bound, by their oaths, to return. 

Besides, the human mind, is by nature susceptible of 
wrong impressions ; and, perhaps, the judgment of no man 
.ip more liable to perversion than that of a pubHc advocate, 
or pleader. Whether he is the prosecutor of guilt or the vin- 
dicator of innocence, he views but one side of the question. 
Studious Only of serving his Client he twists and perverts 
the law to answer that sole purpose J and, while he seeks 
for ingenious arguinentj^ to maintain the point which he 
wishes to Establish, his own understanding yields to the im^ 

^ The Honourable John Becklcs. 

E e 

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CHAP^. position of a plausiUe fallacy, contrived to influence the 
^'^*^* opinion of otliers. Such a man can never be a proper ex* 
pounder of the law to an unenlightened jury. But, how- 
ever the present attorney-general may reconcile these in- 
consistencies^ and honourably exercise functions so incom- 
patible, all men are mortal, and we must look fcnrward^ with 
painful apprehension to the day which shall deprive us of 
the services of this able and upright Crawn-lawyer*. Some 
mercenary tool of despotism may then be placed at the 
head of the bar, in whose hands this absurd custom may 
degenerate into the most arbitrary ioj^stice and tyrannical 

The remedy is obvious^ Great Britain presents an ex- 
ample, which it would be true wisdom to emulate^ Her 
bar is the school whence her seats of justice are supplied 
with those sages of the law, whose learning and virtue are 
their countr/s boast, and the admiration of surrounding 
nations. And why should a system, which has been bene- 
^cially adopted by the mother country for a long succession 
of ages be rejected and despised by her colonies? Instead 
of a bench, composed of an indefinite number of unlearned 
magistrates, let there be a chief justice appointed, who has 
been bred to the bar, and whose knowledge has been ma- 
tured by experience ; with him may be joined three puisne 
judges, selected from among gentlemen of rank, the most 
eminent for their talents and integrity. I should prefer, 
says an eminent philosopher, an even to an odd number 

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of judges, and four to any other number : for in this num- ^JJi^:^^* 
ber, besides that it sufficiently consults the idea of separate ^^*^- 
responsibility, nothing can be decided but by a majority of 
threfe to one. If the court be equally divided, nothing can 
be done; things remain as they were, with some inconve- 
nience to the parties, but without any danger to the pub- 
life of a hasty precedent*. 

To render the judges independant of the governor, they 
should be appointed for life, with competent salaries to 
support the dignity of the office. The warmest acknow- 
ledgments of the people are due to his Majesty for the ap- 
pointnrent of an eminent civilian to preside in the court of 
Vice^admiralty bf this island : and happy would it be here- 
after for the inhabitants in general, were tliis appointment 
followed by others of gentletnen equally eminent for legal 
ability, firmness, and integrity, to preside in the principal 
courts of judicature. Under the direction of great profes- 
sional talents, the dignity of the public tribtinals would be 
preserved, and the people would enjoy the blessings of li- 
berty and property, certain of a steady, uniform, and im- 
partial tMikninistration of justice. Nor let the ihigal states- 
man iftartle at the proposal, " for that economy must be 
bad, which sacrifices the public Wel&reto tlie sordid con- 
siderations of an illiberal parsimony, and would parcel out 

* Paky's Phao«. vol. 2. p, 237. ., ; 

E e 2 

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^vi^v^*" ^^® different offices of state, as it would ammge ibA esta*- 
"io- biisbm^it of a private fomily." 

April 7. ^ / 

This year is rendered memorable by the death (r( Chfa^ 
topher Codringjbon, son of Sir^ Timothy ThornhiU's bra** 
companion in anbs. Gratitude, for the memdrj of thii 
illustrious beB«&ctor of bts eountrj, majr probably render 
a few biographical sketches of bis Itle aoceptafaJe td tht 
Baibadiaii readef. He uras boi^ in B^ui>adces iii the ftax 
l66Ut and educated at Oxford. Ec^aallj distinguish^ for 
)u» learning and bedevolenC^ hd entered into ih« ntmy^ 
wbere his courage soon reconimefided trim to the favotit of 
King Wilham, by whom havi^ mtide a captain ia th^ ^nt 
legiment of lb«t-guar^t. He 'was at the si^ 96 Namut itx 
1^ ; and, u^pon the eoB«k»sion of ibe p«ac^, Mn»- ap»> 
pointed capUuB-^aefal and gererHor «if th^ LeeWard 
Idaods. In 17OI, sewiai atficlcs wtre exhibitdl agttiritt 
bim ia the House ef QmiuIiod^ in Enghidd ; td which hb 
published a distinct ftnd parlicitlBr aa5w«r, ttfld was h6^ 
nourably actyiitted of all imputdtioin. He ske#«d grtik 
bravery at tire attack of Gu^alcnlpe itt l-TOSj hM at 1^ 
he resigned bis govemflifent wad liv^d a 9tadiou» r^r^ Wi, 
applying himself chi«% te^chufcch^biatory ttnd m«ta|*ysfe§. 
He .died at.Ba»badoe» on Ote seveiith of April, and. #afe 
buried at Bridge4ewn the ftitewibg day ; his body was- tl*. 
terwards carried to England, and interred in thcs chapel of 
AIT Soul's College, Oxford, of which he had been a fellow. 
To this college he felt a noBle legacy, consisting of his li- 


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hmrj, vi^iied at six tboiuand poaiids^* *ml tea tBonsMd chap. vn. 
poundsio cash, to be laid <Mt ta biiiUuig a library,, aod i&iiv ^^^'^ 
xmhm^ it witb books^. Bjr his last wiU* l»e bequeathed ivi^ 
lEahiaUe plaalatidiis in Barbadioe»^ to lim Sodety for (iropa^ 
gating the Christiaii. Religion ia Foreign Parts. Hie directed 
^at these plaatadoiis sh€>uld. be Jcept entire, ^4th at leaist 
Anee himdred negroid »po& theiB. The prodiuce ef these 
tsbutes yfwk allotted to tnaintaia a coBveniefit number of pra« 
fessofB^and scholars^ ui«lef the vews ^ poyt^ty, ck^,^t^ 
and abedke&Ge ; wbo vrere re^uis^ to ^ studj and practisj» 
pfajsic and chmirgeqr^ iia Vf^ as divinitj^ Uiat they ms^ 
eodoK tbrmtekes tb tbft people^ and hav« the better qp^ 
portunittes df dicdi^gldod td^ mea's 60uIS| wM^ they aiid 
taking care of thdir bod&ea %.^ 

The ptblk faaire n^ hUhett^ dimmed ihastt advantii^ 
from tUls prmdeljr benefeetidn,^.ithich wight have be^ eifc^ 
pectedfixmit A cMleige iras built oi^-one f>f the planta- 
tknoG^ in & hlsahh;^ part of tlie pairish of Saint John, and 
4iidbwi9d ibr thetduimt^oia 6f )ront& And pimpier mastf^ui 
trei^ i^npleij^v «rith toitabte Varies, for ihek ibstttwrtilo)^ 
fiivntehed with et^rj thing necessary for their •svi^rt^, a^ 
tbe«xpe!ti«^ of t^ fimodatkn^. Bat the calaowNkies tnci^ 
^bt to West IttdiMi propevty, the ftuhtts of ci»p% the 
i^i^anagement (^ faithless and «iieglige»t tsteHrairdfl^ imd 
the tnisapplicatiQh of ^ ret^ntie, soon oceasimed tlie 4»-^ 

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^^I!^^^^^* cline of this b^ieficial . institution. At length the estates 
*^^^' were fanned by Mr. John Brathwaite, under whose judi* 
cious and skilful direction they attained a more prosperous 
condition ; and, at the expiration of the lease, he gave them 
iip to the trustees, free from all incumbrances, with a con- 
siderable surplus, which he was entitled to retain for his 
risk and trouble ; but which he generously relinquished, for 
the benefit of the establishment Hence this admirable 
man may, with propriety, be considered as the second 
founder of this noble institution* These plantations are 
now under an excellent system of management, and the 
direction of persons disposed to a ^Eiithful performance of 
the trust reposed in tliem. The college is under the pre- 
sidency of the Rev. Id ark Nicholson, A. M. an accom^ 
plished scholar, and a pious divine, peculiarly qualified, by 
bis learning and virtue, to be the preceptor of youth. 

aiaj loi '^ ^^^ ileparture of Mr. Crowe the executive autho- 
rity devolved on George lallington, president of the council; 
A new excise bill now furnished the foctious and turbulent 
with a fresh subject of contention. The house of assembly 
bad hitherto exercised the exclusive right of nomiiiatiiig 
the treasurer and comptroller of the excise* This was cer^- 
tainly an unconstitutional assumption of power, but, as the 
right had been once admitted, .th6 propriety of its being^ 
now disputed is, at least; doubtful. When men^s minds 
are heated they seldom reason rightly ; and the council 
thought this a feivourabie opportunity of resenting the in- 

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dignities Mrhicb they had rtceived fixMn the assembly, by^ 
opposing their encroachmttits on the royal prerogative, and^ ^'^^^* 
tiierefore, rejected the bill ; insisting that they had an equal 
fight witk theassen>bly to nominate the treasurer and comp- 
ttoller. This added fresh luel to the flaoie, and produced 
an intemperate altercation between the two branches of 
the legislature. Both parties continuing obstinate, the 
point in dispute was, at length,, submitted to the Queen's 
deteraiination ; and, her Majesty,^ more anxious to restore 
tranquillity to a distracted country than to preserve her pre- 
rogative in a matter so trifling and unimportant,, deckired 
it to be her royal will and pleasure, that the president and Sepc^r^ 
council should consent to the excise bill,, without insisting 
on a right to disapprove of the person proposed to be tres^ 
surer**^ This order, in effect, transferred to the representa* , 
tives of the people a branch of the exicculive power, which 
,they have ever since continued to exercise^ aod,^ m many 
instances^ they have gradually extended tiieir authority, by 
appointing to offices not then within the contemplation of 
^ther party.. 

Mt; LUlington lived just long enough to resign the reins ,^^^|- 
of government into the hands of Robert Lowther, Esq; 
who having been appointed, in an evil hour, commander in 
ehieft arrived in CarUsle-4>ay,. on the twenty-third day of 
June. The overbearing pride and arrogance of this gentle* 

* HaUVEintSeUlem. p. 30. M&.' Mem. fji Barb. p. 52. 

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cis\t: vn. tgaB 9000 ei^ated Ivrm manyenemiesv atiMii^ a loffal andhigln 
^7H. ^rite(i people,, who cmrid nofc €fewily be brotight 'to subthH 
io the imperidui^ sway of a despotic niter. Aggravated % 
opposition, the impetuosity of his temper hurried iwra into 
many aetsi of injustice and oppression. AimAg tliese trasthe 
susprasion of Mr: Sharpe, Mr. Walker, and Mr. Betisfard» 
vtho had the firmness to oppose his measures in coumil. 
Tfhraegentiferaeatnsre not indolent in seeking redress. Tbcy 
. earned their complaintito liie foot of the throne, axid irere 
hoBouited with het Majesty's order fo* then* restoratiwMi. 
towther, hoirevwv ventured to disobey the commands of 
his Sovereign^ and, for several racmths, refused to admit 
the 8u^)eiided members to resmnef ^ir seats. Such an 
andiaciouscoatempt of authority necessarily interrupted the 
progress of public business, and excited the most lively 
diacontoit throughout the island. In a council, composed 
of, twelve members^ s^poiitted by lett»^ of mandamus, 
fdrmifngaa esstdiltial part of the legislative and^judicied 
estaMshmeutsf of the country, it was maintained with greast 
strength of reasoning, that, while the three excluded mekb- 
bersi were thuf arbitranrily hindered from sitting and vofing, 
timtie could be no legitimate goverdm^t existing m the 
island. The govcriior^s light ^ ^nispension was not dis- 
|mt^; buty ai tih» suspension^ in this case, had been an* 
nulled by a superknr amthority,^ it was insisted that no conAr 
cil^ court of error or of equity, could be properly holden 
without tiie prei^eaGe, or doacarrence, of every member. 

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whose attendance was not prevented by legal disability; chap.vii. 
and, consequently, that all acts performed by the sitting ni*. 
members, either as a branch of the legislature, or as a 
court of chancery, were absolutely null and void. 

Mr. Lowther's insolence and disobedience, soon drew on 
him the indignation of insulted Majesty. He was recalled 
from his government; but, unwilling to relinquish his 
power, he delayed his departure so long, that some of the 
principal men of the island disclaimed his authority ; upon 
which he threatened Mr. Cox and Mr. Salter, two members 
of council, with a criminal prosecution, for treasonable 
designs.* At length, 6iiding all tergiversation fruitless, he 
reluctantly submitted to her Majesty's conmiands, and 
returned to England. 

On this joyful event, the Honourable William Sharpe May. 
again- succeeded to the presidency. The mild and con- 
ciliatory temper of the president, bad a considerable share 
ia tranquillizing the public miad. Ilis short administration 
was so perfectly unexceptionable, that he had the honour 
of receiving the thanks of the British ministry, for his meri- 
torious conduct. But unh^^^ppily for the peace of the 
colony, on the accession of George I. Mr. /Lowther was ^^^^ 
re-appointed governor of Barbadoes. No appointment 
could have been more un propitious and displeasing to the 
Barbadians than this. Absence^ had not softened th^ May i^ 

• Untv. His.'Vol. 41. p. 165. 

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CHAP. viL haughty wad vmdictiwe spirit of the laao. He returaed ta 
w*^* the istend^ with all his former prejudicos and inveterate ani- 
BQsities rankling iu hi3 boeadt,. and eagerly eoibraced the 
t>ppdrtunit3r which his restoration to power afforded hiiii» 
ef wrecking hia veogeance jqa those who* had opposed )iis 
Jbmier administratiDa. 

The fbrst rictim of ki» malice waa the Rererend Mr«. 
dordon, die Bisho|>^ ef LMidoa'a commissary,, and rector 
«f the periidx oi Saint Michaels This gentleman,, having 
ineunMdtber goveiner'a diap^iwe,. waa deemed to su^r a 
. tedioit» and ngorons persecution.. In cpnsequenc^ of the 
Bioat scandalous mi«rep9e6«Ktatian^ of his character^ ^^d 
condnct, which hb «i»a^ney had tran9Qiittedi tq £Qgl^d^ 
with the a3sbtance .of tiDei^eolonial ag^ts^ Mr. Goicden 
.was^eKpLMed to .the ceniiirq of his dioceaan, and experienced 
some nAieesited severity from the Board of Trade^ Cipnsci*^ 
1719. 0O8 dft^a i]iiiiOC«tK»y (^or4oa resorted to the fpuntaia bead 
\fi>r tedieffu He pneseiiited si :9iemovial to the King, com-» 
. -plaining Bat only f^ the gOYeHH>ff s maUcious^ misrepresent 
tatidn.of his-.c6ndue|i ta the Bishop of London, but of the 
agentsf petition to the Bo^rd of Trade^ and of their lord- 
ship's report npon it^ The mattcp being referred to a com- 
nsitfeee of the IViyy Cotincil', Gordon obtained a commission^ 
for the exanftinatio!n of witnesses on tlie island ; but the 
governor^ pretending to doubt the anthenticity of the or- 
der,^ committed Gordon to prison^ and had him indicted at 
the ensuing court of grand sessions^ where his^ excellency 

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dp BARBADOBS. ^19 

{^resQihed to'tA*esi4« in person, thustiniting the iacongrsous P^iAP.yi;. 
chkradtferfe of pmscfcutor and judge* This step, the mp^t ^^;^^- 
unprecedetttfcd in the annab* of criminal judicature, was 
sWittly <!orifermable id the ridicuious law of the inland, \yj 
t^hich a palpable ihctftifei^tency i» authorized. Common 
decency should have restrained the governor from deviating 
irr this particular YroraT tbe'establislicd usage of his prede- 
^cessors, who had invariably delegated their authority m 
iMs^urt to some other pei^h ; but, yielding to the dic- 
tates of passion, he pur^nied his vindictive purpose, unawed 
hy ^ligioii or morality. His criminal designs, however, 


^Were frustrated. Gordon's defence was ably ^und success- 

ftiHy ccfndiicted by Mr. Hope, a respectable attorney, and 

iJiimatfeari^l&lenman, an eminent barrister; who, undismayed 

'by the 'frowns of power, stood forth the assertors of injured 

iiinocence. ^ 

This' spiffed conduct necessarily involved these gentlemen 
in the resentment of the tyrant. Blenman was immediately 
cojnmitted to the common gaol, whence he was released, 
on giving bail, in the sum of onfe thbusand pounds, to ap- 
pear at tlie next court of grand sessions. ^ This recognizance 
tvas, in the end, forfeited; for Blenman, accompanied by 
his client and their faithful sx)licitor, hastened to England, 
and implored redress at the foot of the throne- ^ In shorts 
the lords justices, the King being then al^seht on a visit to 
his electoral dominronsi pronounced the dwtfge agairfst . 
Gordon to be groiindless and malicious j it Was, thereforct 


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^^^]^^- ilismissed. Blemnan, in hiis turn, enjoyed the most com- 
^^^^' plete triumph over his raincorous adversary. The lords 
justices, after declariog the whole of tlie governors con- 
duct to have been arbitrary and iJlegal, ordered that Mr. 
Btenman's recognisance, and all the proceedings thereon, 
should be vacated ; and that, if any levy had been made 
for the forfeiture, the full sum should be returned and paid 
to him without delay^. 

His presiding at the court of grand sessions, was not the 
only instance in which Mr. Lowther arrogated to himself 
extraordinary judicial powers. Under colour of theJa^ir, 
authorizing the governor and council to hear:and; determine 
petitions in equity, and writs, of error on matterd QQgmza-- 
ble in the courts of law, he constituted himself and his 
creatures at the council board, into a court of grievance, 
in which they exceeded the bounds of their legal jurisdic- 
tion. The arbitrary proceedings of this court,, occasioned 
many complaints against the governor; the result of which 
was, aa order from the lords justices, abolishing the court 
of grievance; observing, that the only proper jurisdiction 
of the governor and council, as a court of error or equity, 
ds to correct the errors and grievances arising in . the pro- 
ceedings of the inferior courts; but not to proceed originally 
in causes, except upon petitions in matters of equity. 

The case of Bernard Cook, a native of Hanover, is 

* Caribbeana^ toI. K p. 269. 

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strongly characteristic of. tbe genius and temper ;df Low^ ^^^-^^ 
ther's administration. Mr. Cook had bieeii endeavouriog ^^*^* 
to establish a riglit to an estate, which he alle^d was 
objustly withl>ekl from him by Mr. Frere, a gentlemaa 
nearly related to the governor* This claim was snfiicieijt 
to inspire his excellency with resentment against the un-I 
fortunate 'Hanoverian. When a man is once marked for 
destruction, the means of accompUshing his ruin are easily 
fbumi. Gook was reported to have reflected, in can^ess 
conversation, on the chastity of twb ladies : one, the wife 
of Robert Warren, an artful attorney; the other, the wife 
of Hamuel Adams, a gentleman of some didtinction*' So 
fevourable an opportunity of gratifying their patron's spleen, 
as well as their own resentment^ was tiot to* be j^eglected* 
The angry husbands, therefore, determined on a most 
vigorous prosecution. A ooo*t of quarter 'sessions was inir 
mediately ci.Ued, composed bf Guy Ball dnd F. Bond, 
members of council, with T. Maycock, R. Bishop, G'. 
Barry,' J. OPevcharson, S. Thomas, and W, Kickman, jus- 
tices df the pfeace, selected from different' parishes* Before 
this, tribunal, Oo6k was arraigned on two aepcarate indict* 
ments for defamation. Sensible that he could expect nei^ 
ther justice nor mercy from such prejudiced judges, he 
objected to the jurisdiction of the court, and claimed the 
privilege of a trial by a jury of his peets.' Malice, how*, 
ever, was not to be deprived of its victim. 'Cook was 
found guilty of both charges, and condemned to receive 

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cHAP^rr. thirty^ino 'l«flu»^for da<>h feffgnce; ^He 6entfeK» Wtt eaiu 
*"*• Twd into imioedjal* <txieu€i(Hiv % thecofniriidii wfaippe^df 
^^esy in the fulsfieiace. of > ti»i justices, 'who stood l>y, like 
«tein«ft8>'>eflj«&ying>4he «gomefc' of the : degraded suffeiwi 
Th« iftJUriki H«n<&teridii flew to his^ovei^gtt foried*eS0i 
His cdttiptiiots tvei^ referred' to- the liiOi^g oif the Committee 
for hiwnag Appeals ; and, before their londlslap^s caane to 
«j(ty determination on the'subje.ctv they issued a commissioa 
iD( instituting «n inqliiry,: itt Bturbtadoes, dntd the particu-r 
law of th^ aflfciiri xlicectidg the necessary proofe to be^nt 
to England, under the seal of tke island. Having at length 
collected »ufficiBnt «videnoe to form^'^ coKr^e Jjudgirierii 
their lordships reported to his Majesty, that *tlie cttttjplaliit 
against the govermtir thad liot been' sobstantirited ; but that 
^ charge againat the justices iiad been fully jwoved ; tbiit; 
tliey had inroceeded a^nst the prisoner without any ctiteie 
aHegt>dagaha«tha»j for that soandaloos word*, spdtenef 
priv^ persons, are no ground of criminal piosecuticov 
Upon the whde, their lordships were of opinion, that the 
justices, wk> had «at on the trial, had acted iHegaHy, for 
that they had notpioper cognizance of the matter before 
tl»m» b»t had ta<ken upon them to examine witnesses^ and 
to determine^atterg of feet without a jury, and had finally 
ifiisen two seateKoes, which were arbitrary and unjust. In 
««nMeqi^ice of this xepnesentation, his Majesty was gra- 
ciously pleased to order, that the names ef the justices, 
wiio jjiresided on tiie trial, ^should be struck out of the 

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CQttQBM&on of tbe peaee; aQ4 tbM Mr- BalU -a$iU Mr, ettAB..y{i« 
BcxDcl^ ^hodki be Pd»oved hoBt thq cottucU bpar^*^, ^^^ 

::AMr«^ Bieimn, who had been guUty of a gtucIj.grekatQr 
ofience tban that H»puted[ ta Coo]c, experkAc^d^ at:tW 
lAixKi tiQie^ mach mUd^r treatoieott IjLaying l^ill^ ^:g^p^ 
tleiimn ia a duel, he applied to the governor for protectiQj||[ 
aiid,^ although he had never been brought to^ a trial for the 
erime^. be found uo difficulty iu obtaiuiug hi& eEXcellenoyV 
pardon* But^ justly ap^h«Rsive that ao ri4i^ul9«.i» aiid 
iincQftatitutiooal an iuterposVtion in hift favour could afford 
him na cfficieB* secuirity in the event of a prosecution, 
Brenap went ta England, and was indebted for security Uh 
the clfinency of his IVukc f^ 

Nor liv?epe these the onJy instaocet of tyranny and inr^ 
ywrtice of which Mr. Loirtbcr wa» guitty^^ With a view tp 
kie 0](Vfi> private emoluments^ he peraaitted' a iew favoured 
perBQA$^to cforryon an. illicit and lucrative traffic with th^ 
$p$i))ai;d% and l^yw admitted . a Spaniih vewel to frequent 
tk^tpOft ip|J&ridge--Town ; while, from the same corrupt 
moti^es^^ he .cau^d a ship belpnging to Mr. Lansa,. a mer^ 
ch^OQ of t^at p)l»eer to be sei^d and oondemned. In fine 
h0. had the:)tddfiess to procure a hiindsome settlement, by 
which ^ ^il^^M^ed the sum of twenty-^ight thousand pounds: 
thus plyindering' a loyal and oppressed people, whom he tet- 

♦ Qiribbcana, vol, I. p. 31©. f Short Ilisl^ of Brtb;p» 101. 

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^^J^^^^ presented to the British ministry as French smugglers, dis- 

^^^- afFected to government; To this cause, perhaps, it wa^f 

owing that he was removed, since the money was received 

in open violation of the Royal instructions, by whiph he 

was expressly forbidden to take any salary or present frouv 

' the assembly. 

'Lowther's tyranny had now grown so grievous and in* 
tolerable, that many of the most respectable inhabit^nts of 
the colony concurred in a petition to the king, stating the 
various acts of delinquency which he had committed in the 
course of his long and oppressive administration, and hvuiir 
bly beseeching his Majesty to remove him from thegovern^ 
ment. To oppose this application, the governor procured 
addresses from the sycophants by whom he was surroupded, 
commending the ntiildqess, wisdom, and equity, of his ad- 
ministration. But all was in vain. The application, fpr 
the governor's dismissal was supported by Sir Robert Dav^ 
Mr. Walter, and Mr. Alleyne, men of considerable pro- 
perty in the island, of whom the two former were membeps 
of the English House of Commons. .... 

The governor was at length called home to answer the 
charges exhibited against him. To avert the ^torm wjbich 
seemed ready to burst on his head, he took every precaution 
which an artful insidious policy could dictate, and the la^t 
moments of his expiring power were occupied in annoying 
his enemies and in providing for the security of himself and 
his adherents. All the public employments were filled by 

Digitized by 




kk firiebdsv wba possessed a dedded ikiaj^jrity Jfl fcwth ho<l*ttl **ij^' 
oTthe colbiiial paiiiament. Suspecting rtiat i?)»uld tfeey bfe ^"^^ 
jprfmonred by his sticcissor^ hh own tmsdemeanor^ wxiuM be 
detected with greater fiidihj^he fJrocured a Ikw to be passed^ 
Ac} pitofessed obgect of irhkh was to preserve tiie pea^e and 
tranqiiiUitjr of the community; but its real design was to 
keep the CTedtureS df the governor in power, by restraining 
%he president. frona^lnakiiig siny changes in the oiS^ia) de^ 
partnients. The pJaA was yet incomplete. To guai^d every 
avenue it tras necessary to place bis nej^ew, Mr. John 
Pre«v itt therbead of the gtovermnent. There was one ob-^ 
^de, hburever, to be removed; Mr. Cox, as senior member 
of the' conncil was entitled to the succession. But this ^Ifi-^ 
culty was qoichly obviated ; Mr. Co* and Mr. Salter Were 
both suspended td m^e room fot his relative. After comt 
pleting these ftrmngetwents Lowtber took his last fareweH o( j^^ 
Btybftdoes; and Mr. Frere imnted?alely assuirted, or rather 
usurped, the direction of affairs. 

Mr, Lowther on hi* a»ital kt Engtartd was summoned td 
appear be^^re the lords justices, his Majesty being' absenff 
dn an excursion to the continent, to answer the various 
eon^plaints which had been prefertied against hint. After ^ 
fong and patient investi^tion of the several allegations con-^ 
tained in the petition of the Barbadians, their lordships de- 
termined that tlie diarges were amply and clearly estabiisb-^ 
ed; they therefore directed him to be taken krto custod^F, 
and ordered tliat he should be'prosecuted for high crimes 

Digitized by 



^J6 *• THE mstORt 

^^$^'* ^^ iifti^d^liieftn^^. BM ^ prosecution waff most tifttact* 
*^^' toubtebij pfotracte* tiiirtil the accession of €Jebp^ It* 
ivrfaen aa act of grace rescued -the etilprlt froin tlie'hittids 
of justice, and saved him firotn condign puoishmeiit' '■ '-''■ 

l^^s^While Sir Charles Coic presented a memdnal td^^^flier 
lords justices,, complaining of the-arhttrarj susp^n^ionof luft 
brother^ and of fi!s baiving beeasuperseded in Ubie presidchcj» 
by a jrOiifigOT raenaber of council. Thisl applicaftion put- 
duced an. order from ^ir lordships for the ' t'est^ration' 6£ 
€dx and Sal^ter^ and commanding Frere to rfeiigtiitiie gop- 
^jern^nent. -But, pleased mth his surreptitionS'anthBii^tjy 
k64ientated to coinply,.u3itil upoaii-fresbTepresefi^aftion^ 
hiA teftatetory conduct,' he was cited to a|jpe^'bfei&i'e %e 
luftg' aikt pwy council,' to acconnt -foir ' faijk di!96beelMt6e.> 
^ing thus compelled to sujimiti he Went' to 'EiiglSolaii-wHcfe 
Jie<lied, Bioort asftfet his^rrival, of '^e-staall i^i'.^^ 
f ;i.C<$s:liai/dng at^l^f^-imeee^d^to^tl^^^idc^f^ii^^ 
tbraiacdijiary ticeiit (^^mmii^ 'mH cobAeiog-erisii^r "iQl 
offices of trust and profit were in the handi df •Ihefeteg^lfe. 
.VI ,noi% Upends,: niioi&SMte ft point Qi'thwtirtiDg'ilind b^pdnng all 
lhein)3a8Ui«riOf:Jtlie.:pi^iamif.s'>tN^t b^ng %^ 
'Isufamit^Uitf^ sudi'pSf tui«eidfis ^^to^v^Odk^dfe- 

* TendemeM fw the memory of his grandfatber has' induced tbe author of the (hort 
tMary «fSUi)ado<i' t<^ glMT )D»«iRhls lr»ma«ti«){('; ba!|!llife%T^^'itW its false 
««hM|MriiiK^ m thaimtlfvit^orjtfidCMMMtaiai^rcflH,'^; 942; tfQd'tiie t^iSt! tii^, 
Tol,xli.p. 160. ".:;,/. ..■.:..-:. : ;, J.- -;••;.>. i... 7. .■.•.■■• ■■■•' ■ •'••••" 

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'^[|pi)glini^ ia tii^r pda$e^,:b|ut ^hif^b bad,B9t:jet,r@cei\lGd 
tibe royal a^^o^^he sus|»^d|fd ffi& memb^s of^ cpu^il je^ 
J^i^i * he,di^l%c#-Mr» iSuttpn, .jch^f ju^ger^f'Qoa pl^the 
.^^fjiiMpt? ,9f,G0BMn^. pleas,, and refl^ Qibb(^, pj^f 

^)^joni x>^,tlMq pp^vb <>£ exchequer. He <lismiB$edj8«(y§i^ 
Jl^t^g^tQlBisers; frpnf their pomiii^nds; and, (to ^^jigth^ 

/A"8n^W^?»*mt»P»i ^U*^!^^?" piaSe^-'Witi^ persoosiiB^ 
j^djlu pUastttto hia^yieprsh 53»s y'ui^ncQ served on^j? tof^t;! 
.^{i»ffi%ojf^i?c«';d, Theasseii^Wy pctitionedthekiip^j^jonft- 
^9ii5W»i<^-^*^-ia!C^MaKy prpceedi^gs of the pre&ideaiit;.::^.4 
4^ S¥ai^^g*fP\feei^ qfjQpiMicili OBiftfn appUcatiu>Hmb(j 
tfefiWBs^ewf^^r^fl^red iQ.itfe^jr/iiqictioBa^ , Tlw fwofwapstaoc^ 
Ml?!^^WWwr, .^f.^^h jexultftfi/aa^jift t^ pppo^ition, tb«l 
they deteraiip^ :to,iP!r€»}^(8 .fip,.4«n9frl viih the piwidenfc; 
^>.|n t^i^.fel^i4a^,of lMroi»^emp«?fttfe. lewntniiBirt, the 
:i9tere$t§rqf;thg.<joj»ptry ^eie 8fi^ni«sd to tbs^4ii4u%eiM»>Df 
^i??sofial,f«in(»<Mitj^,., . r.-^y,-,-> .:..: ■ ,,j,. j ' ,- v.;'y 

It has tieea m€«tiio»cd l^y spme 9fmt iu>tomi3klimU>!i9aa, irti. 
^ ai^ iiurtaiipe of Mr. CbOs's wfwt ofr ipaaterfetioB, thaltiie m- 
^^yed^qin the^enph of n^agiatratefl agwjBtl gfti>»lphifin f of 
fortune and respectability, and encouraged vexatious j>ro< 

4cnicd io the illegal procetding* againat Beniatd Cook. , .; 

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CHAP^n. $eai*i<ms«gftibst4lieni. ' Butthl* irafi, ifnfe<it,iii iftdifpeir'- 
^'7^^ aablfe pw^ of bk duty; tn obedience to tkt icomdwiidB of im 
loviereign. For although tlie order for the dagradati!Ob:i>iP 
thoee persons who had be^n concerned ia the ar bitmi^ ant 
illegal f»ro6ecut]an of Bernard Cook, was issued previouaite 
Mr^Xoivther^ rbcal, it did not reach Barbaidoes* till after 
Mr- Cox bad been placed in the pmsident's obair* . With 
regaird to the vexitttaus prosecution which he ii^ -. cbarg^ 
mtb having countenanoed/if conjecture may be^lkxited ^to 
^Ufiply the^ {^aoe of positive certainty, it might; not he 
thought improbable that these suits were oomnteneed' by 
Cook; t« recover, from bis unjust judges, a 'pecuniaty oom^ 
pensiltion for the injury which he had sustaiheldf 'by )tbeir 
fltegal Mnteiice* The<5onduct of the presidierit in e^eciititi^ 
^^ ro}^) order, added- only to th*i number and'tbe^^rrienc^ 
of his ^^Qiies ; for sueb are the selfishness and perverseiie^ bf 
mankittd, tkat a eonunanderiR chief, who holds the reins of 
^vemm^fit with a steady equil hand^ will often give offence 
to the petty despots, whos# tyranny ^nd iicentiousness he 
putiishes OF restrains. 

iAmong the various dtsputea in which Mr. Cox Was in- 
»ilv^ thermit one which deserves to be rertiembered, for the 
inckf pendant spffit displayed on the occasion by a gentle- 
man wba then held the high est law office in the coun^ 
U7. The president vw engaged ia a eorrespoadenee, on 
8oei« j^Hi««l^attb^^ wi* Mt. 8tttteB,^a member of the 
geneml assembly, who^e letters happening to be written 

4 . * 

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mth tL^tetiom wad atpoignancy, w^b bi^iumaor tb^x^bt ^{^[^^"' 
iafCowMtotaDt w'ltk the. respect due to his exalted stiataotii, be *^^'' 
hid tbem before theoounoi). Conciimng in the resetitKiedt 
ofthc {nvitdent, the obaequioua board' TX>ted that tha writer 
should be prosecuted- for a libel. Mfi Riobard Carter, the 
attoroey^general of tliat daj) vrafe ti^ccordiogly ordered to |*(0* 
cced against Mr. Sutton for his supposed oflencte. Dbdai^aig 
the^ervile office of avenging Mr. -Cox's personal quar^els^ this 
upright crown lawyer declined the invidious task. In a 
memorial addressed to-t^e president, he atatitid that SattcMi s 
letters- cootained nothing sufficiently libellmis, scandalous, 
ted deittmatory to make up the necessary ingrediei^f) m ati 
indictmeot for a misdemean^f by writing. The learned 
gootJenan added, *^ That by the Jawg of all ciyilked na* 
tionft, if even a prince require pomethiQg. to be dofte whieb 
tlifi persou who is to do it takes to be unlawful, it is his 
duty to refuse the perfomi?tnqe of so ijlegai .* comtfiand,^ 
and I fear, that should I carry on airty prosecution^ by in* 
dictment or information, against any of the king^s subjects, 
which should hereafter be judged unlawful, it w^l be no 
justification for me to say that I had your hotiourV order, 
grounded upon the opinions of five members of council, for 
*o doing/'* 

About this time the duke of Portland, accompanied by 1725. 
his acconiplished ladj, arrived in Carlisle-bay, ^on his paa- 

' " ■ ' ■ ' — r« — i ' > * f * II I »> 
* 'CariU)€aima,vpl.up.40i^ , 

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230 THmHaWTOpyc ' 

tfe«»:«ag§ oC party. The ppposit^.^iwjtipjif.supppnd^d, .^J^^^- 
lous cjf r|9CoiflmqndM)g ]^^fi|n^^l;('^^^-|h^ij^i)le,.vi?.ita?jit^ Jyf 

^r^dogs vt^f^aa^ yfffh^i /fa^^ffW^fc opji%a ,<?f .^^ 

^, ej^nflCf . fjf 111?, €jiitRrtaj^p?ent^ i^fel* ^ilfft^ m. ^ 

COi^^tof jlhe.(lp^8l^tj^;9, ,^ frdp^- on f^fr^?fmjs4^ 
^t isuin. Thjs, circuiQS^Qpe» ^s will be ?epa in Ijhe.if e<|ii^ 
was productive of much illiberal ^ItercatioiLj . , , , , . ., 

Such was .^he factious tenmer of the times; 9#d .the. Ifttle 
decorum with which even tl^e first magis^ate was t^esM^ 
that Mt. Cox, while presiding in the court of chancerj^ wj^ 
grossly insulted by Gelasius Macl^ahon, a turbulent faq- 
^ous lawyer; who, among other insulting expressions^.cj^g. 
ed the president with countenancing and supjportiog pe^ 
jury. For this offence Mac Mahon was prosecuted At.the 
ensuing court of grand sessions; where he was senteaped 
to pay a fine of one hundred pounds ; and to nj^ke a fiibiic 
apology, in a particular form, of words, prescribed by the 
court, to Mr. Cox, at his next sitting iik council; or, to 

Digitized by 


Of BARBADO£$. 231 

1^ stispMided^ir^M piMcAiiiiig as a barriater itf any coartiof ^^^:Z^^ 
lft<v^ <H- equity, untir ht should cotoply with this part of the ^ ^^^'^^ 
sentence. Mac Mahon objected to the legality of this judg-^ 
ment, and tlie point was referred to the determination of the 
attorney-generaU who gave a very evasive anduncandid opi-* 
nion. The case was theh tranraiitted to England and laid he- 
fare. Serjeant PengeHy^, who pronounced the judgment 
of the court to* be erroneous and illega]^ attd ooght tobe 
reversed.. The reasons assigned by the learned seijeant fwewi 
these;! that it imposed a submissidji < and a confession: o£^ 
thi^ oflfenceJn Ba prescribed fom of words; that it was not^* 
as it ought to have been, absobite and ^ unconditional; and 
tfiat the court ^ of grand ^sessions had no authority to restraia 
the defbndantirom. practising in either of the other courts.' 
This ^roneous proceeding prpbably. would not havehap-^ 
pened had -the chief justice been q, Jawyer. 

It is not to ba doubted that the divisions*and the dissen-^ 
tions i^ich, at this period, distracted the country, were not 
more disgraceful to its character than prejudicial to its in-^ 
tcrest?. .Perplexed .with the acrimonious and cxMitradictory 
complaitits^ alternately transmitted by- either. faction, the 
British -iniiiidtry resolved to send out ia commander in chief 
-tritk full poller to ehquite: ibtb, and, if possible^ to ^adjust 
all^iTerebces subsisiib^'in the colony, and to punish all dis*^ 
twbeisof theipttblic peaice. Lord Belhaven, a Scotch iioh 
bleniah;'highinfev6^uiwith the Prince of Wale?, was^rsfc 
appointed to th6 imiiortarit office; but Ms Lordship, unJ: 


[>rgitized by 


S3« THE HisraiiT 

:«JARjy. fcrtuMtely perisiwii a« sea. The appourtntftM iw» tWJtt 

*^- 'ooafiwredon Lord Irwin, but lie toe ii*d tlie tiii»mMune *» 

^on bis fttssage. At length, tlie^ g^rgttiinent ^'asbesiotr- 

ed on ooioMk liewy W^wlef, ft^ gefttlifftiian of ft slej^y jt^' 

fi^iyis temper. - » •. . 

Bis^sted with the teaiou» detail ©f fetfious idis'puees,* 
^nBod turns with compttcencf tci^ the cohtempfetfen of 
jnore tranqaiisceniss^ alnid teek^a^ttrntforaryreHief m teviext-^ 
ingthe means whieh have been adopted m tlie progfe^ of 
^i^datie% &x tte pubKc secoritji and bappinew.' Theste 
i«if»i*t«t objects, tii[>twith8taiidmg" the anArchy and confk- 
sioB »Brbicb theft prevailed^ we»e. not en«i^y Weglfecfed. 
Many laws wewj framed during «i« tufbiiletit period'; and, 
thoBgh some <4 theas ar* extrcmehf erroneous and defec- 
tiTC ia floany natena! points, others are-jtrdicibusly adapted 
to the circumstances of tl»e people and! the advancement o^ 
their welfere. It is nat proposed to take a genera! review 
«r ti»e legiylati ve a«t9 of this period ; a few will suffice for 
present observation. 

To govcraor Lowthei's qoarrd witli 'Mr. Gordon it is 
probably owing, that the bounty of the parochial Vestries 
to theirrcotofs was limited by law to a sura not exceeding 
«v«nty pound*, unless, a donative to a largeraniouiit should 
becoafioBBttd by the governor and tonnciK This law is 
now whotty disregarded, andthe vestries are leH to pursue 
their own inclinations, certain that tteif largesses wiH b^ 
sanctioned by a liigher authority. 

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To tlM^aBBBte improper cause may be ascribed the law for ^^J^^i^;^^- 
pi]ieiiei|tia^ |1k establishment * of a spiritual cduH in' this ^^^^* 
]h1^4* -As the colonies had itever been formed into dio- 
eeses, do» annexed' to ^ any particular bishopric, tlie bishop 
of London proposed to the King that they should be sub- 
jected4o;^is spiritual jwmdiction. His Majesty, having 
previously, ad vised, with the crowh lawyers, granted -the 
bi«}i9]^ a commiswon, .giving him full power and autliority * 
by:,hipi»elf, or by his commissaries, -to exercise an 6ccte- 
sia3ti^ junsdictiofi in the several <iolonies, according to 
the Jbws and canons of the church of England;* reserving 
to .the govqrnOT tii^ right of collating to all benefices, grant-* 
ing licences^ for nij|rn^es> and probates of wills -^ 

JBy thip commission his lordship was authorized to inquire 
into the mannei:s and conduct of all rectors, ministers, cu- 
rates, and incumbents, of the seevenll churches, and of alt 
parish clorks ; and to <:orrect and punish them,* according 
to their ^demerits, by amoval, depnvation, suspension, ex- 
communication, or other ecclesiastical censupe^ • He was 
also empoverad to inquire concerning the reparation of the 
parish^ churches and bouses belonging to the rectors; to* 
compel thosa whose pBovince it was to keep them in suitable 
repair; and to punish aH w1k> should be found delinquent 
and contumacious. This seems to have heen a proper ju- 
risdiction to correct any iFreguUritics in the conduct of our 
spiritual pastors, and to decide in all differences between 
them and their flock. But. after his disjpute with Mr. 



i by Google 

^54 tHS^BSsrtonr 

QHAP; vn. Qtfrdani his loniahip's conuniBsafy^ th» goiramor o&tamed 
^^ i^ papanag ofn JaW' ''^toqiBet.tb^ ttinds.of 1Jitt> people 
agsinst the terrors of a spirifeual eiKMrti" iTbe ' pr^amblo' of 
thk Uw" states, thai such at €aatt >wouleL tAaeh with the intif> 
jiicipal laws of tine pkjce^ ambaroasai Hbeg/aveiaamant, vtat 
and torment the gpntryy dtptrnpemtd thSiStibslaAtial free^ 
holders, and rain the commoh people. It i& difficult. to 
i^ceiKehow diese effects could xosuUfrom tho cause to 
vhieb ihey are assigned ; but to obviate. Ihtse . miacfaiefii,. 
ieal:or imaginary, it waa enacted, *'■■ tliat no. eeeiesiastiGal' 
law or jurisdiction^ :^hall hare power fto ealoKee, oon^rsa*) dc 
estebiishraojr BHilct or puniidiinettt, ia aoj eaact wJialS!Piev$T, 
irithinrthis.islftnd»''. ■ . ?q>;^ 07.; 

;. BEQfu thenomberof bays aad laodii^ p)aces<iirith)w4ieb 
the wlu^ nres^em eo^at of tho island ia indented^' th^, 3a)?>> 
. badiaiis,' e^ly saiw Hke ueeesetty o£ guardJjDg, with caie aj)d 
.Tig^^Me«, agaui^t i]^inciiTN(»B( of ^. mactoe foe. They 
were mom wlimtoiia «>l« aeeuring their property from the at- 
t^ks of hostile ffoebooters, than of accumulating weahb, 
unqevtaia ^ ita ^i^o^eDt- A chain of - fortifications was 
(jrectad >ffom. MaycoclcrVb»f toC^tin's-^town; in trhich. 
v%tr^ ^^HiiaratQd fotty-^ght eaetles^ forts, and batteries, 
iipoant^d wilhfour huudred^ and siscty-^tbree pieces of or<j|- 
nattca. The lawawhi^^ provided for the support of this. 
estahlishuiieQt; wevev^ifilst^ teinp^miy and occasioaal, but 
^er Mr. .X>owth«r^s« s^od adauuistratioD, a more peima' 
nent and tkfficient i^9B(i waiMuiopted. The island was sepa* 

Digitized by 




Mtod '■ a&gtoTifiTe -idbisiikiSyV vncL ritfaer "WKt 0st*bUshi3(ieiit ooio^ ^^^^ ^ 
jfaftErfie^'teien^olaarf g t m iifcra^ 'twenty under igianmens arid -^'^^ 
]Mi8llkiiiidre(d*add fi%«oin6 utf^ODBses; be^ 
-and -ii9e'^iypdwiBi)i(s:t.:Tfai3: under -^gmmsn .and. maJbtoBseB 
Jttn rmq^medi' to, i be 6n c cnmstsii^ diit^^ and to: be instrqcted 
^yith^^diid^ gwineit i»>ttoe«n;of goms^j^ :antL tfaeiise of 
<»bitBdl')ann8<.' -- .'■•;- • - -t • .. 

<^' Xf^itbe pktmbe ic9taBain^i.<ndth'an eje of candouridb- 
4rtmttti6d'fr<Htt the sbuses vrhkiEi have- ce^t. into ite exeem'- 
ttnNi^ ' it itertainty :is <entitled to e^pcoibation; A line rof id«« 
ifence'ift fadioKHislj extcaoded the irliole length of tbe oc-* 
«ir^«^M6> jpmrt &( thd ooaM ; ^amd an effective body ^df moi 
are kept in continual readiness to repel the desuttdry-irttt^ 
^btrtitw oJP Msmiiiti^ ivfabiuders, or to sustain a uDore jedout 
MtJicfc' 4iQlil -they can be- sustakied bj liie nilitiii. Bat 
'the wisest i of ^inan inttitulaons k liltbfe to- penreimmp 
^tid the b^t concerted pians' nnist f^ni, Ziehen l^sci to mham. 
the execution' of them 'i» entrusted* ave ii^B{U§ent«r. incul- 

• Tliift expensive establiBhment, tvhatevier aiigbt barebew 
. its: origiaial design^ hae degenentted into ^ gckn»vaHaid in- 
tolerable bnithen. The |my of the officers and in(»n> ind^ 
pendent of -the juptihideor'fl sala««, which, |jeing contin- 
•gent, are not eawly aacertained, amount to .five thousand 
: arid twenty pounds annuajly i to .?rhich musl .be ^di^d, fif- 
teenhundred ponnda » year, part of -tibe^lwinage d«^, ap- 
propriated to the purchase <tf gitn*pow^er» K«r ; dpee the 

It h S 

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236 THEr HIS5;ORy 

CHAP. viL evil end heror. Bewjdeg.?aii inwnf^n^e expenditwre ^of ;?tores, 
^'^^' ia wl^ich prodigality wantons ;vithQut contfou}, /great (abuses 
. are committed by the boards of corainissioners.*. To an- 
swer ^ome sinister puipose ; to promote the interest of a, fa^ 
vjourite supervisory or to gratify the capricious, vanity of an. 
hospitable captain gunner, considerable sums* pf the pub- 
lic money are squandered in repairing or erecting corauK)- 
dious houses and elegant .apartments for his accommoda- 
tion. Hence the annual expiense of tibe fortifications may 
be fairly computed to exceed eight thousand pounds. Not- 
witlistanding tiiis profuse and wanton, waste of. the, pub-: 
lie treasure, many of the forts, particularly those which, 
command the harbou;- of tjie second town in . the island,, 
are literally mouldering in ruins ; they contain scarcely a 
single piece of serviceable ordnance, and are so completely, 
destitute of ammunition as to be frequently incapable qf 
exciting or propagating . an alarm. 

. The accessible nature of the whole western coast lays the 
country so open to the predatory incursions of a daring or 
rapacious foe, that nothing can be more evident than the 
imperative necessity of putting ^ome of our forts and Imt-. 
teries in a proper posture of defence. The impracticabi- 
lity of cQQstructing regular forti6cations capable of with- 

' " '■'■ ■ ■ ' ' ' " ' . ' '■ '■ ' * ^ 

* In 177ft Mr. Duke asserted, in the house of assembly, that the disbursements 
for the uie of the fortifications were -annually e&timated at three thousand pounds, ex-- 
duaite of giinpowder. This estimate waa made in time of peace. 

Digitized by 



rtandifjg fh« approaches of a hoitiM squadron, or ft besieging chap. vn. 
aftfty, isf adttiitted; yet the reparatton of our principal fortsi *^^^^ 
and the supplying* thferti' with cAnnOrt and* ordnance stcfres, 
at*cf riaeasdres which commoii prud*hcfe enjoins, if they be 
coWsldeted merely' as* the nteans of protecting our peaceful 
citizens fVorh the -casu Al ii ruptions asd ruinous depredations 
of privateers*.^ : . • 

Were the fortifications kept in suitable repaii=*, no mani 
capable of thinking justly, could suppose, for a moment^ 
that the gunners and matrosses are an useless body of men. 
But in their present ruined and disriiantled condition, it 
cannot be dissembled, that the expenditure of the enpr- 
mous sum annually thrown away upon theni is unjust and 
oppressive, > To provide for the support of goyemment, 
and the maiatehance of the public security^ are duties in* 
cumbient on every good subject; but the power which wrests 
from him fi single shiHing unnece^arily rouist be tyrdnnicali 
To reconcile th€i people to the burthens imposed on them 
for the sujiport of this' establishment, some show of decency 
should be preserved* They should,: at feast, be amused 
with the idea of security, Butthe money drawn- from their 
pockets is squandered in thoilghtkss profusion, without the 
most flimsy pretext of necessity or exptedieney; The voice 
of justice calls loudly for the redress, of this grievance,. 
It is the duty of the representatives of the people to apply 
the proper remedy. No objection is made to the quantum 
of the sum annually expended on the fortifications; the 

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cfUf.ytt mi^^p1ic4tion of it w ttie^oiiTy grobtotJ' ofn^tidnal c6m- 
*^*'' plaint. Were they tepaireHatidretiS^ri^d'capdbte'^f'pW^ 
<tectii)g our defenceless towns,- the ^moiitej-ve^veed' l^'Hieir 
lutLiotenatice M^auld be pidd ^ithbut ia mtrftfiiif ; Ko ped^lfe 
fo the world; who conttibute at^Tl ia the^ Suppbr^ ^^^ 
vcmment, are more mc^rately tk*ed thatt ttte BatblidtttDi ; 
nor Wotild they be dissatisfied at any augroentatiofi 6f their 
iAirihefis, were thfe produce of their taxes faithfuliy etti- 
jilbyed in pro vidiog for theit safety. 

' It has f)een proposed to abandoa our feits^ of t6 sell 
them to the crown^ rather than be at the e^speose of nepstip- ~ 
in^ them* Pitiftil economy ! Is th^re a mail so lost to ' 
-every sense of public virttie, as not to <cion1ie«tti 4h^ v(isi^ 
<lious {NToposat ? So blind as not i6 see its Mfy ^^^ da»ger ? 
Or 80 ignofant ak not tb be sensible of thcf necessity^ of 
keeping In repair the batteries within the if icinitjr. of rthe 
townS) for the protection ^f tiie adjacent. h^tie^ourr^ -Ear 
from* my intention be the idea of reconmieiidiftg the ifebiiild^ 
ing of onr fellen forts, gq the extensive Male ott which: they 
were originally planned, or of supplying them^ with the 
«ame nuBlber of superflnous cannon. It «tiU bft^fiiekitt 
if <mr principal bays are enfikided With stfong foaUcSri^ 
mewiting from two to six pieces of heavy ordnance^, with 

'^- TrofeNional meri say, diat a battery of ftur guns, well potted, is a matdi for a 
em-rate inth 6f trar. Sfdcfeei Owrne^ p. 50. troa ordnance, <xclufhre of the tm^ 
9'»e^ OMCs tiventy {ivttltdtf strHMg aiMt. EI|lrtMi jpoute»«e%iit«ot 

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gu^wi-hoi|a«» -for tlw.matEw^, ,*p4.^'''^^*% *^^^ P?iU- CHAP.yu. 
tiaonalam^.. .TJi« ei^qienses. of this undertaking seem, to t.72?. 
^ igi^ldr <»f^H^a^d. Id most, placep» the matejriaU are 

L ali^ac^. on the »pQt, and r will be suflScient &r the constiniQ-. 

I tiofi of bfltttei^i^s, on the reduced spale projiQ^ed^. after e Yeiyi 

I alk)wftacefts made%T«3i^^ . 

In tbe^ mterim, the gwrnen and matrossea^ whOy,M 
present, are incapably of being usefallj employed, xn»y. be 
dismissed from the service* The saving of stores^ guftr 
powderi andwdalari^^ which may be thus obtaiiied inone- 
year, may ba eatunated at eight thousand paawte. Thia 
would' be a ^uffif^ient fund for the purdlase of fifty, irqn 
eighteen pi^uadeis, : aod twelve brats MX pounders, wi^h 
limbei^^ haraesB) aod aiamuoit4or> cants^ connplcte. Wbea 
cannon aw prDcwised, and the batteries rebuilt, the full ' 
comp]emeot>of gunnenand 0iatro»se3> plight be restored: 
with propfiie^y!;: jaod .prQvdsi<H» ^honld be made^ for the 
pttficiual payiaent of ^teir ^lari^^ At present, they are^ 
aimually pmd halC the aalary due to them ; hence they are 
often obliged' to a^l their orders. at a discount of more than: 
x»erf<M«rth of. th^jr value. This i» a,grpat discouragement 
to. tba'serviQe^ - It prevents that strict attendance to their 

twelve poundofft a toc^ and a half. Ibid, p^ 1 55 dni i09* A light brass six pounder^ 
with limbers and liarpesfry complete^ will cost i215l. sterling; and every two guos jvill 
require an ammunition cart, which will oost 201. more. Hence, an estttnate maj bt 
made of ihe moderate exponae at wbicb tbe atctssitak pMiIsc maj:^ bb s\w4(df 

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CHAP. VII, duty, which, were they more regularly 'paid> ought to be 
'722. enforced; and which, under a better, regulation^ their 
officers would have a right to demand. They should be 
formed into brigades of Artillery, and, while on duty, 
should be subject to the articles of war, and disciplined 
with the same regularity as is usually, practised in the 
KhigV garrisons. Thus would. they be rendered an useful 
body of men; the country would enjoy, at a nioderate ex- 
pense, the advantage of a permanent defence against the 
predatory attacks of privateers; and possess a formidable 
corps of. artillery, ready, in case of invasion; to join in the 
more, important duties of the field. . . 

. From this review of the act, reiipecting the fortifications, 
we shall proceed to that which was passed by president Cox, 
for preserving the freedom of elections.' By this law, every 
free and natural born subject, e^^cept the descendants of 
negroes, of, the age of twaity*one y^ars, professing the 
Christian religion, M^ho is actually and rightfully seized, and 
possessed of ten -acres of land, or of a house, in cither of 
the towns, of the yearly value of ten pounds, in fee simple 
or fee tail, in right of marriage, or of dower, by the cour- 
tesy of England, in right of the church as rector; or by 
Jfive years quiet and lawful possession, is declared to be a 
freeholder capable of electing, or being elected, an assem- 
bly man. The first thing observable in this law is, that it 
maHes no difference between the qualifications of the can- 
4iidateS'and the electors* In England, every knight of the 

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or BARBADOES. 841 

sHri^ttiust have ^ clear eetftte^ tothe value 6f six htmdfcd charwi. 
poiinds per iannutn; and every burgess, to the v«lKi« of "^' 
three handred pounds ; nor isr it i%qui^ed that these estates 
«hoti}d lie in the bordagh or'cotrtity fo» ^H»ch the members 
ate fchbseYi. But, in Barbadoe», every illiteMte possessor 
of ten acfres is born a legislator, <»' i^ dt teast eligible Vo a 
seat in the general assetifiblj, as a i^epresentativ^ of the* 
parish in Tfhich bis freehold lies. The seebnd poidt, de- 
serving of Aotice, is the qaalification of the eledtors; Aft* 
heire, without adopting the wild theories and iM§t!ximi6f the 
parlidaxintarf refcrnners* it may be faiily t^ssataied» AH a 
Just objection to the colonial election kiW) iJbat the «Seo 
toral'fntnchise i» toolimitod. 3%e principal qtialifitiaf ion 
required of a voter for memben of the British paiiittment; 
is tiiat he should have a freehold o^ the value of ibMy shil- 
lings a year. Why the privilege of voting tot tepresbtttaftlves 
was not made equally extensive in ^rbadoei^' in 1 qoM^wl 
loot easily solved, unless we c6nc)ade that tiie law Was 
int^ed to enable those, by whom is was fhiitied, the mcnre 
readily to eiterclse u conrupt and «» uftdue ififltte^eo «t 
elections. • 

One of th« most invaluable ptivileges of a firitisii mb^ 
ject, ivthat of appoiHting repiesqi i ta t iy eM to o^nsttitt to <lie 
making of such laws as may be neccBsiiiry or tonwmii'SibU 
To preserve this <uQda(m«ntal tiglitt puce auMi i&«i<}}aM^ 
should be our primary oaiB) oitr nobloBt aihbiUoii< Tlie 
freedom-eissefitial to Xlh» due «x«roiw of tbiii j^i^til^^^ ^wol 

1 1 

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CHAP, vn. be maintaiBcd only by an extension of its benefits. All the 
V22. inhabitants of every district, says Montesquieu, ought to 
have a right of voting at the election of a representative, 
except such as are in so mean a condition, as to be deemed 
to have no will of their own. The paucity of those, who> 
in most precincts, are entitled to votei, facilitates the sinister 
designs of the opulent and powerful ;. and often contributes 
to raise very unworthy candidates, to seats, in the legisla^- 
ture, while it degrades some of our parishes to the con- 
temptible level of venal boroughs. Though no advocate for 
universal representation, I conceive that the electoral fran^- 
chise is justly due to every Christian freeman, possessed of 
the smallest real estate. The humble possessor of a single 
acr^ is not less personally affected by the laws of hia coun- 
try, than the opulent proprietor of a thousand acres. 

In some districts it often happensy that the freeholders 
are deprived of .the power of making a discreet choice,, by 
the difficulty of prevailing on. gentlemen of respectability 
to accept the representation of theip parishes. This inconr 
venience might, perhaps, be remedied, by imitating the 
policy of tlie motlier country, and making it no longer 
necessary that the property of the person elected should be 
situated in the parish which he represents. In a country, 
circumscribed, within such narrow boundaries, no danger 
need be apprehended from a dissimilarity of interests, or a 
want of local attachment ;. nor are genius and knowledge 
confined to any particular spot -An inhabitant of Christ 

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Church may be as well qualified to represent the parish of ^^^^:J^"- 
Saint Lucy, as though he had been born and bred in the ^'^^^ 
vicinity of Pye-Corner. Thus the deficiencies of one 
parish may be supplied by the talents of another ; and the 
abilities, which, for the want of an opportunity to display 
themselves, remain inert and undistinguished, may be 
placed in a sphere of action, in which they may be bene^ 
ficially exerted for the general welfare. 



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«4« THE rasTomr 



cHAP.viil. Henry Wopslej, Esquire, having received his Majesty^ 
1722. commission, appointing hinr governor of Barbadoes, arrived 
in Carlisle Bay, on the twenty-second day of January, one 
thousand seven hundred and twenty-two. He brought with- 
him the most inveterate prejudices against the president 
and his party ; but, like a consummate politician, carefully 
concealed hi& sentiments, till he had concluded an advan- 
tageous bargain for himself with those who held the strings 
of the public purse. Having received his Majesty's peiv 
mission to accept a settlement from tlie legislature*, he 

* WilliDg to provi<fe for the support of the colonial gorernment, hia Majesty, bj 
his instractions to Mr. Worsley, directed, i» case of the gOTcmor's absence from the . 
island, nhat one full moiety of the salary dowed by the crown, and of all perquisites^ 

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leftised to tet hk fiaot on shore, till the leadiog iijembcrs of ^J^^Jj^JJ]^'- 
both houses bad agreed on the reirenue to be raised for his ^''^^^ 
support. The ambitious views of the opposite parties, 
proved highly beneficial to the governor. Each seemed 
anxious to purchase his favour; and, during die time which 
rotervened, between his arrival and the meeting of the assem^ 
bl J, die conipetition was conducted with a spirit extremeljr 
disastrous to the people*. It was finally determined to settle 
gn his excellency a salary of six thousand pounds, sterling,. 
m year^ A sum,, at the stipulated rate of exchange, equal 
to «€^en thousand eight hundred pounds currency. Thus, 
in the ridiculous attempt to proj^tiate the kindness of ^ 
venal chief, the assembly sacrificed the permanent interests^ 
«f their con^ituents, to their own silly vanity and' puerile 
ambition. To ptovide for the payment of this enormous 
salary, a capitation tax of two sl>illmgs and sixpence was- 
laid on all slaves, besides an assessment on the inhabitants^ 
of the several towns, in proportion to their population and; 
opulence; and a tax on lawyers^ patentees, and other pul>- 
lie officers. 

His excellency accepted the settlement, with evident 
marks of satisfaction; avid,, besides promising a redresa c£^ 

and emoUimeaU wbat6oe¥er, wbich should become due to bim, should* duriogtbe 
me of his absence^ be paid to the president, for the time being, for his maintenance 
tand the support of the dignity of thot goyemment* 

• Mem. of Barb. p.'53. UniY. Ilist vol. 41. p. 171, Hall's Settle^ of Barb, p. 31. 

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^^^^^^i^ grievances, pledged his word that he wouJd make no far- 
^^23. ther demands on the, public generosity; pix^niises which 
seem to have been wholly disregai'ded. Having thus suc- 
ceeded to the fuU extent of his most sanguine wishes, Mr. 
Worsley entered upon the duties of his high office, by 
instituting an inquiry into the causes of the late disturb- 
ances. In consequence of the many complaints exhibited: 
against Mr. Cox, he was summoned to appear before the 
governor, where his conduct underwent a rigid scrutiny^ 
tftiat lasted several days- The crimes imputed to C021; were» 
in the first place, that be had greatly biassed the members 
of bis Majesty -s council, by requiring their frequent at- 
tendance without sufficient cause-; secondly, that he had 
grossly insulted them by using insolent and unbecoming 
language in council ; thirdly, that he had, in the most ar* 
bitrary manner, removed many officers of distinction from 
their civil and military employments ; and, lastly, that he 
had, illegally, committed Gelasius Mac Mahon, a member 
of the general assembly, to prison. To these charges, Mr- 
Cox pleaded, that the frequent calls of council were owing 
to the factious conduct of those members, who obstinately 
absented themselves, when Iheir presence was required for 

« the dispatch of public business; that any intemperance of 

expression, into which he might have been betrayed, had 
■been provbked by the disrespectful and contumelious beha- 
viour of those to whom it was applied ; that those public 
ctfficers, who had been dismissed from the service^ bad for- 

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feited their employments by their turbulent, factious dispo ^^^^^ 
sition ; that Mac Mahon had deservedly incurred the com- ^^^^ 
mitment complained ofr by his disorderly contemptuous 
deportment before him, in the court of error^ of whicli 
offence he had been legally convicted by a jury*. 

The able ^nd judicious defence made by Mr. Cox, availed 
him nothing. Upon these frivolous and malicious charges^ 
unsupported by any evidence of criminality, he was con- 
demned fbr having acted arbitrarily, corruptly, and ille- 
gally; his excellency, therefore, removed him from his 
Majesty's council, and declared him unworthy of being re^ 
appointed to a seat at that board ; adding, that he ought 
to be prosecuted in the courts of law, agreeably to- the na*- 
ture of the crimes proved against him. The sentence was 
communicated to Mr. Gox, in a letter from his excellency s 
secretary, Mr. Hammond, who received two hundred and 
fifty pounds from the treasurer, for attending the trial, and 
making out a copy of the proceedings, to be transmitted 
to the Board of Trade f. : . 

The jiidgment against Mr. Cox was not only resented by 
his particular friends, but was condemned^ according to a - 
contemporary writer^, by the cajidid and impartial part of 
the community, for its extreme severity and injustice* 
Having been denied the benefit of an appeal,. Cox. went 
into a voluntary exile oa the continent of North Ameiica,. 

•— — • — ' — '" — '--^ -^ • -^ 

* Vide AQti§. p. 196i t ^^'^^' Histi vol. 41. p. 1T2. % Caribbcanna, vol. 1. p. 342. 

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CHAP.VfH yfliat his death, soon afterwards, expiated all his political 
*723b gjijg^ 2aid removed his cause to that uneijing tribunal, where 
he will .find -more justice and mercy than he experienced 
before aa earthly JurisdictioQ. 

By the rigour of this procedure, the governor stirred up 
the unextinguished embers of party, and laid the ground- 
work of an opposition, which, by the operation of othet" 
causes, continued to gain strength, during the whole of his 
aubsaquent administration. Hie inflammable tempers, of 
Cox's friends instantly took fire at the injury done to their 
patron ; nor were materials wanted fojr spreading the flmne 
among a people so well prepared for the ignition as th6 Bar- 
badians were at that time« 

The enormous settlement made on the governor was soon 
found to be a burthen totally disproportioned to the strength 
of those by whom it was to be borne ; and was rendered 
the more insupportable by the impoverished state of the 
' country, occasioned by the heavy imposts on the merchant- 
able products of the soil, and the restraints with which the 
commerce of the colonies wasr fettered* The policy by 
which Great &itaiii r^ulated the trade of her West In* 
^ian settlements, though it might have promoted the na^ 
tional prosperity, was little caJctilated to afford satisfaction 
to the colonists, or to contribute to their individoal watlfaee. 
1^ monopoly of the sugar trade, claimed by Great Bri^ 
tain, by requiring that all colonial produce, intended for 
European consumption, should pass through the English 

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ttiarkei, isubject toa duty, on importatioti, besides other ^^JJ^^I^i^^J^ 
charges incident to a double voyage, afforded the Frwich ^^^^' 
and Dutch adventurers, who were free from similar restric- 
tions, a decided advantage over the British merchants in 
the sale of West Indian produce on the continent. 

The assembly had not only deceived themselves, but their 1727. 
constituents too, with a hope that their liberality to Mr. 
Worsley would have attached him. to their interest, and 
that by his mediation, the restraints on their agriculture 
and commerce would be removed; while, by his firmness 
and impartiality, tranquillity would be restored to their . 
distracted country. Far from obtaining these advantages, 
the people found their complaints disregarded^ and their 
calamities encreased by their own culpable profusion to the 
governor. Disappointed in the expectations which they 
had fondly cherished, and smarting, under the effects of 
their own indiscretion, they turned tlie edge of their resent- 
ment against hb excellency, as if he had been the sole au- 
thor of all their grievances and misfortunes. Nor was Mr. 
Worsley 's proud and supercilious carriage calculated to 
soften the popular resentment, nor to reconcile the people 
to the weight of the oppressive burthens imposed on them 
for his support. 

The deplorable condition of the country, and the state 
of the public niind at this period, may be best collected 
from the representations transmitted to the lords commis- 
sioners of trade. In a memorial presented to that board, 
• • K k 

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CHAPiTHL tbe*8se»Wy did not effect to concbal tbe views by whidi 

^^ they were actuated in fixing th6 amount of tlie goveroor*! 
•salary. Expecting to silence tbe contention of parties, and 
to obtain a redress of other grieraoces, diey acknowledge 
that they had been prevailed upon to consent to a settlemetit 
which tbe country was unable tb bear* Yet, fiar from deriv- 
ing these benefits from their indiscreet generosity, no mea* 
sures, they observed, had been taken to Telieve thcfm from 
the oppression under which they were stJuggKfig ; the pub- 
lic welfare had been entirely disregarded; the militia v^A 
iMglected and undbciplined ; the forte and batteties had 
gone to decay, and the stores were wasted or eihbetsded ; 
while his excellency, and all pereoos in office miderhim^ 
were solicitous only of enriching themselveis by the spoits 
€rf* the people, - 

Against tiiese representations Mr. Worsely defended hlim- 
self, by his agents in London, with great spirit ^md ability. 
He repelled eveiiy charge, and finally triumphed over his 
a<JcuseEs* . His success was principally owing to the eflco-^ 
miuins bestowed on him by the council and the grand jury, 
who at the preceding ^tessions had presented liis excellency 
with a very flattiering address,: praising the mildness and 
prudence of his administration, and,, at the same time, con- 
demning the proceedings of the opposition. Hence let 
grand juries leaiti hkotc caution in the composition of theit 
addresses^ siace they see how easily their unmeaning pa^ 
negyrics may be ttnroed to their o*n injury. 

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' Jtfttorians are seldom free from the prejudices aad par- CHAi>:Vtti. 
tialiti^s of other men. Influenced by the spirit of p^rty, ^'^^• 
the/ too often distort and pervert the facts which they relate, 
Ifcnce^ it is difficult, after any considerable lapse of time, 
to^recoppile the cotttradictory accounts transmitted to us of 
tJ^e transactions of former ages. * Nor is it ap easy task-tQ 
ascertain tlie troth of the imputations against Mr. Worsley^ 
On the one hand it is asserted , that besides the general com- 
plaints contained in the memorial to the board of trade^i 
his cxcellcficy had becui guilty of many particular jact^ of 
iiv}ustice and oppression on the merch»A<9 of Bridge-town ;; 
ytchoi from the servility of tJ^ council, were precluded from 
tibe jo^e^m of redress*. Opposed to this is tljie t;estimony 
of a contemporary author, to this e£kct: although Mr« 
Worsley's pride and reserve had rendered him es^tremely uqi- 
popular, he carefully refiained from all oi>pressive mea^ 
sures, and was not liable to be.reoijovi^dop s^y other pri^y 
ciple tkm tfiat of eiaaiag the inhabitants of t^ burthen- 
some settlement which he had obtained f. Upon the whole^ 
his excdlency's conduct does Qojt appear to have ,be^, al* 
together unexceptionable. . Notwit^^st^mdii^ Jtiis promise to 
the asscmUy^ on aectptiog the s^ary which they had set- 
tled oa him^ he occafiiomdly receiyed several larg? sums; 
besides being paid upwards pf iwo thousand patmds for the 
]:epairs of the hou9e and. gajrdects^ at Pilgrim; that very 

* Univ. Hist. vq\ 41. p. 174. f Memoirs pf Barb. p. 54. 

K k S 

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^!!^^^^' house, which onlj seven years afterwards wasjpurckia^ by 
^7^-^* the legislature, with twenty acres of land, {ovtthiiiifien^kmr 
dred a7idjifty pounds*. '■'.•.» 

The people of Barbadoes were in th^ highest degfeet^is^ 
i^d^ibfied with the payment of Mr. Woraley's , salary, whea 
the death of George I* afforded tbem.a favonfabiQ pretext^ 
as tiiey erroneously thought, of disengaging their necks 
from the galhng yoke. A time (^popular discQcit<mt and 
. ebnfnsion is generally the season in which men of depraved 
hearts and wicked designs, tmder the mask of patriotisoi, 
1728 "distinguish themselves most by their flagitious' eQOtmities* 
Gelasius Mac Mahon, a turbulent lawyer, of infamous, ce- 
lebrity, and Robert Warren, register in. ehaneen^, and 
clerk of the general assembly^ now appeared the professed 
champions of their oppressed countrymen; whom, with a. 
view to their private ^emolument, they sought to embroil 
more deeply with the gdVernof. 

As an commissions and patent* w«re known to determine 
with the death of the Kittg, by whom they were granted, 
unless continued or renewed l^ his successor, these artful 
incendiaries pretended that Mr. Worsley, having received 
no new commission from his present Majesty, was no longer 
the lawful governor of the island ; ^nd that colisequently 
the act of settlement had expired. The bulk of the 
people, blinded by their wishes to be relieved from their 

* Hall's First Settle, of Barb. p. 31, M. S. 

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OF BcAKfiADlQES. 253 

Irardieos^'irm^ljrafiisciited to ibis doctfiiie r the fallacy of chap^il 
\fJikhtbey J wore. JincapaWc of perceiving, and permapto- *^^^ 
riljr refused to pay their taxes, or e^en to give in returns of \- 
tibeir sljEives. And such was the- inefficiency of the execu* 
tive^goverament^ and 'the, illegal cawbii>ation among men 
in potvpr tamist . the adminiBtrdtioh o£ the law^ that no 
fiffecttml measures w^e,; nor ooiildbe, taiwa to Enforce the 
tpeaal by against defienilter^ f , 

i The agiftatiDii 'ofvthe pubtic Btindf w^^ts icncreas^d to a cou- 
siddKaUe degree by a disdgmenaent betvr ^Uithe council and 
assembly x^oncenung tibelexdBe' bill; In this dispute^ as in 
mpst domestic quarrels, theie ssem to have been faults on 
both sides; ^ ^The council had made some amendinents to 
the inU ?wfaich; abstractedly, c^osidaedy werednghly {uroper. 
They propo^ed^ that all sevnitas to be made by virtae of the 
act should be prosecuted by thetattomeyfgeneral instead of 
the treasurer, in the name of thi^ -ireaHlreii or such <Aher of- 
ficer as should mahethe-jscMUBeu ^-Ch^ ^y qoAtended.was 
absolutely necessary ^^as seizures wight sometime^bemade by 
the excise waiters^ and the cirown lawyers must, of course, be 
oonaulted on such ocoasions. £y the. bill the tre^isurer and 
a\\ infeprior officers ;wjsre |rinohi][>itedjfrom receividg any fees on 
the lettering or icleaaring of vessels under a forfeiture of five 
pounds, recover aJ)le hcfm^t myjmtic^ of the peftfic. To this' 
aunuiary mode of proci^edi^. jthe council objected ; and 
proposed, that the pienajty should be recovered by action 
of debt in any court of record. They renaarked^ that on a 

4 ~ 

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CHARVHL tecmit occasion, a similar iqode of pioceediiig. had beaii 
17^^' conikmned by the boftrd of trade, and disapproved bj 
liis Majesty, as taking from the subject his most int^^ipable 
jMririlege, the trial by jury. But the principal ground ;pfi 
contention was the pn^>osal made by the XQuncil to, op^t 
that clause o£ the bill by wbith the lower houae had proh^^. 
bited the treasurer fpoOL paying a^y mon^ by: iirtoe o£ 
orders issued by the governor and council, otherwise tha^ 
on the address of the assembly,, for |jt|Lyinent of accounts 
pieviomLy submitted to their impection and appsbhisAibvL 
3b this clauae, their honours said they could never coment 
without a forfeiture of their s|sats> as it was in direct viol^ 
tion of the King's instruction to his repre$entati]i£e. The 
manner of providing for the. payment of the agent's siilary 
wm neti objected to^ aa atfordii^ the assembly, fi^oncr its Ja« 
titude df expression, aa opportunity of disposing of ios^ 
meose sums of the public money, under that pretence, to 
persons whom the eouncil did n0ta|)prove*4 * 

The att^npt of the council to alter a money-bill was evi* 
denttyaninfVuigementof oneof thefundamental principlesof 
the coturtitution, by which the right of granting supptios is 
rented excl«isively in the repneseoptatiyeB x>f the.peop3e% 
And ti[ie commons of England, just^ tenacious of sucb an 
inrahiable privilege, have miiiformly resisted any eneraach*- 

* The coimciPs tessotn, in tuppoit ^f ^iietr amendmentt, were ingenioiitYy Arawo 

i4> iMi {mblMM4« llicy oit pitnrf ed io tlie <Af^iidu to Uk ^^ 


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Google j 

mtnt on iheir dghS;, hy imrttmAAy (ttfiaaSaxg nof emeodmfisat CH4RVJ& 
to a biH d(br MJMDg monej on /the jBiibject by thehwisc of *'*•* 

The amendttientt baridg, of icfonree, proved^ faJtal to fhe 
bHl^ tht asaiembly pfnepaiied a new drangbi, in idiich thejr 
stipulated, that no orders on the itreasury should be is^ 
sued bf ihB'govtamor jfttid cauncil loh any occaaioni not 
otbervTiJSie protidddfor bjr Jai«f, but upon an addsess* frcMa 
their body. This i»^ consklered hy tbe tipper house as an 
infringeixient of their idghts, iatnd the prerogative of ther 
chief magistrate; Theyr AhfiK&^re, rejected the ibilly ground^ 
iag th^ic disoe^t OQ.tbe>iK)|rdJ iUBtcuddon first givm tb'Mru 
Grcy^ and stnde. continued to erery ;siicoeediQg govecoor, 
" not to suffiar any public inoney to be disposed of otheT'^ 
wise than by warrant under 3ais hkhd, ^by. and with the ad- 
vice of bis council ;,,permit(ing the wscmbly^ nevertheless^ 
froili time to tiine, to fe&afflhieith^ atreoiuits of money to be 
disposed of by Jaws. madeby them*/' 

Contrary to Ibe letter/ and the spirit of iJusdnatruction, the 
aasemlily insisted on their xight to scrutinise all -accounts'^ 
pfef^iovB to the ^emisanm ;of orders fbr payment. Aposte- 
xior (examination, they tjojatendod, wotAd^arail nothing; as, 
in case of abuses in the public jexpenditure, it wodld be 
much too Jaite to find .fimkiafter the. money /ivas golie^. 
The council disputed this claim; contending for thfe com- 
'- — " i 

*Mom.3aA. p. 55. 

Digitized by 



CHAP.vni. petence of their board to ihinestigate^U demands of apub^i 
1708. lib nature^ and to/sanction the issciiog of orders for what- 
ever sums they should think proper, without any previous 
reference to the popular branch of the legislature ; and in 
this they maintained, that they were warranted by th^ cdti* 
staht prkcticd of parhaiiient ' ," 

Both ^pardfes' continuing obstinate, a copy of the bill was 
sent 't6 'Englaiid* by ttie governor^'and, by his Majesty's 
order referred to the lords oTt^conimitteeo^f coun- 

€iL -Their lordships, after due consideration, reported to 
the King, ** that by some ciauses of thel)fll, the assembly 
wdtild deprive the governor of the power,, jgiven hiiti by his ^ 
Majesty, to sign warrants for the issuing of money, without ' 
their approbation previously obtained, which was coritraryi' 
they observed, to the established usage of all his Majesty^s 
colonies, and dci ugatm y from "his royal prerogative:" TiJ 
discourage* sv(^fat^ttmpt9'ii(b ill tot»^;theit lordships iimiiblj' 
advised his Majesty^t» ''si^ily lifS disapproblitl^ 
dfeught*, ' The bfll wasalcciordingry rejected, and the as- 
sembly passed a new 4>ne^ in which, they omitted Jlie ex^ 
ceptiqnable clauBjSs i refusing, howeu«r^' toprovitle'^^'the 
payment of those public creditors, whose demands,*^ sadc- 
tidndd b^ the council, had originally given rise to the ^dis- 
pute. Bu4 after a lapse of several years, a^ubsequent . 


* Cftribbetnna:, foi ^^i.^li: Mem. of Barb. p. 57. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

OF bahbadoes. 257 

assembly, having examined the accounts, consented to their CHAPrviir. 
being paid. ^ ija^. 

. Meanwhile, a general coaUtion was formed among per- 
I -sons of all parties to .oppose the levying of taxes for paying 

\ the salary of the governor, theyestry of Saint Michael's^ 

doubting their authority to assess the inhabitants of Bridge- 
town, conformably to the act for the support of govern- 
ment, consulted Mr. Blenman, his . Majesty's attomey-ge- 
jieraJ;who^ with his usual candour and integrity, pro-, 
nounced that the act had not expired. Tbjs opinion was 
far from proving satisfactory, Upon cases partially jand im- 
perfe^tl^ stated, Warren and Mac Mahon had obtained tha 
**P*"'?P f ^ ^7^ eminent English lawyers, much more agree- 
afete to tl|»e views of the malcontents* ' 

^1 inre dewfolowBed Mr.BfeniB«iiVppink>ii,teUwi«.me to elucidate the 
le^t,.^d as it doe. hafiour to the memofy of • nma who«Tirtue« and talenU rendered 
bim one of the brighter onMmenti of hU country. It 1m« been generally held: at 
common law that ell patents delennined by the ^ath of tbe king, by whom they 
were granted Howew by the Uatnte 7 and 8 Will. HL explained by l Anne ch. 8. 
all cpmmiuions or itatenb Are made to continue for six months after the demise Of 
the king, unless superseded in the mean time by bismeceswr. Newihe gofcntor 
holding his place by virtue of acommission from tbetste king, and that nothaving 
been renewed byliis present ifajesty. till after the six months were elapsed, it wo61d 
•eem iea,onable-e«obgb, taking it^n that light, to iKfer that bis'atcellcBcy had <;eased 
to be goremor at the expiration of .ix months ; and consequently that tbe act was no - 
longer in force, it being limited to the time that Af. Wonley should c^ntinw to be 
his Majesty's «apta«,^eno«land gomnor in diief ; imd fa that quality persomilly to 
reside on the island. But this ca» rests on the construction of the act referred to. 


Digitized by 



CHAF.viii. Mr. Woftley finding there was no chance of obfaraia^ 
^'^^* justice by any ordinary means, presented a memorial t4> 
.the lords commissioners for trade and plantatioasv fairly 
stating the particulars of the affaic> ivith the doubts'that 
had arisen on the subject; and reqaesting that his coiil- 
plaints might be^laid before the king, and implofiug his 
Majesty's interposition. The memorial was, by order df 
his Majesty^ referred to the consideration of the attorney 
and solicitor general of Oreat Britain. The repoit of these 
crown lawyers, which may be seen at length m the Carib- 
beanna, decided the point in favour of the governor, and 
corresponded in every particular with that delivered by 
Blenman. ' * ' 

1731, This decision, it was thought, would have removed every 

doubt: but although these opinions were immediatly made 
known,, the popular delusion was still kept up by the agency 
of evil minded persons; and people of the first rank and 
distinction determined to oppose the execution of that law, 
to which, in their legislative capacities, they had given 

, Xh^ iotentioi^ of the law wts to make a sQiUUeproroion lor bis excellency at loBg as 
be should coiUinue in his^ofemment; and, since the king, in a legal understanding 
neves dies, it seems ckar: that these words do not conSae the provision ftnrtfae gof^* 
Bte* to that reign only ; but that tbey take in the whole time of his resideoee bene at 
^bkf magistrate* Now as Mn Woisl<y hat continued to reside in the Mand, ever 
since bis first arrival,, in qualify 4jf commander in chief, it follows that the act for sop* 
porting the honour and dignity of government it lK>tdetcrmined/'---Firfe GartMtaniMi 
vol. \. p. 40. 

Digitized by 



oy BAB]aiAix>i;s. i&si 

fJf^Tmftf^fiJ^ ^fja^y )i^ refilled to give in the, nuo^r ^^JJ^J^JJJ^ 
9^»^ft??/P^ wjw^n the tax w£M& to be paid, and as many ^'^^«- 
ah^ng^ ,^f p^pp^i^ty had been effected 9 it was de^ed im*, 

.pi¥|ct|^al^<e t9 recpver the arrears by apy leg^l process. At 
If^^tliij tfred Tjrith a tedious contentioi), to which there seem^-^ 
^ Q9;pf!?^|^ct of an axQi^able or, avicqessful, termination^ 

vMy. ^''orfiley resigned the government and returned to 

\ ypoi) ^r- Wofstey's departure tljie, government devolved 
9n SftnHiel Berwick, president of the council. The acces- 

. %)Qn of^ this gentlefip^B produced no changp in tKe temper of 
lj|iSfC<^nt^ym^n« The gloom pf discontent still loured ovef 
the politiqal hQipi^oA. Mr. Barwiclc had, indeed, reod^r^ 
himself pb^noxious to the demagogues of the popular ]^tj 
by thQ pnfdent submission to the Kw, respecting the salary 
of the ^vf rnor, if hicl^ he both prao,ti^d and recommended. 

. C{i]f the fk^t m^ing of the legislature, the president toolf November?, 
the ,9Cpiisian of addressing them colljectively to remark, that, 
psth^y hftd tlje h^ppinesa of enjgying the jwotection of one 
of the best of princes, who, among his other royal virtuiea, 
Fps particularly* atterttive to the welfare of his colojxies, 
it W95 their bounden duly to shew themselves worthy of his 
p^teFnal care, by^au iaiplicit obedi^ce to bis commands* 
Tlie aniMtal exciae biU faaA ing le^pkedi his honour suggested 
to the assembly the ftfcfce*$ity ^ preparitig a nev &M irith* 
out loss of time; and to obviate as much as possible uny 
^Iteration, lie recommended that they would frame the biU 

l\ 2 

Digitized by 



^SS2? oA'trufe constitutional principles, and make the mo©ey ap-; 
^^^*^ plicable onljr to the support of government. He next ad** 
verted to the ruined stale of the fortifications/ sufaobitt&g 
to the representatives of the people the propriety of makti^ 
some eflfectual pf6ti«i6tffor thftir repair. \Thdy ou^hl^«D*;i 
Me saidj to^sSirfer the hfei^shipi^<if ^hifelt they complafa»i JOi 
irtjfpede this n'Wess&ry btiiirieiss,. ki^^thiej were hot thtttf'*tfl»q 
ject^tt anfy etbel* id)jk>sitioiis oil their produce thaa;i-sti«&^W^ 
tl«fy Bad ftbtfj^' nearfy iw He dontliided'U^iiki 

ssSUrihg both^housesr of his fedditiesd'tb concur^ in^ttitj UAetx^ 
sure tha* should be ^oposed for the ireiE^l honour and i^J 
tfertest of the coantry^ eonsistetot with the royal itistrui^ionk- 
A&dy as it was impoesible to succeed in any iiseful' uiideiru.' 
taking, without a perfect ttnion among themselves, he^ in-, 
dulged the pleasing hope of finding the most cordial unanir*^. 
mity in the ptiMic councils. . As they were^aK eqaalTy in** 
terested in the welfare of the country ^ it was not likely, lie 
said^ tha»^ey should disagree as to the meao^ cf promote 
tog ity if all wepe actuated by the same giNieKms and patriotic 
spirited principles* . . 

, Tlie coaacil presented a poHte and respectftil address (a 
the president, whioh^ as usual, was liltle^nrore than an echo 
of the speech. Bat his honour's loyai and exalted senti- 
ments made no impression on the^aembers of the assembly* 
Such was the ill humour which prevailed iu that house, that 
they would not ev«i observe the comiaon civility of ad- 
dressing the chair, nor would they ccosept to make any 

Digitized by 



pibvii^ipiir for Mr* Barmck'^ suppcwt duriog his admimstra» ^5^^3^S^ 

ti6B....-'(t.' i • :• . •, . .. »'»•' 

,MTbe.lH>use.of assenibly, at this 'periodv appear to have 
Ijkpoikebiiwelj^ Fesigaed' to th« will of th^iii speaker,: the-. 
Ijwwmrtjile ^ettyy P^em^ a artan, aqiJ^ilKKi^i J^oWiflot^gUr-- 
iog 'a«4 viqdi<3tiy«j Un^^r the influ!^w:e,pf ^8Rl©i|d^rjjtl|^: 
pfOeeo^idgs of the assembly a68y«ne4.'{«i,.<?bwacte^ 
g«sh$d by, ah mtf^y^ tJiiiHt giipfimrv wii^ttimJll jr jnjftr 
ni^liilg it80lif by ^croaqlwaapt^^a tjte?£^liPliOt^tipr^, 4^ tl^. 

a»9f»,^'terapt ^ r*fe^artrti<¥%l «?r*^ J^^^^ 
takvftt. awl in aft^^u|>^:to -mJf^I^ tkw, pfiyitegfis of the camr? 
cat! Notwth«»ii<ii8g* Iji^M^^lJjfe'fi^^ia^pr^fe^ioirt of<;th9i 
h[tsk^H.c'He\ki\h the ft>sf«»feb^fag»iife'^||«8^;^§.»i»esp<?§BA. 
sfeiliitional cootroul over Idiiie -piibJicj^kfelifSfiin^t^j ^hioj^ fcjS4j 
been pereinptority denied thesa. tb«s^(^^arf>befpFei. ' loSt^, 
enced by the BanHasentiaients .whiiifohe^ioptMAerf »<Hhith^ 
on thB iwteterft)CGasiou,vthe: Gouocsty^ctfed^^^ whiphi 
TTas nowisOTtTflqfwftffc/tiiew^ conG«n»a<ie; The '^]^^^i!how 
ev«rv was ao*j «*£*hii^ tioie^ x^jnfiiied'. to Jfcbe : privileges' of. 
either branch 06 the legislature. An additional topicy ofi a 
different comptexHMV wasikKw ftarted byithe piesident..i 

It will doubUesc bftreinemb^vedv'tfaat vrheo the Duke ^t nsi. 
Portls^d vuited Barbadoea) president Ck» had incurFcd a> 
corisiderable expense by entertaining hi»; noble guest and; 
his suite; for which he. had been.xeiiBixused by two <M'dei» . 
on the treasury for cight>hundred and tc© pounds* The e%m 
hausted state of the puWic; coflfers rendering th«. payment. 

Digitized by 



26e TH£ UiSTCmY 

^^AVATM «£the money aotnewlmt nsfttrt^itt* Mr. Cox« foi;lHe^a(;coBi» 

I7S8; modatioa pf Sandford, the treasurer, transferred the orders 

.to hiiDy aadtook: Jai» ^(e«^nal security foti tjbe . paouot. 

These odters wene- ngulatly eltorgf d by t}^, ti^aa^ivpr, ,^ if, 

the mooieg^iia^ Ixtea paidt »iMl:weie s^tM by tlm efm4 

jntttee- of public aocoantsi. . He htid^ .nevertheleas^ <P>it^ 

,!bo|MLyCos; wbor as. we have aAre«dy aeeov bitd ^ 

ituateoqa, where he 4i«4, leaving Mfu Pe)n»« the ^o^ki^iif^ 

:tiM aMembVjr, ta whomvho owed s cemuderaUQ aiiim^ jhija 

enfteitlWP^ Saqdford, having; proved iaaoivent) rfSfi mjfffi^ 

ffued by hi9 djeditocs ; and as tfaeie, was no chaneejof col* 

.letting tHut moncTf; doe from him to Cox's estate, Pjeers ^|4 

.BignafU his two si^cihties, anxiow to providi^ jfbif t|i<<ir 

. ift'Wti saffe^y pfemki^oa; the o^eqiuoos aasem^y .^ ^^f t 

a daHseio the exciae*b)llf diiecting, the. fa.yf9^f4' of t^te^ 

<rery orckts to Cox's representatives, vHiticb .ha4 ^^'^^ 4^" 

. 4K)fWited nine years IMbxe with the late treasDn^,., Happv^ 

the presidiQnt discoverod the impositioo, and esplaine^ it 

, to tivs oonncily in time to fhuti^te the fieaiidukuiit d^ign. 

Thougjh Mr. Barwick, in this instance, acted, as bec^nK; 
; a faitbfal guafdian of the, people, bis uprightcondnct irri- 
tated tbe itunds of those whose malversation.. be bad de- 
. leeted, and pnpvoked a torrent of illiberal imactive from 
:Mr< Bi^stl],. in the hpuseof assonbly^ co a speeebnapk^ 
with the meet ftcrtmonicas expressions. A committee of 
conncil was appointed to make a minute enquiry inio the 
circuoislances of' tiiis transaction, and had drawn up tbeir 


Digitized by 


import emthcBulagwrt, tw* Ae%n$^-rf Lc»d Mowe, in the *0*t^-^niL 
iteteJ^rfl, 'Gt>ening a*e*r tfcetafe of pofitios tefjdtk parties, the ^^•^^ 
aflfeir was compromised, and aH .preftonsiem *o tbe money in 
^aestion given up*. 

^ ^e^sembly, for Hbe dispadcAi t«f fiublic ^u«ii^eM, liad 
tiedti emitted to adjourti theras^ilw^^AsalJe 4m ^fUem; but, 
iCteth^y fiiensisted inlr^fusing to pans an^excBe4MH, ^eirdOi 
-the obje€tion& to which tlife iast'wtis UaMc;, ilh« fHrtisAd^it, 
Ibearhrg tifitt tthey were {irocotsAkig' to dtb«r 4»aiit»ew^ mmtt 
tht :provd8t marshal to adjotira 1^ hoitM to «' 'fatitro dttgr,. 
4Qtiei]idi(]g, hi the m^n iiifie, to ^dks^^ it iiy prodanm- 
iaMii The inatshali instead of waiting till the house had 
kai, cdtomrwic^ated his errand %o Warren, the cleA^ irha 
immediately ilew toihe diflferettt members with the ioCtelK^ 
gehfce. Determined not to relinqui* their scheme, they 
privately assembled at the t^tore of Othniel Haggat, mem- 
ber of 'council, where they proceeded oa the busmess in 
hand, and cotttinaed thdr illegal sittings, without any re^ 
gard to the nuttiority of the chief magistrate, until their 
place of rendezvous being, at length, discovered, they were 
adjourned by the president's wder. His honour soon tffter 
-dissolved the house, and i«Bued writs for a new felecJtion,. 

Nor were these the only discorders and irpegularities whioh 
the annals . of this period afibvd. A few bold, turbUletit^ 

I ' ' ■ ' ■ > ' ' ' ' ' • 


Digitized by 



«R^.yiu.Jiceiitioiu men, sssumed a* domiiieering influence ovei* 
J792. '«^^j;depaitmeiit^f the state; andy witb democmtic inr 
soteBoe^ obstructed tke legal ekercise of the executive kti- 

Mr. B«nnett, a gentleman qf respectability, bail 'Com- 
menced an action against Doctor "Warren, for the-recovei^ 
•^■a'plantatkiQ;' and the defendant, to impede his advert 
«ary$ piK>c«6ding&, had4«moved the cause,' by a bill of in- 
junction, into the court of chancery. In the! pttjgress dF 
the suit, an -attachment had been issued against Bennett, 
Jot an imputed contempt of the court j bat, as it was Hien 
likely that the afiair would be compromised, the writ Was 
aiBTer executed. After' an interval of "nine mo»ths,' wh^ 
sdl prospect of an amicable adjustment of the tauseof 
litigation had disappeared, Mac Mihon, the advoc»te iii 
this suit, without any order from the court of chancery, 
which was. not then sitting, obtaihed from Warren's brother, 
tJie.iflgiater of the courti a second attachment, directing 
4he etijeant at arms to take Mr. JBennett into custody. The 
Offder was instantly oJI>eyed, and the man conveyed to 
prwon,, though l>e offered sufficient baS ^fiarhis appearance, 
wlv^ei^cr it should be required. UufbitUnately for the 
Ijrieonpr, the court of chanceiy vas prevented from sitting 
«n ,tb^ 4ay in course ; and a&itsad|ouinuneBts were monthly, 
it seemed probable that his . incarceration would be pro- 
tracted to an unreasonable.length. He therefore petitioned 
Mr. Barwick to interpose his authority, as chancellor, and 

Digitized by 


iu^asfA^gA, pMiuNiaced the tvlkolie trttMaetian ^ be ii<t«gulttr ^^'^• 
ami iltoga}; »nd^ a8>B^ntiM«t was' not eomteitted bj(»rd«p 
^ <li« court, iAm learned gen^ia^n mconiin««Je<l tlie^ 
pqemdttU to 4ii-«et a* sopersedeas to be isssvad ^ bi^ 
libfiMttWA^ ' -"' ' ' 

^tHw n«G«M(ary onrdflnra w^ere aceordia^y given, Iw^t i*» 
wgister, who- iwad not hesitated o^i the autb«r»aedIwppM«ii- 
tion ©f bis l>rotJ^'& cowwel, td issue a Writ for confiuin^ 
Bemaetli, sttddOTfyv became se te»aciou» of his d^ity, tha* 
3|e, peremptorily refused to obey the president's ' order fdflu^ 
rf^as^ ^egiug that the chanceltor. had no- iiuth^jdiiy* 
«9lf;of qpjjit to direct a 8ttperscdeft& As Bennett ha<f 
not ; beep '^prermitted' fer actael oontempt, but laerely to> 
ati8n>^ the imfrataAiou, bis-isouBsel eaeHta^d thfrt fie Waa^ 
entitled tp baif, but the sei^nt at anna pertinacioosPf 
refn*^ to Jt«ke security for his appearance in court. ' ' 

At the €ii4 !st$\ Ihree woekip, during which he h&d laitf in 
t|»oonEM?a©Bgaoli,Bf9«kf*t!pe^>0i»ed tb«> IfonouWkWe.Ran:'^ 
c^s yi^jighao, dm^ 'y&Sg^<9i. aicoMrt of" coantton pieaa^ tt^ 
B.^^in^^^'fifikM^wmf^-^'f^yJ^^ j)ittde»«Jy coowAed^ 
%i i^to^f!afcg»WI»^ irboti-with- characteristic catt^.' 
dQ«|i;^fH^iii||m«i^]9i^t» M opinio* «« l^^ig***- If <**<^ 
^i;^?flJ99{ii^^J|?^li'jl»ken;-ii5iiby an order of the court of 
c]^aflc^,i,lift^#Wt(te^ii;tlittt the judge would have no 
■j^yr^x-po iuiififi<^f^}'iOb3L tUe mother hand,, if die court didl, 
irot direct^tbe process upon which fae had Jbopa arimled^t- 


Digitized by 


sea Tim msTOBs* 

^^A^^- th^ learned barrister insistod, be might bejc^atty cUftcihargisd. 
'"23. An(}, as, upon a review of *the whole proceedings^ itdid> 
not app^a^ that Uie court of chancery was a^ all qoojcernedt 
m the oommitoient, Mr. Blenmaa thought the judge wi^ulidt 
nct\ 4nt^ife)Qe wi^th; the jurisdiction of that tribunal, by 4i/i-) 
^ chfurgiqg the prisoner. In pursuance of this advice* 3en*-. 
nett,:i^^.Ub9raled, .by virtue of a writ of babias aarpw^ 
Plx>volj^ed at |»aying, the yictim thus rescued firom theirs 
ia^gs, Warren's . party xiot only a^ysed Bennett and hiet^ 
counsel, in the mo&t outrageous manner, but Mac Mahon^ 
n^ore violent than the rest, insulted and^ even ch^Vr 
len^pd the chief justice. For. this flagrant o^tragp h^ 
vffi indicted at the next court pf grand ae9sion^^g)jd..SKa;^, 
cpnvicted of the offence ; but, from the faulty cons^tatipfi., 
of our criminfd judicature, an^ his. influeqf:e, ov^r the. 
bench,' he escaped wit^. impunity*; or, at mo^t, with.«^ 
moderate ^ne. . . .■ , 

.These abuses ^uul disqr^ens in the ad0^^ist]^tioQ. of 
gpyerpment, were not the only evils under which the Bar- 
badian laboured. The decay of commerce^ and the der 
cline of agricultvire) were, ills, most ^emihly fiplt aud lci(lidl)^f 
. c^XDplaioed ot The onerous imposts on their^staple pi;odif f ts 
were rendered more oppressive by t^eg^treme rigour wit^^ 


♦ Caribbeanna, rol. 1, p. 259 and 302. This flagitioui character was a peraoii of 
coDsiaerable property, owtoer of Locust Hall J)lantatio« ; a lawy^ by i>fofes^ion,' 'antf 

a nembcr of the general assembly. n 

Digitized by 


6F BARfiAlJdfes. . s^ 

wh&tlf tb«y wene^xaeied'; partietttiriy the duty otf ifd^ai*; cniApJ^. 
.^liich n^d!) aetotflty paid on the -wood af which the e^skV ^'"• 
^e»«f mode. Bbt^ tfie ihjttfy t)f whicti the Barbadians itfoM- 
^ieUn^ most,' was- -occasioned' bf the pcitiiission given' ^^' 
6¥«at Britain to Iteland,' dad hef North American coioni^;' 
of iinportitig sugar, mttt, and ' molasses, Itbhi 'the iJPi^hdk 
aiMliIKitch «ett)emen(2). I^e adventuten of'«bOse-'{>ta(^^)'^ 
ftfeelfrom tke'heary duti^'on-dxjfbbrtatloB.'tOTirhich ^SWiJ 
dhant» of Barbadoes wei^ liable; had' not only dbtkined a^ 
defticTed adt4ntage over the Bicitish on the cohtinent'of* 
ESirbpe'j tHey were enabled to uhder^U them in their iiiVii' 
tilizirlcetsj hi'tHe'Afliericair provinces; wlberidethey riecM^di' 
itf ^kthiangei every tnfticle Tfeqniffed tor the linpport aiiict ithX' 
jfttivenieht of -their ^knlatioro; Th^^reiifeh.'ttnlabqttainted' 
v^ith ike principles of distillktion^ ftrmishe^ the Aiheticknit^ 
widi'iconstd^i^ble qhantities of molasses; fbi' the Support' 
of their distilleries, which, but for that intercottrse, mult' 
have beeh thrown away. Heiicfe the ' cdtt^mptidii of Wfe«t 
Iddian lipfhits was materially lessebed 'oA' Hhe Ameiickii * 
continent, to the manifest injury of ihe ^ilahtelPS of Bit^' 
baddei^, ' With whoni ram was an mipdrtant staJHe. > * > 

^Vtfcf6r cikuirtfetaneefe so d^ressifa^fo th* cibhito^^ 
iWd ajgtilcuUtirai^ intei^ts of the 'itdiintr^,' ijke "Bki^kdUr^' 
concurred in.- an humble petition to the throne, in which, 
after a pathetic enumemtion of the grievances and oppi^e^- 
uon tQ whic^ thejhad long ;P^:4«;^Uy sufewt^edk t^ 

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^68 . THE MISTOKir 

1732. fidolassesy into Irelan4» «r the iAligl6>Aa(tenoaii t^vinces^ 
should be prc^bited» volesfi {^e^idMUl beea ipfcndcMtslir 
kioded io-IktglaRd^ or n(mdeilittbl)3:tocuQbvdMtids.asoiADiM 
put t]iem.oi> -ft ^ii«i 'Vnth ^ ipcftdttdkMi&iaf .tfaeBidlsk 
0ok>B)es. jTbe itrpth of libQse:4^ni|>l«i^ 
of Uae di»inaiL(i^ indwsli «£D«Bap«nied ibhtstev aoa«L: Km > Um 
frwakepod t^ i^^ticMa4;(af'-tjb^ Britidi ip^isti|r>., •tbcKigfaL 

D«c«inber. , ;^^nwbaQ»: ^ the ^^y a ji^iofewi^or -ibe meetujg.'of'tbe 
i Dew aase^ttbl}?, tiiie pretMdoEkt^ focdatg pfe«eated:by ill ihhdtii 
£mm ;geung to £ridge«<rown, . vas tuider ibe fie^esfiitjf lofr-De^ 
ceiviag. tiie other branches of the i^»hit9U)e «jt . trfmeaitiec 
^laotaetioo. Hts.hoiKmr (^nsaiu^d the Be8Stfkq'witi»&^^^ 
in whioh^ altor descaoting on Uie usual to{jio«> he ^laMd» 
that in diesi^ving the last assembly,, he had beea indi^^ed. 
by ao.Qthejr CQoaidm«itioa than that of #fib£ding.t|to hojose 
an opportunity of passing aitexcBse bill with consistency,;^ 
whiciv he obs^^ved, the public scrvios requi^ad, should. be 
done without delaj. He c^oncluded with an j^susaBce^ 
jUiataskNog as. he lived,^ wbich> io all pirob^^lit$,_^;quld. 
AOt be loDg). the psospeFity ei* his country i^oqld IsMg t^ 
first wish of hia heact. These wGsds seem to. ^«9 
uttered with a pct^thetic i^tnt. He sAunuvad .tbe,patiie^ 
^eclaj»ti«a Iktle mpce thaa a, week ; J^ died.^oa ikeSM 

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v^^i Wha^e»er *«ilte' tke t#i€(|e*ife* >«)^ ^itjfv <ft the fw»*ew- 

' 'nittMm^.c£<hiaf)iotttiC8l oppo&eilts^ may )mv€ 4tnptifted ^ Ht. 

^ Mmn\'kk, ins ipfdoitic cotidu^ if Wi ktiof rniy ^fh ^e ^tU 

w^mf mi mn laalkMruQfi.ii]* lowb !liiii»s, A^tt4 4V«e fMm «My 

it^fawito 9iain. tiibadMttiiiitrittiWi W2toHlis«klg«itoli^% ^i^t^ 

^^4atefy^ OB fhe:s<nmd«S8 6f fa»i)wli'j«dg(»^fi^^^ h^ cotmhofiTy 
endeavoured to render his good intentions «W*tie ^effi^ttotl*^, 

' bjr. the advice of others ; and was implicitly guided by the 
counsel of those in whose integrity and superior under- 
standing he knew that he could place the utmost confidence. 
It was his felicity to perform the duties of his high sta- * 
tioHy without blame, to the satis&ction of the candid and 
impartial, and to the utter disappointment of hisenemies^. 
In all cases of diflSculty, he resorted to the attomey-general>> 
BlenmJEiri, for Assistance ; happy in having a friend of siich 
probity and talents to solve his doubts and confirm Ws. 
honest purposes; and yet more happy in the sagacity, and 
humility With which he av&iled himself of an advantage 
so inestimable. 

The death of Mr; Barwick placed the reins of govern- 
ment in the hands of the Honourable JamesDotin^ This 
gentleman seems to have possessed a much greater portion 

* Caribbeannay Tol, h p« 102». 

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CHAP.yiiL of the esteem of the assembly than had fallen to the lot of 
1735. his predecessor. They voted the sum of one hundred 
pounds to prepare for his reception at Pilgrim, and a pre- 
sent of five hundred pounds to provide for his accommo- 
dation during his tesidei^f t^ererj) Whatever might have 
been the talents or virtues which procured him these marks 
of distinction, he had very little opportipa^^y . tQ^ 
them. He was quickly superadd by the an^v^ jof^ ^-^^ 
Viscount Howe, who had beea ^pppioted to,, ^tbo^ ff>^»fip^ 
inent of Barbadoest v . -. ^ v. .— 

I ' 

^ V 

i j: > 

; .: » . /'.. 

;ir. ' 

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o^Miaiiiiyois. m 






On the first meeting of the legislature, Lord Howe ad- chap. k. 
dressed the council and assembly in a plain respectful speech* 
He regretted that the arrangement of his private concerns 
had detained him much longer in £nglatid, after, being 
honoured with his Majesty's commands to take upon him 
-the government of the island,, than he expected. But her 
assured them» that he had endeavoured to make his absence 
useful to the colony, by employing himself, during that 
interval, in representing to the ministry the many hard- 
shipa and disadvantages under whjich the trade la|>oured ; 
and in soliciting a redress of their grievances; luid he 
:was happy in bringing with him the glad tidings of ar 
speedy and effectual relief intended for them by the King 

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c^H^^x. anjd his padiament. Turning to the awcmbly, he ohBewed, 
^^^^* that although it had beea usual with former .gowmofs' to 
issue writs, on their arrival, for a new election, theconfideoCQ 
which he had in their wisdom and zeal for the public wel- 
fare, together with his deare^i^i? givmg every possible dii- 
patch to business, had induced hina to depart from thta 
custom ; sDdj vith Ou view tQ, pom p«rsQB»l e^m^ h^ hai 
prQft«€4,tbe^r.ipei6rt«ig oa tiuLdaj. tfi irfiich they atqod a4- 
JQVi^Pfd^ Qp (o^i^ed.tjgyto^ th^ h^had^ reeved ordors 
frQ{p.iH§it]Vd^jesjt$ t% 1^ be£ve t^^ewbu stiMfxal »fil7uotk^ 

island^; vwhii^ al- ^pn^MFlMftm, .^kMJ«t itt tfoMMTWimcatod y 
to ;th^in« There was oiie, however, which, as it €eftc*nied 
himself he should i^amediately subniit te their considera^- 
tioiT, without any <ioxnmeHt bf his oVn. IVofessing to have 
ricrt^ing uearer to his hdartthan the prosperity of the conn- 
try, he declared, that iticy ination, as wett as obedience to his 
«overeign*i5 cJommands, wbuVd impel him to use his best en- 
deavourg to 'restore the tradfc of the islknd to its former 
tfourishiag condition. To render eflbctttal hi^ Majesty-*' 
gracious inteotion towards them, he urged xmanimity and' 
conco]^ among thems^es*; a constant atte^ndance on the 
ditties of their several stations ; and a perfect union^ in the 
pursuit of iBuch objects as were connected with tiie general 
welfare ; promising, on his part, that hi; would contribtrte 
«very ^ing in his power to effectuates a propitious- chan^^ 

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tn their aftum. He 'eondudfd vitih diclariog bis readiness ^JJiJ!;J3" 
to comply with anj request, or to acquiesce in any propo- ^753. 
sal finr tibe advantage and benefit of the iphabitants of the 

^Diis speech made a powerful impresuon on the public 
mindi The people of Barbadoes^ ever credufous, and ea- 
sily <deGeived by those who find it contenient to flatter their 
vaoDty, or sooth their expectations with speck>u» professions^ 
listened with admiration, and complacenfey ta his lordship's 
patriotfc seiiliraents and polite expressions of regard. 
That -they might not, by any vnreaso&able parstmody, ob*- 
stmot ihe tide «f pirosperity w^eh now seemed ready to 
Hov into (their boscMtns, the assembly generously settled the 
sunkof '^Mir thousand pounds sterling annually on his !ord> 
ship, to support' the dignity of his goremment : no Irifitng 
aum, if. iMtakehito considaratioia the eireumstances of 
the eountey at that period, when sAgars^^'d for only ten or 
twejife shillings sterling the hundred weiglit. Ncmt had the 
Barbadians the smallest cause ' to regret their liberality oA 
this ocoaukm. Itofd Howe was generous to profusiott, and 
by his. m««fficea«e nsfileaished the streams whkb supported 
the mg^va, of. his .<catafaii8hi&e»t Thrattgh Che Whdl^ of his 
adQiini9tratM% he iiurariabiy^ acted vp6a the purest^ pritt* 
cipleaof ■i0iBL.aadip<Aitai8al.Mctitude: a conduct, whic&'as'hdiMmraMe t6 hhnself as it was 
ka^y tp^the.peopta i)vee i^hoin he presided. 

The genoial satisibctioii' which this amiable noblettan's 

N n 

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^v!!^i^^ accession had difTused throughout the communityy soon ex- 
^^^^' perienced a temporary interruption by the reviral of the 
disputes concerning the payment of the lai^ balance due 
to the late governor Worsley. That gentleman, on his re- 
turn to England, had not been forgetAil of the injustice 
with which he had been treated in Barbadoes. He pre- 
sented a memorial to the King, stating the particulars of 
his demand, with the grounds on which the payment of 
his salary had been refused ; and praying that his Majesty 
would be pleased to direct such measures to be pursued 
for his relief as the nature of the case might require and 
admit. This request was so reasonable^ that the King, in 
council, on the twenty-second day of September,. o»e. thou- 
sand seven hundred and thirty-two, issued an{ order, di- 
re/:^ting the colonial attorney-geowal, in case, the taxes were 
not paid by the first day of July in the foUowing year, to 
take the niost efiectual measures, by due course of law, for 
the recovery of the arrears from the persons liable to pay 
' t)iem. 

Though Blenman gave notice of this order, and of .his 
^ determination to obey the commands of hk Sovereign, the 
populace were still influenced by the conduct of persons of 
superior rank and superior means of' information, who yet 
pertinaciously refused to p*y their taioes, expecting that 
their personal influence would induce the^govemot to inter- 
fere and protect them in .violating the law. But Lord 
Howe was too noble miiided to aim at short-lived popula- 

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rtty, or ta ondiie^^rour to strengthen hk interest by obstruct- chap. ix. 
mg the coorte of' jtwtiqe* Nor was Blenman of a temper ^l^^- 
tt) be * intimidated by the frown of despotism^ or seduced 
from his duty by the smile of power. He was heedless of. 
pk^shig thisr gikied kna^e, and still lesi^ inclined to oppress . 
the poor. Detehnined* to strike at the root of the evil, he, 
on the appointed day, commenced suits in the court of ex* 
cheqtier againt President Dotin, Othniel Haggatt,, meuober 
of council. General Peen^ speakei! of the assembly, Tho- 
mas Maycock, chief »jtist4ce of a court of common pleas, 
John Maycock, member of the assembly, and Robert 
IfVarren, clerk of that house, for ihe recovery of the suras 
refspectively due ih>m them» At the same time Mr. Hother- . 
sal, the late treasurer, being about to leave the island, 
without giving the necessary* information: respecting the 
names of the defaulters, ajnd the amount of their arreaxs, 
was detained by a writ of ne eseafin$tdai and compelled, 
to enter into bonds not to lea^m the island fwithput hi& «2l-; 
cellenc/s permission. 

^ Such spirited proceedings, so juditioiisly directed^ pro- 
duced the desired eiect. Finding that «eit^er rank n,Qr 
fortune afforded any security ia cases: of public delin^ 
quency, the commonalty voluntarily came forward and 
paid their arrears. Thus, in the short space of five weeks, 
the hydra was subdued, and upwards of seventeen. tiiQU^ 
sand pounds were collected, and paid to Mr« Woistlesjr's 
agents. - ; . , ?.v , 

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276 THE maroRY 

Soon after Lord Hoire's ainvfti, a curioQS and interestaog 
question arose between Ivb lofdslMp aiwl the preetld^. 
Baring Mr. Botttt's admioistratioD, thcMiigh. several qioiUbs 
afber his excellencj had received bia appointmetnt* a sloop 
stod cargo» Taloed at devea h«udr«d pounds, weie scp^ 
b^ the officers of the cttstosu at Bridge Towi^ and cpo^ 
deaned in the court of vice^adBiifaltj. Tb^ law, . Ja auql^ 
casea^ catpreisly directs that all forfeitui£» inpurfe^ >J.|^ 
violatioB of the acts of trade shall be to bis Maie^j^, the 
gnofoorot tbe plantation where the>o^eace is.coBunitt^^ 
and the officer hy ivhora it is prosecuted. , But^ as his Ma-. 
jcstjp had been ploased to order that one h^f the sala^^: 
pestfooatea and emolum^t?, which the > governor was^enti>. 
tied to receive, shoold be paid (o the pecs^ exerqis^g th^; 
sopreaie anthoritj durii^ the goveinc^s^ 9ibs«9^e^ bis Jor^' 
ship claimed ool j one moiety of the third to which he 
tkmgbt himself entided. Mr. Dotia not. be^ jdi^>ose4^ 
t»admit the pvDineij of this demand, aa aetioa waa filed 
against him at the governor's suit for. the DCC0T«erji> of the 
pMnfy-. The caiis- wa» porieet^ nenr^ and, tfe cmuU- affibr 
a^baasing <^ thawiatter, upon^a motiaBiaadeibf tibttpon* ~ 
poM, agreed to a leftionce to the attornej ibd soHeitw- 
generaA of C^at J^tain ; bj whose! oooeucrent opinion the 
qvettion w«8 Inallj decided in &KOttc of the cbttmant*. 

•*-*■- •* • ■ - ■ - - , - '- f ^ • -- , - J rr j i I ' - I I l u 

*^ iPiie opinion of Mh Attorney Glenoml VKSh wwr tbus^ expreMid: " UoimMt^ 
standing the ddeit counaeUbr is directed to take npon him the administration of g^ 

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This dfetetiftiiiatioa gave rise to a second demand on the chafml 
p^nof'lx>rdti6^k On the president's accession the as- njs. ' 
sembiy had wted him a donative of five hundred pounds, 
for Ae purpose of defraying the expenses incident to his 
leiMeact at Pilgrim. His excdlenty insisted that this was 
aJQ emblement of office within the' meaning of the instruc- 
tioa already alluded to; but Mr. Dotin was as little ini 
dined to yidd to this new demand as to the former. The 
qocstion therefore was referred to^^Mr. Blenman, the colo- 
nial attorney-general,, who pronounced that, whatevef* 
might have been the motives by which the assembly were 
actuated m the provision made for the president, as it' 
was granted after the date of liis lordship's commission,^^^ 
• he had, by virtue of the instruction, an indispukble 
right to one moiety of the sum, as a perquisite of office. 

Lord Hdwe Was^ «mineridy endowed with all the virtues 
of anobteaod'genepous mind: courteous, affabte> hosJ)it- 

■ 1 •, ' ; ; • > , I I : i ;-,.:..■; 

vartnttent doting the absence of the goternof, yet the goii^emor himself, though ab« 
Mtf, ■ to ISe eo<toi4*ml m geventnr ■iritUxi. tfit- ttiiiart^ of the aiitot parifeMOent> ' 
and ir the penon enUtled lo <9ie-tb»d of thc/iirfeitaKa. .;Bot.iab tb« f^fanl'it- 
bound by bis instruction^ as well as by bis commission, his ac^ptan9e of the go^ -i 
vemment under them, amounts to an agreement on his' part, . that the eldest coi^ns^U 
kr, in his absence, shall hare one moiety at tris salary, and of all the peri^uitiMr 
bekmging t6 Vm office. I am-dMMfo^ «f opiaion, An ' oAe^thivtf <tf ' thtt fitrfeitim >'' 
in qpestion is, by law, vested ia Lord.Howe^ as the same accineii afier4be date oC- 
his commission ; yet that, by reason of bis instructions, he can claiip only one moiety 
tliereof, as it happened befosebis arriTal in Barbadoes."— FtiA; Mr. £versliy'4 Mgw 

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CH^p.ix. able, and condescending, he engaged the esteem df all 
1^33. ^ith whom he conversed. Temperate but firm, <iandid 
. and impartial, he acquired a greater degree of Jx)pularify 
than has ever been enjoyed by any other governor of Bar- 
badoes. By a familiar and unreserved intercourse witti the 
people, he was enabled to calm the animosities of party, 
• ^ and contributed to unite the warmest political opponents 
in soci?tl amusements and festive entertainments. All an- 
gry contention was silenced by his firmness and impartia- 
lity ; and concord once more resumed her pacific reign. 

In effecting this happy change, his lordship's endeavours 
vere greatly fadlitated, according to a judicious histo« 
rian *, by the circulating of a weekly paper, published by 
one KeimCT, under the title of the Barbadoes' Gazette -f-. 
Some of the most enlightened members of the community 
:^m\ed themselves of the advantage of a free press, and 
devpted their pens to the instmction of their countrymen: 
By the publication of many spirited and ingenious letters 
and essays on political and commercial subjects, the mis- 
chievous designs, sinister views and corrupt motives of those 
incendiaries, who, under the specious garb of patriotism, 
had plundered the public and disturbed the peace of soci- 
ety, were developed, scrutinized and firustrated. Relieved 
firom the illusion which had long^imposed on their senses, 
the Barbadians now b^gan to see and understand their true 

Vide Uni?. Hist vol 41, p. 176. f Kcimcr'f prew was cttabtiihed ia 1731, 

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interest&. . Nor let it be thought that ihe cause was dispro- chap, ix* 
porticmed to the effect . There is no stronger principle in i^ss. 
human nature than the fear of shame. The freedom of the 
pcqas derives its utility from its influence over this powerful 
spjix]^ of action ; and furnishes the only weapon which can 
be. safely and effectually employ^'d against folly and cor- 
ruption acting with authodty. The man in office who 
fi^rs not to offend against the laws of his country and his 
God>when he can do so. with- the //w^ect of legal impunity; 
is oflen restrained from the commission of injustice and 
ofipres^iou by the dread of having his crimes revealed, and 
of being held up to the scom and execration of mankind 
by n^at^s of an open press* Hence the arbitrary ruler, 
the corrupt magistrate and the profligate legislator, of all 
countries, have ever been inimical to the liberty of the 
press, aad anxious^ to deprive the subject of the privilege 
of ganvasaing the measuresvof government, and scrutiniH- 
iijg the conduct of those who are placed in authority over 
us. Happily, by the principles of tlie British constitution, 
the people are themselves the guardians of this inestimable 
privilege ; and it is hoped that, in the hands of a jury of 
Barbadians, it will never be impaired, nor surrendered to 
the rude gripe of despotism. 

The inhabitants of Barbadoes had not long enjoyed this^ 
advantage,, when an attempt was made to. restrain, th© exer- 
cise of it. Mr. Adams, one of the coundU had published 
some remarks on the sjagar trade of the colonies^, whick 

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4||0 THElilStOKV^ 

cttAf . Dt produced An antirw^ ia wWcb <iie lMHH>unibl6 autbarV Mte* 
^ItS^ tai^^tBlehto were treated irtftli less ceremony «na i«s|iect 
thaasonifi of bia friends tboaght due to kxift rank. At dn 
iostigatton of some penons, smarting under Uie censoriiU 
rod, the grand jury piesented Keimir for publishing ft ra%' 
Ketous, scandalous and $editiou8 paper, and parttcuiaily 
fo^ printing a false and defamatoiy libel on Mr. Adattis. 
When the presentment was brought before tiie court, the 
{kttorh^geoeral declaxed that there tras nothing in the 
publication conaplained of which could possibly warrant 
^ mitiinal pfosecutioii ; but thie printer was neverdieless 
l>oUnd t» keep the peace far six months* 

The systeta of peculation and extortian on wlMch the 
lawyers and deputy patentee officers had long' subsisted, 
^fld at length become' so injurious and oppressive to the 
bulk of the people, that it was found necessary to restrain 
Ihem within more moderate bounds. With this view, a 
cofBmittee of the assembly was appointed to prepare. a bill 
for regulating 1^ fees oi puUic officeei and courts of jus- 
^ce. Bat Warren, their clerk, who was himself a deputy 
patentee^ contrived to impede their progress, under a pre* 
tence that it was a matter of too much imporlance to be 
hurried over lightly. At length the connnendable dilig^ace 
-•f the committee surmounted all the obstacles thrown in 
their leay. The bill passed both branches of the fegisk- 
^Kte without a dissenting voice, and finally received the go- 
voaor's. astCBt. But as the royai appiobatioa was bVso 


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necMsvfjTi! Waitcl&i aansCed: by Mao^M^^ioii^ rniohred on chap.'1X> 
trying pother dffifft to proyent it» stoce^sa. Caiefully con*- ^^^^* 
ceaiii^. their dQBigQ>: they pi^i^jMured a petition^ accompa- 
nied by «everal affidi^vita, to proTetbatthe iatefests of tha 
pajtoftr^ef, would be materiaily affected by tbe operation 
of tliislaw. . Warren^, afber stating bis long practice as a^ 
lawy^er, and perfect knowLe^dge of tbe suhject, deposed that 
theprothonotary alone, in the event of the acta reoeiying:: 
the royal 4^nction, would lose frpm three to four huodnedf 
pounds an nn^lly.^. These dispositions wete coaceaied firou; 
Lord Howe till jthe evening before the packet sailed, when 
they were presented to his lord^ip. to be a^ulhentioated nnr^ 
der the great 3eal.of the island. It waft then .too late t6 
take steps to counteract the effect of. this aietfttl, uocaDEdid. 
representation; which, being supported: by the patentees; 
on the other side of the Atlantic^ sueqcwdod to ^leir utmert. 
expectation. This was the. last l^slatiTe attacmpt to coi^ . 
rect these abuses, . . j , .i : <.., i. 

An event now occurred, which, by reOKmttg thafc turbu^ n^*. 
lentrincendiary Mac Mahon from the cttuntcj^, cbiitribut^) 
more, perhaps, than any other drGumstmncei iowik*ds prer-] 
serving its tranquillity. Keeling, a deputy :in titcpoHrdeCi 
office, having furnished his emplojner's sofiricklaw with; . 
-T ^ ; ^ m — -: ^ 1* 

* The prpthoQotary's office was farmed at tkree buiulca^ uul^r P^^* ?k'^^*'' 
Consequently, if Wairen swore true, th« patentee would have lost the whole emolu- 
menu of hia office ; wbidi was impossible^ unless the pmjrment of all fees had been 


O O 

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its T^Bt HiarrQRT 

CBAna. wKMjf contEWj to htt pasitit^ coxkacB, aUfiged) bjwajo^ 
^'^^^ 8«m8^ tiut lie bed beoa penuaiLttd to da so bj Mad 
MahoB4 Thift vm^ oottmuiuGitted to Mac Mahon, wba 
metoHmg Keettag afttswards at a tavera beat htm n^ioleatlj, 
and tibfcKiat bim out of the hou$a. Keebng, the same crreo^ 
isgi .\iErQjba to. him^ desiiiog te be paid for some $hii^le9 
vbich bar bad lohl him^ aad requested aa mterriew fbr the 
IMqKiie of |»8iu^ recdipts^ Mac Mahon Deadilj caor^ 
flteood d^h> noto intaa. challenge; and sifx>re. most Tefae* 
■salljE Uiat hia^wc^ild go and beat the rasca}* Accordin^^ 
accoaaipaiiicd by P^nj, Lawraoce and Moms^ who hmt 
ban a MMtd) be^ pfoeeeded to Keelin^s kxlgtogs, whp» 
Ibejcteuxlatithe doer pr^paiiiig to go out, his hoise being» 
ia. 1km street read;: saddled* Fdrrj, without hesstatioiiy 
steuted %e pistols which ipere>]o the hokters, and. Keeh^^ 
ing^ fiaduig Ihat^ some vipleiiGe vas^ iatended, dcev hb> 
MiM»d^ faRmfcOMule noatempt to use it until Mac Mahpo: 
drew, when they both advanced and en^igedl Keelingi 
wat4«a4Hl d^wnirwh it was said bj^ Morrk^ and retreating 
calilidiosi he Ipdilnt bis svrard; but finding himadf hi^id 
pcesied 1^ bi^ diihcniooiable adycraarj^ he ran into a 
]M%blM|miig iti^lef and oadeaYonred to qooceal hiinBeifi 
iMMtor tte fUtam. fbdi inftuiate Mac Mafaoi^ having ob-> 
tained-a Kgh^- tcncwcd- the- attack ; and Keeling 4ttcapa- 
We of resistance, cried out murder; and, in the most sup- 
pUi^p^t^fH^.l^^ed, fojr mercy. I^erry and Lawrance, 
holding his weapons, were caha spectators of the biQondjT; 

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icemi P^Mt Motris guarded die Ador to preittnt the kiler- &iAt. m 
ference of tlie crowd which had gathered m the street) liM ^^^^* 
Mac Malion, having pef{>etrated bis sarage doMgti^ witii*- 
drew. The hapless victim of his cruelty vTas th^: SsdMtt 
up and placed in a chmr, wfae&ce he immediate j kXU ^^ 
claiming/ ^ the villain has murdered &» as I lay on tlM 
ground/' and instantlj expired. Miller, a Surgton's up^ 
prentice, who had beea a witness of the wh^ transactidtt^ 
was dandestinelj cbnvefed ftom tihe islaod ; but as, upon 
enquiry, theie still appeared t6 be sutBeiebt evidence to 
convict die inhuman monster, he thought proper t&^&sult 
his safety by a ptecipitate flight beyond sea* Perry, Mor- 
ris, and LaWrance, were afterwards successively appre- 
hended, and tried for the murder as accessafles, btlt they 
were all acquitted/ 

The time seemed now to have artived whm the Barba- 
dians were to enjoy the benefits of thfe loiig^^piected relief 
promised them on the arrival of Loni Howe, tJpoti an 
address to his Majesty from the House of Feers, the coiii- 
plaints of the colonies were referred to the bbnsiid^ration 
of the lords commissioners for tirade and plantations; 
and their lordships, in obiedielice to his Majest/s 
order, made an ample report concerning the com- 
merce, strength, and fortifications of the West-Indian sfet- 
ftements; snggesiting the steps which were proper to be 
taken for the encouragement of the trade and the security 
ef )the islands in general. 


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In consequence of this representation, the iiftportation of 

foreign rum, sugar and molasses^ into Ireland, was prohi* 
bited by act of parliament, and the same commodities, on 
being imported into any of the American provinces,. were 
made subject to heavy duties. The exportation of sugajr 
from the English colonies directly to foreign parts was per^ 
mitted in ships built and navigated according to law ; but 
thii indulgence was clogged with such difficulties and re^ 
strictions, tliat the ^\^e8t Indians received no advantage fmm 
it. These marks pf favour on the part of Great Britain 
were accompanied by a donative of cannon and ordnance 
stores. And, on the representation 6f Mr. Dunbdr, the 
inspector-genera), the origioal metlwd of collecting the 
duty on sugftr was revived, with an ^mple allowance for 
tare and tret. The people Vere impressed, with the most 
lively sentiments of gratitude, for these favours; and the 
17S5. grand jury transmitted to England a most dutiful and loyal 
addyesa to the King, .yepl^te with the warmest acknowledge 
ments of his. paternal goodness. . ' - - 

The joy to which these concessions gave rise was soon 
• <lamped by the death of Lord Howe : an event which oc- 
casioned a general consternation, and a mourning as sin- 
cere as it was universal. His lordship had been attacked 
by a^feyer, supposed to have been produced by excessive 
fatigue in reviewing the different regiments of militia, From 
the moment he was taken ill he entertained a presentiment 
of the fatal termination of the disease ; and seemed per- 


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fectly resigned to his fate. When he was dying, he inquired chap, ix- 
if there were any gentlemen in the house, and, being an- ^''?^- 
swered in the affirmative, he diesired one of his attendants 
to go down and remember him to them most affectionately; 
and to tell them that he heartily wished them all well,# as 
he did the inhabitants in general; adding, " they might 
have a governor more capable of serving them, and he sin- 
cerely hoped they would, but that none could endeavour 
for it mote ssealously than he had done."* * ' His lordship died 
on the twenty-seventh day of March, leaving issue by his 
amiable consort four daughters, who were with their dis- 
consolate mother in Barbadoes, and three sonsi then in: 
England, whose gallant exploits will be remembered with 
admiration as long as bravery and patriotism continue to 
be esteemed virtuesr among mankind. His lordship s re- 
mains were interred in General Codringtbn's vaiih, whencft 
they were afterwards removed to England *f-. 

All our colonial historians concur in representing Lord 
Howe's administration as the happiest era. in the history of 
Barbadoes. Yet, in reviewing the transactions of this pe* . 
riod, we are unable to discover any particular acts of his 
lordship's government which could justly entitle biiii to the 
extraordinary celebrity which he attained. We must there- 
fore ascribe the popularity, which he moit deservedly ac*- 

* Caribbeanna, ^o1. 2! p« 6(2 and 1 1.0. f Ibid. voL 2« p. 54^ 

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266 Timnmom 

cjuP- IK. quired 9»d ^ esteei» 9Uadie4 U> bis memory, to Uift 
IW4. amiable dojto^fttip yirtu^ which jbe practiced ; to his jsl^^ 
lxMjiD4e4 gep^Qwty ; his exalted charity, wad the engs^ag 
f yayi^y pf jjiw^era, bjr which h^ conciliated the esteem of 
*11 who Hnew hiiPf Though the profound policy and noble 
institutioxw o£ statesmen^ the brilliant actions and hazard* 
ous achievements of conquerors, may dazzle us with their 
^splendour ; it is the milder virtues of humanity which cheer 
^ftd dfiliglit us with their pure and steady ray. Affability^ 
"^ourtesy and condescension, will gain the tou^> impFacti* 
C^e heart, which disdains the pride and pomp of imagine 
4^y greatness, and spurns the insolence of hini whose 
power ajid superiority are manifested only by arrogance^ 
Injustice ^nd oppression. It has been objected to this no- 
blem^n^^ administration, that, had he lived longer^ he would 
kave ruined Batbadoes by the introduction of luxury. But 
luxury can never be prejudicial to a community in which 
there exists an inequality of conditions. It is the only 
remedy for the partial distribution of prop^ty, by diffus- 
ing ^mong the indusliious poor and middling classes of peo- 
ple, th6 wperfluons wealth of th6 opulent. 

The council 9ad assembly demonstrated their gratitude for 
the blessings which they 1^ enjoyed under the mild, €x}uit^ 
^b}e and pru(feot adnunistratien of their beloved governor, 
by a liberal donative of twenty-five hundred pounds to his 
noble and accomplished relicU As a reciprocal mark of 

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6F fiAftMUdiss. m 

cuoud {iatt of the tawk bsdl. 

The fistoeh latwiented death? cf lord Howre jilalcfed Air. i>6^ 
tin a second time on th^ seat of goveff^mnent. No fixdd iu^ 
iaay x^m sdloinied the prefrident ott his socceediiig ta the^ 
ehsiir; bat to compensate for this onitission, the assembly 
voted him A present of seven hundred pounds; 2tnd» th^ 
Heytt yefeLTy settled on him the som of six hundred pouncfe a: 
yesfy to support the dignity of his^station* 

Mt. JDotin^s administration has been generally com'- 
raenckd for hs mildness^ and inoffensivetoess; but th6*e ii 
gtBkt reason to sospect tiiat jostice was not distributed with 
mi: even, steady band. Two French prisoners having beeti 
eonvieted of wilful murder. Were respited by the president 
and sitccessf^lly recommended to the clemency of thef 
erawn. This was but the prelude to a mofe disgraceful and 
flagtan^vfplationf of the laws of society* The melancholy 
event which bad deprived^ the country of tJie services of iti^ 
kte feitbfiil and infle:ii;ible chief magistrate, by opening a^ 
pn>S{WOt of impnnity to offenders of a certain description, 
WW considered as a signal for the return of Mac Mahoii.. 
His arrival at Barbadoes was more like the triumphal en- 
try of a 'Victorious^, general returning from extending the 
dominion' of his sovereign than the return of aii unconvicted 
fekm, awaiting the punishment due t^ hiid crimes, in^stead 
o£ being conveyed to prison by t*ie constables of Bridge 


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CHAP. IX. To\nj. he was conducted from the wharf by. .a party of his 

^^^^- frieuds, in the elegant chariot of Ge^ieml Peers to the house 

of the provost marshal. Here he remained u^der a nomi- 

nal confinement until he was bailed by four gentlemen of 

the first rank and fortune in the country. 

The whole of the subsequent proceedipgs was of a piece 
with this illegal and indecorous beginning. On the eleventh 
day of December he was brought to the bar of the couit 
of grand sessions and arraigned for the murder of Thomas 
Keeling. One of the most material witnesses being dead,- 
his written deposition taken in due form before a justice of 
tlie peace, Avas produced by the attorney-general, who sup- 
ported the prosecution with great firnmess and ability ; but 
the prisoner's counsel objecting to the reading of this evi*: 
dence, the court, contrary to every principle of justice, re^ 
jected it The prisoner rested his defence principally on 
the testimony of Perry, who had been indicted for the same 
offence and acquitted. His evidence tended to prove that 
the deceased had received the fatal wound while fighting 
with Mac Mahon ; and not while he was under the stair- 
case. Perry's testimony, at best, was entitled to little ere* 
dibility ; and though his assertion was contradicted by se- 
veral unexceptionable witnesses, particularly by four sur- 
geons who examined the wounds, which were all on the' 
left side, and could not therefore have been received while * 
Keeling Avas in a posture of defence, the jury, nevertheless, 
returned a verdict of manslaughter. Mac Mahon imme- 

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dia*ely olmmed- th« benefit- ofrdei^gy attd: p^titSooed'.the c^^^ij^' 

pi«ridelit for a pardoar; -whi^ wiw granted- without tbe *'**• 

sQiaHest heintation, -ex-teo^ing As wellito tbetremission of 

•the pMBMhmeBt of to the'foH^tnre of goods 

and chattds. Every art bad been plractised to influence 

the fomda of thus cbvit • «iid jurur ; and' to prepare the pubKc 

•fos this ousplaced: tact .c^-Mrlemeocy.' 'Tjie naual assize ser- 

BK>o and the chief /juatic^'/ diarge op opeoing.'the sessions 

were both calculated to. impress tbe audience >with an ' idea 

^f the:eKcdloace of' that ceJesttal attribute, mercy.* But 

j^fsrfiy^i» 9ucha47o<nociStiQdfoadei8<iis injttstloeito th^ com- 

. To Mi, Dotin's..adiainistiB>tioii^< baft; been 'ascribe tbe 
credit of correctii^ suid estabJishipg ihefeea. of /the.puUic 
.()ffip<^^i an act iirhiQh ircMdd .bfii^ coaseorated^ his m^ 
jafuxfyi B^^iti»<a.d49rae:of ineiitWi^i^bdjebjrubfqctUnitlfily, 
h6.v^ not.entitjed. TbelaiiB ivhid). wem paased during 
his pne^idenpy are in no i;e»4>eQt more xemarkableth^. for a 
.spinet pf iesti;aint,. whichk Fitb a. vicar of guarding afunst 
the dangers of monopoly, •'teiidi 'to ^repress 'the' fteed«)m of 
comtxierce. A permanent '.and arbitrary valuation' was set 
^on^X*^ry specie^ o^ butcher's meat; theosjEportatiQn of cattle 
and other live stock* togethoKniritb aU Jsiiids oi <Krain and 
provisions of native ptoduce was piohibitcRl; and, lest tb« 

* C|ribbcKin», t^ ii. p, 103, ,. . f Uoir. I]nk..rai^ slir p. 177. 


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J90 TMEfllBTDRy 

^^^^' soil^bottid be ressovej, am act W4» pu»edto pi«vei>t the 
. ^"f^' eipbrtetioD df day,* in tiie wbxm ipiAt another law m^s 
«Dactedv xmd&t thd «peck)Q$ pretext of preveiiting «ad 
(Msnishing fonetstalUng atd regrating^ A xnaxioMMtt Wds 
«ttabi£ihe«l fbr Varioud «irtiblel <Kf salted provitiotu), and 
igclH-Q of ^very denotiiiiatioii^^ beyond wIhgIi tio panMft mis 
alkmvd to ptvrcfaaie tkose vrtictet «v««Bik lliit original 
inifKnier) for. tbe inirpose of teveadition or exp<^tationk ^ 

The imiwlicy and injugtioe of the itaMtes agaiofil icm^ 
tts^leri a&d i&o&opolitbrs ai« «o paipab)e» that i^y B»t sof- 
Aned by a kind of odniin<m ico&Mnt totliMtfoeriti o^sc«irity. 
This is not enough, they should be repealed. The &tp&fUt» 
<i6n of aittclM o^ tbe first nteo^iuty, dutiog a ge&etalv^ar* 
•city in otir own itonMry, k a ^ctice whioh prudence and 
iMfiiia&ity mvMt «iAdenia. -And, although I aiu. fiot ii» 
•thfilittbift <)i'pl«6ikigidMob'«onfid€nce in'i^^ 

^ ^ tiMI Utt^,"^ iM '^'HigetAbmliLr. tfoAut Steele, << are^nwStlihgly kvdied 

^thc atlurement of t lucratife retiira in l)ie lal^ of their p,rodiice ? And unlest the 
pttnter coiml have htA the liberty of exporting his horses, or asses, his oxen and lift 

%bdr,%Mi liU t6th and other tmyfiiiOnk, to ^h^teVer market would hare ft^rdecLVm 

,lim i>«t pitae, IkWidU liiie lhi|>pfeMd;4aft{>»f tor i^piM*^ that He «o«ia 4M^iMa 
nmag a97 mre hoi^asies, cuttle, iapip, orimb^ pr^r^mlthfin wopVJiQrrtsrperire 
fcr his own plantation use; and, of some of them, he would, perhaps, raise none at all j 

J^Ht WOiddpooTtft ^^* ^F^ and la hour to thf i* M ltiTat tif n rr f trantt^ ^ ^f *^n^ i> thi* r w >t- 
cies, not under the frowns of those impolitic sUtutes.^ Thus a real scarcity of those 
•rtkktfUa»t€fcpwdilDe tf by ^ means whidiwere<e3^etlKd tooccatioftt>Ienty. 

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or BARBADOSS: $9i 

belter, pnfaape; to \oAgG bk discsttiimary power in the ^^^^^' 
hands of the commander in chief, to interpose hia authority '^^^ 
QCOMtOndUy^ th«ln'to tStmp tJb« geniiM of ooiamevGe by any 
p«nik(uie»t ^egAl. rmtraotions. By leaving the exporter to 
pwwt^tbQ bopt 6i ]m own incUnAtioos^ or the dictates ef 
l>j|9 Judgment,, ovr wporti? wiU undoijibtedly be iqcreiased^ 
and a scarcity more efiectuftUy guMded a^punst than by 
arlMtraiy prohibitions.* For though it may scMuetimes-hap^. 
pei^ that the neighbooring colonies may draia this country 
of many article^ ^quir^ for intevnal consumption, upon a 
general view,. we>m9cr M^ij qwkM^ timt the liberty of i«k 
florting. to anoth^ marJcet^ when; onr own ceases ta have tbe 
prefer«aice, will opi^ktkte as a strong incentiTe tathe entec^ 
prising tradec to import, mooe abiindtyit]ty j^tan he w«nld. 
Qtherwipe have d<«e. The advantage of this donble species 
of txaffic ia evident. The merchant will profit by ealftfgiDg. hia 
concerns ; the planter too will benefit by the augmentation of 
OQCimpoitS) some of/wbick in passii^g throvgb tbeinai&et 
idU) ia case of demznAj circukile f&c the conomner^s coa** 
Tenience; the number of our shipping wili be mcreased; 
the demand for produce ivill be affected in a relaJtiTC de« 
gree.; and^ finally' the genemli^^Ukro wilt be proiDOl^^ by 

* '' It is generally tnie^'' vaida great scatter of political knowledge^ " ibat ccon* 
nerce flourishes most when I^ ta itself. latei^st, the great guide of commerce^ is not 
« blhid one. It is rcry kblc to find its own way ; and its necessities are its best laws.^. 

P p 2 

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CHAP^. the circulation of that wealth which will be tbi|8 drawn from 
1735. foreign sources. t 

In a country circumscrifoed^ within stich narrow limits^' 
and crowded with such an immense population as Barba* 
does, the soil is incapable of furnishing the means of sub- 
sistence for the numerous softs and daughters of industry 
by whom it is inhabited. Uiider ttieste circumstances, coitn- 
merce enlarges the sphere of human kctivity; extends, as it 
were, the boundaries, of nature^ and overleaping thciirtular 
barriers Which separate us from the otKeT parts of the' 
globei furniishes employment and support to the indusrtrious 
and efnterprising. Instead, therefore, of repressing the 
beneficial spirit of commercial speculation^ a wise and. 
prudent legislator should encourage those ]aibd^ble>exer^ 
tions, which, in the purduit of private interest and perv 
sonal aggrandiaement, open new soul*^es of national pro- 
sperity. . 

Mr. Dolin had the good fortune to preside as pcnnqiander 
in: chief longer than any other president before or since his 
his time. For this advantage he was principally indebted 
1739. to accident. A Mr. Walter Chetwynd had been appointed 
to succeed Lord Howe; but his death, which happened.soon 
afterwards, left the executive, power in the hands of Mr. 
i)otin until the fifteenth day of December, when the Ho- 
nourable Robert Byng, elder brother to the unfortunate ad- 
miral of that name, arrived in Barbadp^s; and,, by vjrtu^ 
of bb Majedtj's commission, ass^ni^d |]m? gQTeriUQeat. 

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. Oh the arrival of Governor Byng, faction again reared ^^JJ^]^;^^' 
her head. General Peers, having been disappointed in his ^'^^ 
hope lof succeeding to the chief magistracy, could not 
help regarding his more successful competitor with an 
envious eye. The house of assembly, as has been already 
hinted, were entirely under the influence of their turbu* 
tebti jand arebitious speaker; who had accordingly no diffi- 
culty, in persuading the members of that body to limit the 
settlement of his excellency to only one half the sum allowed 
his predecessor. Mr. Byng could not conceal his chagrin i74<k 
it a salary so inadequate to .his expectations, and to the- 
dignity of his station. He remarked to the assembly, that 
the country was now- in a more prosperous situation than at 
the time of Lord Howe's itirrival ; that he was conscious of 
bringing with him as good intentions as any former governor 
had ever done ; and, if he was treated with less considera-^ 
tion than his immediate predecessor, he should tiiink it was 
an ignominious distinction, which he could not cheerfully 
endure. The assembly^ however, were inflexible; they 
could not be prevailed upon to depart from, their first 
detemiination, though they at la§t consented to vote his 
excellency a . present of twenty-five hundred pounds, to 
repair the loss of hid furniture and equipage, which had 
been captured by the Spaniards. 

Notwithstanding the just cause of dissatisfaction and 
eomplaint, which the parsimony of the assembly had given^ 
Mr. Byng, he applied himself with diligence and fidelity 

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^JJ^^J;^ to iJayeporfoniiaAce of bis dutjr aa» w«tchful| CMVsoitolibug 
^^^ guardiaa of the public weaK Nor did he isulEel his; pntatef 
resentiQEot to influence his puldio conduct, coscefit iu^zL 
single instance F^lating to Mr. Peers. This genUeaiaay i^' 
5|de& being speaker of the assembly, held a high militorjf ' 
rank in tbt country; he was lieateiiantr:^iieral'X>f th0^iK«i 
tia, oolonel of the royal regiment of *ibpt, mMiUa^geoera)) xdl 
the ordnance, president of the council qf war, and a justice 
of the peace ^. From Jus known influence over the assaoi- 
bly, Peers was justly considered the leader of the opposttioiii 
against the governor his excelkncj, therefore, . marked^ 
him out as the proper object of vengeance, and dismisMdb 
him flrom all his military employments. 
Julys. This harsh exercise of prerogative, gave great o&noe: to 
the friend^ q£ Mr. Pears. The assembly, warmly espoiwin^ 
their speaker's quarrel, entered into two resqlutioos at tfaeie 
aext meeting : First, that the displacing of any aUe, «x^ 
peiienced, military officer, without sufficient reuQQ» di« 
rectly tends ta render the militia uBserviceable, and to 

* The enimKration of the di^rent oflke* and employineDtt* enjofled by lie. Iteony 
'r 4yiyiito9iiritC9neclk>iitherfii|ti%«f Mio^kb^^ JobD Hd^^ 

i HutchioiOii, who, being tt one and the same time, a privy counsellor, re?enioaary 

secretary of state, migor of th$ 4th regiment of horse, provost of Trinity College, Dub« 
11n> and searcher^ packer, and guager^ of the Port of Strangford, his lorddiip said, " If 
]|ngian4 snl Iretand not fynsL U^thia nan, he wmhl snikiit tbt Jslr^ilfra fipr% 
iMrtaiiQ# ffaidou^ 

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iMvne tb6 reslifaation of other officers. Secondly, tbat the chamx. 
HonoumUe Hesiry Peen bad faithfally and dUigentlj dis* n*.^ 
charged his military offices, for which he deserved thanks^ 
as weU of ^ house as of 6very inhabitant of the island. 

The house also agreed to an address to his excellency^ 
in width they reproached him with interrupting the bar* 
mbny which was subsisting at the timeof liisamval; and 
v^omplaiiied that their liberality' towiuds lun, manilinted 
t>y a Voluntary settlemetlt fot his support, followed by a 
lak'ge gratuity, had laiied in bis mind to produce those 
M^tiinents of ^titude, irMoh wtmid have rendered his 
government agveeabHel After several insimiations respeot*- 
ing his exceBcncy's unfriwidly disposition towards the peo* 
pie, contrasting bis conduct wii& that of theif hte good ^mi 
condid gwemOTf they concluded with these wosds,. *^ Wheit 
the officers of the militia are persons whta deserve tSvs love - 
and esteem of their country, the defects ia the establish^ 
ixtent of that useful body of men, aire ^dom attended with. 
«ny great inconveniences.. But the -late «e your excel- 
lency has made of your au^iority, shews how highly, im-- 
prudent it would be in us to trust a greater power in yout 
bands. You have thought fit to displace ^ ablest and 
most experienced officer of which we can boast r to dismisn 
lum at so critical a juncture, is a circumstance lliat little 
manifests your concern for our welfare. The 
which you have reduced, the royal regiment by this step, 
cannot be retrieved under, a considerable term; not will 

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CH^^iXj. proper officers e^ily be obtained, if. m implicit coocuf r 
1740. rencey in all your jneasures, should become the only ,tQQV(K^ » 
of their commissions/' 

This address was presealed by Mr. Waterman and Mr. 
Gibbes : and though his excellency had every reason to 
suspect that the contents were not of the most pleasing 
kind, he received it with gre^i; complacency, put it into his 
pocket unopraed, and, without making any reply, treate4 
the two gentlemen with the utmost politeness and cojidc^- 
scension. And Mr, Gibbes, who was one of the governor's 
warmest pc^itical opponents, was the very nqxt day ap- 
* pointed cliief judge of. a court of common pleas^ This was 
a noble instance of generosity and moderation. Were it 
admitted that his excellency's treatment of Mr. Pcjers was 
arbitrary and unjv^ti^able, it should be reinembef^d^ tha^t 
PQ rank nor station has ever been found to exempt mep f^Vf^ 

the passions and infinpiities common to human nature. We 


may lament, that the political opinions of persons in high 
xesponsible situations, or the imperious calls of public, dutj^ 
should render them obnoxious to the displeasure of the suf- 
preme authority, yet it should never be forgotten, that 
governors and the rulers of nations are not less susceptibfe 
of anger and resentment than those whom they govern. 
How unreasonable is it then to expect that forbearance in 
jthem, which we find ourselves unable to practise in the 
most ordinary concerns of life ? 

Mr. Peers survived his fall from power but a short time. 

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Ife**aii^'6tt tfcfe ib?urt^ day of September, not quite ?tro 
mdtoitii^ after his dismissal. This geatleiAati's character has 
dehi transmitted to posterity in very opposite colours, by 
dWferent writers.^ By one it is said, that his ambition had* 
p^rtged him early into factious designs, in the pursuit bf* 
trtftclr^he* acquired a peculiar dexterity in the ihahagement 
of a party. His passions livere violent and ungovemaible, "^ 
ift;;1ft^d8Wp warm, m vesentment. implacable ; he was the 
^^emy of every man who opposed his measures*. On the 
q^tbuadj he. is represented as a man cf integrity, lenient 
iahisi disposition, perfectly disinterested in his views, inde« 
&t^gable in his endeavours to serve hi&iiiends, and.diih^ 
dn/itmg io^xert his power to the. injury of those &om whom 
hj^i^iifibfisid in pditicdf. We pr»iHne not ta recottcile^ 
o^lM0n» so contradictory* 

.i;:.9]he,d(eath of a man, whose turbulent disposition, and 
2^||pl^i|^UM^, ^/ntriguing spirit, had frequently disturbed ttie 
riq^^:^ ofjthi^ country, contributed ^n no small degree to the 
r^tocg^ioiipjf peace and harmony. And the Barbadians 
were just l^ginniug to enjoy the benefits of Mr. Byng's pru- 
dence and aeal for the public service, when he was unfor* 
Innately seized by a malignant fever, whiqji, in a few days, 
p\jt a ]^riod t^ hia existence. Mr. Byng's short administra- October «. 
tion was characterised by his firmness as a man, and his 

^ Short H«t ofBaA.p. Bp. t Mem. of Bar!). Appcn. p, 4. 

Q q 

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^^^^^;^' integrity and activity as a magistrate ; by an unwearied 
*'^ application to the duties of his office^ a strict attention to 
the organisation of the militia, and the repair of the for*- 
tifications. And, to their honour be it added, the assem*- 
bly, notwithstanding their disputes with the governor, cheer- 
fully and liberally contributed to his patriotic designs, 
widely considering that no party contention ought to divert 
them from providing the means of defending thdr country 
against the common enemy. 

On the demise of Mr. Byng, the executive authority 
once more devolved on the Honourable James Dotin. 
Two days after this event, the assembly met; and, ooft» 
sidering the mischiefs and inconveniences which bad le^ 
iiulted from their liberality to their governor^ unanimously 
resolved, on the motion of Judge Bruce, to make no setUe- 
ment whatever upon any succeeding conmiander in chfef^. 
This was certainly a most extraordinary det€3ininati<^ evi^ 
Aenthf ealcvdated to produce efiects the most opposite ta 
those which were expected from it Nothing could be 
more preposterous than to suppose that any gentleman would 
forego the pleasures and enjoyments of his native country, 
and em^ouBter the inconveniences and perils of a voyage 
, across the Athmtic^ to become the governor of a West 
Indian province, in a elunate unfavourable to European 
constitutions, without a prospect erf deriving some more- 
solid advantages frt)m the appointment than the honour of 
.the stationy or the trifling salary aSbwed by the ciown* 

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Eflfectually to obviate all possibility of future altercs^tion ^J^^^* 
between themselves and their governor, on this point, the ^^^• 
assembly would have acted with much more prudence and 
foresight, had they at once established a permanent revenue, 
sufficient, without any ulterior augmentation, to support 
the^ dignity of the chief magistracy « Had this been dane^ 
every candidate for the government would know before he 
1^ England, the full extent ef his reward. No disappoints 
ment could blast his hopes, n6r sour his temper; and a fruits 
iltl source of strife and discontent, equally disgraceful and 
injurious, would have be«i removed* Instead of resolving 
to allow no salary to the re[Mresentative of the crown, a just 
regard to the honour and inter^t of their constituents should 
haveindoced the assembly to proportion, the settlement to 
die full extent of the public ability. A liberal provisioa 
wtmid reflect lustre on the character of the government, and 
render it worthy the acceptance of gentlemen^ whose valua- 
ble qualities and respdctable connexions might enable them 
to be useful; while, on the other hand, a mean, scant/ 
allowattce can be acceptable o&ly to needj adventurers 
without talents or ponciple* 

It IB a favQwite istti^ w^ith some colonial politicians, 
^ttbe governor's lewiird slwnild be proportioned to his 
merits But thb, however ^pwciousy is ^nproper and im- 
pra(Aical]de. The settlemeal «» tbe governor must, in con- 
ft>noity Jto th« royal inttnicstions, be nade at ih/^ first iheet* 
ing «£ the aweMUy aiker bis avrivaJv.wbeaa disappoiotiue^ 

Q q 2 

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^^^^^' ^^^ occasions disagreeable dissensions. Nor can it be 
^' ^9' said that any subsequent encrease of' salary has ever been 
productive of benefit to thfc country. On the contrary, it 
has sometimes happened, that the measures of the court 
have assumed a very different aspect as soon as his excel- 
lency found that he had nothing farther to expect from the 
generosity of the people. Besides, this doctrine betrays too 
much of that democratic spirit, which has been long labour- 
ing to transfer to the popular branch of the government the 
sole legislative and executive authority of thje;itate. It be- 
trays a wish to acquire and exercise an undue influence over 
the executive power : a wish in which no true patriot should 
ever concur. The perfection of our constitution consists in 
the exact equilibrium of the three branches of the legislature 
and the harmonious union of all its parts. Whenever this 
balance is destroyed, whether it be by the preponderance 
of the monarchic, aristocratic, or democratic part of the 
constitution, there is equally an end of civil or political 
,741, The next year the assembly confirmed their resolutipa 

concerning the governor's salary ; and, on the motion of 
Mr. Tobias Frere, unanimously entered into sevwai other 
resolutions, for supporting the privileges of the people, with- 
out infringing, as they professed, the prerogative of the 
crown ; and for regulating the proceedings of the assembly^ 
according to the usage of the house of commons. They 
insisted that the representatives of the people possessed the 

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sole, inherent right of imposing taxes, and appropriating chap. ix. 
the public money to the uses for which it was raised ; and I'^^i' 
resolved to exclude the council from all but a negative par- 
ticipation in the business of raising supplies. Had they 
stopped here, all would have been welK But in their ex- 
cessive zeal for the maintenance of their own privileges, 
they resolved, in direct opposition to the royal instructions, 
to provide for the payment of no account which had not 
been previously examined, and approved by the house. 
Thus they industriously sowed the seeds of discord, between 
themselves and the other branches of the legislature ; and 
revived a cause of litigation, which had been abready 
peremptorily decided against them* 

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administeatiok of sir thomas robinson — disputes be- 
tween the qoyernor and the assembly commodore 

knowles — an inquiry into the state of charles fort 

sir thomas is superseded by mr. orenvillb — the 

government devolves on mr. weekes — ^succeeded by 
jjoctob pinfold— loyal and spirited conduct op the 
barbadians — mr* adams expelled tux assbmblt-^tju 
governor's resignation. 

1 HE progress of the work now brings us to the adminis* 
tration of Sir Thomas Robinson, a period which is repre- 
sented to have been of some importance in our colonial his- 
tory. Yet, from the scantiness of the few annals which I 
have been able to collect, I am apprehensive that my rela- 
tion of it must be extremely defective. Every deficiency 
of this sort might have been supplied, could I have obtained 
access to the journals of the assembly; but thb advantage, 
as I have elsewhere observed, was refused, with more 
than Spanish jealousy. 

Sir Thomas Rc^inson arrived on the eighth day of Au- 
gust, and, after going through the usual forms and cere« 

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moniei of attending diyine service, and taking the itate ^J^J^ 
oaths, received the reins of govenraient from the presidenL ^^^ 
The assembly at first seemed firm in their resolutioir oi 
giving the governor no salary ; their constancy, however, 
soon yielded to the imptilse of justice tand generosity ; and 
after some opposition, the honse agreed to settle on his 
excellency, the sum oi mx and twenty hundred pounds a Septssw 
year, during his possession of the government A §tvt 
months afterwards,, an addition of four hundred poundi^ 
per annum was made to the salary, by a majority of two 
voices only. 

Though one cause of contention was thus removed, at 
some expense of consistency, others were perpetually 
springing up. It is probable, that Sir Thomas Robinson, 
in many instances, acted withotut a due regard to the con^^ 
stitutional privileges of the people, and feited in treating 
the popular branch of the legislature with that respectful 
attention to which it was entitled. Either for his personal 
convenience, or to gratify his taste in architecture, be pre- 
eipitately pulled down one of the best and largest apart* 
ments at Pilgrim, and made several expensive alterations^ 
and repairs without consulting the assembly. They very 
property objected to this mode of pitxeeding, and refused 
to provide for the payment of a debt which had been so iu* 
i^ulariy incurred, without their consent ; but, on his exf» 
eellenc/s making a suitable apology, theaiSur was com^ 

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CHAP. 3(. Jhe ill humour of the assembly had scarcely . subsided, 
'^^^^ before his excellepcy very incautiously furnished them with 
a fresh subject of discontent. There happened to be^ at 
that time, no convenient armory in the island. The utility 
of such a building . was unquestionable ; the governor^ 
therefore, determined, of his own authority, to erect on^e^ 
with a small magazine adjoining, in which a sufficient num- 
ber of small armjB, and a due proportion of ammunition^ 
niight be carefully deposited fqr the use of the militia, in 
case of their being called into actual service. When the 
work -was completed, his excellency laid the accounts, ac- 
companied by the proper vouchers, before the assembly, 
reijuiring raise the necessary supplies to enable him 
to liquidate the dfebV which he had contracted. The as- 
setobty acknowledgeci the utility of the undertaking; but 
^ertemptoriiy refused to comply with his excellency's d^- 
nand; illeging, that h^ had acted unconstitutionally, and 
Hi oped Violation of thci rights of the people. As the dele- 
gated guardians of the public purse, they insisted that they 
ought to Iifiv6 l)een cbnsulted on an undertaking, the ex- 
peoseof which \t*a9 to be paid by their constituents; that, 
^rhis-^nciUeoey had presumed to erect the armory with- 
OQli 4eigniii|( t* advise with the representatives of the 
pMpiSiftbeyiQQuld act Vote for hie reimburtement without 
ooniiliitiijD^ fi^bnE^aeh of the sacred trtist reposed* in thcnii, 
aod^pstahliivhing a precedwit not lew dangerous to tbein^ 

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teresis and privifeges of the people than injurious to tke ho« 
noar and independeQce of their oirn body*. 

This reasomng was invincible. Bot as legislatire assem* 
blies are not bound, like courts of justice, to strict observ- 
ance of former decisions^ there would have beeh less im- . 
HioralitT in establishing a precedent, which, at tiie worst, 
could only have been quoted on anj similar occasion, than 
in violating the laws cjf justice, which being immutable 
and eternal, ought never to be transgressed on any plea of 
policy or expediency. 

A clandestine attempt was made by the commiteionen of 17^5 
the fortifications to secure a part of the m<mey for his ex« ^« 
cellency; diey certii^d, that the lamb^and materials used 
about the armoury had been applied to the use of the for* 
tifications ; and an order was regularly passed at tht 
eonncil-board for the amount. Th^ treasurer, fhnn a 
previous knowledge of the circumstances, doubted the 1e^ 
gality of bo^ 1^ certificate and tlte crder ; and consulted 
the attomey'-general ; who thought, that though diecommis*^ 
sioners had e!!tceded the bounds of their authonty, as tbe 
order bad passed the oouncil-board in the Usual mannetv 
the treasurer was bound to pay it But the assembly liot 
concurring in this opimon, withheld the supplies, and Sk 
Hiomas was left to sustain the umtiminished expense of die 

• 8hOTtHnt.orB»ik]t.7«v Beanikson the "Sbart. HM. p.2S. Rrst SeU. .f 
p. «. 

H r 

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bnildmg) amounting heaVly to two-and-forty hundred 
pounds. In the course of the disputes, to which thistrans^ 
action gave rise. Colonel Gibbons (afterwards Sir William) 
who had been recently elevated to the speaker^s chair, and 
had been appointed to the command. of Speight's division by 
Sir Thomas himself, thought proper to resign his commis- 
sion, either to render himself independent of the governor's 
favour, or to anticipate his dismissal. 
. Notwithstanding these domestic feuds, and the animo- 
sity which prevailed against the governor, it is a circum- 
stance much to the honour of the assembly, that the public 
safety was neither neglected nor sacrificed to an idle oppo- 
sition to the meiisures of government. Two sloops were 
fitted out to guard the coasts against the depredations of 
privateers ; and the sum of seven hundi^ed pounds sterling 
was voted for the purchase of paterraroes for the use of thc^ 
forts ; a good intention,^ niiseraibly perverted: At the same 
time, a suspicion being enteirtained that there, were some 
persons in the country base enough to hold a traitepouft cor- 
respondence with the IVench at Martinico, an act was pas- 
sed, empowering the governor to cause any person who(n he 
should have reason to suspect of disaffection, or of cortes- 
ponding with the enemy, to be apprehended, by warrant 
irom any justice of the peace, and committed to the com- 
inon gaol, till he should be released by an order of council 
Ubis was, in fact, an absolute suspension of the habeas cor- 
pus act A formidable power was thus lodged in his ejicel* 


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lency's hands> which an arbitrary and vindictive ruler mig^ht char x. 
have employed in oppressing his Majesty's subjects ; espe- ^'^♦^ 
cially such, as by thwarting his measures, mi^ht have pro- 
voked his resentment. But Sir Thomas exercised this 
alarming authority with becoming moderation. Three men 
of low rank only were arrested ; and they were discharged 
in a .few days, on giving security, not to engage in any 
treasonable correspondence during the continuance of the 
act, which was limited to three months. 

A circumstance happened at this time, wluch, though it 
may be deemed beneath the dignity of history^ t9 repord, 
ought not to be omitted in a i^iarrative of don^iestic qccup* 
reoces. Mn Bedford^ a. merchant of Bri^ge7towi:|, haying 
a »loop arrived froiu Essequebo^ H^f^^ y^\\\^ timber, j9|0|ld ^ 
the careo to Commodore Knowles* who hired thej vessel 
to carry it to Antigua, after $Jie ba4, l^ei^ du}y; entered at 
the proper offices. Bedfprfl^ w^s s^psibjle ^at the ?lopp 
mrefat to be entered outwards, before ^he could be allowed 
to proceed on her voyage, and accordingly Mentioned the 
matter to the commodore, who most vin^pcpuntalj^ly forbad 
it 1 ffivinflj him a certificate of her having been hired into the 
King's. service, adding, that he would hoist a pendantj and 
protect the sloop and the owner from all , damages. At 
length, Capjptin Pare, the chief gunner at N?ed[iam's,Jbe- 
iqg informed that the sloop was to sail without^ clearing at 
the offices,, as the law directs, consulted Colonel Charnpck, 
who advised him not to let her go without the usual order 

R r 2 

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ca«P^ f torn the, gpyfempf. In thej jocan time the ^loopt^ acccnn- 
^^^^^ jpeoied bj Conmpdoie KnowWfr flag-ship^ was got under 
. !we»g)> ; ajod Capt^ifv^ Pare» fiodiiag ^e \va$ out qS shot of 
Needbam'9^ hastened tf> Jaine» Fort^ ami <)irdeKed tMro gBnn 
U> be ^ttccessWdl V &f ed at ber • Tbe Woolwich, wbkb wa» 
tl^enin s| vevy different direction from the sloop^ imme* 
d^aAelj fired afthot over the fort,^ which penetrated a .stons* 
kpuse ia the towa. Pare^ not to be intimidated firara his 
duty, fired a third shot ^t the;aloop^.biit fio4>^ ^ had 
got iaejqn4 the lai:^ of lais cavMrn, tbe firvRg wa3 4(Moii- 
turned. CoBuaodoie Kaowka was rioleutly exasperated, 
aod wrote » passiMiate b^ter, dtnected to tbe go<vemov tn 
«0ifscij^ complaining of the uQparalleled insult, as l>t 
tfiirBQ^^il^oohia Makat)['3 fia^iaaiMrting, contrary to ik^^t^ 
ifettt |wa of the sh^l wejc^ yerj near, atriking thc^WooiwicK 
Mod decJftriB^ thftt )ia4 the ship been stmckn he wo«ld c^iv, 
taialy bavQ beaten down .the fort: 904 coiacluded with io-. 
sitting, that the p^rson^ by irhjpaer ordeifs the^ guns wfi;e: 
fired/ 8Muld be exempkri^^ 

Tbe matter^ by^otder of the goferiMW. aa^ couocfl^ was 
leferpedtathecoasid^atkA attofa^y-g^ieral, Blea* 

nMi ; who^ aftes ap elaborate review of the .if jtM)le, affjur, . 
leported!, that notwithstaqdii^ the cai^o had beea pur- 
chasedi)Y CoBunodare iLnawles, the vetuiel oufibt to baye 
cleaxed a» the law directs, and that the c^ptaj^-^an^i; had 
ckme eatre^ly light ia endeavouring, to stop herv But 
he thought that Fast ought tor have infbrmet^ the commo- 

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dore of 'thd liecessity of the vessel's clearing but ^ befWe he 6 IPM^x > 
ewiM afi^w lierto passl the fort ; and that theh^ tboogfa he ^^^^t 
might have fired a single shot, to signify that the vessel had 
not complied with the law, it tvould have been priiiient ta 
have gone no farther. Bat as to panisliing the officers^ of 
the fort, Mr. Btoiman averred there was no foundation for 
arach a jwroceedifng b^ any legal course, whatever might be 
the • ineasuife of naval discipline. In remarking on tUe 
thMat of beating ddwn the fort, the spirited Crown ,iaw* 
y^r eongratnlated the commodore on the shot fiopi the 
Woolwieh having produced no worse consequences, " siiyccj, 
if it had, he might possibly h4ve fouh^,' bii iiis return to 
Iferbadoes, that #e are neither Vitiiout to for our 

protection, nor a suitable spirit to j^ut iMm in execution. 

Upon the noting of the general aiseiSib^y, mi. Fair* May \o. 
child, after some prefatory i^arks ofe the cieftticctew state 
ef Charles-fort, and the alltision^ to some disoVders whicK 
had recently happened in that gamson, moved, tnht a^ 
committee be appointed to inquire into' the condition ,pr 
CharleJr-fbrt at the time of the three preceding ^larn;is, the 
cattees of the denciency of stores,, and of the disorders re- 

parted to have happened there ; and that the committee be 
OTnpowered to send for^ papers and records, and to examine 
wltneiss^s. TWie motion being agreed to/ a committee was 
appointed to prosecute the proposed mqmry. 

The proceeding gave greiat 6ffenc^'t6 his exce^^^ 
whoria it was cotisideted as^ to rafririgemeiit on the rigtte of 

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c!iTA'p>K. the executive power; He called the committee before him> 
1745. 3||(j endeavoured to intimidate them from pursuing their de- 
sigh. But finding his menaces ineffectual, he consulted 
the attorney-general, and demanded a categorical answer to 
the following queries-^^l. Whether, by the laws and consti- 
tution of Barbadoes, the assensjbly have a power (>f inquir- 
ing into any deficiency of stores, or into any disorders that 
may happen in either of the forts, without any previous 
addtess or application td the governor ? 2. Whether the as- 
sembly have aright to send for persons, papers, and* re- 
cords, and toexaAine witnesses upon oath, or to direct la 
justice of the peace to take depositions for their satisfac- 
tion ? Whether the assetubTy have power to compel witnes-^ 
sds to app(eaf b^sfore them,' and to oblige persons to produce 
papei^ and records ; and what n^thods of a>mpuIsion miO^ 
they Tise fohr thfese purposes? .i ji <:r.j , 

Mr. Blennian's^ report, in answer to these interrogator's, 
was in snbsta!nc6 as follows : it is the indispu table prero^-^ 
tive of the commander in chief to inquire into all griev- 
ances of a public nature, and to redress tliem by the^ rbmoi^l 
of thosd officers whose negligence or incapacity ^^e 
causes of the abuses complained of. But, aj^ various cir-, 
cumstances may concur ta prevent his excellency's qooiipg 
to the knowledge of many existing evils, it is, equally the 
privilege of the assembly to inquire into, and represent 
them to the governor, that they may be corrected, and the 
offenders punished by bis authority. Nor did the honour- 

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able gentleman conceive that the present inquiry had any chap. x. 
tendency to encroach on the prerogative of the Crown. He ^^^• 
thought that a previous address to the governor, on the sub- 
jept> would have been a more regular and useful mode of 
proceeding; but, as . the assembly had preferred another, 
which appeared to them more ejSectual, he knew of no 
law Iff hich could restrain them in the exercise of their inhe- 
rent privilege ; nor could they , be . controlled otherwise than 
by his ©xcellencyV .undqubted power of dissolving the 
hou6e. 3^ 'he earnestly recommended to his excellency 
to take BO atep to .retard, the progress of an inquiry, of so 
much importajuseto.the community, and which was uni- 
versally expected ait th*^ perilous: juncture.. Having already 
said, that the. assembly had an unquestionable, r^t to ex- 
amine into all public grievanceisi, the learned counsellor 
thought they must have power, to sepd for persons and 
papers^ and to caattine/Wfitneases;; but pot. uppn oath*. 
4odi i^thottgii*he- would not presume to determine precisely 
.ttje power of tiie assembly, or 'their committee, iii cases of 
this nature ; yet, if they thought it essential to the public 
interest or safety; to ascertain the truth of auy particular 
fact, relating to any affair depending in their house, by de- 
position taken by a justice of the peace> he apprehended it 

* Mr. Christian, ia bis nolesupon Blacks. Comm. vol. 1. p. 181, sayt, '^ the com- 
mittee (appointed to determine controrerted elections) may send for witnesses and ex- 
amine tbem npoa o<itb^ « power which the booK of cgmmona d«es not possess.'^ , 

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^W^JJJ- would be higiay iDJutioui to dispute tbdf right to pureoe 

"**• that jnethod. As tbc third query cooceroed the conductor 

the aAsembl/ and their committoe in their proceeding*, Mr. 

Bleomaa declined giving an cx|riicit answer, as their privi- 

k-ges were no where cspr^j defined. 

Meanwhile the comsaittee, hajviag finighed their inqvi- 
Ties, made tbcar report to the home ; upon whicb ttmf pw- 
«en*ed an addrefs to his exceHeocj, insistiag 4ip<wi -the rfe- 
UJoyalof the chief gunner <»fCharie».fort. Il^^ttorne/* 
general wm again con«ihed; and, in a wpaft -written wiHi 
roanljr sense, caedour, prudence, and jsodenrtioti, lie adi 
vis^ a conjpJiapw with the wishes4^ AeaswemWy, as tht 
onlymea^i pC restoring haoaoay to the public co«ii<«4. 

But % se^s of diii^ponil were too deeply «d#«, arid ^ hji 
"dustriously cultivated, not to produce the most deleterious 

frwts. The governor, encouiaged by (iie i«^li6ere^ luteH. 
fcre^m^of Uiecom»ci3. di^qja^fed Ae^gober ^m^^it^^ 
<>f his wgp ro«^. Ti«ro TO, .peri«HWy a^twng^ 
enceyetbehitfd 4he curt^ SirThomas M *«tttittf -Mm. 
SaJmon, a ^ow My, who«^ghter,l,y hter ;f«w«. hhsL 
band, was married ^ Captain, fianj, chief gtome* , of 
Charlesrfwrt.. , ., ^.^ ■ . ,.^ -r: ^ ! .-. ;>. . 

The diaaeaaipw b^Jtwep^ his^celfaacy^^ tfe aiswnbly 
were enci«a«^.by:nwt»al-i^,p«il««, u^ wsentment 

of the house could_no longerJieiBatrained-within thcbonnds 
of moderation. The7p,e«i»t«i: a petition, to the throne, 
containing neveral allegatiow againrt ^iie t«nremor, for an 

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abuse of tbe prerogative, and a- vielati6Q of the ^nrivneges ^JJi^!^' 
of the commons of Barbadoes. His excellency was refJrc? "*^* 
sented .t* [ha^vi^g^iii' tM|Hiher4««s. instan^^j 'shewn ^tm-^ 
8^ dtOfti^^te. of; ^f«^.i tajient for government; as llav-* . 
ing abuaed and disgcac^. the, sacred tcust repp^d inr 
hin^ i 4^) iibp4€^ ,]i)iq^lf 4:o|0temptiUe i^ tl^e eyes of 
aai.iuffM^9^yVsal»jiBf9|»K ,^:cg^^ <^ tiwi»^ com-/ 

plaii^tSy .Sfr> Tlhwnw Eobiofpn,: on -^ iobangs of . mi(iis> 1747. 
ti'J>yY(«t9 l^oftlled .ivoofc. bis government, and the Ho- 
nowr,9J»I^.}Ie9syr<«it)iwill«^ ]3fi»th^ii-lav to Lord Temple, 
apppiji^^tosi^qeedJiira*. ^ir ThoiQafi, iievertheles% cdu^ ■ 
timved to e^qepcps^ .tl)e:su|)raBe.cuthi6rityi until ibhe arrival 
of W^.»upcesq«r,.4p whom l^:niigaed the administration* 
and j^maii^ fftafu^ tim^ piktke ishuid as a. private . gsn- April u. 
tleiQffiB.- ■>, _-.; ,-,»■.,:• . .. 'I.' ■ •'. ' ' ^ ] ■•'' 

^e ^t8^eif^|^m)\r .se^ed vnsiiMe of- tho.iii^prgjniely of . 
^^^, i^*9<5r det^i;qiiiBat4Qii tcsipnotiDg the ,gf>yernor's;8alary^ 

impolitip ^1^ wiinff. .PnUieir first |e^$ion/ after. Mr.,<jf eijir 
ville'saiyf^»jt\^jettkd oahijo^jtbe siwn of three. thou- 
sand pouiidf a year^ wjth a resolution pot to increa:^ that al- 
lowance pn any pretence whjit8f)wer*. The miI4) ^nd pa- 
cifip adji»inis^r»tijpii of Mr, Gftoville a^ords . few bccurreh^ 
>ce8 worthy <tf «^Vetaion, except; th© dispute in whidH he 

t ' n ' i ' fti ' ». " ' 

• One 9f .fh«.«rM Mtt o£.Mr.fiv«|Tflle'* «4atitti«tratioB, wa» to reXsr^Sir WilUa^ 


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c^^J^- waft invc^ed with M. 4e Oaylufr, coHcenifkg thie isknd of 

Diat nkuid had always been cdfisiddfe^ as a dep^ndeocy 
on tile govemfiMent i>f Bat4>adoes ;- bXit'by ik^ peace of 'A4x'> 
hmCluq>elte it Vtisstiptitetedto be^^lMitra), and 'to be in 
eonftnon %d fivfeh. i3lf the Mfbj^ts <#• d^glaad and fVance as 
nvigbt ^ki^^ally resort thiOter ferr ttetkisbiaeBt WitfaSn 
t#6'Ac¥t fiM)M^ iiftar'8ig«Tti^^ IMi^We'lxettfy, die 
Tiiencli toatt prWtitdy otrdfeivd'fe s^U^tdetoent to be ttadeon 
49i6'isltta^yiiiider the -protedabn of d^C^yiu^^ 
Mltrtinieo. ^ntedean^ #as'iM sotMier-k^Mrvnirili Biabadde», 
^tftOn Mr. ^raimUe dispatx^icjd a ftigate to Ibbagd/ with a 
fyfodamatidfa, Tequirio^ the Freoiefa setttere to ev^cuiafe the 
ktaad wiOun thArty -dajs^ under jpeiil df ttiilitary execn- 
tioiL De Caylus immediately p«blisbed aa ordinance^ 
ia Whi(ft, after >tfealih)g Ilfn Gfenvillle's ^oetetna^oa as a 
^rgesrf,lM€kakBeAihBMmimgntye('^t^Bxt&-^ bk most 
Christikli iRfoyeirty; promifauig prtft^tioli andsofjptdrt to 
sitiAi yhnA sufc^tft as shotild'ietiile there; and ^tohitiit* 
ing all iiitercotiTse with ther adjacent l^ogli^, !Dtitch and 
D&hish colohites; "lb 'shew that lite Was iil earaest, the 
VremJh'GttlCTa! -^tioiled iWo stotit ftfg^t^ 'at* ^d(ij*r&hd- 
t>ay, smB. elected 'twd sttbiig tj&tttery 6tt ijid^k* 'ta 'ihe in- 
t^ritn, the Bosttoii %g^tfe W^ihg '^aQt*fe^*d*' j(t' "Ibb^gb %r 
ifood and irater, Capt. Wheeler was "net ~altowed"foland, 
**rt -was *oW, that if -hfe shotrld be "seen "there again he 
would be expelled by force. ' " 

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A detail of theoe' particul«n( ' w&s tsansmitted by Mr. chap.x,. 
'(^Ttmrii^to £nghiii4> wherc thej excited a\c^|E^iderabie ^7^"^' 
degr^ of rpqpiAut iiHligtiBtmn:wt^fee.yegfiFly of tboJ?oeticfa» 
&ttd tb« siipai«n«8« o£ the <£d^u^ iotiiiftikrjr* LorcK Atho^ 
marie, ttle 'Bnti»k loxibaBSBflbr '^ Pnceui ma, Mi ietagUi* i{Mt 
8trttctie(¥ to>veftQOflBtrete<agai|isib' sti^' api^dble bnaobMiC 
ftienrds^p'and goodf^cH^ '- %e Sventtii tninii&feiv in n|kLjr* 
accused >Mr.>^reiivlUe <# ^nedpitaicy a 
he, however, wiccpilrocAHy 'dUsKfowed' Bie pmeeesKagid ^:£Hs 
Caylus;' and promised' t^ dffet^(y«y'f>« t^fiken to^ffiavaot 
similar conipMints ' in ■ftttnife.J"0r(*ffl« %«rc -accoHibD^jp 
issued by the court of* V^r^iihes ffinr the immc^als Macoa^ 
tion of Ibbago and the otJief nentmi is£uids: TheMFoerder^ 
were sent to Mr.*Greiiraie^l(w b^'-foh^Fafdiea lOKDerCbyhta^ 
•who refused to obejr'thtJni sajftrigihat-hc'^ad recaired'JiO' 
instructions fl*o«n' |he ftlng; hw master, vdorihesabjedt; : F^tf 
the sak^ df*pr6brJistiriatkJiiV beieatefcd hitoadfacOT!ii^»wi1^ 
Mi". GrdaVipe on the' ^rights of dier t«ro crtwasJ^'^ wM^ iiw?fl> 
interhipted b^r liis 3eallb, artd the pwut: ivrp$:,t(illim?rt^y;4ef 
cided'tiy an appeal to, ti»e s,ward,*i , :, ., : ,i.n j)inlu:-.,{ 

Meanwhile the gpveKiimfjotof 5arba4oes;F^I9<?iMl^ct!^ 
by Mr. Orehville with beoji^ning ddgf^ity m^^mi^ ) T^Jif 
•world, which siddom ioo^,1%opd.the $tjrj&<?^ pf ^^gs,;i$ 
ever caught ;by appe^^oes^ and ^^vcrtjdd; jl^^;ji^^f:jfi^ 

^0liin Hits tolrtB. p. If tf. SMi^M IiytNi9ti^.IU«M^^ ^ftd 

S S 2 


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Si6 THE HMtDRt - 

CHAP. k. -T^-^ ffef^ahgf e<»tesu ."beUveen tfaapeople; Jtod<i %eci^ 

sunk'iHtd-^ stdt«^dt1ar renioTedfromicoBtlsiQpt; [bji»li^. 
OretH'illfr's&on restored *li0 dignit3r.of gonrdnnnent %. ifie 
sp1ehd6ui'^n<l tnAgniiceiice.' iriAi< which b^ .sqppctrlod his 
rank '/ tuxd yM im^re -by bis dign^i^d c^portmeat txd ■jptk'- 
triotk cdhdolE^it.t ->H«9 candour, iotegHty, and imp^M^^y 
remdved^ tiH ' €ati94^. of |Mli%y <]Kd(pute8f atul bUsDocd tlM.cla- 
inottrs'l>f^/&eifS0ii% - Hi* 8t«m (iolitical tractitadeti^dftHWdl 
the Ivam&er^' bjr vblK:Ai ignoble qaiaidf^c^tBrt.aki^attieAQeqt 
popularity, and sought only .iia. estabiisb ibis .l*ttnae<.QO)tbe 
4uratole. basis of a ODtpQienboqa discbarge of Ms 4uty. 
Witk nd'iOtfaer .oigftot; in .view than the public good, he 
aii4ed't<t)iiwc<}ua)v iH> undue ioduemre over ihe.IegislatiTe 
' f0ltiwiil9^4vf:griktifjing the seI68b or ambitious desires of 
fiienitt'giotMir; but 'bestowed such employments as were at 
hisu^posdliion' the post ^eaenving, .regardless jdif personal 

' eoAti^iio&s^'^ait t!iei5oh»itatiQB8 of pdvale firieiid^hip^. He 
baMl 4tbus>tbe 4eliGit^^k)town:to few m his^cguiited.sphei^, of 

vdMiwiag talents &6va oh^etinljriand rewarding merit, ia a 
, stmnger.-. x.-^\. / I i. Si uv '{-i (j,, •■;•.(: ■)• 

17M. ' iJafing adnfm'is^l«d' 4he ^verument fbr siiF y^^r» and 
'^ ' ^aeiQQBtllyMrvOreaTalle indulged a wishimos^ -natural to 

4tQ ingepuons mind;, he la,ng«bhed for his native hopne; 

an4, havjpg obl^ed ^is irpyal master's permission, resigned 

his authority, with ^q .;4iP.9ign of returning to. £ngtand. 

Previous to his departure, the house of assembly, a» a testi- 

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moi^ of their gwtefuJwiwC'Ofi the fUcwings^hicbthef)^ ^3iSJ^ 
pic ta«l enjoyed wa^ hia aii8)noiQ«» ^dmihisti^OD^ voted 
a liberal dpnatiFC to d^firay the ejfpensiea pf bU noyage. 
Batrhis'mxceUency gsnerowl^ iocrewe the.lwi»- 
theiis of a people^ i wh«nih(&- ctmW i»o loogejf aid. w^th ^ 
oouiaeis hor benefit by his eyertkma. tlwpwssed with 1?^ 
coming adihiratioa of-^iM^ ^extraordiitaTy instance of dif- 
intei«irtedaeBs,'tbBias^»itbly.:fea()Ay(^tp perpet^e th^/Oi^- 
jnopy of his elaftted faasrttv hy/!«f«ptitti a n^arl^. statue, re* . 
presenting ibis eacetiianojj atfuU.Ieitgthy ^i' th«.iaa©M^ cop- 
spicoous. pari of the town ball^^u) j'-^u*^.,; iriij, /■'.;. ;., 
On Mr.tGnenrilleVidefiaatnitty^Aie/govtonHieDii devolved 
on Uie Hononnifa^ Halpb Weekes; pce^ysnt^dheiecMnGiL 
Tbou^ this gestleinaa£Ci»<iiY^:f»itdM9fit7 fot 
rnqre'tban three year8^< the'dolBomal ^rficoidt^ffirf ish> qor m9' 
ifaonBki of his talents, fer gmevQUkettt^ inor of h» Hftmnt^fot 
legida^iorn, accept an actvprdB&btting the fiviog e^: fi<|Mihf> 
serpeatp^and other firq-worka^ the iifli»8l. iiei»on«tiatt^:si9t>Qf 
pQDulax attschmeotta chnidi aiuistatfi,j.oa the aanivst- 
sary< of thei.papdsts'^iconspinwy: Xbid )aiKii» .a«mia% 
trampled upon with impunity by vulgar loyalty aod> Jtupinl- 
tuDtts. piety. iMr..Weefcc» wa* rewarded miih ^a^Uwty of 
twelve huadied^ pounds a ywf. Hn uiunl^i^stwg. juJau- 

• Haifs first settlement of Barb. p. 33. This statue/ togcttiar wi(b torcT rioWittt 
portrait^wM destroyed by tiie gce«tliuatcM>«iD l%Mt. 

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51S TSffi HtfXOEY 

^>a^2> Bia^attimf'vlt^ at lei^ jtovm^toa hy the iHviT&l. bf €hiwl«fk 

»£*fa I'iDfi'^^^U^Dt. wha had been fconoured iiwtllijiisi Majesty «[ 

coBCimissioivaa go/nxnor of Barbadoes. The reventie aHotibed 

tortile aupfxvt of Mr. iHnfold traa tfa« same as that lifaiiifi 

luMl- beon alloired id the two kt'st goretfBois/ 

1758. WJnBeeer. direati Bntaitf i& eogagod ito abtual hoMifitkitt 
ndtfa ai^)otikessn^asititne-pO(«Qr» the< etife«t& of tttie><KMiJlM£ 

globe. The war -which traaoDiw kindled im 'Eurftpesoonk 
extended itsdf la the West iDdies^ wad ptesettted the Bam 
badians widi siti <>pportu[iiity of proving^ thdr fleai and ida^ 
Ityv b^ tbei KiadkMM^ atMi wbicb they contributed their 
iGtebia'aid't»^prt6a9(Mefthe«»td«pri9e»otf the Antiish gov^ii«> 
ment )» the western hemisphefe. Toward9 the end o^tiit» 
jreftT, ikeieaiMmvaf iS^int Ja«n€ttV Ibntied the design of ^re* 
dttcki^th^p<j%«i'<»lFia«te>&kith»Caftbb<Mn8^. Forthi^ 
ptit<p)(^, d fiMt of «}^ ski^Q^tfief KheV with a b6djr'«>f fiVd 
!3M>a9aBd tM^p^ wei^ o^red H-om' Sai»t Helena io jc^ 

1759. €oo>iii!Odo^' Mdore id €adi9)e Bbj. The jtmctioii -yast 
e^f«^:on>'tiiei thJwl day- of the new yeas. The goieiW 
iititnediately ^eoiuroked theC legislature, for the -purpose otf 
affotdiog s«ch atsistatice as might be io their power to fiBtci- 
litate thffr ^ipe^^on. With a i^irit and promptitude highly 
creditaMe, they gruited a auoiber of negroes for the re-^ 
inoval of aiitUIciry; and Qthier labojdoud, w^rvkes, and. fur- 
iiis&ed the seamen aMtaoldicra with every species' of n- 

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iBttry ^>r ttcce|>table.'* .: . , ■ i^^P- 

'fhte BHH&h dttoatnefit 1^ Ottlt^le ^ KOt the tlurteentlL 

ia€ Martllnco two daysafbdrwaKls, t^ii tfaie tRHjps 'were 
di»e»ii^ark6d'at P<«nt des Negroes.- ^b<i ki eimste^faaaee of 
(^dllid^iffifecekte iA opuiidn<4>«ttreeh ^meva! Mopeon wad 
<]kMmtK)dfti llidor^, tbey wtttt ifeHefnbtiiiEed witbia twenty- 
4^ fafiin« «ller tfaeit landing*^ tA Om irary mootent iwben the 
princjpai tehafeitahts were ■cmfUoy^d in 9nafi(^g a pten fof 
-fli^s /suTBfender of the Mlan4 ^he BrifekA^fleet thenpro- 
ceedeei (^ IBa^seterre at Ouadaleupey w^lpey though the^ 
♦?ipW€9ncedi ^' *igoilaaf leiMrtance, th«^ <wew uliiniat^ly 
Mjceesefol^f . . , . > . 

|)iirieg4htti«t0gr«tA<Mf tb<i siei^ihe eommOitUivevha^wa^ 
-tevHsived intellig<BMje(el:ilie<«riv«i:'<rf |4^id©.S<wiipBfrt,-with 
-toot -ml of th^ U«^ «^ M^iiicoi M:tbe> t^oof^ ^ ^otect 
'^m^dtes» and retifed ^ Domwioar with, ;hi8 -siliiadi^oD, 
toa&isting of wa Une «f ^jattle ^ipsi Wi^; this auperiot 
Ibwc Moot© ingloriiouaiy lay at anchou in? MMt^'liupertV 

» Smollet'i €onL vol. r, p* 5. HaiVi Inra, p. SSS. The Mmpilelrof.the Unitenal 
"Bitt yol. xU. p. til, erroneoHtlj anert Stat Bail>a^s, on UU^oacuion, &mid>ed a 
4u^ body of r4luAt«eA, tatB«d>«ad'4lM^tued at tlte-'ti^ptaie ht lb* cboi^try. "fhls 
.^rarhaa fc«en ja^ich^ adqyted by Mr. Aren in bi«^9bon°Hikt0ty,MM>asfb bkisAMs- 
of JDfonnatipii ou^ht to have ahewnhim tbatd^e Barbaditn,voluat«ttl«iplegut|tHMd. 
tflLnearly three years afterwards.. 

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^vS^r2?' b,^y»j^^Y!S. cloven weeks, in which time upwards of ninety 
'^^1 sail of English merchantmen were captured and Ga^^4jB:to 
l4artiniC0'< Theinactivity of the commodore ex^i^edf^piisi- 
d(erahle mu,rmuring9'in Barbadoes; .where be W4^ ]»|i^,m» 
^P?|y ^ hi» person treated with indignity, and h^i^MV^.]^«^ 
JQ ajPisplut^ detestation. Thi^ occasioned nqme^.iU^-^llQO]^ 
bet^<^ th^. inhabitants and |th« o^c^r^ of the:oa,yyi fiiut 
the.chara.ctor of. the country was afterwards gro^ly ealuoD- 
niated^ in a pamphlet, published by Captain GMrdoev; wluiob 
produced a spirited, r^ply. fron;t.t.he plassiqal pen .q£ Sk 
■ John Gay AUeyn^, who, for bis judicious defence, was ho- 
nouTied with th^ publtf thanks of the geiveraly assembly. 
i7«u rTheidesign of annihilating the power of France in the 
An^enican archipelago, was revived by Mr. Pitt, thougii Uie 
execution of it was destined to bestow a splendour, little 
deserved, on the ministry of his unpopwlfir successor. Go- 
vernor Pinfold lost «o time in commaaicatiag to the coun* 
cil and asscmibly of Barhadoes, the intentipija of the Britii|i 
cabinet ; and called upon them to secqod Ms e^brts to pro- 
mote the public service. Nor was Uie application made 
in vain. A regiment of five hundred and eighty*eigbt men 
was raised, for the use of government, under the command 
of Sir John Yeamans, armed and accoutred at the exj)qnsip 
of the country J t6 which was added a body of five hundced 
and 'eighty-three negro men to serve as pioneen* Tb« ex- 
panse of raising and equipping thiscorpsamottnttd to tweiity-* 
four thousand pounds; no inconsiderable sum to be paid 

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by a small colony, which had flever been distinguished by ^HAp, x. 
the kindness nor the partiality of its parent state.* *''<''• 

TIi6 naval force allotted for the reduction of Martinico, 
wnd^t the- Command of Sir George Bridges Rodney, arrired 
iniCfertiifei.bay in November; but it was not tllltbe'^ay 
b«Jfow Christnms that geoci-aj Monckton was able to collect ' 
rtie-whofe iftf^theitroops placed under his directioti. From 
thattBOinBBt, hcJwever, -no unnecessary delay retarded the 
sailing of -.the 41det, which reached Saint Anne's bay, at 
Martiaicoi m^ theseventh day of Jaiiuary. General Monck- ,t«2. 
tWiSOOH found it necessary to occupy the almost in^cces- 
sible.l»ights<if MonaeTortenson and M6m« Garnierj whose 
natural stwttgtli bad been impSroved With ^reat skill and 
judgaient^ P^per arrangements iiaving been made for the 
atteckof Mora© Torteasoii, the troopis advanced by bi^eak 
of day. The eugageniiciit oommenced with thfe gren^iera, jtn.«4. 
Ie4 Qn hj! MajiH- Gmn*; wbHe anfothbr brigade, assisted by 
a thonsftnd seamen in flat-bottomed boats, feH upon their 
redoubte «k>iig the. shore, A third division, supported by 
the light infentry. after attacking a plantation which lay in 
tlieir. way, marched round in the rear of the-enemy . The 

• -n.* H<,«« of Comrton. on the 7th May 1765, voted the «um. pt ten Aowtd- 
^'' t^enabfe K, M^cty to make a p„.per compensation to th»gor«.n,,pt^ 
^<^ for lfce.«.*tenee whieh^t g.,e hi. M^eat,'. fcrcea under Major de^nl 
Monckton, b the e,pe^^,,g^M«t»k;^'. ^«t«/ilqfto«.;«rf,8.;. 240' 

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^^[^^^^^ ^ttaqk was made with so much impetuosity, that by th6' 
^^^^' ninth hour of the day the assailants were completely in 
possession of the enemy's works on Morne Tortenson. As 
their batteries on Morne Gamier were capable of greatly 
annoying the British troops, General Monckton ordered 
several batteries to be erected, for the purpose of covering 
bis operations against Fort Royal* On the other hand, the 
enemy formed the resolution of attacking the British troops. 
The attack was sustained with great firmness;: the assailants^ 
were soon repidsed ; and, such was the ardour of the English,- 
that they pursued the flying enemy across a deep ravine 
mU> their owji batteries, and ^established themselves on the 
tedioubts of their adveisaries. Maamjd Gamier was thus, ioL 
a few lioum, tn&sfarred to the occupancy of the British. 

The pbssesflicHi of these important po9ts enabled Monck* 
ton tQ direct Ms views against Fort Eayal. Batteries were 
itmnadiately ereeted, 4tnd were nearly ready to begin the 
work of destruction,. #hea the inhabitants proposed to ca*-^ 
fieb. 4. pjtulfltfiu The teriM were easily adjusted, and the garrison 
was delivered, up^ to the British troops. The conquest of 
Maftinioo was yjet inoomplete. La Toucbe, the governor 
general, had retired to Saint Pierre js^ with a determination 
of maintaining the rights of his sovereign. Buttheineffi- 
cacy of any opposition in his power, to jnake to the prepa- 
rations which he saw going forward for the siege of thafc 
fortress, induced^ him to submit to the conquerors. The 

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terms of capitulation were liberal and chatacteristie bf ClSAP. X 
British generosity; and Martinico was finally iJurrendered i^^^^. 
to Genera! Monckton on the fourteenth day \yf February. 

Tlie distinguished part borne by the Barbadians in the 
Campaign in the West Indies, reflected great lustre oil their 
character, and procured them the most flattfeiing^ testimo^ 
nials of their sovereign's approbation. On the liieetkig of July 5i. 
the general assembly, the governor opened the session with 
a gracious speech; in which, after congratulating theciouQ- 
ell and assembly on the conquest of Martinico, his exceU 
kncy was pleased tb add to his own commendation of thmt 
conduct, the most gratifying information of his Majerty^s 
sentiments of their meritorious exertions- to Aid hie amis in 
this distant part of the enapire. ^ Upon receipt of his 
Majesty's commands,'' said Mr. Pinfold, ** zeal and^ unani* "^ 

mity appeared in every branch of the legislature. With 
the greatest dispatch, ample provision was made for the 
assistance of the king's forces ; and the handi? of government 
were strengthened with great and exten^ve powers^. By 
your influence and example, a vigorous spirit was diflusecf 
and communicated among all ranks of men. Each in his 
proper sphere; with a laudable contest, aimed to be the 
most active in promoting the public service. The concur- 
rence of these circumstances enabled me to raise the most 
complete, best accoutred, and best trained corps that ever 
was sent from the island, whose behaviour has exceedMtlid 
most sanguine expectations, and merited the approbation: 

T t 2 

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CHAP.x. of their commander in chief. Happjtam Ito b»v« itin 
17^- particular command from his Majesty* to convey to you his 
gracious sense of the cheerfulness and unanimity wiUi which 
you enabled me to exiccute his commands; and his$rm re^' 
lianpe, that his faithful and loyal subjects of Barbadoe* 
will not cease to manif^t- the ^ame laudable spirit in any 
future operations that may be undertaken, for annoying and 
• distressing his enemies in the West Indies!" . , 

From the proud contemplation of the national successes 
abroad, the attention of the general assembly was turned to • 
less pleasing objects of consideration at home. Jolrn 
Adams, member for Christ Church, had, with a body of 
armed slaves, opposed the provost marshal in the execur 
tion of his office. For this violent outrage he had been in- 
dicted at the court of grand sessions, fined and imprisoned. 
Not satisfied with this punishment, the assembly expelled 
Mr. Adams from their house; and* upon their application to 
the governor, a new writ was issued for the election of 
another member. Adams's friends thought that the mis- 
demeanor, for which he had been expelled, was cognizabb 
only in the courts of law, to which he had submitted and 
received sentence: a sentence which, it was contended 
could by no legitimate construction whatever be deemed 
to affect his seat in the legislature ; the freeholders there- 
fore re-elected him without hesitation or opposition. The 
assembly, persuaded that the power of expulsion would 
avail but little, if the obnoxious memj?er could thus be 

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retoHednpon ^m, etpelldd him a second time. This proce^ ^J^J:^' 
diire was ^ wariMlj Resented by the electors of Christ Church. *^^^' 
ThtJy considered it^ as an arbitrary encroachment on the 
liberty ^f the Subject, complfctely subversive of the elec-- 
tivej franchise. It was insisted that the assembly did not 
possess^ an inheient, original authority, but a dd^ted 
pbwer; fpr which, whoever receives it, is accountable to/ 
those who gave it; since it is obvious that those, who 
bestow authority by commission^ always retain more than 
thejf grant . . 

. Whatever weight this reasoning may be thought to pos* 
s68s,. the right of the assembly to ex{>el-any of its members,^ 
guilty of flagrant offences, is clear and incototestible; Ac-^ 
cording to an eminent law authority, if any person is made 
a peer by the king, or elected, to serve in the House of 
Commons, by the people, yet may the respective houses 
upon complaint of any crime, and proof thereof, adjudge 
him disabled and incapable to sit as a member ♦• In supr ' 
port of this doctrine, the learned commentator on the laws 
of England, refers to many respectable authorities; and 
the journals of parliament furnish many precedents to jus* 
tify the right of expulsion, claimed by both houses. No 
doubt then can exist that the assembly of Barbadoes, whose 
functions audi privileges are in all respects analagous to 


* Blac^ttone's Commentaries^ vol. i. p. 163* 

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cflAP. Xr tliose of the Commons of Great Britain, have theSstoe paw 
17^- ramount jurisdiction over the cpnduct of its members. 

Finding .that the freeholders were determined to persist 
in asserting their right to re-elect Mr* Adams, the assemWy 
suffered their xesentment to hurry them too liar, and they* 
parsed a law, to disqualify him from being dected a mem- 
ber of the assembly, or fvoth bearing any office, civil oi^ 
ittUitary, in the government of the island. Adams was 
ifot 0f a tamper to svrbmit to siich an ignominous disfran- 
chisement. He appealed to the justice and moderation of 
his SovereigYi ; atnd, after a due investigation of the cir- 
cufflstatK^s, the act was i^ejpealed by his Majesty's order, 
gttiunded on the opinion of Sir Matthew Lamb, counsel 
to. the !^oard of Trade^ by whom it Tfras represented as ar- 
bitrary^ and xJontrary to the spirit of the British constitu- 
iiott, tending to establish a dangerous precedent, and to 
deprive his Majesty of the services of a subject. * It is to 

' * It is a littlfc sitigiilar tfiat, within eighteen months after this affair, the public 
•inind was agitated bj a simtlar transaction in Ehglatid, The circumstances of this 
occarpenee are briefly these; John Wilkei, on the ipth^of January, I7d4^ was ex* 
pdled the House of Comnons fur a sedltidtts puV^^^^^^Q' At the dexlt election he 
was returned for the county of Middlesex, upop which it was again resolved, that 
John Wilkes, Esq., for having pdblished several libels, be expelled this House ; and a 
^ new writ being issued, Mr. Wilkes was r^- elected without* opposition. On the l^tb 

of February, 1769, the House resolved, ** that John Wilkes, Esq. having b^en in this 
session uf parliament expdted Ih^ H6use, was, and is^ incapable of being elected to 
serve in this present parliament ;" the election was therefore declared void, and a new 
writ ordered, Mr, Luttrel iio\¥ offtred himsrff a candidate, in opposition to Mt 

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be observed, that the right of expulsion was not affected chap.x. 
by this declaration ; it was the act of disqualification to *''^*- 
which the King objected. 

The unexampled success of the British arms in every 
quarter of the globe, was soon followed by a general paci- 
fication-. The Barbadians saw with regret the most import- 
ant conqiiests in the West Indies restored to their national 
enemy; for^- although some politicians pretended to disco- nes* 
ver, in tlie acquisition of the Prench colonies, much future 
injury to the commerce of Barbadoes, by depreciating the 
value of its staple productions, men of more enlarged 
views, justly considered the possession of Martinico and 
Gaudaloupe in the highest degree essential to tlie safety of 
the English settlements in their vicinity, and to the security 
of their trade and navigation. Nor was this the only 
source of uneasiness to the Barbadians. 

Wilkes. On the election Wilkes, having a vast majority m his favour, was returned 
by the sheriff as duly elected. The House of Commons, nevertheless, resolved that 
Mr. Lattrel oqght tOLhare been returmadl, and ordered the return to be^ amended. 
The freeholders of Middiescx preseiued a petition to the Hoa|»e, cemplainiDg of this 
invasion of their rights ; but the House, on the 8lh of JMay, again resolved that Mr. 
Luttrel was diAy elected. In this state tlie matter remained nearly 14 years, when, 
upoD the memotable 'Change of minisfryin 176S> ft was resolved by the House of 
Commoni, that the resolution i)f th^ 17th February, 1769> and all other declara* 
tions, orders and resoktiouf, jrespecting the election of J. Wilkes, should be ex- 
punged, as<4»eing subversive of the rights of the whole body of electors. Thus was 
it establlslied that, aKhough the Commons have a right to expel theif members, ex« 
pulsion does not create a disqualification fpom rt-eteotioD« 

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The expense incurred in the prosecution of the late war 
liad been most severely felt b^ the people of England ; and 
to remove in some measure the exclusive burthen from 
their shoulders, it was thought to be but fair and equitable 
that the North American colonies, for whose defence the 
war had been originally undertaken, should contribute a 
due proportion towards defraying the expense incurred for 
their protection. To this end, it was proposed by Mr. 
Grenville, among other financial expedients, to impose on 
them the payment of certain :stamp duties. Parliament 
readily concurred in the arbitrary and unconstitutional 
scheme, and passed the celebrated stamp act. The eflFects 
produced by this fatal measure, are too well known to re- 
quire repetition in this place. The universal discontent 
which it excited on the continent of North America^ soon 
communicated itself to the neighbouring islands. Con- 
scious of their weakness, the West Indians only remonstrated 
against the oppression, except the inhabitants of Nevis and 
Saint Christopher's. In the latter, the populace proceeded 
to « great lengths of tumultuous apposition, as the people 
of New England; and, having burned the stamped pa- 
per of their own island, went over in a body ta assist 
their neighbours of Nevis in the same patriotic work.* 
The Barbadians, more moderate^ wisely refrained from 
a fruitless opposition; and, having tried the inild and legal 

* Apnual Begister^ to1« $. p. ia. 

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OF BARBAD0E5. 999 

mode of remonstrating against a measure so evidently pw- *^*[^^;Jf* 
nicious and subversive of their chartered rights, calmly ^^^' 
^bmitled to the Injustice which they could not resist It 
was not long, however^ before the ministry, to preserre the 
peace of the empire, were compelled to abaodon their pro- 
ject ; but for the shoart time during which the 8ta>mp act 
was enforced, the sum of twenty-five hundred po«ii»da wa» 
exacted from tlie people of Barbadoes, and remitted to 

Governor Pinfold having exercised the executive autho- 
rity for nine years and nine months, with a proparkfty 
which added lustre to his^ reputotion, and afforded sotisikc^ 
tion to the community over which he presided, resigned hfuj ^*y ^* 
government and returned to his native country .-f- Altiiough 
Mr. Pinfold has^ been invidiously represented as ^* aqimet^ 
easy governor, whose q^ualitiesr were wholly nega*ive,*'$ 
there seenw to hav^ been no just cause of complaint against 
him ; ft^, though we eaonot agree with the author referred 
to below, that a quittj easy gawrnar best mtits a cohny^ it 
does not appear that the qualities, here sneeringly imputed 
to hiro, ev^r obsitruffted the pexformance of bis public du- 

•^ aiort; Hist. BajjU p. 7«. 

u u 

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^1^!^:^' ties.* Some men may probably prefer a governor of that 
*^^^' character, because the indolence of his disposition may 
^ afford them opportunities of accomplishing their own ambi- 
tious projects, and of oppressing the people. To the au* 
thority of such easi/^ quiet rulers may the inhabitants of 
Barbadoes never be subject. Better is jthe tyranny of a 
single person, however oppressive, than the despotism and 
misrule of a corrupt and arbitrary oligarchy. 

The abuses committed by the deputy provost marshal, in 
the execution of his office, were so generally and loudly 
complained of, that the legislature determined to take the 
direction of the office into their own hands. To this end a 
law was enacted, tinder the administration of Mr. Pinfold, 
authorizing the colonial agent to farm the office from the 
patentee for the public benefit. Great advantages were 
reasonably expected from a measure by which the legisla- 
ture obtainied the exclusive right of nominating the deputy 

♦ Nor wat the governor deficient 'm spirit upon proper occasions. Sir William 
Gibbons, a man of the moat considerable influence in the country, having resigned 
his seat in the assembly, of which be had been speaker many years, on account of 
his advanced age and ill health, yet wished to retain his commission as colonel of 
Speight's division. But his excellency thought that, if age and inGrmities rendered 
him incapable of attending the house of assembly, theydisqualified him for the mcart 
active duties of a military command ^ he therefore, on the 28th of March, l76o» 
dismissed him from all his military employments. Sir William survived his loss of 
power only fourteen days, and died suddenly during the firing of a salute on his sue* 
cessorfs taking possession of the divisicm. He was succeeded by the Honourable 
Henry Tho?nhilL ^ , , ^ ; 

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pFOVost marshal, whose continuance in office would neces- ^^j^i^^J^* 
s^rily depend upon the honest performance of his duty. But ^^^^* 
wiithin less than two years after the passing of this law, 
nQtwithstanding some pecuniary profit had been derived 
from it, the assembly came to a resolution to relinquish 
the contract. It Was alleged that the agreement entered 
into by the agent with the patentee was illegal, and could 
not be carried into effect without the violation of an act of 
parliament; and that it would be highly improper for the . 
legislature to take an assignment of the contract, as it 
could not be made without an act of the island, which 
would render the transaction too conspicuous to escape the 
censure of the lords of trade, before whom it must appear 
for confirmatiort. This reasoning was founded on the statute 
of Great Britain, against buying and selling of offices ; but 
this point had been already so clearly decided, as to remove 
every doubt of the legality of the covenant. Blanchard, 
the provost marshal of Jamaica, had granted a deputation 
of his office to Galdy, of that place, who had given a bond 
for the performance of the agreement, upon whiph an ac- 
tion had been . brought to enforce the payment. The de- 
fendant pleaded that, by the statute against buying and 
selling of offices, both the bond and the articles of agree- 
ment were void ; and that Jamaica having become, a part 
of the territories of Great Britain was subject to the laws 
of tlie realm. But it was ruled by the court, that neither 
Jamaica, nor any other of the colonies, was bound by the 

u u 2 

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tJJJ;^ laws of England, unless particulariy mentioned, but that 
' *'*** they were to be governed by U^ir own laws and customg j 
and judgment was therefore given for the plaintiff** This 
case was in point ; but perhaps it was not within the con« 
templation of the legislature, and they relinqubhed the ob*i> 
. vioos advantage of possessing a paramount control over tbtf 

AHiongthe laws enacted under Mr. Pinfold's administra^ 
tion, there ift one which ought not to be passed over in si<^ 
fence. This is an act to regulate sales at outcry, by 
which, io aToid all doubt or ambiguity on the subject, it 
is expressly declared that slaves shall be included in the 
legal comtruction of the words go&d$y chattels and tfftcti^ 
and as such may be taken and sold in execution for debt. 
This indeed had been the practice for more than a century. 
In tike time of president AValrond a law had been passed^ 
aliowing tlie creditor to attach tlie slaves of hb utifortu- 
»ate debtor, and to have them sold as mere chattels. This 
law was calculated to serve tie sinister purposes of itiner- - 
ant adventurers ; who, after making a fortune in the colony, 
were anxious to return and enjoy it at home. They had 
no permanent interest in the country, and were heedless of 
the remote consequences of those laws which answered 

* Vide Modern Reports, Blanchard v. Galdy. Vide etiam Godolpfain v. Tudor. 
Salk. 4681 said CuHiford v. De CardbaelH Salk. 466. In what cases a deptUalion i$ 

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their ptftsent conrenience, by facilitating the collection of chaP. x 
debts. But now, in a mote enlightened state of societjt ^'^^^'* 
when the colony was firmly established, and its population 
consisted of a race of free-born sons, fondly attached to 
their native soil, and deeply interested in its prosperity, it 
must be a subject of no small surprise, that the legislature 
should recognise aind confirm a principle so impolitic, in- 
human and unjust. 

There is scarcely a law in existence, from whose opera- 
tion the island has suffered greater injury than this; By 
the authority given to a rapacious creditor to seize the 
slaves of his debtor, and to sell th^m to the highest 
bidder, the population of the country has been lessened; 
its agricultural improvements have beeh impeded ; many 
respectable families have been reduced to indigence, and 
many driven into exile. When the labourers are swept 
away from the plantations, the lands cease to be valuable; 
the buildings are left to moulded into rurns by a gradual 
decay ; and the fields, whose fertility added to the national 
wealth, beCome.a barren waste over-run with noxious weeds. 
Of the slaves thus sold the rich only can become the pur- 
chasers, to the utter extinction of those small estates, which, 
in reality, constitute the real weialth and opulence of the 
country. It is a gross, though a popular error, to' suppose 
that this transfer of property is atten'ded With n6 detriment 
to the state, because the negroes, who af^'resMnr'^dvfhjm 

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^^^^^' ^"^ plantation are employed on another. The argument 
1766. might assume a plausible tone, if the real and personal 
estate went together; the aggregate wealth of the country 
might then be the same; though it is obvious that the ge- 
neral prosperity Mould be dipninished by limiting the diffu- 
sion of the means of subsistence. Wealth might accumu* 
late in the hands of the rich, but the inferior ordefs of so- 
ciety, deprived of the means of cultivating their little 
farms, would be driven from the island to seek security 
under the shelter of a wiser policy. 

It will probably be objected, that these evils do not now 
e?cist in their full extent; that there are few attachments 
made under this law; and that, in the present prrosperous 
condition of the country, no man is without a home, or 
negroes to cultivate his land. But we should not suffer our 
judgment to be blinded by prosperity. It is now only 
thirty years since we witnessed the melancholy verification 
of the arguments against this law. In the vicissitudes of 
human affairs, similar mislbrtunes may be approaching to 
overwhelm us. During the American war, when, added to 
the evils incident to a state of hostility, the hopes of the 
industrious planter were frequently iruslrated by a series of 
natural calamities, the fairest portions of the island were 
desolated and sacrificed to an unwise and iniquitous policy. 
'Afflicted by continued drought, and visited by tribes 
4of verm'in; more destructive than the locusts and caterpil- 

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lars of old, Barbadoes was then reduced to a state of com- ^"^J;.^ 
parative poverty ; her soil and her negroes had sunk fifty 
per cent, below their original value. A total failure of 
crops, instead of exciting comnoiiseration, sharpened the 
avidity of the rapacious ; and the wretched slaves of the 
unfortunate debtor were dragged in crowds to the market, 
and thence transported to cultivate and enrich by their la- 
bour those colonies which,, at the conclusion of the war, 
passed into the bands of our enemies. At that season of 
calamity, the pernicious tendency of the law was made visible 
as the sun at noon day. 'J'he slaves were sold for less than 
half their value; the soil remained uncultivated; the ori- 
ginal proprietors were ruined, and the junior creditors were 
defrauded of their just due,, by the accumulation of ex- 
pense, and the rapacity of the pri)vost marshal. The evil 
of tliat day is happily passed. How soon we may be re- 
duced to tlie same deplorable condition, is known only 
to that omnipotent Being, by whoso providence all things 
are ordered. It may be prudent to guard against the ad- 
verse change ; and, in this, our better hour, repeal a law, 
which experience has shewn to be so pernicious* 

The most enlightened writers on the subject of West In- 
dian concerns,* have uniformly condemned this impolitic 

• Vide Long's Hist, of Jamaica, rol. i. p. 392. Edward.'* West Indies, vol. ii. 
p, 153. Raynars History of the East aniWest Indies, t d. vl. p. 228 • and an exceU 

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CHAP.X, and iiilium?tn law. In the whole system of colonial 
i766. slavery, so universally, and often unjustly, censured in 
Jiurope, there is none more injurious and oppressive to 
the negroes than the legal usage of levying upon them, and 
spelling them at auction. It ia by fai the highest degree of 
cruelty annexed to their condition. One of the strongest 
principles of human nature is, that local attachment, which 
ipaa feels for the plice of his nativity. ThjB untutored 
African shares this universal sentiment in common with the 
civilized European ; and the sable Creole is no less tenderly 
attached to the spot on which the carelesa days of infancy 
were spent ; to tha humble tenement which he has culti* 
:vated ; to tl>e frienxMy tree, under whose verdant shade he 
has passed the noon-tide^hour ; to the peaceful cot, beneath 
whose lowly roof he has participated with his wife and his 
children the few domestic comforts which have fallen to his 
lot By a barbjarous, erroneous policy, the wretched slave 
ia dragged from this scene of all his enjoyments ; torn from 
the Kalip wed spot which contains the remains of the mo-^ 
thei; whQTO he revered, the wife that beloved, or the child 
who was dear to his be^rt; dispossessed of the little property 
whipH bestowed on him an ideal importance in the eyes of 
hift fellow-l^^bourers ; and sold into a new bondage, into a 

lent Memoir, wriu^n by the l$gbe, Hon* Jaabu|^^^d€» and pro^fiDtcA to. tkoL Society o^ 
Jlrtsin3arbadoe8, 17831« 


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Google J 


distant part of the country, under the dominion of an un- chap. x. 
known master. Separated from the only consolations *7^^» 
which can beguile the rigour of servitude, these wretched 
victims of avarice and folly oflen sink into a premature 


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HOLDERS OF SAINT Andrew's refuse to elect a represen- 

CHAP. XI. The chief magiBtracj, on the departtire of Mr. Pinfold,. 
1766. devolved oft the Honourable Samuel Rous, senior member 

May 20. 

of council. The first care of the legislature was to make a 
ituitable provinoD, to support the dignity of government ; 
they accordingly settled on the president the yearly sum of 
fifteen hundred pounds, during his residence at Pilgrim, in 
quality of commander in chiefs 

The commencement of Mr. Rouses administration was 
marked by .the assembly's first claim to parliamentary pri- 
vileges. Mr. John Gay AUeyne, having been called to the 
speaker's chair, on the death of Mr. Lyte, detemiined to 
remedy the omission of which his predecessors had been 
guilty. Mr. Alleyne possessed great talents and extensive 
erudition. He was thoroughly acquainted with the princi- 

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plea of the English constitution, and with the forms and chap. xi. 
practice of the house of commons. With an incorruptible ^^^^' 
integrity, he had understanding to discover, and spirit to 
assert, the rights of the people. His chief fault, if- it be 
one, was that of a great mind, an insatiable thirst of praise; 
and^ though he pursued the phantom popularity, with un- 
ceasing ardour, he assiduously strove to attain it by the 
noblest means, the welfare of his country. His appoint* 
ment having been confirmed by the president, the speaker, June 3. 
in an appropriate speech, demanded of his honour the pri- 
vileges to which the assembly were entitled, first, security 
to their persons and servants from all arrests and other i^is* 
turbances, that may obstruct their regular attendance on 
the house: secondly, freedom of speech in their proceed- 
ings ; and, lastly, free access, at all times, to the com- 
mander in chief. The president was a little startled at flie 
novelty of the demand, and excused himself from giving 
an immediate answer. The house sat again the next day, 
when, receiving no answer to the speake/s demand, they 
resolved to enter on no business till they had obtained satis- 
faction on this important point On the next meeting of July 7. 
council, the president commanded the attendance of the 
assembly, in the council chamber ; and, after an applpgy 
for the delay, ^ granted tbem, as far as was eensbtent witk 
the royal prerogative, and the laws and constitution of 
the island, every privilege whiqh h?id been enjoyed by 

any former assembly/' 

X X 2 

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These privileges are inherent in all legislative bodies, 
siuce, without them, their power must evidently be more 
nominal than real* It is declared, by statute of England, 
that the freedom of speech and debates, and proceeding3 
in parliament ought not to be impeached nor questioned in 
any court nor place out of parliament. And this freedpm 
of speech, with the other privileges of security of persons, 
servants^ lands, and goods, is particularly demanded of the 
King, in person, by tJie speaker of the house of commons, 
at the opening of everj new parliament *. w 

A colonial historian ^ treats the speaker s demand of prir 
vileges with a levity, th^t betrays an igporance of the con- 
stitution of his country, ^nd an indifference to the rights of 
the people; and represents it as a precedent pregnant with 
1767. fatal consequences to the credit of the colony. Under the 
protection of servants, he conceives, the power may be 
given of screening from debt, and of conveying from the 
island a number of slaves. But it is obvious, that the se- 
curity from arrests, and other disturbances, here, claimed, 
is confined to the person of the member, and to such do- 

♦ Black. Comm. vol. 1. p. 164. 

+ Mr. H. Frere, vide Short Hial. of Barb. p. 83. These strictures provoked Sir John 
to publish a criticism on the work which eontained them, as just as it was pregnant* 
This produced a duel between the two gentlemen ; and, though it endea without 
bloodshed, the dispute laid the foundattjon of an enmity which had a visible influence 
on the politics of the literary antagonists during their lives. 

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mestics only vrbose services he may require, during his chap, xiv 
attendance on the legislature, at its stated times of meeting, ^'^^^^ 
which are usually monthly. The course of justice cannot 
be obstructed by a privilege, which affords protection for 
the short space of no more than one day in every four • 

weieks. At all other times, the person and property of the 
privileged debtor, is subject to the ordinary modes of ju- 
dicial proceeding. Neither does the privilege of parliament 
sanction nor facilitate the transportation of slaves, belonging 
to those debtors wha may happen to occupy a seat in the 
house. The danger is effectually guarded against, by the 
legal formalities which must be complied with, before any 
slave can be sent from the island. 

Personal security is absolutely essential to the exercise 
of legislative functions. The strong arm of power might 
otherwise be occasionally extended, to prevent the attend- 
ance of those members from whom opposition may be ex- 
pected. A sycophantic creditor may become the willing 
tool of despotism; and, by detaining his debtor, obstruct 
the progress of public business, whenever the casual impe- 
diment may suit his sinister views, or enable a corrupt fac- 
tion to accomplish their designs, by hurrying their pernici- 
ous measures through a house thinly attended*. 

* ♦ This point seems to have been placecTbeyond all dispute by the royal authority. 
A merchant of Spanish Town/ in Jamaica^ in 1764^ caused a ^rTxiof vendUiani exponaf-, 
to be executed upon the coach hones of a member of the assembly of. that kland* 

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XJHAP, XL ^ fcfff dayi previous to the departure of the governor, 

-^7W- the iababitant3 of Bridge-town had experienced a most 

4readful calamity ; a considerable part of that metropolis 

The as^mbly cocf ideied thi9 a breacb of privilege, and tlie officers who had eieeiiUd 
tbe writ vere imm^ately taken into custody, by order of tbe house. The prisoners 
were quickly released by habeas corpus, granted by his excellency, Mr, Lyttleton, as 
chancellor. Tbe assembly resented this act of power, as an ihvasion of their privileges 
and again ordered the provost marshal and his assistant to be taken into the custody 
^Iheir messenger* A petition was again presented to tbe governor, by tbt prisoner^ 
iot a writ {Skohau carpui, which was granted, and they were once more set at liberty 
by a decree of tbe court of chancery. This order produced a violent ferment in tbe 
assembly. They resolved that the governor had acted in an unjustifiable manner, and 
was guilty of a flagrant breach iind contempt of the rights and privileges of their hguse. 
And that a remonstrance against his conduct should be draj^n up and laid at bis Ma^ 
jesty's feet Tbe governor immediately dissolved the assembly and issued writs for a 
new election. No advantage, however, was derived from this expedient. Upon their 
meeting, the speaker omitted to apply to the governor in tbe usual manner for the pri- 
vileges of the house. His excellency therefore again dissolved the assembly, atteging 
that it was his duty to see that their usual privileges were maintained, as weU aa thai 
of tbe King's prerogative suffered no violation. Amuai Register, vol. S^ p. ng. Five 
<]iflerent assemblies were successively called and abruptly dissolved, because they re- 
/used to raise the supplies, unless satisfaction was given them in this business. At 
fcngth, on a change of ministers in {Agknd, the governor was recalled, and tbe 
lieutenant governor, Roger Hope Elktson, was directed to grajtify the wishes of tbe 
assembly ; and tbe whole of the preceedings in chancery were solemnly annulled and 
iracated. Edwards*s West Indies, vol. 2. p. 354. The privilegesf of domestics, lands, or 
goods have been since taken away in England, by Stat. 10 Geo. 111. c. 50. which 
enacts that any suit may at any time be brought against any peer or member of 
parliament, or their servants, which shall not be impeached or delayed on pretence of 
Mfij privilege of parliament ; except that the person of a member of the house of com- 
vona sh«U not thereby bf sulycctcd t^ anj ai^est ^l impriwwient^ ^UuhtimfiS 

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OF BAllSADOfil 344 

tras conAttflied by fire*. The frequcfenfcy of the tofefort'uA* cHaJ^Xi- 
awak«&ed the attention of the ai&embiy, and they passed ^''^* 
an act fbr rebuilding the tavrn on a more isialfe aftd cotnmo*^ 
^U8 plan; but unfortunately this prudent precaution ^as^ 
disapproved of in the council chcmiber. Seveu raonlhB had 
scarcely elapsed, wlien the capilaf tv^as again reduced 
itt ashes, by a conflagration still more dreadful than the 
formed f« This^ was the fourth time, in little more than ten^ 
yeats. Bridge-town had suflfered a similar disaster. 

The necessity of Febuilding the town, with grekter order 
aftd regularity, was now admitted by those who had before 
doubted the propriety of legislative interference i and a 
ktw was Enacted for ttiat purpose. At the same time, the 
assembly adopted a scheme for deepening and cleansing 
the mole-head, and building convenient quays and wharfs^ 
for mercantile accommodation. But, sensible of tJie ina-*- 
bility of their constituents to prosecute such an e:3t pensive 
undertaking, they determined ta apply to the house of com- 
mons for pecuniary assistance. Such was their impatience^, 

♦ May 14Ch, If^. 

t December 27th, 1766. On this occasioni the legislature of South Carolina Toted^ 
tie sum of seven hundred and eighty -five pounds sterling, for therelief of the sufierert.. 
The money was paid into the treasury of Barbadoes, . wher« it was allowed to remtttB>> 
unless the treasurer used it, till the 29th of Aprils 1773, when an act was passed to* 
enable the commissioners fop cleansing the mole-head to borrow it, and apply it tolbat> 
undertaking. Whether it was ever repaid, and applied agreeably to the intentioBa of * 
the benevolent donors^ would now be an unnecessary inquiryj» . 

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^!iiji^* Oft t^iisi. opcasion, that, the |>etitipn ,W8W diftp4*^M:'tQ 4h»- 
^^^7.. colonial agents in, London, >Fith directiw^s to pre«i^l: itfj 
without the cojicurrence, or even the knowledge, . of the 
other branches of the legislajture* . By the same Qonnfeyftjice. 
they transmitted a memorial to the Kjng^ complaining -Qf . 
the great obstruction to public busipes^^ oGc^a^nedby thf& 
absence of many members of Goi|i\cil, -whoy Fega^pdJ^sa^ of . 
the welfare of ;thea;^ country, T5Ke^:e di^ipatingi thcfe jtieie . 
and fortune, amidst %enpIoas}ir€;saad gaii|tia^i9£^ei^rtCi^ - 
capital. : . » .. ; J; fj^ ' :■ :• * - ' fj r <^ ' ; * .. 

1768. The app\ic|^J:i(H> i^^pjiiii^n^^t was ccMbmtenancctf ioriF tfae^r 
miiptistry? .a^nd ,5W 4^a*jvf> >ffl^. propoaied^ by;;Mr.:Grenviltej^ ' 
to eftabjfr l^>)^S^^^Wre^'/)ff IBwbadoeflbott) oadnmieiicB'tli©'-: 
work iji cgn^l^Y)]a^ti^)» j » but :Ui y^m Uioughbaqlvisable, tt> » 
asc^rt^i|iy:pfeMjowsly,, what.thiey-wofiW of tUemselvesy 
to\f§i3df: ^CCQrjiJpilishinfl the design; .TIhs iwai fair; the ^' 
qu^t^, ;h^^Y^Vi^i:»: R^r^rted oii the bause>oij st6bim<iiifi(^ 
and |b\ir. years^ J^ ii^arly elapsed before uny assislaftCCF ; 
couldL be:X)fct|ii|B(pd*;. At iength, pariiament, tired ^tith con- 
tinued, up pprt^nity^ granted the trifling sum of five t^u- 
satid pounds fo* the projected irapriH^emeiits^. if > ' 
Feb. 11. Meanwhile, WiiUantSpry^ LL.D. having beeff-hommred 
with bis. Majesty's commission, as governor of Barbadoes^,* 

^ In 177 S, Mr. Walker, the colonial agents obtained from parliament another grant 
of fife thousand pounds, for which service he was honourecL with the unanimous thank* 
•r the assembly, presented in a gold boi. 

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ftfrived in Carlisle Bay, accompanied by his lady, and as- ^,^J^^:^' 
sumed the government of the island. To enable Mr- Spry ^^^^' 
to support the dignity of his station, the assembly, with 
the concurrence of the council; settled on his excellency a 
salary of three thousand pounds a year. 

Not long after his excellency's arrival, Mr. Cox, the no9. 
store-keeper, presented a petition to the assembly, stating 
the insufficiency of the tonnage duty to supply the de- 
mands for gunpowder, for the use of the forts ; and that 
he had been obliged, in obedience to the orders of former 
commanders in chief, to make advances to the amount of 
three hundred and fifty-four barrels of gunpowder*^ and 
praying that the house would provide for his reimburse- 
ment. An application so extraordinary, from a public 
officer, who, if he had not violated his duty, had certainly 
exceeded his legal authority, excited no common degree of 
popular clamour. The fund, appropriated to this particulac 
service, was raised by a duty of one pound of gunpowder 
per ton on all vessels entering at any port of the island ; 
and the storekeeper ought, on no pretence whatever, to 
have suffered the disbursements to exceed the receipts of 
his office. Should the storekeeper be allowed to comply 
with the governor's orders, beyond the limits prescribed by 
law, the treasurer might, on the same principle, supply hid 

Of one hundred and twclre poundt each. Tallied at jwarlj il890L ^unencp 

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CHAP. -XL excellency^ pecuniary demands to an indefinite 6iLtektti 
i7^ and thus, by an abuse of the trust reposed in them, 1^ 
eitecutive power might be rendered independent of th^ 
legislative, and a venal despot enabled to convert the peo* 
pie's money to his own use, without the consent of their 

Ob these grounds, Mr, Cox's petition was strenuously 
closed by the speaker. He contended that the atore- 
keep€» iiad nd discretionary power, by law, to-purbhase; 
powder iot the use of the fcnls ; that, in the present season 
. of {yro&nmd pemce, the powder had not been requimd £ox 
file service ^ the country, but had ^been wasted ih firing 
salutes, eitheji* to indulge an idle vanity, or for t^e no less 
tmwMra&tal^ puipo^'^ enriching some favourite cat>tain 
Konner. ^ impdee on tfab people die focN^tfaen X3i paying 
Ifor^pcfiirder, thus illegally i6SUigd> and pro^isely ekpended,^ 
tg^ Ike Cffllctts df div^sidti^ during tbeif- mititary feasts, 
IMuld be contmry to justice, and inconsistent widi the 
tKi»t ieposed in the members of thc^ house, as faithful 
^ardiaos <if feeir constituents^ property. 

Vlie MMse ef the iious^ appearingto i)e in favour of ^ 
HX^f^eepef^ ckftm,' it was Agreed; after a. long debate, thart 
liie-^yffie^ <yf im 4ema<Bd ^ouldL depend on. the future 
tM^kijgScVi^ ^pcmAtr. . And a memorial was presented t^' the 
governcMr, stating the particulars of Coxfs demand^ and re- 
questing that his excellency would enforce the orders which 
he teid ihready gitfen, to prevent the unnecessary firing of 

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catkuoo, daat tbus a saving might be mside^ adequate to the ^JJ^JJ;^* 
liquidation of the debt in question* His excdlency, m *^^- 
**ply> asMired the assembly of his d«tenninatioa to prevent, 
4»'«iu<}h as lay in his power^ lany improper expenflitupe of 
powder in the forts, and of his cheerful concurrence in any 
effectual measure for that purpose. Nor was it long before 
tJiey rec^ved a message from his excellency, signify;ing, 
-that in consequence of his jendeavours, a saving of ten 
-thousand weight of powder had already accrued, whence 
•his excellency was induced to hope, that the whole df Mr. 
fCox^s demand mighty in a shprt time, be paid, by the ob* 
^Benrance of proper economy in that department*. , A syjsh 
tom fundamentally bad, and an egr^g^ous abuse of power, 
rendered this hope abortive ; and, und^r succeeding admi- 
-mstrations, eQcreased the storekeeper's debt ^he tpnnoge 
:on vessels^ and the appropriation of the moiiciy arising from 
^tbat impost, were - soon .afterwards altefcd by law ; bi^t t^ 
;door to abus^. was still left open. 4 . . 

Towards the Is^ttr end of this year, the gwerpo^'s cjo- October 3. 
.mestic felicity was interrupted by the death of his <amiabie 
jcooiMrt She was .a niece of tbje; illustrious Eati of^ Chat- 
ham^ and a daughter of Thomas Pitt, of ^occonic, who 

* '" ' ' * ' I I'" ' 1 1 1 I j ^ I ' »l < J 

♦ It tppears^ by a subsequent petition from Mr. Cox to governor' 6ay, tnat'Mr. 
Spiys onlers fbr preventing the wtite of powder bad pi^oducied so gii^t a iat% in 
that article, that bts. demand ^a4.been-,red}y:f4. to only eighly^Jght bprek 

y. y 2 

Digitized by 



'^^ fl^lyidesoeochd) siM]d;ele^iitl3r,:actaBiiipli8heid^ herconjagri 
.«4te«li«i(l)t .imipeltted . her; to aocoa^uy . *hef < ■ t|Bs^aid to 
MAtimdiieSi: ;iir^w> Jber jdeljftttQ jstfii^Hiiiioat soot !walf. 

1770. .!).'£he^A)ik)ir]^g< jtow: was :'pnidu);:|»K.<^rani;!SK|Ru}<ditnMt|- 

JoUspule /bdbveen. Una honse of ^membi^^ and. tba )irsehaMt# 

*{ii Sbiityt Addnew'sr parish. . By^a;law io^ tl|t;viriaa<i»L'tkftjtt» 

. senalbly Wietb restnttsdt lrotn'«dio(iring4n)Qnrert:l)«iiitw|» of their 

inerabefti 'to be tibfttot fcbm ^ couutry ati the iciniA Urnit, 

The «peakeii' boiMtr^f^- fifiding itiB health impsirad;, jiha 

desirous bf trying the effisctiof^ivoyjijie tct Edrope^ .bbti«» 

. two nleUibers y^st^ akeady^t^MeHt-^j^ w«»:^e0liu&d findk. 

obtaining -the ^m0 indltlgetide^ 'by *hlp vrAnAvyK^ugi Wty 

remove tbf^ btibtacfe, ■ '& bUI vms introduced by :«b&'dttacoe)K 

generaV Hein^y fieeliies,' to', etiipemet Sit John Alteyne . «6 

leave-^ttie'i^^d;'-NKiflidi^'^/^ftcfttiQg his>8eiitv andto exAedd 

^e penmji^fod 'tblt^r^meitiliers^at a .'tine. . TheJbilJ inras 

• pasted una^i^nidi^slj/^'l^y both hou9C8;i.faiat3l:app(aiisd tiii be 

a measufe '^ of ^ ' 'sd' - u^^ii^wal a .natvre,' ': that ! th&u jgowmar 

snspen dt'd- LiH. assen t: until the. King' ov pleaauce-ciould bt . 

lUKWrn«.,''- '■■•'='-•"''''■"•'* •■'••' --'f' .. ' . • w .-) ,-.)).■<..,; ■.■; •-,, V..- •■ 
SifUohitt Aileyne, itevei^heless, leffc-thd^uilftiid*; ai»d the: 

. ^ Bef|^d^^Tei|era^)e|>9tri(rt>4«pwtwc,,Iie m^ebia c<|^« liable totbe pay- 
^^1 ftf J^l^e^^iial j^iMi^)ty,j <^.f<Mrt^rfiv^ poundi a year, for the support of a charity* 

*c)kc«I. in the parish wbteU be represented : that being toe interest of the sum vbich. 

- . , . .....--.. ^) ).., ,;,,-.f,; ,,-:,, ,:n?};,-, ,• .■ .; , ...1 .1,.,: ... .• 

tf ma NceiTcao0hii rac9«edipgf im«Uti«iWbit« the.ofiSce of treuurer.. 

Digitized by 



aiil^inbfy,ii|iti 4ihfttr unit taseimg^ addressed <iie governor to ^^£^°[J 

4h6 dwf^ a{ipointed» ^ freeholders- of Saiikt Andreirfft cl{|i' 
speared <^ »fe tbe poI), 'but reHuaed' to make choice of us^^ 
nspresentativet^^and' pveseptedisn addnesa toMii MajiobciE^ 
^criit^g )«erobeivpex)3Uiluuig the reasoa;0f: tbdirtreAiiaL 
3!!lM(jr could, not be -persuadedj tiiat>Sm John Atio)rn6i(^iad 
iWcafUdluviwat* t>^v fafoiilbsetitiie;. lABd; could ooti/tbeM^n^ 
Kitb )»r<»pFi0t;> proaee;d tex toothetf doctiottiu liiwo^dd^k- 
^eifintipiacdl tfae^rsaid, imply <a(f«i-S«iftd«(^oC^l^^ f^^m^ 
awviqcsi- wi^d a wilUngiMsfc^ ^ideptivp? |j«D*<S)tf th§ J:)^J^t.i^ 
l«dd€d hiqi^ ibj> titQ),bar?D«besio£ i^jle^kAv^f} \§^S^^\j[t 
.thfigr .aflGBdted<.aavappr^he«8*s»iv>£ jMH)l»t¥»g ^(jA^ h-Wp 
«nce». : byi.el?cting » ndw trie^obflU^^fe^St wftttJ^Jtwi?^ ^hfiiftY^'^^ 

ftbani tjHjy/ mtta \l<ig(^\y m^\%kde%Qt*'y,Mrfm f^?^? I <^J?lf?i<iS^ 
Htbust itb^ide^iSBiMU ^JinlM^tftJ^hfil«PyfiJ;^a,^a5^^„ 

mid a«fait»the rwult o(i(iieiif9SfmmeiUf^4-^iC^9WJk*^ - k.; 
. Attbfi.neBc^ine«liikg.irfiy*0ie»*q«J>l/^ht)^i;gff^^FPP'^3^ October 2. 

; .« >■ . * I l l M t ' onjii i i - JU(. ij ' g ' iiji ' i ' OiiJ ijJxM Jirj. ' .(!Jit ' c.;;) .JiJl/ni ' U '' d 
* The •« WM rqect«d by th« King» o» the recommendation «f the lonhibf^arfl^ 

«n4 vacMed bis .seat,, they wnceived that toe confirmation of the act would invoWe the 
l^iriature in dtfficuli ie», in case of the electton of another membec, without ben^tirig 
the person in whose ^fav'onr it had ^een proposed; lo;Wli*« inenli^r*^!^ had . 
home Mclt ampfe testimony, a« to occasioh 'a' wish ttikt tbt lbadfgent«^«JttM liwi 
Utaem^ cim^otly€£ontitaUott.ft^.the oouotiy^ 

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350 tHfe ritiiiiftt 

^HAP.^L ject to tiieiir Serious corisideratioA. Th^ art6ttie>-^li*^ 
1770. immediately rofe6, and, ih in elaborate i*etie\<r df the whojfe 
affafr, maintained thit Sir lohn Alley ne had vaciteH Ws 
seat, 4nd justified the proceedi/igfe of tbe house. It h^ 
been cbntended, both within arid >vlthotit -dooi*, tliat tkfe 
, ^assembly were competent k6 grant leave of abfeOTrcie to &ny 
of its memberls, withi^ut the cOnciinrelnce olf thfe oth^ 
branches 6f the tegislatdrie. For, by the few and dmld^ 
of parlianient, whatever matter arises concerriihg "eft%<ft« 
house of parliament, ought to be examined, discuised,* ftud 
adjudged in thkt house to which it relates, iand not «!tee^ 
Vhere*. Where, then, it was asked, was the nefces^ity ibH: 
*alaw to enable the assembly to indulge its ttiembets i^th 
occasional leave of absenee? The ansiver was obvidlil 
The privilege in <Iisputfe had *been iufrendered, hy thb 
. assembly, half a century before -f. Attd, h6'^ev<ir tiddbif- 
trollable the house might^have befen originally, wfth r^^ct 
to its members. Whatever privileges mi^t bhte'*bcen ih- 
hereht in them, as repi-e^eritatrVes 'ol^'^he fko^^ ;it (hose, 
said the learned gentleman, who Irave gotie hetore Us Iti 
that capacity, Tjy an acqiiieseencfe in a law ft)r"that pur- 
pose, have abridged the po^er of <he boiise, un4^l^hat lew 
isrepealed, or the restriclivie clause kWogattetl, it w^s ridi- 
culous to dispute its validity^ or to talk of original prf^i- 

; Blacks Com. vol i: p. IjHji ='t'ttdi'«UH*oil«8i'k;J9*. 

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leges. Tlieug^y he adoaitted, the epostitutional maxim on ^^J^^^^ 
which the law of parliament is founded, he insisted, that ^^^^^ 
liQ house of commons could pretpnd to urge a .privilege 
^nce.jgiven up^ against a positive law, by which it had 
Jb^m feigned. Nor cquld any colonial assembly, by an 
^dependent act of their pwn, destroy that which h^d been 
,e8^blished with the concurrence of the other branches of thp 

To obviate any doubt that may arise, concerning the 
Jjegality of their prpceedinjgs^ under an idea .that the represen- 
jt^iojx of the country was incomplete, Mr. Becfcles observed, 
^at the hpuse.had done all that the law prescribed in 8uc|x^ 
.pa^e§; »ndr,^s the freeholders jiad thought proper to give up 
.thf^if ,birtl)-r|gjit for an idle and fallacious sophistry, 
.^ authority of that house could not possibly 
.^y thieir conjt^jmftcy ; all acts of theirs would b 
;wirtliout ^pt^ representative fc^r that parish, ^ 
iar ,a new e[ec.tipn had bee^ obeyed. This c 
4p:Qua(led on the general m^^xim, that he who d 
lights whpn t^xe^ are tendered jtp |iim jn (due fi 
.Cja^ flieirer aft^rw^rds cojnplain of a privation of ttiem. He 
.fioncludfid with moving an answer tO' the govemor s n^essage 
,jp il^^ti (effect; which, he observed, was all that could be 
iJpne,. ?^n}e^s it should be thought proper to perpetrate th^jr 
ej^clusjf^n; but this, for- the sak^eof majoy worthy men ii^jthat 
parish, he wpukl ijot recommend, thojugh the obstinacy of 
^^^^.^l "fhsi^.t.^^^^^^^^ ^ad beepciip^t^ 

Digitized by 



"C^^j^Jxi^^/ d the full weight of legislative dls-^ 

The dttirney-gefteral then complained of ah insull irhteh 
Tfed been oflerdd to the house, no less heinous tbdn that 
if^hich had occupied thdr attentton. 'Whilst the m^mberi 
of «lia<f assembly were under a reciprboal impikd faith' to 
keep 'ittviolablc the iecretscfthe house; and their cleric 
^ail 'bound by the sacred obligmtibn of .an oath ; ' he thought 
it ^^hdalbtts to see in^ a c6mmon "Miw^piipef ti^ difesss^ 
^irom tRe gcn-ernor, with }x confidential observathm of faii 
oWui which had never been entered' on their jourAala tifl 
thatdajT. How!4his bad hAppeiied» he thought worthy of 
an inquiry, that tfie porson who hodrofiended may be mftd^: 
to- cKpr^s a' due tensel/pf hb error. Obionel Ridgiawmy 
iihmediaiely * rose aad at^dircrd himself the author of Ute 
cotiimunication alluded tOy ub€:0b8ciou^ of any ' imp arupt i aly 
atbending^ the diselosuM * of iwhat had paased ^ wiliuri their 
wall^. With this ex^planatlftn; Mr« BecidcB prb&ssed; him^ 
self ^satisfi^ ; and thece die btsiness: tested untii trsvbae^ 
iKorrtr. qtientmeetingof tbeasiemby, when the rule, wkM was 
sup]^O0ed'to hAve been infiriagedi wafc leaid in tbne tronjb^; 
that the minutes of the house, taken by the joteikkfe aifpof * 
• their meetings, sho^ remain with Atm^ ^ndisebiad Ml 
thbysfaaH b& Gkm6isned by the hotise at A fatbie^iicetfligl ^ 
* Tfae^fttestiQn was then put, whether the rde is todse^dn^^- 
siderad binding on the clerk alone, or wlktfaer ibimf Her am 
obligatioii on tbe members of the house P and ettsieil in 

Digitized by 



•*k • ■ ■ • 

th^;{f$|tr)s^ye. A more extTaordinar|r.4^t^ini0a^,'.or ^^ci^ 
stranger perversion of language perhaps was never ktuf^fo^ ^"'**' 
BitHdraiktifig: thfe c^o^truetton to, be jtia*< it; «ftiay. l^«^fll- 
<3iljb tQ.coaoeive rfhat-Hcrtis fjf Jke Aotipeth^ rppres©n^HT0f* 
of the. people affe under orma^mciil.mpU^d faith. tp-fofieetf^ 
iTGtnr'iheBr'eonstitueitts.v Shall the -most impottatU, p^it'* 
concerns -be canvassed dnd deddeel> upon by liii^H^s^l^gii^' 
lature-^th' the impeoieflrable sedreey of -ar llk>i»i{>b^ -inquiai^ 
tiafA ? ShaU tbq (frae subjeel^.of a .BoitisKcolotiy fefliain in . 
siietit<5ubiiiis8i«m'<ii)l ^thedrvfi^i» .i8,d«jbemii9ed hy an Ask^'* 
d^^ftn? Off Ull tfaetr detogtttta omn&aooDd, ttt a mattot of 
gHice dnil &t<niiV' tor infoniit tWofc df ttieir iinKsesdibgs^^ 
NMhitigi'sljould lever pos^ < lirithia .ttev'^predncts' oit the* 
tovn4|EU1.^6f iwhicdi the"p^lei6aght» not tbt have iAx& eat-* 
licdt Dotioeu The.inestsamUe^nght o^ pta^kmng; laws- fof.. 
tfaoBciJimigofVffiiiiientiia. liQdigai-.hjn.'tkie»:ii^^ iri Ibir* 

gmot} badtf! «f ithei-pebpfe; • l^^o iiaeoBnaufinoei : of tiniBa^^ 
tuHui sisaeiabKeB sfiMt'St^gesfed .illeitaipaiilitnqjr of dielegaA*'. 
iB^^lbesadNdi task oil legislattto tt> a> «tiec* n:unbcr;. aad> 
tluMe iHni .ar(!>a|ipoiilt«cb 'to e^atonfea tbe solemn, trusts aire' 
unqoettiaBablyadcniBii^^'tai: thoat GauA wh^ia tbeiir ajor- 
t)M»rilj);iatdeiivM.' '? vJ /.•« i-.i ,•■;•.»!.-« , 

; '?hi»«iK>«tatlen«tbo«lJtiU l^j HeJtfBV* Pob^ itopttieDt i77i. 

July 16. 

of : Ale» alttord; n^traiat, ofa^ecfted <^6 tttSDcdoatruetiao whicbi . 
hmi'ho^q^vik vipoa ^Am^Mg\n99ikq^pnakkg am obligOtiQii' of 
8«fMpfito:the tB^lNar»of(;thab>bki^/H^u&llgr/ wk»» 
midiBaoiiifet«mtwitb^(iiieiv<iddty:tAi. their 000^ 

Digitized by 



CHAP. XI. vrhose sentiments they were bound to pay a ,'respectftil at- 
^'^^r- tdhtion. He, therefore, moved, that the assembly should> 
by an explicit declaration, confine the rule to the clerk 
alone. Mr, Beckles, far from wishing to restrain any gen- 
tlcinan from consulting his constituents by an injunction'of 
seCtecy, secoiided the motion; and what was, if possible^ 
more extraordinary, it was unanimously agreed to. 
177^ The scantiness of our records furnish no further informa-^ 
tidn concerning the administration of Mr. Spry. After the 
death of his former lady, he married the beautiful relict of 
Hamlet Faitchild, but he had not long enjoyed the ddights- 
of this imion before he was removed to another, and. more 
perfedt state of felieitj^. 
;5cpt. 4. ^his fnelant^l^ ^vent placed thci Honourable Samuel 
Roils a seCdtid time in the presidential chair. Still ocCu- 
picid by theftW^gtefet objects -that had long engaged their 
attention, of pteservinglheir capital from fii-e, and facili- 
tating itS: ctommfetccj, the assenibly jmssed two acts, one for 
the estdblisbita^t 6f sii fire companies ; the other for deep- 
ening, cleansing, and imprdving the mole-headr. To pro- 
vide a^fUnd for teffectuating the latter design, the^x on the 
inipoi*tatibh of slaves from Africa was increased; and, in 
lieu teff the fbrnier duty of one potind -of gunpowder, a 
duty of two ^shillings and' sixpence a ion wasitidiscrimi- 
nately laid 6n srti vessels resorting tO' the islaind. Of the' 
produce of this impost, fifteen hbtidfed^ pounds were an- 
nuafly appropriated to the purchase of gunpowder ibr the 

Digitized by 



use of the forts, and the surplus was made applicable to CHAP. iL 
the works at, the mole-head. ^''^^• 

This bill was hurried through the house with such cele- 
rity, that the ship-owners, whose interest was mpst inm^e^ 
diatel^ affected by it, had no opportunity of endeavouring, 
to arrest its progress by any representation of ite evil 
tendenqy. The merchants pf Bridge-town, therefore, pne- 
. sented , a petition to the council, in which they stated, that) 
by a former law, all vessels, owned . by . tlje inhabitants, 
were exempt from the payment of the tonnage-duty; an 
immunity which they insisted was calculated to promote 
the interest of the country by encouraging the increase of 
its shipping. They represented, that the vesaejs. owned by 
the native traders were employ edj in an intercourse among, 
the neighbouring cjolpnies, in whiqh tjljiqy gejjeraljy made 
from twelve tp^fifteep voyages annuajly; and thftt suchiS^iL, 
impost, so frequently repeated, would be ^n ir^^upportable 
burthen on the navigation of the , country, and> in eflSact, 
prohibit a beneficial branch of pommerqe- , . ^ 

Thijj being.a mpqey.bij^.^^^^ not. bp, ^mended, by thp^ 
council; it i^vfi^^ ^therefore,,. returned, to the asspmbly, withy 
a messgigp^ ,pr9po^jpg^ thajt vessels, owned by thp ipwrhants 
of .tl)e isjlgjid^ shoul4 ^e .^subject to the duty only . thrice a 
year; fleconj[|)y^ ,th^|i a x:ioi:^missiop of two ai^d a half^pc^, 
cent, ipstj^adjpf ,%ej^AyoMljd be.g-auffiQijent.einolun^emt fo^^ , 
Uie storely^epcr; thirdly,, that tliesmii of t\YP, thousand 

z. z 2 

Digitized by 



<^^;;):^ ould be appr6priated to tlie purchase of 

*^^- ) use of the fortifications. The first of 

v^as agreed to on a division ; .the second, 

terest t6 prevail over considerations of 

negatived by ^ majority of ten to threfe; 

with great propriety, qnanimously re- 

hus amended, was again sent tip to the 

d. Upon this occasion, the assembly 

ident to discpptinue the ftrirtg^ of the 

ling giin at Needfiam's^ which un- 

as they termed it^ was attended with 

it hundred pounds a year. This'requefet, 

too stroqgly against the interest of t^ie 

becbmplied with. And it is worthy of 

ptwithstanding the considter^ble saving 

■ of pdwder during Mr. Spry's iidministration, under thatlof 

'^t llous,* thp c(Mel6t6T^^ was inadequate to supply the de- 

madiB, in a seiasoii of profound ; 

' fi^oth bills, oti being transmitted to Erigla'nd^ were r^« 

ferred td the confti^e^tion of Mr^ JacksoiH counsel to t^e 

hp^rSt of trade. On the met fer the ^stabltthnent oi.fyce 

cbiripahies, h^ obsetved^ lihat it had beeiL)naoi« thto oitce 

Imported to be the i^pinioB of their lopdships, that the creat* 

iiig <^ SL corgoTAikm, being witl^in the power of the Crowa, 

and its representative, ought not to be ex«ndsed by the 

'provincial legislature, tmlesB it be imder singtilar ctfoum- 

ttances, of which the present occauon of iacorporaJtilig »ix 



Google 1 

OFBARIUm)ES. ^i57 

: •bodied of rasU at oim;q» nw^y possibly bo on0^ , But thft i^Qst' ^^2!^;;^^ 
., fuf^l^atl. objection to the act ^as jhe po^er giv«ii t<> the . *'!'*• 
;$^^fiB^s§iooefii pot x]|nly tgt cooAtilu^^ aQ4 establish su,ck 
- 5u|f» ftnd Qr4w«i 9* i^^yf sfcpuW thwk Pony^N^nt ^ the* 
good ^venmie^t of tbue fire>cpn)panie» ; but §lsp^.*^ to.'makQ 
^n4 ef l;^i»li, )^^ch othe^ r^le8 s^qd prd^rs a^ tt^ey shall thiik 
Cppd\icive t9 tt^ better execution of the act ; jwbiqh ml^ft^ 
jindor^eEpsSO madt), ^liaH biiMil$ua4 ^^ig^ a)) anck 
#yetj5 peF«iitt %f pwtpBS, HEhqin they sj^jl, or^qpiaj pQ^qera," 
** Tbispower te bf>exei6uted by a few ija^pjbf^^f Jthe.<joii|)i- 
fU qpd afaeimblj^" said the leayiif)^ b^nj/^jfjy.,**^^. certainly: 
'tfif> e*>te«sive, and, at Ifsu^t, aPRrpaf hfisr tof} ni^ to ardele*- 
Ipated legisiatipKJ, l99tifyw^^^ffl^^^:'ff]'^]^^^^^}<^^:.^ 

Ti»e utility. <?£• its ql^l va^, si^^^ptv in, Ml* Ja^filksonV 
^piitiom t©,pre«ail «gf^B8«, ^ .jp|»^i%»^ pbj^tit^ >> , ^^^ 
^impjopving-Maa; Jiwte'JtfiRdJ^^noe^. >tlj^iii .ifn|^<} a* 
dutjf'ontho timd©ftDtjbflhipi^i«gf,ofr^^eff,^itaiiJ,, ■I'hp^te 
^as, ia no oih^r lOBpact,, f^^hyt (ej^^jpt^jt^ jtbeprix^ 
gropcvty wbijBJb it inigktr bd .ja^espa^ tp^ oonvcf^ jU^ tke 
J>ubli»? 4if© w«p,diie«tl:d.t» be Yaitif4,>M¥r^M^i JWP^<^,jh- 
< n^ lof a jwy. iVwr.tfafae ie«»«iiM» . ^l^tb^^^ yip^^i^^ 
]gyitd by, tfaeiKiogr; and Mr* JlaM*) v4w!<W hfi^ T^fi^y^ 
appoidtdd to thp gaTCfaiia<M»tK)"wa& djj5ir^tpd,,^q]5!, ^^i^^a^9J^l, . 
tO'TficoiiiD?epdtl|^p^hig;of ot>W» fi^»jiiw»^th/*/«#^,fp- 
pUted to.ti?eie/ jThi« ^wa awr4i9|jto5v 4<?9!^.^^4 -f^frrM*"^ 
jesey oonfinapd* th«Pr , i*?, ^ coBsideratjoft , .^. jtj^e^ ifopp^i^Mfie 


Digitized by 


8<58: THE FlteTOBY 

^sSJ^' Mean time a law was enacted to empower the general as- 
Nw/ai. «®n»^^y to permit any of their members, not exceeding four 
at a time, to be absent from the island. The proprietj of 
such an iridalgencc is at best iiighly questionable. Many 
mensber^ of the house of commons, it is tme, ai-e fre- 
quently employed on foreign service, i*-ithout producing 
any national inconvenience by their albsence; but in a co-* 
lony whose Tepresentative body -^jonsists of only twenty-two" 
members, the absence of nearly one-fourth of the number 
rtiay justly be apprehended to impede the progress of pub-' 
Kc business, and to fadilitate the sinister views of a venal 
1773. facHon. '■ The lUw, as we have ah-eady seen, originated in 
the partial design of granting a particular indulgence to 
Sir Joltn G: All^yne ; but, from the failure of that attempt, ' 
andth^ barohet's' jealousy of Mr.' Spry, the proposal was' 
notrevived until after his fexcfellehcy's death. Nor was ' 
tJiis the only innovatibn ihtroddced foi- the personalgniti- 
fication of Sir J6hri Alfcyne.i It bad ever been a standing- 
rule of the assembly; that the speaker. Tike the speaker of 
the house of commons, should vote'only in case of dn equal 
division of the House. Such a rule} dicfnot suit !Sir John ' 
Alleyne's ardent, active mihd. Anxious t6 distinguish liim- 
self upon every question in whidh the interest of his coun- 
^ try was involved, he could not bear to fettered by a rule' 
which confined the exercise of his •intellectual 'poWere,'ind 
obstructed therapid flo^ of patiiotic eloquence wJiicH he 

Digitized by 


OF BAUBAD0E9. 359 

p«5sessed;. 1^ restraint was, therefore, jempv^^jiar^drhe ^^JJ^ 
w^s permitted to speak, or vote, upon alloccasion^^ afi^any* J^^ls - 
ot^ier member might do, , .. ; , .; r 

The day had now arrived whpn Mr* Rous, was to < resign^ r 
for the last time,, the offix^e of cfciief ma^trate. r ,Hk>J4a^r. 
jesty had appointed the Honourable Edflrard Hay^lat* qqur^ 
sulat Lisbpn,. governor of Barbadoes; and his^exceUeiacyrr 
accogip^^ by his lady and two daughtersi arrive4 m Ca^- • 
lisle-^ay,r on Sunday the sixth of Jupe*. Oix the Tuesday- 
following, his excellency landed in state,^ an4 w;^ j^eceived-^ 
on the wharf by the members of both houses of th^l^^- 
Jatura He wasr attended with the usual military parade: 
to St. MichaeFs church, whence,^ after, diyinj^/seryice^, he. 
proceeded, to Pilgrim, and, haying^ ^taken,t^9 ipauguxal^.^^^^ 
oaths, was formally/ invested W/ith the, s^upr.eme ^uthprity* > . r 

Were an opinion formed of JVJr.,]^oua^rfr<^n3i* the panpgyt^ 
rics be8t9wed on him by 4i^<^^^.pul|p|Up,.bpi^ies, .in> theiF 
respective address?Si during his pKesidegLcy«^,vwe.siiaul4 be 
induced to estef^m^hioi asj.a itioderi). Traj;^n,.ADir Antonine* 
But no dependence can be plaijed in such .fallacious ^ap- 
plause^ Truth is Jittl? regaildcd i,» the composition of t^hese; 
eulogies.* By his rviffilanceapd ai^siduitywparp told, that r 
Bridge-town was raised frpin pi»4^s^ fhat elegant struc-^ 
tures had risen, P,hoen)x like,, fropi .^shes; and that the 
same patriotic h?ind^ whigh performed these wonders hadj 
fixed, the. i^t stone in tlie, head of, (jben^w. moje;; fsnn un*- , 

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CHAR XI. ckertakiog that would shed a Icutre on hid adminiatfarCidn. 
1773. Wkat peculiar merit may belong to the pfesident for tlm 
part which he sustained in these transactions^ we cannot 
pieeitelj ascertain. It is pfdbable, that ke participated in 
common with the other orde?? of the legiakittre hi their aeal 
to promote these useful works. But, whatever credit may . 
be due to him on this subject, candour must condemn brs 
ne^Gct of the administration of justice ; Ills inattention to 
^ the waste of stores on the forts, and the ifnfriMgement whiclk 
Iw committed on the riglits of election. 

At the general dectioo^ inHnediately pmceding his^ los» of 
power, he interfered vei^ impropei-ly with the matrosses <rf 
Speight's and Reid's-bay divisions ; several of whom be en^ 
ccmraged to oppose the interest of their c<^ne), by promis- 
ing them indemnity *t the expense of Uie adverse party. 
But in the parish of Saint John, fee not Only appeared at 
the poll and voted himself^ but inflnenced others to vote fi>r 
the candidate whom be supported. Mr. Haynes, tlie tm- 
-sucoesful candidate, petitioned the- assembly, (jontplaining 
of an midue i^urn, and praying that he might be permHted 
to controvert the election. Biit before the aifiiir couM be. 
investigatcid, he consented to withdraw his petition, on the 
ptttkknt's promising him his fhtute support. 
' No » qrth d o g (H th o a oHc t t o r^gener a], Mr. Henry Duke, a 
nan i^ a ftrongj^active a^d, generous mind, who, in the 
study and pnactiee'ofhitf ^professions had aoquired a dear 

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^nd perfect^ knowledge of the English constitution, brought ^2^;JP' 
the .matter before the house* He represented the presi- " ^^^' 
4^t's canduet as a flagrant viola^Qpi ^f tjie, elqctiy^ iij^P- 
^i phwe^ of whiXfh it was the duty,of . that ho^^. to jrecoxd their 
r . d^o^d^ , disapprobation ; and concluded . with moving a re- 
sqlutioPt iui these words s That it is against the freedom of 
, f^ecticMis^.^uid tl^e privileges of this house, that, a com- 
/ /Q$o4er ip ^tiof /4iottl4 vote at, or interfere in, the election 
,:of:i:epre^ntatiyef. The learned gentleman's design, bow. 
ever, was defeated, .by the -speaker's moviqg tl^e previous 
questiptt ; and thQ. original motion was .'postppo^d for future 
considerations pii, mpre properly ^pealungrcotpigoed to 
rietertiAVoblii^ioa,.. • , . , :i -. . 

. T^vice* io the course -iQf Mr> fUas's^.s^dsniuistraticui the ' 
, same enlightened ipember coqiplaixied to ih^ assembly; of 
. asMsp^Dsiofi qf justice, in civil cases^.oiring ,to the culpa- 
ble. neglect.Qfthe.p^nsQiDS ^ppoiiitiedti^ jp^resiideifithecoorts 
. .of law. IJe moved fos a«(^n^ttee,to, iaqvHrp. into these 
«bus^ And to report to the hpu&e what .was^ proper to be 
dqti& in aid of defective Jaws, or in redress of those, which 
. ^ere violated. ■ Buthis jp^triotic exfxtion^ ^wisie -rendered 
•injeffectual bqr the influence of rthe judges, |of; whom sevcaal 
had seats in the assembly.**. , ... . ., 

■' J ' n I . , iii in i I > ii ■! I I ' M l ' J i .l? I I 11 1 III I I J <' 

* The liouM Wm, «t this thne; coapcied of SanUon Vfioi, itA H. Hi^e/foii- St. 

ten*, St. Pkilip, H. Walker and J. Cogan Cox, St, Otorg^h S. ■ Walkott and J* 


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CHAP. XI. Ui\Uv% St. /«!»'«. George Sander* and W. Gibbet Alleyne, Si. noMctV. T. AU 
1179. 1^^^ ^' ^* Wheeler £idgeway, Si. Jamai*t. J. Leacock and S. Hinds^ Si. Peier^i.. 
Sir John Gaj Alleyne and James Maycork, Si. AndrewU. Hillary Rowe and H. 
Bowe, Si. Luaf$. T. P^yne and J. Stewart, Si. Joseph's. 

The members of eeundl were Samnel Bous, J. Botin, A. Cnmbefbatch, H. Frere^ 
Conrade Adami^ Gedney Claike, Irenseus Moe, B. Brathwaite, W. Senbouae, IL 
Cobhamj W. Bishc^ a|id John Best* The two lait were added upon Mr. Ha/s ar* 

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CHAP. XU. : 




On the first meeting of the provincial parliament after cHAP.xn. 
the govemorV arrival, his excellency opened the session in "IttsT* 
the usual manner, with a speech from, the chair. He ob- ^^ * * 
served, that the trust which his Majesty had reposed in 
him, by promoting him to the government of the island, 
was, in its nature, very diflferent from any of the former 
posts which he had held under the Crown. The adminis- 
tration of the most ancient, most populous, and, in pro- ' 
portion^ to its extent, the most wealthy of his Majest/i 
^dominions in the new world, was a charge of the utmost 
importance ; and he was sensible Teqaired a more intimate 
knowledge of the laws and constitution of the country thaii 

3 A S 

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^^I^-^* te possessed. But whea he considered the character o# 
^'^* the inhabitants from the first settlen^jnt of the island, their 
loyalty to their^Sovereign, and attachment to their excellent 
constitution ; and that thbse principles had been carefully 
banded down to the present generation, he pi*)fessedto feel 
encouraged to the arduous undertaking; happy in the 
thought that he could confidently relj on tlieir assistance 
in conducting the business of government. After recom- 
niend[ing a proper Attention to the defence of the island, 
for which, he remarked, no time could be more proper than 
that of peace, his. excellency modestly advjerted to -the 
Kihg's instructions respecting the usual provision for. the 
support of the commander in chiefs observing that it did 
not become him to enlarge on a subject of so much deli-^ 

The addresses of both houses were in the highest degree 
polite and respectful. They, breathed the same sentiments 
of joy at his excellency's appointment, and. of cordial con- 
gratulation on b;5 safe arrival. His excellency's amiably 
^character, and approvied. conduct in other official situations 
Avere suflBcient pledges, they said, for the faithful discharge 
of the high office with which he was now invested^ and of 
the happiness of the people pl^qed under hiscve,. The 
scene of business may be new,, the po?t assigned may be 
more iniportant^ ajad, m sucb a sitviatioi;^,^,the. ingenuous 
iftind may be led to feel a. diffidence of its poweins ; but io 
the very principle which suggested those fears, the assembly. 

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wOTe confident would be found the true resources of his chap, xil 
excelieney's ease and contentment. ^'^• 

This interchange of civiUties was follow^ed by a* more sub-^ 
stantial proof of regard; A settlement of three thousand 
pounds a year was ma4e on his excellenqy fluring the term 
of his administration. This sum> the speaker remarked on 
presenting the. bilU^hich in the days of their prosperity 
would have been but the ea^y tribute of their benevolence^ 
must, under the pressure of recent calamities,, be acknowr 
tedged as the utmost effort of their good- will. . It cannot 
escape observation, that through the-whole of $ir John Al- 
ley ne's political life, his fine imagination Was clouded with 
an idea of colonial poverty. Oa this topic h^ w?is perpc- 
tually disclaiming and lamenting the visionary inability of 
the country to provide for the necessary expenses of go*- 
vemraent. The bill was receivediin the mogt^racioiis. man- 
ner by the governor, who professed, to. consider it as an 
ample testimony of the pubUc esteem. . 

Sensible of the importance of aregular administration of 
justice, Mt. Hay's attention was ea^ly turned to the means 
of redressing the abuses comH^itted in .the judicial depart- 
ment: Hfe sent circular letters .to th^ judges^ remonstrating 
against their dilatoiy procecsdings, intimating that the cla- 
mours of the people had reached the Royal ear; and re- 
ferring to his own .diligence on the chancery bench: as an 
example for the dispatch of business. The next object of 
his care was not of less importance^ Thoroughly acquaint-^ 

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^^^^:^* ed with the principles of eommero^ his cxcdlency readily 
^^^- perceived the benefit which the island would derive from an 
extension of its trade. To this end he recommended that the 
assembly should make an immediate application to parliament 
for the establishment of a free port in Barbadoes. The pro*- 
posal diffused the .most general satisfaction ; and the com« 
mittee of corfespondence directed the agent to pursue the 
ispeediest and most effectual means of attaining this desire- 
able object. The minister approved of the application, 
and offeied to gitant a free trade with the Spaniards, on 
*he same terms as were enjoyed by Jamaica, which Mr* 
Walker most unaccountably hesitated to accept till he 
could consult his conMituQuts; and, in the interval^ the Ja« 
maic^ bill having past, the opportunity of securing the adr 
vantage was lost. 
1775. The extremities to which the fetal d»putes between 

Great Britain, and her North American provinces were ap- 
proaching^ excited , the utmost anxiety and aiann through^ 
out the whole West Indian archipelago. The commerciai 
int^xrourse between the British islands and the American 
continent was deemed the most essf^ti^ -to the prosperity^ 
nay to the very existence of the sugar cokmies ; as it was 
the. only channel through whkh they coitld . be supplied 
with articles of the first necessity* The interruption of 
this necessary intercourse was anticipated, l^T; the < Bax« 
badiahs with dismal forebodings of the dangerf and dis* 
tresses to which it would expose thetn# Yet duci^g the 

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whole progress of the dk^ute, the legislature of Barbadoes *^JJ^J^^ 
maintained a r^pectful silence^ unwilling to add to the '^7^* 
perplexities c^ the ministry bj aaingling their complaints 
with those which were poured in from every other quarter^ ^ 
€»r conscious that no application of theirs would be regard^ 
ed when inteiests of hx greater national importance de-- 
pended on the issue of the contest. 

The sword was, at length, unsheathed, and the com*^ 
mencement of actual hostilities prodnced in Barbadoes the 
most alarming apprehensions of famine. Early in the pre- 
sent year, an attempt was made to ascertain the quantity of 
provisions on hand in Bridge-town, which was estimated to . 
be unequal to tlie ordinal^ consumption for the short pe-* 
wod of six weeks. At this critical moment Captain Payn^ 
an officer in the British service, arrived for the purpose of 
purchasing provisions and live stock for the use of the 
troops at Boston^ who had endtnr^d uncommon distress 
fcom the dehujrs and misfortunes experienced by the vic- 
tualUng ^ips from Europe. The permission which this 
officer received ffom< tbe governor to execute his mission,^ 
excited a considerafble clamour among the people. 

Oa the meeting of the assembly, the solicitor-general com- f*. 13, 
plained to f he bocrtie of this indulgence, as a measure calcu- 
lated to endanger the safety of the jjeople, by depriving 
Aem, of the scanty means of subsistence which they pos- 
sessed. It was the duty of that house, he said, to adopt 
mec»rares of precaution, to avert, if possible, the impending 

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bHAP. XII. calamity. All trade with America was prohibited ; our 

^•^^^- internal resources had failed, and self-preservation, the pri- 
mary law of human nature, constrained them to . husband 
the remaining stock of provisions, and not to suffer it to be 
further diminished. He lamented their inability to supply 
his Majesty's forces with every accommodation which their 
situation required ; but, under the existing circumstances, 
ft gracious prince would not wish us to become victims to 
an impotent zeal for his service. Upon these considera- 
tions, Mr. Duke moved an address to the governor, beseech- 
ing him to prohibit the exportation of the necessaries of 
of life until the island was more plentifully supplied. As 
this could only produce a temporary advantage, the soli- 
joitor-general next proposed an address to the King, pro-^ 
fessing their loyalty and attachment to his Majesty and the 
<:onstitution of the mother country, expressing their grati- 
tude for the favours rexrently bestowed on the colony; re- 
presenting the misery and distress to which the bulk of the 
people must inevitably be retiuttd, unless relieved by the 
timely assistance of the King and Parliament; and implor- 
ing his Majesty's gracious interposition in their favour. 
Both motions were unanimously agreed to; but, on the 
suggestion of the speaker, the farther consideration of the 
throne was deferred to the morrow^^ 

In the meantime the governor went to the apeak^'s town 
residence, and declared, that if the assembly persisted in. 
their resolution of addressing the King, as it would answer 

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tK) other end than that of disturbing his Majest/s peace of chap. xii. 
mind, he would immediately dissolve the house. But> find- *7^^* 
ing that the speaker and the other members present were not 
of a temper to be intimidated by menaces, he lowered his 
tone, and condescended to employ entreaties. They would 
make him happy, he said, if they would rescind their reso* 
lution ; adding that he was actuated by a friendiy mqjtire 
towards the assembly, in wishing to dissuade them from a 
measure which he was apprehensive would be dbpleasing to 
the King. Neither threats nor entreaties could divert the 
assembly from their purpose. They met pursuant to ad^. 
joumment, and agreed to both addresses. But, notwith* 
standing the unanimity of the preceding day, the address to 
his Majesty was warmly debated. An address proposed by 
the speaker, and another by Mr. James Maycock, were both 
rejected; at length the draught of the 9oUcitor--gen^l le- 
conciled all parties^ and was unanimously adopted. Bot 
Judge Rowci, who professed himself averse from addressing 
at all, moved that the agent should be instructed Xo present 
or suppress it at his own discretion. This extraordinaiy 
pr^osition was opposed by the speaker, tie could hot 
thinks he said, of committing the dignity of that house to an 
•gent If the address was improper, it ought to have been 
rejected; but now, ttiat it had passed the ^ou^e, the agent 
kad wrthing more to do wiUi it than to present it in the usual 
foim. The propriety of this obswvatioa was sel^vident, 

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CHAP. XII yet Mr. Rx)we's motion was negatived only by a majority 
^^"^- often to nine. 

Mr. Hay, naturally irritable, was. highly exasperated at 
these proceedings. He transmitted to the secretary of state 
a representation of the circumstances of the country, wholly 
different from that which was. made by the assembly, whom ^ 
he accused of exaggerating the distresses of the people. Not 
satisfied with this expression of resentment, he determined to 
make Mr*. Duke feel the weight of his indigaation; and acr 
cordingly deprived him^ of his rank at the bar as his Ma- 
jesty's solicitor-general.- Duke, ever anxious to involve the 
pubhc in his private quarrels, flew to the assembly for^ Fe^ 
4ress«.. Hie poured forth his complain ts^in an elaborate aiH 
gumentative speech, and endeavoured to persuade the house 
jthat his, disioissal from :ofiGtce^ as it was the consequence oif 
ike faithful exercise of hiS' legislative ^duty, was a direct vio-i 
lation .of their, privil^es* To Ihis. conclusion the speaker 
objected* . He laanented that: the duty of an upright repre- 
sentative of the people should in any > instance be* deemed 
incompatible, wilh that of a faithful servant of the crown j 
but hetdm^d th{^ the solicitor-generaFs suspension was^.a 
yiolatioa ot the privileges of the house. On the contrary^ 
oonsidering* the abuses committed by patent officers. Sir 
Johoc Alley ne insisted that. the govempr?s, power of suspend^* 
ing them was beneficial to the public, and advantageous to 
eivil liberty. The house concurring in these sentiments^ 
Mr. Duke could obtain no other satisfaction than a reso^ 

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Itition, moved by Mr. V, Jones, that his conduct as a mem- ^J^J^J:^'' 
ber of that house had been such as became a dutiful and ^^^^' 
loyal subject. Nor was this tribute to his merit obtained 
without difficulty, several of the members thinking it unne- 
cessary, as his loyalty was not impeached. 

The address of the assembly to the King was accompanied 
by a memorial from Mr. Walker, the agent, to Lord George 
Germaine, exhibiting a gloomy picture of the condition of 
the country drawn by the dehcate pencil of Sir John Al- 
ley ne* According to this pathetic representation, the poor 
white inhabitants were on the point of perishing with hun- 
ger; those in the neighbourhopd of the sea-coast came dowa 
in crowds to gather the most wretched pf all the fruits of 
the earth for their subsistence; the negroes, destitute of 
any allowance for their support, were left to plunder or to 
starve; the cattle had consequently been stolen; the few 
plantane walks and com fields, which, from partial showerSt 
had produced an early harvest, had been robbed, and the 
bloodshed that followed the rapine, opened a dismal pre- 
lude to the tragedy that was preparing. These accounts 
have been accused of exaggeration. The event indeed 
proved that the apprehensions of famine were providentially 
relieved. Yet that the condition of the people, especially 
the lower classes, was faithfully delineated by the pen of 
the venerable patriot, is still within the recollection of manj 
who were participators in the common calamity. The 
scarcity of provisions was so alarming, that the govfimor 

5b SI 

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(M^^j^J* himself soon after applied to Admiral YouDg, to facilitate 
^^i^^ the importation, by granting passports to vessels laden with 
American produce. The admiral readily assented to (he 
request; but, to guard against any abuse of the indulgence^ 
recommended an association to carry on the business under 
his license. This proposal was deemed impracticable ; and, 
for the want of a sufficient bond of union among the mer- 
chants, the scheme proved abortive. 

jMr. Duke's dismission was soon followed by that of Mr. 
Shepherd, chief baron of the court of excheqii^r, for having 
Opposed the governor's nomination of a mercantile gentle 
man to be one of [the puisne barons. Mr. Miller, who w-as 
appointed to succeed judge Shepherd, did not losig enjoy 
his elevation before he fell under his excdlency's displeasure, 
by declining to preside as chief justice at the court of grand 
. sessions; and, in consequence of eomie inciviHtiet which he 
received from the governor, be resigned his ^tuation. Mr, 
.Francis Cawley Boson, an English barrister, was now placed 
at the h^id tif the court of exchequer. Nor was it long 
before Mr. Boson had the misfortune to ofifend the governor 
by appointing a 'reputable merchant of Bridge-town to ^fiU 
the vacancy an the bench. The governor, mcoMecting the 
Abjection fcmuetly made to a person of that character, pKw 
posed by himsefef, peremptorily refused to conirm the chic^ 
baron^s choice* Boson ventured to urge his recommetida^ 
tion ; and, probably, with a view of enforcing the neceAwty 
of an cariy appointment, requested his excellency'^ per- 

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Google I 



iQimioB to leare the isfend for the benefit of Bis Ketillh. The ^^^:^ 
extreflfie ioflainmabilitj of the governor's temper instantly *^^^* 
took fire at this importunity. He immediately convoked 
the council, and having laid before them the judge'i letters^ 
proposed his removal from office ; the board readily con^ 
curred with their irritable chief, and Boson, without the im^ 
putation of any crime, was dismissed jfrom^ his employment^ 
An injudicious attempt made by the governor to screen a^ 
pnblic officer frem condign punishment, contributed m$^ 
teriidly to increase the ill-humour between his excellency 
and the assembly.. R. Reece, a matross at James Fort^ 
aear the Hole Town, lodged a forriial complaint in writ^ 
mg, to. CQlooel T. Atteyne against W. Dotin, chief-gunner of 
that division^ for having embezzled and sold considerably 
gliantiiies of gunpowder, and other stores, belonging to thf 
garrison under his command. The colonel, ^ man of thfi^ 
most indexible integrity, applied to the chairman of the 
commissioners>of fortifications, who was the captain's owOr^ 
brother^ to convene a board for the purpose pf inquiring into, 
the truth of the accusation. The chairman, the Honovir^ 
able John Dotin^ afterwards president of the island, having 
evwted the application, AUeyne detennined to lay the mat- " "^ 
ter before the governor;, and, a? a necessary precaution, 
wrote to Captain Potin, informing him of his intention tOi 
fttttpend him, until he had cleared himself pf ^the cbarge$* 
exhibited against hip>; and desiring him to deliver the key8 
9f the foct to a penyon v hofA hd had Jient ta raoeive thenii 

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CHAP.'^n. ?With 'tliis demand Botin refused to comply, and accom- 
1776, panied by his brother, repaired to Pilgrim the next day, 

•He did not deny having sold the powder in question, but 
endeavoured to justify the act by alledging that it had accu- 
mukted from the usual savings to which the captain gunner 
was justly entitled, as a perquisite of office. To this doc- 
trine the governor readily assented; adding, by way of 
sanction, that it was a common practice in the navy ; and 
immediately wrote to the colonel, denying his authority to 
remove the chief-gunner; ordering the keys of the fort to 
be instantly restored to Dotin; an^ forbidding the colonel's 
interfering farther with the gunners and matrosses than to 
inform him of any misconduct or neglect of duty in the gar- 
Tison. This was an unprecedented attack on the colonel's 
authority. For though the appointment, and of course the 
removal, of the gunners and matrosses is legally vested ia 
the commander in chief, it had ever been -delegated to the 
respective colonels in their several divisions; the governor 
only reserving to himself the patronage of the captain-gun- 
ner at Charles Port, and of the gunner and matrosses at 

The receipt of this letter hurried Colonel Alley ne to Pil- 
grim, with the view of entering into some explanation with 
the governor on the subject; but he found his excellency 
little disposed to listen to any thing which he could offer 
for his vindication. Pale with anger and trembling with 
jrage, his excellency accused him of exceeding tfee boundar 

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o^ his authority in attempting to displace Captain Dotioy S^^.^^^* 
and of a design to destroy a gentleman's reputation and *^^^* 
family^ in listening to. the idle tales ^of dirty fellows. AUeyne 
h^d a spirit too noble to submit to such, treatment. He tore 
the. cockade from his hat^ and^ , indignantly thrusting, his 
oommissioninto. the governor's hand^^etu'cd, saying he dis- 
dained to hold it on such terms^. 

Mr. Alleyne's next care was to submit his complaints to 
the only tribunal before which they were cognizable. The 
regular application to the proper authority having been made 
without, success, the only remaining. resource was in the 
assembly's interposition to enforce the claims of justice. 
The house tlierefore presented an address to the governor^ 
Judge Rowe alone, dissenting, praying that his excellency 
would order the chairman of the commissioners of fortifica- 
tions for Saint James's .division to convene a board, for the, 
purpose of inquiring^ into, the charges against the chief, 

Unwilling to push matters to extremity with theassem-- 
bly, the governor issued the necessary directions for investi-, 
gating Captain Dotin's conduct.] A board of commissioners 
was accordingly held at Jame fort, at, Vhich General Rowe 
presided, in the absence of the chairman, and after a minute 
examination of the witnesses. Captain Dotia was fully con-r 
victed of having embezzled the stores entrusted to his care, , 
and was sentenced to be dismissed from the service. The^ 
captain's defence rested on the legality of the savings in thfc 

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CHAP.3m, disbtrtsemcrits of the p<mler. These sftving* ftdcmed by 
1776. ^tirtting the guns of one half the customary charge of pow- 
<ier> and were usually disposed of for the chief gunner's 
emolument; This was, indeed, the common practice in 
*very division of the island long after Captain Dotitfs dis- 
grace. That economy must be bad, which, by witli-hold- 
ing the fair reward of service, compels the officer to seek 
Remuneration in fraud and peculation- Ordinary service, 
^ays a great master of political economy, must be secured 
by the motives to ordinary integrity. An honourable and 
fair profit is the best security against avarice and rapacity; 
as, in all tilings else, a lawful and regulatfed enjoyment is 
the best security against debauchery and excess*. 

The breach between the governor and the assembly was 
now widened by the receipt of a letter from the agent, in- 
forming the house of his excellency's correspondence with, 
the secretary of state, concerning their late address to the 
Throne; which his excellency had described as a measure 
of the assOTfibly alone ; and that the distress of the coun- 
try was not so great as it appeared to them. Mr. Duke 
took up the matter with his usual warmth and public spirit, 
and concluded ah elaborate harangue, with moving three 
resolutions. That it is the undoubted right of the general 
assembly, on all occasions, eitherseparately or jointly with 
flie other branches of the legislature, to address the Throne; 

VMe Burke's l^peecb on Ecoaomical Bcfcnn. 


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of ifARBADbES. 377 

andf thai whoever o]^ poses or obst'riicfe tlie exercise of this ^^^^^^^^^ 
privilege is an enemy to Aie counti'y : that it nianifestly ap- ^'^'^^' ^ 
pears that the governor has, hy an application to his Ma- 
jesty's secretary of state for the colonies, done what' lay in 
his power to intercept hfs Majesty's relief towards Ins loyal 
and distressed subjects of this colony; That a dutiful me- 
morial be immediately transmitted to his Majesty, in sup- 
port of their former petition. The first resolution was 
agreed to unanimously ; and the other tw6 ifrere voted in 
the affirmative, by a niajority of riirie t6 five. 

things wei'e in this stat^ when tlie Explication of tfre 
assembly ied to a general election. C^n the of)ening 6f thte Aug. 22. 
session, his excellency made a gracious and idoricilla'tor^ 
speech' fo both houses. After expressing the Satisfaction 
which he felt at meietihg theiri again ; and his hopes thtt 
their zeal for the goo J of the colony arid their knowledge 
and experience would be productive of such regulations as 
would be of lasting advantage to the country, he oTDsefved 
that the present conjuncture of affairs niust awaken the 
attention of his Majesty's subjects in every part of hisdomi- 
nions. All must feel the effects of a suspension of trade 
with' «o many of the northern colonies as were then in open 
rebellion ; nor wa? it possible that the West Indies could 
be exempt from a large share of inconvenience from the 
interruption. But such had been the provident care of the 
King, and both houses of parliament, that every precau- 
tion had been taken for the benefit of his loyal subjects. 

3 c 

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CHAP. XIL He congratulated them oa the mimerous cargoes^ which hadf 
^^^^* been recently imfxirted, and the continual showers of rain 
with which the country had been blessed, and which af- 
forded the most pleasing praspect of greater plenty than 
they had yet enjoyed. Firmly persuaded that the repre^ 
sentatives of the people were desirous of promoting the 
interest and happiness of their constituents, he earnestly 
recommended prudence^ calmness, and moderation in their 
proceedings, ^s essentially necessary to the public welfare.. 
He again urged, what he had. often ineffectually suggested 
to their considemtion,. the i;eviaal apd amendment of their, 
militia l^ws,,and the provision of adaily maintenance for thc' 
poor prisoaers. The speech coucluded with an assurance 
of his cheerful concurrence in, every measure which couldi 
contribute to the peace, happiness, ajid prosperity, of the 
country, than object was ncjarer to his hearts. 

The moderation and gpod. sense contained in, every sen^- 
tence of this speech, produced no coirespondiqg sentiments 

October 1. of amity on the part of the assembly. They entered into 
an injudicious recapitulation, of past grievances, in their, 
address to the governor, and^ commented, with unseason- 
able asperity, ou his excellency's malign interposition^ by 
which they had been disappointed in the hopes of their 
sovereign's benevolence, in the hour of distress. Whatever 
might be his excellency's opinion of the provident care of 
the King and parliament, they denied that the inhabitant) 
of Barbadpes had received the smallest benefit from their 

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attention. Notwithstanding the supplies, of which his ex- ^,|J^!^:^^- 
cellency had taken notice, they insisted that, from the ^^^^' 
extravagant prices of articles of the first necessity, many 
of the poor inhabitants had been reduced to the most blttet 
distress; and that even the more 'opulent planters had 
found great difficulty in procuring the necessary subsist- 
ence for their slaves- 

They should be happy, they said, in being allowed to 
exercise that temper, calmness, and moderation, recom- 
mended in the speech, though they were not unprepared, 
upon the occurrence of any just occasion, to shew that 
sense of injury and spirit of resentment inseparable froni 
the character of faithful, independant representatives of the 
people. Having, in the course of last session, passed an act 
for the relief of insolvent debtors, they thought that they hadl 
given sufficient proof of their humane attention to the case 
of the poor prisoners. They unequivocally declared their 
unwillingness to revise or amend the militia bill, from the 
difficulties and distrusts that arose in their minds against 
the undertaking ; which, they acknowledged^ were xa^* 
ther increased, than lessened, by every fresh impulse to re* 
move them. In the principle of personal attachment, by 
which the privates were bound to their officers, they con- 
ceived that every legal deficiency might be supplied. Nor 
would they consent to renounce a principle so honourable to 
tsociety in times propitious to the claims of civil liberty in the 

3 c 2 

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980 THE m^jqRY 

^^^^^' colpnie?, and enforce obedience b^ a power congenial only 
"177.5: ^^i^jj ^j^^ ha^j^its of despotic s^&y. 

Jbese were certainly very extraftrdipary sentiments for a 
legislative assemlply, professing an un?haken loyalty toth^ir 
iPrinc^, and a generous zeal for tl?e interests of their country. 
IX rattier seemed to be a dereliction of ^yery honourable rule 
of faction, thus to hazard the public safety, by a wilful 
n^^ect 0|f the. means of defence, from motives of personal 
resentment. to their commander in chief. Were all the faults 
imputed to IVJn Hay admitted, yet the posture of public af- 
|air3 was alarming ; and the assembly were bound by every 
mor^l ^b^li^tion, resulting ^^^^ a s^nse of duty, to guard 
ag^^t the danger of invasion. To this address his excel- 
^^cy jatCpnically replietl, "j[ have rece;yed your address and 
j^aid it before tjie King/' 
1777. Mr. JWa\kerlmd rendered Wmsdfjhighly obnoxious to the 

governor, hj the prornptitude wjttji which he presented the 
a^embly's. acldresses to ^|ie. King, and ^till more by the free- 
dom with which he had censured his excellency s conduct. 
T|ie annual measure c^ appointing an agent, sQon furnished 
i^e gqyernpr yith an opportijnity of indi^lgjng his resent- 
Jml 21. ^^U^J refujsjng his^assent to the bill whicl^ had been una* 
^i^^^pysly ps^i^sed hj both lupuses, nominating Mr. Wa^er 
^^pir ag^nt. JJijs excellency, at j^hp ^ame time informed the 
^a^septt.|)ly, ,^hftt |ie.was,i:eady to concur in the app(^ii^tment 
,§f I W> S^^^^ ^pet^pn. .Iliey ^mmedk^^ voted .an .address. 

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in which, after an eulogiam on t|ie superior talents, and chap, xiu 
faithful services of their agent, they requested his excelleacy ^'^'^'^^ 
would communicate to them his reasons for disapproving 
their choice. To which he briefly replied, " that his reasons 
had been laid before the King^'' 

Upon the receipt of this succinct message, Mr. T. Alley ne Feb. is.. 
moved the house to con^ to the following resolution ; that 
after their full experience of the uncommon zeal and extra- 
ordinary ability of Mr. Walker, in his oflicial capacity, they 
could not renpunce their nomination of him, and proceed to 
another choice without an act of injustice to so worthy a 
servant of the public, an inj[ury to the country, and a dis-^ 
l^onqur to jthemselves. The motion was opposed by Mr. D. 
Maycock. He knew of no circumstances, he said, that 
ought to prevent a discharge of their duty; and as occur- 
rences might happen to make tl>e appointment of an agent 
absolutely necessary, if Mr. Walker could not be replaced^ 
they must ejither elect another and violate the resolution ; or 
adhere to the resolution, and have no agent ; by which they 
would, indeed,, to use the language of the rnotion, do ipjury 
to the country and dishonour to themselves. 

The speaker thpught the resolution justifiable in its full 
extent, "fho assembly, he said, were bound injustice to 
^r. Walker, in duty to their constituents, and id honour to 
themselves, not to sacrifice an old and valuable servant to 
private considerations.' ^ By a too ready (submission to so 
great a loss, thev would appear to make a virtual surrender 

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582 ^ THE IirSTOIlY 

CHAP. XII. Qf the constitutional right of choosing their own agent, or 
^^^^* utterly destroy tlie siilutary effects of that indjspensible pri- 
vilege. For should the assembly passively consent to name 
another agent, should they thus requite the services of one 
vvhose fidelity to their interests was his only fault, what re- 
lurn could be expected from his successor, but that he 
should betray his trust, encouraged by such an example 
of their treacherous imbecility. These arguments prevail- 
ed, and the house agreed to the resolution. But in little 
more than twelve months they were guilty of the very in- 
consistency which iVIr. Maycock's prudent foresight endea- 
voured to prevent; and Mr. Samuel Estwick, after some 
opposition from the friends of Mr. Brathwaite, who was also 
put in nomination, was appointed agent. 

The uanatural contest in which Great Britain was en- 
gaged with her revolted colonies, exposed the Barbadians 
to innumerable dangers and hardships. Their commerce 
was ruined, and their coasts insulted by rebel privateers. 
One of these had the temerity, under cover of the night, 
to venture into Speight's Bay ; but, being discovered, and 
April 28* fired at from Orange Fort, she retired without doing any 
other injury than carrying off a negro man, who was found 
sleeping in a boat in the harbour. This attempt was soon 
followed by another, less daring, but more injurious in the 
June 12. event. A small American schooner appeared off the north 
end of the island, and captured several fishing boats, with 
many valuable slaves on board. The loss was estimated at 

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two thousand pounds, and fell principally on a useful class ^^J^^;^:^^- 
of people, whose subsistence, and that of their numerous ^^'^^* 
families, depended upon their success in fishing. These 
alarming attempts excited the apprehensions of the inha- 
bitants- of Speight's Town for their safety^ They concurred 
in a petition to the assembly, representing the danger to 
which they were exposed from the defenceless state of the 
town, and its^ vicinity, and praying that the house would 
take proper measures for their effectual protection.. 

This irregular mode of proceeding, gave rise to another 
no less singular and unprecedented. Having taken the 
prayer of the petition into consideration, together with the 
state of the public finances, which they deemed inadequate 
to provide for the defence of their coasts, the assembly 
adopted the strange resolution of applying, through their 
speaker^ to the naval commander on the station- The 
governor certainly was. the proper whom the com- 
munication, in the first instance, ought to liave been made^ 
and from whon^ the application to. the .admiral ought to» 
have proceeded.. But, without the smallest atteution to his 
excellency. Sir John Alley ne, who, in pui'suit of the. public 
good, lost sight of every other consideration, readily under— 

took the task of representing to Admiral Young the defence- 

1 " 

^ess state of the country, and the depredations committed 

on the property of its inhabitants; and concluded a highly 

complimentary letter, with soliciting his particular attention 

to the protection of Barbadoea, The admiraVs reply was 

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384 •mE'MiStbRt 

^'^^7: |)jr $h^ natore ^ cxf thfe service in wlilcli his s^uadi-oii %aa 
b^grt (employed, from preventing the^ injuries 'c6iiij>!airiejrf 
of, but promised that he would stati6A' ia frigate to crilfefe* 
r9J^p4 tli^i trfaitdvibr its mpre effectual i^ctttityir' ^For •ftiis 
^e^'iatiptt friwacr official routine, $ir John Alleya^ ^ai 
ho^vrecj with , thfc tbianks 6f the ass^bly^ nndtnimbiii^ly 
XQted.ijijifiilVhousej. ^ , ' ;* ^ : .; 

1778. , The xepeated applioations pf the asisenihlyr tcr tbcvBritlsH , 
ministry for relief, .w^ere at last attanded with succ^.i By 
an order of th^. lords of the privy fcouhcil, ;Mr. Atkimtam^' 
one of the govqrnj?)ent Qotitrictors; purchased three thou- 
sand barreUjOf flouri, threi^ thEom^nd barrels of Wrings; and^ 
a large c^uajntity; of, pe^se • aod betois, and • cbroigned them 
tp the governor, to be *old under his tiirection at prinie 
cost; the money to be received, and remitted ^o t^.pe^ 
son appointed b^,jtlii?if lofd^hiipstptr^ni^act tbb buwne^i* 
Jan; 20. Upon the rpcp^pjt . of. tbis^ ^e^sojpable fittpply, fpK.the sup- 
port of their dave§,: the -governor, council, apd assembly, 
concurred ip ap address to the King, expressing 44i«i wannr 
est ^cknowledgmente ^of grateful hoartf for ^^ii/grafcimjRi 
proot of condescending attention to the "w^intsjof his faithni 
ful subjects in this distant part of tlie.einpy^'; ^ith tJb^ 
mqst iendd ai^suia^ hpwev^ ini'poyie;ri$hed^d^ni 

* TP6 tHc hoiiom of JMr. Atkinton, let it be remembered, th^l bw-^fiw^ t^m^A 
tlie uscuu commissions, ^oh snipping these gooas* . 


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fsebled bj calamity, iaeHomtiim as well as duty would ^'J^J^^- 
prompt them to testify their onshakea loyalty to the best of ^^^* 
iM^vereigns, and to oppose all disturbers of the ease and hap- 
piness of his government 

Not to be inattmitive to the opportunity of profiting still 
more by \m Majesty's paternal toidemesa, the council pro- 
{K>sed an humble, address imploring his Majesty to recom- 
mend to his parliament the measure of putting this ancient 
and loyal colony, now much distressed by unavoidable 
calamities^ on a looting with all the crther West Indian Is- 
lands, in regard to the duty on their staple products. This ^ 
proposal was eagerly embraced by the assembly, tbough it 
might probably have been more decorous to have laid the 
eAisions of gratitude at the foot of the throne unattended 
by any solicitations for additional proofe of the royal 

The supply of provisions was accompanied by a propo- 
sal very inconsistent with thef benevolent disposposition ma- 
nifested by that partial relief. Mr. Hay was directed by 
the secretary of state to demand of the assembly an allow- 
ance for the mipport of such rebel prisoners as should be 
brought to Barbadoes. Thus, while relief was adminis-- 
tered with one hand, an attempt was made, on the other, 
to exhaust the country still more by an accumulation of it» 
burthens. In obedience to these orders, the governor u^ed 
^Tery eibrt to persuade the assembly to assume the charge 
of providing for the prisoners. But, witli a firmness hig^y 

3 D 

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386 THfeifl^OltY 

CHAP. xii. commendable, ' tli^y resfeted every soticitetiott ob, th© s^b^ 
^^^®- ject; and, as rib provhian had" be<n;i*^;Bsit^ 
government for securing and maintaining {H-isonew .of. vw, 
his excellency wds obliged to advance conaidcrabte.&u^i^fQf 
inoney out of his own pocket for their supports * ^ ^ , 
The encouragement openly given by France to thQ^reb©|^ 
" lious colonies in North America, having rendered, ar.wftr be- 
tween Great Britain and that kingdom inevitable, Mr..H[ay 
summoned a meeting of the general assembly for > the .pin^:* 

May £8. pose of submitting to them the necessity of adopting effec- 
tual measures for tbs security of thfc country. At the op^- 
ing of the, session he had warned them of the apptoachifig 
danger ; and as the colony was exposed to insults and in* 
jury fifom American pirates, he earnestly recommi^ed, that 
provision should he made ifor repairing the forts ; and, i^bove 
all, urged a due attention to the militia as the most consti- 
tutional meaas of defence which they could possess. As 
these admonitions had made no impiiession on the assembly^ 
hrs excellency again exhorted them to exept themselves in 
the cause of their country,' and to strmn every the 
defence of its territories, navigation and trade. The i^par 
ration of their forts, and the' organization 0§ thein militia, 
.were ag^ rocommended in the strongest tenns* Bojt ar- 
guments! and entreaties were ecpi^Iy vaiit. ; i u, / > 

Theafi«(embly>eem€jdf n'ow ta have fdgained ttfaeir^gl^^d 
humour/ Theitr ansiwer tb the ^Ipeecrb ^V9VA ubusilfiJIy i^vil 
and respecifu^ ; W, While th^y^ )^4Qt44 >iiiM^c^«uscitfitj^^ 

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OF BARBAm>ES. 387 

th^ey pfersitted iri «ie*tiag their ioabilitj: to guard against ^^^^^^^^^ 
thttse'^iaBgeis* which: tbrpatenedth^ Tx> pujt their fortifi- -^ W'^ 
cations in an efficieat stc^tOT of defence wotild cost mom, 
thefy said, than the counti^y v^ able to afford. . And air 
though they admitted the iitUity of . a militia, properly 
otganized, and wclldiscifdined^ they asserted, that the Icr 
gislature,' after repeated attempts, had found, it impracti- 
eable to make any material altef^tioB in their military, sys- 
tern without increasing the, inconveniences and hardships on 
imfividu^s. After some conunoxi-rplace pfofessious of zeal 
and loyalty, they calmly informed his excellency, that such 
was the exhausted state of tlie public coffers, and the.un- 
fortunate circumstances of the people, that their solii re*. 
liancemust be on his Majesty's^ ^ooc^ness foj* protection. 
Nor would they consent to increase the public , burthens by 
new taxes, or additional apt^cles: of. .expense, until W^r^ 
should be actually ^ecjlaped ^aga^ipst ]^rance. Th^se senti- 
ments, ill accprdjod w^th .i^^irJj^ttajQyal declarations of op^ 
posing.all distmbers^of, hj^ M^sty's ^government. 
Tbat;a British legisla^ve^sembly should I^e so perfectly 

insensible of theibl^s^jijgs pf civU. libpifty. as. to hazard itjs 

. ' ' ' ,, ^ ' ^ ' 3'j'j';:r;h 

enjoy uedt by a pfsrttnacious adherence tp an eppneous liys- 

temjof eoowvnj^rand to talk.of{^arming only when the enter 

my should be at theiii gaite» su'.e facts, scarcely credible, were 

J >they not anthentics^d *by the ffii9utes of their prpcec;4ings. 

'publisbed/by tiieir etwfk-i^uthcnrit};. . JToij c^njijt fail to excite 

the'astvnisfaoieotjo^ fMst«^lyy,4lf^ thje^feivfe^iiitatiyes' of a 

3d 2 ''' '' 

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**^?*^ l^biiCf sff^j^ 90^ risk the whole of Irheir, .pRi|>eit^n»tiier 
(iian sacrifige a p$irtiOT the p{ese^ratioao^,•t•^ 3?Im4 
public virtue^ 9a v^ the decant Gibbon^ whicb»^ amoqgj^be 
apcientef. itas denfupioated patribtisiQi is derived from 1^; 
^troDg^ 8en^ of pur awn jjitorest in the pr^^ofvfition and 
piptperity of the free ^aTernpient of which^ w^ ar^ mem^ 
ben. But among the Barbadiaps^ the ooly patriotism 
known, at the period .of which we are »pealuag> seem» tp. 
have consisted in an opposition to the mea&ures of gfivem-^ 
ment, and an endearour to promote the voluptuous ea,^^ 
of mercenary individuals a$ the hazard and expense of the 
country.. . ^ > . , ., , r. 

The assembly were not, however, left lone ia a »tatie at 
Kincerj^aiptv^resfi^iM the hostile designs of ^nce.. PtSr. 
dible infonoatum was received ei^rlj '^l Sep^enahfj?,. M>4( ■ 
war bad l)eeD 'proclauDcd 9i Maitioico (m.. the ifteeotb,. 
da;jr of .^»^tt«^. Thki was soop.^ucecedjed. by^p9i^ ^l|f?f»T; 
ing intelUgeBce. The Marqiiis de Bottitl6^ gojifcnio^^geoer. 

Sept. 7. la} of Maftmtco, with ^ bodj of two tbou^afid ne^ ^ao^to 
ported m^fMiF frigates and fifteen stoofw^ passed over.tol^,,. 
<vaKiaU« ielaiMl of ])oBMiiic% a«d oatnmeacfti ^a ivvr^ 
c^aie attack en ite hatf'maniied hattQitet. The veak ami 
defi^celeas sta^ ef the ganisoa \»h Gorein^ Stuart o» 
ether altenuttive than to make itke besttecm^. he cotdd Tith , 
the iavadeia. The aiticles of. capiAalaAiioiii we^re ecAiij w^ . 
zaDjged^ aod Deninica was sDneodefod, to fcbe acBW oC his, 

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iAAle Aiittiial'Bftrrington, with' tW i^iji^'dr ^Ium^'s^ 
f0me fiigates^ was fying iinettve at Baofblaclobt^'ii^m lie 
had been WMtingttro montlw for orden ^l^'in tike liordft 
«« the ftomiFaltyv But soreljr the Ftencn aeclanitioo m 
wJEir pretladed the necessity ot orders; aa^ kad ^ adi»>. 
x^f on receiving notice of that event, pot tosea wHh i^s 
sqii^ron, ftod continued to cruise off Martinico,, there is 
not iL doubt that be would bave frusstn^ed^tHe dei^gp 6ft 
Dominica. - . '- 


On the nieetii^ of the assemlblyy the gb^eirnbr m6ma^ Sept is. 
them of the recent capture of Dominica ; and availed him>- 
s^lf of that oppcrUSnity to eiaforc^ )ii& wrmei* reconvpiiead^ 
tion concemiBfg th6 forts knd the miiicrEu' ^*^WoWd^^ aaid 
his excellency, m ms plain blunt manner, ^lamen^tne 
unhappy situatioh erf many*or the mnayra more than i 
do, but the kland i^ still^ the? sanie' ;' t^e mnas dfid poss^^ 
siohs ate st&l of irat)brtahc« '; ' * diid lliese are' the proper - 
ebjects of tlte tegislature^ i^^liose duty k w to'use'every ef^ 
fort to put the island ift such a litate of defence as time aaid * 
tacia! circumstances will a^mit bf*;' for sJiouId they be torn 
ftom UB then shall we be pOcir indeed-"^ Theproaunaity of ' 
the danger now awakened the fears of the asaembly. Tht 
moment had ttow arriised wlien it confessedly became tneir 
interest, as well as their duty^ to prepare in the best nian^; 
net f(»r tiiebr defence. Yet^ at thid farming crisis, ani^ 

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ciUP^xii. ^|^;s«cliaix aqkiiowledgment, they resolved that the far* 

* '^7^' ^i^ation^ in their utmost extent, were unnecessary and ine?* 

f^aist)3il^; .that, the guns and mairosses belonging to the 

jp^f;^ ns^le^of them^ should be removed to places of more 
importances that intrenchments should be thrown up oil 
the ni04t apcessitile p^rts of the toast ; and that the sum of 

j«Ix ^ousand poUii4s;sJ^oUld be raised to defmy the expenses 
of these pyieparations. . 

The paynient of theguriners and matrosses salaries which 
wasprovided ifiof.Qut of this fund, left a small surplus ap- 
plicable tp anv 9thef purpose. And of this balance fio ii>- 
^^iisiidecab|e pfopor^on was consumed in paying the wages 

/^i^, the supi^Visor^ je;(i[]^ployed in directing the throwing up 
•of sand-banks on the western part of the island* Such was 
the extreme jealousy entertained of the executive power^ 

^that thei assembly inserted a clause in the bill which they 
framjed^in thegje resqlutions, enacting that the money should 
only be p^jid pn being addressed for by their house. BuU 
<)q the councirs rejecting the bill on that account, they 
M'aved this uncopstitutional claim. Nor did they a^ct to 
dissemble their unwillingness to attempt any innovation in 
th^ir military system ; ** averse/' as they expressed it, *^ even 
under the most pressing exigencies, from resolving, aflter 

, the deliberation of a. few days .only, on points essential in 
the minds of a free people, to their ^eatest happiness." 
Mdancho^ inideed, s^id the speaker, upon presenting the 
bill for the governor's assent, are the circumstances of these 

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^ . \ ' " • : ■ ■' r • 

ticpesy compared, with the flourishing state of the country chap/xil. 
Ml the last war; when> upofi a, requisition frbni tHe^^rbwti; ' ^*t^^ 
the assembly were able to raise a tapitaiiibn^tax of seti^A ' 
shiUings and sixjpence upon slaves, to defray the expense^ ^ 
• a body of our own forces, 86ht np6ft the exptedition iagaittst 
Martinico, although we now find a difficulty in fkisiK^^'a 
levy of fifteen-pence to protect ourselves fram invasion. 

Sensible of the danger to which the islands in the West 
Indies were exposed. Sir Henry Clinton,; on the approach 
of winter,, detached five thousand trbops from New York, 
under the command of General Grant, for their protectioh. 
The transports, with tlie troops, w:ere convoyed by Commo- 
dore Hot ham,: with five sail of the line, and some frigate^. 
On their arrival at Barbadoes, A^dmiral/Barrihgtoft, who Dec la 
assumed the command of the fleet, anxious, by somb bdM; 
successful stroke, to convpensate for the loss of Dominica^ 
determined, without suffering the troops to land, to pro* 
ceed immediately to Saint Lucia, and attempt the deduc- 
tion of that island : an enterprise of ho small difficulty and 
danger ; but which, from its ultimate * success, wak pro- 
diictive of no less glory to the naval and military omi:6rs^ 
and the forces by whom the conquest .was achieveci, th^in 
advantage to tlie service, in the ensuing operations df*' the- 
war in this hemisphere. ' ^ ' *i^ - 

On the intelligence of this event reaching Bttrb^(lbes,^'iiie 
assembly unanimously voted the thanks of their ''h'6us^''ta 
Admiral Barrington and General Grant, for their galmht 

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99i THE HIsrORY 

^JAP^^ iervkes; and, as « more substaatial proof of UiQk^»ti* 
sJTii. ****** *"** «8tee«i, passed an act fi>r furnislmig Uia anny 
and ttwy, at Saint tiucia, idth a gratuttotis wpj^y i»f fyft^ 
ftomwm and liv« stock. Admiral Baitington, hoifcvw 
Mmg resigned liie command to Bfron, policy decli^eA 
accepting the generous donative ; alleging, that tho h^tA^ 
condition of the fleet rendered the intended sup^y «Biie> 
cessary ; and that great difficulty would inevitaihly attend 
<^ transporting of it. But on the xetiim of the fleet fta 
Barbadoes, a few months afterwards, Admtnri Jhitker, on 
whom the c(Hnmand had devolved, thankfully accmied the 
liberal ofier, obaerving to the deputation of the aasembly, 
by whom it was made, that a supply of fresh proyisions 
was extremely necessary for the recovery of the many 
brave men who were then in a languishing, dying condi* 
tion; especially as neither soklier nor sailor had eat«» a 
meal of fresh provisions for ncaHy eighteen mo»tl». It 
must be observed, to the honour of the Barbadians^ that, 
however reluctantly they submit to the expense and incoo! 
vemeace of defending themselves, they always contribute 
cheerfuny to the accomodation of those who are emptoyed 
in protecting them. 
Jwe. The whole of the trade from the West Indies to finghud 

having been collected at Saint Christopher's, the immense 
wluc of such a numerous fleet induced Admiral Byron to 
employ his whole «|uadron in convoying them a coosidev- 
able part of their voyage. However wise or prudent the 

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lii^aifW ihight have b^feit, k i\^^' p^o^afefei?!'^ ;d^i^^^ ^^^' 
illttteY'<^'^r«ctlttarof & naval neuiehaiiy wire ^HeiacfieS 


fl% ' 


was th 

3 E 

July 2, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CHAP. xiL T^ese transactions produced a considerable sensation i^ 
^ 7^5- 3*rbadoe9, ?ind iqcrea^pd the anxiety of the goveraoi: for t\|f 
safety, of. the coloDy. He immediately con,voked,t^e legisf 
July 22. lature, and represented to them, in the most forcible maur 
ner^ the danger to which the island was exposed by the 
progijess of tl>e enemy in their vicinity ; and particularly 
from the recent injury sustained by Admiral Byron's fleet, 
in a partial jictiop with the French oflF Grepad^, after his 
.Return from convoying the trade to a certain latitude, 
5yhich had compelled him to retire to Antigua to refitw 
JVVitli the internal resources which we possessed, his excel-p- 
Jeijcy was persuaded, that a vigorous defence might be 
made, in case of an attack, and that the island might hold 
out until it shoijkl be relieved by the arrival of naval as- 
j^istance. As preparatory measures, he recommended prp- 
. vidjing tents for the men.; raising entrenchments ; building 
jedoubts at proper distances ; and particularly proposed pur- 
chasing a spot of land, in some coifvenient situation, for a 
grand redoubt and general dep6t of ordnance, ammunition, 
and provisions, to which the whole array might retire in case 
of necessity. As the militia were raw and inexperienced, be 
advised,, that they should be more frequently assembled 
,^nd ii^structed in the use of arms^ and submitted to the 
consideration of th^ assembly, whether, in the present cri- 
tical posture of aSairs^ a temporary eftforcemeni of mar- 
tial la^ wefre not necessary ? To evince the utility of ami- 

Digitized by 


. Ot BARBAD6ES: S^- 

litia, under proper regulations, lie referred lb' the r^eT.CH^^. , 
army in America, composed entirely of militia, land yet ^^^^''' 
^occessfully fighting behind eiitrenthitients and strong 're- 
doubts against veteran troops. ' '"!'';"; 
The house were at last awakened to a diie sense 6f the: 
dangers which surrounded theni. They immediately te^ 
solved to provide tents for the men, to throw up entrench^ 
ments, and build redoubts ; to arm a proportion of effectivfe 
negroes, to call out the militia one day in every w6efc 
for four months; to equip two small vessels to' watcli the 
motions of the enemy, to provide an additional stock of 
gunpowder, and to purchase land for the purpose suggested 
by his excellency- But they thought that the adoption of 
these vigorous measures rendered martial law unnecessary. 
To give effect to these resolutions, they vited the sum of July ^6. 
fourteen thousand pounds, one-half the money tobe raisfed in 
the course of the ensuing year, and the balance the yeac 
after*. Bills were immediately prepared agreeable lo thes^ 
resolutions, and were passed with the greatest unanimity by 
both houses. By the additional levy bill, five members of 
council, and seven ofthe assembly, or any five of them, werd 
appointed commissioners to cany the plan of defence into 
execution, with full power to borrow money, on the pub} 
lie faith, or to contract for such articles as were required 

* The minutes of tiie assembly say ten thousand pounds; but the law, v/hiclt wn 
passed on tbe occasion, fixes the sum at fourteen thousand, . j 

3 E 2 

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355 'J^B® HBTO»Y 

caxpggt ^iif cioBipletiDri^' iwiU 4ie tem laid by the act couki be 

: ;A ntffiaiettt quiAtitsr ^ }««^ was accoKdiii^j pumhaaodi 
ia the parish of Saint George ; mkd itW baiUiog 4>f a graod 
tefotUrty eaUad Fort GecffgOi wa» bGgu% to \8arie jn a 
geaenJ 4fq9^ in case of iavasido. But bis icxc^eacy 
liired not te ^saa the cmnfiktiQA of hit patriotic plaDs% la 
^i^'^foidbtof tboi^ jpcssparatiaiiS) ^^bick he bad ^k> often 
ftfcettttowly 'TCoomiiictided, he^^as Matrested by tb^ band of 
daat^ aod removed from <a]l the jgra;ndeur> bustle, and 
October 2U contentioti of thts^world/tp tbe mansKHfM^ of •^temal peace. 
The early partner of hw bod, died itx Barbadoes, on thc^ 
rkreeth day of October^ one^thbtisand isieven buiidred aad 
seventy Hfi\*e ; wpon ifrhioh occasion bis daiighteiB returned 
to 7£og1aiid, ^aid h» exceHettcy, soon' after, married JSIis^ 
Basn^eU^ a be^tiful Barbadian, whose personal accom^ 
f^ftliraeats' attracted his admiration, and compensated the 
must 'of rkvkk and fortune. It does not ippear^ that this 
tefly's sorrow*, for tlie loss of her" deceased lord, experienced 
ttny idlemtion from those marks of public favour wJiich 
kara^ been' t^cf^ioiiaUy shewn to the family ofgotvemorst 
mst nooredi^serAriqg than Mr. Hay. Tlie character of his ex* 
ccjlmcy presentfi the eyeof cwjdour uitfa a tesselated scene 
of good ami -evil. Of a temper irrijtable^ impetuous^ im- 
placable^ and vindictive ; the extreme roughness of his 
Jcaajanefs was little calculated to conciliate the esteem of a 
proud, high-spirited pe^{pJe. The violence of his passions^, 

Digitized by 


OF B4^A90SS. ^ 

loSmce, 9od for whieH to fe»d Ufitijtflr lib«r»Mty 6fe»»iid^ ^'^ 

ae»kH0>j attaipli«d ,rkD' j(ke> io)toi9at»'df .'btfloontftvpr* fiutUfai 
I& Jb>s pribGcw aomouA <ti» 'iNnHMitfieiv^ bftppiocw *df:i^ 

. The fervid «f Mr. Ha/* «JtaifUitraAii» :i& not. disliii^^ 
gutshed h-j fitiy peeuUar ilrtMCM oi.l&^f^^g wadeeau. :Qi 
forty-one lawik sr^icfa .mmined biii oastiili^ tirtaiby-fliraftft 
irere .teanqpoffkry, a«cl «f ^ mnMtader mk 2elat» to An» »&r 
>eot, the improvement »f tbe>i»e^heftd ; a»4 jefc ;*li# p)fl* 
is. i^itber. «xt(»skeily cMi^&ive jw4.iw^tu«It'-Qr> £'q«»j(» 
fsitii^ ^oreUctioa of public i^H>irhi¥b/|at«%.|iieF}!8«i^^ 
inmy : deparUoeofc of owr little 8jt$k^v i#: nwi^ep^ly nflg^l^d^ 
ao4 ahu^d io the executiotf); Of the ^e|: la\|(rs.)9a^;^9)jr 
i» ^utitled to pArttcnlar notify ; !#i%.^ |h» b})£k&,tff%j f>jr^ ^ 
It U sometinie^. cajledv the inspectorls act. By thif ^aftc.^ 
(aix:h4^je tax yias iaid oa ^.lie shopkeepers lof J^idfS^Tf^fr^r 
to h^ proportipo^ably rated f?y rthe^pacoichjialKe&^-fjf, ^d> 
aonoally paid intO' the public treasury*, , ^t \v^ .alsp* 
enacted,, that any free negro or nuUattp whp- shall ;l?\^y, any 
live oi: d«ad stocjk* ,ftuit», iQo^r.<(>> 4^«!gieri«»t#^gi oc .QtliMsi:' 
4iiAngB^ tojseU ag$un> wicthout a< ticeoae from the topfvpu^ 

•)i :.: 

^ 'jfcM>f»M<€ tofribiegp.8igjt^ .iyp9i iii li , 

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598] '^EUlStdRY 

^!^2^J^^'' shalt, besides the goods bovrght or sold, foffeSt ten poun'dd 
*'^^** for every offence. • And the treasurer is authorized to grant 
aa* annual license to any ^ee negro or mulatto to carry otL 
the business of fi huckster, upon receiving a duty of ten 
pounds, applicable ta the uses bf the excise act, besides a 
fee of one pbupd* fiviii shillings for hi$ trouble. The object 
of this heavy impost was to discourage, $ind in effect to 
proliibit, the nefarious traific learried on by coloured huck- 
sters. Mr. Duke, by whom* the bill watsi iutrodticed, saw 
, e^riy, and ^deavoured to^vert, ^ha evik with which the 
rapid enctease of free Coloured people' was pregnant. Tto 
the penetrating eye of* that 'enlightehed statesman it was 
clear, that the encourag6thent given to that spurious race, 
would ultimateJy deprive isqch of the White inhabitants as 
were employed in the menial occupations of life, of the 
means of subsistence, and, by forcing them into exile, 
exhaust the country of the best portion of its physical 
strength. ' *• 

In this state the bill was sent up to the other house for 
its concurrence ; and though it was evidently a money bill*; 

^ XSnder tbe denomination ot money-hifis, aire included all those T>y whicfi money 
IB directed to be raised upop the subject,- for any purpose, or iq 'any, 4)ape wha<^ 

' soever ; either for the exigencies of government, and collected from the kingdom in 
general, or for private benefit, and collected in any particular district. Slack. Cminm. 

, tM>2. 1. p. 170. This rule, says Christian, in his notes upon Blacksumc, is now ex- 
ieiided to all bills for caMb^ paviBg, poor rates^ and those in which pecuniary penal- 

Digitized by 


** I- 

the coiracU insetted ao i^mendmenf^ exteiSidiog the cl^uaet <^HAP, 
respectiag JSwe negiroes. and mulattoes, . to all white htick<- ' i*^* 
^iers; who,, in defoiult of taking out a Vvdenhey were made 
JUable to a forfeiture, of fifty pouuda* from which penalty the 
coloured retailer wds- exempt.: This was undeniably a most 
unpfiirliaaietttary iuterference,. but the assembly, taketi by 
Surprise, pr heedless of. their, most invaluable privV- 
.legej|, sUwUy submitted to t|ie invdsicio of its fiindft- 
mental right, and unapimoysly acquiesced ria\ the ppoposi^d 
. The avowed object of ,this arbitrary, partial and qHcodk 
^titutional amendment^ was to reduce the number of fauckr 
sters by the imppsitlon of an oppresJsive tax, which few of 
them were able to pay. In, support of the measure it wa5 
alledged^ that th? hucksters, were receivers of stolen goods^ 
and their shops th^ asyln«»s* of /ugitive slav^». ThieJeg^Ja- 
ture therefore piously deteroiiiied to destroy those petty re* 
tailerS| who eked out a scanty subsistence by revetiding a few 
articles pf the first necessity, and, ,ta preserve their n^orials^ 
condemned the;m to hunger a^d nal^edness/ Should the 

ties ttii4 fipe« tfe imj^^d for oflenf es. S Matstl '1 10. And the coiDD)oii5 ba^ beem 
at all times« ^o tenacious of ibi& privilfgei tbat^bey iieyeii^.Bu^r Ih,^ lords ^tjen t^ 
make any change in the money bills, which t^ey haye sent to^thepti'; tut they muii 
simply and solely, either wholly a9cept or reject them. . Dc Lqlme on the ComtUution, 

Digitized by 


4m THE'HlsrfDft? 

cMmt. bwtbslaw hufgHMy of He «»liii6«- iatptit&A td tHiett, thtft^ 
iTtfO. Jips £wSd»nA foe tbeac imnisfaoiei^ v^i^uC Msortimg to A 
iMfOcewhitt^ tfareatdnc t^not witk extiiiotictt. l^r fi^m 
kll^ liioip paste of sociaty iHm«>> they are Fepi^eated. (« 
fm-Hmif aw SB weM ^Mcnptioa of tisacten: Thtougfa tbetr 
toedijMM th^.poQft and middliog cla£Be» o#peopIe» anid! evtn 
the opulent bouseholdey, aim diaily su||>)ied with aitide* of 
donettiiD acte^QtlBOdatieot und^e sable labourer 6bt&im the 
eafli#)f>C| oihis ali»j«et condition^ He«& he bartetsthe oiide, 
unsavoury, substantial allowance of the plantations fbrmore 
f»ria(tabi«!8ndmitritiau»foodi and, no lessfoHdof variety than 
bb.e^iciiaeaii.nHistar^ indolgea bis satiated appetite with a 
ch?(^geof idi^t^ tefpesheB ^h drooping spirit; aad itno* 
v^ Wb almost €xha«»fc^ vigour* tefe $ot the hapless 
rii^e, be dsemed these iie«df«l comfertB^ by «a absurd, unna- 
4aiiai. podicy, which, woujki c^ftfina^^ Jum- to ftfted' perpetHally 
on t|ie prodBcticrnS' oft tho seil. 

Wepfr this- law enforced wi A a spirit^ congenial, to that in 
<^hich jt_grjgi fla t e d« its operation must inevitably produce 
tbe most>pernicitM» eonsee^uences Many of those who are 
employed ia retail shops, are women, aged and infirm ptef- 
sons; and others, who, having been brought up to no pro- ' 
i^0O» Qcbaviug^ failed in higher pwrsuits, are det^titate of,' 
mverj otfieer raean9 of supporting the weary Jpad -of ^.. 
^e capital thus employ^, is in very few instances eqiial 
to the sum required for a license. They depend for subM^t- 


Digitized by 



eneeoa the sikisAI profits accruing on the retreaditioii of it ^^i^iJ^S' 
few ajrticle» proeufed' on credit, from the cKeduhraa ib«v. '^^* 
chant, or the humane wholesale dealer. Conaeqitentljr, if 
the duty be exacted ftom them, they mu»t nhut up their 
diops, and remain in idleness and indigenoe, whiM: 
t^eir helpless cffdpiitig become burthensoaie to their 

There are others again^ whose larger stock in trade win 
enable them to pay the price of a license, and continue 
their business with encreased adruntage. By diminishing 
the number of retailers; the law tends to lessen, if not to 
destroy, that competition in the market which is always 
found beneficial to t|ie bulk of the people. And the opiv 
lent huckster, who complies With the exaction, will triumph 
in the privileged monopoly j and, by extorting from those 
who are driven to his shop Ifjr necessity, will amply trim* 
burse himself for the expense of tfie license, and grow rich 

■ ■ifc i 

« ntvteii lb an the loit flf 8ooklj« mt» Ittd^a v^ 
tbttfightby tht eaUUkhmeatof kmi? TOiiktt^ bvm hivtfy Ji^f^t^M^ ^m»9m 
of preterfing Wh, it, in fact, to affect the very principle of bis existence. By e^r^ 
ifig the subsistence of tbe needy, the state takes from him his strength with his food* 
It redoces the pdor man tb beggairy, the labouiing man to lAen^, and makes the 
itolMfMte nan. bacoaae « fogucr SUiyMFt HUhry ^ th I<m mi Wm jMrm; 

3 n 

Digitized by 



^^j^^' on tlic spoils of the community. Hence, as a regulation 
V^^ of police, the law is absurd, impolitic, and inhuman. Nof 
is it less objectionable as a financial expedient. 

The grand leading principle of taxation is, that every 
one should be assessed in proportion to his property and 
income. But> by this law, an annual capitation tax, of 
all modes the most arbitrary and unjust, is imposed 
particular class of traders, without any regard to their 
capital, or the profits of their business. To add to its obr 
vious. injustice, the tax is confined to persons who, besides 
their parochial levies, are annually rated for the support of 
Ifovernnjeqt,. by their respective vestries, on oath, in pro- 
portiQA, to their trade and ability.. But. a§ this . iqiposjt 
falls op indigence and industry, while it passes by th«^ 
door^ of wealth and indolenqe, its manifest inequality caur 
not escape observation. The , poor tenant of an humble 
shed,, who e?irns his. daily: support, by the grpcarioqs rev;epr 
dition of a few; provisions, is here taxed beyjond.all reason* 
abje pi:opQrt;ion> with ^e wealthy merchant, or the opulent 
possessor of an hundred slaves. 

The bill was. passed with such precipitancy, that the 
people without doors, ignorant of what was doinp withio-, 
had no opportunity of deprecating its vengeance. But no 
sooner, was it knowp, tha,n the door of evory huckster's 
shopjinthe island was shut, except a. few in the metropoli^^ 
^e owners of which availed themselves of the sanction of. 

Digitized by 


Olf BARBADOES. . 403 

licences to enhance the value of the common necessaries of Chap.xii. 
life. The members for Stl Michael's were instructed, by ^'^'^^• 
dome of their constituents, to move for a repeal of the ob- 
noxious clause; and the most respectable inhabitahts of 
Speight's Town, concurred in a petition to the assembly 
for its abrogation. These applications were ably supported 
by Mr. Duke, who, in an excellent argumentative speech, 
after obviating every objection on the plea of consistency, 
proposed some modifications of the tax in question. But 
the house was deaf to his reasoning and his eloquence. 
They would not, formally, consent to rescind an act so 
recently adopted ; but it was liinted, that the pehalclause 

would never be enforced. " ' " * 

This assurance, though it quieted the^ apprehensions of 
the hucksters, who thereupon resunied their occupatiofi^, 
affords them no security. They are still liable to be oVelS 
whelmed with ruin, by any malicious infonner, whb, iPfbm 
pei-sonal pique, pecuniary considerations, caprice," or ma- 
levolence, may insist upon having the law enforced. The 
worst tyranny is that of bad laws suspended over our head^, 
by a single hair, which envy or revenge majr sever at dis- 
cretion. It is not enough that such laws should slumber 
in oblivion ; they should be repealed. While they are 'ex- 
tant, they aflford the means of oppressing the poor witfi 
facility, and furnish the vindictive with convenient initrct- ^ 
ments of revenge, whenever he will avail himself of tlih 

3 p 2 

Digitized by 


m^ THE pSTpBY - 

CHARXil. opporfoinity of prosecuting the disaffected person^ under 

i77»» some one or otlier of the many statutes, which, however 

useless^* remain dormant, like unextinguished vokanoest 

ready to pour destruction on the head of the devoted 


i. >-,J'37i/.<' r ^t',/ . /'•*;, :•: 

" — 'l,-.r :o >".. ..\:) I)-:.; 

'i J' I: j'.'v! .'"" ! »!■ j^ ' .. •' 

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>;d c: ^..TT'. ;. t ;.; ., - , 

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' •. .! J? .:JV' : " . . ';;'■; J 

orfj no f','.^''; ; ^ ».' 

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'-\r ■ ■ ';*,,r ...,;/ x: ^.iO< 

oi f* J ;: m.;h .;i i/ ' 1 'v: 

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:' v^' I z'^luL :;ld/jJiiunoii 

;::J .:)>/' h W:; ■ •;-. /•' / ; 

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r. />i^ ^ )!:;.r; /jwin fLf-'.Jiq o-f' 

illr V ^ ;''; ;: •; . -r ,\ ? j. 

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,•:.»] ,r J f 

Digitized by 



^' : 't:: a::. 

.. ,. I 

.\r- ^ V'i^i 



October 2a.. 


Upon ike demise of Mr.. Hay, Uie council met for the chapjqii 
porpoae of achninistering the inauguration oaths to the 
president. Mf« Eous^. who had twice filled the dignified 
station^ was now so enfeebled by age and infirmities, that 
he prudently prefim^d the shades of retirement to the hurry 
and £M.igues of public life* In a respectful letter, addressed 
to the council, he signified his resignation and enclosed his 
mandamoB; whadhiJie requested they would transmit to his 
sovereign. The government of course devolved on the 
Honourable John Dotin, the member next in succession tO> 
the presidential chair ; he was accordingly invested with the 
ens^ns of authority, and commenced his administration with 
an ocoBomical refenoEL He abolished the expense of oil 


Digitized by 



^^vS^^* for the use of the lamps at Pilgrim ; an act which was 
^^''^* e^ftoUed as a noble proof of his generous regard for the In- 
terest of his country. 
Nov. 2. r The assembly, which was near the period of its dissolu- 
tion, haying met for the purpose of making a suitable pro- 
vision for supporting the dignity of the presidency, Mr. 
Duke moved that the sum of one thousand pounds a year 
should be settled on Mr. Dotin during his administration. 
He insisted that it would be the highest folly, under the 
existing circumstances, to give the next governor a salary 
equal to that which had been hitherto given ; and that it 
would be prudent to. begin the retrenchment now, whea the 
executive power was lodged in the hands of U native; no 
exception could then be taken by his successor at a eon- 
duct so free from any appearance of partiahty. These 
arguments were far from pruducing the desired effect The 
motion was rejected by a large hiajority ; and the salary 
fixed at fifteen hundred pounds. 
1780. A general election having taken place, Mr., Duke em- 

braced the earliest opportunity of their meeting to press the 
reduction of the governor's salary on the attention of the 
new assembly*. The proper time, he insisted, to agitate 

* Ibe proceedings <^ tbis as«€4nb]y form nicb «n intenttiog ptrt of tur e^nial 

transactions, that curiosity may naturally enquire their names. These were> VaL 

; Jones and H. Dulce, St. Michael's; J Burke and T. Burton, Chrisiclturch ; S. W^lcott 

•ttd R. Haynes> St. JoknU; Jos. Gittina and J. Wood, St, PMAy)'«; James C. Cox 

Digitized by 



ttie^ question was before an appointment had been made; CHAP.xni^ 

the value of the government would then be known at the *^^^* 
moment that it was solicited; their proceedings would be 
free from any suspicion ^ of prejudice ; no offence could be 
' taken* nor disappointment felt by the gentleman who should 
be selected to administer the government* As guardians of 
the public purse, there was. an obligation upon the memy 
bers of that house, he said, to adjust the public expenses to 
the power and ability of those who were to pay them. The 
poor man contributed in an equal proportion, with the 
wealthy, to the support of government; it was their duty 
to look to the community at large, and to form their judg- 
ment upon that comprehensive view. The unfortunate con* 
dition of the bulk of the people rendered the strictest fruga*. 
lity necessary- He wished not to dwell upon a detail of 
distresses and calamities.. Every one who heard him must 
have seen and feJt enough to render isuch a recital supers 
fluous. After some additional observations, Mr. Duke 
moved t^ree resolutions,, in substance as follows : That the 
people, reduced by a variety of mi$fortunes, were now 
unable to pay. a governor the same salary as liad. been, for- 

and Rob. Burnet Jones, St. George's ; T. Alleyne and B. Bdstock, St. James's ; W, 
Gibbe«Alleync and R. Ashford, St. Thomas's; S. Hinds andH. Walke, St. Peter's'; 
B. BttbbtJkiid Sj HMtbandB^ *^. - Ijtiy$ ; Sir John Gttj Attejrne, ^>eaker> aod^ A, CtioK 
Hr^Kh, jniK St, Anthtu>'s i J. St^Mrd and Edmund Ha^tMs; ,St:. J^pVh. ^ ^ 


Digitized by 


408 THE mSTOIlY 

<;irAft*M. Tm«rty allowed ; that two tbonsand pounds were the most 

iT«6. ^hich they could afford to settle on the next govevnor ; and 
that a copy of these resolutions should be transmitted to the 
1^1^ for die information of the secretary of state for the 
€9lBme9. These resolutions were opposed as being prmn^ 
tiire and inefficient; and, on the previous questioa being 
.moved, the bouse refused to take thera into consider* 

Feb. 23. At their next sitting the assembly received a message 
fi^m the president, stating, that it being his Majesty's ii^ 
tefition to station troops on the island for its protectioii, the 
-eigbtyHftinth regiment had been landed ; and that he had 
provided them with quarters; not doubting that tiie assenr 
b\y would approve of the measure, and defray the expenses 
of their accommodation. This called up Mn Duke. WiUi 
the utmost respect for the. parent state, he found himself 
un4er a superior obligation to his native country. He w«s 
averse to any new article of expense, which, however small 
in the outset, may increase in its progr^^ss. Jamaica had 
burthened itself with the maintenance of troops uader an 
idea that it was a temporaty provision for a particular 
exigency, but the load was fixed upon it and was likely to 
remain. Conscious of the inability of the people to bear 
any fresh inipositions, Mr. Duke opposed the proposal for 
tjunrtering the troops, as a measure productifve of one cen^ 
tain evil, itud of many that were probable, without any pro** 

Digitized b^ 



|>dct of ad vantage. The houses' iowever, thought diffef«B%, ^^J^^JJ]^* 
aad a ceffiMniitfi0& was- appointed to ^»ro9idi& banraclBS Sot ike ^^*^' 
tioops. at the expease of- the colony. ... - - - . 
'. : On thei next meeting of tbe'asisemlpijr the prestdeitt seitt March 21. 
iiotVHEkajDether- message. to t^ bonier «.nttou»bingtbe'«{>< 
.peiatinent of Major Oedie^lJaiaigs>'X2hiintnglianie, td>tbe 
_goveFmnent of the island, and requesting - tbatlfi^ liWttW 
prepare for his reception. A similar conmiUniCatioii 'was 
soon afterwards received- iF^ni Hie'ttgisilti lak^t^HiopMiiM by 
the mfost favourable Jepresentatieri^'oTO'^w^Ei^ CWnnTng- 
harafj's charactefi his friendly dwpesitioii to^rtls'thd. peo- 
"ple, and his pirofessed incHnfttibB t* rfett^erhis'igii'^BftiflKMt - 
easy tind^happy-fo then?. ' To thisVai added, ati'a^C6tint df 
th^ steps taken- by the- agent Hiihidf, ' to ofetalH'd *eWn^idn , 

t)f ' the' Ibitr ah4 * half- ipernj^nt. duty* ' • Bfr* tEsWlfck had 
siibiWttfed to Lordl'N^rth'W'statemefnt dfnfedfe'refetli^'^to 
that iinpost; and proposed, as rf tfoiwiiiwfetidtf'ef ' tlie duty; 
"a general tax'of tJiree peric8 >a' hiinAred updA fell dngar kn- , 
ported 'from the "West f ridiies. ' Eord North icppekf^ "td 
lliihk' that tJie jprojiossfl wa» fAftr add' eHgiMe;' arid tlrat'thete 
cbuld ■ bfe no reason wliy the other islands" should'not 'con- 
tribute to the revenue equally with Barbadoes. His lord- 
ship, however, having taken no steps iii the business, iVlr, 
-Estwick added, that hfc had it^tended to bring tlie matter 
before the' house olF cbmmd'ns himself ; but that it had been 
indirecQy conveyed to his knowledge that General Cun- 
ninghame would carry out full power for the settlement of 


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<^<4^^*the affair ontlie ishmd. And he nndontood the tcnuA 
V190, -i^re, that the islands 9ab)ect tQ this iinpost^ should enga^r 
to raise a fund sufficieoi for the payment of the p^ukmft 
granted npob the duty ;. thftt.oo additional gfont should be 
made ; and thai as the pttosions dropnped ofi; the fund should 
ce^. These lie ohsevred wese considerable^ and Mcioe of 
them for two cv tbree byea^ 
July 10. While eveiy mind wae anxkiusly anticipating the balejoa 
day$ that were approacluDg^ General CuDninghame arrived,. 
and tia^e iUnskMi yanished^ The hopes vbich had beeiii 
fondly cbemheii be£oce his am¥al» derived a texnporarj 
coii^&rHMitioQ fiscal his 'specious manners* Bred in camps^ 
he possessed the imposkag politeness^ the easy dignity, an<| 
condescending aiSability of tiie polished gentleman. But 
beneath &at pleasing exterior Inrkcd a Tonality of soul 
vhich so€)n obscured every virtue, and cast a balefuL shade 
over every accomplishment* 

f Hiaejicellency landed from o» board UieThundere^^CoQi* 

modose Walsingbam'^ flag*ship, oa Wednesday the twelfth 
of July*. He was received at the ifhaif by the president 
and council,.* the speaker and the members of theassem- 

* Tht aciBbcitr«r ooucil imm> 1 Doii^ A. Csmlnlttcl^ Hcn^ 9mm I^ 
aetui Moe, Bob. Bradiwaitfl^ W. SeBhoiue. W. Biibq^ John Bett^ JMcfA IMinr* 
tnd John loce. There were two tacsiacies whkh were boI filM up dueiog^Cimiuof? 
htmel iitaiiiuitAtioii. 

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«y, the principal o^ers of the milltU, and most ot tKe ^^''^JIJJJ*'^ 
clergy, whence they formed a grand procession, escorted^ ^'^^^ 
by the guards, tjje royal Jregiment oFiniUtia, and two com* 
panies of the king's troops, to Saint Mic^aeJ's church, wtere 
«n appropriate sermon was preached on th^ words, 
^ "When tfee righteous are in authority the people rejoice */' 
His excdlency then proceeded to Pilgrim wliere th^ W^^^ 
onths were administoced^ anci be was iovtstea wit^ t^ go> 
v^rnment in due fona. ' ' < . . 

The assembly having met puniiaRt to '^ ^ecud sums^ons, * juiy 25. 
Im excellency commanded their attendance in the council 
chamb^, and addressed both bouses in a, speech of consi*> 
^erable length. After professing bis sa»^ of the honour dona ^ 
him l^y his . Majesty':s appointment to . tb^ gc|veriitnent of 
the island, h^ observed, ** the character wKi^ your ances* 
tors have successively transnutted to you, 4?f loyalty to the 
King, and attacj^ment to the constitutioh, you have uni*. 
f^rjnly mjiintairieiV T^^® pres^a^bn of tliat ojder "and 
tranquillity whicb have reigjiM' sp .W$ ainong ypu, u^rii^rs- 
turbed by violence and ^otjpn, distipgw^hes^'t^ temper 
and wisdom of ybui councils^ ^tiese circiunstances, lie' 

t Prc^eilp»' d XBOL v. ft. if ia excenencjr probably thoagfat (he ifeidutt a slfficicot 
commAitar; M iha<eiety«iiltth«Ttfem^t«niiineiL1bat1d»aiKhict tbouM b( ad illui» 
tt«i«n «r«h« Utter pact «r the v«rM5 " lti« tnJUn liW wMecf Kmm«I. f«ler#t« peopfc 

'*""■*•'! . • • , . . . 'v .. .., 

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c»AP:Xffl. reigii, Whose goodness and attention to their tFants bad 
1780. heeh signally display0d in the ample supply of provisions 
which had been sent for their irelief, withgut any , cliarge of 
" transport, the r65^al'pre6ent bf artillery and military stores 
for their defence^ and the large sums granted for. the im- 
provement of the mole-head; To this enumeration of the 
royal favours, his excellency, by way of climax, added an- 
other instance of his Majesty's gracious aitentioD to the 
isleind, at -a tinie of public danger, in so speedily sending 
out a successor to the late governor; and heishould be happy, 
he said, if in executing the Royal commands he might con- 
tribute to the safety and prosperity of this respectable part 
of the empire. Nor did he omit to remind them of ihe 
zeal and diligence with which, previous to his leaving Eng- 
land, he had urged every measure which he thought condu- 
cive to the welfare of the island. ' 
Having an equal confidence in the wisdom and liberality 
of the assembly, he refrained from representing to them the 
necessity of preparing for* thiir defence; or to press for .such 
supplies as the wttfks' essential to their safety required for 
their completion^ As ike public money would always be 
applied to such purposes as met their approbation, he trusts 
ed they would not neglect to raise sums sufficient for that 
important service. In their consultations upon this sub- 
ject, he assured them of his readiness to give them all the 
information and assistance which his professional experi^ 
ence enabled him to do. To the expected settlement he 


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alluded in these words, " Among many instructions which ^^iJi^U^* 
I have received from the King, framed for the good ai^d ^^*^ 
welfare of the island, there is one which it seeois necessary 
to communicate to you. without delay*; I have therefore 
dirfjct^d a Qopy of it to be laid before you. It would be 
indelicate ip me to enlarge upon a subject in which I find 
myself so personally interested. I shall therefore submit it 
to your considerati<m» with the hope, that an appointment 
sufficient, to support the dignity of government and your 
own honour, mjiiy be the result of your deliberations +/' 

He had the satisfaction), he^aid, of bringing from hisMa*^ 
jesty's ministers, assurances that every attention should b^ 
paid to the safety and welfare of the colony which its cha- 
i;acter and importance deserved. The powerful naval. force 
destined for the protection of this part of the empire pro- 
misied the most perfect security ; but it behoved them, he 
observed, to reflect that a state of war is ever, in some de- 
gree, a state of danger; and that their confidence in their 
sovereign's attention to their safety ought not to abate theip 
exertions for their internal defence. Though he professed 

* This was the instruction usually giveiTto crery governor^ allowiog him to Hcpept 
of any salary which the assembly should think proper to settle upon him, prbvid^d the 
settlement b< made for the whole time of his adtniofstering the government; aqd'that 
it be done in the 6r8t session of assembly hoiden after hit arrivaL 

t He had been told before he left England that his salary would be only two tbot^*^ 
sandpQunds. * -. . . .. j 

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414 ^HE:' HISTDST 

^HM^KUDtft^flMttui noridwibtdr tfaek attention tb ^feiti prntei^iW' 

stDoiigeflli inlUHier»'to firiune rach b miliUa biU Msliouid gi^ 
tixnnJill-tbeadtaDtajges denraUe from the extMsiv6 {m^m^ 
l^jikmeof the cotmtcy. Whatever powers ftiigfK fete Ibdgeii 
in tho tJomtiuMidcir in chief, he pledged hitni^ shfMld lM 
«xei»ria>>d>,»itb ait the, nwdenttioti wbkh the nature <ti lite 
t^ffie v<)9ld J uattf J. He would not, he said, ItoabietheM 
with^ c— wonf ftrofeemons^ hb ootnduct alone must detemuM 
the character of l«s adoiinistrattoti ; which he fek would 
fiToye hppQurable to himself only in the degree that he ' 
•l^u)d intkeit hap^y to thent. 

jjQQplbriiK«bIy!to4ihe fules of the house, a committee was 
appointed. to.pi<epaie tm. answer to the governor's speech 
a^iinsttbeir netet^ittiang, and'the assembly, in the interim, 
ppDC^dded ta take into ccmsideratlon the settinn^nt tb 'be 
nUideon hfs excdlenoj. The house being in k Committee, 
Mr. Duke tappped a- resolution conceived in these ivords, 
^ That tfaq dircumstaaces of tlie people of this island can- 
not. affoed; a higher settlement upon his 'ei^ellency, not- 
withstanding the high sense which we entertain of liis merit, 
than two thousand pounds per annum, in augBoientation of 
the home ^^.hty," He prefaced his motion with remarking, 
thtit hia esc^Uenc/s gracious «peech deserved eviry testi- 
mony of gratitiMk) which coutd be given' by the ^assembly, 
cottsist^it with their duty to their constitnents. It must be 
the wish of every member of that house, he said, to distin- 

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OF BARBiH^OES. 4]«^ 

gtdab ih&f, pwtmkt coaaaaxider in dnef'witb a m^Atutat tft^nmu 
- so lew liWtkt thl» that nhitffa bad been- isaxie <Ma< faif fWl^ i^«°- 
deoeMOr ; bu6 dctiag tts they tnue^ tons ddegseteik cs^mdi^, 
^e^ wete not $kt Itbeity ta ooaniA tiuif ronvJQ.iBdii]teti<»f».> 
llMy wein^ liottod lo, ooDtkitor the stnedgUi >eif tEwve fejr 
trlioQs tili0 burtheniras to be faorae; and fimalhe depforx 
at^ slate cf the <9oudtry,aflUdtedby:/a variety c^'evi)9 nd^ 
tc«al a»d potftioai, the peopkf -wece now tillable «« itottlk^ 6 
prottiMOft for the sojcfpdrt of gomemnwmt e^uall Mi ^at they 
l^d dene endetr happier circuiastaoced. 'Id cnrder, hd^t^ter^ . 
to eriDte a dispositions to. treat' h« e^icellendy wi^ becotii<>- 
ing munificence, iti the event of a more'prot^^erouj^ turn it» 
Iheip affahrft^ Mr. Pukie mored'a «»tond ]»e90li|Ho«r^ *^Tb^f 
m case hisr Ms^jesty, in comideration: of l^mwiy distretAieii 
and calamities that- had for aeTiera) ye«r» past overWbehsited 
his faithful and loy^I subjectis of this colony, should ber 
graciously pleased to relieve tbein ffoxn the payment of 
the f^r and a half per cent, daty cm. their exported com>^ 
modities, the asseinbly would make an additfonal provisit^n: 
of one thousand pounds a year for the support of the colo- 
nial government.'* , \ ' • . 

Both resolutions were strenuously opposed by Mii Jt.. 
Btimet Jones, who thought that tW aAAual saving o£ ona 
thousand pounds in the governor's salary was not an object ;' 
•f sufficient yfJue to iaduoe the houas to aicquiesci^ ii| a, 
measure which might lender his excellency inditfevmlii if 
not inimical, to the interests of the country ;. €sp^ci«Jly at 

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CHARXIH t^is particular juncture, when they were critically circum-* 
nsa stanced.with I'egard to their application for relief from tlie 
i(m6rou& impost on their staple products* Mr. Jones fprofe^^^ 
ed himself an advocate for economy ; but, as the sum in dis« 
pute would not exceed three* pence on each slave, or at most 
twenty shillings on each plantation, he could not approve 
of a proposal by which so trifling a saving was put in com- 
petition with an object infinitely more valuable. He did 
not deny that frugality was necessary, but recommended 
that a reform should be made in some other department, in 
which it might be more productive of advantage, without 
the same risk of being prejudicial.* The salary, he re- 
marked, was given for the express purpose of supporting the 
honour and dignity of government, the house ought there* 
fore to consider that, this being a time of war, the expenses 
of the governor's establishment must unavoidably be increas- 
ed, by the hospitality with which his rank and character 
jxiade it necessary that he should receive and entertain the 
> ofBcers of the army and navy on the station. 

To these solid arguments was opposed a presumption, 
which a very slender knowledge of human nature would 
have shewn to have been entirely unfounded. It was re* 

^ In tbe expenditure of stores in the different forts a saving might have been made 
i^icb> far from being detrimental to the public service, would have reflected credit on 
the government. In Speight's divition alone the waste of powder at this very time ex« 
ceeded the sum in dispute* 

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plied, that the governor would always perform the duties of chap.Xhr 
h\i station uninfluenced by pecuniary considerations. Nor ^^^' 
couldvhis excellency justly entertain, it >Yas said, any re* 
fient;mefnt against the members of that house for a conduct 
eridently proceeding from a sense of public duty. Actuat- 
ed by that motive, their conduct could neither give offence 
nor require apology. Were only the opulent possessors of 
^laves affected by the payment of taxes, Mr. Duke admitted^ 
that the reduction proposed would indeed be trifling and 
insignifiimnt ; but, as the weight of the burthen would fall 
heaviest on people of middling circumstances, and others 
pf inferior rank, who found it difficult even to maintain their 
families, he thought that the smallest saving was import' 
tant, was essential, to their means of subsistence. 

Oh a question so interesting to his country,; Sir John Al* 
leyne could not content himself with* ^ving a silent vote. 
Were the committee to be influenced by ^personaV consider- 
ations, the amiable character of General Gunninghame, he 
acknowledged^ claimed the utmost exertion of their bene- 
volence; but when tlie circumstances of the pcpple were 
adverted to, he thought their accumulated distresses ren*- 
dered them unable, to indulge their native generosity. He 
took a comprehensive survey of the impoverished state of 
the island; and, widi his usual pathos, expatiated on the 
^lameaitable scenes of misery, which every where arrested the 
attention. The failure of crops, the long drought at a cri- 
tical season, the privation of accustomed supplies from 

3 H 

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418 Ttni HISTORT 

CHAP^. Amerid^ tHe wreieked conaitSoii of iheslave^ iriili Ktpeet 
^'** to whom faffiine might be said to he stalkiog thorougii itit 
hind ; the ssH6 of p)antati<M)s bj decostal orden of the eourt 
of ehanceiy for less than two-thirds of their leftl ^ne^ the 
idepopulation of others torn to {H^ccs bj •xectUnoiw 'ftr «Mrtv 
were to|>ics insisted upon wHh great truth and eaMigjv to 
i^ew the positive disability of the peo{^ to display, that 
fiberality in supporting the dignity of their first nuq^istrate, 
which they had done in more prosperous tines. 

He remarked that the coJcmial si^ry was a liee gift of 
the p^opte ; and that the revenue on the pcoduce of tiieir 
estates, having been granted to the crown, among otheirusea^ 
ior that df paying the gov^noi^s salary^ litey wexe under a» 
obligation to raise one shilling for that pmrpose. In ma 
historical review of ^le subject^ ^r Joim. sfaewod that, erea 
in years of comparative prosperity, tiie salary had ftoctuated 
a^seording to the temper of ^e assembfy, from two: to siic 
tiiousand pounds. And, although fbr the #re pveeednig 
adrnmistnitions^ &e settiement had been statioBavy atthsee- 
^busand, the worthy Bavmiet contended tliat, upmaCEiir 
•ompoDson of tiie cooditroa of the couatry «t the didfeneol 
periods^ what* had heea fonoieriy girvefr migfat be Kibeacd, aa^ 
m parlr of our abundance to the usk nnm^^paartvaoy saadi^ i^ 
icripture, fo be cast ia4oth«-treiisu^;. wfaittsi afi; wehave- 
to give ia this dbpjK of cadaxDity must: be tdinawa. w. hice 4^' 
foor widow's mite: .),.:• 

Ihl t^ oowrsd of (dM diiibat»,.S» John Alt^yaeto^ f)epaiK 

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wm to obMnre, that the proposed commHtaiioti of t)^ four charxui, 
and a half percent, duty would be far more oppressive thau l^:**. 
the original imposition. For, however grievous the dutj 
might be^ aa it wa« proportioned to the anuual produ<^ jpf 
tbeir plantations, it was |»eferable to ,a certain fi«:$e4 s^u^i^ 
which jaaust be raised at all events, and under everj disap^ 
pdntment from a failure of crops. Besides, as all sums dae 
to the crown were entitled to a priority overall private coin*- 
tracts, the consequence of a commutation, upon the terras 
suggested, would be injurious to the credit of the counjtry, 
and accelerate its ruin. Precluded from every prospect of 
relief from this burthen, by the interposition of superior 
authority, he insisted that it was inciunbent on the a$semr 
bly, as faithful guardians of the public interest, to dimini)»h 
the load for themselves, in every particular junder their im- 
mediate controul. 

On the question being put, the motiofi for two thousand 
pounds was carried in the affirmative, by a majority of six- 
teen to six ; and the second resolutipa ^as then agreed to, 
on a division of eighteen to four. A bill was immediateif 
{>repared, agreeable to the first resolution^ and, being, i(ea4 
three times, passed the house. Judge Gittens, who h^^ y<?- 
served his sentiments to the last stage of the business, op- 
posed the bin, beca>ise the saving intended by it wfus pitiful 
and impolitie^ il£s excellency, he reiqarised, had yucceed^ 
to the government under eircumstances^ which most npce;^- 
sarily ceitiipel him to HVe at a greater expense, than ^.pre«^ 

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^^JJ^:^:^'^* decessor had done. He had brought with him, Mr. Gittens 
*^^^* said, a strong disposition to exert his interest for the benefit 
of the colony ; and his connexions were such as to afford 
the best grounded expectations that hisr efforts would be 
successful, if they were not obstructed by the ungracious 
treatment of that house; which, by a mere parade of ecor 
nomy might stop the genial current of his good intentions* 
and lose the critical moment of obtaining the Royal favour 
and indulgence. 

The bill having been sent up to the other house for their 
concurrence, was returned with the following extraordinary 
message : " The council have passed the bill for the better 
support of his excellency, and the dignity of the govern- 
ment, as they cannot amend a money bill. But they can?- 
not help expressing their concern, at^ the injudicious saving 
therein established, as offering an indignity to government, 
and doing discredit to the island/' The speaker, attended 
by the assembly, waited on the governor, and, after an 
elegant and respectftil speech to his excellency^ offered 
the bill for his assent. He had the honour, he said, pf 
presenting his- excellency with, a free and voluntary gift of 
the people^ in addition to. the usual'salary from the CrowB; 
which also arose out of the produce of the lands of thi§ 
unfortunate country : unfortunate, indeed,' when the re? 
presentative body Vere obliged to appear before his excel- 
lency with an offering so much inferior to their inclinatioa 
and his merit. But such were the melancholy circumstances 

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Google I 

OF BARBm)OES. 421, 

of tilie people, that were a faithfijl representation of their chap.xiil 
wretched state exhibited to his exceUe;ic/s view, it would ^^*^ 
rather serve to shew, that. they had nothing to give than to 
excuse them for not giving more; especially when the dis^ 
appointment which, they had ex^perienced in the expected 
relief from. the heaviest of their burthens^ left them desti^ 
tutedf every resource but that of a rigid and determined 
frugality in the management of tl^e little that renaained*, Yet^ 
of that little, they fieely presented Jiiift^ with a part, and 
^uch a part too as, proportioned to their real circumstances* 
would abundantly testify their high. regard for his charac- 
ter, and the aflfection which his amiable deportn^ent had 
already kindled in theiE bosoms^ 

These expressions of esteem were unable to soothe, the 
vexation of disappointment, or to soften a heart indurated 
by avarice. His excellency replied, " I find, gentlemen,, 
that you have begun your economical reform with me, I 
hope you mean to go on with it, as I am persuaded thfere 
is an ample field- I flatter myself you. will believe, that I • 
shall endeavour to second you in every measure for tlie ad- 
vantage of the island; but I shall not give my immediate 
assent to this bill ; because^ by your resolve, I am con- 
vinced, that your attempt to force ministers into, a nieasure 
which they are certainly inclined to adopt, is more likely 
to retard than to forward their good intentions/' 

A more indiscreet answer could not have been returned. 
Had the governor concealed his- ohagrin, andrepeived the 

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42| THEffisrroRy 

^^A^^* 9ei^ipin^t witk-«- courtefty equal ta the pc^iteacss with 
"^^ jHiichrit wftfi offered, there it not the shadow of a douht^ 
that the, assonbly would soon have displayed their wonted 
liJ^Orality, by an augoientation of the salary. It was a 
jir)di!e-Yapour of eooDomy« whieh tJ^.suashine of ^urtfa* 
VQur would soon have dispdled. But, whatever diffstenct 
0f opinion may exist concerning the propriety of reducing 
the governor's salary, it caniK>t be denied, that the motives 
which influenced the majority were laudable. "Hie condi* 
jtionof the country was deplorable and disastrous in the 
* extreme. For a period of seven years, the soil, exposed to fro* 
quest droughtis <^ long contiauaace, had lost its accus- 
tomed fertility ; and its produce was destroyed by various 
i^cies of vcN-min, not less destructive than the vengeful 
tribes which afflicted the Egyptian territory. 

On tl;ie back of these physical iJJs, a train of moral and 
political evils epuued* The commerce of the couatry wajj 
almost annihilated by swarms of hostile cruisers, which in- 
fested the oceanj The ne^^oes were 4lmpst starving : and 
the business of sugar-boiling was greatly impeded, for wariit 
of the necessary supplies of lumber and provisions from 
America. Many of the finest plantation were desolate 
by the c»pidity of rapacious, relentless erfcditore ; the slaves 
of the iodustrious planter were sohi at public auction fdt 
less than half their v^lue, and transported 1» the Dutch 
letttementi; t;heir feuiWi^gp v^r^ destroyed; ^nd some of 
the £uKfiit portion^ o^ the eartk bwwn© si bftrren waste, Xf> 

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i&e trtlfer min of tbtiir cmcfe otMilent possetsbff, btd^ tftrCRWPira 
00 less 'manifesft iiijurjr of their janior tredAtcm* I& wb hm; 
lamciitablefttateof things^ p^deote inaperatively ra^tHoed 
Ihe mort rigid: econonly^ 4x)<^ public and domostic. Tet| 
4ili tke other lusmd, when;' the insi^ifiofflit' adt^an^e^hidl. 
tecrued to each indiyidnal by the redvctioti of the goverv 
lior'a ftaJarj, ift contrasted tritb the benefits resuilrng from a^ 
Ibarmonioufr nnioQ between the respective branches of the 
legialatiifev it b at least prbbleuaticai^ whether mxch m 
tFiAiog frugality was^ worthy the a/tteaitioft of an eaUightened 
, legislature. 

Both houstes hariiig met, after the vnusfl adjoumMenf^ Aagastfsfti 
Ihey emboaced the opportunity of addreaiing th^ govenloi* 
In ana^er to ti» s^aehv The addrei^ of the council w^ a 
nervous^ well-written comfositioot abounding wilhprdfeis-* 
jiiona of attcichment to their countryv of loyalty and grati* 
lude t^ the Kkig^ and of the inost profound respect £Dr his 
•xceUency. That of the .£»sembly was not less res^pectful 
fg^ conciliatory* It acknowledged, in the mo»t grateful 
terms^ the many instances of his Marty's paternal care 
Ap4 goodness^ psunticularly in. the eavly ai>d judicious ap«^ 
j^ntment oi" a g^njUeman^ of his* exc€fllency^s> character, 
to the goveromenrt of the island ; one, in whom, the mosl^ 
fespe^table and useful military falentah were happily united 
with such an amiable disposition, as allowed them to ex- 
pect the exertion of those peculiar powers for their safety, 
liiitkaai any fear of daikget to thein cij^il lights. But whila 

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ci^^^^- they' avowed their obligations to their Sovereign andlregard 
\7so. -fo^ \^\^ reptesentative^ the assembly lamented their unfor<^ 
^tunate situation, which deprived them of the means of 
giving his .excellency a more substantial mark of their 
esteem, in the provisions made for the support of hisxiig* 
nity. Yet they indulged the pleasing hope, that they 
should be enabled, in some more propitious hour, to testify 
the waitnth of their regard to his entire satisfaction. They 
acknowleged the propriety of attending, as far . as ihay be 
efficacious, to their internal defence, and promised, agree < 
ably to his excellency's recommendation, to adopt some 
more practicable plan of rendering their military force ef- 
fective.- But they peremptorily declared their unalte]:able 
determination, after the immense sums which they had al- 
ready voted for the use of the fortificatiolis, to raiseno far- 
ther supplies for that service, however fatal the conse- 
quences might prove to the very preservation of the people. 
Upon the wonted goodness of his Majesty, and the courage 
and prowess of the navy, they should trust, under Providence, 
for protection. They concluded wkh the assurance, that 
whatever benefits they might derive from the mildness &nd 
equity of his administration, they were Sensible they could 
be happy only as they^hould be just in rendering his go^ 
vemn^ent, as far as depended upon them, easy and happy 
to hiiii. .... 

It required not the gift of divination to perceive, from 
the whole tenor of this address, that the germ of generosity 

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■was beginning to expand, and that, by proper culture, it CHAP.xrir. 
would soon have produced the most grateful fruits. But, i*7«<^- 
unluckily, General Cunninghame possessed not the art of 
dherishing and maturing the tender plant. His rough, un- 
skilful hand, repressed its delicate growth, and Waited its 
infantine bloom.. 

With the illnatured design of vexing and embarvapsingthe 
ats^nibly, he interrupted their deliberations with poeyish 
messages, proposing new schemes of expense, and con- 
veying a decided censure on the mafiagement of the pub- 
lic concerns. A large body of prisoners of war .being, at 
that tiiiie confined in the common gaol, he represented to 
the assembly the necessity of providing a place in the inte- 
rior of the country to which they might be removed, to re- 
lieve the inhabitants of the mdtropolis froi<i:,the danger of 
contagious distempers. The house repljedi thfir^ was^ no 
place of sufficient security in the coimtry to which the pri- 
soners could be removed, nor were the inhabitants able to 
take upon themselves the charge of providing fqr th.era,. 
They requested his excellency, therefore, to prevail on thc; 
admiral to send them to Europe in the fleet then ready to 
sail ; but, if they were to remain on the island^ the assem- 
bly apprehended it to be the duty of the commissary t0 
provide for their accommodation, as he received' fui, aiople 
recompense from the Crown for his expense aud^roiable. 

This message was inmiediately followed by another, pur- 
porting, that his^ excellency had hired a small vessel, to 

3 I 

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J » 

^^JjAp™- convey mteHigeiice to. ike naval comm ftwi^f at %i«t Li^^ 
^'^^^^ cia^ of the* surrender of Gbaries-t^wii ;. and ^Cisiriug* tl;iat the 
assembly woald provide for the paymeat of the carter ; iV 
would be difficult to^assigo any good reaao^ £01: ^bts beiQg, 
done; but as the expense did BQJt exoe^ forty pounds,, the. 
assembly complied with his request. This produced a fresh 
demand to pay the salaryof a proper o^icer to be ^yppioyed 
by his exoeUenoy to visit flags, of truce, and otbier foreign 
vessdls^ arriving in Garlisle^bay • A ^qipt compUance wit^. 
this requisition evinced tiie wish of the assembly to gratify/ 
his excellency in all Im rpasonabk defiireA.: they imani* 
mousVy voted a?salwy^o<f fifty pounds a year to. the perspa 
employed on^thisi service,, who wa3 dignified with the title, 
of captain of the port?*i , 

The house had just entered, upon the awisij^eflfation of a^ 
bill toprovide for thje expenses of, governwent forthe cnt- 
rent year, when theywepe summoBed to attend, his excel- 
lency in the council chamber. He informed thesji tjiat he 
sa'w, with astonishment an4 conoem, tl^ia respectable c(^ 
lony^eft viA an empty treasury, a naaga^ine: witbipuik stoi^esi 
and; a ^umerdus train of distressed. credi)t(kni. '^^ ^^^^ 
voidable consequenees, be remarked, must be the destnw- 
tlon. of public credit^ and a stagnation, of alii biMiness^ 

To guard^ against the evila incident tx> sudu a states he 
nrged the'^assing of a constitutional levy bill* The housa 

' " ■ ' ■■h-i'iii ■ ' ■ > ' ' ■■ m ill ■ I I . . J ii HI - M Hii nn 11 >iiiw WWII !>■ ■■wiiiii I I i»ii^>>^>< M 

* In Mtt times tbe talary of this offi^r bar beeo tncttaaM to ^ifta^ ]p^f»f^* 


d by Google 

of BAttMDOES; Uf 

<H!cortRftgly gdt fltt-ottp^ the bill) befi>re they rose, and seat O^J^i*** 
ft op to the coaneil for their concuTWooe. Finding that th6 *^^* 
bill was Jtejiugnattt to the royal instructions, on the vetj point 
i^hich liad bden so frequently canvassed, and decided by* 
iiiperiot aiithiority; the cotmcil rejected it ; and the goveN 
nori aiMcious to have it passed, consnlted the atbotttey 
iand soiicitbr-genetal, il^hose report, with a copy of the 
instructions, 'was sent to the assembly; but they were ftv- 
flexible;' they would pass no other levy bill, though the 
public creditors had not been paid for Sixteen months. 

Having gone through the whole of the busihess before 
them, the house were called upon by Mi*. Duk^ to express 
a proper resentment at the unparliatneritdry message re- 
ceived from the council at their former meeting. The hap- 
piness of every government, he said, consisted in tlie lindis* 
turbed enjoyment of the constitutional powers Belonging 
to each department. Where a legal pfrivilege was exercis- 
ed, if alDiise or defamation followed, the tendency must fee 
to encroach, to irritate, and to throw the whole system into 
disorder and confusion. The constitution had enirtiit^ 
the popular branch of the legislature with the right of rais- 
ing and disposing of the public money. The power bt de- 
termining the sum to be raised, atrtd the serviced td wtiJth it 
should be applied, betotrged exclusively to the represierita- 
tives of the peopte. Arguments were rendertid unnece^slity 
by the counciFs admission that they coufd riot amend a 
money bill. But thfcn £hey could have rejected it Ttt 

3 I 2 

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CHAP-xnr. consent to a measure and to vilify it too was unfrnxjedented 
>78a m all legislative proceedings. Mr, Duke proved, from the 
parliamentary records, that the House of Commons would 
aevcE suffer any aspersion from a peer, even at a free con- 
ference, without shewing a suitable resentment, and bring- 
ing the offender to condign punishment. What then, he 
asked, must be the feelings of that, assembly on an attack 
from the whole council, clearly calculated and deliberately 
cpptrived to interrupt the good correspondence which ought 
to exist between the commander in chief ^nd the represien- 
tatives of the people ? 

After offering a variety of arguments, to convince the 
house that they could not, consistently with their own dig- 
nity, enter the message on their journals, unaccompanied 
by a proper animadversion on its irregular and illiberal 
contents, Mr. Duke moved a resolution to this effect, that 
the council's message, at their last meeting, respecting the 
settlement upon the governor, is extraordinary, indecent, 
and unparliamientary. Extraordinary, that they should 
give their assent to a measure which they considered to be 
an indignity to government, and discreditable to the island; 
indecent, because it casts an illiberal reflection upon the 
judgment of the assembly, upon a point where the consti* 
tution has fixed the right of judging, in the first instance, 
for the credit, as well as for the interest of the pubhc; 
unparliaraentaryi as tending to interrupt that harmony and 
good will between the governor and the house of assembly, 

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so essential to the happiness and prosperity of the coboh chap^hi 
munity.f ; upon motives beneath the dignity even of ap- ^^^^ 
right individuals, and yet more unbecoming the second 
branch of the legislature. Upon the question being put, 
the resolution was agreed to, the members for Ghristchui^h 
alone dissenting ; and a copy of it was sent to the council, 
who sustained; in suUea silence, the reproof of their in- 
discretion. ' / . 

Op their, next meeting, the assembly received the go* sept.5. 
vemor'ls reply to. their ; address, in answer to the speech, 
filled with the most insulting reproaches and illiberal invec- 
tives. He afFi?cted to consider their professions of confi- 
dence and esteem . among the: greatest honours of his^ life ; 
and. wished that their favourable opinion of him might in- 
duce. them to render back, to the proper bmnch of the 
constitution, the appointment of the treasurer and store- 
keeper, of which they had usurped the disposal; and 
which, he was persuaded, was, in a great measure, the 
source of that profusion of which they so justly. com plained. 
He was sorry to observe, that the misfortunes which they 
attributed to bad seasons, were principally owing to cor^ 
ruption in their present system of government ; and the 

♦ The learned member might have found abetter reason in Black. Comm. r, 1, p. 
l83. It is a rule of parli amenta when the house of lords reject a bill, that no further 
notice is taken of it> bat it puses: ^'^en^^ to prevent uDbecoqoipgmltercati^ni, 

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cHAP.xm. continual encrbachments which they were making on ttcc 
'780. executive power, were, he i^id, partly the cause of that 
waste of the public money, do notoriotid to every unprieju* 
diced observer. 

Heregi'etted that the exertions which he had made, b^ 
fore he left Engliand, in promoting m^asure^ advantageous 
to the inland, should have been so illiberally requited by 
their prescribing terms respecting the settlement, highly^ 
irtiproper for his. acquiescence. When they made a prOt 
vision for him, as the King's representative, they ought; 
he told them, to have remembered the necessary eip^Mes 
attending his situation, from the high price of every article 
of domestic adcommbdation ; and had their donative beeiL 
more liberal, he should hare thought it incumbent on'hiiA 
to support his commission with greater dignity. Their for- 
tifications, he affirmed, were inadequate to their defence ; 
and, though surrounded with danger, they had declared 
that they would raise no farther supplies for Ihdbr oHvn pro^ 
tectioa; a declaration which could not fail to inspire the 
ejoettiy with joy. He earatttfy exhorted them to lay aside 
that spirit of contention^ which, he said, wasbut too visible 
in their proceedings ; to live with proper econonky, the 
OAly means of retrieving embarrassed circumstances; and 
to employ themselves in framing wise laws, on constitu- 
tional priincijpl^SBt which wpujd restore credit to their finaA^ 
<x^ energy to ^eir governiaetit, «ki that lustee' to the 

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uOAod vhkh formerly upheld it, as a model of order and ciup-Xiil 
lojwdtjf, to this part of his Majesty's dotninioas. ^*^ 

NQtfhing could have been more inciMisistcnat and impru- 
dent^ than this illiberal and uhparlianMutary message* Six 
weeks had mot: elapsedi since ^the^yeroor had commei^d 
the assembly for ipaintaiping the character of loyalty to 
tleue King;^^i)d attaobm^t to the ootstitutioQ,. whieh.bad 
^)eeii traqamit^d toi^theia &om their ajicestors ; . and fbr tb0 
preftervakion of that good older and tKanquiUity, wh?eh 
proved the wisdom of their councils,, undisturbed by vio- 
lence and faction. Yet no sooner was their conduct seedt 
with the jauadiced eye of disappointment, than ite copi- 
plexion was changed ; the. go]?er»ment ,appeared cord-upt 
in its>aystei», and administered witii profusion^ th^ legisla- 
ture seemed employed ia continual encroacl^eaents. pa thf^ 
e«ecufeive power, and ils proceedings actuated by a, spirit 
of contention^ Dedawtjtipns 90 oppopite,. and irreqoncile- 
aWe^ ijwolved bis eweUencji in tljtls , dilemma ; either bis 
panisgyric iwas undeserved, and originated in the unworthy 
wrotdv^ of effecting hij& stniMer designs by venal adulation* 
Of ihia subsequent aspersiohs,^ were the *ngrj ebullitions of 
d^ppoiated av^urke. Be thi3 as it may, this imprudeat 
stepf A¥BB seiriously condemned by Lord George Germainte^ 
^* It wa^ A great poncern to me,'' said his lordship^ ia'a 
iQttejr tQr<ii>vernoi^QanninghamC;, " to ^nd that your an- 
.awerto th& address qoataipe4 so much matter for coaten- 
tioAand'iU}h'WU»uf> a^d some expressions^ which might he 

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^^JJ^;^;^* expected to excite resentment in minds already heated, 
^^^^^ and disposed for inflammation. The address of the assem- 
bly certainly did not call for such severe reprehension, and 
the introduction of new subjects ; and besides censuring 
past transactions in an answer to an address, wa^ irre- 
gular." ' 
This intemperate message, which was immediately pub-^ 
lished, by his :excelleiicy''S directk>ns^ in a common news* 
paper, prodijced an instantaneous flQ,me in the house, and^' 
destroyed every hope of an amicable termination of the 
dispute. Fired with resentments the assembly immediately 
appoi;ited a committee to prepare a raehiorial, vindicating 
themselves against the indecent aspersions of the governor. 
But when the niemorial was presented, in th^ijHMwkform, 
his excellency declined receiving it. * 

Sept. 19. TIhs- paper wap drawi^Hip with great tamper, moderation, 
and firmness.' ^ 'be silent, iander the accumulated charges 
which his e^i:<^eHe^lcy liad:brougbt $gaif>9t tl^m^ the assem- 
bly said, might lbe'<:9nst*aed into an acknowjedgm^t of 
guijt; and to reply, in a manner-^ syited to 4heir sen^ of 
the injurious treatment which they had received^, w^ no 
inconsiderable difficulty in addressing the representative 
of a Monarch, for whose person they entertained the most 
inviolable esteem, and U> whose ^oviernment they were at- 
tached, by every principle of duty ai^ affection. Con- 
sidering the govemoVs remark on the power whicih they 
exercised, respecting the . treasurer and storekeeper, as a' 

I . 

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0FBARBAD0E5. 433 

formal demaiid of those appointments, they seriously de- *^^JJ^^:^^' 
clared that they would never be persuaded to surrender the *''^^* 
right of appointing those officers, which they had holden 
from time immemorial, by the peculiar fkvour and indul- 
gence of the crown"*. Nor could they conceive on what 
ground his excellency had formed the opihion, equally in* 
furious and unjust, that the right of the assembly, to the 
disposal of those offices, was the source of public profusion. 
By the laws of the country, all orders for the payment of 
jnoney, or the disbursraientB of stores, must originate with 
.the commander in chief, in council, consequently the pro- 
fusion which was the subject of complaint, could not, with 
any appearance of justice, be imputed to the assembly. 
Equally inexplicable was the assertion, that the misfortunes 
which they imputed to bad seasons, were, in a great njea- 
sure, owing to corruption in the system of govermnent. 
But they assured his excellency of their readiness to join 
in the most rigid inquisition into the crime, for the two-fold 
purpose of procuring reparatioA Of the wrong, and of in- 
flicting the most exemplary punishment on the delinquents; 
With regard to the charge, that their encroachments oft 
the executive power were the causes of the waste of the 

* Hie members of the assembly socceed to these offices themseWes, in a triennial 
rotation, as a reward for their legislative senrnres^ and farm them to the persons by 
whom they are executed at three hundred poimds a year, ' 


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CHAP^it public mbnej> tbey defied the goveniot to Q&nie a'^iagfe 
*^*^* iostance in which they had infringed the prenogiEitive or 
usurped a power not expressly warranted by law; oria 
which they had exercised their constitutional rights wnia- 
iluenced by motives of the purest bepevolence» directed to 
the attainment of some public good* They famented tliat tb* 
salary of bis excellency should still be a subject of altercattoiw 
afler all that they had humbly and respectfully offered ia 
tdnfdioation of the abridgment. Had they gii^en the full 
weight to the consideration, mentioned by his excellency^ 
of the advanced price of the necessaries of lifot ^kaoiviqi; 
JiDw much the people bad suffeiedt for # 4»eiie8 of yeai% 
irom this very cause, they would have beea dkcouraged 
Imn making auy settlement at all, instead of that wJuch 
they had fnade under every disadvantage. 

Respecting the fortifications, they attempted to justify 
tbeif reseliiilions on the plea of necessity, contendii^ that 
fta the impoverished state of the country, it would be folly 
. and wicjiodness to impose additional burthens on a people 
Mn^gglittg under a Umd of taxes^ which tliey were unable 
io bear. Whether in their future conduct tliey should be 
#0 happy as U» eiliibii 6uch a model of order and loyalty, 
9S in his excellency's opinion might be deemed worthy of 
tmitntiop , the memeriali«te oould not determine ; but tJiey 
would, at least, furnish an example of integrity and inde- 
pendence becoming tlie representatives of a free, yet loyal, 
colony. And they concluded witli the assurance, that there 

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OF BAftBADOn. 4S5 

was no dvU right giwGi ihem bj the laws and constittittQn ^^JJI^JJJ^ 
of their country, which they would either cease to holdy or *^^ 
ceasti to exercise, whenever the public welfare called for 
its exertion. 

' Whatever censure the message of the governor might have 
incurred, for it9( intemperance and incionsistency, it oiust 
•be confessed, that some of the charges which it contained, 
'were not altogether groundless. The proceedings of the^ 
asisembly, for nearly a centuiy, hitd been distinguished by 
fire^uent attonpts to encroach on the prerogative of the 
'Ctowu,* nob in the appointment of public officef&i oiily, but 
by endeavouring to usurp an undue controuL oyer the dis^ 
* posal of the public^ money. These clairais had given rise tof 
' frec(uent disputes between the difierent branches of the* 
legislature, which had been as frequently decided ftgainst 
the assembly. But with regard to the ii6niination of thef 
treasurer and storekeeper, the point had b^en; formally cdn- 
ceded to them, full seventy years before, by an ofder of ^ 
Queen Anne, Under this sanction, tibey have suicoesslively ^ 
assumed the right of appointing the comptroUer of thci e«J 
cise, the harbour-master, an inspector of weights and to^- 
sures, a ganger of casks in each of the fonftpwn9i asd 
twelve inspectors of cotton* I shall /not. stop to inquire, 
whether the government is better administered, iii; conse- 
quence of this assumptiolL of executive) :autheari]ty ; it is 
sufficient that it is contrary to the principles of the EngKsh 

■ 3 -K 2 

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CHAKXiiL, constittttipp.. .1^ is a right ^ unjcno^n to the howfe . of • 
1780. commons.. ' i ,/ 

, pf the profusipa imputed to the gov^^rftment^ the proof 
iBi^t easily have been found in every diviakm :6f th^ 
island. The unbounded.^ ifa&fte;of store^^i pskrtftcularly oft 
glinpoiyder, was indeed a grievaiice of no small magnitude^ 
]but here> the remedy wa^ in the governor's own hands. No t 
stores could be obtained b^t by hjbsi es^cellencyV or der on 
the store-keeper. Over this departpient. the assembly had 
no control. An abuse of power is too often the only means^ ^ 
by which men of weak and sordid minds display dieir autho- 
rity and consequence. At eadi convivial meeting of the 
militia officers^ their loyalty and patriotirai were celebrated 
at the public expense by the repeated discharge of cannon, 
not unfrequently e:|Lceeding a hundred in number. Ohr 
these occasions, half the quantity of powder, allottedfor the 
charge of each gun,, was ^r^served for the benefit of the 

Mr. Estwick, the colonial agent, was now doomed to 
feel the weight of the governor's ctispleaaure. His excd** 
lency attribute the abridgment of his ^lary to tlmt gen^ - 
tlems^n's letter to the committee of correspondence, intimat--^ 
ing that. General Cunninghame had received instructions 
from the crown to commute the four and a half duty. Be- 
$i4es this^tbe^s^gent) a^ a memkMx of^parliannent^ had «^-^ 
dered him^&lf o^ojt^^^ by opposing their 


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measufes. For these reasons the governor Yejected the bill, chjpxul 
which h»d been unanimously passed by both houses, re- ^'^^^^ 
appointing Mr, Eetwick to the agency. Nothing is more 
dear than that the raght of electing their OMm agent should 
be exercised by the council and assembly, independently 
of the commander in <:hief. For as it is the duty of that 
minister lOiCmivey 4o the royal ear the complaints of the 
people, suffering' under the incapacity, tyranny and injustice 
of th^r rulers, the governor's ^ vetoy in this case, must- 
necessarily supersede and ! destroy: the very end and object) 
of the office;.. 

As a constituent part of the legislature, the governor, i t is« 
true, possesses> a negative on all acts of the assembly, but 
this power is given for the purpose of preserving the King's* 
prerogative from invasion; and the agent's bill being of* a^ 
particular nature, jresulting from- the peculiar circumstances ^ 
of the cok>nial constitution, the right of negation is, at^ 
leasts questionable. The inference from analogy is de^- 
oisively against it. In En^and no bill,^ and especially ai 
money biU^ notaffwtiiig the rights of*tlie crown, which had 
been passed by both houses of psfriiam^it, was ever rffjected^ 
by the King. But what occasion ie. there f^M^ a particular 
law to ap()oint aa^ agent i -.A vote of the house of assembly, 
would be Mtffioient ; )and th^ * payment of his salary might 
be provided -ibr in. theaomud^ery 4m1U a» in tHe^^case of the- 
other officers of the house. In the passage of this bill, the 
governor is generally too much interested to suffer his per* 

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CBJJJjO- s6nai resentment to obstruct it. . To preserve tbe {mvilege 
^^^' of electing an a^ent, in coojuQctioh with the cdmcil, tho^ 
assembly resolved to nominate tio othier'pfersan to tfcfat: 
Office, and to allow Mr. Estwidk the usual sqilArj^ ai if fa»> 
appointment had bten confirmed bj the governor. ' 

Matters having how ccuiiie to aii>extremity betweeoihlr 
excellency and tbe assembly, both sides pre^iared for tfamr 
jUstificatioh by aA appeal to the secbetary of statfe, in w^hose;^ 
department the colonies lay* With this vidw the speake^^ 
by order of the holise, transmitted . to *Mr. Estwick the ' 
minutes'of their proceedings from General CuDmnghame's> 
airival to their latest meeting, with direction^ to lay them ; 
before Lord George Germaine. At the ;same tinie the 
governor wrot^ to the noble secret^ry^ complairiiog of the 
little harmony which he found surbsistihg between tlie couocil 
and the assembly. This disagreement, he imputed to the 
ftCCtioiis designs of Sir John G, AUeyne and Mr. Duk^, 
The irifloehce which the former derived from bis talents, 
probity and disiete^kstedness, wa^ . invidiously bscribed Uy 
blLei causes. Ilis power, -t4ie go veroot* said, arost ffom bit 
being emplayed.iaa attorney to a nunrber of absentees; and» 
with a "view -ticy his lordship's interfering to abridge th|it 
power>be p^ticiildrly jmentiotied that:8xi! John AUeyne acted 
Vfk l^l^.i^^Nf^iy; for the Society £)if the propagation of the 
Gospely and% Gaftoin Reyndds*, of the imvy, piitentecl 

.- ..' . ^» MiintuikhatdlMki, " " -■ ''' '« •" " ■' -"^ 

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of thi^ warsha^'s office. Henoe Im loKl«hip would perceive, CHAPXiif. 
tha^ those peo|de who ought to fttrengtheo the hamjs of * /^?®* 
goveroor were eacreasing the pow^r of a popular leader^ 
who constantly opposed the measures of government, aad 
was read j^ whea thwarted in hU pui^posesj to throw everj 
tbmg lAtp (difiwder .and confudioa. 

Ifi thi^ ien^eif l^is exceileucy <x>ngratiilated. himself oa 
having the advice of two such able lawyers as the attori^ 
a«iM>liit:itorg|^iieral*5 the f<Arn\er of Wthoo^ h^ particularly^ 
necomnefided lo his Mujestyj^.apd JUialed th»t hi9 salarjr 
iwght .ift!be ,earer;eased and paid by the crowpir Ml i\f0 
pnocipa^ f[>ffit:es be^u^v^&ted in .piaten^ee$> who iarmed thooi 
outito !lha highest biddera, wasa cinQUi^istance, his excd'^ 
leDcy.rewiarked, which extremely. Umitckl Uip ppwer of ♦ 
commander in chipf, aiad disabled him froin conducting th^; 
business of government with energy ana effect f-. Eitifjer 
i^ceived himseUV ^^ willhag to. impose upon the credulity/ 
ctf hif, palJEon, his .efcelleucy proceeded py stajte that Jthfi 
memprial which he ba,d Jcefu3ed. to r£ceiv45 Jfrom Jtlip a.ssem*^ 

■>' i ' ■*!! »>'! ■ ' i« M t 'I ' 

* The Hon. Iff. Moore, the tWcr j. wii Chtika Brandfiird, fisqoivt* 
H anUmg ia^ttam likictk a«rlbu«i4 tp lessen. tb«inflMff«ce|Qr<tl^ cwiMi^ia 
AttWric^,Mr.;Sfoh(CV'chief ijwticep; pe^r^^a^ mention* a$ one of ibe ino«t material 
ihe fw-,al practice of bestowing almost every lucrative office in the. pruvnicet, that . 
could be exercised by deputy, on person^ residing In Englafti 'Siiikti^Cimsi.^^^ki- 
Vdonits, p. 13S: «Lrtice U woiAd seem Uiat Ihii »iiteibif-Jf f»kk «ffiaia iHJdit 
•4lom^ rfucated b»;d«Hrtlw» w^ pnf;>va^ra»kfe if A^ iJifl Wfli^y ^itia per* 
nicious to the people. , ^ 

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^^^Pj^^ bly had given .great offence *to people in general ; ^ was 
- I7B0. therefore induced to hope, now theilr iU-humour hiu! 
evaporated, that the ' assembly would consentto pass <a 
proper levy bill; if not, it would T>e ex(>^i6nt jto tUasoIvef 
them ; and as, -from their absurd conduct; ih^- )iad loert 
their popularity, he entertained the most sa^gtilne e&peo- 
tations ^f the advantages to be derived froda^ a «cw 

^ Nothing could have l>een more fallacious ttmn this tcj^is* 
ihentation of the state of the public niind« Nor is it difficult 
to conjecture by whom his excellency was misldtl. The 
council of Barbadoes had ever been Temarkable for a com^ 
pliance with the wishes of government. The two leading 
members of this board were Mn Henry Frere and Mr. 
* Ireneus Moe. Of these the former was haughty, reserved 
and austere. With an understanding more solid than 
splendid, he possessed an inordinate ambition, which led him 
to support the most arbitrary measures of government. A 
strenubus advocate for the authority of the crown, he natu* 
r ally became t he opponent of Sir John G. AUeyne, who 
was uniformly the noble, erect and zealous ass^tor of the 
tights of the people. • Between these competitors for fame 
and power, .personal animosity had succeeded to political 
ijontroversy i and -Mr. Frere was generally anxious to em* 
brace any opportunity of piquing and mortifying his popu-r 
lar rival, by an inconsiderate opposition^ too often incom« 
patible with the pubhc welfare. \ ^ 

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11» a joand jttjgmeiii, Mr. Moe umted a brilliant imagi- ^^'SiJi/*' 
^atioQ) and a private worth without a st^iK Nor is it easy ^'^^' 
to recoboifoi with bit respectable character^ the {lart which 
^ bore ia supfK>rting Go^ertior Caaniaghanie's arbitrary 
Mid iMegM admmistratioD. To the coansek of these men, 
Qeaeral Cunoinghame seems^ ia a great measure^ to have 
TMtgned himself; while actuated by a perverted ambitioih 
«iid aa absurd opposition to the patriotic leaders of the 
fiiaembly, they scrupled uot to recommend or satiictio^ the 
anost unjust and pernicious measures. 
. Pindii^ the door of reconciliation dSectually closed, the 
governor now turned his thoughts to devise some method of 
compensating himself for the insuflSiciency of the salary. 
With this view lie claimed of the deputy-secretary certaia . 
feest which, he ass^ted, had been usually paid to fonnei* 
governors; and which, of late had been absorbed in the 
secretary's office* Mr. Workman replied, that he did not 
mean to dispute his excellency's right to the fees in ques- 
tion, but. having farmed his office from the patentee, under 
the impression of his being entitled to lliem, he should 
naturally expect a proportionable abatement of the rent, if 
the.offite.was remdered less valuable by a diffisrent approf 
pjii^^QQ Qf any part of. the profits^ The govwnor was 'no 
stiiangjer to the ^lagard pf attacldng the host of ptaceinen^ 
t¥hoj jhy. yirtuie of patent froip the crowiH drain the 
coloaiesof their wealth; he therefore abandoned this pn> 
ject, a^d adopted a scheme, in the executiont)f whicbh^ 


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443 THE raSTORY 

CHJJJJJII- thottj^t to enrich himself, with greater security, irom the 
^^^^* spoils of a half ruined people^ Having obtained a table of 
fees which had be^ taken by Lord Macartney at Grenada) 
he submitted it to the consideration of the coumtiL Tbe 
pliant members of that board readily concurred in the 
mercenary ^signs of their despotic chief, and agreed to 
sanction the demand of fees, as a compensation for the 
inadequacy of the legal settlement, but ventured to disap* 
prove of those which were then proposed^ as being too 
exorbitant. ^ 

To give these proceedings some appearance of legality, 
the opinion of the attorney-general was demanded on these 
queries, Whether either, and which, of the laws of this 
. island, respecting the fees of public officers, extend to 
". any fees taken, or to be taken, by and for the governor ? 

And whether the establishment of fees, by the governor, with 
the advice and consent of the council, is, in any respect, 
a breach or violation of any law of thb islatid now in force? 
A noble opportunity was here presented to Mr. Moore, of 
immortalizing his name, by asserting the indubitable rights 
of the people; and, by checking the infant struggles of des- 
potism, by a candid and upright performance of his prpfes^ 
sional duty. But, he reported, that the several laws of this 
island, relating to fees only, extend to inferior officers, and 
not to the governor ; and that his excellency, notwithstand- 
ing those laws, may receive all such fees as lie was legally 
entitled to^ Nor did he know of any law th^ expressly- 

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prohibits the governor from establishing fees for himself^ chap.xiih 
with the- adtioe of his counciL To say nothing of the ^"^^^ 
igHOfkdce which this opinion betrays of the constitution, 
it« disingenuousness and sophistry are too obvious to r^quiro 

This report was laid before the council, at their next Sept. 29. 
fritting, together with a new regulation of fees, which, be- 
ing morh moderate, was approved of by the members pre- 
sent ♦, who recommended his excellency to ckum arid 
enforce the payment of them, and the secretary was accord 
ingly directed to receive the fees thus settled for his excel- 
lency's use. This was the most arbitrary and illegal Viola- 
tion of the rights of the sVibject, that had ever been com- 
mitted in any part of the British dominions, since the me-\ 
morable and fatal attempt of Charles L to' Irivy ship-money . 
oh* the people of England; It was a palpable violation of 
the charter, the' colonial magna charta, granted to the ' 

Earl of Carlisle ; by which it is expressly stipulated, that 
the inhabitants of Barbadoes' should possess all the liber- 
ties, franchises, and privileges of British subjects; and that 
no decrees, nor ordinances, should be made to the hurt or 
discommodity of any person or persons, either to the bind^ 
ing, constraining, burthening, or taking away their libertyi 

^ Theie penons were Henry Frere, Ireneus Moe, Robert BrathWaitej John Best, 
Joseph Keeling and Jotm Ince, Esquires. ^ . 


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4^ . mmnmmr 

if not tbe letter^ of se?«ir44oo«lMftt<^^, ^0*.i^»» M <!«# 
^l^go^iM-jlp, jO^ |)fm4fto 9^ t)K} i^l)«|i ««p»ti<«^oo.. 
Mj^^i^gt Mys,th«Jeani^.GoiitfR^9toior cm Uwlftint'of ' 

-w^ik^ §%fm9% \fS ^9|^»ed b)it by 9C!b of) p«MEluuiWBt -jr. 

tenncol^agMMf "tb* iojoiitifl^^iial iUegobtj «f tbe «iMfiiro ; 

«HKletiC]r3«£T]lM/4a^ii<!Mtediq^ by a steftdy^ 

tenpciAM. ifiponliMii^.^jF w^M b)»ye {HvteeM ^ xigk% 
«f tibe pKOf^iBMUftttkiid itItiB 4ignil(jr 9iC tiie )<^l»tuTe». 
and. sinddid hu(4«:i^9u^;,«^^Gwi}ly Aom i^ytd ia4i£9M>P» 
«aid pQp»lfM>>odiii(nu. ; jOat iUm i!<9At?F»i-jr» U i^iitt f^citv tbir 
cailieBii»k and «ft1totuilHnMt;j9f'$i^. wind) 9«tccijpitibte o( 
ipdol ftdiiigB, to idM«.tiwAj» bdidy. iof vm^ ^ tih^ fts> 
ank aad fortune in ^ oommunity, AovHd tbiis piisiJIanii>^ 

* Vide HalPs Uw», Ko. 6^ H 44^ and 55,. t Blade, Opwneii^t v*). 1. |V 272. 

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OF aAKBApOES. ii45 

*]»»; ^Uttkdi^bowtft tii" 4b0s . hod tieen ^al^eilEly ^tat6d% 
^bifi^f' aiM»/ kiidx^ng that k wcit 4o he ^^isnmi^t'hi^'di^; 
%fue^.<ki^^'takhhie ilAteiidecl iiid«i^Iitta2'theftks^lv^% ^ 
^riM ofif)d6ition to &0 m^seofe. ' 9a6b tt'tdadttei liilgbl 

&iid dtaty, tojoih.m'«be'fnt«u»M <^^{MMti«ft{toit^itEmiiy'iiiid 

t^ fttte^ti but th^ %f ii of'the oiiiii^iloirv ikist prpbteiiiat|«ak 

vemor^ud council €U0u»e<l agstierp^ ^iseatiiBl^Uoatihrimgh*: 
^t the country ; atid recoone tira«> liaA Uytmshf'Cia^w^tibf 
i^htpl^ the {MiLyii»eat of %hi6 iiUgeJi fees ^oi^d-be jsvasd^v Bvea 
^fair4ek^si|ibfed tfadir ]^^(jtei«h. topv^vail (M^ tbdirualtp^ 
19}. d^e^icac^ iikpd «»Jwu||ed to <tbo fodbiicatiai^ of the; han^f 
«f mamag^, raUiec t|iaa tbpr lovers should yield to the 
governor's ej^actioas^ for a license. A more ^^irited ai^ 
msmij <;on4uci Wap! ^ido^ted Iby Mr. t)iikie. Havib'g' paid 

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CHAP.XIII. tije netv fee on tbe probate of a will, to which he was ap4 
i7fio. pointed executor, that intelligeiit patriot determined to 
strike at the root of the -evil. Though the governor was 
riot immediJitely amenable to the law, Mr, Workman j as 
the minister of his tyranny, was liable to punishment; 
Duke therefore lodged an information, in writing, with Mr. 
•R. Beckles and judge Weekes, two jnstices of the peAce,' 
against tlie secretary for extortion ; and a day Vias appointed 
for hearing the complaint. . Anxious to ingratiate himself 
at Pilgrim, Weeks informed the governor of the affair, and, 
the next day, positively refused to take cognizance of the 
offence. Incensed at such servility, Duke withdrew the 
complaint with the design of applying to another magis* 
trate. But the dreadful disaster which occurred a few days 
after, the important concerns which pressed for immediate 
consideration, and, above ^ all, the stib^^quent illness' and 
death of that valuable man, put an end to the prosecu- 

Though the Bai^badians were sinking under the accumu- 
lated weight of a complication of evils natural, moral and 
political, the measure of their woes \Vas not yet full. They 
were now doomed to suffer a Calamity, in comparison with 
which all the other ills that * afflicted them were light and. 
inconsiderable. A tremendous hurricane, which, with in- 
discriminate fury, continued to rage nearly eight-and-forty 
hours, with a violence unparalled in the history of the 
world, threatened them with universal ruiri. This was one 


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pf those awful visitations of Providence, whose irresistible chap.xiil 
force humbles the pride of man, and shews him his absolute ^^sa 
^pendance o» the mercy of that God, who *' rides ip, 
the whh'lwind and directs the storm,** ' 

On the morning of Tuesday, Uie fatal tenth of October, the 
-ittfaabitants were early* alarmed by tl^ unttsual violence of 
the wind, accompanied with heavy falls of rain* iThe winds, 
iVbich blew from the north-west, continued hourly to in- 
crease ; and, before noon, many houses in different parts of 
the island were either blown down or materially injured. 
By the third hour of tl^ afternoon, all the vessels in Cat- 
lisle bay were forced from their moorings and wrecked; oj: 
driven to sea to encounter the horrors and perils of that 
dangerous clement, under circumstances of aggj^vation, 
.that appalled the hearts of the .most fearless and exp^ 
rienced mariners* Nor was the situation of those on shore 
less hazardous and deplorable. The fury of the 'tempest 
encreased with the approach of night ; and a scene of ter- 
ror and distress awaited the ruined and dismayed inhabits 
ants in the dread hour of darkness, of which no powers of 
language can convey an adequate idea. About the ninth 
hour of the evening the storm had attained its utmost height, 
and from that time till four the next morning tlie work of 
destruction was accomplished. Within that dreadful inter- 
val the whole island was devastated^ and its unsheltered in- 
habitants w€are reduced to the last extremity of misery and 

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]Barly in the e^^D^ag the cMAe had^ in tome pliice%. 
broken from their folds» txid with dismal bellowinff^ lou^ 
tefuge among ttie habitatiotii of men* But tbcae^ alasj^^ 
afforded a doubtfiil shelter to tbeir poBsetson; wfao^ t* 
save thettiselres from being crushed to deatii, or, which iras 
mote horrible, fVom a prematare interment imder their £itt«- 
Ing mansions, fled for safely to the open fiekb* Each, ig- 
norant of the other's fate, thought hb neighbour mope ftx^ 
tunate than himself; and, fljing from certain death be* 
i^eath his own crumbling walb, sought an afl^huu,whl^h^ j|i 
that universal scene of desolation, was no where to be 
found. The author of this narrative was himself, vAh his 
wife grievously contused by the -iall of his ho«se, and am 
infant daughter, only six months olA^ among the midnight 
wianderers, who traversed the drealy w&ste in setflrch of an 
uncertain place of shelttf and rq)Ose. The fairest female 
fenns, stripped of their drapery by the nithieK blast, 
passed the dismal night, exposed, almost in a state 
t>f perfect tiudity, to the inclemency of oxitending el^ 
ments ; while their weeping parents and> affectionate hus^ 
bands, in all the agonies of sympathizing tenderness, 
ineffectually strove to shield them from the pelting of the 
pitiless storm. 

But the towns exhibited, if possible, greater scenes of 
horror and distxess* Here the sufferings of individuals were 
augmented by a participation in the genemi calamity ; and 
the cry which assailed the ear, and the havoc which met 

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the eye, contributed to sudue the firmest mind. The howl- P^^^^;^' 
m^6^hhe tempest; the noise of descending torrents from 
dotids -'Surcharged ^ith rain ; the incessant' ^flashings of 
lighthing ; the roaring of thunder ; the continual' crash of 
faHiiigliteiiies^ the dishial*'grOahsiDf the wounded' and tlie 
dymg, the sfhHek of despair, tlie l^men Nations of woe; and 
the screams of women and childferi calling for Tielp on 
those whose ears weire ndw closed to the voice of coniplaint, 
formed an accnmalatidn of sorrow and of terror, too great 
for human* fortitude, too vast for human conception. 

The return of light served but to render visible to the* 
wretched Barbadians the extent of the calaniity in which 
they had been overwhelmed. Far as the eye could reach, 
one general scene of devastation presented itself to the 
sight. The face of nature seemed completely changed. 
That beautiful scenery, which had so recently delighted the 
admiring traveller with the variegated bloom of perennial 
spring, had, in the short space of one night, vanished like 
the illusive vision which mocks the imagination of the un-r , 
conscious sleeper. Those luxuriant fields, which the day 
before teemed with nature's most valuable productions, now 
resembled the dreary, inhospitable regions, which had 
never yielded to the arts of cultivation. Trees which, 
from their bulk and strength, seemed to be little less than 
of antediluvian growth, were torn up by their roots, or strip- 
ped of their foliage, and their ponderous limbs scattered 

3 m 

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450 THE fflSTORY 

CHAP.xiiL to an incredible distance. But the amaain^ force of tfa» 
178a ^nds and waves was particularly dempnatrated at Bridgii^ 
town»in the removal of a cannon of twelve pouml ball fronr 
the pier head to the wharf on the opposite side, a distaoca 
of one hundred and forty yards.* The crops of canes and 
corn were destroyed; buildings, strong as human art could 
make them, were levelled with the earib, and of the few 
which were left standing on the plantations none were free 
from material injury. To encrease the calamity, the povl^ 
try, live stock and horned cattle, so essential U> aid th« 
planter's labour, had perished in considerable numbers; and 
many respectable families were left to smtain the unex* 
hausted fury of the storm witl>out raiment, fbodv or shftl'^ 
ter. Speight Vtown, though materially injured, fortanatel^ 
suffered less thau any other patt of the island. The Hole^ 
town and Ostin's parti^sipated m tl^ general havoc ; and 
1^ eleyen churches and two clmpek only three were left 
standing; these were Saint Andrew's and St. Feter's 
churches, and AH Saints' ehapeL 

it was bi Bridge^owD^^ however, tiiat the destruction of 
]Hx>perty, and the distress of the pe<aple, exhibited, by tiieii 
coacentmtionc^ tbc mos6 lively and aiecdng spealactes of 

1 1 <' « m I t 

* Annual RegiHer^, vol. 24. p. 32, where it is stated on the autbpritjr gf ih^ go- 
fcraorlB letter to the secretary of state. 

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or BABSADOES. 451 

human miserf* That extentiTe ca^tsd which^ for spko- ^^liJiS*' 
dour and opulence, was inferior to no town in the British '^^* 
West lodiea, was conrdrted into a promiscuous mass of 
raiuu Not more than thirty housds and stores were left 
standing, and most of these had suffered considerable da- 
mage. The mole-head, a work of great utility, which bad 
cost the country more than twentty thousand pounds, was 
destroyed; and the bason entirely filled up with sand, stones, 
and pieces of timber. It was owii^ to the obstruction givea 
by the pier to the progress of the waves, which rushed witk 
impeluous violence against it, that £ridge*town was pre*- 
sefved from total annihilation. The castle, forts, and bat- 
teries,, the town*-hall and prison, were all demolished. Thet 
spacious church of Saint MichaeFs, with its lofty steeple, 
was tumbled to tl^ foundation in one confused heap of 

The elegant and stately mansion at Pilgrim, the seat of 
government, escaped not the general destruction. There 
every procaution had been early adopted, which deemed 
likely to afford secmity against the impending danger. But 
no human strength nor art could avail. The resistless vio« 
lenoe of the wind bore down every obstacle ; and soon forced 
its way into every apartment. One wing, and gi^at part of 
the Qther, having bee© blown down, the govemw and his 
fomiiy retired to the centre, where, from its circular form^ 
and the thickness of the walls, they expected to find safety. 

^ M 2 

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€HAP.xm. But they were disappointed; the roof was hlowa oflF, and 
^^*^- the continual falling of the stones compelled them to fly for 
shelter to the cellars; hence they were soon dislodged by 
the irruption of the water which flowed in with an alarming 
impetuosity. No alternative was now left but to seek a 
precarious security in the open fields. The governor, and 
those who had strength to resist the force of the winds^ 
after being frequently tlirown down and rolled in the 
mire, got under the carriages of the cannon on the plat* 
form at Pilgrim. In this situation they remained dur- 
ing the continuance of the storm, in continual apprehen- 
sion that the. cannon, which were violently rocked by 
the wind, would be dismounted, and crush them in their 

The superb residence of the commander in chief of his 
Majesty's forces having been early blown down, General 
Vaughan and his family experienced a full share of the 
dangers and disasters of that long night of horror ; his secre- 
tary's thigh was broken, nor did the general himself escape 
without receiving several severe contusions. Though the 
barracks and hospital were destroyed, such were the happy 
effects of order and discipline, that, the troops sustained no 
considerable, loss ; almost the whole of the provisions and 
stores designed for the use of the army and navy were for- 
tunately preserved from the fury of the elements and the 
rapine of the negroes. 

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The loss of human lives was proportioned to the dangers ^^J^^!^:^^- 
which surrounded the affrighted inhabitants. Even among ^^^^' 
the whites the number was considerable, and, hicluding the 
blacks, who were most exposed, the loss was estimated to 
exceed three thousand. It was impossible, however, to be 
accurate in the melancholy enumeration* Besides the 
wretched victims who perished from the violence of the 
tempest and the inclemency of the weather, many were 
crushed to death and intombed in the niins of their houses^ 
many were swept away by the resistless force of the waves, 
and were seen or heard of no more ; and not a few were 
precipitated into eternity by the rapid course of the rivers . 
and streams of fresh water which poured into the sea. The 
loss of property sustained on this memorable occasion was 
more correctly ascertained, and amounted, according to 
the returns made to the governor by the ve&tries- of the 
several parishes to the enormous sum of one million 
eighteen thousand nine hundred andtwentyrcight pounda 

Those who had survived, the tragic catastrophe were still 
exposed to dangers scarcely less imminent than those which 
they had recently escaped. The general devastation had 
deprived them of their internal resources,, and exliibited to 
their view the terrific prospect of famine. Availing them- 
selves of the consternation which prevailed, the slaves, in- 
stead of assisting their owners^ or endeavouring to save the 
•eflfects of the unhappy sufferers, were actively employed in 

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CHAPJiiiL plundering them of tbe poor remains of praptxty vbich had 
^^^' been spared by the hunicane. A body of eight hundred 
prisoners of war had been liberated by the demoUtion of the 
gaol, and the most serious apprehensions were oitertained 
that these men, in Gonjunction with the licentious alaves» 
would complete, what ^ i»ge of the elements had left un- 
finished. But, fortunately for the Barbadians, Geoeral 
Vaughan» with a body of troops, was at hand, ready to re- 
press any disorder, or to check any attempt (M tbe public 
safety, and probably prevented the consummation of tbek 
Tuin. Erom this gaUant commander and his yeteran corps, 
the inhabitants received the most effectual protection^ and 
«very humane assistance which their forlorn and destitute 
• ^^ndition required. And to the immortal honour of Don 
Pedro de Saint Jago^ captain of the regiment of Arragoa^ 
and the Spanish prisoners under his direction, let it be re- 
membered with gratitude, that, laying aside all national 
juaimosity in that season of calamity, they omitted no ser^ 
vice nor labour for the relief of the distressed inhabitants and 
the preservation of public order. 

Prom the number of dead bodies lying in the streets, and 
wnong the ruins, and tbe q^uantity of putrid fish thrown up 
hy the sea^ no unreasonable apprehensions were entertained 
•that a pestilence wmnld ensue. To avert this evH, among other 
necessary purpoaes^ the merchants of Brid^€-4own formed 
an association, aati appointed eomanittees for the intena«at 
*Qf (he deadv fi«d the d4s^ribu4Mft of j^visWo^ jRw the m- 

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fief of their iedigent fellofw-snfieren. Nor we*e tbey un- CH^xia. 
mindful of the wrTices rendered tbem by the troops. Thej *'^* 
Yoted their thanks to General Vaugfaan and the ofScers of 
the a^niy, and a gratuity of sixpence p^ di6ni to the prt« 
tutts^.as an.aciiiKywledgment for protecting: their property 
from rapine and plunder. 

The humanity of the Marquis de Bouillfe should not be 
forgotten.. The Laurel and Andromeda frigates having 
been wrecked on the coast of Martinico, that magnanimous 
eommander sent Uiirty-one English sailors^ who were all 
that were saved out of both crews, under a flag of truce to 
Commodore Hotham^ at Saint Lucia, with a letter pur- 
porting that he could not consider in. the light of ene* 
mies, men who had escaped in a contention with, the 
elements; but that they, in common with his own peo- 
pie, having been partakisrs of the same danger, were, in^ 
like manner, entitled, to every comfort and relief which> 
• could be given in a season of such universal calamity and! 

What a contrast does this act of generosity in a noble* 
enemy afford to the conduct of Governor Cunninghame*. 
Amid the generaf convulsion of the Caribbean sea, a small Oet i^». 
Spanish launch, having a. few mules on board, sought secu- 
rity from the winds, and waves in Maycock's bay. The 
matrosses detained her until the governor's pleasure was 
known; and his excellency ordered her to be seized as a. 

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^^^^^^^^ droit of admiralty, made the crew prisoners of war, and 
^^•^' converted the vessel and cargo to his own use. Thus 
what the wretched mariners had saved from the angry 
elements was torn from them by ihe rapacity of a hu* 
man being, insensible of the tender emotions of pity and 

I. . ' u ■ ,* 

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1 '. 


-' :.J * I ■ ' ■' ' ....... ^ 


J/^HE bitter affiictiQu widi which ProvidenCi? |£id;yisite^ 
the Barbadians had not softened the obdurate heart ^ 
the governor. Suffering under a disaster so general and so 
fatal to all ranks of people, it was natural for the?! to ex-r 
pect that his excellency would hilve taken jthe earliest op- 
portunity of convoking the legislature* that the public 
might enjoy the benefit of their collective wisdom^ in a casp 
of such uncommon difficulty and di9tres$. But tp.sheiiv h^s 
utter contempt oi the assembly, . and, pferhaps, with tjhe 
hope of impressing their sov^eign with an unfavourable 
opinion of them at this awfiil conjuncture, hesummoi^ 
the council only, for the purpose of framing an ^ddreiS0..1o 
the king on the late ruinous event With the stcoagest im- 
sursmces of invidate attachment to his JM^jestyVpeKsonJaud 

3 N 


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CHA^My. goT^ment, they humbly besought his gracious attention 

. *'•*• lo^eir wretched condition. After a series of accumulated 

mis^rtunes had reduced this once flourishing island to 

tiie lowest degree of poverty, a devastatmg hurricane 

W noFf they feared, completed the destructive work. 

tiwtitute of resources to repair their fallen habitations, or 

even to proiiure the materials required for reaping tbeir 

ci>opf,^i^%ere left without any prospect of aUemtioit. Ad 

their distress, biit in ^e benignity <if his Majesty** cWttpas- 

uionste disposition, and' those endearing feelings v^hich -had 

taught the world, that in the same person maybe united 

the great and polverful monarch with the good and amiable 

inan They concluded, with imploring such relief as his 

!|tlQJe$ty in his' wisdom andgoodness should j>udge proper 

iloaiToi^ ihctai. ' 

^E^ petition ^was liccoiaplHited by a letter #om the go- 
•v<*BOr« tb^tiord Geo^pge^GewnainC, containing a recital of the 
-pattictflsnr bf thedreadftil calamity in which the country 
■'had'i>ecn'i«fOlved. Many- yeaw, be remarked, must elapse 
Hd^ftjre'tt^ -injury ^hich -the planters had -sustained could 
•■be repaii^d; andhe -was apprehensive that the fM-oprietors 
^^ thc'soil would beuB^ble to rebuild theit* bouses and 
Miugar*w<»ksi soideq;>Jyw«»they indebted to the merchants 
^f EngUmd. /He particularly suggested to his lohdsbip's 
i4tteiition, the neccBsity i>f supplying the. colony with provi- 
•ftonrfima'^nrope^ as, without the bounty .and generosity 
tiftfAftAcufcirfkajnaff 41iie( people InQttld -be in the jnost unmi> 


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licht daiigdr of starving. Nor 'wia^ General Vau^ati sttwit ch^«w;. 

mv this tuelaiifcholy occasion. In his dispatches ;to the s^j -^^ - 

tirelAry 0f state, that distinguished officer concWe^ an 

stflfecftkng representation of the generaV rum and dista^ 

with, a pathetic appeal to his lordship^s feelings en h^dlf 

of jthe inhabitants of this ruined country, assuring Ixm thit 
;:a>£siminie must inevitably ensue, unless som^. effectual means 
. I^ere employed, on^he part of govemmeot^ to prfeyeiit it ^ 

J. Tthe assembly hayi»g been, at length, permitted i^i-rt October 31. 
i |)urstrant to adjourriment, the speaker suggested to the fcwse 
i the propriety of einbracing that opportunity of at^iressing 

the Kitigy and supplicating his MajjcWy's gracious assistance 

Under their present exigencies* He regretted tha^ thi^y^hatd 

not been allowed to concur with the cc 

dress to the throne, but that the. house n 

attentive to their duty, on an occasioj t 

subtniitted to their consideration an add ; 

which he had prepared for the purpose. It >va^ of ppurse 

unanimously agieed to, and ordered to be txansmitted to |he 

agent to be presented, Mr. Estwick wa 

directed to renew his application to the 

the country from the payment of tl^e fi 

cent duty; and for the establishment of 

most probable means of rescuing it from 

it-to its former prosperity. 

Notwithstanding the governor's just ^nd afff^ctiflg ,rppre- 

ientation of the deplorable effects of, tjje.buriipajie, hif^first 

Sn 2 

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^2*5^* jvopptttionilo'the assembly wa? the impositien of firetk bur-^ 
^W\ thfem on:ftn afflicied people, who, according to his owb »o- 
coui^.traasinitted to the secretary of state only tenjdays 
befove,.w6jre in a great measure deprived of procuring food 
or; shelter,. As soon as the house had sat, he sent down a 
messa^, infpnning them that be had omitted to convene 
them on the late dreadful calamity, knowing how much 
eyery mam must be occupied by his domestic concerns* 
He taqpU^gly recommeuded unanimity in their proceedings 
aJt;thiB trying conjuncture^ to frame a proper levy bill, and 
to put their fortifications in a suitable posture of defence, 
yilgrim hoijs[e, he JtokJ them, was uncovered, the armory 
des^xoyed, and that, he bad been at considerable expense foe 
. labourers to preserve the arms,, lumber, and materials; and 
hoped that the assembly would give directions, for repairing 
the buildings at Pilgrim. He concluded with reconmiend* 
ing their passing a law to. restrain the high price , of work- 
men and labourers, and assured them of his readiness to 
concur in any measure for the public welfare* 

To this message the assembly replied, that,. notwithstand- 
ing the pressure of their, private concerns, they would wil- 
lingly have attended an earlier call of public duty, espe- 
cially at the time his excellency summoned the couppK 
Such^they observed, was the melancholy situation of th? 
bulk of the people, that the little propertjr which had be^ 
spared by the storm must necessarily be appropriated to 
their subsistence, and the rebuilding of their f;allen habitja- 

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tions* Pot this reason, the assembly declined passing * l^yC^^JCiV. 
bill, or inciimng any expense for the repairs of the fortifr^ ^^^^^ 
cations. Th^, however, readily consented to put Pilgrim- 
house in as comfortable a state of accommodation asexicitw^' 
iog. circumstances would allow, and to provide for the-^pebu^^ 
rity of the arms which bad been exposed to injury by the: 
demolition of the armory • 

This message was immediately succeeded by another, 
requiring the assembly to provide for guarding the prison-- 
ers of war, and for preserving the peace of the island, as the 
troops would shortly be withdrawn* 'The house replied^, 
that tliey knew of no place of suflScienl security to lodge 
the prisoners ; nor could tliey consent to increase the piib- 
lie burthens, by raising a body of men capable of guard- 
ing them, in places so open and insecure as all were at that 
moment. They, therefore, requested, that the prisoners 
might be sent away with the troops, or' that the proper 
agent would provide flags of truce for'th^ir renioval. 

A bill of a very extraordinary nature was introduced at 
this sitting by Judge Gittehs, for the purpose ot suspend- 
^ing the proceedings of the courts of justice, and of the 
iparsnars oflSce, for a limited term of years. Frpin tfie 
novelty of the measure, it is but fair to hear ftie ai*guments 
by which it was, supported. The learned judgp* remarlcei 
that the comiiion rUin in which all ranKs of people were in- 
volved, and the compile desolation' which' bvcirspread tfie 
face of the country, called for tlie interposition of the le^ 

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462.,,,.. . .. , . THE HIStORY 

CJJ^^* gislature to alleviate, as much as possible, the miseties'of 
:ih]e ifilutbitants, .and to reyiye t^ie sinking spirits of those 
-Vho had escaped with Uttlp more than their lives. iSbme- 


^'»e Baiist spdf som^ other friendly shore, where Ke mignt 
xeap, in security, the reward of his labour. With this view 

'hechsi^ itttr<jduced tjie bill in hi^ hand, calculated, ,^ he 

♦ «i - ^.* .'I .... • .: '* ^ *' ♦■>iy 
said, io thifilipUFiof e^lam^ty, to brighten the clouded 

prospect,, and g|ve confidence and assurance tp the honest 

iiabd indu9^iQ^,. to look forward to days of comfort and 

ctimess:inpre pr$>pitious, when the bread of carefulness should 

' HQtdi>0 9iiatf}^ed from their mouths by the rapacious claims 

. S^QA unfeeling creditor. 

!..;., from Ibis g^n^ral view of the subject, the honourable 

Y jnovjet'prQCQ^ an^ examination of the separate clauses 

vJof the billf W,hJLeh, he i^s^erted, .were self-evident proposi- 

twtioQS: deduced from facts. Nor, coul^ the timid creditor, 

r he ibsibtibd, Mvjs j^st^cause of alarm at a measure which 

...woi|Idi only; deprive h^n^ of hi^ power^,, for a while, 'lo ^be 

•^jnestored, mth jedpubled vigour, a^d effect:, at a period 

. :^^heiitheiiwj ei^eieise it with grei^ter advantage to niinself, 

I -tbtm at ascaadUFhen nothing. but a wild waste of riims 

' ^]ayJkiifbre.bim.. To tl^e elder crec^itpr,, he conciiucled, it 

^- wwdd 'tmly. operate a^ ,%. reDC>red dj^fcMance^ w^th the 

-^plrespe«t:o£ better Kcur^tyi and to th,e;jupi9r c^tSdStor it 

was such an act alone that could give hc^pe^ and keep alive 

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his expectations, which would otherwise sink into a gloomy charxiV. 
4^ppndency. ^7^- 

The secpn^ reading of the bill was abl v opposed by Sir 

. ^ohn Gav Alley ne. He commenced an eloquent, argu* 
meni^' h^ with observing, that the feelings of com- 

paSsioi other affections of the human souL ought 

to be .1 by the principles of natural justice; and 

that even tne love of his country, however ardent, must 
|[^ld to those superior obligations. He could not consent 
to countenance a measure which tended to establish an un* 
worthy and an unwarrantable distinction between the land- 
holder and the other classes of society, who were ail entitled 
to the equal protection of wise and equitable laws. No 
|»artisil regard to the embarrassments of men of landed pro-> 
perty should ever influence tiie deliberations of that house; 
th^Te were others who ought to be considered with an equs^I 
jdegree of tenderness. The man who had no other property 
than money lent out at interest, and who, by the late 
.dreadful visitation from heaven, was probably deprived of 
,a place of rest and shelter, ought not to be excluded irom 
.tbe^bepefit which the law had given him of procuring a ha* 
bitation, or food for his family.' In thh Class there were, 
^many young lafli^s whose whole f6rtuii6 consisted in debts 

^ ^n4 legacies, ai^d who, perhaps, had beeifteft^by the storm, 
with no otiier cloaths than those Ob their bBcks^i j^ll !the 

; condition of these helpless females, he ' adoep^ i» tendered 
.moredestitttte by a law, that Vould deprive >thein ofrthe 

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cHAf^V. liieans of procuring the decent habiliments of their 'sex t 
1780. Neither could the merchants and tradesmen of the several 
town, sharers in the qommon calamity, be (debarred, with- 
out injustice, from recovering what was due to thein', fot 
their immediate subsistence, or the support ot^ that ci*^dit 
on which their mercantile existence dependeci. 'Still' lesJ 
should thQS^, who, in ^ their sfeveral; departinents and profes- 
sions, earn their livelihood by their 'man udl labour, * their 
learning, or their mental ingenuity, be denied thd legal 
right of enforcing their j list demands toienible them to re^ 
build their houses, and to furnish themselves with' food 'and 

Kor did Sir * John Alleyne think the bill calculated for 
the' real and permanent advantage of those whom it fla- 
voured most, unless it were those whose debts exceeded 
the value of their property. None others could benefit by 
a suspension of justice. But to pass an act which should 
afibrd debtoA^, of this description, an opportunity of en- 
jbyirig their plahtations a few years longet, to the prejudice 
of their creditors,* would be to establish iniquity by law. 
To debtors of every other class, the honourable bfefon^ 
contended, thel)iil would eventually prove injurioUs/a^ It 
inust effectually destroy all confidence in those #ho^e' uff- 
fortunate circumstances more partictr!ariy ¥equit«d credit 
to enable them to repair tlieir works, and restore 'their pilian- 
tatiohs t<i a proper state of eultivation. -^ir^ John AlJeyne 
offered a vftrifety of arguments to prove, t^at the operation 

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of the bill would not only be prejudicial to those for whose ^^l^^^^* 
bene^t it was intended, but that it would be inconsistent ^^^* 
with the honour of that house, and injurious to the cha* 
racter of the country. 

On the resumed consideration of the bill, its principle N^'^^* 
was judiciously combated by Mr. Duke. A country, he 
observed, in which the course of justice was obstructed by 
law, could be no eligible place for the residence of men. 
From such a society all confidence, credit and comtnerce, 
must be banished. It must want support from without, 
and be destitute of cement within. The venerable speaker 
of the assembly again exerted his patriotic eloquence in 
supporting the claims of justice; and, rather than suffer 
any imputation on his good faith, moved an additionfU 
clause, excluding himself, by name, from any benefit to 
be derived from the operation of the law. The integrity of 
Mr. Husbands was eminently displayed in his opposition to 
this measure. By a train of misfortunes, heiiad been al*- 
most reduced to a state of insolvency ; but his liberal mind 
M^s incapable of entertaining a wish to oppugn the claims 
of his creditors by an act, palpably inconsisteait with every 
idea of public faith. Being without a horse, though he 
had a considerable property in possession, he walked with 
great firmness, a distance of several miles, U> attend the as- 
sembly, and. give his negative to the bill. But finding the 
powerful opposition which he had toeicounter, Mr. Git- 
tens withdrew the bill without putting it to the vote. 


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iCHARXiv* With the vifew of harassing and irritating the assembly^ 
*?^* t\yd governor now had recourse to weekly adjourmfietttsy 
wbich^ as most of the members resided at a distance from 
Bridge-town, subjected them to much inconvenience and 
^ig^e^ The recent calamity had prevented the assembly, 
?^. their last naeeting, from taking any notice of the gover* 
^or's unprecedented and illegal demand of fees. Indeed 
it was 'Supposed, that the universal devastation with which he 
iv^is surrounded would have softened his heart, and r#- 
fStrajUied his cupidity from grasping at wiiat even the fury of 
th9 e]|emea»ts had spared. But, finding that he persisted 
ia his unc<»scionabl^ exactions, and that many extrava* 
. gant f^es had beeqi paid for hi» use, Mr. Duke, in ar speech 
'fifa^ght with legal and constitutional knowledge, called 
upoq tbe;house to lussert the rights of the people. He la- 
mented thaty in a season of no ordinary catamity, he should 
be obliged to bring forward a subject of altercation; but 
Aey owed it to their own dignity ; they owed it to poster 
sityi a£»id$t all their distres8es» to guard the constitution 
£aam inyasion. The a$senibly, be observed, were the guar- 
^WM of the people, chosen not merely for the purpose of 
making lawsk» but to watch over and preserve inviolate the 
rights and privileges of tbe coamicneia of Borbadoes. The 
^ conduct of all pubUc olives was sol^ct to thek cognizance. 
It was their [nrovjince to biing to justice all off»4»s who 
oould not iitbefwiie be made amenable to the common 
course oC law. Tbe iKoords «ff pailiament ioriiisfaed, he 


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said, innumerable instances of impeachments and prose- ^^^^^^* 
cations by the house of commons, not only against the ^'^^* 
highest ministers of state, but extending even to the subor-^ 
dinate officers of the courts of justice. 

The principal branch of their jurisdiction, Mr. Duke ad- 
mitted, was to guard the money of the subject, and to pr6« 
voitits being takeu away without the sanction or authority- 
of the legislature; and this was tlie very grievance of which 
he was then to complain. The governor and council had, 
contrary to law and usage, established a table of fees, tb 
be taken by the secretary of the island, for his excellency** 
use, in all cases throughout the whole circle of business in 
which his name was employed. Pro»i a review of the bis^ 
tory of the mother country, from the reigns of the Stuarts 
to the time of the Revolution^ Mr. Duke proved, that the 
levying of money, without the consent of parliament,, h^ 
been repeatedly and solemnly declared illegah This being 
the case with the King, it could not he supposed dMt the 
servants, or ministers of the Crown, sboiild be left at liberfy 
to oppresis! the subject by such arbitrary and unwarrantable 
means. » ^ 

In tfiis idattd tJife mbney of the people bad Bvei* been the 
first and favourite object of legistativi^ cAte ajnl eoncerti. 
Not only ^ taxes for the- suppbrt of governii^nt require tte 
concurrence oif the three estate* before ^ey cawa be^ ieviedt 
but^lihef fees of the public officer, wkieh are virtually a^ tax, 
had b^€» fiied and prescfibed ^f la^r; anld the pei^ties 

So 2 

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CHAP.XIV, annexed to the demand of higher fees than 'those esta*^ 
iW. blishpd by.that authority were sufficient, he asser(;ed, to 
4eter tlje offiqer from the comraission of the offence* He 
then proceeded to shew that the commander in chief was 
not entitled, by law or custom, to the receipt of fees ; and 
that the addition made by the colonial legislature to the 
salary allowed by the Crown, was, granted upon that im* 
plied condition. After vindicating the settlement made upon 
General Cunninghame, by arguments drawn from the im* 
poverished condition of the country, he quoted several 
local statutes to prove, that; no old fees could be altered, 
nor new ones established, otherwise than by the united iau* 
thority of the governor, council and assembly. Yet his 
excellency and the council, in direct contravention of the 
most positive Ij^ws, had presumed, of their own will and 
pleasure, to arrange and settle a new table of fees, which 
J^ad been announced by a formal declaration, in writing, at 
the secretary's office. Embracing a wide extent of pub- 
lic business, these fees affected the administration of jus- 
tice, and added weight to an expense already too burthen* 
some to admit of augmentation. 

Such illegal exactions, Mr. Duke observed, bore harder 
on the subject, in proportion to the rank and consequence 
of the oppressors, because the people were discouraged 
from applying to the law for redress, and every fresh in- 
stance of extortion, although but d repetition of iniquity, 
served to give it a sort of sanction* Hence it would hap- 

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pew, unless tbe assembly would interpose, that a toleration ^JJ^^:^^^* 
of a most nefarious practice would soon assume the name ^^^^* 
of custom, and then of law. When the public welfare was 
at fitake^ he thought the assembly should not 6nly be ready 
to lay down their' political existence, but even to sacrifice 
their natural lives in opposition to fradd and violence'. He 
mentioned the case of Mr. Wilkes and Lord Halifax as an 
instance' of a successful struggle against illegal power, sup- 
ported by a train of precedents for eighty years; and 
thence inferred, that the authority given Mr. Workmkn to 
demand the fees in dispute, could no more justify his re- 
ceiving them than the authority of the secretary of state 
could protect the messengers who executed his warrant 
against Mr* Wilkes. Indeed it was so much the weaker, 
because it was unsupported by a shadow of usage; nor 
could it derive any strength from the nature of the govern- 
ment, nor the policy of the measure, as it was simply a 
scheme of public plunder and peculation. 

*^ For every wrong,'* continued Mr. Duke, " there is a 
remedy, and the immediate instrument of that wrong acts 
at his peril. Exclusive of the penalties created by the co- 
lonial statutes, Mr. Workman, as the governor's agent, 
can be made to refund every shilling which he had received 
over and above his lawful fee. If he withhold papers 
after a legal tender of the established fee, an action lies 
against him at common law; and, should any special 
damage arise, a jury cannot fail to make him an- 

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CHAP-XIV. swerable, by their verdict. He might not onlj be stripped 
17*6. ^f tig office, but rendered incapable of holding any other; 
and, by prosecution and conviction a< a criminal court, he 
may be stamped with the ignominious appellation of an ex- 
torlioner, and undergo such farther punishment as the court 
may think adequate to his crime." To be a slave or tool, 
the learned gentleman remarked, was allowed to be no jus« 
tification. The act of every man was, in the contemplation of 
the law, deemed to be his own. The governor and council 
^ould neither compel nor authorize the secretary to rob and 
oppress the people. With equal propriety might they di» 
rect him to attack their lives as their properties. Oi>e was 
as much under the protection of the law as the other ; and 
the restraints of the law opersite as effectually upon the 
governor and council as upon the meanest member of the 

It was unnecessary, he said, to demonstrate that the go- 
vernor and council possessed no dispensing power over the 
laws ; such a power was unknown to the King himself. 
Neither was it necessary to shew that the new fees wowWi 
operate as a tax upon the people, and therefore required 
the united authority of the three branches of the legislature 
to legalise them ; these poinjts were so obvious as to requice 
no illustration. Much, Mr. Duke said, might, be urged 
against the establishment of new fees in any case, Th^ 
great reason for the repeal of the stamp act was its ten- 
dency to obstruct the progress of businets, and to impose 

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restraitHs and fetters on the comulercd of the colonies. He chap.xiv. 

, would not insist upon the pernicious influence of fees and ^^w. 
the multiplication of offices. Nd policy could be more 
evident than that the seat of gorernment, the fountain of ' 
justice, ought not to be polluted and degraded by that 
species of traffic. If th^ governor and council had a 
right to estabhsli fees, they could occasionally increase theip 
till they became a source of vexation and oppression. If 
they could raise and appropriate money in one instance, 
their authority equally extended to all others ; the func- 
tions of the assembly were rendered useless, and nothing 
remaiiied that the people could justly call their own. 

Mr. Duke referred to a variety of authorities to establish 
his position, that the Crown had not a right to create new 
offiices with profits annexed to them, to be paid bjr the 
people, and cited a case of an office having been granted 
by letters patent, to one Foley, for measuring worstead9, 
with a new fee ; but the house of commons. resolved that it 
was void, for that the King could erect no offices with fee^ 
to be taken of the people, who could not be legally charged 
but by parliament; and judgment was afterwards giveo 
against the patent in tlie king's bench. The conclusion is 
invincible. A colonial governor and council could not le- 
gally exercise a power, which did not belong to their Sove- 

^reigiii In the case of conquered countries, it was admit- 
ted, that a difference might exist. Over these the King 
possessed a plenitude of power. But in colonies settled bjr 

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y;^p ..THE, HISTORY 

9J^^^. Endi^shmen, neitterthe, Sovcrpig^y uor hi& ^repte^ntst^ve, 
Am- , could £ixercise aqy jurisdiction incompaj^iblewi^h th^ cpiij 
stituJtional birth-risjlitsof^ die subject. . -> , 

After a variety pf a^gume^te, tending prqve^tli^t the 

interspersed with sonie strieture^ oh the servililiV of* the 
cpunciL as harsh as tbev wei?e iust^ Mr., Di^fce (j^oclud^ 
a lumiuous display o-f legal erudition, .with mpviog mae^|:^ 
solutions : 1 / That anj otb^r demai^dof feesr,. tb^^ ^p^hj^ 
^haye been prescribed by law, is ill<eg^), ^nd §ubjeot^,'tjbe 
^offender to punishment. 2. That no public officer, on: the 
^ tender of such fees as arc conformable to law, can refii^e 
to /perform the business,' or withhold the papers^ fQr- which 

<5J LS,^ci'.i.[.':a ^<.oi; *'a ^n ^^.! Jr-.;.- ly^ > .V;-*^^" '•^' -^ i"^^..^^ 

j^uch fees are directed to be paid, wjthoqt beiQ£[,£LultT 

«£ lli^j^.j ;.,//: WO ; ^>.>'^ " ; ->'*;^ ^'^^ '^ '^ -y^ r M-^f^^^i^^ 
of an offence and misdeme3nor in the execution pf .hi? ofc 

fice. 3. ,Tha,t a requisition to pay fees, on ^ny preteiice 


Irary and illegal levying of money, subversiveof the.cojv*- 

^titutional rights of the people, and a dangerous PDiCttiach* 

ment on the peculiar privileges ot, the jjenerql -^ssembuL 

' i. That no new fees can be cmimed, nor allpwedtTwihhfc 

'out tlie joint consent of ^th6 governor, council- Apd., at?- 

TembtyV 5.' That tlie governor and.counclL in und^rteki^ 

fo settle a new table of , fees, to ,be paid for his r^^xcdlenr 

cy^sT use, had acted illegally and, uni;on^t^rutionalIyu^ ^^a 1?^* 

ijie'fees thils established are not obligatory on the inhabitc 

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ftnts of the island. 7- That the assembly will aid and as- -^£^^^ 

sist all pereoosi who. may be aggrieved by the novel demand 

of fees, or who shall be obstructed in a due course of law, 

to enforce the penalties on all public officers who shall of«- 

fend against the laws respecting fees. 8. That an humble 

petition be presented to the King^ beseeching bis Majesty 

to remove Major General James Cunninghame from the 

government of the island, on account of his oppressive con« 

duct in extorting money from the people, contrary to law 

and the rights of the legislature, 9. That tl^ CQuduct of • 

such members of his Majesty's council, as have concurred 

in the governor s arbitrary and illegal exactions, be repre- 

sented to his Majesty, and that he be Immbly requested to 

shew such marks of his royal displeasure towards them at 

the nature of their crime may deserve. 

To prevent the house from coming to any decision on the 
motion, Mr. R. B. Jones moved the previous question, in 
order that they might hav^ time to search for precedents, 
95 to the legitimacy of the fees. But, his motion being 
negatived by a large majority, the question was put on 
each resolution separately, and can:ied In the afl^rm^tive. 
Mr. Jones having declined 'giving his vote, the; opposition 
devolved oh; Judge Gittens, Judge W*lcott, Mr. Burke and 
lir. Burton, who voted unifomyy against all, the resolu^ 
tiofia. T^ the eighth and ninth, Mr. W. G. Alleyne gave 
his negative; and Mr. J. C. Cok. ?hewed his partiality t^ 
the council, by coofining hi^ vote tq the M. , A petition, 


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^^S^' franied on the two latter resolutions, was accordingly intro^ 

• dbt^d, and, having beeft agreed to, on a division of eleven 

tb six, the speaker was directed to sign it, and transmit it 

io the agent, to be presented to the King^ 

' The petition began with stating that, with hearts devoted 

to his Majesty's interest, and with the strongest attachment 

to h\h person and government, the assembly were con* 

strained, with grief and sorrow, to supplicate the grtfcioin 

intlerposition of the royal authority, to protect the rights 

Und liberties of the inhabitants of the isknd^ iliuch injured 

^hd ^fleeted by an order of the governor and council^ esta* 

^liahmg hew and oppressive fees for his excellency's use ; td 

%hicK iM) former governor, however arbitrary and rapaciouS) 

^er fbihned pretensions in ^e most prospoous tiiiie». But 

at this unhappy juncture, when the people were ill able t^ 

%eafr"ifefen the necessary taxes, to impose upon tfaemnev^ 

^ueT illegal burthens and Exactions, was adding cniehjf to 

f%iju«ficfe. Nbr could they seei without the dteepiist eoGk 

bbrn, his Majesty's ^cred n^me a^ delegate St^bdl-ity) 

fn^osti'tuted to tlie tiie&ii ahd ^otAXA purpose of raisi«r^«,'«^ 

tenue for th6 governor, to the great oppressioitdf his Ma* 

jesty's d^tiAil and loyal subjects, cofttrary to thfe «&ctent 

k#» and st^tutes^of Oreat Britain, wkidi* fbrbidotfee' taking 

-any lee, gif)^ or brdkage, on the disposal of pli^s atid o^ 

ficea; tontirary to'thd ancient chatter of Ittiert^', vrWfcB 

|H-ovides that justicfe^all not be told; c<on*raif3rll6 fttWie- 

ttOTMll usiftge;'-diid^ytver*}v« of 'tlie i»ii*^^^ 4!?*^fe^E«ig^ 


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Google J 


lii^b constitution ; and in direct opposition to an. express law ^^*^j^;^' 
ipf the l&nd, confirmed by regal authority, which reserves ^^^^* 
Uies right of creating fees to the legislative body of th^ 
island. Thus circumstanced, the assembly were diiyep to 
ftpply to their beloved Sovereign for redress of these unme- 
rited and u^exampleck usurpations, tending to take frpqi 
tjie legislative body the right of raising taxes and appro- 
priating the public money ; and to bestow on the governor' 
And cojuncil a suspending power over the laws of the islanf], ' 
and the constitutional rights of the people. The pptitioiiT 
frs therefore besought his Majesty, in compi^sion . to hif 
loyal and oppressed colony, to remove Geperal Jam^ 
Cunningbame fropi the goyerpn^ent ; and to ,^hew such 
ipfirks of his royal displeasure towards t)iose coun^llors^ 
who had concurred in thq gpvemor's.proc^in^, ^s l}i^ ]^f^r 
jesty in hi,s great ivisdom and ffitherly affpp^tk)D,^ to 1^^ 
aggrieved and distress^ spbj^c^, should deeim tl^e^ ^ 

3Notwithftt»nding the tpnjpejr ?ipd jpodeyatiop of thjs ad- 
4rq5s, the ppblp. s^creta^j 
remarked, on receivinjg it 
tqn with greaX Ipip^t and 9 
part ojf j[ud^e, jury, and 
tionable p^s^gei ys^ thj^ 
npr Cu^nii)g|ifiipe« But 1 
meptary ; . ^nd it had beei 
ixxaine hioAself, not infreq 

3 p a 

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J7W. iwiWalHdii^ Ijis Majesty^^:-mifltetters*firora WS presence awtl' 
-eettiioite fb¥ eVet; • iWiis Jot-dbhif^r^^o^reV^r; In his coAvetBtf- 

^b«»t*fiv« hftridt^^ ia year,' he ought td ^ave atecdpted it^l^nd 

ittstfettd bf lie^j^fng his cArriage^v and) livings with the spl^ii- 
^a^itr 00*^ ^d»ltitrtandef 'irt chiefs lie* jnight haVe rode;r*h« 

iiors^J^nd^ Hvedilike^k planter.,) Loud ^George ufteriy «ib- 
vtfkin*ed the go^emor^ feating 'uader his instructiods wiWi 
A tfespe^t tofees ; and adowtted tbat^* -if they were, t^ken con- 

ttafytoHhd laira <tf theariiandi ihe ,iiad done/ wrong in dc^ 
* liiaMing thetiu iiHh^/ ^etilioi*fcy a having tbieen presented *> 
i'1jfejMajestyi''was,9b(y hisiirQmmafnds,.refeii'ed to the)QO»»i- 
iidemtion of thefliorf^GoattittidMonen^^^ planto^. 

i/tiotts, ' by * w»bomf »iCo{)y/of it #as<sent to the gotem^i. with 
-'iSh'ordftrt0ttan^i*^liferraildicationi .1 . 7 . .* 

' ^ ; Though the govtemoiD . wAs bonvincedy ; from the . effects oi 
^tlke lat^ ^llie^truclive atorm;^ J that it^ icouii^rj was unable to 
^l>etrf'^aiiy^'adgmentatioii of hisisalarj^^Jm: detennined to 

'ttak^ >tti!i6tt«* MortJ:) F<»r thiis'jptvrposb/he atunnioned. the 
^ as$€»ttbly to!meetton.rtbe^^tltenfy^dgblh7day of rNovembdr, 
^ifAifeti'M^ laid before iheito k Jdtterlvhich 'he had received 
'^oi»^tb6-secr€fterfy'x>f itatevr wlith a Jksiqay 0^ hisi ^ M&|ei»ty s 

«lMtihiotk»n/boiK«mlng the) jsaiacyv )mS] betoa^shenvn 

m3 them X](n his^atriiealvi i l%d;8eojrefcaDyslkttet) eH{Miessi^d Wis 
^'^Ma^ty^^A ij^fB^robfiitiQn ^df tbe^aetUfimcint a oeo^a/^exieet 

Digitized by 



fyQf^Aho HO^Kisit DA their eiqwitoblecotomodibes^ Altd 009'^ 

ifck Qjwi^nQjfiaii ftddUioual tlrotisond pofundj^^tliM . ? i.;ci 

L.:iTiie ifmiduclioii; lal iiieB^ papete/^veij-i&e fla ft^^vwfifi a»ifd 
flniMKttteid: debat^v in theiCQuraQ:QC w;hicb.Mri HQ^bftnd^i 
Bisted^AhHt thdir .^yaUy 0n various <K;Qa«)an^Ji9:d:^b€)?p.§o 
afaplj^: displayed; as t4io teqitirB.ilq- fefthfcrbpw>bft:iniKte'f'^^-» 
JInediteiie loyatty to cobfli«tin a du6Tobediei}ce,tO tfeftiaws, 

-and'Si «eal6ttft support-fof tlirt cotistitatiaivp^baik a^ flfieera 
compliance/ wi till every .linreasonable lfkemBnidy.tif 'goy^f\^ 

:i^knty 4ie ps8crt(^d^ ^^W(lnQ(tolllya^jt3;f^ but arfildTefijfritofs^ 
iror^ kind^ a slaveityof the imindui vile ppofetse^i^^imdlf 

- ata ejapmy to^ the fcwmo* resotuliott*^ r^spectihgithet ccmiditrmial 
etJiCT0Me of- ti^ie gbvernoife'sa4aty^CB»d thawgiit'tlbatcit jQught 
to be rescinded. But )m^omtdim<kA^t(^ii0t^^iff»!l)^^^;^ 

> duCtuiti* of tlic salary ; he had nkoneiu^i bocev^it tfefoirttum- 
^dtahoes :oP>tlte people ^reqaiDed ttbe^ 'giteatwt'>fntga8i^i4i>-i&e 
pubiiofinqiehdittf^^M^Uid >bte2MDise[(ati9eiotmr)$iiioiv«i9uy^ 
Be^n iKkwliere^ifritfa iiioic^pro^ tbfltoTat ik^i»f^^A,M^ 

bad^ gifvi^ti : thi^ f vdtci ;:wittoottt tfeating/ l3ie»r:di4plf^taH^^ jOf* 

i ministers,^ mbnshduld she 'jBtiiact aloBDtf : JtedkiJeHi iktiyh ^ere: 

' di^iea^ck) :^ A;iiniu8te£, i iodiose .|tfvai)e /^urtstDaiaod^eiaQli^-! 

; meiitsin^v^ffiee^ ^aal^4vhiite^o ip€|»«l:flnocfi>t^ 

^g*ially Jthan'tbd'WhMe dDdoant or ilx^^^otiialirc»9emw{:r^|di 

^ Digitized by 



GfUi^^l9. cciuld neither kiunr nor fedt the distreseei of tl>e inlnbit^ 
1?^ antB o( tkie island; but the members of that house felt 
them, ^dkn&w that a tbcudand pounds a year was tio^ in^ 
edavderahle saving in the public expense. * Had Governor 
Cutiiiinghame anss^^ered the character i^hioh partial friend^* 
^p, or servile iktterjr, had given of kim ote his arrival^ 
Had bad not * the late dreadful calamity rbefollea - the coun^ 
try, they might have been induced, they said, to pay some 
attention to the pretent demand for ^an increase of salary* 
^ut after the treatment that* house had experienced fix>Bl 
his excellency; aft^* tbe unjust and injurious aap^^sibnt 
^hich he had <»fcs4on them; after the indignity offered them, 
in refusing to receivfi the memorial in their vindication; afW 
tet his unconstitutional attempt to tax the people by esta^^ 
|>1ish¥ag 4MW and oppressive fees, Mr. Husbands coniended^- 
^at they could not consent to augment thfc salary without 
A ferfeiture of thdr honour, and a violation of tte trast I'c^ 
posej) in t^m. 

In explanatitm^of their forifter resoluttooi the hoese una-* 
Bimou^ly resoWed, that it never wae intended, asa-eonditioH^ 
witii the ininiBl^ for tlie . remission of t^e four attd a* half 
per cent duty, but ^ras ma-dy designed for the eonsidem-^ 
tibn 4of the counbiK' A second resolutiofa was abo moved by 
'S/tt. V* Jones, tbat in the, present sitoatton of the coaii* 
try^ aliieted by the ihand of Cod, and subject to. illegal 
ftes, tecomtnended by thfe council and exacted by the 
g6va3i6r> the hodse were junabte to make Any liftrt|ieir set^ 

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UBfnenf oh hiivaiocMeiicy. Judge Gittmw and Mn R. K ^^^^^^ 
Jones admitted the inabilky df the people to bemt ibj jen* >&«'• 
Cveb^e of tibeir burtheni ^ but ifubted thai the assemblt 
0Ugl>( to yield to't^Mifed doosideratioiM of policy aad pi^ 
d^cei. whieh ttfoogiy^ ttrged their givaog h» excdJiettoy tki| 
8aibie-«Hla4iy ism •haekbeefr.ttHoir^d'.bb fiMdeiieMars. T^ 
motion tras^ ho(rev«ragire«t< t>»^^y ai M^t^orityt laf ^teiiKta 

-\ llhft-'as«^bly returned a (iivii aofwer to ifae govec^^ 
igesiag^^ oMnnuaiGfttin^ to faimitfae seipllLof ttiedr delifoera* 
abtn?,^ expixsmvi of thsiv afflictions iiutbc tk^iiFiSbveiE^i 
dikpleaiSUi^^ and obteriirirtg' tfasi Mibl iuafNMrdrftfaed s^t^ite itf 
ihe Country absolutely forbad the^t passing a letry Inll ; 
whicb appeared- to them ufinetdssaryf-as a^> large p^rtf <c^ 
th« 4Umi6M«v^ reifia^hM uoddll^ete^r irorin thiei kpiomainm 
bilityp^ the people to p^ it.- >1?bel»i»U8«.6a«tiB«ed flitting 
l))^ diftet sHii-Ket» in ejtpectatfea.of ^ii^vadjoumed in ilw 
ti9val QiMner by his e&dellency's ptEdek*; but rfceiving >ii* 
)^roctioBS'JK«|f adjoamed, iof> their otmv.authority^ iavaifiet 
to -the etad-of ibuy^\«*oeks^ al^-t'h^ sanab houi; of. thfe 4(v6kiii^ 
Dtsaf^ipted in. bis ^r&dd O^oots, /an AttgnaeototioB of 
htkisa^tjrSiBdii tike .pascEige of a Jiv^;bi2iv both of vn^bdcb Jae 
4ihp«i^.thd siBcrefcacy: df siatsfsietfdr ba^-i^deiced! «0oitrst 
•t^egovierear.npir^Te his ateo[it'4jbi tike^. a^t ofsMittl^daafili 
4irbiQhhf||dpp^4.op;hisai:fi«at;iaiildr'inf)i9f9U^npc;j(>^lii$^^ Decern. 7. 
4Hrej^te4..9dht^nf i diasiolved'thfit assf^ihlal;^) t;^> prbdt^MaiL 

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Jul. «. 

4190 THE HlSrORT 

<3J^^i taooa, he iamicd .viits for « geberai eled^mi* at a difteMe of 
Jim. more tban two montfas. ,Btii, whatever^ adva»> 
tages which bis excelleiicyi nw^t; hav6 eiipectiefi from tUt 
alep, he w«> af^in, doooied. >t6 suffer the. vexation of diaap- 
fmolmnit. AU the memben ojf the ffljnoer asieinbly went 
•gain dected, with only two «x«eptio9ft, :a«d iA* Ifaoae hM 
•tancsa he behe^ted jBoihing bj> the c|wog«)v. :,.... 
1781. One of these changes was unfortunately produced by itbt 

death of that tllo«trio<ts<palidot, Mr. Henty DuicB.-'nMugh 
liberally endowed ihy.aatureiwjitb a vigorous uader^laiidtafk 
improved by thei atudyrof a tcieece .ibe «ioft likeiy to 
strengthen and ecpaod rthe poweis df the.iAind,. Mr. Dukb 
was less disttugaished by hi^ eminent talents, ^an the seal 
and spirit with which they were exerted in Uie pnUic aer- 
^ikse.. firaily attached to the intereat|.«»f bia. iiative.cow* 
py^ he was neither tnfciniidatad by the frowns, of pQwen 
aor allured by its seductive stoile, from diligently pursuit^ 
die patlis wliich he thon^t would lead to colonial pnoaper 
lity. The activity of his .miskd was eootinuaily impdlif^ 
him io jattemtit the v^inHm ofahu^ea^or tojiogg^wiseaod 
aalntaty laws for (he benefit of the state. Sopeiier to the 
sordid oonsideratipna oft. personal ease aad . private eniai» 
«ieot»^ his integrity. and. public spirit rendered him <jlbmaB^ 
.AIM to those tbejhive, wbofsoaglrt public employe 
meols without any intention lof perfiiDning the daties aA> 
jMSKed to them^ ur who were: d^rous only; of battenmgoa 
•the spoils of. the people. £vciy admirer of gemnne pa- 

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tSfiotisM^uSt l^efit the loss of one, irh'ose firmness and ^^SS^*" 
intrepidity marked him the champion of liberty and the . ^''•'^• 
kssefter of his countr^s rights^ ' .: \ 
' The e^cti of the governor^s^ anger werenot confined to 
the assembly; he embraced every opportunity of harassing^ 
and distressmg the militia^, by keepiiifg them out on alarm's, 
without the smallest necessity; They were fi^^ncntly kept 
tmder arms Ihe Tvhole night, without any suflicient precau* 
tkm having been taken to affoid than reilt or i^elte^. ; Th» 
ioconvenience, which was more particularly felt by.the< 
eavaby/ having \}een refMresented to th^ govemoory fait ex- 
cellency ordeied the Leeward regimentof hon»^ cooimanded: 
l^.CoIcmel Poyer,: to rendezvous at a smidl fort, called 
Dover^ upon the bill above Speighfs^town. Leacock, the{ 
coIoikI of thatdivi»ioii^ thought this an infri(ig)ement ot 
his authority^ and, on the first alarm^ detached Captaia 
Jordan- with a company of infantry, from Orange fort, to^ 
Mcupy the po9t. On the approach x>f evening,. Poy^r sent 
to Mr; J<u*dan, saying, tlmt he had his ercelleucy's ocdeiiii 
to take po»t there, and requested that he would evacuate 
the fort, that he might put his men; under cover, for tiiq 
iiight Jordan replied, that he oould not quit his stationr 
without orders from his commanding officw.* > Foyer, hari^ 
ing previously dismounted his troops iinmediately put diienb 
in motion, with the view of marching into the Tort; ^biM 
Jprdanj^ faithful to lus orders, l^rew 4iimself; sword in 
Ba^d, iDto the gake^ivay^ aitd opposed their eaimac^l^ *A 

3 Q 

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<«*Ry* rtncounterei»iied,ift which Pojf^ififinaipeteoMij^ihnn^litfii 
*^*'* dff his guard, iuid he Idst hiv «vroid s Jordaa took tf> vS^ 
vkhtage of this accident, aad the ibtwnfereooe of some of 
the bffiden pt^sent termtoated the firacat, and Poj«r iaaae- 
^ktely dbfofttehed hi» adjntttit fo Pilgrim with an ftooouat 
of tfati extiuordiciarjr tratuactioD. Jordan was aoon after 
t^rou^t tjoi a tiourt^inartia], by <^ goteraoc'a vtAtu and 
^iiiniiued the service ; wlnte Colonel Leacoek, sader wiaiae 
orders he had acted, retained the oeiwtiiwd oC iba diin- 

] Tewbvdttke^cioMdf the i«rt Tear HeiiaiidhftdJOijiadW 

ahilb to tiie CQBshina«iDn,^vinBd fajlheiOthergielA maivMl^ 

Tjiih^^ loir ffidnciag the-vansL atawnglh >aiw]» «a<iwml, .^p^ 

Imkce Mbf -Graat Bntaloi < Ganr^raar Ciiniii(i^l«|fK» rc^v^ 

'^1 jr inteHigfetfiice ef this et«Bt» acicomfinDiad witiii an aqtOf* 

atic^'tUai tl«^^|>roper outfafoaities should .teiipo^j fot" 

^i^aird^d; isrglilbKitfg'tetleM'oi^ iBsv<]ii0.a«id> B^rwd fgsii^t 

tiK «ati§eeb cUF Hui^ S«atai Ociaerai t/»i4< di9>^i«0, :^» . ip 

ite'inte^i»»'iil> jnfoinn the i>«'a0fsoCp^y&ti^^^^if«^.,9|f f^> 


pibpcify ^^y^ieh^^ 4li^ siidtild capture) ^ , T^^liuflft^s «|f:,^ 

^hitra^i^^e^^ied odmt^ ti|yafc:liRi^^ y^^g^ ^^int ^ 

tike idniiKha^ts «i<:SafiMdea«,-««wli;^qiiitf(fti|r.<i^i^l^^ 

• dfat i t iis flA irftiie lidia>bitairts» oodniMii^itoi U^s |wf ^^^ 

liife rf We!«! od ftu»^>lie» ll«ba|^.1lu)4)eiM9^cpfyi]ppk^i^^ 

'^iiilfi: ^ jAdH«ir^v« «» hto^nii«M)ae^i^««mi^)|i^ ^W^ 

^«d tl»^of^ln ht^MidittMKMil^aiikd, ii y i^»tl wi [i ft ^ j4y < iy ^fd 

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thfe 6ihakt% of pt^ate^ to pay tbe/mo^t: extm.vciga^lb fn^ *(*•.•" 

ror '6diAiiiiss.i6n8, tiliichi he*w&scon8oipuSy;.wei^ of ?io tali- 

31ty; To Add to the injiatibe, and ; t 

t/y fcxtortion, he refrfaMJ to issue -t* r 

.t3Kitch,'tmIe8s'thdfte ^o applied fo 

btirersf, d^'novo, against tlie Freiich, Spaniards, and Ameii- 

cans J ott which the fees collectively amounted to one hua- 

i^retf ahfl Ihirteen pounds^ 
Many valuable Dutch prizes, wTiic 

liricfet ccAnrnissiohs thus prematurely 
"tkkeri from thie captors by Ks Majestj 

%^ the gbv6rh6i^s orders^ after they Wj 

and:conj^mned as droits of the admi 

Crees of the crourt of vice-admiralty, th 

iKfc justice of a benignant prince^ and J 
H'hat the priiaes should be sold,, and tjje 
'iiis bands until his Majesty's ple^iii 
\ tills been done, there is little reason jtc 
pellants would ever have bencEted b^ 
minatioh in their favour;' But Mr..-^ 
^he vilie-admiraUy court, acted with It 
' becfoming - his high respoiMiiUe bituation^ , |f ^^appp^ t^ .a 
proper officer, under bonds, for the fatithfi^l ,exe|9)itipn^9^..the 
trust,. to ^etl the priwsg and' directed bim to d^t^ j^ mp* 
'] hey fbt which they were sdd, kuililtbe. app^al^. yf^ dej{^ed 
bysu^rioir authority. Cx^H^eratedlftt thja^,^ 

Qq 2 • 

Digitized by 


4m> ' w^mmw^i. 

pended the judge, and appointed William Morris hia^^j^,, 

to^'ii^uries. . He, pw^^nted a. imemc^al to the ]^jn^,.aiyi frfi^^ 
re:ip8.|a{ed,bjf his^M^^ i ... jUc! yvd 

Feb. u. .Meanwhile -l^e new assemhlj h^ying^n^^et,,t^,^jU^\^ j^f^^ip^. 
course of" ciyili^i^s was preserved between, the ffpyprnOTr|an^i^ 
th^ hou^e, nqtwithstondin^ t^ ill-hun^our i^hichpre^aHed^ 
between them. In the speech frooi the chair, the usiud topWs.^ 
of discussion were renewed ana pressed v^ith sreat ear^»U 
ness on the attention of the legislature. Upoi^^the stmiectf 
Qf their defence, his excellency wished to engage thei^ nio^, 
serious reflection. A powerful armament^ he infoni)^ ; 
them, was daily expected from France* and the number of , 

^ their enemies had been increased by the rqpture with the , 

States G enteral. In the strong reinforcements sent out fox 
their protection^ they had a fresh instance of his Majesty's 
paterniatl ckre; but he c^^utioned them against trusting: ^n- 
tirely taa naval force for security. A short interval of it&. 
aosehce, he justly observed, nughtbe fataL if they iieglecifc- j 
ed to Improve their internal strength; and as their iiumoers,, 

constituted the principal means of defence, Jbe asam re- 

" :i•v?'>'^'^.^w •• ^: w t^ c'^'--' ' -M-^^ ?*"' ^'P '^:r'''''A''' 
commended a revisiou of their mihtia law. In their deli- 

beralions on this subject, he trustied they would find that 

ioe powers necessary to etuorce obedience were not mcom^i^ 

Digitized by 


cotiVitryl'^ ;■':''.'-'' ^'^^'"■^•' t-'-f-r •'■ ' f'^ ••i'^-"(. •'"■► ^"i>"'-q - 

ca^iiciHi n^6''tlu^iVl&&ectiate ^nsidefatibn^ "ttie'repaira of 

teh, ttiough they were points wholly unconnected, with the 
cofcirtiiai estail^&Iiment.' tie was particular!;^ comriianded^ '^ 
by tiie^Kiiig,' he sai(l',*t6 recommend harmony to tneltwo" 
branches of the' legislature; and he wbhed^e had nothing 
more to suggest for reform and correction; but their ip-^ 
ternar police 'certainly required amendment. Their own 
observation^ he thought, would readily suggest to them the 
mischtefs and mcom^eniences to which they were exposed.^ ^ 
frorn the remissness of magistrates and inferior officers: and 
he hoped every gentleman would exert himself, in his own 
yicihity, ibr the preservation of peace, order, an^ aeco- 
roifi; aipong thfe different ranks of society. The. speech 
concluded with common place professions of zeal for the 
welfare of the country and the happiness of the people. 


^t J 

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fcHAP^. The addre*8-of the council Was in the uauiit style o^Pjt&i* 
"«>. lation. They extolled His excellency for virtues, vr&ich hoik^ 
but themsel^s had the peuetratioa to discover that he pm* 
iess^d^ and dec}^ted their tfillifign^ss, by. baitttoiiy knd 
unanimity in their proceedings, to give stability te Ms ^6^ 
Mtrchso. Vemment. The . asaelpijly, ^vith6ut transgressing the iHiIes 
of decorum, replied to his civilities iti terras no less respect*- 
ful, mingled with the most poignant sarcasms and tleseived 
reproaches. Sensible bf the deficiencies of the militia latr, 
-and desirous, as they siaid, of giving energy to a systenr t^ 
enlial to their safety, they trusted his excellency trotud 
pardon them, if, while tkey observed iti hini ^ dispwftitrti 
to exercise extraordinary powers, not vearra^tpd by \iL'W^mty 
^ere restrained froin investing hitti ^it^ sucH an increase of 
authority, as by an arbitrary stretch or interpretation toignt 
irretrievably affect the rights and liberties of the Bubjecl. 
i!hej disclaimed all agency iA ttie in€9nvenience whifih 
hi? , excellency attributed to th^ Ipss of the levy ibul, 
mhich had-beea regularly passed |by tl^at house, ^n.d , re- 
jected by tiie council. But, under tlie present circumstaiices 
^ th%cppntry, they iponsidered,the, failure of, the bill a, for- 
.pupate event for the people; who must haye sunk uiider tlie 
)^^!S*^* pfilieir, taxes, added to the misfortune' inmcte^^pn 
,, the late direful ealamity. , , 
... ,i:althful to the true, mterest? qf their country, they pro- 
;j^es^d their r^a<lmess to concur, %Uh unaffi^c^ed hannoirf.,in 
«veiy measure calculated io promote the geneml welfare; 

Digitized by 




ljrljiti>rjr meswureft, no bifinp&y» libej were m>nvlncedy 
could «ust betwixt bodies of men a^teatad by such pppot 
fi^ j^Bciples. Oq the defects imprnted U> ibeir pdice tbey 
l^arked^ that if the niagistrateft were rem^ or negh^nt^ 
Jhe blame could only attach to the power by which ihey 
^weieappointed^ and whicfa^ notwithstanding thdr neglect, 
e(M>tiwied them in office* But if Ihe roagisfarate^ were i^ 
ally iqattentiTe to their duty, or the police defective, \t 
wss a cwpiinstaiice highiy oceditable to die p^&fflfi at 
taroe, that so few complaints weie made, and so few ia^ 
dfictments bought before the cowl of cnminal judicii;turiB.< 
. They receivod^ with pleasure, the assurances^ of hie excefl* 
i0neys disposition ta promote the happiness of the people;, 
birt, anjuous W they were to. contribute to <!hat ijltimitte 
. #feject W aM human legistatioo, the honour of ^Ihe act, th^y 
declared, «Mist i)e entirdy. his owa; ^Itlce, to ^ free peopled 
i> wbdutiJl be m vain to hold out a proi^ect of happioe^, 
wlulst they '4:ontiQued to 4»mart uhde^ the rod of d^^ 

patiim.; ' :: - •'^ • ^- • '' ; - -" ' ^•^ • -^- * 

Sfithert^'the governor liadomiited^ 4:6 d^tnadd atiy iiii« 
Kteuat Ifees in^ancery? but, at a tneetihg of (^iinciVhd 
the JtiiFenivu.51^' ^ay (^^^^ ^e prdposed^ a new tabte'of 

fees t4>. be -eetaibttshed fo^ his W as chancelf6r;. ^h^thiii 
•Jricfittl!bn,< i^^ was ^xttuded^, aiid otf 

1^ titt^ci^^lte^^ b^i&g ^tked^' h4s14kk tkkifi"^' 

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cttAP.xiV- j^j.^ CamherbatcK, were the only membeis who liad the hd^ 
57*4- nest firmness to express tWr disapprobation of them. N^ 
c[uestion was put tothes vote; but his excellency drew up *' 
minute of their proceedings, conveying the sanction of the 
board to his proposal, which, without being shewn to tha 
members present, was afterwards entered on their joumaUi 
by his directions. 

/It cannot fail to excite the as4x)nishment of every niaa oif 
reflection, that these enormities should not have roused tho 
spirit of the people to vindicate their violated rights, by. 
an appeal to the laws of their country. Unhappily, thoso 
laws afforded but a feeble security. In all cases, civil and 
criminal, an appeal lies from the judgment of the courts of 
inferior jurisdiction to the court of error, composed of the 
governor and council. No prospect of success could^, 
therefore, attend a prosecution, which might be ultimately 
defa^mined b^ judges, who were themselves the authors 6i 
the injustice which was the subject of complaint. - Undefc 
every disadvantage, Mr. Duke, as we have formeriy seeiiy 
made an unsuccessful attempt to puiiish the deputy*MtK>» 
tary, and Dr. Andrew Wade, stbout this time, lodged 'mk 
iaforin^ion against him before Mr. Babb and Mr* Skeete, 
two justices of the peace. But a difierence of opinio* 
arising between them, from the tatter's doubting Mr. WoiIcf! 
man's responsibility as the fea were not taken foi hia own 
use. Wade, knowing aat a want of aoanimity on thelwndi 
iMtst. prove fatal to the cosipIunt,.<;oa$c»ted to compKh* 

Digitized by 



mise the matter, on Mr. Workman's engaging to be no far- chapjbv, 
ther concerned in the governor's illegal exactions. His ex- ^'^•^' 
cellency, however, was not long at a loss for an ageqt to 
execute his unlawful commands. He erected a new office, 
and a Mr. Nicholas Humphrey Walrond, who had at once 
the meanness to accept the employment, and the boldness 
to defy the popular resentment^ became the instrument of 
iiis tyranny and injustice. 

» ^ 



4 1 r 

Digitized by 



wjiiiftcwsir enAUT of parliahekt for the rxlibp of the 




CH^P.XV. iTis now time that we should take notice of the result 
^nsSP of those applications, which, immediately after the late de- 
structive hurricane, had been made to a beneficent monarch, 
by the ruined inhabitants of a devastated country. ' TSfo 
sooner was the direful disaster known in ^nglandi tfian the 
sympathy of^ generous nation was awakened by the suf- 
ferings of their unfortunate fellow subjects. In the midst 
of an unnatural and ruinous foreign and domestic ' Waj, in 
which the national treasure was lavished in a tnanner unpia- 
ralleledin any former period, the bouse of commons seemed. 

Digitized by 



for a moment^ to have forgotten the dangers and difficuU CHARXV. 
ties which surrounded them, and to have felt no other ^''•^ 
anxiety than to relieve the distresses of others. With b, 
spirit truly characteristic of British liberaUtj and grandeur, 
that august assembly unanimously resolved, on the motion j^^. 25. 
of Lord North, "That the sum of eighty thousand pounds 
be granted to his Majesty, for affording immediate assist- 
ance to our unhappy fellow subjects in the island of Barba* 
4dt)^-a»d ito rdie^ and support such ^ them ju huw, 
b^ehTtSduced to distress and necessity by the kite^roadful 
calamity, which, in the month of October la&t, ravnged 
and l^d waste the greatest part 6f the isknd/' Thin bdble 
donative, and humane attention to the sufferings of their 
fellow subjects, in this distant part of the empbrii, Will 
ever be regarded with gratitude and admiration, Wlule 
benignity and generosity are esteemed as virtues anKmg 

^. ThCsMb^ral benefactions of individuals ^were proportiwfd 
^ thc) ipiibUc munificence ; but tl]M& hum^nit^ of the gene- 
TQUS citi^eAS of Dublin was peculiarly conspicuous. Thtciy 
^re cpiivened .^t the Thdsel^ by. Sjir Edward Newenhai|i, 
tordinayof of the jpit^, tpjQonsider on the iRost effec^l 
vaiid,,e|3fpediti<>9s method of irejieving the wfiats ai]^ neces- 
.^ties^^hej>eopk;of ^arbadoes. T^e9t3r thousand pounds 

tipn, to vhich tbejb9fQ69 of Jiatouche.aiKl spng cootdbutod 

th^ |«9Q((e)jr sma of o!b« t^w^and pojip^s., The m(ms( w^s 

3 B 2' •'■■■' - "'• 

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4&$ ^ THE mSTORY 

^5i5S* jodicioiwly iov^sted ia the purchase of ertioles of^therfink 
'^^^^ aecessHyy vod shipped ta Barbadoes, to be distfibuted ,«»« 
der the diiectkm of the gprernor, for the relief ^f. the $irf« 
ferers% 4Bd, it is pleasing to add) the gwerous^ inteolMfis 
of the hnxaaBe doaors were liteially accomplished by aa 
impartial distribution among the sufferers, in proportioE t9 
their losses. Such an instance of exalted generosity failed 
not to excite the strongest emotions of grateful seusibi^tj.. 
The house of assembly did all that was in their pf^weiv 
By an unanimous vote of thanks, transmitted to Sir >Ed ward 
Newenham, by their speaker, they expressed their grati* 
tude to that patriotic, civic officer, and bb worthy fellow 
eitizeps, for their liberal donative. A sense of 9a^ re&iiedi 
benevolence canaot be conveyed by words ; it will survive 
the fragile records of political societies, and live for eveif in 
liberal hearts. 

JJ^he vote of the house of commons was iramediaidy <xm»- 
ij^iQiic^ted to Mr. Estwick, the colonial agent, by th^^wds 
. of the tr^qry ; and a conimittee of the principal iEiieichan^ 
and plaiitcro of Barbadoes, resideint 11^ liOddon^^ 
¥j their lordship's recomm^a^o^,. for takiqgfioto ^coi^r^ 
deration the most effectual meaps ; of eartyipg the geii^)&ii% 
inteqtion of parliament into executioui . iTbe \^ommittee 
laying nuet, entered into several resolutions, for -exportiqg 
building; m^teiicdSft coarse icjoalhing, and jnoviaions £»* tbei 
i^I)medi^e fwtRply of those wh0 ^wanted them ; a«d for re- 
mittiBg tlte.Aiiin jof twelve thousand pounds in specie, to 

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pa^HuieyiM^h articles dS>l?diil<t^bA^^ifidk^ ^^^^' 

pwfcdrtd Oft tlie spot. A ^&:i*6toi^ibj¥fwks Wp|>oSitea^1fo? i^*^^ 
thepntpose of iitraishing the tequiiife* ^f^j^Htfij ft^ye^'ilf 
eommbsion^ or of any eimrfument what6v^ j-Wd of ^6di*i 
re^onding with a board of comraissitmers; ysMtH^ef^L^ 
vifeed should be established in Barbadofesi cori^isllng (xf'tH^ 
^ti^emor, the coancil, the speaker, and i certain' niinib^^ 
of^H\^ assemby, for the distribution of the patKatneriWr^ 
b6Un^, by such acts or orders as the legislature should 
♦liiiik proper. ' ' 

Unfortunately, such a diversity of opinions pretailetf otl 
Ae subject, that many months were permitted to elapse 
before the legislature could agree on any specific plan for 
the distribution; and the people had well' nigh lost t3i€( 
greater i>art of the benefit intended for them, from the 
want of a proper concert and agreement among thosi^ to 
whom the disposal of the bounty was intrusted; Oft "bfekig 
informed oi the-^proceedings of the committee in' Eiiglai!id^' 
the assembly lost ho time in appointing a comifaitte^ kd joiii April 1 8. 
that G^ the other house ; but no corresponding armtl^cnlni^tit: 
having bfeeta? hrndfe by th# council, the busihesi^ ireitafailn^ 
neglecfed fiw ttiote tlian sii moflths^ ' ^ " - ' m > i; vu 

In the* meati time, the ^assenvbly received a mteSsalgfe-fVora May i*. 
the go? emorv expressing his surprise that^ the^ passing 'of ai 
levy bill; noitwith8tandij|g4he<>b?i<^ utgeiit^y and i^t:!^ 
sity of ^he^dieasure, should hive beeti sb>laiig'iid«l&3redV' T6 
provide for the supportof governmimt,^ was citi a^^sa^seb^ 

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<»J;J^- tiaf to the p^c^, »rifety,^nd' prosperity of tii^ icb^iftrjr, 
^'^^* ihut he thought it his dwty to give them an early oppbrtui- 
nity of accomplishing a business that so materiaJly xiOBi- 
cerned themselves, as well as those whom they represented, 
^be colonial debt, he reminded them, had already aci?a- 
mulated to an amazing amount, and was daily increasing 
to such a degree, that unless its growth was anticipated by 
a tax, proportioned to the public exigencies, it would soon 
become enormous. Many of the persons employed in ihe 
service of the country had been actually driven* froin Ihelr 
Stations and employments by the difficulty of obtairiibj^ ihfe 
reward of their labour. Public credit was almost ^nnihi^ 
lated J and, whilst the private buildings of individuals Vei^ 
rebuilt or repaired with the most active and laudable induk* 
try, those of the public still remained in ruin^. These cliv 
cumstances were not, he said, more honourable to a re* 
spectable colony than injurious and distressing to' iildivi- 
<luals; and the consequence of longer delay in raising l^ 
supplies for the pubhc service, must eventually' be the im- 
position of burthens which few of the inhabitants would be 
able to bear. He, therefore, conjufed the hoUse^' by eviety 
principle of regard for the interest and welfare of their coin- 
atituents, not to defer making an adequate provisioiti to 
meet the necessary expenses of government, since the delay 
was likely to be productive of consequences extremely dan- 
getous, irf not absolutely ruinous, to the community, 
^^haterer were the govemor^s motives for thus eisirae^rty 

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1^4 J^QaNQy urging the pasting of a levy bill, the pro-^ *^2iv^* 
prie^ of the measure cannot be disputed* That the con^ ^'^^* 
ditiouof the country, wasted by a series of calamities, was 
leodotd yet more deplorable, by tlie effects of the recent 
disaster, is readily^ admitted; but there can be no doubt, 
that the bulk of the people were still able to pay the mo« 
^rate taxes which were required, to defray the annual 
otpcittes of government. Besides, if it were necessary to 
r<;taiQ ^be.imcieQt expensive establishments of the country^ 
^certainly behoved the legislature to afibrd immediate 
jrenmneration to those who were employed in the several 
departments of the state. And if a system of government 
were to be supported by taxes, levied on the people, it was 
H QieasuM >of common prudence, that the ways and means 
should be gradually furnished, in a manner least oppressive 
to the subject, rather than by a causeless protraction of the 
evil, to crush them on some future day, by the accumulated 
weight of their burthens. 

These considerations were, however, disregarded by the 
assembly. Snutrting under the rod of oppression, they 
were only solicitous of mortifying their tyrannical ruler; 
and, in the indulgence of their resentment, they sometimes 
lost sight of the welfare and safety of their country.-^ 
Having taken the message of the governor into consideration, 
the house unanimously resolved, that the distressed circum- 
stances of the people, labouring under the pressure of a 
grwit natural calamity, aggravated by his excelfenc/s illegal 

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<JHAP. XV. and unconstitational exactioos, would not admit q£ 
vt«2. rabing an j extraordinary supplies, or even to proxide the 
Qieans of their own defepce. Such an explicit aTowal of 
determined indifference to public security, camot be jm^ 
tified. It was sufficient to have encouraged the enoMyto 
embrace tl» opportunity, presented by intestiae difc^vd; 
of attempting the ^x)nquest of the island. Heno^ Irt 
governors leara this useful lesson, that the moat effertiarl 
means of attaching a people to their govemmeQt«.aMU#f 
arming them in its defence^ is the unmolested eiigoyiaeat 
of their civil rights and immunities. . ; 

• The capture of Saint Eustatius, the emporium of tbs 
West Indies, had thrown into the hands of the Britisti. Qomr 
manders, employed on that service, such an invnenee plmvi 
der, that they were, for a long time, incapable of attctidiiig 
to any thing, but the sales of the valuable commoditka of 
which it consisted. IVIany British merchants^ both ia 
England and the West Indies, had property to. a comider« 
able amount deposited there, for mercantile specuiations, 
which were greatly facilitated by its being a neutnd licM 
port, the whole of which was included in the general con^ 
fiscation. Whilst Sir George Rodney was tilius employed^ 
enriching himself on the spoils of friends and foe«, the 
Count de Grasse arrived at Martinico, with twentyi-fivc sail 
of the line, and six thousand troops, designed to OLttrmi* 
.Bate ,the British power in the Ameri<:an archipelago* On 
xeceivmg intelligence of this event, Admiral Rodney. tei&* 

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or BARBADOES. 497 

efted to forri^ a junction with* Sir Samuel Hood, whose t^JJSJLST' 
squadron, conftistihg of only seventeen sail of the line, had ^*'^^- 
$OBtained cx^nsiderable damage, in a gallant attempt to in«^ 
teioept the ;F!rench fleet going into Maftinico. Sonae time 
WM 'iieG€»6arily . spent at Antigua, in refitting those ships 
which' bad siifiered in the action ; but as soon as this busi- 
nfM wafik accomplished, the commander in chief proceeded, 
witb bis whole fleet, having an immense treasure on board, 

Tbe indiscriminate confiscation of property at Saint 
Eustatius, involved Admiral Rodney in some very disagree- 
able disputes and legal discussions with the British mer-/ 
chants^ of both hemispheres ; and, in a fit of peevish regent* 
me&t,' be asserted, in his official dispatches, that the Englisii 
West Indian merchants, regardless of their duty to their 
country, had contracted to supply the enemy of the neigh- 
boofing islands with provisions and naval stores; and that 
his utmost attention should be employed, to prevent their 
treaooo from taking effect A charge so scandalous and 
daogerons was not to be endured, by men conscipus of 
tlieir iniiooence alid tenacious of their loyalty. The mer^^ 
chanlf of^ Barbddbes, from the latitude df the expression, 
feeling themselves implicated in the false and malicious im* 
putation, immediately drew up a spirited vindication of ^ ^ 
their character, in vhich they wholly and explicitly denied 
thq charge as a liasty, pernicious, and infanjous misrepre-p , 
seotation of their principles and conduct, and defied the 

3 « 

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*gJ2^vadqiiial to support whit lie had so sotemiily Advimoed. 
i7s«. This paper was transmitted to the colonial agents #lifo, emn 
formably to the request of the mercantile body^ wvote ttf 
Sir George Rodney^ demanding, as an act of justice^ that 
he would discriminate between the innocent and the guilty; 
that those who deserved it might be brought to condign 
punbhment No answer having been received to thit Ma* 
sonable request, Mr. Estwick repeated his applicd^tkw irith 
no better success. Disappointed in obtaining tibevm^afa-* 
tion which he expected, Mr. Estwick tlien iMtd^ w piiUic 
demand on Sir George, publishing his lett^B, together with 
the defence of the Barbadians ; but the admiral, pfohably 
regretting his having been betrayed int6 swl^ an imprDpr iety , 
Silently declined to maintain or to retract the chaige. 

Meanwhile Saint Lucia was close invested by tiie 
enemy's whdle naval force; whilst a considerable body of 
troops, led on by an able and eiperienced general, were 
exerting every effort on shore to reduce the island. IVi the 
immortal honour of the gallant Brigadier General S* Leger, 
and the troops under his command; this formidable. attack 
was completely dieleated.^ Discouraged^ by tbe determined 
resistance which every where opposed his -prbgiessi^ the 
Marquis de Bouillfe reiinbarked his troops and jcctntaed to 
Martinico. ^ " •, 

^o compensate for this disgrace, the French comfi»oders 
inimediately turqed their arms agaitast Tobagoi^ On the 
very day that Admiral Rodney arrived at Barbadoes, a 

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gmaHvKi^iifQI^ s^uadxon^ with a body of land forces, under ^^JL^^* 
file .jQjtd)er» Af M. de Blftochlaade appeared off Tobago. "^^« 
■■ iSeaim^t on . the receipt of thit intelligeDce, which was 
iiiBt9Dt% |COoveyed. tO) him by governor ferguson^ coii« maj i$. 
ttuited hiiuelf with dispatching Rear Admiral Drake, with 
«ili sail ' of ti»e Uae, some frigates, one regimont and two 
"MldititMMl oompaoies, for the relief of the place. Upon 
Brai4e''» coming within sight of Tobago he had themortifi* 
• ca4^.l9 «tiscover the whole French fleet, consisting of . 
Iwefit^-terea line of battle ships, between him aind the 
land. Finding it impracticable to succoor the island, the 
Mafe^admural, after ascertaining the strength and. situation 
e£ Ae^dmmy^ ha«de4 his wind and soon appeared in view of 
Carlisle Bay. Though. the proper communication was Junes, 
directly, made to the commander in diief, the fleet did not 
get under weigh until the next day, having in the iatenra 
laadfid .tlie plunder, bron^t Jfrom Saint Eustatius, .and 
taken General Vaiighan, with a considecable reiafbrcacneat 
«f troops- oB board. But .^ opportunity of relieving 
Tbbt^ wm lost. After as j^llaot and obstinate a resist- 
ance as is icgcordfd i]|;i-his<^OFy, Governor Ferguson had b^en 
icoiiip«}led'tO{<^pitulat^. . 

The hostile ^eet» soon cftme within sight of each other ; 
but, though, as the enemy were to leeward and shewed no 

disfio8itiQn;to>ayoi4 fin ^tioi!!^ th^ option of engaging lay ^ 

>ith'tfae Brijtish Adoairwl;^ Ihey separated after variotts ' i 

mflauBira«t,:without«xdum||mga;8attgle8bot'^ { 

3 s 2 ■ ■"' ' ''' , \ 

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CHAP. XV. tion of Barbadoes seems to have been at this.tiiijie.tbe.giao^ 
11^- . object of Sir George Rodney's care; and liis dediiirog *n, 
engagement with the Count de Grasse, whose fleet >T9S'dalj, 
four in number superior to hi? owri^ proceeded, as he stated 
in Jus pubhc dispatches, from an apprehension that \k WM' 
the etaemj 8 design, by drawing him within the influ^enoa; 
of certain lee currents among the.Gjenadtiueftj, to, ^ii)'.JiH; 
opportunity of reducing Barbadoes before \\g opuldrptjuiat 
to its' succour, ... .,,!: /. 

The loss of Tobago, and the ptcwtimity of .a^^^(likr* 
payal force of acknowledged superiority, wera^ circum^ 
stances which could not fail to excite the moet liTelyiS^laraik, 
in minds not wholly insensible to the appneh^Asioo»>of ,daa- 
ger* At this critical conjuncture. Admiral Rod»ej wrot© 
to the governor, commenting, with some warmth, on tbc^ 
inattention of the legislature to the safely pf the colony ; 
and, after menacing them with a fonnal co^ tha. 
K>ng» recommended his exoellency ^ lay the.oou»trj5:i»» 
der mairtiai htw. * This letter wa3 supposed. tqhaTe.beeiD 
written at Pilgrim,, by the governo/s desire.; .bjuit of this^ 
feci; there is no evidenoe whatever. Be tbftt, iww^v^, ta. 
it^ may, neither threats nor entreaties. coi^W j$ofji;m.;lbft. 
inflexibility of the assertibly. -. ^ ;v. .; \ / 

Happily the general spirit of the pe()pte Wfl?ye(i .*ft ateppljri 

the deficiencies^ qf thmr Tepresen^t^tiy^^ vX^Jwjfbnft^ 

then)selves into yalunt^i: assooiatiaqs,. and, :/wiih;a zi^kiMA 

^ ala^rij^ higUy ]tbonoutabk» undei^^ fepfluttoo o£ 

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tlidr dismantlea fortifications:'' 1:'he example was set by <^*^*^- 
ttej^tiblic spirited irihabitaht^ of Bri^ who, with jj^f^-^ 

tife' gentlemen of their vicinity, united* for their defence,' and 
ra&6d' a Kberal ' subscription fbt carrying their patriotic 
d^gn into execution. The exslmple of the metrbpolis 
^xfcitfed a general emulation. Similar associations were im^ 
mfediktely formed in Speight's^ Saint James's, Oistin's and 
Re^dV bay' divisions. It happened, howevfer, that in sortie 
of these places large sums, were subscribed with greater 
fetility tttariHhey w^re jiaid ; andof the money, which wa« 
crollfedted with difficfulty,^ much' waii applied in constructing 
uhsl^rv^ci^able "Jbaftteries,' and in 4-em6ving old rust-eaten 
caririon' fifortV th6 itiost assdilable points to positions, where, 
had they been good> they could have given but little opposi- 
tiori to- the progress of an invading army* • ' 

This laudable cbnduct furnished the governor with an 
opi^rtiintty of arraigning the loyalty "and patriotism^ of the 
ass^inljly, *w!iich he did' ijot .fail to embrace. Impittihg 
their refusal to grant the necessary supplies to fUctiouii 
nietJves, ke dissolved th^ assembly bypmclafnation, with- junei«u 
out evert cohsiiMng the counciU ' His excellency's VeSisohs 
fortakiii^g a step, which \v'as at all tiraes^*extremely un^ 
popular, were, at least, plausible; 'The proclamation stated 
that; a* the vetJ/mbmfent whenf the neighbouring, island of 
SaiBfc ^Ludav' was > actttaliy invested by the reoemy*,. t the 
aa6fiKitdy> we(te;^90 uftterLy ' regardless of %be safety. o£. tbeit ^ 
coBslitiifinte^jn t^^teMlveaiot; to mise^angfisikl^fJ^iiBhatso^- 


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twa^. 35V. ^yer for tl)e defeace of the country. Tke ample «{flbsc'^p- 

1782. iiooswWcli had been since laudably raised by itodivlddils, 

for repairing the fortifications, and the facility wirti vhi|& 

they had been recently put into a state of defence,' w*|S| 

convincing proolsi it wa9 asserted, of tbb incliriatioDft Sa^d 

Abilities of the people to secure their country froirf'tlli 

attempts C^bis Majesty's enemies, and of the readiness 'aikl 

willingness with which they woald have paid; their resped- 

tivc essessments, if they had not been prevented 4)y^i^ 

cepresentatiVet declining to pass a levy bill.- It tms tHere^ 

p9f9 incompatible with his duty, his excellency said, as the 

]l^ing's representative, to sufibr the public authority to 

j^VMin any longer in the lu^nds of men who had ^oobstinatdy 

l^fusi^d to proyicJLe for the public welfare and security; 

"and, in order that the people might have an opportaiiity 

■of ' choosing: men, who had » greats regard for their 

lijfcerest and safety, tp represent them, at this tinte of 

public danger, be thought proper to dissolve thc^p^se^t 

•^e?WenjJa«5eq(ibly. -> « 

The pnoelamatiop occasioned a second meeting of ~th« 

CMociated inhabitants of Bridge^Town, by whom $ev^sml 

^Nrit^ nesohitioM were a^eed to, and afterwards pubftsV 

ed, u a tefutatioD of the goyerno/s charges agaih»t-^ 

Bs^aml^y. These resolutions asserted, timt the reasons stig- 

^te4 fot the dissolution of the hduse were iPounde^ in 

ddccit atid devised by extreme art^ to pervert an drij^iisfiy 

' giMiid iitt, a^ t9 gloss over a most uttwatTantable ei^cu* 

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O^ BAftBAD6£$. $6S 

affseiogaiive by a fiiUaeiousi colouring. That the repr^* ^SH^' 
{^lattives of the people had act^ uprightly, and perifeetly **** 
i^^moabie to tibe mshm of thehr constituehtsi iti i*efuding to 
pass a levy bill ; aad that they yielded oi»1y to the dictated 
of the soqndest judgment and the impulse of the most 
jiatriotio 8«|1, in disregarding Im eSxcelkne/s importunity^ 
fpr «aSiicting his ^ourite object. That a mibscriptionf was 
op^^d for repairing the ibrtifiGations, on acdduttt of the 
ip4|i^iUtf of die people at large td pay any tax for that pur^ 
POK^ 'The apprehensions of an immediate invasion; the 
iHfuiBcifnicy of the public funds ; and the lamentable po^ 
wtiiy of thie community in* general, operating at one and' 
tiw same uMlMit, impelled them to the adoption of t^at 
vofiivXf but now perverted, expfdient: That tile ex4»ettl^ 
di^pioportion between the iiarabe* of subsciibere to th€r 
laudaUe design of repairing the fortifications smd lAkaCi o# 
pe^fOns liable to pay taxe^ raised by a* levy bill; and: 
bft^icoen .tbf);fund acquired by contribution and the mm 
aribing' ftom a v^ular levy billy- cah^ied in itself the clear^f^ 
.rapiRtatioa of ^ opinion of i3>e; general' opnlenee, e&w: 
fH^ased in the {nroclamation, and completely ^mmerated 
tbirrepitaentatiMe body frOm the heayy chai^er which; his 
cjDo^nc^ had brou^t figainst them^ That the asscatibly,- 
so fur frcqin b^hg exposed to the imputatioik- of feeling' no: 
,r^^ for the true interests of tfaeir constituents^' of did^ 
safpty of the island^ had acted upoiv prkidple» dimiietncillly 
jippOsite,. and alto^ther worUiy of tbdr ymroM^tMt^oba- 

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<;hap. XV. ti^p. Aqt}iatedhj the same sentitncarijs, .tte oth^. patriotic 
^'^^ associations adopted ^milar resoliitioos, whicili were, so pGt* 
&cdj ia unison with those of the metropolis^ «6 totrender 
ajiy particular notice of them unnecessary* , 

Whatever might hav^ been the governor's motives for 
sesoFting a second time to an expedient so unpopular, he 
was now, as on the former occasion, doomed to expecieiice 
a disappointment, aggravated by several circumstanDes 
which must have rendered it peculiarly mortifying and ven* 
atious. AU the old meittbers wece re*eleicted with an.u4- 
Wiual degree of cordiality and good-will. Jn many parishes 
patriotic dinners were given by the freeholder ia honour of r 
their representatives, accompanied by the owst. flaftteriag 
testimonials of popular approbation and esteenpi. TImj 
were presented with addresses from the electors, contaioif^ . 
t^ most |)ointed reflections on the governor's rapacity and 
tyranny, at the 4ame time applauding the firmness with 
. i^hich they had refused t^ increase the public burUieiis b^r . 
tke imposition of fresh, taxes, and encounging. the^i Hq : 
peii^evere, with the ^me independant spirit, in opposing tfat^ i 
i^constitutional strides of despotism. Thus the govenKnr's. 
injudicious appeal to the elective body served ooly to; pat)- » 
duce the clearest conviction of thecinpopvlarity ofiiis mear^ 
sures, and the detestiatipn in which be was hdd by all ranks ' 
of people^ except the few, who, from the worst motive#, ^ 
continued to court his fa vour» 
. ^Iluf state lOf irritation, it was natural to expect that ^ 

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t^e meeting between the governor and the assembly could ^^JJ^J^J^- 
not be very amicable. The house having met on the tenth ^^^* 
day of July, proceeded to the choice of a speaker, when Sir 
John Gay Alleyne tf as again called to the chair. This gen- 
tleman had become so personally obnoxious to the gover- 
nor^ ^hat it was apprehended his excellency would not 
cohfirm t^eir^ election ; but, though he did not, as usuaU 
decldte his approbation of the appointment, he coolly ex- 
ppfts^dhte content. His excellency's speech was remark- 
abte* for its uncommon* brevity. The organization of the 
militia^ tke repairs of the fortifications, the necessity of 
guarding the accessible parts of the coast, the passing of a 
le^ bJH*, 'prtmding barracks or quarters for the K^ing'a 
trdbps,^ thef itriprovement of the mole-head, and the esta^ 
bliMitti^t'of a proper market in Bridge-town, were to- 
picifVuggcstBd for their consideration, with a cold formaHty 
anAindifktence. : \ . 

€hi the last meeting of the late assembly, the merchants 
of ^Bridge-town had presented a memorial to the house, 
which they desired might be laid at the feet of their be- 
Joved Sovereign, complaining of the governor's arbitrary 
and unconstittftidnal establishment of fees, as^ oppressive 
as Chey were unprecedented. Tliey charged him with fraud 
and dGplicity, in issuing letters of marque arid reprisal 
agaitost the Dut^b, before he was authorized to do so, and 
with having,^ on weak and frivolous pretences, deprived the 
; ' 3 T 

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c»Af^. eaptors of several valuable prizes, which he' had cdn- 
*'*<*• trived to have condemned as droits of the admiralty. It 
was also ailed ged, that, in order to apply the ralue of tin- 
prizes to his own use, he had, without any just cause or 
4'eason, suspended the officer who bed been l^^y ap«- 
pointed by the court of Tice-admiralty to receive Ae mo- 
ney arising from the sale of the droits. Par tbeae, and 
many other icasons, the memorialists requested, tl»t .tj» 
governor's jabitrary and tyrannical conduct ikiiild »beTQ^0e> 
•entied to tixe King. 

' Tim 4Enemc«aal was itdlowQd, on the firet day of the a68> 
p<xa, by a petition from theipfmshionen of Saint James's* 
condemning, ki the j(»ost pointed «md HQqntktified teswst^ 
tibe tyrwmy of the gov^i^or imd counciU in eKtortiqg v^ 
pe^ irom the pecgpfloi under <^ deac^ninatioa <9f -^^^i:. 
tbei^by -establttl^ng a systmn^ -taxation ia4epcM^ ^ 
their representatives, impeding the progreaa ^ ]^^nffi9^ 
obstructing the channels of justicey ftod p«b\>Qfting Jthe 
constiftution. The petitioners concluded with pia^ymg, that 
ifytit complaints may be carried to the loot of thi$ thr-oae, 
wi,th an humble supplicaHon to bis M^esty^ to- I'/^eis^the 
j^evafices of his farthful subjects, and to 8igai^y!h«s4ils^P* 
jprobation pf the conduct of those menatbfm <^ council, 
who h^d voted for the establishment of &es» 40 as to deter 
lUl future n^embeis of. that board from prOs^uting the ho» 
nourof their high station^ by obsequjkms.cQmpliaiioes with 
the arbitrary and avaricipw inclinations of the goveraor. 

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The ferowiof the house vojul^ ttot, allow the taking of ^^^:^ 
ihe governor's speech into coo8i4emtioii until the next ^JL'*^. 
niiaetidgt when an address Was moved for by Mr. Jaji^es 
Straker, and agreed to by the liouse, with the exception of 
^-udge/Qitteos^ who objected; to it, as precluding every idea 
g£ aisev.isi^ of ^e /yi^ilit^t law* and the pas^ng of a levy- 
biU; object, which, he said, it had ever been his wish to 
see effected. The assembly embraced this opportunity of 
atldtessing tfaa govefser, to remoiv^trate with great spirit 
imd keeoness of leproach on the stigiaa att^itpted tp b^ 
titrown on the diameter of ihsaft ^jkouse, by i^ proc^toma^ 
. tion for itsdindtttion : whidi ihey tcane»ed a wau^a. a^ 
fliBianifettit'4d>ifM3«f Ae pmr^^atire,. with an af^ desiga 
e(f AiisleAditig hi^iMi^etty's miuinl^ in r^giird^ j^^per 
- tad' temper <^ tiie people, and to^ gratify- aiainocdiaaterfe- 
' «e»titie»t ^ifainst ^ membcffs of that ansembly^ I^.^lli^ 
udequtvooal aipprabation of tlie inhftbitaolt&jdf every jde- 
•scnption, and kfas united voaee cf. the whele body.of ;%e- 
feolders, by whom tk^ had been reelected, ihefis4e«9J»ly 
eonided for « complete and uDquestieneible raSvk^Bi^eg^ o£ 
the feasons assigned by his excellency lor their dissolj^ttfm^ 
The geneoroi^ and voluntory contributions - ^f iadiyi^iials 
were, they maintained, no proofs of general x>pulcBdey nor 
^ the soppoeed ability o£ the bulk of the people toivtua- 
tain the heavy expM»eo£repai]!iBgtiie:£art^cataansir iHaTw 
ing taken particular notice -of eack swbject vefencd to ihek 
e(«sideration, 43iey conehided with deciafiQg» in ,o«ik£»f' 

3 T 2 

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CHAP. XV. mijtjr to the wishes of their constituents, openly and freely 
1782, expressed, that they never would raise any supplies what* 
ever, while they continued liable to be aggrieved by the- 
demand of illegal and unconstitutional fees. 

Public bodies, as well as the individuals who compoae 
them, are always ready- to discern and censure in othei^ 
the fa]ilts which, from the partiality of human nature, tk^y 
are incapable of perceiving in themselves. Whilst the 
assembly were commendably employed in it^isting the -aft*: 
b^trary encroachments of the other orders of the legiedaturev 
they scrupled not to overstep their constitutional liifiits, and 
tQ assume a dispensik>g power over a positive ktw. Thej 
directed the treasurer to suspend, for two months,' tlttB 
collection of the taxes remaining due on the lefvy bill, whi^ 
was passed on the twenty^ixth day of July, one thouAaiid . 
seven hundred and seventy-nine. The couhciJ^ who had 
without hei^tation consented to violate the fundanoiental^ 
rights of the commons, now suddenly became the vindica- 
tor& of that constitution which they so recently endeavoured 

Sept w. to subvert They resolved that the directions given by the 
assembly for stopping the -payment of the taxes was, ^xerr 
cising an illegal, unccmstitutional power of di^pensjmig with 
the operation of a positive law, on the authority of one 
branch of the legislature ; and that an order, so partial, 
-could be no justification of the treasurer for ne^leetipg his 
duty; But as: the intention of the asij^mbly was founded 
oa humanity, for the indulgence of the, peop^le under their 

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present disastrous circumstances, their honours professed chap, xv, 
their readiness to concur in passing an act to protract the i^^a. 
payment of the taxes to the time proposed by the aAs^m^-^ 
bly ; the only constitutional method, they observed, of > 
checking or suspending the operation of the lalw. 

The treasx!rer,baving received acopy of this resolution from' October 2. 
tbeelerk of ^e council, laid it before the assembly at their 
next meeting. The readiog of a paper of this tendency natu^* 
ralfy called up the: speaker. He observed that the mode of 
proceeding now objected to, had been practised by that 
house, menely for the sake of dispatch, for nearly twenty' 
years, without a single objection haying been i^tart^ by 
either of the other legislative branches. But now, the ob«- 
jection was made, he recommended the house to pass a bill, 
as the more tegular- way of obtaining the required indulge- 
ence; A bill for tliat purpose was. accordingly passed, and 
«ent up to the council for their concurrence ; with a mes- 
sage,' a{!Krfogising for their unintentional infringement on. the 
privileges of that boards Plea!sed with the councir» reso^ 
Jution of adhering to the principles of the constitution, the 
assembly cheerfully renounced the slightest deviation from 
-the same line of duty in their own proceedings. But they 
reflected^ they added, with no small degree of consolation, 
under the sense of having erred, that the error had ariseni 
solely from a zeal to lighten the burthens on the shoulders ' 
of their fellow subjects, and not from a presumptuous de- 
iign of increasing their weight. The bill, however^ was re- ' 

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ffiAf^XV. jecte5 by the gorternor. No ^titostantial Teason, he sat^^ 
n«0. Iiaving been given to induce him; to* believe, that the pl^ 
ftosftd indulgtoce to the inhd^itanfe coukJ matei;iaUy alter 
their situatiicm at the ^expiration of two months. And ft« 
the levy, to be raised by the bill i^hose operation was tlitts 
theattt to be suspended, ivm the only fund appUcable to 
the defence of the idami, and to dajry cm the vc«k$ wbicji^ 
iirom the state of the war, it was absolutely neoe»any to 
complete with the utmost expedition, he oould aat opoivat 
*6 the ddlay^ 

Matters were thus vwging to a <aiai8 between tbe gtmr*- 
T)or and the assembly. TSiear complaints agants bis osiMllr 
lency were pressed forward with great «ea} and fideli^ by 
tbe agent, and a day vm% actually appointed for m &mi 
hearing of the chai^ffl before the board of trade, in 'the 
mean time, his patron. Lord <5eorge Gcrmaine, had ejc^ 
pressed such an explicit disapprobation of bis conduet, ti»t 
tsoancely a hope remained of bis being iible to retain im 
government, unless he could cotnpronii«e the dispute with 
the assembly • Hence, in his. communications with them, 
he began to assume a milder tone. Before the house ad* 
journed, they received a message from his excellency, cott- 
tainirig an extract of a letter from the secretary of state, it 
these words: ^ The temper and good disposition which ym 
have shewn in yonr spieeeh at the op^iing of the aseemWy** 

* On the 14th February, 1781, previous to their last dissolution* 

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(fir BAltBADOES. Slf 

pv» me JQst gnmnds to hope that all animosities will <^nAP. x¥^ 
^ease ; and that the caanoil and assembljr viil be reaidy t# i782. 
act with jTou in punraing the true interests of Barbadoee ; 
hy providing for its security by the passing of a proper levy 
bill) and by repairing the forts and batteries necessary for 
its defence ; his^ Majesty having na oSier wish than thai of 
. iHfomoting the happiness of aH his strbjects,'* 

The message contained a profession of his exceJlency^s 
^ancern, at finding that the assembly's last address was 
written in snch an intemperate style, that he cotrld not, 
eoasistently with his character, and the station which he 
'filled, return an answer to it. But he took that opportu- 
nity of declaring to tiiem that, upon their passing a proper^ 
tevy bill,; he was ready, as he had always been, to join with> 
them in every just and reasonable proposition, for the ease 
and interest, as well as forlhe security of the people. On 
iabe si:U>ject of fees, his excellency thus expressed Wmself:: 
^ Although I consider them as part of my ju^ and lawftrl 
lights, I can assure you, that, if the assembly had granted 
me the salary long enjoyed by many of niy predecessors, 
and which, it is well known, their constituents in general, 
were not only willing, but desirous they should grant, it 
never would have entered into my mind to propose the 
establishment of fees to the members of his Majesty's conn- 
eil. Nor can I suppose that board would have concurred: 
in the measure, if they had not been fuHy convinced that the 
abridge<i salary granted by the awembly was by no nteaos. 

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<^J^^^l^* sufficient to support the dignity of govonnient. ^nd if 
'^ , any subsequent assembly had shewn an inclination tp Qqmr 
mute the fees established in council, for the usual salary, I 
should long since have cheerfully made them the proposal. 
But as, in 6onsequence of the assembly's petition, they 
have been lately referred by his Majesty to the lords com- 
missioners for trade and plantations^ for their consideration 
and report thereon, that event must now take place, imless 
by a proppsition from the assembly, the matter is compro- 
mised and settled before it comes to a hearing/' Here tbe ^ 
door of reconciliation was thrown open ; but unfortuna^tely 
the assembly could not enter, either with honour to thenij- 
selves or security to their constituents. A commutation of 
the fees would have amounted to an acknowledgment of 
the governor's right to them; and have laid them at the 
mercy of every future commander in chief. 

The message then proceeded to inform the assembly, that 
General Christie had arrived with a battalion of the sixtieth 
regimetft, which had been lodged, by his excellency s or- 
ders, in the forts ; and recommended that the house should 
m^e soime provision for the bjetter accommodation of the 
troops. The reparation of the forts was ur^ed with great 
' eamfesthess, as being indispehsibly necessary for the secu- 
rity' bf the country. And, as a proof of his excellency's 
attentibii to minor objects of local convenience, he men- 
tioned ihe decayed state of the two bridges in Bridge-town^ 
with ft view to their being immediately repifa-ed, and W the 

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aame time suggested the expediea^cy of an act to prevent en af. sy. 

the removal of those banks of stones which had been for- ^^^^ 

tunately thrown lap by the hurricane, and which contri-» 

bated in no small degree to the safety of the towns. 

- The assembly's answer breathed nothing of an amicable Oct 9. 

or conciliatory spirit. The duty and affection, which they 

fceld inviolable to his Majesty's pCTSon and government, 

kad induced them, they said, to take hia excellency's met^ 

sage into their most serious cotisideration^ ; and after a calm 

and dispassionate review of the real circumstances of the 

people, they found themselves confirmed in their.forroer re« 

solution, not to ipcreaae the public burthens on any pr^ 

tence whatever. The interest and pro^sperity of the com- 

mnnity were blessings that depended lesss on their qecuritjp 

from external violence, than on the peaceable enjoy otent of 

liberty and pwqpwtyr secured frpi|i Uie eocroachi»^t» of 

arbittary power ^ithin^ CopcerniAg .thf^ ^^^ to which hhf 

excellency had asserted ^ just and logal right, the^ chal^ 

leafed him to^ produce a^ si^gl^ law local or ge;>ei*al^ written 

f>r unwritten,; w^ich coujld fiis^nction his claim* On this suh^ 

ject they ran into a tedious ^discussion, which we willingly 

9.void. T^dr d^}ectK>ns ^,t^§ ^eg^Uty of t\\e fees, and 

the reasoni^ qu w^idi^h^;fa}^fy wa$ yote.d, \>eitkg substan^ 

ti^ly tji^ isaro^ #»: ttK«e pf y^lfifik w^ have already t^kea 

Itraple notice}, .;,,... 

, T^Q overture for a cpmm«^tioft of; the fees^ as a basts of 

rfiG95iqiUa*ion, vas.r^^^ tl^pru4«M* aad..s^it 


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CflAF.xv. becoming the representatives of a free people. "ThorotigH^ 
J7t52. convinced of the illegality of the claiin^ and rioft leJas setost* 
ble of the unconstitutional authority by which it had been 
sanctioned, they should consider it, they said> a derelfctlOa 
of their country's cause, were they to make any proptisi- 
tion that might be construed into an acknowkd^meiit'of 
his right, or that he had any thing to yield on the g^ouhd 
of ii commutation. On the contrary, they declaped tlieii 
fixed determination that, so long as such a dangferodS tistir- 
|>ation of power, as tlie levying of money witiiout tfte'con- 
sent of tlie general assembly, ' was e)xfercis6d, they, tvho 
were the only proper persons to raise supplies fbi*. thfe ser*. 
vice of government, would not, by incr^iisiiig the btfrtiiehs 
of their constituents, become the instruments bf :^dihg to 
tlieir grievances. ; ' ' ): / -iv I. ,•-■•';• ; 

x\eT.i27. • Notwithstanding the failure €«f;thi9''.itt«irftfJ|t,'hfe 'eJetJ^I- 
tency determined on making another' ^BiOJt 'i*) ^kW^ciii >ihe 
assembly to a'due sense of the daiiget'io "^hiJjH ithfe «(**ittttfy 
#as exposed, , by tlie''pr<>^i^ity'<>'f ^^''fo^^^blfe eh^Sfiyi 
flashed' witli success. - Td this end 'h6 80iltddwiifa"iitt»6ttge, 
icf^mating that, from intelligeftce lately te?ceiV«d,'-tB*rt #&s 

, every reason to believe ihat th'fe cinetalirSffeHs ^tfej^tflttif It© 
attack Batrbadoes. lAG\\iereSm€te(i\ks^iM^i7hvS^'e&n.^ 

.^ bl^ General Christie to removtf' the-'h*(ivy^areiW^,' afrifno^ 
nitionand provisions, to Fort George ;' atid S^'oiririifeWied 
that the militia should be more frequeiitly' asWtdbiM; and 
better diMiplined. JFfis exceHency, it the same time, cQm- 


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.ii^i:ji4p;^t^ to the:house, on the authority of a letter from cm^^. 

j^.§epr^tw7 of state, that the appUcation of a part of '^e .J?|*^- 

,p^mpfsntaFy bounty, to the defence of the island, woiird 

,^;|ft,.^ Impropriation perfectly agreeable to his Majesty; 

ga4,p;:?nqlud^d with hoping, that the loyalty of the ass^ih^ 

%,^)ly.,wouid induce; them to take the al^raing and critical 

:«tate of theisiand into their most sei^ous consideration, and 

. tO! a4ppt isu^h measures - as were most essential to its Safety 

_^,yT)M,2^V(\h\y readily voted an aid of negro labouf.tbB 
,3bbiB r^movaJ^ of the cannon and stores; biit they woiild nei- 
ther con?«Qt to 1;he more frequent assembling of the miU-« 
. .ti^ nqr to thjB proposjcd appropriation" of any part of the 
naopey gmnt^d by p»tliaibent to the repairs of the fortifi- 
cations. While they acknowledged the danger of their siv 
;\uat4Qjj,: they calmly protested, that they would not suffer 
. . ^)i^r, apprehensions tp betray them into f ny means of 'pn>4 
, yiidmi for the publiti defence, not warrattted by the' pria^ 
ciples of justice and humanity. Upon their loyalty, indi- 
vidually aud collectively, they affirmed, bis excellency might 
! ,j«?ly with the Tjtmoet certainty; but they could notlielp' 
.. lameiitittg, tht^t they should be called t^-a dontest witl^anc 
. inveterate ;e<»ehiy,. tindet ^ chief> who, ■ hfc^ng despoUed 
, them of ti^^u: j^roperty, had destroyed that' necessary coii^ 
i ^I4ew^ ?^i^h;Jr^iclvthe^ J>appy to. have: 

! . foticrtred a-fa^l^^l rep <£M.ip^. 

3 u 2 . 

':■'.)'• ; ; ■'; .... J-.. 

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516 • 33HJPrHI&TQR>^ 

^2^^:^^ P?^^ JS^ndingey^rj endeavour fwi^esgyJ^ 

'^^'^^^ rogued th^ as^erably to the twenty-sixth <iay of •Fefcffwwy^/ 
Meanwhile the council having appointed a^cottu^uttee tfi 
jpin that of the awemblj, to arrange a plan fw^ dittfibe^ 
tion of the parUanifintary bounty, a. bill, the prodi^^ftioQ 9l^ 
the joint conunittee, had been laid before the hqum aw |)^ 
gecond day of October, Various amendments were jyo- 
posed by the speaker, and, being adopted bythe lii8»fQ» 
the bill passed the assembly unanimQusJy on .the,t]t^irl^^ 
of that month. The whole of the dooation was, hy^ '^li*. 
bill, vested in a board of commissioners^ composed 9fM^* 
exceltency and a certain number of the m^mber^'Of botU 
houses, to be distributed amoi^ such pers<9iaa^l^^]b^3^^ 
reduced to distress and necessity by the hifrric^n^.; j^^ <^^ri 
words, to the poor and indigent suflferers. '^ji^e jgoyer^r^ 
was anxious that the money should be applied to the c^e^^ 
fence of the island, imd bad actually, writt^ to th<Q.Sj^^f|pT^^ 
t^y of state, representing the wotnt of . uqaniipi^ J^t^^k^n 
council and assembly, and soliciting, an order tq tl^ow tj^ft, 
whole of the humane benefaction into the public coffers^ 
by which he would have secured the payment o^ his P^alar^ ^ 

and beea enabled to complete J^ P^Rf ^fMf^^'^^^^l!^^!!??* 
With views no kiBS sinister, thecouncil, wjM)»wCTe«tll inen 
^ ef eomndemble landed estates, were d^i^ousx>f a|>prp^^-^ ^ 
ating thfemmey te the payment of tE^^^Ji^jj^^b^^jpfl;, 
of diptabutiog tiw pfovisioM «?n&^ly:&i¥iVtl!^fi^ J^^ 

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OPBAtftADOES: 517 

of eiwty description. Hie bill sent up by the assembly, ^^^AP^v. 
beitifg of an <^p6site tendency, was unanimously rejected *^^^ 
by die council ; and Ibe prorogation of the assembly pre- 
▼ented tfieir concerting any Measures for the disposal of the 
"mhlable cargoes sent out by the sub-committee, arid which 
afrivted otlly the day before that everit. 

"Wie value of the' provisions, many of which were of a 
pifrisfiabte iiature, was of course' materially depreciated by ^ 
Uife^tlefeyi 'V^hich w^as productive of an expense of two Kun- 
iffed {kninds a taiorith for storage. Meanwhile the council^ 
paiSsed a bill, ^hich was delivered to the clerk of the asseiri* 
bljr, *to be laid before thef house after the recessl llie. 
^Fgn of this bill was to distribute the four cargoes which 
had been received, while the cash was to remain locked up 
ffom those for whose benefit it was intended till tHe result 
of the govemor^s application was known. It proposed this 
apjpointfherit' of commissioners, by whom the stores and' 
gtobds Werie to be (divided' intd eleven' eq^ual parts,' one of 
whifch was assigned to the vestry of each parish, who were ^ 
reijuire^ to ' idiktribute tbem generally in projportiori to the 
loss sustaihea'by each fndiviclual. * y - >> ^ \, 

l^otwilnstanding tbe obvious partiality arid injustice ot 1785. 
this* 'arrangement, if was plausibly and ingeniously sup-;- Feb. 27. 
ported ori the ineetirig of the assehibly by Mr. Straker and 
^i^. ttusbafids. '" ^6 fbrfater of' Ihese gentlemen, in a Icing " 
and afaimaife^d Sp^e6h/tt^ti^ MU^ )^^^ 
madvcrsion on the conduct of the governor and councils 

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518, IHE HKTORY') 

CBAF, xVr* professed- Wttteelf^attJ^^dt^Ato^^ d»ti»b|itiQa. 

17^3. BJfr.* Husbands thoftght tfeht»>tl« beetrtiw »o»fc.efeeiMifcl; 
t'He tnost - generaratid impartiftl naode o£ -di$po6tQg oSAhe 
parliarrientary boilintyi would have been toluve;tforcmfi Ijbe 
%yholeiBto die -treasury, applkaJsde to the pvipiAC ^fiig^ia^^^ 
By such an appropriatiou of the donative, they^ght^as^ 
paid off Uie colonial debt, have • done jiiis^ice tqjd^ pMblic 
creditors, and sbevrn a due regard to IheiriidistrQ^ff^ ft^jo- 
stituents, by relieving them from a . Ij9pt4 rOf i *^^^ v, tl)fty 
might have repaired the malerheftd and. fi^bujijtf ^g|f^/a^j^ 
sauctuaries. It was iK>t within th^ fff]^GTp flf: hip .pqmppf- 
b^^^on to discover how a state oovlld be benefited ,n^Q^e 
effectually than by the payment c^fjtg dpbtpb 4l^ FSfi^^iO'^ 
of useful and necessary worksi and th^.e^^Wi^hjno^^ 
Jiiad to meet the expenses, of goyerpnae^t Jqt.^ s^vcce^ji^n 
of yeai-s* Besides the gift of parljaiqep^tf he sai4 wa^ a 
public boon, conferred by the pubUp of JJpgland 9^.thfit 
©f Barbadoes ; the public were^ to be under t^neoblig^t^on^ 
and consequeddtljr ought to rep^vje t^f bepefit, JB^t^^^he 
was now precluded from all Jiopes of such an apprc^i^atjon 
of the bounty, as he thought rop?]t ^igi^le, and^^ a, dist;rir 
bution at, all j events, was to takp glac^, ^he yo^d for ^Jhe 
bill, because of the two be preferrecj a g^p^l^l to ^, partial 
^-distribution..,. . .. . ., ,, * 

On the other hand, the bill experienped 9|i, animated qp* 
position :frQm the . Mmaqe, , disinterested, ) J^d^ j^a^tic 
speaker <tf the .assembiy^ yfhof^ ;gpfta:o)jp jjf^ul i^^q^ed 

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'OP BARimDOfia 519 

^vidf^ypeTMfnii <HttmdeT2Aim^ put in competition wit li ^^^^^:^' 

the^y^fave<^ h'wco\3tut\j^oTl}^ and Im" ^'^^^\ 

mamtj. 1 l{e^ couimenoed an eloquent and argunaentative 
speech i^ith sayiogf that he could npt rise to delivicr liis 
sentindents upon that occasion,, without yielding to the 
']}[H>btpiimfulYefle^Q89 on the melancholy &tate of bis iii- 
fated courttrj, which could neithec relietve itself from its 
^fficu?ties' and ' tfffiictiona^ nor. avail; itself of theadvan- 
tfa^es' ivhrch ^eilB held out to its f acceptance. He warmly 
TCjirobalted -the rtio^le of distrihution proposed by the dpun-* 
iBT,'^nd highly disapproved 4>f the seeming surrender of the 
riidney ^* teaplied hy their silewce- on that point. He contend- 
* erf Hv^ith ^lifettt ^torce of argument, that the whole of the iti u^ 
^ niflctofc dbtiAtire ought to be applied, in conformity to the 
kin^gtaagei 6f ttie ^otfe of the bouse of commons, to the relief 
' c?f slich aS htfd been red t^ded io distress and necessity by the 
iiurriilane; ^ Mfe cbndenitted; in the ^mort pointed itermss tho 
'schenie df & generatl distribution among those, of every de- 
^criplioh, who had suslJiinkl* any injury by the storm ; many 
of wh^oni; -notwirtisfandirigtheii^'losfes, fco»tinued to enjoy, 
if hot the Trfxuries- of afihience, the blessings .of cbmpe- 
tencel ^ Jiuch k'pldnV he said, was- not less^ inconsistent 
With thei hiitnitie' intention of the beoevolent donors, than 
injurious to those distressed^ necessitous persons^* for iwhose 
benefit the gift was designed. t » 

'With a peculiki* felicity of expressions and strength of 
reasoniiig^ the yenerable patriot e)£po$ed the injustice of . 

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^J^J^J:^- liquidating the colonial debt, and eiLoneratkig^ the opukiit 
1783. planter from the payment of taxes/ at the expense of the 
houseless objects of charity, whose small ' properties hgA 
been ravaged by the storm. By such a disposal of the. 
bounty, those who had suffered the least would probably 
benefit the moist ; while others, who had been totally ruined^ 
by thp destruction of their propwty, noight, in feet, derive^ 
no advantage from the benevolent intention of parltaiaent 
For as the taxes for the support of government were chiefly 
laid QQ slaves, it was demonstrable, that he who had the 
greater number would benefit by tlie pfopoted mode of 
distribution, not in proportion to his loss, but in an exact 
ratio to the taxable property which he had saved from the 
conflict of elements. As an illustration of tliis part of his. 
argument, Sir John. All^ne -mentioned an instance of ai 
planter who had a hundosdaod <fifty sUy^^ but whose loss, 
was so trifling, that, in the ev^U of the money being 
thrown into the teeasury, hq would he a considerable gainer 
by that calamity, which had involved othefs in irretrievable 
ruin. The honourable baronet concluded an elaborate and 
brilliant display of oratory, with moving several aniend-. 
ments to the bill ; which being adopted by the house, it 
passed without a dissenting voice. But its progress in the 
council chamber was, obstructed^ by an occuAenca whidfa 
rendered it unnecessary. 

The governor's apj^icnticm io the secretary of stat^ for 
an^of^ to jippoo^riate the moBe^ to the rf pair^ of the for- 

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tificatf€&w/iiad been f^«6rred to the lords df the treasury, chap.xv. 
who ittiniedialiely called for the opinioD of the London com- ^'®^' 
mittee on: thcf expediency of the measure. Perceiving that 
the dfJBKOilties which impeded the disposal of the bounty, 
had bbfeftf -ptfrpOsely corntrived by his excellency, the com* 
mittee, whose patience sems to have been exhausted by the 
unreasonable protraction of the business, determined to 
alter the pktn^ and exclude the governor from any concern » 
in ther dtatributioftr They reserved, that the constituting 
a boitfd bf. commissioners in Barbadoes, consisting of alF 
the fwidfinti members of council, and an equal number of 
the ^seeibly, of; which the speaker should be one, having 
powerf{lio<i^pobe of' the parliamentary grant by a majority 
of vQjcpS^, is ti^Cr most expedient metliod of carrying -the 
beneYolent intentioiis of parliament into execution. This 
resolution having been approved of by the lords of the' 
treasuxy*Mthc> secretary of state, by bis M^jest/s orders,^ 
wrote tp the governor, directing hhn to recommehd to the 
council .and assembly the passing of a bilH in conformity 
to the mode suggested by the committee* / ' 

A board of iCommissionCTs was^ accotdmgly constituted 
by an act of the legislature, with full power to make a 
final distribution of tbe bomity in aoy manner th^ should 
think proper. On the first meeting of the commissioners; May i. 
Mr. Bishop, of the council^ moved that the sum of forty 
thousand pounds steeling i^ould be thrown' into the public ^ 

S X 

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521 'the HISTEORY 

JDHi^p.-XV. cofkn, to Mqnidate Ae cdoiial d^ebt. IWiriDtieiii ' 
n%$. ^rted. with great earnesteess hy Mir, Hminiada^ Te» hit 
oothiDg was more, clear^ frcmt the wot d^ oi the resolmjpi^ 
of tlie b6u3€ <»£ conimon^y tlian that k wu theinten^OQ <ii 
picrliament to aM)cd assas&iace to a4^ relief W Ihe iUa(M$sMl^ 
and 9N(if>port to fcbe necessitous. 

Ob ^ dtikec bisrDdi, Sit Joim Gr AOe^e cantendedv tiui^ 
tire ppopofial was etquaHjr mconsbteiit with the \«Qte €f tha 
faoiue of commons^ and tbe mtHoftes o£ the lotda of tte 
tMSR9orj^9 ^rami; bodt o£ which it wa» efideot, that the^ dona--^ 
tk^e W9» denied for the relief of liutiuUigent wjfei^tps iyt 
Urn 90mm; thon wbov Irp thaA diioer ealbmit^y hctd hetn mh 
duۤdta distress^ mmt nmaBMukf. Att angjiiMQla wfStt wmvailp' 
ng\ there^ wa* ro MxmiAnig. tl» sm»^ doqjaei^e of iMimhen^ 
Hm boon Aat was itttendei^ £0^ Ihe relkf ef the poor dis^ 
tmtscd, W3M afipiiedf to >€««» the taxes-oa the opulent po^ 
^msosft of slwretk Otat #f thu^ fvady^ the boardr agreed ta 
fnovide fet' the repaim^ of the town^haU;, one thouaaod 
jfoxmim waft alloitod for tke sabuilding th« new bcidge^ and 
nineteen hundred p64ifid6r wer6 graated ta 8i& pariahes foB 
irinutduif^ rb^ eiwwcb^s^ FifteeA^himdiFed. poupds^ sterKng 
had been paid bj| the London €en»n)ttee t«» Mr. EsUdck, 
«• agpni for the i^land^ tacoadufit fche prosecution a^aipat 
Govemoc Cuanuif haroe* Of th^ balance^ eightee^n huo* 
ditdi pauada mne alfotted ta^ tha su&rem ro. eacb ffftiidb^ 
t»lta dktBh< i ^rtd , ji i ft|i t p tttMdi^ amaoi^ Ihoaa jieacm ^«hiGM 


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loMMT MBifiMidl «ot fifteen immSM mmmxAB. <koaA dth oup.wv. 
iftjB were, kowoirer, wifieeed ^ dbsteoct 4lie cURtoAii»- '^'W' 
^n, aiMl fi^« ^/^ws liad ^a,pted 4m£(iw it was aoerart- 
ffli^bed. ft was sHfely a cunoHS arraogemeirt, "to aJbir 
^e least populous papislies a firai ^eq«al 4e ^faMie orhaeh 
had the greater iwmfeer ^ families, e^ad ^rea 4o t^i«t 
allotted for the metropolis, whose loss of property -as f« 
exceeded i^at of any ^ttier distrift, as its population 
surpassed the iiAiabitaDts of Ifee ^^t parishes* There 
t^nuot he a stronger proof of the absurdity and t9JM^ 
tice of the plaa which was adopted, tbaa the followwg 
Ifect. A gentleman t)f .Bridge-town; ^o had very fe^ 
daves, sustained a loss of more than fif^keen hundred 
pounds, in houses and other personal effects. But &ose 
Very circumstances, which were in realrty aggravations -ef . 
Tiis misfortune, precluded him from relief: his loss ex^ 
ceeded the limits prescribed by the con^missioners ; and^ 
Tiaving but few slaves on whom he ceuld ^save the tax, 
i}e was left to bear the undiminished weight of bis cala/^ 

For the sake of perspicuity, we have pursued fliis isuto* 
^ct as far as our means of information extended, wifih*- 
tjirt tnudi regard to the order of time. And, while it 
flffords the most incODftestible evidence of the -national 
%eneiicence, opulence, and generosity, at the toooUoc* 
'iwn ^ which, every hearty susceptible ctf a 4ue seiwe^ 

3 X a 

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,524 THE mSTORY 

cHAR^v,.i)enefit8>.pi!qflfe throb witb grateful ifieanibiBtyf wej tatonal 
y^^', cedect without humiliatiou and concern, od the .4uiBei>- 
sions which it produced ; on the obata«le$ thftt ret^r^led the 
distrihulion *of the bounty, s^nd lessened;, its v^lue to 
the unfortunate sufferer ; and on the application , ^ so 
large a portion of the munificent donative to ptibUc pup- 

Whatever traces of genuine loyalty and patriotism may be 
discovered in the refusal of tlie assembly to raise the necessary 
supplies for the support of government, there seems to have 
been no inconsiderable degree of impolicy in suffering the 
public debt to accumulate to such an amount, and of in- 
justice in neglecting to provide for the payment of the pub- 
lic creditors, many of whom, though placed in the most in- 
digent circumstances of human life, had been unpaid for 
three years. At length, driven to despair, the gunners and 
matrosses of Raid's Bay, Speight's, and Saint Jameses divi- 
sions could no longer suppress their complaints. Hieir pe- 
titions to the assembly, stated, that, many of them, with 
large families to support, were reduced to the lowest ebb of 
fortune ; and were frequently indebted to the benevolence 
of their more fortunate neighbours for their daily subsist- 
ence; their wants, however, were unheeded. The voice of 
justice and humanity was heard, no more, or was list^- 
ed to only when it forbade the imposition of taxes. The 
petitions were ordered to lie on the table, and in all proba- 

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OP fitAB^AbOES. ^iu 

Ix^tjvrovMwxm faate been fo)rgotten» l^ad not th^ totd^ ^^^;^' 
niisskmers for the distribution of the {Parliamentary bounty ^^^^ 
agreed, as we have already seen, to appropriate a consider- 
able part of that donative to the payment of ihe colonial 


'i -t y * J * 

i : J . * / . 

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ttllfi ttltt^OStt' 






CHAPJCVt The day was now approaching, when the Barbadians 
17SS. were to be relieved from the tyraniiy of a rapacious ruler, 
and restored to the enjoyment of internal tranquillity. 
Their complaints had been thus far urged, with indeiatiga* 
ble zeal and perseverance, by their agent; and the thir- 
teenth day of April had been appointed, by the lords of 
trade, for a final hearing of the charges against Govemoar 
Cunningbame. But, in consequence of the memorable 
change of ministry, which had taken place within the last 
week in March, Mr. Estwick suddenly adopted the resolu- 
tion, not less culpable than strange, of declining the invef- 
tigatioD, which he had so ardently and impatiently soii- 
cited« When all difficulties were surmounted, .and be had 
aetfly arrived at tbe end of his journey, be discovered that 

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thetw^vfkk^h»\ud been ditigeady pwmmgfoftw^^m^^^^^^^^ 
n»entlis^was tootdfcokousr ton lead to thedirecfi aittainraent: ^^^ 
o^ hisrob^t. The board of trade,, be fb^ndv eodd/ fonm 
no ultiiMbtedQekkiiv em th& poiii4 at imue. The^ were ool^ 
at board of wqjuirj^ om whose pepoiA the King^ in eOiUacil^^ 
vn» fiiia%^ tor determioe. Hence^lur ^tended' ta tdimlb ilt 
bette9:toiidty^^'(HiitbewiHdQm.^aflnA LordSheiburne^ 

t^ imw Wisw^tsiXff of atate^ fan an immBdiaAev bnt pwtiad^ 
ndresa^of tike grffiTaofCAa^ whidii w€te tihc safaject of cof^ 
pkuat^ibaA to bring: the master 1^ bearing be&re tbe 
board ol*^ tpade^ which beki^^eainpodedi^ aa be $aid^« of pea^^ 
8pi^ devoted to the will of: Lord XJcorgg^ Germsttue^. the g»»- 
venaoFspatrony., their' i;eport might have been eventna^j^v 
untfkaoiiirable to tbekcolonjfw Tbit> ia^ the iMibrtaace' c^ (dte^* 
]'east>H»whicti,. upon being pressed ,oa the aubjectby tiifr , 
sf^cretajiy of. the boaikl of trade» Mn }isbmcW, aasigned fbr > 
decliatug.:the.heariyn^:beli^e tlie only tiihiuiiJ^. whifsbrffionob. 
iteearliesit e»tabU&hniCMit^ bad iavaiiablji takei^ oo^nisaiMii 
of all colonial coinplainti^.pFepafrs^arjp. to^ s^ Baal ad^^Mti^^ 
calioK. Tlieir. lordsbbips^. hA»»wwr%» io« nbediancs tab tim- 
Majesty's commaadai loet at the tjoie^^aail placMta^ipaNrt^^ 
and akhoii^ Mr, Diumiag: andt Itfo. F^ggdtt bnb bMit jie^ 
taincd oftt the^ffmtuifi tber im]«iiy^.^hr ageislitbovgbt p^^ 
to i^AiBer the aasi^fesinae . oi^ooiuu^ ianibalatcd bts^iibjeetioar ^ 
to any farther proceedjng^^oivtfae proposed iaqiiiryj.^ A^fsr:^ 
heaitibg Wiiat? the gbmtaarm advMJartttiibalA}' t^^^bfi^dh^llie 
Mli^aiaiH tbtt 1 > ^aA hiwtBtirii ^ntbetbwi- ijiey; diig!lfe1»:»y<>rt* 

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CHAP^i. generally on the case as it then stood before them, or spe- 
"^*- cially, that the agent for the colony had declined the hear- 
iagi Mr. £stwick'8 politeness retaoved all difficulty, by 
declaring his perfect acquiescence in the latter mode. 

HappSly-for Barbadoes, the agent's c(Jnfidence in Lord 
Sbelbume was not misplaced. By the first packet which- 
left UngiaiJd, after the arrangement'of the new admihistra- 1 
tiori was completed, General Cunninghamc received his' 
juM u. Majesf/s orders io resign the government. Thus the re- ' 
lDota^of the odious «ind tyrannical chief was entirely an 
act of" rii^yal clemency, or rather of 'taihisterial patron-' 
age» :larid'tiot the result of any legal nor formal determina- '■ 
ticttiiof his guilt. The question of m'al-administration' 
w^. «tiU .tiniecided, adid the oppressor escaped the punish- 
- meot'dueto his crimes. - 

Thegoyeraor spent but little time in .preparing for his' 
departswj. Unable to bear the pnblic eye, or apprehen-' 
sive of piirsoiiftl imults, he privately embarked, under 
June 18. . covff <?f the ^eVeoting, on board the padket, where he re- 
raainpd, uanoticed and Mnmolested, from Tuesday tHl the 
Thursday foUowin^; when, to the inexpressifelfe joyof al 
ranks of mqp* he bad adieu to a country whose govern-- 
raent he had administered, without honour or satirfaction- 
to himself,, to the manifest injury of a laithful, and loyal' 
people.. ., .. ,. ., .. 

JuM 19. In4?J?edi^nQe tp his M»jpsty's commaad.s, sigsifi^ ^o. him- 
by the. s^fetpy QfjBt«te, ihe Honourable. John. Dptin, as-, 


by Google 


fumed the reins of government on the day after (he govern chap^w, 

nor left Pilgrim, and immediately issued a. special summons •'^•** 

to convoke the legislature on the second daj of July. 

Both houses having accordingly met» the. president addres* 

sed them in a speech less remarkable for its elegance .than 

tor the patriotic sentiments. Which it contaiae4> . . In «mple^ 

artless language, be told them, that hfiving.l^n dii9cte4 

by Lord Shdbum« to take charge i^ the govenuneot, bi» 

first care had been the renaoval of tho^ )}l^l tfible? of 

lees which the late governor, wit^ut. any o«}onr of rigjhtt 

bad set up and extorted irom his Mi^ty's loya) and dis^ 

tressed subjects. After an unqualified; reptobatioa of the 

governor's conduct, he added, that, he had beea oanm&nded 

by hia Majesty to use his best endeavcran'to secure and for* 

tify tlie island, and to rouse tiie spirit of the people: to a 

vigorous exertion in dieir own defence. To the repairs of . 

the fortifications be requested their particalar^ attention,' 

and. earnestly exhortedthem to unainittiity %nd hanncHiy in^ 

their proceedings, as the sureist means of obtaining the fk-' 

vour and approbation of their Sover^ign^ of ptomcl^Bg 

the {nt>sperity of the country, and of doing honour to 

ttemselves. . . 

This honest, unstudied hdi^ngue drei^ from tii^ cfomieit' 
l^e fbUowing indecent and' unprecedented reply : "^Thof 
manner in whieh you were call^fty the command of the; 
island, your honour has "1)eete pleased to -sigmfy^^ tO' us With 
sentiments that do yott credit. The tni^ d^egtttei* io yott 

3 Y 

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Cfftp.xvi. cannot i>e abused, while jou thus honourably bear » witness 
''^** to its importance^ We look up to your honour Without a 
shadow of doubt, for that moderation and propriety which 
will ensure equal applause to this as to your former mikl 
and impartial administration. But, while we thus express 
liur^lveS towards you, with that justice which is due for 
ihfe opening if your speech, we inu^t, at the satne time^ 
wiih indignant ffeedom, condemn the censure implied on 
that branch Qf the legislatut^ of which your* honour surely 
did not, at that time,- consider yourself to' head. The Ji- 
betalrty of y^ttr setf-^ehiali respecting (fee tables of fees, 
may be applauded by sofne^ yet iiow to reconcile your pre- 
sent declarations to your'foniler condufctwe are^at a loss ; 
«nd confess them to be no less strange than contradictdry; 
Governor Ctmiiinjghaine's m^asui*es, so decisively, if not 
indelicately, pronounced illegal and oppressive, met the 
concurrence and confirmatioa of that board, at which your 
. honour was the© sittiilg as head. Nor can. we now acqxiir 
esce in these new ideas of extortion and illegality ; but ra- 
ther p^ac§ them to that wavering of sentinaent which sacri- 
fipes the steady principles of government and virtuous con- 
sistency, to the giddy pleasure of fickle popularity and 
ductiji^ coippliancc. The opposition and e^jtortiqn thus 
wantonly thrown upon us, it > behoves us to oppose in this 
publip address; an4, wetpusj^.th^t^yojir language, on tliis 
Qcc^^ion, is^ rather JncQnsifJp^tely, tljan tit;|fberately, in- 
i^nde^ to s^gma4;ise,^at.;tyoar4> df .^hjch jyow hoaour ha* 

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been so taany years^a meirib^. l^t this U 4 i&bject too ^JJJJJJ^jJ' 
delib^Wie iJbrthfc' times, aiid too pointed to .be discussed in ^^^^* 
such a iriofaerit.' Yet, s^H^lji -it taay he ^rmitted us to 
rec&ark, that, howfet^f- espedient a- co'ihpliance witti the 
wi&hes of the people may have beconM, -your honour might 
baTe declined the work of rffcriminAtion in this your first 
puWi6 decTaration. -• "^ ' . 

^ ^* We have liithert6 d6nc our'iitmost for'the safety of the 
isl^d; so often recomincnded by the late governor, whose 
attention and unwearied perseverance in the discharge of this 
pattvoir his , duty, every tneraber of this board can vouch for- 
Whate veir drflference of 6pinion may have existed, this tribiite 
surely he claims ; nor shall the rage of opposition deter iis- 
from giving credit where credit is due. A retrospect of the 
p^a^ Will lead us- to iadopt the .happiest unanimity in all 
IPOeiEksures that sliall conduce to bur internal tranquillity and 
defeace; and we look, with pleasure, to the concluding 
sentiment in, your honour's speech- May harmony and 
peace reside among us ; itiiay true freedom for ever flourish 
over every tyrannic delusion, .^Vhether among the rulers or 
the ruled ;• niay there be 'one lidntierition only in the differ-* 
ent parts of our constitution ; the contention of promotijig* 
the public good.**- .-' 

This addt^ ekj>ericticed ^^nsiderable opposition froni' 
some, gentlemen of tlie i^OUnclL Far from doncurying- iir 
tlie rosentment expres^d in tlie address agaiiist- the presir 
dent for his free and candid declaration concerning the 

3 Y 2 • ' ' 

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i7«9. j^^ BwWp adopted the seatim^^ts of the spoofih, «pd m* 
Mrtod, ^is^ tb«^ f«|i» y^W |V«>t ,09)j iU^ aod^ .iMiQOQfilttu. 
iiopsilj. W tha* tboy ipe^ft <3!^^Ctt|W»d a,4wijpr. 

oos prQ€>9d^t«. to th«.€^ooai;f^jBUQea;it i^ f otuner ora^ickmg^ 
cocBiiw»dei« ia :du«f^.tP tn^pl^ up^a the d^lilff .fu)d p6»« 
perties of t]»e people. The addcesa was^ hi^iv^^; agmwl 
loj aad, lji^g,»uh?piibe^|ly^^ Mr. 

iJ^lest^^MF^ Kfietipgt^aadiMr. }m^u:ym- ^^eesmlo^ in dn^ 
lonn, ■•.-.,. .•..!- , : .. ' '. .. 

\if, h^wever^ produced askgiabtf pirojt^sl^.Mgii^ )^ tbr 

9iuch of the address as co^red the pc^sidfiAt^i {t^oM^lisoik 
the governor's oppressive exactions, he eoterod is^o^ a fiMv 
wal j^ecantatioa Qf his o,wj^ poU^ioed hi9re»jr. ; ** }i dq h^tvtiUjt 
CPAde^m ]nyj5elf,"said, the r^y^ceod divine,.." for r^ toii^ 
protected against. the. tabl& pf %es which Gofrarpi?]? i^n- 
wp^hame laid before the couficH» and stnceieljr \r«^ tb^ 
Qpuld be; eicpuDged out of the CQuncU-boqk, ^d> ao&lb^ 
kted. His excdlep^j haying dj^daced Idiat he aboold not 
iL&qeive more than fifteen handi:e4;arj^ax of die iE^liah sa^ 
larj, and would not accept of the two thousand pounds, 
per annum settled on him b j the house of nswootbly^ X, am- 
bitious that tlie Kiogfii reyoieseottitiyie ^oul4 h^^ve^the noteabs 
of s^pportiQg the honour and digmty of h4» staution* ac*^ 
^ttiesced, with him in the measure* tiot having the least 8iis«- 

. . 2. ' 

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dupHctior' and ' Wctirati^ #9#n ' 6u^ l^ig^ty^'iiiAi''by ^6' 

daet; Stt-%)«di nducb iHui said teoA 'meie-lib^dJ' t^ii a' 
ri^fieifrof in^at^hiid piissed'iti C(Min<ii]/iw9ye4 ih^ qii^stiod» 
c<»ksertrtB^ the fees iiras'kgitafted» Ke -ftBy ei^culpratei ¥liA- 
self^^ a» iat-^ his otrh ttBicoatni<lk^^rai,^<jrtibn'caff t^e 
admitted as exculpatory, fcoxn any participation, iailije 
goall 'o# tiitoae by whoin l^y i«ete satercfi^^ 
fkots^ tiDi T«ttln<;^ ke appealed^ have beeii already takeii 
notice 4ikk It femuEKr oh^jiter of this tolutoei it is umieces^ 
sftryt<» i!t!p)te(>'tiieii9fk in this' place. . 

-Agie^ble ta die forms- bf the assembly, ao ansitier dsuldf 
be returned^ to ttie president's speech: until l^r n^xt meet- 
itfg; iwd^^th^holise^ason the eve of its dis8t)IutioiS» it 
was propei^ tha* tfte sdarj should be taken ' ih to ittfltie(iiat€r 
€(Hisidemtkmi. "The -boute havings f<ta ifcs^porpoae, te^ 
sdved iteelf iftto a cdttmittee^ Mr. W. O. :&Hfeyrie hnwed^ 
that th6'9ttlti of ^^Ti handted /poonds a yjeie^^ be 

settled on the pi^ideftt diiBing hi* administration* An 
aiiiehdiaent was proposed by Mr. Strakcr^ tlie object of 
\frhich was to reduce the settlement txx one thtnisandpounds^; 
but on the qiiie&tion being ptit^ the amendment' was lost on' 
a divisioa of eleven to eighty and the oifiginal motion was 
carried in thft aifinnative by the same maJOTxty. 

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^^11^^^$/^* The housc^ being' resumed^ runanimoosry resolved, that 
1783. *jj^ humble address be presented to the King, to return his 
M?ye3ty tUpirnio^t grateful tbaaks for having been gracious! j 
pleased to jemove Major-Genecal James.Cuoningjbaa^e from 
the adiflipistr^jktion of this government : Thpt the thanks of 
this JiouBe b^ transmitted to the Rigiit Honourably the £arl 
of . Shelburne,^ for bis/ active %al and ready exec.utioaQf 
his Majesty's opders for thtf rwal, of .Govqrnor Qunning* 
l)ame; by wliich the country had .been happily .released 
from ap arbitrary and oppressive systeni. of taxation, and 
the assembly joyfully restored to tlie accusjtdn^ed eserciae 
of their constitutional powers:. That the thanks of this 
house be transmitted to r Samuel £stwicjk> Esquice, for the 
zeal and activity which he ha4 manifested fair the public 
sbtvice, by his patridtlo exertions, in prpmoting his excellen- 
cy s^renioval from tlue. government of this island* 

The assembly liaviag sat the ordinary tenrt of poejyeiir, 
ite existence iwas terminated by a political euthanasia* 
Perfectly satisfied with the conduct of their, repi:^sQptati;ves, 
the ftselioldera of. the dififcrent parishes h^itated potto ea- 
trust their rights in the hands of the fiame faithful guardians*, 

' " ■ill ' I t — t ■ ■ ■ ■ ! ' " . ■ , ' ;> '' /' — " ■ 

.*Tfc€ membefiwere fot Si, .Mkhatrs, J.^ M^jrers, fl|id J. Beetles*; Chriftctwxh, 
Ja BuAc and T. Burton; Si. Philip's, J. Giitens and ,L MjHiogton; Si. George's, 
II. B. Jones and A. Frere; Si^ Jokn*s, S. Walcott and.R. Ilaynet; Si^ James's, T. 
Alleyne and B. Bo8tock;S^ Thomas s, W. 6. Alley ne and J. Straker; St. Reter\ 
S. Minds and H. Walke^ St: Imc^s, B. Babb and S. Husbimik ; Si^Ahdrtto'^, Sw 5. 
C Alleyne and A« Cambeibatcb ; Sf. Joseph's, .J. Stewart gnd T. XTaXerinarL . 

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OF BARBAD0E3. 535 

Oft the meeting of the new assembly, the session was CHAP.xvr. 
'^opened with the usual formalities, and with a speech gj^f^l 
from the chair, containing a few trite observations on com- 
mon topic*. The state of Fort George was recommended 
to their serious consideration ; and to their wisdom it was 
left to determine, whether they would be at the expense of 
the works - which had been begun there ; or rest sa-r 
tisficd with the loss of the large sum which had been 
already expended on them. His honour congratulated the 
assembly on the uiianimity.of the late elections, and urged 
the council to a punctual attendance oh their duty in the 
court of chancery. The economy of his former adminis- 
tratiott) in saving the expense of oil for t^ie lamps at Pil- 
grim, was not forgotten ; and he pledged himself to a 
strict observance of the same frugality, now that the reins 
of governmeht were again placed in his hands. And, while 
in the farmer j)art of his speech he regretted the insuflS- - 
ciency of tlie guard at Fort George, were there was a con-* 
siderable depdt of gunpowder, with a strange inconsistency, 
he concluded with recommending a reduction of the ma- 
trosses^ at Pilgrim. This seems to have been an awkward 
attempt to acquire popularity, by a scheme of frugality not 
less injudicious than trifling. The matrosses were entirely 
at his disposal; and he ought to have made such an ar- 
rangement as might have strengthened the guard at J'ort 
George, by a detaclunent from Pilgrim; 

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ciji/if^Sft The cotjncirs address was a sensible, nervous replj, to 
i^s3. the topics adverted to in the speech, and conclnded with 
these just and apposite observations: " Econon^y could 
never be practised at a season that calls more loudly for 
thCj^eatest exertion of it, than at {M-esent. But even in' 
economy, there may be a point to stop at; nor should the 
xnind be bUsied in little savings that are hardly distipguish-i 
able in the greater and more necessary exp»iditui« of 
government. The true medium, it is hoped, will be attain- 
ed, equally avoiding an improper parsimony, and an iffidcss 
profusion. Yet, in a war so implicated as the present, it 
surely cannot be deemed an economy, either requisite or 
prudent, to relinquish any part of the number of matroasea, 
whose use is obvious, where cannon are intended as a 
means of defence," 

The assembly availed themselves of this opportunity, to 
congratulate the president on his re-accession to the chair;,, 
wjnch, according to their polite declaration, he had, by 
l)ia first generous act of power, elevated, to an vnioent 
pitch of splendour, and jendei^d it, what it always ought 
to be, the seat of dignity and honour. His unresewed*: 
condemnation of the tables of fees, set up by Garomor 
Cnnnmghaime, however uo|)>easant to the few who had J 
conspired widi that venal chief ia hia oppressive measares; 
could not foil, they said, to endear his honour to that 
house, and insure to lwa\ th^ fnffwUfm and confidepee of 
the people over whom he presided. As they could neither 

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discover the utility of Fort Geoj-^e^ nor the propriety ftf *^§^^i^' 
expending a larger sum on a place^ incapable ofa permanent ..^^?' 
defence, they were content rather to loj^ what it .hs^d ^al- 
ready cost, than to impose fresli burjhens on their. coc^« 
tuents, for the purpose of perpetuating tl^ ^eusel^am- 
. bition of. the oppressor, under whose .inauspicious ^^dmi* 
nistration it was planned and carried pn* Th^y Jtliaijkpd his 
.honour for continuing the system of economy 30 happily 
. begun iluring his former presideiicy^ and assur^jhim pf 
, their cheerful co-operation .in following, the great example 
^set by their beloved Sovereign, and adopted by hispariia* 
.ment, to/restore^the neglected virtue of frugality to \ts 
proper rank and influence. This was an allusipn to ,li;l^r. 
Burke*s economical reform in th^ jexpenditure of the civil 
list. Buk while that great and enlightened statesman re« 
jected evefy idea of a mean and pitiful savirig,^our colonial 
patriots amused themselves with extinguishing a few lamps, 
and de|HriviBg half a dozen matrosses of their salaries. 

The address was most graciously received by the presi* 

dent^ He returned- his warmest thanks, for the honour 

whichj the assehfibly had done him, and hop^d that ev(^y 

' opt a£hr& ad ministration would give them pleasure ; adding 

.thia DemarhfA|le declaration: "Let the few, or let the 

many, oppose me^ as much as, they can, no power jn this 

. worl^ shall prevent me fr<mi being a patriot.** \] ' 

Whilei the president tms thus display ing his patriotism, 
,by^ retrep^|)ing, the ppblic expenses, a, gcqtleman of an 

, 3 z 

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6'Ai¥.icvi. tooJei!it^femily> and amiable character, was tnanifi^^ 
^^*^^ his loyalty and attachmeat to has native country^ by meaus 
tto teas %onotxtab\e. Emulous: of the heroic vjrtues of his 
grfeiat anciestor^ who^e name he bore, Mr. Timothy Thorn- 
hill, witliout the smallest legisVattve assistance, raised a^ 
ifespectable company of infantry, cotisisting- pf serentyt- 
iburrank and file, under the patronage of General Vaugban^ 
for the service of his Sovereign, This corps was of esc^d» 
tial service dm-ing the remainder of the war, in strengthen* 
ing the garrison, not only in Barbadoes, but at Saint Liicia 
and Antigua. But Mr. Thornhill was not ireated i^ ga^ 
wmment with the Hberality which he deserved. On tbe 
restoration of peace, his company was disbanded; and> 
though he was reduced to half pay, he was not allowed tO 
retain his rank in the army* 

Notwithstanding the unanimity with which the thanks 
of the assembly had been voted to Mr. Estwick, thfe.fii*^ 
transports of joy, at the governor's removal, had no sooner 
subsided,' than the error which he had committed became 
visible, and his conduct was censured with equal severity 
in England and Barbadoes. His declining the hearing, 
before the board of trade, was imputed, without reserve^ 
to his wish of affording impunity to the members of coun* 
cil^ who were participators in General Cunninghame's guilts. 
Nor did Mr. Estwick altogether deny the charge, but at^ 
tempted to justify his partiahty, by affecting to consider 
the members of council equally his constituents with those 

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OF BAOffi^DOES. ^ 

»#'ltidfOt*icr house^ He knew, tbemi he sudy lojbQi jp ^'g^JS? 
jgeneFttl/ natives of the islafidv mea of prop&Ftff v^hfiif^ 
course were^ or ought to be, as much intensalod r.M ^ 
assembly, in the happiness and :prosperity 9f th^cpuii^j^ 
Hence he inferred^ that to take an active part ip ft r^mpaf- 
fitrance against the council, was to discpver such an. aJ^ 
j9iirditj of conduct, as to disqualify him from a^y pifejtex^ 
sions of ever being again the agent for the island. > ] 

The fallacy of this reasoning, however, is evident. The 
bill for his ^ appointment having been rejected by the go* 
vernor, he was continued in the agency, by a vote of the 
assembly alone; andCunninghame, in a letter to Lord George 
Gerraaine, expressed his surprise that he should be received 
by his Majesty's ministers, as the accredited agent of tha 
island. However favourably he might have been inclined 
to judge of the council's attachment to tlieir native soil, 
they had given him such unequivocal proofs, as could not 
be mistaken, of their readiness, to support tlie strong.arq[i, 
of despotism, in burying the liberties of the people ui^dei> 
the ruins oi tlicir constitution. But, although Mr^, Estwick 
was doubtless very loth to adopt any measures which might 
have interfered >vith his pretensions to the agency, thert 
was another reason, which, though keptout of ,view^ hftd 
its full weight. The agent had married the sister oi M?. 
Frere. 'J he public welfare is too often, sacrificed to JLlie 
petty intciests of lamily ccmnexions, and the sordidcpfj* 
sidcrations.of retaining an oiBce. . . ; ? : i , j .. ^^^ j jj 

3 2 2 

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ciiXfexvii Tlfe'ifrtfo^ufctibn of a bilK rie-ajifpointitig'Mif. Estwcl^^^^ 

i78sr agfetft ibr tbo i's!tocl, fuini^hed the assenfibiiy "witli a'n oppor-^. 
tbrtlty or arraigning his conduct, and shewing their re^eh la- 
ment, by discai'ding hini from their service, : But, .strabge' 
aK it may appear, no direct opposition was given to the 
jT^poinfttfient of one whbrA they soon' afterwards, without 
any ckfaret evidence of his guilt, declared unworthy of thdf i 
confidence; A s\ib-agent was proposed by Mr. Straker, i 
atid rejected by a large majority. And he then gave notice, ^ 
that hd should, at the next meeting, submit to the con- 
sideration of tbe house, sonie' resolntion? respecting the 
agent's conduct in declining the hearing of the a^embl/s' 
complaints against Governor Cunninghame, and the mem- 
bers of council who supported his illegal measures. 

1784. The Barbadians were not permitted to continue long 

under the patriotic administration of Mr. Dotin. The Ml 
of one ministerial favourite only made room for the ad- 
vancement of another. On the recommendation of the . 

^^ Eari of Shelbume, his Majesty was pleased to bestow the 

vacant government on Major PaVidParry, a native of the. 
principality of Wales,, who arrived in Carlisle-bay on the 
eighth day of tW new year.* His excellency landed in 

Jan. 10* state on the Friday following; and, after attending divine 
service, proceeded to Pilgrim; where, having takea t^e 

* HU ezcelleDcy came alone, but was boob followed by his lady and thoir two aoD% 
vbo'arriTtd on (he fifteenth day of Aprift 

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iKlitfl'Oa^Ehs, 1^*^^^ fdftHKlfy iiit^tted* yiiiH his* toi#i cnl- CHjift^ 

p!dyment. At tbe^satthe tfeftef the t\^o tatianeie& at the couti^ ^^^*' 
cil* bbai-cJ Wfere filled by Mt R. J. Estwick and Mh T.' 
G41!endcr'; afrid his excellehcy soon afterwaf^s reinstated' 
Mfl AVeekes, solte judgfe of' the court of vice-adrairalty *. 

On the meeting of the cblonial jiatliament, governor Partfy Un.Bu 
addressed both houses in a ntervous, animated, public spi* 
rit^d fepeech. fJe began, however, with a panegyric, which^ 
itiiS dpprfehehded, a mind loss disposed to indulgence ma;y 
probably tliink undeserved. Siiice his appointment to the 
government, he said, he had studiously examined and in- 
vestigated the laws and statutes of the island, and found 
them so excellent in their nature, and so analogous to' his 
own ideas of civil and political liberty; that he congratu- 
lated himself upon the pleasure he should receive in ruling 
over a free and geiierous people, under so happy A constitu- 
tion, tie assured theni that he should never forget that 
evefy subject of the ^itisli empire, however remote frorii 
the seat of gbvemment, is equally entitled to all the con- 
Stitiltional rights jand privileges that are enjoyed by his fet- 
low citizens of London and Westminster, Nor dould frea- 
doni^ he remarked, ever forsake an Englishman^ while he 
has wisdom arid virtue to cherish and support it» Hfe then 
recommended to them a perseverance in that loyalty and' 

* Mr. Dotin did not survive his retirement l^ng. He died on the te]}t)i dav of 0^ 
lober of the same year*. . 

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Ht "ttit historV 

CHAP aun. jrttdclimefat to their King and parent state, wiiich had cvfefc^ 
ngi. most ' honourably marked the annals of Barbadoes^ to pro . 
mote the general welfare of the empire by every public spi- 
rited exertion, . and by harmony and unanimity at honae td 
establish, and make permanent, the particular happiness 
and prosperity of their native country. And he requested 
them to rest satisfied that no effort on his part should be 
wanting to bring the bud of reconciliation, that he found 
growing. among them, to maturity, by a strict adherence to 
the laws, with every possible attention to presc rve the three 
branches of the legislature in perfect equilibrio. 

The interesting and critical situation of public affairs, he 
told them, demanded their utmost attention; for, although 
from the advanced stage of the. negotiation with America, 
a general pacification would probably ensue, the period of 
suspence between peace and war was of all others the most 
dangerous; diligence and activity being ever on the watch, 
whilst sloth and indolence lay sleeping. The respectable 
military force which they possessed, was, he said, undct 
proper regulations, fully equal to their internal defence. 
To this subject he wished to direct their imnudiate atteiiT 
-tion, bqqause they had close, at their door a bold and enter- 
prising enemy; and, however much the apparent lenity and 
insidious policy of his conduct towards the captured islands 
may dazzle at a distauce, the lettres de catchct and the 
niapd;*tps of a French minister were very bad exchangesi 
for ro«goa charta and the bill of rights. To make freemen 

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l^ppy^ li^ :o!)$€rve(J, sH the,kppv^e<Jge aud gopd parts tha^ ^SH^* 
Cftp be possessed by a legislator must be enlivened and "^-** 
directed by true patriotism, or they will become. pernicjx)us 
\o the state and productive of discord • 

Turning to the asseinbly, he proceeded in these words^; 
^ It haying been represented to his Miyesty, that you hav^ 
been much hurt and aggrieved by certain tables of fees 
t^hat were lately erected in this island^ I am commanded by 
his Majesty to signify his. will and pleasure, that you forth- 
with prepare a bill that will effectually prevent the possi« 
bility of such an evil arising in future, I shall, therefore, 
leave this and another instruction,^ which £ hold in my 
hand inqder your consideration, earnestly recommending to 
you a ppticular attention to the great objects of public 
receipts and /expenditure; by which you will be enabled to 
establish such a system of economy as will for the present 

♦ This was the 36ih Instruction.' *» Whereas laws have heretofore teen passed in 
our said island, establishing feea for- the services perfoimed by the several officera 
therein -mentioned, which laws are now in force; and wbereaa doubis have arisen a« 
to the legality of any fees established by order of our governor and council^ to prevent 
which in future, It is our will and pleasure that on your first meeting the general aa-* 
sembly of the said island, you do propose to them to prepare a biU for the future and? 
permanent regulation and establishment of sueh fees as may be deemed jiiat and. 
equitable in respect to the public officers, and as little burthensome as poaaible to our 
good subjects on the said island; a draught of which bill, when prepared, you are to» 
transmit to us through one of our principal fecretarics of state, that our pleasure may. 
V signified to you thereon/* The other was the usual instruction respecting. the. 

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C'JAi^L alleviate, aod, liiope^ia the course of time, effectu^aUy. r0< 

i'«*- SQQxe all traces. of the great calaipity that has iatelj^ tfee- 

:&tlten jau. J therefore most ardently request, that, as J 

was not fortunate enough to come among you in the days 

of your opulence, J may not add to your distresses in tlie 

hour, of your mislbrtuue. Satisfied that whenever . Prqvi- 

denoe shall .again extend her bounteous hand over this 

happy island, the fruits of her beneficence iKiil speedily 

-reach 'Pilgrim/' Notliipg could have been more hberal and 

-noble than these sentiments; they failed, however, to pro* 

.^uce their proper ^effect on the assembly. 

The addresses in answer to the speech reverberated his 
-excellency's patriotic sentiments. Each house seemed emu- 
lous to surpass the other in the warmest professions of re- 
spect and esteem for the pen on and character of the gover- 
Dor, of profound loyalty and fidelity to the king, inviolable 
attachment to the constitution, and the most zealous regard 
for the welfare of their country. From his excellency's 
constitutional declarations the assembly anticipated, with 
^rapturous exultation, the felicity and prosperity which they 
should enjoy under the administration of a gentleman who 
had studiously exatnined the volume of their laws, in order 
ito make tliem the rule and principles of his government. 
-Both bouses professed equal anxiety for the preservation of 
harmony and unanimity in their proceedings, and concluded 
with the most fervent assurances of their cheerful co-operar 

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tion in every measure essential to the public welfare and ^^^^^^^^ 
safety. * ^'^*- 

Having returned to their own hall, the assembly iresolve^ 
themselves into a committeei of the whole house, for the 
purpose of taking the governoi^s salary into their immedijatp 
consideration • The debate was opened by Sir John G. 
Alleyne's proposing two resolutions, the object of, <vhich wajs 
to restrain the assembly from raising 6r granting any mo- 
ney, for any purpose whatever, until their rights and privi- 
leges were secured from invasion, by a law declaring that the 
ppwer of establishing fees existed only in the three branches 
of the legislature collectively ; but that as soon as an act of 
that kind should pass, the assembly would then proceed to 
make such a provision for the better support of his excel- 
lency's dignity as the state of the public finances! would 

On these principles he liad prepared two separate bills, 
the first, declaratory of the rights of the assembly ; which 
in. the event of its receiving the concurrence of the othier 
orders of the legislature, was to be followed by a second, for 
the support of government This mode of proceeding was 
certainly liable to material objections. It wds treating his 
excellency with a degree of illiberality and distrust, which 
nothing could justify, after the patriotic sentiments whicK 
were yet vibrating in their ears, and' the gracious instruc- 
tion which had been just read. The measure of framing a 
bill to reraow all doubts* on the subject of feee, came fc^ 

4 A 

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'JiJJf* commended to tbem itdta the thrane ; to isiake the pttaniig 
37»4. Qf g^^^J Q^ jj^^^ therefore, the condition on which the govee* 
noi^s salary depended, was neither respectfiil ncr decorous. 
The stipniatk>n was as ofFensive aa the caution in which it 
originated was unnecesMry. After a long and aikUQated 
debate, in which tSie resoitttions wepe ▼ehemeatlj o^ipiMied 
i>j Mt. a. Ttete and Mr. Majers» the speaker said ha had 
«ot 180 great a predilection for his plan as to feel my 4i^ 
x^vitj in withdrawing his motion, if the end w view was 
likely to be attained more effecUially, and with greater uar 
suiimity, by other means. 

The fesditttions having been accordingly withdrawn^ Mn 
Frere mof^d, that the two. bills which had been prepared 
by Sir J. G. All^ne should be blended together, and their 
titles thus united, ^^ An act declaring the right of establishf 
ing fees to be only in the three branches of the legidature 
in their collective cajmcity; and for the better support of 
his excellency and the dignity of the government of this 
island/' This arrangement comprehended all the indeli- 
€acy, absurdity, and insularity of the plan which had been 
lejected but the instant before^ without embracing any of 
\j» advantages. Probably the gentleman by whom the mo^ 
lion was made, thou^t with a popular parliamentary leaderi^ 
in Klines less fav<mrable to civil liberty, that the most efec« 
tual means of obtaining redress was by making grievances 
mid suppiks go hand in hmd together; but an acquaintance 
yiith th€ more modem usage of tlie British Parli^Axeot 

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O7:IunBAI>0f9. 4i7 

wotti^rbtt^ shewn- htm the irnegulAiity ;Of hkt^ p1an» auad chapxvl 

htfe taught haka that it is a standing jqr^^v pf the H^i^ pf ^7>4. 

liords to rgsot any bill sent «p by thie ComiDoiis.^ciinii^c^i;^ 

with a MOT^ bin.* . . ■: 

^ CatDposed of thest hftterp^ous taatsa^Uili^ , ihei yiU vfv^ 

ftgs«9d to by the oooMaittee; but ia $llii^,.i)p, ;^liejb%ak>.(^ 

fimhsufajeot'of altctcaJtion irm s^arte^a whether tl^CiSi^ 

to be S0ttied on his eiLcelleocy should i)e two or three 

thousand p6tt»cb amraaUy. This questiop, wBSi,(^va«»ed 

with an xinnsual ^tegree of warmth and. xe^eroen^e^.and 

was finally detehnined in favour of the snMikr mvp^hs^ 

n»a|ority of thirteen voices to nine. -Jlie declaii^t9ry part 

of- the act, relating to the right of ^establishing -.feesi, 

formed no mipediment to its progress through ihe connpil 

'dKunfaer; and his excellency» on its being pii^seated for 

ids assent, generously eiipressed himself in thpse words; 

** I am truly sonry for the causes' that o^ge yqu to lessei^ 

your donation, bitt am as well pl^ase^ W^^ il; as if it was 

ten tima as much.". „ 

Punuant to the notice given at a former me^tiag,^ Miv Feb. is. 
Straker now brought forward hift promisieid investigation of 
the agenfs conduct. In an Ahie, likigfifit, ^Dd pexapicKir 
«us speedi he proved^ from ti ctair and candid review, o^ . 
the whole ttansacticwj th^b Mn JSstwiok \bad gr^dy abus^ 

• ■ ' •■ ' •' ^•■■: ■ :' "1 1'. • ' -^^ .: .J 

■ ■ /•■•■•■• • .• ... -, '• ,-1 

4a 2 

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CHAP^; tJie trust rtpMed in him by the hoiwe, and conclude* iwth 
tJM. moving two resolutions. First, thftt tlie agent by d^lining to 
bring the complaints of the (Mppembly to a bearing before the 
Lords of Trade, without having obtained aBcdemn declaiatiQ» 
of our rights as a security against any future in^^tsioo^ acted 
contrary to his duty. Secondly, that so great a ii6gledt» in a 
point which so materially co^eemed the immukiities of the 
conraions of Barbadoes, as it^'^ust be imputed either to ar 
defect in judgment, ox to a wilful deserting of the causet 
from partial mdti^es^ renders him unworthy of the future 
confidence bf^ the assembly. The mdtiod was productive of 
a long and interesting debate, in which the conduct of the 
agent was canvassed with great acuteness and ingenuity^ and 
commented upon with equal freedom and asperity* His 
defence was undeitaken with great zeal and spirit by hjs 
two kiiismen, Mr. Applewhaite Frere and Mr. Jones, who 
displayed an uncomnion share of talents upon the occasion; 
The debate was rendered more reinarkabie by. the^^jj^i&tin^ 
guished part taken by Mr. John Beckles, a young &em«- 
ber, who, in support of the motion, gave an early specimen 
of those commanding powers df eloquence which have since 
secured him a deserved preeminence in the senate and at 
^he bar. 'l^ifotwit^tariding the notoriety; of the fects on 
whid^ the tes^lutibn^ were grounded, and the grcftf abilitks 
exerted in their support, they were rejected by a majority 
<)f ten to seven. 
The freedom with whiebthe ageat^s cenduct was ex- 

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Google I 


smined, and the severity -with which it was condeoviedy ^^JJ^JJ'* 
wefe sufficient to provoke tjae resentment xjf a man less irrit* ^'^^^ 
able, nnd less firmly persuaded ' of his own iiiq>ortance, 
than Mr. !Estwick. It is not to be wondered at^ theref6r^ 
that the censure which be. sustained upon this occasion, 
should have produced the most violent explosion of anger 
and indignation. In a printed letter, addressed to tte 
speaker of the assembly, he poured forth a torrent of illi- 
beral invective on those public-spirited members, who^ie 
stricftiM^s on his misconduct had rendered them obno&ious^ 
to his resentment. The intemperate warmth of this letter 
considerably lessened the number of Mr. Estwick's friends 
in the assembfy. Sensible of the indignity with which he 
had presumed to treat them, the house agreed^ to several 
resolutions,' purporting that the agent's indecenf and illi* 
beral letter, reflecting -on two of their members for exer* 
cising the freedom of debate, was, an insult on, their body i 
that Jhe reasons which he had assigned for declining the 
hearing before the board of trade, were no justification of. 
his conduct : and, finally, that lie was no longer worthy of 
their confidence. These resolutions, which were trans- 
mitted to Mr. Estwick, by the speaker, produced another 
acrimonious letter, in which, he affiijned that the loss of 
the agency could occasion no regret to him* who had re*- 
fused ta be their ruler. The candid and upright conduct of 
the venerable speaker of the assembly, in expressing a just 
resentment against Mr. JEstwick^ forhisjibel on thehause. 

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crtAP^Vtt ^^g maltciousfy. imputed to the ratgo ef disappointed tvitt* 
^'^^^^ bitioAy oecflaioi^dv by t^e. feulune.of \m applicatioii for the 
government of the bland^ Mr. Estwick satdi^ that Ixml 
Radnor called xipott^ hinivsoon after General Ckmninghaine's 
removal^ and ioqimed if he did not thiok that Sir Johik 
6. Altejrne'i succeeding to tbegovemikieQt, would recondle 
all dilQferenceSy and put an end to disturbances; to irhicb 
he repUed^'that be did not think it would ; for there being 
tiro interests in the country, either taking die lead of the 
other. would, perhaps, rather increase their animosity than 
reconcile them. His lordship, afterwardsi applied to Lor4 
Shelburne^ in behalf of Sir Johp AHeyne, and was refused^. 
Against this ch^rge^ Sij!: John AU^yjoe yindicated himself^ 
with his usual ability. He did; not entirely disavow the 
application made by his noble relative, but, with a mind 
coQflcious of its purity^ appealed to the iiltegrity of his 
Ufe for the proof of his faithful and disinterested ei^ertioni^ 
in the public service, ^ 

Meanwhile the tWjO-fold act, respecting the right of esta- 
blishing fees, anci the settlement on the governor, haying 
been tmnsmitted to England^ for his Majesty's iqforniation, 
was referred to the consideration of a committee of the 
lords of the privy councjL Upon which their lordships 
reported, ^^ lliat the act contained clauses relative to mat- 
ters which had na connexion with each other, one of which 
was foreiga to the import of the title of the act ; and that, 
although no clauses of an. incongruous nature should be 

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iiuerted ia the sftine act* ond part of jt \ma h^tcnded to ^^[J^JJ^^* 
Ojperate as & perpetual declaratorjr law, vbile the other part ^'**^ 
Htm in it* nature temporary*. Another, and stiil more • 
&fcible objection againrt the operaiti^ of the act, was 
ide'daced from the > circumstance of the assembly having 
pte&Tod the most serious icharges a^ns4 the lole Ooveracf 
Cunninghamej for establishing, by an Ordter cif <M>Uinci)y 
certain fees, which they asserted to be illegal; his Majesty 
wa^ pleased to refer the same to the iconsideratiou aa4 
opinion of the late board of trade; and, in the very mo- 
ment when the propriety of General Cunnin^ame s con* i 
duct was at issue before that board, upon whoee repre- 
sentation his Majesty would have proceeded to a conclusive 
determination, the agent of t^ aasembly declined th^ 

The assembly were deeply affected at Ae bojbI diwppFo- 
bationof ttie declaratory law ; and even the looat scepticaji 
could no longer doubt the impropriety of Mr. Estwick's 
conduct. Unwilling, however, to admit the irregularity of 
their own proceedings, they consoled themselves under the 
disappointment, by imputing the disallawattc^ of the act 

^ WiidoHft ift not abrtyt acquired by eqperienoe. NotwitbstaodiDg this reproof^ 
4be assembly have fiillen mto a similar error. The act> increasing the fines pn jurors 
required to attend the court of grand sessions^ refers for admitoable excuses for non* 
attendance to the exemptions allowed by th^ pre$ent militia lav, tbw near expiring, 
4nd idncb does not nawjexiitr-*l807. 

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m THE HlSTORf ^ 

ciap.xvi- tcy-the inauspicious cihange in his Majesty's councils; the 
'T'**- coalition ministry of Lord North and Mr. Fox having sue* 
ceeded to the short-lived administration of Lord Shelburne. 
That iiis excellency might sustain no injury, by the rejec- 
tion of the bill, the assembly unanimously voted him a 
salary of two thousand pounds a year, to commeoce from 
the day on which he assumed the government 

Meanwhile, a general election having taken place, the 
new assembly met on the eleventh day of September. In 
the governor's speech, at the commencement of the sessioo, 
the public apiriti so conspicuous at this season, could not 
fail, it was said, to produce the most happy effects ; for 
public virtue is ever productive of public benefits ; aiid the 
linammity with which the late elections were conducted, 
would, his excellency trusted, inspire every honeist breast 
with such a share of benevolence, as should divert mens' 
views from the little disgraceful objects of private intei'e^t 
to the -more noble and liberal prospect of the public good. 
Encouraged by such favourable appearances, and impelled 
by a particular anxiety for the prosperity of the island^ 
his excellency was induced to suggest a few legislative atad 
ecouomical reforms. 

" The spirit of laws,'' he observed, ^* is equity, and it 
might be better for all communities, if they adhelisd more 
to the spirit than the bare letter of the law. Laws should 
be adapted to the circumstances of the times. What might 
have been very proper, at one period of a state's existence, 

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might be very improper at ftocrther^ which may, perhaps, chap.xvi. 
lead you to think that what was well calculated for this ^^•♦• 
island, in the zenith of prosperity, may beilhsmted to the 
present hour of distress. Distress, which I feel most 
poignantly, when I behold the devastation that is made by 
the toohftsty, or injurious, execution of the laws, by which 
the junior creditors are much hurtj the lands laid waste, or 
converted into, provision fields, your staple products les- 
sened, your trade irreparably injured, and the royal revenue 
excessively diminished. To these growing evils emigratioa 
will succeed, ajcvJ the strength and safety of the island be 
affected- Your negroes too, the pillars of the colony, for 
witliout them the land will be of little use, are, I see with 
regret, daily sent off in crowds, under the sanction of a 
V-ery defective law. I shall, therefore, leave your wisdom 
and experience to determine whether it will not be prudent 
and necessary to check the present unlimited power of ex- 
porting so valuable a part of your property/' 

A revisal of the militia law, and the state of the fortifi- 
cations, tho^e topics of perpetual, unavailing declan^tion, 
were next adverted to with great propriety. Nor was the 
culpable neglect of the commissioners of publici accounts 
passed over without a gentle reprehension. Addressing 
himself to the assembly, his excellency observed, " As the 
levying of all public money is the undoubted right of the 
representatives of the people, so it is their business to look 
into the expenditure of it when raised. Pphlic accounts 

4 B 

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CHAP.XVI. (^unot be |ettled too often^ or inspected too narrowly ; 

"•^^ those of this island have been strangely neglected; the 

laws of the country give you the power of control, and 

the interest of your constituents should furni^ inclinatioa 

to exercise it.** 

The addresses of both houses ^ete written in the usual 
polite and respectful style. The honour reflected oft the 
pufcfic, by the unanimity which marfced the late elections, 

' traS courteously imputed to the mild and disinterested tenor 
*f his e^eellenfcy^s administration, which left them without 
tt subject of contention. Ever c}uerulous and discontented^ 
the assembly lamented, that after all the evils and disasters 
under which they had been long suffering, the blessings of 
peace should at last come to them, clogged with the disad- 
vantages of war ; a heavy load of duty upoii their chief 
staple, with an uncertain commerce for the supply of their 
plantations, and the sale of their produce. While they 

. acknowledged and deplored the devastation occasioned by 
the too rigorous execution of the laws upon the estates of 
unfortunate debtors, as tending to the removal of slaves to 
ether more flourishing settlements^, such was the force of 
their attachment to an absurd and pernicious system of 
jurisprudence, that they professed themselves unable to 
Iruggest any remedy for the evil, consistent with the Jong 
established rights of the fair creditor, and the faithful ad- 
ministration of justice. With regard to the other topics 
submitted to their consideration, warm professions of zeal 

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for the public good^ and of attention to the means by CHAP.xvi. 
which it may be best promoted, were substituted for those ^?^** 
«xertioB9 by which the object which they .pii<8>fes$ed to 
ifaa¥e in view might have been easily aQOompH^l^ed- 

.A spirit of hcentiousness and insubordination *inoag thp 
negroes, about this time, hurried them into the cooimi^ioii 
4of many atrocities. Among these, the murder of Doctof 
Jdbin Horsham, is perhaps unparalleled for sanguinsH'y crur 
«lty and wanton inhumanity. This gentleman yvas a prac* 
titioner of physic, of considerable reputation, of maimer? 
mild and inoffensive, and had been absent from the i^l^nd 
juntil within seventeen days of his assassination. In the Nov. 2$. 
exercise of his profession, Doctor Horsham had, on the 
day of his death, visited a plantation, called TunckftH> 
whence he was proceediijg on his diurnal rounds» wh^n h^ 
was unfortunately driven by a shower of rain to sedk sheU 
tor in a thatched shed, or watch-house, fipar the rQftd, an4 ^ 
within half a mile of *the buildings which be h^d ju»t \^% 
Under this cover, the doctor found seyeraJ n^TQ*mw^ o»p 
of whom, called Nick, belonging to Tuncks's, h? emplayi^ 
to hold his horse. The rain being over, Mr^ Hor^hain prot 
posed to pursue his journey, but, on attempting to q^iit 
the shed, he was seized by two of th« men, wbik a tljir4 
stabbed him on the right side of the »eok, divicJUng th« 
jugular vein, and gave him a wound under the Jeft bre^asti 
which pierced his heart. The horse was afterwards given 
to the ranger of the plantation, with an infojmajtion that it 

4 B 2 

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556 TOE msToky 

CHA^xjl. wa» found gfBeing, and carried to the manager, Mn P. Sf. 
*'^**' Baylej, bj whom it was ordered to be put into the stable 
and taken care of, until the next day, when it was sent to 
the hoube of the deceased. This occasioned an alarm in 
the doctor's family, and produced a diligent inquiry into 
the cause of his absence. At length some information wto 
received from a negro girl, who, at a distance^ was an eye 
witness of the tragic scene ; and the corpse, by hCT direc« 
tion, was found buried in a field of canes^ about thirty . 
feet from the road. 

Afler a full and patient investigation of the affair, whicb 
lasted the greater part of three days, the coroner's inque^: 
pronounced a verdict of wilfiiJ muiider against four megro v 
men; Nick, already mentioned, and Jeffery, Prince, and: 
Sambo, belonging to the Belle plantation. But^ on their j 
subsequent atrial for the nnirder, NicJii and Sambo only i 
were found guilty; The jury not thinking ithfi.^videbde:;' 
sufficient for the conviction of Prince or Jeflery, they 
were of course acquitted ; though, on the sentence being 
passed. Sambo exclaimed, " We were all together /^ insinu- 
ating that they were all equally guilty. The murderers 
were afterwards executed, pursuant to their sentence, with- 
out discovering the smallest signs of contrition. At the 
place of execution, N ick confessed his having formerly 
murdered a youth, in a neighbouring plantation, and ac- 
cused three others of being accomplices in the crime for 
which he was going to suffer. One of these, called Borgia, 

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oa fibariiig the charge, eluded the panishm^t of the law, ^*}^[i^2?* 
by taking a dose of poison, which he carried about him ibr *^*** 
the purpose. The second was retained as a witness against 
the third, who, after a trial of nine hours, was fully con-^ 
victed, and condemned to suffer death. 

Of the motives which led to the perp>etration of this hor* 
rid murder, it is impossible to speak with certainty, or eren 
probability. From the evidence adduced on the trial,. it 
does not appear that the unfortunate man had given the 
assassins the smallest provocation ; neither could they have 
been instigated to the fatal act, by a wish to rob him ; for 
not even the most trifling article which he had about him 
was removed from his person, all was found deposited with : 
hiin in the place of his interment. To a principle of cru^ ) 
elty, inherent in the nature of these ruffians, we must then 
refer for the proxiniate cause of aa act of such waatoa ^ 
and delibmite barbarity* - 

> > 

; • / 

. . ' ' ) 

: .V 

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CHAP. xviL 1 HE harmony which at this time happily subsisted be- 
17S5. tween the different orders of the legislature, and which each 
professed an anxiety to cultivate and render permanent, 
without feeling a disposition to make. any ccfncessions for its 
preservation, soon suffered a temporary interruption, by a 
dispute between the council and assembly concerning the 
excise-bill. For the perfect comprehension of the nature 
i0f this dispute it is necessary to premise, that the act, lay* 


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^ > 


ing a duty on wines and other strong liquors, 6A importtt** ^^^^^^Jt^ 
lion, commonly called the excise-bill, had been, from iti ^-^^^^ 
origin, considered of a temporary nature. Its continuance 
iras expressly limited to one ytar^ and from thimce till th6 
expiration of forty daySy and from thence forward^ until the 
island is fully represented by a new assembly y according to 
the laws in force. 

The obvious intention of this limitation Was to secure to 
the assembly the certainty of an annual meeting, if for no 
other purpose than to exercis6 their constitutional right of 
troting the supplies for the service of government. But in 
the excise act, which passed in the year one thousand se- 
ven hundred and seventy-four, the council, fever anxious to 
encroach on the privileges of the* house of representatives, 
or, p^haps, from a motive equally unjustifiable, a petulant 
wish to mortify the patriotic speaker, whose peculiar pride 
and boast it was to guard the privileges of the assembly, 
added these Words to the clause of limitation, and until a 
new ewcise^iU shall pass^ and become of full forct in this 
island. This interpolation, introduced in a manner linwor-^ 
thy the dignity of a legislative body, escaped the vigilant 
eye of the speaker, and the act, thus akeredj received the 
governo/s assent Thus, instead of an annual supply, re^ 
newablaat the discretion oi the assembly, a revenue was ' 
established^ which, if not absolutely perpetual, possessed 
all the disadvantages of perpetuity. 

When it was too late to apply a remedy, the assembly 

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^^^r. dUcov«red the unfair advantage which bad been taken ^ 
* l^\ thek want of circumspection. During the progress af the 
war, and the contest in which they were involved with the 
council concerning Governor Cunninghame s 'illegal ftes, 
they silently submitted to the injury ; but, when the esta- 
blishment of peace abroad and concord at home seemed to 
furnish a prospect of success, they attempted to recover the 
right of which they had been surrieptitiously deprived* 
With this view, th^y exciserbiJl in the.wtt^ 
Feb. 17. form, which was sent back by the council, witli a message^ 
contrary to parliamentary usage, assigning their reosoas.f^^r- 
rejecting it ; but, at the same time, expresiing their -read^ 
ness to concur in any bill of the same tenor, pmvided ito' 
existence should be protracted until the passing of. aaotb^: 
excise-law. Had the assembly complied with.tbi^ pic^s^^t* 
it. is evident that they :would have relinquish^, .as :far' ,sp 
respected that branch of the f evenue, the power of .g*Wt^ 
ing, or withholding the supplies; the only constitutioiJ^: 
check on the executive authority, poausessed by the repren* 
sent^tives of the people,, * . . m \. 

The answer of the assembly was remarkable for itsTimiMn 
ness and moderation. In ,a calm^ dispasskwat^^ l3U(_4t^ 
dious review of the subject, from the origin f^ 1^ 4tfty 
* of the last excise act, including a ^^ei^q^^o^ 
one hundred and twenty years^ they .shewed^ tba^ 4t;lM4<3 
b^en invariably an annual measufe of finaiK^. ^Nor ceukl , 
they^ conais^tly w,ith t^eir diity to tbdrc^Mi^ll.t^en^. or a > 

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jttit ti!gard to tlfeir own inherent privileges, they said, yield ^^^J!^;*^ 
tba proposition, w*hich must delibettitely iand clearly tend *'**• 
lo establish a perpetual revenue. ' 

To tins the council replied, with an unbecoming degree 
of warmth and asperity, ^ It seems iiseless to agitate any 
question where the parties hav^ taken decided resolutions. 
Predilection ;supersedes the necessity of argument. Fore- 
seeing the mischiefs attending iJie want of a revenue, when 
caprice *o# mistricen resentment may think proper to with- 
hold it, tfifc council are resolved n6t to lose the power which 
the disputed clause in the excise-bill gites thena of pre* 
venting the anarchy and confusion that may arise from a 
ttttbl steppage of public expenditure. To argue upon a 
supposition that any constitutional rights are invaded, or 
that any proposition is made' to curtail the privileges of the 
assembly, is to raise up an hydra-headed monster, which 
could netei" have existence, but in the heated imagina- 
tions of mistaken minds, ^fhe council disdain the idea ; 
they consider the fund raised by the excise act as coming 
not immediately under the cognizance of the representa-^ 
tives of the people, it being an impost laid, not upon thd 
tnanufkctutes or produce df the country, but upon articles 
of foreign growth, mefant to answer the contingencies of 
government, and which has been wisely piermitted by the 
Clrawn for such salutary purposes. Bearing this in their 
imlttds, the councif thiiik it a doty which they owe to the 
Crown, to adhere to the rejection of any excise-bfll that 


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^^ i^HMin tfi^ *x«ise*4*w iiowphi foicev This di Hi ipi ip i l ii . t 
ei^rieiice jastiies tbem i» ad^pthig* They tee cfearif 
€H^t^«ti^ ft «Kattfle as 4bey require n the eixiso-bil^ tkMgh 
aft^fM^ttonfr d>'gives.«ii«i;ilrbaace t« the aMeinl»l y, mxy pm^ 
^KMt a fNttter xlittaf baace^ by Undonag aa oppcessive mt»^ 
jUiiiBOf^ttC^atittkitiAgoa'tlift people -•.ucMt fadiMuppoiV 
l^tttK ikC>e»e ^i^ hj the delwuve «p]ranuKe «f ret 
iilfaiUi ^t^ii ai Air pfedediag yean. 9]iMk the Mlih^ IhU 
)A%ilketo ctabsd i»«fa^ peffpetual '» soelj^ik :mitti|kfi^>Blui 
a4BeA» play vptffi w«rdt t^ the. pnrpetait^ iice miihltbfi «>f 
Bi^ibij^ 'A»'atMM|alMllttay beMot up» "with^sacb. oUwMt 
li»^ I^Mfkl^ne-^thne) May bcoome aeeessai^, «aiL^iAhi 
i64s4Kqp€id) theceiifidil, B^les»«ealoi& thaaitfae boUaie. of 
irtpAbLy^ in the aetviee o# tfaiiir country^ wall adofit; when 
il-flppeantQ theto ijiat svok ^nUkms are condxichi^ to 
the public benefit. The pc^entam of aaevik m xdl tiwt is 
alUneiflkalu^MdwifuEb, however iUibemi the cbonhts-ariMiig 
tbottoKgny appear to the aMonblyv the CQttoci)> liy ^ rof 
iooBpeotaaf the post, an too well justified io their attestptf 


Ifaaiifeblaavto ol* <liiGoid» 4iotirithitoo4iiig the ap yiea r n w^ 
•DtmityiiidBtdi: fteedaaaoil had latefytQijbibitedy^iwt 4tiU£%r 
«Mi|tiBg m1ti8iK»ia<8 ; and th»t tiigy ]»ei;e.dely.>?iHpfidi P9 
main tat ^ek . i tei i» (»» i i, r i^ iJisposfhiefi^^iHjiK, Io. m^ 
ftitltTe<G4iMlMiidert«itihie^ ittVQOMfneasiiK^ iadi^peiuieirt 

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wlthlttld th« iagalar <|ipptie(s <£kici^ ftfee n^toitniatratloql 

ituit)v«sr!tlw e0ectewere iiio«t.4it^«l9ci>iH>4ii.tiie aoewwdbr 
tkMi'of a<kM far exceedini;' the cdoaial reaewew ; ^m4 
A^qhj in a)h probability, iie?er would have been |Mdd> livt 
a^r Ib^^ bipVBtj of psriiameot. The xetiMMiii atsi^Qed |}/ 
the) cobbcfl t^imuptaem'f but At tfat <perigd "to wbitili^^ 
^Uadfldfttbpjkaigiwo siicb a specisMP of IJidir mtA 46^ 
Urn rpflMlcvemce, as to pfedvde aB oo aidca ce kt tlMtir ta^ 
tigritf vimerer they simild . be isllpd upon to ^^fiM« )»lf 
tnf:edii tt^-'wifhaa otf -the govtiraor and. the nrteictto «f ^ 
]^»0pl6^ ' Tbe haiiaBCtaiiidariiigAiijr £u*her'iAto«pMtob ^ 
oeatih tkfit dlgwiy, fffudjeDtl/ dfdinad inakiag mtfrnj^ 
<tttliB«att(Oge. 'Biit.iheaffiQtelBieatiif aa-ageaiUoMiAiv^ 
ftidt0d 4 ffwb topic ftr dimgiMliiBat . < .. .> 

B''4i'f^ tii0 f}nmiiia)tci7'Ottobili0m of -ihf> a Bt r gibty f cj i p a e ^f 
iHg Ui. JSaHivrjtfk, it wo(Uld have baap liigldf ia qu « gi»wui C» 
lif&yi^ ^lidtsfeinu^ iiiA in an amplojniMat, «» Aife itml t rnt 'Oi 
vhieh he had added insolence to treaotierf ; iliMt 4»fim' 
^n^. ' fOiey; tbeitfove, pawedia bSi, < rtflfa M iia y .'Mr^ #itai 
BMtiliii^«iK«, 4' ^gitttiAcittMi of •tiiemovt ««kble c fc A ik ctrft « 

alMl iiiibimiiAfdd^Wpis^ttOfi, to^ieioikca oF^t^btwil agcMt) : 
bu(> iil#fddiikiii^l^^Miftu«6d'4o «ih^iiria wnr^appoiwtnien^iio f^^ ' 
jvificSal io *We hilei^ W'^»&' '^Jm^d fartlidik^r to < 'tttfk* 

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^J^^*' ]^t(^,?ia .'th«^ /ohiQipe V rtheyc Appointed a commiUiw .^c^^ 
l^PffP^j ^ith Jth^ir, newly^^leeted £^g«Qt ; aod, to ii^immor-*' 

di4«^I^Ffi*be4br i^??Wttte^l- tl^ o^ce^ tvith vequ^l 4UigWC^ 
^ fi4^i(;y,tf(jr »*eir^¥aA jjeers, without eBJoyiogrits, ewo- 

T As Ml- Estwiokt ia refuaijig tq bring the* ctjargro againsfe 
G.ciKipCT;li^'initirtjthtinif i onHth^ six membsva ofrc<wncii ^hi> 
1)90 a^t^d J^s illog^ proceedjqgs, .to.a.,lieanngfbefqi3Q:|;b(> 
bpftrd.of ^ade,:h9ld«acted without the co«seiit or preiriousj^ 
]^f)pwle4g« of the assembly, the new agent :vaa directed, to 
pjOSsQA sMph measures as im should de^m piTQper to^ 
tb^lr.i^mplaiQts^ ^aod pbtain. a ledress^ o£ their injuries^ 
agKflf^^le to their former petition to.the King. ^ But, a;^ the 
p^tifn iiiiul been imprudeotly, Bot to say periidiously abaiv- 
doned, before the complaijata agEunst Jthe. governor had been* 
siibstantiatctd, Mr. .JSrathwaite thought that it could i)ot 
1)^ rwun^ nor acted upoa with any. prospect of success. 
■',iyAt tli«L'Sfim« .tiaM3 the . assemUy .unanimously resolved.'^to 
iailtru((^ thear agent la call upon Mr. .Estwick to account 
fpor^ibhe fi|l^^ibHndred pounds wlrieh had lD(ee?%. lodged in 
IviSi jbjwds by the aub^ m Xiond^n^ for the puiH 

powTof jcairyiog: oa therproteculion agwnst G^^vernor Cu^?* 
QM^^rae. ^3k> 4his dcpiand; Mr- £stwiQk replied, that Ji(^ 
^M ije^dy to accouut^jfer thermoiBey whenever he was legally. 

',r : : 

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he ihbulcl ' Vfegard thw rasoliition'bf theirs no kiibre tkiifa' iKe^ 
#ouWthat of -^< a stet ofi ih-unkeu porfcers." By' Hi -^itirfia^ 
Aatibftof tWiaffaiTf'howeT^ir, it appeJafed, Uiiit 6n*^ tlimi'-- 
sai^ pounds weredueto hhn for'ftve y«ar9 siUii-f, ahd tliat! 
he had advanced two hundred and seventy pounds of hitf 
owri'mbn^y <br the public «ehjice,-b6&ide9 ©ther fcfeaarges 
Hic?a^h't to-the office,' to a cottfeidiJrtible' &.t»outtt. Nri part' 
df ihi&'debti' he ftjserted, trbuld^Vev have been j>aid,- hn^ 
fbrthe drearffol hurrieane, which, according to^his^ own ob. 
^Vatto^, ?iird thus verified the old adage ; ^ that it ii «ff 
ilf ifViid ftiat 1il6#8' no onc^any good.*' The assembly 5iav*i 
nig Mcon^derafely «t»bjiected tlieiftselTes to • these insultSi- 
discovered, when it was too late, that they had' no* autha^ 
fhy to thake'the demand ; for as the money placed in his^.. 
hands i^ask part bf ttie-pariidmentary bounty, it- was-cwi'^' 
terided'b'y Mr. ' Becfele*, that he wa« only<acoo«iitaJbl*f^ itt^- 
t!i6 dortimissioners;* t*' -Whose ^dispoftal ifc feadlJ be»ft eatvtMed^ 
' M^nwhlfe, • the' gOveWfor^^fected a lijfwin- inc the ^» 
bursem^its of the plowd^ office of for •gneal«r^o©l^«fc<i^le«to»^ 
to the 66mmbrttty'*h?knlte<pe*ty 'retrenchments* .*w wlt^^ 
prestden€ DotinThiid betfri. go. highlyi commended, 'OrJ/«V«ii 
the kving itf O^nbfsai (3»«fttii»g»wmeis salary,. .wliici.>«iq 
b'een=iHe ^rcfe df «> 'ilKKSif'Sltilfe^aad^aiiqnietaiki: 
Wasti'of^ lores' Vfl trie ^iflfeitent g«ftirt)iw ' bBd.^lb|^g-*aBli- 
complained of as a '^serious grievance^ without any tffec* 


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iHt/J^i^tol^ter's Uiftt the «ibttfe {ini» oifriedoto. thct ifQp«|4^ifti 
hm eaeievk, Ttiere ibe ^oera tholi^ iJbe j ^tid -fklp^ffinp^ 
tive riglit ia^ waintimr ^th> ibefstoveseraimitfa^d :fto')4beffi 
ckmvfg&*<^mtf^4sXs9iAtyi-.tQ.y^^ :or . iwntyjflMMM 

MU WJt^,«b03ltwitr.< tWBe monthf mS^ Uii 
W; BiiiMif»4Mi4^3«c»(«ip!p(}iiil»ri 4xithe cbminaiMl of (jtliii^'di^ 

an^ta|MmiAitq«)ei<!ntbtoh^..k«d it been cfmtimttedi>mold^tisfm 
4i9mn two thwimm d. pouixip » ^hmt out .<<€. Abe;, nipl^ 
Iwmd fuod, fc^ t;)se aa^uMnMBt of tfa^ «ftcf|r» 9f U«C 
4i9tEipt fdose. MigmMit a% w AngnMit. an! mhttm 9f 
jRitar, the tiutbor oCiAds vcAioDe avaiied bionelfof tiio 
>fiwd<m -of <3ie press, to oowey to the beewiedge of 4be x:aio» 
JM«iider.-Wi0iiiff^.a}6£ti9o JrBJvriout to the put^xerfioue. 
Shir was todreMjleiaycdL i^pom that time, the duhwB»* 
fieo4a.^'eaob<HtwifNi» except fiatiife-Michael'd, haKebeea 
^MM>i» iQikll«rtielB ^ pewdet. anaiiaaj. nuksK it Jbe 
nnAer ^«7r partieidar mraamttaasmt whkb Make a. teq^ 
ViW^t^ AfoieliUMQ! 'BfloesBBfyu 

e,:fM p^iceadinyoC Ae iwifiiiilf ^wie oowanvke^bgr 
aj|||epiBagfii<e>!'Wjhiahyhp af irj w 3J^ laig^ULi^ 

gpai,^i|ji*p^ta^ < miw iil nwi d» ■wafc imdbiaea didMwnisaUi 
%i^li»il9«f»j««!l|ipb^jw»jac^ OntbatuDUi 

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tib&al «a1*fr of <?nd thousand ]M>ttttd»myeaf. Tfie propel' *'*'* 
sd WHS warmly rdtisied l»3r thd djieaktBr. TlM>ugh b^ncU 
iHtied' (hfi govcmoc's cHtitiDrdiliarf ttetit» lie did Dot thfibfc: 
tfkfl <Aie Ibms iif the koase should ht-^wpeumd 'wi^jok* 
tli^ ^kcemiati <and liiat a moti6a<«^ sooh Museqtiettoei 
dJtfduM be niade witihout tbe MliaUeat{>cemas adtkre. To 
jbtvjr.^ueh a queBtum by sittpme, and in so ASMtt a iityuM',' 
ka' «iid,' weradd aeitlm: be hotMNirabk tohis cntc^^cy* nor 
aodltubb to'tiie aMemUy. Sdvefal mettben cbncaititig 
m these aentimeots, the previous' qaeftlio»-.tiras moved ;r. 
Ikrt, durii^ the debate, Mr.. Mayors, being called (totsk 
Ihe «ocrrt of chanceff, gave the advocates for the addi— 
tiohfd salary the advanta^ of mnAbers; and the motioiii' 
waa negatived by- a Maj<>rity ef one. 

»Tbe ofigtaal motion was then put, and canned in tUea^' 
fimati^ on' a elose division of seven to sis. 'Kot to.k«6 
t^ fa)<>c»irab1e 6pp6rtiiinty of aecetnpiisfainig hi» dMigi^^. 
lAr. ifooM) unme^ifltely iotfodoced a cbifti whidk had beeai. 
fwtvi^oaly^pfepdMd, aad which having h6wittii iHtrn 
times, was passed by a majority: o#«me-v(9Seis;*"0etef(a4i«^ 
tof^a<ll1lle^V]«aMt« Q:t^^ Q^podti<M in bit'p^ 
sBeafctyraD^t ueaw ted^ to't^ only «iq^e^ent"!thi<dir'%a^ left 
H^adtac^dbtb'HJb tentb'rtd^ of tbe house^^by y^Moh W; 
litedadbin^ ^btliat^tytott/^M^ei^, or'oi«def»d9tlifeliebii^ 
fiib pi^hMMt^af 'men^, vsiM^ pass, >or Ita dattvalH^aWer)^ 

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c^ity retivire morje ^pe^dy di»p«.t0li,:and,;in ^uclv <t«#e„iS 
tv^lv^e ,me;jjl^er?i Qoneent,, or jfi,,l^)Q jbiU, or ^^dc^s^pH^^ 
i)eiiuBQ>c£)at^\ce»it^ jt«j)a}l j?je(gp(^ .ai^d >:a^i4, •^''PUiJv 
m^ buU^ne.sittmg. ,,, ^.,a .. .,... ; .; : ' . f» , -, ;., 
( Agreej^t))^ to. ijUis . ?iil?,. ^jr. J[a^n:. AU^yiiej , obsef^c<ii,ftbtfc 
bill coj4ld Dot n^ it ,wa? supportifd by only/5et^ *«f«lit 
b^r?, but,i;^ust. be read for passing at;tHft pi^ift.niee^^g^; 
But. t.he frienda of. the measure^ imp^tignt qf, deja/, i^ere 
not to be restrained by a rule Avhicli could- be broken, Tfijtli 
impunity, especially when it^ infraction would facilitate 
their, views. Tliey insisted that the house had a rijziit to 
dispense with their rules whenever taey thought proper, to^ 
disregard them; and that the ^anie power by .which tb^y 
were established, qould unquestionably alter or annul (iiem. 
As au abstract;proposition, it will not be.denied, that ^very 
society, whiclt has authority tp prescribe Jaws for its own 
govpfnpi^t, is equally competent to annul or r^p^I th^m; 
but the cliange should be made on a general principle, apd 
not merely to answer a sinister or tenjporary, purpose. The 
society which occasioqally deviates from llie rules esta- 
blished to regulate its proceedings, is in £iict in a state, of 
vacillation, without any certain guide or principle of ac- 
tipn. , AM th^ speaker's eloquence was exierted, without ef- 
fect. , , In^Ytin ht tn^iisted on the necessity of jsl strict ob- 
s^IYAAC^ of tbfMr.ittks, aod uiged tbe dishonofir which mutt 

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be^^flected on their proceedings, by snoh \raveting and ^^^^^HJ^ 
inconsistency- Th6 measure was predetermined ; the rute *^^ 
vms rescinded, the bill passed both houses, and received 
the governor^ assent the same day. At a subsequent meet^ 
ihg of the assembly, the violated rule was restored to its^ 
rank ; and to prevent any similar attempt in future, it was* 
resolved, that if any member nK>ve to repeal a»y rule^f 
the^hbu'se, except on the first meeting of the assembly, or 
at^sttme other sitting, when every member shall be present, 
he' shain be expelled, and the speaker be at liberty tp 
quit' the chair. 

Among the various operations of nature, which excite 
oiir admiration, alarm our fears, or amuse our imagination,^ 
the folmwhig feingiilar and extraordinary phenomenon wiJl 
not * prbfcatly, be deemed the least curious and interest- 
ing. On the eleventh day of October, the inhabitants of 
a' part of Saint Joseph's parish, called Crab-hole^ were 
alarmed' at the appearance of several ^eep fissures in the 
oiirth, and their apprehensions were soon augmented, at 
finding that some small tenements had sunk to a consider- 
able depth. These alarming appearances continuing to 
increase, many persons were induced to remove their Effects 
to places of greater safety. The plantation, known by the 
name of Walcott's, was destined to be the melancholy' 
Bcene of this extraordinary occurrence. Here the manager, 
perceiving that the mansion house was in danger of being 
buried under the sorf, which "was de'sc^n'dliig'in 'largti 


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5ro TSfittfSTORX 

<^»^^^^^^ CoiKiected Biasses^ fram^a^gi^bauriiig^U» .flied^n^ 
*^®^ iferaily to one of the negco hute for #ljeJter. . In the^pifrse 
of th^t distressful night, mo$t of ,th«l3^wldwgs on (bfi p^a* 
tatioTi ie]\y or siank mto a deep ch^sm^ which was pr^^dentl^ 
filled up with the mold from the the adjacent heights*, Thp 
alarm bow became general, asid the people assembling neac 
tiiestpotwere wiinesees of^^cene truly awful and aff^cliqg. 
The Wpect of the whole regioa frosi Walcptt's to Cr^ 
Bole, extending upwards of sl mile in leogtbiaad in bn^ajc^i 
about three hundred yards, exhibitefi a lamentable pro- 
spect. The earth, violently torn asunder, was intersected 
with numerous chasms, whose widely extended j^.w»^emed 
^■eady to ingulph whatever might be pre^pijutated. ipto-tb^; 
K^hil^y in. other places it was- s\^elled ajtid jtfifla^^ wil^ enoj* 
mo€» tumours^ whose convulsive n:K>dons xnenaqed the few 
Ipemaining buildings witlkdestruction. Nor was^ it Icmg^befoi^ 
they weise involwd in the general wreck, and^ sinking into 
the yawning g»l^ left no traces of their former existence 
behind tbeiOk. The fece o( nature was sa completely 
changed in that district, that few of the inhabitants could 
aiscertaki the spot on which many objects^ ^Eunihar to their 
remembrance, had been recently placed. Afield, planted? 
in Eddoee^ occupied the site on which the mansion house 
stood, and brought with it a long slip of the bre^d road, as 
perfect and entire as if it had not been renkwed** The 

^ ThM k an <MCiiriieiioe Hut bi|^n^ i^t tafteqneAtly, ia the pamhes of Saint 

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«ocQi^flnt treest wbick gum aibaiit the InoBd, Mid MM'^he ^^^^J^ 
Witid-mtll, were ^aduall y cttrriedl ame htuuhnBd yqrds; firani ^^^* 
thdr origmiil situmtioii^ wbece the ktter Tr» mii^iltttdj 
^^Itawed «ip, no part of it fooaiiiiiig viaMe but the e»- 
iremity of the upper arm. ! 1, :- i ,i 

It is not ea^^ perhapty to^exfdam ai^kfiustonlyUie e«M» 
^f thhr extraordiQiirj phenomeiioii. Prolaabkr «pi\|(iM)t«re 
^sciifo^ it to the actioa of a aiw»bier iPf »t49^kfr»tHiiHKi 
spridgs^ ia a loamy ilandy soil, iurtoiindod with t^(WBt^fl» 
ce^iVe iaffii o^ raki: them springs^ rtroggliog for vqM^ 
Alight pos»iMy have esoavated the incmimfoeBt eatth whemi- 
^ver they endeavoured to force a pawagp. As these iayi^ 
fiible waten glided oiwardsi the surfaoe bdund seemi t9 
have fklten in, or, meeting with a subatratum of s jaa^pjr 
tmtare, continoed sliding down the adjacent dediTitien at 
l6ng as it retained, or acquired, sufficient .moistiirB to £|cpH 
litdte its motion. 

I I. ji > it i » nl »« 

Andrew^and Saini Joseph, during the rfthiy fleasOA. hi tbiit part -of thi f i tito y , 
irhn^ fronriU retemUaBOc to the baghltiuls of North |Htf)9# )• cdkd 8pp^liiil> 
the fcarth if conpoaed pf vwV)U8 straU obliquely dispoi^. llie s«per-8tratum it 
generally a rich loamy soil of a saponaceous nature, which/ heing c^ no omsider* 
able depth, easily separates, when saturated with rain, from the substratutn, n^iclr 
it commonly of a dippery chalk, flat stotoes, or toote^ »ed griitd, aod iti^ i« itrge 
master, with its growing produce, tnto^the valliei below. Tt^t wbcde £elda of sugar 
ctuies, com> «n4 potatoes have sometimes changed masters^ and even lo(\y trees 
have been removed to a considerable distance without injury. Of this the curious 
reader may find instances rdated in Hughes^s Nat. Hist. Barb. p. 21. 

4 D 2 • V • 

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"*^* aasemblj proposed niawiog©» »}m. ^ .^%: j^e#wli 

' hwB^aftevi In .the< wigwi^l bilUfHMcKikftdtbewjlpWMsd 
4fwo yeM8.)t>€(fp?t> t^. whotei ptofit to h*.' proldttced %>ibf 
scliemQ WM made applioaUe to tito rdfouUdki^ o£ Sti.'Mit 
c^biueFft churchy widioul ip^ng anjr pco>a9ionifo£ tfastothocit 
ilr.hich hafd imflfefed- bj the;4anie< caiamitjvo: rfiu| ab'i^e j(^» 
^ of )iDoa&y^ in IliQ ^way proposed^ waf ji^iUrastf ta 
ipontjtreiiiftruictioiis of ithe.govenaoi; the biU;)\T>idlt^ttsiiatted 
toi the: secretary of state^i.toibei i&id b«f;uret vtiKi! King. "XlBtQ 
ff^ality of thfi>arraogBnieilt did notjescdpeJtli^ sbsovFateob 
0{ Mkc priry 'Gouacil, and the bdU #aa fbnseqnsotfydisal^ 
lowfid by the King. Bat, as the object of ,the'.m««9ur(^ 

' a^eaxfidto be luseful, his Majesty -iras pleaaedi to ^authch 
rise the governor to give his assent to= any i)ill;of. » sisiilair 
tfffldwcyi provided ooe half of the moaiBy .raised jshouW .hfe 
Itf»ftlj6d l(0<thej«biuMing the. church of Sahit Michael,. tmd 
tlie o^tm h»\f to the . use of those parishes ivhosc' ehurches; 
hiiid boeo destroyed. : An act was accordingly psosed; agreor- 
ably to hip Majesty's gracious directions; but it ymhmit 
prpduc^iveof those advantages^ whiefa were .expcctttd.£Boaii 
it, The drawing of onlyonetettei-y-was e^cted; nor yiras 
this d<^ne without difficulty and dishonour j One of tHe- 
nisjiagci-s, to whom the sale of the tickets was entrusted* 
eupbezzled the money which M received, and, though he 

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ifttt trusti the bonds were nteVer ^ft^ntedl' ] ^ -1 V (^ ' '^ > ^^' W*7. 

llift s<skfe' of the^fibliiS ^oiids had fottg liefeft ^^B(«#t^tif 
gfMieftil compfaint, and *bou^nhe ibetife^fefiij^ of tF^ 
faltftg law^ for Aeir fcfpaih Aott ii^pjoMhtfivt vf^iftiASk)^ 
f>6roervdd and acfchowtedged, no Att^iipfclittd l^eten Watlt 
to altw or amend a system: confessedly inefficiacioiisi ' bbr- 
^braLSome^andtejipemaiTO. AtkngtbL^a huinber/iof:tbe:iiKist 
ra^ieotable pl&btem of St.' GECorge's^ and seynial ^ :th6>ad»- 
jabent parUhes^ fH^sscnted a petition to die. assembly^ if^ 
pr^seirtiiig the evils and iaconveniences resulting from thajt 
eaiise ; and praying that the house would pass an act fo^ 
tfaefsnorai<efi«i5toa) repair of the great road leading ^m 
Bridge^Town to. Sarnt Philip's churchy Agreeably to the 
prayeif of the petition, Mr. A. Frere introduced i bill fo** 
the «8tabliihmen1| of turnpikes, which, after passing the 
hoh«, waS'Tiftjected by the council. Encouraged by the - 
<:^i6us^ titi^t^ of the. measure^ Mr. Frere btonght it foi^ 
lizard aafccondf time,, with a few alterations, to itender it 
li^s» 6bjfectiottable .aiKire skairs. Having gbnethrou^h tlie 
usoai -sfegrat ibelbw,! it was :again soht up: to the couriciU 
Obani^nr ; :ivhepe,. although^, agreeabjy to evefiy parhdmeh^ 
tary^ajceeptntion of tbe term5 it was clearly ii irtdriey bill, 
BO less tlian eigbt amendmeats were made in \%. Bft^dless 
oiF'thisin'^asioni of their pritileges, the assembly qtiietly . 
acquiesced in most of tiie amendments; Bnt this was* not 
enough to satisfy the council; n6t content with a partial 

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174 ^ "fflfi RISTORV 

*J^i^"- ttdo^ttoA of their emeiid'atlwiSi they agaitt rejected tb* 
^'*^' bill. Disappointed^ btft not dfecouraged, Mr; IVere ihad* 
ii ^ird attempt to eflfect his purpoAC, in whiMi be was 
eventually successful. Turnpikes were establisbed; and ^e 
toads were effectually repaited. Biit the splirit' irhidk 
animated the measure, soon evaporated ; it was negl^ted 
and forgotten. - * ' * 

During the progress of this bill an act was piisisedfdr esta^ 
blishing regular courts of quarter sessions, and ehipo weeing 
the justices to appoint constables withih their ^teHitctd^ 
By this law it is enacted, thai courts of quarter sessions 
shall be occflwiona% held every year in each parish; and 
that no constable shall be compelled to serve longer thaii 
one whole year, commencing from the day of his^ Ijeing 
sworn, and until tkejirst meeting of a court of quarter sessiom 
after the expiration of the $aid year. ITiese latter words 
. condemn the constables to little less than perpetual servi- 
tude. Far from that regularity which is promised by the 
title of the act, courts of quarter sessions are not hdldeu 
oflener than once in four or five years j and in one instanee 
the period has been extended to eighteen or twenty. This 
irregularity in holding the courts, and the consequent utt* 
certainty of obtaining a release from the irkisome duties of 
this office, is a real and substantial grievance. 

Notwithstanding tlie public debt had beeti so reeeiltfy 
and completely liquidated by the appropriation of a lai*ge 
part of the parliamentary bounty^ and a considerable sair 

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OF $i^BB4DO|i». ^^ 

Widls^ mw l&e itiiwilli^aig»ej»( of ihe «88<$a)b}y t;a dr^w the 
puEB^iatrii:^ of i}^ coBaiiti^Qts, t^gt ik> qne bdongiog t)o 
the coloirial wtablishment, except the governor, tad bee» 
paid for niore than two y«irs. Frequently had his excel- 
Icnicj^ warned the assembly of the ixMy and dagger pf suf- 
fering: the public debt to accumulate to any considerable 
amount* The oixly notice taken of his judicious admom^ 
tions was to < assure his excellency that they wt 
ed from doing, jiistice to the public creditors c 
desire of coJlecting the money due to the treasi 
dividuaK During the short time that Mr. T. Rowe admi- 
nisteced the ip venue of the country, there wa» a deficiency> 
of two thcftisand pounds- in his accounts;, and, though the 
public cceditofs^ for the gr^iter part of that time were pe- 
culiarly distressed, seven years had already elapsed without 
any effectual attempt having been made to obtain i^eetitutioa . 
from his representative.. But^ however, the assembly might 
have. felt the oollection of this money as a necessary, though. 
l^fiDful duty imposed on. them, there seems to have beeH' 
g(9at iajust^in suspending the claims of a numerous traia 
0f distressed public creditors on that account. At length 
Ihe guimeiB.aml matrosses of several divisions were com--- 
pelled by neces^ty, to appeal to the equity and huma.nitynpf 
liie assembly;, ^\m application produced the desjped efiecfc, 
aad: a. trifling xmprtationtadc of fifteen pence on. slaves was 
feood' JttffideQt if}, lestoiie .the oiedit of the country. 

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Notwithfttandiog their the stale of the patK 
He finances, the assembly ocoasionally gave prooii of a 
liberality as conunendable as it was inconsistent with the 
N«v. 24. parsimony which generally marked their proceedings* The 
arrival of his Royal Highness Prince William Hcpry, after-* 
wards Duke of Clarence, commander of the Pegasus fri- 
gate, was one of those occasions which called forth the 
most ardent demonstrations of loyalty and affection. At 
Pilgrim his royal highness was received with every possible 
mark of respect, and all ranks of people sfsehied emul$ras of 
manifesting their veneration and esteem for the person and* 
family of their illustrious visitor. The presence of the scm 
of a Monarch revered for his virtues, and justly regarded as 
the father of his people, inspired every breast with joy .and 
gladness. His arival was greeted with themoBt affectionate 
addresses of congratulation from the members of hb Ma^ 
jesty's council, the general assembly, the clergy^ and the 
merchants of Bridge-town, and even tlic Jews, as a distinct 
body of people, joined in the general acclamation, and ex- 
pressed their gratitude for the happiness and protection 
which £hey enjoyed under the ciemency of his royal father. 
The short time which the prince remained in Barbadoes 
was the season of mirth and festivity. Besides the balls aiKl 
entertainments given by Governor Parry in honour of his 
illustrious guest, his royal highness was sumptuously enter- 
tained by the legislature, at the public expense; and. in the 
plenitude of their zeal the council overstef^ped tfaetc coaifci^. 

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tutiooal bounds, and sent a message to the assembly, pro* ^^^^^;^"* 
posing that ia sward should be procured, a& soon as possible, * ^'' 
and presented to his royal highness as an humble but siri- - 
cere testunony of their veneration, afiection, and respect for 
a prince who had graciously condescended to visit tlieir 
island; aiid who had voluntarily relinquished the elegant 
enjoyments of a polished court to encounter the- dangers 
and. inconveniences of a naval life in the service of his , 
country. The assembly replied, that as it was the establish- 
ed privilege of their house, that all grants of the public 
money should origittate with them,^ they could not consists 
ently with their ancieat rights accede to any proposition 
fijr Mk expesditure of the public money coming from that 
boards Having tiius maintained, their privileges, the assem-^ 
Wy immediately vQted the prince a present of a sword of 
three hundred guineas value* 

After some princely frolics, the ren^mbrance of which 
often contributes, to promote tlie hilarity of the festive 
board, his royal highness proceeded on a tour through the 
other iidanda o£ the Cajribbean archipelago; the inhabitants 
of which must ever acknowledge with gtatitude,. that the' 
royal duke has uniformly manifested a thorough acquaint- 
ance with the true interests of the colonies and steadily sup- 
ported their rights^ And,, while labouring under a load of 
unmerited opprobrium, exposed to: the scorn and riditule of 
witty malice, and the calumnious misrepresentations of 
jBiniilbrmed philitiithrapists, it is highly consolatory to them. 

4 B 

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^^^:^^ to reflect, that an intelligeot prince of tfce blood J8i 
^^- Ae liberal few wbo have spirit and candour to viodieftte 
the wijustly aspersed West Indians. 

The parfiament of Great IMtain baring patqed wb asrt 
ibr the increase of skipping, and the encxMiragmaeat of na» 
ligation, by which the trade between the English cokuBfis 
and the United States of America, was<x>ofiiied to BritislH 
built vessels, narigated by British seamen, it became Ji^ 
cessary to ascertain the tona^ of ^11 Tiesttls entitted 4o 
i:egisters, according to the new regalations. For 11m put^ 
pese Governor Parry appointed a Mn Paul to^araHoe^uid 
aaoertaiin, by ^measufemeat, the balk and^^timensioupsf 
every vessel im which a certificate of regi^rtiy waa roq aw cd ; 
and -as a •compensation 4er his treifble, Mr. Pani was din 
fectsed, %y his oic^ilency, to demand certain lees, pfopop* 
tioned to the burthen of each vessel. 1^ was eertainljf 
an attempt to establish a new office, ;ivith new fees an- 
nexed to it. An exercise of the prerogative, -so evidently 
nnconstitiitionaJ, was not suffered to pass wiaJhodt due te- 
prdiension. Though it produced no legislative inqmry, 
the measure was freely and judiciously canvassed^ hy aa 
ingenious mionymous writer, who so ^Hy e^pMned the 
iltegality of the proceeding, fhat Paul not only 'desisted 
ffom any inrtfher exactions, Init voluntanly iietnmed Hit 
Ibes ^idh lie Imd air^idy tdken. 

The ^^^triotiknis imposed on (tfie ^ommerciai Mtorcoiapie 
betflpwen the ccAoaieB 4hUI the C^i^^ 

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OP BASJBADOf S. |^7|| 

obserfed, (Mid rigidl j enforcod by thft gov«n^ ol Barba* ^^^^:j!^ 
docs. An armed brig waa eqiupiped, at the expense oC ^^^^' 
govenunent) to crui«e round the bland, lor the purpoae ef 
preycBting all illicit or contraband trade ; and many British 
ships . were s^aed, under various preteaoesi of havii^ sur* 
r^vtitiously obtained certificates of fegifttry^ or of being 
navigated contrary to law, and were condemned by Mr. 
Weeks, the sole judge of the court of vice*admiralty. The 
commerce of the country suffered materially by these harsh, 
and 10 many instances, illegal proceedings, which wwe 
openly encouraged by the governor, with a view to his pri^^^ 
vate emolument; and drew on him, as well ais on Judge* 
Weekes, no inconsiderable share of obloquy and reproach^ 
Indeed, his excellency appears to have acted so oppres<» 
sively and unjustly, as to have incurred the censure of a^ 
very high authority. Upon an i^peal, in the case of the 
ship Columbus, fh>m the de^nee of the colonial court, his 
conduct was animadv^ed upon by Sir James Marriot, 
judge of the hi^ cowrt of admiralty, with such poinitedi 
severity, that his CT^cellency, who was then returning to 
England, some tisM afi^wardp demanded^ satisfhction of/ 
the learned civilian, in the character of a gentleman* The 
jtidge, however, not thinking himself personally respoosifole 
for any thijig said or done in Ihe execcise 4»f hi;r ofice^ 
declined 4he combat, and connnenced e pfosecvtion against 
him in the Kitig^Bendi, bnt^ nyofi his. exoeUeaay^, waking 
a suitable ajpcAo^, theaffairwas^ 

4 B t> 

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^^^I;^'* Meanwhiie, on the prospect of a rupture with Spaiu, 
*^^*- Goncerning the right claimed by Great Britaia, ofparticu 
pating in the trade to Nootka Sound, the govemor con- 
Kov. 2. Tened the legislature, and, by his Majesty's commancU^ 
recommended that they would concert proper measures for 
securing the island against the hostile attempts of the na- 
tional foe. The state, of the militia, and the fortifications, 
was naturally brought into revi^ew upon this occasion ; arid 
his excellency strongly ui^ed the enacting of such tem- 
porary laws as miglit give energy to their military ^ttm^ 
He further requested that they wpuld provide sufficient 
funds for carrying into execution a plan formed by Lieii* 
tenant D'Arcy of the rryal eng neers, for fortifying the 
island. Though the danger was remote, the assembly 
jeadily voted the sum of two thousand pounds to defray 
the expense of guarding the country from invasion ; and a 
bill for, that purpose immediately received the concurrence 
of the other branches of the legislature. Fprtunately the 
dispute was adjusted without an appeal to the sword; but 
not before some money and much negro labour had been 
literally wasted in collecting the perishable materials . for 
coqstrucling fascine batteries, which were never erected^ 
Though peace was happily preserved, the governor insisted 
in strong termts. on theptopriety of completing the works 
which had been begun; But his advice Was disxjegarded ; 
the sMrpIus of the money which had been raii^ed ^r this 
particular servicie was applied to other uses^ and the fortifi- 
cations were left to crumble in decay. 

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. A most infamous pmctice had long, prevailed among the ^(^^^§5* 
unprincipled part of the commuaity, to the manifest injwy ^ ^' 
of the cotton planters, of buying the produce of their fields 
from the slaves by whom it had been stolen* No endeavour 
to check this nefarious commerce bad hitherto proved 
successful The laws g^ierally respecting larceny and the 
receiving of stolen goods were easily elud^^ and the muni* 
cipal law, which l^d been passed for the ex jm^s. purpose, 
,was found ii>sufficieot to prevent the illicit intercourse be- 
tween oegFo felons and the dishonest receivers of their 
pli^nder. It was feserved for the comprehpnsive geninf 

^and intellectual acumen of Mr* Beckles to^ devise an effiec« 
t^^l remedy for an evil which menaced the industrious 
planter with ruin; and, if he had given no other proofe of 
his talents for legislation, his bill to encourage the planting 
pf cotton is sufficient to establish his fame on the firmest 
basis. But it cannot be dissembled, that the bill in itf 

■<>riginal state, was Jiable to many serious objections; yet^ ^ 
thougji referred to a comxnittee of the whole hou^e, it un- 
derwent very little discussicm within doors. This deficiency, 
however, was amply coi^peivfated by the fbeedom with 
which it was canvassed Uirough the medium of the press; 
and the learned framer of the bill, with a. candour as com^ 
mendable as it was uncominon, readily availed himself o£ 
these anonymous criticisms to imprpye his plan aod corr^^ 
its errors, ... 

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^^Ai^tm Bjrthis sahiisrf law, the atsenblj » inrcsted with tiio 

^'''' powor of appointing twehe iaspactois» vbo are to kcepao 

«til€« iu^etuth town, not for the pturpoie of iupectiog ^ 

^ftttiliy. of the cettofi, btitto guard agunst firattd, by asoem 

iaifiifig the pmpeitjr, groirtb, and pnoduce of it, upon the 

oath of the person hf whem it is fctougfat for examination 

prerious to it# being offered f<tf sale. On being satisfied in 

these partidtiliafs, the inspector* who k entitled to one rial* 

Ikig fet eaeb hundvsd weight of cotton which he inspects* 

- k feiqtnii«d to issue a certidcate, which entitles tbe owner 

to dlipMe of fait pft>dttCe« Any person swearing to a 

gieatitf quan^y of cotton than his land {MPodVK^^ or, upon 

tk rnvmyt is thought i» be capable of pfodudng, is, be^ 

hides a fof*ftltum of the surplus^ indictaUe for peijupf. 

The \A\\i conOiritting a variety of oUier provisions for the sei- 

tttrity of this species of pfopeity, and tbe ptmishment of 

those" by whom it may be invaded, having passed the assem* 

biy, was sent up fer the conctffrrace of the odier house. 

SqiNkUy inattentive to the privileges of the assembly and 

tiM pveittgfttivte of the Oown, the council took no notice of 

the right aesufiied by tbe assembly of appointing twelve 

Ipttblic ofkcett tat oiioe» bat sent bat^ the bill with an 

amendmettt, Uniting its contfaiMa&ce to tw^te months inv 

Mead of thMie years. Considering this as a moneybilH Mr. 

9tmker ^opposed ttie laneftKittieirt, as a yi<^tion of the ftmda- 

mental rights of that honse; but the objection Wte ove»> 

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tiic|>eople»n imppitftnt lwK9cfo gl*!!^ p»«qif t^ie ^ojK^Qijir 

jnrjr were ca«d«m9ed 4q ^ fiijllior/. .4^(|i^ |i^|«^ v»»^ 
Hj t»BikrH»iaied 4f> oMll^e ^ ^ 4XnN^ fltatf fof .(lQSSif94ati<m- 
JQflUFb»<li»a0» the BOAgittr^jbos 4tE9«l^ t^ Pqw^ftfoWiV 7<t»$> 
use ^ir «ii4«|MrjO¥(ff|, ^ifim$ ^ ibpur ^ t«K]lMkUjVtfy i» 

fDvtjrHittntti r^^ea^ vk9k»9fiS»^49 ^ W¥&^ ^^^ 

ectB >af Tioicokoe, irhiidi fvnAHSid Jt ^lypq^ PS(pqM3lkMii$)^ 
irom the police-officers. The military |^|l^qmpi ^9f99^ 
^istdy'^diMT ^ 8iK(wd avA Hiade«a.thicB8t(fit«m^ ^il^tppn- 
tIabkB, wIm, oo kss ^tenaokiiiiB lOf ihiPAiid^bwty* insj^w^ 
Gripped cap kk beds, Jind idefxixfid lii«i ^jpf ^ (P^^ipqiV 
<iiPiii<$h was diieally «aaiqd 4UMl jant Jofc) ibe <9m99mm fif 

^llie teader i^bais aesirous ^ ikteilDmm^^ 

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584 THfc ftfl^bRY 

^^^^^^:^!^ Mr. Enington, a respectable justice of the peace. A di«* 
^^^'* graceful scene ensued. The grenadier company of the re^ 
^ment, led on by their serjeant, marched, with Tjayboets 
fixed, from their quarters at Constitution-hill, to the l^ouse 
of the magistrate, at the western extremity of the town. 
They rushed up stairs, where Mr. Errington was sitting with 
his family at dinner, and with the most horrid imprecaitioiif 
presented their bayonets to his breast, threatening him wiA 
instant death if the sword was not delivered. Incapable 
of resistance, Mr. Errington was compelled to give up the 
sword, with which they returned, after committing several 
enormities in the neighbourhood, breaking tlie windows, 
knocking down and wounding several of the inhabitants^* 
and throwing the whole towB into terror and confusiwi. I 
have no authority to add, that any steps were taken by tl^ 
governor to obtain satisfaction fbrthe insuk offered the law9^ 
in the person of a respectable magistrate, or that any. pu- 
nishment was inflicted on any part of the corps who had 
betrayed such a want of discipline in the conmiission of so 
flagrant an outrage.. • 

In pursuance of the Duke of Richmond's scheme of for* 
tifying the British islands in the West Indies^ the governor 
of Barbadoes was directed to require of the assembly a 
sufficient quantity of land, to be purchased at the expense 
of the country, for the fortifications intended to be wected 
agreeably to a plan formed by Colonel Eraser. This de* 
mand, with a requisition of negro labour, having beea sttl> 


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©f the people would not admit of any coiteid^able ibfcreai*e *''*^* 
ofttaeit* bfttth&D»t fop 4he «^cu^ity 4(f ihe islsiMi and the 
tt^pfKat of gcfvemftiefit ; thisy cdilld not, theiteftire, comi^ 
fiy witb tke d^aad faitk^f thaift to a^^ropriattb to ^& 
tetvice, tbe lafeoar Which th* inhabitants were itiiilired to 
^titributei by the existing hiwsj for the use of the fortifica* 
tioBS, for the term of two years. 

' The gtief and ctjitetamation that perVaded the kingdom 1790. 
00 the sfeVere indisposition with -rrhich it pleasdd God to 
aiBkt ^e King, naturally extended to this distant part of 
i^ efl^pire ; and wh^ his Majesty was happily restored to 
beaith awJ the exercise of regal power, the most lively 
Jemotiohs of joy animated the public minid. A day of ge- 
neral thaiikegiving having been appointed by tlie governor, 
tWrnormng yfoA ushercAd in with the ringing bf bells, to 
wliioh -succeeded an approprislte service iti all the churches 
throughout the isknd ; and tbe grateful thanks of a loyal 
people were oflfered up to the' throiie of grace, for the di- 
vine favour, vouchsafed to the best of Kings. After the 
pei-feirmance of this dct of devotion, an ox, roasted whote, 
with plenty of Hie and ptfnch, Was served out to the popu- 
lace;' and, in the evietiiiig, !^dge-town Was brilliantly il- 
lummted. Upon the whole, all ranks of people seemed 
to vie with each other in the most sptendid demoristri'tions 
of joy. The legislature could tidt be silent on siicH iii oc- 
%idsion :' aA address of congtatiil'aitiou "Wks voted by *botli 

. 4 r 

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CHAP^^L housesf, and transmitted to the agent to he presented to thj^ 
^'^^^; beloved Sovereign, 

Mr. Parry now began to turn an anxious eye tosirards 

his native country, and in a very kind and complimentary 

May 12. speech, signified to the legislature his intention of availing; 

himself of his Majesty's permission to be absent from, his 

government for twelve months. Agreeable to this inttmar^ 

July 6. tion, his excellency embarked onboard tlie Philippa Har- 

.bin, and returned to England. His excellehc/s departure 

had been preceded by that of his lady about fifteen nnonths^ 

who had died shortly after her return home. 

On the* governor's leaving the island, the supreme autho- 
rity devolved on the Honourable Henry Frere, president of 
the council. Mr. Frere had now attained the object of his 
ambition, pursued for thirty years, during which he had^ 
sat at the council-board, in anxious expectation of obtain** 
ing the government of his native country as the reward of 
his services. In the usual parliamentary communications 
between him and the assembly, all former political and perp 
sonal animosities seem to have been forgotten.. He took 
luly 21. the first opportunity of addressing the legislature from the 
chair, to express the satisfaction with Which he saw the ha*- 
niony and good disposition of the people in general. Hav- 
ing the fullest confidence in the good sense, experience and 
discernment of both houses, he hoped that unanimity, 
which had been always found necessary to giv^e stability to' 
^public happiness, would mark their proceedings. And he 

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ifeWfecfed with.particular pleasure, that linked together as! ^^^v^"* 
they were in one cause, the prosperity, of their country,. ^^V 
one cbmmon interest ought* to unite them, nor should any^ 
thing, he said, divide a legislature formed upon one just 
principle and pointing to one salutary end. 
• The addresses were, as usual, little more than echoes of 
the speech. The council would not suffer themselves to 
doubt that his honour's sound judgment and competent 
tnowledge of the constitution, the result of a liberal edu- 
cation, and a long and faithful attendance on public busi- 
nessj together with his distinguished principles of loyalty 
and patriotism, \Vouid leave his administration to reflect 
the greatest lustre on his character, whilst it diffused hap- "^ 

piness among the people. Nor was the address of the as- 
sembly deficient in expressions of respect and congratula- 
tion suitable to the occasion. ' 

The business of the settlement was brought forward by 
Judge Gittens, who moved, that the sum of two thousand 
pounds per annum be settled on the president during his 
administering the government. The motion was seconded 
by Mr. Mayers, and opposed by Mr. John bishop, by 
whom an amendment was moved, to omit the words " two 
thousand, '* and insert ^ifeen hundred. The amendment was 
supported, with his accustomed ingenuity^ by Mr. Beckles* , 
Disclaiming all personal enmity to the gentleman who then, 
filled the seat of government, he declared, that if thp d/ear-. 
est friend he had upon earth were president, he would not 

4f 2 

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^,K22^ vote for >n increase of stalary. It had beea sai4i npoa *r 
^7*^* fonnei: occasion, that the King's example, in allowiiig the. 
pjfejsideat half the salary allotted by the Crowa foe it^ re«r 
presentative, would be a proper rule for the observanpe of 
that house ; and that, asit ha^ been customary to give tl» 
governoir three thousand pounds, it would be right to al- 
Ipw the president fifteen hundred. Mr. Beckles approved; 
of this rule, and lamented that it had been departed ffow 
in the case of .General Cunninghame ; but, as it had beeu 
adopted in favour of Mr. Parry, he thought it would be 
pnjulent to make it the standard by which the salary of 
both the governor and president should, in future, be re-» 
gulated. After a long debate, the amendmeat was nega^ 
tived, and the original motioi> carried by a majority of 
fourteen to five. , 

The depreciation of the gold coin by tlie nefarious prac« 
tices of clippers and importers, of light gold, was an evil 
which, did not long escape the presidait's penetrating 
eye ; nor did he omit any thing within the sphere of a 
vigilant magistrate to suppress, a crime, so pregnant 
with the most fatal consequences to the interests of a com* 
mercial country. He issued a proclamation, prohibiting 
the iniquitous practice of clipping, under the se¥erest pe- 
nalties of the law, and commanding all justices of the peace 
to use every legal^method of detecting the dishonest perpc^^ 
tratpts of the act, and of bringing them to condign punish^ 
ment* On the meeting of the legislature, the/ president re-^ 

5 * ■ 

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wmmitndeA this imliject to their most serioiis eoaudertitSoli ; ^^^^^I^'^ 
and a committee of the aseemUj was appointed to inquire ^"^^^ 
what vould be proper to be done on the occasion ; but» 
thouf;h they made a report^ to the house, no efltsctual mea* 
suree were taken to re^xrew the evil vmtil the fbUowing . 


Meanwhile, the council made an attempt to .introduce as 
inaovation in the colonial penal:, code, and to punish the 
white teiirdcEep of a slave with death. To tins end, they 
passed an. act for the better security of sbves in life and , . 
member ; which, in coosequtoce of the imposition of. a pe^ 
oumary penalty of one hundred pounds on any pevson con* 
victed of maiming a slave, was. rejiected by the assembly, 
under the impression of its being a money-bill. 

After an absence of little more than eleven months, Mr. , i7&i. 

June 24. 

Parry netumied to Barbadocs, and resumed the goviemtnent; 
Mr. Frete'* short administrationi fast from giving rise to 
tfcosfe party dissensions which, from a pa-evious acquaintance 
witli' his. political principles and conduet, were expected to 
result from itj.was happily a season of the most perfect • 
amity and concord. Undistinguished by the exercise 'o# 
any particukr acts of executive or legislative power, the 
even tenor of his govrtmment was influenced by no oonsi*- 
demtion distinct from the pubKc t^fare. And, wh^tteveir 
might have been hi* errors in a^ subordinate- character, it- 
was his peculiar: felicity to administer, the .suprcane autho- 
rity of his native' country, without increasiAg^the-aftimosi^ 



<!}|JJt^5[^ of h»» political -oppohesats, with honfopr td •Iilin^Tf,'>a&d'<t6 
W't. the entiije .-satisfaction both of wings and tories*^ -^ < 1 

\..^ Pis excellency's arrival was acoooapanied with fresh de- 
mands on the assembly to furnish negro labour for tli^com'-^ 
j^letiau |0f the works cairying on at the bastJe, and to fjiro- 
yide funds for the purchasing of such lands as were stiH re- 
c^uired for ei^tending the fortifications. These requtsidooi 
vere attempted to be eoforoed ^y a threat, that tte teifesat 
Qf such moderatie aids must suspend the exedutioh' df a 
design, obviously essential to the safety of the inland:- Bat 
the assembly steadily adhered to their former' resolutioo/ 
jiot to increase the burthens of their constitueots by any, 
pecuniary grante towards the works carrying on by govern, 

The peace of Bridge-town was frequently disturbed, 
about tiiis time, by the disorderly and offeasiive manuen 
of the officers of the army. Indeed it ia much to be la- 
mented, that a more amicable intercourse <does not subsist 
between the natives and those gentlemen, among whom 
there are many respectable and valuable-characters* With 
habits ©f Hi fe so widely different from those of the inhabit- 
ants, no principle of assimilation seems to exist between 
J792. them. This contumelious treatment,, at that timcj occa- 
sioned many quarrels between ^e. officeis and the natifes ' 

* Mr. Frere, bniag tfineittti mow injury in g«ttiii|r «iit of bit curiage, died «» 
4kt »Ui jaj «f Mayj 1752. 

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/M>meof which having terminated fatally, an appeal to the chaPjXv«. 
lajvs of the country became nw^essary. Of the result of *'^*** 
one of these appeals, it may be proper to take some 

It seems^that Mr. Gabriel Weekes, son of the judge of 
the admiralty, was involved in -a dispute with Mr^ Slaterj 
Qf the forty-ninth regiment. Each had,. at different times^ 
committQd an assault and: battery on: the other, for which 
they wei:e both indicted at the court of grand sessions^ In 
tl^eev-eot,, Weekes was sentenced* tOsix months imprison-* 
ment, and fined only ten pounds, in consideration of his 
.pecuniary embarrassments^ Slater, on the other hand, was 
sentenced to only. throe months imprisonment, and to pay 
a fine of fifty pounds; The chief justice, Mr. W. -Bishop^ 
immediately applied to the governor, and obtained the 
eptire^ remission of Slater's- punishment, while Weeks was 
permitted/to endure the unmitigated rigour of his sentence, 
l^either the ftither nor the son were of a temper to Submit 
patiently to treatment^ which appeared to them so partial 
and unjust. The chief justice was attacked 'with all the 
i^perityof wit^ and. the venom of abuse. 

'The . debased - and mntilaled state * of the gold coin had 
now. b^conie a thetxM of* general compiainti The iihport^« 
ti9n. 0^ light; fiureign cdkisii^ni Greiat Britain ^nd America 
w§8 carried to An alarming extent by strangers, who, hav- 
ing nq inteirest i^i itbe/polony.^ ]^t no scruples of conscience' 
at a ^practice so repugnant to religion and iikoraUty,^ while' 


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flf^JJi^J^** *^ f^^'^PP*** were.iiKjustriousjy catiployed in dtmlDisfanig 
*^, thos^ whict were of ststndai;4 weight. Urged by the mag* 
nituae^of the evil, the governor pre99cd the matter on <lie 
attjsntion of the assembly, and earnestly called for thpir ^^ 
listance m su^^sting son^ l^sktive mta^ures, propor- 
tioned to the. exigency of the ctoe. The house readily 

^ June 8. took the sAibject into consideration, and a lavr was enacted, 
tp punish .all persons convicted of clipping, conKterfeiting, 
or iiliog the current gold coin iwith death ; a^nd-the importers 
o£ ^U diminished or debased coin, besides forfeiture ^f t^ 
coin importe4;i were naade liable to a penalty of fir^ hun* 
dred j^iuids. This law was soon found to be inefficacious. 
Offences, privately committcfl, pould Aot be pnnisbed for 
tjie want <rf legal evidence to convict th^ qSendnvn. Pre- 
vention 15 better than remedy. The inost certain aod in* 
fallible way of keeping m^ honest, is to n^e it their in* 
terest to be so. Had the gold coin be?n made current by 
weight, the most incorrigibJe mutilator, and iitopwrter woukl 
have been more efifectuaUy restrained fro«i tbeir iiflamous 
praiCtices, than by their most sanguinary laws; 

The subject was most ably and perspicuously treated by 
Ae roasteiiy pen of Mn Gibbes, W. Jordim, the present 
valuable agf nt for th^ colony, whose siikperior itttelligeQce 
pepe^ra^tes^ with facility into the fiwst difficult atnd abstrdsci 
beanth/es of human knowledge. From the soundest prinei* 
ples^ Mr. Jocdao; dedticed this jfUst coAclusian, that the only 
iE^fectual resdediy &w the existing evil» was theestabiishineiit 
of a legal currency of the gold coins by weight, at a rate 

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OF DAItfiAtK^ftlS. §§^ 

proportioned %d tlie real v^^ of tti* bdllioii, e«cluA«g^ ^^•JJI!^^!^ 
the expense of coinage. H^l^^bis^iiGiple partly in vieir, *^*^ 
Judge Gitteas, one of the ctomtnittie sippointed to teke <Jie junc 22. 
subject into consicfetatibn, ihtfoduoeA tt bill fo temedy the 
inconvenience; but by a strange inconsistency, itwaspfo^ 
posed to reduce f lie standard of all foreign gold coins in 
circulation al^out ten per cent, below their real v&Ane. 

The pernicious tendency of the bill was clearly developed 
and ably combated by Mr. Husbands and Doctor HindB. 
They demonstrated by an irresistible chain of feasoning, that 
Vhe vahie of the thtotilated. coin wbiild be increased in pra^ 
portion to its mutilation; hence the Tillain, it was said^ 
would be encouraged' in his fraudnlent practices, and re- 
warded for his nefarious industry : that aa tk& regulation 
nor change was made in the value of silver, all coins .of the 
latter metal would be sent out -of the country^ m change 
for debased or depreciated gold, to the great injury of the 
inferior classes of society, who, deprived of a convenient 
circulaling^edium would starve, like Midas, in the midst 
of gold. The obvious tendency of the measure to enhance 
the price of every species of merchandise was elucidated 
with great force and perspicuity ; and the proposed i^nevai- 
tion in the value of the coin, it w^' insisted, would 
operate, like a two edged sword, to the injury of ^both 
debtor and creditor. In all insular contracts, the fair hoAlest 
creditor would be the party injured i as he ^otoTtf be cont- 
pelled to receive money at a greater Value than it was 

4 G 

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i^94 IME«18T0RY- 

^'S^^ known to possess. Oh the -other hand; to t\te d^hfiot wlio 

^'^*- Iiad remUtances to make, either to Europe or to Ameri^,' it 

would prove no less detrimental by enlmnciog fine pi?c^s 

prodjucjts, and encreaaing the 'rate- Qf, eX" 

sil arguments urged in support of j^; boll 
ould be. the means of retaining ^tt^j^.-^Qk^ 

' within the island, and' ©f guarding froao injurjro(hi|^r l^f>|i^t 
iii6ney461d€rj who Imd feir*j received the mwiilaijbfrfig^d 

'\ti the course bf regular circulation. The 9Jl^§h§fiPtRfh!oi 
a scarcity of mopey is.a cbimeca^ which hsti^i^ pji^fj^p^in 

'nature. AgricultUFe &nd commeice wiUiieiK^j^^j^j^ 
means of procufipg a sofficieDt qnaf^tfrnid^ pimif^* 
metals for the purpose of internal circulation. 4.^ to>,t|ie 

^ifnonery-faolder) whatever might have h^n l^,j^i]^iate 

'^oss, the injury mttSt have been' small c(^p{^re4:: ^|)^ ||^t 
isustamed by the whole commulii tj9» tn pei^quttiqg,the4n^^mis 
tilaffie ih debased and dim»i^ished com* , ,£^J^.all tb^ 9^- 
m&M add fhetdiieeftiite t^tpoaittonixK^re e^i^iilp^ci^ Uvy^; 
flie^iiH- pasied^e bowse by a:MoaJQrit^ fi^^m^, tp 5fyeo, 

' TSid ^fa« sefnfe iip to the .coybsij/ .by,/w^f^„>t,j7e^^- 

July 5. /W^ goverflOf having iaeomm©»d<e«;l-ll^jf^^f(^^o_,to 
i^Hkofiih^ consideration of thisiir^r^t j^^JR^M^tftfl^^r 
filadd^"tfhb8« condpct thTooigh <^yyih(i\^,gl{it}^ J^Rf^s 

trodu'ced; a iHll'for regtiladflg^eburr^ncj? of thejgoW! cpin. 

Digitized by 

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The Wtt'Ws framed .'Biif,lfcei»ftJbitftfy j^ cg^iw^IpJle^piinfeipI^ ?iIIS^f 
of jJHPeserviag the '»tafa«ter^,ftti4 ;^yWg j ^""^^i^^^^^J^ \}hf ^^^ 
depteciated coin M twqpefaaer^^4^rti)ipgf,fQr^cl^ grain 
tf its' treight. To ccuay .rairidifi-e^iropv Ppl!?ife^ ^^. wf>- 
biased by sinister motives, it must be matterof astoni^hmeot^ 
that a'ny objectioD could estst to.-9^plgQ<^o l^ir ajid eligibte; . 
Kitfibrded the only effectual icin^y for t^^e.^v^ ^iVPJch had 
beeii s6 ' long the cause of comp^iqt ^n4 4»*?'^f) j* S9, -, 1*® 
coQfilry^' 4ttd' vru» the inost pertnaf)^ secuiit^T. -^^^^t the 
fra\i<(lUIeiit|4^tittt^ of dimiaisbtDgtbe coioy otof impoirting 
depreciated «^ie. • The bill, howeve*, expeiioiLC^ a vigqr- 
tbus'^D^^^peditioti fv^m ihe famdB of iho: f«iqD^, maasjiH-Q, in 
trhiehi iMmbei!t' 'Again- jMoraiJbd 9^^ »«9Hq4] i^^s^n aqd 
•^oOdiehse. •""■' ■■■•'.•' v • ,n-,;, , ....• _:.:,-,. 

Mt^Ma5*ers, Wris now enoooraged %o 'mtro^»ce ^ thtrd ^^ 
bill, tti^ pi*ih*;ijjte andiendencgr oS^M^^W^^^p^Q^ueijtke 
same'ay thttt %hk?h had ibemralriM^. f^^^,.W ^^ 
icouBcif, consequeatly it experifiniod: ^ jiiiK^r (fjEit€;^-|,Six 
Week^ hadeliiipsed sineetiieaMefnlbl^,ba4i^ffi,i^|^j$ ij^nii(Oj)[t« 
anfsuti^i^^^ntx) their eonsideratiQAo d Wi^{|i,J^t tf^ ^^y 
hid 'freqn^^l^ a^youmady de dje ift) d^f^j^nWi^^M \<'^S 
&\ke to come to any decision oh the proper mg|jj)^^ of 
cerR^(^tt^-tHe'«v$k «ndi abases <»iiiq|^aipf4jf^^^^ ^^, as . 
ftbti* the '^Afisfirias^ of tfaei.'tn^ntyithetciojfras Mifefij^ft** 
biliiy' df'Hfefeif Bgfeefai^ :t|paB :4ny>.pJi»yo|t;(j3|^jtorj^ji^e 
jam^ilked cJ(4n'«o^l»feal7kilttei Im 9tlS9iiymifikfi^^!^^fa((ie 
to Ills pM^(%ative,'and,-li(y^^,proc}tkiiHtt^^;j^ Aug. 4. 

4 o 2 

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grain defi^i^tpf t)])el,R or|gifl4 jye^ght, The .^^^jFj^qy pf 
^^h*s€t<?oio^ has^pwtva*iecl (eye^ s^«ce, s^reeable t^c?, thip e^fiit- 
able rCjgiilatiQiu .Ibough it must be evident to, eyeiry-maa^ 
1»ho 19 evw httt fisligbtly -^qquaintec) with the coBiti^tioa pf 
Englaind, that the proclamation waRte^ tfee coBi|(tti^qti><^ 
an act oCth^ legUlatiwe-fa^ laalw il biading. Th»<ri>)ral 
procloquitiott m^ ^fi^soof t»||e ob^rvaaeo or % f)]^«0Utw« 

©fex^lii^ l^vs; but p^itherthci, King, aprbiip r<fpresenta- 
tiy^,«^»,.by p«oclafla^t»oo» ^lafeeJha^ *- Jaw which, wa^ 

net, so. before 


. TJbe bill fcarmer^y $eat dpwn by the council! for i^akfi^ a 
/:x" ,fc#t^r pw>vifioq#)rthp,pjewoB^l sfH?upty .pf «law8 h^oaiig 

^^^¥^'^mr ^*hft)POB#ff filfti90|Wifi,» ^e other jife 
of the ^ateii^ 90ttt|w#iig ^f^s|t t^eBanMM«s,ifoi ^ 

Auf,2i. ^aew«^ w?^.r^giv«4* and.^ bil^P»kiflft ftfewAft}A*WirjkF 
^ ^ l^ajf4^. ^QBjr>, ji4^oat;b^D^t of 

>y I)Q9tQr i^; . whft,.ei»||^ .^; '«(iiol«;,|Q^ p£.^ 

. genius .an4.rh^toiic.i^>.»m^rfc, .;i»e,;,»fitrtw.>M^ A 

-> ;^ *>*A 

^ See thii «^^ €leadr iUi4»t^i»,B^^ Cowii,c»t tol, J. y. 27a 

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akid^ energy ia h^tmt t)f Ue^ 'mfe^ ^^i^&?' 

mefmb^r^ who iatrddiiced tt* bi ^^^^ 

ol>posed ottljbjr prgudioei bt thfi' t 
and humanitj pleaded in sapport c 
served! J high in the estimation of t' 
the nervous eloquence of Husbanc 
genuity of Ifeckles. After a long a 
. JmU< was lost in the corami ttee. 

• f QRhe atrocious conduct of the regiciHes of France, having 1793. 
rendered a war between Great Britain and the French ro- 
pubiic inevitable, tb6 governor, with that prudence which 
distinguished his admiBistration, convened the tegi^ture^ 
and recoQiB^nded the putting of their militia into such a 
s^te a$ to bfe capable of co-opearating with the King^g 
laroops. Sensilble . of the dan^r to wluch tlire islap^ wat 
^fos/^^ from the critical posrture of afl&uvs in Europe, the 
dbsetabty appoiated a conunittee to prepare and bring in a 
nt\¥ mUitia bill: The principal, features of this bill were April 3a 
the diamduntibg of the cavalry, and tlie establi^bjiiient of 
j^nHikoiai regiHieQls. After an ample discussion of its 
prifQoiple and tendency, and various ai0endmeat» had ^eein 
iitad^ by ' the 'hou3e, the bill parsed; but its prepress w^s 
obntufccted bty^^be tmseasouable eKplration of the awpseoiibly, 
whici prevented Us bebg sent up t4^ th^cpttacil^fof their 
caocun^nce. . ' * . 

Hostilities having actually coB»m«oc0d bot^v^eii Qireat 
Britain landt Fraia«e» ab eKpeditwtn against Mttrtittioei :was 

Digitized by 


^98 ..X- . THE history' 

«^HtLi!."- '<todertateiWiby;Aihnira4;)Gar<lner amd General Bruce. . Tbc 

^'^^ ihba*ift(nt&:!6f.!tiiat catiritrjr, participating in the, misfor- 

tiiries'WhJ!^ iffli«ted tbe parent, kiogdonD» were miseroWjr 

divided, 'ahd<I^i«i<^ted>by faction and ?ebelli<m. In ^I^j» 

ideptdr^e slvtMftiod^ tfaej^oraiista sent, a deputation to tbe 

^ ^omfrtlfcfjdfitefr w- chief ,of ' the BHl^h forces at Barba4Qe», 

, requesting his assistance, and stating that they were alrejady 

m pbaMsd'ion df isomeistitMig po9ts> I;i< cop3^qp^^o|