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Beaver County, Pennsylvania, has a wealth of historic in- 
terest beyond what many even of its own most intelligent 
citizens appreciate. The territory which it now includes, or 
which was originally within its limits, lay in the track of the 
earliest of the French and English explorers of the great Missis- 
sippi valley, of which the Ohio River valley forms an integral 
part; it was the scene of the heroic labors of the missionaries 
of the Cross — Jesuit and Moravian, — who built their stations on 
the waters of the beautiful stream which gave its name to the 
county; its Indian villages, such as Shingoe's Town (where 
Beaver now stands) and Logstown, were the home of some of 
the most noted warriors and counsellors of the aboriginal tribes 
and the site of important treaty conferences between those 
tribes and the colonial governments of Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, and its primitive wilds were penetrated by many men 
afterwards illustrious in the history of the Nation — as Wash- 
ington, Bouquet, St. Clair, Harmar, George Rogers Clark, and 
Wayne, — several of whom organized within it or conducted 
through it military expeditions whose results affected the whole 
country. In addition to these historical features, which may 
without exaggeration be said to have had national significance, 
its purely local history has at least as much color and human 
interest as that of any sister county in western Pennsylvania. 

The history of this interesting region will be found in the 
work herewith offered to the public. 

A word as to the origin of this work may be in place. It will 
be sufficient to say that the Executive Committee, which had 
been appointed to arrange for the proper celebration in 1900 of 
the Centennial Anniversary of the erection of Beaver County, 
announced as a part of their plans the publication of a book 

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iv Preface 

" giving a complete and authentic history of ike county." The exe- 
cution of this part of their programme was, for causes beyond 
human control, untimely delayed, and it was not until the 
spring of 1903 that any definite action looking toward its fulfil- 
ment was taken. The writer was at that time requested by the 
chairman and members of the Executive Committee to under- 
take the preparation of such a work as they had had in view, and 
he accepted the task. How far he has succeeded in its accomplish- 
ment, those who may read the work will judge. An examination 
of these volumes will, however, show, it is hoped, that at least 
a conscientious effort has been made to do justice to both the 
early and the later history of the county, including so much of 
the general history of the State and Nation as is necessary to 
put that of the county in its proper relations and perspective. 

A fitting crown to Beaver County's first hundred years of 
history was the Centennial Celebration, held at the county-seat 
in June, 1900, and a record of the proceedings in connection 
therewith belongs appropriately to this work. It will be seen 
that ample space has been devoted to it in volume ii. 

Several articles on the physical features or history of the 
county, which are too long to be incorporated in the chapters 
with which the material which they contain is cognate, will be 
found in the various Appendixes to the work. The value of 
these special articles will be apparent to the reader. 

And here the writer wishes to express his sense of obligation 
to the gentlemen who contributed these special articles and to 
all who have in any way given him their assistance in the prep- 
aration of this history. It would be manifestly impossible to 
designate by name all who have supplied data for it, but through- 
out the volumes wherever matter of considerable length or im- 
portance is quoted the effort has been made to give due credit 
for authorship. It is proper to say here, however, that the 
principal part of the chapters on the history of the Newspaper 
Press of the county and of the borough of New Brighton is from 
the pen of Mr. Francis S. Reader, editor of The Daily News of 
New Brighton, and that the chapter on the Spanish-American 
War was written by William B. Cuthbertson, Esq., of the same 
place. Thanks are also due to Mr. J. Sutton Wall, Chief Drafts- 
man at Harrisburg, for transcripts of public documents and 
maps which he has made specially for this work, to the late Hon. 

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Preface v 

Matthew Stanley Quay for copies of State papers in the Na- 
tional archives at Washington, D. C, and to Mr. Edwin H. 
Anderson and Mr. William M. Stevenson, librarians of the 
Carnegie libraries at Pittsburg and Allegheny City, and Mr. 
John W. Jordan, librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, who gave the writer every facility for the 
examination of the valuable collections under their care. To 
the last-named gentleman he is especially indebted for the priv- 
ilege of making extensive extracts from the manuscripts in the 
Ferdinand J. Dreer Collection and from the Orderly Books of 
Gen. Anthony Wayne, kept while he was at Legionville. He 
would gratefully acknowledge also his indebtedness to the court 
officials and to the gentlemen of the various newspaper staffs of 
Beaver County; to Hon. William B. Dunlap, Hon. T. Living- 
ston Kennedy, Hon. Ira F. Mansfield, James P. Leaf, C. E., 
Agnew Hice, Esq., Thomas Henry, Esq., Charles Reeves May, 
Esq., and especially to John M. Buchanan, Esq., without whose 
intelligent assistance and generous financial support this under- 
taking could not well have been carried through. A general 
acknowledgment of the sources of history which have been 
drawn upon will also be seen in the list of authorities prefixed 
to the first volume. 

A special interest and value it is believed will be found in the 
numerous illustrations, maps, and portraits with which these 
volumes are adorned. In this connection it may be stated, as 
a fact differentiating this publication from others of its class, 
that no revenue has been derived for it by the insertion of por- 
traits or biographies. It does not contain a single biography 
which has been paid for, and where any charge has been made 
for a portrait it has been limited to the cost of reproduction and 
printing. The work is now sent forth with the hope and ex- 
pectation that, despite such errors and imperfections as it may 
contain, it will meet with the kindly reception from the citizens 
of Beaver County which, in its aim at least, it deserves. That 
aim is, — in the language of Bacon, — "to save and recover some- 
what from the deluge of time." We believe it to be a worthy 
aim, for we do not think, with Henley, that 

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vi Preface 

We reverence the past, and would not willingly let its memories 
die. To forget the past is to forfeit the best spiritual possibili- 
ties of the present. This was the lesson that the haunted man 
in one of Dickens's Christmas Stories had learned, and so his 
prayer ever was, "Lord, keep my memory green." 

J. H. Baiisman 

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Physical Aspects op Beaver County .... 
Location — Boundaries — Origin of the Name— Drainage — Soil — 
Topography — Geology — Flora and Fauna — Historic Floods 
— Climatic Peculiarities, etc. 

chapter ii 
Thb Prk-Rbvolutionary Period .... 

Indian Occupation — French and English Claims — Explorers and 
Traders — The Ohio Company — Celeron's Expedition— Alarm 
of Pennsylvania and Virginia Authorities — Washington Sent to 
Fort Le Bceuf— Military Measures — Fort at "Forks of the 
Ohio" — Ward's Surrender — Beginning of French and Indian 
War — Fort Necessity — Braddock's Defeat — Forbes's Expedi- 
tion and Fall of Fort Duquesne — End of French Empire in 
America — Conspiracy of Pontiac — Relief of Port Pitt — Colonel 
Bouquet — Battle of Bushy Run — Bouquet's Expedition 
against the Ohio Indians — Dunmore's War — Mixed Character 
of Settlers — Murder of Logan's Family — Battle of Point 

chapter iii 
Thb Revolutionary Period, and after, to iSoo 

Origin of Revolutionary Spirit — Causes of the Conflict — Train- 
ing of Colonists for it — Part of Western Settlers in Revolu- 
tion — General Clark's Expedition — General Hand's Expedition 
— Girty and Other Renegades — Conduct of British at Detroit — 
General Mcintosh's Expedition — Building of Fort Mcintosh — 
"Brodhead's Road" — Fort Laurens— Distress of its Garrison 

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ii Contents 

— Relations of Mcintosh and Brodhead — Descriptions of Fort 
Mcintosh— Brodhead in Command — Indian Troubles — Irvine 
in Command — Mutinous Troops — Their Hardships — Military 
Executions at Port Mcintosh — Decay of that Post — Indian 
Treaty There — Surrender of Prisoners — Visit to Fort Mcintosh 
of Boundary Commissioners — Evacuation — Demolition — 
Blockhouse at New Brighton — Sam. Brady — Defeats of Har- 
mar and St. Clair — Wayne's Camp at Legionville — His Victory 
at Maumee— Its Results — Boundary Controversy between 
Pennsylvania and Virginia: Its Origin, Progress, and Settle- 
ment — The "New State" Movement. 

chapter iv 

The First Settlers and their Life .... 

The Scotch- Irish — The Germans — The Moravians — Date of Early 
Settlements — Claims of Priority — Incidents of Indian Incur- 
sions — The Poes and Captain Brady — The Last Indian Murder 
— North Side Settlers — Pioneer Life — "Forts" and Block- 
houses — Dress and Provisions — Homes and Furniture — 
Sports and Diversions — Morals and Manners — Religious Be- 
liefs and Superstitions — Education. 


First Land Titles . 

" Land-grabbing," Indian, Swedish, Dutch, and English— Duke of 
York's Tenure — William Penn's Tenure — Conveyances — 
Manors — Extinguishment of Indian Title — Purchases of 1768 
' and 1784 — Treaty of Fort Mcintosh, 1785 — Depreciation and 

Donation Lands — Reservations — Land Act of 1 79 1 — Land 
Companies— Litigation Resulting — Pennsylvania and Virginia 

chapter vi 
Erection and Organization 1 

Need of New Counties — Eight Counties Formed — Boundaries of 
Beaver County Defined — Commissioners Named — Personal 
Sketches of First Commissioners — Organization of Courts — 
Admission of First Attorneys — First County Officers — First 
Grand Jury — Constables Appointed — Licenses Granted — 
Justices' Districts — First Deed and Will — Commissioners' Re- 
port of 1806 — Erection of County Buildings — Civil List — 
Personal Sketches of United States Senators, Members of Con- 
gress and of the State Senate. 

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Contents ix 


County Development 235 

Indian Trails — Brodhead's Road — County and State Roads 
— Bridges — Canals — Ohio River Dams — Steam Railways — 
Railway Contrasts — Street Railways — Water, Fuel, and Light- 
ing Companies — Banking Institutions — Mail Facilities — 
Growth of Population. 


County Development (continued) 376 

Nature's Part — Agricultural Progress — Pioneer Means and 
Methods of Farming — Modern Conditions — State Aids — Agri- 
cultural Societies- — Farmers' Associations- — Agricultural Sta- 
tistics — Mineral Resources— Manufacturing — Pioneer Industries 
— Early Mills and Factories — Era of Speculation — Hindrances 
and Helps to Growth of Industrial Life — Boat- Building in 
Beaver County — Iron and Steel Industries — Fire-clay Pro- 
ducts — Oil Refining — Manufacturing Statistics. 

chapter ix 

Legal History — Bench and Bar 304 

Previous Jurisdictions — Virginia Courts — Organization of Beaver 
County Courts — -Judicial Districts — Character of First Officers 
Sketches of President Judges — Assodat* Judges — First At- 
torneys — Prominent Early Attorneys — Attorneys of Later 
Date, Deceased — Simplicity of Early Suits — Fees — Cele- 
brated Causes — Law Association — Roll of Attorneys. 


Medical History 370 

Tributes to Profession — Scope of Chapter' — Sketches of Prominent 
Physicians, Deceased — Healthfulness of Beaver County — 
Noted Epidemics — Beaver County Medical Society — Hospitals. 


Educational History 393 

Merits of Common-School System — Influence of Teachers — 
Pioneer Schools — State Aid — Lotteries Authorized — Efforts 
for Common-School Law — Act of 1834 — Directors Elected — 
Tax Laid — Inspectors — Repeal Discussed — System Inaugu- 
rated — School Buildings — Teachers' Associations — Early 
Teachers — County Superintendents — Teachers' Institutes — 
Statistics — Higher Education. 

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Religious History . 

Religious Spirit of Pioneers — Roman Catholicism — Mora vian Mis- 
sion on the Big Beaver (Friedenstadt) — Presbytarianism — 
Methodism — United Brethren in Christ — Church of God — 
Baptists — Lutheranistn — Disciples of Christ — Evangelical As- 
sociation — Congregational Church — Protestant Episcopal 



The First Newspaper — News-Letters — First Newspaper in Eng- 
lish — First English Daily — Journalistic Development in the 
United States — First Colonial Newspapers — First Religious 
Journals — Newspapers in Pennsylvania — Great Modern News- 
paper Plants— Character of the American Press — History of 
the Newspaper Press of Beaver County. 

Military History 474 

Connection of Beaver County with the Revolution— Revolutionary 
Veterans and Pensioners — War of 181a — Patriotic Proceedings 
— Rosters of Troops — Mexican War — The Alamo — Causes and 
Commencement of Hostilities — Enlistments — War of the 
Rebellion — Introductory Remarks — Patriotic Mass Meetings — 
Citizens' Committees Appointed — Home Guards — List of 
Commissioned Officers — Sketches of Regiments in which 
Beaver County was Represented — Beaver County Men in the 
U. S. Naval Service — Rosters of Troops in the War of the 


Bbaver County in tub Spanish- American War . 1 

Volunteering — Company B, Tenth Regiment — Response to Call of 
President McKinley— Mustered in — Tenth Regiment Ordered 
to the Philippines — At Camp Merritt — At Honolulu — In Camp 
Dewey — First Engagement at Malate — In Attack upon Manila 
— Corregidor Island and Cavite — Return to San Francisco — 
Mustered out — Receptions at Pittsburg and New Brighton — 
List of Officers and Men. 

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Beaver Borough 613 

Situation- — Relation to other Valley Towns — Beaver Laid out — 
Sale of Lots — Judge Addison's Letters Relating thereto — Desig- 
nation as County-Seat — Incorporation — Changes of Borough 
Limits — Water Works — Early Notices of Beaver — Early 
Borough Officials and Records — Harris's Directory for 1837 — 
Beaver Academy — Female Seminary — Beaver College and 
Musical Institute — Public Schools—Churches — Banks and 
Building and Loan Associations — Cemeteries — Secret Societies 
— Hotels — Post-office — Population — Fort Mcintosh — Naming of 
Public Squares. 


Beaver Falls Borough 665 

Situation — Water Power — Gen. Daniel Brodhead's Land War- 
rants — Doctor Samuel Adams — Adamsville — Early Enterprises 
— Town Plot — Constable Bros. — Names of Town — Other Early 
Enterprises — Harris's Directory for 1841 — James Patterson's 
Town Plot — Purchase by Harmony Society and their Influence 
— Incorporation — National Armory Recommended — Manu- 
facturing Enterprises — Banks, etc. — Churches — Public Schools 
— Business Colleges — The Young Men's Christian Association — 
Societies— Hotels and Theaters— Fire Department — News- 
papers — Post-office and Population. 


New Brighton Borough 

Location — Depreciation Tracts on which it was Laid out Described 
— First Flouring Mill— The "Old Red Front" — Aaron Burr's 
Operations — Constable Bros. — Origin of Name, New Brighton 
-—OH Bill of Sale of Lots — Pioneer Enterprises — Early Pros- 
perity and Depression — Branch of United States Bank — Early 
Educational Movements — Public Schools — Manufactories — 
Churches and Societies — Anti- Slavery Agitation — Hotels — 
Financial Institutions — Post-office — Grove Cemetery — New 
Brighton's Patriotism — Secret Societies and Orders — Incor- 
poration — Poptdation — Notable Residents. 

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xii Contents 

chapter xix 
Fallston Borough 

Location — Indian Occupation— Brady's Adventures — Pioneer 
Settlements— Manufacturing Developments — Harris's Direc- 
tory — Fallston Bridge — Religious and Educational Features — 

N e wspapers — Post- office — Population — Incorporation. 

chapter xx 

Rochester Borough 

Location — The Canal — Railways — Incorporation — The Indian 
Village — Pioneer Settlements — Relation to Beaver Borough- 
Ancient Lanes — Influence of Canal — Rochester's Names — 
Harris's Dinctory — Marcus T. C. Gould — Manufacturing Inter- 
ests — Financial Institutions— Churches — Schools — Passavant 
Memorial Home; — Secret Societies — Hotels — Cemeteries — Post- 
office — Semi-Centennial Celebration — Growth and Population 
— East Rochester — North Rochester. 

chapter xxi 

Bridgbwater Borough 

Relation to Beaver Borough — Consolidation with Sharon — Situa- 
tion — Wolf Lane Bridge — Early Settlers — Directories of Sharon 
and Bridgewater — Aaron Burr's Operations — Silk Culture — In- 
corporation — Joseph Hemphill — "Beaver Point" and "Stone's 
Point" — Boat-Building — Bridgewater in Early 40 's — Military 
Organizations — Manufacturing — Schools — Peirsol's Academy 
— Churches — Post-office — Hotels — Population . 

chapter xxii 
Freedom Borough 

Situation— Origin of the Village — Steamboat Building — Boundary 
Lines — Streets and Alleys — "Shanty Town" — Early House- 
holders—Valuation of Lots- — First Child Born in Freedom — 
Incorporation- — Succession of Boat- Building Firms — Various 
Business Finns — Directory for 1841 — Post-office — Churches — 
Schools — Financial Institutions — Manufacturing Concerns of 
the Present — Cemetery — St. Clair Borough, Incorporation 
with Freedom — Population. 

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Contents xiii 

chapter xxiii 

Monaca Borough 796 

Situation — Helvedi — Phillips & Graham — Boat Yards — Harmony 
Society Secession — Count de Leon — The New Philadelphia So- 
ciety — Disruption of the Society — Religious Fanatic — Water 
Cure Sanatorium — Soldiers' Orphans School — Incorporation — 
Change of Name to Monaca — Harris's Directory — Manuf acturing 
Establishments — Financial Institutions — Churches — Schools — 
Thiel College — City HaQ — Post-office — Population. 

chapter xxiv 
History of the Smaller Boroughs of the County . 810 

Darlington Borough- — Hookstown Borough — Frankfort Springs 
Borough — Georgetown Borough — Glasgow Borough — New 
Galilee Borough — Baden Borough — College Hill Borough — 
Eastvale Borough — Aliquippa Borough — Patterson Heights 
Borough — Conway Borough. 


History of the Formation of the Townships 853 

Sources of History — Previous County Connections of Territory of 
Beaver County — Townships of Parent Counties Covering that 
Territory— -Original Townships of Beaver County— Relative 
Position of Various Townships — Changes Made in Formation 
of New Townships — Little Beayer, Big, Beaver, North Sewick- 
ley, New Sewickley — Shenango Township — Borough Town- 
ship — Ohio Township — New-Modeling of South Side Territory 
Forming New Townships of Greene, Moon, and Hopewell — 
Brighton and Chippewa Townships — Economy Township — 
Raccoon Township — Slippery Rock Township — Rochester 
Township — Patterson Township — Wayne, Perry, and Marion 
Townships — Darlington Township — Independence— Franklin- 
Harmony — Industry — Pulaski — White — Daugherty — Changes 
Made by Erection of Lawrence County. 


Townships South of the Ohio River .... 893 

Hanover Township: Frankfort Springs Borough — Harshaville — 

Hanover United Presbyterian Church — King's Creek United 

Presbyterian Church — Mt. Olivet Presbyterian Church — 

Greene Township: Georgetown and Hookstown Boroughs — 

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v Contents 

Shippingport — Mill Creek Presbyterian Church — Tomlinson's 
Run United Presbyterian Church — Moon Township: Monaca 
Borough — Colonia — North Branch Presbyterian Church — 
Hopewell Township: Mt. Carmel Presbyterian Church — Rac- 
coon United Presbyterian Church — Aliquippa Borough — 
Shannopin — New Scottsville — New Sheffield — Woodlawn — 
Raccoon Township: Service United Presbyterian Church — Eu- 
dolpha Hall— Bethlehem Presbyterian Church — Mt. Pleas- 
ant United Presbyterian Church — Independence Township: 
Independence — New Bethlehem United Presbyterian Church. 

chapter xxvii 

Townships North of thb Ohio and Wbst of thb Big 

Beaver 925 

South Beaver Township: Rayltown and Blackhawk — Big Beaver 
Township : Homewood — Homewood Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Borough Township: Vanport — Dravo Chapel — Van- 
port Presbyterian Church— Okie Township: Smith's Ferry — 
Smith's Ferry Oil Field — Ohioville — St. Paul's Protestant 
Episcopal Church — New Salem Presbyterian Church — Four 
Mile Square United Presbyterian Church — Brighton Township 
—Darlington Township: Coal Companies of Darlington Town- 
shir; — Cannelton — St. Rose's R C. Church — Industry Township: 
Village of Industry — Presbyterian Church of Industry — Oak 
Grove Union Chapel — Oak Grove Cemetery — Patterson Town- 
ship — White Township. 

chapter xxviii 

Townships North of thb Ohio River and East of 

of the Big Bbavbr 950 

New Sewickley Township: Unionville — Unionville Methodist Epis- 
copal Church — Oakland United Presbyterian Church — The 
Knob Baptist Church— Oak Grove Lutheran Church — House 
of Mercy, Lutheran Church — St. John's United Evangelical 
Protestant Church — North Sewickley Township: Providence 
Baptist Church — North Sewickley Academy — North Sewickley 
Presbyterian Church — Concord Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Economy Township: Concord Presbyterian Church — Rehobotb 
Lutheran Church— St. John the Baptist's R. C. Church — Roches- 
ter Township: Gen. Abner Lacock — Dam No. 5 — National Glass 
Company — H. C. Fry Glass Company— The Free Methodist 
Church — Marion Township — Franklin Township: Lillyville — 
St. Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church — Camp Run United 
Presbyterian Church — Harmony Township: Logstown, its 

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Contents xv 

History in Detail — Legionville and Major-General Wayne, with 
tall Historical Data, Extracts from Orderly Books, Letters, etc. 
— General Victor Collot's Tour — Economy and the Harmony 
Society, their History in Extensa — The Union Company — The 
Liberty Land Company — Ambridge and the American Bridge 
Company — Pulaski Township Dougherty Township: Oak 
Grove Presbyterian Church — The Roman Catholic Cemetery. 


Tuesday, Junb ig, 1900. Opening Day . , 1044 

Wbdnbsday, June ao, 1900. Military Day . 1088 

Thursday, June 31, 1900. Old Settlers' Day 1115 

Friday, June aa. Industrial Day .... 1171 
Centennial Sketch op Beaver County, by ex-Chief 

Justice Daniel Agnbw 1178 


No. I. — The Geology of Beaver County, by Rich- 
ard R. Hicb 1 1 87 

No. II. — The Flora of Beaver County, by Ira F. 

Mansfield 1193 

No. III. — The Mammal and Bird Fauna op Beaver 

County, by W. E. Clyde Todd 1195 

No. IV. — A and B, Treaties at Fort McIntosh 1303 

No. V. — List op Early Taxablbs of Beaver County, 1315 
No. VI. — Depreciation Lands — Pennsylvania Popu- 
lation Company, by Thomas Henry 1337 
No. VII. — Disposition of Lands in the Reserve 
Tract at Beaver, with Seven Maps, by 

J. Sutton Wall 1335 

No. VIII. — The Manufacture of Iron and Steel in 

Beaver County, by James M. Swank. 1365 
No. IX. — Gbn. Samuel H. Parsons — Correspond- 
ence, etc. 1371 

No. X. — A Human Document — Extracts from 

Journal op Rev. Robert Dilworth, D.D. 1379 

Index 1291 

Festival March, by J. S. Duss 1317 

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Achbson, A. W 320 

Adams, Milo 37G 

Addison, Alexander 343 

Agnew, Daniel 314. 37* 

Allison, George W 37a 

Allison, James, Jr 346 

Allison, William 350 

Anderson, John, His Residence 916 

Baldwin, Henry 348 

Bar of Beaver County, 1889 366 

Bar of Beaver County, 1903 368 

Bar of Beaver County, Additional Group ofJMem- 

bers of 370 

Beaver, 1843 ........ 202 

Beaver, 1859 202 

Beaver Methodist Episcopal Church, Old . 648 

Beaver Methodist Episcopal Church, New (Second), 650 

Beaver Presbyterian Church, Old .... 644 

Beavbr Presbyterian Church, New .... 646 

Beaver Public School Building .... 396 

Beavbr Public Squares 662 

Beavbr Station op Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railway, 262 
Beavbr Valley — Looking up the Big Beaver from 

Monaca Heights 4 

Bliss, Zadoc 374 

Bradpord, A. B . 818 

Brbdin, John 312 

Bridge near Mouth of Brady's Run, 1827 724 

Bridgewater Bridge (Old) 240 

Buchanan, John M 1042 

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xviii List of Illustrations 

Cairns, William 338 

Celeron, De, Facsimile op Buried Plate op . 42 
Centennial Arch, with Procession op School Chil- 
dren ......... 1040 

Centennial Executive Committee . 1044, 1046, 1048 

Chamberlw, B. B. 318 

Court-house, First (Shown in " Beaver, 1843 ") 202 

Court-house, Second ....... 204 

Court-house, Second (Another View) . 208 

Court-house, Present 206 

Croghan, George, Facsimile op Letter prom 38 

Cunningham, Thomas 352 

cuthbertson, john 504 

Darragh, Robert 228 

Daugherty, E. B 358 

Davidson, J. J 226 

Dickey, John 228 

Dickey, Oliver J 354 

Dilworth, Robert 822 

Dravo, John F 252 

Dufp, Agnew 334 

Dustin, Bernard, his Residence .... 812 

Economy Seen prom South Side (Lbpt Bank) op Ohio 

River 1006 

Economy, Street Scenes in 1008 

Economy, the Harmony Society "Great House" 1016 

Economy — The Harmony Society Church . 1018 

Economy — The Harmony Society Feast House . 1020 

Economy, Group op Views in 1022 

Eudolpha Hall 918 

Fallston Public School Building .... 274 

Ferry Boat "Messenger" 294 

Fetterman, N. P 226 

Flat-Boat (Pioneer) 296 

Flood op 1884, Two Views op 10 

Fort McIntosh 92 

Fort McIntosh, Facsimile op Signatures at Treaty 

op between 1 210 and 1211 

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List of Illustrations xix 

Fox's Sickle Factory on ago 

Freedom Boat Yards 300 

Fry, Walter L 538 

Geneva College 846 

German Manufacturing Company's Building at 

Phillipsburg on 798 

Gibson, John B 344 

Girard Locks and Present Bridgbwatbr Bridge 246 

Gould, M. T. C 738 

Great Western File Works 390 

Greenwood, Grace (Sarah Jane Clarke) . 733 

Greersburg Academy 814 

Hand-bill op War op 1813, Facsimile op 478 

Harhar, Josiah no 

Harmony Society Burial Ground, Harmony, Butler 

County 1013 

Harsha, John ........ 406 

Henrici, Jacob 1014 

Henry, Hon. Thomas 333 

Henry, William (Editor) 456 

Henry, William (First Shbripp op Beaver County) . 196 

Hice, Henry 333 

Hooves, Edward 733 

Hotel, First, in Bbavbr Falls 698 

Hughes, Thomas E 816 

Irvin, Joseph 336 

Irvine, William 98 

Jail Building and Sheripp's Residence . 308 

Kennedy, Samuel 708 

Lacock, Abnbr 330 

Lambing, A. A 1132 

Lawrence, Milton 378 

Littbll, John S 732 

Lyon, Jambs 654 

McElwbe, William Meek ...... 830 

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xx List of Illustrations 

McGregor, R. G . . 404 

McGuffey, William H on 815 

McGuffin, L. L 316 

McIntosh, Lachlan . . Frontispiece, vol. i. 

Mansfield, LP 1176 

Map, Outline, of Beaver County in 1817 . . 882 

Map, Outline, op Beaver County in 1903 . . . xxv 
Map, Draft A, Extract from Reading Howell's Map 

of 1 79 1 on 856 

Map, Draft B, Depreciation Lands ... on 857 
Map, Draft C, Showing Section op Washington 

County on 859 

Map, Draft D, Showing Section of Washington 

County on 860 

Map, Draft E, Showing Townships of Beaver County 

in 1800 on 864 

Map, Draft F, Showing South Beaver Township as 

Divided in 1801 on 869 

Map, Draft G, Showing North Beaver Township in 

1800 on 874 

Map, Draft H, Showing Four Townships on South 

Side, Formed in 181a on S80 

Map, Draft, Illustrating Boundary Controversy 

between Pennsylvania and Virginia on 140 

Map, Draft, Showing Site of Fribdenstadt on 427 

Map, Draft, Showing Site of "Old Logstown" . on 973 
Map, Draft, of Reserve Tract at Beaver by Daniel 

Leet on 1244 

Map, Draft, of Reserve Tract at Beaver by Alex- 
ander McClean . . . . 94 
Maps, Drafts, Showing Disposition op Land in Re- 
serve Tract at Beaver, Seven, and Plan, 

between 1264 and 1265 
Map, Draft, op Early Justice's Districts . . . 198 

Map, Extract prom Collot's Map op Ohio River in 

1796 626 

Map op Falls of Beaver and Vicinity (Beaver Val- 
ley about 1833), by Gould 234 

Map, Showing the Various Purchases Made prom the 

Indians on 109 

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List of Illustrations xxi 

Map, Outline, op Virginia Claims in Southwestern 

Pennsylvania 134 

Map, Sketch of Frontier of Western Pennsylvania 

in 1792, by David Redice, Esq. ... on 126 

Mecklem, M. F 326 

Merrill Lock (i) 248 

Merrill Lock (a) 250 

Mile Post 238 

Miles, Nelson A 1110 

Minis, David, Jr 373 

Moore, A. S 364 

Moore, Jesse 304 

Morgan, George 68 

Muster Roll of Garrison at Blockhouse on Big 

Beaver, Facsimile 114 

Nesbit, John 334 

New Brighton Flag-tower 610 

New Brighton Fourth Ward Schoolhousb and Cen- 
tral High School Building 408 

New Brighton, Government Building (Post-office), 

at 374 

New Brighton, View op, from Lower End of Beaver 

Falls ......... 700 

New Brighton, Views in .... 714 

Nicholson, Thomas 406 

Ohio River Bridge 244 

"Old Brighton" (1853), now Beaver Falls . 666 

Patterson, James 668 

Penn, William, Facsimile of Portion of his Charter 

prom Charles II 180 

Phillipsburg, View op, in 1842 796 

plctographs at smith's ferry (4) 930,932, 934,936 

Plumer, William S 830 

Power, James M 230 

Power, T. J * . , 333 

Pugh, John 704 

Pugh, Joseph T 706 

Digit zed by GOOglt' 

xxii List of Illustrations 

Quay, Matthew Stanley 220 

Railway Engines op Different Periods . . . 264 

Rapp, George 1012 

Reeves, John 668 

Reid, James 654 

Roberts, R. P S l8 

Roberts, Samuel 306 

Rochester High School Building .... 398 

Rose, Walter A 390 

Rutan, James S 360 

Schoolhouse, An Old-time 394 

Scott, John 338 

Scroggs, Gen. G. A 348 

Shaler, Charles 310 

Shallenbergbr, A. T 383 

Shallenberger, 0. B 526 

Shallenbergbr, W. S 222 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Beaver . 474 
Soldiers' Monument, Darlington . . .51a 

Soldiers' Monument, Freedom 510 

Soldiers' Monument, New Brighton .... 508 

Stanton, David 384 

Stone's Point, 1850 772 

Stowe, Edwin H 374 

Taylor, R. T 643 

Townsend, Benjamin 708 

Townsend, Charles Champlin 324 

Townsend, Robert ....... 732 

Townsbnd's Wire Mills 730 

Vera, J. A 504 

War Poster, 1861 494 

Wayne, Anthony .... Frontispiece, vol. ii. 
Wayne's Camp at Legionville, Plan op Rbmaining 

Intrenchments of 1003 

Wayne's Camp at Legionville, Views of Redoubt at, 1004 

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List of Illustrations 

Waynbsborough and 

St. Davie 




Wayne's Monument .... group 1000 

Wbndt, C. I. . 

- • 384 

Wbyand, Michael . 

45 6 

Wickham, J. J. 


Wilkins, William . 


Wilson, Frank 


Wilson, Jambs Sharp 


Wilson, Joseph C. . 


Wilson, Joseph H. 


Wilson, Samuel B. 


Wilson's Mill, 1850 


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b, Google 


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Location — Boundaries — Origin of the Name — Drainage — Soil — Topog- 
raphy — Geology — Flora and Fauna — Historic Floods — Climatic 
Peculiarities, etc. 

Beaver County, one of the westernmost range of the counties 
of Pennsylvania, and the third, reckoning northward, from the 
southwestern corner of the State, lies along the Ohio and West 
Virginia lines, and embraces territory on both sides of the Ohio 
River and the Big Beaver Creek. It was erected March ia, 
iSoo, 1 and was then bounded on the north by Mercer County, 
on the east by Butler County, on the southeast by Allegheny 
County, on the south by Washington County, and on the west 
by the States of Ohio and Virginia. Its dimensions then were: 
length, 34 miles; breadth, 19 miles; area, 646 square miles, or 
413,440 acres. On March ao, 2 1849, a part of its territory was 
stricken off to help form Lawrence County, which is now its 
northern boundary, and its area was thus reduced to 45a square 
males, or 389,380 acres. Since the organization of West Vir- 
ginia in 1861, the so-called "Pan-Handle" of that State partly 
bounds it on the west. 

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2 History of Beaver County 


The name "Beaver" was doubtless given to the county from 
the stream and town so called which were within its limits at the 
time of its erection, and the town had been named from the 
stream. As to the origin of the name of the stream itself, we 
need be in no doubt. It was a translation into English of the 
Indian word for beaver, after which much-prized animal the 
aborigines had named the stream. This word in the Delaware 
tongue was Atnockwi. 1 The Delawares called the stream 
Amockwi-sipu or Amockwi-hanne, literally, "Beaver stream." ■ 
They gave this name to the creek on account of its being a 
favorite home of the beaver.* The French, who were the first 
whites to reach this region, merely translated the Indian name 
for the stream, calling it, as we learn from a map in Pouchot's 
Memoires,* "Riviere au Castor" (" Beaver River"), and the Eng- 

1 The famous chief of the Delaware* who waa known to the English a* "King Beaver," 
bore thin name, Amockwi (sometimes spelled Kwmaque : also Tum-Uik-wa, or Tamaqui) . 
He lived on the Big Beaver, and probably took his name from it, lather than gave his name 

1 " Big Beaver creek waa called by the Indiana amockkwi sipu or amochk banne : i. * .. 
'beaver stream.' "—Indian Local Nanus. byS. G. Boyd. York. Fa., 1885. p. 5. 

The suffix hanm in the Indian name of this creek was the common name anions the 
Delaware* for stream or river. It is easily recognised in Snsqm-kanna, Loyal-hanna, etc., 
more obscurely in Rappahannock, Tunkhannoch, Ntshatmack, and ia believed by many 
authorities to form, with the adjective nWkit or oolik. meaning most beautiful, the name 
of the river Allegheny. It ia to be observed that Indian words are subject to aa many differ- 

it is easy to believe that oolikkanm became ultimately AUtg amy. We prefer this derivation 
to that which Heckawelder gives from AUtunA. the name of a probably mythical tribe of 
laJlaBsi which the Delawares boa s ted of having formerly subdued. See note on "Ohio," 
just below (p. 4.V 

■ Heckeweleer, the Moravian missionary to the Delaware Indians, says'. "All the 
streams to which the Indians have given a name, such name is either deecriptive of the 
stream itself or something in or about it." And we have recently found very interesting 
early proof that the waters of Beaver Creek and ita tributaries abounded with the ajpjmej 
in question. Speaking of the coming of the Delaware Indians to the Ohio, Loalriel says 
"The warriors finding the land near the Ohio very pleasant, and the bravtr-kuni in Btavr 
Crrth very prodmctm, they settled there, and were followed in time by many of their country - 
men "— (History of Mat Mission of far Uniud Brtlkrtn amain tin Indians in North Amtrica 
by George Henry Loslael. London. 1J94- Part I., p, ijj.) In the narrative of hia cap- 
tivity among the Indian?, one of the best ever written. Colonel James Smith says: "In this 
manner we proceeded about forty miles [from the east branch of the Cuyahoga], and 
wintered on the waters of Beaver creek, near a little lake or pond, which is about two 
miles long and one broad, and a rtmarhablt plact for bravtrs." In a note on this passage, 
William 11, Darlington locates this place as one of the numerous beaver ponds on the head- 
waters of the Mahoning, a branch of the Big Beaver.— (See An Account of Iht RtmorktMt 
Oceurrmctl in Iht Lift and Travtls of Col. Jamts Smith Lexington, Ky„ 1709. Robert 
Claries A Co.'s Reprint. Cincinnati O.. 1870, pp. si. 17J.) 

• Mrmov upon tin Lou War in North Amtrica brmtn tin Frtnck and Entlisk, by M, 

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History of Beaver County 3 

lish, when they came, did the same thing, as all the early jour- 
nals, etc., as Weiser's, Post's, and Croghan's, name the stream 
Beaver. Previous to the laying out of a town and outlots at the 
mouth of this stream, under the Act of September 38, 1791,' the 
point was known by the Indian names of Sawkunk ' and 
Skingoe's town, and by the English as "the old French town"; 
later it was called Mcintosh, from the fort there, and the town 
laid out by the legislative action referred to was called Beaver, 
and, in intention at least, marked as the county seat of the new 
county which was in near prospect of erection. It was na- 
tural, therefore, that when the time arrived for the erection of 
that county, it should receive a name associated with the most 
important stream and locality belonging distinctively to its 
territory, and it was accordingly called Beaver. 

1 -i Smith's L. 56. 

■ Sawkunk. There an many ways of ■pelting thii word. — Sawkunk, Sawkung, Sacunk 
Sacung. Segunk, Saucon, Sohlton, Satikon, and others. There were many Sewlcunks in 
the country, the name, according to Heckewekler. being a Delaware word meaning "at 
the mouth of a stream," or, "an outlet." Heckewelder describee the Sawkunk hare a* 
'"the outlet of the Rig Braverinto the Ohio; a point well known to all Indiana: towarriors 
of different and most distant tribe*; their rendesvous in the French wan ; their thorough - 
Care and place of transit; a point of observation, and the scene of frequent contests and 
bloodshed. It was the best known of the many Saucona in the Indian country." 

The main Indian settlement, so-called, was on the west side of the Big Beaver Creek. 
This appears from what Christopher Poet says in his second journal (1758): for having 
been some time at Sawkunk, and setting out for Port Duquesne, he had to crau the Beaver. 
He aay« : "" the Beaver creek being very high, it was almost two o'clock in the afternoon 
before we came over the creek." There was a settlement about three quarters of a mile 
or a mile, below the mouth of the Beaver, and then was a hamlet near its fording. Both 
an spoken of in the iournal of Bouquet's march against the Ohio Indiana in 1764, a* else- 
where quoted, as follows; 

"About a mile below its [the Beaver's] confluence with the Ohio stood formerly a large 
town on the steep bank, built by the French of square logs, with stone chimneys, for some 
of the Shawanes*. Datawares and Mingoea, who abandoned it in the year 1758. when the 
French abandoned Port Duitueane. Near tbe fording of Beaver creek also stood about 
seven houses, which were deserted and destroyed by the Indians after their defeat on Bushy 
run, when they forsook all the remaining settlements in this part of the country." 

George Croghan. in his journal, refers to the former in his entry of Hay 16, 1765, He 
says: "About a mile below the mouth of Beaver creek we passed aa old settlement of the 
Delaware*, where the French in 17)6. built a town for that nation. On the north side of 

As mentioned in the text, the Act of Assembly directing the laying out of the town of 
Beaver speaks of this settlement, calling it " the old French town." It stood about on the 
present site of Groveland, 

We can see no reason for limiting tbe name Sawkunk to the hamlet of seven house* at 
the fording, as some have done. It seem* more likely that tbe name* "Sawkunk," "Shin- 
gee's town," etc all referred to the general Indian settlement about the month of the 
Beaver, including the hamlet and especially the larger and more important town below it, 

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History of Beaver County 

Its principal stream is the Ohio River, 1 which, entering the 
county on the southeast, flows in a generally northwesterly di- 
rection to a point slightly northeast of the centre, where, re- 
ceiving the waters of the Big Beaver, it turns immediately to its 
great southwestern course towards the Mississippi. But the 
"beautiful river," as the Indians, and after them the French, 
called it, is not the only important stream within the limits of 
the county. The Big Beaver, just mentioned, though ordinarily 
spoken of as Big Beaver "creek," is sometimes, and not im- 
properly, we think, called Big Beaver "river." This large 
stream flows through the county from north to south, and emp- 
ties into the Ohio about twenty-six miles below the confluence 
of the Allegheny and the Monongahela, dividing the northern 

1 Ohto ia Englishnd from "O-he-yu," the nunc given to the Allegheny River by the 
Sonacaa who lived around iu headwater*. The word mean* "beautiful river"; hence the 
French name, "La Belle Riviere." applied to the stream in it* whole length, above aa well 
ai below Pituburs- This, etymology and the connection of the Indian nunc of the river 
with the French name ha* been disputed by some. An article by the celebrated H. H. 
Brackeuridge, Baq., published in the first iiaue of the PiUsbmgk GamtU, July 10, 1786. says : 

" Ohio is mill to signify, in aome of the Indian language*, bloody; bo that the Ohio river 
may be translated the River of Blood. The French have called it La Belle Riviere, that 
ia the Beautiful or Fair River: but this is not intended by them as having any relation to 
the name Ohio." (See also Modem CMeairy, p. ids, by the same writer.) 

We think the etymology and connection suggested above correct, nevertheless^ The 
Rev. Timothy Aldra, of Mead ville. Pa., who was intimately acquainted with Cornplantcr, 
the Senrsa chief, and who understood several of the Indian languages, in an article which 
appeared in the AUigfmy Matarmi. in 1816 (quoted fully in Craig's Tht Oidtn Tim*, p 
3»s), has the following remark: 

" The fact is, the Allegheny river, now so called, was always known by the name of 
Ho-he-yu or Oh-he-yu, in ancient times, and the Seneca* are still tenacious of this appella- 
tion. It. aa well aa the modem Ohio, is a 'handsome' or 'beautiful' river, according 
to the original import." 

With this agree* Heckewetder 1 * account. Speaking of the tribe of AUagewi Indian*, 
be aays •: 

" The Allegheny river and mountains have indubitably been named after them. The 
Delaware* still call the former AUigwmi Sipm. the river of the Allipewi. We have adopted, 
I know not For what reason, its Iroquois name. Ohio, which the French had literally trans- 
lated into La BtUt Rtaiirt, the Beautiful River. A branch of it, however, still retains the 

ie following note : 

" By Celeron and other early exploier* the names 'Ohio' and 'Beautiful' were applied 
to the Allegheny aa well a* to the river now called Ohio. Marshall (Di Ctloron's Expedition 
to tht Okie. p. 1 jS) says that the Senecas do the same even now," 

* We cite Heckewelder only for hi* testimony to the connection between the Iroquois 
and French names of the Ohio. Hi* derivation of the name AUtihny from a tribe 
called AUtitwi ia erroneous, student* generally regarding the Delaware tradition concern- 
ing the ex istence of such a tribe a* mythical although such high authorities a* Schoolcraft 
and Bancroft have followed this tradition in their account* of the Delawarea 

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History of Beaver County 5 

division of the county into two nearly equal parts. It is formed 
by the Mahoning, Shenango, Neshannock, and Conoquenessing 
creeks; the first being its main branch or tributary. Below the 
junction of the Mahoning and Shenango the Big Beaver flows a 
little east of south twenty miles to its mouth on the Ohio. All 
the northwestern portion of Pennsylvania and a part of Ohio 
contribute the waters which form this stream. In point of pic- 
turesqueness and in wealth of historic incident and romantic 
legend, few streams in the State can be justly compared with it.* 

Little Beaver Creek heads in Mahoning County, Ohio, enters 
Pennsylvania, and after flowing through Lawrence and Beaver 
counties, re-enters Ohio. From Columbiana County, that State, it 
makes a little loop into Beaver County, and out again, and after 
many meanderings through Columbiana County re-enters 
Beaver County and empties into the Ohio River just within the 
Pennsylvania line. 

On the south side of the county is Raccoon Creek, a consider- 
able stream, which rises in the western part of Washington 
County, and flows northward through Beaver County into the 
Ohio River. Its mouth is several miles below that of the Big 
Beaver and on the opposite side of the river. Here Washington, 
in his trip down the Ohio in 1770, paused long enough to note 
that "at its mouth and up it" there was "a good body of land." 
Travis ' and Service creeks are its tributaries in Beaver County. 
Near the State line on the same side of the county comes in Mill 
Creek, s 

' In Lewis Evans's annlyois of hii map of 175s (quoted in Pownall's enlargement 
thereof, p. 40*) it the following remark: 

" Beaver Creek is navigable with Canoes only. At Kiahkuskes, about 16 Miles up. Two 
Branches spread opposite Ways; one interlocks with French Creek and Chernge, the other 
Westward with Muskingum svnd Cayahfiga: on this are many Salt Springs, about 35 Milea 
above the Forks; it it canoeable about 30 Milea farther. The eastern Branch is less con- 
siderable, and both are very slow, spreading through a very rich level Country, full of 
Swamps and Ponds, which prevent a good Portage that might otherwise be made to 
CayahSga; but will no doubt, in Puture Ages, be fit to open a Canal between the Waters 
of Ohio and Lake Erie." 

* John Travis located at the mouth of this stream a warrant for four hundred acres of 
land; whence its name. We camotfihd the date of this warrant, but that the stream was 
known as Travis Creak baton 1703 is shown by the following entry in the Beaver County 
Warrant Beak; 

" 180a. March 1st. John rloge Redick enters his warrant for 300 acres of land d 

March 16, IJJ3. situate on Trovit crrrh below the fork thereof, adjoining lr -J 

by Magnus Tate and Alex. Carson who purchased from Beeler." 

' We might mention also Big Sewickley Creek, which is one of the boundaries of 
county. Opposite the mouth of this creak used to be an old French fishing-basket. 
Zadoc Cramer's Navigator for 1818. p. 6fl. 

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6 History of Beaver County 


The surface of Beaver County is generally rolling, varying in 
height above the sea-level from 665 to 1450 feet. The last- 
named figure is the height of a hill in New Sewickley township 
known as the " Big Knob." In the portion of the county south 
of the Ohio, and for ten or twelve miles north of that river, is a 
broken and hilly country much indented by the great streams, 
but interspersed with fine bottoms and level lands suitable for 
grain and grazing farms. The northern section of the county 
has for the most part a level or gently undulating surface, with a 
soil well adapted to every kind of agriculture. 

Geologically considered, Beaver County belongs to the 
Lower Productive Measures of the Carboniferous Period. In 
another portion of this work there will be found an interesting 
article on this topic, specially prepared for us by one well quali- 
fied for its treatment (see vol. ii., Appendix No. I.), and we 
will add to it here only a quotation from a State publication, 
giving a short explanation of the geological structure of the 
county, as follows: 

The Ohio river makes a great sharp bend across this county, the 
Beaver river meeting it at the point of the bend, after cutting a long 
straight gorge through nearly horizontal (gently south dipping) Potta- 
ville Conglomerate No. XII massive sand-rock strata, supporting an 
upland of Lower Productive coal measures, of which the Freeport and Kit- 
tanning coal beds, the Ferriferous limestone and the Clarion fire clay are 
the most valuable layers. All the hill-tops north of the Ohio river are 
of the Barren measures. South of the river the country is made by the 
600 feet of Barren measures; but the Pittsburg coal bed is left in a few 
of the highest hill-tops near the Washington County line. The outcrop 
of the Ferriferous limestone appears above water level at Freedom and 
extends down the Ohio and up the Beaver to the county lines; and up 
Conoquenessing for three miles. At Darlington the Middle Kittanning 
coal becomes nearly 10 feet thick, by the conversion of a part of its roof 
shales into cannel coal. Before the discovery of petroleum in 1S59, oil 
was manufactured from these shales: and they have yielded to Hon. Ira 
F. Mansfield's intelligent and zealous research an incredible number of 
fine plant-forms described in the Coal Flora, Report P, by Leo Lesquereux, 
and of crustaceans described in Report Pi, by James Hall. A considera- 
ble amount of petroleum was at one time obtained, by wells near the 
State line, both from the Conglomerate No. XII, the top of which is near 
river level, and from oil sands at the greater depths of 500 and 600 feet. 
Glacial drift covers the northwestern comer of the county, the great 

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History of Beaver County 7 

Terminal Moraine passing north of New Galilee along the highland north 
of the Little Beaver. The drift materials were swept into the deep 
slackwater pool of the Ohio and Beaver valleys during the continuance 
of the Cincinnati ice-dam ; and relics of the deposit have been preserved 
in four lines of gravel, sand and brick-clay terraces, at heights of 30, So, 
US, aij feet above the river bed at New Brighton. (See Report Q.) 1 


The Flora and the Fauna of Beaver County are described in 
papers prepared for this work by gentlemen of expert knowl- 
edge. (See Appendices II. and III. in volume ii.) 


With the two great valleys of the Ohio and Beaver rivers 
bisecting, or rather trisecting, its territory, Beaver County has 
extraordinary advantages of water power and transportation 
facilities that are unsurpassed, but at times these valleys are the 
scene of terrific inundations. From the earliest days the Beaver 
and Ohio rivers have been subject to these destructive over- 
flows. A letter to Col. Bouquet from Capt. Ecuyer, dated Fort 
Pitt, March 11, 1763, describes in an interesting manner a flood 
at that time.* Brackenridge, in 1786, speaks of high spring 
floods as of annual occurrence, and of flood-marks on the trees 
as indicating rises of thirty feet. In January, 1787, there was a 
great flood in the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, 3 and the 
Annals of the West (page 483) gives an account of a flood in the 
lower Ohio, in January, 1789, which overflowed Marietta, Co- 
lumbia, and Symmes City at the mouth of the Little Miami. In 
Columbia but one house escaped the deluge, and the soldiers in 
the blockhouse were driven from the ground floor into the loft, 
and from the loft into the solitary boat which the ice had spared 
them. There is also a tradition of a great flood, called "the 
pumpkin flood," from the large quantities of pumpkins which it 
carried down with it. Various dates are assigned to this rise, 

1 Second Geological Survey. Petina. — Geological Atlas of Counties. X., xxiii r 

■ Fori Pitt, Darlington, pp. 114-115. (The original of this letter is in the British Museum.) 

•The Pittsburgh Gattttt, of January 13. 1187. says: 

" The heavy rams and constant thaw for this some tinw past, swelled the Allegheny and 
alononashela to ■ great height, and several Kentucky boats passed down the latter adrift, 
all of them leaded. The Allegheny overflowed its hanks to such a degree that a great 
part of the reserved tract opposite this place was under water. The inhabitants of the 
ferry-house were obliged to leave it. and it was with the greatest difficulty they escaped, 
at the ft"" ■'- '■- J "■ _.... 1.- .1. ...._. ,:..... 11. .j .1 ._ < ......1. 

a great distance from the usual bed 

bad been carried by tt 

be considerable.'' 

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8 History of Beaver County 

and there is much uncertainty as to the height it reached ; prob- 
ably the memory of several different floods has given us a com- 
posite legend. There is reliable record of high-water marks in 
the Ohio River at Pittsburg from the year 1810 up to 1870, and 
since 1870 the observations of the United States Weather 
Bureau have been made. Through the courtesy of Col. Frank 
Ridgway, of that Bureau's Pittsburg station, we have obtained 
a copy of these records, which we append in a note below.* 
Anything over twenty-two feet is considered a flood-stage, and 
it will be seen from the data here given that there have been 
thirty-nine years since the records were begun in which that 
stage has been exceeded. A study of this table, keeping in mind 
also what is reported of the floods occurring in the latter part of 
the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries, will 
show, we think, that a very interesting theory concerning the 
origin of floods will have to be abandoned. According to this 
theory, excessive rises of the rivers are due to the cutting off of 
the timber from the hills and mountains, as a consequence of 
which the rainfall, instead of being absorbed and held bythe roots 
of the trees and the mosses, flows off rapidly into the valleys, 
creating floods. That this theory is invalid is evident from the 
fact that some of the greatest floods on record occurred when 

' Former high-water imrlo in the Ohio River at Pittiburg: 

Ytar Monik Ftt Ytar Month Fm 

1*47. " — . 16.0 1BS1. June r 

iBjl, Apl. 19, 31.5 1881. Jail, s 

i860, " 11,10.7 1BS3. Feb. - 

1I61, Sep. M.J0.0 1884. Feb. 1 

1861, Jan. 10. iB.t 188s, Jan. i: 

1801. Apl. 13. 1] 1SS6. Apl. : 

.8ej. Mar. 4,1* iSsa, July ■: 

1865. Mar. 18. ji.4 1SS8, Aug. i: 

i8oj, Apl. 1. 11.6 1889, June : 

iSSj, Hay 11, 11.0 1890, Mar. i; 

i86d, Feb. 10, ji 1801. Jan. 

1868. Mar. — , 11.6 1S01, Feb. if 

1873. Dec. 14. ij.6 1S01. Jan. i- 

1874. Jan. & 114 1S0J. Jan. ; 

1875. Aug. — , i) 180.5, Feb. 
187s, Dec. 18. 11.6 1896. July * 
1S76, June — , 16 1S97, Feb. a 

1876. Sep. id, ij 1808, Mar. « 

1877. Jan. 17. '3-1 i«co, Nov. i 

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History of Beaver County 9 

the forests all along the Ohio valley and in the Allegheny Moun- 
tains were still almost untouched. Droughts, also, were appar- 
ently as common then as now, which is contrary to the theory.* 
The flood of 1833 seems to have been the greatest on record. 
That of 18S4 was higher at the mouth of the Beaver, where it 
was impeded by the embankment of the Cleveland & Pittsburg 
Railroad, but according to the testimony of old residents, the 
flood of 1833 rose higher in the Beaver as a whole than ever 
before or since. At the Bridgewater bridge it reached just to 
the floor timbers, and passengers were carried in boats along the 
main street of Bridgewater to the foot of Beaver hill. At the 
highest point in this street the water was over three feet in 
depth. A large island which was at that time in the Beaver 
below the Bridgewater dam was almost entirely washed away, 
and many houses and factories were destroyed.* The flood of 

1 la u letter written by Lt.-Col. Joaiah Harmar to President Dickinson, dated Port 
Mclntoah (Beaver). August i, rj8j, he tayi: 

" The Ohio river at tiiis season is remarkably low. and usually continues so during 
this and the next month. It is now fordable opposite the garrison." — (Pinna. Arch., 

We have seen other references to floods and periods of low water being frequent in 
pione er times, and an inrtinwd to think that there was then about the same alternation 
of drought and flood at irregular intervals as there is now. The following description. 

" Frequent rains in the latter end of the autumn produce floods in the Ohio, and it is an 
uncommon season when one of those floods does not happen before Christmas. If there 

is much frosty weather in the upper parts of the country, it "- : - '-' 

until they begin to thaw. But if the river is not frozen ove. ,.._ 

there is always water sufficient for boats of any sise from November ui 
watera generally begin to subside; end by the middle of J" — --- — "- 
too low for boats above forty tons, and these must be flat 
continues so long as the middle of February, and immed 
river is flooded; this flood may in a degree subside, but fc 

•The Beaver Argus of February so, 183s, contained the following report of the flood: 

" Sncb a scene has never before occurred in our neighborhood, as that produced by the 

isc of the Ohio river and Big Beaver creek, on Friday and Saturday last. The water at 

he junction of those streams was seven or eight feet higher than was ever known before. 

(rid^ewate^ Sharon and Fallston were all inundated, as well as the buildings up and down 

A great many light buildings were earned away, together 
d fences. The loss in the range when the water flowed is 

■St: and a large new brick house, lately finished, and which cost about (4,00 

h injured tl 

it is believed it will fall— a brick kitchen attached to 

Freedom], and his stables and other out-houses, fence and hay stacks wen all carried away, 
and his valuable Library destroyed. At Sharon, the Foundry of Messrs. Darragh and 
Stow was torn away, and at Fallston, the Scythe Factory of Mr. D. S. Stone was destroyed, 
and Meaan. Pughs, Wilson ft Co. have sustained considerable loss. The islands above and 
below have been stripped of everything, their occupants barely escaping with their lives. 

" The public works on Beaver creek have sustained little or no injury. 

" Notwithstanding the uncommon rapid rise of the water and the distress produced by it, 
it is with gratitude we have the pleasure of stating that then were no lives lost." 

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io History of Beaver County 

1884 was also very destructive, more so, perhaps, than that of 
1833, on account of there being much more improved land and 
a larger number of buildings in existence at the later date. As 
stated in another place, the Pallston and Bridgewater bridges 
were destroyed at this time (1884), and being hurled against the 
great Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad bridge across the Ohio, 
partially wrecked it. 


The climate of Beaver County partakes of the general charac- 
teristics of that of western Pennsylvania, being subject to sudden 
changes and great extremes of heat and cold. A variation of 
temperature of 10, so, 30 , or even 40 in a few hours is not un- 
common. In almost every summer there are a few days when 
96 Fahrenheit in the shade is registered, and in winter the mer- 
cury always sinks at some time below zero. In the months of 
January and February it occasionally falls to 15° or ao° below, 
as it did in 1890 and in 1904.' It is doubtful if there has been 
any great change in the climate of the region in the last hundred 
years, despite the declarations often heard from old people that 
such a change has taken place. Observations reported from 
the earliest times would indicate as great variability in tem- 
perature as that witnessed in the present period, with no greater 
extremes of heat and cold than those which we now experience. 
We subjoin a few notes in support of this statement. February 
11, 1780, Colonel Brodhead wrote from Fort Pitt to Washington 
as follows: "Such a deep snow and such ice has not been known 
at this place in the memory of the eldest natives; Deer & Tur- 
kies die by hundreds for want of food, the snow on Alleghany & 
Laurel hills is four feet deep." * An old record says that De- 
cember and January of the winter of 1781—82 "were excessively 
cold, but the beginning of February ushered in a very mild 

■ The winter of 1903-04 w 

as very remarkable. From the latter part of November 

until March the cold ni const* 
frequently fell below sero, the 
Reaver valley H low a* 10. ij, 

nt, with heavy snows. For Severn] weeks the 


jo, and even 16 degrees below. At Pittsburg there were 

■» nich low temperatures reported, the lowest for the winter being, accordina 

to the report 

of the United State* Weather Bureau. 5 degreca below on February 16th 

difference thus shown is partly accounted for. perhaps, by the fact that the ch 

cap mercury 

thermometer, generally in use a 

re not reliable, and may also be due in part to 

there having 

1 at Pittsburg on the same days owing to the overhanging 
itention of heat is the great buildings surrounding the point 

clouds of smoke there and the n 

of observation. 

• Ptnna. ArcK. vol. xii.. p. t 


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History of Beaver County 1 1 

spring." Of the winter of 1787—88 we have the following, taken 
from a letter from David Redick, Esq., to Benjamin Franklin, 
dated Washington, Pa., Feb. 19, 1788: 

The country has never experienced a Winter more severe. The 
Mercury has been at this place ia° below the extreme cold point; at 
Moakinguni ao", and at Pittsburgh within the bulb or bottle. The dif- 
ference may be accounted for, in part, by the inland situation of this 
place, and greater or less quantities of ice at the others. It has been 
altogether impossible for me until within these few days past, to stir 
from the Fireside.' 

One hundred years ago Henry Jolly, Esq., of Beaver and 
Washington counties, afterwards a judge in Jefferson County, 
Ohio, kept a record, from which we learn that December, 1799, 
was "very severe cold, all the small streams being frozen over." 
In February, 1800, it was very cold, with snow two feet deep. The 
spring opened early, so that planting of Indian corn was largely 
finished by the 7th of April. Peach trees were in bloom on the 
20th day of April and apple trees on the 5th day of May. The 
summer of 1800 was wet, thunder-storms were frequent in mid- 
summer, com-fields not worked, and the heavy crops of wheat 
were grown and sprouted. The distillers found their grains half 
malted by nature, and housewives could hardly keep their loaves 
from running. Crops were generally good, with abundance of 
fruits. Mr. Jolly reports a fall of snow four inches deep all 
along the Ohio valley on the 5th of May, 1803, which was fol- 
lowed by three hard frosts, killing the corn and all the fruits. 

January, 1810, was remarkably cold, with great suffering 
and loss of cattle by freezing. Wild animals also perished in 
great numbers. The winter of 1817 was severe, the snow in 
February reaching a depth on the levels of from three to four 
feet. Other very severe winters reported were those of 1839-30 
and 1855-56. But very mild winters are also of such frequent 
mention as to indicate that the climate of Pennsylvania, ever 
since it was first known to the white people, has been as change- 
able as at present. Dr. Benjamin Rush, in his Memoir on the 
Climate of Pennsylvania, states that on the 23d of March, 1779, 
the orchards were in full bloom, and the meadows as green as 
ordinarily in June. In prior years he had seen vegetation grow- 
ing in all the winter months, and in the month of December in 

1 Pinna. Artk., vol. »., p. 344. 

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12 History of Beaver County 

one year he had seen an apple orchard in full bloom and small 
apples on many of the trees. These observations were, of course, 
about the city of Philadelphia, but the difference between that 
point and our own region would not be very great. 1 

This brief survey of Beaver County's physical features will 
be sufficient to show that the region is well adapted to the vari- 
ous wants of its inhabitants, and will prepare us to enter upon 
the task of unfolding the long history of its settlement and devel- 
opment. We believe that the following chapters will show that 
history to have been one well worthy of study and of protection 

' 'Gainst the tooth of time. 
And raaure of oblivion. 

' Morden's Gtography Rtttifitd, 1688, ha* the following: 

"IV. For the Stum of the Year. First, Of the Fall, I found it from the lath of 
Oclcbtr, to the beguming of Dtcmbwr, aa wo have it usually is England in Stplrmbtr, or 
rather like an English mild spring. From Dectmber to the beginning of the Month called 
March, wo had sharp Weather; not foul, thick black Weather, as our North Bait Winds 
bring with them in England; but a Skie aa clear aa in Summer and the Air dry, cold, 
piercing and hungry. The reason for this cold is given from the great Lakes that are fed 
by the Fountaina of Canada, The Winter before was as mild, scarce any Ice at all; white 
this for a few days Froxe up our great River Delaware. From that Mouth to the Month 
called Junt, we enjoyed a sweet Spring, no Gusts, but gentle showers, and a fine Skie. 
From thence to this present Month, which endeth Summer (commonly speaking) we have 
had extraordinary Heats, yet mitigated sometimee by cool Breexes. And whatever Mists, 
Fogs, or Vapors foul [there are in] the Heavens by Easterly or Southerly Winds, in two 
hours' time are blown away by the North West ; the one is always followed by the other: 
A Remedy that seems to have peculiar Providence in it to the Inhabitants." 

See also "Pennsylvania Weather Records from 1644 to 1S35," Hum. Mat. of Howry. 
vol. xv., p. iog; s valuable compilation of the variability of the winters in Pennsylvania 

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Indian Occupation — French and English Claims — Explorers and Traders 
— The Ohio Company — Celeron's Expedition — Alarm of Pesnnyl- 
vania and Virginia Authorities — Washington Sent to Fort Le Bceuf 
— Military Measures — Fort at "Forks of the Ohio" — Ward's Sur- 
render — Beginning of French and Indian War — Port Necessity— 
Braddock's Defeat — Forbes's Expedition and Fall of Fort Duquesne 
— End of French Empire in America — Conspiracy of Pontiac — Relief 
of Fort Pitt — Colonel Bouquet — Battle of Bushy Run — Bouquet's 
Expedition against the Ohio Indians — Dunmore's War — Mixed 
Character of Settlers — Murder of Logan's Family — Battle of Point 

Land of the West I — where naught is old 

Or fading, but tradition hoary — 
Thy yet unwritten annals hold. 

Of many a daring deed, the story! 
Man's might of arm hath here been tried, 
And woman's glorious strength of soul. 

The story of the settling of western Pennsylvania is a stir- 
ring epic, and no part of it exceeds in interest that which belongs 
to Beaver County. Lying directly in the course of the great 
movement of population from the Atlantic coast to the Missis- 
sippi valley, the region which it embraces witnessed some of the 
earliest and most important events in the mighty drama of the 
building of the West. Its annals claim their full share of Indian 
life and legend, and of hardship and suffering and heroic endur- 
ance and achievement on the part of its white settlers. 


When the English first entered the valley of the upper Ohio 
they found a few settlements of Indians, composed of various 

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14 History of Beaver County 

tribes, located at different points from the mouth of the Beaver 
up to the confluence of the Monongahela and the Allegheny 
rivers, and for some miles above on the latter stream. These 
Indiana were principally of the Delaware and Shawanese tribes, 
belonging to the great Algonquin family, together with some 
small but influential bands of the Iroquois or Six Nations, men- 
tioned below by their Indian name of Mengwe. 

By their own account the Delawares were the oldest of all 
the aboriginal nations, — Lenni Lenape, the name they gave 
themselves, meaning "original people." They said that, ages 
before, their ancestors had come from a far country to the west- 
ward, where they had dwelt by a great salt sea. After long and 
weary journeyings during hundreds of moons, they arrived at 
length at the Namaesi Sipu (the Mississippi), where they met an- 
other tribe, the Mengwe, who had likewise just arrived from a 
land in the far West, and who, like the Delawares, were seeking a 
more favorable location in the country toward the sun-rising. 
On the east of the Mississippi these tribes encountered a mighty 
nation of people, many of whom were giants, and who bore the 
name of Tallegewi or AUegevti. Their name, according to those 
who accept the Delaware tradition, still survives in the name 
Allegheny, as applied to the river and mountains so called. To 
these Allegewi the Delawares sent messengers asking leave to 
settle in their land, and were refused, but were told that they 
could cross the river and settle farther to the eastward. The 
Delawares accepted this offer, and set forward. But the Alle- 
gewi, becoming alarmed at their numbers, determined to drive 
them back, and furiously attacked those who had already 
crossed. The Delawares and the Mengwe now united their 
forces, and after many years of warfare defeated the Allegewi, 
and divided the country between themselves; the Delawares 
finally reaching the beautiful valleys of what is now eastern 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, where they settled 
along the river which bears the name afterwards given to it and 
to them by the white people, while the Mengwe made choice of 
the country about the Great Lakes to the northward, and then 
moved eastward along the river known now as the St. Lawrence. 
Here they ultimately developed into the great league of the 
Iroquois, of which we shall presently speak. This account of 
the origin of the Delawares comes to us from the charming 

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History of Beaver County 15 

narrative of Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary, who la- 
bored among them faithfully for many years. 1 It is doubtless a 
faithful rendering of the Delaware tradition (perhaps slightly 
tinged with coloring from the Biblical account of the exodus), 
but the tradition itself is more than doubtful. 

What is certain is that when the whites first came to America, 
they found these nations or tribes, the Delawares and Mengwe 
(Iroquois), seated relatively to each other as stated above, the 
Delawares in the south along the Delaware River and its tribu- 
taries, and the Mengwe in the north, below the St. Lawrence 
River, in what is now New York ; that the Delawares were con- 
quered and humbled by the Mengwe, and that finally, by the 
enmity of these powerful people, by the pressure of the whites 
upon them, and by the decrease of game, they were compelled 
to move backward step by step to the Ohio River coantry. It 
is believed that as early as 1725 a large number of the Dela- 
wares had settled on the Allegheny, then called the Ohio, at 
what was known as "Old Kittanning," at or near the present 
town of Kittanning, and that later, about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, the principal part of their tribe followed 
them, and built their towns along the streams of western Penn- 
sylvania, one large settlement called "Shingoe's town," or Saw- 
kunk, being located, as was previously shown, at the mouth of 
the Big Beaver, and another some fifteen or twenty miles above 
it called Kuskuskee. 1 

1 History, Mmtmrt. and Customs of On Indian Nations, by the Rev. John Heckewelder, 
r e p r i nt of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, ififtj. p. 47 et stq. 

* Kuskuskee. This ins a celebrated Delaware town, or group of towns. The nuns ia 
spelled Kuskuskee. Kusltusky, Kuskusldes, KushWushkee, Kaskaskie, Gosgosgee, etc., 
there being fifteen or twenty variants, according to the way in which attempts were made 
to anglicise the cultural Indian original. Post's firat journal (Aug. 17, 174S} Bays: " Kuah- 
kushkee ia divided into four different towns, each at a distance from the others and the 
1 of about ninety houses, and two hundred able warriors." Conrad Weiaer 
in his journal. Writing at Logstown. August so. 1748, he says: "This 
1 went off to CoscosVy, a large Indian town, about thirty miles off," 
The early maps differ considerably in the location which they give to Kuskuskee, possibly 
for the reason that there were four towns, as Post informs us. A map of West Pennsylvania 
and Virginia in 17S3. which is in the British Museum (copied into Gists Journals, Darling- 
ton) shows "Cuscuaca Town" in the triangular point at the forks of the Beaver, i. «., where 
the Mahoning and Shenango unite to form the Big Beaver proper. Lewis Evans's map of 
1735 places " Kishkuskeea " on the east aide of the Beaver just below the forks, and Thomas 
Hutchins's puts it on the west side about one mile below them. 

There was also a town known as New Knslcuskee, where lived the chief of the Wolf 
tribe of the Delawares, Palcuike. Some historical students think this town stood near 
or noon the she of the present New Castle, the county-scat of Lawrence County: others, 
perhaps the majority, think it was a short distance south or southeast of Edenbutg, In 
that county. The latter opinion is supported by Reading Howell's map of i7gs. and it 

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i6 History of Beaver County 

In their new home in the West the Delawares were joined by 
remnants of other related tribes, such as the Nanticokes and 
Conoys ' from Maryland, the Mohicans from the Hudson, and 
especially by the Shawanese, one of the most formidable tribes 
with which the whites had to deal in the border wars which 
followed later. The Shawanese had originally lived in the 
south (by some the name is translated "southerners"), in Ten- 
nessee and Georgia, and in the Floridas.* They were trouble- 
some neighbors, and a league was formed against them by the 
tribes which had suffered from them, when they fled to the north 
and joined their kindred, the Delawares. This was in 1697 or 
1698. A portion of them settled on Montour's island, below 
Pittsburg, but the main body went farther east to the valleys 
of the Delaware and the Susquehanna. About 1728,' the 
greater part of this main body of the Shawanese, through fear 
of the powerful Iroquois, or Six Nations Indians, left their 
homes on the Susquehanna and came to the head of the Ohio, 
some settling in the Delaware towns on the Big Beaver, and 

it definitely proved, we think, by the language of General William Irvine, agent of the 
State to examine the Donation kinds. In his report to hia Excellency John Dickinson, 
dated Carlisle, Pa., August 17. 1785, be Bays: "Prom the mouth of the Shenangx 
kmkry on tht tmst branch [Mahoning], is six or mm milts [italics ours], but it 
merly called CusVuskey by the natives along this branch [of the Heaver] aa his 
salt spring, which it twenty-five miles from the mouth of Shenango." (See Ptnna. Arch., 
voLxL.p. 5 1 3-) 

Several of the noted Indian trails converged at the " War Post" west of Kuakuskoc 
and one, long known and travelled by the early white aettlers, passed by the "Scalp Spring. 
near the forks of the Beaver, through the Moravian town (Frwdenstadt) to the mouth c 
the Beaver, and thence op the Ohio through Logstown to the preaent aite of Pittsburg. 
(See Wistrrn Annals, p. 3 jS.) 

See in Massachusetts Historical CoUictions, new aeries, vol. vi., p. 144 « aa.. interesting 
narrative of Hugh Gibson's captivity at Kuskuskee and Sawltunk (mouth of Big Beaver). 

1 Spelled also Kanawha*. The rivers in West Virginia, the Big and Little Kanawha* 

* According to Colonel John Johnson, United States Indian Agent at Piqua, Ohio, the 
Suwanee River, Florida, derives its name from them. (The Olden Tims. vol. i„ p. 6.) 

■ So it would appear from what is said in the minutes of the treaty council held in 
August, 173a, at Philadelphia, with the chiefs of the Sia Nations, via.; 

"That we had held several treaties with those Shawanese . . . but that some of 
their young men having, between four and five years since, committed some Disorders 
tho' we had fully made it up with them, yet being afraid of the Six Nations, they had 
removed backwards to Ohio, and there bad lately putt themselves under the Protection of 
the French, who had received them as their children." 

According to Conrad Weiser. however, the Shawaneas came to the Ohio at the same 
time as the Delawares. In his speech at the council with the Six Nations at Albany in 

"The Road to Ohio is no new Road. . 

and Delawares removed thither above thirty years ago from P 

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History of Beaver County 17 

others in three towns between that stream and the forks of the 
Ohio (the present site of Pittsburg). We learn of these towns 
from Christian Frederick Post, who says in his journal of 1758 
(August 37th), that he passed through three Shawanese villages 
between Fort Duquesne and Sawkunk (Beaver). George 
Croghan, also, in his journal of 1765 (May 16th), calls Logstown " 
"an old settlement of the Shawanese." These villages were all 
deserted in the fall of 1758, when the French fled from Fort 
Duquesne before the advance of General Forbes. In 1776, ac- 
cording to Thomas Hutchins, the geographer, the Mingo town 
near what is now Steubenville, Ohio, was the only Indian village 
on the banks of the Ohio from that point to Fort Pitt; it con- 
tained at that time sixty families. 

Among the Shawanese and the Delawares residing on the 
Ohio when the white people began to penetrate the western 
wilderness were also, as we have said, representatives of the Six 
Nations, or Iroquois, consisting of small bands of warriors under 
the leadership of eminent chiefs, who were placed there to guard 
the interests of the confederacy formed by those nations. Sev- 
eral of these chiefs were located within the present limits of 
Beaver County. Tanacharison, or the "Half King," was at 
Logstown, where was also Monakatoocha, or the "Great Arrow." a 
Kachwuckdanionty, or the "Belt of Wampum," who fought 
bravely under Braddock, was at Beaver.* Farther north, on the 
Venango, was the celebrated chief, Guyasutha,* or the "Big 
Cross," famous as Pontiac's fellow-conspirator. 

1 Logstown stood on the right bank of the Ohio as one descends the river. The general 
coarse of that river from PitUburg to Beaver is north westerly, but at this point it runs due 
north. 90 that Logstown was, speaking exactly, on the east side. Por a full history of this 

bank of the Ohio, instead of the leit-hand bank, whore popular belief has supposed it to 
be, see Chapter XXVIII. 

* Washington's Journal of 1753. 

* Hislnry of ll'iilirn PtimQ/kjOTtia, Rupp, p. 119. 

* During the latter part of his life Guyasutha lived on the farm in O'Hara township, 
Allegheny County, Pa., which is now the residence of the family of William M. Darlington. 
He was buried there in the " Indian Mound." by General O'Hara. 

Rev. David HcClure, the missionary to the Indians, in his diary, makes the following 
entry, in which we have a slight sketch of the great chief: 

"Aug. 1 8th [iT7>] Crossed the Laurel hannins [Loyalhannal a pleasant stream which 
runs through Ligonier, & rode to Col. Proctors. Here we found Kiahshutah. Chief of the 
Seaecaa, on his way to Philada ft from thence Sr. Wm. Johnson's, who, as his interpreter, 
Simon dirty, informed us, had Bent for him, relative to a treaty held some time ago at the 
Sbawaneas towns. He was dressed in a scarlet cloth turned up with lace, ft a high gold 
laced hat, ft made a martial appearance. He had a very sensible countenance & dignity 
of manners. His interpreter informed him of the business on which we were going. I 
aaked him his opinion of it. He paused a few moments ft replied that he was Afraid it 
would not succeed; for said he, 'the Indians are a roving people, ft they will not attend 

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1 8 History of Beaver County 

Some account of the character and influence of the con- 
federacy known as the Six Nations — to which these chiefs be- 
longed — is necessary to an understanding of the history with 
which we are dealing, both as regards the Indians themselves 
and their relations to the whites in all the succeeding years of war 
and peace. This celebrated confederacy was established some- 
time before the dawn of the seventeenth century, by the various 
tribes of the Mengwe, or Iroquois, referred to above. It was 
at first composed of five tribes, viz., the Mohawks, the Oneidas, 
the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas and was known as 
the Five Nations. In 171a, they were joined by the Tuscarawas , 
who, on being driven from their home in North Carolina, had 
asked to be received by them. Henceforth the league was 
known as the Six Nations. By themselves, and by the Eng- 
lish after them, they were called Mingoes; by the French, Iro- 
quois * ; by the Dutch, Maquas, and by the other Indian tribes, 
Mengwe. The home of this powerful confederacy was in New 
York, but they had extended their influence from that region 
to the Carolinas, and from New England to the Mississippi. On 
account of their strong traits of character they have been called 
the "Romans of America," * and they were certainly like the 
Romans in their ability to conquer and govern other nations. 
An eminent writer has thus described them : 

Each nation was divided into three tribes — the Tortoise, the Bear and 
the Wolf; and each village was. like the cities of the United Netherlands, 
a distinct republic; and its concerns were managed by its particular 
chiefs. Their exterior relations, general interests and national affairs, 
were conducted and superintended by a great council, assembled annually 
in Onondaga, tbe central canton, composed of the chiefs of each republic ; 
and eighty sachems were frequently convened at this national assembly. 
It took cognizance of the great questions of war and peace; of the affairs 
of the tributary nations, and of their negotiations with the French and 

to your instruction!: but take courage A make trial. The King of the Delaware* A the 
warrioTi an now at home, A you will see them.' He alao mentioned that there was a 
minister at Kuskuskoone, on Bever Creek, A that one half of the Indiana were offended 
with the other f or hearkening to him."— Diary o] David MeChm, ij4»-i8ao (privately 
printed), The Knickerbocker Press. iSos, p. 41. 

■ We translate from Charlevoix the following interesting note on the derivation of the 
name Iroquois: 

"The name Iroquois is purely French, and has been formed from the term Hiro, which 
mean* ' I have aaid it;' and by which these savages finish all their discourses, as the Latins 
did in ancient times by their Dili: and from Koui, which is a cry. sometimes of sadness 
when one prolongs its utterance, and sometimes of joy when one pronounce* it more quickly. 
Their proper name is AgoHHOtuiemi, which purports bttiidtrt of cabins, because they built 
■ :h more substantially than the majority of the other asvages." — History 

. U P- >7°- See also John Cilmary Shea's translation, vol. ii„ p. 1S9. 

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History of Beaver County 19 

English colonies. All their proceedings were conducted with great de- 
liberation, and were distinguished for order, decorum and solemnity. In 
eloquence, in dignity, and in all the characteristics of profound policy, they 
surpassed an assembly of feudal barons, and were perhaps not far inferior 
to the great Amphyctionic Council of Greece.' 

As the same writer remarks, the Confederates were not only 
like the Romans in their martial spirit and rage for conquest, but 
also in their practice of adopting both individuals and tribes of 
the vanquished into their own nation, in order to recruit their 
population exhausted by endless and wasting wars, and to en- 
able them to continue their career of victory and desolation. 
They maintained a terrific ascendancy over all the tribes east of 
the Mississippi, as illustrated in the way in which they had 
driven the Shawanese and the Delawares from their homes back- 
ward to the Ohio. An instance in connection with the removal 
of the latter will show the extreme rigor and haughtiness with 
which they treated these vassal tribes. In 1737,* the Dela- 
wares had been cheated, as they believed, in the celebrated 
"Walking Purchase," and in 174a, they were invited to attend a 
great treaty council with the Penn proprietaries in Philadelphia. 
Two hundred and thirty of the Six Nations warriors were also 
in attendance at this council by invitation of the proprietaries. 
On this occasion the Delawares presented their case through their 
chief, The Beaver, and then a great chief of the Iroquois, named 
Canassatego, arose, and addressing Governor Thomas, satd; 
"That they saw that the Delawares had been an unruly people, 
and were altogether in the wrong; that they had determined to 
remove them from their lands, for which they had already re- 
ceived pay which had gone through their guts long ago." Then, 
seizing Sassoonan, a Delaware chief, by the hair, he pushed him 
out of the door, and ordered the others to follow him, saying, 
"You deserve to be taken by the hair of the head and shaken 
until you recover your senses. We conquered you and made 
women of you, and you know you can no more sell lands than 
women. J We charge you to remove instantly; we don't give 

> Lift and Writing: of Dt Will Clinton, p. ai j. 

* Hiil. of Prima. Bgle, p. 443; Parkman'a Conspiracy of Pontiat, vol. i., p. S4. 

* Among the Indians it was esteemed the deepest disgrace to treat for peace, the office 
of mediator toeing assigned to women. When the Iroquois conquered the Delawares they 
compelled them to acknowledge themselves woman, and forced them, metaphorically, at 
lout, to put on petticoats. The Delaware) tried to escape the ignominy of their condition 
by claiming that they had been deceived into accepting the position of mediators by fraud : 

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20 History of Beaver County 

you liberty to think about it. You are women. Don't deliber- 
ate, but remove away." * And the Delawares stood not upon 
the order of their going, but went; many of them coming, as we 
have said, to the banks of the Ohio. 

It is difficult to arrive at an accurate estimate of the 
numbers of these various Indian tribes in the Ohio country. 
According to Conrad Weiser, who was sent in 1748 on a 
mission to the Indians living about the head of the Ohio, the 
number of the fighting men of the Delawares there was one 
hundred and sixty-five; that of the Shawanese, one hundred 
and sixty-two and of other tribes there were four hundred and 
sixty-two more, making a total of seven hundred and eighty- 
nine.' Many of the Delawares, however, had at this time not 
yet removed westward from the Susquehanna. The Deputy 
Indian Agent, George Croghan , in his report to General Stanwix in 
1759, says "The Delawares residing on the Ohio, Beaver Creek, 
and other branches of the Ohio, and on the Susquehanna, their 
fighting men are six hundred." » He said also in this report that 
the strength of the Shawanese on the Scioto was three hundred 
warriors. These figures do not show a very formidable number 
of Indians as living in this region, and indeed, the Indian popu- 
lation throughout the country was, in general, not much denser 
than it was here in the Ohio valley. "So thin and scattered was 
the native population," says Parkman, "that even in those 
parts which were thought well peopled, one might sometimes 
journey for days together through the twilight forest, and meet 
no human form. Broad tracts were left in solitude. All 

but that they bore this character they did not attempt to deny. Their recognition of 
their vaaeal and degraded position i> ihown in the pa— ■ teat by them from the Ohio to 
the Onondaga Council, at a time when they were threatened by an attack from the French. 
It ran M follow. : 

"Undo, the United Nation*,— We expect to be killed by the French, your father. We 
deaire therefore, that you will take off our Petticoat that we may fight for oureelvea. our 
wivea and children. In the condition we are in, you know we can do nothing-" — {Col. Rac w , 
vol. vi.. p. 37.) See alio Hecke welder' o Indian Nations, pp. 56- 68. 

At a later period, however (by IT55). the Delaware* had to a gnat extent thrown off 
the yoke of the Iroquoi*. The Pennsylvania authorities after long yean of bloody waif are, 
finally awoke to the fact that they had become an independent people, able to manage 
their own affaire. See Conrad Wtittr an J tkt Indian Policy of Colonial Pmnsyloanui. by 
Joerph S. Walton 

" Before the *ummer of tjjs waa over they had declared themselvea no longer subject* 
of the Six Nation*, no longer women, but men. When they were women Penniylvanm 
lived in peace with the Indiana, when they became men the tomahawk an! Malping knifa 
■tained with blooi the peaceful tail of the Province." — p. 176. 

' Cot Rac, vol. iv- p. s*o. 

■ Journal, September 8. 1748. 

' Crumriue's Hillary of Was hin gton County, p. it. 

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History of Beaver County 21 

Kentucky was a vacant waste, a mere skirmishing ground for 
the hostile war-parties of the north and south. A great part of 
Upper Canada, of Michigan, and of Illinois, besides other por- 
tions of the west, were tenanted by wild beasts alone." ' The 
emptiness of much of the country is strikingly shown in the ex- 
perience of John Howard and his men, who, in the year 1743, 
received a commission from the Governor of Virginia to make 
discoveries westward. They set out from the branches of the 
James River March 16th, came to the Ohio May the 6th, and to 
the Mississippi June the 7th, and were taken captive by some 
French and Indians July the ad. In all this time and in travel- 
ling through that vast tract of country, they had seen nobody 
till they were taken, but about fifteen Indians in several bands, 
and they were chiefly, if not all, of the Northern tribes. 1 In a 
paper on the present state of the Northern Indians prepared by 
Sir William Johnson in the fall of 1763, he gives the number at 
11,980, not including the Illinois, Sioux, and some other western 
tribes, 3 and in a memorandum entered in his letter-book (MS.) 
by Colonel George Morgan, Indian Agent of the United States 
for the Middle Department, the number of warriors in the same 
tribes at the date of the Revolutionary Waris given at 10,060.* 

* Pouchot'a Utmeim (Roxbory Bd_ 1866), i 

• Tha memorandum in full It M follows: 

" The Six Nations cousin of : 

Oneida* ft Tuscarawas. . . 


The Delaware* ft M-juiw 
The Shawnese 

Wiandota . . Sendmky ft Detroit. . 

"oil* LakeM " 
. . . be Lake*. *nk. .. . 

Poliewntsmiee Detroit ft Lake Michigan . . 

Ottawa* Detroit ft Lake Michigan 

Chipwaa . .. All the l«k«, **id tobe 

Pian kasha 1. KickapntM. MuKOuton*. Vemulliona Vt int. 

tenons, &c. on Ouabacbe ,. . ........... . Boo 

Miami* nr Pict* JOO 

Mingo* of Pluggy's Town 60 

Total Men 10,060" 

* of the number of the '■"*■■"■ who, when the whites came, ware living 
within the limits of what is now the United State* vary enormously. Some have adopted 
the absurd figure of sixteen caPHaae, others Hi faV that then wen never more than there 
an now. namely, about three hundred thousand. The latter estimate is probably nearer 
the truth than the Conner or any other very large figure. At no period which may be 
salaried did the number of seals upon the Indian territory bear any very considerable 
ratio to tha number of square mile* of country which they occupied in the shape of villages 

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22 History of Beaver County 

Even in the days of their greatest strength the united cantons 
of the dreaded Iroquois could not have mustered an army equal 
in numbers to the population of some of the smaller towns that 
now lie thickly scattered over their lost domain, 1 and it is well 
known that the whole of the region from the Ohio River east- 
ward to the Allegheny Mountains was, properly speaking, 
nothing but a hunting ground of the Six Nations, in which the 
Dela wares and other tribes dwelt merely by their sufferance.* 

In 1770, as elsewhere related, a mission of the Moravians was 
established among the Indians living within what afterwards 
became Beaver County territory, the teachers and their Indian 
converts having removed hither from their station on the Alle- 
gheny. They built the town known as Friedenstadt, near the 
Delaware town called Kuskuskee. As late as 1773 some of the 
converted Delaware Indians were living on the westernjbranch 
of the Susquehanna, and in that year they removed thence on 
the invitation of their Indian brethren into the Muskingum 
country, stopping on their way at Friedenstadt. In the fall of 
the same year a minister named David McClure from New Eng- 
land paid a visit to the Ohio Indians, and visited the Moravian 
settlement. His diary contains so much of interest concerning 
the then state of the wilderness and its inhabitants, that, al- 
though it treats of a somewhat later period than that of which 
we have been speaking, we shall permit ourselves to give sev- 
eral extracts from it here. Mr. McClure had been some time 
at Fort Pitt, where he left Mr. Frisbie, a brother minister, sick, 
and whence he set out for the Indian country as he thus relates : 

Sept. 5 177a Saturday, left Mr. Frisbie, who purposed, God willing, 
to come forward as soon as his health would permit, & set out with 
Robert [bis servant], expecting to meet my Interpreter, Joseph, returning 

or hunting ■rounds. On thin uubj act use Schoolcraft'* History of ikr Indians, vol. L. p. 433; 
Ineiitntt of Bordtr Lift, ]. FritU (Lancaster. 1841), p. 468 ; Tht Unmral Cyclopadia (new 
Johnson's), Article: "Indium of North America " ; u.r.d Tki IFuwini of tht Wist, Theodore 
Roosevelt, Pert I. pp. 36, 103-5. 

* Cmipkacy of Pontiae vol. U p. si. 

' Ths Iroquoii on every occasion assorted their claim aa lord* paramount over the 
country referred to, and their claim wa* constantly recognised by the provincial authorities 
The chiefs of the Six Nation* on several occasions informed the Governor of Pennsylvania 
through Andrew Montour, the Indian interpreter, that 

" they did not like the Virginians and Pennsylvania!!! making treaties with these Indians 
[the Delawaree, etc.]. whom they called huntere and young and giddy men and children : 
that they were their fathens, and if the English wanted anything from these childish people 
liny ntnst speak first to tkrtr Faikrr. Said they, ■ It is a inuring country Ikty lint to, and 
n* would kin* it ristrvrd for this *sr only, and desire that no Settlement! may be made 
here, though you may trade there, and so may the French.' " — Col Rue., vol, v.. p. 63]. 

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History of Beaver County 23 

from Kuskuskoong. Mr. Gibson rode in company to bis bouse in Logs- 
town, which was the only house there, 18 miles below Pittsburgh.' 

Tarried at Mr. Gibson's over Sabbath. Spent the day principally in 
the solitary woods, in meditation & reading. Monday, my interpreter 
not arriving, I set out with Robert to find him. Mr. Gibson was kind 
enough to ride with me to a small town of Mingo Indians on the N. bank 
of the Ohio, & to send his servant a few miles further to show us the 
path. The roads through this Indian country are no more than a single 
horse path, among the trees. Por a wilderness the traveling was pleasant, 
as there was no underbrush & the trees do not grow very closely together. ' 
We travelled diligently all day. I was apprehensive that we had missed 
the path. Robert was a great smoaker of tobacco, & frequently lighted 
his pipe, by striking fire, as he sat on his horse, & often in the course 
of the day exclaimed, "Ding me, but this path will take us somewhere." 

At sunsetting we arrived at Kuskuskoong [he refers to Priedecstadt, 
near Kuskuskee], & found my Interpreter Joseph there. He had been 
detained by the sickness & death of a Grandchild, (pp. 40-50.) 

The visit of McClure to this famous Moravian town is very 
interestingly described in the diary, and is pretty fully quoted 
in our chapter on the religious history of the county, to which 
the reader is referred for it. 3 Finding that the Delaware Indians 

> See note on Gibson, in Chapter IV. 

* The explanation of there being no underbrush in the woods in given by the hl mo writer. 
The reader will be interested in teeing here a picture of the country aa it mi in Indian 
times. In the following passage of the diary IlcClure is speaking of the region now a 
part of Ohio township, this county: 

"The wood* were clem from underbrush, & the oaks ft black walnut ft other timber do 

impact, & there is scarcely anything tc 

. _, ■ection, in the woods of the Ohio. The Indians have been in the practice 

H over the graund, that they may have the advantage of seeing game at a distance 

direction, in the woods of the Ohio. The Indians have been ii 

.. _ .tream, which 

re had a wonderful prospect of game. In the middle of the Creek, a small 
Bock of wild geese were swimming, on the bank sat a large Sock of Turkic*, ft the wild pig- 
eons covered one or two trees; & all being within musket shot, we had our choice for a 
supper. My Interpreter chose the Turkies, & killed three at one shot . . . Our path 
bad led us along the North bank of the pleasant river Ohio, almost the whole way from 
Pittsburgh, ft frequently within tight of the river. The soil is luxurlent, the growth 
principally white & black oak, Chestnut, Black Walnut, Hickory Sec. The sweetest red 
plains grow in great abundance in this country, & were then in great perfection. Grapes 
grow spontaneously here ft wind around the trees. We have been favored with delightful 
weather." — Pp. sB-So. 

in the north aide of the Ohio, 

. . „ _ .. , rt Pitt] we had 

the opportunity of observing the fir ....*. 

and undisturbed condition. The indigenous plants had a rich and rank appearance and 
grew to a greater height and strength than they do elsewhere. In a newly formed and 
unfertilised garden stood the stalks of the common sun-Sower which measured not less 
than so feet in height and 6 inches in thickness, and which were almost woody. The 
forest had chestnut*, beeches, sassafras, tuliptrees, wild cherries, red maples, sugar maples, 
hhxir miiii.1. hickories, and their varieties, different kinds of oaks, the liquid-amber 
id others of the beat known trees, which here, however, likewise grow finer 
Ttia wood, ana fur the m™t part entirely free from undergrowth which is 
Jie traveler." — Rnse durch nnigt dtr mitiUrn 
m Slaatm, 1783-1784. by Johann D. Schoepf, 

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24 History of Beaver County 

were well supplied with religious teachers by the Moravians, and 
not wishing to build on other men's foundations, McClure and 
Frisbie relinquished their purpose of settling here, and the 
former returned to Fort Pitt. 1 The diary continues (p. 5a): 

Took leave of the friendly Moravians & set out for Mr. Gibson's, 
where I had left some baggage. 

We came to the mouth of Beaver Creek about sun setting, where was 
a village of Mingo Indians. Great part of the Indians were drunk: one 
of the chiefs had sold his horse for 6 cags of rum, & gave a frolic to the 
people; we avoided the village, & Joseph encamped on the bank of the 
Ohio, & Robert & I rode on to Mr. Gibson's about 6 miles. 

A second trip to the wilderness was soon after undertaken by 
the intending missionary. His diary continues: 

Sept. 15, 1773. Set out with Nickels [an attendant furnished him 
by the commandant at Fort Pitt], & crossing the Allegany River, came 
on Indian ground. Arrived at Mr. Gibson's, at Logstown about 18 
Miles, & found my Interpreter there. 

1 6th — Came to the Mingo village on Bever Creek. On the green lay 
an old Indian, who, they said, had been a hard drinker; his limbs were 
contracted by fits. He told me his disorder was brought on him by 
witchcraft, that he employed several conjurers to cure him, but in vain. 
I called his attention to his dependence on God, ou death & Judgment. 
He, however, gave little heed; but in answer told my Interpreter, if he 
would bring a pint of rum every time he came, he should be glad to see 
him every day. Awful stupidity I This village is commonly called 
Logan's town. About half an hour before our arrival, we saw Capt". 
Logan in the woods, & I was not a little surprised at his appearance. As 
we were obliged to ride, as it is commonly called, in Indian file, the path 
not admitting two to ride abreast, I had passed beyond Logan without 
seeing him. He spoke to my interpreter, who was a little distance be- 
hind, to desire me to stop. I looked back & saw hiiti a few rods from the 
path, stand, under a tree, leaning on the muzzle of his gun. A young 
Indian, with his gun, stood beside him. 

I turned back & riding up to him, asked him how he did, & whether 
he wished to speak with mef (I had seen him at Pittsburgh.) Pointing 
to his breast, he said, " I feel very bad here. Whereever I go the evil 
monethoes (Devils) are after me. My house, the trees & the air, are full 
of Devils, they continually haunt me, & they will kill me. All things tell 
me how wicked I have been." He stood pale & trembling, apparently 
in great distress. His eyes were fixed on the ground, & the sweat run 
down bis face like one in agony. It was a strange sight. I had several 
times seen him at Pittsburgh & thought him the most martial figure of 
an Indian that I had ever seen. At the conclusion of his awful descrip- 

1 Tin Lilt and Timti of David ZtiAtrtT. by E. de Schweiniti (Phils.. tSje). p. ]8o. 

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History of Beaver County 25 

tioii of himself, he asked me what he should do? Recollecting to have 
heard at Pittsburgh, that he had been a bloody enemy against the poor 
defenceless settlers on the Susquehanna, & the frontiers, in the last 
french war in 1758 & y, & it was also reported of him, (though positive 
proof could not be had) that he had murdered a white man (one Chand- 
ler) on the Allegheny mountains, I observed to him, perhaps, Capt". Logan, 
you have been a wicked man, & greatly offended God, ft he now allows 
these Devils, or evil thoughts, which arise in your heart, to trouble you, 
that you may now see yourself to be a great sinner & repent & pray to 
God to forgive you . . . 

He attended to what I said, ft after conversing a little longer, in the 
same strain, We left him, in the same distress as I found him. After 
parting from him, various thoughts, but none satisfactory, occurred to 
me, relative to the cause of the distress & agitation of so renowned a 
warrior. I sometimes thought (such was his ferocious character) that 
knowing of my journey, he had placed himself in a convenient spot for 
robbery or murder. For my interpreter ft Nickels had each a loaded 
piece, the Indian a common musket, ft the english man a rifle always 
loaded, for the purpose of killing game. Perhaps it was some sudden 
compunction, arising from reflections on his past guilt. 

This same Logan is represented as making a very eloquent speech at 
the close of the revolutionary [read Dunmore's] war, on the murder of 
his family by Colo. Cresap. 1 

We left Logan's town, ft proceeded on about one mile & came to a 
pleasant stream of water where we encamped. 

They supped on chocolate and roast venison, and slept on 
bear skins, and Mr. McClure records that he could not sleep well 
on account of the howling of the wolves. The next day he re- 
sumed his journey toward the Muskingum, and crossed the 
Little Beaver, beyond which we need not follow him. 

A year after McClure passed through this territory some 
Quaker travelers came through on their way to a council with 
the Indians at Newcomerstown (then and still so-called), in 
what is now Ohio, and a record of their journey is extant, en- 
titled, Extracts from John Parrisk's Journal of a Visit performed 
to the Western Indians in Company with Zebulon Heston & Jn'_ 
Lacey Anno 1773, in about 2 months,' In this we find also some 
interesting references to our immediate region, and to Logan, 
which we may give. Parrish's style shows the Quaker manner 
of speech, and he relates the events in the journey of his party 
in the third person, as follows: 

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26 History of Beaver County 

Set oat 7 mo. 9 ... the 19th they rested [at Pittsburgh], got 
their Cloatbs washed ft'gent 18 miles down the Ohio for a Guide to 
New-Comer's-Town one living so far on the way to that place intending 
to set out the next morn', but to their surprise he came into Pittsburgh 
that morning, his Life being threatened by an Indian man named Jn? 
Logan, whom White Byes & Cohursater went to appease, by water, 
leaving them to the care of an Indian Guide who took them by Land 
near to John Logan's Camp, which under conduct of another Indian 
they avoided by going round thro' the Woods, ft swam their horses over 
the Ohio to John Gibson's ye Trader, where they were kindly ft freely 
entertained. Here they staid 4th Day 11st and Logan being pacified 
they set out ye aid accompanied by White Eyes & John Gibson, the 
former agree* to go with them least they should be under any apprehen- 
sions of Danger. Rode 9 or 10 miles down the Ohio to Beaver Creek's 
Mouth where Jn? Logan had his Cabbin. Here along the River were 
several Cottages & a fine Bottom. Cross'd Beaver Creek ft twin'd more 
Westward, thro' but indifferent Land & lodg'd in a low Place for the 
sake of the Water. 23d saw a few Indians on their way (Lands hardly 
fit for Cultivation) ft lodg'd at a Bark Shelter. 

After a conference with the Indians they set off on the home- 
ward journey : 

3d Set off homeward, dined at Connodenhead, went to the Upper 
Moravian Town, staid all night, saw the Indians and their Teachers 
... 4th went back to the Lower Town where White Eyes & Tho* 
McKee came to accompany us to Pittsburgh. After dinner put forward 
about 15 miles & rested comfortably at a fine Spring after taking a dish 
of coffee. 5th Rode about 30 miles thro' a very poor Soil with little 
Water— slept in the Woods. 6th John's Beast failed, ft the others left 
him — he at length turn'd her loose ft follow'd the Company with his 
Saddle, Bridle, Bags & Blanket on his Back, overtaking them they got 
to Jn° Logan's on Beaver Creek, the prospect gloomy, he being expected 
home drunk, his Mother ft Sister were however civil ft got them some 
supper. 7. John went back 7 miles on a hired Beast & bro 1 in his tired 
mare to Logan's — got to John Gibson's (swam their horses over ye 
Ohio opposite Logstown). 1st Day (the 8th) rested all Day. 9th 
pass'd along the English Shore ' to Captain McKee's, it raining hard ft 
they much wet, treated kindly ft stay'd all night. John chang'd his 
Beast. 10th rode on 4 miles to Pittsburgh. 

A fact of interest in local history is disclosed by these old 
journals, namely that the town of Mingo Indians at the mouth 
of the Beaver was the home of the famous chief Logan. This 

'This U the only initance in which we have aeen the (oath aide of the Ohio called "the 
Kugliah ehore." The writer thu« diBtinguishei it from the north n'do, which, aa we have 
frequently Bid, wu known till ■ late period el the Indian tide. 

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History of Beaver County 27 

town is marked on Christopher Gist's map of 1753 at the spot 
which is about the present site of Rochester. He calls it the 
" Mingo Town." We were familiar with this map, and had also 
learned from a letter of John Heckewelder l that Logan had at 
one time lived at the mouth of the Beaver, but the exact place 
was in doubt. The doubt is removed by the statements of the 
writers just quoted, since McClure says that the Mingo village 
" was commonly called Logan's town," and as Parrish came, as 
he says, to Logan's cabin and the cottages " before crossing the 
Beaver" (proceeding down the Ohio), it is clear that the village 
was on the east side of the creek, at its mouth. 

The character of Logan, as exhibited by these diarists, is far 
from being attractive, but, while he had no doubt the vice of 
drunkenness, which was all too common among both the Indians 
and the whites, he is not to be judged too harshly. The infor- 
mation concerning him which McClure received at Pittsburg, 
we believe to have been totally erroneous. He was highly es- 
teemed by Conrad Weiser, an officer for government in the Indian 
department, his father, Shikellimy, the representative of the Six 
Nations, on the Susquehanna, was a reputable chief, and with 
the son, enjoyed the favor and confidence of the Pennsylvania 
authorities for years, and the assertion that he was ferocious 
(previous to the murder of his relatives) is contradicted by all 
the testimonies of those who knew him. Judge William Brown, 
of Mifflin County, said of him, " Logan was the best specimen of 
humanity I ever met with, either while or red." As to his part 
in the French wars, all the authorities that we have seen agree 
with Drake, who says: 

For magnanimity in war, and greatness of soul in peace, few, if any, 
in any nation, ever surpassed Logan. H* took no part in the French wars 
which ended in 1760, except that of peace-maker; was always acknow- 
ledged the friend of the white people, until the year 1774, when his 
brother and several others of his family were murdered. [The italics are 
ours.] * 

The picture given us by McClure of Logan's mental and 
spiritual condition — his self-accusation at least — is, allowing for 
his Indian education, not more awful than may be found par- 
alleled in many books of Christian biography and autobiography 

1 See below, p. 18. • Book V., p. 41. 

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28 History of Beaver County 

{e. g., David Brainerd's Memoirs, the journals of Pusey, Carey, and 
many others). The feelings of deep melancholy which it depicts 
seem to have often afflicted him, especially after the massacre 
of his relatives, and his bloody reprisals, following that dread- 
ful outrage ; events belonging to a period later than that in which 
he was seen by McClure. This is said to have been the case in 
the letter written by the Moravian missionary Heckewelder, re- 
ferred to above and which we give in a note below." 

It may be proper to mention briefly others of the individual 
chiefs who were of note among the tribes who lived in this region. 

With the Delawares, when they came to the Ohio, were 
"three mighty men" of the tribe, the three brothers, Amockwi 
(spelled also Tamaqui), or The Beaver, Shingiss, and Pisquetu- 
man. At the date of Washington's visit to Logstown, 1753, on 
his way to Venango, Shingiss was living at the mouth of Char- 
tier's Creek, and he was at that time the chief sachem, or "king" 
of the Delawares. In his journal, Washington makes this men- 
tion of him: 

About two miles from this [i. «., the head of the Ohio], on the southeast 
side of the river, at the place where the Ohio Company intended to erect 

1 Heckewelder' ■ letter, which ni published in the Amtricm Piotutr, vol. i., No. I, P«g« 
■ a, reads, in put, u follows: 

si of the Cayuga nation. 
n Indian friend . . . 
I thought him a man of 
on vice and immorality, 
rr liqaor. He exclaimed 
1 otherwise admired their 
uuately had but few of 
.te people, wished always 
Bis Beaver, waa (to toe 
r. (Beaver.) urged me to 
own cm this river, in the 
age down the Ohio for 
ry civility I could expect 

lily, ran to thi 
all the revenge 

e time of the ne. , — „ 

ing (in hit opinion) yet 
. do it. Hi* expression* 
had become a Uirment to 

saaura delirious, declared 

Detroit, and on his way 

The editor of the Pamasr discredits the accounts of Logan'* exceed ve intern parance. 
revengefulneBS, and death in a drunken frolic, saying: 

" We have and shall publish in the Piotmr, some evidence which runs, in favor of his 
death by disease, at old Chilltcothe, on the banks of the Scioto river, fifteen miles from this 
' * ' residence, and, as we believe, the very spot where his celebrated 


speech was delivered, and where the Logan Historical Society intend to e 
the memory of bis worth, inscribed with the speech, so that in future 
imperishable marble, may learn something of the native eloquence of l 


History of Beaver County 29 

a fort, lives Shingiss, the king of the Delawares. We called upon him to 
invite him to a council at Logstown. 

Three years after this date Shingiss removed to the Delaware 
town on the Allegheny River known as " Old Kittanning," and 
later to Sawkunk. Shingiss was the most formidable warrior of 
the Delawares. The Moravian historian, Heckewelder, says of 

Were all his war exploits on record they would form an interesting 
document, though a shocking one. Conococheago, Big Cove, Shearman's 
Valley and other settlements along the frontier felt his strong arm suffi- 
ciently to know that he was a bloody warrior, cruel in his treatment, 
relentless in his fury. His person was small, but in point of courage, 
activity and savage prowess, he was said to have never been exceeded by 
any one. 

Christian Frederick Post was sent, in 1758, from the Penn- 
sylvania authorities to the Delaware, Shawanese, and Mingo 
Indians settled on the Ohio, to try to prevail on them to with- 
draw from the French interest. In his journal of this trip he 
makes interesting mention of Shingiss. On July a8, 1758, he 
set out with him and twenty others from Sawkunk ■ (Beaver) 

1 The Datawares, aa stated above., had a town at the mouth of the Beaver, where King 
Beaver and Shingiss were at this time. We learn of their intention to remove about a 
year later to KuakuaVec from a letter written by Lieutenant- Colonel Hugh Mercer * to 
Mr. Richard Petal, secretary of the Council. In tbii letter, which ii dated at Pittsburg, 
March i. 17SO. Mercer aays: 

".The Delawares at the Mouth of the Beaver Creak intend to remove to Kusknsky, they 
pretend at our request; but rather in my Opinion, thro' Diffidence of m. or to get out of 
the Way of Blows, if any are jjoins, for depend upon it they an desiiuus of fighting neither 
on the side of the English nor French bin would gladly see both dislodged from this Place. 
It is true the Old thinking part of the Tribe incline to us, while the Young Villains who 
have swilled so much of our Blool, and grown rich by the plunder of the Frontier*, have 
still some French Poison lurking in their Veins, that might perhaps break out at a Con- 
venient Opportunity."— (Col. Rm\, vol. viii., p. joj.) 

been intimated in a speech of King Beaver, made 

is at the great desire of my brothers, the English, and my uncles, the Six Nations: and 
M» I shall always hear your words." lid., p. 3 o j.) 

To which Mercer replied : 

"It is not the desire of the English that you should move from Sacunk to Kuskuaky. 
General Forbes, in his Letter, mentioned your sitting down and smoaking your Pipe at 
luskuaky. because he had heard of no other Great Delaware Town. Your Bmthtra, the 
English, desire to see you live in Peace and Happiness, either at Sacunk, Kuskiisky. or 
rhereever you think proper and by no means intend to Limit you to one Place or another." 
■KM, p. 300.) 

The Delawares and Shawanese not long afterwards removed from Kittanning. Sawkunk, 

* Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Mercer, afterwards General Mercer, was killed at Princeton, 

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30 History of Beaver County 

for Kuskuskee, and he writes of this interview with the redoubt- 
able chieftain as follows : 

Chi the road Shingas addressed himself to me and asked if I did not 
think, that, if he came to the English, they would hang him, as they had 
offered a great reward for his head. He spoke in a very soft and easy 
manner. I told him that was a great while ago, it was all forgotten and 
wiped clean away; that the English would receive him very kindly. 
Then Daniel [Shamokin Daniel, in league with the French] interrupted 
me, and said to Shingas: "Do not believe him, he tells nothing but idle 
lying stories. Wherefore did the English hire one thousand two hundred 
Indians to kill us?" I protested it was false. He said: "G — d d — n 
you for a fool ; did you not see that woman lying in the road that was 
killed by the Indians that the English hired?" I said, "Brother, do you 
consider bow many thousand Indians the French have hired to kill the 
English, and how many they have killed along the frontiers." Then 
Daniel said, "D — n you, why do not you and the French fight on the 
sea? You come here only to cheat the poor Indians and take their 
lands from them." Then Shingas told him to be still, for he did not 
know what he said. We arrived at Kushkushkee before night, and 1 in- 
formed Pisquetumen of Daniel's behavior, at which he appeared sorry. 

39th — I dined with Shingas. He told me, though the English had 
set a great price on his head, he had never thought to revenge himself, 
but was always very kind to any prisoners that were brought in; and 
that he assured the governor he would do all in his power to bring about 
an established peace, and wished he could be certain of the English 
being in earnest. 

On the first of September following, Shingiss, King Beaver, 
and Pisquetuman (the three brothers), with Delaware George, 
made a speech to Post in which they said in part that they were 
informed by some of the greatest of the traders, some of the 
justices of the peace, and by the French that 

the English intend to destroy us, and take our lands from us; but that 
they (the French) are only come to defend us and our lands. But the 
land is ours, and not theirs; therefore we say, if you will be at peace 
with us, we will send the French home. It is you that have begun the 
war, and it is necessary that you hold fast and be not discouraged in the 
work of peace. We love you more than you love us; for when we take 
any prisoners from you, we treat them as our own children. We are 
poor, and yet we clothe them as well as we can, though you see our children 
are as naked as at the first. By this you may see that our hearts are 
better than yours. It is plain that you white people are the cause of 
this war. Why do not you and the French fight in the old country and 
on the sea? Why do you come to fight on our land? This makes every- 
body believe you want to take the land from us by force and settle it. 

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History of Beaver County 31 

The good man Post, who was Christian in character as well 
as in name, answered them as adroitly as he could, but the In- 
dians had rather the best of him in the argument. After Brad- 
dock's defeat, in which he fought with the French, Shingiss raided 
the country as far east as the Delaware River, striking Reading 
and Bethlehem, and threatening Easton. On his return to the 
Ohio he brought with him one hundred captives and a great 
quantity of plunder. It would seem that on account of this 
savage work Shingiss was deposed from his position as "king" 
when the English got control of the country, and that his brother 
Amockwi, — The Beaver, — succeeded him as the head of the Dela- 
wares. Amockwi had always excelled as a councilor, attending 
all the treaties held between the Delawares and the whites. 
Speeches of his preserved in the journal of Colonel Bouquet's 
expedition against the Ohio Indians in 1764, and in the records 
of conferences with the Indians in which he took a leading part, 
such as that of George Croghan, deputy to Sir William John- 
son, His Majesty's Superintendent of Indian Affairs, at Port 
Pitt in July, 1759,* and that of General Stanwix, at Fort Pitt, 
in October, 1759,' all show him to have been an astute politician 
and an eloquent speaker. His last public appearance was at the 
treaty of Lancaster, in 176a, and he died and was buried a few 
years later on the Muskingum, near where the Tuscarawas trail 
crossed that stream — a point near the present town of New 
Philadelphia. 3 Pisquetuman, the third brother mentioned 
above, was also a chief of some note. 

Another chief of the Delaware tribe, perhaps the ablest captain 
and councilor of them all, was Koquethagachton, or " White 
Eyes." In 176a he had his lodge at the mouth of the Beaver. 
Here he was visited by Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary, 
in the spring of that year, when the latter was on his way to the 
Tuscarawas.* White Eyes was ever faithful to the Americans. 
In both Dunmore's War and the War of the Revolution, he 
strove to keep the Delawares neutral, and failing in this in the 
tatter contest, and being compelled to take sides, he declared 
for the colonists, and joined General Lachlan Mcintosh's com- 
mand in 1778, with a colonel's commission. He was a warm 
friend of the Moravian mission to his people. Heckewelder says 

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32 History of Beaver County 

of him: "He was a Christian in his heart, but did not live to 
make a public profession of our religion, though it is well known 
that he persuaded many Indians to embrace it." " 

Gratefully the old missionary recalls the devotion shown to 
himself by this chief, relating the following incident, which we 
quote in full as showing the better side of the Indian character. 
He says: 

In the year 1777, while the Revolutionary war was raging, and several 
Indian tribes had enlisted on the British side, and were spreading murder 
and devastation along our unprotected frontier, 1 rather rashly determined 
to take a journey into the country on a visit to my friends. Captain 
White Eyes, the Indian hero . . . resided at that time at the dis- 
tance of seventeen miles from the place where I lived. Hearing of my 
determination, he immediately hurried up to me, with his friend Captain 
Wingenund and some of his young men, for the purpose of escorting me 
to Pittsburgh, saying, that he would not suffer me to go, while the San- 
dusky warriors were out on war excursions without a proper escort and 
himself at my side. He insisted on accompanying me and we set out 
together. One day, as we were proceeding along, our spies discovered a 
suspicious track. White Eyes, who was riding before me, enquired 
whether I felt afraid? I answered that while he was with me, I enter- 
tained no fear. On this he immediately replied, "you are right; for 
until I am laid prostrate at your feet, no one shall hurt you." "And 
even not then," added Wingenund, who was riding behind me; "before 
this happens, I must be also overcome, and lay by the side of our friend 
Koquethageekion." I believed them, and I believe at this day that these 
great men were sincere, and that if they had been put to the test, they 
would have shown it, as did another Indian friend by whom my life 
was saved in the spring of the year 1781. From behind a log in the 
bushes where he was concealed, he espied a hostile Indian at the very 

* Heckcwelder's Indian Nations, p. jo. Ha alio says that White Eyes died at Pittsburg 

of the smallpox, he thinks, in the year 1 j8o, and a note by hia editor places the death of 
that chief at Port Lauren* in November, 1.778. But a manuscript letter from Col. George 
Morgan to a member of Congress, dated May u. ijS*. would indicate that he had been killed 
by treachery. In thin letter be speaks of George White Eyes, a eon of the great chief, then 
thirteen year* of age, who was at that time in the care of Col. Morgan at Princeton, as fol- 
lowed " Having now entered Virgil and begun Greek, and being the beat scholar in hut class. 
bewiilbepreperetoenteredCollegenext Fall." He further says : " His father was treacher- 
ously put to death at the moment of hii greatest exertions to gave the United State*, in 
who** service he held the commission of a colonel." "1 have carefully concealed and 
thill continue to conceal from young White Eyes the Manner of hia Father'! death, which 
I have never mentioned to any one but Mr. Thompson ft two or three Members of Con- 
gress." In view of these statements as to the date of the death of White Eyes it is rather 
puisling to find the German traveler Schoept quoted on pp. ]j j< ipnalringnf nrniruT a great 
chief of that name at Port Pitt after the Revolution and to leam that Captain White Bye* 
ii mentioned in the supplement to the treaty of Port Mcintosh (178$). In the treaty, 
however, the Indian name given him is not Koquetbagachton, but Wicocalind. Wen 
then two Indian chiefs of prominence of the same name, White Byes, or is there an error 
on the part of one or other of the parties quoted above in regard to the death of the chief f 

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History of Beaver County 33 

moment he was leveling his piece at me. Quick as lightning he jumped 
between us, and exposed his person to the musket shot just about to be 
fired, when fortunately the aggressor desisted, from fear of hitting the 
Indian whose body thus effectually protected me, at the^imminent risk 
of hia own Kfe. Captain White Eyes, in the year 1774, saved in the 
same manner the life of David Duncan, the peace-messenger, whom he 
was escorting. He rushed, regardless of bis own life, up to an inimical 
Shawanese, who was aiming at our ambassador from behind a bush, and 
forced him to desist. 1 

It may not be out of place to give here from an old volume 
an account of a visit to Killbuck and White Eyes, written by a 
surgeon who was with the German troops during the Revolution, 
and who afterwards traveled through the West, spending, on 
his way, some time at Pittsburg. We translate the following 
paragraphs : 

Several Indian families, of the Delaware tribe, lived, at that time, 
close to the fort [Fort Pitt]. In the company of one of the officers of 
the garrison, I visited their chief, Colonel Killbuck. As is known the 
Indians are exceedingly proud of military titles of honor, and like to 
hear themselves called "Colonel" and "Captain." The Colonel, whom 
we found in a dirty and ragged shirt, was yesterday returned from a long 
hunt, and today was refreshing himself with drink. He spoke broken 
English, and fetched with pride some letters, which his son and daughter, 
who are both being brought up in Princeton at the cost of Congress, had 
written to him. 

Colonel Killbuck, in the beginning of the troubles, separated himself 
with several families of his nation, from the rest of his folk, who for the 
most part allied themselves with the English, and came with them to 
this place. These were among all the Indians almost the only ones who 
threw in their lot with the Americans. Their wigwams, which were only 
for the summer, were constructed of poles and bark ; for winter, said they, 
they would of course, build better ones. There were about a dozen of 
these wigwams. Their bear-skin beds were spread about the fire which 
glowed in the center. The meat-pot is never taken from the fire, except 
to be emptied and filled again, for they eat always without setting any 
particular hour. On all the sides of the wigwams were hung beans, 
maize and dried game, which affords their chief entertainment. One of 
their most important men was Captain Whiteeye, who strutted about in 
a woolen blanket, with rings in his nose and ears and painted face, ex- 
cellently and gorgeously apparelled; for he, with a quarter-blood Indian, 
had had this morning an audience with the commandant. General 
Irvine had several times, and today again, given them to understand 
that they have permission to remove from here, because there is now 
peace and their stay here, for different reasons, is burdensome; they 

' Inlitan Nations, pp. a'/o-aSo. 

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34 History of Beaver County 

appeared, however, not at all inclined to go, and apprehend, perhaps, 
not the most friendly reception from their own people. A young, well- 
built, copper-colored squaw was stamping their corn in a wooden trough 
in front of one of the wigwams; her whole dress consisted of a tight 
skirt of blue cloth, without gathers, which scarcely reached to her knees; 
her black hair hung loose over her shoulders, and her cheeks and fore- 
head were neatly colored with red paint. She seemed to be very happy 
in the companionship of her fellow workman, a fresh young fellow, who 
with a couple of clouts on needful places, was otherwise as naked as the 
unembarrassed beauty. Other women were busied with weaving baskets, 
shelling corn, or other work, for the men, as is well known, do not concern 
themselves with domestic occupations. The surplus of their products, 
their baskets and straw-work they barter for whiskey. There were 
among them some countenances that were by no means ugly, and they 
were not all alike swarthy in color. 1 

Within the present limits of Beaver County lived at one time 
also a Delaware (some say Seneca) Indian woman of great in- 
fluence, known as Queen Aliquippa. Her home was somewhere 
near the present borough of Aliquippa in this county, named 
for her, but she afterwards removed to the mouth of the Youghio- 
gheny, where she was visited by Washington, in 1753. Later 
she removed to Raystown, now Bedford, Pa., where she died in 
December, 1754. 

We may mention, too, that the Delaware warrior Tingooqua, 
or Catfish, who had a lodge within the present limits of the 
borough of Washington, Pa., on the little stream called by the 
Indians Wissameking (now named Catfish) and from whom that 
locality was long known in pioneer days as "Catfish Camp," 
formerly lived at Kuskuskee, the Delaware town above men- 
tioned. His home was therefore then within the original limits 
of Beaver County.* 

Without anticipating too much what belongs to a later period 
of our history, we may say here that these Indian tribes which we 
have described as at one time inhabiting the territory now within 
the limits of Beaver County, the Delawares, the Shawanese, and 
the Mingoes, or Ohio River Iroquois, all became during the 
Revolutionary period the allies of the British; their activity 
and bitter hostility against the Americans being so great that 
the border settlements of Pennsylvania and Virginia were by 

> Htilt durch tinitf drr imaltn mid mdticAm Vtr*i*itU* NorittmrrikaniKhm SiaaUn, 
1783-1-/84. by Johsim D. Schoepf. Brlustd. uBS, p. 41 J, tt s*a. 
•Cel. Rte.. vol. viii., p. 417. 

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History of Beaver County 35 

their massacres converted into an Aceldama and a Bochim. 1 
Some of the Delawares remained neutral. White Eyes was es- 
pecially devoted to the American cause, as was also Killtmck, 
and other sachems. These chiefs made, at Pittsburg, in Sep- 
tember, 1778, a treaty of alliance with the Americans, although, 
as we shall see in the succeeding chapter, they were unable, for 
want of popular support and of power in their government, to 
restrain the young warriors of their nation from joining in the 
depredations and massacres committed by the Shawanese and 
other hostile tribes.* The most redoubtable, perhaps, of our 
foes during the Revolution were the Wyandots or Hurons, who 
lived near Detroit and along the southern shore of Lake Erie, 
but whose villages were sometimes mixed in with those of the 
Delawares and Shawanese. There were also the Miamis, living 
between the Miami and the Wabash rivers, together with irregu- 
lar bands of Cherokees, Ottawas, Chippewas, etc., who were very 
troublesome during, and for some years after, the war. 

Much more might be said of these first occupants of our west- 
ern territory, who have left behind them no memorial except 
the names of our rivers and creeks, such as Ohio and Allegheny, 
Beaver (in translation), Conoquenessing, Mahoning, Neshan- 
nock, and Shenango. Their rude virtues, their glowing elo- 
quence, their valor, and high endurance might call for more 
adequate recognition, and their bitter wrongs provoke our la- 
mentations. Sad indeed was the destiny of these children of the 
forest, who have vanished like the leaves of the trees that gave 
them shelter: 

Like the dew on the mountain, 

Like the foam on the river, 
Like the bubble on the fountain, 

They are gone and forever! 

1 " Their (Dene*, their cunning and stealth, their terrible proven and merciless cruelty 
make it no figure of speech to call them the tdgeri of the human nee . ■ - Tireless, 
careless of oil hardship, they cure silently out of unknown forests, robbed and murdered 
and then disappeared again into the fathomless depths of the woods . . . Wrapped 
in the mantle of the unknown, appalling by their craft, their ferocity, their fiendish cruelty, 
they seemed to the white settlers devils, not men."— THt Winning af ihi Wwtt, by Theodore 
Roosevelt, Part L, pp. too, iro. 

* That the Delawares had been engaged in hostilities with the United States is recog- 
rdaed in the treaty of Port Mcintosh (January it, i jBs), and also in a supplementary 
article to that treaty, which provided that the chiefs Kelelamand (called by the whites 
" Kill-buck ") Koquethagachton (White Byes) and one or two other Indian* of note who 
took dp the hatchet for the United States, should be received back into the Delaware na- 
tion, and reinstated in all their original rights, without any prejudice. 

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36 History of Beaver County 

But sad as it was, it was no less certain and necessary for the 
progress of humanity, that the savages should surrender the 
possession of this country to others. It was inevitable that 
when once the foot of the European had stepped upon the sands 
of the Atlantic coast of this country it should never rest until it 
had penetrated to the interior and trod the sands of the Pacific. 
Whatever view we may take of this occupation of America by 
the whites, and the dispossession by them of the Indian races 
who occupied it — whether we regard it, as the Jews did their 
conquest of Canaan, as "the casting out of the heathen" that a 
chosen people might take possession of the land, or as the result 
of the unheeding law of evolution by which humanity is carried 
onward to its goal, nothing was more certain than that the weak 
elements of barbarism existing here should be displaced by 
European civilization, and this great country be opened to the 
world. And assuredly the march of the advancing column of 
emigration across this continent was wonderful enough to justify 
us in speaking of it, with De Tocqueville, as having the solemnity 
of a providential event, "like a deluge of men rising unabatedly 
and daily driven onward by the hand of God." ' 

We may deplore the cruelty and violence by which this occu- 
pation was accomplished, we may wish that the pacific policy of 
the Perms had everywhere been shown toward the red man, and 
the enormous waste that took place avoided, but we cannot 
regret the result. For, on a grand scale, it is an illustration of 
"the law of the survival of the fittest." The Indian and the 
bison were incapable of fulfilling the destinies of this land; it 
was written in the book of nature and of fate that they had had 
their day and must cease to be. The future welfare of humanity 
demanded a nobler breed of men to receive their heritage and 
bring forth the fruits thereof. These men came. And now the 
grassy plains where roamed the buffalo are the grazing grounds 
of uncounted herds of neat cattle ; the soil which the Indian only 
scratched to get enough to support his hand-to-mouth existence 
is bringing forth harvests that fill the granaries of the world, and 
where he stuck his squalid tepees are mighty cities and the homes 
of millions of busy workers. 

1 Dtmocracyin Amirica, vol. i„ p. 43=. in the chapter hauled "What are the Chuneee in 
I»vor of the Duration ol the American Union?" etc. 

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History of Beaver County 37 


But the character of the future inhabitants of this region 
was not settled with the triumph of European civilization over 
the native barbarism. It remained to be decided which of two 
great types of that civilization should predominate here. Two 
great nations had all along been contending for the mastery 
of the vast domain that lay within the Ohio and Mississippi 
valleys. Great Britain and France asserted counter-claims to 
this territory based on priority of discovery and occupancy, 
or on purchase from the Indians dwelling in it, 1 and a war 
resulted "which extended its ravages from the banks of the 
Ohio to the shores of the Ganges." It was here in the Beaver 
and Ohio valleys, in fact, that these great world powers first began 
to clash. 1 But the brewing of the storm was long and gradual. 
For more than a hundred years the English colonists were con- 
tent to confine their activities east of the Alleghenies, leaving 
the exploration of the country beyond to adventurous traders. 
These were often depraved men, even criminals and transported 
convicts, who did much to bring the name "English" into con- 
tempt; though others were ultimately of great use to the au- 
thorities on account of their knowledge of the Indian character 
and country. The French colonists, on the other hand were not, 
in general, an agricultural people, like the English, but rather 
sought to acquire territory for trading, military, and missionary 
purposes.* They had therefore pushed forward into the wilder- 
ness and established relations with the Indians in the Mississippi 
and Ohio valleys sometime before the English had begun to per- 
ceive the importance of winning a foot-hold in that great seat 

* The French title to the Valley of the Miamssippi restod upon the fact of the explom- 
tioiu of Marquette and La Salle; upon the feet of occupation, and upon their construction 
of the treaties of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Alx-la-Chapelle. The English claims to the same 
region were based on the fact of a prior occupation of the coast : on an opposite construction 
of the same treaties, and on alleged cession of the rights of the Indians. Sea Wttttn 
Annals, p. 93. 

It is on the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La Salle in 1 63a that the French 
claim of the territory at the head of the Ohio is properly based, since the best historian! 
reject the testimony for bis having discovered the Allegheny and the upper Ohio in 1660. 

* The first actual bloodshed in this contest was in the skirmish which Washington had 
with Jumonville's party. "This obscure skirmish," saya Parkman. "began the war which 
set the world on Are." But it will be remembered that five yean before this event took 
place De Celeron, in the name of the French king, had ordered the English Sag hauled 
down at Logstown, and had driven away the English traders from that place. This was 
within the present limits of Beaver County. (See Da Celeron's Journal Fori Pitt, p. 10.) 

' Parkman's Cowpiroey of Pontine, vol. t.. pp. 40-so. 

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38 History of Beaver County 

of future empire. A French trader named James Le Tort is 
thought to have been on the Ohio, *. e., the Allegheny River, as 
early as 1730.' La Force and others soon followed him, and, in 
1727, the authorities at Montreal sent an agent named Joncaire 
to the Ohio to establish the French interest there.* Joncaire 
came annually thereafter with others, among them a gunsmith, 
who mended the guns and tomahawks of the Indians gratis, and 
some of the Shawanese chiefs were persuaded by them to visit 
the French Governor at Montreal. Another man, who, though 
he went out as an English trader, became an agent of the French 
on the Ohio, was Peter Chartier. He is said to have had at first 
a trading station at the head of the Ohio near the mouth of Char- 
tier's Creek, which was probably named for him. In 1745 he 
declared for the French, and induced the Shawanese to forsake 
the English. He was afterwards rewarded with a commission 
in the French service, under which he committed many acts of 

The English traders were, however, not long in following the 
French. It is supposed that some were on the banks of the 
Ohio as early as 1730. Probably as early as 1748, George Cro- 
ghan had a trading-post at Sawkunk, at the mouth of the Big 
Beaver Creek. 3 In the same year Conrad Weiser was sent to 
the Indians at Logstown on the Ohio, as the representative of 
the Province of Pennsylvania, to treat with them, and to give 

1 The Allegheny River, u previously itatcd, ma not at thii time distinguished from 
the Ohio; the stream in it* whole length, above, as veil aa below its confluence with the 
Ifonongnhela. being called the "Ohio." 

1 Joncaire had been adopted as a son by the Seneca nation, and was called by the Indians 
Cahictodo. He is suppoaed by some to have been "the French gentleman" mentioned by 
Mr. Logan in bis address to the Pennsylvania Supreme Council, August *, tin, from which 
we quote on page 4j. (See Col. Ric. vol. iii.. pp. 401. 403.) Washington's Journal of 1753 
mentions him as "a man of note in the army." He had a commanding influence over the 
Indiana, and discharged his mission to the Ohio with much ability. 

* George Croghan was an Irishman, from Dublin, who first settled upon the Susquehanna 
five miles west of Harrisburg. and engaged in the Indian trade. He had acquired the lan- 
guage! of several of their nations, and had great influence over them. He became a cap- 
tain in the provincial service, and deputy superint en d e nt of Indian affairs under Sir William 
Johnson, Croghan had a trading-bouse at Logstown and one at the mouth of the Beaver, 
and finally settled near Pittsburg. He was illiterate but a man of great force of character. 
Gist, in his first journal (November »j, 1750). says of him, "Enquired [at Logstown] for 
Croghan, who is a meer Idol among his Countrymen the Irish Traders." Croghan, with 
the heroic Captain Jack and a number of others, visited the amp of Brnddoclc, after be 
had crossed toe mountains from Cumberland, and offered his services and those of his party, 
aa acoute and guides. See his " Statement." in History of BraddocKs Expedition, by Win- 
throp Sargent, p. 407. A full account of his life and varied service* will be found in Christa- 
pjur Gist's Journals, by William M. Darlington, p. 176, it sty. 

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^-V '« " i&-^ 

Leller from George Croghan to Thomas Wharton. 
Phorocraphic reprod union of original in pouniion vt Carncsie Lib 

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History of Beaver County 39 

them the large present of goods which had been promised them 
the previous autumn. The Utter were carried by George Cro- 
ghan with his pack-horses. Weiser arrived at Logstown on the 
evening of August 37, 1748, and was joyfully received by the 
Indians. Long speeches were made by Weiser and Andrew 
Montour, an Indian interpreter, to the representatives of the 
different tribes, consisting of Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Dela 
wares, Shawanese, and Wyandots, and after the Indian orators 
had responded the present was divided and distributed, and the 
conference ended with great satisfaction to both parties. 


Hitherto, the trade of the English with the western Indians 
had been for the most part in the hands of the Pennsylvanians. 
But now the Virginians wished to engage in this profitable busi- 
ness also. Accordingly, after Weiser's conference with the 
Indians at Logstown had prepared the way for more friendly in- 
tercourse, a large land company was organized in Virginia which 
was called the Ohio Company. At the head of this company 
was Colonel Thomas Lee, and with him were associated twelve 
others from Virginia and Maryland, and a merchant of London 
named Hanbury. Lawrence and Augustine Washington, two 
half-brothers of George Washington, were also among the first 
who engaged in this enterprise. In 1 748, a petition was presented 
to the king for a grant of land beyond the mountains, which was 
approved, and five hundred thousand acres of land were assigned 
to the company, two hundred thousand of which were to be 
located at once. The lands were to be taken chiefly on the south 
side of the Ohio, between the Monongahela and the Kanawha 
rivers, with the privilege of locating also on the north of the 
Ohio, if it should be found necessary. The two hundred thou- 
sand acres were to be held for ten years free from quit-rent or 
any tax to the king, on condition that the company should, at 
their own expense, seat one hundred families on the lands within 
seven years, and build a fort and maintain a garrison sufficient 
to protect the settlement. The company began at once to carry 
out their plans. They ordered from London a cargo suited to the 
Indian trade, and dispatched Mr. Christopher Gist on an explor- 
ing expedition, to examine the quality of the lands and draw a 

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40 History of Beaver County 

plan of the country. Gist made two trips through the region," 
and finding that it would be necessary to win the friendship of 
the Indians therein, he, as agent of the Ohio Company, and 
Colonel Joshua Fry, Lunsford Lomax, and James Patton, on the 
part of Virginia, made a treaty with them at Logstown in the 
summer of 1753. In this treaty the Indians pledged themselves 
not to molest any settlements of the company on the southeast 
side of the river, and gave them permission to build two forts 
there. Soon after the treaty was made, Mr. Gist was appointed 
the company's surveyor, and instructed to lay oft a town and 
fort at the mouth of Shurtee's (Chartier's) Creek. This seems 
not to have been erected, as in his journal of his visit to Venango, 
Washington speaks of the "fort which the Ohio Company in- 
tended to lay off there." The goods which had come over from 
England were never taken farther into the interior than Will's 
Creek (now Cumberland, Md.), where they were sold to traders 
and Indians, who received them at that post. The Ohio Com- 
pany was in operation for about four years, and was a losing 
venture for everybody connected with it. 

Other companies whose object was to colonize the West, 
such as the Loyal Company and the Greenbriar Company, were 
formed in Virginia about this time which were equally short- 
lived with the Ohio Company. But the tide could not be stayed. 
Many other English traders and adventurers began to enter the 
region around the head of the Ohio about the year 1748 and 
onwards, and, as on account of their having a shorter and 
cheaper carriage for their goods than the French, they were able 
to undersell the latter, the Indians were gradually drawn to 
favor the English.' These various advances of their com- 
petitors were not unperceived by the authorities at Montreal, 
nor regarded by them with indifference. They saw that if the 
English once established themselves upon the Ohio, they would 
not only interfere with the French making any settlements there, 
but would ultimately threaten the settlements already made by 
them south and north of the mouth of that river, on the Missis- 
sippi. Vaudreuil, the French governor of Louisiana, had seen 

• See Otristophr Gill's Journals, by William M. Darlington, J. R. Weldin & Co- Pitta- 
burg, 1S93. 

* See Celeron'! Journal in Fort Pitt (Darlington), p. 60; also. Lift of DtWill CUnlon, 
i&to. p. ai6. 

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History of Beaver County 41 

the danger from the English encroachments, and in 1744 had 
written home about it, and, in 1749, Gallissoniere, then governor 
of Canada, was also alarmed and led to take measures that 
would show the French in formal possession of the Ohio River 
and all the country adjacent to it. For this purpose an expedi- 
tion was sent out in the summer of 1749, under the command of 
Louis Bienville de Celeron, to publish notices of the French 
king's claim of title to this region. Carrying out his instructions, 
Celeron passed down the Allegheny and Ohio, planting crosses 
and posts bearing devices representing the royal arms of France, 
and nailing the same on trees, and burying at all important 
places, such as the mouths of the largest streams, leaden plates 
on which were stamped inscriptions in old French setting forth 
the claims of the French king to the region roundabout. Several 
of these plates have since been found, one at the " Forks of 
the Ohio," one at the mouth of French Creek on the Allegheny, 
one at Point Pleasant, on the Ohio, and one at the mouth of the 
Muskingum. We give on the opposite page a reproduction of 
the plate found at the mouth of the Big Kanawha, copied from 
Craig's The Olden Time. 1 

The result of Celeron's expedition was far from satisfactory, 
as he himself confesses in his journal.' His manner toward the 
Indians whom he met had been very overbearing, and he alien- 
ated rather than conciliated them. The English traders whom 
he had driven away returned soon after his departure, and found 
the Indians more than ever disposed to side with them and the 
provincial government. To remove the ill effects of Celeron's 
visit, the Frenchman Joncaire came the following year to the 

* The following it a translation of the inscription on thin plate, nearly literal : 

" In the Tear 1 740, in the reign of Louis XV King of France, we, Celeron, commandant 
of a detachment sent by the Marquis da La Gallissoniere, commandant General of New 
Francs, to re-establish tranquility in some Indian towns in these departments, have buried 
tbia plate at the mouth of the river Chinodahichetha, this iSlh day of August, near the 
river Ohio, otherwise called Beautiful River, as a memorial of the resumption of possession 
if the said river Ohio, and all those that [all into it, and oE all the lands 
id rivers, the same as the proceeding lanes of France 

— .-.. and as they are established by anna and by treaties, 

y by those of Ryswick, Utrecht and Aii-la-Chapelle." 
This plate waa about axis inches, and near an eighth of an inch thick. The whole 
inscription was stamped, except the date and place of burial, which wen cut in with a 
knife in spaces left blank for them. The French lilies were also stamped in in several 
places. On the back of two of those found was stamped the name of the maker, thus : 
"Paul La Brosss. Fecit." The one here reproduced was picked out of the hank at the 
junction of the Kanawha and the Ohio by a little son of J. W. Beale, Esq.. while playing 
on the margin of the river. 

• Fart Pitt (Darlington), p. 00. 

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42 History of Beaver County 

Ohio, and met with no better success. But notwithstanding 
these partial failures, the French had gotten much in advance 
of the English in the effort to occupy the great inland empire 
west of the Allegheny Mountains, and had already, despite the 
opposition of the Indians, built several forts, as at Erie and 
Venango, to defend their interests, and were planning to build 
other forts on the Ohio. 

In the latter part of May, 1753, a large party of French and 
Indians were at Lake Erie preparing for an expedition that was 
to be sent down the Ohio for this purpose in the following sum- 
mer. The Indians sent a message to the invaders warning them 
not to proceed, but the French despised the warning and kept 
on. The Indians then held a council at Logstown, and sent a 
second warning to them, saying: 

Your children on the Ohio are alarmed to hear of your coming so 
far this way. We at first heard that you came to destroy us. Our 
women left off planting, and our warriors prepared for war. We have 
since heard that you came to visit us as friends without design to hurt 
us, but then we wondered that you came with so strong a body. If you 
have had any cause of complaint you might have spoken to Onas or 
Corlear, and not come to disturb us here. We have a fire at Logstown, 
where are the Delawares and Shawanese and Brother Onas; you might 
have sent deputies there and said openly what you came about, if you 
had thought amiss .of the English being there, and we invite you to do 
it now before you proceed any further. 

The French replied to this message as follows: 

I find you come to give me an invitation to your Council Fire with 
a design, as I suppose, to call me to account for coming here. I must 
let you know that my heart is good to you; I mean no hurt to you. I 
am come by the Great King's command to do you, my children, good. 
You seem to think I carry my hatchet under my coat; I always carry it 
openly, not to strike you, but those that oppose me. I cannot come to 
your Council Fire, nor can I return or stay here. I am so heavy a body 
that the stream will cany me down, and down I shall go unless you pull 
off my arm. But this I will tell you, I am commanded to build four 
strong houses, viz., at Weningo [Venango], Mohongialo Forks, Logstown 
and Beaver Creek, and this I will do. As to what concerns Onas and 
Assaragoa, I have spoken to them and let them know they must go off 
the land, and I shall speak to them again. If they will not hear me it 
is their own fault. I will take them by the arm and throw them over 
the hills. All the lands and waters on this side Alleghany hills are mine, 
on the other side theirs. This is agreed on between the two Crowns 
over the waters. I do not like your selling your land to the English, 

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({ NF.W YO»* 

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History of Beaver County 43 

they shall draw you into no more foolish bargains. I will take care of 
your lands for you. The English give you no goods but for land. We 
give you our goods for nothing. 1 

This reply shows how the French had mastered the Indians' 
mode of speech, and that they knew how to play upon their 
feelings and fears, winning their respect, if not their confidence, 
by bold and direct expression of their meaning. But the In- 
dians were not intimidated, and returned the following message : 

You say you cannot come to our Council Fire at Logstown, we there- 
fore now come to you to know what is in your heart. When you tired of 
Queen Anne's war you plead for peace. You begged to talk with us. 
You said, "We must all eat with one spoon out of this silver bowl, and 
all drink out of this silver cup. Let us exchange hatchets. Let us bury 
our hatchets in this bottomless pit hole." Then we consented to make 
peace, and you made a solemn declaration, saying, " Whoever shall here- 
after transgress this peace, let the transgressor be chastised with a rod, 
even though it be I, your Father. , . ." Now, Father, notwith- 
standing this solemn declaration of yours, you have whipped several of 
your children. You know best why. Of late you have chastised the 
Twightwees very severely without telling us the reason, and now you 
are come with a strong band on our land, and have contrary to your 
engagement taken up the hatchet without any previous parley. These 
things are a breach of the peace, they are contrary to your own declara- 
tions. Therefore now I come to forbid you. I will strike over all this 
land with my rod, let it hurt who it will. I tell you in plain words you 
must go off this land. You say you have a strong body, a strong neck, 
and a strong voice, that when you speak all the Indians must hear you. 
It is true you are a strong body and ours is but weak, yet we are not 
afraid of you. We forbid you to come any further, turn back to the 
place from whence you came.* 

The plans of the French were never fully carried out, but the 
boldness and rapidity of their movements in the earlier stages of 
their contest with the English bade fair to give them complete 
control over the whole of the Ohio valley. 

The secret of this superior celerity of action on the part of 
the French was that they had but one government in their pos- 
sessions, while the English had several colonial governments, 
jealous each of the other, and unwilling to act in concert. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that there was no alarm 

1 Oiuui wu the Inilian name for William Peon and later for t 
Femurlvania interest!. Corlear — tb* Governor of New York : Asauagoa — 

• Cot. Rte.. voL v, pp. 667-8. 

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44 History of Beaver County 

felt on the subject by the different provincial authorities. Very 
early, indeed, efforts had been made to induce the governments 
of Virginia and Pennsylvania to colonize and fortify the coveted 
region, but nothing definite was determined upon. In 1716, 
Governor Spottswood of Virginia perceived the designs of the 
French to keep the English from passing beyond the Alleghenies, 
and induced the Virginia Assembly to make an appropriation to 
defray the expenses of a party to explore those mountains. He 
himself led the expedition, and he afterwards sent a memorial 
to the government in London, exposing the French scheme of 
military occupation and advising the building of a chain of forts 
across to the Ohio, and the formation of settlements to counter- 
act their scheme. His early recall prevented his suggestions 
from being carried out.' 

In Pennsylvania also far-sighted men were awake to the 
danger of the situation. In 1719, Governor Keith urged upon 
the Lords of Trade the erection of a fort on Lake Erie, and, in 
1731, the Provincial Secretary, James Logan,' sent a memorial 
on the subject to Sir Robert Walpole, and called the attention 
of the Pennsylvania Council to it. His method of doing so was 
dramatic, almost sensational. A book that had been published 
ten years before in London, contained a map of the French ex- 
plorations in America and of the territory claimed by France. 
This book had come into Mr. Logan's hands and gave him his 
opportunity to show the Council the gravity of the crisis that 
confronted them. A report of his address is given in the Colonial 
Records, which we will here transcribe. At a session of the 
Council held in Philadelphia, August 4, 1731, the message of the 
Governor was presented. Its closing words were as follows: 

I have also another Affair of very great importance to the Security 
of this Colony & all its Inhabitants to lay before you, which shall speedily 
be communicated to you. 

The Governor then proceeded to inform the Board that the Matter 
mentioned in the close of the proceeding Message related to Indian 
Affairs, & would be found to be likewise of very great Consequence to 

' Wtsttrn AnraOt, p. a j. 

* Juna Logan, one of the ablest public men of his day. was bom at Lurgan, Ireland, 
October 30. 16J4. of Scotch Quaker stock. He was well educated and became a merchant. 
Ha removed in i6og, with Penn Co Philadelphia. He was long in public life aa Provincial 
Secretary, Quel justice, etc., of Pennsylvania, and wu President of the Council and Acting - 
Governor from 1136 to ujB. He was the author of several world in Latin and Bit?"* 
piose and verse. He died near Germantown, Pa., October 31, 1JJ1. 

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History of Beaver County 45 

the whole Province, the Detail whereof His Honor said he would leave 
to Mr. Logan, to whom the Information had been first given, and who, 
from his long experience and knowledge in those affairs could give the 
best Account of it. 

That Gentleman then producing the Map of Louisiana, as inserted in 
a book called a New General Atlas, published at London in the year 1721, 
first observed from thence how exorbitant the French Claims were on 
the Continent of America: that by the Description in the said Map they 
claimed a great part of Carolina and Virginia, & had laid down Susque- 
hanna as a boundary of Pennsylvania. Then he proceeded to observe 
that by Virtue of some Treaty, as they allege, the French pretend a Right 
to all Lands lying on Rivers, of the Mouths of which they are possessed. 
That the River Ohio (a branch of the Mississippi) comes close to those 
mountains which lye about no or 130 Miles back of Sasquehanna, 
within the boundaries of this Province, as granted by the King's Letters 
Patent; that adjoining thereto is a fine Tract of Land called Allegheny, 
on which several Shawanese Indians had seated themselves; And that 
by the Advices lately brought to him by several Traders in those parts 
it appears that the French have been using Endeavors to gain over those 
Indians to their interest, & for this End a French Gentleman had come 
amongst them some years since, sent, as it was believed, from the Gover- 
nor of Montreal, and at his Departure last year carried with Tittti some 
of the Shawanese Chiefs to that Governor, with whom they, at their 
Return, appeared to be highly pleased; That the same French Gentleman, 
with five or six others in Company with him had this last Spring again 
come amongst the said Indians, and brought with him a Shawanese In- 
terpreter, was well received by them, had again carried some of their 
Chiefs to the said Gov'r, & the better to gain the Affections of the said 
Indians brought with him a Gunsmith to work for them gratis, Mr. 
Logan then went on to represent how destructive this Attempt of the 
French, if attended with success, may prove to the English Interest on 
this Continent, and how deeply in its consequences it may effect this 
Province, & after having spoken fully on these two heads, Moved that 
to prevent or putt a stop to these designs, if possible, a treaty should be 
sett on foot with the five Nations, who have an absolute authority as 
well over the Shawanese as all our Indians, that by their means the 
Shawanese may not only be kept firm to the English Interest, but like- 
wise be induced to remove from the Allegheny nearer to the English 
Settlements, and that such a treaty becomes now the more necessary 
because 'tis several years since any of these Nations have visited us, and 
no opportunity ought to be lost of cultivating & improving the Friend- 
ship which has always subsisted between this Government & them. 

This able address made a deep impression, but no active 
measures were taken, though at a conference with some of the 

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46 History of Beaver County 

Indians of the Six Nations, on August 35th the following year, 
further information of the movements of "the French gentle- 
man" was gained.' 

Celeron's expedition to the Ohio eighteen years later, already 
mentioned, brought fresh alarm to both the Indians and the 
provincial authorities. One of the buried plates having come 
into the hands of Governor Clinton of New York, a letter was 
sent by him to Governor Hamilton of Pennsylvania, giving a 
copy of the inscription." Intelligence of the French expedition 
was immediately sent to London, whence the proprietaries wrote 
a letter to Governor Hamilton, which was received in January, 
1750, advising certain measures of defence, such as the building 
of a fort and settlements within the region threatened. The 
Pennsylvania Assembly did not, however, make any move in 
the matter. The provincial purse having been already heavily 
drawn upon in the maintenance of a militia force and in making 
presents to the Indians, they were unwilling to incur any further 
expense. They felt also that the proprietaries were not bearing 
their equitable share of the burdens of support and defence of 
the province. In their attitude in this matter there was a mani- 
festation of the same spirit that was to show itself in the Revolu- 
tion twenty years later — the spirit of revolt against what they 
deemed unjust taxation. Dissension between these two par- 
ties as to the finances and administration of affairs in the prov- 
ince prevailed throughout the colonial period. The Assembly 
was the popular branch of the government, while the pro- 
prietaries represented in some degree royal prerogative and the 
"divine right," The former wanted the estates of the owners 
taxed equally with those of the co mmo n people of the province ; 
the latter, through their deputies, refused. "The proprietaries 
pleaded prerogative, charter, and law; the Assembly, in turn, 
pleaded equity, common danger, and common benefit, requiring 
a common expense. The proprietaries offered bounties in land 
yet to be conquered from the Indians, and the privilege of 
issuing more paper money: the Assembly wanted something 
more tangible. The Assembly, passed laws laying taxes and 
granting supplies, but annexing conditions: the governors op- 
posed the conditions, but were willing to aid the Assembly in 

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History of Beaver County • 47 

taxing the people, but not the proprietaries." ' Thus the mat- 
ter was tossed from one to the other in fruitless controversy as 
to where the chief responsibility rested, while meantime the 
French advances were being made, and later, the frontiers were 
left exposed to the incursions of savage foes. 1 One man there 
was whose influence at this critical period was important. This 
was the sturdy German, Conrad Weiser, previously mentioned 
as the bearer of Pennsylvania's gifts to the Ohio Indians, and 
who was indefatigable in his efforts to win the West for the 
English. His keen perception of the gravity of the situation 
and his zeal to awaken the authorities of Pennsylvania and 
Virginia to active opposition to the French is constantly mani- 
fested in the letters which he wrote to them. In the manu- 
script letters of Weiser in the possession of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania are two fragments, without date or ad- 
dress, which we find of sufficient interest and relevancy to our 
present topic to insert here. The first reads as follows : 

In short we have been imposed upon by the said Indians and our own 
people. They cost this Government about a tousand pounds and after 
all they forewarned our people to Come away from the other side the 
Allegheny hills, Charged you Commissioners that they gave occasion in 
the 1751 by asking leave of the Ohio Indians to Build a ford [fort] on ohio 
for the trench to Come & take possession of the land. I was very angry 
and told the Indians in the presence of And. Montour and others that 
if the Virginians asked such leave of the ohio Indians it was a Weak- 
mess in them for that the Government of Virginia bad bought all tbe land 
in their charter at treaty of lancaster from the chiefs of the six nation and 
for that reason had no need to ask leave of the Indians on Ohio to Build 
forts on their own land. Andrew Montour denied that and said the 
Indians never sold nor released it — If they did they were imposed upon 
by the Interpreter. This he said in the presence of our Commissioners 
I told him in plan words that he was an Impudent fellow to say so in 
short he wants your Government to puy the land from the ohio Indians 
and yet not settle it. I am sorry that ever I recommended him to this 
and to your Government in the least thing. 

If tbe french are suffered by the English to take and keep possession 
of ohio as they now have of some part to wit about 100 miles above 

1 Day** Historical Cotttciiow, p. 14; see full account of this controversy in Conrad 
V/eittr and iht Indian Policy of Colonial Prn-nsyh-ania, by Joseph S. Walton, p. 303 foil. 

' Nswerthele**, the Assembly must be allowed ultimately to have mads pretty effective 
effort* for the protection of the province during the French and Indian wan. According 
to the Fronlitr Forts of Pmnryhania it would appear that there were erected 0:1 the frontier, 
during the campaign* of nss-jS, and that of 1763 (Pontiac'i War), no less than 107 forts, 
large and small, by the order and at the expense of the Assembl y. and that these were 
garrisoned by troop* is ita pay. 

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48 • History of Beaver County 

logstown a place called Winineko [Venango] they will be very troublesome 
neighbors to us they will get settlers out of pensil[vania] in great number 
for here are a great many of the King of trench subjects out of Elsase 
lorain & if a good many of them would never as yet naturalize under 
the Crown of England and our people Connives at them. If they should 
hear that the french King would give them land on ohio for a little or 
nothing and tollerate them in their Religious persuasion it is my opinion 
Several hundreds If not tousands would steal away (which they can very 
eassey do) and go over to the french to ohio and provide them with 
Cows and Horses and plowman — to say nothing of Rogues and Villains 
that would fly from Justice and run over the hills to them, what the 
french and the ohio and other Indians would be to us in time of War I 
leave to you and other Gentlemen to Judge I can not think on such a 
time but with Terror, as to their Number the best accounts that I 
could get of them was that they were about i ,000 men french and Indians 
but the latter allmost all left them and went back again unwilling to 
assist the french in taking possession of the ohio. I think it highly 
necessary for this Colonies to raise about 1,000 men and take possession 
of ohio by force Build fords and speak Boldly to the Indians but with 
prudence and if the time of peace will admit knock every french men on 
Ohio that wont run to the head and if we dont do now we never again 
shall be so able to it and our posterity will Condemn us for our neglect. 

This reads as if it were addressed to the Virginia authorities, 
and the date must have been some time after 1752 and before 
1758, when the French were driven from Fort Duquesne. In 
his reference to the extent of the purchase made in the treaty at 
Lancaster Weiser seems to contradict what he had himself else- 
where asserted. 1 

The second fragment seems to be from a letter addressed to 
the Pennsylvania authorities, and is probably to be assigned to a 
date in the period from 1750 to 1753. We meet here one of the 
earliest indications of the then prevailing uncertainty as to the 
western bounds of the province of Pennsylvania, foretokening 
the long contest that was later to be waged over that question. 
Weiser writes: 

The river of ohio is a very fine River and from its rise it begins to 
be navigable for Canoes & Batoes to its mouth where it runs into the 

* "When the Ohio tribes learned that the Six Nation! at the Lancaster treaty of 1744 
deeded to Virginia land bounded by the setting sun, they remonstrated with their marten 
for using such metaphors in fixing a boundary line. The wise men of the Six Nation! 
replied that the setting sun only meant the hills of the Allegheny behind which the tun 
was lort. Conrad Weiser was appealed to, and this undisputed authority insisted that no 
land was sold to Virginia in i ;tt beyond the summit! of the Alleghenies. Nevertheless 
Virginia pushed her claims out beyond and along the Ohio river." — Conrad Wtitrr and 
tht Indian Policy of Colonial PtnnsykKaua, Walton, p. 376. 

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History of Beaver County 49 

great River Misisippy. It roust be by all accounts near a tousand mile 
long it differs from all the rivers in North america for its smoothness 
Considering its length. The lands on both sides are very good and a 
great deal of it Extraordinary rich and between the said river and the 
lake Brie the greatest part is good land white oak Black oak & Spanish 
oak is the timber that grows on it — it is by the timber that the Indians 
tells me grows on it I judge — The Indians themselves can not Judge of 
the land itself — only of the low lands & plans of which is so much that 
one thinks it a tousand pity that such a large and good Country should 
be unsettled or fall into the hand of the trench who have allready made 
some Settlement below or on the river commonly called Wappash [Wa- 
bash] a Branch of ohio. This fall the ground about ohio was all Covered 
with acorns, a middling good Hunter among the Indians of ohio kills 
for his share in one fall 150-100 dears. The pensilvania traders had all 
the skins this 2 or 3 years. The Erecting of a good Correspondent and 
a Regular trade with the Indians on ohio would secure that fine and 
large Country to the English nation, a good beginning is made by the 
last present from the government of Pennsylvania] that I Caried there. 
The trade itself If but in Regulation will ans'r all the Cost of Keeping 
such Correspondenz and Consequently the land will fall at last into the 
English hands. The westerly bounds of pensilvania must reach some 
of the Eastern Branches of ohio If not the river itself in some places and 
the land on the road that leads to ohio from pensilvania is good So that 
if their Honors the proprietors of pensilvania purchase that part of their 
province from the Indians I dare say within 10 years after the purchase 
is made, the land will be settled to within 50 miles of ohio 

[The following is a note of Weiser's to the above] : 

The traders and Indians in going down the river they Boil their 
victuals a little before night and go into their Canoes again and they tie 
3 or 4 Canoes together and let them drive all night and they he them- 
selves down to sleep and there is not the least danger of oversetting. 
The river will rise in the spring of the year (when the snow to the nord 
melts by southerly wind & rain) about 35 & 30 foot perpendicularly and 
so overflows the lowest & richest ground, but as the stream is not very 
violent it does the low land no hurt and as it is to rich for to plow it will 
make Extraordinary good medow or Hay land. 

The up land so far as I have been is not very rich in springs and here 
and there the water is scarce but there is fine large Creeks strong enough 
to errect all sorts of mills and water enough to settle the Country in 
small vilages as they do in new England which way of Settlement on the 
frontiers and near the Indians is the best. 

The internal jealousies and quarrels, previously alluded to, 
delayed any decided action on the part of Pennsylvania against 
the French. Virginia had also her internal difficulties, and had 

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50 History of Beaver County 

postponed action, but late in the year 1753, her Governor, the 
Hon. Robert Dinwiddie, took a step that was to lead to mo- 
mentous results. Acting under instructions from the English 
government, Dinwiddie sent on a mission of investigation to 
the nearest French outpost, a young man who was destined to 
become finally the most illustrious figure in American history. 
This was George Washington.' He was ordered to proceed to 
Logstown, where he was to address himself to the Half -King, to 
Monakatoocha, and other sachems of the Six Nations, and pro- 
cure from them a safeguard to the French post, and his further 
instructions read in part as follows: 

You are diligently to inquire into the numbers and force of the French 
on the Ohio, and the adjacent country: how they are likely to be assisted 
from Canada; and what are the difficulties and conveniencies of that 
communication, and the time required for it. 

You are to take care to be truly informed what forts the French have 
erected, and where; how they are garrisoned and appointed, and what is 
their distance from each other, and from Logstown: and from the best 
intelligence you can procure, you are to learn what gave occasion to this 
expedition of the French; how they are likely to be supported, and 
what their pretensions are. 

Following out his instructions, the young envoy proceeded 
to Logstown, and thence, with the Half-King," Jeskakake, White 
Thunder, and the Hunter,* he set out on the 30th of November, 
and on the nth of the month following reached the French 
fort "Le Bceuf," which was on the site of what is now Water- 
ford, Erie County, Pa. Having accomplished the purpose of 
his mission, and obtained full information of the strength and 
plans of the French, and an answer to the letter which he had 
carried from Governor Dinwiddie to the French commandant, 
he returned with much hardship to Virginia, reaching Williams- 
burg on the 16th of January, 1754, where he made his report to 
the Governor. The journal which he kept on this expedition 
was immediately published by Dinwiddie at Williamsburg, 

1 H« had previously sent Captain William Trent for ■ like purpoee. Bat Trent neg- 
lected hi« duty, and went no farther than Logstown. In a letter to tbe Lords of Trade. 
were then one hundred and fifty miles 

ch of hit life in Cist's Journals (Darling. 



said of 

bim: "He reports th 

further up 

, and, I believe, was 



Thii woi the celebrated Guyaiutb*. 



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History of Beaver County 51 

copied by the newspapers of the other colonies, and reprinted in 
the same year by the government in London.' 

The information thus received led at once to military meas- 
ures for the defence of the Ohio. Virginia at this time held that 
the upper Ohio valley was a part of her territory, and Governor 
Dinwiddie immediately commenced preparations for raising a 
force to be sent to the "Forks of the Ohio" (Pittsburg), to 
occupy that point, and build a defensive work that would 
enable them to resist the French. This force, a company under 
command of Captain William Trent, marched from Virginia, in 
January, 1754, and reached the Forks the 17th of the following 
month. Work was begun, but proceeded slowly on account of 
the severity of the weather, and Captain Trent returning to 
Will's Creek, left in charge a young commissioned officer, an 
ensign, named Edward Ward. 

The French were warned of these proceedings, and were not 
idle. On the 17th of April, when his fort was still uncompleted, 
Ensign Ward suddenly found himself surrounded by a force 
of one thousand men, French and Indians, under the command 
of Captain Contrecceur, with eighteen pieces of cannon. By 
Chevalier Le Mercier, captain of the artillery of Canada, Contre- 
cceur sent a summons to the commanding officer of the English 
to surrender, informing him that he, Contrecceur, "was come 
out into this place, charged with orders from his General, to re- 
quest him [the English commander] to retreat peaceably with 
his troops from off the lands of the French king, and not to 
return, or else he would find himself obliged to fulfill his duty, 
and compel him to it." "I hope," continues Contrecceur, in his 
summons , ' ' that you will not defer one instant , and that you will 
not force me to the last extremity. In that case, sir, you may 
be persuaded that I will give orders that there shall be no dam- 
age done by my detachment." The friendly Half-King, Tan- 
acharison, who was present, advised Ward to reply that he was 
not an officer of rank with power to answer the demand, and to 

1 Spark's Lift of Washington, 1843. p. 33; aJto preface to the journal itself. In this 
journal is a map, prohnbly drawn by Christopher Gist or by Washington himself, on which 
the symbol of a fort U marked diagonally opposite the mouth of the Bis Beaver, a little 
to the noutheut, in what would be the present township of Moon. We never beard of a 
fort there. This mark may have been meant to indicate the fort which the Ohio Company 
htUttdHl to build at the mouth of the Chartien Creek, and the map being very small, the 
location could not be accurately indicated. At this early date (17SJ-M) then were no 
settlers, so that not even an ordinary blockhouse could have been there. 

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52 History of Beaver County 

request delay until he could send for his superior officer. But 
Contrecoeur refused to parley, and demanded immediate sur- 
render. Having less than forty men in a half-finished stockade. 
Ward was unable to resist the force opposed to him, and therefore 
prudently yielded to the demand without further hesitation. He 
was allowed to withdraw his men and take all his tools with him, 
and on the morning of the 18th, he left the position and started 
on bis return to Virginia. This affair was one of the initial 
events of the French and Indian War, an epoch-making struggle, 
which was the American phase of the Seven Years' War in 

Taking possession here, the French erected Fort Duquesne, 
named in honor of the Marquis Du Quesne, the then Governor- 
General of Canada, and it was in efforts to dislodge them, that 
the force surrendered by Washington at Fort Necessity, in 
1754, had been sent out, and that Braddock met his appalling 
defeat, in July, 1755-* During the years 1755, 1756, and 1757, 
a series of defeats had thrown a cloud over the prospects of the 
English in America, but the creation in the latter year of a new 
ministry in England, with the great Pitt as its head, caused an 
almost immediate change in the aspect of affairs. In the year 
1758 three expeditions against the French were undertaken, the 
first against Louisburg, in the island of Cape Breton, the second 
against Ticonderoga and Crown Point; and the third against 
Fort Duquesne. The first of these expeditions was successful, 
the second failed, but was partly compensated by the destruc- 
tion of Fort Frontenac, with its stores, and the third, that 
against Fort Duquesne, though saddened by the foolish and fatal 

' We do not dwell upon these important events, since they have no close connection 
with oar local history, but we transcribe the following letter on account of the realistic 
picture it gives of the horrors of Braddock's overthrow. 

Letter from the Reverend Claude Godfrey Cocquaid to his brother: 
"My dear brother: — I communicated to you last fall the news from this country much 
abridged. I could have enlarged more on the victory we gained on the Ohio over General 
Braddock's army, but sufficient for you to know, that with his life he has lost more than 

of our detachment, named M. de Beaujeu, an officer generally regretted . . . You 
will learn, first, that our Indians have waged the moat cruel war against the English: that 
they continued it throughout the spring and are still so exasperated as to he beyond con- 
trol: Georgia, Marrelande. Pensilvania, are wholly laid waste. The farmers have been 

> j . -.. .v-j. -w_j j . :_ .-_.- .,.- . "■- ■- :"- er ploughed nor 

t of Boston, he 

it people were ploughing and planting for them in Canada. The 

' 'llaJlthey meet, men women and children. Ew._, _, 
' '.tet having abused the women and maidens, they 

. doiK* makeanyprisoners; they kill all the^ meet, men women and children. Everyday 

of Fort Duquesn 
English scalps, 

burn them. On the sgth of January we received letters from M. Dumas, 
■ ' "- - Duquesne, on the Ohio, stating that the Indians in December had 


History of Beaver County 53 

skirmish of Major Grant, ended with the retirement of the 
French before the advancing forces of Gen. John Forbes, and 
the establishment, in perpetuity, of the Anglo-Saxon race in the 
Ohio valley. Fort Duquesne was burnt by the French on its 
evacuation, and the garrison, about five hundred in number, 
went, a part of them down the river, and the remainder, under 
Governor M. De Lignery, to Presque Isle and Venango. The 
success of this expedition was attended also by the submission 
of the Indian allies of the French, the Delawares immediately 
suing for peace. General Forbes, having left a garrison of two 
hundred and eighty men of Washington's command to repair 
and occupy the ruined fort, marched with the rest of his army 
to the other side of the mountains, and, during the following 
summer (1759), General Stanwix, his successor as commander- 
in-chief in the middle colonies, commenced the erection near the 
site of the French fort of a strong works that was named "Fort 
Pitt," in honor of William Pitt, Earl Chatham, the great British 
statesman, to whose energy and talents the brilliant successes of 
the English arms were due. 

In the year 1759 all the campaigns against the French ended 
with the triumph of the British. Ticonderoga was abandoned 
before the advance of the formidable force under General Am- 
herst, Crown Point was likewise given up, Sir William Johnson 
was victorious at the battle of Niagara, and the dying Wolfe had 
conquered on the plains of Abraham, and, with the signing of 
the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the "vast but frail fabric of French 
empire in America crumbled into dust." The contest that had 
thus ended had been one of races; the Norman had sought to 
divide this continent, leaving to the Saxon the lands between 
the Atlantic and the Alleghenies, but placing the lilies of France 
above the banner of St. George in all the vast inland empire of 
the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. It is well, we think, that he 
failed — that the arbitrament of arms was so decisive that the 
whole country was given into the control of one power, and that 
power England; for the great Union of States which makes the 
glorious American Republic could never have been created, if, 
to adapt the figure of bluff King Harry, there had been com- 
pounded here between St. Denis and St. George a race half 
French, half English. It is of interest to note, we repeat, that 
this great struggle for supremacy between the Norman and the 

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54 History of Beaver County 

Saxon was begun in the region lying between what is now 
Beaver and Pittsburg, and we may add that this same region 
was the theatre in which were enacted some of its closing scenes. 1 

1 We truit our reader* will enjoy seeing what the greet Scotch historian. Thome* Carlyle. 
has to my about some of the matter* with which our text bet been concerned. Here era 
a few of hit characteristic comment* on the Ohio Company and the rivalry between tbe 
French and Englioh for the pone intra of the Miauosippi valley and it* tributaries 

"The exuberant intention of the French is, 'To restrict those aspiring English Colonic*,' 

__„.__,_ j „__..__. ,.__.,,.. _ .._-_.. .. ._ .._ Un^pK- . ■ 

e Ploughero and Traders, hardly numbering above one million ' to the Space outward 

__ -etrcitha^recei— -■ —-''* _S?JS4rf l iH_ tSSSfii. SSiSS 

only thereabout*, b 

it Detroit had received order*. ' To oppose peremptorily every English 
n the Ohio or It* tnoutane*; by monition Bret; 

"Establishment* of any solidity or regularity the English havenot in those part*: beyond 
the Alkgbanies all is desert: 'from the Canada Lakes to tbe Carolina*, mere bunting- 
ground* of tbe Six Nations; dotted with here and there an English trading-house, or 
adventurous Squatter'* farm': — to whom now the French are to say: 'Home. you. in- 
stantly, and leave the Desert alone] ' The French have distinct Order* from Court, and 
energetically obey the same; the English have indistinct Order* from Nature, and do not 
want energy, or mind to obey these : confusions and collisions are manifold, ubiquitous, 
continual. . . An 'Ohio Company' has got together in Virginia; Governor there 

encouraging: Britannic Majesty giving Charter (March, nag), and what is still easier. 
' 500,000 Acre* of Land ' in those Ohio regions, since you are minded to colonise there in 
a fixed manner. Britannic Majesty thinks the Country 'between the Monongahela and 
the Kanahawy' (southern feeder* of Ohio) will do beat; but is not particular. Ohio 
Company, we shall find chose at last, a* the eligible spot, the topmost fork or very Head 
of the 0*10. — where stands, in our day, the big sooty Town of Pittsburg and its Industrie*. 
Ohio Company we* laudably eager on this matter; Land-Surveyor in it (nay, at length, 
'f-nL™! nf • Pnrimmt ni ,50 men raised by tbe Ohio Company ) was Mr. George Wash- 
much promoted the Enterprise; and who was indeed a stead y-go- 
thed Young Gentleman; who came to great distinction in the end. 

" r~rencn imvenwr getting wind of this Ohio Company still in embryo, anticipates the 
birth . . . and where the Ohio Company venture on planting a Stockade, tears it 
tragically out I . . . 

"In ii<3 (iSth August of that Year), goes message from the Home Government,' Stand 
on your defence, over there! Repel by force any Foreign encroachments on British Domin- 
ions. 1 And directly on the heel of this, November 1733, the Virginia Governor, — urged. I 
can believe, by the Ohio Company, who are lying wind-bound so long. — despatches Mr. 
George Washington to inquire officially of the French Commandant in those parts, ' What 
he means, then, by invading the British Territories, while a solid Peace subsists'' Mr. 
George had a long ride up those desert ranges, and down on the other aide; water* all 
out. ground in a swash with December rain*, no help or direction but from wampum* and 

sorgc got to Ohio 
x, coalescing to fo 
t an admirable thl 

jo form a double-big Ohio for tl — ^... 

le three-legged place: might be Chief Post of those region*. — 

nsafcegg of a diligent Ohio Company! Mr. George, *ome way down the Ohio River, 
found a strongish French Fort, log-barracks, ' 100 river boats, with more building. 1 and a 
French Commandant, who cannot entor into question* of a diplomatic nature about Peace 
and War: 'My orders are. To keep this Fort and Territory against all comers; one must 
do one's order*. Monsieur. Adieu!' And the steadfast Washington had to return: without 
result, — except that of the admirable three-legged Place for dropping your Nest-egg, in a 
commanding and defenceful wayl 

"Ohio Company, painfully restrained so long in that operation took the hint at once. 
Despatched, early in irj*. a Party of some Forty or Thirty-three stout fellows, with arma 
about them, as well as tools. ' Go build us straightway, a Stockade in the place indicated ; 
you are warranted to smite down, by shot or otherwise, any gain*ayert ' And further- 
more, directly go on foot, and on the road thither, a 'regiment of 15c men,' Washington 
as Colonel to it- For perfecting said Stockade and maintaining it against all comers. 

"— ' inirron and his Hundred-and-fifty. — wagonage, provender, and a " ' 
well attended to. — vigorously climbed the Mountains: got to the 

S4 ; andthi 

— vigorous]; 

d there mt: the Thirty-three in retreat homewards! Stockade had been torn out, 

..,. s ago (17th April last); by overwhelming French Force, from the Gentleman who 

■aid Aditu, and had the river boats, last Fall. And, instead of our Stockade, they are now 
building a regular French Fort, Fori Duqtusiu. they call it, in honor of their Governor 
Duquesne: — against which, Washington and his regiment, what are they? Washington 
strictly surveying, girds himself up for the retreat; descends diligently homewards again, 
French and Indian* rather harassing his rear. Entrenches himself, lit July, at what he 
calls. 'Fort Nece«ity.' some way down; and the second day after, jd July, 1754, is at- 
tacked in vigorous military manner. Defend* himself what he can. through nine hour* of 
heavy rain; has lost thirty, the French only three; — and is obliged to capitulate: 'Free 
Withdrawal' the terms given. This is the last I heard of the Ohio Company: not the last 
of Washington, by any mean*. Ohio Company, — its judicious Neat-egg squelched in this 

manner, nay. become a fiery Cockatrice or' Fori Lhtqun**:' need or" : -~- J '■ -"--- " 

—Fndtrick lis Gnal, vol. v.. p. 417. 

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History of Beaver County 55 


But this happy issue of the rivalry between England and 
France did not bring peace to the harried settlers of the West. 
There was now to burst upon them a storm more dreadful than 
any which had been felt during the French and Indian War. 
This was the terrible conspiracy of Pontiac. The Indians saw 
in the peace settlement of 1763 a threat of utter destruction to 
their own territorial rights, and the loss of the balance of power 
which they had in some measure held so long as the contest be- 
tween England and France was unsettled.' Even during that 
contest their lot had been hard enough. As one of their chiefs, 
Tanacharison — the Half- King of the Mingoes — had said to Chris- 
topher Gist, "the English claim all the land on one side of the 
river and the French all on the other side; where is the Indian's 
land?" 2 But they were now confronted by a more dangerous 
crisis. With the French they had sustained fairly amicable re- 
lations, but they had always distrusted and disliked the Eng- 
lish, and the English were now become the sole masters of their 
hunting-grounds. They determined upon resistance, and Pon- 
tiac, the great Ottawa chief, who had been foremost in con- 
tributing to the defeat of Braddock in 1755, again came to the 
front. Under the leadership of this bold and capable chief, the 
tribes of the Northwest, and the Delawares, Shawanese, and 
other Ohio tribes, were united in a formidable league with the 
purpose of attacking simultaneously all the English forts and 
settlements from the Lakes to the Alleghenies.J At the decisive 
moment they failed in securing unanimity of action, but the 
results of their attacks were sufficiently disastrous to the settlers. 
Only the forts of Niagara, Detroit, and Fort Pitt remained to 
the English; all the rest fell, and the country from the frontiers 
of Pennsylvania to Lake Michigan was laid open to the awful 

Lers. lit least, understood the doctrine of European 
I in tiiii expression, "balance of power." Do Witt Clinton says: 
irecia ted the policy at averting the total destruction of either European 
iww«n. mm H ,«*l instances could be pointed out, by which it could be demonstrated 
that the balance of power, formerly the subject of so much speculation among the states. 
men of Europe, was thoroughly understood by the Confederates in their negotiations and 
intercourse with the French and English colonies." — Writings, p. nB. 

1 Another Tw^jhti said to an Englishman, " You and the French are like the two edges 
of a pair of shears, and we are the cloth which is cut to pieces between them." — Christian 
P. Pon's Fwa Journal. 

• Parkman'a work, Tkt Conspiracy of Panliac, is exhaustive in its treatment of this sub- 

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56 History of Beaver County 

fury of the savages, who devastated and depopulated it with 
fire and slaughter. Fort Niagara, indeed, was not attacked, 
being considered too strong, and Captain Gladwin foiled the 
Indians at Detroit, but Fort Pitt, although defended by Captain 
Ecuyer with great judgment and bravery, was in desperate 


In this emergency a gallant young Swiss officer named Henry 
Bouquet, then commanding at Philadelphia, was sent out with 
a small force to the relief of the beleaguered garrison. His ex- 
pedition was conducted with remarkable success. Failing in 
obtaining the supplies of men and provisions which he had ex- 
pected at Carlisle, owing to the consternation and confusion into 
which the inhabitants of the Cumberland valley were plunged 
by the depredations of the Indian war-parties, he yet pushed on, 
and encountering the enemy at Bushy Run, inflicted upon them 
a crushing defeat. This engagement was fought on the 5th and 
6th of August, 1 763. The Indians were completely disheartened 
by it, raised the siege of Fort Pitt, and retreated to their 
towns in Ohio. Four days later Bouquet arrived at Fort Pitt 
with his welcome succor. 


In the following spring fresh trouble with the Indians arose, 
and the same gallant leader, Bouquet, was selected to carry the 
war into the enemy's country by marching against the Dela- 
wares, Shawanese, and other tribes in Ohio, while Colonel Brad- 
street was to act against the tribes living around the Great Lakes. 
Leaving Fort Pitt on Wednesday, October 3d, Bouquet followed 
the course of the Ohio River through Logstown to the fords of 
the Big Beaver. Then crossing the Little Beaver and Yellow 
Creek he advanced as far as the forks of the Muskingum. The 
following notes of his passage through the territory now em- 
braced in Beaver County cannot fail to be of interest to the 
reader. They are drawn from the valuable work by Dr. William 
Smith, entitled An Historical Account of Colonel Bouquet's Ex- 
pedition against the Ohio Indians, 1 the material for which was 
taken direct from the original documents: 

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History of Beaver County 57 

Friday, October 5th — In this day's march the army passed through 
Loggstown, situated seventeen miles and an half, fifty-seven perches, by the 
path, from Port Pitt. This place was noted before the last war for the 
great trade carried on there by the English and French; but its inhabit- 
ants, the Shawanese and Delaware*, abandoned it in the year 1750 [1 758]. 
The lower town extended about sixty perches over a rich bottom to the 
foot of a low steep ridge, on the summit of which, near the declivity, 
stood the upper town, commanding a most agreeable prospect over the 
lower, and quite across the Ohio, which is about 500 yards here, and by 
its majestic easy current adds much to the beauty of the place. Pro- 
ceeding beyond Loggstown, through a fine country, interspersed with hills 
and rich valleys, watered by many rivulets, and covered with stately 
timber, they came to camp No. 4; una level piece of ground, with a 
thicket in the rear, a small precipice round the front, with a run of water 
at the foot, and good food for the cattle. This day's march was nine 
miles, one half, and fifty-three perches. 

Saturday, October 6th, at about three miles distance from this camp, 
they came again to the Ohio, pursuing its course half a mile farther, and 
then turning off, over a steep ridge, they crossed Big Beaver-creek, which 
is twenty perches wide, the ford stony and pretty deep. It runs through 
a rich vale, with a pretty strong current, its hanks high, the upland 
adjoining it very good, the timber tall and young. . . . About a 
mile below its confluence with the Ohio, stood formerly a large town, on 
a steep bank, built by the French of square logs, with stone chimneys, 
for some of the Shawanese, Delawares and Mingo tribes, who abandoned 
it in the year 1758, when the French deserted Fort Du Quesne. Near 
the fording of Beaver-creek also stood about seven houses, which were 
deserted and destroyed by the Indians, after their defeat at Bushy-run, 
when they forsook all their remaining settlements in this part of the 
country, as has been mentioned above. . , ,* 

Two miles beyond Beaver-creek, by two small springs, was seen the 
scull of a child, that had been fixed on a pole by the Indians. The 
Tracts of 1 5 Indians were this day discovered. The camp No. 5 is seven 
miles one quarter and fifty-seven perches from Big Beaver-creek; the 
whole march of this day being about twelve miles. 1 

Bouquet reached the Muskingum with the loss of but one 
man, and there, without fighting a battle, he so overawed the 
savages that they were soon brought to make a treaty of peace, 
to give hostages for their future good conduct, and to surrender 
all their prisoners. Two hundred and six captives were given 
up, and about one hundred more who were held by the Shawa- 

1 The array probably crowed, thn Beaver near where the Bridgewatar toll -bridge now 
stand*. The town that 11 said to have bean about a mile below the confluence of the 
Beaver with the Ohio stood 00 what it now known aa " Groveland." about half a mile below 
Market Street in Beaver. See not* on Sawkunk at page 3. 

* Philada. Ed_ p. 10; Clarke'e Reprint, p. 65. 

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58 History of Beaver County 

nese at points distant from the camp on the Muskingum, were re- 
leased the following spring. The scenes here and elsewhere, 
when relatives and friends were reunited after months or years 
of separation, were very affecting, though in some cases the 
prisoners parted from their captors with the greatest reluctance, 
and the Indians themselves often manifested the greatest grief 
on parting with their adopted children. The results of this ex- 
pedition were of immeasurable value to the country. For ten 
years, at any rate, the land had rest from the sound of the war- 
whoop, and the settlements began rapidly to increase in num- 
bers and prosperity. 


But the cup of the settlers' woe was not yet full. The shame- 
ful conflict known as Lord Dunmore's War, which was occasioned 
by the unbridled passions of a few lawless men, was suddenly 
precipitated upon a community that had begun to realize for 
once the blessings of peace. A series of wanton and unprovoked 
murders of peaceful Indians had been committed by the whites, 
in some instances with such circumstances of barbarity as would 
have shamed even the savages, and these outrages speedily 
brought from the Indians terrible reprisals. We cannot read 
far in the history of the borders without finding that this was too 
often the case; the instances being many in which the lawless 
and murderous whites gave the Indians 

Bloody instructions, which being taught, returned 
To plague the inventors . . . 

It may not be pleasant reading, but it is nevertheless in- 
structive to learn from contemporary sources what the character 
of a considerable part of the early population of this country 
was. Since in our succeeding chapters we pay frequent tribute 
to the worth of its better elements, we may be pardoned for 
speaking in this connection of a phase of the subject which is not 
so flattering to our patriotism. Among the pioneer settlers 
were many of the worst elements of the Old- World population: 
men who were deported here for their crimes, and who brought 
with them their criminal instincts and practices. And such 
men, to the embarrassment and distress of their commanders, 

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History of Beaver County 59 

were found even in the ranks of those who were set to be the 
defenders of the country. Writing to Colonel Bouquet, from 
Bedford, November, 1763, Captain Ecuyer says: 

I never saw anything equal to it — a gang of mutineers, bandits, cut- 
throats, especially the grenadiers. I have been obliged, after all the 
patience imaginable, to have two of them whipped on the spot without 
court-martial. One of them wanted to kill the sergeant, and the other 
wanted to kill me. . . . For God's sake, let me go and raise cabbages. 
You can do it if you will, and I shall thank you eternally for it.' 

He says, further, that the settlers, though afraid of the Indians, 
nevertheless always did their best to shelter deserters. 

There was little conscience anywhere against Jailing Indians, 
whether in peace or war. Writing to Governor Penn from 
Ligonier, May ao, 1774, after the murder of " Wipey," a friendly 
Delaware Indian, Arthur St. Clair (afterwards General St. 
Clair), says: 

It is the most astonishing thing in the world, the Disposition of the 
common people of this Country, actuated by the most savage cruelty, 
they wantonly perpetrate crimes that are a disgrace to humanity, and 
seem at the same time to be under a kind of religious enthusiasm whilst 
they want the daring spirit which that usually inspires.' 

It was almost impossible to convict a white man for the murder 
of an Indian; people, lawyers, juries, and even judges ignoring 
alike law and evidence to acquit some of the worst wretches that 
ever lived in any age or country. The sentiment of the border, 
in general, sustained the acts of Williamson's Washington 
County men in their atrocious massacre of the peaceful Moravian 
Indians at Salem.' And we even find General Amherst and 
Colonel Bouquet corresponding about the feasibility of sending 
the smallpox among the Indians to destroy them, or of hunting 
them with dogs in the Spanish fashion.* 

1 Conspiracy of Pontiac, Farkman. vol. ii.,p. i6i. 

1 Frontier Fens. vol. ii.. p. asp. 

' Wash hl tfom- Ir wim Cerrtipondtnct, pp. 136-343, it nq. and 343-344- 

* See Parkman.'* Conspiracy of Pontiac, voL ii., PP. 30-4°. The feeling agninit the sav- 
ages overcame even the Quaker teaching* of John Penn, grandson of William Penn, for in 
July, 1 764. be offend by proclamation of the provincial authoritiei the following rewards: 

"■Whereupon it was agreed by the Board that the following several Premiums be offered 
by Proclamation for the Priaonexm and acalpa of the Enemy Indiana that ehall be taken 
or lolled within the Bounds of this Province, as limited by the Royal Charter, or in pursuit 

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60 History of Beaver County 

Among the outrages which led to the troubles of the spring 
of 1774 were the murder of three friendly Indians, killed on the 
Ohio, Monongahela, and Cheat rivers by John Ryan; several at 
South Branch by two associates, Henry Judah and Nicholas 
Harpold; that of Bald Eagle, and the massacre of the family of 
the celebrated Logan. The last two mentioned were particu- 
larly atrocious. Bald Eagle was well known and well received 
among the settlers, frequently staying at their houses or hunting 
with them in the forests. Rupp's History of Western Pennsyl- 
vania relates the story of his death as follows : 

In one of his visits among them [the whites], he was discovered alone 
and murdered, solely to gratify a most wanton thirst for Indian blood. 
After the commission of this most outrageous enormity, he was seated in 
the stern of a canoe, and with a piece of corn-cake thrust into his mouth, 
set afloat on the Monongahela. In this situation he was seen descending 
the river by several, who supposed him to be, as usual, returning from 
a friendly hunt with the whites in the upper settlements, and who ex- 
pressed some astonishment that he did not stop to see them. The canoe 
floating near to the shore, below the mouth of George's creek, was ob- 
served by a Mrs. Province, who had it brought to the bank, and the 
friendly, but unfortunate old Indian, decently buried. — (P. 180.) 

The case of Logan's family is more familiar. In 177a, 
Logan,' as related above, was living with his people at the 
mouth of Big Beaver Creek. The year following he settled at the 

keeper of the common Gaol of any County Town within this Government, One hundred 
and fifty ipanish Dollars. 

" For every Female Indian Enemy, and for every Hale Indian of io yean old and under, 
taken & delivered as aforesaid 130 Spanish pieces of Eight. 

" For the Scalp of every Male Indian Enemy above the age of 10 Years produced aa 
evidence of their being killed, 134 pieces of Eight. 

" .... n Enemy Above the Age of 10 Yean produced 

ii fie paid to every Officer or Officers. Soldier or Soldiers, in the pay 

...._ ..... ...„ ~„ Natio 

Britain, be excepted out of tt 

On the 5th of December, 170-1, General Wayne wrote from his camp at Legionville to 
the county lieutenants of Allegheny and Westmoreland counties requesting them to give 
a safe conduct through their respective territories to the sixteen King's chiefs of the Wabash 
and Illinois Indians and other warriors who were being escorted by Captain Prior to Phila- 
delphia. In hit reply to tins circular letter Presley Neville says : 

" 1 recM your Excellency's Letter respecting the Indian chiefs — I can send no escort with 
them for these reasons — Volunteers will not offer, and to draught a party of Militia to run 
on foot and guard those Savages on Horseback would be I fear to raise their Indignation, 
" " ' "~ "~~y Escort would I think be likely to encourage if not perpetrate the Violrm " 

rfthuProvuL ...._.. 

"And that the Six Nations, or any other Indians in Amity with the Crown of Great 

.. But Sir, I will 
•few Colo. Campb 

difficulty in delivering them safe to Colo. Campbell at Greensburs. 1 '- 

script letter in the Wayne Collection belonging to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
1 Logan took his name from the Provincial Secretary, James Logan. (See p. 44.) 
Pioimr, vol. ii., p. 87: AnnaU of Philadelphia and Pnnuyfcwuw, Watson, vol. i. 

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History of Beaver County 61 

mouth of Yellow Creek, about fifty-five miles below Pittsburg, 
and thirty above Wheeling, where he established a hunting 
camp. At this time the whole western border was alarmed in 
anticipation of a war with the Indians, a feeling which was due 
in part to the murders referred to and in part to the machina- 
tions of Dr. John Connolly, the turbulent agent of the Tory 
Dunmore, who was giving the Pennsylvanians so much trouble 
about the Virginia claims in this region. Parties of the settlers 
had gathered at several points ready to repel any incursions of 
the savages, and one or two Indians had been taken for hostiles 
and killed. Proposals had been several times made to attack 
Logan's camp, but had been overruled by wiser heads, especially 
by Captain Michael Cresap. At length, however, during the 
absence of Logan, on the 30th of April, part of his people were 
enticed across the river to the house of Joshua Baker, by the 
promise of rum. Here a party under the leadership of Daniel 
Greathouse, a settler near the mouth of King's Creek, lay con- 
cealed, and after sufficient liquor had been served them to render 
them partially intoxicated, they were set upon and all but an 
infant child killed. Judge Henry Jolly, at one time a resident 
of Beaver County, was, at the time of the killing of Logan's 
people at Baker's Bottom, living on the frontier, and in the 
year 1836 he published in Silliman's Journal a full account of 
the occurrence. He describes Logan's earnest efforts to restrain 
the Indians from declaring war at a council held to consider the 
aggressions of the Virginians, and his success in this direction, 
and then goes on to speak of the effect produced when news was 
brought to Logan of the crime that had robbed him of all his 
family. He says: 

Everything wore a tranquil aspect, when, behold! the fugitives 
arrived from Yellow Creek and reported that Logan's mother, brother 
and sister were murdered. Three of the nearest and dearest relations of 
Logan had been massacred by white men. The consequence was that this 
same Logan, who a few days before was so pacific, raised the hatchet 
with a declaration that he would not ground it until he had taken ten 
for one, which I believe he completely fulfilled by taking thirty scalps 
and prisoners in the summer of 1774. . . . It was the belief of the 
inhabitants who were capable of reasoning on the subject that all the 
depredations committed on the frontiers by Logan and his party in 
1774 were as retaliation for the murder of Logan's friends at Yellow 

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62 History of Beaver County 

The blame for the crime committed at Baker's was for long 
attached to Captain Cresap, but it is now well known that he 
was innocent of any part in it, had even, as we have said, ad- 
vised against its commission previously, but he is justly blam- 
able for other murders of Indians committed at about the same 
period. On the news of these various murders, especially that 
of Logan's relatives, spreading through the settlements of south- 
western Pennsylvania, the people were panic-stricken, realizing 
that war would be the inevitable consequence. And their fears 
were soon justified, as the Indians at once took the war-path 
and swept the whole country between the Ohio and Monongahela 
rivers with tomahawk and torch. The settlers fled by scores 
across the Monongahela, abandoning their possessions to the in- 
vaders. Valentine Crawford, George Washington's agent, then 
living on Jacob's Creek, in Westmoreland County, wrote to 
Washington on the 6th of May, 1774, saying: 

This alarm hag caused the people to move from over the Mononga- 
hela, oil Chartier's and Raccoon creeks, as fast as you ever saw them 
in the year 1756 or 1757 down in Frederick County, Virginia. There 
were more than one thousand people crossed the Monongahela in one day 
at three ferries that are not one mile apart. 

Intelligence of the depredations being committed, and of the 
exodus of the inhabitants, being transmitted by an express to 
Lord Dunmore, he at once took active measures to organize a 
campaign against the offending Indians, which was speedily 
commenced, and lasted three months. This was the last war in 
which the colonists took part with the mother country as her 
subjects. Its decisive engagement was fought by General An- 
drew Lewis, who, in a desperate battle at Point Pleasant on the 
Ohio, on the 10th of October, 1774, defeated the Indians under 
the famous Cornstalk, a chief who was peaceful in disposition 
and design, but who, when he was aroused, was the very thunder- 
bolt of war. Dunmore was not present in this engagement, but 
he came in afterwards for the lion's share of the glory, and con- 
cluded the peace with the Indians at Chillicothe in the following 
November. This was six months previous to the commence- 
ment at Lexington of the Revolutionary conflict. Many parts 
of Dunmore's conduct in this brief campaign which bears his 
name are ambiguous. It was the general belief among the 

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History of Beaver County 63 

officers of the army of the colonists, that he had already received 
from England advices of the coming Revolution, and that in all 
his succeeding movements he was aiming to secure the savages 
as allies of England against the colonists in the long conflict now- 
impending. To this great struggle we turn now in the chapter 
which follows. 

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Origin of Revolutionary Spirit — Causes of the Conflict — Training of 
Colonists for it — Part of Western Settlers in Revolution — General 
Clark's Expedition— General Hand's Expedition — Girty and Other 
Renegades — Conduct of British at Detroit — General Mcintosh's Ex- 
pedition — Building of Fort Mcintosh — "Brodhead's Road" — Port 
Laurens — Distress of its Garrison — Relations of Mcintosh and Brod- 
head — Descriptions of Fort Mcintosh — Brodhead in Command — 
Indian Troubles — Irvine in Command — Mutinous Troops — Their 
Hardships — Military Executions at Port Mcintosh — Decay of that 
Post — Indian Treaty There — Surrender of Prisoners — Visit to Fort 
Mcintosh of Boundary Commissioners — Evacuation — Demolition — 
Blockhouse at New Brighton — Sam. Brady — Defeats of Harmar and 
St. Clair — Wayne's Camp at Legionville — His Victory at Maumee — 
Its Results — Boundary Controversy between Penna. and Virginia: 
Its Origin, Progress, and Settlement — The "New State" Movement. 

What heroes from the woodland sprung, 

When, through the fresh-awakened land, 
The thrilling cry of freedom rung, 
And to the work of warfare strung 
The yeoman's iron handl 

Bryant, Seventy-six. 

The echoes of Dunmore's War had hardly died away, when 
there was fired at Lexington the shot heard round the world. 
All preceding local struggles were dwarfed in importance by the 
mighty conflict which now began, — a conflict which was to dye 
the blood-stained soil of America a yet deeper crimson, to give 
to the history of human heroism and nobility another glorious 
chapter, and to issue in the creation of a new form of government, 
a new order of civilization, and a new opportunity for liberty, 
fraternity, and equality to be transformed from what had been 
the dream of political philosophers and the hope of patriots into 

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History of Beaver County 65 

solid reality. This splendid epoch-making conflict was the 
American Revolution. 

Science no longer accepts the theory of catastrophes in the 
geological development of the globe : all is seen to have gone for- 
ward under law, with close connection of cause and consequence. 
Nor has history any place for it. There are epochs, but no 
catastrophes in the progress of men in their political and social 
life. With the eye of the poet we may see the scenes of this vast 
drama moving before us as in a theatre ; but the student of his- 
tory finds the seeds of every action in the events which had gone 
before. The spirit and principles of the American patriots were 
their inheritance from the sturdy burghers of Holland, who, 
under William of Orange, the prototype of our own Washington, 
had overthrown the tyranny of Spain in the Netherlands; from 
the brave Huguenots of France, from the Cromwellians of Eng- 
land, and from the followers of Knox in Scotland. Lexington 
and Bunker Hill, Trenton and Valley Forge were prophesied in 
Lcyden and La Rochelle, in Marston Moor and the battle of the 
Boyne. Planted in the soil of the New World, the offshoots of 
the sturdy stock of these old liberty-loving, tyrant-hating men 
toughened their fibre in the winds of adversity, and grew into 
trees that would no longer bear the "rule of the bramble." For 
a hundred years the causes had been at work that were to create 
the revolt against the authority of the mother country, viz., 
political and religious tyranny and commercial greed, extending 
their baleful influence more and more from the home govern- 
ment against the colonies, and, in those colonies, a growing sense 
of strength and self-sufficiency, and of independent interests. 1 

1 In the manuscript letter-book of Colouol George Morgan (purchased from Mr. George 
Woodbridgc of Marietta, Ohio, by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburg, and preserved by that 
institution), we came upon a letter which we may give here a* allowing the atate of feeling 
ftflsBMj the people of the colonies toward the mother country. 

The letter is from a Philadelphia firm of which Colonel Morgan was a member, to a 
Mr. Edward Parmer Taylor, of London. Eng., and bears date Philadelphia. June n, jjfjj, 
It reads aa follows: 

" Last Week Mrs. Falconer, Wife of the worthy Captain Nathan Falconer put in our 
Hands for Sale a Variety of Fontipool and Plated Ware with some Pistols, and a small 
Sword, as it wu very inconvenient for her to dispose of them. 

" The Articles sold by her she will give you an Acct of — they do not we believe exceed 
nuil these im principally in the Military Way. Indeed had your Ad vo 
10 great an Amount m Guns, Swords, Hangers &c they would commi 

' ' ■'— "-■- " * '"- "-- -- — ' wug ogr ■■■'■ 

LordNorth's l i roceeding 
this lasts, or until our Liberties are secured to Us, you must expect t. 

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66 History of Beaver County 

So long as the colonists were unable to cope with the strength of 
the native tribes and the French in the West they leaned for help 
upon the home country, but with the defeat of France they no 
longer felt themselves blocked in their efforts to extend their 
trade and emigration westward, and the desire for independence 
at once received a mighty impetus. England's victory over 
France in the defence of the colonies was thus for herself in 
reality a defeat. The lion had conquered, but the lion's whelps 
had learned their strength and soon were eager to try it against 
their dam. Fourteen years after the Treaty of Paris had assured 
the withdrawal of France from the New World, the Declaration 
of Independence was signed at Philadelphia, and the old Liberty 
Bell rang the death-knell of British rule in America." 

The builders of empire must always be disciplined into hard- 
ness. This is the truth at the bottom of the fable of Romulus 
and Remus, the founders of Rome. For all her strong ones 
Nature seems to issue this command : 

Cast the bantling en the rocks, 

Suckle him with the she-wolf's teat, 

Wintered with the hawk and fox, 
Power and speed be hands and feet. 

The pioneer settlers of this region had had, as we have seen, 
such a discipline. In subduing the mighty forests and the savage 
foes who lurked within them, these men had supped full of hor- 
rors, but the hardships they endured only made them the 
hardier; the strength of the enemies they conquered entered 
into them and augmented their own. Their knowledge of War- 
hear of little Progress in the Sales of your Tea Ware* ftc. Indeed anything which relate* 
to Tea, we now begin to dislike aa much u ever we were fond of them. You may however 
rely on our doing everything in our Power to serve you in the speedy Sale of every Article 

deeire as possible, i 

barge. And the Remittances shall be made as agreeable to your 
ough. as America will never submit to the Tyrannical Acta of the 
i only Channel will soon be by the king's Ships or Packets. 
" We are SiTKespectfully Sir 

" B. ft M." » 

1 This result of England's triumph over France was forese e n by many in Europe and 
in America, and was predicted by several eminent Frenchman immediately upon the 
cession of Canada. "We have caught them at last," wan the words of Choiseul, and 
when Vergennes heard of it, he said: 

" The consequences of the entire cession of Canada are obvious. 1 am persuaded England 
will erelong repent of having removed the only check that could keep her colonies in 
awe. They stand no longer in need of her protection : she will call on them to contribute 
toward supporting the burdens they have helped to bring on her. and they will answer by 
striking off all dependence." 

* This firm was Boynton ft Morgan, formerly Wharton. Baynton ft Korgan. 

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History of Beaver County 67 

fare was greatly increased in the struggle against the French, and 
now, when the camp-fires of the Revolution were lighted through- 
out the land, they were not found wanting. And as of old 
Fort Duquesne had been a storm-centre during the French wars, 
so now its successor, Fort Pitt, looms up in the annals of patriot- 


The tide of war during the Revolutionary struggles did not, 
indeed, break over the barriers of the Alleghenies, but west of 
Fort Pitt, at Detroit and in Illinois, were the English forces, 
and in the territory between were the hostile tribes under Eng- 
lish pay. And here in the Ohio valley the settlers stood as 
heroically as did the embattled farmers of New England, and 
against still greater odds. For the latter had to deal with the 
red-coats, a civilized foe; but the former faced one that was 
merciless, the ruthless redskins, who made repeated raids on the 
western frontier, laying waste the scattered settlements with the 
torch, the tomahawk, and the scalping-knife. The pioneers in 
this region stood, too, almost alone in these struggles. Barely 
able to cope with their own difficulties, the colonists on the sea- 
board were in no position to send succor to the western frontiers. 
The people there had to provide for themselves supplies and 
munitions of war, to appoint their own officers, build their own 
forts, and maintain single-handed a struggle against the com- 
bined forces of the British and the savages, their allies. 

Immediately upon the commencement of hostilities with 
Great Britain the western country was filled with alarms of In- 
dian incursions, while at the same time the efforts of such men 
as Captain John Neville, commanding at Fort Pitt, and Col. 
George Morgan, Indian Agent for the Middle Department,* to 
cultivate friendly relations with the Delawares, Shawanese, and 

' Colonel George Morgue tills bo large ■ place in the early history of toil region that 
ran account of his life will not be foreign to. the scope of this work. He waa born in Phil- 
adelphia in 1 74>, the m of Bvan and Johanna ( Byies) Morgan, and was a first liautenant 
in the first company that volunteered for service in the Revolutionary War. Subsequently 
be waa promoted to the rank of colonel, served throughout the Valley Forge campaign, 
and waa at the siege of York-town. But his active life began long before the Revolutionary 
struggle. In 1760 he became the junior partner of the trading firm of Wharton, Baynton 
ft Morgan, by whom be waa sent west to establish trading-posts among the Indians of the 
Ohio valley. In the French and Indian wars the firm lost heavily through the depredations 
committed by the savages, and in the treaty at Fort Stanwix, in 1 76S. they were com- 
pensated by the grant from the Six Nations of a vast tract of land in the west. Out of 

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68 History of Beaver County 

other western tribes were constantly being frustrated by the 
violence shown toward the latter by the whites, who frequently 
attacked the most peaceable Indians, and even messengers sent 
to the post to confer with the commanders. The correspondence 
of Morgan is full of allusions to this mad conduct of the settlers, 

this grant arose the famous Indian* Company, whose claim was afterwarda successfully 
disputed by Virginia. 

Colonel Morgan was, by appointment of Congress, Indian Agent for the Middle Depart' 
Bient, with headquarters at Pittaburg, from 1776 to 1770. He waa the constant friend of 
the Indiana, and did everything in Ml power to prevent them from bang abused by de- 
signing speculators. The Indiana called him Taimenend (pronounced Tammany) after a 
noted chief of the Delawarea, who waa esteemed for his virtues, indicating thus that Morgan 
was * man like-minded. (See Heckewelder's Indian Nations, pages 300-301, for a very 
interesting account of this chief, and of the origin of the Tammany Soeittitt of the United 
States; also reference to Morgan's receiving this name as above stated.) On May is. 
1779, the Delaware chiefs in council at Princeton. N. J„ made him en offer of a large tract 
of land as a present in acknowledgment of his kindness to them. The speaker was Keslesle- 
rnent, and the address reads in part aa follows: 

" The Delaware Nation have experienced great advantages from vour wise Councils and 
from your Truth and Justice in representing «■—» — •' — «-— 

Congress of the United States. You have at _ rJ .. .._ 

done all in your Power to promote the Happiness of our women and children and of our 
posterity. You have now entertained a considerable number of us for some time, and 

Su have kindly undertaken the care of some of our children who we have brought here to 
educated [see page 39 onir]. We see your own children and we look on them with 

"For these considerations and in order to show our love for you and for yoor family 
we now give you a tract of Land in our country that you may call your own and which 
you and your children may posses! and enjoy ' — ""'■-- "■' >.-.-- 


>f the Run opposite the P__. 

1 of the Island) and extending down the River Ohio, u 

Logs Town^^bou^lded by the^said ^two Runsaad the Rive 

-ja tops of the highest Hills. , _,., _„ 

... n direct line from the River to the tops of said Hills and about six miles from 

Run to Run. This tract containa the whole of the Shewickley Bottom which is very good 
land and we desire that you and your children may accept and possess it forever." — Prom 
Colonel George Morgan's book of the Morgan family — MS. 

Part of this land, it will be seen, is within the present limits of Beaver County. The 
offer was firmly refused by Colonel Morgan, and twice repeated despite his refusal, but 
Morgan would not take advantage of it. Colonel Morgan later inherited a large body of 
land in the valley of the Chartiera in Washington County, Pa., where he settled in the fall 
of 1796. The estate waa named by him "Morgansn," and it still bears this name. At 
his house there Aaron Burr paid him a visit in the autumn of 1806. and during his stay 
adroitly sounded Morgan upon the subject of his (Burr's) scheme for the dismemberment 
of the Union, an attack upon Mexico, or whatever may have been bis real design. Morgan 
was instrumental in bringing about the discovery of Burr's intended treachery, and with 
two of his sous, John and Thomas, was called during his trial at Richmond as a witness 

In 1766 Morgan made a journey from the mouth of the Kaakaslda to the mouth of the 
Mississippi, being the first American to perfon 
Madrid, the first English colony in the province 

Colonel Morgan was the quartermaster of Mcintosh's expedition when the fort bearing 
the name of the latter was built at the mouth of the Big Beaver. He and Mcintosh quar- 
relled about the delay and wastage of stores, and nearly fought a duel in consequence. 

On the 94th of October. 1764, Colonel George Morgan was married by the Rev. George 
Whitefidd at Philadelphia, to Miss Mary Baynton. daughter of John and Elisabeth (Cheva- 
lier) Baynton. Thar children were John, Ann. George. Thomas, and Maria. Ann married 
General Presley Neville. The well-known attorneys, David T„ and William Morgan 
Watson, of Pittsburg, are great «nuidchildren of Colonel George Morgan. Colonel Morgan 
died in 1810; his wife in 18*5. Both are buried in the family ground at Morgansa. 

w Google 

Colonel George Morgan, 
pswaion of Mn. Hcleoi C. Beany of Wuhinf 

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History of Beaver County 69 

and shows also bis conviction that the much-dreaded general In- 
dian war might be averted by a different spirit on the part of the 
people and by a pacific policy of government. As illustrating 
Morgan's wise and humane spirit, we copy from his letter-book 
the following communication to the then President of Congress : 

Fobt Pitt, Harch ij£, ij7j. 
To Hit Horible John Hancock, Esq. 


Since my last Letter which was by Mr. William Wilson, I have 
received the within Message from the Chiefs of the Shawnese — this and 
what I transmitted by Mr. Wilson is the only material News from the 
Indian Country since my Letter by Mr. Boreman. — 

I shall shortly receive more perfect intelligence from the different 
Nations ft I flatter myself that I shall not be obliged to alter my opinion 
as delivered to Congress in my letter of the — of January, &c. notwith- 
standing which, I thought it my duty to mention in my Letter by Mr. 
Wilson the general uneasiness of the Inhabitants here, who (by means of 
those who take upon them to give Intelligence ft to alarm the Country 
with every piece of Indian News true or false,) have imbibed the Idea of 
a. general War being inevitable. — It is much easier to create those Alarms 
than to remove them when raised, even from the most idle ft ridiculous 
tales of drunken or dissatisfied Individuals, ft I apprehend the most fatal 
consequences from them — 

Parties have even been assembled to massacre our known Friends at 
their hunting Camps as well Messengers on Business to me, ft I have 
esteemed it necessary to let those Messengers sleep in my own Chamber 
for their Security. — 

It is truly distressing to submit to the injuries we have & are fre- 
quently receiving along the Frontier settlements & Out Posts from the 
Mingo Banditti & their Associates, but it must be extremely injurious to 
the interest of the United States at this critical time, to involve ourselves 
into a general Indian War which I still believe may be warded off by 
pursuing the wise measures intended by Congress — It is not uncommon 
to hear even those who ought to know better, express an ardent desire 
for an Indian War, on account of the fine Lands those poor people possess. 

During the Alarms last Spring 8c Summer several of the principal 
people here wrote Intelligence down the Country that large Armies 
of Indians were assembled ft advancing to attack this place. . . . 
I fear the consequences of a general Indian War 8c I believe it is more 
necessary to restrain our own people ft promote good order among them 
than to think of awing the different Nations by expeditions into the 
Country which may involve us in a general ft unequal Quarrel with all 
the Nations who are at present quiet but extremely jealous of the least 
encroachment on their Lands. 

I am Sir 

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70 History of Beaver County 

It was probably this disapproval of the general unreasoning 
and un discriminating hatred of the Indians which Morgan 
always manifested, and his reluctance to see their country in- 
vaded, which later, as we shall see, occasioned his loyalty to be 
called in question. 1 

1 The following letter show* the seal which Morgan m early manifesting in the cause 

of the American Colonies: 

" PrnsBORQH May 31st, 1716. 
" Ta tiw Gatfr & Commando*! at Dttroit 

. sn altogethei. .... 

i, should the Savage* be induced to strike our Frontier Settlements 

_.-.-. -- -,.-. i\ Letters from you for this place have been destroyed 01 

the Way- What were their contents I have not been able to learn, or I would do mysel 
the pleasure to answer them, but perhaps an Exchange of Sentiments between us ma) 
be mutually advantageous. 

" You. Sir. have been frequently infor 

United Colonies against your Post. This has been al 
we are indeed prepared, si 

on the Ohio — but if they , , .- ... , _. „ 

Surrender of Canada — for this, notwithstanding we have hitherto been unsuccessful before 
Quebec we still flatter ourselves with unless by the late arrival of Commissioners from 
England to treat with Congress, our Grievances shall be redress'd ft all our Differences 
happily settled, which all good men must ardently wish for. 

Our Frontier Settlements though sufficiently numerous not only to defend themselves 
but to drive all the Indian Nations nef ore them, in Case of a War, have been alarm 'd with 
repeated acc'ts of your endeavoring to engage the Savage* against them. This Informa- 
tion has often been banded to Congress, but as the Indians still remain quiet, no Force is 
allowed to cross the Ohio; nor willany be permitted to do so, unless in our own Defence 
■iter being first Atlack'd. As I am station d here to observe what passes in this Quarter. 
* to treat with the Indians I shall be happy to have it in my Power to contribute toward 
a general Peace, good Understanding ft happy Reconciliation- -As such I shall be glad to 
hear from you ft any Messenger you send to me may rely on being permitted to return 
at any time. I am ftc ftc 

dated at Fort Pitt Uayjist was wrote from Wslehaketopnck 
t by Express enclosed in the following Letter to Capt. James 
itely arrived there from Detroit with a Cargo of Dry Goods. 

" To Mr. 7. VraimtiU " Moravian Town June tetb 

" Sir (Secret) 

" Your Letter of the 1 5 th of April last from lower Sandusky, came of course f> my 
Hands, but it was not till the 8th Instant — had it arrived sooner it might have been of 
Service. I understand you have retum'd from Detroit to Cayahoga — If this reaches you 
there, be pleased to write to me very particularly and I must especially beg the favour of 
your Answers to the following Queries. 

1st How many regular Soldiers are there at Detroit? 

id Have they been reinforced, or from whence do they expect any Reinforcements? 
3d Of what number do their Militia consist— Fr. ft English f 

4th What arm'd Vessels have they—their Names, Force, Compliment of Men to each 
ft by whom commanded I 

Sth The number of Families settled at ft near Detroit— 
th The Number o( black cattle — do. Horses — do. Hogs? 
7th From whence do they get other Supplies of Provisions? 

8th How have they strengthened the Fort, what new Works erected ft how many 
Cannon have they ? 
1 What Tribes of Indians have been collected at Detroit? — how many? have they 

gone away satisfied ? — or d 
1 Haveth- •-■«-->-- ■'-- 

10th Have the Indians been desired to strike tb* Settlement* of the Colonies— In what 

--'---re they beenso requested? What Instances have come to your Knowl- 

"le diff't Tribes given ? On this our forming an Expc- 

. . erroined never to send an Army over the Ohio untill 

_ Intelligence that the Governor or Commandant at Detroit have 

^, — Savages to strike us. 

.Jth What News have you of what pass'd at the Treaty at Niagara? 

nth Who commands there — ft how many Men are there in that Fort — ft of what 

13th At what Prices are Flour, Beef, Fork ftc at Detroit 
14th How is the Garrison at Niagara supplied with Prov 

Indians went there to the Treaty? 
15th What Garrison is at Michilamaekinac— are there many Goods then 
....... ,......_ ,-, .. .jj,, tDe y get tresh sr — "-■ 

_., ....j r , . -.-..- _ - „ ti supplies or frequent 

Intelligence from Montreal f 
i6th What is the latest News from Quebec ftc? 
17th What do you hear of the Garrison at the Illinois? 
I shall send this to you by Express as you desire but it will be Decesnry to keep the 

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History of Beaver County 71 

In the autumn preceding Morgan had called to account one 
of the "principal people," of whom he speaks above, as shown in 
the following letter from his manuscript letter-book : 

PiTTmnnmis November 17th, 177*. 
To Dorsey Pmticoast, Esq'r ) 

Colonel & Lieut, of Wt. Augusta j 


I understand that a Letter you wrote from hence the 9th inst., of 
which many Copies are handed about, has alarmed the country very 
much, ft that the like Accounts have also gone down to Williamsburgh 
ft Philadelphia relating to several Expeditions being formed ft attacks 
to be made this Fall from Detroit ft Niagara against the Kenhawa, Wheel- 
ing, & this place. In your Letter you write that your Intelligence is from 
undoubted Authority ; you will therefore oblige me if you will inform me 
from whom you obtained it. 

Any Person the least acquainted with the Country, or who will take 
the least pains to inform himself, will pronounce these Expeditions to 
be. not only improbable, but iin practicable, yet the Promoters of such 
reports, cannot take more effectual steps to injure the Frontier Inhabi- 

(Signed) Georgb Morgan. 

The following is Mr. Pentecost's answer to the above letter: 

drain Camp 1 Hot. 10th, 1776. 

To Gtotgt Morgan, Esq. 
Dear Sir 

Your favor of the 17th was handed to me yesterday — The Letter 
you mention must. I suppose, be a Letter I wrote to Capt. Brenton at 
Logs Town to be forwarded to different Stations on the Ohio. I make 
no doubt but the Intelligence is gone to Philadelphia & Williamsburgh, 
as the Intelligence I mentioned was given me by Doctor Walker, & that 
Letter I showed to the Commissioners before I sent it away who approved 
of it. 

, a Letter on pretended Biain™ — 

ie whole of your Good* f 

" Your Letter ome opeo'd — This, ft indeed your whole Correspondence should be kept 
Secret — trading business men be pretended. I wish to tee you—You should destroy th» 
letter after answering it. 

" I think you would do well to incloee 

for the Governor us a Blind — end write to ..... ... — 

to yon — Or if you will go to Detroit with the inclosed Letter whit ........ , ... 

Pern—] ft bring me an answer bum meet mo here the 10th of July or sooner, I will ray 
*— roarTTor"- *■ ■ ■— ■-— ,J *— "- : - * — — -*— -' ' 

►o glad to purchase the whole of your Good* for the pubb 
— lam on my Way to the Shawnase Towiu — perhapa y 

jble ft Expense — but you ihould destroy this Letter after charging y 

' :a •■-- -- ■■- •- "--- •- "■■— *- svery of' 

G. H." 

memory with the different Question*, totito bring me answer* to them ft every other 
nam Ml 1 j Information. Seal the Governor 1 ! Letter ft take no copy or you will be dis- 
covered thereby. 

if Catfish Camp, aa formerly said, waa within the li 

* Prom the Ferdinand J. Drear collection of manuscript letters owned by the Histories! 

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72 History of Beaver County 

The Powder Mark Harding got from you is worth nothing — please to 
exchange such quantities of it as may be brought back. 
I am &c. 

Dorsby Pbntbcost. 

P. S. On Monday morning last within four hundred yards of the 
Garrison at Grave Creek, was killed and scalped the eldest son of Adam 
Rowe, & the youngest who was with him is missing. D. P." 

The efforts of Morgan and Neville to hold the friendship of 
the Indians were seconded by Congress, which appointed com- 
missioners to treat with them at several places. The commis- 
sioners mentioned in the letter of Dorsey Pentecost, just 
quoted, were those who, in July, 1776, had met at Pittsburg, and 
had remained there for some time carrying on negotiations with 
the chiefs of the western tribes, who were very slow in gathering. 
The efforts of the commissioners and of the others were, how- 
ever, finally crowned with apparent success, and on the 8th of 
November Colonel Morgan wrote to Hancock as follows: 

I have the happiness to inform you that the cloud which threatened 
to break over us is likely to disperse. The Six Nations, with the Munsies, 
Delawares, Shawnese and Mohikons, who have been assembled here with 
their principal chiefs and warriors, to the number of six hundred and 
forty-four have given the strongest assurance of their neutrality with the 
United States.* 

The confidence herein expressed was justified in so far that 
the much-dreaded general war was averted, but small bands of 
savages were nevertheless constantly marauding along the set- 
tlements on the Ohio, and the frontiers of Virginia were so fre- 
quently harassed by the Indians on the Scioto belonging to the 
gang of the Mohawk Pluggy that, upon the recommendation of 
Congress, it was decided by the Virginia Council at Williamsburg, 
March 12, 1777, to send a punitive expedition against them. 
Colonel George Morgan, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and 
Colonel John Neville (or, in his absence, Robert Campbell, Esq.) 
were instructed to confer with reliable chiefs of the Delawares 

1 Dorsey Pentecost in a very prominent man in wh*t became Washington County. 
Pa., being its second president judge (the first specially commissioned for that office). His 
great-grandson, Joaeph H. Pentecost, wu mortally wounded at Petersburg, V»_, March 
35, 1865. while, aa its lieutenant-colonel, he waj commanding the famous "Roundhead" 
regiment (100th P. V. I.). A great -grandson. Thomas M. Pentecost, is still living in West 
MiddleUwn. Washington Co., Pa. — (Sec Btnth ant Bat of WulurtfioH County, by Boyd 

P. JO-«.) 

m ArcMvts, Fifth Series, vol. iii, p. goo. 

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History of Beaver County 73 

and Shawanese, to ascertain if they would consent to such an 
expedition passing through their country, and in case no oppo- 
sition from this source was to be apprehended, the expedition 
was to be at once set on foot. It was proposed to organize the 
party with three hundred militiamen, commanded by a colonel, 
major, six captains, six lieutenants and six ensigns, and a proper 
number of non-commissioned officers. Col. David Shepherd of 
Ohio County was designated as commander-in-chief, and Major 
Henry Taylor 1 of Yohogania County as major, and these gentle- 
men were to nominate the captains and subaltern officers out of 
those commissioned in the counties of Monongalia and Ohio, or 
either of them. 

The correspondence in connection with this affair is so inter- 
esting in itself and from the prominence in history of the writers 
that we give space to the letter of instructions written by Patrick 
Henry, then Governor of Virginia, to Colonels Morgan and 
Neville, and the reply of the latter, evidently from the pen of 
Morgan.* Governor Henry wrote as follows: 

WlLLlAHSHUBGH, March 11, 1777. 

To George Morgan, Esq., & Colo. John NevtU 
{or in the absence of the latter to Robert Campbell, Esq.) 

You will perceive by the Papers which accompany this that the 
Indians at Pluggy's Town are to be punished in an exemplary manner. 
When you apply to the Shawnese ft Delawares on the subject, it may 
not be amiss to observe to them, that these villainous Indians by their 
frequent mischiefs, may breed suspicion against innocent friends and 
Allies; for it is often difficult to tell what Nation are the Offenders. 
Willing to cultivate that good understanding that subsists between 
Virginia ft their Nations, the Shawnese and Delawares cannot take 
umbrage at the march against Pluggy's people, more especially as the 
latter march through the country of the former when they attack us. 
You will readily understand the delicacy of the Business in opening this 
matter to the Chiefs. Many if trusted may not keep it secret. If the 
Enemy have warning the expedition will produce but little good com- 
pared to what may be expected if they are attacked by surprise. You 
will please communicate to the Allies of this State, the strict orders given 
to the Officers & Soldiers not to molest or ofiend any but the Enemy of 

* The Major Henry Taylor named above wa* Che great-grandfather of Hod. Jamei 
Franklin Taylor, additional law judge of Washington County, Pa. Ha was also known 
aa Colonel Henry Taylor from hie connection with the militia, and was the first pi 
judge of WaaUngton County, by virtue of his being the first named In the general a 
□nation. — See Btnch and Bar, Crumrine, p. 35. 

* Prom Morgan's lstter-book (MS.). 

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History of Beaver County 

I take the liberty to remind you that the success of the Enterprise 
depends upon the address & propriety which will I hope distinguish your 
conduct in communicating this affair to the Shawnese and Delawares. 

I trust, Gentlemen, that you will leave nothing In your power undone, 
that may tend to give success to a measure so necessary for the well being 
of your country; And that you will not confine yourselves to the strict 
Line of Duty with respect to what falls into the business of each Officer 
respectively, but act on the most liberal plan for promoting the Enter- 
prise. I have the honor to be 


Your most Obdt. hble Servt 

Sign'd: P. Hbnry, Jr. 

P. S. You will communicate 
everything necessary to the 
Officer who is to command 
in Chief. 

P. S. If it is judged best to go part of the way to 
Pluggy's Town by Water, let it be so — this may avoid 
perhaps all offence' to other Indians. 

P. H. 

This communication reached Morgan and Neville about noon 
of the ist of April following, and on the same day they replied as 
follows : 

Port Pitt April i, ijjj. 
To His ExcsUncy \ 
Patrick Henry, Esq. f 


We had not the honor to receive your Orders & the Minutes of 
Council of the lath ulto. until this day. — We immediately wrote to 
Colonel Shepherd & Major Taylor to meet us here the 8th inst., to confer 
thereon & determine the most effectual steps to carry the same into 
execution — And your Excellency may be assured we will leave nothing 
in our power undone that may tend to promote the Interest of our 
Country in general or the success of this Enterprise in particular — not 
regarding the strict Line of Duty in our respective Departments, but the 
promotion of the service on the most liberal Plan — We nevertheless wish 
we were left more at liberty to exercise our Judgments or to take advice 
on the expediency ft practicability of the Undertaking at this critical 
time, — For although we are persuaded from what has already passed 
between Colo. Morgan & our Allies the Delawares ft Shawnese that they 
would wish US success therein, yet we apprehend the inevitable Conse- 
quences of this Expedition will be a general Indian War, which we are 
persuaded it is the interest of the State at this time to avoid even by the 
mortifying means of liberal donations to certain leading Men among the 
Nations as well as by calling them again to a general Treaty — And if 
the State of Pennsylvania should judge it prudent to take some steps to 

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History of Beaver County 75 

gratify the Six Nations in regard to Encroachments made on their Lands 
on the North Western Frontier of that State, of which they have so 
repeatedly complained, we hope & believe it would have a very salutary 
effect — The settlement of the Lands on the Ohio below the Kenhawa ft 
at Kentucke gives the Western Nations great uneasiness. 

How far the State of Virginia may judge it wise to withdraw or 
confine those Settlements for a certain term of years, or during the British 
War, is too delicate a matter for us to give our opinion on, but we have 
reason to think that the Measures we have (tho' perhaps out of the 
strict Line of our Duty) presumed to hint at, would not only tend greatly 
to the happiness of this Country, but to the interest of the whole State; 
more especially if care be taken to treat the different Nations in all re- 
spects with Justice, Humanity & Hospitality; for which purpose ft to 
punish Robberies & Murders committed on any of our Allies, some 
wholesome Orders or Acts of Government may possibly be necessary — 
for Parties have been formed to massacre some who have come to visit 
us in a Friendly manner & others who have been hunting on their own 
Lands, the known Friends to the Commonwealth. 

These Steps if continued will deprive us of all our Indian Allies, and 
multiply our Enemies. Even the Spies who have been employed by the 
County Lieutenants of Monongahela ft Ohio seem to have gone on this 
Plan with a premeditated design to involve us in a general Indian War — 
for on the 15th inst. at daybreak five or six of these Spies fired on three 
Delaware Indians at their hunting Camp, which they afterwards plundered 
of Peltries to a considerable value ft brought them off — this was com- 
mitted about 30 Miles on this side the Delaware Town between that ft 
Wheeling & out of the Country or Track of our Enemies: — Luckily all 
the Indians escaped, only one of whom was wounded, & that slightly in 
the Wrist. 

We enclose to your Excellency the copy of a speech or Message found 
near the body of a dead Man who had been kill'd ft scalp'd two days 
before near the Kittanning on the North Western Frontier of Pennsyl- 
vania, when another Man was taken Prisoner. 

We suppose the party of Indians who left the Message & perpetrated 
the Murder to have been hired for that purpose by the British Officers at 
Niagara, in order to promote an open Rupture between the Six Nations 
ft the United States, as we had Intelligence of such a Party being out, ft 
having come from thence. 

Your Excellency cannot but be already informed that many Persons 
among ourselves wish to promote a War with the Savages, not considering 
the distresses of our Country on the Sea Coast. 

This disposition with the conduct of a Banditti consisting of 60 or 80 
Savages at the Heads of Scioto may possibly create a general Quarrel — 
Yet we natter ourselves that by prudent measures it is possible to avoid 
it. But if as seems the inclination of some, all Indians without distinction 
who may be_ found are to be massacred, ft even when visiting us as 

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76 History of Beaver County 

friends, a. general War cannot be avoided ; and we fear the consequences 
would be fatal at this critical time — but should it please God to bless us 
with Victory to overcome our British Enemies on the Sea Coast, we shall 
have it in our power to take ample satisfaction of our Indian Enemy — 
In the Interim, we are humbly of opinion, that the most pacific measures 
with liberal Presents if in our power to make them will be attended with 
much happier consequences with the Savages than an armed Force can 

Nevertheless we beg leave again to assure your Excellency that noth- 
ing in our power shall be wanting to promote & insure Success to the 
Expedition now ordered to be executed. But as it will be impossible 
to have the Men raised ft armed before the first day of June next we shall 
have sufficient time to receive your Excellency's further instructions on 
that head & we shall in the Interim take every possible precaution to 
prevent Intelligence reaching the Enemy so as to defeat the wise intentions 
of Government. 

We are with the greatest Respect 

Your Excellency's most Obed't & most humble Serv'ts 
j George Morgan 

After considerable preparation for this expedition had been 
made, it was abandoned on the representations of Colonels 
Morgan and Neville in the foregoing letter of the danger that its 
passage through their country would alienate the Delawares and 


On the ist of June, 1777, Brigadier-General Hand of the 
Continental army arrived at Fort Pitt and assumed command 
of the Western Department, superseding Col. John Neville, who. 
with his Virginia militia, had held the old and dilapidated fort- 
ress from the beginning of the war. In 1777, up to the last of 
July, fifteen parties of Indians, consisting of two hundred and 
eighty-nine warriors, with thirty white officers and rangers, had 
been sent out from the British stronghold at Detroit against the 
western settlements. The Indians of Pluggy's-town were still 
among the most troublesome of these miscreants, and when we 
consider their small number it seems surprising that they could 
have been so long permitted to harass the country. In general, 
the attacks of the savages were made by small parties, however, 
and their success in inflicting so much distress upon the frontiers 

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History of Beaver County 77 

was mainly due to the scattered character of the settlements, 
and the impossibility of the small force of scouts and militiamen 
guarding the whole line of those settlements effectually. Their 
descent was so sudden and stealthy that it was seldom that any 
warning of their presence was received, and after their bloody 
work was done their flight was usually taken before sufficient 
force could be summoned to seize or destroy them. 

Soon after his arrival General Hand determined to organize 
an expedition against the Wyandots at Sandusky, and perhaps 
also against the Mingoes at Pluggy's-town, 1 and for this purpose 
he made a demand upon the western counties of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, but although eight hundred men were embodied, 
including regulars at Forts Pitt and Randolph, he met with so 
many unexpected difficulties that late in the fall he abandoned 
the enterprise. 

An attack upon Fort Henry on the 1st of September (1777) 
by about two hundred savages, with fifteen Americans killed and 
five wounded, and another on the 37th of the same month, when 
forty-six white men were waylaid by forty Wyandots, about 
eight miles below Wheeling, on the Virginia side of the Ohio, 
and lost twenty-one killed, several wounded, and one captured, 
created a general panic which threatened to depopulate the 
whole region between the Ohio and the Monongahela. Up to 
this time the Shawanese had hung back from the British, but 
the dastardly murder of one of their chiefs, the noble Cornstalk, 
and bis son Ellinipsico, with the young Delaware chief, Red- 
Hawk, and another Indian, who had come to Fort Randolph on 
a mission of peace (referred to in George Morgan's letter cited 
on page 80), turned this formidable nation into the relentless ene- 
mies of the Americans. From the autumn of 1777 the majority 
of them were joined with the Wyandots and Mingoes in most of 
the attacks upon the border. 


The summer of the following year witnessed the brilliant ex- 
ploits of Colonel (afterwards General) George Rogers Clark, who 
at "Redstone-old-fort" (now Brownsville, Fayette County, Pa.) 
prepared his expedition against the British posts in the Illinois 

1 Wash.'Inim Cor* p. II. 

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78 History of Beaver County 

country, receiving from General Hand at Pittsburg material aid 
for his enterprise, which was undertaken under the authority of 
Virginia. After incredible hardships suffered during a march 
of one hundred and thirty miles through a country almost im- 
passable on account of its swamps and streams, he surprised one 
after another of the enemy's posts, — Kaskaskia, St. Philips, 
Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher, and Vincennes, — and won the whole 
country along the Wabash and the upper Mississippi to the 
Americans. After organizing a civil government, Colonel Clark 
directed his attention to the subjugation of the warlike tribes, 
and exhibited great skill and fearlessness in bringing them to 
terms. No figure in the Revolutionary period is more striking 
than that of this large-brained and courageous leader, and an 
admiring people gave him the well-earned sobriquet of "The 
Heroic. " * 

"the squaw campaign" 

In February of 1778, Gen. Edward Hand, commanding the 
Western Department, marched from Fort Pitt with five hundred 
men for an Indian town on the Cuyahoga River, which flows into 
Lake Erie near Cleveland, where was a large quantity of stores 
deposited by the British, which he meant to destroy. Heavy 
rains and snows compelled him to abandon his undertaking 
after he had reached a point some distance above the mouth of 
the Beaver, on the Mahoning Creek. The outcome of this ex- 
pedition was the killing of one Indian warrior and one squaw, 
and one squaw taken prisoner, and it was afterwards called in 
derision "the Squaw Campaign." ■ 

General Hand was not deficient in military ability, but he 
was constantly hampered by circumstances beyond his control, 
and met with but little success in his Department. One diffi- 
culty with which he had to contend was the suspicion which 
arose during the summer of 1 7 7 7 as to the loyalty of some of the 
inhabitants of western Pennsylvania and Virginia. Some of the 
best men in Pittsburg were arrested, among whom was Colonel 

1 General Clark was at Fort Mcintosh in January. 1 7S5. as one of the United Slates 
Commissioner!, to make the treaty with the Delaware* and Wyandot*. 

■ History of Allrihmy Coutty. 1S80. p. 83; Waik.-trvin* Cor., p. 16. This affair took 
place, according to some writer*, within the former limit* of Beaver County, about where 
BdenbuiB. Lawrence County, now is. See Old Wtstmoriloiut, p. 41. But Bntterfield says 
that it was in the present Mahoning County, Ohio (Wosk.-Irvitu Cor., p. 15). 

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History of Beaver County 79 

George Morgan,' the United States Indian Agent. Even General 
Hand himself was suspected. But if in some cases this suspicion 
was proved to be unfounded, in several it was shown by the re- 
sult to be terribly true. Alexander McKee was one of the sus- 
pected persons, and in April, 1776, he had been put on his parole 
not to give any aid to the British. Violating his parole he was 
arrested, confined to his own house for a time, and then paroled 
again. General Hand then ordered him to report to the Con- 
tinental Board of War at York. But in March of 1778 he, with 
Matthew Elliott, Simon Girty, and others, fled from Fort Pitt to 
the wilderness and the Indians. The following contemporary 
notice of this incident we copy from the manuscript letter-book 
of Col. George Morgan : 

"York Town Novr n, 1777. 

"The oth Instant at Lancaster I was tav'd with your Letter of the 30th inclosing a Copy 
of the Resolve of Congress on the aid Ulto., suspending me from my employments in con- 

-' — i-Iq Report* injurious to my Character, rep re s en ti n g me as unfriendly to 

.:_.. a_ .,_._.. r, -----uatedfmm one who murdered lus own Wife 

_ _ „ ,..„._ .... ........._ __ifamous Characters — And u those Members 

of Congress with whom I conversed during my late visit of ten days at York appeared 
satisfied therein * I was not even called on by Congress in the matter, tbo' I transacted 
Business with them ft received fourteen thousand dollars from them to compleat certain 
contracts. I flattered myself that no Suspicions against me remained in their Minds, arising 
from such groundless Sc infamous Charges ft of the Falsehood whereof nothing could have 
prevented General Hand from informing Congress, but his thorough Contempt of them. 
I am however happy in having the Opportunity generously allowed me by Congress to 
answer the Charges which may be brought against me & to face my Accuser, if any has 
or may appear. 

" If (with the assistance of the Delaware Council) my having prevented a general Indian 
War on the Western Frontiers contrary to the Expectations ft Prophecies of those who 
pretended to know most — If ray having prevented the total Evacuation of the Posts on 
the Ohio for want of Provisions, through the Neglect or Inability of those instructed to 
supply them — If my having procured constant & the most enact Intelligence of the En- 
emies Number ft Inability to injure us from Detroit & Niagara whilst the Country 
alarmed from the fslse Reports of ignorant ft designing Men — If my having pointed 
Congress many things to promote the public Service — If my having put a Stop 
Encroachments on Indian Lands, the fine quality whereof tempted even some h«i ui 
Authority to transgress the Orders of Congress — If my having in every Instance most 

if these things 

---- -- .. . „ . ,Sjli<™* in Kfatrw 

aples which I have never varied from in a Single ! 
. ... do my Char* *-- ' ' ' ' ■■».-» 

anything contrary « 

alarmed from the false Reports of ignorant ft designing Men — If my having pointed 01 

.- , many things to promote the public Service — If my having — • - = — *- 

:hments on Indian Lands, the fine quality whereof tempted 
Authority to transgress the Orders of Congress — If my having in every Instance 
faithfully performed my Duty (which is or ought to be well known to Congress) c 
construed as unfriendly to the cause of America I confess the charge — But if these < 
can be allowed as Tests of my Attachment to the Cause I was among the earliest in 
ing forth to defend on Principles which I have never varied from in a Single Instance, I 
donbt not but Congress will do my Character ample Justice, by the fullest Testimony in 
my Favour — Should anything contrary to this Declaration be proved againat me — May 
I be punished with Infamy. 

"The favours I beg of Congress are a speedy Hearing, an Examination of Witnesses in 
my Pre se n ce, ft that I may know my Accuser if any. 

" As my character must suffer deeply by an accusation, which however despicable as to 
its Author, is magnified into a Matter of so much consequence as to have claimed the 
Attention of Congress I must beg the favour of the Hon'ble Committee to give me a speedy 
Hearing ft to furnish me with the Charges against me in writing, if they shall think proper. 

"Geo. MoarjAN. 
" To The Hon'ble 

Richahd H. L« 1 

Danihl RoBaHDSAN > Esqs. Committee of Congress 

ft Richard Law > York Town." * 

* From Ferdinand J, Dreer collection of manuscripts owned by the Historical Society 

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80 History of Beaver County 

Pobt Pitt, Kirch 31. ijjS. 
To ike Htm'ble Henry Laurens, Esq'r 


As the Commissioners and General Hand are possessed of every 
information respecting the situation of affairs in this Quarter, I beg leave 
to refer you to their Letters & to the enclosed Message from the Delawares 
& Governor Hamilton's new Proclamation with two of his old ones which 
accompany this. 

I only wait here in hopes of being assistant to the Commissioners 
during their stay at this place. As they are fully acquainted with my 
sentiments respecting Indian Affairs I need not repeat them to Congress. 

The elopement of Mr. McKee, late Crown Agent at Pittsburgh who 
most dishonorably broke his Parole on the 38th inst. has somewhat 
checked the pleasing expectation I entertained respecting the Delawares 
& Shawanese, tho' I think the former will not be altogether influenced by 
him. Four persons accompanied him. viz. Matthew Elliott, Simon Girty, 
Robin Surplis & Higgins . 

Elliott had but a few weeks ago returned from Detroit via New York 
on his Parole 8c I am told had possessed McKee's mind with the persuasion 
of his being assassinated on his Road to York. Indeed several persons 
had expressed the like apprehensions and perhaps had also mentioned their 
fears to him which I am of opinion has occasioned his inexcusable Plight. 
It is also very probable that Elliott might have been employed to bring 
Letters from Canada which may have influenced Mr. McKee's conduct. 1 

Girty has served as Interpreter of the Six Nation Tongue at all the 
public Treaties here & I apprehend will influence his Brother who is now 
on a Message from the Commissioners to the Shawanese to join him. 

The Parties of Wiandots mentioned in the Letter from Capt. White 
Eyes have committed several Murders in Monongahela County. Last 
week two soldiers who had crossed into the Indian Country 4 or 5 miles 
from this Post to hunt discovered five Indians, one of whom they shot 
before the Indians perceived them — the Fire was returned, one of our 
Men was killed & the other escaped back to the Fort. 

The Massacre of the Indians who were invited to a friendly Conference 
at Fort Randolph ' & the unlucky mistake at Beaver Creek I doubt not 
Congress are fully informed of by General Hand to whose letters I beg 
leave to refer & remain with the greatest respect 

Your hble Obedt. Servt. 

Geo rob Mo roam. 

The flight of these men, especially of Girty,' McKee, and 

' He had in bis pocket a captain's cominiadon from the British. — Wask.-Irvmt Cor., 

* The massacre at Port Randolph referred to in this letter was the 
other Indians, which we mentioned in the text on page Tj. 

■There were four Girtya, Thomas, Simon, George, and James, brothers; all of whom, 
with their mother and their stepfather, were taken captive by the Indians, the stepfather 
being burned at the stake before the eves of his family. Of these brothers Thomas alone 
returned to civilised life. The others led lawless and savage careen, Simon becoming: the 
most infamous. But he had, perhaps, more humanity than is generally supposed. It i* 

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History of Beaver County 81 

Elliott, was fraught with dire results for the borderers, for they 
were soon heard from as organising revolt among the tribes 
friendly to the Americans, and stimulating the hostile savages 
to further depredations along the frontiers. The record of their 
deeds fully justifies the strong language which Hugh H. Bracken- 
ridge used a few years later, when he called them "that horrid 
brood of refugees, whom the devil has long since marked as his 
own." They finally made their way to Detroit, and the British, 
who received them hospitably, at once began to employ them in 
fomenting trouble for the western settlements. The command- 
ant at Detroit — the notorious Governor Hamilton — encouraged 
them and their Indian banditti in the commission of every 
atrocity against the Americans. Hamilton offered liberal 
bounties for scalps, but would pay nothing for prisoners, and 
was on this account nicknamed "the hair-buyer." ■ This con- 
duct of the commandant induced the Indians, after making their 
captives carry their baggage into the vicinity of Detroit, there 

aid that through bis importunities many prisoners were saved from torture and death 
as he was scrupulously exact and honest. It was when he 
of which he was very fond, that he had no compassion. His 
. of Col. Crawford's death at the stake, of which he was a 
o end them by shooting Crawford, as the latter en- 
: at times a monster. It is haul to believe that this was 
i same man who could at other times show fondness for little children. For an instance 
this fondnesa, sea account of James Lyon's captivity in a not* to our chapter on Beaver ■ 

* Wash.-1'vint Cor„ p. 7. The following graphic account of British brutality is given 
an eye-witness, vis., John Leith, who was taken prisoner by the Indians and remained 

iong them eighteen years. On his return from captivity, and on a later occasion, ha 

a for several days at Fort Mcintosh (Beaver), 

When we arrived there [on the bank of the Detroit River! we found Governor Hamil ton 
several other British officers, who were standing snd sitting around. Immediately 

1, dreadfully mangled and emaciated, with their 1 

3 dragged like sheep to the slaughter, along the British lines, caused 
i\ thioTibings, and my hair to rise with rage; and if ever I committed 
is then, for if I bad had an opportunity. 1 should certainly have 
■ ■ — - 'light m the exhibition."— Biography of 

Reprint. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1S83, p, ag. 
Some of the British commanders were worse than the Indians. The old Moravian 
r, Heckeweldcr, relates the following incident: 

t that they si 

__ _ .r, 'kill alt. d. 

The brave Indian veteran was so disgusted with this reply, tnat ne reiusea to go out at 
all."— An Acamnl oilkt Hitlory, Maimrri, and Cutjemi o) Ou Indian Nations, by the Rot. 
John Heckewelder, Reprint by the Hist. Soc. of Penna., 1S76, p, 338. 

In aaeh of these accounts the Governor alluded to was Hamilton. For another version 
of bis conduct, see the following chapter. 

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82 History ,of Beaver County 

to put them to death. It is a pleasure to know, however, that 
there were British officers who were opposed to this barbarous 
policy. De Peyster, who succeeded Hamilton in the command 
at Detroit; was very humane, and sought to check the cruelties 
of the savages. To the Delawares he said in one of his speeches : 
"Bring me prisoners. I am pleased when I see what you call 
'live meat' because I can speak to it and get information; scalps 
serve to show that you have seen the enemy, but they are of no 
use to me, I cannot speak with them." In a letter from John 
Hacken welder * to Colonel Brodhead, dated Coochocking, June 
30, 1779, an account is given of the spirited and humane con- 
duct of a Captain Bird, a British officer, who was sent with some 
warriors against Fort Lawrence (Laurens), and while at San- 
dusky interposed to save the life of an American prisoner of the 
Wyandots. We give the following extract from this letter, 
which is almost entirely unpunctuated, but which tells its story 
with a good deal of force and directness: 

Simon Girty after coming into Detroit went Immediately to the Com- 
mandant informing him that be had 800 Warriors ready at his Command 
who had determined to attack and take Fort Lawrence that all their re- 
quest was that an English Captain might be sent with them to see bow 
they would behave this then was immediately agreed to and Captain 
Bird sent off to go with them likewise to take 4,000 j£ worth of goods 
with him for these Warriors after all had been done according to Orders 
and the goods given unto the Indians he was told that none of all the 
Wyandotte would go with him against Fort Lawrence but that they 
were about to Murder a poor prisoner which they had in their possession, 
the Captain on hearing this did all that was in his power to save the 
poor man. begging and praying their head men to save his life, and 
frequently offering 400 Dollars for him on the spot, and indeed was about 
to offer 1000 Dollars of which the above mentioned Gentleman [a trader 
present] agreed to pay down 400 out of his store Immediately, but after 
finding all to no purpose went to the man told him that he could do 
nothing that if he (Capt.) was in his place he would pick up a gun and de- 
fend himself as long as he could, but the Prisoner seeming Pretty easy 
only told them that the time would come that they would pay dear for all 
their committed Murders, and then was taken away by the Women and 

' Hacken welder, usually spelled Heckcwelder. was the well-known Moravian miarionarr, 
who m David Zeiiberger's assistant at FriedenitadC °i> the Big Beaver, and who went 
with the minion to the Tuacarawea River, Ohio, in 1713. Like Zeiiberger, he waa very 
useful to the American commanders, frequently giving them notice of intended incursion* 
of the lavages. Coocbocldng. bom which his letter quoted above was written, ia the 
present Coshocton, Ohio. 

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History of Beaver County 83 

Murdered at a most horrid rate after the Capt toot the Body buried it 
but they (the Wyandotts) diging it out again and sticking the head upon 
a pole, bad to bury it a second time — after all was the Capt went up to 
them they were all assembled and spoke to them in the following manner 
— You damned Rascals — if it was in my power as it is in the power of the 
Americans not one of you should live, Nothing would satisfy me more than 

to see such D Is as you are all killed, you Cowards is that all you can do 

to kill a poor Innocent prisoner, you dare not show your faces where an 
Army is, but there you are busy when you have nothing to fear get away 
from me never will I have to do with such — as you are, and be Guilty in 
such a horrid murder as you have Committed at. This and the Capts 
behavior towards them so long as he was at Sandusky brought the ill 
will of the Indians upon him, he would not suffer an Indian to come near 
him for a long time and would never forget it. — I am informed that the 
Capt was determined that should he meet with the good luck of having 
the Fort at Tuscarawas surrendered up to him, to tell all the men there to 
march under arms to Detroit and that if any Indians should offer to 
touch any one of the Prisoners to fier upon them and kill all who should 
come in their way. 1 

The fall of 1777 saw a fearful increase of Indian hostilities 
along the western borders, and, under a resolution of Congress 
of November 20, 1777, Commissioners of the United States were 
sent to Port Pitt to inquire into border affairs and to provide 
for carrying the war into the enemy's country. These Commis- 
sioners recommended to General Hand the protection, by the 
militia alone, of the frontiers, until they could secure some action 
of Congress for that purpose. Accordingly, in May, 1778, that 
body determined upon raising for the Western Department two 
regiments in Pennsylvania and Virginia, and as General Hand 
had requested to be recalled, Washington was asked to nominate 
his successor in that Department. To this office he appointed 
Brig.-Gen. Lachlan Mcintosh, an officer in whom he had great 
confidence, and whom he spared from the eastern army with 
great reluctance, writing of him at the time: "His firm disposi- 
tion and equal justice, his assiduity and good understanding, 
added to his being a stranger to all parties in that quarter, point 
him out as a proper person; and I trust extensive advantages 
will be derived from his command, which I could wish was more 
agreeable." * 

1 Pimm. Atck., 17JJ-IJ7*. vol. vii., pp. S14-J15. 

* Washington to Conanm. M»y 12, 177S, — Sparks' a Washington, », 361; WasktHfUM't 
Lriurs to tki Amiriam Cenfttt, New York, 179G. vol. ii., p. 114: Pinna. Arch., ist Ser., 
vol. tL, pp. 46a, 461, 467, jiB. 

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84 History of Beaver County 


We reach here a point of vital interest in our local history, 
for the name of Mcintosh is inseparably connected with the story 
of Beaver County, and especially of its county-seat. 

We shall now give, with as much fulness as possible, an 
account of his connection with Beaver County history, and of 
the fort which he built at the mouth of Beaver River. 

In June of 1778 Congress was informed that the general 
Indian war which had been so long anticipated was now immi- 
nent, and it was resolved to send a formidable expedition against 
the British at Detroit and their Indian allies in the intermediate 
country. Orders were therefore issued to General Mcintosh to 
organize such an expedition. Washington had already ordered 
the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment to Fort Pitt. This was a 
veteran body of men who had been recruited in the counties 
adjoining that place. That part of the Thirteenth Virginia 
Regiment which was still at Valley Forge was also ordered under 
Col. John Gibson, well known to the history of this region, to 
march to the same point. For the reduction of Detroit three 
thousand troops were voted, with an appropriation of nearly 
a million dollars for the expenses of the expedition. Fifteen 
hundred men were to assemble at Fort Randolph, and the same 
number were to go by the river from Fort Pitt to that place, 
whence the combined forces were to penetrate the Indian 
country, and destroy their crops and towns. Brodhead did not 
reach Fort Pitt until September 10th, having been ordered to 
make a digression against the Indians at Wyoming, and as it 
was then impossible to procure provisions within the time named 

■ Tallinn Mcintosh was born at Borlim, Inverness. Scotland. March 17. 1737. His 
father, John More Mcintosh, the head of the Borlam brunch of the clan Mcintosh, accom- 
panied OgWtborpa to Georgia* in 173* with ana hundred of his tribesmen, and settled in 
New Inverness (now Darien), in what is now Mcintosh County. Lachlan had few oppor- 
tunities for education, but, aided by Governor Oglethorpe, he studied mathematics and 
surveying. He became a clerk at Charleston In the counting-house of hia Mend Henry 
Laurens, and was afterwards a surveyor in the Altamaha region. Having studied military 
tactics, he became Colonel of the First Georgia Regiment in the early part of the Revolu- 
tion, and was soon mads a brigadier-general. In a duel in May. 1777, he killed Button 
Gwinnett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He accepted a command in the 
central army, under Washington, and while in this position was sent, in 1778, to Port 
Pitt, which he reached in August of that year. He was actively engaged in the siege of 
Savannah in 1770, and in the defease of Charleston in 17S0, where be became a prisoner 
of war. In 1784 he became a member of tbe Continental Congress, and in the following 
year was appointed a commissioner to treat with the Southern Indians. He died in Sa- 
vannah, February so, 1806. 

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History of Beaver County 85 

by the Fort Pitt Commissioners for the march of the force to 
the westward, and the prices of ail necessaries having also 
enormously advanced, it was considered best to postpone the 

In the meantime, however, General Mcintosh had not been 
idle. At the date of his arrival * in the Western Department, 
there were but two forts in Pennsylvania west of the Allegheny 
Mountains occupied by Continental troops, viz., Fort Randolph 
(Wheeling), and Fort Hand, in Westmoreland County. There 
were, however, besides these some thirty or forty small stations, 
or so-called "forts," scattered throughout this region, some be- 
tween Wheeling and Pittsburg; others upon the waters of the 
Monongahela, and still others along the northern frontier from 
the Kiskiminetas to Fort Ligonier. These, at different times, 
were garrisoned by militia, or defended by voluntary rangers, 
and were frequently altered, kept, or evacuated, according to 
the humors, fears, or interests of the people of the most influence. 
These stations were expensive, and, if the war was to be carried 
into the enemy's country, would be unnecessary, and Mcintosh 
resolved, therefore, to break them up as soon as he could without 
giving too much offense to the people whose assistance he so 
much required.* 

That the frontiers might not be left entirely exposed while 
the army marched into the Indian country, the lieutenants of 
Monongalia and Ohio counties were authorized to raise a ranging 
company jointly, to scout continuously along the Ohio River 
from Beaver Creek downward, where the savages usually crossed 
to annoy the settlements. Mcintosh had also seen the disad- 

* About the 6th of August. The following heretofore unpublished latter shows him 
to have been st Pott Pitt in that month early enough to have begun the execution of his 
plans for the campaign. 

"Fort Pitt, Wednesday 19th August ijjB. 

"I propose going over the Ohio River, into the Indisn Country the first of next Month, 
and as I am apprehensive I will be disappointed in the Troops I expected. I must request 
□f you to get three hundred of the Militia of your County ready for a march as they will 
then be ordered with their arms accoutrements *c to this & properly Officered according 
to Law — either by Draught or otherwise^ — I will be glad to hear when you are ready. & 
am Sir 

"Y'r moot obt. Sarv't 

"Lschm McIntodh 

" Com'e Western Dept." 

"To Colo Lochry 

" Lt. of Westmoreland County 
" it the Posts General Hand allowed until] further t 

Westmoreland County 

inform me when Uuir time expires."- 

' See Froniiir ForU of Puma, vol. ii_ p. 486; Wiuk.-Inn 

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86 History of Beaver County 

vantages of having the military stores at different points in the 
country, and he therefore adopted the plan of concentrating all 
these at Fort Pitt, making that a distributing point for the 
whole region. 


In preparation for future movements westward, the com- 
mander also moved down the Ohio Paver to the mouth of the 
Big Beaver Creek, where, upon the site of the present town of 
Beaver, he built, in the fall of 1778, by fatigue of the whole line, 
the fort which bore, in honor of its projector, the name, Fort 
Mcintosh. The expedition by way of Fort Randolph having, as 
we have said, been abandoned, the commander's further in- 
structions included only a movement, at his own discretion, 
against the western Indians. But Mcintosh was not satisfied 
with this minor project ; he had in his own mind the more am- 
bitious design of striking a blow against the British power in 
their northwestern stronghold. He said "that nothing less than 
Detroit would satisfy him." As it turned out, however, neither 
project could be accomplished that season, and the General was 
compelled to await at Fort Mcintosh the return of spring and 
the developments of the future. 

Fort Mcintosh is noteworthy as having been the first military 
post of the United States established upon the "Indian side" 
of the Ohio, *". e., upon the northern side of the river. On the 
8th of October, 1778, the headquarters of the army were re- 
moved from Fort Pitt to this place, where was assembled the 
largest force collected west of the mountains during the Revolu- 
tion. It numbered about thirteen hundred, and consisted, be- 
sides the Continentals, of militia, mostly from Virginia. To 
this post Mcintosh also cut a road from Fort Pitt, locating it on 
the southern side of the Ohio, in order to secure the wagon 
trains from the danger of attacks from the Indians, to which they 
would have been exposed on the northern side.' 

Here, then, the commander had secured a footing of con- 
siderable strategic importance, whence he could march, either 
westward into the Indian country, or in the more northerly 
direction to Detroit. A letter from Mcintosh to Vice-President 

1 This road wan afterward* used by Brodhcad, and ii 
" Brudhend's road." It is frequently mentioned by that 
waited to the court* of Allegheny and Beaver counties. 

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History of Beaver County 87 

Bryan gives his own report of his operations at this point and 
elsewhere in the region, and reads as follows : 

Port Pitt, 39th December, 1778. 
Dear Sir:— 

As I have given the particulars of an Expedition to our friend, General 
Armstrong, by Colo. Bayard, I beg leave to refer you to him. I shall 
only inform you, that notwithstanding the season was so late, that we 
could not get a sufficiency of supplies, & the men so Tedious before they 
came & Joined me, with many other Difficulties I had to encounter; I 
erected a good strong Port for the Reception & Security of Prisoners & 
stores, upon the Indian side of Ohio below Beaver Creek, with Barracks 
for a Regiment; and another upon Muskingum River, where Colo. 
Bocqiiette [Bouquet, Ed.] had one formerly near Tuscorawas, about 100 
Miles West of this place, which I expect will keep the Savages in aw, & 
Secure the peace of the frontiers effectually in this quarter hereafter if 
they are well supplied, & also facilitate any future enterprises that may 
be attempted that way. But I must observe to you that all the Militia 
I had were from the State of Virginia, & none from Pennsylvania, nor 
would they be of any Service if they were willing, & had Joined me, as 
your present Militia Law, I understand, allows them, or, which comes to 
the same thing, does not oblige them to serve above two Months, one 
half of which will commonly be taken up in collecting them together & 
the other half with Incumbrances, Disappointments &c, always incident 
to Expeditions carryed on to any Distance, will not enable them to per- 
form near the march, before they are for returning borne again; & one 
may as well attempt stopping the current of a River, as Militia when their 

I mention this Inconveniency of your Militia Law as it now stands, 
to you. Sir, in hopes that you will endeavor to have it altered as soon 
as possible, at least before we are ready for a Campaign in the Spring; 
that if any advantage or Honor is acquired by it, your State may have 
its share; it suffers as much, or more than any other from the Incursions 
of the Savages, therefore your own Interest, & Justice to the Sufferers, as 
well as the reputation of the State demands every possible assistance to 
retaliate St cheque their repeated Barbarities and Ravages upon the poor, 
helpless St peaceable Inhabitants of your Country. 8t in my humble 
opinion, without a Law is framed to oblige ym to serve for six Months 
(if so long required) from the time they all appear at the place appointed 
by a Commanding officer for them to rendevous, & be made more Coercive, 
or until relieved by another Draft if there should be occasion; it will an- 
swer no valuable purpose. And should it be objected that this would be 
an Infringement upon their Liberty, let such Law continue or be in force 
only in such circumstances as we are now in, or at least until the Savages 
are subdued & our frontiers safe. I find there is an unhappy contest for 
Territory Subsisting here between your State & Virginia, in which I have 
carefully avoided interfering or having the least concern in, as it was out 
of my power to remedy it, altho' often applied to by both sides, & only 

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88 History of Beaver County 

mention it now, to observe & Submit it to you, if any part of your Claim 
should be conquered without your assistance whether it would not 
weaken your pretentions, & add proportionable force to those who gave 
the greatest help towards it. But I will submit these Reasonings to the 
Wisdom of your Legislature, & hope you will not think it Impertinent 
or Improper in my present situation that I request you to propose this 
alteration to them, as I know & have experienced it to be necessary in 
the present critical situation of the Department. 

With every Mark of Respect, 

I have the honor to be. Dr. Sir, 
Your most obt Hble Servt. 

Lack" McIntosh, 
Command* west of 1k» Af *nof 

The bearer Colo. De Cambray has accompanyed me since I have been 
here, & can give you any information required respecting the circum- 
stances of this department, he is a Gentleman of real Merit, & beg Leave 
to introduce him to your acquaintance. 

Public Service, 
The Honble George Bryan, Esqr., Vice President of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia- 
Favored by Cola Cambray. 1 

It would appear from this letter that the companies of Penn- 
sylvania militia had gone home before the active work began, or 
had been distributed among the other posts. The Eighth Penn- 
sylvania had been assigned to Fort Pitt. 

The circumstances leading to the erection of the other fort 
spoken of by Mcintosh, namely, that upon the Muskingum, 
were as follows. About the time that Fort Mcintosh was com- 
pleted, the commander received intelligence that the Indians to 
the west who were friendly to the Americans were uneasy at his 
delay in pushing forward the expedition, and that there was 
danger of their being drawn into an alliance with the hostile 
tribes to oppose his advance to Detroit, when he should under- 
take that movement. It was therefore important to do some- 
thing to show the Indians that the Americans were in earnest 
in their threat to conquer the unfriendly savages, and to carry 
out the promise made in the treaty of September at Fort Pitt 
that a fort should be erected in the Delaware country for the pro- 

1 Pnu Arch., vol. vii.. p. ill. De Cambray, u elsewhere stated, wits the engineer 
under whose supervision Fort Mcintosh was built. 

The reference in the above letter to a controverey *~itff"g between Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, over territory will be fully explained later in this chapter. 

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History of Beaver County 89 

taction of the old men, women, and children of the tribes friendly 
to the American cause. Moreover, Washington's instructions 
to Mcintosh had given him discretion in regard to an attack on 
the hostile Indian towns in lieu of the more comprehensive ex* 
pedition to Detroit that had been abandoned by Congress. Mc- 
intosh therefore decided on an advance against the Wyandot 
villages on tiie upper waters of the Sandusky. Leaving one 
company under the command of Lieut. -Col. Richard Campbell, 
of the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, to garrison Fort Mcintosh 
and bring on the provisions which he had been long expecting, 
he set out on the 5th of November towards the wilderness, hav- 
ing with him about one thousand men. After a march of .about 
seventy-five miles, he received word that the Indians had given 
up their opposition to his advance through their country, and 
also that he could not expect a sufficient quantity of supplies 
from his base at Fort Mcintosh. He therefore decided upon a 
suspension of operations for that season, but he remained at the 
point that he bad reached on the Muskingum long enough to 
build the fort referred to in his letter to Vice-President Bryan, 
and which he named Fort Laurens,' in honor of the then Presi- 
dent of the Continental Congress, 1 and leaving there a garrison 
of one hundred and fifty men under the command of Col. John 
Gibson, with meagre supplies, he returned to Fort Mcintosh. 

The position of the garrison at Fort Laurens soon became one 
of great peril and hardship. At the opening of the following 
year, 1779, they were besieged by a large body of Indians, who 
harassed them for six weeks. By a ruse of the savages sixteen 
men were enticed from the fort, of whom all were killed but two, 
who were taken prisoners. Both sides being terribly reduced 
for want of provisions, the Indians at last offered to make a 
treaty of peace and leave the place if Colonel Gibson would send 
them a barrel of flour and some tobacco. This was agreed to, 
and the foe having apparently kept his promise, the invalids at 
the post were dispatched with an escort of fifteen men, led by 
Captain Clark, to go to Fort Mcintosh. They had not gone far 
from the fort, however, when they were ambushed by the In- 
dians, and suffered a loss of two killed, four wounded, and one 

' Ttiii iu Henry Laureni. In whom office in Charleston. S. C. Hclntoah hid once 
beta a clerk as etattd above. Fort Laurena wa» below aod not far from the si'» of the 
preeent town of Bottnr. Ohio. 

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90 History of Beaver County 

taken prisoner, Captain Clark and the others escaping to the 
fort. Colonel Gibson immediately made a sally in force, deter- 
mined upon punishing this treacherous deed, but could not come 
up with the savages, who had finally withdrawn. 1 

While this siege was in progress, Gibson had sent a friendly 
Delaware Indian to General Mcintosh, with a request for succor. 
Mcintosh responded promptly, and with a force of some seven 
hundred men and a large quantity of provisions marched rapidly 
to the relief of the straitened garrison, reaching the fort shortly 
after the departure of the besiegers. As the relief party ap- 
proached the fort, the garrison manifested their joy by firing a 
salute. The result was disastrous, for the pack-horses, taking 
fright at the sound of the firing, broke loose, and running into the 
woods, much of the precious provisions with which they were 
loaded was destroyed, the flour especially being scattered irre- 
trievably and lost by the tearing open of the sacks. Gibson's 
command returned with Mcintosh, and a new garrison was left 
at Fort Laurens under Major Frederick Vernon, who were also 
left without sufficient provisions, and nearly starved.* This 
post was finally abandoned in August, 1779. 

The ill-success of this venture occasioned some dissatisfaction 
with General Mcintosh on the part of Congress, and he found 
critics also of his undertaking at the mouth of the Beaver. The 
severest of these was, perhaps, Col. Daniel Brodhead, 1 then his 

1 The following letter from Genera] Mcintosh to Colonel Lochry. Lieutenant of Weat- 
id County, refers to tbii incident: 

"Port Pitt, the into January, mo- 

I am Just informed that Clark, of the St h Pennsylvania Regom' who waa sent to 

1 — Escort to Fort Laurens, aa he ni returning with a Sergeant & 14 Men. three 

■nun hub sue of that fort, waa attacked by Simon Girty & a party of Mingoes. who lolled 
two of our men, wounded four. & took one prisoner. 

"' I am also informed that a large party of the same people are set off to strike the In- 
habitants about Ligonier & Black Leg Creek, & send you this Express to inform you of 
it, that you may acquaint the neighborhood, & be upon your Guard. 

'■' Your most obt Servt. 

" L»ch. McIhtoih." 
— (ftWM. Arch., vol. vii.. p. i)].) 

1 On the sth of June, the following year (1779). after Brodhead had succeeded to the 
command of the Western Department, be wrote to President Reed from Pittsburg : 

" General Mcintosh has ever been somewhat unfortunate in his representations & ideaa 
of matter* in this Department and I suppose you have already been informed that the 
greatest part of the garrison at that post. Port Laurena, were obliged to be sent in or pariah 
about the 1 6th of last month. Major Vamum [Vernon] with only is privates kept it until 
the i6tb and lived on Herbs Salt & Cowhides untill 1 sent him a supply to last a garrison 
75 rank* file to the lothinatant and in doing this I waa obliged to rob the other Garrisons 
of every pound of salt provisions, at a time too when I had no fresh meat to subsist them 
on."— CPWM. Anh, vol vii., p. 465.) 

■ Daniel Brodhead was born at Marbletown, Ulster County, New York, in 1736. In 
the same year his father removed with his family to Dansville on Brodhead'e Creek, near 
Stroudsburgh. Pa. Daniel and his brothers became famous for their courage in conflicts 

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History of Beaver County 91 

subordinate, and afterwards his successor in the command of 
the Western Department, which he assumed early in the spring 
of 1779. In a letter to General Armstrong, dated Fort Pitt, 
April 16, 1779, he said: 

. . . The Board of War informed me before I left Carlisle that the 
views of Congress were then confined (suppose from conviction that it 
was too late to prosecute their main object) to an incursion into the Indian 
country only. But GenT Mcintosh was more ambitious. He swore that 
nothing less than Detroit was his object, & he would have it in the winter 
season — in vain was the nakedness of the men — the scanty supplies worn 
out — Starved horses — leanness of the cattle and total want of forage — 
difficulty under such circumstances of supporting posts at so great a dis- 
tance in the enemies Country, and other Considerations urged . . 
And it was owing to the General's determination to take Detroit, that 
the very romantic Building, called Port Mcintosh, was built by the 
hands of hundreds who would rather have fought than wrought. 1 

In a letter also to General Greene, dated August 3, 1779, he says : 

General Mcintosh was not regardless of the stores in some respects; 
in others he was. The hobbyhorse he built at Beaver creek, occasioned 
a delay of military operations and consequently an useless consumption 
of stores.' 

Col. George Morgan was also, as we have previously inti- 
mated, a severe critic of Mcintosh's proceedings, as the following 
communication copied from his letter-book will show: 

with the Indians. In 1771 he became a resident of Reading, where he was deputy sur- 
veyor. At the breaking out of the Revolution. Brodhead mu elected a Lieutenant -Colonel 
(commissioned October *j, 1776), and subsequently became Colonel of the Eighth Penn- 
sylvania Regiment: his promotion dating March ia. 1777, to rank from September so, 
1770. He took part in the battle of Long Island and in other battles in which Washing- 
ton's army was engaged. As stated above, he marched with his regiment ia the summer 
of 1778. to take part in Mcintosh's proposed expedition, and after the abandonment of 
that undertaking remained in the Western Department until he succeeded to the com- 
mand the following spring. He remained in the command of the Western Department 
until September 17. 1781, ""H"g a very efficient commander, twice leading successful 
expeditions into the Indian country. He was superseded in bis command at Port Pitt by 
Colonel John Gibson. At that time he was Colonel of the Pint Pennsylvania Regiment, 
to which position he was assigned January 17, 17S1. After the war he was Surveyor- 
General of Pennsylvania, being appointed to that office November 3. 1789. and serving 
in it eleven yean. He had previously been a member of the General Assembly. Brod- 
head died at Milford, Pike County, Pa.. November 15, igog. 

1 Pmna. Arch., vol. x., p. no. 

' Id., vol. xii., p. 146. Brodhead also writes to General Washington from Pittsburg. 
June j. (770. in criticism of this post as follows: 

" As your Excellency has given Fort Mcintosh the preference I shall order that to be 
the principal render vous for the Troops but I beg to assure your Excellency thtrt is ntilhtr 
mtadam, gardtn, pasHm or ifrrmt tealtr cmrumim to thai post, 1 do not think it prudent 
to fence the Indian lands as it naturally excites a jealousy. 1 F — (Prima. Arck., vol. xii., p. 135.) 

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92. History of Beaver County 

To the Court of Enquiry I 
now sitting at Fort Pitt, f 
Gentlemen: — . 

In answer to your Questions I inform you that in the course of last 
Spring & Summer — Bight thousand Kegs of Flour were provided by my 
Order for the late Campaign in this Quarter. 

On Reference to the Proceedings of the late General Court Martial for 
the trial of Colonel Steel, you will find some of the reasons why great part 
of this Flour has never yet been brought to this place, but the principal 
Reasons as I apprehend, not only for this Disappointment, but also the 
present scarcity of Provisions, have been the ignorant, absurd & contra- 
dictory conduct St Orders of General Mcintosh throughout this whole 

When this Gentleman's conduct comes to be canvassed before a proper 
Court, I shall afford such Lights as may be necessary; until then I hope 
to be excused from being more particular. 

I am, Gentlemen, with great Respect, 
Your most Obed't Serv't 

George Morgan. 1 

After events, however, justified Mcintosh's judgment in this 
instance, the fort at Beaver Creek proving to be of considerable 
importance in succeeding operations. The erection of both 
forts was, moreover, approved by the commander-in-chief, who 
wrote: "The establishing of posts of communication, which 
Mcintosh has done for the security of his convoys and the army, 
is a proceeding grounded on military practice and experience." 
Brodhead, also, after he had succeeded to Mcintosh's command, 
soon discovered that the office of the critic is an easy one, but 
that it is much more difficult to take the place of the subjects of 
criticism, and do better. He himself had a not too happy lot 
as Department Commander. 1 General Mcintosh was faithful 

1 But about ■ year after this, Morgan himself is blamed by Brodhead for dereliction 
in the discharge of his duty. March iS. 1780. in a communication to the President of the 
Council, Brodhead writes: 

"You may rely on my giving every possible protection ft countenance to our settle- 
ments, but I have very tittle in my power without calling out the Militia, and for them I 
have no provision*. What Col. George Morgan has bean doing this two years past I know 
not, but I conceive that if he had been where hia employment required we should have 
been much better provided." — {Ptmt. Arch.. 1770-81, p. 140.) 

■Prom Pittsburg he writes to President Reed, December 13, 177s: 

"1 meet with little perplexity in the common course of my Duty but the want of many 
ncceawry article! for the Troops & Indians the want of money in every Department with 
the difficulty of getting the ordinary «upplies & the trouble of the Indiana who for 
political Teaaona I am obliged to admit Drunk & Sober on all occasions these with the 
undetermined State of the rights of the Garrison & a rascally set of Inhabitants at this 
place is sufficient to destroy the patience of Job."— (Penna. Arch., vol. vni.. p. 30.) 

To Washington he wrote. Sept. 10. 1779: 

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History of Beaver County 93 

in the performance of his duty, and doubtless did all that it was 
possible for him to do in his circumstances. In the spring of 
1779, sick and dispirited, 1 he was, at his own request, recalled, 
but in after years he still rendered good service to his country, 
dying, as we have said, at Savannah, February 30, 1806. 


Fort Mcintosh stood on the wide plateau on which the town 
of Beaver, the county-seat of Beaver County, is built, on the 
verge of the high bank above the Ohio River, its southwest 
bastion being perhaps twenty or twenty-five feet from the end 
of the present Market Street. It is difficult to arrive at a correct 
impression of the appearance which the structure presented. 
It is described as having been a regular stockade work,' but the 
only picture pf it which has any claim to genuineness represents 
it as being built of timbers laid in courses like masonry. This 
picture, of which we give a reproduction on the opposite page, 
should, however, be correct, as it was published in the Columbian 
Magazine, of Philadelphia, within a month or two of the date of 
the demolition of the fort, and was accompanied with the follow- 
ing text: 

Account of Fort Mcintosh — with a plate. 

Port McIntosh was situated upon an high flat, or level piece of 
ground on the west [north] side of the Ohio, and about half a mile below 

in a letter from President Reed 
□ Washington dated Phib 

'■General Mcintosh is «.-_ 
accept once- in tho Street, ft h" — (PfliM. Atch., vol, vii„ p. j*j.) 

In writing of Mcintosh, under date of February ao, 1779. Washington said: 

prosperously conducted under the command of General 
stranger to me, but daring tl - r ' 

at Valley Forge I had imbibed a good opinion of his good sense, at! 
disposition to correctpublia abuses, qualifications much to be valued 
distract command. To these considerations were added (and not the 

1. and which would haw 
t. while no one could be 
. He is now coming aw, 
ilitary operations of con 

rendered an officer from either 
ipareii from another State with 

tery, m m.. p. n*.> 

• See History of Pennsylvania, Rupp, p. 364; Doddridge. Natn, p. 144. This term seems 
to have been rather loosely employed. We are informed by Mr, John W. Jordan. Librarian 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, that Port Mifflin on the Delaware, although a 
considerable work built mostly of stone, was sometimes called a stockade fort. Hon. M. S. 
Quay said to us recently that John Wolf, who came to Beaver a lew years after Fort Mc- 
intosh was torn down, had often described it to him as having been built with a double 
row of stockades, with a ditch around the outside and a banquette inside, and a gate in 

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94 History of Beaver County 

the junction of that river with Beaver-River, commonly known by the name 
of Big-Beaver-Creek. It consisted of a number of log buildings which 
altogether formed nearly a tetragon, at each corner of which there was a 
bastion. The Fort was entirely built of logs; — and the houses for the 
accommodation of the officers and soldiers were very commodious; they 
were roofed with shingles, and the windows were glased. 

This fort was built by General Mcintosh in 1779 [read 1778, Ed.]; — and 
has, lately, been entirely demolished ; it having been deemed unnecessary 
to continue a garrison of soldiers at this part of the Ohio. The latitude 
of this place is 40 , 41', 36*. 1 

Beyond this picture (which evidently suggested the drawing 
published in The Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania) , the most diligent 
inquiry at Harrisburg, Philadelphia, and Washington has not 
enabled us to discover any sketch or plans of the fort. If any 
were filed in the office of the Secretary of War by General Mc- 
intosh, they may have been destroyed when the British paid 
their visit to the national capital in 1814. On a map by Daniel 
Leet, in the second volume of this work (see Appendix No. VII .) , 
will be seen, however, a small outline of the fort- This map was 
made about four years before the fort was demolished.' The 
blockhouse marked upon it near the fording has never been known 
to have been in existence ; it was probably (we surmise) built there 
to protect the fording, or ferry, which connected with " Brodhead's 
road," which came down through the ravine opposite the fort. 
Some early writers speak of the fort as being possessed of six 
pieces of cannon, and as having had a covered way or tunnel 
leading to the river, through which the garrison would be enabled 
to secure water in case of a siege. This fortification was 
constructed under the immediate supervision of a competent 
military engineer, named Le Chevalier De Cambray, who is 
mentioned in Mcintosh's letter previously quoted. 

Arthur Lee,J who was one of the United States Commissioners 

» Tkt Columbian Manuinr. or Mon&Iy MUcrUany. containing a Vim 0} At Hillary, 
Liuraturt, Manners & Characters of the Ytar noo, Philadelphia, 1)90. vol. iv., p. 3 (Janu- 
ary number) . Thin is a very ran book, to which we had access in the Library of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. 

* This map is in the Department of Internal Affairs of Pennsylvania. It has never 
before been published. We an indebted to sir. J. Sutton Wall for the transcript of it 

* Arthur Lee was born in Stratford. Virginia. December so, 1 740, and died in Urbana, 
in the same State. December 1 1, 1 701. He was educated at Eton and obtained the degree 
of M.D. at Edinburgh. He settled for the practice of his profession at Williamsburg, Va. 
On the passage of the Stamp-Act, he went to London, studied law, and won fame as an 
advocate of the constitutional rights of America. He was associated in Europe with some 
of the most eminent men of his age, and was appointed by the Continental Congress joint 

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History of Beaver County 95 

who made a treaty with the Indians there in 1785, thus describes 
in his journal Fort Mcintosh and its surroundings: 

The next place is Loggstown, which was formerly a settlement on both 
sides of the Ohio, and the place where the treaty of Lancaster was con- 
firmed by the Western Indians. Prom Loggstown to the mouth of 
Beaver creek is — miles, and from thence to Port Mcintosh one mile. 
This fort is built of well-hewn logs, with four bastions; its figure an 
irregular square, the face to the river being longer than the side to the 
land. It is about equal to a square of fifty yards, is well built, and 
strong against musketry; but the opposite side of the river commands 
it entirely, and a single piece of artillery from thence would reduce it. 
This fort was built by us during the war, and is not therefore noted in 
Hutchin's map. The place was formerly a large Indian settlement, and 
French trading place. There are peach trees still remaining. It is a 
beautiful plain, extending about two miles along the river, and one to 
the hills; surrounded on the east by Beaver creek, and on the west by 
a small run, which meanders through a most excellent piece of meadow 
ground, full of shell-bark, hickory, black walnut and oak. About one 
mile and a half up the Beaver creek, there enters a small, but permanent 
stream, very fit for a mill seat; so that the possession of the land from 
there to the western stream would include a fine meadow, a rnill seat, a 
beautiful plain for small grain, and rich, well-timbered uplands. It falls 
just within the western boundary of Pennsylvania; and is reserved by the 
State out of the sale of the land, as a precious morsel for some favorite of 
the legislature.' 

The italics in the last line are ours. We note the sneer it 
contains for the behoof of those who think that the former days 
were better than these and innocent of legislative corruption 
and "graft." How strange, but pleasing, to hear this voice, 
after the lapse of more than a hundred years, speaking to us of 
scenes so changed, and yet in natural features so familiar to our 

In the spring of 1779, as we have stated. Col. Daniel 

comniissionei with Dr. Franklin and Silas Deane to aocure a treaty of alliance with France. 
He served alio on special missions to the courts of Spain and Prussia. In ij8i. he was 
sleeted a member of the Virginia Assembly, and from ijga till ijBj was a member of the 
Continental Congress. — See Appleton's Cyelo. of Attn. Bias., vol. iii.. p. 666. 

Two of Lee's brothers, Richard Henry Lee and Francis Ligbtfoot Lee, were signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

Franklin had a poor opinion of Arthur Lee. Writing from France to Joseph Reed, 
President of Congress, he speaks of him as a " calumniator," and after describing some 
ports of his conduct, says: "I caution you to beware of him; form sowing auspicious and 
jealousies, in creating mjsunderstanrlings and quarrels among friends, in malice, subtlety 
and indefatigable industry, he has, I think, no equal " ( Quoted in Lilt and Rrminisctncrs 
of Wm. G. Johnston, p. aa). 

1 Lift of Arthw Let, LL.D.. by Richard Henry Lee. voL ii., pp. 3S3-4. Lee's journal is 
also quoted at length in Th* Oldtn 7twM (Craig), vol. ii., pp. 354-44. 

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96 History of Beaver County 

Brodhead, of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, succeeded 
Mcintosh in command of the Western Department, with his 
headquarters at Fort Pitt. At the same time the Indians had 
again begun their work of destruction in the frontier settlements 
and the new commander had enough to do.' In a postscript to 
a letter to Washington, dated Port Pitt, July 31, 1779, he wrote: 

I have just learned that two soldiers have lately been killed at Port 
Laurens, two boys on Wheeling Creek, two boys taken on Raccoon 
Creek, and one nun slightly wounded, and a soldier last evening killed 
at Port Mcintosh, and a soldier slightly wounded. 3 

In a letter to President Reed, dated from the same place, 
April 27, 1780, he says: 

The Enemy are remarkably hostile. Between forty and fifty men 
women and Children have been killed and taken from what are now 
called the Counties of Yohogania, Monongalia and Ohio, since the first 
of March.* 

In a communication to the same, March 18th, of the same 
year, he said: 

I am sorry to inform you that the Savages have already begun their 
hostilities. Last Sunday morning at a Sugar Camp upon Raccoon Creek 
five men were killed & three lads ft three girls taken prisoners.* 

In this year, 1780, Brodhead resolved to send an expedition 
against the Indian towns west of the Ohio, but was compelled to 
abandon it for want of men and provisions. In the spring of 
the following year, however, he led in person an expedition 
against the unfriendly Delaware Indians on the Muskingum, and 
severely chastised them. 

1 The following extract from a letter which he wrote from Fort Pitt to the Hon. Timothy 
Picketing on July it. ijSo, refera to an incident which occurred a few miles down the Ohio 
from Beaver, probably dose to the mouth of Raccoon Creek: 

"A few nays ago I received intelligence of a party of thirty odd Wyandot Indiana having 
erased the Ohio River, five miles below fort Mcintosh and that they had hid their Canoe* 
upon the shore, I immediately ordered out two parlies of the nearest militia to go in search 
of them and cover the Harvesters. At the same time Capt. Mclntyre was detached with 
a party to form an ambuscade opposite to the Enemy's craft. Five lien who w e r e reaping 
in a field, discovered the Indians and presuming their number whs small went out to attack 
them but four of them were immediately lolled and the other taken before the militia were 
collected. But they were attacked by Capt. Molmyre's party on the River and many of 

water was so deep our men could not find the Bodies of the savages, therefore the number 
of killed cannot be ascertained. The Indians left in their Craft two Guns, six blankets, 
eleven Tomhawks. eleven paint Bags, eight Ear wheels, a large brass kettle and many 
other articles. The Indians informed the Prisoner that fifteen Wyandot) were detached 
towards Hanna's Town, upon receiving this information, another party was immediately 
detached up the Alleghany River with two Delaware Indians to take their Tracts & make 
^rX'voT'aS'. t p M 2 4 8." y " ° 0t ** ™ tUmed c ™° t « lf °™>'™° 'BKceess. -(Pm«. 
• Prima. Arch., vol. idi., p. 1,6. ■ /d. vol. viii., p. aio. * Id., p. 140. 

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History of Beaver County 97 

From the time Brodhead assumed com m a n d of the Western 
Department until he resigned it, he was beset with difficulties 
in obtaining supplies for his troops, whose condition was at 
times deplorable. He became involved also in difficulties with 
his subordinates, and charges of speculating with public money, 
etc., were brought against him, from which he was finally honor- 
ably acquitted. 1 While these charges were pending he was re- 
lieved of the command of the Department by Col. John Gibson, 
his chief opponent, and on September 34, 1781, Brig.-Gen. 
William Irvine was appointed by Congress commandant at Port 


General Irvine assumed command in the West early in No- 
vember of that year, and in a letter to Washington, dated Fort 
Pitt, December 2, 1781, he gives a very gloomy account of the 
condition of affairs at that post. He writes: 

I have been trying to economize; but everything is in so wretched a 
state, that there is very little in my power. I never saw troops cat so 
truly a deplorable, and at the same time despicable a figure. Indeed, 
when I arrived, no man would believe from their appearance that they 
were soldiers; nay, it would be difficult to determine whether they were 
whits mm, Though they do not yet come up to my wishes, yet they are 
some better. 3 

In the spring of 1783, the people of western Pennsylvania 
were in a frenzy of excitement on account of Indian raids. In a 

1 Prxna Arck„ vol. ix„ pp. 07. so*. 

■ William Irvine wu born in County Fermanagh. Ireland. November 3, 1741, of Scotch 
ancestry. He was educated at Bnniskillen and the College of Dublin. Having entered the 
army a* a comet, he quarrelled with hia colonel, and left it, then turning to the atudy of 
medicine and surgery. A few months after the close of the old French War he came to 
America. settling in the interior of Pennsylvania, where he married Anne, daughter of 
Robert Callender. Irvine took a leading part in the movement for the independence of 
the colonies, and in January, 1776, he mi appointed to raise and command a regiment. 
With ma regiment he served in the war in Canada, where he was taken prisoner. 

Promoted to the command of the Second Pennsylvania Brigade, Irvine was commis- 
sioned Brigadier-General May is, 1770, and fought with honor in the battle of Monmouth, 
and in the northern campaigns until 1781. In November of that year he assumed com- 
mand, by order of Congress, upon the recommendation of Washington, of the Western 
Department, with headquarter* at Pittsburg. In thin command be was a faithful and 
efficient officer, as the history here given will show. 

After the close of the Revolutionary War Irvine held many honorable posts, being 
elected a member of Congress from the Cumberland district (1786-8), member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of Pennsylvania (1700), again in Congress (1703—5), Major-Genera], 
commanding the Pennsylvania forces under Governor Mifflin during the " Whisky Insur- 
rection," a Presidential elector from his State in if«7. etc. General Irvine resided in 
Carlisle, but later removed to Philadelphia, where he died, July jo. 1804. 

* Waik.-Inimt Car., p. 73. 

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98 History of Beaver County 

letter to his wife, dated Fort Pitt, April 12, 1783, General Irvine 

Some people are killed and some taken, by the Indiana, in almost 
every quarter. I lost five of my men, a few days since, who were wood- 
cutting and carelessly laid down their arms to load the wagon, when a 
party rushed on them. This was at a fort [Mcintosh] we have thirty 
miles down the river.' 

May 1st, following, he writes to her: "I am heartily tired 
and almost worn down with people coming daily for protection 
and assistance."* 

July 4, 1783, James Marshel, Lieutenant of Washington 
County, wrote from Catfish (now Washington, Pa.), to Irvine, 
as follows : 

Repeated application has been made to me by the inhabitants on the 
south line of this county, namely: from Jackson's fort to Buffalo creek, 
and I am at a loss to know what to do. The people declare they must 
immediately abandon their habitations unless a few men are sent to them 
during harvest. J 

Petitions were also sent in to Irvine at Fort Pitt from many 
parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties, setting forth 
the distress of the inhabitants, and requesting him to furnish 
men to protect them during harvest time and at their mills. 
One of these petitions may be given, as showing in a vivid light 
the dangers and distress of mind in which the borderers felt 
themselves at this period. It is one of several petitions sent to 
Irvine from the same neighborhood, viz., that of Alexander Wells's 
mill and fort, on the waters of Cross Creek, near the junction of 
North and South Forks, in Cross Creek township, Washington 
County. The petition is dated May 2, 1783, and is signed by 
James Edgar* Henry Graham, David Vance, Arthur Campbell, 
and Joseph Vance. It reads as follows: 

To his excellency, General Irvine, commander-in-chief of ike western depart- 

Dbar Sir: — We, the inhabitants, who live near Mr. Alex. Wells's mill, 
being very unhandy to any other mill, and daily open and exposed to the 
rage of a savage and merciless enemy, notwithstanding the great attention 
paid by the general to our frontiers, and ordering men to be placed on the 

' Waih.-Irvm* Cor., p. MS. * Id- P- M*. ' Id., p. i«S. 

* Hon. James Edgar, an uaocute justice of Washington County, and a nun aninsnt in 
the dvi] and religious history of the region. 

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Brig.-Cen. William Irviiw 

(] plalc in Bgtlerfield'i Watkinfttrt-trv 

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History of Beaver County 99 

river — yet those inhabitants who live near enough the mill to fort there, 
find ourselves unable to guard the mill and carry on labor for the support 
of oar families; and so, of consequence, carmot continue to make a stand 
without some assistance. And it is clear that if this mill is evacuated 
many of the adjacent forts, at least seven or eight, that now hope to 
make a stand, must give up; as their whole dependence is on said mill 
for bread as well as every expedition from these parts. And scouting 
parties that turn out on alarms are supplied from here. Therefore, we, 
your humble petitioners, pray you would order us a few men to guard 
the mill — so valuable to many in these parts in particular and the country 
in general' 

In addition to these actual and anticipated troubles from the 
enemy, the garrisons at Fort Pitt and Fort Mcintosh were them- 
selves enduring hardship from insufficient supplies, and many of 
the men were in a mutinous condition as a consequence. Gen- 
eral Irvine had to exercise the severest measures to maintain 
discipline. Writing to Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, Secre- 
tary of War, from Fort Pitt, May a, 178a, he says: 

The few troops here are the most licentious men and worst behaved I 
ever saw, owing, I presume, in a great measure, to their not being hitherto 
kept under any subordination, or tolerable degree of discipline. I will try 
what effect a few prompt and exemplary punishments will have. Two 
are now under sentence and shall be executed to-morrow. They not only 
disobeyed their officer (who commanded at Port Mcintosh), but actually 
struck him. and it is supposed would have killed him, had he not been 
rescued by two other soldiers. 9 

The following letter to Irvine, from Lieutenant Samuel 
Bryson, of the Second Pennsylvania Regiment, the officer men- 
tioned above as having been attacked, will be given in full, as 
throwing light upon the particular incident, and more upon the 
character of the times and the history of Fort Mcintosh: 

Port HcImtosh, April »o, ijSa. 

Sir: — I send you under guard, John Phillips and Thomas Steed, for 
behaving in a mutinous manner. I shall not, at this time, enter into a 
description of the manner in which they behaved, as the two men who 
guards them can give you particular information, they being the only ones 
who spiritedly took my part. 

Phillips, who was sober, I cannot think myself justifiable in ever 
letting h im out of the garrison with his life. But not having arms im- 
mediately in my power when I got rescued from him and observing 
a general sourness amongst the men — with his extraordinary conduct — 

1 Fmntirr Fartl of Prnna., p. 411. • Wash.-Inmu Car., p. l»i. 


ioo History of Beaver County 

induced me to suspect a premeditated design against me. Certain it is, 
from everything I can learn, with the manner in which they embodied, 
that three-fourths of them were ready to join the mutineers: for which 
reason, I thought it most prudent for the safety of myself and the garrison 
to apply moderate measures first. 

There was a rascally boat's crew lying under cover of the fort a night 
and a part of a day, who found means to convey seven quarts of whisky 
to the men after roll-call yesterday morning: which for some time gave 
me an amazing trouble. Had it not been want of men I would nave sent 
the crew to you, particularly from my being informed they were under 
guard at Fort Pitt for the same crime. I had them searched: and to 
prevent any such trouble in future will suffer none to lay here longer than 
1 examine th em. 

I wish to have two good men to replace the prisoners — and have 
nothing to fear in future; though the duty is much harder, it is done 
without a syllable of grumbling. I have experienced more insolence and 
grumbling for barely obliging them to do their duty consistent with the 
post since here, than I have met with in the army before. There is not 
any appearance of an enemy yet. The plan of sending out patrols from 
the large plain which surrounds the fort might, I think, be fatal to the 
men; as the enemy, from an adjacent hill, can see every man who leaves 
the fort. Of course, they can concert a plan to ambuscade them under 
the cover of large trees bordering the plain. In place of that, I have 
four or five active woodsmen, whom I think of sending out with lines, 
two of a night, and limit them to bounds of five or six miles, on a hunting 
cruise and make their hours of coming in, the next day. They will have 
an equal chance with any scouting parties. If you disapprove of this 
plan, I shall hope to be informed by the bearer. I did not look upon 
your orders concerning the patrols as peremptory but discretionary. 1 

The sentence of the court-martial in the case of these men 
was only carried out against Thomas Steed; Phillips, though he 
was the one most severely arraigned in Bryson's letter, being 
pardoned just on the eve of execution.* 

We cannot blame the severity of the commanders who in 
those dark and bloody times exercised a stern discipline over 
their men; necessity perhaps compelled it, but when we learn 
of the sufferings of the soldiers from want of supplies, verging 
often on starvation, paid, as they were, in an almost worthless 
Continental scrip,' and sometimes not paid at all for months, we 

1 Wmh.-IrotHi Cer„ p. 360. 

•Id., p. in. 

' Ai thowing the extent to which the currency bad depredated, note the following from 
the Records of the Court of Yohogania County, Virginia (now Ponaaylvania territory] 1 

"Junejfc ijBo — Ordered that Paul Mathews be allowed two Thousand Dollan for Erect- 
ing a Whipping Post, otocki and Pillory." 

At this date the currency <m so depreciated that eighty dollar* of paper money 

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History of Beaver County 101 

cannot wonder, either, at their frequent murmurings and in- 
subordination. The isolation which they endured in these frontier 
posts was in itself enough to madden them, for their situation 
was such as to make them what Parkman has well called them, 
viz., "military hermits." Desertions were everywhere com- 
mon, and at Fort Mcintosh several men were shot for this 
offense against military law. The record of this is furnished in 
the journal of one who was an eye-witness of the occurrence, 
which took place two or three years later than the case which we 
have just cited. Joseph Buell • was an orderly sergeant in 
Captain Strong's company, and served under Major Wyllis at 
Fort Mcintosh, in the winter of 1785-86. In the journal which 
he kept are the following entries: 

December as, 178s, we crossed the Allegheny river and marched ten 
miles into the woods and halted for the night. It snowed and we made 
a large fire by the side of an oak tree and had jirked beef and two swallows 
of rum for our Christmas dinner. 

Dec. 16, 1785, marched at daybreak for Fort Mcintosh and arrived 
at sunset. Went into the old barracks, which are very ruinous, being 

wan worth but one of specie. Mathews got only $35. An anonymous writer of about 
the amt period says: 

* I had money enough some tune ago to buy a hogshead of sugar. I sold the sugar again, 
and got a gnat deal more money than it coat me. yet when I went into the market again 
the money would get me only a tierce. I told that, too, at a great profit, yet the money 
received would buy me only a barrel, I have more money now than ever, yet I am not 
so rich a* when I lad leu/ 

' Joaeph Buell was a native of Killingworth, Connecticut, and held the post of orderly 
sergeant in Captain Strong 1 ! company and Colonel Harmar'a regiment. He had been 
stationed at Wett Point since October 6, 1785, when on the tjth of November. Major 
Wyllis arrived from New York with orders for the troops to march immediately for the 
western frontiers. On the sotb they left that post, and reached Port Pitt the nat of Decem- 
ber, tT*s. Buell speaks of that village aa very pleasant, but complains of the excessive 
charges msde by the inhabitants for every article needed by the troops. After resting there 
four days, the detachment marched for Port Mcintosh. 

We may sdd a few other extract! from hi* diary kept at that post. He says: 

" Peb. 1786. This month passed away without any extraordinary events: courts martial 
■till common. 

" March 1 1. Generals Parsons * and Butler arrived here from the treaty at Miami. 

" April 1, The snow fell upwards of a foot deep. 

" 3d. Major Wyllis and Captain Hamtramck with nil company * 
command, to disperse the frontier people settling on the Indian el 
the Ohio;. 

om the garrison (1 
d they designed 1 

1 mischief. They net the woods ■ 

" May ret. This being May day. is kept by all the w 

great glee. A pole it erected and decorated with Sowers, around which U 

many, the patron of this festival. " — (Hildroth's Pienttr Hirtory, pp. 110 ti s 

* For notice of General Psreons, see Appendix No. IX. 

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102 History of Beaver County 

without, roof and floors. Here we closed the month of December in re- 
pairing our barracks, and trying to make ourselves comfortable for the 
winter. The troops are raw and unacquainted with duty; the officers 
strict and treatment excessively severe, flogging men with no lashes a 
daily occurence. 

Jan. i, 1786, we began the new year with a desertion. A man by the 
name of Alger deserted. Courtmartials continually sitting, and the men 
uneasy, with not much to eat. 

Jan. 95, 1786, Corporal Davis, John C. Dittman, Joel Guthrie and 
Alexander Patterson crossed the river on a pass. The Corporal returned 
and reported that the three men refused to return with him. Sergeant 
Pitch and guard were sent after them and they surrendered and were 
brought prisoners into the garrison. Major Wyllis, who commanded 
Port Mcintosh, without waiting for the formality of a court martial 
ordered out a file of soldiers and the three private soldiers above named 
were shot to death. 

Sergeant Buell remarks that this "order and shooting was 
the most inhuman act he ever saw, all three were young, and the 
finest soldiers in the company." He says, moreover, that Fitch 
was ordered to shoot them all to death the moment he came up 
with them, but being a humane man he disobeyed the order, for 
which he was reduced. The shooting was reported to the Secre- 
tary of War, and Major Wyllis was tried by a court-martial at 
Fort Pitt, and acquitted. In the campaign under General 
Harmar, in 1790, Major Wyllis was killed by the Indians, who 
had ambushed him with a part of the volunteers." 

There were tiroes of famine at Fort Mcintosh, but there must 
also have been times of plenty, at least for the officers, as the 
following will show ; it is an extract from a letter from Colonel 
Harmar (afterwards General Harmar, the same who suffered 
defeat at Maumee) to Col. Francis Johnston, and dated at Fort 
Mcintosh, June 21, 1785.* 

I wish you were here to view the beauties of Port Mcintosh. What 

1 General Harmir'i letter to the Secretary of War. Riving a report of the expedition, 
which is dated "Head Quarter*, Fort Washington [Cincinnati}, November is, 1700," 
hai this reference to Major Wyllis, or Wyllya, as he spells the name: 

" The centre, consisting of the federal troops, under Major Wyllys, having passed the 
Omee at the French Village, moved up the eait bank of the St. Joseph, at some distance 
from the river, while Major McMillan led the right column over the heights on Wyllys t 
right. The enemy now appeared in different quarters, and the columns were soon and 
severally engaged with various success. A body of the savages having appeared in Wyllys's 
front and cherished the idea of an attack there, suddenly gained the unoccupied heights 
on the right, and turned his Sank. At this crisis fell Major Wyllyt, an officer whose long 
and meritorious services claim the grateful remembrances of his country. With the 
talents of a cultivated mind, heunited the best virtuesof the heart." — (Hist. Wis!. Puma.. 
Appendix, p. 131.) 

■ Military Journal oj Major Ebtnftrr Drrmy, Lippincott & Co.. 1850, p. si). 

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History of Beaver County 103 

think yon of pike of 35 pounds, perch 15 to ao pounds, catfish 40 pounds, 
bass, pickerel, sturgeon, ftc. You would certainly enjoy yourself. It is 
very fortunate there is such an abundance of fish, as the contractor for 
this place sometime past has failed in his supplies of beef. 

This would be a glorious season for Col. Wood, or any extravagant 
lover of strawberries, the earth is most abundantly covered with them; 
we have them in such plenty that I am almost surfeited with them. The 
addition of fine rich cream is not lacking. 1 

We insert; here also an extract from the Archives which we 
have not seen reproduced anywhere, which shows that, notwith- 
standing the dangers and hardships of their situation, the officers 
had found means to recreate themselves, building themselves a 
bower tn the solitude of the wilderness. It is from a communica- 
tion from Michael Huffnagle and others to President of the 
Council Benjamin Franklin, in 1786, and reads as follows: 

About ten days ago Capt'n Strong was riding a little distance from 
M'Intoeh up to where the officers had erected a Bower, near to a spring 
that issues from a large Rock upon an Eminence commanding a view 
of the Fort. He was alarmed by discovering a number of Indians who 
had been sculking behind the Rocks reconoitering the Fort, they ran a 
little distance to where there were a number mare with their Guns, to the 

1 In reading of the frequent complaint* of the commandants at the posts in western 
Pennsylvania of a lack of meat, the query arises why did not they depend more upon 
game (or subsistence. The game, null and big, — turkeys, geese, ducks, deer, elk and 
buffalo, — was very abundant. Of course the garrisons were sometime* subsisted upon wild 
meat, but it was generally secured by hired hunters, not by the soldiers themselves. One 
of the western officers wrote that he had to keep his troops practising steadily at a target, 
for "they were incompetent to meet an enemy with the musket; Ihry amid not kill in a 
wxtk mouth garni to hut tktm a day." Besides it was dangerous for the soldiers of the 
garrisons to go out hunting— the woods were full of redsldna who were hunting thrm. Tin* 
is hinted at in a letter from Brodhead to Colonel Ephraim Blaine, dated Fort Pitt, December 
16, 1780. when he says, "The troop* have not tasted meat at this post for six days past 
... I bop* some means an devised for supplying this department, if not. I shall be 
under the disa g reeable necessity of risking my men in most dangerous situations to kill 
wild meat " (Tkt Oldtn Tim; vol. ii., p. 380). 

Another interesting query is, whether the bison (improperly the buffalo) was found in 
this immediate region? We think it must have been. Brodhead, in 1780, writes to 
Washington that he is "sending hunters to the Little Kenawha to kill buffaloes," and 
Washington, in his Journal of 1 jro (November id) speaks a* follows, " We proceeded up 
the river [the Big Kanawha] with the canoe about four miles farther, and then encamped, 
and went a hunting; killed five buffaloes and wounded some others, three deer. Ac. This 
co untry abounds in buffaloes and wild game of all kinds." We can see no reason why this 
animal would not be found in western Pennsylvania as well as in the country between the 
Kanawhas. Schoolcraft says (Mil. of tin Indians, Part. 1.. p. 431), "There was added for 
all the region west of the Alleghenies, the bison of the West (Bos Amtricamts). the prominent 
object and glory of the chase for the tribes of these latitudes." Loslriel, in his account of 
the removal of the Moravian Indians from the Susquehanna in 1771 says: "Tuesday. July 
14— Reached Clearfield Creek, where the buffaloes formerly cleared large tracts of under- 
growth, so as to give them the appearance of cleared fields. Hence the Indians called the 
creek, Clearfield Creek." For full discussion of the question how far east the range of the 
bison extended, see Thi Historical Maiamt, vol. vii., pp. 117-30, 162-3. *•»■ 

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104 History of Beaver County 

amount of twenty-two, he called to them to come and speak with him, 
but they ran away and would not. The Day after one Indian was seen 
by Daybreak sculking about the fort, who also ran off when discovered. 1 


Fort Mcintosh was alternately occupied and abandoned 
during the decade following its erection. The Revolution 
having closed, and the several expeditions against the Indians 
in the West having pretty effectually quieted them, and removed 
the danger of their forays, the occupation of this post had come 
to be of less importance, and it was decided by the United States 
Government to give it into the charge of Pennsylvania, which 
had at this time a reservation of 3000 acres of land at the mouth 
of the Beaver, including the site of the fort. The following 
letter was therefore written by General Irvine on the 23d of 
September, 1783, containing "Instructions for Wm. Lee, Ser- 
geant, and John McClure," who were to take charge of the 
property * : 

You are to take immediate charge of the fort, buildings and public 
property now remaining at Fort Mcintosh, for and in behalf of the State 
of Pennsylvania, (except two pieces of iron cannon, and some water casks, 
the property of the United States,) and three thousand acres of land 
reserved for tjie use of the State: when the tract is surveyed you will 
attend and make yourselves acquainted with the lines; in the meantime 
you will consider it extending two miles up and down the river, and two 
miles back; you will take care that no waste is committed, or timber 
cut down or carried off the premises, and prohibit buildings to be made 
or any persons making settlements or to reside thereon, or from even 
hunting encampments; nor are any more families to be permitted than 
your own to live in the barracks, or on any part of the tract. In case of 
necessity for re-occupying the post for the United States, you are to give 
up the fort to the orders of the commanding Continental officer at this 
place, retaining only such part of the building as may be necessary for 
you to live in. But if the troops should be so numerous as not to afford 
room for you, you will, in that case, occupy the buildings without the 
works, or build for yourselves in some convenient place, but you will on 

1 Pn-nTykumia Arch**!, vol. nil., page 300. 

* I rvine had written i rom Fort Pitt, Juno 3. i;8j. to Governor Dickinson recommending 
pome action in this regard, u follows: 

"I am of opinion that the timet* reserved [or the state at Port! Pitt and Mcintosh should 
be laid ofl and some person appointed to take care of tbero, particularly at Port Pitt, pre- 
vious to the troops at this point being discharged: otherwise, the timber will be destroyed 
and land abused. I presume some person may be sot to take chaise of it For such privilege! 
as will not injure the "place."— (IVor*--/™* Cor., ^p. s6r.) ^^ 

Dickinson replied July 3, 1783, authorising Irvine to secure some one to tain care of 
the tracts, whereupon the parties named above, vis., Lee and McClure, were appointed 
for Port Mcintosh. (Pnwo. Arch., vol. x.. p. roe.) 

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History of Beaver County 105 

no account whatever quit the place without orders from the Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania, or their agents, so to do, whose directions you 
will thereafter obey in all matters relative to said post, and tract of land. 
In case of lawless violence or persons attempting to settle by force, or 
presuming to destroy anything on the premises, you will apply to Michael 
Hoofnagle, Esq., or some other justice of the Peace for Westmoreland 

For your care and trouble in performing in the several matters herein 
required, you may put in grain and labor any quantity of ground not 
exceeding one hundred acres, and keep and raise stock to the number of 
fifty head of horned cattle and eight horses. You will govern yourselves 
by these instructions, until the pleasure of the Honorable Council is 
signified to you, and you will give up peaceable possession to them or 
their order, whenever they think proper. 

Given under my hand at Fort Pitt, September 33rd, 1783. 

Wm. Irvine, B.-Gen'l. 

We severally engage to conform to the foregoing instructions to us 
by Gen'l Irvine. 

H. Lee, 

John HcCluib.' 


John Rosb. 


But Fort Mcintosh was still to be the scene of interesting 
and important events. In 1784, the contingency of which the 
letter just given had spoken as a possible one, arose, and the fort 
was again occupied by troops of the United States. The neces- 
sity for this arose in the following manner. In October, 1784., a 
treaty had been made at Fort Stanwbx (now Rome), New York, 
between the representatives of the Six Nations and the Commis- 
sioners of Pennsylvania for the sale of all the Indian lands within 
the then acknowledged limits of the State not included in the 
former purchases, and with Commissioners of the United 
States for their lands west of those limits. While the Six Na- 
tions were the overlords of the western Indians — the Dela- 
wares, Wyandots, etc. — and the claims of the latter might have 
been ignored, it was deemed advisable by government to quiet 
their claims also. In pursuance of this policy it had been de- 
cided to hold a treaty with them at Cuyahoga (now Cleveland), 
but the place was changed to Fort Mcintosh. The reasons for 
the change appear in the following letter from Col. Josiah 
Harmar to President Dickinson : 

1 Prima. Arch., vol. *.. p. 109. 

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io6 History of Beaver County 

Camp near For Pitt, on the Indian ahore, the western tide of the Allegheny River, 

December jth. 1784. 

Sir: — I have the honor to inform your Excellency and the Hon. 
Council, of the arrival of the first detachment of Pennsylvania troops 
composed of Capt. Douglass's company of artillery and Capt. Finney's 
company of infantry at this place on the iStb of October last. 

The second detachment, composed of Capt. Zeigler and Capt. Mc- 
Curdy'a companies of infantry arrived here on the 39th of the same 

We have remained in this position till this day, in hourly expectation 
of the Commissioners; they are just arrived, and upon a consultation, 
considering the advanced season of the year, the difficulties of supplies, 
etc., they have resolved to hold the treaty at Fort Mcintosh, thirty miles 
distant from Fort Pitt, down the Ohio river. In consequence of their 
resolve, the troops marched this morning from this encampment for Fort 
Mcintosh, the tents, baggage, &c, are to go by water. Mr. Alexander 
Lowrey, messenger to the Commissioners, was dispatched this day to 
Cuyahoga, with an invitation to the Indians to assemble at Port Mcintosh. 
The fort is in very Bad order and will require considerable repairs before 
the troops can have comfortable quarters. 1 

Another letter of Colonel Harmar's, which will be of interest 
in connection with this important event, reads as follows: 

Pokt McIhtoib, January ij, 178], 

Sir: — A few days since the treaty commenced, and I believe will be 
satisfactorily concluded against the latter end of this month; although 
the chiefs of the Wyandots, Chippewas, Delawares and Ottawas (which 
are the nations assembled here), in a speech which they delivered at the 
council-fire yesterday, held out an idea to the continental commissioners, 
that they still looked upon the lands which the United States held by the 
treaty with Great Britain, as their own. But the commissioners have 
answered them in a high tone; the purport of which was, that as they 
had adhered during the war to the King of Great Britain, they were con- 
sidered by us as a conquered people, and therefore had nothing to expect 
from the United States, but must depend altogether upon their lenity 
and generosity. This spirited answer, it is supposed, will have the 
desired effect. 

The State commissioners will not have the least difficulty in transact- 
ing their business, which lays with the Wyandot and Delaware nations. 
I have the honor, Ac. 

Jos. Harmar, 
Lt-Cot. Cam'g lst Am - Re g' 1 
His Excellency John Dickinson, Esq., President the Honorable the 
Supreme Executive Council. 1 

1 Ptrota. Arch., vol. x.. p. jot; zL, P- sic. The officer* named in this letter were 
Thorna* Douglas, Walter Finney, David Zdglcr, and William McCurdy. 
• Tlu Military Journal of Major Dnmy, p. it i. 

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History of Beaver County 107 

The following extract from the journal of Major Ebenezer 
Denny will also be in place here : 

Port Mcintosh, Sept., 1784 — Marched through Lancaster by Carlisle 
Jfcc. to Pittsburgh. Waited for the arrival of commissioners appointed 
to hold a treaty with the Indians. Treaty expected to be holden at 
Cuyahoga. Commissioners late getting out, season advanced, plan 
changed, and Indians invited to attend at Port Mcintosh, about thirty 
miles below Fort Pitt, on bank of Ohio; to which place we repaired, and 
found exceeding good quarters. 

January, 17S5 — About four hundred of the Senecas, Delawares and 
Wyandots come in. After considerable difficulty, a treaty is agreed to, 
but with much reluctance on\the part of the savages. Amongst the 
Indians are a number of women and children. The whole a very motley 
crew — an ugly set of devils all — very few handsome men or women. 
Colonel Harmar did not join us until we reached Port Pitt at which place 
I was appointed to do the duty of adjutant ; this bad always been favorite 
duty of mine. 1 

The Indians seem to have been held in a pretty tight leash 
at the treaty at Mcintosh. Denny, who was shortly afterwards 
at the treaty making at the Great Miami, writes: 

Much more indulgence is allowed the Indians here than was at Mc- 
intosh. Dancing, playing common, &c. (for which they are well supplied 
with materials to make their hearts merry), are frequent amusements 
here. Major Finney is determined they shan't act Pontine with him, for 
every precaution is taken at that time. 3 

We may give here, also, the following quotations from the 
journal of Arthur Lee, one of the United States Commissioners 
at this treaty : 

24th (Dec., 1784.) Mr. Lowrey informed us that the Western In- 
dians were both discontented and angry with the Six Nations for having 
made a treaty with us without consulting them. This was the object of 
the general confederation which they mentioned at Fort Stanwix; and 
these Indians charge the Six Nations with a breach of faith, plighted in 
this confederacy. It is certain this was the wish of the Six Nations and 
the intent of this speech; but the decided language we held obliged them 

■ Denny's Journal, p. 54, foil. A later entry reads: 

" Fort Mclntoah, ijSj — Winter passed away— do ordcra for marching; did expect, m 
soon as the season would permit, to march for Detroit. April and Hay delightful season 
—frequent eicumiona into the country — fishing and hunting. Officers viait Fort Pitt, 
when we left a lieutenant and thirty men. Fort Pitt and Port Mcintosh both handsome 
places . . . Cornplanter, chief of the Senecas, arrived at Fort Pitt. He had aigned 

Colonel Hannar was informed of tbia, and invited up to Fort Pitt — I accompanied him. 

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io8 History of Beaver County 

to an immediate determination, which bids fair to prostrate their con- 
federation and its diabolical objects. 

35th (Dec., 1784.) Mr. Evans, agent, and the Pennsylvania Com- 
missioners [Francis Johnston and Samuel J. Atlee] arrived. The boat 
in which they embarked with stores, having run aground, and being nearly 
overwhelmed with ice, they and the crew. — almost frozen to death before 
the ice became hard enough to bear them, — got on shore, landed the 
goods, and brought them forward on pack horses. 

37th (Dec, 1784.) Mr. [John] Boggs, another of our Indian messen- 
gers, arrived at Fort Mcintosh and reported the Indians were on their 
way, and that some of them would be in the next day. 

a 8th (Dec., 1784.) Several Indians arrived. Orders were issued by 
the Commissioners against selling or giving them rum. Mr. Boggs was 
desired to make a Return, day by day, of the number present from the 
different tribes, to Mr. Lowrey, who was directed to order them pro- 
visions, agreeably to that Return. This was done not only that they 
might be duly supplied with provisions, but that we might have a check 
upon the commissary. 

39th (Dec., 1784.) Some chiefs of the Chippeways and Ottawas only 
have arrived. They came this morning requesting some spirits, two 
kettles, a tent, a blanket for an old man, some powder and lead for then- 
young men to hunt with, and some paint. The Commissioners ordered 
them some spirits, a blanket, the kettles, paint and ammunition. The 
tent was refused because every tribe would have expected the same; and 
as they never return what they once get into their hands, it would be too 
expensive. 1 

The treaty conferences were held at intervals during the 
month of January, 1785, and the treaties were formally signed 

' Lift of Arthur Lit, LL.D,, by Richard Henry Lee, vol. ii., p. i S3, « ssq. The character 
hen given to the IndJsm by Lee was doubtless true, at least bo far a* their dealing with 
the white* was concerned. But the old missionary, John Heckewelder, represents them 
more indulgently (although it is to be remembered that he loved hia Delaware*, and always 
shows their best side.) He says: 

"The Indiana observe that the white people must have a great many thieves among 
them, since they put locks to their doors, which shows great apprehension that their prop. 
erty otherwise would not be safe: 'As to us,' ssy they, we entertain no such fear; thieves 
are very rare among us, and we have no instance of any one breaking into a house. Our 
Indian lock is, when we go out, to set the corn pounder or a billet of wood against the 

would presume to enter a house thus secured.' Let me be permitted to illustrate this by 

" In the year 17 71. while I was residing on the Big Beaver. 1 passed by the door of an 
Indian, who was a trader, and had consequently a quantity of goods in his house. He 
was going with his wife to Pittsburgh, and they were shutting up the hous& as no person 
remained in it during their absence. This abutting up was nothing else than putting a 
large hominy pounding block, with a few sticks of wood outside against the door, so as to 

ords: Tiee my friend, this is an Indian lock that I am putting to 
'Well enough: but I see you leave much property in the house, 
are you not airaia tnat those articles will be stolen while you are gone? — 'Stolenl by 
whom?' — 'Why, by Indians, to be sure.' — 'No. no. 1 replied he, 'no Indian would do 
such a thing : and unless a white man, or white people should happen to come this way, I 
shall find all safe on my return.'" — An Account of lit History, Mannirs and Customs of llu 
Indian Nations, by Rev. John Heckewelder, published by the Hilt. Soc. of Penna.. Philada., 
1S76 (Reprint), p. 191. 

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History of Beaver County 


on the aist of that month. 1 The Commissioners on the part of 
the United States were the same as at Fort Stanwix, viz., George 
Rogers Clark, Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee. Those on the 
part of Pennsylvania were Samuel J. Atlee * and Francis John- 
ston. The first provision of the treaty made with the United 
States on this occasion provided "That three chiefs, one from the 
Wyandot and two from among the Delaware nations, shall be 
delivered up to the Commissioners of the United States, to be 

retained by them, till all the prisoners, white and black, taken 
by the said nations, or any of them, shall be restored." Among 
the prisoners delivered at Fort Mcintosh in 1785 under this provi- 
sion of the treaty was a well-known and highly respected citizen 
of Beaver, some of whose descendants are still living there. We 
refer to James Lyon, Esq., the story of whose capture by the 
Indians will be found in a note to our chapter on the borough of 

This treaty and that at Fort Stanwix in the preceding Octo- 

1 Bee Appendix No. IV. lor copiti in full of these treaties. 

* " By lying on the damp ground during thie journey, Atlee contracted ■ cold from 
which be sever recovered."— {Historical and Biographical Sktlchti, by Samuel 1 W. Penny- 
pecker, Governor of Penna., Philadelphia, 1883.) 

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no History of Beaver County 

ber were the first treaties of the United States with the Indians, 
as they were the first and last treaties of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania with them. The large purchase thus confirmed was 
afterwards known as the "New Purchase." A show of justice 
was given to the dispossession of the Indians by these transac- 
tions, and the State could afterwards boast that she never took 
any of the lands of the Indians without paying for them ; but it 
was a forced sale nevertheless, the natives being left without 
any choice in the matter, except a kind of " Hobson's choice " : 
they had to accept the trifling compensation that was offered 
them, or be finally driven off with nothing by the advancing tide 
of white settlers. 

In the following letter reference is made to the treaty by the 
State, and from what is said about the way in which the "emi- 
grators" were helping themselves to coveted building material 
from the fort, it would appear either that Lee and McClure were 
no longer in charge of the property, or else that they were not 
very good custodians of it. The letter is from Colonel Harmar,' 
then commanding at Fort Mcintosh, to President Dickinson, 
and is dated at Fort Mcintosh, February 8, 1785: 


I had the honor of addressing your Excellency & the Honorable Council 
on the 1 5th iilt., inclosing ft return of Pennsylvania Troops in the Service 
of the United States, dated the 1st ult. 

Inclosed, your Excellency will be pleased to receive another monthly 
return of the Troops, dated the 1st inst. 

The honorable the State Commissioners, Colonel Atlee & Colonel 
Johnston, by this time, I imagine, must have arrived at Philadelphia, 
by whom your Ex'cy & the Honorable Council will hear of the Satisfactory 
Conclusion of the Treaty with the Indians at this post. 

This Garrison is at length, by hard fatigue of the troops, put in 
tolerable order. I beg Leave to observe to your Excellency & the 
Honorable Council, that unless some person is directed to remain here 

1 Josiali Hanuar m born in Philadelphia In its3. Mid m educated in the ume city. 
In 1776 he in made Cantata of the Pint Pennsylvania Regiment, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
in 1777. which command he retained until the cloae of the Revolution, serving with General 
Washington in his campaign!, 1778-80; in the South with General Greene. 1781-81. He 
was made brevet Colonel of the Pint U.S. Regiment, in 1783. In 1784, tie wai selected 
to bear the ratification of the definitive treaty to France, and in the following year waa 
present as Indian Agent at the treaty at Port Mcintosh. In August, 1784, he was ap- 
pointed Lieutenant-Colonel of infantry under the Confederation. He was made brevet 
Brigadier-General by resolution of Congress in 1787. and General-in-Chief of the army Sep. 
tember 19. n&t>, which post he held until 1)0). when he resigned. He waa Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania. uoj-00, and died in Philadelphia. August 10, iStj. 

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General Jusi&h Harmar. 

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History of Beaver County in 

that immediately upon my marching from hence, it will be demolished by 
the Emigratory to Kentucky. 

Previous to our arrival, they had destroyed the gates, drawn all the 
Nails from the roofs, taken off all the boards, & plundered it of every ar- 

I would therefore recommend (for the benefit of the State) to your 
Excellency & the Honorable Council, to adopt some mode for its preserva- 
tion, otherwise immediately upon our leaving it, it will again go to ruin. 1 

The above had evidently some effect, for on April 37th, fol- 
lowing, it was ordered in Council, 

That Gen. Neville be authorised, upon his return to Washington 
county, to place some fit person in the possession of the buildings at 
Port Mcintosh, with directions to keep them, and the public timber upon 
the adjoining lands, in a state of as much preservation as possible. 1 

It is not certain at what date the United States troops were 
withdrawn from Fort Mcintosh. That there were rumors of an 
evacuation to take place in the spring of 1785, which had reached 
the ears of the people, is shown by the following petition to the 
Supreme Executive Council: 

The petition of David Duncan and John Finley, of the town of 

Humbly Sheweth, 
That your petitioners having been informed that Fort Mcintosh is to be 
evacuated is the Spring, and they having engaged in the Indian Trade, 
would willingly undertake the care of the Garrison and Buildings at that 
place. That unless some person or persons are appointed to take care of 
the Garrison, it will be in danger of being destroyed by the Indians, or 
the burning of the Woods. 

Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray your Honors would be pleased 
License them to Trade in the business aforesaid, at the place aforesaid, for 
such time as your honors shall think proper during good behaviour, and 
your Petitioners will ever pray, etc David Duncan, 

John Finlby. 

Piminoi, February 36, 1*85. • 

The evacuation did not take place in the spring, for reports 
of Colonel Harmar of the troops at that post in June are on rec- 
ord,* and the visits of the officers of the fort to the boundary 

1 Puma Arch., vol. X., p. 406. 
' Col. Rfc., vol. xiv., p. 418. 
• Pimm. Arch., vol. x.. p. T04. 

' Harmar himself, m then in July, uniet from the following letter written by him 
from that poat to General Knox (Secretary of War): 

"Port McIntobh, July 1, 1789. 
ii the union (black and white.) Peinapa it will be atixtrnxy 
pleased to lend me your directions about the color. And 

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ii2 History of Beaver County 

commissioners referred to below were as late as September nth 
of that year. The garrison here under Colonel Harmar with- 
drew in November, 1785, the troops being at that time ordered 
to proceed down the Ohio in view of the approaching treaty con- 
ference to be held with the Shawanese and other Ohio tribes at 
the mouth of the Great Miami, when their presence would be 
necessary to protect the commissioners, but the fort continued 
to be occupied later, for in a letter from Colonel Harmar, dated 
Fort Harmar, June 7, 1787, he speaks of leaving sixteen men 
under Lieutenant Ford at Fort Mcintosh. 1 

Mention of Fort Mcintosh is made several times in connec- 
tion with the running of the boundary line between Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, which is presently to be discussed. In 1785 
the commissioners then running the western boundary line of 
Pennsylvania north of the Ohio to the northwest corner of the 
State were at work. These commissioners were David Ritten- 
house, Andrew Porter, and Andrew Ellicott, who had been ap- 
pointed under a resolution of May 5, 1785.' On the 39th of 
August, Messrs. Porter and Ellicott visited Fort Mcintosh, which 
was then occupied by Pennsylvania troops, under command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Josiah Harmar, and the visit was returned 
in a few days by Dr. McDowell and Major Finney, and on Sep- 
tember nth Colonel Harmar and Major Doughty also visited 
the commissioners. 

The letters which follow show that in the early part of the 
year 1788 Fort Mcintosh still had a small garrison. The first is 
from Harmar to Major-General Knox, Secretary at War, dated 
Fort Harmar, January 10, 1788, in which he says: 

. . I beg leave to observe that Port Mcintosh is by no means 

tenable. The small party stationed there at present I propose to order 
to Fort Pitt, to receive stores, clothing, 4tc, and that the officer com- 
manding there may forward them, also, any dispatches which may 
arrive from the War Office. It should have been evacuated last spring, 
but for the orders received from you countermanding the same. I shall 
direct Major Doughty to proceed there with a party early in the spring, 
and to dismantle it. The fort is built of hewn timber; it will be easy to 
raft it down to this post, where it will be of service. If a communication 

if you should approve of t national march (without copying French or British), I ihould 
be kuuI to bo instructed. 

" " I h»ve the honor to b« your obt Servt 

"Jos. Habhar." • 

1 S i. Clair Paptri. vol. n.. pp. »i-aj. * Cot- Rtc„ vol nv.. p. 454- 

* Denny*! Military Jimrnnl, p. in. 

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History of Beaver County 113 

should be wanting to Lake Erie, a block-house for the reception of stores 
can instantly be built near the Big Beaver. 1 

Through the courtesy of the Secretary of State we have 
recently obtained from the Bureau of Rolls and Library the fol- 
lowing, which is a copy of a report of Henry Knox upon the 
suggestions made by Harmar in the above letter: 

The Secretary of the United States for the Department of War to 
whom was referred an extract of a letter dated January 10th 1788 from 
Brigadier General Harmar respecting Fort Mcintosh 

That the situation of Port Mcintosh has been estimated of considerable 
importance in a defensive system for the frontiers. 

That for the troops to abandon the position entirely at a time when 
the people of the frontiers are apprehensive of an Indian war, would be 
politically injurious in the minds of the inhabitants who conceive them- 
selves protected thereby. 

That this circumstance and the probability of occupying the Big 
Beaver Creek, as a communication to Cuyahoga river and lake Erie, induce 
your Secretary to be of opinion, that it would be proper to construct a 
block house for the present in the vicinity of Port Mcintosh, and to 
garrison the same by a party of an officer and fifteen or twenty men. 

That Port Mcintosh should be dismantled and demolished, and the 
materials disposed of for the public service in such a manner as the com- 
manding officer may think proper. 

Your Secretary coniform ably to this opinion submits the following 
resolve to Congress 


That the Secretary at War direct the commanding officer to erect a 
block house, in the vicinity of Fort Mcintosh, and place a suitable garrison 
therein — and that he dismantle and demolish Port Mcintosh, and dispose 
of the Materials thereof in the manner most conducive to the public 

H. Knox. 
W»t Onics. 
March joth. 

On the 39th of January, Harmar wrote from Fort Harmar to 
Lieutenant Ford, commanding officer at Fort Mcintosh, as 
follows : 

Dear Sir: — Early in the spring I expect Fort Mcintosh will be 
evacuated. You will be ordered with your party to Fort Pitt to take 
command there. When the evacuation takes place I shall give you 
particular orders on the subject. 

1 Military Journal of Major Ebtt—itr Denny, p. 113. 


ii4 History of Beaver County 

The Killtkenick which you were kind enough to send me, was very 


What was done in the spring in execution of these designs we 
do not know, but the evacuation must have taken place soon 
thereafter, for by order of the War Department, Thursday, 
October 2, 1788, Fort Mcintosh was "ordered to be demolished, 
and a block-house to be erected in lieu thereof, a few miles up 
the Big Beaver, to protect the communication up the same, and 
also to cover the country." 

This blockhouse was built in what is now New Brighton, on 
a spot on the west side of Third Avenue below Fourteenth Street. 
Its site is now covered by the dwelling-house built in 1872 by 
J. W. Thomiley, and at present (1904) owned and occupied by 
ex-sheriff Oliver Molter. The little stream emptying into the 
Beaver just below New Brighton is still known as " Blockhouse 
Run." This blockhouse was commanded in 1789 by Lieutenant 
Nathan McDowell, and in 1793 by Sergeant-Major John Toomey.* 

The demolition of Fort Mcintosh, ordered by the War De- 
partment, as above stated, was probably not complete, for there 

' Military Journal of Major Ebtmtcr Dmny, p. S1J. 

' Not much is known of the history of this post. Mention ia made of it in id Prima. 
Archives, vol. iv., pp. 646-8. In ■ letter from Major liuc Craig to General Knox, dated 
July j, ijoj. ii the following: 

" I shall write to Col. Sproat respecting the business mentioned in the Secretary of the 
Treasury's letter, and shall send a confidential person to transact that business at Beaver 
creek ; but I am astonished that Col. Hamilton had made choice of Port Mcintosh for a 
place of deposit, as there is not a building of any kind on that ground nor within three miles 
of it on that side of the Ohio, and the only one at that distance is the blockhouse on Beaver 
creek, now garrisoned by a sergeant and small party, who occupy the whole building, it 
bring only a tar ft hut; therefore an improper place to deposit spirits." [The italics are ours.] 
— (Letter-Book of Craig." Historical Rigisttr, vol. ii.. No. 3. p. 00.) 

For further particular!, see our chapter on the borough of Pallston, vol. ii. 

We wrote to the War Department of the United States requesting information aa to the 
military record of the officers named above, and received the following reply: 

" Adjutant Gsnskal'b Office, Washington, August 10. 1003. 
"" It show that Natban McDowell was an ensign in the ist Regt. 

Continental line and was subsequently appointed ensign. September 2p. 1784, in the U. S. 

Tnfnnt.rv Regiment commanded by Col. Harmar, and that he resigned September 4. ijgo. 

cords of the War Department were destroyed by fire in iSoo, and no particulars 

the U. 5. Infantry re 

lis lasts. . ... 

"A printed list of officers from 1784 to 1780. s 
r,^ lav* tr,„t McDowell was appointed Ca^-t in 

■y regiment in ijS*. 
jo officer in the Army named Toomey or Toon 


A few days after the receipt of the above Letter, whili 
preserved in the safe of the librarian of the Carnegie Library at Pittsburg, we 
prised and delighted to discover, upon unfolding an old paper, that we held in 1 
the original manuscript of a report made by the very man 

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History of Beaver County 115 

is a tradition that in 1795 one wing of the building was still 
standing in a dilapidated condition, and that John Wolf and 
Samuel Johnston, who came in the summer of that year to build 
some houses in Beaver, used this wing as a place of shelter. 1 It 
is also said that the old barracks was torn down about the end of 
the century, and its timbers used in the construction of Coulter's 
tavern. Hon. Daniel Agnew says, in Settlement and Land Titles 
(page 323) : 

In 1S39, when the writer first saw the site of the fort, the only remains 
visible were the mounds, indicating where the corner bastions stood, near 
the top of the hill, overlooking the Ohio, and a swell and a depression 
running between these mounds, parallel with the river, indicating the 
front intrenchments. There was also a cobble-stone pavement, probably 
fifteen or twenty feet square, in the rear of this intrenchment about one 
hundred and ten or twenty feet. The lower, or southwestern, bastion 
stood near the mouth of the present Market street. 

Judge Agnew omits the mention of the chimneys which are 
spoken of in the article on Fort Mcintosh in the Appendix to the 
Pennsylvania Archives (1790, page 404) as still standing about 
1840.' It is there said: 

Fifteen years ago the chimneys of the old fort were still standing. 
At present (1855), however, one is able to trace by the deflections of the 
ground where the ditches were, and also where the covered way ran by 
which the garrison would have reached the river, in case of a siege, to 
procure water. Nothing else indicates where it stood. 

At this date (1904), one fancies at least that traces of the 
position of one of the bastions are discernible. All else is 
swallowed up in "the formless ruin of oblivion." It is much to 

inquiries had provm fruitless, drawn in a line clerkly style, and entitled. " Muotub Roll or 
A Dbucbmhkt of Troops in Tai Service op the United States Stationed at Bio 
Beaver Block House uhdbe tbb Cokmahd or Seeoeaht Majob John Toonet mow 

photographically. And it is given herewith. 

That McDowell wu in command at the blockhouse in 1780 will appear clearly from 
the correspondence in connection with the drowning of Genera] Samuel H. Parson* in the 
rapida just above that post. See Appendix No. IX. 

In the summer and fall of ije-i, while General Wayne wa* collecting bj* " Legion" at 
Pittsburg, Bnaign John Steele was in command at Una post. See letters in Chapter XXVIII. 

' That in the year ijoo five or six houses had already been built at Beaver we know 
fiom the journal of General Collot. See chapter on Beaver borough. 

* Possibly Judge Agnew is right in not mentioning the chimneys, and the statement la 
the Archive*) that they were still standing in 1 840 erroneous, for Cuming, who was there 
in i&07, and des c ribe s the site, makes no mention of them. See his account in the chapter 
on Beaver borough. 

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[ 16 History of Beaver County 

be regretted that the project of marking the site of this historic 
structure by the erection of some fitting monument has not yet 
been carried into effect. 

In addition to the expeditions of Generals Clark, Hand, 
Mcintosh, and Brodhead during this period of western history, 
there were the minor ones of Williamson and Crawford ; that of 
Williamson marked with indelible infamy by the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians, and that of Crawford made memorable by 
the awful character of his own fate in being tortured to death at 
the stake. For the country at large, the triumph of the Revo- 
lutionary cause had now been assured, and the people were 
beginning to realize the fruits of victory in peace and progress. 


But even the Treaty of Peace of 1783, which secured the in- 
dependence of the colonies, did not relieve the western settlers 
from strife and suffering. In violation of her treaty engage- 
ments, Great Britain held posts in the Northwestern Territory 
for still twelve years longer, and the Indians of the Miami Con- 
federation gave great annoyance. The army of Gen. Josiah 
Harmar (1789) and that of Gen. Arthur St. Clair (1791), which 
had been sent against this confederation, had met with frightful 
defeat, as a consequence of which the National Government was 
humiliated and the whole country plunged in gloom. 

The condition of the settlers along the western frontiers of 
Pennsylvania and Virginia during the ensuing years, from 1789 
to 1794, was pitiable in the extreme. The Indians, rendered 
triumphant by their successes against Harmar and St. Clair, 
came in on the borders more boldly than ever.' Some of the 
warriors who had been guilty of the numerous murders of the 
whites on the banks of the Ohio even came afterwards with 
the greatest effrontery in the guise of friends to the trading- 
posts and forts, and as they had their squaws with them and 

1 In a latter to Governor Mifflin, dated Washington, February 19, 1791. Jjunn afmr**1 F 
County lieutenant, says: 

" Our situation on the frontier at this time it truly alarming. . . . It ia evident that 
nothing prevents their [the Indians'] crossing the Ohio River hut the inclemency of the 
Season, and the danger attending their Retreat by the Running of the Ice. They have, 
subsequent to the Expedition [Harmar'e] in the depth of Winter, committed frequent 
murders 00 the west aide of the River, and had the Insolence, after killing a family a few 
days ago on the bank of the River, to call to the people cm this side to" 1 come over and 
bury their dead, that it would be their turn next and that they would not leave a Smoking 
Chimney on this side the Alliganey Mountain*.' " — (Ptnna. Art*., 3d. ser.. vol. iv.. p. 538.) 

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History of Beaver County 117 

cleverly acted the part of visitors and traders, the people were 
easily deceived as to their real character. 

An instance of this is afforded by John Brickell in the narra- 
tive of his captivity {American Pioneer, vol. i., p. 43). Brickell 
was taken February 9, 1791. from his home, about two miles 
northeast of Pittsburg, when he was about ten years of age. He 
was in the field, clearing out a fence row, when an Indian came 
up to him, and, taking bis axe from him, led him away. As the 
Indians had been about his home almost every day, the boy at 
first felt no alarm, but he soon found out that he was a captive, 
and tried to break away. The Indian then threw him down and 
tied his hands behind him, and, with one of the Girtys, started 
off with him to the west. They crossed the Big Beaver about 
twenty miles above its mouth, and came to a camp of Indians 
who had been frequent visitors to Brickell's home. His narra- 
tive continues : 

They were very glad to see me, and gave me food, the first I had tasted 
after crossing Beaver. They treated me very kindly. We staid all 
night with them, and next morning we all took up our march towards 
the Tuscarawas, which we reached on the second day late in the evening. 
Here we met the main body of hunting families and the warriors from 
the Alleghany, this being their place of rendezvous. I supposed these 
Indians all to be Delawares, but at that time I could not distinguish 
between the different tribes. 

The reader will remember that at this time the Delawares were 
professedly on friendly terms with the Americans, and yet 
Brickell goes on to say: 

Next day about ten Indians started back to Pittsburgh. Girty told 
me they went to pass themselves for friendly Indians, and to trade. 
Among these was the Indian who took me. In about two weeks they 
returned, well loaded with store goods, whisky, &c After my return 
from captivity, I was informed that a company of Indians had been there 
trading, professing to be friendly Indians; and that being suspected, 
were about to be roughly handled, but some person in Pittsburgh informed 
them of their danger, and they put off with their goods in some haste. 

Brickell was adopted into an Indian family, and when lib- 
erated, after Wayne's treaty in 1795, he parted from his Indian 
father, Whingwy Pooshies, with great reluctance, both being in 

It was the opinion of the majority of the frontiersmen that 

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n8 History of Beaver County 

the party of Indians who, on the 9th of March, 1791, were at- 
tacked by Captain Sam Brady and his men at the blockhouse 
on the Big Beaver, where they were trading with William Wilson, 
were miscreants of this sort, and they approved the deed of 
Brady's party.* This incident, to which we have elsewhere 
referred, did much to add to the terror of the borderers. 1 They 
reasonably expected that, whether the Indians were guilty or 
innocent, their relatives would revenge their death, and the re- 
sult speedily justified their expectations. Many of the best 
citizens, however, deprecated the conduct of Brady, and the 
excitement created by it was so great that much correspondence 
concerning it passed between the various officers of government. 
State and National. The conflicting views regarding the matter 
will appear from the following extracts from this and other cor- 
respondence. On March 35, 1791 , Gen. Presley Neville wrote from 
Woodville, Allegheny County, to Governor Mifflin, as follows: 

Sir: In the absence of the County Lieut, it devolves on me to inform 
your Excellency of our situation with Respect to the Indians, whose 
Intention*, generally, I fear, are inimical. 

The frequent Murders they had committed during the latter part of 
the Winter, having greatly exasperated the People on the Frontiers A 
Party about the 9th Inst., (I believe Virginians,) fell on a Party of Indians 
near the Mouth of Beaver Creek and killed five of them; that those 
Indians were not hostile, appears from their having with them articles of 
Trade and their Squaws, but that they either had been so, or were con- 
nected with unfriendly Indians, appears from their having with them 
several articles well known to be the property of a Family who sometime 
before was murdered at the Mingoe Bottom. 

On the iSt.h Inst, one man was kill'd and three Prisoners taken from 
about four Miles above Pittsburgh, on the Alleghany Shore, and on the 
33d Inst. Thirteen Men, Women & Children (mostly the latter) were 
kill'd about fifteen Miles above Pittsb'gh, on the same River, (I believe 

1 Major Isaac Ciaig to the Secretary of Wei: 

" Pobt Pitt, 16th Match, hoi. 
"Sir: — The people on the frontier are exceedingWalarmed; parties of Volunteer militia 

vcral perts of this county end Washington, as patroles, one of which 
., -_ Jriendly Indians at the block house on Beaver circle (where they or J 
killed three men end one woman, notwithstanding the Indiana called 

Ml in with a party of friendly Indian* 

h— " « a More) killed three men an< „. .... 

in English; two of them being Moravian Indiana and known to several of the patrol) 

"Although this action appears very much like deliberate murder, yet it is approved of, I 
bolieve. by a majority of the people on the Ohio."— (Pnw. Arch., id ser., vof. iv., p. 546) 

•A letter from James Morrison to General Richard Butler, dated Pittsburg, March ijth, 
referring to this affair, says: 

" This ill-timed stroke (to say no worse) has greatly alarmed the settlements opposite 
Beaver. They have left their houses along the river for some distance and collected in 
Email bodies some miles back. Should the Indians revenge this injury done them on our 
frontier, (which it is more than probable they will) that thriving settlement on Racoon 
will break up and fly a considerable distance into the interior part of the country." — (Id., 

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History of Beaver County 119 

at the Mouth of Bull Creek,) which has so alarmed the Frontiers, that I 
fear they will break up. 

The settlement on the depreciation Tract, amounting to about Forty 
or Fifty Families, has fled to a Man, and many on the Ohio have moved 
to more interior Situations. The Militia are in great want of Arms. I 
do not believe that more than one-sixth are provided for. Five or Six 
years of continued Peace had destroy'd all thoughts of Defence; and the 
game becoming scarce, the Arms have slipt off to Kentucky and other 
later Settlements, where there appeared to be more use for them. 

The Corn Planter and his Party (about forty-five in number) are now 
ascending the Alleghany River to their Country; they left Pittsburgh 
four days ago. The first Murder on the Alleghany was committed in one 
Mile of his Camp, and he was not very distant from the other. Notwith- 
standing his Professions, some of his Party are greatly suspected, at 
least of being confederate in this Business, and Parties have been forming 
to pursue & cut them off. However, I hope it may not be carried into 
effect, it would add the Senecas to our Enemies, already too numerous 
for our defenceless Frontiers, ft the Settlement on the French C'k would 
be an immediate Sacrafice. 

With the Sentiments of the highest Exteem & Respect, 
I" ve the honor to be, Your Excellency's 

Ob't humb'e Serv't 
Presley Neville, 1 

The threat against Cornplanter herein referred to was put 
into execution, so far at least that a party of militia from West- 
moreland County stopped a boat belonging to a contractor who 
was carrying provisions to Fort Franklin, and which some of 
Cornplanter's party were assisting to navigate, and took from 
the Indians the presents which they had received from Congress 
and the State of Pennsylvania, and exposed them to public sale. 

Before he had left Pittsburg, Cornplanter, with other Seneca 
Indians, had written to President Washington in complaint of 
the murders at the Beaver blockhouse, his language being in 
part as follows: 

Father: Your promise to me was, that you would keep all your peo- 
ple quiet, but since I came here, I find that some of my people have been 
killed, the good honest people who were here trading. 

Father: We hope you will not suffer all the good people to be killed, 
but your people are killing them as fast as they can. Three men and one 
woman have been killed at Big Beaver creek, and they were good people, 
and some of the white men will testify the truth of this. When I heard 
the news, I found one boy had made his escape and got to the trader's 
house who saved his life; I now wait to see him. 

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i2o .History of Beaver County 

Father: We have been informed that twenty-seven men came from 
another State and murdered these men in the Quaker State and took 
away nine hones and all the goods they had purchased from the trader. 
Our father and ruler over all mankind, now speak and tell me, did you 
order these men to be killed? 

Father : Our words are pledged to you that we would endeavor to make 
peace with all warrior nations. If we cannot do it, do not blame us; you 
struck the innocent men first. We hope you will not blame us, as your 
people has first broke good rules, but as for our people, they are as friendly 
and as firm as ever. 

Father: We must now acquaint you with the men's names who did 
this murder at Beaver creek. Samuel Brady, formerly a captain in your 
army and under your command, also Balden were the persons concerned 
in this murder. 1 

This letter was dated March 17th. On the aSth following, 
the Secretary of War, General Knox, wrote to Governor Mifflin, 

as follows: 

Sir: — I have the honor 10 transmit to your Excellency, a representa- 
tion made to the President of the United States by the Cornplanter, a 
Seneka Chief, upon the subject of the murder of some friendly Indians on 
the 9th instant, who had been trading at the Block house, on Big Beaver 
Creek within this State. It would appear both from the representation 
of the Cornplanter, and the information of persons of respectable charac- 
ters at Pittsburgh, and its neighborhood, herein enclosed, whose names it 
might not be proper to make public, that the act of killing the Indians 
aforesaid is considered by the good Citizens of the frontiers, as an atro- 
cious murder and deserving of the severest punishment. 

If such crimes as the murder of friendly Indians should be suffered to 
pass off with impunity, the endeavors of the United States to establish 
peace on terms of justice and humanity will be in vain; a general Indian 
war will be excited, in which the opinion of the enlightened and impartial 
part of mankind will be opposed to us; and the blood and treasures of 
the nation will be dissipated in the accomplishment of measures degrading 
to its characters. 1 

This letter goes on to say that Major-General St. Clair will be 
instructed to inquire into the facts of the case, and if he should 
find them to be as represented, to call the relations of the de- 
ceased Indians together, and disavow and disapprove of the 
murder in the strongest terms, to promise them justice, and to 
compensate them for the loss of the horses and property of the 
murdered Indians, and urges the Governor to take promptly the 
necessary steps to bring the accused parties to trial. 

1 Ptnna. Arch-, ad *or.. vol. iv.. p. 546. * Id., p. 549, 

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History of Beaver County 121 

The excitement continued, and on the 31st Colonel Wilkins 
wrote from Pittsburg that for an extent of fifty miles the people 
of the frontier had fled, abandoning their farms, their stock, and 
their furniture, and he adds that the conjecture of most people 
with respect to the Indians committing the murders referred to 
previously was that "they were of the same nation of some who 
were killed when peaceably trading about thirty miles of this 
place, by a party of militia from Ohio County, Virginia." * 

The murders on the Alleghany, as we see from Presley 
Neville's letter, were supposed to have been committed by the 
Senecas, but, according to Major Jonathan Heart, were directly 
the outcome of the blockhouse affair. Writing to General 
Knox from Philadelphia, May 10, 1791, he says: 

Sir: — With respect to the murders committed by the Indians on the 
Alleghaney in March last, I can assure you they were not committed by 
the Munsee & Senecas, as has been publickly reported. Capt. Bullit, 
who was said to be killed, I have myself seen since that time, he with a 
number of Munsee had been hunting near the Susquehannah waters 
during the whole winter and spring. The Seneca, called Snip Nose, who 
was also said to be of the party, I did not see, but not long before the 
massacree he was near Port Franklin, and went to Buff aloe creek where 
the chiefs say he now is and that he has not been absent. The Indian 
supposed to be Snip Nose, was a Munsee living on Beaver waters, and 
known by the name of Capt. Peters, a relation to some of the Indians 
killed by Capt. Brady. Another of the Indians who committed the 
murder was known by the name of Plin, had often been with the Senecas, 
but he lived and hunted on Beaver waters, was also connected with the 
families who suffered at the Beaver Block house, and there can be no 
doubt but the murders were committed by the friends and relations of 
those families who hunted on Beaver waters, and not by the Indians on 
the Alleghaney, who in every particular manifest the most sincere attach' 
ment to the United States. 1 

In the Winning of the West, Mr. Roosevelt makes a plea in 
extenuation of the conduct of the frontiersmen in their general 
treatment of the Indians, and in direct reference to this particular 
case he says: 

The people who were out of reach of the Indian tomahawk, and 
especially the Federal officers, were often unduly severe in judging the 
borderers for their deeds of retaliation. Brickell's narrative shows that 
the parties of seemingly friendly Indians who came in to trade were 

1 Ptnna. Arch., id»r„ vol. vi., p. jji. * Id., p. jjj. 

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122 History of Beaver County 

sometimes — and indeed in this year 1791 it was probable they were 
generally — composed of Indians who were engaged in active hostilities 
against the settlers, and who were always watching for a chance to 
murder and plunder. On March 9th, a month after the Delawares had 
begun their attacks, the grim backwoods captain Brady, with some of his 
Virginia rangers, fell on a party of them who had come to a block-house 
to trade, and killed four. The Indians asserted that they were friendly, 
and both the Federal Secretary of War and the Governor of Pennsylvania 
denounced the deed and threatened the offenders, but the frontiersmen 
stood by them. Soon afterwards a delegation of chiefs from the Seneca 
tribe of the Iroquois arrived at Fort Pitt, and sent a message to the 
President, complaining of the murder of these alleged friendly Indians, 
On the very day these Seneca chiefs started on their journey home another 
Delaware war party killed nine settlers, men, women and children, within 
twenty miles of Fort Pitt; which 50 enraged the people of the neighbor- 
hood that the lives of the Senecas were jeopardised. The United States 
authorities were particularly anxious to keep at peace with the Six 
Nations, and made repeated efforts to treat with them; but the Six 
Nations stood sullenly aloof, afraid to enter openly into the struggle, and 
yet reluctant to make a firm peace or cede any of their lands, 1 

It is true, as the same writer contends, that the task of dis- 
tinguishing the friendly from the hostile tribes was often a per- 
plexing one for the Federal officers themselves, still more so 
for the frontiersmen, so that it is not much to be wondered at, 
if, agonizing under the fearful strokes of the savages, the bor- 
derers sometimes "lumped all the Indians, good and bad, to- 
gether," and " hit out blindly to revenge the blows that fell upon 
them from unknown hands." But it is also to be remembered 
that it was not only those "who were out of reach of the Indian 
tomahawk" who condemned the excesses of lawless whites in 
seeking revenge against the savages, but, as appears in Knox's 
letter to the Governor of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, many of 
the best citizens in the disturbed region itself were likewise in- 
dignant at these excesses, and believed them to be often the 
cause of the Indian strokes ; and, as we have frequently remarked, 
the settlers were too prone to treat the Indians at all times, in 
peace or war, as mere vermin, to be crushed at every opportunity; 
they believed, with many of the frontiersmen of our own day, 
that "the only good Indian is a dead Indian," and were always 
ready to effect the " conversion " of a red man in the grim meaning 
of this creed. 

' Part V., p. 144. 

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History of Beaver County 123 

Through the spring of 1791, the Indian depredations along 
the border continued without abatement. May lath, Major 
John Irwin, of the "Allegaheny Militia, Acting for the County 
Lieut.," wrote from Pittsburg to Clement Biddle, Q. M. Gen'l 
Pennsylvania Militia: 

We are got perfectly easy on the subject of Tomahawking & Scalping, 
as it happens every two or three days. It is probable I may not have the 
pleasure of writing you again, as I believe mine [his scalp] would be very 
acceptable to our Swarthy Neighbors. 1 

Major Irwin reported on June 3d that, while the Indians were 
then quiet, there had been lost from Allegheny County in the 
three months preceding fourteen persons killed, wounded, and 
taken. 1 During this summer, while preparations were making 
for the expedition of St. Clair, the defense of the borders was 
provided for by the militia, from which small bodies of rangers, 
in addition to the most expert of the woodsmen acting as scouts, 
were ordered to garrison the various posts, and to patrol along 
the frontier. On the 10th of August, Captain Torrence wrote 
to Governor Mifflin: 

Since my last, General Richard Butler call'd the County Lieut's of 
Ohio, Washington, Allegheny, Westmoreland & Fayette to a consultation 
for the protection of the frontiers in the absence of the Poederal Troops, 
which was to be drawn Off the 5th Inst. We agreed that 300 Militia 
Should be kept up- -Sixty-five, properly Officer'd, is my Quota, which is 
marched from the first & Second Batalions, First class. Their Station is 
One Capt., One Ens'n & 45 rank and file at the block House, near the 
mouth of bigg Beaver Creek, and One Lieut, and 10 rank and file at the 
mouth of Yellow Creek, on the Ohio. Should it be deemed necessary for 
them to continue longer for the defence of the Inhabitants, I mean to 
relieve them Once a month, as the burthen will then fall more equal. * 

The measures thus taken seem to have afforded reasonable 
security, and the country meantime anxiously awaited the ad- 
vance of St. Clair and news of his success, when late in the fall 
came the tidings of his disastrous defeat, on the 4th of November, 
by the Miami warriors, the worst, save Braddock's, ever experi- 
enced in Indian warfare. The panic-struck inhabitants of Pitts- 
burg, anticipating immediate inroads of the bloodthirsty enemy, 
promptly sent to the Governor of the State a representation 

1 Ptmta. Arch., id •«., vol. iv„ p. jj8. * Id., p. s6j. ■ ItL, p. jfij. 

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124 History of Beaver County 

of the defenseless condition of their town, which was then 
without a garrison, and a memorial was also forwarded from the 
inhabitants of Westmoreland, Washington, Fayette, and Alle- 
gheny counties, requesting that vigorous measures of defense 
should be devised by the State and also by the Federal Govern- 
ment. On the a6th of December, Lieutenant Jeffers wrote from 
Fort Franklin to the commanding officer at Pittsburg that he 
had that day received from Cornplanter notice warning him 
"that an attack on this garrison will almost immediately take 
place, for the Indians from below declare that they are deter- 
mined to reduce this place, shake the Cornplanter by the head 
& sweep this river from end to end." ■ 

In addition to the measures already ordered, it was deter- 
mined by the State and Federal authorities, acting jointly, to 
adopt an improved plan of defensive operation for the protection 
of the counties which were exposed to immediate danger. Ac- 
cording to this plan, which was embodied in an Act of Assembly, 
the general militia, law was, in some respects, suspended to meet 
the emergency, particularly in the mode of raising the intended 
force, which was by engaging active and experienced riflemen 
wherever they could be obtained, instead of drafting in classes 
from the militia of the respective counties; in the mode of ap- 
pointing the officers, which was immediately by the Executive, 
and not upon the election of the people ; in the period of service, 
which was for six months instead of two, and in the rate of pay, 
which was estimated by the price of labor, and not by the mili- 
tary allowance established for the troops of the Federal Govern- 
ment. The men engaged under the authority of this law were 
still considered, however, and were to act, as a select corps of 
militia. The force thus provided, consisting of a total of two 
hundred and twenty-eight men, was divided into three com- 
panies of seventy-six men each, who were assigned stations as 
follows : 

ist Company, stationed at the southwest corner of Wash- 
ington County, between the heads of Wheeling and Dunkard 
creeks, ranging thence to the Ohio. 

2d Company, at the mouth of Big Beaver, ranging thence to 
Fort Crawford, by the heads of Pine Creek. 

1 Pitma. Arch., id «cr„ vol. iv_ p. 369. 

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History of Beaver County 125 

3d Company. — The third company was to be stationed at 
Kittanning, ranging thence up and down the river. 1 

By reference to the sketch on page 126, drawn by David 
Redick, which was sent by him to Governor Mifflin to illustrate 
his letter quoted in a note below, 1 it will be seen that this ar- 
rangement left the major part of what is now Beaver County 
south of the Ohio unprotected (that territory being then in 
Allegheny and Washington counties), and, as Redick's letter 
states, this was the favorite section for attack by the Indians. 
The sketch shows that, from Yellow Creek up to the mouth of 
the Big Beaver, a distance of about thirty-one miles, the country 
was open to its foes. What fruit, if any, was borne by his com- 
munication, we have no means of knowing. 

Among the spies out along the border at this time was the 
indefatigable Captain Brady, and a letter of his to Col. Absalom 
Baird, of Washington County, is of sufficient interest to warrant 
its insertion here, as follows: 

Mouth or Yallow Ckbie. Monk >e, i»»j. 
D'fi Col. : — I am Glad I have it in my power to Send you a Line, and 
Likewise happy that I have not as yet made aney Discovery of Indiens, 
altho' everey Industery Has bean made by myself and brother Spies; 
but Every Day Expect to have the pleashure of meeting with Some of 
them. We have bean about twentey miles out from the river, and in 
the flat Lands the Snow last thursday was at Least ten Inches deep, which, 

1 Prima. Ar*h„ id ser.. vol. iv„ pp. 581-81. 

■ David Redick to Governor Mifflin : 

"Washington, 1.1th Ftbmary, 1701. 

"Sin: — What appears to me of considerable consequence, induces me to trouble your 
Excellency at a time when. I presume, you are sufficiently engaged. I have read your 
letter of information & instruction to the County Lieutenants, on the subject of protection. 
I find that a considerable gap is loft open to the enemy on the Northwesterly part of the 
County, and that at a place where, in former wart, ye enemy perpetually made their ap- 
proach on that quarter—the Settlements on Raekoon. especially about DiUoe'a fort, con- 
stantly experienced in former times the repeated attacks of the Savages. Capt. Smith's 
Company will cover Allegheny County, but will be of little Service to this, unless we con- 
sider the enemy as coming across the part of Allegheny County which lies on this Side the 
Ohio River, and that, too, in a direction by which we have seldom known them to come. 
In order that your Excellency may the better understand me, I have, with my pen, made a 
■ketch of the River & Country on that side of the County. I have extended the river as 
far beyond the State line as to Yellow Creek, so that you may discover how narrow Ohio 
County in Virginia is, and how eaay it will be for the enemy, by their usual rout, to come 
npon us — more espeoally as I learn the Virginian will not guard the river higher up than 
to Yellow Creek. 1 persuade myself that the Sketch will be sufficiently accurate for eluci- 
dation at best. I am told that many of our Riffle men decline entering into the Six month 
Service on this ground. Say they, ' why will we go into a Service which appears to be 
calculated for the protection of Allegheny county, whilst our own friends and families will 
continue exposed? I am of opinion that if the State would advance a month's pay it 
would greatly facilitate the recruiting Service. Money has magic power. I am told that 
Mr. Dan'l Hambleton declines accepting his Commission as a Lieutenant, and that Mr. 
Rob't Stevenson will be recommended to your Excellency to fill the vacancy. I have no 
doubt of his being a proper person. 

" I have the honor to be. Sir. 

" David Redick." 
— IPrnxa. Arck., sd ser_ vol. iv„ pp. 588-80.) 

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126 History of Beaver County 

I Expect, is one reason why they have not paid us a Visit before this 

I Start to-morrow morning, and make no doubt I Shall mak a Dis- 
covery Before I am maney days on the west Side the Ohio. The Inhabi- 
tants in this Quarter have bean for these Three weeks past, Looking for 
and Expecting men to fill the Block-house at the mouth of yallow Creek. 
But this Day, to their Great mortification, they have Heard news Quite 
the reverce, which is, there are no men from Pennsylvania to Range 

Lower Down then the mouth of big Beaver. Some families who heard 
the news before the People at this place heard it, have already Moved 
of, and the rest are, tho' Contrarey to thier Former Intention, malrwng 
ready ; and it is my opinion that if Something is not Done Shortley for 
thier Safety, there Will be but few people, if aney, Between the mouth 
of Little beaver and The Cove. I thought it onely my Duty to inform 
you what I have done, and do declare I much Lement the Sutuation of 
the Inhabitants in this Quarter. 

I am, D'r Sir, with Due Respekt, 

your H'l Servant, 

Sam'l Brady. 
Col. Beard.' 

1 Pnna. Arch., id »er.. ■ 

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History of Beaver County 127 

The work of these spies and the rangers was very quieting to 
the minds of the people, and they began to leave the blockhouses 
where they had been huddled together for some time, and to 
resume the cultivation of their farms. 1 But their immunity 
from the dreaded attacks of the savages did not long continue. 
In May, bands of Indians began to show themselves at different 
points, as the following letters will show. Colonel Charles 
Campbell was one of the active county lieutenants, whose 
epistles are marvels of spelling, but whose strong sense and 
courage are not to be measured by his knowledge of the mysteries 
of English orthography. On the a8th of May he wrote from Black 
Lick, Westmoreland County, to Governor Mifflin, as follows: 

Sir — I am Under the Necessity of Informing you of the Distressed 
Situation of the froonteers of Westmoreland County. That on the 
twenty-second Inst., the Indians Came to L't William Cooper Stattion. 
Near the Mouth of Tiscumenitis [Kiskiminetas] River, and attacted It; 
the Killed one man and Wounded one. The did not Stay Any Longer 
than the Took and Murdered a family With in about three Hundred yards 
ot the Block-house. The than Penetrated Into The Settlement About 
fifteen Miles: the Killed, Wounded and Took Prisoners Eleven Persons; 
Took About Thirty Horses; Burned a Number of Houses. The Stayed 
in the Settlement five or Six Days; the Whole of the froonteers is In a 
Distressed Sittuation, as the Came In Sutch A Large Party that the Small 
Stattions, that the froonteers is Gathered into, Will Not be Able to Stand 
them, without Getting Assistance, Maj'r M'Cnlly Hath Took All his men 
away from Green's and Reed's Stattion, Except a Pew to Keep Up 

Capt. Smith's and Gutherie's Companies is to be atattioned all to- 
gether at the Mouth of Puckety, which is our County Line; and I Will, 
in a few Days have to Give up the Cetleraen or Send Millitia there, as 
Maj'r McCully Hath Requested me to suply It With the Millitia. If you 
Could have Green's and Reed's Stattion Suplyed With the Contine'l 
Troops, as It Is Distressing to Call on the Millitia of the one County to 

1 la ■ manuscript latter from Presley Neville to General Anthony Wayne, in Came 
at Legion villc. written from Pittsburg under date of December 10. ijoi, we find the fol- 
lowing Hat of names of spies, the first three of which, if we mistake not, were of persons 
living within the present limits of Beaver County: 

" Names of ye scouts or spies employed on ye Frontiers of Allegheny County, Pennayl- 

'■ 1. Thomas Soroatt 

" 3. Sam'l Sproatt 

" 3. Micbl Baker 

" 4. John Mason 

'• j. Sylvester Ash 

;; 6. Tbo'i.Gtrty 

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128 History of Beaver County 

Guard bo Extensive a fxoonteer; and if there is Not a sufficient Number 
of Men Kept out, the froontcers will Break up as the Cannot suport 
themselves Without Raising Some Crops. It is Hard that We must 
Stand as a Barter to the Enterior Parts, and Defend our Selves I Intend 
a Plying to Pyate [Fayette] for Asistance. But I Would Wish It was 
Agreeable that you Would Send An Order to Coll. Torrance to Give Us 
Assistance and Let me Know if I May Aply to him. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Humble Serv't 

Chas. Campbell. 
His Excellency Thomas Mifflin. 
N. B. — I this Moment Received an Express that there Was one Hundred 
Indians Had Crossed the Allegany River, and there Was fifty More Seen 
yesterday In the Inhabitant, And one Man Was Killed. I Expect Every 
Moment to Hear of Our to be Mutch Destroyed. 


The attack mentioned in the first part of the above letter 
was at what was better known as Reed's station (it was garri- 
soned by rangers under Cooper) , and is noteworthy as the one 
which was attended by the capture of Massy Harbison, the 
narrative of whose sufferings and remarkable escape with an 
infant at her breast is perhaps the most affecting in all the 
border annals. 3 

Despite the continued aggressions of the savages the National 
Government was reluctant to take any vigorous steps towards 
punishing them. Humiliating and repeated efforts were made 
to secure peace with the Northwestern tribes which were chiefly 
responsible for the border troubles. These tribes, the Shawa- 
nese, Delawares, Wyandots, Ottawas, Miamis, Pottawattomies, 
Chippewas, and Iroquois, were encouraged in their hostility by 
the British, who were anxious to preserve the fur trade for them- 
selves; they were supplied by the British with ammunition and 
made to believe that in the event of another American army 
marching against them they would be assisted by British soldiers . 
In the end they found the promises of the British false, but 
relying upon them, and upon their own successes against Harmar 
and St. Clair, they treated the peaceful overtures of the Ameri- 
cans with contempt, and refused to consider any proposition 

1 Puma. Arch,, id ta., vol. iv„ pp. 605-6. 

• See Narraln* of On Stiffrrmgs of Massy Harbison, edited by the Rev. John Winter, 
Beaver. 1836. Reprinted in part in the Early History of Wtsltrn Pttmsyhania. by a Gentle- 
man of the Bar, Appendix XXXV. ; in Loudon's Natraiitus of Indian Ontrafs, Cnriiale. 
1 808. vol. i., and elsewhere. 

See letters of William Findley to Secretary Dallas charging the scouts at Reed's statical 
with culpable negligence, Arch,, vol. iv.. pp. 608-12. 

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History of Beaver County 129 

which did not acknowledge the Ohio River as the boundary be- 
tween them and the United States.' It became evident at last 
to the national authorities that further temporizing was useless 
and it was now decided to send another and larger army against 
these tribes under the most able and experienced commander 
available. For this task Washington selected General Anthony 
Wayne, who had distinguished himself during the Revolutionary 
War at Ticonderoga, Brandywine, Paoli, Monmouth, and Stony 
Point, and who in April, 1793, had been appointed Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army of the United States. Wayne was an officer 
of fine personal appearance and courtliness of manner, of great 
wisdom and executive ability, and of such tremendous energy 
and unheard-of daring in battle that he had earned from his 
enthusiastic admirers the sobriquets of " Mad Anthony," and the 
"Dandy," and from the Indians those of "Black Snake," and 
"Tornado." * 

In June, 179a, General Wayne arrived at Pittsburg and began 
the organization and disciplining of an army, which was named 
"The Legion of the United States." In November of the same 
year, he proceeded with his troops down the Ohio River to a point 
about seven miles above the mouth of the Big Beaver, within the 
present limits of Beaver County, where he went into winter- 
quarters. The camp was strongly fortified, and its trenches and 
the position of several of its redoubts are still plainly discernible. 
It was called " Legionville," after Wayne's army, and this name 
is retained to the present time by the station at this point on 
the Pennsylvania lines of railways.* 

The following spring (April, 1703), the camp at Legionville 
was broken up, and the army descended the river by boats to 
Port Washington (now Cincinnati). After a winter spent in 
building Fort Greenville, Fort Recovery, and Fort Wayne (on 
the site of the city of that name in Indiana), and other opera- 
tions, and after many fruitless efforts to secure an honorable 

1 " I am afraid that the idtal idea of peace haa rather Lulled the recruiting service to 
real, but it must be roused from that state of torpidity to vigorous exertion. 

A new boundary line. & that the Ohio seems to be the prevailing language of moat 
of the savage tribes. This tdta probably originated with our good friends, who garrison our 
ports on the Lakes, and appears to be a very insidious attempt to unite the Indians against 
us." — (Extract from a manuscript letter marked private from General Anthony Wayne to 
General James Wilkinson, dated Pittsburg, October 10, ijoi: from the collection of 
Wayne MSS. belonging to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.) 

■ The Indian* meant that Wayne was like the black make in the stealth with which 
he grided toward his foe. and like the tornado in the rapidity and force with which he 
moved whan the moment for striking had come. 

' See Chapter xxviii. for a full account of Wayne's stay at Legionville. 

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130 History of Beaver County 

peace without a conflict, General Wayne, in July, 1794, advanced 
towards the enemy, and, on the aoth of August, of that year, 
met them on the banks of the Maumee, or Miami-of-t he-Lake, 
and totally routed them in a decisive battle. The enemy, about 
two thousand strong, under the lead of Blue Jacket, the most 
distinguished chief of the Shawanese, were posted behind a 
windfall, where an immense number of prostrated trees presented 
an almost impassable barrier to troops of any kind, especially 
to cavalry. Wayne, at the head of about three thousand 
men, attacked with such skill and impetuosity that even this 
obstacle was powerless to check him. Perceiving from the 
weight of the enemy's fire and the extent of their line that they 
were in full force in front and endeavoring to turn his right 
flank, he ordered Major-General Scott, with the whole of the 
mounted volunteers, to gain and turn the enemy's right flank, 
and Captain Campbell with the cavalry of the regular army to 
turn their left next to the river. His front line, composed of 
regulars, then struck the savages in their coverts behind the 
trees with a heavy fire of musketry and with a bayonet charge, 
dislodging them, and driving them with great loss for two miles, 
until their shattered remnants reached the shelter of the British 
fort. This the enraged American forces were with difficulty re- 
strained from attacking. The next day, the British commander, 
Major Campbell, sent a communication to General Wayne, re- 
ferring to the near approach of his men to the guns of the 
British post and requesting to be informed whether "he was to 
consider the American army as enemies, being ignorant of any 
war existing between Great Britain and the United States." 
General Wayne replied, "Were you entitled to an answer, the 
most full and satisfactory one was announced to you from the 
muzzles of my small arms yesterday morning, in the action against 
hordes of savages in the vicinity of your post, which terminated 
gloriously to the American arms, but had it continued until the 
Indians, etc., were driven under the influence of the post and guns 
you mention they would not much have impeded the progress of 
the Victorious Army under my command. " ■ From the character 
of the position which was occupied by the Indians in this engage- 
ment it is sometimes called the "Battle of Fallen Timbers." 

ur Prnnsykxmia Lint, by Charles J. Still*. Phils.. 

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History of Beaver County 131 

This great victory of the American arms brought lasting 
peace to the western borders. But its effects were more than 
local; they were even national and international. By it the 
Indians who, in other parts of the country, north and south, 
were ripe for mischief, were overawed and quieted; and its in- 
fluence upon the British government was such that Mr. Jay, the 
American Minister, who was meeting with vexatious delays and 
postponements on the part of that government, was enabled 
speedily to close his negotiations with Lord Grenville, and to 
secure the surrender of all the British posts still held within the 
Northwest Territory. This was the actual close of the War for 
Independence. On the third of August of the next year, 1795, 
a treaty of peace with the Indians was concluded at Fort Green- 
ville,' which gave to the United States four fifths of the territory 
now embraced in the State of Ohio. 

After these events, the menace of Indian hostility being re- 
moved, the country north of the Ohio, hitherto recognized as 
"the Indian country," and impossible of settlement, began to 
receive a flood of emigration. Now arose a whole brood of 
troubles between these incoming settlers and the speculators 
who had for some years been buying up the lands in the West. 
These troubles exercised a great influence upon the settlement 
of lands within the limits of Beaver County and will be fully 
treated in succeeding pages. (See our chapter on "First Land 
Titles," and article in Appendix No. VI. on "Depreciation 


Preceding and synchronizing with the Revolutionary War 
was a controversy between Pennsylvania and Virginia regarding 
their boundary lines, which, had it not been for the common 
peril of that war, might have had most disastrous results, and 
have led even to civil strife and bloodshed. There seems to 
have been "in the good old colony times, when we were under 
the king," a very royal recklessness and indifference on the part 
of the English sovereigns as to what grants of territory had been 
made by their predecessors, and even, at times, as to what they 
themselves had given. It was through the ambiguities and mis- 
apprehensions resulting from several of such grants that this 

1 Qmenville, the p re t ea t fonuty-«e»t of Darin County. Ohio. 

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132 History of Beaver County 

controversy had birth, the title to all of the territory of western 
Pennsylvania being claimed by the Penn proprietaries under one 
grant, and the same territory by Virginia under another. For 
years, consequently, the settlers in this region did not know 
certainly whether their lands were in the one colony or the other ; 
titles were insecure, suits over contrary State patents were filed 
in rival courts setting up conflicting jurisdiction, and confu- 
sion was worse confounded. We shall now endeavor to state 
briefly the history of this dispute from its inception to its final 

In the year 1606 James I. granted to the London (South Vir- 
ginia) Company certain territory in America, and, under the 
terms of the grant, their settlement having been made at James- 
town, they were entitled to a square of one hundred miles 
backward from the sea. Considering this too small for their 
purposes, the company applied for and received, in 1609, a new 
patent greatly enlarging their boundaries, which towards the 
west and northwest were loosely defined as including "all that 
space and circuit of land lying from the sea-coast of the precinct 
aforesaid, up into the land throughout, from sea to sea, west and 
northwest." ■ This company was dissolved in 1634 by a Writ 
of Quo Warranto, and its lands, except so much thereof as had 
been actually granted to settlers, reverted to the Crown. As a 
result of this, Virginia became and remained until the Revolu- 
tion a royal or crown colony, instead of a proprietary province 
like Pennsylvania. We shall presently see what use the Virginia 
authorities made of this old London Company patent when the 
boundary controversy with the Penn proprietaries was opened. 

In 1681 Charles II. granted to William Penn, by a charter 
which Penn himself is said to have drafted, a certain tract of 
land in America, which, in the terms of the charter, was to 
extend westward five degrees of longitude from the Delaware 
River, and to include all the territory from the beginning of the 
fortieth to the beginning of the forth-third degree of northern 

' Pram "nun" meant from the Atlantic 

to the Pacific. At thi* time the Pacific 

Ocean, or South Sea. waa nippoeed to be much cl 

mer than it ia to the Atlantic 

. In 1608 

an expedition waa organised tc 

j find a plunge to 

the South Sea by tailing up 

the Jamea 

River, and Captain John Smith wae once commie 

1 China by 

(Paragraph 40. N 

j. j, of the " Inetmction* to 

the Colou- 

!««.») A map ol t6ji repret 

narrow ttrip of land between the two 

ocean). See a copy of thie roe 

p in Windsor's Amtrica, vol. iii,. p. 465. 

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History of Beaver County 133 

These two charters, the one to the London Company, and 
that to Penn, covered, in part, the same lands, the territory about 
the head of the Ohio River, in which the interest of our history 
lies, being included in both. The London Company having been 
dissolved, this conflict in land patents would have been of little 
consequence had it not been for other causes of which we have 
already spoken and shall now recall to the reader. 

The possession of this region — the upper Ohio valley — came, 
as we have already seen, to be of commanding interest and im- 
portance to both the French on the one hand, and to the English 
inhabitants of Pennsylvania and Virginia on the other, it being 
the great field of lucrative Indian trade, and the gateway to the 
vast and fertile territory of the West. We have seen also how 
Virginia was the first to act in repelling the encroachments of the 
French, organizing the Ohio Company to settle the upper waters 
of the Belle Riviere, in 1748, sending Washington to the com- 
mandant of Fort Le Boeuf, in 1753, and building a fort at the 
"Forks of the Ohio" in 1754; Pennsylvania meanwhile refusing 
contributions of men or money to the enterprise, her Assembly 
being too much occupied in bickerings with the proprietaries over 
the taxation of their manors and other unsold lands to care for 
what was going on on the other side of the mountains, even 
expressing a doubt as to whether the lands of the Ohio, on which 
the French were intruding, were in the province at all. 

But the Governor and the Council of Pennsylvania were 
made uneasy by these movements of Virginia and by the expres- 
sion of doubt on the part of the Assembly just referred to, and 
accordingly ordered an examination to be made as to the extent 
of the province westward. As a consequence of this examina- 
tion the Governor on the second of March, 1754, stated to the 
Assembly that "Logstown, the Place where the French propose 
to have their Head-Quarters, is not at the Distance of Five 
Degrees of Longitude from the River Delaware," ' and was, there- 
fore, within the bounds of the province; and on the 13th he wrote 
to Governor Dinwiddle of Virginia as follows: 

The Invasions lately made by the French on Ports of his Majesty's 
Dominions having engaged me to enquire very particularly into the 
situation of their Ports, and likewise into the Bounds and Extent of this 
Province to the Westward. I have from thence the greatest Reason to 

1 Col. Rk.. vol. v.. p. 751. 

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134 History of Beaver County 

believe not only the French Ports, but also the Porks of Mohongialo 
(where You propose to erect one and to grant away Two hundred Thou- 
sand Acres of Land to such as shall engage in the Intended Expedition to 
Ohio), are really within the limits of Pennsylvania. In duty to my Con- 
stituents therefore, I cannot but remind You of what I had the Honor to 
write you some time ago upon this subject. 1 

In hiB reply to this letter Dinwiddie ignored the chief subject 
of interest which it contained, but in another letter of the same 
date, March at, 1754, he refers to it, saying: 

Your private letter Of the Thirteenth Currant I have duly read and 
am much misled by our Surveyors if the Porks of Hohongialo be within 
the limits of Your Proprietor's Grant. I have for some time wrote home 
to have the line run, to have the boundaries properly known that I may 
be able to keep Magistrates on the Ohio (if in this Government) to keep 
the Traders and others in good order, and I presume soon there will be 
Commissioners appointed for that service. . . . But surely I am 
from all Hands assured that Logs Town is far to the west of Mr. Penn's 

Thus early, intimation is given of the existence of a problem 
which, twenty years later, was to press for solution, and to lead 
to one of the bitterest contests which has ever taken place on the 
soil of western Pennsylvania. Following close upon this initial 
correspondence of the officials of the two governments regarding 
the limits of their respective territories came the surrender by 
Ensign Ward of the little stockade at the "Forks of the Ohio" 
to the French, and their formal occupation of the region round- 
about and building of Fort Duquesne, the first campaigns of 
Washington, with his surrender at " Fort Necessity," Braddock's 
defeat, and a long and cruel Indian war. All settlements of the 
English at the head of the Ohio were consequently now pre- 
vented, until Fort Duquesne fell before General Forbes in Novem- 
ber, 1758, and the Indian troubles were quieted. For still 
sixteen years longerthe strife between Pennsylvania and Virginia 
was delayed, during which period the two governments erected 
new counties and maintained separate courts within the limits 

1 Cot. Rtc„ vol. vi., p. j. The previous communication referred to in this letter was 
one nude May 6. if Is, proffering the aid of Pennsylva 
pedition to buDd > fort on the Ohio, on condition that nit 
as prejudicing the right* of the Pennsylvania propriets 
vol. v.. p. tit. Even before this date the anxiety of Pent 
had been manifested. See Governor Hamilton'i letter 
pauy and president of the Virginia Council Col. Rtc„ v 

•Co/. Kk.. vol. vi., p. 8. 

• to Virginia i 

a the proposed ex- 

Ld not be construed 

rt in that regi 

on. See Col. Rtc., 


tubrect in rpiestion 

Thomas Lee 

of the Ohio Com- 

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b, Google 

b, Google 

History of Beaver County 135 

of the territory in dispute. Some time prior to 1756 Virginia 
erected the District of West Augusta, covering all this territory, 
and in that year she divided this district into three counties, viz., 
Monongalia, Yohogania, and Ohio, to the second of which, 
Yohogania, the region now embraced in the south side of Beaver 
County belonged. Pennsylvania also erected upon the dis- 
puted territory Bedford County in 177 1, and Westmoreland 
County in 1773. Penn's manor of Pittsburg, too, was surveyed 
for the proprietaries early in 1769, and in the beginning of 1771 
magistrates were appointed by Pennsylvania and for some time 
discharged the duties of their offices without having their au- 
thority questioned. 

But in 1773 Port Pitt was ordered to be evacuated and dis- 
mantled and in that year there arrived in Virginia as governor a 
man who was a past-master in all the arts of the politician and 
land-grabber, and whose arrogance and cupidity soon brought 
about a conflict between his colony and the provincial govern- 
ment. This was John, Earl of Dunmore, or Lord Dunmore, as 
he is usually called, "a needy Scotch peer of the house of Hur- 
ray," than whom, as Bancroft says, "no royal governor ever 
showed more rapacity in the use of royal power." Dunmore 
saw that the Monongahela and the Ohio were the great water- 
ways to the El-Dorado of the West and Northwest, and that the 
"Forks of the Ohio" was the strategic point, commanding these 
avenues of wealth and power, and he at once determined on 
seizing the control of them for Virginia and for himself. He had 
ready to his hand a fitting tool, one Doctor John Connolly, "a 
man of much energy and talent, but without principle," who 
was practised in every species of border wiles and warfare. 

This Connolly came to Pittsburg in the last of December, 
1773, with authority from Dunmore, and early in January, 1774, 
took possession of the dismantled fort, which he renamed, calling 
it "Fort Dunmore," and, as "Commandant of the Militia of 
Pittsburgh and its Dependencies" "required and commanded" 
the people to assemble themselves there as a Militia.' He was 
supported in this act of usurpation by certain men living about 
the head of the Ohio, for it is to be remembered that a large 
part of the inhabitants of that region and in the Monongahela 
valley were Virginian by birth and predilection. But there 

■ Old V/tstmartlmd. p. 1. 

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136 History of Beaver County 

were also some fearless and loyal Pennsylvania adherents on the 
ground and in the surrounding neighborhood, several of them 
Pennsylvania justices, who did all in their power to resist Con- 
nolly's high-handed proceedings. One of these, Arthur St. Clair 
(afterwards General St. Clair), 1 then the prothonotary of the 
newly erected county of Westmoreland, issued a warrant against 
Connolly and had him committed to jail at Hannastown, the seat 
of justice, from which, however, he was soon released on giving 
bail for his appearance at court there. Returning to Virginia 
Connolly was sworn in as a justice of the peace for Augusta 
County, Virginia, and, when court met at Hannastown, he ap- 
peared with his militia, armed and with colors flying, and 
refused to admit the Pennsylvania magistrates into the court- 
house. Shortly afterwards he arrested three of the magistrates 
and sent them to Staunton jail, but on their appealing to Dun- 
more they were released. Subsequently, the jail at Hannastown 
was broken open by a mob, led by Simon Girty, and the prisoners, 
mostly Virginia partisans, allowed to escape. 

Intelligence of these events having reached the Governor of 
Pennsylvania, two commissioners were sent to Dunmore to 
negotiate for a settlement of the differences. After much corre- 
spondence and many conferences the Pennsylvania commission- 
ers finally agreed that for the sake of peace, "they would be 
willing to recede from their charter bounds so as to make the 
river Monongahela, from the line of Mason and Dixon, the 
western boundary of jurisdiction." This would, of course, leave 
Fort Pitt and the region about it, the very prize for which Dun- 
more was contending, within the limits of Pennsylvania, and on 
the same day, he haughtily replied that further correspondence 
was evidently useless, saying, "Your resolution with respect to 
Port Pitt {the jurisdiction over which place, I must tell you, at all 
events, -will not be relinquished by this Government, without his 
Majesty's Orders), puts an entire stop to further treaty." To 
this the commissioners in their turn curtly replied that ' ' the de- 
termination of his lordship not to relinquish Fort Pitt puts a 
period to the treaty." * 

On the failure of the negotiations, Connolly continued to 
dominate with a high hand at Pittsburg, and on the 8th of 
September of this year (1774) the Earl of Dartmouth, one of the 

■ Old WtitmorrlOHd, p. 10. ' Tk, OUn Timr, vol. i„ p. 441 

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History of Beaver County 137 

Secretaries of State of the British ministry, wrote to Dunmore, 
rebuking him for the severity of his agent's proceedings. But 
the troubles continued with such violence that it was finally 
determined by the Pennsylvanians to abandon Fort Pitt and 
build another town on the manor of Kit tanning." This project 
was, however, soon rendered unnecessary by the fall of Dun- 
more's government, his rule at home having at last become so 
oppressive to the Virginians themselves that they drove him 
away, and his agent Connolly soon also left the country, taking 
refuge in Canada, where he became a British officer on half-pay. 

But while Virginia had thus revolted from Dunmore's tyranny 
at home, she showed no disposition to repudiate his aggressions 
abroad. The boundary dispute was maintained, although, in 
view of the troubles with the mother country fast approaching, 
the Virginia and Pennsylvania Delegates in Congress, including 
such men as Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and Benjamin 
Franklin, had united in a circular urging the people in the dis- 
turbed region to mutual forbearance . July 17,1775, the Virginia 
Provincial Convention, in session at Williamsburg, passed a reso- 
lution which sent Captain John Neville with one hundred men to 
take possession of Fort Pitt, and in the following year, as we 
have said, the Virginia counties with their legal and administra- 
tive machinery were organized in the disputed territory. The 
rancor of the contest had, however, somewhat diminished and 
there were no such acts of violence committed as during the 
regime of Connolly and his master. 

We may now inquire as to what were the grounds on which 
Virginia based her claims to the region in dispute. And in order 
to understand her contention we must glance back to what was 
said about the charter granted by James I. to the old London 
Company in 1609. 

The definition of the northern and southern boundaries of 
the land granted by that charter, viz., "up into the land through- 
out, from sea to sea, west and northwest," was very ambiguous, 
yielding two possible meanings, one of which would limit the 
grant to a comparatively small triangle falling short at its western 
point of the region beyond the Monongahela ; and the other of 
which would give to the owners not only the whole territory of 
the Monongahela and Ohio valleys, but also the whole of the 
1 Hin. of Piurfiurzh, Cnig, p. 118. 

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138 History of Beaver County 

vast domain northwest of the Ohio, now five or six States of the 
Union. The latter interpretation was the one for which Virginia 
contended. This charter had, indeed, been revoked, and Virginia 
had herself frequently disowned it on other occasions, when 
other interests were involved, but now, in the dispute with 
Pennsylvania, she availed herself of it to give a show of reason to 
her claims of title to the territory involved. Lord Dunmore had 
seen the weakness of this method of justifying his usurpation, 
and had put it on the loftier pretence that Virginia was the 
guardian of his Majesty's Dominion of Virginia (which was a 
very different thing from the colony of Virginia, the Dominion 
embracing all his Majesty's possessions in America which had 
not already been granted to some other colony or proprietary *) 
and that the territory in question was in that Dominion because 
Penn's grant did not cover it. This was in any case the whole 
question at issue, — whether the five degrees of longitude named 
in Penn's grant did, or did not, extend far enough westward to 
cover this territory. The difficulty in determining this point 
lay in the prior question as to how and from what point the 
western boundary of the province of Pennsylvania was to be 
drawn. The charter said that the five degrees were to be com- 
puted from the "eastern bounds" of the lands of the grant. 
Now the eastern boundary was the Delaware River, a very crooked 
stream, touching points in its meanderings east and west more 
than forty miles apart. It is evident that the extent of the five 
degrees westward would depend upon what point on the Delaware 
was selected to start from in making the computation. The 
western boundary might be a meridian, i. e., a straight north and 
south line, five degrees in longitude distant from the most east- 
ern or the most western point of the course of the Delaware, or 
from some intermediate point of that course, — or it might be a 
crooked line corresponding to the curves of that river, and distant 
from it five degrees of longitude at every corresponding point. 
Which should it be? 

There were three official propositions made in regard to the 
manner of fixing the western and southern boundaries of Penn- 
sylvania, and without entering into the details, we will state 
these propositions briefly. 

The first proposition was that of John Penn, 9 in his letter to 

1 Veech, CttUnary Mmoriul, p. 317. * T*» Old™ Time, vol. i.. p. 44S. 

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History of Beaver County 139 

Dunmore, in which he contended, "that at the extremity of 
Maryland the boundary line of Pennsylvania should run south 
to the line of latitude 39 degs., being identical with ' the beginning 
of the 40th degree' of latitude, and that then the southern 
boundary should extend along that line westward to the distance 
of five degrees of longitude from the Delaware, and that the 
western boundary should be run parallel to the Delaware; or, in 
other words, distant from it five degrees in every corresponding 

The second proposition was Lord Dunmore's, who wanted to 
make the western boundary a meridian starting on the northern 
boundary at a point five degrees of longitude west from the 
Delaware, and running south to the southern boundary, which 
was to be the beginning of the fortieth degree of latitude. 
Dunmore considered Penn's proposal to follow the sinuosities 
of the Delaware absurd, and his own was certainly much 

The third method of solving the difficulty was proposed by 
the Legislature of Virginia on the 18th of December, 1776. By 
this the boundary of Pennsylvania was to be run from the 
northwestern angle of Maryland north to the line of latitude of 
40 degrees complete; thence west along that line to the distance 
of five degrees of longitude from the Delaware in that latitude, 
and then the western boundary was to be that proposed by John 
Penn, viz., one following the curves of the Delaware; or, as more 
convenient, a number of straight lines should be run between 
prominent points on the Delaware, and the western boundary 
be run parallel to those lines. 

We reproduce on page 140, from Craig's The Olden Time, a 
diagram with its explanations, which will illustrate these three 
different propositions. 

But the contestants had grown weary of the strife, and both 
sides were ready to come together on some practicable ground 
of settlement. This was at length found. In 1779, George 
Bryan, John Ewing, and David Rittenhouse, on the part of 
Pennsylvania, and Dr. James Madison, afterwards a bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, Rev. Robert Andrews, and 
Thomas Lewis, on the part of Virginia, were appointed com- 
missioners to meet in conference and determine the boundary. 
These gentlemen, except Lewis, met, August 27, 1779, in 

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140 History of Beaver County 

Baltimore, where, on the 31st of that month, they made and 
subscribed to the following agreement : 

We [naming the commissioners] do hereby mutually, in behalf of our 
respective States, ratify and confirm the following agreement, vis. To 
extend Mason and Dixon's line due west five degrees of longitude, to be 
computed from the river Delaware, for the southern boundary of Penn- 
sylvania, and that a meridian, drawn from the western extremity thereof 
to the northern limit of said State, be the western boundary of said State 

ff < ^ - ~ l «talafc- 

The plain line, thus, , represents the boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania, as now established. The small triangle at the northwest comer 
of the State was ceded to the United States by New York in ij8i, and 
was purchased from the General Government in 1799. 

The curved and dotted line represents the boundary claimed by John 

Penn. The line drawn thus, .is the boundary proposed by 

Lord Dunmore. The Virginia Legislature proposed the fine marked 
thus, — ° — " — , extending from the northwest angle of Maryland to 
Penn's curved line, and along that to the Lake. 

The line like this, , across the south boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania, is the west end of Mason and Dixon's line. 

The letters W and P indicate the positions of Washington and 

This agreement was confirmed by the Pennsylvania Assem- 
bly November 19, 1779.* Virginia was tardy, but the next 

1 Soa Hist, of Wash. Co., Crura line, p. ■•>, 

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History of Beaver County 141 

summer, June 33, 1780, with certain conditions as to land titles, 
she consented to it. Her conditions, although distasteful, were 
finally agreed to by the Pennsylvania Legislature September 33d 
of the same year. 1 

As an expedient to "quiet the minds of the people and com- 
pel militia service" until a permanent line could be run, based 
upon astronomical observations, it was decided to run a tem- 
porary line. In June, 178a, Alexander McClean attempted to 
run this temporary line, but was stopped by a number of horse- 
men — "Virginians, as they called themselves." In November of 
that year, however, the temporary line was successfully run by 
McClean, on the part of Pennsylvania, and Colonel Joseph Neville, 
on the part of Virginia, with a guard of two hundred militia. 
Among their assistants was Christopher Hays a prominent citi- 
zen of Westmoreland County, who on November 19th, wrote 
from Cross Creek to General Irvine the following rather droll 

Dear Sir: — We have proceeded this length in running the north line 
of Pennsylvania, and have enjoyed a peaceable progress hitherto, and 
expect to strike the Ohio river about Thursday next between Port Mcin- 
tosh and Raredon's Bottom. 

Sir, I am reduced to the necessity of troubling your honor to send me 
by the bearer one keg of whisky, two pounds of powder and four pounds 
of lead, and your compliance will much oblige. 

P. S. — I will replace the whisky with all convenient speed. Please 
to bring it in your own boat if you come to meet us. 

The editor of the Washington-Irvine Correspondence, from 
which we extract this letter, observes: "It will be noticed that 
whisky is the first article mentioned; more to be desired than 
powder and lead, notwithstanding the Indians were still hostile ! ' ' 
(page 403.) ' 

The temporary line was confirmed by the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania March as, 1783,1 and on the 90th of that month a 
proclamation was issued by the President of the Council, John 
Dickinson, giving notice of and commanding obedience to this 

;ha list of articles which the com- 
ic permanent line in 17S5 ni to purchase for their 
o gallons spirits, 40 gallons brandy, So gallons 

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142 History of Beaver County 

establishment of boundary. 1 Troubles still continued, however, 
and it became necessary to establish a permanent boundary 
line. To this end the two States selected the ablest men avail- 
able, the commissioners on the part of Pennsylvania being Dr. 
John Ewing, David Rittenhouse, John Lukens, and Captain 
Thomas Hutchins, and on the part of Virginia, Andrew Ellicott, 
Bishop Madison, the Rev. Robert Andrews, and T. Page, who 
in the summer and fall of 1784, ran the boundary and defined 
and marked the southwest corner of Pennsylvania, from which 
the western boundary was to be run northward. 

All that remained now to settle forever the controversy with 
Virginia was to run and mark the western boundary along the 
meridian agreed upon to the Ohio River, and this work was 
done by David Rittenhouse and Andrew Porter of Pennsylvania, 
and Andrew Ellicott and Joseph Neville of Virginia. August 
33, 17S5, these gentlemen reported that they had performed 
their task, and had 

carried on a meridian line from the southwest corner of Pennsylvania, 
northward to the river Ohio; and marked it by cutting a wide vista over 
all the principal hills, intersected by said line, and by falling or deadening 
a line of trees, generally through all the lower grounds. And we have 
likewise placed stones, marked on the east side P. and on the west side V, 
on the most of the principal hills, and where the line strikes the Ohio; 
which stones are accurately placed in the true meridian, bounding the 
States aforesaid. 1 

During this and the following year (1783-86) the western 
boundary north of the Ohio to the northwest corner of the State 
was continued, the survey for forty miles being made in 1785 by 
David Rittenhouse, Andrew Porter, and Andrew Ellicott, and the 
rest by Porter and Alexander McClean in 1786. 3 

We may observe now that if John Penn's proposal for the 
settlement of this vexed question had been accepted Pennsyl- 
vania would have gained a large part of Virginia, and, on the 
other hand, all of what is now Beaver and Mercer counties, nine- 
teen twentieths of Washington County, two fifths of Allegheny 
County, and portions of Greene, Fayette, Westmoreland, Butler, 
Venango, Crawford, and Erie counties would be to-day in West 

■ Cat. Rtc., vol. «iii., p. mi. 

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History of Beaver County 143 

Virginia. The plan of the Virginia Legislature would have taken 
in addition all of the residue of Greene County and two thirds 
or more of Fayette. 

Lord Dunmore's plan would have cut off from Pennsylvania's 
western end a strip of territory extending from the southern 
boundary to the Lake, and four or five miles wide. 

The compromise finally adopted apportioned the gain and 
loss of the two States about equally, and may be considered the 
fairest and most reasonable adjustment that could have been 

Thus the southern and western limits of Pennsylvania were 
definitely settled and a controversy which had been started be- 
fore the Revolution, and which had lasted through it, was 
happily ended. 


It is interesting to note that growing out of the dissatisfaction 
created by the prolonged controversy over this boundary line 
question there arose in this general region a movement favoring 
the creation of a new State. The grounds upon which this 
project was based were the troubles arising from the different 
land laws of the two great provinces which were haggling over 
the possession of the territory, and the fact that the settlers were 
not receiving either from Pennsylvania or Virginia or from the 
United States the protection they needed from the savages. As 
they were left "to bear their fortunes in their own strong arms," 
they wished to have the advantages which they conceived would 
accrue to them from a State organization of their own. This 
project was agitated for a term of years, and enlisted in its favor 
many of the best citizens of the West, including former partisans 
of both Pennsylvania and Virginia. The limits and seat of 
government of the proposed new State were never fully dis- 
closed, and the agitation for it died with the final settlement of 
the provincial boundary question. 1 

The remaining years of the century were, for this region, 
years of peace and good order,* broken only by the "Whisky 

' Sec full account of this subject in Crumrine'a Hilt, ol Wash. Co., pp. i8j. 187. tji. 

' The vary readable story of Tkt Laiimtrs, by H. C. McCook (Jacobs & Co., Phikda..- 
1S97) gives a good picture of these times, with much detail and local color. The earliest 
•cenes of the tale are located within the present limits of Beaver County. 

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144 History of Beaver County 

Insurrection," whose chief theatre was in Washington County, 
and which we will not attempt or need to describe. We shall 
turn now from the larger field of political and military events, 
and endeavor in our next chapter to get a closer view of the men 
and women who were the actors in these scenes. 

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The Scotch-Irish — The Germans — The Moravians — Date of Early Settle- 
ments — Claims of Priority — Incidents of Indian Incursions — The 
Poes and Captain Brady — The Last Indian Murder — North Side 
Settlers — Pioneer Life — "Forta" and Blockhouses — Dress and Pro- 
visions — Homes and Furniture — Sports and Diversions — Morals and 
Manners — Religious Beliefs and Superstitions — Education. 

What was his name? I do not know his name. 
I only know he heard God's voice, and came: 
Brought all he loved across the sea, 
To live and work for God and me: 
Felled the ungracious oak; 
"With rugged toil 
Dragged from the soil 
The thrice-gnarled roots and stubborn rock; 
With plenty filled the haggard mountain side; 
And, when his work was done, without memorial died. 
Edward Everett Halb, The Pioneer. 

Buckle, in his great fragment on the History of Civilisation 
in England, has ably argued the influence of food and climate on 
the character of the various civilizations of the earth. 1 Doubt- 
less these are important factors, but the character of a civiliza- 
tion is still more dependent upon what manner of men they are 
who are its founders. Heredity is at least as decisively a forma- 
tive influence as is environment. "Blood tells," — tells on the 
development of the individual, tells on the character of a com- 
munity. In the preceding chapters we have spoken of the 
heroic services of the men of the West; how, like the fire-guard 
which the Dakota farmer to-day ploughs about his home to 
protect it from the sweeping flames of a prairie fire, ran the 

1 Vol. i., p. 3J. Apploton & Co. 'a Ed. iS»t. 

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146 History of Beaver County 

cordon of defense which these brave men drew around the 
border settlements. Who were the heroic fighters on this firing- 
tine, and whence came they? In this chapter we shall try to 
answer briefly these questions. 


In any worthy chronicle of the life of the people of western 
Pennsylvania one racial cognomen, viz., "Scotch-Irish," will 
occur with a frequency which the unsympathetic reader who 
has other blood and traditions might even call with Falstaff "a 
damnable iteration." But the generous reader will find no fault 
with this. For dead of soul, indeed, is the man who has no love 
for the history and achievements of those who were his forbears, 
and if the Puritans, the Pilgrims, and the Huguenots in the East 
and South have had their full meed of praise in song and story, 
the historian of the West should be permitted to give to the 
Scotch-Irish the recognition they deserve. 

It would be hard to find a spot in this wide land of ours 
where the early population was more homogeneous than in the 
region round about the head of the Ohio River. Among the 
first emigrants to this region those other than Scotch, or Irish, 
or Scotch-Irish were so few in number as to be almost a negligi- 
ble quantity." And who were, and are, the Scotch-Irish? The 
name stands for a great fact of racial evolution. It designates 
a composite people, in whose veins mingles the blood of Briton, 
and "Saxon, Norman, and Dane." History knows them first 
as the Lowland Scotch, a canny, thrifty, fearless folk, who were 
found in every part of Europe where there was glory to be won 
in the halls of learning or on the fields of battle. The evolution 
proceeds by the transplanting of these Lowland Scotchmen into 

' The credit due to the Germans ; 
Bitting? r in her book. Tkt Gtrmans in 

" Everywhere along the Pcmuylvmnlu frontier ... we find the Germing, either u 
pioneer*, *i the first permanent settlers, or as following or intermingling with the Scotch- 
Iriah who are commonly but mistakenly credited with being always end everywhere the 

But she herself doet not teem to succeed in tracing them much west of Bedford and 
Somerset counties. Mr. Lawrence Washington (a half -brother of George Waahington). one 
of the Ohio Company, tried to Induce the " Pennsylvania Dutch" and their brethren from 
Germany to colonize this Ohio valley region, but as he says tn a letter to Mr. Hanbury 
ha failed on account of their prejudice against paying the "parish taxes" which were levied 
here by the Episcopal establishment of Virginia (Old Ridstcmi, p. aj). The Gorman ele- 
ment now here dates iu arrival principally after 1830, 

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History of Beaver County 147 

northern Ireland, where their blood is still further enriched by 
that of other races, by Huguenots from France, Burghers from 
Holland, Puritans and Quakers from England; and all becomes 
at last the one intelligent and hardy people that is known in 
America by the hyphenated appellation — "Scotch-Irish." 

Thousands of these hardy Ulstermen came to America (as 
many as twenty-five thousand between 1771 and 1773 '). most 
of whom landed in Pennsylvania, many of these, after various 
haltings and migrations, settling finally in western Pennsylvania. 
They brought with them a burning sense of hatred to all mon- 
archical and ecclesiastical exactions, and so every settlement of 
them became a seed-plot of revolutionary sentiments. Bancroft 
says: "The first public voice in America for dissolving all con- 
nection with Great Britain came, not from the Puritans of New 
England, the Dutch of New York, nor the planters of Virginia, 
but from the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians." It is matter of dis- 
pute whether the so-called "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence," to which Bancroft probably here refers, is genuine 
or not, with the sifted evidence against it 1 ; but there is no 
doubt that the Scotch-Irish of the North Carolina county of 
Mecklenburg were among the first to protest by word and deed 
against the tyranny of the British government. And so in all 
the colonies the men of that blood distinguished themselves in 
the championship of the Revolutionary cause, whether on the 
field of debate or on the battlefield. It was, as we have said, 
the men of that blood, too, who most largely settled western 
Pennsylvania generally, and the territory of Beaver County in 
particular. So much as to the character of the early emigration 
into this region. We glance now at its time. 


Previous to 1700 the foot of the white man had scarcely 
touched the soil of these western parts.* The eighteenth century 

1 Jama* Logan. Secretary of the proprietary government, himself an Iriih Quaker, wrote 
in 1710: "It looki as if Ireland is to tend all her inhabitants hither, forlaet week not leu 
than oil ihipe arrived, and every day two or three arrive aire. The common fear ia that 
if they continue to come they will make thenuelve* proprietors of the province." 

1 See article. "Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence" in The Unicrrsal Cyclop&dia. 

• Marquette and La Salle and the Jesuit fathcn had been on the Mississippi pre vioua to 
1 70s. Colonel Wood, of Virginia, ii alleged to have explored several branches of the Ohio 
and "Meachaeebe" (Mississippi) from 1054 to 1664 <H r *nVm Annals, p. 94). Thomas 
Woods and Robert Pallam, in 1671, and Captain Botta. in 1674. are reported aa making 

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148 History of Beaver County 

was two, perhaps three, decades advanced before those fore- 
runners of civilization — the traders — began to venture into the 
wilds of this region. It was nearly half gone before the attempt 
at settlement by the Ohio Company was made (1748), and the 
first actual settlement of whites was not until 1753, at which 
date Christopher Gist's little company of eleven families took 
up their abode on lands west of the Youghiogheny River in what 
is now Payette County." In the most southern portion of the 
province near the Maryland line a few feeble settlements were 
made prior to 1754, and in 1760 what is now the great centre 
of population which we know as Pittsburg was a little group of 
cabins about the fort, with not much above two hundred in- 
habitants.* About 1768 or 1769 Alexander McKee had made 
improvements at what is now known as McKee's Rocks in 
Allegheny County. Washington makes mention of him in his 
account of his canoe trip down the Ohio in 1770. In 1770 a 
mission of the Moravian Brethren, under the leadership of Zeis- 
berger and Senseman, was established in what became Beaver 
County, at a point now within the bounds of Lawrence County. 5 
Owing to the opposition of hostile Indians the mission was soon 
removed into Ohio, where, at Salem and Gnadenhutten, was per- 
petrated upon its peaceful members what was perhaps the most 
horrible butchery that ever disgraced the annals of border life. 

When we ask who was the first permanent white settler in 
what is now Beaver County, we raise a question that is difficult 
to answer, at least to the satisfaction of all. Formerly it was 
thought to have been one George Baker, a German, who came to 
America in 1750, and who, after a residence of some years in the 
eastern part of the country, came to this region in 177a or 1773 
and settled on land in what is at present Moon township. Three 
months after his arrival in America Baker married a young 

toura of the Mine region. The visits of these men were to point! beyond our immediate 

1 Hut. of Wart. Pmna. (Ropp), p. 40- 

* Prom a carefully prepared list of the houses and inhabitant* outuide of the fort, made 
for Colonel Bouquet, April is. 1761. by Captain William Claphem, headed "A return of 
the number of bouses, of the names of owners, and number of men. women and children in 
each house. April 14, 1761," and which is the first description of Pittsburg that we possess, 
the number of inhabitants is 333, with the addition of ninety-five office™, soldiers, and their 
families residing in the town, making the whole number 331; with 104 bouses. The lower 
town was nearest the fort. The upper, on the high ground, principally along the banks of 
the Monongahela, extended as far as the present Market Street. 

* See Chapter XII. for a full account of the Moravian mission in this region. 

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History of Beaver County 149 

English girl, who had Rer wedding dress sent over from England, 
the home-country at that early day furnishing the luxuries, as 
well as most of the necessaries, for the colonists. A piece of this 
wedding dress was exhibited in the Loan Collection at the Cen- 
tennial of Beaver County in 1900. 

The Bakers, on their arrival in this region, built their cabin, or 
fort, as it was called, on land now known as the Michael Mateer 
farm, situated on a ridge on the east side of Raccoon Creek, about 
four miles from its mouth. Near the site of the cabin is still in 
existence the old Baker burial-ground, where repose the ashes of 
George Baker and his kinsfolk. In the Indian outrages about 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War the Bakers — husband, 
wife, and five children — were among the first victims, being 
taken by the Indians to Detroit and delivered to the British. 

In the manuscript letter-books of Colonel George Morgan, 
Indian Agent of the United States at Port Pitt, which we fre- 
quently cite in this work, we have found an interesting trace 
of Baker's captivity, namely his signature to a paper certifying 
the humanity shown him and his family by his Indian captors 
while on the march, and at Detroit by Governor Henry Hamilton , 
who is generally represented in the traditions of the time to 
have been a very Nero for cruelty. It would appear from the 
papers, copies of which we give herewith, that Hamilton's policy 
was to have the proclamation of British and Indian clemency 
therein made left in the neighborhood where outrages by the 
savages were committed, in order that the people might be in- 
duced to surrender themselves to the British in hopes of escaping 
destruction. The first name attached to the certificate of white 
prisoners at Detroit, testifying to their kindly treatment, is, as 
will be seen, that of George Baker.. The following letter ac- 
companied the papers, or "writings," as they are called by the 
friendly Delawares who sent them to Morgan: 

Captains While Eyes & John KiUbuck's 
Menage to Colo. George Morgan — 

Cuchockune [Coshocton, O.J, March 14th. 1178. 
Brother Taihenbnd [the name given to Morgan by the Indians, pro- 
nounced Tammany], 
A Han from Detroit his name Edward Hazel * came here with some 
Writings from the Governor St desired us to send some Indiana with him 

1 This Edward Haiel «u sent by Governor Hamilton to eacort Alexander McKee. the 
renegade and Ml companion!, who two weeloi after the date of this letter deaerted from 
Pittaburg. safely through the Indian tribe* to Detroit. See Tht Girty's, pp. 58. ; . 

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150 History of Beaver County 

to bring them into the Inhabitants <rf the white people, but we declined 
it & told him that we would not meddle with such affaire — Writings of 
the same kind was also sent to the Shawnese to leave them where they 
should kill any white people, which they delivered to me — both I send 
to you & you will see the contents thereof — Edward Hazel who win 
stay here some time wisheth to get some Writings from General Hand to 
the Governor of Detroit which he would carry there. 
Brother Taimeoend, 

I am always glad to hear from you of our friendship — let us always 
be strong & continue therein & when dark Clouds arise over us let nothing 
stop our friendship Road, that we may always hear from each other. We 
on our Side will do as much as it is in our power that it may be kept open, 
but be strong Brother & do the same for the good of our young Men, 
Women & Children — 

and the "writings" are as follows: 

Ditidit, Jaonsry jth, ijj8. 

Notwithstanding all endeavors to apprise his Majesty's faithful tk 
loyal Subjects dispersed over the Colonies, of his gracious intentions 
towards them, signified to them at different times, 'tis to be feared the 
mistaken zeal of the deluded multitude acted upon by the artful and 
wicked design of rebellious Counsellors, has prevented many from profiting 
of his Majesty's Clemency, this is to acquaint all whom it may concern 
that nothing can give greater satisfaction to those persons who command 
for his Majesty at the different Posts, than to save from ruin those inno- 
cent people who are unhappily involved in distresses they have noways 
merited — The moderation shown by the Indians who have gone to War 
from this place is a speaking Proof of the truth, & the injunctions con- 
stantly laid upon them on their setting out, having been to spare the 
defenceless and aged of both sexes, shew that compassion for the unhappy 
is blended with the severity necessary to be exercised on the obstinate & 
perverse Enemies of His Majesty's Crown & Dignity. — 

The Persons undernamed are living Witnesses of the moderation & 
even gentleness of Savages shewn to them their Wives & Children, which 
may it is hoped induce others to exchange tlje hardships experienced under 
their present Masters for Security & freedom under their lawful Sovereign. 

The bearer hereof Edward Hotel, has my orders to make known to all 
persons whom it may concern that the Indians are encouraged to shew 
the same kindness to all who shall embrace the offer of safety & protection 
hereby held out to them, & he is further to make known as far as lies 
in his power, that if a number of people can agree upon a place of rendez- 
vous, & a proper time for coming to this Post, the Miamis, Sandoske or 
Post Vincennes, the properest methods will be taken for their Security 
& a safeguard of white people with an Officer and Interpreter sent to 
conduct them. 

Given under my hand & Seal at Detroit 

Sign'd J Hbnky Hamilton 

*^ I Lieut: Gov't & Superintendent 
God save the King. 

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History of Beaver County 151 

Appended was the following testimony to the humanity of 
the Indians and the British: 

We who have undersigned our Names do voluntarily declare that we 
have been conducted from the several places mentioned opposite our names 
to Detroit, by Indians accompanied with white people, that we have 
neither been cruelly treated or in any way ill used by them, ft further 
that on our arrival we have been treated with the greatest humanity & 
our wants supplied in the best manner possible. 

George Baker I , .... . , _ 

lor him»lf. Wife & five Child™ oow her. ?<"» » m °> be,ow L <*" ToW11 

James Butterworth from Bigg Kenhawa — 

Thomas X Shoers from Harridge Town near Kentucke — 

Jacob Pugh from six Miles below the Fort at Wheeling — 

^^-Jonathan Huchmore from Port Pitt 

James Whitaker from do taken at Fish Creek 

from Bedford taken at Sandy Run — 


John X Bridges from do taken at do. 1 


We have received from a direct descendant of Baker con- 
firmation of the statement made in this paper. Mrs. Harrison 
(Baker) Brobeck, of Rochester, Pa., a niece of George Baker 
who died in 1901, at eighty-one years of age, used to say that 
the old people of her family always testified to the kindly treat- 
ment shown the Bakers during their five years' captivity among 
the Indians and British. On the march to Detroit, however, 
the savages several times offered to kill one of the smallest of the 
children who annoyed them with its crying, but yielded to the 
entreaties of the mother to spare it. The poor mother then, to 
keep the little one quiet and prevent a recurrence of its peril, 
would carry it as long as she could. This little band of captives 
was also guarded at night in the usual manner of the Indians, 
each one being made to lie between two warriors. During their 

* Hamilton w»» also ktnd to the famom Daniel Boone, who wu captured by a party of 
Sbawaiuwat the Lower Blue Licks in Kentucky. February 7, 1778. and brought by them 

" On the 10th of March [lays the historian] eleven of the party, including Boone himself, 
were dispatched for the north, and, after twenty dayi of tourneying, were presented to 
the English governor, who treated them, Boone says, with great humanity. To Boose 
himself. Hamilton and several other gentlemen seem to have taken an especial fancy, and 
offered considerable sums for his release: but the Shawanew had also become enamored 
of the veteran hunter, and would not part with him. He muat go home with them, the v 
said, and be one of them, and become a great chief." — (Wttun Annals, p. >o6.) 

See. however, what is said of Hamilton's conduct in the preceding chapter. According 
to the testimony of many witnesses he wu very cruel. 

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152 History of Beaver County 

stay among the Indians at least one of the children learned to 
speak the language of the tribe. It is thought that the Bakers 
were in captivity between four and five years and that they were 
exchanged a year or two after the surrender of Burgoyne. 
They then returned to the south branch of the Potomac, whence 
they had emigrated to the frontier, and after living there a few 
years concluded to come back to their Beaver County home. 
Here they found their cabin in ashes, the clearing overgrown 
with weeds and thickets, the apple-tree they had planted a 
dozen years before now in blossom, a rose-bush become a large 
wild growth, and their well nearly filled with rubbish. Such 
were the vicissitudes of these early inhabitants. Baker died at 
an advanced age in 180a, two years after the erection of the 
county which he had helped to redeem from savage wildness. 

But it seems now probable that another pioneer settler in this 
county had preceded Baker at least two years. This was Levi 
Dungan. Prom his grandson, the Hon. Warren S. Dungan, 
ex- Lieutenant-Governor of Iowa, who was present at the Beaver 
County Centennial in 1900, presiding and making an address on 
"Old Settlers' Day," we have obtained the following data con- 
cerning him. Levi Dungan was born on a farm near Philadel- 
phia, and, on February a, 1764, he was married in that city, by 
the Rev. Morgan Edwards, to Mary Davis. 1 He was a first 
cousin to ' ' Mad Anthony ' ' Wayne , whose mother was a Dungan . 
In 1773, he, with his wife and two or three small children and 
two slaves, one named Fortune and the other Lunn,* removed to 
this section, where he located at the head of King's Creek a tract 

' The entry in the Marriott Book of the Pint Baptist Church □( Philadelphia U as 

" Levy Dungan I Both of Philadelphia were married at their Ion in Second street on 
MnrV Dungan 1 February the second day in the year One Thousand seven hun- 
(DavisJ derd and sixty-four by Morgan Edwards." 

The above is from a letter to the editor from Hon. Warren S, Dungan. Id the same letter 
Mr. Dungan says that when Anthony Wayne was at Fort Mcintosh with bu army on hU 
way to Ohio. Levi Dungan visited him and invited him to come to the Dungan home, about 
twenty miles away. Wayne declined to pay the visit, saying, " I have a wild set of devila 
10 handle, and if I !=f t thorn bo long as to visit yon I should eiped half of them to be miauina 

* The institution of slavery could not gain a strong hold upon the northern colonies and 
States, because it was not profitable there. Pennsylvania, by the Constitution of 1790, 
made provision for its gradual abolition. Beaver County was comparatively free from the 
influence of the institution, but a few slaves were nevertheless bought, sold, and held within 
its borders. In 1S00 there were four slaves in the county; in 1S10 there were eight, and 
in iSso five. By 1S30, under the operation of the law, aa stated, all had boon liberated. 
The following instances of slave-holding in this county are the only one* that are known : 
James Nicholson, a farmer in Big Beaver, owned three (laves, — Ponjpey and Tamer Frailer 

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History of Beaver County 153 

of one thousand acres — land now within the limits of Hanover 
township. He settled where the village of Frankfort Springs 
now stands, building his house over an excellent spring. The 
house was a large log structure, built for the double purpose 
of a dwelling and for a fort, to be used by all the neighbors as 
a place of asylum in times of danger. Its position over the 
spring had also doubtless been selected with a view to the possi- 
bilities of their being besieged, when access to water could thus 
be had without the peril of exposure. Here, too, he began to 
clear the land, and to plant vegetables and corn, and to do all 
the arduous work required by the life of a pioneer farmer. 

Mary Dungan, his wife, was a woman well qualified to be a 
helpmeet for him in this wilderness life. Two instances may be 
given of her courage and capability. In 1789 she made the long 
journey from her western home to Philadelphia on horseback, 
with a few neighbors, taking with her money to enter the tract 
of land which had been blazed out by her husband in 177a. She 
made the journey to the east and back in safety, and brought 
with her the patents for the land, dated September 1, 1789. The 
other instance needs a word of preface. 

Before her marriage Mrs. Dungan had been an inmate of the 
home of the celebrated physician, Dr. Benjamin Rush, to whom 
she was related, and with whom she studied medicine until he 
went to Edinburgh to complete his training. At his departure, 
the library which they had jointly accumulated, became, by 
mutual agreement, her property. After her marriage to Levi 
Dungan, she took a part of this library with her to her wilderness 
home, and continued there her medical studies. At one time 
from danger of Indian attacks these precious books had to be 
hid away for nearly a year, and they were nearly ruined as a 
consequence of dampness and mildew." But the medical know- 
ledge thus acquired by this brave little woman was often drawn 

and Betsy Mathewa. At Mr. Nicholson's death be willed the farm to these three alavei. 
Soon the two Frasiere died, and Betsy then owned the (arm and mi married to a man 
named Henry Jordan in 1S40. Betsy then sold the main part of the farm, and upon this 
the borough of New Galulea was afterwards built. The two alavei of Levi Dungan. named 
above, remained with him until they died. Isaac Hall, a black man. was bought at an auc- 
tion in New Orleans by Captain John Ossman, in 1S10. for (270, and brought to this county, 
when be remained a slave until his death. Henry and Henley Webster, two slaves of John 
Roberts, of Hanover township, were brought with their master to this county from Vir- 
ginia, and remained here until they worked out their purchase money and keeping. 

' This was probably at the time when Dungan had removed his family for safety to 
Washington County, where he enlisted in the Revolutionary Army. See Chapter XIV. 

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154 History of Beaver County 

upon for the relief of her own family and of her neighbors. The 
following incident of exigent need and prompt assistance from 
her skill is related. Two neighbors, William Langfitt and Isaac 
Wiseman, had been to a mill down on King's Creek to get some 
com ground. On their way home they were attacked by Indians. 
Wiseman was instantly killed and Langntt was shot several 
times through the body, but kept his seat while his frightened 
horse carried him back over the trail to Dungan's, where he was 
taken in, unconscious. There was no surgeon obtainable nearer 
than Port Pitt and Mrs. Dungan at once set about to care for the 
wounded man. With a knitting-needle she packed the bleeding 
wounds with strips torn from a silk handkerchief, and with com- 
press and bandage arrested the hemorrhage. Langfitt recovered, 
and lived to the age of ninety-six, dying in Hanover township, 
Beaver County, August 2$, 1831. 

Levi Dungan, according to the family records, died in 1835, 
and it is thought that his wife's death was somewhat earlier. 
He (and probably also his wife) was buried in Brook, now Han- 
cock, County, West Virginia, about five miles southwest of 
Frankfort Springs, Pa., and about one and a half miles west of 
the village of Paris, on King's Creek. Near the spot a Baptist 
church was organized, of which Levi Dungan was an active 
member and an officer; and there stood also an old mill. which is 
supposed to be the one which Wiseman and Langfitt had been at 
when, on their way home, they were attacked by the Indians, as 
related above. Richard Roberts, a Revolutionary soldier, the 
father of John Roberts (an uncle of Hon. Warren S. Dungan) and 
the grandfather of Colonel Richard P. Roberts, is buried here be- 
side the Dungans. The locality may be identified for some of 
our readers by mention of the fact that a few years ago there 
lived in the neighborhood a man named Levi Standish. 

It is believed by some that the first settler in what is now 
Beaver County was the celebrated Colonel (afterwards General) 
John Gibson, an uncle of the great jurist, John Bannister Gibson. 
Three papers are offered in evidence for this settlement, copies 
of which we have examined. There is, first, an unsigned state- 
ment, dated at Jeffersonville (Indiana?), November so, i8i3,in 
which the following affirmations are made, apparently as coming 
from Gibson himself; viz., that "in 1769, at the opening of the 
Land Office in the then Province of Pennsylvania, an entry was 

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History of Beaver County 155 

made of 300 acres of land to include the old Indian corn-field 
opposite Logstown" for the use of John Gibson, Sen., he having 
drawn at a lottery the earliest number, and the land was sur- 
veyed for him in the same year by James Hendricks, Esq., 
District Surveyor "; that "in 1771, he, John Gibson, settled upon 
the land, built a house, and cleared and fenced 30 acres of 
ground"; that in 1778 "he sold his claim to Matthias Slough, 
of Lancaster, Pa.," and that "he, John Gibson, has understood 
that the land was sold by Slough to a Mr. Scott, who sold to 
Mr. McDonald." 

Second, there is an affidavit of Presley Neville, 3 dated about 
the same time, which sets forth his knowledge of John Gibson's 
having resided on that tract, and having had, with the other 
settlers, to flee from his home during the Revolutionary War on 
account of the incursions of the Indians. 

Third, we have an affidavit of Rob't Vance, sworn and sub- 
scribed to before John Way, a justice of the peace of Allegheny 
County, Pa., and dated December 6, 1807. Herein Vance de- 
clares that "he hath for the past fifty years been well acquainted 
with the tract of land in question, having lived upwards of 
thirty-two years of the latter part of that time in the same 

' We would note that this statement incidentally barm out our position in regard to the 
idu; of Logitown (see Chapter XXVIII.), which we bold to have been on the right-hand 
bank of the Ohio am one deaccndi the it ream. This paper put* Logitown "oppostit" "the 
old Indian corn-field." The corn-field ii conceded by all to have been on the south (prop- 
erly, west) aide; therefore Logstown. according to the witness of this paper, was on the north 
(properly east) side, or right-hand bank of the river. From what is said in McClure's and 
Parrish'i journals (quoted unit. pp. 14-16) it might seem that Gibson had a house at Lpgs- 
town and one on the opposite side of the river. The former may have been his trading-post. 

Diligent search at Harrisburg for the record of Gibson's entries discovered nothing be- 
yond the following: Among a list of Benjamin Johnston's "Virginia Entries" on file in the 
Department of Internal Affairs, the name of John Gibson is entered under data of June 13, 
17 Bo, for 400 acres, described as located at "Logstown," also for another tract of 400 acres 
described as located "adjoining do." entered on the same date. No return of survey is 
credited to either of these tract* and no mention of a patent being granted is noted in either 

The word "entry," as used here, means the date of filing of claims for lands with the 
Virginia commissioners appointed to settle claims to unpatented lands, and the granting of 
certificates by the said commissioners to individual claimants. 

The fact of these two entries being given in Johnston's list is evidence that such certifi- 
cates were actually granted to Gibson on the date above mentioned, but the reason for no 
return of survey having been made does not appear. The lands have likely been patented 
to some other person under the regular warrant system at a later date. 

* Presley Neville was a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, a classical scholar, 
and entered the army at the early age of twenty years under his father. General John 
Neville. He rot to the rank of Major and was Aide-de-Camp to General Lafayette. He 
was the only eon of the distinguished John Neville, and married the daughter of General 
Morgan. After his marriage he removed to bis property, at Woodville, on Chartien Creek . 
He resided in Pittsburg from t70> to 1B10. 

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156 History of Beaver County 

neighborhood"; and that "the land during that time was in the 
quiet and peaceable possession of John McDonald, his heirs or 
those under whom the said John McDonald claims." (Italics 
ours.) These last would be Scott, Slough, and Gibson, and we 
have been informed by descendants of John McDonald that he 
did claim under these three men. We have thought that an 
impartial treatment of this subject called for the mention of 
these papers, and we submit the evidence which they afford for 
what it may be worth." 

We have ourselves previously shown the proof that Gibson 
was at Logstown certainly as early as Dungan was on his settle- 
' ment in what is now Hanover township (the spring of 1773), 
and very probably a year or two earlier. This proof will be 
found in the extracts from the journal of the Rev. David McClure 
previously quoted.* McClure, in 1773, finds Gibson a resident at 
Logstown, with a store and house, and his place a well-known 
rendezvous for travelers. But we still think that Dungan is 
entitled to be called the first settler. Gibson was primarily an 
Indian trader. He had also a store at Fort Pitt, where he spent 
good part of his time. He came to Logstown, as many other 

1 Gibson wai a note-worthy man. and was much connected with the early history of 
Braver County. He was born at Lancaster. Pa., May 2], 1740. and received hi* early 
education there, pursuing a classical course, and entering the service at the age of eighteen . 
Hii first campaign was with General Forbes in the expedition against Fort Duquesne. He 
then settled at Fort Pitt ai a trader. In the Indian war of 1763, while descending the 
Ohio River in a canoe, ho was taken prisoner at the mouth of the Big Beaver Creek, Of 
two men who were bis companions, one was immediately burned at the stake, and the 
other carried to the Kanawha, where he suffered the same fate. Gibson was saved by the 
intervention of an old squaw, who adopted him in the place of a son killed in battle. He 
was surrendered by the Indians to Colonel Bouquet in 1764- In 1774. he negotiated the 
peace with the Shawanese. and while on this mission, at a conference with the Indians near 
the Scioto River, Logan, the Mingo chief, made to him the celebrated speech which so many 
schoolboys have used as a select oration, and which is justly rated a* one of the masterpieces 
of natural eloquence. Who does not remember the words: 

" I appeal to any white man if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry and he gave him 
not meat . . . But do not harbor a thought that mine is thejoy of fear. Logan never 
felt a fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for 
Logan f Not one."* 

At the outbreak of the Revolution Gibson was made Colonel of the 13th Virginia Regi- 
ment. He was temporarily in command several times during the war at Fort Pitt (his 
command including Fort Mcintosh), was in command for a time at Port Laurens, and held 
other important military trusts. He was also a Member of the convention which framed 
the constitution of Pennsylvania in 179a; later a Judge of Allegheny County, Mejor- 
General of militia, and Secretary of the Territory of Indiana until it became a State; bong 
at one time its acting Governor. Gibson died at BraddocVs Field. Pa., April 10, iSi>. 

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History of Beaver County 157 

traders had done before him, to buy and sell rather than to build 
a homestead in the wilderness. 1 Levi Dungan, on the other hand, 
traveled over three hundred miles, through manifold hardships 
and dangers, not for present gain, but for the sole purpose of 
seeking a permanent home for himself and his little family. If 
residence in the territory as an Indian trader constituted a claim 
as a settler, then Alexander McKee would have to be put before 
Gibson, for he had made improvements opposite Logstown 
(within the present limits of Beaver County) sometime prior to 
1769. In that year a tract of land there was surveyed for him, 
containing three hundred acres, on which he had erected a house. 
This tract was confiscated and advertised for sale in Pittsburg 
shortly after McKee had become a renegade (March 38, 1778). * 
But he, like Gibson, must, we think, be considered as belonging 
to what became Allegheny County rather than to Beaver. 

Another very early settler in this region was David Kerr, 
who was bom in Ireland, and in the year 1778 emigrated to 
America with his wife and two children, Mary Ann and David, 
the latter then about a year old. The family settled on Char- 
tiers Creek in Washington County, Pa., where they remained 
but a short time when they removed to the headwaters of King's 
Creek in what is now Beaver County. Here David Kerr, St., 
bought a tract of land consisting of 336 acres, for which he 
agreed to pay one dollar per acre. Sickness and the expense of 
travel had well-nigh exhausted his stock of money, and he was 
obliged to pay for his purchase in grain at the rate of three 
shillings per bushel for rye and four shillings for wheat. But 
by diligence he succeeded in cultivating a large farm, and in 
meeting all his obligations. He died, in 1804, at the age of 
forty-five, and was buried at King's Creek. His wife survived 
him ten years, and was buried beside him. These were the 
great-grandparents of Franklin David Kerr, M.D., formerly of 
Hookstown, now of Shousetown, Pa. Doctor Kerr's maternal 

"JmU aftntd and to b* fold by At tubicribtr tiomt <m At 

bank of At rmr, btnmtn Mr. David Dimnm'i and 

Mr. joh* OnmSri. 

"A LARGE tmdgtturol offortiwm o! DRY and WET 

n GOODS, which he wtU dijpojt of an At mrjt m- 

loHablt Itrms far cajh. country product, ptlay or gtH- 

'"»„■„« ,. c . JOW GIBSON, 

■'Ptttflmrgh, Stpl. 16." 

* Early HiOory of WtOtrn Penna. (,Rnpp), p. *i; Pcnna. Arch., vol. iv. p. M 6; Ptnnsyt- 

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158 History of Beaver County 

great-grandfather, Thomas Moore, was also an early settler of 
the south side of Beaver County, preceding David Kerr by about 
two years. He was born near the site of Leesburg, Virginia, in 
1750, and in 1776 came with his wife, Rachel Phillis Moore, and 
settled on a tract of five hundred acres of land three miles south- 
east of what is now Hookstown, this county. In 1777 he took 
part in the defense of Port Pitt against the savages. Thomas 
Moore was a successful farmer, and lived to see a large family 
of sons and daughters grow up about him. He was an elder in 
the Presbyterian Church of Mill Creek, in whose cemetery he 
was buried. He died of typhoid fever June 3, i8ai . Rachel, his 
wife, died December 16, 1833, and was laid beside her husband, 
and her father, Joseph Phillis, who was born in England in 1694., 
and whose last days had been spent with her. Joseph Phillis 
was 107 years old when he died. 

Other settlers may be mentioned who came to this region 
while it was still a wilderness, and shared with those already 
spoken of in the hard and dangerous task of subduing the forest 
and contending with the relentless foes who beset them and 
disputed their right to occupy the land. From the early settlers 
in Beaver County these foes were separated only by the Ohio 
River, across which they made frequent bloody forays. The 
settlements on Raccoon Creek, especially about Levi Dungan's 
in what is now Beaver County, and Matthew Dillow's in Wash- 
ington County, were the quarter in which the Indian attacks 
were most frequently made. 1 The path which was followed by 
the savages as they invaded the south side of the Ohio was on 
the ridge between the waters of Raccoon Creek and King's Creek. 
It is substantially the line of the State road, running at the pres- 
ent day from Georgetown, this county, to Washington, Pa. 
While Dillow's settlement was in what is now Washington 
County, it was closely connected with the history of the pioneer 
families of the south side of Beaver County. Matthew Dillow 
himself fell a victim to the fury of the foe. In 1783, he, with 
his son John, was at work in the clearing when Indians in am- 

1 Colonel David Rediek to Governor Mifflin, on the ijth of February, 1701. in a letter 
which we refer to elsewhere, writes u follow*: 

"I have read your letter of information and imtructioni to the County Lieutenants, on 
the subject of protection. I find that a considerable gap is left open to the enemy on the 
northwesterly part of the county, and that a place where, in former wan. the enemy per- 

Stually made their approach on that quarter — the settlements on Raccoon, especially about 
lloe'n constantly experienced in former times the repeated attacks of the enemy."— 
id Ptnna. Arch., vol. iv„ p. job. 

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History of Beaver County ' 159 

bush shot the father and took the son a prisoner. John saw 
them secrete the body of his father near a large log before starting 
on their march. The boy was kept a prisoner for several years, 
and upon his release and return to his former home was ques- 
tioned as to what became of the body of his father. He recalled 
and narrated the incidents of his capture and of his father's 
death. A number of his friends gathered together, and after a 
search found the skeleton of the elder Dillow in the described 
location. It was brought to near his old home and buried.' 

Near Dillow's place settled early Thomas Armor, Thomas 
Bigger, and William Anderson. Thomas Armor does not prop- 
erly belong to the history of Beaver County, but his son Thomas 
inherited a body of 14.0 acres of land lying principally in this 
county, part of a tract which the father had received under a 
Virginia certificate in 1776. Thomas Bigger has well known 
and highly respected descendants still living in the old home 
neighborhood on the south side. The history of William Ander- 
son and his family illustrates the suffering to which these pioneer 
people were exposed. On one of their incursions into the settle- 
ments on Raccoon Creek, in July, 1779, the Indians surprised 
Anderson while he was at work near his house, and shot him 
through the left breast. He was able to escape, and to reach 
the house of his neighbor, Thomas Armor. Mr. Armor, who 
was a man of unusual strength, took Anderson on his back and 
carried him to "fort" Dillow for succor. Mrs. Anderson, mean- 
time, having heard the firing of the Indians, had left the house 
and hidden in the bushy top of a fallen tree with her infant child. 
The savages came to the cabin and set fire to it, passing several 
times close by her hiding-place without discovering her. At this 
time, or shortly after, two boys of the Anderson family were 
taken by the Indians, and carried into captivity. 1 They were 
step-brothers, one four and the other seven years of age. Five 
or six years later the elder brother, Logan, returned to Fort 
Mcintosh, probably among the prisoners delivered in accordance 
with the terms of the treaty made there in 1785. The other boy 
never came back. He is reported to have married a half-breed 

lo 4 . 

11 PitWbuTg. August 1. 1770. saya: 
"I have juat now received information that one Andareon, who lived about two mile* 
1 Dinar's [Dillow'i] Port was slightly wounded, and two of his little boys carried off by 
■a vanes on the same day the mischief <u done on Wheeling," — (Brodhead'i Litiir-Booi 

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i6o History of Beaver County 

Indian-French woman near Detroit, and it is said that two of 
their sons became chiefs in one of the Indian tribes. It was not 
an unusual thing for white children who had been long in 
captivity among the Indians to refuse to leave them when oppor- 
tunity offered. Even when taken away from them by force, 
they had sometimes to be closely watched for a while to prevent 
their escaping again to their dusky friends. 1 

On Raccoon Creek lived also the Foulkes family, who suffered 
severely at the hands of the savages. On the second Sabbath of 
March, 1780, an attack was made by them at a sugar camp at 
the mouth of Reardon's run, a tributary of Raccoon Creek, where 
the Foulkes family and two other families, by name Tucker and 
Turner, of Noblestown, were spending the day together. Five 
men were killed, and three boys and three girls were taken 
prisoners.' One of the prisoners was George Foulkes, eleven 
years old, and another was his sister, Elizabeth, two years 
younger. A brother, named William, eighteen years of age, 
was among the killed. Samuel Whitaker, a lad about the age of 
George Foulkes, was also made a prisoner and with the others 
lived to manhood among the Indians. He married Elizabeth 
Foulkes after the close of their captivity, and settled on the 
Sandusky River, in Ohio. George Foulkes was a prisoner eleven 
years, and afterwards became a scout under the famous Indian 

1 Bouquet! ExpsiiUon against Iks Ohio Indians, p. so. 

• We have already quoted Brodhead's letter to the President of the Council, of March 18, 
1180. In which he said: 

" I am lorry to inform you that the Savages have already begun their hostilities. Last 
Sunday morning at a Sugar Camp upon Raccoon Creek five men vera killed ft three lads ft 
three girls taken prisoners." 

We copy here a letter from the original MS. of Colonel George Morgan's letter-book. 
It has no bearing on the particular incidents of the text above, but it has some local 

" Tht Unitsd 

" Bkothekb: — 

"... About twenty days ago some of our 1 
Tuscarawas crossed the Ohio to a White Alan's house 

murder — On hearing some of our people coming up, & it being dark they made off in their 
Cannoe with the Goods to the vahie of — Bucks.* I prevented our people going across the 
Ohio River after them knowing you would cause everything to be restored & prevent your 
foolish people from doing so again. I send you a list of the Goods they stole. . . . 

"QbOROB HoiliAN 

" Afrnt for tht United Stalls, Fort Pitt." 

* Peltries were used as a medium of exchange. Colonel Cresap. a Maryland trader, 
advertised ratea as follows: "A Matchcoat for a Buck, a Strowd [blanket] for a Buck and a 
Doe. A pair of Stockings for two Racoons, twelve Bars of Lead for a Buck and so on in 
proportion." — Col, Rsc.. vol. v., p. 440. 

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History of Beaver County 161 

fighter, Captain Samuel Brady. He married Miss Catherine 
Ullery, whose home was on Grant's Hill, near Fort Pitt, and after 
Wayne's victory and the treaty at Greenville in 1795. he settled 
with her on a farm three miles down the Little Beaver from 
Darlington, where he died about 1840. He built the first brick 
house in that section of the country. The old crane and pot- 
hooks used in his first house, which was a log cabin, were ex- 
hibited in the Loan Collection of the Beaver County Centennial 
in 1900. They were made from the stays of an English gun- 
carriage brought from Detroit. 

None of the pioneer settlers of the region which is now Beaver 
and Washington counties enjoy So much fame as Indian fighters 
as do the two brothers, Andrew and Adam Poe. In the hostili- 
ties with the Indians that were waged along the Ohio River from 
1777 until 1784, they were ever the first and most fearless, with 
physical strength and personal prowess combined in each in a 
degree that was unusual even in that day, when both were the 
commonest possessions of the frontiersmen. The Poe brothers 
came to the Ohio River region from New England, and located 
tracts of land for which they were granted Virginia certificates. 
Andrew's tract was surveyed February 15, 1786, and contained 
333 acres. It was called " Poe Wood." Adam's tract, known 
as " Poeville," was surveyed January 13, 1786. It contained 
377 acres. Prior to this time they also owned a tract in what 
was afterwards Smith township, Washington County. The Poes 
were pious as well as brave men, and were active in church 
affairs. In 1779, when the Presbyterian congregations of Cross 
Creek and Buffalo called the Rev. Joseph Smith, then of York 
County, Pa., as pastor of the united charge, Andrew and Adam 
Poe signed the call. Many traditions of the Poe brothers have 
been handed down since the days of border warfare, and are 
still current. Some of these have grown in the telling, especially 
the story of Andrew Poe's fight with the fabled Big Foot, the 
giant Indian chief. We reluctantly suggest any diminution of 
the marvels of a story that was one of the choice morsels of our 
own early boyhood reading. The true story is still heroic enough, 
however, and we will tell it in substance as it is given by a careful 

In the fall of 1 781 , just as Brodhead's expedition to Sandusky 
was arranged to rendezvous at Fort Mcintosh, intelligence 

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i62 History of Beaver County 

reached Fort Pitt from the Tuscarawas of an attack on Wheeling 
being planned in which two hundred and fifty savages led by 
the "refugee" Matthew Elliott were to take part. This intelli- 
gence was communicated to Brodhead by David Zeisberger, 1 one 
of the Moravian missionaries, and the warning thus early given 
enabled the commanders to frustrate the plans of the enemy. 
Through the indiscretion of a boy and a man captured by the 
savages near Wheeling, the latter were informed of the manner 
in which Brodhead had received his information, and in revenge 
for this the missionary establishments upon the Tuscarawas were 
broken up and the missionaries and their converts carried by the 
Indians to the Wyandot country, where they were left for the 
winter in great destitution. On the way, seven of the Indians, 
three of whom were sons of the Half-King, left the main body 
and again marched for the border, raiding into a small settle- 
ment on Harman's Creek, in Washington County, taking one 
prisoner — a man about sixty years of age. The savages im- 
mediately started on their return, but were promptly pursued 
by a number of the settlers, to the Ohio River, where they were 
overtaken and all killed but one; and he, their leader, Scotosh 
by name, escaped, wounded. The white prisoner was released. 
Andrew Poe, one of the pursuers, his gun missing fire, boldly 
sprang upon and grappled two of the Indians — sons of the Half- 
King. During a most violent struggle, which was continued 
first on shore and then in the river, Andrew killed one of the 
Indians but was himself badly wounded. Adam Poe, his brother, 
then coming to his relief, shot the other savage. Meanwhile, 
Andrew, then in the water, received by a mistake a second wound 
from one of his own men. The settlers lost one killed. "But 
neither of the savages killed was named Big Foot (there was never 

1 Like Heckewelder, David ZeiabergBr w 
giving them intelligence of the movements c 
him from Brodhead: 

•' I wish you to excite your people to have an eye upon the conduct of the other Dela- 
waree, and inform me from time to time of their particular conduct. 

" The expedition I formed last fall has answered my most saturnine expectation*, as the 
confederate nations have sued for peace upon any terms with Congress & I have in con- 
templation a formidable expedition against some of the western nations. This with an 
attack by seaft land upon Quebec ft Montreal will finish the malice of the British & yellow 

™ hope you will continue to afford me every interesting intelligence, ft put it in my 

'" Daniel Bkodhiad." 

(Brodhead's Lclttt -Boot. p. 349: Pnna. Arch., vol, xii., p. Ml.) 

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History of Beaver County 163 

a Wyandot chief so called) ; nor was either of the sons of the 
Half-King of unusual size." ' 

Descendants of the Poes are still living in Georgetown and 
its vicinity. Andrew Poe lived near Hookstown until 1830, 
where he died at about eighty years of age. He is buried in the 
old graveyard at Mill Creek Presbyterian Church. Adam, who 
was several years younger than Andrew, sold his property here 
and removed to Ohio, about 1820. He died in 1840, at an ad- 
vanced age. Within two weeks of his death he had been taken 
to a mass-meeting at Massillon to see General Harrison. 1 

Captain Samuel Brady, 3 while not a resident of this section, 
was nevertheless so much identified with its early history that a 
brief notice of him will not be out of place here. 

' We have drawn this account of tba Pue right froi 
duction to the Wasktntlon-Inritu Comspondna (p. 6 
cites ii aa follow! : 

' ' Recollections of the Captivity of Thomas Edgington, aa related by his son, Geo. 
Edgingtoo, 1845, US.: Heckewelder'a Narr., pp. 170. 2&1. 303: Pension statement of 
AdamPoe, 1S13. MS. copy; Statement of Wm. Walker, MS. : Smith'* Hisi. Jiff. Collin, p. 
441: DeHaas'Htn. /*J. WoriW. Va..p.3j6; Knight'* Western Bordir, p. 443; Schweiniti' 
Ltje and Tinas of David Zeisberfr. P- 5if-" 

Those who pTefer to receive the old version of the itory will find it well told by Simpson 
R. Poe. a grandson of Andrew Poe, in Our Western Bordlr One Hundred Years Ago. by 
Charles McKnight, 1B76, page 443; also in De Haas's Early Settlements, p. 36s. 

* The following extract from the proceedings of the Supremo Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania referring to Adam Poe will be of interest : 

"Philadelphia, April 1. 1781. 

"An order drawn on the Treasurer in favor of the Honorable Dorsey Pentecost, Esq., 
for the sum of twelve pounds ten shillings specie, to he paid to Adam Foe for taking an 
Indian scalp in the county of Washington, agreeably to the proclamation of the Board. "— 
Cot. Rk„ vol. xiii.. p. 348- 

For the proclamation referred to see pages 50-60 of this volume. 

In the records of the court of Yohogenia County, Vs., we find the following reference to 
Andrew Poe: 

"Sept. so, 1778, 
him Lieut, of the Militia, which was read and sworn to accordingly." 

A note written in pencil by Judge Veech, in his copy of De Haas's EorJy Settlements, soys: 
"Andrew Poe waa constable of Robinson township (Wash. Co.) for several years after its 

* The following sketch of this famous Indian fighter was published in the Wairsviiit 
Record in 183 a, and is quoted in the History of Western Pennsylvania (Appendix, p. 344): 

"Captain Samuel Brady was bora in Shippensburg, in Cumberland County, in 1758 [now 
known to be 1756, B„] but soon removed with his father to the West Branch of the Sui- 

of a frontier exposed to savage warfare. Brady's military propensities were very early 
developed. He eagerly sought a post ia the Revolutionary army: waa at the siege of Boston; 
a lieutenant at the massacre of the Pacli; and in 1779 [1778. B.]. was ordered^ to Fort Pitt 
with the regiment under Gen. Brodhead. A short time previous to this, both his father 
and brother had fallen by the hands of the Indians, and from that moment Brady took a 
solemn oath of vengeance against all Indiana. Hia future Life was devoted to the fulfill- 
ment of his vow. While Gen. Brodhead held command at Fort Pitt, (ij8o-'8i) Brady was 
often selected to command small scouting parties sent into the Indian country north and 
west of the fori, to watch the movements of the savages; a charge he always fulfilled with 
his characteristic courage and sagacity." 

Brady married Drusilla, only daughter of Captain Van Swearingen, first sheriff of Wash- 
ington County, Pa., and himself a daring frontier military leader. 

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164 History of Beaver County 

Several of his most daring exploits were performed on the Big 
Beaver Creek, or on its tributaries, within the limits of this 
county, or close to it. As elsewhere remarked, the small stream 
which empties into that creek at the lower end of Fallstou is 
named after him, "Brady's Run," and the hill back of that 
borough and the road up it, "Brady's Hill" and "Brady's 
Road." Mention of him is made in the following letters from 
Colonel Daniel Brodhead to the President of the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council. The first letter is written from Fort Pitt, and is 
without date. 1 In it Brodhead says: 

Captn Brady, with five men St two Delaware Indians, set out for 
Sandusky, with a view to bring off a british Prisoner or some Indian 
Scalps. One of his Indians left him and returned to this place, sick or 
cowardly. He has been out ten days, and in as many more I expect him 
back, if he is fortunate. I beg leave to recommend Captn Brady to the 
notice of the Hon'ble Executive Council as an excellent officer, and I 
sincerely wish he may not leave the service for want of the promotion 
he has merited and is justly entitled to, ever since the resignation of 
Captain Moore. 1 

Brady's return is thus noticed by Brodhead to Reed in 
another letter written from Fort Pitt, June 30, 1780: 

. . . Captain Brady is just returned from Sandusky. He took 
Prisoners two young Squaws within a mile of their principal Village; one 
of them effected her escape after six Days' march, the other he brought 
to Cuscusky, where he met seven warriors who had taken a woman & 
Child off Chartier's Creek. He fired at the Captain and killed hint, and 
have brought in the woman & the Indian's Scalp, but the Squaw made 
her escape at the same time. When Captain Brady fired at the Indians, 
he had only three men with him & but two rounds of powder. He was 
out thirty-two Days, six of which he was quite destitute of Provisions of 
any kind, but he has brought his party safe to this place. Captain Brady's 
seal, perseverance, & good Conduct certainly entitles him to promotion ; 
there has been a vacancy for him since the Death of Captain Dawson, 
which happened in last September, and I must beg leave to recommend 
him to the Hon'ble Executive Council as an officer of merit.' 

The reference in the last letter is to a well-known incident, 
viz., the rescue of Jenny Stupes. The name is preserved in 
Stoopes's Ferry and there are people of that name in the county 
yet, perhaps her descendants. The following account of her 

» Another letter irom Brodhead, of lilra content*, in dated May jo. i7«o. See PtMH. 

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History of Beaver County 165 

rescue is quoted in Day's Historical Collections * from an article 
by a writer signing himself "Kiskiminetas," published about 
sixty years ago in the BlairsviUe Record. After giving the facts 
as to Brady's visit to Sandusky, he says: 

The provisions and ammunition of the men were exhausted by the 
time they had reached the Big Beaver, on their return. Brady shot an 
otter, but could not eat it. The last load was in his rifle. They arrived 
at an old encampment, and found plenty of strawberries, which they 
stopped to appease their hunger with. Having discovered a deer track, 
Brady followed it . . . He had gone but a few rods when he saw 
the deer standing broadside to him. He raised his rifle and attempted 
to fire, but it flashed in the pan; and he had not a priming of powder. 
He sat down, picked the touch-hole, and then started on. After going 
a short distance the path made a bend, and he saw before him a large 
Indian on horseback, with a white child before and its mother behind him 
on the horse, and a number of warriors marching in the rear. His first 
impulse was to shoot the Indian on horseback, but as he raised the rifle 
he observed the child's head to roll with the motion of the horse. It 
was fast asleep and tied to the Indian. He stepped behind the root of 
a tree and waited until he could shoot the Indian without danger to the 
child or its mother. When he considered the chance certain, he shot the 
Indian, who fell from the horse, and the child and its mother fell with 
him. Brady called to his men with a voice that made the forest ring, to 
surround the Indians and give them a general fire. He sprang to the 
fallen Indian's powder horn, but could not get it off. Being dressed like 
an Indian, the woman thought he was one, and said, "Why did you 
shoot your brother? " He caught up the child, saying, "Jenny Stupes, 
I am Captain Brady, follow me and I will save you and your child." He 
caught her hand in his, carrying the child under the other arm, and 
dashed into the brush. Many guns were fired at him by this time, but 
no ball harmed him, and the Indians, dreading an ambuscade, were glad 
to make off. The next day he arrived at Fort Mcintosh with the woman 
and her child. His men had got there before him. They had heard his 
warwhoop and knew it was Indians they had encountered, but having 
no ammunition, they had taken to their heels and ran off . . . Brady 
was desirous of seeing the Indian he had shot, and the officer in com- 
mand of Port Mcintosh gave him some men in addition to his own, and 
he returned to search for the body. The place where he had fallen wa% 
discovered, but nothing more. They were about to quit the place, when 
the yell of a pet Indian that came with them from the fort, called them 
to a little glade, where the grave was discovered. The Indians had in- 
terred their dead brother, carefully replacing the sod in the neatest 
manner. They had also cut brushes and stuck them into the ground; 
but the brushes had withered, and instead of concealing the grave, they 
had led to the discovery. He was buried about two feet deep, with all 

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166 History of Beaver County 

his implements of war about him. All his savage jewelry, his arms and 
ammunition were taken from him, and the scalp from his head, and then 
they left him thus stripped in his grave.' 

From Brodhead's letter above it would seem that this adven- 
ture took place somewhere near Kuskuskee, instead, as some have 
thought, on what is to-day known as Brady's Run. But it was 
at any rate within the former limits of Beaver County. 


In the closing part of March, 1790, Jacob Colvin and his wife 
Mary started in the morning from the house of Mrs. Colvin's 
father, Samuel Van Swearingen, to prepare for their home a 
house and garden on the farm which is now occupied by William 
Ramsey, and owned by John Morton, situated in Hanover town- 
ship. This couple had been married something over a year, and 
took with them their child. They had worked all the forenoon 
and were on their way back to the house, Mrs. Colvin riding be- 
hind her husband on the same horse, and carrying her little 
child, perhaps four months old, upon her lap. Without any 
warning, when about one half mile from her father's house, and 
on his farm, two sharp rifle-shots rang out upon the air and the 
balls passed through her body, and also through the arm and 
side of the husband. The husband and wife both fell from the 

Mr. Colvin got to his' feet and endeavored to assist his wife, 
but, seeing that she was beyond help, and that the Indians were 
approaching, he managed to get on his horse and escaped to the 
house. The shooting attracted the attention of the neighbors, 
and within a couple of hours a rescuing party was formed and 
proceeded to the place of the murder. They found the body of 
Mrs. Colvin, who had been scalped, and that of her babe, which 
had been brained upon the side of a tree. Other neighbors soon 
arrived and a party was formed which followed the retreating 
savages to the bank of the river at the mouth of King's Creek in 
what is now Hancock County, W. Va. The pursuers did not 
dare to cross the river and that was the end of their search. 
Among the settlers who followed on this search were James 
Whitehill and William Langfitt, grandfather of Joseph A. Lang- 
fitt, President of the Federal National Bank of Pittsburg, Pa. 

' Set ftlto De Hub's account in History of Early SiUlemtnls, etc., p. 383. 

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History of Beaver County 167 

This murder was the last committed by the Indians within what 
is now Beaver County. 

Samuel Van Swearingen, above named, had emigrated from 
Maryland, and settled in Hanover township a short time before 
this upon the farm that is now owned and occupied by James 
Van Swearingen, and where he lived until the time of his death. 
He was buried in the Swearingen burial-ground upon the old 
home farm. This old settler was an ancestor of Joseph M. Swear- 
ingen of the Pittsburg bar, and Rev. Harry Swearingen of the 
United Presbyterian Church of Pittsburg, Pa., and William, John, 
and Frank Swearingen, who now reside in the Mill Creek Valley. 

Among the men of mental and moral force to early settle in 
Beaver County was Walter Clarke. Clarke was a native of what 
is now Dauphin County, and his parents were early members of 
the old Paxtang Presbyterian Church. Moving to what was then 
Dueerstown — now Lewisburg — in 1771, he became a leading 
public man, and was sent to represent Northumberland County 
in the Constitutional Convention of 1776, which followed close 
upon the Declaration of Independence, and over which Benjamin 
Franklin presided. The volumes of the Pennsylvania Archives 
contain many pages of his accounts as a member of the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety during the Revolutionary War. 

Soon after the Depreciation lands were opened for settlement , 
Clarke came to what was later Beaver (now Lawrence) County, 
and settled on a tract of land in North Beaver township, con- 
tiguous to the old Westfield meeting-house, in whose churchyard 
he was buried in 1802. Later his son John became prothonotary 
of Beaver County, and in 1836 represented his district in the 
Constitutional Convention of that year, — thus filling a similar 
position to the one his father had held in a former convention, 
sixty years before. Walter Clarke's son-in-law, John Nesbit, 
became an associate judge of the Beaver County courts. His 
grandsons were also prominent in business and politics. 

The side of Beaver County south of the Ohio River was, as 
we have said, the first to be settled; the north side being until 
a late period known as the "Indian side," or the "Indian 
country," and avoided by all but the most daring and adven- 
turous. Even after the Indian claims had been quieted by the 
treaties of 1784 and 1785, the Indians themselves were not 

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1 68 History of Beaver County 

quieted, and any who attempted to settle north of the Ohio took 
their lives in their hands in so doing. The Indian rights were 
also, previous to those treaties, strictly guarded by the Govern- 
ment.* It was not until after Wayne's victory over the Miami Con- 
federacy in 1794, and the treaty of Greenville in the following 
year, that settlements on that side could be safely undertaken. 
Nevertheless, prior to that, several attempts at settlement were 
made within the present bounds of Beaver County on the west side 
of Beaver Creek. William Foulkes is thought to have made one 
in 179a in what is now Ohio township, between Salem church 
and the Little Beaver. But it is certain that Nicholas Dawson, a 
brother of Benoni Dawson of Georgetown, and Neal McLaughlin 
started settlements on the north side about four miles back from 
the river and west of the Big Beaver, in April, 179a. This ap- 
pears from the record of the suit between these two parties in the 
Allegheny County court, October, 1800, for the possession of 
the property. McLaughlin, the plaintiff, won the suit, on the 
ground that he had more nearly fulfilled the conditions of the 
law defining the acts necessary to constitute actual settlement, 
although Dawson, the defendant, was one day ahead of him in 
entering upon the land. 9 Benoni Dawson also, as shown in the 

1 The following letter from Brodhead to Washington will show haw anxious the au- 
thorities were to prevent prematura settlement in the Tn^i»n country : 

int.) I rec'd a letter from 
1 Decker. Co* & Comp'y 
ei on the Indians' lends 
irkn of the Sth Pen' Reg 7 ! 
River at that part, ft to 
ts— He returned without 

:he Delaware Council at 

To the same effect ii the following order of General Irvine : 

"Okdir, Port Pitt. February it, 1)83. 

"Any perion who ihall presume to ferry either men or women over the Ohio or Alle- 
gheny riven or shall be found criming over into what is generally called the Indian country 
between the Kittanning and Port Mcintosh without a written permit from the commanding 
officer at Port Pitt, or orders for that purpose — until further orden thai] be treated and 
prosecuted for holding or aiding others to correspond with and give intelligence t< 

enemy. This order to be in force until dvil government thinks proper to direct -•■ 

— {Waik.-lrvin* Cor., p. »6i.) 

' For McLaughlin vs. Damson, see Smith's Lows of Pmniyhania, itSi-'oo, p. 100. 

We give copies of the following warrants from the Warrant Book of Beaver County for 
their intrinsic interest, and we surmise that the second is the warrant for the land for which 
the above-named suit was brought: 

" 1501, July I], Benoni Dawson, Jr., Enters a warrant for 300 acre* of land on the west 
[northwest] of the Ohio and cut of little Beaver creek, two or three miles up said creek near 

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History of Beaver County 169 

note below, began improvements north of the Ohio in April, 1 799, 
and in November of that year William Williams made a settle- 
ment on " Buck Run," now Walnut Bottom Run, and was there 
in 1796. 

It is not known who was the first permanent settler north of 
the Ohio and east of the Beaver Creek. So far as we can leam 
there are not even any persons named as entitled to the honor 
of having been the first to enter that portion of the county. 

One of the first to improve the land at the falls of the Beaver 
was John McKee, of what is now McKeesport. This improve- 
ment is described in the chapter of this work on Pallston borough, 
to which the reader is referred. 1 


We need a good deal of what is called the " historic imagina- 
tion" to enable us rightly to conceive the life of our forefathers 
in these western wilds. We too often throw the glamour of 
romance over it, and fail to realize how stern and hard was the 
actual existence of the pioneer settlers. 

There were few families in those days that had not had good 
reason in the loss of dear ones to dread the coming of the savages, 
and the fear of their attacks was ever present with them. Their 
daily labors had to be carried on in constant preparation against 
surprise. While at work in field or forest their trusty rifles had 
to be within easy reach ; sometimes they even laid them across 
the plough-handles that not a moment might be lost in case of 
need. Helpless women and children and the sick had often to 
be left alone in the house, when the settler, on his return, would 
not know if he should find them still alive or see their mutilated 
corpses lying amid the charred timbers of a ruined homestead. 
The rumor of an Indian attack sent the scattered settlers flying 
to central points of refuge and defense. These were the so-called 
"forts" and "blockhouses." Crumrine's History of Washington 
County says (p. 73): 

the wemern Boundary of the State. Including his improvement* begun the jotb day of 
April. [703. and dated the and Feb.. 1703." 

" 1703. August ijd, Neal McLaughlin Enters a warrant dated May 16. i-oj, for 400 
•OH of land on the northwest side of the Ohio river — between the Big and little Beaver 
creeks, on the north fork of Dry Run. adjoining lands of Hugh Graham on the north and 
John Little on the east to include a settlement made in the year 1791 in Pittsburgh [Pitt?] 
township. Allegheny County." 

1 Then will be found in Appendix No. V. a ver 
settlers in the various portion* of the county in th 
for this work from the tax duplicate! preserved in 

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170 History of Beaver County 

The ' ' settlers' forts " and block-houses, of which there were many in the 
territory that is now Washington County . . . were erected by the 
associated efforts of settlers in particular neighborhoods upon the land of 
some one, whose name was thereupon given to the fort, as Vance's fort, 
Beelor's fort, etc. They consisted of a greater or leas space of land, in- 
closed on all sides by high log parapets or stockades, with cabins adapted to 
the abode of families. The only external openings were a large pun- 
cheon gate and small port-holes among the logs, through which the rifle 
of the settler could be pointed against the assailants. Some times, as at 
Lindley's, and many of the other forts in the adjacent country west of the 
Monongahela, additional cabins were erected outside of the fort for 
temporary abode in times of danger, from which the sojourners could in 
case of attack retreat within the fort. 

Doddridge, in his Notes on the Early Settlements and Indian 
Wars, describes them as follows: 

The fort consisted of cabins, block-houses and stockades. A range of 
cabins commonly formed one side at least of the fort. Divisions or par- 
titions of logs separated the cabins from each other. The walls on the 
outside were ten or twelve feet high, the slope of the roof being turned 
wholly inward. A very few of these cabins had puncheon floors, the 
greater part were earthen. The block-houses were built at the angles of 
the fort. They projected about two feet beyond the outer walls of the 
cabins and stockades. Their upper stories were about eighteen inches 
every way larger in dimension than the under one, leaving an opening at 
the commencement of the second story to prevent an enemy making a 
lodgement under the walls. In some forts the angles of the fort were 
furnished with bastions instead of block-houses. A large folding gate, 
made of thick slabs, nearest the spring, closed the fort. The stockades, 
bastions, cabins and block-house walls were furnished with port-holes at 
proper heights and distances. The whole of the outside was made com- 
pletely bullet-proof. It may be truly said that necessity is the mother of 
invention, for the whole of this work was made without the aid of a single 
nail or spike of iron, and for the reason that such things were not to be 
had. In some places less exposed a single block-house, with a cabin or 
two, constituted the whole fort. Such places of refuge may appear very 
trifling to those who have been in the habit of seeing the formidable mili- 
tary garrisons of Europe and America, but they answered the purpose, as 
the Indians had no artillery. They seldom attacked, and scarcely ever 
took one of them. 

We do not think that the forts which were constructed in the 
region that is now Beaver County were ever so formidable as 
those described above. We believe that they were in fact nothing 
more than the dwellings of the settlers strongly constructed of 
logs, built for the double purpose of affording abodes and places 

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History of Beaver County 171 

of defense. Some of these houses, on account of their superior 
strength or advantage of situation, came to be chosen points of 
refuge, in which all the families of a given neighborhood would 
assemble in case of an Indian invasion or threat of one. Thus the 
tradition of these places of assemblage has always represented 
them as being genuine strongholds, or forts. Levi Dungan's 
house was one of these "forts." ' Five miles east of his house, 
in Hanover township, Washington County, was Thomas Dil- 
low's place, spoken of above. Baker's house on Raccoon Creek 
has been mentioned previously. Michael Chrisler, who has de- 
scendants still living in the county, built his house as early as 
1790 about four miles from the mouth of Raccoon. This was 
also known as a fort. In 1786 Benoni Dawson built a "fort" 
on the site of Georgetown, and his son, Thomas Dawson, one on 
the other side of the river some years later. These were doubt- 
less, as we have said, strong log cabins. Other such places of 
which the tradition remains are John Wolf's on Sewickley bot- 
tom, one near the present Monaca, and one built by Colonel John 
Gibson on Logstown bottom, opposite the old Indian Logstown. 
But the dangers which arose from the proximity of their 
savage foes were not the only sources of trial to our brave pro- 
genitors. In other respects they endured hardships such as the 
present generation can scarcely appreciate. They knew little 
of the luxuries of life and were often hardly able to obtain its 
necessities.' In matters of dress both men and women were 
sometimes at a loss to know how to hide their nakedness. There 
were then no Miss Flora McFlimseys, who with trunks full 
of dresses had still "nothing to wear." In the pioneer times 

1 What ws have aid above M to the character of the fort* in thi* immediate region it 
confirmed by what is said in a letter from the Hon. Warren S. Dungan, a grandson of Levi 
Dungan. Ha writes: 

" That all these. ' block-houee* ' or ' forte ' were the ordinary dwelling houses, built for 
the double purpoac of residence and defense you may rely upon. I received this statement 
from ray father many a time." 

• The "staff of life" was sometimes wanting, and it* lack seems to have been felt a* a 
great hardship. Doddridge says: 

"The Indian meal which my father brought over the mountain was expended six weeks 
too soon, so for that length of time we had to live without bread. The lean venison and 
the breast of wild turkeys we were taught to call bread. The flesh of the bear was denomi- 
nated meat. This artifice did not succeed very well. After living in thii way for some 
time we became sickly, the stomach seemed to be always empty, and tormented with a 
sense of hunger. I remember how narrowly the children watched the growth of tin 

pumpkin and squash vines, hoping from day to day to get something to answer in the 
nf bread. How delicious was the taste of the young potatoes when we got theml 
- : - *-*■ — when we were permitted to pull tha young cc — * — ------- --.-i <?.:n 

had acquired sufficient hardness to be made is 

What a jubilee when we were permitted to pull the 
more so when it had acquired sufficient hardness to dl .. 
of a tin grater. We then became healthy, vigorous, and 

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172 History of Beaver County 

flaxen cloth and linsey-woolsey were used for the garments of the 
women and the shirts of the men, and buckskin was a staple 
article for dress and footwear. There was sometimes a scarcity 
of these even. Hon. Samuel Wilkeson, in his "Early Recollections 
of the West," ' says: 

So great was the destitution of comfortable clothing, that when the 
first Court of Common Pleas was held at Catfish, now Washington, Pa., 
a highly respectable citizen whose presence was required as a magistrate, 
could not attend court without first borrowing a pair of leather breeches 
from an equally respectable neighbor who was summoned on the grand 
jury. The latter lent them, and having no other had to stay at home. 

The same writer says that among the men who attended 
public worship in the winter, ten were obliged to substitute a 
blanket or coverlet for an overcoat, where one enjoyed the luxury 
of that article. This was, of course, in the very earliest period, 
when the scanty stock of clothing which they had brought 
with them to the West had worn out, and they had not yet had 
time to grow a crop of flax and make it into cloth. But we 
have read of how at a much later date the same blue cloth 
coat was worn by as many as nineteen bridegrooms, the only 
dress coat in as many wedding parties, which by fair sale or by 
loan was made to do duty in the neighborhood for several 

There were no roads, no stores, and but a few mills. Salt, 
iron, and other necessary articles had all to be brought across 
the mountains on pack-horses, and the main problem was how 
to get the money to pay for these things and for the taxes, low 
as the latter then were. Com and wheat could be raised, but 
they were hard to market. That is the reason the Washington 
County and Westmoreland County people took to making 
whisky out of their grain. Having no market for it they were 
compelled to reduce its bulk by converting it into whisky and 
to send the latter to the East for sale; a horse could carry two 
kegs of eight gallons each, worth about fifty cents per gallon on 
this side of the mountains, and one dollar on the other side. J 

1 Amirican Pionrrr, vol. ii„ p. i;£, 

* Ctnttnary Mtmorial of Pnsbytmtmiim, p. 14, 

1 "For these Teaaona we have, found it absolutely 
•mall distilleries into our settlement*, and in every circ_ 
of these is generally erected, merely for the accomodation 
any commercial views whatever. — Petition of inhabit 
Pinna. Arch , vol. xi., p. 671. 

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History of Beaver County 173 

Distilling thus became a part of every farmer's business, and 
the "Whisky Insurrection" was caused by what the people of 
some of the western counties of Pennsylvania considered unjust 
measures in taxation of this branch of their industry.' Flax 
also could be woven into linen which could be sold to the oc- 
casional traders visiting the country, or carried beyond the 
AUeghenies and exchanged for the needed merchandise. So 
every farm had its flax field and every house its spinning-wheel 
and loom. As late as after the War of 1813, Robert Hood, on 
the south side of Beaver County, and perhaps others, continued 
to pack goods from the East. Salt, until after 1804, was $7 a 
bushel, and a bushel of salt was the hire of a horse for the trip. 
Four bushels made a load. After the Kanawha salt began to be 
brought up the Ohio in keel boats the price was reduced to $ 4 
a bushel. Fresh meats were occasionally obtained as animals 
were slaughtered and divided among the people of a neighbor- 
hood, but the principal "stand-by" of diet was "hog and 
hominy," and each family had a hominy-block cut from the 
cross-section of a large tree. Owing to the scarcity of iron, 
wooden nails were generally used, and horses went for the most 
part unshod." The difficulty of getting iron and the value it 
had in the eyes of the settlers may be seen from an instance that 
is on record of one who gave his settler's right to two hundred 
acres of land for a set of plough-irons. 3 

The rude cabins were almost entirely devoid of comforts. 
Their floors were either the earth itself, or else rough puncheons. 
The tables were made of clapboards, supported by wooden legs 
set in auger holes. Some three-legged stools were made in the 
same way. Tableware consisted of a few pewter dishes, plates, 
and spoons, or more commonly of wooden bowls, trenchers, and 
noggins, or even gourds and hard-shelled squashes. The few 
iron or copper pots and kettles found in a neighborhood 
did service in many families, being almost indispensable for 

1 Hill, of ih* Wisttn Ituumetion, Braefcenridge, p. 1 7. 

* When Governor Spottsv/ood of Virginia led the expedition in 1 710 from Williamsburg, 
to discover a pass through the Alleghcnioe, the hones used by the explorers were ihod for 
the fiist time. They found a practicable pan, and on their return the governor, as a 
memorial of the event, established the " Transmontane Order, or Knights of the Golden 
Hone Shoe." In allusion to the horseshoes they used, he gave a* the badge of the Order 
a golden horseehoe, inscribed with the motto, "Sie jural (rmusmoVr* tmmtti." — Wtsltr* 

* History of AUrgktny County, tggo, p. tjo. 

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174 History of Beaver County 

butchering times, when the hogs had to be scalded, and for 
other uses.' 

Beds were constructed by setting forked sticks in the floor, 
from which poles were extended to cracks in the walls, and then 
laying boards across the poles, the boards forming the bottom 
of the bed on which skins or blankets could be spread. The 
furniture of the cabin was completed by a few pegs fastened 
around the walls, on which such clothing as was not on the backs 
of the owners could be hung, and by a wooden rack for the trusty 
rifle, when not in use. The wealth or poverty of the family was 
announced to the visitor by the number and quality of the 
articles of clothing which were displayed upon these wall pegs. 
There was generally a "house-warming," or an all-night dance, 
before the family assumed the occupancy of a new cabin. 

In trying to avoid the error of overlooking the sterner side of 

■ The lilt of pricti which follows has historic value as showing what our greet-grand- 
fatheri paid lor khm of the articles tbey bought. It waa obtained by the late Hon. Agnew 
Duff, of New Brighton, from an old ledger kept by Richard Shurer, a farmer and merchant 
of early daysin what was afterwards North Beaver township, Beaver County, now Lawrence 
County. The room in which Mr. Shurer kept hia store waa in the second story of his spring 
house, which was built of logs and is still standing. The ledger shows the dates to run from 
1796 to i&oo, and the accounts were kept altogether in pounds, shillings, and pence. The 
prices here given are copied just as entered in the ledger, except that they were reduced 
by Mr. Duff to dollars and cents; 

i yd. calico i.ij 

i gallon whisky, t.gj 

t bushel salt, ....,......,.,,.,... j,Y3 

i lb. coffee ,. 58 

10 lbs. hay 1*0 

1 wool hat ».« 

, paper pins. i! 


1 mowing scythe 

From this price list it would seem that, a hundred years ago. everything was dear but 
whisky. We may compare this list with prices m Beaver County in iS3S- In a letter 
published in that year by H, T. C, Oould. in 'iJtuum'i Caiktt (Philadelphia), we find the 

" Provisions, though much higher than when I first settled here Do the Beaver Valley], 
are still comparatively low, if we look to the prices in your city; and fuel so low as scarcely 
to be named among other expenses. Wood at our doors, is li.»s cts. a cord: coal from $4. jo 
to S6.00 the hundred buihels. Veal, mutton, beef, pork, &c. from 3 to < cts. per lb.: butter 
from 9 to til cts., flour t* so per barrel; potatoes usually »s cts. per bushel: turnips. i8|: 
chickens, iHtoij cts. a pair; eggs, Hots, a doien. large village lots may yet be had — 
sty 40 to 60 feet front, by iso to 10a feet deep, for prices, varying, according to the streets 
and locations, from $40 to (300 each: and out lots of from 1 to 10 acres, within a mile or 
two of the town, from $30 to $100 per acre, and farms in various parts of the county, un- 
improved, at Si to 1 10 . . . improved at from S? to S10 per acre." 

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History of Beaver County 175 

pioneer life, we must not fall into its opposite by imagining that 
life as unrelieved by mirth and jollity. It is a consoling fact that 
there is no condition so bad but that man can find in himself the 
resources of relief or enjoyment. A prisoner in the awful dun- 
geon of the little Chatelet in Paris, who had languished for years 
in a living tomb, said that he and his fellow-prisoners had kept 
themselves alive and from despair by constantly singing the songs 
of the people. Even the terrors of the wilderness, with its 
savage beasts and still more savage men, did not quench the 
spirit of fun and frolic in the breasts of the boys and girls of the 
pioneer settlements, or daunt the courage of their elders. 1 It 
took more than an Indian or a catamount to do that. They 
had dances of the simpler forms, such as three- and four-handed 
reels and jigs; scutching frolics and husking parties, where both 
sexes met, were frequent, and the boys and men had their rude 
games in common, and athletic sports in which they vied with 
each other in running, jumping, and wrestling, besides the con- 
tests of skill in shooting with the bow and arrow and with the 
rifle. Doddridge, from whom we have gleaned the most of these 
particulars, says that dramatic narrations on simple themes 
were also common amusements of the young people, and, at a 
later period, music and singing. 

In the excitements of the still-hunt and the chase, the men 
found pleasures as well as a means of supplying the larder for the 
household, and we read of some of the women even who knew 
how to "86 the rifle, and who on occasion could bring down 
with it 4 wild turkey or a deer. At a later period grand fox- 

1 T1.0 cheerf ulness of the 
endured the hardship* of tfc 
his diary. Kyi (page 118): 

"Saturday n [April, 177.1] Reached Ligonier. In toil journey ire overtook severs! 
families removing from the old settlements in th* State, and from Maryland and New 
Jersey, to the I refffl country. Their patience and perseverance in poverty and fatigue 
were wonderful. They were not only patient, but c t-^rful and pleated themaelvei with 
the expectation of seeing happy days, beyond the mo. 'tains. 

"I noticed, particularly, one family of about 12 in number. The man carried an or 
and gun on hii shoulders— the Wife, the rim of a spinning wheel in one hand, and a loaf 
of bread in the other. Several little bays and girls, each with a bundle, according to their 

baggage of one, m an infant rucked to sleep in a kind of wicker cage, lashed securely to 
the hone. A Cow formed one of the company, and she was destined to bear her portion of 
'" er horns, and a beg of meal on her back. The above 

t part of the poor and enterprising people, who leave their 
good ft cheap." 

habitations and connections, and go in queit of lands for themselves and children, ft with 
"le enjoyment of independence, in their worldly circumstances, where land is 

realiu their hopes. Before that time, the country was a desolate wilderness; but now 
there ore many well cultivated farms in the pleasant vmllies which run among the Moun- 
tains, ft to the Westward, on to Pittsburgh, about 10 miles." 

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176 History of Beaver County 

bunts were organized, reviving and sometimes rivalling those 
which many of the settlers had seen in the fields of "merrie old 
England." ' 

Public morality was maintained in the pioneer society, even 
more than in our own, by public opinion. "The punishment 
for lying, idleness, dishonesty and ill-fame generally," says 
Doddridge, "was that of 'hating the offender out,' as they 
expressed it. This mode of chastisement was like the atimea 
of the Greeks. It was a public expression, in various ways, of a 
general sentiment of indignation against such as transgressed the 
moral maxims of the community to which they belonged. This 
commonly resulted either in the reformation or banishment of the 
person against whom it was directed." 

Manners are minor morals. In these there was, of course, a 
rudeness at that early date which is now found only among the 
lower classes or on the frontiers of our land. "Rough-and- 
tumble" fighting was common, and not infrequently there were 

1 The fallowing advertisement of ■ fox hunt, though of a later period than the timet of 
which we (peak above, will yet be of interest: 


given at "10 o'clock, the usual to be started at the cross-roads I Ephmim Thomas') by bloi 
of horns five minutes without intermission. The blowing of all horns is forbidden 1 
that hour. The men are requested to march slow and in good oroV -*" ' «—-:— 
thickets and rocks carefully; the dosing ground to be in the glades, 
where it will be marked plain. The first closing line wi" "-- * L '- - 

Ct Sampson Marker's, thence around the river hill to Ale 
t of the hill back of Richard McClure's. and on aroun 

line until a signal ii given fimi the renter 01 the closing ground by the beating of a drum 
sible. The officers all keeping their places on the lines. ' The dogs must not be let loose 

L . . .. w Keep tne j r places on the lines closing. We 

on foot ; persons on horseback will please put 
losing ground. The officers will be careful to 
. and use their best endeavors to keep the lines 
end with their dogs and horses. 

Many Spovnrat." 
— From the Wtstm Argus, Pebruary ft, 1834. 

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History of Beaver County 177 

combats "with fists, teeth and feet employed at will, but above 
all, the detestable practice of gouging, by which eyes were some- 
times put out." * 

Sufficient will be said in regard to the religious life of the 
settlers in another chapter, but we may remark here that being, 
as a rule, from communities in the old country and the eastern 
parts of this country where they had known all the advantages 
of churches, they hastened to secure for themselves and their 
children like privileges in their new locations in the West. It 
must be confessed, however, that the pioneers were also very 
much addicted to superstitious beliefs and practices. Medical 
science was then in its infancy, and physicians were very few in 
number, so that, as might naturally be expected among a simple 
people, a great variety of charms were resorted to for the cure of 
diseases. They ascribed the infliction of many diseases and cal- 
amities to the influence of witches, and believed in the power of 
wizards, or witch-masters as they were sometimes called, to re- 
move them. The writer before quoted says that all diseases 
which could neither be accounted for nor cured were usually 
ascribed to some supernatural agency of a malignant kind, and 
that the witch-masters enjoyed quite as much confidence and 
patronage as the regular physicians. 

Education, until a somewhat late period, was of the most 
rudimentary character, parents seldom having the means to 
send their children to the eastern schools, and being compelled 
to content themselves with giving them what little learning they 
themselves possessed. This, however, sufficed for the simple 
business of the backwoods, and with the increase of population 
and growth of social and business needs the schoolmaster ap- 
peared and played his part. 

On the whole we may say that the men and women who 

1 Even op to the period of the Civil War. rough fighting was very common, a* the writer 
well remembers to have Men in hi* boyhood- The fighting men then enjoyed a land of 
honor among their fellows. It is certain that nich is no longer the cue; it being ■ ran 
thing now to tee a fight on the public streets, and the bully, if he showed himself to our 
sight to-day h> he used to do, would limply be voted a bore and tent to jail. The writer 
ha* a theory about this improved atate of manners. He thinks that it was brought about 
largely by the war itself, with its serious and awful tests of character and courage. The 
common street fighter and village champion failed to meet those tests so well a* did the 
man of quiet spirit and orderly life, and lost prestige accordingly. The people learnt what 
real fighting and real courage are, and profited by the lesson. 

For a graphic account of "gouging" see Tkt Strontir in Amtrica (chapter xitii.), by 
Charles William Jensen, Esq., London, 1S07. 

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178 History of Beaver County 

settled the region of which Beaver County is now a part were a 
noble race, with the virtues and the vices which belonged to their 
time and their environment. To the former, their virtues of 
honesty, loyalty, and bravery and tenacity of purpose, we owe 
the possession of our better things, and it would ill become us to 
scan too critically the failings of those who conquered £or us our 
inheritance and transmitted it to us in title-deeds written in 
their own blood. For the pioneers as well as for their children 
and grandchildren who spread out through these valleys and 
over these hills, and gave to the rural population of to-day its 
elements of thrift and integrity, we need make no apologies. 
Rather may we ask with pride, like the old man of Riley's poem, 
for a "tale of the airly days — of the times as they ust to be": 

Tell me a tale of the timber-lands — 

Of the old-time pioneers; 
Somepin' a pore man understands 

With his feelins '5 well as ears. 
Tell of the old log house, — about 

The loft, and the puncheon flore — 
The old fi-er place, with the crane swung out, 

And the latch-string thrugh the door. 

Tell of the things jest as they was — 

They don't need no excuse! — 
Don't tetch 'em up like the poets does, 

Tel theyr all too fine for use!— 
Say they was 'leven in the fambily — 

Two beds, and the chist, below, 
And the trundle-beds that each helt three. 

And the clock and the old bureau. 

Then blow the horn at the old back-door 

Tel the echoes all halloo, 
And the childem gethers home onc't more. 

Jest as they ust to do: 
Blow for Pap tel he hears and comes, 

With Tomps and Elias, too, 
A-marchin' home, with the fife and drums 

And the old Red White and Blue I 

Blow and blow tel the sound draps low 

As the moan of the whipperwifl, 
And wake up Mother, and Ruth and Jo, 

All sleepin' at Bethel Hill: 
Blow and call tel the faces all 

Shine out in the back-log's blase. 
And the shadders dance on the old hewed wall 

As they did in the airly days. 

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* ff 

I I 

i 8 



"Land-grabbing," Indian, Swedish, Dutch, and English — DukeoE York's 
Tenure — William Penn's Tenure — Conveyances — Manors — Extin- 
guishment of Indian Title — Purchases of 1768 and 1784 — Treaty of 
Fort Mcintosh, 1785 — Depreciation and Donation Lands — Reserva- 
tions — Land Act of 179a — Land Companies— Litigation Resulting — 
Pennsylvania and Virginia Grants. 

Still to the whiteman's wants there is no end. 

He said, "beyond those hills he would not come"; 
But to the western seas his hands extend, 

Ere yet bis promise dies upon his tongue. 

The first settlement in Pennsylvania was by the Swedes; 
the Swedes were dispossessed by the Dutch, and the Dutch by the 
English. But before the white man began the occupation of the 
land, the Indian had been carrying on the same game of "land- 
grabbing." The Lenni-Lenape, who at the coming of the Euro- 
peans were in possession in the lands now included within the 
limits of Pennsylvania, were, according to their own traditions, 
not the first owners, nor were the Iroquois, their masters. If 
we may trust that tradition these had themselves driven out 
another tribe, the Allegewi, who have left only their name as 
their memorial. 

The English, claiming title to all the country along the coast 
visited by Cabot in 1498, never ceased to assert possession of 
right to the lands along the Delaware, and in 1664 Charles II. 
granted all those lands to his brother, James, Duke of York and 
Albany, who established a code of laws for the governing of the 
newly acquired territories. By these laws the tenure of land 
was from the Duke of York. 

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180 History of Beaver County 

William Penn acquired a title to the lands in question by 
charter from the King (1681), and by deed from the Duke of 
York (1682), and to the territory was given the name of Pennsyl- 
vania, or Penn's Woods; he, with his heirs and assigns, being 
constituted the true and absolute proprietary of the province, 
saving allegiance to the Crown. Having secured his title, Penn 
published his conditions and concessions to purchasers, and pre- 
scribed the rules of settlement. The first conveyances by the 
proprietor were by deeds of lease and release, which were exe- 
cuted in England. The grantees were called first purchasers 
and the grants, which conferred peculiar privileges, were called 
old rights. They amounted to over five hundred thousand 

The grants were of manors. Volume iv. of the Pennsylvania 
Archives, 3d series, contains a most interesting collection of 
facsimiles of the patents of these old manors. Several of them 
were in western Pennsylvania; as the Manor of Pittsburg, 1 
which embraced within its bounds 5,776 acres, and the Manor 
of Kittanning, which extended "north on the east bank of the 
Allegheny river from the mouth of Crooked creek to about the 
middle of the present Manorville," and contained three thousand 
acres. This manor did not, as many suppose, include either the 
old Indian town of Kittanning or the present town of that name. 
As stated in a preceding chapter, it was to this manor that the 
Pennsylvanians had decided to remove from Fort Pitt on account 
of the oppressive proceedings of Dr. John Connolly, Lord Dun- 
more's agent, but found it unnecessary when that gentleman 
was compelled to leave the country. It was then in Westmore- 
land County, which had also a manor at Cherry Valley, one at 
Denmark, and two others. There were also five manors in 
Bedford County. The tenure here was a kind of feudal tenure 
called socage, or fixed rent, reserving the quit-rent. The quit- 
rents were the origin of the present ground-rents. They were 

1 The warrant for the survey of the Manor of Pittsburg was issued in May. i » 60. The 
tide to this manor waa in the Penn family, John Penn. the grandson of William Penn, being 
then Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania. During the War of the Revolution the Penns 
were Royalists, and in 1779 the Legislature confiscated all their property, except certain 
manors, of which surreys had been made and entered in the Land Office prior to July 4, 
I7T°. The Manor of Pittsburg, bavins been surveyed before this date, remained the prop- 
erty of the Penn family. In 1784, they sold the lands of this manor, the first sale being; 
made in January to Isaac Craig and Stephen Bayard, of all the ground between Port Pitt 
and the Allegheny River, supposed to contain about three acres. 

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History of Beaver County i8r 

very unpopular with the colonists and a source of continual 
disagreement between them and the proprietor. 

One of the first cares of Perm was to extinguish all the titles 
which the Indians possessed to the lands included within his 
charter. Through a long term of years treaties were made with 
them, for the purchase of their lands.' Payments were made in 
blankets and other wearing apparel; in pins, needles, scissors, 
knives, axes, and guns. For some of their lands they were paid 
twice on account of dissatisfaction with the purchase-price, so 
anxious were the proprietaries to keep on friendly terms with 
them. No doubt the intentions of the authorities were honest 
enough, but when we consider the vast extent of the territory 
surrendered by the Indians, and the purchase-price*, a few thou- 
sand dollars' worth of "goods, merchandize and trinkets," the 
justice of the transactions is not striking. And despite the 
formal acceptance of the terms made in the treaties, the Indians 
were wise enough to see that they were being very poorly com- 
pensated for their lands. As Chief Whole Face said to James 
Dickinson, the surveyor appointed for the Ninth District, afcer 
the final purchases of 1 784 and '85, " Many of our young Warriors 
are dissatisfied with the Reward we received for the Lands 
Thinking it inadequate for so large a Body; it not being one pair 
of Mokosons a piece." * 

purchase op 1768 
The map at page 109, taken from Egle's History of Penn- 
sylvania , will show the extent of the various purchases made from 

1 "William Penn is now usually tho^ht of as a pious, contemplative man, a peace-loving 
Quaker in a broad-brim hat and plain drib clothes, who founded Pennsylvania in the moat 
successful manner, on benevolent principles, and kindness to the Indiana. But the real 
William Perm, though of a very religious turn of mind, was essentially a man of action, 
restless and enterprising, at limes a courtier and a politician, who lived well and although 
he undoubtedly Inept faith with the red man, Pennsylvania was the torment of hia life." — 
Thr Trvt WiUvm Ptnn. by Sidney George Fisher, p. i. 

' Ptmta. Arch., vol. x„ pp. 740-41- Colonel John Johnson, United Stales Indian Agent 
at Pique, wrote: 

" If I were in the prime of my years, and once more placed in the management of the 
Indians. I would take for my assistants in the service none but Quakers: and with such 
just men in the administration of the government. 1 would not need soldiers to keep the 
Indians in subjection . . . Too much blood already shed : and all this by the unjust 
acta of the general Government in wresting their country from them under the silly mockery 
of a treaty made with a handful of irresponsible persons. Now in most of the contentions 
.. _ ., — . -.-.-.. -1 ... .-, m n^tiun already too large for its good, no vr — ' ■- J 

- -jmporizina 

them until, as Black Hoof. „_ .. . 

anywhere you please, if you will afterwards let 

you will keep driving us back until we reach tl _.. .. . _ _ 

tains, and then we must jump off — ', meaning that at last there would be no country or 
home left for the Indians. Does not our past and present policy towards this unhappy 
nee but too clearly tend to confirm this apprehension I" — CmcmMHf On Fortfolkirt, p. j6. 

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182 History of Beaver County 

the Indians. The purchase of 1 76S was the last one made by the 
proprietary government, as it was also the first which touched 
any part of the territory that is now Beaver County. In 
1767-68 the encroachments of lawless whites upon the Indian 
lands, and their murder of inoffensive Indians, led to a menace of 
another savage war. This was prevented by the timely inter- 
vention of Sir William Johnson. At his suggestion a great 
council was held at Fort Stanwix (now Rome), in New York, at 
which all grievances were adjusted. Here on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1768, a treaty was made with the representatives of the Six 
Nations, which conveyed to the proprietaries all the land on the 
east side of a boundary ' ' beginning where the northern State line 
crosses the North Branch of the Susquehanna river, and running 
a circuitous course by the West Branch of that river to the Ohio 
(Allegheny), at Kitt arming; thence down that river to where the 
western boundary of Pennsylvania crosses the main Ohio, thence 
southward and eastward by the western and southern boundaries 
of the State, to the east side of the Allegheny mountains." This 
purchase included all of the present counties of Washington, 
Greene, Fayette, Westmoreland, and all of Allegheny and 
Beaver counties south of the Ohio River, and then extended 
northeast to Susquehanna and Wayne. 

purchase op 1784 

The purchase of 1768, however, still left about five sixteenths 
of the area of the State under the title-claim of the Indians, and, 
at the close of the Revolutionary War, the authorities of the new 
Commonwealth had at once a duty to perform in regard to this 
unpurchased territory. Looking forward to its acquisition the 
General Assembly had already, by a resolution passed in 1780, ' 
set apart certain lands lying north and west of the Ohio and 
Allegheny rivers for the purpose of making donations of land to 
the officers and soldiers of the Pennsylvania Line who had served 
in the Revolutionary War, and had also, by the Act of March is, 
1783,' set apart certain lands in the same region for the purpose 
of redeeming the certificates of depreciation given to the same 
officers and soldiers. To extinguish the Indian claims in this 
territory was therefore now imperative, and for this purpose 
another treaty was determined upon. The first movement in 

1 a Smith*! I.. 63. • a Smith's L. 6a. 

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History of Beaver County 183 

this direction was taken by the General Assembly which on 
September 35, 1783, adopted the following resolution: 

Resolved, unanimously. That the Supreme Executive Council be, 
and they are hereby authorized and empowered to appoint commissioners 
to hold a meeting with the Indians claiming the unpurchased territory 
within the acknowledged limits of the State, for the purpose of purchasing 
the same, agreeable to ancient usage, and that all the expenses accruing 
from the said meeting and purchase be defrayed out of the Treasury of 
the State.' 

In accordance with this resolution, the Supreme Executive 
Council, on February 33, 1784, appointed Samuel John Atlee, 
William Maclay, and Francis Johnston to serve as Commission- 
ers for the purpose therein specified. Numerous delays fol- 
lowed, but in October of the same year the State Commissioners, 
with the Commissioners of the United States appointed to treat 
with the Indians in relation to lands in the northwest beyond 
the limits of Pennsylvania, met with the representatives of the 
Six Nations at Fort Stanwix, and began their negotiations with 
them. On the 33d of that month these were satisfactorily 
closed, and for the sum of $5000 the title of the Indians to all 
the lands within the boundaries of the State that remained after 
the treaty of 1768 was extinguished. The deed, which is dated 
October 33, 1784, is signed by all the chiefs of the Six Nations 
and by the Continental Commissioners as witnesses, and the 
boundaries of the territory ceded are described therein as follows : 

Beginning at the south side of the river Ohio, where the western 
boundary of the State of Pennsylvania crosses the said river, near Shingo's 
old town, at the mouth of Beaver creek, and thence by a due north line 
to the end of the forty-second and the beginning of the forty-third degrees 
of north latitude, thence by a due east line separating the forty-second 
and forty-third degrees of north latitude, to the east side of the East 
Branch of the Susquehanna river, thence by the bounds of the late pur- 
chase made at Fort Stanwix, the fifth day of November, Anno Domini 
one thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight as follows — * 

The boundaries of the last-named purchase are then recited. 

1 Prima. Arch., vol.*., p. m. 

* Shiogo'3 old town, mentioned in tbe deed, was the Indian village, usually oiled S*w- 
kunk. On Lewis Evans's map of 1755 it is located just at toe mouth of the Big Beaver. 
Ben lived Kins Beaver and Shingias (Shingis, Shinaas, or Shinno), noted chiefs of the 
Delaware*, until after the erection of Port Pitt, in the spring of 1JJ0, when they removed 
to Kuskusky. {Col. Rte., vol. viii., p. 30s: id., pp. 301, 304, sis. Pmta Arch., vol. iii., 
p. 634O See particularly Agnew's Sttlltmmt and Land Tilla, pp. 15-16. 

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184 History of Beaver County 


The western Indians — the Delawares and Wyandots — were 
not parties to this treaty at Fort Stanwix, and as they also con- 
sidered themselves as having claims, under the Six Nations, to 
the territory ceded, it was deemed best by the State to quiet 
such claims. The same Commissioners were therefore sent to 
Fort Mcintosh (now Beaver) to treat with them for the same 
lands. Here, on January ai, 1785, a quit-claim deed, in the 
same words (except as to the consideration, which was $3000 
instead of $5000), and reciting the same boundaries as that of 
Fort Stanwix, was signed by the chiefs of both these tribes, and 
a hundred years of treaty-making were thus brought to a close.' 
These treaties are noteworthy as being the first, as they were 
also the last treaties made with the aboriginal tribes by Penn- 
sylvania as a State. The extent and importance of the pur- 
chase which was thus consummated at Fort Mcintosh will be 
appreciated when we consider that within the limits of the 
territory thereby acquired there have been erected the counties 
of Potter, Elk, Tioga, McKean, Warren, Crawford, Venango, 
Forest, Clarion, Jefferson, Cameron, Butler, Lawrence, and 
Mercer, and parts of the counties of Beaver, Allegheny, Arm- 
strong, Indiana, Clinton, Clearfield, Erie, and Bradford. 


The Indian claims having thus been fully satisfied, the State 
was honorably free to proceed with the fulfilment of her pledges 
to the soldiers in regard to the Depreciation and Donation 
lands, which, as has been well said, were "the twin progeny of 
patriotism and of necessity." The Donation lands, with the 
exception of about two thirds of the First District, lay outside 
of the territory of Beaver County, and comprised all of the 
counties of Mercer and Crawford and that portion of Erie County 
which lies south of the "triangle," with parts of the present 
counties of Lawrence, Butler, Armstrong, Venango, Forest, and 
Warren. Our history is therefore not much concerned with 
these lands, but the subject of the Depreciation lands is so 

• We an xtod to give in Appendix No. IV. a fall transcript of the treaty of Fort Mcin- 
tosh, drawn from the Minute* of the General Assembly. That of Fort Stanwix will be 
found in the same Minute* for 1784-5. p. 310. In Appendix No. IV. will also be found the 
treaty of the United States made with the Indians at Fort Mcintosh. 

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History of Beaver County 185 

important in its relation to land titles in Beaver County as to 
demand rather full treatment. For this we have relied upon 
the able pen of Major Thomas Henry of New Brighton, whose 
article is published in volume ii., Appendix No. VI.' 


Prom the section known as the Depreciation lands the 
State reserved, as has already been said, two tracts of three 
thousand acres each; one at the mouth of the Allegheny River, 
and the other in Beaver County, "on the Ohio and on both 
sides of the mouth of Beaver Creek, including Port Mcintosh." 
These reservations were made expressly "to the use of the State," 
and they were intended to prevent title being acquired by her 
citizens under the general land laws. They were made also to 
enable the State to devote the land to necessary public uses,* as 
was shown in the setting apart of ground in the reserved squares 
in Beaver for the court-house and jail, and for the academy 
building and churches, and that for the cemetery in the north- 
west corner square. Thus also the streets, lanes, and alleys 
were kept inviolate for the public good and made "to be com- 
mon highways forever." 


One principal object which the State had in view in the 
setting apart of the Depreciation and Donation lands and in 
making the reservations, was to secure the settlement and im- 
provement of the territory which they included. But outside 
of these districts there were still large sections of territory 

1 The cars taken of the Depreciation lands will be ihown from th* following extract 
from a letter written by Lieutenant-Colonel Harmar to President Dickinson, dated Port 
Mcintosh. Mar 1. 1789; 

Jnderstanding that leveral Vagabond! had presumed to Improve the lands betwixt 
1 "— ™" -^'" ----- '----- - ■ ■-■ ■ lb fi the Lf J '- - ■'•'■- 

not in the line of duty aaa Continental Officer) I have taken the liberty to detach an Officer 
with a small party who has destroyed their cabbuia ft driven them from their improva- 
menta." — Ptutn. Arck„ vol. *., p. 448. 

• In Mb SttOtrntnl and Land THUi (p. 81) Hon. Daniel Agnew says: 
"A noticeable feature, indicating the viewa of that time, was the inclusion of ttoatn of 
public worship and burial placti, aa public uan. However lingular thia may appear to men 
of thia generation having looser notions, at that early day ttua reservation accorded decid- 
edly with their stricter notions of religious practice, under a Constitution which then re- 

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186 History of Beaver County 

undisposed of, and to these she now turned her attention. Ac- 
cordingly, on April 3, 1793/ the General Assembly passed the 
celebrated land Act, entitled "An Act for the sale of the vacant 
lands within this Commonwealth." This measure introduced 
an entirely new feature into the legislation pertaining to the 
disposition of public lands, in its provision that the lands should 
be sold only to such persons as would "cultivate, improve, and 
settle the same, or cause the same to be cultivated, improved, 
and settled." ' The surveyor general was authorized to divide 
the territory into districts, and appoint deputy surveyors, who 
were to execute warrants limited to four hundred acres, each at 
seven pounds ten shillings per acre. By section 9 actual settle- 
ment and residence were required to vest title by a warrant or sur- 

1 See i Smith's L.. p. jo. In at least one of the Depreciation Districti also load* were 
•old under this Act. Thin was District No. 1, which began at the State line. This district 
was assigned to Alexander McClean as deputy surveyor. On account of the threatening 
attitude of the Indians McCleen did not begin his work at the State line, and he seems to 
have covered no more than what is popularly known as the " Four Mile Square." the 
western boundary of which is about four miles west of the west line of the Reserve tract 
and the northern boundary about four mile* north of the Ohio River. As a result of the 
failure to lav out this district to the State line on the west and the Donation lands on the 
north, by much the largest part of the lands north of the Ohio River and west of the Big 
Beaver Creek in Beaver County were taken up under the provisions of the Act of 1701 (ace 
Agnew's Stttltmtnl and Land Tillis. p. 30}. There seems to have been a common usage 
among the earlier settlers of referring to the lands north of the " Four Mile Square " as being 
in Hoge's District, but the origin of this practice cannot be traced. 

* Twenty yean earlier lands were taken up under very primitive methods. This was 
the loadstone which drew the emigrants into the western country, — land was to be had 
for "taking up"; that is. to quote again from Doddridge, 

"building a cabin and raising a crop of grain, however small, of any kind, entitled the 
occupant to four hundred acres of land, and a preemption right to one thousand acres 
more adjoining, to be secured by a land office warrant. This right was to take effect if then 
happened to be so much vacant land, or any part thereof, adjoining the tract secured by 
the settlement right. [He says further.] There was, at an early period of our settlements, 
an inferior kind of land title denominated a ' tomahawk right, ' which was made by deaden- 
ing a few trees near the head of a spring, and marking the bark of some one or more of 
them with the initials of the name of the peraon wh j. .,.- : — t -„._, — 

laving seen a number of these ' tomahawk rights ' 
them bore **■ ' -' *■ ' " 

the improvement, or whether it conferred any ri|__ - .— 

settlement. These rights, however, were often bought and sold. Those who wished to 
make settlements on their favorite tracts of land, bought up the tomahawk improvements, 
rather than enter into quarrels with those who had made them. Other improvers of the 
land with a view to actual settlement, and who happened to be stout, veteran fellows, took 
a very different course from that of purchasing the tomahawk rights-' When annoyed by 
the claimants under those rights, they deliberately cut a few good hickories, and gave them 
what waa called in those days a 'laced jacket,' that is a sound whipping." 

The necessity of the last-named method was due to the fact that some persons made a 
prentice of running about through the country and marking and biasing trees and calling 
that "making tmprotmnrnts," thus shutting out others who desired to make actual settle- 
ment. Bee an interesting illustration of this in Crumrine's History- of Washington County, 
page 146. 

In Virginia land* were sometimes held also by what were known as "com rights" — 
whoever planted an acre of corn acquired a title to one hundred acres of land. See De Hass's 
Hillary of Iht Early StttUmtnls and Indian Wars of Wtittnt Virginia, p. at, and Withers 'a 
Chronicles of Bordtr Warfari. p. 4S. 

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History of Beaver County 187 

vey, unless the settler or warrantee was unable to comply with 
the stipulations of the law by reason of the hostile interference of 
"the enemies of the United States" (the Indians). If such interfer- 
ence prevented his making actual settlement, or if, having begun 
to make it, he was driven therefrom but persisted in his endeavors 
to make it, then, in either case, he and his heirs were "enti- 
tled to have and to hold the said lands in the same manner as if 
the actual settlement had been made and continued. ' ' Under this 
Act many surveys were returned for actual settlers, and many 
warrants were taken out immediately upon the passage of the 
law. But now, the " enemies of the United States " — the Indians 
— preventing the settlers from completing their titles, advantage 
of the situation was taken by large capitalists, operating as indi- 
viduals and as companies, and thousands of warrants were taken 
out as speculative investments, the parties never intending 
actual settlement. In the practice of the Land Office only one 
warrant could be issued to one person; hence the capitalists 
who bought the warrants in large numbers had to use the names 
of other persons, who afterwards made over to them the legal 
title by "deeds poll," and fictitious names were also employed, 
a numerous progeny of John Smiths and Inks and Pirns appear- 
ing as warrantees. One of the chief of these schemers was John 
Nicholson, the Comptroller-General of the State. Soon after 
the Act of 1793 was passed he applied for two hundred and 
fifty warrants, or 100,000 acres, to be located along Beaver 
Creek and the western line of the State. 1 He then organized 
the "Pennsylvania Population Company," ' to which he con- 
veyed his claims, and this company bought many more war- 
rants. Other companies conspicuous in these gigantic "deals" 
were th« "North American Land Company" and the "Holland 
Land Company." The latter purchased in all a million and a 
half acres of land in the State. In addition to these great 
companies there were individual moneyed men who had large 
holdings, such as Judge James Wilson, Archibald McCall, and 
Benjamin Chew of Philadelphia, from whom the famous "Chew 
Tract" was named. 3 

1 Pot a list ot Nicholson's warrant*, ut Beaver County Warrant Booh, 

■ For Pennsylvania Population Company eee Appendix No. VI. 

* The namea given to many of the tracts for which warrants ware taken out are vary 
add. In the Warrant Book of Beaver County we have seen the following: " Spratt'i De- 
light," " Tatawehta," "Canaan," "Egypt," "Tahehanto," "Sewaush, or the Young Bear," 

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1 88 History of Beaver County 

Great hostility was felt by the settlers to these large owners, 
and they believed also that the latter had forfeited their title 
by reason of their not having, within two years from the date 
of the warrants, entered upon and improved the lands, as was 
required by the 9th section of the Act of 1799. The warrant- 
holders relied upon the clause of the Act allowing for non- 
forfeiture of title when settlement and improvement were 
" prevented by force of arms of the enemies of the United States, ' ' 
and upon their persistence to settle within the two years. They 
also tried to compromise with the settlers by offering them, if 
they would comply with the provisions of the law, one hundred 
and fifty acres out of the four hundred which each warrant 
called for. But the settlers believed that the warrants were 
absolutely void, and many entered upon the lands of warrantees 
and claimed to hold under the Act, as settlers after forfeiture.' 

The inevitable result of this conflict of interests and opinion 
was seen in the long contest in the courts and upon the lands 
which was carried on between the parties concerned. Succes- 
sive Boards of Property took conflicting measures for remedying 
the evils of the legislation which was responsible for the trouble, 
the State officials generally leaning to the side of the settlers. 
In the courts the judges divided as widely in their construction 
of the 9th section of the Act of 1 793 as did the parties in interest. 
The Assembly was memorialized on both sides. In a trial of a 
test case in the State Court the decision was against the capital- 
ists, who refused to abide by it, and another action was brought 
in the Circuit Court of the United States, sitting at Philadel- 
phia. On a division of opinion of these judges the case was 
carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, where the 
decision was delivered by Chief Justice Marshall, holding the 
law as being contrary to the decision of the State Court. With 
a change of the personnel of the Supreme Court its attitude on 
the questions involved changed, and other opinions were ren- 
dered, and so on and on there dragged at each remove a lengthen- 
ing chain of fruitless and expensive litigation. The contest on 
this subject lasted for nearly half a century, leading to a disre- 
gard of law and even to violence, here in Beaver County, one 

i* " Peaceable " and (neither ia 

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History of Beaver County 189 

man, James Hamilton by name, a member of a marshal's posse, 
having been killed in an effort to deliver possession for the 
Population Company in the case of William Foulkee. By this 
uncertainty of land titles the settlement and prosperity of the 
northwestern counties of Pennsylvania were retarded for years, 
emigration passing on through this region to Ohio and the 
country beyond where the conditions of settlement were more 


We have already spoken of the controversy which arose 
over the conflicting claims of Pennsylvania and Virginia to the 
territory in the valleys of the Monongahela and Ohio, and the 
consequent confusion in regard to land titles. 

Over the whole of this disputed territory, Virginia erected 
the counties of Ohio, Monongalia, and Yohogania, in which 
counties her officers exercised jurisdiction, settlements were en- 
couraged, a land office, in charge of a surveyor, was established 
in each, and many rights for lands under her laws were entered 
and surveyed. In the records of the land department these 
rights are known as "Virginia Entries," and consist of State, 
pre-emption, treasury, and military warrants. 1 The entries 

1 Doddridge, in his notes, comments intere 
treats with it the conditions in hi* own region, v, 
He says: 

"My father, like many others, believed that, having secured but legal allotment, the 
rest of the country belonged of right Co those who chose to settle it. There was a piece of 
vacant land adjoining his tract, amounting to about >oo acres. To this tract of land he 
had the pre-emption right, and accordingly secured it by warrant ; but his conscience would 
not permit him to retain it in bis family; he therefore gave it to an apprentice lad whom 
he had raised in his house. This lad sold it to an uncle of mine for a cow and calf and 
a wool bat. 

" Owing to the equal distribution of real property directed by our land laws and the 
sterling integrity of our forefathers in their observance of them, we have no districts of 
'sold land,' as it is called, that is, large tracts of land in the hands of individuals or com- 
panies, who neither sell nor improve them, as is the case in the northwestern part of Penn- 
sylvania. These unsettled tracts make huge blanks in the population of the country where 

' As showing the character of these Virginia grants we give a copy of one made in mo 
to the assignee of a British soldier for the services of the latter in the war between Great 
Britain and Fiance. It is for lands within the present limit* of Beaver County, lying 
around the borough of Hookstown, and is signed by Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of 
Virginia. The original is in the possession of John M. Buchanan, Esq., of Beaver: 
" Thomas Jefferson Esquire Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. To all to whom 
these presents shall come, greeting: 

Know ye that in consideration of military service performed by John West, Jr., in the 
late war between Great Britain and France, according to the terms of the King of Great 
Britain's Proclamation of ij6j, there is granted by the said Commonwealth unto Robert 
Rutherford, Esquire, of the county of Berkely, assignees of the said John West. Jr., a 
certain tract or parcel of land containing 1,300 acres by survey bearing date, the 5th day 
of April. it6j, situated in the (1765, situated) County of Youghogania, on Mill creek, a 
branch of the Ohio, and bounded as followeth, to- wit :| Beginning at a large white oak on a 

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190 History of Beaver County 

number over one thousand, and cover over an area of six hun- 
dred and thirty-three thousand acres of land. The descriptions 
of the tracts as they are recorded in the book of entries, and as 
they are -written in the surveys, are quite vague and indefinite, 
the location usually given being that of a stream, as "on Peter's 
creek," "on the waters of the Shirtie" (for Chartiers), "on 
Pigeon creek," "on X-mile creek," "on Raccoon creek," or on 
the " Ohio," " Monongalia," or " Yough," as the case might be. 

On the same ground at the same time the Pennsylvania 
counties were in existence, and Pennsylvania grants were being 
made, and there were instances where the same lands were 
granted to different persons by the authorities of each State. 

After prolonged negotiations and wranglings, as we have 
related, the boundary agreement was reached in 1780. In 
anticipation of the running and marking of the lines, Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 28th of March, 1781, erected all her territory 
south of the Ohio and west of the Monongahela into the county 
of Washington.' This included all that part of Beaver County 
which lies south of the Ohio, and which was formerly within 
the limits of the Virginia county of Yohogania. Subsequent 
legislation adjusted the difficulties arising from the previous 
situation, and it has been said that "it is to the honor of the 
courts of Pennsylvania that in all cases tried before them which 
involved a conflict between Pennsylvania and Virginia titles, 

level, about 160 pole* on the east side of the falls of the aforesaid crack: then south 
3;o poles crossing the branches to a white oak and black oak on a ridge; then south 45 
west, 140 poles crossing a branch to a whits oak on the north brow of a hill: then south 
ja poles to a small young white oak on the south side of a hill, near a drain; then west j6 
poles to Mill creek, the same course continued in all 17s poles to a forked Spanish oak and 
white oak. on the east side of the hill; then jo poles crossing a drain to a white oak; then 
west 73 poles to a large white oak and Spanish oak on the west side of a hill; then north 
300 poles to a black and white oak; then weet 138 poles crossing a drain to three black 
oaks on a hill; then north ai8 poles crossing two drains to a white oak and black oak on 
a hill; then east 18 poles to a white oak and black oak; then north <; poles to two black 
oaks and white oaks on the aide of a hill; then east aS poles to a white oak and black oak: 
then north 45 poles to two black oaks and white oaks on the side of a hill; then east 308 
poles to two large white oaks on a level; then north 71 poles to two black oaks and two 
white oaks on a hill; then north « poles east, 18 poles to a hickory, ash. cherry tree and 
white oak on the west side of Mill creek opposite a parcel of rocks, and then east ajo poles. 

Rutherford, Esquire, a 

. hath hereu 

Williamsbui,. _ - , 

1770. and of the Commonwealth, the fourth. 

of Virginia, hath hereunto set his hand 
affixed at Williamsburg, 

parcel of land with its appurtenances to the said Robert 
the said^Triomas Jefferaoo^Esquire, Governor^of the Commonwealth 

■third day of December, « 
i^ommonweaitn, ine loir-"- 


Thomas JlTFBKBOH." 
Sic Stmprr Tyrannns. 
• See CbL Rte.. vol. lii, p. sjo: Puma. Arck^ vol. ix., p. so; P. L.. 1781. P- *oo: 
Dallas's L„ p. 8m: Casey and Bioren, ii„ p. >B>, and 1 Smith's L.. p. 517. 

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History of Beaver County 191 

the compact between the States was held to be inviolate," and 
that "to-day, within the territory so long a matter of conten- 
tion, land titles are so well settled that there is probably no 
section of the State, unless in the three original and a few others 
of the older counties, in which there is less land litigation than 
in the counties formed out of the disputed district." ' But we 
have obtained this liberty at a great price, as the history of the 
controversies which we have sketched has shown, and each of 
those controversies has left its mark, as will appear in the fol- 
lowing quotation from Hon. Daniel Agnew's Settlement and 
Land Titles (p. 183), with which we may fittingly close this 

The variety of the original land titles in Beaver County exceeds that 
of any other county in the State. On the south side of the Ohio we have 
all the various titles, tinderwarrants, improvements and licenses both of the 
proprietary and the State governments, applicable to the purchase under 
the treaty of 1768; to which may be added Virginia entries by settlement 
under the "corn" law of that State of 1778, and by special grants, recog- 
nized by Pennsylvania in her settlement of boundaries with Virginia. 
On the north side of the Ohio we have the titles under the Donation and 
Depreciation surveys, with some marked peculiarities, and titles under 
the Act of 179a, by warrant and survey, and actual settlement and survey, 
involving characteristics still more marked, including the doctrines of 
abandonment and vacating warrants. These varying elements have also 
given characteristics to the tax titles of this county differing in some re- 
spects from those in other parts of the State. The difference in the kind 
of warrants on the north and south sides of the Ohio and in the modes of 
survey on both sides, often conflicting with each other, made the land 
titles of the county intricate and difficult. By compromises, by trials, 
and by the operation of the Statute of Limitations, under a change of 
judicial interpretation, the titles of this county became settled and an 
era of improvement began. 

■ Rtfen of Statuary of Inltmal Affairs, 1805, Section A. pp. joS, (if. Valuable 
article*, which have aided 111 in the preparation of the foregoing matter, will be found in 
tfaa Reports of the Secretary of Internal Affaire o[ Pennsylvania si follows: 
Depreciation Lands, Report for 189a, A. pp. 33-31. 
Donation " " " 1803, " 10-41. 

Early Land Titles I .. „ 

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Need of New Counties — Eight Counties Formed — Boundaries of Beaver 
County Defined — Commissioners Named — Personal Sketches of First 
Commissioners — Organization of Courts — Admission of First At- 
torneys — First County Officers — First Grand Jury — Constables Ap- 
pointed — Licenses Granted — Justices' Districts — First Deed and Will 
—Commissioner's Report, 1806 — Erection of County Buildings — 
Civil List — Personal Sketches of United States Senators, Members 
of Congress and of the State Senate. 

Look now abroad — another race has filled 
These populous borders — wide the wood recedes. 

And towns shoot up, and fertile realms are tilled; 
New colonies rise, that toward the western seas 
Spread like a rapid Same among the autumnal trees. 

Bryant, The Ages. 

We have seen that at the close of the eighteenth century 
the distracted settlements of western Pennsylvania were pass- 
ing from storm to calm; wars and rumors of wars had ceased, 
and the way was clear for emigration into what was previously 
forbidden land. After the pacification of the frontier by Wayne's 
victory and the treaty of Greenville (August 3, 1795) these 
districts became so thickly settled that it was evident to all 
that some relief should be given to the inhabitants thereof by 
the erection of additional counties, thus saving the people the 
inconvenience and expense they were under in having to travel 
long distances to reach their courts of justice. Much contro- 
versy had arisen under the operation of the Land Law of 179a, 
and lawsuits were numerous. The people had need of more 
accessible courts. Accordingly there was passed by the Legis- 
lature of the State, March ia, 1800, ■ an Act entitled "An Act to 

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History of Beaver County 193 

erect certain parts of Allegheny, Westmoreland, Washington, 
and Lycoming counties, into separate counties," and by this 
Act political being was given to the eight counties of Beaver, 
Butler, Mercer, Crawford, Erie, Warren, Venango, and Arm- 
strong. 1 


The first section of this Act defined the limits of Beaver 
County as follows: 

That those parts o£ the counties of Allegheny and Washington in- 
cluded within the following boundaries, viz., Beginning at the mouth of 
Big Sewickley creek on the Ohio river; thence up the said creek to the 

' The Density of dividing the large stretch of territory north of the Ohio into new 
counties was apparent to the authorities at least as early as i Jg6. and the intention to do so 
is foreshadowed in the correspondence of several eminent men of affairs of that day. In- 
teresting evidence of this is given in the letters written to Governor Mifflin by Hon. Alex- 
ander Addison, one of the most learned jurists of the State, and at that date president 
judge of the Fifth Judicial District, composed of the counties of Allegheny, Fayette, Wash- 
ington, and Westmoreland. Writing to the Governor from Washington, Pa., under date 
of February 3, i j»6, concerning the preservation of the property of the State and the sale 
of the lots on the reserve tract at the mouth of the Beaver, he says: 

Br. Before a sale the future seat of justice ought 

500 families live on the N. W. side of the Ohio, within is or 30 miles of the town. This 
being certified to you on certain proof made, the lines of the county on both sides of the 
Ohio to be ascertained by Commissioners and declared by proclamation; but no court to 
be held there until the County Commissioners have built a sufficient Court house and jail. 
which they should be enabled to do without limitation of price. These sales ought to be 
made on the grounds. I mean at the town itself. And profits ought to be applied to an 

" Indeed. I should think that in all the unsettled parts boundaries of counties and scites 
of the county towns ought to be ascertained beforehand and purchases made of 600 or acres to be laid out in lots and out lots, and the profits to be applied to academies. 

The county to be declared by proclamation entitled to a separate r e pr esents tic- 

as the ratio of one member shall be complete, and to a separatejudirnturp •■ 
Court house and jail proper for the purpose shall be finished. This 1 

■e and partiality, and 

rh intrigue and partiality, and would throw the profits into a better channel than th< 
me now in. At present county towns are only means of gain without merit to the owns 
of the land, who may impose what terms they please on the purchasers." — Puma. Arci 
ad Series, vol. iv„ p. 6jo. 

In another letter, dated Pittsburg, March 11, 1706, he says: 

"The idea of a new county ought to be fixed and prosecuted as soon as possible. „ 
dread the consequence* of the flood of mad people who have gone over the Allegheny and 

(jus, unless law can be brought 

that, would awaken and keep 

characters and tempers, which otherwise may give rise to some apprehensions." — Pttina. 
Arch., id Series, vol. iv., p. 6so. 
To the same effect is a lett 

"Dxa* Govbunob: — Be pleased to receive the enclosed letter from Captain Denny. 
■ will be laid off to the 

e that there is reason to expect several nt 

westward of Pittsburgh, this winti 
myself with you in his behalf. Tl 

particular manner, to recommend Captain Denny, as a man of honor and probity, and 
capable o( filling such an office." — Military Journal of Major Ebtntur Denny, Lippincott Sc 

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194 History of Beaver County 

west line of Alexander's district of depreciation lands; thence northerly 
along the said line and continuing the same course to the north line of the 
first donation district ; thence westerly along the said line to the western 
boundary of the State; thence southerly along the said boundary across 
the Ohio river to a point in the said boundary, from which a line to be run 
at a right angle easterly will strike White's mill on Raccoon creek, and 
from such point along the said easterly line to the said mill, leaving 
the said mill in the county of Beaver; thence on a straight line to the 
mouth of Big Sewickley creek, the place of beginning; be, and the same 
is hereby erected into a separate county to be henceforth called Beaver 
County ; and the place of holding the courts of justice shall be at Beaver- 
town, in the said county. 

The commissioners to be appointed by the Governor (three, 
any two of whom could act) were required to run and mark 
the boundaries of the county by the fifteenth day of June fol- 
lowing, and were to appoint assistants to take the enumeration 
of the taxable inhabitants. Until such enumeration could be 
made Beaver County (also Butler) was to remain with Allegheny 
County and under the jurisdiction of its courts. The Act also 
names Jonathan Coulter, Joseph Hemphill, and Denny McClure 
as trustees for the county to erect the court-house, jail, and 
public offices for preserving the records. 1 

■ Jonathan Coulter came to what is now Beaver County in 1798 or itoo. and made a 
settlement on j 85 acres of land up Two Mile Run. Hia settlement was confirmed by war- 
rant and survey in 1804. This tract of land was hounded on the south by the line of the 
Reserve tract, on the west by tract No. 30 in McClean's district, later the farm of James 
Lyon, and later still known as the Marks farm ; on the north by the farm of John Small, after- 
wards owned by Henry Small ; on the east by the plantation of John Beao, and in a later 
day by the land of Thomas English. Joseph HemphilL and John Small, who owned part 
of the Bean tract. In iSoa Coulter waa living on in-lot No. 17. in the town of Beaver. He 
was an innkeeper and a justice of the peace. He was twice sheriff of Beaver County, from 
isoS-'oo, and again tBii-'i]. In 1807 be wae elected a Lieutenant-Colonel in the "■"'*". 
and while sheriff he was a candidate for the State Senate in 1808. The district was com- 
posed of the counties of Allegheny, Beaver and Butler. The vote was as follows: 
AUifteny Btavtr Rutin Tela! 

AbnerLocock nog 10S1 S6a 4033 

Nathaniel Irish 1117 1073 S71 4061 

Jonathan Coulter 1141 410 13' 18S* 

James Semple 1158 304 ijj 1879 

Coulter married a Miss Mary Wilson, sixth child of Thomas Wilson, who was the great- 
grandfather of Hon. James Sharp Wilson, the present judge of Beaver County. The Wil- 
sons came from Lewiaburg, Union County, Pa., and possibly that was also Coulter's home, 
though this is not known. Nor is the date or place of his decease now ascertainable. 

We have not been able to learn much about Denny McClure. He was an innkeeper 
in the village of Sharon in iSo>. As tuch he would doubtless have had as his guests the 
emigrants who came into and passed through the county in that great movement of popula- 
tion which began after Wayne's treaty with the Indians in 1795. The long trains of 
Conestoga wagons passing westward would stop at his house, for Sharon was the halting- 
place for all the teamsters before double-teaming up Brady's hill. On July 17, iSos, 
Joseph Hemphill laid off ten lots on part of out-lot No. 4). for "Major Denny McCkire." 

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History of Beaver County 195 


The county was organized for judicial purposes by Act of 
April 3, 1803,* but no court was held until February 6, 1804. 
A house on Third Street, owned by Abner Lacock, and known 
later as the Clark Hotel, was the place where the first court sat. 
At this court the Hon. Jesse Moore presided. He was the 
president judge of the Sixth Circuit, which was composed of 
the counties of Beaver, Butler, Crawford, Mercer, and Erie. 
His associates were Abner Lacock, John H. Reddick, and Joseph 
Caldwell. Abner Lacock having resigned on his election to the 
General Assembly, David Drennan was appointed to fill the 
vacancy and took his seat on the 5th of February, 1805. On 
the death of Joseph Caldwell, the vacancy on the bench was 
not filled, the number of associate judges having, in the mean- 
time, been limited by law to two. John H. Reddick and David 
Drennan continued together until 1830, when the former died, 
and Thomas Henry was commissioned May 19, 1830, by Gover- 
nor Wolf. Judge Drennan died in 1S31, and on the 19th of 
August that year, Joseph Hemphill was commissioned by the 
Governor. In 1806, Beaver County was transferred from the 
Sixth to the Fifth Circuit, and Samuel Roberts became presi- 
dent judge of this county as part of his district. We shall not 
follow farther in this place the succession of president and asso- 
ciate judges, as that has been done in the chapter on the legal 
history of the county (Chap. IX.), where also biographical notices 
of the judges are given. 

At the first court held in this county, February 6, 1804, the 
following gentlemen, attorneys in the Fifth Circuit, were ad- 
mitted to practise in Beaver County, viz. : 

Alexander Addison, Thomas Collins, Steele Semple, A. W. 
Foster, John Bannister Gibson, Sampson S. King, Obadiah Jen- 
nings, William Wilkins, Henry Haslet, James Allison, Jun. 

Prom hit having this title of major, we may suppose IfcClure had had nut military ex 
perience, perhaps in the Revolutionary War or in the militia. May 21, iftoj, McClure ion 
veyed to Thomas Evans No. and 10 of thii plan, consideration. SSoo. August 16, rfloj. 
Beam conveyed to Jesse Hart Nos. 4 «>d J of the same plan, and Hart sold the samt 
lots to Robert Dnmujh, June 14, 1807, for (goo. These lot* adjoined the lot of Jamei 
Hamilton and both fronted tis feet on Water Lane. In May. 1S03, McClure sold to 
George Holdship end James Alexander a part of out-lot No. as, about six acres. 

A sketch of Joseph Hemphill will be found in our chapter on the Beru-h and the Bar 
of the county. 

■ P. L.. 6«. 

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196 History of Beaver County 

John Simonson, David Redick, Parker Campbell, David Hayes, 
C. S. Sample, Henry Baldwin, Thomas G. Johnston, Isaac Kerr, 
James Mountain, Robert Moore, and William Ayres. 1 

From the Attorneys' Register it would appear that two others, 
William Larwill and William C. Larwell, were admitted at the 
same time. We might suppose that there is a clerical error 
here, and that the names, so nearly alike, belong to one and the 
same person, but for the fact that the Appearance Docket shows 
that they were separately sworn. 

David Johnson, who was the first teacher in the Academy 
at Canonsburg, Pa. (July, 1791), was the first prothonotary of 
Beaver County, as well as the first register and recorder, the 
offices being at that time held by one person. He was a very 
able officer, and opened the record books of the county in an 
elegant manner. Mr. Johnson died in 1837 at the advanced age 
of ninety-five. 

The first sheriff of the new county was William Henry ; the 
first treasurer, Guion Greer; the first prosecuting attorney, 
James Allison, Jr. ; first coroner, Ezekiel Jones.' 

1 Biographical data concerning many of these gentlemen will be found in Chapter IX. 

■ William Henry, the firit sheriff of Beaver County, iu born in County Down, Ireland, 
in the year 1777. He was the oldest sod of William and Jane (Patton) Henry, who emi- 
grated to America in 17S3, and settled near Havre de Grace, Maryland. In 1704. the family 
removed to Peter's Creek. Washington County. Pa., and were there during the Whisky In- 
surrection, but took no part in it. In the summer or fall of 17(1;, William and hi* brother 
Thomas, then fourteen years of age. settled in what was later Beaver County and now 
Wayne township, in Lawrence County, making a small clearing and building a cabin 
thereon. They returned to Peter's Creek, and in the following spring (1706) the family 
removed to their improvement. William and Thomas were both carpenters. They built 
the tint hewed log houso between the Conoquenessing Creek and New Brighton, on what is 
now known as the Whisler farm. In 1708, William and Thomas moved to Beaver, pur- 
suing their occupation as carpenters. In 1800, William took the first census of Beaver 
County, and in 1803 he was appointed sheriff by Governor Thomas McKean to serve three 
yaw. In 1809, he removed to where Canton, Ohio, now is, and afterwards laid out the 
town of Wooster. He was an excellent judge of the qualities of land and became very 
wealthy. William Henry's bond aa sheriff was fixed at Ijooo. and wu signed by David 
Drennan, John Lawrence, James Alexander, James Moore, and Guion Greer. He died at 
Wooster shortly after the close of the Civil War. 

Of Guion Greer, the first treasurer of Beaver County, we have no data. A few facts 
concerning him may be found by reference to the general index. 

A sketch of James Allison will be found in Chapter IX. 

Esekiel Jones and his wife, Hannah, came from Mew Jersey to what is now Beaver 
County, about the year 1800, settling within the bounds of the present township of North 
Sewickley (previously Sewickley), where they became active in the early social and religious 
affairs of the county. See account of Providence Baptist Church under the above-named 
township. Beaver County Warrant Book No. 1, page 17, contains the following reference 

"Eieldeljones enters his warrant for 400 acres of land Dated Petty 11, 1803, situate in 
Sewickley Township & on the road that leads from Allen's mill to Beaver Town where it 

kley Township & 01 

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William Henry. 
Fini Sld-i-iff of Beaver County. 

Digitzed by GOOgk 

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History of Beaver County 197 

The members of the first grand-jury at the February ses- 
sions of 1804 were: John Lawrence (foreman), David Drennan, 
Robert White, Samuel Arbuckle, Guion Greer, Thomas Evans, 
George Holdship, James McDowell, Joseph Mitchell, Joseph 
Hoopes, Nathan Stockman, John Baird, John Christmas, John 
Beaver, John Boyd, Esq., John Sharp, Matthew Brooks, David 
Townsend, and William Orr." 

At the same sessions nine constables were appointed, as 
follows: George Bail, borough of Beaver; Samuel Allison, First 
Moon township; Thomas Dawson, Second Moon; Archibald 
Woods, Hanover; Robert Johnson, South Beaver; Conrad 
Henning, Little Beaver; Thomas Lewis, Big Beaver; Andrew 
Wilson, North Sewickley, and Richard Waller, New Sewickley. 
Wilson was excused by the court on account of illness. 

At the same sessions the following persons were recom- 
mended to keep public houses of refreshment in the county: 
Joseph Hemphill, Beaver; Robert Graham, Moon township; 
Allen Tucker, Sewickley township; and William Moore and 
Thomas Porter, Moon. At May sessions, the following were 
added to the list: John Boies, Hugh Cunningham, and Thomas 
Ross, South Beaver township; John Bradley,, George McClel- 
land, Nathaniel Blackmore, Isaac Lawrence, and Daniel Weigte, 
Moon township; John Smur, George Greer, and Jacob Mosser, 
Little Beaver township ; Mattison Hart, New Sewickley; Jona- 
than Harvut and Jonathan Guthrie, Hanover; and Samuel 
Johnson, Benjamin Beatty, and Abner Lacock, of the borough 
of Beaver. 

On the 15th of August, 1803, the commissioners, John Mc- 
Cullough, James Boies, and James Alexander, in compliance 
with an Act of the General Assembly, laid out the county into 
Justices' Districts, as follows: The First and Second districts, 
south of the Ohio River — First, with 346 taxables and David 
Scott, justice; Second, with 391 taxables and Samuel Glasgow 
and William Little, justices; the Third District including naif 
of the county west of the Big Beaver Creek and north of the 
Ohio River, with a taxable population of 433 and John Law- 
rence and Jonathan Coulter, justices; the Fourth District, the 
north half of the county west of the Big Beaver — 346 taxables, 
with John Sprott, justice; the Fifth District, north of the Cono- 
quenessing and east of the Big Beaver — 116 taxables, with 

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198 History of Beaver County 

William Conner and Sampson Peirsol, justices; the Sixth Dis- 
trict, all south of the Fifth to the southern line of the county, 
with 143 taxables and with no justices appointed. Total tax- 
able population, 1475. These officers were appointed by the 
governor of the State. 

Other early justices in the county, with their districts and 
the dates of their commissions from the governor, were as follows : 

John Boyd, for District No. a, April 2, 1804; William Haisha, No. 1, 
April a, 1804,; George Holdship, No. 3, April 3, 1804; Martin Holman, 
No. 4, April 3, 1804; William Leet, No. 6, April a, 1804: William Clarke, 
No. 3, April 1, 1805; David Potter, No. 4, April 1, 1805; William Forbes, 
No. 4, April 1, 1805; John Watts, No. 3, April 1, 1806; David Johnson, 
No, 3, April 1, 1806; Samuel Johnston, No. 3, July 4, 1806; John Johnston, 
No. 4, April 1, 1807; Thomas Poster, No. a, July 4, 1807; Thomas Wilson, 
No. 6, March 29, 1808; David Patton, Jr., No. 1, Sept. 30, 1808; Jacob 
Woodruff. No. 4, Sept. 30, 180S; Thomas Henry, No. 3, Dec. 24, 1808; 
William Lowry, No. 4, March 31, 1809; Michael Baker, No. 1, March 31, 
iSoq; Daniel Christy, No. 1, April 8, 1809; Samuel Jackson, No. 3, Dec. 
ai, 1809; Nicholas Venemon, No. 5, April 5, 1B10; John Clark, No. 4, 
June 7, 1S10; Samuel Glasgow, Hanover township, com. dated Feb. 33, 
1801, recorded Nov. 30, 18 10; Stanton Shoals, No. 6, April 1,1811: James 
Cochran, No. 4, Aug. 37, 1813; David Findley, No. 3, March 18, 1813; 
William Reno, No. 6, Sept. 8, 1813; James Logan, No. 3, Dec. 15, 1814; 
Thomas Taylor, No. 3, March 8, 1815; John Edgar, No. 4, May 9, 1815; 
Charles S. Reno. No. 3, May 10, 1815; John A. Scroggs, No. 4, Sept. 35, 
1815 ; John Harsha, No. 2, Jan. 26, 1816; James Lake, No. 3, Jan. 36, 1816; 
David Gordon, No. a, Jan. a6, 1816; James Bell, No. 6, April 33, 1S16. 

The first deed on record in the county is of interest. It is 
a conveyance by Joseph Pentecost and his wife Mary of lot No. 
74 in "Mcintosh at the mouth of Big Beaver creek formerly in 
Allegheny County, but now in Beaver County," to Wilson, 
Porter & Fulton, merchants or traders in Beaver, This lot was 
on Third Street, with a frontage of iao feet and a depth of 300 
feet. The consideration was one hundred and fifty dollars, and 
the deed is dated August 19, 1803, and was recorded the iSth 
of November of the same year. This property had been ob- 
tained by Pentecost from Andrew Johnston, of County Fer- 
managh, Ireland, February 13, 1799. 

The first will recorded is one made by George Riddle, March 
18, 1803. The witnesses to this will were Absalom Severns, 
Ezelriel Jones, and Jacob Myers, and the executors were Mary 
Riddle and George Brown. 

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History of Beaver County 199 

It may interest our readers to see a copy of the receipts and 
expenditures of Beaver County in one of the early periods of 
its existence. The following is for the last six months of 1806: 


In the Treasury of Beaver County from the ist day of July, until the 
31st of December, 1806, inclusive. 

Balance in Treasury December 31, 1S05 $176 45 

Received from the Collectors as follows: 

Elnathan Coary, Little Beaver tp, 1S04 f 30 58 

Hoses Louthan, South Beaver tp, 1805 39 18 

John Morton, North Sewickley tp, 1805 nj 31 

William Leet, New Sewickley tp, 1805 177 67 

Robert Bovard, Little Beaver tp, 1805 116 15 

J. H. Hendenhall, Beaver boro, 1805 76 33 

John Thompson, ad Moon, 1805 a 44 

John Whitehall, Hanover, 1805 6a 53} 

Daniel Campbell, Little Beaver, 1806 177 89 

Hugh Marshall, Big Beaver, 1806 . 107 95 

Thomas Dawson, ad Moon, 1806 171 $0 

James Leiper, Hanover, 1806 151 la 

William Carson, North Beaver tp, 1806 300 50 

Thomas Evans, Beaver boro, 1806 46 50 

John Irwin, New Sewickley, r8o6 58 51 

James Jourdan, ist Moon, 1806 198 a7 

Samuel Jackson, Shenango, 1806 no 50 

Andrew Johnson, South Beaver, 1806 153 40 

Jacob Yoho, North Sewickley, 1806 104 64 

Rual Reed, Ohio. 1806 140 00 

County and road taxes on unseated land 679 04) 

Warrants drawn on Treasurer not yet paid 88a 40} 

Total S4.189 14I 

Paid Guion Greer, Treasurer, in full $ 99 16 \ 

for three locks for prison doors 18 00 

for blankets for prisoners n 40 . 

" " " for candlesticks for court 60 ; 

" " " for one year's rent for Comm'r office 1350 

Fulton, Wilson & Porter, for iron 67 

Robert Moore, Esq., for counsel in sundry cases 14 00 ' 

William Gibson, refunding taxes twice paid 1 ao j 

For express, delivering duplicate to North Beaver tp 35 

Jacob Small, making hinges for prison doors. at 64 

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200 History of Beaver County 

William Rhodes, for repairing desks $ i 5; 

James Conlin, for fuel for prison and court house; boarding 

criminals 51 9a 

John Lawrence, 1st payment for digging a well 100 00 

John Israel, for printing Receipts and Expenditures j« jo 

James Carothers, auditor to settle public accounts, 14 

days 18 66 

William Henry, Sheriff, for serving notices on constable, elec- 
tion, Oyer and Terminer 14 73 J 

William Henry, Sheriff, for paper, ink, quills and candles for 

court S aSJ 

William Henry, Sheriff, his costs on indictments 516 

David Hays, refunding money paid on land found not to be in 

the county 3 56 

On a bond from the Commissioners of Beaver county to the 

Commissioners of Allegheny county 37 60 

David Johnston, Prothonotary, for rent of office room 16 00 

David Johnston, Prothonotary, his costs on indictments 14 14 

David Johnston, Prothonotary, for filing election papers 14 84 

David Johnston, Prothonotary, notices to constables, etc. ... 4 00 

John Bracy, cleaning street through center 475 

Constables, attending juries at Circuit Court, Sept., 1806. ... 5 00 

Jurors, for their attendance during the year. 961 00 

Supervisor, for road taxes on unseated land 656 66 

Assessors, for 1806 138 00 

Inspectors, Judges and Clerks of elections 140 00 

James Allison, Esq., his costs on indictments 8 40 

Witnesses in Commonwealth actions 54 96 

Constables' costs " " > 16 

Justices' costs " " a 83 

Collectors, for errors in assessment. 3° IO 

" for unseated lands 560 47 

for lost taxes 17 33i 

fees for collecting 68 85! 

For wolf scalps raa 00 

Road view orders 113 00 

James Boies, 19 days services as Commissioner *5 »7 

John McCullough, 81 days services as Commissioner. 107 73 

Samuel Lawrence, 96 days services as Commissioner 197 68 

John Saviers, 83 days services as Commissioner no 39 

Thomas Henry, 8 days clerk hire 10 00 

Stationery for Commissioners' office 6 69 

Fuel " " " 7o44 

Error in statement in 1804 4> 4a 

Warrants given in 1805 317 13) 

Balance in the treasury 94 98} 

*4,i89 14I 

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History of Beaver County 201 


Second Moon township $248 37 

First Moon township 165 67 

Hanover township 950 97 

Ohio township 139 16 

South Beaver township ao8 16 

Little Beaver township 366 75 

North Beaver township 339 aa 

Shenango township 169 69 

North Sewickley township 331 6a 

New Sewickley township 391 76 

Big Beaver township 171 22 

Beaver borough 146 98 

*3.i4i 67 

Thomas Dawson $171 50 

James Jourdan 19S 37 

James Leiper iSr u 

Rual Reed 140 00 

Andrew Johnson 153 40 

Daniel Campbell 179 69 

William Carson 300 00 

Samuel Jackson no 50 

Jacob Yoho 104 64 

John Irwin 58 51 

Hugh Marshall 107 95 

Thomas Evans 46 50 

Balance due by collectors 1,418 70 

»3.i4i 67 

John Savibrs, f Commissioners. 

Feb. 13, 1807.' 


In the Act of the Legislature of March ia, 1783,* by which 
the Depreciation Lands were set apart, the State had reserved 
for herself on both sides of the mouth of Beaver Creek three 
thousand acres for public uses, and in the Act of September 38, 
1791,' authorizing the governor to lay out a town (Beaver) and 
out-lots on this land, the proviso was made that the governor 

» The entries in the above for "quills and candle* for court," and of bounties paid for 
" wolf ulpe" ore vtxilring evidence of pioneer conditions, 
* 1 Sinitli'i L„ 61. 
■ 3 Smith'* L, jfi. 

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202 History of Beaver County 

should "reserve out of the lots of the said town, so much land 
as he shall deem necessary for public uses." When the lots 
were sold the commissioners were instructed "That the four 
lots in the center and the four corner lots of the town plat 
marked 'public squares' shall be announced as lands deemed 
necessary for public uses, and reserved by the governor accord- 
ingly." We have seen also that the Act of March is, 1800,' 
named three commissioners to "erect the court-house, jail and 
public offices for preserving the records." Finally, by the Act 
of April 2, 1803,* the commissioners were authorized to erect 
the public buildings "on such parts of the public square as 
they may deem proper." Accordingly they selected for this 
purpose two of the centre reserved squares. The first building 
erected was on the northeastern centre reserved square, now 
called Harmar Square, on that portion of the square immediately 
south of the law office formerly that of Samuel B. Wilson, Esq., 
and now occupied by Wilson & Holt, Esqs. The first story was 
used for the jail and the second story for the court-room until 
1810. 3 On the opposite page we give an old view of this build- 
ing and its surroundings. In that year, 1810, a new court- 
house was built . Its location was the same as that of the present 
building, but a little to the east of it. In 1840 an eastern 
wing was added to the building, and in 1848 some offices for 
the preservation of the public records were erected on the west 
side. A search among the old files in the office of the clerk of 
courts has revealed to us two original papers bearing on the 
history of these additions. The first paper is the report of the 
viewers appointed by the court to pass upon the work done in 
the erection of the eastern wing, and is as follows: 

We the undersigned being appointed by the Court viewers to examine 
the eastern wing of the public offices attached to the Court House lately 
erected by David Porter, in pursuance of a contract entered into with 
the commissioners of Beaver County on the second day of April one 
thousand eight hundred and forty. Respectfully beg leave to report — 
That we have attended to the duties of our appointment and after a 
close and particular examination of the work in its several parts and 
carefully comparing the same with the contract and the changes and 

1 3 Smith'n L, 4 a . 
•* Smith'. L.. S«. 

• See below in extract from Cuauntft Shitdiii of a Teitrlo ill* Wisitrn Comity, reference 
to thin building, which tpeaks of it at not yet finished in i8oi. 

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Beaver, 1859. 

Drawn by Emil Bott. 

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History of Beaver County 203 

alterations thereof by parol admitted to have been made by the con- 
tracting parties, are unanimously of the opinion that the work is well and 
substantially executed in conformity with said contract and alteration 
thereof by parol in relation to the arches ; and that although the work has 
not been completely finished within the time specified in the written con- 
tract, yet we are of opinion that the Commissioners ought to receive the 
same from Mr. Porter without any abatement or deduction on that 

Given under our hands this sixth day of July eighteen and forty one. 
James Allison 
J aii be Pott br 
Stephen Phillips 
Jacob Krone. 
Charles Lukens 
Jambs Logan 
To the Honorable Judges of the Court of Quarter Sessions. 

This report was approved by the court, July 6, 1841.' 
The history of the building of the west wing is preserved in 
the second paper referred to, which is the petition of the county 
commissioners, asking for the appointment of three fit persons 
to view the work done, as follows: 

To the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the County of 
Beaver, now holding a Court of Quarter Sessions in and for the said 
County: The Petition of the Commissioners of the County of Beaver, Re- 
spectfully Represents: 

That it having appeared to your Petitioners that new offices at the 
west side of the Court House in the Borough of Beaver were necessary 
to accomodate the several county officers, the safe keeping of the public 
records, &c — The same having been approved and recommended by a 
presentment of the Grand Jury at September Sessions, 1846, — your Pe- 
titioners procured an estimate to be made as nearly as might be of the 
probable expense of the same, and under the nth Section of the Act of 
1834, "Relating to counties and townships and county and township 
officers," did proceed to have said offices or West Wing erected by entering 
into a contract with Messrs. Dickson & Miller of Allegheny County (they 
being the lowest and beat bidders), for the building of the same for the 
sum of Two Thousand One hundred and Seventy-five dollars: and that 
the said offices are now completed agreeably to the said contract. Your 
Petitioners therefore pray the Court to appoint three fit persons to inspect 
said offices, and the workmanship thereof agreeably to the Act of Assem- 
bly, and make report to the next Court of Quarter Sessions, according to 

Robert McPbrsan ) Commissioners 

S. B. Wilson > of 

A. McMillin J Beaver County. 

' Road Docket No. 1. No. 14, June Seas., 1S41. 

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204 History of Beaver County 

This petition was presented at the November Sessions, 1848, 
and January 10, 1849, the court appointed as viewers Hon. 
Thomas Henry, William Leaf, and Ellis Howe. January 18, 
1849, tne viewers made a favorable report, which was confirmed 
by the court, March 13th, the same year.* 

The second court-house, as it appeared with the addition of 
the wings, is shown in the view opposite this page. 

This building came in its turn to be "the old court-house," 
and its venerable walls that had echoed to the eloquence of two 
generations of lawyers, among them some of the ablest in the 
State, had to come down in response to the growing needs of 
the county, to meet which there was erected, in 1876-77, the 
present imposing and beautiful structure. 


The necessity for a new court-house had been apparent for 
several years, and the matter was finally taken up by the grand 
jury of Beaver County. Presentments of the grand jury were 
made as required by law at two successive sessions of the court, 
viz., at the March sessions and the June sessions of 1874, set- 
ting forth that the grand jury "had examined the present court- 
house and the adjacent offices, and had found them entirely 
inadequate for the present needs of the county," and they there- 
fore recommended "the county commissioners to erect a new 
court-house for the accommodation of the courts and of the 
several officers of the county, and for the reception and safe 
keeping of the records and other public papers in charge of said 

The grand jurors for the March sessions were S. G. Caughey 
(foreman), T. O. Anshutz, Henry Boyle, Daniel Brenner, Samuel 
Burns, John Craig, Joseph Campbell, Jesse Carothers, Charles 
Carter, Stephen Calvin, Jerome Douthett, Joseph Ewing, W. C. 
Fessenden, A. F. Huffman, Wm. W. McCoy, S. R. Mitchell, 
John Nickum, L. L. Ripper, John Ramsey, J. R. Thompson, 
John Wilson, and W. F. Read. 

The grand jurors for the June sessions were Jas. H. Fife 
(foreman), J. A. Sutherland, David E. Lowry, Fergus McClel- 
land, Jas. Anderton, Samuel Gibson, Harvey Reed, John Veon, 

■ Road Docket No. i. No. 9, Nov. Sett., 1S4S. 

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7„ C J, HE ^ 

,' NEW VO^K > 


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History of Beaver County 205 

Gilbert Trumpeter, Wm. Kennedy, M. McGuire, Henry Phillis, 
Jas. H. McCoy, and John Swaney. 

The order of the court approving the finding of the above 
named grand juries was made July 15, 1874, and certified to the 
commissioners for their action thereon. 

On the 19th day of December following, J, H. McCreery, 
Esq., the District Attorney of Beaver County, presented his 
petition to the Court of Common Pleas, setting forth the neglect 
of the commissioners, viz., H. J. Marshall, Daniel Neely, and 
David Patten, to erect a court-house as directed, and praying 
for an alternative writ of mandamus.* 1. The same day the 
court granted the writ. On January 11, 1875, tb,e answer of 
the commissioners was filed and the case was argued.' 

January 25, 1875, tn « court awarded a peremptory man- 
damus on the commissioners who were now in office, viz., Daniel 
Neely, David Patten, and Andrew Watterson, commanding them 
to proceed forthwith to erect a new and suitable court-house. 
The commissioners, on February 3, 1875, accepted the service 
of the writ of peremptory mandamus. 

On Thursday, February 4, 1875, by the Board of County 
Commissioners, the following resolution was unanimously 

"Resolved, That the said county of Beaver shall incur an 
indebtedness of one hundred and twenty thousand dollars 
($120,000) for the purpose of erecting a new court-house in 
obedience to the order of court made January 25, a.d. 1875, 
and that bonds shall be issued as provided by the second sec- 
tion of the Act of April, a.d. 1874." 

At the same meeting of the board a resolution was adopted 
levying an annual tax of two mills on the last assessed valuation 
of taxable property in the county for building purposes, as 
directed by Act of Assembly passed the aoth of April, 1874. 
The last assessed valuation of the taxable property in the county 
was $6,050,738. The actual indebtedness of the county at this 
time, according to the report of the commissioners, was nothing. 
To cover the indebtedness to be incurred by the building of the 
new court-house, a series of 425 bonds, amounting to $120,000, 

■ No. 17J. December Term, 1874. 

• The petition wm represented by J. I 
E. B. Daugherty, Eaqs.. and the county 
Moore, Eiqi. 

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206 History of Beaver County 

was issued. All of these bonds have in due course of time been 
paid off. 

In March, 1875, the Board of Commissioners, with Hon. 
Henry Hice, the then president judge of the county, and B. F. 
Wilson, Esq., went to view the court-houses at Mercer, Frank- 
lin, and Meadville, in this State, and that of Mansfield, Ohio. 
And on March 29, 1S75, the following resolution was adopted by 
the commissioners, viz., "Resolved, That we locate, and build 
the New Court House, on the same square on which the present 
Court House now stands." 

On April 15th following, a resolution of the board was passed, 
reading as .follows: "That Thomas Boyd of Pittsburgh be 
employed as architect to prepare the plans, drawings, and 
specifications of the new Court House for the consideration of 
two per cent on the contract price of the said Court House." 

On Tuesday, June 29, 1875, the Board of Commissioners 
awarded the contract for building the new court-house to Wil- 
liam M. Keyser of New Brighton, by passing the following 
resolution, viz., "On motion of Mr. Neely, seconded by Mr. 

"Resolved, That the contract for building the New Court 
House be and the same is hereby awarded to William M. Keyser 
of New Brighton for the sum of one hundred and fifteen thou- 
sand dollars ($115,000)." 

On July 1, 1875, the contract was closed by William M. 
Keyser entering into written articles with the commissioners 
for the erection and completion of the said court-house, and 
also by giving a bond with approved security in the sum of fifty 
thousand dollars for the faithful performance of his contract. 

On July 6, 1875, the commissioners, with the assistance of 
Mr. Boyd, the architect, located the new court-house, making 
the front line of the building forty-seven and a half feet from 
the line of Third Street, and in the middle of the square east 
and west. July 33d a bill for extra excavation and labor 
for removing two vaults which came in the way of the heavy 
foundation walls of the court-house was approved and passed, 
said bill amounting to $336. 

Up to this time the Board of Commissioners serving during 
the period of the erection of the new court-house was com- 
posed of Messrs. Daniel Neely, David Patten, and Andrew Wat- 

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Two Views of Present Co uri- House. 

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History of Beaver County 207 

terson. On January 3, 1876, the new board, composed of 
Andrew Carothers, John C. Calhoon, and George W. Shrodes, 
took the oath of office, and under them the work was completed. 

April 33, 1876, the new board awarded a contract for the 
excavating, walling, etc., of a sink for the court-house for the 
sum of $641.80. 

In June the board, with Mr. Boyd, the architect, and Mr. 
Keyser, the contractor, went to view the bookcases, seats, and 
other furniture in the court-houses of Indiana, Armstrong, 
Venango, Crawford, and Mercer counties, for the purpose of 
obtaining some ideas in regard to selecting suitable furniture for 
the new court-house. And on August 7, 1876, there was 
awarded by the board to William M. Keyser all the balance of 
the work to be done on the new court-house not included in the 
first letting or contract, embracing all the bookcases, desks, 
seats, judge's stand, frescoing court-room, bell, clock, lightning 
rods, etc., for the sum of $11,953. 

The minutes of the Board of Commissioners for January 1 , 
1877, contain the following entry: 

The County Commissioners have this day disposed of all County 
Bonds authorized by Act of Assembly authorizing the county to issue 
Bonds to the amount of one hundred and twenty thousand dollars, 
$110,000, for the purpose of building a new Court House, the same having 
been issued in denominations and amounts as follows: 

1S0 Bonds of $ too each $18,000 

Total $130,000 

On Wednesday, February 38, 1877, the commissioners re- 
ceived the keys of the new court-house from Mr. Wm. M. 
Keyser, the contractor, 1 the commissioners, after a thorough 

* Stib-ConlracUri for the new court -homa were : Mr. Cicero Turner, for excavating the 
basement. He began work on the jth of July. i8u, and completed hie contract in fifteen 
day* thereafter. 

The atone contract was awarded to Mr. Altvater, of Allegheny City, the foremanahip of 
which wu entrusted to Mr. Richard Morganroth. The main front stone steps were built 
by (Jr. William Fish, of New Brighton. 

The brick, common and pressed, were made by Mr. George Agner. of Rochester. Pa. 
Mr. William Huston, of Beaver, waa the superintendent of the brick walla, and the pressed 
brick were laid by Mr. Jos. C. Hackney, of Philadelphia, 

The plastering of the entire building was done by Mr. W. A. Laird, of Beaver. The 
bill stuff and rough lumber by Messrs. Miner & Co.. of Fallatcn. 

Mr. Isaac Lindsay had charge of the entire work, and of the sub-contractors 

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ao8 History of Beaver County 

inspection of the building and the workmanship thereof, finding 
the same to be done according to contract and in conformity 
to the plans and specifications made by Thomas Boyd, the 
architect. The original contract with Mr. Keyser was $115,000. 
Subsequent contracts with him, viz., for bell, clock, seats, desks, 
tables, stone steps at front door, frescoing, painting, graining, 
etc., amounted to $14,305.50. An additional payment to Geo. 
H. Grant & Co. on furniture was $350, making the entire cost 
of the construction and furnishing of the court-house, $iao,- 
655.50. The amount in full paid Thomas Boyd for his services 
as architect was $2586.11. 

On Saturday, June a, 1877, the day advertised for the sale 
of the old court-house, the same was sold at public outcry to 
Cicero Turner, including wings, for the sum of $600. The bell 
was sold to the New Brighton Fire Company for $na; and the 
seats, casings, steps, out-building, etc. to sundry persons for 
$171, the purchasers to take down the buildings and remove 
all debris by the 1st of September, 1877. 

The new court-house was dedicated on Tuesday, May 1, 
1877, the exercises being of the most interesting character. The 
large court-room was filled to overflowing. On the speakers' 
stand were the following noted gentlemen ; Chief Justice Daniel 
Agnew, Judges McGuffin, Chamberlin, Hice, Lawrence, and Wil- 
son; Samuel B.Wilson and Edward B. Daugherty, Esqs., vice- 
presidents; and Rev. J. K. Miller. At 10.15 o'clock a.m., the 
meeting was called to order by the chairman, Hon. B. B. Cham- 
berlin, who called upon Rev. Mr. Miller to make an opening 
prayer. The chairman then made an introductory address, and 
in concluding presented Chief Justice Agnew, who made the 
dedicatory address." 

At the conclusion of Judge Agnew's address the meeting was 
thrown open for remarks, when brief speeches were made by 
Judge McGuffin, D. B. Kurtz, Esq., S. W. Dana, Esq., John Mc- 
Michael, Esq., R. B. McComb, Esq., and Col. Oscar Jackson, all 
of New Castle, Pa. ; Samuel B.Wilson, Esq., of Beaver; and Rev. 
David Jones, D.D., of New Brighton. The exercises closed at 
1 a. 30 p.m. 

Improvements were made in 1897 in the commissioners' 
office in the installation of fire-proof furniture, tiling, etc., at a 

■ PubHilied in full 1" Agnew's Stttlimtnl md Laid Tiilts in N. W. Pntna„ p. 167. 

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The Present Jail and Sheriff's Residence. 
«n photograph! by Charlti A. Griffin, uken aboui i860. 

D„iu,db, Google 

/ ™« \ 



A, ., 

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History of Beaver County 209 

cost of about $7000; and at about the same time similar im- 
provements were made in the prothonotary's office at a cost of 
$6000. In 1901 the court-room was remodelled and beautified 
at a total cost of nearly $15,000. 

The erection of a new jail and sheriff's residence had been 
under consideration since some time in 1855; and on April 22, 
1856, plans and specifications for the same, prepared by J. W. 
Kerr, architect, of Pittsburg, were adopted by the Board of 
Commissioners. On the 17th of June following, proposals for 
the building of the jail and sheriff's residence were received. 
Messrs. Rhodes, Poland, & Rhodes were the lowest bidders, but 
they failing to give satisfactory security, the bid of Timothy 
B. White was accepted as the lowest and best, and he was 
awarded the contract, June 33, 1856. The contract was signed 
by Wm. P. Phillips and Philip Cooper on behalf of the county, 
and by T. B. White on his own part in connection with a bond 
of indemnity from him to the commissioners in favor of the 
county for the sum of $5000. 

The buildings, which are of cut sandstone, were completed 
in 1858 or 1859, at a cost of $28,852.95. The architect was 
J. W. Kerr, of Pittsburg, who received $1013.85 additional. 

Succeeding grand juries from 1859 on made presentments rep- 
resenting that the jail was radically defective in construction, its 
defects leading to the escape of several prisoners, and they 
therefore recommended that alterations and improvements be 
made therein. In response to these recommendations changes 
were made at different times, the principal of which was the 
remodelling of the jail in 1882-83, by J. B. Cochran & Co., Lim- 
ited, under the supervision of Simon Harrold, architect, at a total 
cost of $21,124.36. In 1898 also, about $5000 was spent in 
repairs and in improved steel cells. 


The need of a home for the care of the poor of the county 
was early recognized, and in 1831 a meeting was called in the 
court-house to consider the question of providing such an 
institution. Nothing was accomplished until thirteen years 
later, when an Act of the Legislature, approved April 16, 1844,' 

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2io History of Beaver County 

directed that "for the purpose of ascertaining the sense of the 
citizens of Beaver County, as to the expediency of erecting a 
poor-house," the inspectors for the several townships and bor- 
oughs should, at the next general election, "receive tickets, 
either written or printed, from the qualified voters thereof, 
labelled on the outside 'poor-house,' and in the inside 'for a 
poor-house' or 'against a poor-house.'" If it should appear 
from the returns "That a majority of those who voted are for 
a poor-house, then the foregoing Act shall take effect; but if 
the majority of votes are found to be against a poor-house, the 
foregoing Act shall be and the same is hereby null and void." 
The returns showed: For, 1533; Against, 2366. 

The question was again submitted to a popular vote by an 
Act approved March 39, 1851.' The vote against the measure 
in 1844 had been principally in that part of the county which 
was, in 1849, stricken off to help form Lawrence County; and, 
consequently, at the general election in October, 1851, the 
friends of the project triumphed. The vote stood: For, 1855; 
Against, 1738. 

By Section a of an Act approved April 3, 1853, the time for 
the commissioners to carry out the provisions of the Act of 
1 85 1 , in making a purchase of real estate for the purposes therein 
mentioned, was extended to January 1, 1853.' 

In 1853 the first building for the housing and care of the 
poor was erected. It was a small one-story frame structure, 
which was replaced by a larger one, also a frame, in 1859. The 
present building is a substantial brick structure, two stories in 
height, erected in 1870 at a cost of $18,000. The location of the 
home is a fine one, on the south side of the Ohio River, in Moon 
township.* A good farm of 138 acres belongs to it, the land 
having been bought of George Stone at $50 per acre. 

Following is a list of the stewards of the institution from 
its beginning: Henry Engle, Industry township, 1853-54; An- 

' P. L. 160. 

■ P. L. a8o. 

" The first inmate of the home mi John Murphy of New Brighton, who wee in hie ttst 
year when received. This man is, m think, worthy of mention in our county history. 
He waa deformed in body to suet a degree that he waa an anatomical curiosity, but was 
possjesaed of excellent powers of mind, and waa of a character so noble that he became a 
vital influence for good in the lives of the other inmates, and of all who came into contact 
with him. He died in February. iBM. 

Over three hundred poor are buried on the farm, and many have been buried el 

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History of Beaver County 211 

thony Douthett, Darlington township, 1854-58; James Brittain, 
Chippewa township, 1858-63 ; William Shrodes, Moon township, 
1863-77; Stephen Minor, Moon township, 1877-85; J. W. 
Jack, Industry township, 1885-88; J. H. Ewing, Raccoon town- 
ship, 1888-93; George Engle, Moon township, 1892-95; William 
Thomburgh, Raccoon township, 1895-98; 0. B. Elliott, Moon 
township, 1 898-1901. 

The physicians who have been in service at the Home, and 
whose election took place each January, are the following: 
George Allison, Beaver, 1853-56; John R. Miller, Raccoon 
township, 1856-58; Smith Cunningham, Beaver, 1858-63; 
James S. Elliott, Moon township, 1863-69; Presley M. Kerr, 
Raccoon, 1869-83; John Bryan, Moon, 1882-83; J- H. Ramsey, 
Bridgewater, 1883-88; James Scroggs, Jr., Beaver, 1888-92; 
G. A. Scroggs, Beaver, 1892-93; James Scroggs, Jr., Beaver, 
1893-99; J- B. Armstrong, Beaver, 1899-1901; J. R. Gormley, 
Monaca, 1901-02; J. J. Allen, Monaca, 1902-03. 


This list contains the names of persons who have held county 
offices, and also of those resident in Beaver County, who have 
held important offices in or under the. State or National Govern- 

President Judges. — Jesse Moore, 1803-06; Samuel Roberts, 
1806-20; William Wilkins, 1820-24; Charles Shaler, 1824-31; 
John Bredin, 1831-51; Daniel Agnew, 1851-63; L. L. McGuffin, 
1863-66; B. B. Chamberlin, 1866-67; A. W. Acheson, 1867-74; 
Henry Hice, 1874-85; John J. Wickham, 1885-95; Millard F. 
Mecklem, 189$; J. Sharp Wilson, 1896. 

Associate Judges. — Abner Lacock, John H. Reddick, Joseph 
Caldwell, David Drennan, Thomas Henry, Joseph Hemphill, 
John Nesbit, Benjamin Adams, John Carothers, Joseph Irvin, 
William Cairns, John Scott, Milton Lawrence, Agnew Duff, Joseph 
C. Wilson. 

Sheriffs. — William Henry, 1803-06; Jonathan Coulter, 1806- 
09, 1812-15; Samuel Power, 1809-ia; William Cairns, 1815-18, 
1833-36; James Lyon, 1818—31; Thomas Henry, 1821-24; 
John Dickey, 1824-37; David Porter, 1827-30; J. A. Sholes, 
1830-33; Matthew T. Kennedy, 1836-39; David Somers, 1839- 
42; Milo Adams, 1842-45; James Kennedy, Jr., 1845-48; 

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212 History of Beaver County 

Robert Wallace, 1848-51; George Robinson, 1851-54; James 
Darragh, 1854-57; William W. Irwin, 1857-60; John Roberts, 
1860-63; Joseph Ledlie, 1863-66; J. S. Littell (formerly written 
Little), 1866-69; John Graebing, 1869-79; Chamberlin White, 
1873-75; J. P. Martin, 1875-78; Mark Wisener, 1878-81; Henry 
E. Cook, 1881-84; John D. Irons, 1884-87; Andrew J. Welsh, 
1887-90; J. Imbrie Martin, 1890-93; Oliver Molter, 1893-96; 
Louis Graham, 1896-99; J. Henry Geer, 1899-1902; Howard 
Bliss 190a-. 

Those who remained in office as sheriff for a period longer 
than three years did so upon reappointment by the governor. 

Protkonotaries : David Johnson, 1803-09 ; Samuel Law- 
rence, 1809-15; Thomas Henry, 1815-31; John Dickey, r8ai- 
94; John Clark, 1824-30; James Logan, 1830-36; John A. 
Scroggs, 1836-39; Samuel W. Sprott, 1839; Milton Lawrence, 
1839-48; John Collins, 1848-54; A. R. Thomson, 1854-56; 
M.S. Quay, 1856-61; Michael Weyand, 1861-67; John Caughey, 
1867-73; Oscar A. Small, 1873-79; Stephen P. Stone, 1879-85; 
Dan H. Stone, 1885-91; George W. Mackall, 1891-97; Frank 
A. Judd, 1897— 1903; Wilber R. Harris, 1904. 

Those persons who served in the office of Prothonotary for a 
period longer than three years did so by reappointment by the 
governor previous to 1839, and by re-election subsequently. 

Samuel W. Sprott was succeeded in the same year of his 
appointment by Milton Lawrence, owing to a change in the 
Constitution, making the county offices elective. A. R. Thom- 
son resigned and was succeeded by the appointment of M. S. 
Quay, who was continued in the office until 1861, when he 
resigned and was succeeded by the appointment of Michael 
Weyand, who served by re-election until 1867. 

Clerks of Courts.— William McCallister, 1839-43; W. K. 
Boden, 1843-57; A. G. McCreery, 1857-63; John A. Frazier, 
1863-69; John C. Hart, 1869-78; Charles A. Griffin, 1878-84; 
John M. Scott, 1884-90; Andrew J. Lawrence, 1890-96; Philip 
Growl, 1896-1903; J. H. Sturgeon, 190a-. 

The duties of the Clerk of Courts previous to 1839 were dis- 
charged by the Prothonotary and Register and Recordei . 

District Attorneys. — James Allison, Jr., 1803-09; John R. 
Shannon, 1809-34; N. P. Fetterman, 1834-37; H. M. Watts, 
1837-30; William B. Clarke, 1830-33; 1836-39; Simeon Mere- 

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History of Beaver County 213 

dith, 1833-36; Thomas Cunningham, 1839-45; Lewis Taylor, 
1845-48; B. B. Chamberlin, 1848-49; Richard P. Roberts, 
1849-53; Joseph H. Wilson, 1853-56; Moses B. Welsh, 1856- 
61; John B. Young, 1 861-63; James S. Rutan, 1863 -68; Joseph 
R. Harrah, 1868-71; J. H. McCreery, 1871-74; John M. 
Buchanan, 1874-80; Alfred S. Moore, 1880-83; James Rankin 
Martin, 1883-59; Millard F. Mecklem, 1889-95; D. M. Twiford, 
1895-98; Harry Calhoon, 1898-1901; David K. Cooper, 1901- 

Previous to 1850 the District Attorneys were appointed, and 
subsequent to that date were elected by the people. 

Registers and Recorders. — David Johnson, 1803—36; T. M. 
Johnston, 1836—39; Samuel McClure, 1839; T.M.Johnston, 1839- 
48; William McCallister, 1848-54; S. B.Wilson, 1854-60; Alfred 
R. Moore, 1860-66; Darius Singleton, 1866— 73; James I. Stokes, 
1873-78; H. M. Donehoo, 1878-84; W. H. Bricker, 1884-90; 
Orin H. Mathews, 1890-96; Herman F. Dillon, 1896-99; Oliver 
C. Harris, 1899-1903; James S. Mitchell, 1903-. 

Samuel McClure was appointed in February, 1839, and was 
succeeded in the same year by the election of T. M. Johnston. 

Up to 1839 the offices of Prothonotary and Register and 
Recorder were held by one and the same person. 

Commissioners. — Jonathan Coulter, 1803-04; Joseph Hemp- 
hill, 1804-05; Denny McClure, 1805-06; John_Mc£jdlQugh, 
1806-07; Samuel Lawrence, 1807-08; William Harsha, 1808- 
09; James Kennedy, 1809-10; William Caims, 1810-11; Thomas 
Kennedy, 1811-13; John Sharp, 1813-13; John Martin, 1813- 
14; James Dennis, 1814-15; John Roberts, 1815-16; John 
Morton, 1816-17; John A. Scroggs, 1817-18; Thomas Kennedy, 
1 818-19; Daniel Christy, 1819-30; David Boies, iSso-ai; 
George Dilworth, 1831-33; Alexander Thompson, 1833-33; 
David Eakan, 1833-34; James Logan, 1834-35; Daniel Christy, 
1835-36; David E akin, 1836-37; John Sharp, 1837-38; Daniel 
Christy, 1838-39; Benjamin Adams, 1839-30; John Bryan, 
1830-31; Sampson Piersol, 1831-33; Joseph Vera, 1833-33; 
John Harsha, 1833—34; Solomon Bennett, 1834-35; David 
Somers, 1835-36; James Scott, 1836— 37; James D. Eakin, 1837— 
38; William Rayt, 1838—39; James Mackall, 1839—40; Joseph 
Moorehead, 1840-41 ; James Harper, 1841-43; John Hull, 1843- 
43; Thomas Cairns, 1843-44; Arthur Campbell, 1844-45; Samuel 

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214 History of Beaver County 

Hamilton, three years, and William Carothers, two years, 
1845-46; David Warnock, 1846-47; Robert McFerren, 1847- 
48; Samuel B. Wilson, 1848-49; Archibald McMillan, 1849-50; 
Robert Potter, appointed by Judge Bredin to fill vacancy caused 
by death of Robert McFarren, and the nelected, 1850-51 ; W. C. 
Plants, 1851-53; James A. Sholes, 1851-53, 1853-53; James C. 
Ritchie, 1853-54; David Kennedy, 1854-55 ; William P. 
Philips, 1855-56; Philip Cooper, 1856-57; Hugh Sutherland, 
1857-58; Abner Morton, 1858-59; William Shrodes, 1859-60; 
Samuel Lawrence, 1860-61; James Wilson, 1861-63; Daniel B. 
Short, 1863-63; William Bames, 1863-64; John H. Beighley, 
1864-65; Joseph Irons, 1865-66; John Wilson, 1866-67; James 
Warnock, 1867-68; William Ewing, 1868-69; David W. Scott, 
1869-70; Joseph Brit tain, 1870-71; Samuel Torrence, 1871-73; 
H, J. Marshall, 1873-73; Daniel Neely, 1873-74; David Patten, 
1874—75; Andrew Watterson, 1874. Up to this time the com- 
missioners served only two years, and under the Constitution 
of 1874 the term was made three years. 

G. W. Shrodes, John C. Calhoun, and Andrew Carothers were 
elected in 1875 for the term of three years each; Samuel Nelson, 
Levi Fish, and J. C. Ritchie, 1878-81 ; Daniel Reisinger, Robert 
A. Smith, 1881-84; David Johnson, John C. Boyle, and W. H. 
Partington, 1884-87; Thomas B. Hunter, James Todd, and W. 
H. Partington, 1888-91; John H. Wilson, William B. Smith, 
and Thomas L. Darragh, 1891-94; George E. Smith, John E. 
Harton, and Thomas L. Darragh, 1894-97; John E. Harton, 
George W, Carey, and William A. Freed, 1897-1900; James C. 
Coleman, Harry C. Glasser, and James L. Mayhew, 1900-03; 
James C. Coleman, George W. Carey, and John Hineman, 

In September, 1853, W. C. Plants left the county, and the 
vacancy thereby created was filled by the appointment of 
Moses Welsh. 

Treasurers. — Guion Greer, 1803-07 ; John Lawrence, 1807-09 ; 
Robert Moore, 1 809-11; James Allison, 1811-15; James Alex- 
ander, 1815-17; James Dennis, 1817-30; David Hayes, 1830— 
as; Samuel McClure, 1833-34; Joseph Hemphill, 1834-38; 
Thomas Henry, 1838-33; Benjamin Adams, 1833—34; John 
English, 1834-35; David Porter, 1835-36; Henderson C. Hall, 
1836-38; John Barclay, 1838-39, 1843-45; Dr. Oliver Cunning- 

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History of Beaver County 215 

ham, 1839-41: David Salem. 1841-43; Dr. Smith Cunningham, 
1845-47; Alfred R. Moore, 1847-49; Moses B. Welsh, 1849-51; 
Lawrence Whitesell, 1851-53; Richard H. Agnew. 1853-55; H. 
B. Anderson, 1855-57; William Henry, 1857-59; John S. Dar- 
ragh, 1859-61; George C. Bradshaw, 1861-63; J onn Caughey, 
1863-65; M. R. Adams, 1865-67; Elijah Barnes, 1867-69; Eben 
Allison, 1869-71: C. P. Wallace, 1871-73; James H. Mann, 
1873-75; John R. Ealrin, 1875-78; William F. Dawson, 1878- 
81; John McGoun, 1881-84; John F. Miner, 1884-87; Alexan- 
der Morrison, 1887-90; Samuel Hamilton, 1890-93; Christo- 
pher C. Hazen, 1893-96; Andrew J. Bingham, 1896-99; Agnew 
A. Duff, 1899-1909; T. B. Bradshaw, 1903-. 

Those persons who remained in office as Treasurer for a 
period longer than two years did so upon reappointment by 
the Governor. 

Auditors. — James McDowell, James Allison, Jr., John Bryan, 
— Hugh McCullough, John Christmas, John Clark, — James 
Davidson, Joseph Pollock, Stewart Rowan, — David Findley, 
Stephen Runyon, John Morton, — James Davidson, Daniel 
Christy, James Leslie, — John G, Johnston, James Eakin, Hugh 
McCullough, — Stewart Boyd, James Freed, John G. Johnston, — 
Josiah Laird, Adam Poe, James Davidson, — William Johnston, 
James Scott, John Hull, — Andrew Jenkins, Henry Davis, Wil- 
liam Morton, — Matthew Kennedy, David Gordon, James Henry, 
— Joseph Niblock, Archibald Harvey, J. S. Allsworth. 

1840, John Shane; 1841, Thomas Nicholson; 1843, Robert 
Dunlap; 1843, John Keelin; 1844, Robert McFerren; 1845, 
Wm. F. Davidson; 1846, Philip G. Vicary; 1847, John B. Early; 
1848, Henry Bryan; 1849, Philip L. Grim; 1850, James C. 
Ritchie; 1851, Samuel Bigger; 1853, David White; 1853, 
Thomas Russell ; 1854, Robert Ramsey; Wm. H. Frazier; 1855, 
Thomas Boggs, three years, Rezin R. Gamble, two years; 1856, 
James W. Pandar; 1857, John R. Eakin; 1858, Wm. C. Hunter; 

1859, James Morrison; i860, ; 1861, Findley Anderson; 

1863, John Stewart; 1863, Wm. Chaney; 1864, Joseph Mc- 
Clure; 1865, James Whitham; 1866, Hugh J. Marshall; 1867, 
J.F. McMillen; 1868, G. K. Shannon; 1869, Wm. Thomas; 1870, 
Wilson H. Lukens; 1871, James Harvey Christy; 1873, Ralph 
Covert; 1873, Charles A. Hoon; 1874, J. F. Culbertson; 1875, 
John E. Harton; in 1878, Joseph A. Sutherland, Alexander L. 

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216 History of Beaver County 

McKibben, and Alonzo P. Sickman were elected to serve three 
years, 1876, 1877, and 1878; 1879, Henry Cooper, Findley Ander- 
son, and A. P. Sickman; 1882, Hugh Davis, David E.McCallister, 
and Hugh Morrow; 1885, James I. Douds, Christopher C. 
Hazen, and Wm. Patton; 1888, Christopher C. Hazen, Robert 
M. Swaney, and James E. Kennedy; 1891, Williamson Graham, 
John S. Cunningham, and Thomas Allen; 1894, Augustus 
Tomlinson, Frank Springer, and Wm. L. Reed; 1897, John B. 
McClure, Prank Springer, and Wm. J. McKenzie; 1900, Everett 
M. Standley, Stephen M. White, and Henry M. Wilson; 1903, 
David F. Funkhouser, James B. Edgar, and David B. Hartford. 

Coroners. — Ezekiel Jones, 1804 ; Samuel Power, 1807 ; 
Thomas Kennedy, 1809; James Conlin, 1818-33; James Moore, 
1833-34; James MackaJl, 1834-36; William Hales, 1836-39; 
David Marquis, 1839—43; John Sutherland, 1843-45; James H. 
Douds, 1845—46; William Shrodes, 1846-47; Jacob J. Noss, 
1847-50; James A. Sholes, 1850-51; Thomas W. Ayres, 1851- 
53; Eli Reed, 1853-56; John B. Early, 1856-57; Nathan 
P. Couch, 1857-60; Eli Reed, 1860-63; Thomas Devinney, 
1863-65; Thomas McCoy, 1865-68; William Barnes, 1868-69; 
Daniel Corbus, 1869-75; R- F- Mcllvaine, 1875-78; Joseph H. 
Reed, 1878-81; William Raymer, 1881-84; Henry C. Watson, 
1884-90; S. S. Kring, 1890-96; James K.White, 1 896-1901; 
James R. Gormley, 1901— . 

County Surveyors. — James Carothers, 1800-15; Hugh Mc- 
Cullough, 1815-34; William Law, 1834-27; Henry Davis, 1837- 
30; John Bryan, 1830-35; John Martin, 1835-36; William 
McCallister, 1836-39; J. A. Vezey, 1839-43; William Minis, Jr., 
1843-45; Samson S. Nye, 1845-50; A. Wynn, 1850-53; 1856-59, 
1863-71; Hugh Cunning, 1853-56; James Harper, 1859-62; 
D. M. Daugherty, 1871-74; James Harper, 1874-77; James J. 
Power, 1877-83; James Harper, 1883-86; 1886-93; 1893-96; 
Michael Baker, 1896-. Up to 1850 the County Surveyors were 
appointed by the Surveyor-General, after that time they were 
elected by the people. 

County Superintendents. — Thomas Nicholson, 1855; George 
Cope, 1855-56; S. H. Peirsol, 1856-57; R. N. Avery, 1857-58; 
Thomas Carothers, 1858-63; J. I. Reed, 1863-67; James 
Whitham, 1867-69; G. M. Fields, 1869-72; M. L. Knight, 
1873-75; Benjamin Franklin, 1875-81; J. S. Briggs, 1881-84; 

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History of Beaver County 217 

re-elected in May, 1884, but resigned September i, 1884; J. M. 
Reed, appointed to fill out unexpired part of term, and elected 
in May, 1887 ; resigned in November, 1889, to take effect January 
i, 1890, but not released until January 17th; John G. Hillman, 
appointed, January, 1890, elected May, 1890, re-elected May, 
1893, served to June, 1896; Chester A. Moore, elected May, 1896, 
re-elected in 1899 and 190a. 

George Cope and S. H. Peirsol were appointed to fill the un- 
expired term of Thomas Nicholson. Thomas Carothers was 
appointed in 1858 to fill the unexpired term of R. N. Avery. 
James Whitham was appointed to fill the unexpired part of J. I. 
Reed's second term. 

Directors of the County Home. — Joseph Douthett, Philip 
Cooper, David Shanor, Robert Potter, William Barnes, James 
Sterling, Henry Goehring, Samuel Moorhead, John White, 
Samuel Wilson, John K. Potter, Samuel McManamy, Samuel 
Gibson, John Slentz, Robert Cooper, Hiram Reed, Samuel E. 
Walton, Samuel Boots, Thomas Ramsey, William M. Reed, 
Socrates A. Dickey, Joseph W. Appleton, Robert S. Newton, 
Philip V. Cooper, Thomas Reed, Richard Walton, Isaac Miner, 
Stephen Miner, John C. Christy, George H. Cleis, John S. Cun- 
ningham, James H. Springer, Joseph Carney, Andrew W. Tanner, 
James W. Mackall, J. Henry Shuster, Jacob A. Rose, J. W. 

The above-named persons served for one or more terms. 

Previous to 1853 the poor were supported by the township in 
which they resided. 

United States Senate. — Beaver County has given two members 
to the United States Senate, viz., General Abner Lacock, 1813- 
1819, and Colonel Matthew Stanley Quay, 1887-1904.' 

Members of Congress. — From this county there have gone to 
the Congress of the United States the following: 

Abner Lacock, 1811-1813; Robert Moore, 1817-1819, 1819- 

1 Another United States Senator has a slight connection with the county. William 
Maries, Jr.. wai bora in Cheater County. Pa., in 1 7 j 8, and came as a child to Allegheny County, 
making, hii home on the Steubeoville Pike, at a place now called Remington. He was 
coroner of that county, then member of the Assembly and Senate of Pennsylvania and 
served one term aa a member of the United States Senate, Soma years before his death. 
which was on the 10th of April. 1S48, he and his wife came to Beaver and made their home 
with Mm. Clarinda M cCreery, a niece of Senator Marks. He is buried in the McCreery lot 
In the old cemetery at Beaver. Prom early boyhood he was a member of the Covenanter 

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218 History'of Beaver County 

i8ai; James Allison, Jr., 1823-1825; Thomas Henry, 1837-1843; 
John Dickey, 1843-1845, 1847-1849; John Allison, 1850-1853, 
1854-1856; William S. Shallenberger, 1877-1879, 1881-1883; 
Charles C. Townsend, 1 889-1891; James J. Davidson was 
elected in 1896, but died before taking the oath of office. 

State Senators. — From 1801 to 181 7 the district was composed 
of the counties of Allegheny, Beaver, and Butler, and had the 
following Senators: Thomas Morton, 1801-05; James Martin, 
1805-08; Abner Lacock, 1808-09; Francis McClure, 1809-11; 
Thomas Baird, 1811-13; Walter Lowrie, 1813-17. 

From 1817 to 1833 the district consisted of Allegheny, 
Beaver, Butler, and Armstrong counties. Senators: Walter 
Lowrie, 1817-19; Samuel Power, 1819-31; William Marks, 

From 1833 to 1831 the district was known as the Twenty-first 
and consisted of Allegheny, Beaver, and Butler counties again. 
Senators: William Marks, Jr., 1823-25; Samuel Power, 1825-37; 
Moses Sullivan, 1827-29; John Brown, 1829-31. 

From 1831 to 1835 the district was the Twenty-fifth and the 
counties were the same. Moses Sullivan, 1831-35. 

From 1835 to 1838 the district was the Twenty-first, com- 
posed of Beaver and Butler counties. John Dickey, 1835-37. 

From 1838 to 1845 the district was the Twentieth, and from 
1845 to 1848, the Twenty-fifth, and was composed during both 
periods of Beaver and Mercer counties. Senators, John J. 
Pearson, of Mercer, 1838-41; William Stewart, 1842-44; Robert 
Darragh, 1845-47. 

From 1848 to 1851 the district was the same, with the addi- 
tion of Lawrence County. David Sankey, 1848-50. 

From 1851 to i860 the district was known as Twenty-first; 
counties Beaver, Butler, and Lawrence. Senators, William 
Hoslea, 1851-53; Archibald Robertson, 1853-53; John Fergu- 
son, 1854-56; John R. Harris, 1857-59. 

From i860 to 1864 the district was the Twenty-fifth, com- 
prising Beaver and Butler counties. Senators: D. L. Imbrie, 
1860-63; Charles McCandless, 1863-64. 

From 1864 to 1873 the district was the Twenty-sixth, com- 
prising Beaver and Washington counties. Senators: William 
Hopkins, 1864-66; Alexander W. Taylor, 1867-69; James S. 
Rutan, 1870-72. 

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History of Beaver County a 19 

From 1873 to 1876 the Twenty-sixth district comprised 
Beaver, Butler, and Washington counties. Senator, James S. 
Rutan, 1873-75. 

Since 1876 the district has been known as the Forty-sixth, 
and includes Beaver and Washington counties. Senators: 
George V. Lawrence, 1876-33; Franklin H. Agnew, 1883-86; 
Jos. R. McClain, 1887-90; William B. Dunlap, 1891-94; Samuel 
P. White, 1895-98; John F. Budke, 1899-01 '; Samuel P. White, 

Representatives. — From 1803 to 1808 Allegheny, Beaver, and 
Butler counties were in the same district, and sent to the House 
the following: Samuel Ewalt, John McMasters, and Abner La- 
cock, 1809-03; George Robinson, John McBride, and John 
Wilson, 1803-04; George Robinson, Abner Lacock, and Jacob 
Mechling, 1804-05; Jacob Mechling, Abner Lacock, and Francis 
McClure, 1805-06; and the same three from 1806 to 1808. 

From 1808 to 1839 Beaver County stood by itself, with but 
one representative: John Lawrence, 1808-14; Thomas Henry, 
1814-15; John Clarke, 1815-18; George Cochran, 1818-19; 
James Stockman, 1819-aa; Samuel Lawrence, 1833-35; John 
A. Scroggs, 1835-36; John R. Shannon, 1836-39. 

From 1899 to 1851 Beaver County sent two representatives: 
Samuel Power and Robert Moore, 1829-31; Samuel Power and 
John R.Shannon, 1831-33; Abner Lacock and Benjamin Adams, 
1832-33; Abner Lacock and John Clarke, 1833-34; Abner 
Lacock and Joseph Pollock, 1834-35; John Clarke and John 
Harsha, 1835-36; John Harsha and William Morton, 1836-38. 

In 1839 there was no regular session, the time of meeting hav- 
ing been altered by the Constitution of 1838 from December to 
January. Then follow: James Sprott and William Morton, 
1838-40; Matthew T. Kennedy and James Sprott, 1841; Mat- 
thew T. Kennedy and John Ferguson, 1843—43; Solomon Ben- 
nett and Thomas Nicholson, 1844; Thomas Nicholson and J. T. 
Cunningham, 1845; Robert McClelland and Thomas Nicholson, 
1846; John Allison and John Sharp, 1847—48; John Sharp and 
William Smith, 1849-50. 

From 1851 to 1858, Beaver, Butler, and Lawrence counties 

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220 History of Beaver County 

were united and sent three representatives: Thomas Dungan, 
Daniel H. B. Brower, and Samuel Hamilton, 1851; Thomas 
Dungan, Samuel Hamilton, and John R. Harris, 1853; John R. 
Harris, Brown B. Chamberlin, and John D. Raney, 1853; 
Brown B. Chamberlin, William Stewart, and R. B. McCombs, 
1854 and 1855; De Lorma Imbrie, A. W. Crawford and R. B. 
McCombs, 1856; De Lorma Imbrie, George P. Shaw, and A. W. 
Crawford, 1857. 

From 1858 to 1865 Beaver and Lawrence counties were 
united, wilh two representatives: De Lorma Imbrie and 
George P. Shaw, 1858; Joseph H. Wilson and James F. Bryson, 
1859-60; Joseph H. Wilson and John W. Blanchard, 1861; 
William Henry and John W. Blanchard, 1863; William Henry 
and Isaiah White, 1863-64. 

From 1865 to 187a Beaver and Washington counties were 
united, sending three representatives: R. R. Reed, James R. 
Kelly, and Matthew Stanley Quay, 1865; on the 24th of 
February, 1865, a special election was held for member of Assem- 
bly in place of Hon. R. R. Reed, deceased, and Joseph B. Welsh 
was elected; James R. Kelly, Joseph B. Welsh, and M. S. Quay, 
1866; John H. Ewing, J. R. Day, and M. S. Quay, 1867; J. R. 
Day, John H. Ewing, and Thomas Nicholson, 1868; H. J. 
Vankirk, A. J. Buffington, and Thomas Nicholson, 1869; William 
C. Shurlock, A. J. Buffington, and H. J. Vankirk, 1870; D. M. 
Leatherman, William A. Mickey, and William C. Shurlock, 1871. 

From 1872 to 1874 Beaver, Butler, and Washington counties 
were united, sending four representatives: G. W. Fleeger, 
Joseph Lusk, D. M. Leatherman, and William A. Mickey, 187a; 
Samuel J. Cross, William S. Waldron, David McKee, and 
Jonathan Allison, 1873; Samuel J. Cross, David McKee, A. L. 
Campbell, and Jonathan Allison, 1874. 

Since 1874 Beaver County has been independent and sends 
two representatives for two years: Joseph Graff and C. I. Wendt, 
1875-76; John Caughey and Gilbert L. Eberhart, 1877-78; 
John Caughey and Thomas Bradford, 1879-80; Ira F. Mansfield 
and Edward Spencer, 1881-82; A. R. Thomson and J. E. 
McCabe, 1883-84; R. L. Sterling and W. H. Marshall, 1885-86; 
Hartford P. Brown and John F. Dravo, 1887-88, 1888-90; 
Richard R. Quay and R. L. Sterling, 1891-93; Ira F. Mansfield 
and Jacob Weyand, 1893-94, 1895-96; Ira F. Mansfield and 

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:■ er, and Wd.i'iinatini counties 

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History of Beaver County 221 

Andrew J. Lawrence, 1897-98; Simon Harrold and W. H. 
Bricker, 1899-1900; W. H. BrickerandT. L. Kennedy, 1900-01; 
Ira F. Mansfield and John T. Taylor, 190a-. 

It will be apparent from the length of the foregoing list of 
those whom Beaver County has honored with her suffrages, and 
who have honored her in the high places of the State and the 
nation, that the number is too large for us to give biographical 
notices of all. Many are mentioned in other parts of these 
volumes, and for these we must refer the reader to the General 
Index. We shall limit ourselves here to brief sketches of our 
United States Senators, and of such members of Congress and 
of the State Senate as are not elsewhere mentioned. 


Of these there have been, as previously stated, two from the 
county. A sketch of the first one, Abner Lacock, will be found 
in the chapter on the legal history of the county. 

Hon. Matthew Stanley Quay, the second from Beaver County 
to fill this high position, was born in Dillsburg, York County, 
Pennsylvania, September 30, 1833, the son of Rev. Anderson 
Beaton Quay and Catherine McCain Quay. His father was an 
able Presbyterian minister, whose pastorates were first at Dills- 
burg, York County, then at Beaver, Beaver County, and finally 
at Indiana, Indiana County, Pa. 

Senator Quay was prepared for college at Beaver and Indiana 
academies, and was graduated from Jefferson College, Canons- 
burg, Pa., in 1850. He studied law with Colonel Richard P. 
Roberts, in Beaver, Augustus Drum, in Indiana, Pa., and Penny 
& Sterret, in Pittsburg, and was admitted to the bar of Beaver 
County in 1854. The following year he was appointed protho- 
notary of Beaver County, and was elected to the same office in 
1856 and re-elected in 1859. In 1861 he resigned his office to 
accept a lieutenancy in the Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves. He 
became colonel of the 134th Pennsylvania Volunteers; assistant 
commissary-general, and afterwards was appointed private 
secretary to Governor Andrew G. Curtin. He was State military 
agent at Washington, major and chief of transportation and 
telegraphs, and military secretary to the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania. Prom 1865 to 1867 inclusive, he was a member of the 

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222 History of Beaver County 

Legislature; secretary of the Commonwealth, 1873-1878; re- 
corder of the city of Philadelphia and chairman of the Republican 
State Committee, 1878-79; again secretary of the Common- 
wealth, 1879-82; delegate at large to the Republican National 
Conventions of 187a, 1876, and 1880. In 1885 he was elected 
State Treasurer by the largest vote ever given to a candidate 
for that office. He was elected a member of the Republican 
National Committee and chosen chairman thereof and ex-officio 
chairman of the executive committee when the committee or- 
ganized in July, 1888, and conducted the successful Presidential 
campaign of that year. And so from year to year the Colonel 
has worn his blushing honors thick upon him. He was a delegate 
to the Republican National Convention of 1 89 2 ; chairman of the 
Republican State Committee, 1895-96; delegate to the Republi- 
can National Convention of 1896; elected a member of the 
Republican National Committee and chosen a member of the 
executive committee in 1896; delegate to the Republican 
National Convention of 1900, and was elected a member of the 
Republican National Committee of 1900. Colonel Quay was 
elected to the United States Senate to succeed John I. Mitchell, 
and took his seat March 4, 1887, and was re-elected in 1893. In 
1899 he was defeated for re-election by a deadlock existing 
throughout the session of the Legislature. He was appointed 
United States Senator by the Governor to fill the vacancy caused 
by the failure of the Legislature to elect, but the appointment 
was not recognized by the Senate. On the day of his rejection 
by the Senate he was nominated to succeed himself by the Re- 
publican State Convention of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected 
United States Senator, January 15, 1901.* 

Senator Quay was married in 1855 to Agnes Barclay, daugh- 
ter of John and Elizabeth Shannon Barclay. The children of 
this marriage, all of whom were bom in Beaver, are Richard 
Roberts, Andrew Gregg Curtin, Mary Agnew, Coral, and Susan 


The subject of the following sketch was, in order of time, the 
fifth of her sons whom Beaver County honored with a seat in the 
National Legislature. 

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Hon. William S. Shaltenberger. 

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History of Beaver County 223 

Hon. John Dickey was born June 33, 1794, at Greensburg 
Westmoreland County, Pa., and came to Beaver County about 
1813. He settled in Old Brighton, where he became a clerk at 
Barker & Ormsby's iron furnace, of which, with James Stock- 
man, he finally was owner. He was the first postmaster in Old 
Brighton, being appointed April it, 1818, and served as pro- 
thonotary of Beaver County from 1831 to 1834, and as sheriff 
from 1824 to 1837. In May, 1837, he moved to the tavem stand 
at Brady's Run, to superintend the building of the Brady's Run 
bridge, for which he had the contract. He removed to Beaver in 
1830, where he remained until 1836, when he returned to Sharon 
(Brady's Run), and opened one of the largest mercantile houses 
in the county. There also, with his relatives, Samuel and Milo 
Adams, he established various industries, such as boat-building, 
salt-works, a saw-mill, etc., and was interested in the foundry 
of Jeremiah Bannon and Robert Wallace. In 1828 Dickey and 
James Mcllroy had the steamboat Rkuamak built by John 
Boles of Bolesville, to run from Fallston and Brady's Run ware- 
houses. The first trip was to Pittsburg on April 39, 1839, Wil- 
liam Reno as captain and John Dickey, clerk. Mr. Dickey took 
a deep interest in the development of Beaver Valley and of the 
county, and was honored by his fellow-citizens in being twice 
elected to serve them in Congress, first from 1843 to 1845, and 
again from 1847 to 1849. He also served as Senator in the 
State Legislature two terms, 1835-37, with great ability and 
distinction, being always devoted to what he considered the 
best interests of the people. He was appointed United States 
Marshall for the District of Western Pennsylvania in 1853, but 
died before the expiration of his term, March 14, 1853, aged 
59 years. 

Five sons of John Dickey and his wife, Elvira Adams Dickey, 
served in the Union armies; three, Samuel Adams, Major Charles 
John, and Robert, served full three years; Colonel Oliver J., 
nine months, and Socrates, three months. 

Hon. William S. Shallenberger, Second Assistant Postmaster- 
General, was born in Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania, November 
34, 1839. He was educated in the public schools, Mount Pleas- 
ant Academy, and the University of Lewisburg, now Bucknell 
Universijy. Early in the Civil War he enlisted in the 140th Penn- 

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224 History of Beaver County 

sylvania Volunteers, and served under Generals Miles and Han- 
cock in the First Division, Second Army Corps. He was several 
times wounded, the last wound being in the thigh and caused by 
a minie ball, which could not be removed for more than two 
years, necessitating his discharge in October, 1864. Prom that 
time until 1876, when he was elected Representative in Congress, 
Mr. Shallenberger was engaged in mercantile business. He 
represented, in Congress, the twenty-fourth district of Pennsyl- 
vania, composed of Washington, Beaver, and Lawrence counties, 
was re-elected in 1878, and again in 1880. 

During his third term he was chairman of the committee on 
public grounds and buildings, but devoted most of his time to the 
study of the tariff. His speech on April 15, 1889, has been 
widely circulated. 

Upon his retirement from Congress, Mr. Shallenberger was 
engaged as cashier in the First National Bank of Rochester. 
He continued his connection with this bank and was treasurer of 
the Rochester Tumbler Works until the inauguration of President 
McKinley. He then resigned, in order to accept the position of 
Second Assistant Postmaster-General, tendered him by the 
President, who was a personal friend, and who, during the six 
years spent by Mr. Shallenberger in Congress, had been closely 
associated with him in many ways. Both entered the Forty- 
fifth Congress and represented contiguous districts — President 
McKinley in eastern Ohio, and Mr. Shallenberger in western 

The interests of their constituents were so nearly identical, 
and their own views on political and social questions so much 
alike, that they became warm friends, and it was due to this that 
President McKinley conferred this appointment upon him. The 
bureau over which Mr. Shallenberger presides has jurisdiction 
over all transportation of mails, either by steam railways, steam- 
boats, electric cars, or what is known as the Star Route Service, 
reaching every village and hamlet of the country. This includes 
all foreign transportation, to and from our new possessions. 

He was married on the first day of December, 1864, to Jose- 
phine, daughter of General Thomas J. Power, of Rochester. 
Their children were Thomas P., Laura, Francis W., Elizabeth, 
Mary, William, and Josephine, of whom Thomas P. and Francis 
W. are deceased. 

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Hon. Charles Champlin Townsend. 

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History of Beaver County 225 

Mr. Shallenberger was a member of the Baptist Church of 
Rochester, and a deacon from its organization to the date of his 
removal to Washington City. 

Hon. Charles C. Townsend, a son of William P. and Sarah A. 
(Champlain) Townsend, was born in Allegheny, Pa., November 
24, 1841. He received a good common school education. At 
the age of fifteen years he became a clerk in his father's office, 
and on the breaking out of the Rebellion he enlisted and 
served two years as a private in Company A of the Ninth 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, and in the 
First Pennsylvania Cavalry, to which he was transferred with 
the rank of adjutant. Receiving a discharge on account of ill 
health, Mr. Townsend returned to his home in New Brighton, 
Pa., when he and his brother, Edward P. Townsend, were 
taken in as partners with their father in his extensive busi- 
ness at Pallston as manufacturers of wire, wire nails, and 
rivets. In 1894 the sons became sole proprietors of this estab- 
lishment, the firm name being changed to C. C. & E. P. 
Townsend. This is one of the largest, as it was also one of the 
first industrial enterprises in Beaver County. Mr. Charles C. 
Townsend's sons, who now assist in running the plant, are 
the fourth generation of that name who have been interested 
in this factory. 

In his religious connection Mr. Townsend is a Presbyterian 
and he is a ruling elder in his home church at New Brighton. 
In political faith he is a staunch Republican. He was elected 
on bis party ticket to the Fifty-first Congress, receiving 21,636 
votes against 14,481 votes for Samuel B. Griffith, Democrat; 
1,597 votes for William T. May, Prohibitionist, and 563 votes 

In October, 1865, he was married to Miss Juliet Bradford, a 
daughter of Benjamin Rush Bradford. The children of this 
union are the following: Juliet, Gertrude (died at the age of 
twenty-two), William P., Jr., Vincent Bradford, Charles C, 
Jr., Benjamin Rush, and John M. Benjamin Rush is Teller in 
the National Bank of New Brighton, and the other four sons 
occupy various positions with the firm of C. C. & E. P. 

His second marriage in 1903 was to Mattie K. Lynch. 

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226 History of Beaver County 

Hon. James J. Davidson, deceased, was born in Connellsville, 
Payette County, Pennsylvania, November 5, 1861. He was the 
son of the late Colonel Daniel R. Davidson, and grandson of 
Hon. William Davidson, both of whom were men of prominence 
in the political and financial world, the latter having been 
several times a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature, and 
having been also a senator and speaker of the House. In his 
sixth year Mr. Davidson removed with his family to Beaver 
County. His early education was obtained in the public schools 
of Beaver and in the Beaver Seminary. In 1878 he entered 
Bethany College, Bethany, W. Va., and afterwards spent three 
years at the University of Kentucky, at Lexington, Ky., gradu- 
ating therefrom in 1883. Returning to Beaver, he spent the 
two following years in the study of law with the Hon. John J. 
Wickham, with a view to thoroughly equipping himself for a 
business career. In 1886 Mr. Davidson entered the oil trade as 
a new member of the firm of Darragh, Watson & Co., oil pro- 
ducers, and was subsequently interested in several other enter- 
prises. In the course of a few years he became president of the 
Union Drawn Steel Works of Beaver Falls, and was one of its 
largest stockholders. 

Early in life Mr. Davidson became actively engaged in poli- 
tics, and was soon recognized as a leader in the Republican 
party. In 1894 he received the unanimous nomination of his 
party in Beaver County for Congress, but at the congressional 
conference held in Beaver Falls, he withdrew in favor of T. W. 
Phillips, of Lawrence County. In 1896, he was again the unani- 
mous choice of his county, and at the congressional conference 
held in Butler was nominated on the first ballot, being equally 
successful at the polls in the ensuing election. Mr. Davidson 
then went west for the purpose of recruiting his failing health, 
but after some weeks spent at Salt Lake City and Colorado 
Springs, with no improvement being indicated, he removed to 
Phoenix, Ariz., where, on the ad of January, 1897, he died, at 
the early age of thirty-five years. His decease occurred before 
he had taken the oath of office as a member of Congress. Jan- 
uary 31, 1889, Mr. Davidson was married to Emma Eatcin, 
daughter of John R. Eakin, of Beaver, where Mrs. Davidson, 
with two children of this marriage, Philip James and Sarah 
Norton, still resides. 

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History of Beaver County 227 


Hon. Samuel Power was a native of Loudon County, Virginia, 
and his wife, who was Elizabeth Penny, was a native of New 
Jersey. Many of her relatives reside in Allegheny County, pro- 
minent among them, Hon. John P. Penny, a lawyer, who served 
from 1859 to 1864 in the State Senate. Mr. Power came to 
Beaver County in the year 1796, and settled on a farm where 
Chewton is now located on the east side of the Beaver River. 
His wife brought with her a family of negro slaves consisting of 
"Old Kit" and his wife and four children — two boys and two 
girls. Prom the two boys came all the Pennys of negro blood 
now in Beaver County. 

Mr. Power seems to have taken an active part in the interests 
of the Democratic party soon after he came to Pennsylvania, 
and he was elected Sheriff of Beaver County in 1809 and served 
till 1S13. His election brought him to the county seat, and he 
took up his residence on the southwest corner of Mcintosh 
Square. He purchased a farm near Beaver on the upper waters 
of Two-Mile Run, where he continued farming some years, and 
at the same time he was engaged in merchandising with his 
son-in-law, John Eberhart, Jr., on the comer of Third Street on 
the public square in a building which stood where the Masonic 
Hall now stands. 

He was elected to the State Senate and served in the years 
1835 to 1837, and in 1839 was elected to the House, of which he 
was a member from 1839 to 1833. He was a man of much 
public spirit, and was instrumental in securing the first appro- 
priation by the State to construct the Ohio and Pennsylvania 
Canal from Rochester to the Ohio State line west of Mahoning- 
town, and thus connecting by a similar enterprise in Ohio the 
cities of Pittsburg and Cleveland by an unbroken line of water 
transportation. His action and interest in this enterprise gave 
him great popularity in the State, and at the expiration of his 
last term in the Legislature he was appointed Superintendent of 
the Canal and served in that capacity until the year 1836. 

He served in the War of 181a as Inspector with the rank of 
Major in the Second Brigade of the Sixteenth Division of Penn- 
sylvania, Militia, and marched to Meadville under orders received 
from the Governor under date of September 5 , 1813. He served, 

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228 History of Beaver County 

also, in an expedition toward Erie in the months of January and 
February, 1814, when it was supposed some of the English forces 
were dangerously near that place. He was appointed Adjutant- 
General of the State in May, 1830, and served till August, 1836, 

He left to survive him two sons, Thomas J. and James,M., 
both of whom became prominent in the State. James M. built 
a large portion of the Erie Extension of the Ohio and Perm sy 1- 
vania Canal; was a successful merchant and iron manufacturer 
for a number of years in Mercer County; was elected on the 
Whig ticket in 1847 as Canal Commissioner, and in 1848 was 
appointed by President Taylor, Minister to Naples and the 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. He made the first and only im- 
provements, under a contract with the federal government, that 
ever were made prior to the completion of the Davis Island dam, 
on the Ohio River, from the mouth of the Beaver to Pittsburg. 
Those improvements can still be seen at a low stage of water. 

Thomas J. Power was a civil engineer, and was engaged, in 
his early years, on the Pennsylvania Canal and Portage Railroad ; 
and also on the first surveys of what is now known as the Phila- 
delphia Railroad. He was one of the promoters of the Erie and 
Pittsburg Railroad. He was Adjutant-General of the State 
from October 35, 1856, to February 5, 1858. 

General Samuel Power died at Beaver, August 33, a.d. 1840, 
and "sleeps his last sleep" beside his wife, Elizabeth Penny, 
and his son James Madison Power, in the old grave yard in the 
northwest comer of the county town. His second daughter, 
Sarah Power, became the wife of John Eberhart, Jr., and Gilbert 
Leander Eberhart, who furnishes this sketch, is her fifth and 
youngest child. 

Hon. Robert Darragh was born February 33, 1776, in Dar- 
raghstown, near Milk Hill, County Fermanagh, Ireland, and 
came to America when about twelve years of age, landing at 
Philadelphia. For a short time he remained there, then coming 
on to Carlisle, Pa., and later coming to Beaver County, where he 
first settled on the south side, obtaining employment upon the 
farm of John Braden, on Raccoon Creek. 

He was naturalized in Beaver County, August 3, 1807. He 
built a warehouse in Bridgewater and entered into the boating 
, and met with success, till he suffered the loss of a 

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History of Beaver County 229 

pirogue, or flat-boat, load of merchandise, the same being caught 
in a heavy ice flow near the mouth of Chartiers Creek, the boat 
sinking and he himself narrowly escaping from a watery grave. 

As there were few insurance companies in those times, the 
loss fell entirely upon him, and in order to assist in meeting the 
same, he taught school in Beaver County, later going for a short 
time to Yellow Creek, Ohio, where in the daytime he worked in 
the salt works and at night taught a night-school, until he was 
able to meet all losses claimed against him. 

Returning to Bridgewater (in those days known as Sharon), 
he at once opened a general store and warehouse, and later 
built a large iron foundry, which he successfully conducted 
with his sons, John Stafford, Hart, Mattison, and Scudder Hart, 
under the name of R. Darragh 8c Sons, until in 1848, when he 
himself (his sons John Stafford and Hart having retired a few 
years before) withdrew and the business was conducted by his 
sons Mattison and Scudder Hart, and his son-in-law Hiram Stowe. 
The latter soon withdrew, leaving the business to the remaining 
partners, by whom the foundry business was carried on until in 
the summer of 1903, at which time, because of age, they sold 
out and retired. 

The store and foundry conducted as above were long among 
the largest and most successful of the neighborhood. 

Robert Dan-agh was elected to the State Senate of Penn- 
sylvania in 1846, where, though himself a Whig, he voted for 
Simon Cameron, a Democrat, for United States Senator, because 
of the agreement of their ideas as to a protective tariff. 

During the War of 1813, when news came reporting the 
massacre of women and children near the present city of Warren, 
Ohio, he sent at his own expense all the powder, shot, lead, and 
flints stored away in his warehouse, to the relief of the city. 

He was married to Deborah Hart, a granddaughter of Hon. 
John Hart of New Jersey, one of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. To them were born six sons: John Stafford, 
Jesse, James, Hart, Mattison, and Scudder Hart, and two daugh- 
ters, Martha A., who married Hiram Stowe, and Cynthia B., who 
married Dr. Milo Adams. The children (all save Jesse, who 
died in infancy) lived to a ripe old age, the sole survivor at this 
time being Scudder Hart Darragh, at the age of eighty-seven 
years, residing at Beaver, Perm. 

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230 History of Beaver County 

Robert Darragh was one of the pioneers of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in western Pennsylvania, and one of the 
founders and first trustees of the Beaver M. E. Church erected 
in 1839, and later of the Bridgewater M. E. Church. Prior to 
the erection of these two churches he was a member of the old 
Methodist Episcopal Church located in Sharon, on the hillside, 
not far from the end of the present Sharon toll-bridge, and was 
one of the first trustees of this church. 

During his lifetime he was prominently identified with the 
financial, mercantile, and manufacturing interests of the Beaver 
valley and of western Pennsylvania, and was widely known for 
his liberal support of the church and charitable institutions. 

He died July ai, 1873, beloved and respected by all. 

Hon. Archibald Robertson was born in County Tyrone, Ire- 
land, March 5, 1805, and came to this country with his parents in 
1813. He became interested in the Fallston paper mill in 
1828-39. In 1839 he built a steam paper mill in what was then 
called Brighton, on the site now occupied by the freight station of 
the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, in Beaver Falls. 

This he operated successfully until 1849, when he built a 
paper mill to utilize the water power at the upper dam, then 
known as Adamsville, which he operated until 1864. 

Politically, Senator Robertson was a Clay Whig and a Re- 
publican, representing his district in the Pennsylvania State 
Senate in 1851-53. He was made Collector of Internal Revenue 
for the Twenty-fourth District of Pennsylvania in 1866-69. 
Mr. Robertson died June 19, 1871. 

Hon. De Lonna Imbrie was born in Big Beaver Township, 
Beaver County, on March 4, 1834, his parents John and Nancy 
(Rankin) Imbrie, being natives of Pennsylvania, of Scotch 
descent. He received his education in the common schools, 
and at Darlington Academy, from whose rustic walls went forth 
many to places of influence and honor. After leaving the 
academy, he taught school for a number of terms in Darlington, 
Old Brighton, and New Wilmington. While teaching at New 
Wilmington he met his future wife. Miss Margaret Carman, who 
was then a pupil in his school. Upon his marriage on October 
37, 1851, he took up his permanent residence in Beaver. Though 

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James M. Power. 

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History of Beaver County 231 

many years of bis later life were spent at the State capital, 
Beaver continued to be his home, and to it he always eagerly 
hastened when the briefest cessation from his labor permitted. 
Taking up the study of law in the office of the Hon. Thomas 
Cunningham, he was admitted to the bar of Beaver County on 
November 35, 1853. His natural ability and taste for politics 
soon led him from his profession into the political arena, where 
he figured conspicuously and as a leader, for many years. He 
was elected for three successive terms to the Legislature in the 
years 1856, 1857, and 1858; the first two terms representing 
the Legislative District composed of the counties of Beaver, 
Butler, and Lawrence, and the last term the District composed 
of Beaver and Lawrence counties. 

In 1859 he was elected to the State Senate, from the Twenty- 
fifth Senatorial District, composed of the counties of Beaver and 
Butler, thus representing his county in the Legislative body con- 
tinuously, and with fidelity and ability, for the period of six years. 

In February of 1863, he became editor of the Argus, in 
which capacity he served until November 9, 1864. In the fall 
of 1873, the Constitutional Convention having met in the city 
of Philadelphia for the purpose of framing for the State a new 
organic law, Mr. Imbrie was, without opposition, elected its 
chief clerk, which responsible position, through the entire ses- 
sion of that body, he filled with marked efficiency. 

During the last seven years of his life, he was employed in the 
Auditor General's office at Harrisburg, where he died on Novem- 
ber 6, 1888. There survive him, his widow and four children: 
Carman, Nannie B., wife of Rev. W. S. McClure of Xenia, Ohio; 
Mary E., wife of W. H. S. Thomson, Esq., of Pittsburg, and Miss 
Lillian Fra. A daughter, Edith, died on December 31, 1895. 

Hon. Alexander W. Taylor was born near Enon Valley, 
Lawrence County (then within the limits of Beaver County), 
March 31, 1836. He was educated in the common schools, and 
at a select school (known locally as "Tansy Hill,") in charge of 
Prof. W. E. Lincoln, a graduate of Oberlin College and a native 
of London, England. 

In the Civil War Mr. Taylor served as captain of Co. H, 101st 
Regiment, P. V. I. This position he held for about one year, 
when (November 13, 1863) he was promoted to the rank of 

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232 History of Beaver County 

major. He was subsequently (July 1, 1863) made lieutenant- 
colonel of that regiment, and its colonel (David B.Morris), having 
been wounded at Fair Oaks and afterwards detailed for duty at 
Pittsburg, Pa., where he had charge of a drafted camp, Taylor 
was in command of the regiment for perhaps eighteen months. 1 

Colonel Taylor was captured with his whole brigade at 
Plymouth, N. C, on the Roanoke River, April ao, 1864, and 
imprisoned, first at Macon, Ga., and subsequently in the city jail 
in Charleston, S. C, where fifty officers of the highest rank were 
transferred, ostensibly for safe-keeping, but really, as was be- 
lieved, to prevent the Union forces from continuing to fire on 
the city of Charleston. 

Colonel Taylor served over three years and was mustered out 
November 20, 1864. In 1866 he was elected from Beaver County 
to the State Senate for a period of three years. In 1871-73 he 
was the owner and editor of the Alliance Monitor, Alliance, 
Stark County, 0. In 187a Mr. Taylor entered the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, but on account of ill health, 
soon abandoned that and all other active duties. In 1883 he 
re-entered the ministry in the Presbyterian Church (Holston 
Presbytery) in East Tennessee, but owing to rheumatic trouble 
has been for many years unable to perform any active duties, 
and is now postmaster at Tusculum, Tennessee. 

Hon. Franklin Howell Agnew was born in Beaver, Beaver 
County, Pa., April 6, 1842. He was educated at Beaver Acad- 
emy and at Jefferson College, where he was graduated in 1862. 
He afterwards graduated from and taught in, Iron City Com- 
mercial College, Pittsburg, Pa. He was principal of Beaver 
Academy, 1864-65, resigning to accept a position in the United 
States Coast Survey in the fall of 1865. 

During his term of service in the Coast Survey he was engaged 
in some very important work, such as large primary triangula- 
tion, where in some cases the sides of the triangles would run 
from fifty to sixty miles; accurate measurement of lines by 
means of the base measuring apparatus; the measurement of an 
arc of meridian from Nantucket to the northern part of Maine ; 
the measurement of longitude across the continent from Cam- 
bridge, Mass., to San Francisco, and incidentally connected with 

' HiH. el Ptnna. Vol.. Bites, vol. iii., p. 6o*. 

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History of Beaver County 233 

this, the accurate determination of latitudes by means of the 
zenith telescope. He was one of the Coast Survey party observ- 
ing the total eclipse of the sun at Shelbyville, Ky., in 1869. Mr. 
Agnew was to have been one of the party for the determination 
of longitude between Washington City, Greenwich, and Paris, 
by means of the Atlantic cable, but through ill health was com- 
pelled to forego it. Resigning his position in the Coast Survey, 
he was admitted to the bar of Beaver County in September, 187 a , 
after studying law with bis father, the Hon. Daniel Agnew. He 
formed a partnership with John M. Buchanan, Esq., under the 
firm name of Agnew & Buchanan. 

In 1882, at the solicitation of friends, he was induced to run 
for the State Senate in the Washington-Beaver District; was 
elected, and served four years, including the famous extra session 
of 1883. Mr. Agnew was married in 1883 to Miss Nancy K. 
Lauck, daughter of the Rev. William F. Lauck of the Pittsburg 
M. E. Conference. Owing to ill health he was compelled to 
give up all work and go to California in the early part of 1801. 
After remaining there for eight years, he returned to his native 
town, where he has again taken up residence. For the past 
year or two Mr. Agnew has been engaged in some important 
scientific researches, the results of which, it is hoped, will some- 
time be given to the world. 

Hon. William B. Dunlap, the present manager of the Beaver 
Star, was born at Darlington, Beaver County, Pa. His parents 
were Samuel Rutherford Dunlap and Nancy Hemphill Dunlap. 
The former was a grandson of Walter Clarke, who was a member 
of the first Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania, which 
was held in Philadelphia in 1776, and over which Dr. Franklin 
presided. Walter Clarke was buried in 1803 in the Westfield 
graveyard, then in Beaver, now in Lawrence County. The 
latter was the third daughter of Judge Joseph Hemphill,' one 
of the three commissioners named in the Act of Assembly for 
the erection of the county of Beaver. 

The education of William B. Dunlap was obtained at the 
common schools, and at Darlington and Beaver academies, and 
Jefferson College. He was intended for the bar, but being over- 
taken by ill health at the completion of his college course he 

1 See biographic*! ■ketch of Joseph Hemphill in Chapter IX. 

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234 History of Beaver County 

was forced to abandon this purpose, — it was then hoped tempor- 
arily. Later he was principal for two years of the Scott Street 
Public Schools of the city of Covington, Ky. Failing to attain 
restored health, he entered upon the more open, out-door life 
of the river, and was for a number of years engaged in the 
transportation business in our inland rivers. 

In 1800, in a triangular fight, he was elected to represent 
Washington and Beaver counties, as a Democrat, in the Senate 
of Pennsylvania. Since the expiration of his term in the Senate 
he has been connected with the publication of the Daily Star 
and Semi-Weekly Star. 

Hon. Samuel P. White of New Brighton has been one of 
the active and successful men of Beaver County. His father, 
Timothy Balderston White, was born in Bucks County, Penn- 
sylvania, and his mother, Olive Bowen Howland, in New Bed- 
ford, Mass. They belonged to the Society of Friends or Quakers, 
were married at Ledyard, Cayuga County, N. Y., and came to 
Beaver County in 1838 and lived first in Bolesville, then in 
Fallston, and built in New Brighton in 1840, where the family 
has since resided in the same homestead and where Samuel P. 
White was born in 1847. Mr. White attended the public 
schools of his native place and later graduated at Eastman's 
Business College of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He left school at the 
age of fourteen years and went to work with his father as 
a bridge builder and contractor. At present he is president 
of the Penn Bridge Company, Valley Electric Company, and 
Quaker Milling Company. Mr. White served in the 56th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers State troops in 1 863 when but fifteen years 
of age. In 1884 be was a member of the Republican County 
Committee of Beaver County, was its chairman in 1885, and its 
treasurer in 1889. He was a member of the State Committee of 
the same party in 1888, and a delegate to the State Convention in 
1900. He was nominee for State Senator in Beaver County in 
1886, 1890, 1894, and 1903, the county making no nomination 
in 1898 as the nomination was conceded to Washington County. 
Mr. White was elected State Senator in 1894 and 1909, and served 
on the Committees of Finance, Corporations, Appropriations, 
and Railroads and was chairman of Public Roads and Highways 
and Judiciary Special. 

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Indian Trails — Brodbead's Road — County and State Roads — Bridges — 
CanalB — Ohio River Dams — Steam Railway! — Railway Contracts — 
Street Railways — Water, Fuel, and Lighting Companies — Banking 
Institutions — Mail Facilities — Growth of Population. 

Lord, send a man like Robbie Burns to sing the Song o' Steam. 

Kit-UNO, MeAndrtw's Hymn, 

One of the chief factors in the material development of 
countries and their civilizations is found in the character of the 
roads and means of transportation which are provided by nature 
or created by the genius and enterprise of the people. Ancient 
Rome derived her grandeur and power not alone from her 
laws and institutions and her veteran legions, but also from her 
mighty works of engineering, her swift posts and solid roads 
and splendid bridges. She called her Emperor "Pontifex 
Maximus" — the chief bridge-builder, — and from a golden mile 
stone in the centre of the Forum there ran twenty-nine military 
roads that were built over Alps and rivers to the remotest 
bounds of the empire. Without these her legions would have 
been largely shorn of their strength, and her laws inoperative. 


This part of our local history — the development of highways 
— is not without interest, or even elements of romance. For it 
carries us back to the time when the forest wilderness covered 
all this region, and waB broken only by the river courses and the 
trails of the red man.' These trails were, indeed, the beginning 

' Indian TAoroHfkfaraj, by Archer Butler Hulbert {Historic Hifkwoyi of Amtrica, the 
Attbm H. Clarice Co., Cleveland, O.. 1901, vol. ».), contain! much of intereat on thii aabject. 
See ahn Tkt Uonanfhtla of Old, Chapter III. 

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236 History of Beaver County 

of some of our present routes of travel. The early traders and 
explorers followed them, and those who built our military and 
national roads found that they could not do- better than the 
Indians in overcoming the difficulties which were presented by 
the mountains and rivers in their way. Some of these Indian 
trails were very long. The best known and the oldest of them 
was the Catawba, or Cherokee trail leading from Georgia through 
Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and western New York to 
Canada. This, and the Warrior Branch ' from Kentucky, 
which intersected it in what is now Fayette County in this 
State, were the most important trails running through the 
country north and south. The trails which ran east and west 
were still more noted, and the greatest of these was the Kit- 
tanning, which extended as far west as Detroit. Of greater 
importance to us was that known in early times as Nemackolin's 
path. It began at the mouth of Will's Creek, where Cumber- 
land, Maryland, now stands, and crossed the mountains to the 
point known as Burd's Fort, now Brownsville, Pennsylvania, a 
branch leaving it near the present Uniontown and running to 
the "Forks of the Ohio" (Pittsburg). This was afterwards 
adopted and improved by Braddock and Washington, and is 
known as "Braddock's Road." This trail continued west from 
the Forks of the Ohio to what is now Vincennes, Indiana, and 
is known in Beaver County as the "Tuscarawas Trail." It 
passed through Logstown, crossed the Big Beaver Creek, prob- 
ably where the Bridgewater bridge spans it to-day, and thence 
led on through Beaver up the hill west of the town. 

From the Mingo village, which stood on the present site of 
Rochester, a trail led in a northeasterly direction through Ve- 
nango to Lake Erie and the country of the Iroquois. The 
Beaver and Butler road in Beaver County is supposed to follow 
this trail in a great part of its length. 

1 How jealously the Indians guarded these trails ii teen from the following incident 
When Ha*™ and Dixon were running the line between Pennsylvaoia and Maryland, now 
so famous." the; were escorted by fourteen Indians, with in interpreter, deputed by the 
chiefs of toe Six Nations to accompany them. On arriving at a point on the southern 
boundary of Washington County. Pa., as originally erected, at the crossing of Dunlcard. 
Creek, they cam* to an Indian war-path winding it* way through the forest, and their 
•scon informed them that it was the will of the Six Nations that the surveys should be 
stayed. This was the Warrior Branch of the old Catawba trail, along which traveled the 
war-parties of the Indians from the south and the north, and "across it the Indian escort 
would at that time allow not even an imaginary barrier to be drawn." — See Crumrine's 
History of Waskmtton Comty, p. i«j. 

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History of Beaver County 237 

Another trail began at the west end of the Bridgewater 
bridge and led up the west side of the creek to Kuskuskee, 
an Indian town on the Mahoning in what is now Lawrence 
County.' At Brady's Run there was an offshoot up the run, 
leading to Sandusky, which was much used by the celebrated 
Indian scout, Captain Samuel Brady. It was on this trail, 
probably on the main part of it near Kuskuskee, aa we have 
elsewhere seen, that Brady rescued Jenny Stupes and her child, 
who had been taken captive on the south side of the Ohio River.' 
Other trails were also well known, as one passing from where 
Beaver now stands down the right bank of the Ohio, which was 
called the "French Way," because it was used to much in the 
early times by the French; one from Catfish Camp (now Wash- 
ington, Pa.) across the country to where Georgetown now 
stands, and one from Fort Pitt, through the present Sheffield, 
to the Ohio River, opposite Fort Mcintosh. Brodhead's Road 
was afterwards laid out on this path. This was a road, which, 
as previously stated, was cut from Fort Pitt to Fort Mcintosh 
for the purpose of getting supplies to the latter. It was con- 
structed by General Mcintosh,* but was afterwards used by 
General Brodhead, and has ever since been known as the " Brod- 
head Road." It came down to the Ohio through the gap just 
opposite the fort. 


The importance attached to the subject of the construction 
of highways by the early inhabitants of the county is shown by 
the fact that at the first session of the court held in Beaver in 
February, 1804, seven petitions for the laying out of roads were 
presented. Various delays were experienced, but gradually 
numerous State and county roads were established. Not much 
science was exhibited in the construction of these roads. The 

1 Sec note about Kuikuakee, page 15. Concerning thia trail Wm. M. Darlington uya, 
' Portion! of Che path along the we»t bank of the Beaver and Mahoning, mora deep into the 
■oil, were plainly visible and often teen by the writer about thirty year* since, and boidb 
he ii credibly informed yet remain." — {Christopher Gist's Journals, p. 101.) Interesting 
note* on •everal of the above-mentioned trail* are given in thia book {Gist's Journals.), and 
between pagea 80-S1 ii a "Map of Weat Pennsylvania and Virginia. 1JJ3," (original in 
British ■mm) on which part of NemackoEn'i path and the trail up t ha eatt aide of the 
Beaver to Venango and Lake Erie are indicated. 

■ See Fort Mcintosh: lit Times and Mm, p. 18, by Hon. Daniel Agnew. 

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238 History of Beaver County 

usual method employed was to plow parallel furrows and scrape 
the loosened earth upon the space between the furrows to form 
the road-bed. In Beaver County there were no turnpike, cor- 
duroy, or toll-roads built. The State roads were laid out under 
Acts of the Legislature. One State road ran from Bridgewater 
through Borough township, Chippewa, South Beaver, Darling- 
ton, and Little Beaver townships to the State-line near Peters- 
burg; one from the east end of the Bridgewater bridge, called 
in the charter "Wolf Lane Bridge," up the north side of the 
Ohio River to Pittsburg; one known as the "river road" from 
Beaver down the Ohio River to Smith's Perry ; one from Beaver 
to Butler; one from New Brighton to New Castle; and one 
from Beaver to the State-line, known as the "Tuscarawas 
Road," and as the "Beaver and New Lisbon Road." There 
was also a State road starting from the Ohio River, opposite 
Vanport, running through Moon, Raccoon, and Hanover town- 
ships to Frankfort Springs, twenty and a half miles long. This 
was the only road in the county with mile-posts. These posts 
were made of locust planks five feet long, and a foot to fourteen 
inches wide, on which were painted the distances and names of 
places. Some of the posts are still standing after a period of 
forty years. By the Act of Assembly authorizing this road to 
be built, James Harper and William Hales were appointed to 
work out $1600, which was all paid to them in silver, and they 
in turn paid it out in silver to the workmen. 

The construction of roads in a region so generously pro- 
vided by nature with streams and rivers as is Beaver County, 
necessitates the building of bridges, and this work was early 
undertaken in the county. The bridges erected in this county 
were generally of the most primitive kind, and were built of 
wood, but many have in recent years been replaced by strong 
and beautiful structures of stone and steel. But several of the 
earlier bridges were quite substantial. A good bridge was built 
over the Conoquenessing on the New Brighton and New Castle 
grade. One over Raccoon Creek at Murdocksville was noted in 
its day, and has now been replaced by a fine iron structure built 
jointly by Beaver and Washington counties, the dividing line 
between the counties being right on the bridge. 

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« of the Old Locust Mile. Posts Standing on the Frankfort Grade Ros 
From photograph taken about 1049 by R. It, Hice. 

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History of Beaver County 239 

One of the most important bridges in the county, important 
both from its position and its history, was the old wooden bridge 
between New Brighton and Beaver Falls, which was torn down 
in 1900, and replaced by a modern steel bridge of the best style, 
erected by the Penn Bridge Company for the Overgrade Bridge 
Company. The old bridge was built amid many trials to those 
who projected the enterprise. By an Act of Assembly of March 
ao, 1810,* a company was incorporated under the name, style, 
and title of " The President, Managers and Company for erecting 
a Bridge over Big Beaver Creek, opposite the town of Brighton." 
Brighton, so-called, was then what is now the lower part of Bea- 
ver Palls. The Act appointed Abraham Wellington, Jonathan 
H. Mendenhall, Benjamin Townsend, Isaac Wilson, and Jacob 
Yoho, commissioners to receive subscriptions of stock for the 
erection of said bridge. The books were opened according to 
notice given, and, September 14, 1814, 338 shares of stock at 
twenty-five dollars per share, amounting to $5050, had been 
subscribed. On the same date the following officers were 
elected: President, Samuel Adams; Treasurer, Samuel Jack- 
son; Managers, Jeremiah Barker, Jeremiah Britton, John Arm- 
strong, John Pugh, James Taylor, and Isaac Wilson; with 
Joseph Hoopes, Secretary. The contract for building the bridge 
was given to Persifor Taylor and Joseph Hoopes. It was to be 
a framed trussed bridge, in spans not to exceed 1 10 feet ; 20 feet 
wide; 6 feet clear of high-water mark; to stand on framed 
piers and abutments ; posts to be set in the rock ; planked on 
the outside, without being filled in. The bridge was completed 
October 30, 1815, and opened for travel November nth of the 
same year, with Joseph Townsend as toll collector, at a salary 
of $130 a year. The first dividend, declared April 1, 1816, 
amounted to four per cent. But this dividend did not continue. 
There was a great deal of complaint about the rates of toll, and 
many persons refused to cross on the bridge, preferring to ford 
the creek whenever it was possible. The tolls were as follows: 
"for every coach, landau, chariot, phaeton, or other pleasurable 
carriage with four wheels, drawn by four horses, 75 cents; the 
same carriages with two horses, 50 cents; every wagon with 
four horses, 50 cents; every wagon with two horses, 37 cents; 
every chaise, riding chair, sulky, cart, or other two-wheeled 

1 P. L- 169. 

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240 History of Beaver County 

carriage, or a sleigh or Bled with two horses, 35 cents; the same 
with one horse, 18 cents; single horse and rider, 6 cents; led 
horse or mule, 2 cents; foot passengers, 2 cents; sheep and 
swine, 1 cent." But as a matter of fact, not more than half of 
these rates were ever demanded. 

Two years after this bridge was opened to traffic, March 3, 
1818, one pier and two spans were carried away by the high 
water and ice. No attempt being made to rebuild, and no 
officers being elected for a period of fifteen years, the charter 
was forfeited. 

On the 8th of April, 1833, 1 a new charter was granted by 
the Legislature under the same title, and commissioners were 
appointed to receive subscriptions of stock to build a new bridge. 
These were James Patterson, David Hoopes, David Townsend, 
John C. Hunter, and John Boles. November 7, 1833, the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: David Townsend, President; Ben- 
jamin Townsend, Treasurer; Edward Hoopes, Secretary; Charles 
T. Whippo, Joseph Hoopes, James Patterson, M. F. Champlin, 
Joseph W. Maynard, and David Hoopes, Managers. The plans 
called for a new bridge five hundred feet long and twenty-eight 
feet wide; and, February 3, 1834, the contract was awarded 
to Farrow & Martin. July 19, 1834, Farrow & Martin aban- 
doned the contract, and it was given to William LeBaron, who 
completed the bridge the next spring. The bridge cost about 
$15 ,000. Nathaniel Coburn, a Revolutionary veteran, was made 
toll collector at a salary of tioo a year. His name is on the 
roll of Pennsylvania pensioners for 1830 as "Nathaniel Coburn, 
fifer." * The stock of the Brighton Bridge Company was bought 
by the Overgrade Bridge Company, which, as stated, built the 
present structure, but the former company still maintains its 

The next bridge in order of time and importance is that 
which was erected between Rochester and Bridgewater, under 
an Act of Assembly approved January 31, 1814,* entitled "An 
Act to authorize the Governor to Incorporate a Company to 
erect a Toll Bridge over Big Beaver Creek, at or near Wolf 
Lane, in the County of Beaver." By this Act Robert Darragh, 

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History of Beaver County 241 

David Hays, Thomas Henry, and Jonathan Mendenhall were 
appointed commissioners to ' ' perform like duties, and enjoy like 
privileges with those enjoined on and granted to the commis- 
sioners" of the company that erected the bridge at Brighton. 
The provisions of this Act were in all respects the same as that 
of the Act creating the Brighton Bridge Company. 

No particulars of the early history of this bridge are obtain- 
able, but as the charter was approved, January 31, 1814, and a 
supplement to the same dated February 26, 1816,' speaks of 
"the bridge which has been erected over Big Beaver creek, near 
Wolf Lane," it is evident that the actual work was done between 
1814 and 1816. This bridge was blown down in a severe wind 
storm sometime between May 1st and October 18th, i8ai. The 
records of the company show that on April 39, 1824, a resolu- 
tion was adopted to advertise for bids for the construction of a 
new bridge, and advertisements were made for the same in 
Warren, Ohio, Beaver, Pittsburg, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New 
York, and Hartford, Connecticut. July 6, 1824, the contract 
was let to William LeBaron for (20,000, and the work was com- 
pleted in July, 1826. 

The officers at this time were Joseph Hemphill, President; 
Robert Darragh, Treasurer; and William Clark, John Way, 
William Leet, Thomas Henry, Robert Moore, and David Shields, 

During the great flood of 1884 the bridge at this point was 
again the prey of the elements. The bridge above it at Fall- 
ston was swept away, and, lodging against it, broke it down. 
Both were then swept against the Cleveland & Pittsburg Rail- 
road bridge, and, carrying it with them, crashed into the great 
iron bridge of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railway, from which 
a number of spans were torn away. 

The Fallston Bridge. — On February 6, 1836,' the Hon. John 
Dickey offered an Act to incorporate a company to build a 
bridge over the Big Beaver Creek at Fallston, in Beaver County, 
and the following persons were named incorporators in the 
order given : 

John Miner, Robert Townsend, John Pugh, A. W. Townsend, Evan 
Pugh, M. F. Cbamplin, Thomas Thorniley, Jacob Townsend, Elihu T. 

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243 History of Beaver County 

Pugb, David Ramsey, E. K. Chambertin, Joseph T. Pugh, John Stevenson, 
David Worcester, William Blancbard, Charles Lukens, James C. Pulton, 
C. C. Wolcott, Isaac Wade, Harvey White, David Mitchell, Steven 
Jennings, Richard Moreland, David Boise, James Logan, Simon Mere- 
dith, Thomas Johnson, Andrew Graham, Thomas Beacom, William 
Le Baron, Edward Hoopes, Samuel Cramer, William H. H. Chamberiin, 
Francis Hoopes, Charles Hoopes, William L. Townsend, Hamilton Hoopes, 
John Ross, John C. Hunter, J. W. Maynard, John Boles, Benjamin Town- 
send, Joseph Hoopes, James Irwin, and David Hoopes. 

The subscription list embraces nearly all the names of the 
incorporators, but although the capital stock was "not to ex- 
ceed $15,000," it is evident that great difficulty was experienced 
in raising even $6000, and the contractors seem to have finally 
come to the help of the stockholders and to have taken quite a 
large portion of the stock of the corporation. 

On August 37, 1836, the stockholders elected the following 
officers: Charles Lukens, President; John Miner, Treasurer; 
Elihu T. Pugh, Secretary; and M. F. Champlin, John Pugh, 
A. W. Townsend, Edward Hoopes, Thomas Thorniley, and 
Robert Townsend, Managers. 

October 1, 1836, the board entered into a contract with 
William LeBaron and Sylvanus Lathrop for erecting the bridge, 
and under this contract it was erected and opened to the public 
the following year. The wooden structure served the public for 
about forty-seven years, but as previously stated, was finally 
carried away by the disastrous flood of February, 1884. A new 
iron bridge has taken its place, built by the Penn Bridge Com- 
pany of Beaver Falls. 

The charter was quite liberal as to charges for crossing per- 
mitted, but the company never exercised this right. The char- 
ter prices were as follows: "For pleasure carriages, with four 
horses, 75 cents; same with two horses, 50 cents; wagons with 
two horses, 37$ cents; same with one horse, iSf cents; horse 
and rider, 6 cents." 

The names of incorporators and subscribers embraced nearly 
all the men of prominence in business at that early day, but 
they have all passed away. 

The Beaver Falls Bridge Company was organized in Septem- 
ber, 1870, for the erection of the bridge generally known as the 
Fetterman bridge, which spans the Beaver Creek between Beaver 

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History of Beaver County 243 

Falls and Eastvale. Work was begun on this structure by the 
Penn Bridge Company, Beaver Falls, in the same year, and it 
was opened for business in May, 1880. The original cost of the 
bridge was $47,500. It is eight hundred feet long, and is built 
of iron. About two years ago it was repainted at a cost of 
$750, and refloored with three-inch planks at a cost of $2000. 
In January, 1903, this bridge was bought by the commissioners 
of Beaver County, for the county, and opened to public traffic 
free of toll. The price to be paid was $37,750- In a short 
while thereafter, however, the Act of Assembly under which 
the commissioners had made this purchase was pronounced 
by the courts unconstitutional, and the sale became abortive. 
The Beaver Falls Bridge Company again assumed charge of the 
bridge and began taking toll, March 9, 1903. The officers of 
the Company are H. W. Reeves, President; James F. Merriman, 
Secretary; and John Reeves, Treasurer. Its capital is $30,000. 

The Sharon Bridge Company was organized under the Act 
of the General Assembly of April 29, 1874, and its supplements, 
by a charter granted by the State dated the eleventh day of Feb- 
ruary, a.d. 1888. The charter members were John M. Buchanan, 
Robert S. Kennedy, Alexander W. McCoy, Alfred C. Hurst and 
Hiram S. McConnel. The capital stock was $20,000. John M. 
Buchanan was the first president thereof, and Alexander W. 
McCoy the first secretary. The five stockholders above named 
were the five directors thereof. On the twenty-first day of 
February following, the location of the bridge was determined 
upon, and the contract for the building of the same given out 
a few days later to A. J. Jolly and A. M. Jolly, doing business 
as Jolly & Son. The eastern approach at the time of the loca- 
tion of the bridge had but one public highway leading thereto, 
the ancient lane leading to the Rochester and New Brighton 
road. Application was made shortly thereafter for a road from 
the eastern end of said bridge to the borough of New Brighton, 
upon the east bank of the Beaver River, and said application 
granted. In 1891, when the Beaver Valley Traction Company 
was organized, its tracks were laid from Beaver Falls to 
Beaver over this bridge, and it operated its main line thereon 
until after the absorption of the Peoples* Electric Street Rail- 
way Company in 1901 by the Beaver Valley Traction Company 

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244 History of Beaver County 

when the main line of the company was continued along the 
New Brighton and Rochester road to Rochester, and thereafter 
the Sharon Bridge was used but little by the Beaver Valley 
Traction Company until 1903, when the stock of the Sharon 
Bridge Company was purchased by the owners of the Beaver 
Valley Traction Company, with the intention of continuing the 
Riverview Electric Street Railway thereover and through the 
borough of Bridgewater to Beaver. The building of this bridge 
had largely to do with the change of travel from Beaver Falls and 
New Brighton southwardly, as theretofore it had passed over 
the Fallston Bridge, through Fallston to Bridgewater and Beaver. 

The first definite steps toward the erection of a suspension 
bridge across the Ohio River between Rochester and Monaca 
were taken by Walter A. Rose, M.D., Herman J. Speyerer, A. M. 
Johnson, and others, who, in 1889, had surveys made by Leaf 
Bros., Civil Engineers, of Rochester, Pa., and applied for a 
charter for the construction of such a bridge from a point at or 
near New York Street in Rochester, to a point at or near Phil- 
lips Street in Monaca. The expense of construction at that 
time was found to be too great, however, and the project was 
abandoned. But the agitation in its favor continued, and iron 
becoming cheaper, it was determined to proceed with it. For 
this purpose a company was organized in 1894. The minutes 
of its first meeting read as follows: 

Pittsiuro. P» , April j, 1S94. 

W. C. Jutte, E. K. Morse, C. A. Danals, H. M. Camp. J. C. Whitla, 
J. W. Patterson and Dan H. Stone met at the office of E. K. Morse, 
Room 706 Perm Building, Pittsburg, Pa., for the purpose of considering 
the advisability of constructing a bridge across the Ohio river at Roches- 
ter, Beaver County, Pa., and forming a corporation for that purpose. 

W. C. Jutte acted as President and C. A. Danals as Secretory. 

It was moved by C. A. Danals that the name of the corporation be 
"The Ohio River Bridge Company." Moved that the capital stock of the 
company be $700, to be divided into 14 shares of J50 each, and that the 
number of directors be seven. 

A charter was granted, May 1, 1894, for a bridge to be built 
from a point at or near New York Street in Rochester to a point 
opposite in Monaca at or near Phillips Street. 

The following shares were subscribed: W. C. Jutte, of Pitts- 
burg, a shares; E. K. Morse of Pittsburg, 2 shares; J. W. Pat- 

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History of Beaver County 245 

terson of Pittsburg, 2 shares; C. A. Danals of Rochester, Pa., 
a shares', H. M. Camp of Rochester, Pa., 2 shares; J. C. Whitla 
of Beaver Falls, Pa., 2 shares; Dan H. Stone of Beaver, Pa., 2 
shares. The above-named gentlemen were made directors for 
the ensuing year. 

£. K. Morse was chosen engineer, and Dan H. Stone, Esq., 
attorney for the company. 

September a, 1895, J. J. Hoffman took J. C. Whitla's place 
as director. 

October 1, 1S95, capital stock was increased to $75,000. Oc- 
tober 4, 1895, A. M. Jolly took E. K. Morse's place as director, 
Samuel Moulds took J. W. Patterson's place as director, H. 
Cooper took Dan H. Stone's place as director, and J. J. Jolly 
took W. C. Jutte's place as director. 

The board having charge of constructing the bridge was: 
J. J. Jolly, President; John T. Taylor, Secretary; Henry Cooper, 
Treasurer; and H. M. Camp, A. M. Jolly, Samuel Moulds, and 
George MacMullen, Directors. 

The bridge was built in 1896, and opened for traffic early in 

W. C. Jutte & Company were contractors for foundations, 
anchorages, and piers; and the Penn Bridge Company did the 
iron work and built the bridge. 

The total length of the bridge is aa8o feet, and it is 90 feet 
above low-water in the Ohio River. The channel-span is 800 
feet, which is a few feet shorter than the total length of the 
famous Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge. 

E. K. Morse was the engineer who designed and constructed 
the bridge, and James P. Leaf was the resident engineer during 

Canals have played an important part in the development 
of internal commerce in this commonwealth. Between 1790 and 
1816 several private companies had undertaken to build canals, 
but without much success. In i8a6 the State began the con- 
struction of water-routes from Pittsburg to Philadelphia and to 
Lake Erie, and built 608 miles of canals and navigable feeders. 
The old canal route from the east to the west, with its famous 
portage railroad over the Alleghenies, thirty-seven miles in 

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246 History of Beaver County 

length, was the great thoroughfare of travel in its day, and its 
story makes an interesting chapter of Pennsylvania's history. 

Beaver County figures in this great era of water-transporta- 
tion. Against strong opposition from the eastern sections of the 
State, there was finally approved on March ai, 1831,* by Gover- 
nor Wolf, a bill appropriating $100,000 for the construction of 
a canal from the mouth of Beaver Creek to New Castle. Great 
joy was felt by the people of Beaver County over this victory, 
and the names of General Samuel Power and Hon. John R. 
Shannon, the Representatives of the County, and of Hon. Moses 
Sullivan of Butler, State Senator from the Beaver and Butler 
district, who had been instrumental in securing it, were hailed 
as those of heroes. April 15, 1831, John Dickey, superintendent 
of the Beaver division of the Pennsylvania canal, gave notice 
that sealed proposals would be received up to sunset of Wednes- 
day, July ao, 1831, for the construction of a canal or slack- 
water navigation, from the mouth of the Big Beaver to New 
Castle. On that date the entire distance was put under con- 
tract, including locks,' dams, towing-path, bridges and sections, 
to some seventy-three firms and individuals. On the a6th of 
July, 1831, a great canal celebration was held in a grove oppo- 
site Fallston to break the ground on the Beaver section of the 
Pennsylvania canal. The crowd that assembled was immense. 
Major Robert Darragh was made President of the day; M. F. 
Champlin was chief marshal; and Major B. G. Goll, assistant. 

The ground was broken by the Revolutionary soldiers pres- 
ent, with oxen, plows, shovels, and picks, accompanied by the 

' P. L„ ige. 

* The Girard Locks at the mouth of the Beaver, us they appear in 1904. are shown in 
the picture opposite this page. They were 10 called after Stephen Girard. the eccentric 
Frenchman who founded Girard College, Philadelphia, and who bequeathed $300,000 to 
Pennsylvania for Internal Improvements, the greater part, if not all. of which went into this 
canal. On the west side of the upper lock there is set in the wall a large sandstone slab on 
which is the following inscription: 

Commenced in 1B31. Completed in 1833. 
Giorce Wolf, Governor. 
James Clash Chablis T. Whippo 

John Mitchell M. R. Stbally 

Robert McCoy Joseph Hoops 

Canal Commissioners. Engineers. 

John Dickey, Sauuel Powbk. 
E. Appletoh, Contractor. 
This inscription is still quite legible. 

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History of Beaver County 247 

firing of cannon and the shouts of the people.' After breaking 
ground the procession returned to the grove, where a great din- 
ner had been prepared, and speech-making followed. John 
Dickey, Esq., the orator of the day, delivered an inspiring 
address, and then, after the custom of that day, toasts were 
proposed. There were sixteen regular, and twenty-eight volun- 
teer, toasts. The last of the former was this: "Samuel Power 
and John R. Shannon, Esquires, our able and faithful repre- 
sentatives. Their indefatigable exertions in aiding and obtain- 
ing an appropriation for the Beaver and Shenango division of 
the Pennsylvania canal. The citizens of Beaver County duly 
appreciate their talents as statesmen, and their characters as 
gentlemen." Mr. Shannon responded to this toast in a neat, 
concise, and comprehensive address, and in most felicitous 

From Gordon's Gazetteer of the State 0} Pennsylvania (183a) 
we give the following contemporary notice of the canal: 

The capacity of the county [Beaver] for commerce and manufactures 
is extraordinary. . . . the state canal connects it with the eastern 
cities, and the Beaver division, when completed, will give access to the 
state of Ohio, the Ohio canal and"to the lakes. The canal on the Beaver 
division was commenced in pursuance of the act of aist March, 1831. 

The length of this work, which extends a short distance upon the 
Shenango Creek, is 14} miles: of which there are S ms. 16 perches of 
canal, and 16 ms. and 134 perches of slack-water and towing path. The 
contracts on it were let on the aothof July and the 19th of October, 183 1. 
There are on it 7 dams, varying from 7 to 14 feet in height, t aqueducts 
and ij guard and lift locks, overcoming a rise of 131 feet. The » outlet 
locks are aj feet wide, and 1 jo feet long within the chambers, and de- 
signed to admit the smaller class of steamboats that ply on the Ohio, into 
the pool of the first dam, for the accommodation of the trade of the town 
of Beaver, and the flourishing villages on the banks and near the mouth 
of the creek, and the extensive manufactories propelled by the water 
taken from the Beaver falls. The cost of this division of the Pennsyl- 
vania canal is estimated at 1335,317- The commissioners expect to 
complete it by December, 183a. A rail road from Pittsburgh through the 
Beaver valley, to connect with the Ohio canal hoi been projected. 

The actual cost of this work was considerably greater than 

1 Anions the Revolutionary nirvivoit preaent were Lieutenant James Moore, Nathaniel 
Cobiun, previously mentioned in tliii chapter, and Henry Woods. Then may have 
been othera. 

* Wrsurn Argai of July jo, »Bji. 

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248 History of Beaver County 

the above estimate, being over $500,000, and the time of com- 
pletion was, some say a year later, others several years. This 
canal is now a thing of the past, but it did incalculable good for 
the Beaver valley while it lasted. After its usefulness as a 
canal was done it was sold, the Harmony Society becoming the 
owner of the title of the dams, canal bed, and tow-path from 
the lower end of New Brighton to the mouth of the Conoquenes- 
sing Creek. But this means of transportation will yet play an 
important role in western Pennsylvania, if the future shall 
bring the fulfillment of the hopes which have been entertained 
for the building of the Lake Erie and Ohio River Ship Canal. 
Some history has been already made in this enterprise. The 
initial step toward it was taken when the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania, in 1889, 1 authorized the appointment of a commission 
to make a survey for a ship canal to connect the Ohio River 
with Lake Erie, and appropriated $10,000 for that purpose. 
Hon. Hartford P. Brown of Rochester introduced this bill, and 
Hon. W. S. Shallenberger was a member of the first ship canal 
commission appointed to report on the same. In view of the 
tedious character of government enterprises, it was suggested 
by the Pittsburg Chamber of Commerce that it would be easier 
and better to secure private capital to cany out this project. 
A provisional committee was appointed, of which Hon. W. S. 
Shallenberger of Rochester, and Hon. John P. Dravo and Major 
J. R. Harrah of Beaver were members. Efforts were made to 
secure stock sufficient to proceed with the work, but they were 
not successful. The matter is not dead, however, as it is now, 
under the direction of the Pittsburg Chamber of Commerce, 
being urged upon the attention of Congress. 

In March, 1895, a fund of $38,000 having been raised engin- 
eering parties were placed in the field and the work of surveying 
the routes begun. It was demonstrated that the most feasible 
route is that following the Ohio River from Davis Island Dam 
to the slack-water of the Beaver, thence up the Beaver and 
Mahoning creeks by a slack-water system of pools and dams to 
Niles, Ohio; thence by canal to the summit level, nine hundred 
feet above tide; thence across the summit and down to the 
level of the lake. This would make a total distance from the 
entrance on the Beaver to Lake Erie of only 98.9 miles, which 

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History of Beaver County 249 

is 37 miles shorter than the old State canal, the lift being accom- 
plished with one hundred less locks. 1 


The Chanoine wicket dam with Pasqueau hurters at Davis 
Island a few miles below Pittsburg, is the first of a series of 
movable dams devised for the radical improvement of the Ohio 
River by creating a chain of slack-water pools, making naviga- 
tion independent of low water stages in the stream. The Act of 
the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, ceding to the United 
States jurisdiction to condemn land for building locks and dams 
was approved by his Excellency, J. F. Hartranft, March 17, 
1877. The caption of the Act is as follows: 

An Act to grant the consent of the State of Pennsylvania to the 
acquisition by the United States of certain lands -within the State and 
bordering on the Ohio, Monongahela and Youghiogheny rivers for the 

' It ii interesting to note that Washington, with his practical and inquiring mini had 
taken up the subject of the possibility of forming a connection between the waters of the 
Ohio Rivet and thoue of Lake Erie, la a letter to General Butler, dated January 17. 17SS. 

"As you have had opportunities of gaining extensive knowledge and information re- 
specting the western territory, its situation, rivers, and the face of the country, I mutt beg 
the favor of you. my dear sir. 10 resolve the following queries, either from your own knowl- 
edge or certain information, (as well to gratify my own curiosity as to enable me to satisfy 
several gentlemen of distinction in other countries, who have applied to me for information 
upon the subject), viz: 

"First.— What is the face of the country between the sources, or canoe navigation, of 
the Cuyahoga, (which discharges itself into Lake Erie), and the Big Beaver, and between the 
Cuyahoga and the Muskingum '' 

"Stamd. — The distance between the waters of the Cuyahoga and each of the two rivers 
above mentioned f 

" Third. — Would it be practicable, and not very expensive, to cut a canal between the 
Cuyahoga and either of the above rivers so as to open a communication between the waters 
of Lake Erie and those of the Ohio? 

11 Fourth. — Whether there is any more direct, practicable, and easy communication be- 
tween the waters of Lake Brie and those of the Ohio, by which the fur and peltry of the 
upper country can be transported, than these? 

" Any information you can give me relative to the above queries, from your own knowl- 
edge, will be most agreeable; but if that is not sufficiently accurate for you to decide upon, 
the best and most authentic accounts of others will be very acceptable." — (.Wtsunt Annals, 
P. 460.) 

Earlier still Lesris Evans had perceived the possibility of this connection. In the 
analysis of his map of 173s, he says, speaking of the Beaver and its upper branches, "The 
eastern Branch is less considerable, and both are very slow, spreading through a very rich 
level country, full of swamps and Ponds, which prevent a good Portage that might other- 
srise be made to Cayahoga; but will no doubt, in Future Ages, be fit to open a Canal be- 
tween the Waters of Ohio and Lake Erie." 

And the language of Gen. Irvine, in a report dated Aug. 17. 17^!. to the Supreme 
Executive Council, In relation to the Donation lands, while it does not mention a canal, 
shows his perception of thepossibiliti«: he says, " I am persuaded the State of Pennsylvania 
might nap great advantages by paying early attention to the very easy communication 
with Lake Erie, from the western parts of their county particularly Conewagoo. French 
Creek, and the west branch of Beaver. From a place called Mahoning, to where it is 
navigable for small craft, is but thirty miles to Cuyahoga River, which empties into tbe 
Lake."— Pinna. Ank., vol. xi.. p. jij, tt siq. 

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250 History of Beaver County 

purpose of erecting thereon dams, abutments, locks, lock-bouses, offices 
and necessary structures for the construction and maintenance of slack- 
water navigation on said rivers and ceding jurisdiction over the same arid 
for imposing fines and penalties for wilful injuries to the grounds, buildings 
and appurtenances acquired under the provisions of this Act. 1 

Work on construction of Davis Island Dam was begun 
August 19, 1878, and continued intermittently until completion, 
a period of about seven years. The dam was formally opened 
October 7, 1885. Much of this period was lost in contests with 
the coal operators, with whose interests it was supposed by 
them the work would conflict: in all, about five and a half 
years were consumed in building the entire lock and dam. The 
cost of the lock and dam was $910,000. 

Davis Island Dam is No. 1 in the series, and the numbers and 
location of the others are as follows: No. a, Glenfield, Pa., at 
Neville Island; No. 3, Glen Osborne, near Sewickley, Pa.; No. 
4, Legionville, Pa., near Logstown bar; No. 5, Freedom, Pa., 
near Lacock's bar; No. 6, Merrill, Pa., near the mouth of Rac- 
coon Creek; and No, 7, Neel's station, Pa., near Georgetown 
Island. Of this series, Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 are within the limits 
of Beaver County. The contract for dams Nos. a, 3, 4. and 5 
is dated December 7, 1897. Work was commenced on Nos. a 
and 4 in April, 1898, and on 3 and 5 in March, 1899. 

The status of these works in the latter part of 1903 was as 

Dam No. 2. The lock completed and five hundred feet of 
the dam built. The lock operating machinery, the remainder of 
the dam, and the buildings yet to be constructed. 

Dam No. 3. Only the lock built; all else to be done. 

Dam No. 4. The lock completed and two hundred and fifty 
feet of the dam partially built. 

Dam No. 5- The lock built and four hundred feet of the 
dam under contract, and the work partially done. 

Dam No. 6. The work on this dam was begun June 2, 1893, 
and, with the exception of putting in the lock gates and erecting 
the buildings, is practically complete. 

Dam No. 7. The property has been purchased, but no work 

The construction of alt of these dams corresponds in a gen- 

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History of Beaver County 251 

eral way with that of Davis Island Dam, a full description of 
which will be found by the reader in the transactions of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers in a pamphlet by B. F. 
Thomas, C.E., entitled Movable Dams. 

It is right to say that the legislation necessary to the im- 
provement of the Ohio River and the appropriations as made 
from time to time, have been secured largely by the influence 
of the late Hon. Matthew Stanley Quay, United States Senator 
from Pennsylvania, and Hon. John F. Dravo," the former 
until his death a citizen of Beaver and the latter still such. 


We have italicized the last sentence in the Quotation given 
on page 247 from Gordon's Gazetteer, in order to emphasize the 
reference to that which became the next great step in the de- 
velopment of this region, as well as that of the whole country, 
viz., the advent of the railroad. 

That the leading spirits of Beaver County were among the 
first to perceive the importance of this great instrument of 
civilization, will be seen by a comparison of dates. The first 
railway built in the United States was from the granite quarries 
of Quincy. Mass., to tide-water, length five miles; begun in 1836 

' Hon. John P. Dravo is the very Nestor among the men of affaire in Beaver County. 
Mr. Dravo was bora at "West Newton. Pa., October jo, iSiq, his parent* being Michael and 
Mary (Fleming) Dravo. Receiving a good common school and college education, ha 
Learned the details of the coal business in his father's office, and in 1S45 embarked on his 
first venture m that business, with which he has since been mainly connected. In J&54 he 
founded the town of Drevoeburft Pa., now a nourishing mining centre. In 1868 he or- 
ganised the Pittsburg ft Connellsville Gas, Coal, and Coke Co., becoming its general manager 
and treasurer. In i860 he was elected president of the Pittsburg Coal Exchange, which 
position he held continuously for ten years. He was active in securing the organization of 
the Pittsburg Chamber of Commerce, was one of its charter members, and for several years 
its president. No man has done more towards securing the improvement of navigation 
on the Ohio and Monongahela rivers than Mr. Dravo, and the freeing of the Utter in 1897, 
was largely due to his influence. He was also one of the most active promoters of the 
building of the Pittaburg ft Lake Brie Railroad, and served for several years on its board of 

Mr. Dravo's political career has been as remarkable as that which he has led as a business 
man. He was one of the organisers of the Republican party and was a delegate to the 
convention which nominated Lincoln for the Presidency. He has twice held the position 
of Collector of Customs and Surveyor of the Port of Pittsburg, and has been twice (in 
.83; and i88 ) elected a* a representative of Beaver County in the State Legislature. 

Mr Dravo has been a life-long member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and for 
many years a local preacher in that body. He has always been an ardent supporter of all 
movements looking to the elevation of humanity, and at eighty-three years of age, while 
spending much time in the care of his beautiful home and gardens on the bank of the Ohio, 

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252 History of Beaver County 

and completed in 1837, and built to carry granite for the Bunker 
Hill Monument. The second was at Mauch Chunk, Pa., nine 
miles long, begun and finished in 1827. In 1828 the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Company built a road from its mines to 
Honesdale, and by the close of the year 1830 the Baltimore and 
Ohio and several other roads were under construction. Only 
five years after the latter date, a meeting of citizens was held 
in the court-house in Beaver (February 12, 1835) to consider 
the question of uniting with citizens of Ohio to secure the con- 
struction of a railway from Conneaut, Ohio, to the mouth of 
the Big Beaver, for which a charter had been granted by the 
Legislature of Ohio. At this meeting, which was very enthusi- 
astic, Hon. Thomas Henry was President; Ovid Pinney and 
Dr. John Winter, Vice-Presidents; and W. H. Denny and J. P. 
Johnston, Secretaries. Favorable action was taken, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to co-operate with a similar committee 
from Ohio. Preliminary surveys in Ohio and Pennsylvania were 
made, of which full reports were published in the Western Argus 
at Beaver, Wednesday, December 14, 1836. This publication 
was headed: "Reports on the Conneaut & Beaver, & Beaver 
& Conneaut Rail Roads: which, together, constitute one continu- 
ous line from Conneaut Harbor, on Lake Erie, to the Ohio river 
at the mouth of Beaver; By W. K. Scott, Esq., Civil Engineer." 
These reports are too long to reproduce here, but they make 
very interesting reading to-day. The first is addressed to "The 
Commissioners of the Conneaut and Beaver Rail Road," and the 
second to "The Commissioners of the Beaver and Conneaut 
Rail Road Company." One line, laid by Scott for the Pennsyl- 
vania portion of the road, began at the Ohio State line, near the 
mouth of the Little Yankee Run, and followed the valley of the 
Shenango to New Castle. It reached the valley of the Beaver 
at the foot of Wampum hill, and ran down the west side through 
Brighton and Fallston, terminating "at the banks of the Ohio 
near Gleim's tavern." Another line was surveyed on the east 
side of the Beaver, diverging from this at Brighton, crossing the 
Beaver a little above the bridge, passing through the village of 
New Brighton, and terminating at the Ohio, near the mouth of 
the Beaver. The report gives the eastern line the preference in 
two respects. One is "the greater security of the work," and 
the other "the ease with which it can be connected with the 

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Hon. John F. Dravo. 

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History of Beaver County 253 

contemplated rail road to Pittsburgh." The whole length of this 
road was to be 44J miles, and its estimated cost $459,858, or 
$10,393 per mile. The Ohio portion was to be 60J miles in 
length, and its estimated cost $467,866, or $7702 per mile. 
Note the manner of construction: "The superstructure will be 
formed by two parallel lines of mud sills, twelve inches wide, and 
six thick, imbedded in the earth so that their upper surfaces 
shall correspond with the graduation of the road ; — cross ties, six 
inches square, spiked upon these once in three feet, measuring 
from centre to centre; — wooden rails six inches square, secured 
in notches made in the cross ties, and an iron plate rail q\ inches 
by } firmly spiked to it ; the ends underlaid and connected with 
splicing plates." 

The survey of this road was over a great part of the present 
line of the Pittsburg and Lake Erie Railway. The road was not 
built, as the project went down with the general wreck of the 
finances of this region that accompanied the closing of the 
United States' Bank. 

We noted previously the reference in Gordon's Gazetteer to the 
project of a railroad from Pittsburg through the Beaver valley. 
Whatever may have been the history of that particular project 
a road was finally built, and the story of its building is as fol- 
lows. Sometime in the early "thirties" the people of Salem, 
Ohio, began to feel the necessity for a railroad, and it was prin- 
cipally through their efforts to secure the advantages of such 
means of transportation that the first link of the present Penn- 
sylvania Lines West of Pittsburg was constructed. After years 
of effort, sufficient interest was aroused in the railroad project 
to cause the formation of a company, upon whose Board of 
Directors were Zadok Street and Samuel Chessman of Salem. 
This company was known as the Pittsburg & Cleveland Railroad 
Company, and at the meeting of the Board of Directors, just 
after its organization, it was decided to locate a road from Wells- 
ville, Ohio, to Cleveland, Ohio, via Alliance, passing some twelve 
miles to the west of Salem. 

Disappointed by this action, the Salem members of the 
Board withdrew and immediately began the work of securing 
sufficient funds with which to do the preliminary work on a 
railroad which should pass through Salem, having Pittsburg, 

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254 History of Beaver County 

Pa., and Mansfield, Ohio, for termini. The first survey was 
made by Captain Whippo of New Castle, Pa., who ran a line 
from Rochester, Pa., to Salem, Ohio; after which a charter was 
secured from the Legislature of Ohio, and supplemented by one 
from the Legislature of Pennsylvania, for a railroad under the 
name of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad Company. This 
was done during the latter portion of 1847 and early in 1848. 
General William Robinson, Jr., of Allegheny, Pa., was the first 

No very great difficulty was experienced in securing funds 
with which to carry on the project, and January, 185a, saw the 
completion of the line between Allegheny, Pa., and Alliance, Ohio, 
at which latter point connection with the Cleveland and Pitts- 
burg Railroad, recently constructed, was had for Cleveland. The 
work of construction was pushed with vigor until the line ex- 
tended to Crestline, Ohio, where it connected with the Ohio and 
Indiana Railroad, which latter railroad connected at Port 
Wayne with the Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, forming a 
through line to Chicago, which, after consolidation, became 
known as the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway. 

Ground was first broken for the Ohio & Pennsylvania Rail- 
road on the 4th of July, 1849, near the town of East Palestine, 
Ohio, when Solomon W. Roberts, the chief engineer delivered 
an address on the history and value of the undertaking. The 
first train from Pittsburg passed up Beaver Creek as far as 
Block House Run on July 30, 1851; and October 33d, the 
same year, the first excursion train came from' Pittsburg and 
passed through the county. To this original line there have 
been and are constantly being added other lines, until now the 
little road which, when first contemplated, was to run only from 
Allegheny to Mansfield, has, in connection with its affiliated 
lines, a mileage approximating ten thousand miles and furnishes 
employment to about 135,000 men. Its first time-table shows 
but three trains scheduled in either direction, including passenger 
and freight trains. The present time-table shows one hundred 
and twenty-two passenger trains regularly scheduled over the 
division running through Rochester, besides which from one hun- 
dred and twenty to one hundred and forty freight trains pass 
over this piece of road every twenty-four hours. 

With this enormous business to be handled, there has been 

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History of Beaver County 255 

almost absolute immunity from serious accident. During the 
World's Fair at Chicago, from May to October, 1893, 314a pas- 
senger trains, made up of 33,947 cars and containing 603,103 
passengers, were run over this main line to and from Chicago, 
without injury to a single passenger or train man. 


The next railroad to be built through Beaver County was 
the Cleveland & Pittsburg. Its history is as follows. By a 
special Act of the Ohio Legislature on March 14, 1836, a charter 
was granted to the Cleveland, Warren & Pittsburg Railroad 
Company, permitting it to construct a railroad from Cleveland to 
the eastern Ohio line, there to connect with any road to be built 
under the laws of Pennsylvania. A curious illustration is found 
in the provisions of the second section of this Act of the very 
experimental nature of railroading even at that comparatively 
recent period. This section authorized the corporation to trans- 
fer "property and persons upon their road by the power and 
force of steam, of animals, or of any mechanical or other power 
or any combination of them," and permitted all other com- 
panies and persons to transfer property and passengers upon 
the said road in their own vehicles and with their power, subject 
to the rules and regulations of the company, upon the payment 
of tolls, after the manner of canal navigation. Hard times fol- 
lowing a period of inflation prevented .the building of the road. 
An Act of revival and amendment was passed on March n, 
1845, and the route was changed to "the most direct, practic- 
able and least expensive route to the Ohio River, at the most 
suitable point." The company was organized at Ravenna, Ohio, 
in October of 1845. James Stewart of Wellsville was elected 
President; A. G. Cattell, Secretary; and Cyrus Prentiss, Treas- 
urer. In July, 1847, the first contracts were let from Wellsville 
northward, and the actual work was commenced. The connec- 
tion through to Pittsburg was finally arranged for in 185a. On 
April 8, 1850,' the Legislature of Pennsylvania passed a law 
incorporating the Cleveland & Pittsburg Railroad Company and 
giving full assent to all the provisions of the Ohio charter. 
Under this and later legislation the company completed its 

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256 History of Beaver County 

road to Rochester, Pa. In December, 1863, a contract was 
entered into with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
way Company for a division of gross earnings of the two com- 
panies upon a specified basis, and for the joint use of the track 
of the latter from Rochester to Pittsburg, a monthly rental of 
$7083.33 being paid therefor, in addition to one half the cost of 
repairs. In October, 1871, the road was leased to the Pennsyl- 
vania Company for nine hundred and ninety-nine years from 
December 1, 187 1. Beaver County invested $100,000 in this en- 
terprise. This road enters the county at Glasgow, runs along the 
north bank of the Ohio River and crosses the Big Beaver at its 
mouth to Rochester, which is, properly speaking, the terminus 
of the road, although, as stated above, its traffic is carried on 
from that point to Pittsburg over the Pittsburg, Port Wayne & 
Chicago track. 


For several years prior to 1856 various attempts were made 
to build a road from Erie to Pittsburg, and a company was 
incorporated under the name of the Pittsburg & Erie Railroad, 
principally by citizens along the line. Little actual work was 
done, however, outside of the embankment built from below 
Transfer to the Shenango River. 

The corporate history of the Erie & Pittsburg Railroad Com- 
pany begins with the incorporation of the Pittsburg & Erie 
Railroad Company, which was incorporated under various Acts 
of the Pennsylvania Legislature, as follows, viz. : 

The Act of April 34, 1846,' authorizing the construction of 
a railroad from the western terminus of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, if that road should be constructed in Allegheny County,' 
— and if it should not terminate there, then the road was to 
begin at Pittsburg and extend to Erie. 

The Act of May 4, 185a, 1 authorizing subscription to the 
capital stock in Beaver, Lawrence, Mercer, Crawford, and Erie 

The Act of May 4, 1854, 3 reviving and renewing the charter 
of the company. 

The Act of April 5, 1855,* authorized further subscription to 

•P. L. 448. 'P. L., 60s. *P. L. J9s- P L. 188. 

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History of Beaver County 257 

the capital stock, and subsequent Acts up to 1859 revived and 
renewed the charter and extended the time for the completion 
of the road. 

The company, after passing through various vicissitudes, 
failed, and when it failed the portion of the road extending 
between the points before mentioned was sold at sheriff's sale to 
private parties, from whom the Erie & Pittsburg Railroad Com- 
pany afterwards purchased it. 

The Erie & Pittsburg Railroad Company was incorporated 
under the following special laws : 

April 1st, 185S. 1 An Act of incorporation subject to the provisions 
of the general law of February 19, 1849,' regulating railroad companies 
and the Acts supplemental thereto. It authorized the completion of the 
road between Girard Junction and Jamestown, Mercer County, then being 
built by the Erie & North East R. R. Company, it being necessary accord- 
ing to the language of the Act to have it constructed under separate 

The Erie & North East Railroad Company were by this Act 
required to continue the work on the line under the Act of 
April aa, 1856,3 and were given further time of two years to 
complete it, and after $400,000 were expended they were to 
transfer their right, title, and interest in the right-of-way, con- 
tracts, stock, and railroad to the Erie & Pittsburg Railroad 
Company, and receive $400,000 of the capital stock of that 
company. The road was built for the most part on a route 
different from the one located by the Pittsburg & Erie Railroad 
Company, the only part of that road that was used being from 
Greenville to the Shenango River, between Clarksville and 
Sharpsville, as will be seen by the history of the Pittsburg & 
Erie Company. 

A contract was entered into early in 1862 with the late 
W. L. Scott for the construction of the road from Jamestown 
o New Castle. The road was opened August 1, 1864, for 
operation from Girard Junction to New Castle, at which latter 
point it made connection with the New Castle & Beaver Valley 

The road has never been extended beyond Girard Junction 
or New Castle, entrance to Erie being obtained over the lines 
of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad 

• P. L-. SH. ■ P. L-. TO. * P. L, J6j, 

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258 History of Beaver County 

The Erie & Pittsburg Railroad Company are the owners of 
various tracks and terminal facilities at Erie, Pa. The con- 
struction of the dock branch, extending from Dock Junction to 
the Erie docks, three and a half miles, was begun in 1863 and 
completed in 1865. 

The capital stock of the company is $2,000,000. 

Under date of March 34, 1870, taking effect March 1, 1870, 
the company leased its entire railroad and property to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company for 999 years, the lease being 
assigned to the Pennsylvania Company, April 1, 1871. 

In order to protect the interests of the company, the lessee 
in 1870 secured the control of the Erie Canal by the purchase 
of stock and bonds of that company. The canal was operated 
for about one year under arrangement with the Erie & Pitts- 
burg Railroad Company, when executions were issued and the 
canal sold. The canal property was subsequently sold to parties 
living along the line of the canal, and the Canal Company was 

Prominent among the first officers of the company are men- 
tioned John A. Tracy, John H, Walker, D. W. Fitch, Milton 
Courtwright, Prescott Metcalf, and John Brawley, all of whom 
are now dead. The late W. L. Scott secured control of the 
road in 1865, and continued in the management of it until its 
lease to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 

The present officers of the company are: C. H. Strong, Presi- 
dent; M. H. Taylor, Vice-President; J. P. Smart, Secretary and 
Treasurer; Directors: C. H. Strong, Erie, Pa.; M. H. Taylor, 
Erie, Pa.; J. P. Green, Philadelphia; C. H. Fairchild, New York 
City; James McCrea, Pittsburg; J. J. Spearman, Sharon, Pa.; 
G. R. Metcalf, Erie, Pa. 

The Darlington Cannel Coal Railroad Company was among 
the early railroads of the county. It was incorporated March 3, 
1852,' by an Act of Assembly of that date. Its incorporators 
were John White, John McCowin, William Sterling, Atkin- 
son Martin, and Matthew Elder. John White was elected 

The road remained under this management for about three 
years, when it got into difficulties which led to the foreclosing 

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History of Beaver County 259 

of a mortgage and its public sale by N. P. Fetterman, Esq., then 
of Beaver, later of Pittsburg. It was bid in by the Harmony 
Society and operated under the management of Henrici and 
Lenz, trustees for the Society. In 1880 the railroad was bought 
by Gen. James S. Negley and Captain Ira F. Mansfield for the 
sum of $40,000. A new company was organized, and the road 
was extended from the mines at Cannelton to New Lisbon, 

The present officers are: N. R. Billingsley, President; George 
W. Dixon, Superintendent; K. E. Barringer, General Freight 
and Passenger Agent. 


Before the construction of the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Rail- 
way, the South Side, Pittsburg, had no railroad facilities, but 
depended almost entirely upon the river transportation for the 
movement of its immense freightage. With the annexation of 
its boroughs to the city, the need of a railroad became still more 
apparent, and the question of building one began to be strongly 
agitated. In the spring of 1874 a meeting was held in the 
office of Mr. Bennett, of Graff, Bennett & Co., to consider the 
advisability of building a road from the South Side, through 
Beaver, to Youngstown, Ohio. The meeting was attended by 
representatives of all the industrial plants on the South Side. 
Among the firms represented were Jones & Laughlins; Singer, 
Nimick & Co.; Whartons; Oliver, Phillips & Co.; and Painter 
& Sons. It was decided at this meeting to attempt the project. 

The public was not informed that the road was contem- 
plated, but nevertheless the promoters had great difficulty in 
securing the right-of-way. Surveyors were put to work and a 
route secured from the Ohio River at Beaver to Youngstown, 
Ohio, but the effort to get one from Pittsburg to Beaver was 
not successful. The projectors of the road became very much 
discouraged, and some of them were ready to abandon the enter- 
prise altogether, when the Harmony Society, which had large 
interests at Beaver Falls that would be benefited by the road, 
and which also owned a large amount of property along the 
proposed route, offered its assistance for the construction of the 
road. On the reception of this offer the officials of the company 

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260 History of Beaver County 

decided to issue $2,000,000 in bonds. The Harmony Society 
took $350,000 of this amount, and in addition granted free 
right-of-way through all its land between Beaver and the South 
Side, amounting to over three fourths of the distance; and Dr. 
David Hostetter subscribed for $750,000 of the bonds. 

May 11, 1875, articles of association were filed, styled Pitts- 
burg & Lake Erie Railroad Company. 

President and directors named were as follows: William 
McCreery, President; William McCreery, Joshua Rhodes, 
James Westerman, George C. Reis, John F. Dravo, P. W. Kel- 
ler, John Bissell, William M. Short, A. J. McKinley. 

John Bissell was Secretary and William M. Short, Treasurer. 
The principal office was located at Pittsburg, Pa. May 18, 

1875, a charter was issued by the State of Pennsylvania. May 
ia, 1876, all the old officers were re-elected. December 19, 

1876, John D. Scully was elected a director in place of A. J. 
McKinley, resigned. 

January 29, 1877, it was voted to increase the number of 
directors to twelve, exclusive of the president, and new directors 
were elected as follows: David Hostetter, James M. Bailey, 
M. W. Watson, James M. Schoonmaker, and James I. Bennett 
was elected in place of William M. Short, resigned. 

April 25, 1877, articles of association were filed in Ohio for 
that portion of the road from the Pennsylvania line to Youngs- 
town, Ohio. 

April 26, 1877, an executive committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of James I. Bennett, James M. Bailey, and John P. Dravo. 

July 6, 1877, the board was reorganized, James I. Bennett 
being elected president; and John Reeves, Jacob Henrici, Wil- 
liam M. Lyon, and Jacob Painter, directors, to take the place 
of William McCreery, George C. Reis, P. W. Keller, and W. S. 
Bissell, resigning. 

June ai, 1877, Samuel George was elected treasurer; and 
Samuel Rea secretary, in place of Bissell and Short, resigned. 

September 26, 1877, the contract for the construction of the 
road was let to Bernard J. McGrann of Lancaster, Pa., for 
building the road complete, and a single line was completed the 
following year. 

January 5, 1878, the Ohio organization was consolidated 
with that of Pennsylvania. 

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History of Beaver County 261 

January 14, 1878, the following officers were elected: Presi- 
dent, James I. Bennett; Directors: Jacob Henrici, James M. 
Bailey, Jacob Painter, David Hostetter, Joshua Rhodes, John 
Newell, John Reeves, William M. Lyon, J. H. Devereux, M. W. 
Watson, John P. Dravo, and J. M. Schoonmaker. This board 
elected John Reeves Vice-President. 

September 31, 1878, the first locomotive crossed the Ohio 
River bridge. October 15, 1878, A. D. Smith was elected audi- 
tor and general passenger agent and John G. Robinson secretary 
and treasurer. 

January n, 1879, all the directors and officers were re- 

February 6, 1879, the road was taken off the contractor's 

February io, 1879, freight was started over the road, and 
on the 24th of the same month regular passenger trains were 

January 13, 1880, the annual meeting elected the old officers 
and directors, as follows; President, James I. Bennett; Direc- 
tors: Jacob Henrici, James M. Bailey, James M. Schoonmaker, 
David Hostetter, Joshua Rhodes, J. H. Devereux, John Reeves, 
William M. Lyon, John Newell, M. W. Watson, John F. Dravo, 
and Jacob Painter. General Manager, W. C. Quincy; General 
Freight Agent, E. D. Nettleton; Auditor and General Passenger 
Agent, A. D. Smith ; Secretary and Treasurer, John G. Robin- 
son ; Master of Transportation, R. W. Jones. 

It is of interest to know that the promoters of this road 
wished to have it water grade, and that a bill was presented in 
Congress asking for permission to construct a drawbridge at 
Beaver, which would be almost below high-water mark. The 
rivermen were opposed to the building of such a bridge, and 
secured the defeat of the bill, and the railroad people were 
compelled to erect a bridge ninety feet above the water. In 
the end this effected a great saving to the company, since it 
gave them a practically level route from Pittsburg to Youngs- 
town, and consequently much less motive power was required in 
the moving of trains, with greater economy in the expenditure 
of fuel. In 1877 contracts were made between the Pittsburg & 
Lake Erie Railway Company and the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern and the Atlantic & Great Western Railway companies 

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262 History of Beaver County 

to accept freight originating with that road for all northern 
shipments, the delivery to be made at Youngstown. 

The necessity for an eastern outlet to the coal and coke field 
of the ConnellsvUle region was felt strongly in 1878, but the 
company was at this time too weak financially to make the 
extension without aid. Efforts were made to secure the co- 
operation of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company for the 
construction of such an extension, but they did not succeed. 
Finally, William H. Vanderbilt's interest was enlisted in the 
matter, and the company was assisted by him to make this 
much-needed improvement. From this time on the road pros- 
pered wonderfully. Reaching the coal and coke fields on both 
rivers, and touching all the important steel plants, it became 
at once a paying concern, and its stock was gradually bought up 
by the Vanderbilts, until now they own the majority. The road 
is now rapidly being four-tracked, and the management is in all 
respects one of the most enterprising and progressive in the 
country. One evidence of this is the character of the station 
buildings which they are erecting; the one at Beaver, as will 
be seen from the half-tone on the opposite page, being a per- 
fectly ideal specimen of railway architecture. 

The wisdom of placing this line where it now is, is amply 
shown in these later days, since direct connection is made with 
two of the greatest systems in America, viz., the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern and Erie railroads. With through cars and 
Pullman accommodations to Chicago, Boston, Buffalo, Cleve- 
land, Jamestown, and various other traffic centres, the road to 
all intents and purposes fills exactly the same place in the pub- 
lic needs as does a great trunk line. The mileage of the Pitts- 
burg & Lake Erie and its operated lines is 185 miles. 

The management at the present time is under the control of 
Col. J. M. Schoonmaker, Vice-President and General Manager, 
one of the staunchest of the band of capitalists who first pro- 
moted the enterprise. 

The Pittsburg, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad was formed 
by a consolidation and merger of the Ashtabula, Niles & Youngs- 
town Railroad and the Lawrence 8c Pittsburg Railroad, the 
Lawrence & Pittsburg Railroad having been formed by a con- 
solidation and merger of the New Brighton & New Castle Rail- 

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History of Beaver County 263 

road Company and the Lawrence Railroad Company; the 
articles of consolidation in both cases being duly filed at Harris- 
burg. The New Brighton & New Castle Railroad was chartered 
on March 34, 1881, under the Act of April 14, 1868, and supple- 
ments thereto, and authorized to construct, operate, and maintain 
a railroad between New Brighton, in Beaver County, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New Castle, in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, 
The Pittsburg, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad leased its 
constructed railroad, which extends from Kenwood Station to 
Ashtabula Harbor, a distance of one hundred six (106) miles, by 
article of agreement dated December 13, 1887, to the Pennsyl- 
vania Company, and since that date has been operated by the 
Pennsylvania Company. On the 8th of August, 1898, a survey 
was made under the direction of the chief engineer of said com- 
pany for an extension or branch line on the eastern shore of the 
Beaver River, from Kenwood southward through the towns of 
New Brighton, Bolesville, Rochester, and Freedom to a point 
in the main line of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
way, just east of Remington station, and this line is now being 

One main object that is kept in view, both in the text and 
illustrations of this work, is to exhibit contrasts between the 
earlier and later times, showing the advancement made along 
all mechanical, industrial, and social lines. Nowhere, perhaps, 
is the contrast greater than in the direction of the subject which 
we are now considering. All of the roads first built were only 
slight modifications of the ordinary earth roadways. Wooden 
rails were laid to overcome friction and the inequalities of the 
surface of the ground. Then the rails of timber were covered 
with straps of iron, and nearly all of these roads were built 
for, and operated by, horse-power.' From these primitive 

1 Peter Parky (Samuel Griswold Goodrich), writing nearly itvmty yean ago. said in 
his fim book of history: 

'"But the most curious thine at Baltimore is the railroad. I must tell you there is a 
great trade between Baltimore and the states west of the Allegheny Mountains. The 

' '- ' * tities of goods at Baltimore and in return send large amount* 

t, therefore, a great deal of traveling back and forth 

hundredsof ... . ....... 

to carry on this business more easily the people are building what is called a railroad. 
This consists of iron bars laid along the ground and made fast, so that carriages with small 
n along them with facility. In this way one horse will be able to d( 

ride upon it you can do so. You will mount a car something like a 
11 be drawn along by two horses at a rate of twelve miles an hour." 

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264 History of Beaver County 

constructions to the modern lines with their ponderous steel 
rails and bridges and solid roadbeds is a vast advance. 

But the progress made in motive power is still more re- 
markable. The illustrations which accompany this chapter will 
exhibit this in a striking manner. Look at the John Stevens 
locomotive — which was the first engine to draw passengers in 
the United States — and then at the great Ea Pennsylvania Rail- 
road engine. We have not been able to secure a picture of the 
first type of locomotive in use on the lines in Beaver County, 
but the illustrations given are instructive, nevertheless. Com- 
pare the pigmy and the monster in the small cut. The little 
engine was built in 187a, not so very long ago, and it was then 
considered a wonder in its way. But contrast the dimen- 
sions of the two : the small engine has cylinders 4 x 16 
inches, the modern one's cylinders measure 22 x 28 inches; the 
driving-wheel base of the former is 6 feet aj inches, that of the 
latter 14 feet 8 inches; the former has a boiler 34$ inches in 
diameter, the latter has one 70 inches in diameter; and the tank 
of the small engine is a mere pail compared with that of the 
large one, for it holds 450 gallons, while the capacity of the 
other is 6000 gallons. And the weight — the little fellow weighs 
only iaj tons, the big one 90 tons! A similar advance is noted 
in the locomotives of this date over those exhibited at the 
World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, which were supposed to be, par 
excellence, the highest type possible to the science of engine- 
building. And every part of railroad construction has kept the 
same pace. The cars used fifty years ago held but ten tons, 
while those of to-day carry fifty-five tons. Thirty years ago the 
maximum train capacity was about 300 tons, or 10,000 bushels 
of wheat; to-day, with improved roadbed, heavy steel rails, en- 
larged cars, and mogul engines, the maximum capacity is 3700 
tons, or 90,000 bushels of wheat. In 1835 the maximum speed 
was about twelve miles an hour, to-day trains have maintained 
an average speed of forty-five miles an hour from New York to 
Chicago; and the Pennsylvania or Pittsburg & Lake Erie Rail- 
way trains, such as the "Limited" or the "Cleveland Flyer," are 
often rushing through the Beaver valley at the rate of seventy- 
five or eighty miles an hour. It would be an interesting sight 
if we could see that first train that went through in 1851 stand- 
ing alongside of one of these trains de luxe. 

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History of Beaver County 265 

In 1835 there were in the State of Pennsylvania only a few 
score miles of railway; to-day there are 10,000 miles, and along 
these 10,000 miles of railway are located the greatest interests 
that can be found anywhere in the commercial world. The 
closing year of the century we are commemorating showed in 
the United States a total of nearly 900,000 miles of railway, 
with 300,000 railway employees (an army equal to Lincoln's 
call for volunteers in '63), to whom was paid more than $176, 
000,000. In the same year there were carried by these roads 
over 305,000,000 passengers, and their employees handled more 
than 600,000,000 tons of freight. 


In the great modern development of "rapid transit" by 
street railways, and in the application of electricity as the 
motive-power and for other uses, Beaver County has had her 
part. September 17, 1884, the Beaver Valley Street Railway 
Company was organized, and obtained its charter on the 23d of 
that month in the same year. Ground was broken for this road, 
May 6, 1885, and it was opened for travel, July 4th of that year. 
The capital stock of the company was $30,000. Horse cars were 
used, which ran from the station of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago Railway in New Brighton, through that town and 
Beaver Falls, to the foot of College Hill. 

The first officers of this company were: M. L. Knight, Presi- 
dent; Colonel Jacob Weyand, Vice-President; J. F. Merriman, 
Secretary and Treasurer; Hon. Henry Hice, John Reeves, Jacob 
Weyand, J. C. Whitla, H. W. Reeves, Joseph Snellenburg, and 
M. L. Knight, Directors; and Lycurgus Richardson, Superin- 
tendent. On the resignation of J. C. Whitla and Joseph Snel- 
lenburg their places were taken by George W. Coates and James 
M. May. 

This road was sold to the Beaver Valley Traction Company 
in July, 1891. By them the line was extended and opened 
through for traffic to Beaver, December 5, 1891, the motive- 
power being changed to electricity. 

The People's Electric Street Railway Company. — On August 
13, 1891, a charter for this company was applied for by the 

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366 History of Beaver County 

following gentlemen : Dan H. Stone, J.C.Whitla, H.W. Reeves, 
J. P. Stone, C. H. Bentel, John Conway, T. P. Simpson, and 
Hon. H. P. Brown, all of Beaver County. The incorporators were 
elected directors, who in turn elected Hon. H. P. Brown, Presi- 
dent; H. W. Reeves, Vice-President; C. H. Bentel, Treasurer 
and J. P. Stone, Secretary. John M. Buchanan, Esq., was the 
solicitor for the company, and procured for it its charter and 
right of way. Before the complete organization of the company, 
John Conway withdrew from the Board of Directors and was 
succeeded by Henry H. Camp. The capital stock of the com- 
pany was $150,000. 

The first survey was made in September of the same year, 
and was from the Bridgewater end of the Big Beaver bridge, 
following the present location through Rochester borough, 
Rochester township, Freedom borough, St. Clair borough, and 
New Sewickley township to Crow's Run. This location was 
afterwards changed by terminating the road in St. Clair bor- 
ough and extending the western terminus to a point in Rochester 
township, at the intersection of the Beaver Valley Traction 
Company's tracks, at what is now called Junction Park. 

The contract for the building and equipping of the road was 
awarded to Joseph Cross of Rochester, Pa., who sublet the same 
to Simon Harrold of Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Work was begun May 15, 1893, and the road was completed 
and opened for travel, August 13, 189a. 

The road was equipped with 45 lb. girder and T rail. The 
rolling stock consisted of four Laclede 16-foot closed cars, each 
having two W. P. 30 general electric motors. 

The power-house was located on Railroad Street, Rochester, 
Pa., being built in a substantial manner of stone and brick; the 
offices and car bam were located on the same lot adjoining the 
power-house. The rolling stock and general equipment were 
added to each year to care for the increasing business of the 

The company was always free from strikes and disagree- 
ments among its employees. Cyrus A. Danals of Rochester was 
the first superintendent, occupying the position for two years. 
Philip Bentel was superintendent for two years, and was suc- 
ceeded in 1895 by James G. Mitchell, who in that year was 
elected a director and general manager, and remained in charge 

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History of Beaver County 267 

of the company until it was leased to the Beaver Valley Trac- 
tion Company for 999 years. 

On August 13, 189a, one year from the date of the first 
meeting, a jollification meeting was held by the citizens of the 
valley on the public square of Rochester, when Hon. H. P. 
Brown, the president of the company, formally declared the 
road open to public travel. These public exercises were par- 
ticipated in by prominent members of the various professions 
and business men, and occupied the entire afternoon and evening. 

The Beaver Valley Traction Company was organized in the 
spring of 1891 by a number of prominent citizens of the Beaver 
Valley; and on June 29, 1891, a charter was issued under the 
provisions of the Act of March aa, 1887. In July, 1801, the 
Traction Company absorbed by contract and purchase of stock, 
the Central Electric Street Railway Company; and in August, 
1891, the Beaver Valley Street Railway Company was absorbed 
by similar process. Later the College & Grandview Electric 
Street Railway Company became a part of the B. V. T. Co. 
system, and a working agreement was established about 1898 
with the Beaver & Vanport Electric Street Railway Co. 

The property in the spring of 1900 was thus represented by 
tracks extending from Morado Park on the Beaver River, 
through College Hill, Beaver Falls.New Brighton, Rochester town- 
ship to the Junction, across the Sharon Bridge through Bridge- 
water to and through Beaver and part of Borough township to 
the top of the bluff just east of Two Mile Run. The total mile- 
age, counted as single track, was about seventeen miles. Most 
of the construction was very light and poor, being either T 
rails or 46-pound girder rails set on chairs ; the joints of the rails 
were in bad shape, the ties were old and spaced too far apart, 
and the overhead work was light and inefficient. The car 
equipment was antiquated and of several patterns and styles. 

There was another system, about three and three quarter 
miles in length, called the People's Electric Street Railway Com- 
pany, which extended from St. Clair, through Rochester town- 
ship, Rochester, and Bolesville to the Junction, where it stopped 
a few feet short of connecting with the B. V. T. Co.'s tracks. 
The fares charged from Morado or from St. Clair to Vanport 
were 15 cents. 

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268 History of Beaver County 

Several attempts had been made to unite the People's Elec- 
tric Street Railway Company with the Beaver Valley Traction 
Company under one management, but without success prior to 
1900, in which year fresh capital was interested, all the stock 
of the People's Electric Street Railway Company was purchased, 
and the property absorbed by the Beaver Valley Traction Com- 
pany. The capital stock of the Beaver Valley Traction Company 
was increased from $300,000 to $1,000,000, plans were imme- 
diately prepared to connect at the Junction and over the Big 
Beaver bridge, and to replace the old construction with new, 
up-to-date construction and equipment, and to double track the 
system wherever possible. A new park was planned and ground 
purchased at the Junction, where all the buildings of the com- 
pany should be concentrated for economy of power and super- 
vision. These plans have been carried out to a large extent, 
and are still being carried out as fast as local legislation has been 
obtained, and it is confidently believed by the management that 
when completed, they will both deserve and receive from the 
public a measure of patronage that will return to those who 
have invested their money in these public improvements a fair 
dividend upon their investment. 

Officers: President, John M. Buchanan; Vice-President, 
Sydney L. Wright; Secretary and Treasurer, Walter T. Bilyou; 
Assistant Secretary and Assistant Treasurer, J. C. Lightfoot, Jr. ; 
General Manager, Henry S. Newton ; Consulting Engineer, A. H. 
Engstrom. Directors: John M. Buchanan, Theodore P. Simp- 
son, Sydney L. Wright, W. Fred'k Snyder, Howard S. Graham, 
Wm. Henry Snyder, Harry W. Reeves, Wm. Redwood Wright, 
James P. Stone. 

For Patterson Heights Street Railway, see chapter on Beaver 
Falls borough. 


The first water-works of Beaver Falls was built in 1863. It 
consisted of a small impounding dam built in a ravine a short 
distance north of the old Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railway station, and west of their tracks. This dam was fed by 
several small springs, and water from this dam was piped to the 
town by a two-inch wrought pipe, supplying only a few hundred 
people. This supply soon became too small, and in 1865 a 

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History of Beaver County 269 

pump of about 350,000 gallons capacity was erected in the 
Cutlery building. This served the people until 1873, when a 
Holly pump of 700,000 gallons capacity was erected in a stone 
building between the race and the river bank, a short distance 
east of the Cutlery works; and during this period a consider- 
able amount of cast-iron pipe was laid through the town. In 
1884 a reservoir of 4,000,000 gallons capacity was built on Col- 
lege Hill, and a steam pumping plant of 3,500,000 gallons was 
added and was located on the west bank of the river, a short 
distance south of the College grounds. 

In 1893 the present pumping station, with a capacity of 
about 6,000,000 gallons, was erected on the east bank of the 
Beaver River, opposite the old paper mill by the Union Water 
Company. The plant has been increased from time to time, 
until it has now (1903) a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons, and in 
addition thereto it has a 6,000,000 gallon filtration system. 
This plant delivers water to about 30,000 inhabitants and 
nearly sixty factories and works, through fifty-five miles of 
pipe, varying in sizes from four to sixteen inches diameter. 

The People's Water Company of Beaver Falls was incor- 
porated December 17, 1896, and organized by a number of the 
citizens of Beaver Falls for the purpose of providing a better 
water supply for the town, both in quality and quantity, than 
that furnished by the Union Water Company. It continued in 
existence until the spring of 1903, when its stock was all pur- 
chased by a syndicate, which had also arranged to purchase the 
Union Water Company plant, and the companies were, to all 
intents and purposes, merged in the company now known as the 
Beaver Valley Water Company. 

During its existence the People's Water Company put in a 
pumping station and filters, and a reservoir on the hill back of 
Mt. Washington, and a complete system of pipes throughout the 
borough. The water furnished was derived partly from wells 
sunk in a gravel deposit, known as the old "Buried River" 
channel. The water obtained was very pure and absolutely 
free from nitrogenous matter, but held in solution a great deal 
of lime and salt, so that it was very hard. A part of the water 
supply was drawn from the Beaver River, filtered and mixed 
with the well water. 

The capital stock of the company, actually paid in, was 

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270 History of Beaver County 

$95,000. The company had paid a six-per-cent. dividend during 
its entire existence, and in the merger the stock sold for $135 
for eacb share. The sale was not made until the Union Water 
Company had entered into a ten years' contract with the bor- 
ough, in which that company agreed to furnish filtered water to 
the citizens of the borough at rates not exceeding those charged 
by the People's Water Company, and to furnish a definite pres- 
sure at all points in the borough for fire protection. This prac- 
tically accomplished the purpose for which the People's Water 
Company was organized, and it was therefore thought unwise 
to continue a useless competition longer. 

The officers of the People's Water Company during the 
whole term of its existence were Albert M. Jolly, President; 
John Warren, Secretary; Frank F. Brierly, Treasurer. 

The Beaver Valley Water Company owns and operates the 
Union Water Company, College Hill Borough Water Company, 
New Brighton Water Company, Fallston Water Company, Val- 
ley Water Company, West Side Water Company, Freedom 
Water Company, North Rochester Water Company, and sup- 
plies the towns of College Hill, Beaver Falls, New Brighton, 
Rochester, West Bridgewater, Freedom, Conway, and North 
Rochester with filtered water. The Beaver Valley Water 
Company was incorporated in 190a, with a capital of $1,000,- 
000. The officers are J. F. Grimes, President; J. P. Moore, 
Secretary; and John T. Taylor, Treasurer and General Man- 


In the following chapter some account of the natural gas 
development is given. The pioneer company to supply this 
product for purposes of fuel and light in Beaver County was 
the Bridgewater Gas Company, which received letters patent 
from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to Stephen P. Stone, 
Oscar Small, and others, November 19, 1883. 

The Baden Gas Company received letters patent to J. Sharp 
McDonald and others, dated January 35, 1886. 

The Citizens' Natural Gas Company received similar letters 
to John Barton, W. A. Mellon, and others, March 9, 1887. 

The Rochester Heat & Light Company was chartered May 

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History of Beaver County 271 

17, 1887, by Perry Brown, John Conway, H. M. Camp, and 
others, and was later absorbed by the Fort Pitt Gas Company, 
chartered in Allegheny County by J. J. Vandergrift, J. I. Bu- 
chanan and others, who, on the 19th of November, 1889, filed 
an extension of their pipe lines into the county of Beaver. 

All the above-named companies have since been absorbed by 
the Manufacturers' Light & Heat Company of Pittsburg, with 
a capital of $31,000,000. 


The charter of the first company in the county organized to 
supply electric light was granted to H. W. Hartman, John 
Reeves, Henry C. Fry, Sherman D. Hubbard, John P. Sher- 
wood, and John M. Buchanan, each having twenty shares of 
stock in the Beaver Valley Electric Light and Power Company. 
The charter was granted by Governor Beaver the 19th day of 
November, 1888, under the Act of April 39, 1874, and the sev- 
eral supplements thereto, for the purpose of supplying light, 
heat, and power by means of electricity to the public at the 
borough of Beaver Falls and the territory adjacent, to wit, the 
boroughs of New Brighton, Fallston, Rochester, Bridgewater, 
and Beaver, and was to exist perpetually. The capital stock 
was $13,000, the par value of each share being $100. 

The first plant belonging to this company was installed in 
the works of Mr. Hartman, located on the bank of the Beaver 
River; and the towns of Beaver Falls, New Brighton, and Falls- 
ton were shortly thereafter supplied with electric light furnished 
by them. 

The Rochester Electric Company was chartered March 10, 
1890, with H. C. Fry, President; W. S. Shallenberger, Secretary 
and Treasurer; and 0. B. Shallenberger, General Manager; and 
H. C. Fry, John J. Hoffman, John M. Buchanan, O. B. Shallen- 
berger, and W. S. Shallenberger, Directors. Its capital stock 
was at the beginning $10,000, afterwards increased to $35,000. 
Its field was Rochester, Bridgewater, and Beaver. 

The plant of this company at the out-start consisted of one 
75-horse-power Westinghouse steam-engine and a 60-kilowatt 
dynamo, both of which were later duplicated. Afterwards an 
80-lrilowatt dynamo, a 1 50-horse-power engine, and four ioo- 
horse-power boilers were added. Its field was not extended. 

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272 History of Beaver County 

The plant was installed on Delaware Avenue, near Madison 
Street, Rochester. 

On the ninth day of December, 1897, Governor Hastings 
granted a charter to the Valley Electric Company, the capital 
stock thereof being the nominal sum of $1000, divided into ten 
shares of Sioo each, and the directors thereof being Joseph F. 
Mitchell, John F. Miner, T. S. White, Samuel P. White, and 
George D. Douglass. 

The capital stock was, on the 30th of December, 1897, in- 
creased to $300,000, and by purchase of the stock of the other 
two companies named above, it became the owner thereof and 
united the electric light interests of the county under one man- 
agement. The company also bought eighty-four shares of 
water-power, and located its plant on the west bank of the 
Beaver River in the borough of Fallston, and shortly thereafter 
began the manufacture of electric light at that place. It extended 
its lines to the boroughs of Monaca, Freedom, and Conway. 

The company also owns the stock of the Beaver River Power 
Company, which was chartered the 13th day of August, 1897. 

The plant of the Valley Electric Company consists of one 
1000-horse-power compound condensing Corliss engine ; one 375- 
horse-power Buckeye; four turbine water-wheels; four Bab- 
cock & Wilcox water-tube boilers; four no-kilowatt two phase 
A C dynamos; one 135 enclosed arc machine; one 100 open arc 
machine, and two 75-arc machines. 

The present management consists of Samuel P. White, 
President; Joseph F. Mitchell, Vice-President; Agnew Hice, 
Secretary; John J. Hoffman, Treasurer and General Manager; 
and Samuel P. White, Joseph F. Mitchell, J. F. Miner, T. S. 
White, and John J. Hoffman, Directors. 


The banks of Beaver County, prior to the Civil War, were 
few, and their history is very brief. In fact, no bank to do 
business exclusively in Beaver County was ever chartered until 
a special Act of the General Assembly, approved May 5, 1857, 
provided for the incorporation of the Bank of Beaver County, 
to be located at New Brighton. That bank was organized on 
Monday morning, November 33, 1857, and opened for business 
on Wednesday morning, November 35, 1857. 

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History of Beaver County 273 

1 Its first officers were: Silas Merrick, President; Edward 
Hoopes, Cashier; and Charles M. Merrick, Teller and book- 
keeper. The incorporators were John L. Newbold, Edward 
Hoopes, James B. McCallan, Matthew H. Robertson, Archibald 
Robertson, Thomas Cunningham, Silas Merrick, William Henry, 
Thomas J. Power, Harrison Mendenhall, Joseph Dickson, Wil- 
liam L. Dickinson, William N. Sterling, Matthew T. Kennedy, 
William Kennedy, Walter Chester, S. H. Darragh, B. B. Cham- 
berlin, Benj. R. Bradford, and Edward Stowe. 

The authorized capital was $150,000. During its existence 
it did practically all the banking business of the county, and 
had the utmost confidence of the people. It continued in busi- 
ness with unimpaired credit, until our present national bank- 
ing system was created, when it surrendered its charter and was 
reorganized as the National Bank of New Brighton in 1864- 

The first National Bank of Beaver Falls was organized in 
1886, since which year others have been organized in Beaver, 
Rochester, and Freedom; and now, in this year, a.d. 1900, we 
have two in Beaver, two in Rochester, two in New Brighton, 
two in Beaver Falls, and one in Freedom — in all, nine national 

' We give the appended statement showing the condition of the national banks of 
Beaver Count/, at the close of business on February 5. 1001. am an interesting compi- 
lation of valuable information. The statement also includes that of the bank of John T. 
Reeves ft Co.. of Beaver Palls. 

Name of Bank 



ual Db- 



Loans and 


rst National Bank of Beaver. 

MLver National Bank 

■nt National Bank of Rochea- 



i.ooS 41 

8»3 S° 
664 I! 

J48 96 

11,561 43 

4>8a 30 
4.86o 00 

3*8,7*7 01 

IS8.8JJ si 

ijfcMo 00 

Mv.046 S6 

1 90! 378 66 

133.084 I! 
84.SU 91 

04.86s 06 
■ 11.604 JO 

.00.003 87 


408,04s 9' 

308,364 10 

307.S6I 80 
198.874 75 

398,403 76 

i*o 60 

reedom National Bank 

stionalBankof New Brighton 
nion National Bank. New 

'03 BO 

irst National Bank of Beaver 

iimoi' Bank, Braver Falls. . . 

1.0 00 

The above statement includes only the more important items or features of the banks. 
All the national banks own bonds amply securing their circulation. Besides the capital 
stock and undivided profits, John T. Reeves ft Co., report $16,461.61 cash on band, and tss.- 
815.91 due from other banks. If the other banks in the county, organised under State 
laws, have made and published reports, they have not been seen by the compiler, of the 
above statement. These banks are only required to publish their condition every three 
months. The par value of a national bank share is (100. 

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274 History of Beaver County 


The improvement in mail facilities is in keeping with the 
advance in other lines, and is a part of local as well as of gen- 
eral history. Previous to July i, 1845, envelopes were not in 
use, except in social notes conveyed by hand and not by mail, 
the sheet upon which the message was written being folded so 
that a space was left for the address, and the fold sealed with 
wax or a wafer. Under the postal regulations prior to the above 
date, postage was charged according to distance on a single 
letter, by which was meant a single sheet of paper, regardless of 
its size and weight so long as it was under one ounce ; if above 
one ounce the rate was quadrupled. For each enclosure, no 
matter how small, the same rate was charged. After the change 
in the regulations by which weight and not the number of pieces 
determined the rate of postage, the use of envelopes became 
more frequent. The old single rates were as follows: For 
thirty miles or under, six and one fourth cents; over thirty and 
under eighty miles, ten cents; over eighty and under one hun- 
dred and fifty miles, twelve and one half cents; over one hun- 
dred and fifty and under four hundred miles, eighteen and three 
fourths cents; over four hundred miles, twenty-five cents. 
These rates are those charged before 1845. The use of fractions 
of cents resulted from the fact that there was current in the 
country at that time a large amount of Spanish silver coin, one 
piece of which was called a "fippenny bit "and was worth six and 
a fourth cents of American money; and another, an "eleven- 
penny bit," worth twelve and a half cents. By the postal law 
of 1845 tlie rates of postage were reduced more than one half, 
and the charge was made according to weight, three cents for 
one half ounce or fraction thereof. It remained optional with 
the sender of a letter (as it had been) to pay in advance or leave 
payment to his correspondent. The use of postage stamps was 
adopted in the United States in 1847, prior to which date it was 
customary to mark the postage "paid," or, if not paid, the 
amount to be collected was written in red ink on the letter. In 
1854 the registration of letters was introduced into the United 
States, the free-delivery system was begun in large cities in 
1863, and extended in 18*7 to all cities with a population of 
over ten thousand or a postal revenue of $ 1 a ,000 , and a rural free 
delivery is of very recent date. Beaver County had, in 1903, 

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The Post Office, New Brighton, Erected by the United States. 

Digit zed by GOOglt' 


Digitzed by GOOgk 

History of Beaver County 275 

forty-four post-offices * ; and in the towns of Beaver Falls and 
New Brighton there have recently been erected United States 
Government buildings of great architectural beauty. Beaver 
Falls, New Brighton, and Rochester now enjoy free delivery. 


As indicating the development of the county, we give by 
decades its population from 1800, as follows: 

The population in 1800 was 5776; in 1810, 13,168; in iSao, 
15,340; in 1830, 34,183; 1840, 39,368; 1850, 36,689; i860, 
39,140; 1870,36,148; 1880,39,605; 1890,50,077; 1900,56,433.* 

The loss of the county in population, as shown in the de- 
crease from the census of 1840 to that of 1850, is accounted for 
by the fact already stated, viz., that a large part of Beaver 
County went to help form Lawrence County. 

* It may be of present use. as well as of future interest to give the list of the post-offices 
in the county. The following, taken from Smalt's Lrgiilaim Handbook for 1903. hu been 
comcted to Juno 1, 1*04. (Those prefixed with the • are money-order offices; the t in- 
dicates international money-order offices, and the J indicates those to which the rural free- 
delivery system has been extended.) 

• Aenew (now Conway) • Hoytdale. 

• AEquippa, * Industry, 

• Baden. Kimberly, 
linkers Landing. Knob. 

!Biatbb * Legionville. 
Beaver Palls. LMyville 

Blackhawk, Lovi, 

Browns, t Monaca, 

» Brushcreek, t New Brighton. 

• Cannelton. I New Galilee. 
Celia. • New Sheffield. 

• Darlington, North Sewicldey. 

1 Economy. *Ohioville. 
Either Park Quarries. 

• Ethel Landing. t Rochester. 

• Pallstm, * 91 * 

I Freedom. Sunflowe . , 

Frisco. * Vanport. 

X* Georgetown. • Wallrose, 

tHookstown, Woodlawn. 

R. P. D. station: Georgetown. 

• The courtesy of the Director of the United States Census. Mr. W. R. Mercian!, enables 
us to give hen what probably no living Beaver Countian has ever before seen, viz.. the 
population of the county in the first census by townships, as follows: 

Townships Population 
First Moon j»7 

North Beaver JjS 

Second Moon . 1,036 

Sewicfcley . . , 811 

Sooth Beaver. . . . i.jBi 

Total 5,77* 

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Nature's Part — Agricultural ProgTesa — Pioneer Means and Methods of 
Panning — Modern Conditions — State Aids — Agricultural Societies — 
Farmers' Associations — Agricultural Statistics — Mineral Resources — 
Manufacturing — Pioneer Industries — Early Mills and Factories — Era 
of Speculation — Hindrances and Helps to Growth of Industrial Life 
— Boat-Building in Beaver County — Iron and Steel Industries — 
Fire-clay Products — Oil Refining — Manufacturing Statistics. 

Nature, a mother kind alike to all, 
Still grants her bliss at Labor's earnest call: 
From Art more various are the blessings sent — 
Wealth, commerce, honor, liberty, content. 

Goldsmith, The Traveller. 

Nature has indeed shown herself a kindly mother in Beaver 
County. Although not so rich, perhaps, as that of some of the 
other counties of the State, such as Lancaster, Cumberland, and 
Washington, her soil is nevertheless generally fertile, especially 
on the south side of the Ohio, and in parts of the eastern, north- 
eastern, and northwestern sections of the county. The general 
character of the soil throughout this region is that of a mixture 
of limestone, clay, and gravel. The county is also well tim- 
bered and well watered, and the means of transportation are 
abundant. With these essentials for his success existing in gen- 
erous measure, the farmer of Beaver County has played a large 
part in the industrial development which has marked our hun- 
dred years of history. In our chapter on the life of the pioneers 
we did not dwell upon the subject of agriculture, and it may be 
well to notice here, as showing the progress made, something of 
the early conditions and methods of farming. What is said 
a 7 6 

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History of Beaver County 277 

may not always apply to the very earliest period, but will be 
true of some stage of our agricultural development. 

Consider the state of this country as the pioneers found it. 
Every where, as another has said, there was "one vast, continu- 
ous forest shadowing the fertile soil, covering the land as the 
grass covers a garden lawn, sweeping over hill and hollow in 
endless undulation, burying mountains in verdure, and mant- 
ling brooks and rivers from the light of day." Into this dense 
forest wilderness the sturdy path-finder penetrated and became 
the squatter, making his little clearing and planting his meagre 
crops. As settlements increased, and the country was rid of 
the savages, the work of reclamation went on, the area con- 
quered from the wilderness growing ever wider. Timber-cutting 
frolics then began to be made, when the neighboring farmers 
would gather with their axes and teams upon the spot to be 
cleared and vie with each other in the work. Sometimes several 
acres would be cleared at one such frolic. 

How jocund did they drive their team afieldl 
How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke! 

Then the felled trees would be hauled together and piled in 
heaps to be burnt, or sometimes they were cut so that they 
would fall in wind-rows and were left to be burnt the following 
year. If the farmer worked alone his progress would, of course, 
be slower, and it might be months or years before he would 
get his clearing made. 

The implements of labor in pioneer times were of the simplest 
kind. Harness — reins, collar, names, and back- and belly-bands 
— was often all made of ropes. Plows were generally made 
entirely of wood, though in some cases the coulter and the 
share were of iron, or partly iron and steel. Later, the half 
patent plow was used, with a metal mould board, and many 
other varieties preceded the present almost perfect pattern. 
Harrows were often nothing better than common thorn bushes, 
cut from the thickets. Then came the triangular frame, with 
wooden teeth, and other forms, until the modern make with iron 
teeth was devised. Forks were made from the forked limbs of 
trees, and shovels fashioned rudely from wood, and later styles 
were ponderous affairs of iron, requiring brawny arms to wield 

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278 History of Beaver County 

Wagons were unknown for many years, sleds being the only 
means employed for transporting heavy loads. The first ap- 
pearance of a carriage in the rural districts excited a great deal 
of curiosity and even of disapprobation. 1 

In the labors of the harvest, the muscles and power of en- 
durance of the workers counted more than did anything else, 
for their tools were of the most primitive sort. Grain was cut 
with the sickle. Men are living who can remember the time 
when few fanners had grain cradles. The hay harvest was cut 
with the scythe, of which the favorite style was called the 
" Blacksnake." The best mowers could cut as high as one and 
a half acres of heavy lying grass, or two acres of standing grass 
in a day. Grain was threshed with the flail or trodden out by 
horses. Then came the threshing machine. In 1831 John Mar- 
tin of South Beaver township, this county, announced through 
the newspapers that he had bought the right to sell Joel Duey's 
patent threshing machine. The first reaping machine in the 
county is said to have been that used on the farm of John Wolf in 
1850. It was a Hussey machine. Throughout the country 
there was at first great opposition to the introduction of ma- 
chines for farming work, on the ground that their use would 
lower the wages of farm hands, and in some instances the ma- 
chines were locked up at night to keep them from being destroyed. 

In all those branches of farm labor which belonged to the 
men, and in those of the women, such as sewing, quilting, the 
scutching and pulling of flax and apple-butter making, the help- 
ing hand was lent by neighbor to neighbor, and frequent "frol- 
ics" promoted their social life. Modern methods of farming, 
and modem machinery have rendered the farmer less dependent 
upon the help of his neighbors; but there has been also a loss 

ion with hit ikctch of to* 

h them — aheays. W« h»ve recently beard 

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History of Beaver County 279 

involved in the lessening of the friendliness and social inter- 
course which these old-time "bees" and "frolics" furthered. 

Many changes in the agriculture of the county in other re- 
spects are to be noted. For some time after 1 830 Beaver County 
shared with Washington County distinction on account of the 
quantity and quality of her wool, but has now, with her neigh- 
bor on the south, lost all eminence in this branch of agricultural 
industry. The cause of this is to be found, according to some, 
in the placing of wool on the free-list, while others would attrib- 
ute it mainly to the growth of the great sheep ranches of the 
West and Southwest. Nor is there so large a cultivation of wheat 
and other cereals in the county as formerly, the vast wheat- 
lands of the West, where a single farm will sometimes contain 
ten thousand acres and produce more than the whole crop of 
Beaver County, making competition impossible. Our farmers, 
as a consequence, are now giving more attention to the raising of 
live stock and to general farming, producing fruit, poultry, but- 
ter, and eggs. Much stock-raising and general farming are carried 
on on the south side, dairying in the northern and western divi- 
sions of the county, and gardening along the Ohio River valley. 

The State takes a generous interest in the welfare of her 
farming population. There is a Department of Agriculture, 
with a Secretary, Deputy Secretary, an Economic Zoologist, a 
Dairy and Food Commissioner, and a State Veterinarian, all of 
whom are appointed by the Governor and hold office for a term 
of four years. The object of this Department is to promote the 
development of agriculture. The Deputy Secretary is in charge 
of the Farmers' Institutes, for which a special appropriation is 
granted the Department, and of which 195 were held in 1900. 
Lecturers are selected for these Institutes, who present matters 
of interest to farmers. Beaver County is entitled to four days 
of Institute work each year. 

There is also a State Board of Agriculture, consisting of the 
Governor and other State officials, members elected by the 
agricultural societies of the State, and one member appointed 
by the Pennsylvania State Poultry Association. The manage- 
ment of the local Institute is in the hands of the member of 
the State Board of Agriculture from the county in which the 
Institute is held. These Institutes are the instrument of much 
good in Beaver County, and are increasing in interest every 

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280 History of Beaver County 

year. They are held at different points in the county, as Dar- 
lington, New Sheffield, Hookstown, Frankfort Springs, and New 

Sixteen agricultural journals and magazines are published 
weekly or monthly in Pennsylvania. 

Prominent as a factor in the education of the people in the 
arts of husbandry have been the county argicultural societies. 
The first of such societies in the United States — The Philadel- 
phia Agricultural Society — was established July 4, 1785, in 
Philadelphia; the second was established in Massachusetts in 
1793, and the third in South Carolina in 1795. By 1826 the 
number had increased to sixteen, of which the Washington 
County, Pa., Society, was one, and by 1876 there were over fif- 
teen hundred in the Union. At this rate of increase there are 
now probably over two thousand. Beaver County has two such 
societies, viz., the Beaver County Agricultural Society and the 
Mill Creek Valley Agricultural Association, Limited. 

The first-named society was organized as the result of an 
agitation extending over a period of ten years. Meetings were 
held in the court-house in Beaver as early as 1844 in favor of 
the creation of such an organization. A preliminary gathering 
of the farmers of the county and of others interested was held, 
at which the name as given above was agreed upon, and a con- 
stitution was submitted by a committee of which Col. Adam 
Bausman was chairman. This constitution was adopted at the 
same meeting. There is no record of further action until 1845, 
when the following announcement was made in the county 

In accordance with a public notice given in the newspapers, a meeting 
of the Beaver County Agricultural Society was held at the court-house in 
Beaver, on Tuesday evening, March iSth, for the purpose of electing 
officers for the society, pro tern., until the annual meeting on the first 
Wednesday in November next. 

The meeting was organised by appointing William Morton president 
and Adam Bausman, secretary. 

On motion of D. Minis, the society proceeded to the election of 
officers, whereupon John Wolf was unanimously elected president; A. 
Bausman, recording secretary; Robert McPerren, Esq., corresponding 
secretary; David Minis, treasurer. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected vice-presidents of the 

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History of Beaver County 281 

society, and together with the above named officers will compose the 
executive committee: 

Hugh Anderson, Borough township; James Sterling, James Harper, 
Hanover; Ovid Pinney, Joseph Irvin, Rochester; John Sutherland, 
Brighton; Hon. John Nesbit. John Clarke, North Beaver; James T. 
Robinson, Samuel Jackson, Little Beaver; William Morton, Joseph Mor- 
ton, Perry; Jon. I,. Leet, Evan Townsend, Culbertson Clow, North 
Sewicldey; Thomas Cairns, Shenango; Thomas Thorailey, Pallston; 
A. W. Townsend, New Brighton; R. L. Baker, John Neely, Esq., Econ- 
omy; Philip Vicary, David Shaner, Henry Wolf and B. R. Bradford, 
New Sewicldey; David Scott, jr., Hopewell; D. Minesinger, Greene; 
Hon. John Carothers, Patterson; William Elliott, Esq., Moon; Samp- 
Kerr, Raccoon; George Dawson, James Scott, Thomas Moore. Samuel 
Duncan, Ohio; John McMillen, Matthew Elder, South Beaver; Azariah 
Inman, Joseph Niblock, Chippewa; Thomas Alford, Slipperyrock ; Robert 
Wallace, John Imbrie, Big Beaver; Joseph Phillis, Marion; Benjamin 
Cunningham, Wayne. 

On motion, Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be pub- 
lished in the newspapers of the county. 

William Morton, Prtsidtnl. 

A. Bausman, S*cr*tary. 

But notwithstanding this apparently effective action, the 
whole matter seems to have been delayed, and at last to have 
been dropped entirely. Occasional allusions to the project ap- 
peared in the public prints from time to time, however, and 
finally a meeting was held in the court-house on Wednesday, 
January 36, 1853, at which an organization in permanent form 
was effected. At this meeting Hon. Joseph Irvin was chosen 
President; Thomas McKee and Thomas McKinley, Vice-Presi- 
dents; and William Henry, Secretary. A constitution, previously 
prepared by a committee, was adopted, which set forth the ob- 
ject of the organization as being " to encourage and foster among 
the population of Beaver County the spirit of improvement in 
agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts." The name of 
the Beaver County Agricultural Society was retained. The first 
agricultural fair was held by the society, September 20 and ai, 
1853, under the management of Hugh Anderson, President, and 
William K. Boden, Secretary. Annual fairs or exhibitions were 
held each year thereafter up to 1899, except in 1863, when the 
excitement of the war interfered with the meeting for that year. 

September 8, 1856, on motion of James G. Bliss, Esq., a 
charter was granted to this society by the court. 

Among the men who have served in the various offices of this 

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282 History of Beaver County 

society from year to year, have been many prominent in the 
history of the county. The success of the annual exhibition 
was always largely dependent upon the activity of the secretary. 
For many years after the war the fair was locally known as 
"Billy Barclay's Fair," after the energetic secretary of that 
period. Mr. Barclay was a brother-in-law of United States 
Senator M. S. Quay. Many of the prominent members of 
Beaver County's bar have held the post of secretary of the 
society. The races, which were one of the attractions of the 
annual fair, have been generally good. The track record is 
a.i6J, made by "Jack the Ripper," a Canadian horse, in 1897. 

The grounds of the society have been often used as a place 
of public assembly, and for great picnics, such as that of the 
Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. In Sep- 
tember, 1900, these grounds were sold at auction to R. A. White- 
sides of Beaver Falls, real estate dealer, for $41,046.50. The 
proceeds of the sale were used to pay the debts of the society, 
leaving a balance in the treasury of about $8000. 

For two years the society remained inactive, and then, in the 
year 1902, the board leased from George E. Smith of Beaver 
Falls twenty acres of ground in College Hill borough for a term 
of five years, with the privilege of five years more, for a new 
fair grounds. For these grounds they pay $900 a year rent, and 
they have spent in making a race-track, erecting grand stand, 
stables, exhibition buildings, etc., about $10,000. The first 
annual fair on the new site was held in the fall of 1903. 

The Mill Creek Valley Fair. — This agricultural association 
holds an annual fair at Hookstown, this county, which is always 
largely attended by the people of the towns and country. Its 
charter was granted by the court, March 15, 1886, Judge John 
J. Wickham presiding. The incorporators were the following: 
W. F. Reed, Allen McDonald, John McDonald, R. M. Swaney, 
J. B. Swaney, W. S. Swearingen, and R. T. Reed. 

On the 7th of August, 1900, articles of association were filed 
in the proper office at Beaver for the Mill Creek Valley Agricul- 
tural Association, Limited, and under this latter name the 
society is now conducted. 

Other farmers' associations, such as the Farmers' Alliance 
and the Patrons of Husbandry, or the Grange, have not gained 
much of a vogue in Beaver County. There are or have been, 

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History of Beaver County 283 

however, one or two of each of these organizations within its 
limits; an Alliance near Hookstown, is, we believe, still in exist- 
ence, and a Grange near Darlington; and there were Granges 
at Service and New Sheffield. 


Within the bounds of Beaver County there are 260a farms, 
valued, without the buildings, at $9,104,210; the value of its 
farm buildings being $3,311,440; value of implements' used upon 
its farms, $576,930; value of all live stock, $1,231,239; gross 
income from its farms in 1900, $1,604,652; outlay for labor in 
the same year, $137,960. 

The Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1899 gives 
the prices of farm products and live stock, with farm wages and 
board, for Beaver County, as follows: 


Wheat, per bushel $ 

Corn " (shelled) 

" (in the ear) 

Oats " (old) 


Potatoes " (new) 

Hay, clover, per ton (new) 8 

(old) 8 

Hay, timothy, per ton (old) ic 

(new) it 

Butwr, per pound (average) at store 

Ewes (average) per head 3 

Horses " " 80 

Cows " " 35 

Chickens (dressed) per pound 

" dive) '■ 06 


By the month (whole year), with board $13-50 

" " " for summer months only 16.50 

" " day with regular work (with board) .75 

" " " " " " (without board) 1.00 

" " month (whole year), without board 10.13 

" " summer months (without board) 25.00 

" " day, for transient work when wanted only 1.00 

Harvest wages, by the day 1.15 

Household help, female, with board, by the week 1.35 

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History of Beaver County 

The prices in the foregoing table are reported by home re- 
porters, and are the prices at the home market. 

Below we give a tabulated statement of the acreage of tim- 
ber land in Beaver County in 1898. This was prepared under 
the direction of the Commissioner of Forestry of Pennsylvania, 
from estimates furnished by the assessors of the different town- 
ships. What is classed in the table as full grown timber lands 
is that whifh is covered with a growth of timber ranging in diam- 
eter from ten inches upward; half grown timber is that under 
nine inches in diameter, and the brush lands are those which 
have only underbrush, but which would, under proper fixe pro- 
tection, in a few years be classed as half-grown timber lands: 

Borough " 








New Sewickley 

North Sewickley " 



Baden borough 

Frankfort Springs borough . . 


The proportion of timber land to the entire acreage of the 
county, with the estimate of the geological survey as the basis 
for comparison, is 16.4. 

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History of Beaver County 285 


But not only has Beaver County been blessed with the 
" precious fruits brought forth by the sun " ; she has also in rich 
abundance the "precious things of the lasting hills," — her min- 
eral resources, as we have said, being very considerable. Iron 
ores and limestone outcrop in many places, and are mined and 
shipped in limited quantities. Iron ores yield twenty to forty 
per cent., but demand is curtailed by cheapened transportation 
for lake ores. Fine building stone has been quarried in various 
parts of the county, as at the Park quarries on Crow's Run and 
New Galilee, and the Logan quarry at Freedom, the principal 
output being at the first two. This is known as the Mahoning 
sandstone. Large quantities of the Beaver River sandstone 
are also used in the building of railroad bridges and for curbing 
and other purposes, this stone belonging to the same geological 
formation as the Massillon stone, but being harder than that. 

Fire-clays and shales are found throughout the county, prin- 
cipally underlying the Lower Kittanning coal vein, showing an 
analysis of forty-two to sixty per cent, of silica and twenty- 
eight to thirty-seven per cent, of alumina. Bricks made from 
these clays and shales have all the beautiful shades of color for 
building purposes, and in many cases are capable of sustain- 
ing a greater weight than granite. Nine different workable 
veins of clay are found in this vicinity, giving suitable variety 
for pottery and many grades of brick for house building, public 
street paving, bessemer open hearths, mill work, and every 
purpose for which fire-bricks are used. 

Beaver County lies in the center of the largest coal basin in 
the United States, and within the county itself are extensive 
fields both of bituminous and of the celebrated cannel coals. 9 

The production of petroleum has been one of the most lucra- 
tive of Beaver County's industries. For qualities of usefulness 
and convenience to our race, California's mines of gold were 
hardly to be compared with this wonderful liquid treasure, 
which has been found in such abundance in the region to which 
this county belongs. Petroleum had been known long before 
the wells drilled in 1859 astonished the world with their gushing 
fountains. The Indians used to collect it on the shores of 

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286 History of Beaver County 

Seneca lake in New York, and on Oil Creek, Pennsylvania.' In 
later times it was sold as a medicine under the name of " Seneca 
Oil." It was found on the waters of several creeks about the 
head of the Allegheny River in New York and in Pennsylvania, 
and the people were accustomed to secure it by spreading woolen 
cloths upon the water to absorb it. When the cloths were 
saturated with the oil, they were wrung out and the oil col- 
lected in vessels. Petroleum was observed as early as 1836 in 
the salt wells on the Little Muskingum River in Ohio, and the 
gas was so strong that it often interfered with the use of the 
wells for days together. In 1849, at Tarentum, Allegheny 
County, Pa., considerable oil was obtained by the drilling of a 
salt well. 

The first attempt at sinking or boring a well for the distinct 
purpose of obtaining petroleum was made by Col. E. L. Drake 
of Connecticut, who, in December, 1857, visited Titusville, 
Venango County, Pa., examined the oil springs, and gave the 
subject of surface oil a thorough study. He was soon convinced 
that the oil could be abundantly obtained by boring for it into the 
rock strata, and, forming a company for this purpose, he im- 
mediately began operations. Boring through forty-seven feet of 
gravel and twenty-two feet of shale rocks, he struck, on the 
39th of August, 1859, at the depth of seventy-five feet, an 
abundant quantity of petroleum. This was the beginning of 
the great oil excitement, and of an industry that has created 
fabulous fortunes, conferring at the same time untold benefits 
upon the world. Later, oil was discovered in McKean, Butler, 
Washington, and Beaver counties, Pennsylvania, on the borders 
of West Virginia along the Ohio River, and in the northwestern 
part of Ohio. 

* The oil ni used by the Seneca Indians as an unguent and in their religious worship. 
In Day'] Historical Colltcti<m! (page 637) is given an interesting quotation from a letter to 
General Montcalm from the commandant of Fort Duquesne, describing a weird scene created 
by this feature of their worship, as follows: 

" I would desire to assure your Excellency that this is a most delightful land. Some of 
the most astonishing natural wonders have been discovered by our people. While descend- 
ing the Allegheny, fifteen leagues below the mouth of the Couewango. and three above 
Fort Venaogrtwe were invited by the chief of the Seneeas to attend a religious ceremony 
of his tribe. We landed and drew up our canoes on a point where a 10011 stream entered 
the river. The tribe appeared unusually solemn. We marched up the stream about half 
a league, where the company, a largo band it appeared, had arrived some days before us. 
Gigantic hills begirt us on every side. The scene was reallyjublime. The (treat chief then 
recited the conquests and heroisms of their ancestors. The surface of the stream was 
covered with s thick scum, which burst into a complete conflagration. The oil bad been 
gathered and lighted with a torch. At the sight of the flames the Indians gave forth a 
triumphant shout that made the hills and valley re-echo again. Here then is revived the 
ancient fire-worship of the East L — here then are the 'Children of the Sun. 1 " 

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History of Beaver County 287 

As early as 1806 the existence of petroleum in Beaver County 
was known. In that year an Englishman named Thomas Ashe,' 
visiting the county, tested some of the oil from a spring on the 
Ohio River, nearly opposite Georgetown, and predicted its profit- 
able production in this county. In the early '60 's wells bored at 
Smith's Ferry and Glasgow (see Chapter XXVII.) developed the 
existence of a rich field in that region. Development of the oil 
territory of the county has advanced since then with varying 
energy, and considerable production has taken place at several 
points, principally at Smith's Ferry, Ohioville, Economy, and 
Shannopin. 9 

Natural gas, so extensively found in the oil regions, was for 
a long time regarded rather as an annoyance than as a valuable 
product, giving to the drillers almost as much trouble as salt 
water. But a wonderful change took place as its usefulness as 
a fuel both for domestic and manufacturing purposes and as an 
illuminant came to be appreciated. 3 It was being largely de- 
veloped and used in Beaver County in the early 8o's, being 
piped into the county from outside fields and produced in vari- 
ous parts of the county itself, as at Baden, New Sheffield, Wood- 
lawn, Shannopin, and elsewhere. Here, as in other fields, the 
supply has fallen off, and its use has been compulsorily aban- 
doned by many of the people and factories. The role that nat- 
ural gas played in the height of its use may be seen from the 

5. Esq.. : 

side, a substance bubble* up, and may be collected at particular times on the surface of 
the water. si m i l ar to Sdwo oil. When the water ii not too high, it can be strongly smelt 
while crossing the river at Georgetown : It it presumed to rise from or through a bed of 
mineral coal erobowelled under the bed of the river. The virtues of the Seneca oil are 
similar to those of the British oil, and supposed to be equally valuable in the cures at 
rheumatick pains, Ac."— See SktUhts of a Tour to On Wrstim Country, etc., by F. Cuming 
Pittsburgh, 1810, page 83- 

• We have exhausted every resource in the effort to obtain the yearly and total pro- 
duction by fields of Beaver County, but are Anally informed by Mr. Parker, the Statistician 
of Washington City, the highest authority in the country on this subject, that it is im- 
possible to secure this information. He says: 

" I am tony that it is not possible to furnish the information desired, regarding the 
production of petroleum, by counties. I went over this carefully with some of the principal 
producers, in regard to the collection of the crude petroleum statistics for the Census Office, 
upon which work we are now engaged, and ikry say it is abiohatty imtfossiblr to rnakt any 
mk distribution. A large number of wells controlled by a single person go into one tank 
line, the wells being located in different counties, and there is absolutely no way of making 
any separation. It is, in fact, difficult to make even an approximate separation by States. 
This we are trying to do." 

■ Natural gas is a mixture of the most volatile of the hydrocarbons of the series known 
in chemistry as paraffin. la that found in this region marsh-gas is the principal constituent. 
An interesting bet in the chemistry of the subject is this; that the composition of natural 
gaa is found to vary not only in different wells, but in the same well on different days. 

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288 History of Beaver County 

fact that at that period there were in Pittsburg alone 28,00c 
domestic services and 900 manufacturers' services, consuming 
nearly 500,000,000 feet per day, and displacing 8,500,000 tons 
of coal per year, Its first use in iron-making was at the Leech- 
burg (Pa.) works of Messrs. Rogers & Burchfield about 1874. 
In glass-making, the Rochester Tumbler Works, at Rochester, 
Pa., were probably the pioneers, and in plate-glass, Mr. J. B. 
Ford, at the Pittsburg Plate Glass Works, at Creighton, Pa., in 
1883. Salt was boiled with it at East Liverpool, Ohio, in i860; 
and it was tried later in burning pottery in the same village. 
In 1874, or earlier, Mr. Peter Neff began the manufacture of 
lamp-black from gas at Gambier, Ohio. In 1875 gas was piped 
to Spang, Chalfant & Co.'s iron-works, at Sharpsburg, near Pitts- 
burg, and has been used ever since; but it was not until 1883, 
with the piping of the Murraysville gas, and its introduction into 
the industrial establishments of Pittsburg, that its use as a fuel 
assumed any importance. 1 


The beginnings of things have always an interest to the 
student. We may therefore glance for a moment at the way in 
which the frontiersmen secured the simple articles of manufac- 
ture which they required, and laid the foundations of our mod- 
ern industrial edifice. Necessity was in their case, as it has 
always and everywhere been, the mother of invention. There 
was a scarcity of skilled mechanics, and a "plentiful lack" of 
the wherewithal to pay such as were to be found. So it was 
necessary for every man to be, on occasion, his own shoemaker, 
tailor, blacksmith, carpenter, or miller. But the law of natural 
selection operated then as always, producing men with the 
skill and craftsmanship required to meet the conditions. Says 
Doddridge : 

There was in almost .every neighborhood some one whose natural 
ingenuity enabled him to-do many things for himself and bis neighbors, 
far above what could have been reasonably expected. With the few 
tools which they brought with them into the country, they certainly 
performed wonders. Their plows, harrows with wooden teeth, and sleds 
were, in many instances, well made. Their cooper ware, which com- 
prehends everything for holding milk and water was generally pretty 

1 See preceding chapter for data concerning natural gu fuel and ligl 


History of Beaver County 289 

well executed. The cedar-ware, by having alternately a white and a red 
stave, was then thought beautiful. Many of their puncheon floors were 
very neat, their joints close, and the top even and smooth. Their looms, 
though heavy, did very well. Those who could not exercise these me- 
chanic arts were under the necessity of giving labor, or barter, to their 
neighbors, in exchange for the use of them, so far as their necessities 

In milling grain there was a gradual evolution from the wooden 
mortar and pestle, through the hand-mill, the horse-power and 
water-power mills of the simpler patterns, to our modern steam 
roller mills. Some of the early mills were tread-mills, though 
run by water during a portion of the year. The place of the 
early mills in the life of the community is worth noticing. They 
were places of assembly for the scattered inhabitants of the 
country, where they came not only to get their wheat and corn 
ground, but also to hear the news, to barter, to gossip, to get 
that contact with their neighbors which man as a social animal 
requires for his happiness. Thus mills became the nuclei of 
villages which grew up around them and points at which post- 
offices were established. 

The oldest mill in Beaver County is White's mill, named in 
the Act of Assembly which erected the county. It has been in 
operation for considerably more than one hundred years. The 
French burrs still in use in this mill were quarried from the 
river Seine in France. The mill is now owned by Robert 

Other early mills in Beaver County were Johnson's, Veasy's, 
Davis's, and McCormick's on Treadmill Run; Wilson's, Aten's 
(Eaton's) and Ferguson's on Reardon's Run, and White's and 
Bryan's on Raccoon Creek; Bryan also had a mill on Service 
Creek. There were many saw-mills, carding- and fulling-mills. 
Weaver, Patton, Thompson, McCormick, Walker, Peter Shields, 
and John Shaffer each had a saw-mill. Veasy and Johnson had 
carding-mills, and McCormick a fulling-mill. We find mention 
of Eakin's flour-mill near Greersburg; Martin's saw-mill in 
the same neighborhood; Paxton's, Caughey's, Walter's, Allin's, 
Todd's, and others. 

There was a mill on a branch of Little Travis (sometimes 
Traverse) Creek, Moore's mill, where the Rev. J. R. Miller, D.D., 
of Philadelphia was bom and reared. Harper's mill, on Big 

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290 History of Beaver County 

Travis, was owned by Samuel Harper, the grandfather of James 
Harper, former county surveyor. He bought it in 1798 from 
John H. Reddick. The burrs from this mill are still in use in the 
steam mill at Frankfort. On the west branch of Travis was also 
Aaron Moore's mill. On King's Creek was Jenkins's mill. 
Wright's mill was at Hookstown, on Mill Creek, and on the 
same stream, about a mile below, was Laugblin's. There was a 
mill on Service Creek, owned by Robert Sterling, which did 
good work for more than half a century. At almost every one 
of the early mills there was a distillery. 

Here and there throughout the county were factories of 
various kinds, the names of which linger in the memories of the 
older people and which were famous for their products in the 
olden time, such as Elder's cloth factory, Thomson's ' sickle 
shop, in Hopewell township; Cain & Shannon's sickle shop, on 
Service Creek in Raccoon township; and Fox's sickle factory on 

Travis Creek. There were Shane's, McCune and Goshorn's tan- 
neries on Raccoon Creek, John Ferguson's on Reardon's Run, 
and Scott's at Scottsville. 

ie well-known attorney* of 
PitUburg. and of 

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History of Beaver County 291 

In 1803 Hoopcs, Townsend & Co. erected a furnace at the 
Falls of the Beaver. In 1S06 the second paper mill west of 
the mountains was erected on Little Beaver Creek, just within 
the Ohio line, by John Bever, Jacob Bowman, and John Coulter, 
called the Ohio Paper Mill. This was so close to Beaver County 
that it was identified with its local history. 1 In the succeeding 
years of the first three decades of the century, many other mills 
and factories had been built about the Falls; and in 1830 the 
great natural advantages of the county, particularly at the 
Falls of the Beaver and on the Ohio, began to attract the atten- 
tion of outsiders, and an era of speculation set in which had 
disastrous results. Sherman Day, who published a history of 
the region shortly after this period, speaks of the times as follows : 

The usual symptoms of the speculative epidemic were soon exhibited 
in a high degree. Lots were sold and resold at high profits — several manu- 
factories were built — beautiful dwellings, banks and hotels were erected 
— moras multicautis plantations were started, and all went merry as a 
marriage bell. The fever subsided, and the ague succeeded. — the bubble 
burst with the United States Bank and the universal want of confidence, 
and the speculators returned to more useful employments.* 

But the great natural advantages were none the less here 
and available for the more rational development of the indus- 
trial life of the communities. Other influences, however, oper- 
ated to delay for some years the advancement of the material 
prosperity of the county. The two great thoroughfares for 
travel and transportation between the large cities of the East 
and the country west of the AUeghenies lay, one far to the 
north by way of the New York canals to the Lakes, and the 
other to the south over the National Turnpike from Baltimore 
to Wheeling. Even to travelers down the Ohio River the ad- 
vantages of Beaver County remained undiscovered, and these 
causes wrought together to keep her territory in a backward 
state. Moreover, before the great system of State Internal Im- 
provements was carried out in the early thirties, making a canal 
and railroad route from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and especially 
before the Pennsylvania Railroad was constructed, travel and 
the transportation of mail and freight consumed so much time 
that no rapid development was possible for this region. The 

;.. Chapter XXVII. 

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292 History of Beaver County 

fastest stage travel from Pittsburg to Philadelphia was about 
four days and nights, and the cost was high, ranging from 
eighteen to twenty-two dollars. Freight charges by Conestoga 
wagons were from three to five cents per pound. It required 
from eight to ten days to get an answer to a letter sent from the 
Beaver post-office to Philadelphia. Proximity to Pittsburg, 
then as now, while conferring advantages, contributed also to 
hinder Beaver County's material advancement; since Pitts- 
burgers sought to deter prospective manufacturers from locating 
in the Beaver valley, where the main attraction was the water- 
• power at the Falls, by urging that engines and fuel were so 
cheap in Pittsburg that they would save money by building 
their plants there. The superior banking facilities of the city 
were also made an argument to the same end. 1 

Favorable influences on the other hand, giving an impetus 
to the business development of the county were the coming of 
the Harmony Society from Harmony, Indiana, to this county 
in the year 1835, the advent of the canal and the railroads, and 
the discovery of oil and natural gas within the limits of the 
county. In the year 1866 the Harmony Society made a new 
survey of the town of Brighton (now Beaver Palls), very much 
enlarging its boundaries, and appointed H. T. & J. Reeves, real 
estate agents, to offer for sale building lots, houses and lots and 
water-powers, at low prices to improvers. This caused a rapid 
increase of population and improvement in business in the town, 
and in the whole valley, and led soon to the demand to have 
the town incorporated into a borough, which was done in 1870. 
The growth of manufacturing and mechanical industries through- 
out the county has since been steady and uninterrupted. A 
great variety in the lines of manufactures carried on is observ- 
able, there having been established at different times paper- 
mills, saw-mills, flouring-mills, woolen-mills, linseed-oil mills, 
tanneries, stove foundries, pottery and tile works, steel works, 

1 As showing the Inutility of the people at Pittsburg to settlement outride of that place 
we give an extract fronva letter of Hon- Alexander Allison written March a. i-go, from 
Washington, Pa., to Secretary Dallas, relating to the sale of lots at Beaver, aa follows: 

"The last sale whs in this town, duuwai not aliaaArr right, as Ou land ir ttoi miIeu 

Pittsburgh. The people oi Pittsburgh, it whs said disliked the establishment, and would 
have thwarted the progress of the sale and settlement of the town. They have engrossed 
almost all the lots in the reserved tmct opposite to Pittsburgh and made use of that as an 
--'-——( place into Pittsburgh, and so prevented 
, ... j„ «. u_, at Mcintosn (Bem _ 

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History of Beaver County 293 

agricultural works, distilleries, furniture establishments, cutlery 
works, car shops, and factories for the making of plows, carding 
machines, steam engines, window sashes, baskets, buckets, tubs, 
wire, scythes, cotton goods, carpets, lasts, silk, files, axes, hoes, 
glass, and almost everything that man needs for his comfort 
or convenience. 

Details of individual establishments will be found in the 
chapters on the several boroughs and townships in other por- 
tions of this work, but we will give here some account of one of 
the most important enterprises in the earlier period of Beaver 
County's industrial development. 


The early explorers of this region had navigated the waters 
of the Ohio and the Beaver in bateaux, some of which were 
built at Fort Pitt as early as 1777. Later, keel-boats as well 
as flat-boats were used; but the complete success of Robert 
Fulton's attempt at steam navigation on the Hudson in 1807 
turned the attention of Fulton and Livingston to its application 
on the western waters, and as a result of their investigations it 
was decided to build a boat at Pittsburg. This was done under 
the direction of Mr. Roosevelt ' of New York, and in 181 1 the 
first steamboat was launched on the Ohio River. It was called 
the New Orleans. This boat was four days in making her maiden 
trip from Pittsburg to Louisville, Ky. The difficulties peculiar 
to navigation in the varying waters of the western rivers were 
still deterrent to confidence in the success of the venture, how- 
ever, and it was not until 1S16 that the public generally was 
persuaded that steam navigation was practicable in these waters. 
After this date a rapid growth in steamboat building took place. 
As showing the vast importance of this new mode of navigation, 
and its influence upon the life and manners of the people, we 
may profitably insert here a brief description of river travel in 
pioneer times. 

The early navigation of the western rivers was attended with 
every kind of hardship and peril, and the return up the stream 
especially, required men of iron frame and courage. Sometimes 

1 Grandfather of President Rooseve 
Allegheny County, wii named and whi 
Ntiv Orttans. 

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294 History of Beaver County 

the boat was propelled by poles or sweeps, and in ascending 
had frequently to be towed against the current by the crew 
walking along the shore and pulling on a rope fastened to the 
bows. When from the nature of the shores this was not possible, 
the "warping" process was employed. In this case, the yawl 
would be sent out with a coil of rope, which was fastened to a 
tree or rock on shore, and the crew would then pull the boat 
up by this line, the yawl in the meantime carrying another line 
farther ahead to be fastened and used in like manner. On the 
Ohio "setting poles" were frequently employed. These were 
poles set in the bed of the river, against which the men put their 
shoulders, and by pushing carried the boat forward. But the 
labor of navigation was not the worst feature of the hardship 
which the crews and passengers of these early boating days had 
to endure. Up to 1794, when Wayne's victory as we have 
frequently remarked, quelled the savages, they were constant in 
their efforts to destroy the voyagers on the rivers, either by 
shooting at them from the high banks on either side or by board- 
ing, when they felt themselves powerful enough to do so." The 
advertisement which follows, and which appeared in the Cen- 
tinel of the Northwestern Territory, published at Cincinnati under 
date of January n, 1794, will show the character of the protec- 
tion which was offered by boat companies to encourage travel 
in their craft : 

Two boats for the present will start from Cincinnati for Pittsburgh 
and return to Cincinnati in the following manner, vis. : First boat will 
leave Cincinnati this morning at eight o'clock, and return to Cincinnati 
so as to be ready to sail again in four weeks. The second boat will 
leave Cincinnati on Saturday, the 30th inst. and return to Cincinnati 
in four weeks as above. And so regularly, each boat performing the 
voyage to and from Cincinnati and Pittsburgh, once in every four 
weeks. . . . 

No danger need be apprehended from the enemy, as every person on 
board will be under cover made proof against rifle or musket balls and 
convenient port holes for firing out of. Each of the boats is armed with 
six pieces, carrying a pound ball; also a number of good muskets and 
amply supplied with plenty of ammunition, strongly manned with choice 
hands and the masters of approved knowledge. 

A separate cabin from that designed for the men is partitioned off 

1 " Sometimes an Indian dressed in the old clothes of a white nun would appear alone 
and unarmed on the shore and lure the occupants o! the boats within reach by pretending 
to be an escaped captive and calling for assistance, when the enemy concealed behind rocks 
and bushes fired upon them." — Old PilUburgk Dayi, Chapman, p. 101. 

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Ferry Boat Mttttugtr, about 1833, Rochester and I'hillipsbuig, 

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History of Beaver County 295 

in each boat for accommodating ladies . . . Conveniencies are con- 
structed on board each boat so as to render landing unnecessary, as it 
might at tiroes be attended with danger. Passengers are supplied with 
provisions and liquors of all kinds, of the first quality, at the roost reason- 
able rates possible. ' 

The private boatman or company of emigrants would not 
enjoy these superior advantages, however, and many a traveler 
yielded up his life on these rivers. After the danger from the 
Indians was past, the voyage was still for a long time dangerous 
from the fact that bands of lawless men infested the shores 
of these rivers, and piracy was not uncommon, especially, of 
course, on the lower waters. Not infrequently, too, the barge- 
men were rascally fellows, in league with the robbers on shore. 
A beautiful and romantic spot, called "Cave-in-Rock," on the 
Ohio River, was the general rendezvous for freebooters and 
evil-minded boatmen. Here they made their plots and divided 
their plunder. 1 One of the most notorious of these banditti 
bargemen was Mike Fink, who had been an Indian scout at 
Pittsburg, and another was James Girty, a nephew of Simon 
Girty the renegade. 1 It is a tradition concerning James Girty 

1 A singular method of protection is related in the following note: 

"November I1700) Iproceeded [from Pittsburg] down the Ohio in Mr. Beall's Beat, 
which was ■ moveable Fortification: having about one Hundred and Fifty Salt Para to 
■rra.n«(l as to render a few Men within capable of repulsing ten Times their Number with- 
Tour ihroufh fa Soulktrn and Wtsurn Tfritorits of At United StaUs, by John 
mtedby John Dixoo, Richmond, ngi; reprinted by C. L. Woodward, New York, 

' Lloyd's Slramboal Dirtctory and Disasters. Cincinnati. 1S56, past jg. From Zadoc 
Cramer's Navigator far 181S w learn that this cave was also called the "House ol Na- 
ture." It was on the Ohio, tome distance below the mouth of the Wabash. Sea the 


' Lloyd, pages 37-38. Our readers may pardon us if we quote from this rare old book 
the substance of one or two anecdotes concerning Fink. On one occasion he was stealthily 
creeping through the woods, when he saw a beautiful buck browsing at some distance ahead 
of him, and despite the proaimity of Indian enemies, he determined to try a shot at it. 
Just as he raised his rifle to fire, he saw a large Indian, intent upon the same object, ad- 
vancing beyond him. The Indian had not observed Fink, who immediately drew back 
behind a tree, and turned his rifle upon the newcomer. The moment the Indian fired. Fink 
sent a ball through his breast, and with a yell the savage fell dead at the same instant 
with the deer. Assuring himself that the Indian was dead and that no others were near, 
Mike then turned his attention to the buck, taking from the carcass such pieces as he could 
conveniently carry off. 

Fink was a dead shot. It is related that while descending the Ohio on his barge he 
once made a wager with a passenger, that be could from mid-stream, shoot ofl the tails 
of five pigs which were feeding on the bank, and that he won the bet. His reputation as 
an accurate marksman was such that his companions frequently allowed him to fire at a 
tin cup placed on the head of one of their number, snd this confidence tempted him to the 
commission of his last crime, for which he paid instant penalty. One of his barge com- 
panions, named Joe Stevens, had been his successful rival in love, and Mike waited an op- 
portunity of taking revenge upon him. This came one day when the crew of the barge wen 

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296 History of Beaver County 

that, instead of ribs, nature had provided him with a solid, bony 
casing on both sides, without any interstices through .which a 
knife, dirk, or bullet could penetrate. An early writer has said, 
speaking of these and other similar characters: 

Traveling on the western rivers, at that period (about 1S00 to 1810) 
was not less dangerous than expensive and dilatory. Robberies and 
murders were the common incidents of westward travel, either by land 
or water. The barges were manned chiefly by men of desperate for- 
tunes and characters, fugitives from justice, and other outcasts from 
society, who were prepared to commit any crime on the slightest provo- 
cation or inducement. 

The advent of the steamboat changed all this, for, by making 
travel speedy it made it safe, and a better class of boatmen 
began to be demanded, while the increase of emigration which 
came with improved means of transportation, cleared the 
country of the lawless elements which had infested it. So great 
was the change wrought by this agency that it has been well 
called "the Steamboat Revolution." 

Beaver County, at a very early period, was noted for its 
activity in this new enterprise. In several places in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of the mouth of the Beaver were extensive 
boat-yards, where all kinds of river craft, — flat-boats, cotton 
boats, keel and steamboats — were built. One of the first to 
engage in this industry was John Boles, who came to this place 
sometime in the early twenties and settled at the point between 
Rochester and New Brighton, now known from hi m as Boles- 
ville. He established there a large boat-yard, constructing 
flat-boats, keel-boats, and steamboats. In 1836. John Hartman 
Whisler,' one of his employees, became his partner, and to him 
the following year he sold out the business. Under Mr. Whis- 
ler's management the business grew rapidly, the principal con- 
on shore, shooting st ■ murk. A stranger being present. Pink proposed to show his (kill 
by shooting a tin cup from the head of Steven*, and the Utter, not suspecting the feelings 
of Fink toward him. promptly uiented to the trial, took hie position and told him to 
"blase away." Butiniuad of aiming at the cup, Pink put a ball through the forehead of 
Stevens, and killed him instantly, A brother of Stevens who was present, suspected that 
the shot had been fired with murderous intent, and as quickly shot Pink dead- 

> John Hartman Whisler was bom near Carlisle. Pa.. September s, rSos. In iSjy be 
married Agnes, daughter of James and Jane Jnckson. of North Sewickley township. The 
children of this union are well known citizens of the Beaver vallej. Among them are 
Alfred M .. Doctor of Dentistry, of New Brighton ; Addison W., the genial reporter of the 
Bamr ValUy Nnvs. and John H.. a mechanical engineer. Charles, at one time editor of 
the Beaver Star, and a well known reporter, died in 1 80 j. Mary, widow of Robert Ken. 
and Jemima reside in Rochester. 

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History of Beaver County 297 

struction being keel-boats, cotton boats, and canal boats. The 
keel-boat was a regular model boat with a prow at both ends, 
built in this way in order that the boat might run in either 
direction without turning around. These boats were usually from 
one hundred and ten feet to one hundred and twenty-five feet 
in length, and were furnished with what was called a "cargo 
box." This was a compartment rising considerably higher than 
the deck, roofed on top and closed on the sides and ends, extend- 
ing almost the entire length of the boat, and narrower in width 
than the boat, so as to leave a way outside of about sixteen 
inches to walk on when propelling the boat, with openings 
through the sides to permit the goods to be placed inside of 
the "cargo box." The purpose of this box was to protect the 
cargo from the weather. 

The cotton boats were similar in construction to the keel- 
boats, but seldom exceeded one hundred and ten feet. They 
were used to carry cotton out of the bayous and small streams 
in Mississippi. 

The principal activity in this enterprise was at first at Phil- 
lipsburg, where boat building, under the ownership of Phillips 
& Graham, was the main industry during a period of several 
years prior to 183a, when that firm transferred their boat-yards 
to Freedom. At Freedom the yards were still further enlarged. 
There were several other boat-building concerns at Phillipsburg, 
Freedom, Sharon, and Industry; also at Chrisler's Landing, 
Cook's Ferry, and Shippingport some boats were constructed. 
The extent of the boat-building industry in Beaver County 
will be seen from the following article copied from the Beaver 
Argus of August a6, 1846: 


A short time ago we noticed in the Pittsburgh Journal a long list of 
Pittsburgh steamers, embracing a large number that we knew had been 
built in this county, thus in some degree robbing our enterprising and 
skilful mechanics of the credit that justly belongs to them. To do them 
justice, we have sought a statement of all the steamers built in this 
county, which has been prepared and furnished by our friend Mr. William 
P. Phillips, of Freedom, and will be found annexed. It presents a for- 
midable and we may well say a creditable list, embracing no less than 
one hundred and thirty-eight boats, including two sea vessels, making an 
aggregate of over thirty thousand tons. The value and importance of 

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History of Beaver County 

this branch of industry may be Been at a glance. At the moderate 
average of (50 per ton these boats have paid no less than a million and 
a half of dollars, the bulk of which has been paid out for labor and sup- 
plies. Long may it continue and prosper. 

List of Steamboats 








Gen. Wayne 


La Grange 




Pgh. & Whg. 



Paul Jones 


Red Rover 

La Payette 



Missouri and 


General Brown 




Win. Penn 



New Jersey 












Fallston Itaska Rodney 

The above comprise an average tonnage of 8,635 tons, the ship car- 
penter work Sis. per ton, and when finished $60. per ton. 


Fame Selma Win. Robinson Missourian 




Wm. Penn 










St. Louis 



I van hoe 



St. Charles 


H. L. Kinney 







United States 









General Pratt 



Cleveland Amelia 

The above are mostly boats of the largest class, tonnage near 1 

;, cost near $70. per t< 



Little Stewart (ferry-boat) 


Iron City 


Together with Government Boats, &c.— 

St. Louis 


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History of Beaver County 


White Wing 
Little Rock 
Wabash Valley 

H. Kinney 
MonongMfcela Valley 










Sligo (Built at John McDonald's.) 


Lake Erie Miner 

Laura Belle of Illinois 

Pacific Nashville 

New Boat for Fisber Co. (Gladiator). 

Steam Ferry Boat for Steubenville 

One commenced for Lyon Moore Co. (Gondolier). 

Schooner, Regina Hill of New York 

Schooner, Cyrus Chamberlain of New Haven 

These sea vessels have proved themselves worthy of the briny element 1 
(3,050 toils by society.) Boat building is now carried on with success 
by the company, and those wishing to contract for boats of any descrip- 
tion will do well to call (if nothing more). 

' BAKER, hall * CO., 



(Near 1,000 tons.) 


The Rose of Sharon, by G. W. Rogers 


Twins, By J. Hall 

1 Sea-goina vi 
learn from an old 

the Ohio, and at 
Monongahela. at* 

book of tin vein. 

perhapa. are ignorai 

... , ftttrt, 

. edfal" 
" a kind at 

he veiaeia which require a ilighter wood. 
expenae of building is not bo great a* in thi 
nanuiactured at Reditoni " 

ch also Bupply ships witr. 
meyto Pittibureh in the 
d and fifty torn,* and a it 


The timber 
ml nara; the black 

Virginia cherry-tree, 

:t being near at hand. 

« follow, 

, to New Orleanj, loaded with the produce of 
r wo thousand two hundred miles before they 

• "I have been informed rince my return, that this ship, named the Fiiisintrtk. nai 
arrived at Philadelphia."— Ttawls 10 ikt Wist of Iht AUithmv Mountains, etc.. by F. A 
Vicnaux. Member of the Soc. of Nat. Hiit. at Peril, etc.. London, iRoj, pp. fij-<n. 

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300 History of Beaver County 


Pekin Hart & Co. 

Pickaway Eakin & Co. 

Palo Alto 

New Boat for McLean 

Mingo Chief, by R. Moflett, G. W. Roger*, foreman. 

Rhode Island, by McFall, Thos. Rogers, 

America, by McFall, Thos. Rogers, 

New Boat for Poe, by McPall, Thos. Rogers " 

Financier for Todd, by McPall, Thos. Rogers " 

New Castle for Pollock, by Joseph Hall. 

It will be borne in mind that a goodly number of the boats built at 
Freedom were furnished complete, with erfgines, cabins and painting, 
before leaving the place, and engines were furnished for others built else- 

We had like to have forgotten the little "Fishes," the yawl building. 
But let it pass. The modesty of our friend shall not prevent us doing 
justice to the little fishes. Messrs. Phillips & Skil linger "have turned out 
of their shops in the two or three years some fifty yawls which are the 
admiration of all watermen, for which they find ready sale, as well for 
boats built here as elsewhere. They are strong, yet buoyant, sitting 
gracefully upon the water, easily managed and of great capacity; a 
combination of excellence which makes them deservedly popular. 1 

' Fallowing the date of thu communication msny other boats wen built at the pointt 
uampd therein and elsewhere ; aa at Shippingport and Glaagow. At the place last aimed 
Alfred McFsll had a large yard, of which George Baker waa foreman. Than in iSs* the 
keel of the Siknr Wow wai laid, and ihe wei launched in the year fallowing. She mi 
built for Captain John McMillen. and she wu the first iteamboat to run the blockade at 
e time the •team boat Yarktean wit built 

From Lioyd'i Sttamboat DwteUry and Diiasttri, iS;6. wl 
float on the wettern river*, we get the following additional n 

Major Danan 
John Simonda 
Waihuurtoo City 
W. T. 7eatman 

Cryttal Palace 
Time and Tide 



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„ Google 


r new vo*k V 

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History of Beaver County 301 

The claim made in the foregoing editorial article, viz., that 
many of the boats, both keel-boats and steamboats, which were 
listed as being built at Pittsburg, were in reality of Beaver 
County manufacture, finds confirmation in the following extract 
from a letter written by Marcus T. C. Gould in December, 1835, 
to the editor of Atkinson's Casket, published in Philadelphia: 

I shall now be better able to make you comprehend the reason of my 
speaking of Pittsburgh in connection with this neighborhood (the Falls of 
Beaver) ; for in fact the $70,000 worth of keel boats mentioned in my 
last, though constructed and launched in Beaver County, are most of 
them purchased by Pittsburgers, and not unfrequently built by their 
express orders, and sent to their city to receive their finish. And as it 
respects the new Steam Boats which hail from that city, a very con- 
siderable number of them are in fact built and launched here, but sent 
there to receive their enginery, cabin work, painting, rigging, &c. For 
instance — Mr. Phillis [Phillips?], of Freedom, two miles from the mouth 
of Beaver, will have constructed within the present year, no less than 
seven or eight Steam Boats, worth in his hands from forty to fifty thousand 
dollars and when completed not less than one hundred thousand dollars 
— and these are all sent to Pittsburgh to be finished — for sale, freight, or 


The manufacture of iron and steel has had a much more im- 
portant place in the industrial history of Beaver County than is 
generally known. A special article on this subject has been 
prepared for us by Col. James M. Swank, Genera! Manager of the 
American Iron and Steel Association. This will be found in 
Appendix No. VIII. 


During the past ten or fifteen years the manufacture of wares 
from clays has increased each year, and the product confirms 
claims heretofore made that Beaver County clays are specially 
adapted to the wares they meet in competition in the market. 
The Lower Kittanning clay is the best, and the one chiefly 
used in the manufacture of fire-clay products in the county. 
A higher grade of clay is also brought here from Jefferson, 
Clarion, and Clearfield counties, and mixed with the local clays 
for the making of finer qualities of brick, some of which sell as 
high as twenty-five dollars a thousand. 

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302 History of Beaver County 

The special development of the fire-clay industry has been on 
Crow's Run by the Park Fire Clay Co. ; on Brady's Run by the 
same company and the Fallston Fire Clay Co. ; on Blockhouse 
Run by the W. H. Elverson Pottery Co. and the Sherwood Bros. 
Co.; at Vanport by the Douglas Fire Brick Co. the Douglas- 
Whisler Co. at Eastvale, the Mound Brick Co. at Beaver Falls, 
the Beaver Clay and Brick Co. at New Galilee, the Welch Fire 
Brick Works at Monaca, and many others. 


At Cannelton, on the property of Hon. I. F. Mansfield, the 
cannel shales were formerly distilled for oil on a targe scale. The 
shale was preferred to the coal, as it made quite as much oil and 
did not leave so much tarry products behind in the retort. One 
ton of shale made a barrel of oil. The discovery of petroleum 
put an end to this manufacture, yet the company still found it 
profitable to make a heavy lubricating oil up to the year 1872, 
when the establishment burned down and was abandoned. In 
1859 Hunter & Code built at Freedom a refinery for making oil 
from cannel coal. They were later joined in the enterprise by 
William Phillips. They were not able to overcome the difficul- 
ties in the way of production of this oil, on account of the in- 
flammable character of the products, the plant being several 
times burned down, and the business was finally given up. In 
January, i860, liens were filed against the property by the Dar- 
ragh Bros, of Bridgewater, Knapp & Rudd of Pittsburg, Robert 
McLane of Rochester, and others; and, September 12, i860, it 
was sold at sheriff's sale to the lienholders. September 21st fol- 
lowing they sold to S. M. Kier of Pittsburg, who soon afterwards 
began to refine here petroleum. Kier was, perhaps, the first to 
engage in the refining of crude petroleum in Beaver County, 
and among the first in the country, and for several years there 
was carried on here a large business in this line. In 1857 there 
was built in Rochester by Charles Thum, where the Keystone 
Glass Works now stands, a plant for making cannel coal oil. 
Joseph Bentel, 1 from Phillipsburg (now Monaca), and other 
parties named Arbuckle were afterwards its owners, and turned 
it into a petroleum refinery. At this plant, about 1861, P. M. 

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3 Ha 

















;5 is 



s:- a 































1 fii 










So a 











S :»: 


















































mmzi I 

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History of Beaver County 303 

Wallover of Smith's Ferry carried on some refining, selling the 
oil for use in oiling wool. He bought a part of the machinery 
and removed it to Smith's Ferry, and, in 1861, there was started 
at that place the Wallover Oil Company, composed of P. M. 
Wallover, William Stewart, Milton Brown, and William Dawson, 
organized for the manufacture of lubricating oil from the pro- 
duction of the Smith's Ferry oil field. This plant has continued 
in successful operation ever since. 

The history of the Freedom Oil Works Company, which fol- 
lowed the Kier & Painter concern, spoken of above, will be 
found in the chapter on Freedom borough. 

We will close this brief survey of our county's industrial and 
economic development with a table taken from the last census, 
giving an exhibit of our manufacturing and mechanical indus- 
tries as they stood in the closing year of the nineteenth century, 
as follows: (See appended table.) 

Satisfactory as the above showing is, we believe it is only a 
promise and a prophecy of greater things to be seen in the not 
distant future. With the completion of the Ohio River dams 
certain, and the building of the ship canal, giving ready and 
cheap access to the Great Lakes and the lower Mississippi 
valley possible, Beaver County, lying in the center of the 
largest coal and mineral basin in the United States, possessing 
inexhaustible internal resources, and gridironed with fully 
equipped railways, is well assured of continuous growth and 

1 Marcus T. C. Gould m considered somewhat visionary in his day, but his was a pro- 
phetic soul. His predictions were not realized quite on time, but are now more than ful- 
filled. It will be interesting to our readers to see what he said ss long ago aa liss- of the 
coming greatness of the Beaver valley. The following is from a letter written by him in 
December of that year to the editor of Atkinson'! Caslui (Philadelphia) : 

" I now predict, through this epistle, that within tea years from this time, there will be 
a population of at least 30.000 about the Palls and mouth of the Beaver. . . . Nor 
would we in the slightest degree insinuate that any future benefits which the Falls of the 
Beaver may derive, will detract from the growth or prosperity of Pittsburgh, but on the 

which is aeon to be the wonder of the western world — a place to which this, and almost 
every other place within hundreds of miles, must in some respect pay tribute. . . . We 
shall not belong behind any other town west of the Allegheny mountains, for the variety, 
quality and extent of our manufactures, (Pittsburgh excepted.) We shall not long hear the 
inquiry, where is Brighton? Where is Fallston? Whore am the Falls of Beaver? Where 
is Beaver County. Pennsylvania t " 

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Previous Jurisdictions — Virginia Courts — Organisation of Beaver County 
Courts — Judicial Districts — Character of First Officers — Sketches of 
President Judges — Associate Judges — First Attorneys — Prominent 
Early Attorneys — Attorneys of Later Date, Deceased — Simplicity of 
Early Suits — Fees — Celebrated Causes — Law Association — Roll of 

Of law there can be no less acknowledged than that her seat is the 
bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world. All things in heaven 
and earth do her homage — the very least as feeling her care, the greatest 
as not exempted from her power. — Hooker's Eccl. Pol. 

The machinery of the law was set up very slowly over the 
region which included the present territory of Beaver County. 
Cumberland County, the sixth in order of the counties estab- 
lished, was erected January 37, 1750. when the vanguard of 
emigration had just reached the valley of the Monongahela. Its 
seat of justice was at Carlisle, and the jurisdiction of its courts 
nominally extended over all the lands to the western borders of 
the province, but was scarcely felt in the remoter parts of the 
West. With the erection of Bedford County in 1771, the seat 
of jurisdiction was brought somewhat nearer. All west of the 
mountains was embraced in the new county. But it was yet 
uncertain whether the region lying between the Monongahela 
and the Ohio was in Pennsylvania or Virginia,' and for this 
reason the settlers therein did not have much to do with the 
Bedford County courts. 

By the beginning of the year 1773 the numbers and strength 
of the settlers west of the mountains had increased so much 
that they felt themselves entitled to the organization of a county, 

1 For boundary controversy between Pennsylvania and Virginia, see Chapter III. 

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Jesse Moore. 
President Judge, iSo,-rSoo. 

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History of Beaver County 305 

with the necessary legal machinery belonging to it, and peti- 
tions were addressed to the House of Representatives asking for 
the same. This was finally granted, and by an Act of Assem- 
bly, passed and approved by the Governor, February a6, 1773, 
Westmoreland County was erected. By the provisions of the 
Act the county-seat was established at Robert Hanna's settle- 
ment on the Forbes Road, thirty-five miles east of Pittsburg, 
and about three miles northeast of the present Greensburg. 
Here at Hannastown the first Pennsylvania court (perhaps the 
first court of English-speaking people,) ever held west of the 
Allegheny Mountains, was established. 

At this date, 1773, and for several years thereafter, the 
number of settlers was, even in that portion of Beaver County 
which lay south of the Ohio River, very small; and for many 
years following there were, on the north side of that river, out- 
side of the garrison of Fort Mcintosh, no inhabitants beyond 
a few venturesome men who had attempted to make settle- 
ments. But whatever population was there must have, in 
some measure, depended upon the courts of Westmoreland 
County for law and justice. As showing this we have a letter 
from General William Irvine. to the men who, in 1783, were 
put in charge of the property of Fort Mcintosh after its aban- 
donment, instructing them "that in case of lawless violence, or 
persons attempting to settle by force," etc., they were "to 
apply to Michael Hoofnagle, or some other justice of the peace 
for Westmoreland County." ' 

But in connection with what has just been said about the 
jurisdiction of Westmoreland County, it is necessary to remem- 
ber the fact, already several times referred to, that from 1774 
until 1780 two governments were contending for the supremacy 
in this large section of western Pennsylvania, with two sets of 
laws and two sets of magistrates to enforce them. The provin- 
cial courts of Pennsylvania were sitting at Hannastown and the 

■ Prnna. Arch., vol. x., p. 109. Corroborative also ia the following: "I un informed by 
an old citisen of Hanover township (Washington County) that he well recollects having 
been told in bis youth, by those who were then old people, that bis informants had attended 
court in Westmoreland County." — Prom an article by Boyd Crumrine. Esq.. in TAt 
Wadrmglim County CnUttmial, page 17. 

Many of the deeds for lands in Beaver County at this period, north as well as south of the 
Ohio, describe the lands in question as being in Westmoreland County. The western 
bounds of that county up to uBi. when Washington County was erected, were of course 
those of the province. 

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306 History of Beaver County 

Virginia courts at Fort Dunmore (Pittsburg), both seeking to 
assert exclusive jurisdiction over the same region. By the 
strong hand one triumphed to-day, the other to-morrow, and 
only the approach of the War of the Revolution, in which both 
sides had mutual interests and dangers, healed the strife. 


In 1774, at the beginning of this "Boundary Controversy," 
as it is known in history, the whole of the territory between the 
Monongahela and Ohio rivers was, by the Virginia claim, in 
Augusta County, Virginia, with its county-seat at Staunton, in 
the valley of the Shenandoah. In December of that year the 
Earl of Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, adjourned the courts 
of Augusta County to Fort Dunmore (Pittsburg), where they 
were held regularly in what came to be known as the District 
of West Augusta. 

These Virginia courts were held for a few terms at Augusta 
Town, near the present Washington, Pa., and the last court of 
of the district was held at Pittsburg, November ao, 1776. In 
that year the convention of the representatives of the Virginia 
people in session at Richmond passed an act dividing the Dis- 
trict of West Augusta into three new counties, namely, Ohio, 
Monongalia, and Yohogania, the jurisdiction of the last named 
extending, as has been said more than once in other places in 
this work, over what is now the south side of Beaver County. ■ 

■ One or two items from the Yohogania court records mny be worth quoting, t. (..- 
■'April ig. : 
theC. H. yard. 

.pril ig. 177S. — A pair of iitocks, whipping post, and pillory ordered to be built in 

177. — James Johnson fined twenty shilling! for two profane oaths and 1 
Same day. same amount (or three oaths and one curse: and same i 

"August 26, 1777. — Robert Hamilton, a prisoner in the Sheriffs custody came it 
court, and. in the grocest and most irnperlite manner insulted the Court, and Rich] 
Yates, Gentleman, in particular. Ordered, that the Sheriff confine the feet of the a 
Robert in the lower rails of the fence for the space of five minutes." 

The following of December n. 1777. shows what travelers had to pay for the 
dation of " man and beast " at the inns of the day 

"The ordinary keepers within this ■ • ■- 

One half pint whiskey. 

"• -»Tod 

A larger or lesser quantity in the same propotttoi 
Beer per Quart. 

Por a cold breald ut . 

Lodging with C!»n Sheets pr Night. 6d. 

Stablidge for one bone for 14 hours with good hay or fodder , ti. 

Pasturage for one horse fur )* hours . , is, 

Oats or Corn per Quart M. 

Supper it 6d." 

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Samuel Roberts, 
-aid*.! Judgt. ib*-iS: 

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History of Beaver County 307 

Its courts continued to be held until August 38, 1780, when, the 
boundary controversy having reached a settlement, Yohogania 
passed out of existence, and no court of justice under Virginia 
jurisdiction was ever again held in the region to which Beaver 
County now belongs. Washington County was formed the next 
year, 1781,' and Allegheny County in 1788,' and thereafter until 
the close of the eighteenth century the few inhabitants settled 
here had to do with the courts of those counties. But by this 
time the country north and west of the Ohio and Allegheny 
rivers was rapidly filling up, and, considering the needs of the 
settlers and the vast extent of Allegheny County, making it a 
hardship and inconvenience for many of them to reach the seat 
of justice at Pittsburg, it became evident to the Legislature that 
measures of relief were imperative. Accordingly, as we have 
seen, there was passed March ia, 1800, 3 an Act which provided 
for the|erection in this, and contiguous territory, of eight new 
counties. These were Beaver, Butler, Mercer, Crawford, Erie, 
Venango, Warren, and Armstrong. In most of these new 
counties courts were not provided for until 1803. 


By Act of April a, 1803, 4 Beaver County for judicial pur- 
poses was made part of the Sixth Judicial District. 

By the Act of February 24, 1806, ! revising the judicial dis- 
tricts of the whole State, the Fifth District was composed of 
Beaver, Allegheny, Washington, Fayette, and Greene counties. 
In 1818, 6 the Fifth was re-formed of Beaver, Butler, and Alle- 
gheny. Beaver continued in the Fifth until 1831/ when Beaver, 
Butler, and Mercer were united to form the new Seventeenth 
Judicial District. 

When the county of Lawrence was created in 1849 8 it be- 
came a part of the Seventeenth District, and the four counties 
continued together until the Act of April 9, 1853 was passed, 9 
when the county of Mercer was withdrawn and added to the 
Eighteenth District. In 1866 Beaver was withdrawn from the 
district and united with Washington to form the new Twenty- 

1 S« P. L-. ijBi. 400: t Dallas's L„ 874: 1 Carey ft Bioren, jSj. 

■ 3 Cany ft Bioren. i)j ; a Smith's L, 4*B. * P. L.. 637. 

'6 Cany ft Bioren, iij; 3 Smith's L.. 431. * P. L., 334. 

•P. L.. J3«. 'P. L.. 340. 'P.L., Mi. "P. L.. JJJ. 

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308 History of Beaver County 

seventh District; and finally, by Act of April 9, 1874/ Beaver 
was separated from Washington and made a judicial district 
by itself, the Thirty-sixth. 

A high average obtained among the men who composed the 
early court and bar of Beaver County, and there is in their 
number more than one clarum et venerabile nomen. As an indi- 
cation of the character and ability of the men composing the 
first court ever held in Beaver County, we call attention to the 
fact that they furnished from their number in after years: 

One member of the United States Supreme Court — Henry 

Two United States Senators — Abner I, acock and William 

One Minister Plenipotentiary — William Wilkins (to Russia). 

One Secretary of War— William Wilkins. 

One District Court Judge — William Wilkins. 

One Chief Justice of Pennsylvania — John Bannister Gibson. 

Five members of Congress — Abner Lacock, Robert Moore, 
William Wilkins, James Allison, Jr., and Henry Baldwin. 

Two President Judges — Alexander Addison and William 

Two State Senators — Abner Lacock and William Wilkins. 

Two Assemblymen — Abner Lacock and Robert Moore. 

One member State Constitutional Convention — William 

Hon. Jesse Moore, 1 who presided over the first Beaver County 
court, was born in Montgomery County, Pa., in 1765. While 
practising law at Sunbury, Pa., he was appointed by Governor 
Thomas McKean president judge of the Sixth Judicial District, 
his commission dating April 5, 1803. Judge Moore removed at 
once to Meadville, within his district, from which Beaver County 
was cut off by the revision of the judicial districts of the State 

' P. L.. jjj. 

» It it with peculiar satiifaction that we record here the fact, that we have succeeded in 
what wai pronounced, and aeemed at first to be. indeed, an impotable undertaking, via., 
the procuring of portraits of all the judges, learned in the law, who have ever presided over 
the court> of oar county. In addition we have alto obtained portrait) of a number of the 
associate judge* and of many of the early and distinguished member* of the bar. We sub. 
mit all theie, together with others of a more recent date, in reproductions by the art of 
the photographer and the engraver, with the assurance that an added interest will be 
given to the text of our history when the reader it enabled to look upon the "counterfeit 
presentment " of the men with the itory °f wboet lives it deals. 

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William Wilkin*. 
PrttMmt Judje, i8ao-iSw. 

Digit zed by GOOglt' 

: -x\ 

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History of Beaver County 309 

in 1806, referred to above, and continued president judge of the 
new Sixth District until bis death, in the fifty-ninth year of his 
age, December 21, 1834. His connection with the courts of 
Beaver County thus lasted, as will appear from a comparison of 
dates, two years. Judge Moore is said to have been a man of 
imposing appearance, retaining the dress and manners of the 
colonial period and of the old-school gentleman, wearing small 
clothes, with shoe- and knee-buckles, and his long hair done up 
in a queue, plentifully besprinkled with white powder. 1 He is 
also reputed to have met the requirements of his position as a 
judge "learned in the law," and to have been upright and im- 
partial in his decisions. 

Hon. Samuel Roberts, who succeeded Jesse Moore as presi- 
dent judge of Beaver County, was born in Philadelphia, Septem- 
ber 8, 1763. He received his early education and read law with 
Hon. William Lewis in the same city, being there admitted to 
the bar in 1793. The same year he married, at York, Pa., Miss 
Harriet Heath. In the practice of his profession he removed to 
Lancaster and thence to Sunbury, Pa. ; and while at Sunbury 
he was commissioned by Governor McKean, on June a, 1803, as 
president judge of the Fifth District to succeed Judge Addison, 
after his shameful impeachment by the Legislature of the State; 
and when, by the Act of February 34, 1806, Beaver County was 
added to the Fifth District, he became president judge of this 
county. In that year he removed to Pittsburg, Pa. Judge 
Roberts continued to sit as president judge of the Fifth District 
until his death in Pittsburg, on December 13, 1830. Judge 
Roberts was an able lawyer and a man of the strictest probity. 
He has a distinguished name, not only as a jurist of the first 
order, but also as an author, his Digest of British Statutes in Force 
in Pennsylvania being a work highly esteemed by the profession. 

Hon. William Willrins was the next president judge of 
Beaver County. He was born in Carlisle, Pa., December ao, 
1779. He was educated at Dickinson College, and read law 
with Judge David Watts at Carlisle. His father moved to 
Pittsburg, Pa., in 1786. There William Willrins was admitted 
to the bar in 1801. December 18, 1820, he was appointed 

1 Eglc's History of Ptnna., p. 93a. Judge Moore ii hen described by one who knew 

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310 History of Beaver County 

president judge of the Fifth District by Governor William Find- 
lay to succeed Judge Roberts. He resigned May 35, 1824, on 
his appointment to be Judge of the District Court of the United 
States for western Pennsylvania. In 1838, while holding this 
position, he was elected a member of Congress, but before taking 
his seat resigned, giving as a reason that his financial condition 
would not permit him to accept. In 1831 he was elected to the 
Senate of the United States for the full term of six years, and 
resigned the judgeship. In 1834 he was appointed Minister to 
Russia, and remained one year at the court of St. Petersburg. 

The township of Wilkins, Allegheny County, Pa., is named 
from Judge Wilkins, and likewise the borough of Wilkmsburg 
in that township. Near there, at Homewood, was his resi- 
dence, where he exercised a generous hospitality. Being a large 
property holder in that growing region, Judge Wilkins profited 
by the rise in real estate values and became very wealthy. 

In 1806 Judge Wilkins became concerned in a duel, and he 
has so often been unjustly blamed for driving it to a bloody 
termination that we feel impelled to give from authentic and 
contemporaneous sources a correct account of the affair. This 
affair grew out of a feud between two factions of the party 
then known as the Republican, or Anti-Federalist party (now 
the Democratic) . Ephraim Pentland, the editor of the Common- 
wealth, an Anti-Federal paper, published in that journal on the 
25th of December, 1805, a bitter attack on Tarleton Bates,' the 
prothonotary of Allegheny County. On the ad of January fol- 
lowing, Bates, being in company with Henry Baldwin (after- 
wards a judge of the United States Supreme Court) and Steele 
Semple, Esqs., attacked and cowhided Pentland on Market 
Street, Pittsburg. The latter next day notified Bates by letter 
that he had appealed to the civil authorities for protection, but 
a day or two afterwards sent Thomas Stewart, a young Irishman 
just starting in business in the city as a merchant, to Bates with 
a challenge, which Bates refused to accept on the ground that 
Pentland, by submitting to a cowhiding and then appealing to 
the law, could not be recognized as a gentleman, according to the 
code. In a letter in the Tree of Liberty (then edited by Walter 
Forward), he defended his refusal at length, and seemed to cast 
aspersions also on Stewart, the bearer of the challenge. Stew- 

' Edward Bate*, Lincoln'a Attorney-General, wa« a brother of Tarleton Bates. 

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Charles Sbtler. 

President Judge, 1894-lBjI. 

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History of Beaver County 311 

art then challenged Bates, and the challenge was accepted. The 
duel took place on the morning of the 8th of January, 1806, in 
a ravine which debouches on the Monongahela River, three 
miles from the city. Bates fell on the second fire, shot in the 
breast, and died within an hour. The seconds were William 
Wilkins in behalf of Stewart, and Morgan Neville for Bates. 
That Wilkins did not press the duel to a fatal conclusion, as has 
been frequently charged, would appear from the words which 
we have italicized in a letter that was published in the Gazette 
and Tree of Liberty and copied in the Commonwealth of January 
15, 1806, supposed to have been prepared by the seconds them- 
selves, and reading as follows: 

Pittsbubg, January II, 1806. 

Ms. Scull: A friend of the gentlemen who were seconds to Mr. Bates 
and Mr. Stewart in the duel which lately occurred, to prevent improper 
representations of that affair, requests you to insert the following state- 
ment, which he believes will be approved by them both. 

A duel took place on Wednesday, the 8th inst, between Tarleton 
Bates, Esq., and Mr. Thomas Stewart, merchant, both of this place. 
The latter thought proper to require of Mr. Bates an apology for what he 
considered improper expressions respecting him in a publication made by 
Mr. Bates which appeared the day before in the Tree of Liberty. No 
apology having been made, or agreed to, the parties, each attended by 
a friend met near the Monongahela river, three miles from town. Previous 
to their positions being taken on the ground, the friend of Mr. Stewart men- 
tioned an apology which would be accepted— but as it was the same in sub- 
stance as had been proposed before, and as it had been perfectly well 
understood before the parties went to the ground that no apology would 
be made by Mr. Bates, he rejected it. The distance (ten steps) was then 
measured, and the pistols loaded by the seconds in the presence of each 
other. They each fired twice. In the interval between the first and 
second fire, no proposition of adjustment was made. The second fire 
proved fatal to Mr. Bates, who received the ball of his antagonist's pistol 
in the upper part of his breast and expired in an hour. 

The behaviour of the principals on the ground was perfectly calm and 
undaunted and this unfortunate transaction was conducted in conformity 
to the arrangements which had been previously made, and to the strictest 
rules of honor. 

Bates was very popular, and so much feeling was manifested 
against Wilkins that he left the State and remained for a year 
with his brother, Charles Wilkins, at Lexington, Ky. Stewart, 
the survivor, went to Philadelphia, where he held for years an 
honorable post in the Custom House. 

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312 History of Beaver County 

In 1842 Judge Wilkins was again elected to the House of 
Representatives in Congress. After the explosion of the great 
gun on board the Princeton in February, 1844, which killed 
two members of the Cabinet, President Tyler appointed Mr. 
Wilkins Secretary of War, which office he held until March, 1 845 ■ 
In 1855 he was elected to the State Senate from Allegheny 
County for one term. He was twice married, his second wife 
being a Dallas of the famous Pennsylvania family of that name. 
In politics Judge Wilkins was a Democrat, but during the Civil 
War was an ardent supporter of the Federal Government. He 
died in the eighty-seventh year of his age, June 33, 1865, at 
his residence in Homewood. 

Hon. Charles Shaler was born in Connecticut in 1788, and 
was educated at Yale College. His father having been ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners to lay off the Western 
Reserve tract in Ohio, purchased a large amount of land in 
that State near Ravenna, where is a village called from him, 
Shalersvilte. In looking after these interests Charles Shaler 
was led to reside for a time in Ravenna, and was admitted to 
the bar there in 1809. In 1813 he became a member of the 
Pittsburg bar. From 1818 to i8ai he was recorder of the 
Mayor's court of Pittsburg. On the resignation of Judge Wil- 
kins he was appointed his successor, his commission dating 
June 5, 1824, and he sat in Beaver until the formation of the 
Seventeenth District by the Act of April 1, 1S31. He continued 
president judge of the old district three years longer, resigning 
May 4, 1835. He was afterwards (May 6, 1841) appointed asso- 
ciate judge of the District Court of Allegheny County, from 
which position he resigned May so, 1844. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed by President Pierce United States District Attorney for 
the Western District of Pennsylvania. A son of Judge Shaler, 
Col. James R. Shaler, is superintendent of the Panama Railroad 
Company at Colon, Panama; and Major Charles Shaler of the 
United States Army, now stationed at Watervliet Arsenal, Troy, 
N. Y., is also a son. Three daughters of Judge Shaler, Augusta, 
Eleanore, and Elizabeth, died of the yellow fever at Colon, 
in 1903, on April 24th, May 4th, and May 10th respectively, 
each succumbing after a brief illness. 

Judge Shaler was one who worthily sustained the traditions 

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John Bred in, 

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History of Beaver County 313 

of judicial honor, and his abilities were recognized by the pro- 
fession as of a high order. He retired from active practice at 
the age of seventy-five, having become blind, and died at New- 
ark, N. J., March 5, 1869, in the eighty-first year of his age. 
Shaler township, Allegheny County, was named from him. 

Hon. John Bredin of Butler, Pa., was appointed by Governor 
George Wolf president judge of the new (Seventeenth) District in 
1831 ; and he was commissioned during good behavior. By the 
amended Constitution of 1838, his term of office was reduced 
from good behavior to ten years, and his term made to expire 
on the 27th of February, 1842. He was re-appointed by Gover- 
nor David R. Porter in 1843, and his term would have expired, 
under the amendment of the Constitution of 1851, on the first 
Monday of December, 1853. He died suddenly on the aist of 
May, 185 1. 

Meetings of the bars of the Seventeenth District were held 
on the occasion of Judge Bredin 's death, and minutes of respect 
adopted, with eloquent eulogies of his life and character. Such 
a meeting was held at .Beaver, May 34, 1851. Hon. John 
Carothers was chosen chairman, and Thomas Cunningham, Esq., 
secretary. A committee of five, consisting of William B. Clarke, 
Daniel Agnew, John Allison, B. B. Chamberlin, and Richard P. 
Roberts, Esqs., reported a series of resolutions appropriate to 
the occasion, in part as follows: 

Resolved, That in this afflictive dispensation of Divine Providence, 
the bench, the bar and the people of this district have to deplore the loss 
of a distinguished judge of great judicial experience, of talents of a high 
order, of extensive legal learning and unbending integrity. 

Resolved, That Judge Bredin, whose loss we so deeply deplore, 
possessed in an eminent degree the entire confidence of all classes and 
parties of the people, not only in this district, but throughout the State; 
all respected him for those sterling qualities which he possessed, which 
did honor to the State and gave dignity to the bench. 

Resolved, that Judge Bredin, as a man, was truly patriotic in all his 
views and feelings; a fast, firm friend of the institutions of our country; 
and in the high judicial position which he so long and so honorably held 
gave evidence not only of legal learning and abilities of a high order, but 
of strict, stern and determined purpose in the discharge of all his official 
duties. Whilst doing equal justice to all, he was kind, courteous and 
gentlemanly in all his various relations with the bench, the bar and the 
people of the district. 

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314 History of Beaver County 

The next occupant of the bench of Beaver County was one 
who came to fill a large place in the legal life of the county and 
State and Nation. At the time of the Centennial Celebration of 
the erection of Beaver County, he was still living in the county- 
seat at the advanced age of ninety-one years past, and abun- 
dantly possessing all 

That which should accompany old age. 
As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends. 

His eminent public services demand that somewhat full 
biographical notice should be given to him in our present 

The Hon. Daniel Agnew, LL.D., ex-Chief Justice of Pennsyl- 
vania, was born at Trenton, N. J., January 5, 1809. When 
between four and five years of age he was brought by his parents 
to Butler County, Pa., and thence, after a brief stay, to Pitts- 
burg, where he grew to manhood. In 1818 he became a pupil 
in the academy of Joseph Stockton, and, on its organization, of 
the Western University, Pittsburg, and graduated in July, 18*5. 
In October following he began the study of law under Messrs. 
Henry Baldwin and W. W. Fetterman, prominent Pittsburg 
lawyers. He was admitted to the bar in April, 1839, when 
scarcely more than twenty years of age. Discouraged with his 
professional prospects there, he left Pittsburg and came to 
Beaver, in August, 1899, intending to return; but his success 
in obtaining a good practice, and his marriage in 1831 to Miss 
Elizabeth Moore, daughter of General Robert Moore, determined 
him to remain. His first entry into public life was in 1836, 
when he was elected to the Constitutional Convention, which in 
1837-38 sat in Harrisburg and Philadelphia. Notwithstanding 
his increasing practice he took an active part in the following 
years in the political affairs of the county, and of the country at 
large, and on July 11 , 1851, was appointed by Governor Johnston 
president judge of the Seventeenth Judicial District of Pennsyl- 
vania, then composed of Beaver, Butler, Mercer, and Lawrence 
counties, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Judge 
Bredin. In the following October he was elected to the same 
office for the full term of ten years, and was re-elected in 1861. 

During the dark days of the Rebellion Judge Agnew was so 
pronounced a Unionist, and brought so much legal learning and 

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History of Beaver County 315 

ability to the defense of the Government, especially distinguish- 
ing himself in his address on "The National Constitution in its 
Adaptation to a State of War or Insurrection," delivered at 
New Castle, and repeated by special request of the Legislature 
at Harrisburg, that he was nominated by the Republicans in 
1863 for the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and in October of 
that year was elected as the successor of Chief Justice Lowrie. 

In the Supreme Court Judge Agnew was almost immediately 
called upon to render opinions in cases of the utmost import- 
ance to the Government — on the draft question, on the de facto 
standing of the Confederacy, on the "greenbacks," the right of 
deserters to vote, etc., — and in these war questions, his opinions 
bear the stamp of profound learning and statesmanship. Judge 
Agnew became Chief Justice in 1873, holding the position until 
the end of the term, January, 1879. His active work, however, 
closed with the end of the Pittsburg term, November, 1878, and 
the bar of Allegheny County, wishing to give expression to their 
cordial feeling, tendered him, on the 26th of November, 1878, a 
complimentary banquet at the Monongahela House. It was a 
notable occasion, and there was then paid to him the following 
high tribute : 

A judge profound and learned in the law; just and upright in its 
administration, — fearing not the face of man, — he has discharged the 
grave and important duties of his high office with rare and conscientious 
industry and fidelity. An earnest and steadfast friend and defender of 
the rights of the people, he retires with hands "clear and uncorrupt" in 
act and ii 

After this, at threescore years and ten, he retired to his home 
in Beaver. He refused further law practice, except in two 
notable cases : one was that of Allegheny County in the great rail- 
road riots of 1877, the other that of Kelly vs. the City of Pitts- 
burg. His leisure was now devoted to literary studies, and to the 
publication of some of his gathered stores of knowledge, legal 
and other. In 1 887 was published his Settlement and Land Titles 
of Northwestern Pennsylvania. He still found time, however, to 
take part in whatever concerned the public good, making many 
public addresses on civic, patriotic, and reform questions. He 
was especially active and influential in the temperance move- 
ment. Judge Agnew was twice honored with the degrees of 
LL.D., first by Washington College and then Dickinson. It is 

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316 History of Beaver County 

an interesting fact, and one not generally known, that Judge 
Agnew was highly endowed with mechanical genius, and that to 
him is due the honor of inventing the air-brake, now so import- 
ant to the railway world. Considerations of propriety connected 
with his judicial position alone prevented his contesting in the 
courts Mr. Westinghouse's right to the patent on this useful and 
lucrative invention. 

Judge Agnew has added luster to the bench of Beaver County 
and of Pennsylvania. His labors are but partially recorded in 
the long list of his opinions contained in the forty-four volumes 
of the State Reports, commencing with 9th Wright and ending 
with 7th Norris. An eminent lawyer has said of him: 

In his opinions, if compiled in compact form, the lawyer and student 
would have a formidable compilation of the law upon almost every con- 
ceivable topic,— every branch, division and specialty of the science having 
received scrutinizing analysis and wise determination. Seeking the truth 
with conscientious industry, no cause was too small to merit his thorough 
investigation, none too large for the comprehensive grasp of his powers. 

For over sixty years Judge Agnew lived in a frame house 
located directly opposite the court-house in Beaver, in which he 
died, March 9, 190a, in his ninety-fourth year. His wife died in 
1888, aged seventy-nine years. He is survived by two sons and 
two daughters, namely, Attorneys Frank H. Agnew and Robert 
M. Agnew, and Mrs. Amanda Brown, wife of Rev. Walter Brown; 
and Sarah H. Hice, wife of ex- Judge Henry Hice. 

Hon. Lawrence L. McGuffin of New Castle, Pa., was ap- 
pointed, on the resignation of Daniel Agnew, to take his place 
on the Supreme Bench, by Governor Andrew G. Curtin, to fill 
the vacancy until the next annual election. He was elected in 
1864 and sat in Beaver two years, or until 1866, when Beaver 
County was cut off from the Seventeenth District. His term as 
president judge of that district would have expired in December, 
1874, but was prolonged by the new Constitution of 1873 to the 
first Monday of January, 1875. He failed of re-election in the 
contest for judgeship in 1874, and returned to his practice at 
the bar. Mr. McGuffin had been admitted to the bar in 1839, 
and had practised in New Castle for ten years before Lawrence 
County was formed (1849). He was one of the most zealous 
promoters of the new-county project, the carrying out of which 
made his home, New Castle, the county-seat. 

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L. L. McGuffin. 
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History of Beaver County 317 

Judge McGuffin was a student of John J. Pearson of Mercer, 
afterwards a distinguished judge of the Dauphin County dis- 
trict. Before taking up the study of law he had been a cabinet 
maker. He was a leader at the bar, and on his elevation to the 
bench worthily filled his office as judge. Long before the end of 
his judicial term his health began to decline. He died in New 
Castle, Pa., August 33, 1880. 

Hon. Brown B. Chamberlin was appointed and commissioned 
by Governor Curtin on February 3, 1866, as president judge of 
the new Twenty-seventh Judicial District, composed of the 
counties of Beaver and Washington. He was to hold office until 
the first Monday of the following December, by which time an 
elected judge should be chosen. At the general election of 
October, 1866, he was defeated for the office by Alexander W. 
Acheson of the Washington bar. 

Judge Chamberlin was born in Frelighsburg, Missisquoi 
County, Canada East (now Quebec), May as, 1810. His parents, 
Dr. John B. Chamberlin and Mercy Chamberlin, were natives of 
Richmond, Berkshire County, Mass. In 181a, at the outbreak 
of the war with England, the family returned to the United 
States, settling at Auburn, N. Y. -The son was educated at 
academies at Lewiston and Buffalo; began the study of law 
with an uncle, Hon. Bates Cooke, the Controller of the State of 
New York during Governor Seward's administration, and H. S. 
Stone, and completed his course in the office of Hon. Millard 
Fillmore at Buffalo, 1833-34, being there admitted to the bar 
in 1834. About 1836 he came to Bridgewater. He became a 
member of the bar of Beaver County June 5, 1837, and was given 
charge of the real estate interests of Mr. Fillmore in Beaver 
County. Later he removed to New Brighton, where through 
his influence with Fillmore, then President of the United States, 
the first post-office in New Brighton was established, Mr. Cham- 
berlin being made the first postmaster. 

Mr. Chamberlin edited several newspapers in Fallston and 
New Brighton during the years 1830 to 1840, and from 1853 to 
1855 represented Beaver County in the Legislature, where dur- 
ing his last year he was Chairman of the Judiciary Committee. 
After his brief service on the bench. Judge Chamberlin re- 
sumed his practice at the Beaver County bar, and continued it 

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318 History of Beaver County 

until about 1887, when he retired and lived quietly in New 
Brighton for several years. He died on March 33, 189.x, at 
eighty-one years of age. Judge Chamberlin was never married. 
Politically he was a Republican, though in the contest, for 
judgeship referred to above he had been placed on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. In religious faith he was early in life a Presby- 
terian, but later became an Episcopalian. He had a brother, 
Darwin, a druggist, at St. Clair, Michigan. 

Hon. Alexander W. Acheson, as stated, was elected in Octo- 
ber, 1866, and commissioned by Governor Curtin as president 
judge of the Twenty-seventh District, November 15, 1866. He 
sat in Beaver until 1874, when by the Act of Assembly of April 
9th in that year, Beaver County was made a separate judicial 
district, the Thirty-sixth. This severed Judge Acheson's con- 
nection with Beaver County, but he held his full term of ten 
years in Washington County. 

Judge Acheson was of Scotch-Irish descent. His grand- 
father, George Acheson, was an elder in the Seceders Congrega- 
tion of Market Hill, County Armagh, Ireland. His father, 
David, emigrated to America in 1788, and came to Washington, 
Pa., where he married Mary Wilson, daughter of John Wilson, 
who settled at Washington in 1789. Alexander W. was the 
second child of this union, and was born July 15, 1809, in Phila- 
delphia, where his parents resided for some time after their 
marriage. Judge Acheson's long and eminently useful Life is 
part of the history of Washington County. He was a son of 
Washington College, graduating in the class of 1837. His law 
studies were conducted in Washington under William Baird, 
Esq., and he was there admitted to the bar in June, 183a. For 
over fifty years he was identified either as lawyer, deputy attor- 
ney general (district attorney), or judge with the legal affairs 
of his county. After his term of service as president judge ex- 
pired he returned to the bar, and associated with his son, Marcus 
C. Acheson, and his nephew, James I. Brownson, Jr., he con- 
tinued in active practice until his death, on July 10, 1890. 
Ernest F. Acheson, a son, is at present (1904) a representative 
from Washington County, Pa., in the National Congress. 

Hon. Henry Hice was the first president judge of the new 
Thirty-sixth Judicial District, to which position he was ap- 

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B. II. Chsmberiin. 
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History of Beaver County 319 

pointed and commissioned on the 30th of April, 1874. He was 
elected for the following term and served to its close on January 
1, 1885, when he resumed his practice at the bar of Beaver 
County. Judge Hice was born in Hopewell township, this 
county, January 34, 1834. He began the study of law in 1857 
with Col. Richard P. Rdberts, and was admitted to the bar of 
his native county in June, 1859. He entered into partnership 
with his preceptor immediately afterwards, and this relation 
continued until the death of Colonel Roberts at the battle of 
Gettysburg. From 1871 to 1877 his home was in Beaver Falls, 
but in the latter year he returned to Beaver. The judge has for 
many years been the legal adviser of the Harmony Society and 
the Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad, and closely connected with 
many of the most important business enterprises of the county. 
His practice at the bar both before and after his service on the 
bench has been large, showing the confidence which the people 
of this county and other parts of the country have in him as an 
able and honorable counselor. His son Agnew, a scion worthy 
of his sire, is now associated with him in the law business, 
the firm name being Hice & Hice. Judge Hice has been twice 
married, bis first wife being Ruth Ann Ralston, who died in 
1873. His second marriage in 1877 was to Mrs. Sarah H. Minis, 
a daughter of Chief Justice Agnew. 

Hon. John J. Wickham was born May 14, 1844, in County 
Meath, Ireland, and, when he was about five years of age, came 
with his parents to America, the family settling immediately in 
Beaver. His early education was in the public schools and the 
academy at Beaver, and when he was about seventeen years old 
he learned telegraphy. Entering the United States Military 
Telegraph Corps he served during the Civil War in various com- 
mands as a cipher expert, being for some months a prisoner, 
part of the time in Libby. After the war he continued this 
work on the staff of Gen. George H. Thomas. In 1867 he re- 
signed and, returning to Beaver, commenced the study of law 
with S. B.Wilson, Esq. After his admission to the bar in 1869, 
he practised for a short time in Des Moines, Iowa, when he 
returned and formed a partnership with Mr. Wilson, his precep- 
tor, which continued until 1875. In 1884 he was nominated 
for the office of president judge of Beaver County on the 

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320 History of Beaver County 

Republican ticket, and was elected. He was re-elected in 1894, 
and sat until 1895, when he was appointed one of the judges of 
the Superior Court of Pennsylvania. He was elected to this posi- 
tion subsequently, and sat until his death on the 18th of June, 
1898. In 1874 Judge Wickham was married to Lida J., daugh- 
ter of Charles D. and Abigail K. Hurlbutt of Beaver. An 
appreciative estimate of Judge Wickam's character and ability 
may be read in the Centennial address of Judge Hice (see vol. 
ii., Centennial Section). 

Hon. Millard P. Mecklem, a son of Archibald M. and Mar- 
garet (Thompson) Mecklem, was bom in Pittsburg, Pa.,Octobe - 
15, 1851. Mr. Mecklem obtained his education in the public 
schools of Darlington and the North Sewickley Academy. He 
taught for several years in the public schools, and then regis- 
tered as a law student in the office of Chamberlin & Peirsol of 
New Brighton. He was admitted to the bar, March 6, 1882, 
and in the fall of that year located in Rochester, where he has 
since resided and practised his profession. In 1883 he was 
elected burgess of Rochester, to which office he was five times 
re-elected. In 1890 he was elected district attorney of Beaver 
County, and served five years and six months. On the eleva- 
tion of Judge Wickham to the Superior Court in 1895, Mr. Meck- 
lem was appointed president judge of Beaver County, and served 
with great acceptance to the bar and the people to the end of 
the term, when he was succeeded by the present occupant of 
the bench, Hon, James Sharp Wilson. In 1881 Judge Mecklem 
was united in marriage to Ella Jackson, a daughter of Robert 
and Eliza (Thompson) Jackson of North Sewickley township. 
There are five children of this marriage — Erie H., Norman J., 
Ella, Margaret, and Millard. 

Hon. James Sharp Wilson, the present incumbent of the 
office of president judge of Beaver County, was born on a farm 
in Franklin township, November 10, 186a. He received his 
early education in the public schools, in which he also taught 
at the age of fifteen, and later entered Geneva College, from 
which he graduated in the class of 1885. After graduation he 
entered the office of the Hon. Henry Hice of Beaver, as a stu- 
dent of the law, teaching at intervals in the academy at Har- 
mony, Pa., and two terms of night school at New Brighton, and 

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Alexander W. Achcson. 

Pruidctu Judge, 1B66-1S74, 

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History of Beaver County 321 

was admitted to the bar of Beaver County, June 4, 1888, In 
1895 he was nominated by the Republican party for judge, and 
was elected in the fall of that year, taking his seat the first Mon- 
day of January following. Judge Wilson was married December 
35, 1888, to Sarah I. Hazen, daughter of Nathan and Judith 
Hazen, of Franklin township, who has borne him four children, 
John Howard, James Sharp, Hugh Hazen, and Mary Elizabeth. 

Under the Constitution of the State of 1776 all justices of the 
peace for wards, townships, and districts had a right to sit as 
Judges in the Court of Quarter Sessions, which was then regarded 
as the principal court. The Constitution of 1790, by Section X., 
provided that the justices of the peace should be no longer 
members of the county courts, but that the governor should 
appoint a competent number "in such convenient districts in 
each county as are or shall be directed by law." 

By Section IV., the State was to be divided by law into cir- 
cuits or districts, none to include "more than six nor fewer 
than three" counties. For each district the governor was to 
appoint a president of the courts "learned in the law," and in 
each county "not fewer than three nor more than four" associ- 
ate judges "not learned in the law." By the Act of February 
94, 1806, the number of associate judges in each county was re- 
duced to two, since by Section XV. it was provided 

that if a vacancy should hereafter happen, in any county at present 
organized, by the death, resignation, or removal of any associate judge, 
or otherwise; the governor shall not supply the same, unless the number 
of associates shall thereby be reduced to less than two, in which case, or 
in case of any county hereafter organised; he shall commission so many 
as will complete that number in each county, and no more. 

By the Constitution of 1874 the office of associate judge was 

The associate judges were not required to be "learned in the 
law," but they were usually men of good judgment and ex- 
perience, and were regarded as representing the people on the 
judicial bench, and in not a few cases were possessed of sufficient 
practical legal knowledge to be qualified under ordinary con- 
ditions to conduct the business of the court in an emergency 
(see sketch of Milton Lawrence in next chapter, and of Judge 
Reddick on page 324). They were most useful in assisting to 

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322 History of Beaver County 

decisions in questions involving landmarks, property lines, the 
offering of bail, the reliability of men offered as bondsmen, and 
the like. 

The following gentlemen served as associate judges in Beaver 
County: Abner Lacock, John H. Reddick, Joseph Caldwell, 
David Drennan, Thomas Henry, Joseph Hemphill, John Nesbit, 
Benjamin Adams, John Carothers, Joseph Irvin, William Cairns, 
John Scott, Milton Lawrence, Agnew Duff, and Joseph C. Wilson. 
The first three named were members of the first court, held in 
February, 1804. Abner Lacock having resigned, David Drennan 
of Ohio township, was appointed, and took his seat on the 5th of 
February, 1805. On the death of Joseph Caldwell, the vacancy 
was not filled, the law having then, as above stated, limited 
the number of associate judges to two. John H. Reddick and 
David Drennan sat together until the early part of 1830, when 
Judge Reddick died and Thomas Henry was commissioned by 
Governor Wolf , May 19, 1830. The following year Judge Drennan 
died, and on the 19th of August that year Joseph Hemphill was 
commissioned by the governor to take his place. 

Abner Lacock was bom on Cub Run, near Alexandria, 
Virginia, July 9, 1770. His father was a native of England, and 
his mother a native of France. The father emigrated to Wash- 
ington County, Pa., while Abner was still young. In 1796 
Abner came to Beaver, then in Allegheny County. On the 19th 
of September the same year he was commissioned by Governor 
Thomas Mifflin, a justice of the peace for Pitt township, 
Allegheny County. This appointment made him the first 
justice of the peace in, Beaver County, which was later formed in 
part out of Allegheny County. In 1801 he was elected the first 
Representative to the State Legislature from Beaver County. 
In 1803 he was appointed the first associate judge of the Beaver 
County bench, and accepted, but at the end of the year resigned 
to enter again the Legislature. He ably represented the county 
in the lower branch of the Legislature for four successive ses- 
sions, and in 1808 was elected to the Senate of Pennsylvania 
from Allegheny, Beaver, and Butler counties. The War of 1812 
with the agitation which preceded it brought him into the 
larger field of national politics. In 1810 he was elected by the 
people of his district as a "war candidate" to Congress, where 

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Henry Mice. 
nsidait Judge, 1874-1885. 

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History of Beaver County 323 

he showed such qualities of leadership that in 18 13 the Legisla- 
ture of his State with great unanimity elected him a Senator 
of the United States. He served in the House during the 
Twelfth Congress and in the Senate in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
and Fifteenth Congresses. 

In public life Gen. Lacock was no mere figurehead, but a 
man of much influence. His hand helped to shape many im- 
portant measures. On December 18, 1818, a select committee 
of five members was appointed in the Senate of the United 
States, to investigate the conduct of General Andrew Jackson 
in the Seminole campaign. Of this committee Hon. Abner 
Lacock was chairman. February 24, 1819, Mr. Lacock pre- 
sented his report to the Senate, severely arraigning Jackson 
with the violation of the Constitution and international laws. 
The action of the committee made Jackson and his friends 
furious, he threatening the members of the committee with 
personal violence. Lacock was unalarmed, and as illustrating 
his feeling and spirit, we quote the following extract from a 
letter of his to John Binns, Esg., of Philadelphia, published in 
that gentleman's autobiography, page 358: 

General Jackson is still here, and by times raves like a madman. 
He has sworn most bitterly he would cut off the ears of every member 
of the committee who reported against his conduct. This bullying is 
done in public, and yet I have passed, his lodgings every day, and still 
retain my ears; how long I shall be spared without mutilation 1 know 
not, but one thing I can promise you, that I shall never avoid him a single 
inck; and as the civil authority here seems to be put down by the military. 
I shall be ready and willing to defend myself, and not die soft. I will 
remain here as long as he does, and take the consequences. 

The clash of arms did not come. They left the Capitol on 
the same day, and in the same public conveyance. After-years 
and their revelations somewhat mollified the feeling of Jack- 
son towards Lacock. 

General Lacocft was one of the most active promoters of 
internal improvements in the State of Pennsylvania. On the 
nth of April, 1835, he was appointed one of five commissioners 
to survey the route of the State line of canals and railroads for 
uniting the waters of the Delaware and Ohio rivers. He was 
chosen by the Board of Commissioners to supervise the con- 
struction of the western division of the canal from Pittsburg to 

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324 History of Beaver County 

Johnstown. The first canal boat built or run west of the Alle- 
gheny Mountains was named the General Abner Lacock. Later 
General Lacock repeatedly served Beaver County in the State 
Legislature, and in 1836 he was appointed to survey and con- 
struct the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, known as the "cross- 
cut canal," connecting the Erie Division of the Pennsylvania 
Canal with the Portsmouth and Ohio Canal. Besides those 
named, General Lacock held, or was offered, many other 
positions of high public trust, and did much to secure the 
establishment of the common-school system of Pennsylvania. 
General Lacock died at his residence, near Freedom, Pa., on 
Wednesday, April ta, 1837, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. 
The portrait of him opposite this page is from an oil painting 
made when he was about thirty-five years of age.* 

John H. Reddick came to Beaver County in 1790, and settled 
where Keifer's mill now stands. Eight years later he sold bis 
farm there to Samuel Harper, and removed to a farm close to 
the Virginia line in the same township, now owned by John 
Deemer. Here the rest of his life was spent. Judge Reddick 
discharged the duties of his office for twenty-six years. On 
one occasion during the absence of the president judge he charged 
the grand jury, and at their request his charge was printed in 
the Argus of August 31, 1819. He was a strong advocate of 
arbitration, and did much to discourage litigation among his 
neighbors. He also became early convinced of the evils of 
slavery, and fearlessly advocated its abolition. In his religious 
opinions he was liberal, and he is reported to have been somewhat 
eccentric. A popular tradition credits him with having requested 
his relatives to bury him on the State line between Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, with his face towards the east, his head in Virginia, 
and his feet in Pennsylvania. He was at any rate so buried, 
his grave being enclosed by a massive wall of cut sandstone. 
The re-establishment of the boundary line between Pennsylvania 
and West Virginia in 1882 has, however, left the grave wholly 
within the territory of the former State. His grave is on top of 
a high'hill overlooking King's Creek. 

Of Joseph Caldwell we have been unable to obtain any in- 

1 See further refe r e n ces Co Lacoclc in the chapter on Beaver borough. 

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John j. Wickham. 

P™idcT,< Judge, TSSs-'SflS. 

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History of Beaver County 325 

David Drennan, who succeeded Judge Lacock, was a highly 
respected citizen of Ohio township, in which he held a con- 
siderable body of land. That he enjoyed the confidence of his 
fellow citizens is apparent from the fact that he was so frequently 
their choice for positions of trust. He died at his home in Ohio 
township, August ia, 1831, at about seventy years of age. 

Thomas Henry succeeded Judge Reddick by appointment of 
Governor Wolf. His ancestry has been spoken of in the note 
on William Henry, his brother, who was the first sheriff of Beaver 
County (page 196). He came to Beaver in 1798, to work with 
his elder brother at the carpenter's trade. It was not long until 
his natural abilities asserted themselves, and he rapidly came 
into public life. On the 34th of December, 1808, he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Snyder a justice of the peace; in 1810 he 
was elected one of the county commissioners, and in 1814 he 
was captain of one of the companies that went from Beaver 
County to help defend the northern frontier from a threatened 
British invasion. In 1815 he was elected a member of the 
Legislature, and in 1816 appointed prothonotary and clerk of 
the several courts of the county, in which position he remained 
until the fall of 1821, when he was elected sheriff. In the year 
1895 he became proprietor and editor of the Western Argus, 
first started by James Logan, and ably conducted this newspaper 
until 1831, when his son, William Henry, took charge of it and 
began the career which classed him among the best journalists in 
the State. Thomas Henry was treasurer of the county in 1 8 2 8 and 
1829, and was elected by handsome majorities in 1836, 1838, and 
1 840 to represent his district in Congress. In his public and private 
life, Mr. Henry was a man of great influence, with hosts of friends 
and not without enemies gained by the very sterling traits of hon- 
esty and fearlessness which he possessed. He became early in life 
a member of the Presbyterian Church, in which he was also for 
many years a ruling elder. He died in Beaver, July 20, 1849, 

Judge Hemphill. — Of the three commissioners, Joseph Hemp- 
hill, Denny McClure, and Jonathan Coulter, named in the Act 
for the erection of the county of Beaver, in 1800, Joseph Hemp- 
hill is the best remembered. His youngest child, Mrs. Margaret 
Cunningham, widow of Judge Thomas Cunningham, in his day 

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326 History of Beaver County 

an eminent member of the Beaver County bar, died November 
23, 1903, at her residence on the corner of Elk and Third streets. 
Beaver. There are those who personally remember Judge 
Hemphill as a strong, practical man of much business capacity. 
He died May 20th, 1834, in his sixty-fourth year. The Beaver 
Argus on this occasion had the following: 

Judge Hemphill was the oldest inhabitant of the town of Beaver, 
having commenced with its first settlement, and no panegyric or encomium 
is necessary to set forth his character. His acquaintance was an extensive 
one, and he was esteemed and admired by all who knew him, for being a 
plain, intelligent, substantial and practical man, devoid of all ostentation, 
pomp or external show; yet few possessed a mind better stored with 
general reading and a knowledge of the world. 

All the liberal, benevolent and religious institutions of the county 
received from Judge Hemphill a helping hand, always ready to contribute 
to relieve the distresses and wants of his fellowmen. In his death society 
has met with a great loss; a wide chasm is made in the immediate circle 
in which he moved; his widow has lost the best of husbands, and his 
children and family have sustained a loss which cannot be repaired. 

And it also contained the following report of a meeting at the 
court-house : 

At a meeting of the Judges, Members of the Bar and Officers of the 
Courts of Beaver County, on Tuesday, the aoth of May, Thomas Henry, 
Esq., having been called to the Chair, and Daniel Agnew appointed 
secretary, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted, viz. : 

Whereas, it is with feelings of the deepest sorrow we have heard of 
the recent death of our much respected friend and fellow citizen, Joseph 
Hemphill, Esq., one of the Judges of the Courts of this County, whose 
warm and friendly feelings, benevolent, upright and virtuous conduct, 
learning and intelligence have rendered him esteemed and respected by all 
who knew him, and whose loss will be much and sincerely felt by bis 
near relations and friends, and by the society in which he lived: 

Therefore, Resolved, That in testimony of our regard for his memory, the 
members composing this meeting will walk in procession at his funeral to- 
morrow, and will wear crape on their left arms for the space of thirty days. 

He was of Scotch-Irish ancestors, who were among the earliest 
settlers in Northampton County, Pa. His father and mother, 
Moses and Agnes Hemphill, were born there, the former on No- 
vember 11, 1746, and the latter on January 16, 1750. The 
son, Joseph Hemphill, was a surveyor, and emigrated to Beaver, 
then in Allegheny County, sometime prior to 1798. A com- 
mission appointing him Major of Militia — now in the possession 
of his grandson the Hon. W. B. Dunlap — was issued to him 

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Millard F. Mecklem. 
Fmident Judge. i^-iSgfi- 

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History of Beaver County 327 

by Governor Thomas Mifflin, dated December 26, 1798.* From 
this it would appear that he was a fixed and well-known citizen 
at that date. His residence at Beaver five years before that is 
certain, as it is known that his cousin James Fullerton visited 
him there in 1793. He soon added to his occupation of surveyor 
the business of tavern keeping and general merchandizing; and 
at his death he was the possessor of one of the largest estates in 
the county. His surveys of farms throughout the county fre- 
quently turn up even at this late day, and the attorneys of 
to-day are continually tracing titles to property back to his 
ownership. The title to much of the property in Beaver, Bridge- 
water, and Rochester was vested in him at the period of his death. 
On March 8, 1803, he was commissioned by Gideon Granger, 
Postmaster-General, postmaster of Beavertown; and he filled 
in succession the offices of trustee of the Academy, county 
treasurer, and associate judge. He was serving in the latter 
position at the time of his death in 1834. 

John Nesbit was the son of Francis Nesbit. His father came 
to Beaver County in 1803 and located on Hickory Creek, south of 
Mount Jackson, in North Beaver township, where John resided. 
The family of Francis Nesbit was highly esteemed in the com- 
munity, consisting of five sons, of which John was the oldest, 
and two daughters. The North Beaver settlement and the 
early organizers of the Westfield Presbyterian Church came 
mostly from the Scotch-Irish communities that had located at 
or near to Harrisburg. Among these were the Clarkes, the 
Sheerers, and the Nesbits. 

John Nesbit was married to a daughter of Walter Clarke. 
He was appointed in 1834 to fill the place on the judicial bench 
made vacant by the death of Judge Hemphill. Capt. J. H. 
Cooper, of New Castle, who commanded the famous Battery B, 
in the Civil War, is married to a grand-daughter of Judge Nesbit. 

Benjamin Adams came from Allegheny County to Beaver at 
an early day. He was elected a county commissioner in 1839, 
and became treasurer of the county in 1833. Later he was 
appointed one of the associate judges. He spent the last years 
of his life as a merchant in an unpretentious way, keeping a 

3 and commiitioned colonel of the 5 j d Regi- 

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328 History of Beaver County 

general store where Donaldson's hardware store on Third Street, 
Beaver, now stands. 

No one ever questioned his unbending integrity. He was a 
man of many individual peculiarities, which often amused his 
friends, and his language was always pointed and direct, but 
never unfeeling. He was an ardent and consistent Methodist, 
and was a great friend of Beaver College in its early days. 
He died in Beaver, June 4. 1867, at eighty-one years of age. 

John Carothers was born at what is now Frankfort Springs, 
March n, 1793. He grew up and received his education in that 
neighborhood. He married Nancy, daughter of Thomas White, 
of White's mill, now Murdocksville, and by her had eight chil- 
dren. Soon after his marriage he moved to a point in Brighton 
township, on the Darlington road, about three miles back of 
Beaver, where he spent the remainder of his life, engaging in 
farming. He served fifteen years as associate judge of Beaver 
County, being twice appointed by the Governor of the State and 
once elected by the people of the county. In politics he was a 
Democrat, and in religious faith a Presbyterian, serving many 
years as ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church of Bridgewater. 
He died at his home in Brighton township December 18, 1S60. 

Joseph Irvin was born in County Antrim, Ireland, October 
31, 1797, and was brought by his parents to this country when 
he was two years old. The family settled first, at Stone's Point 
and soon afterward in what is now Rochester township, on a 
farm where Joseph lived his entire life. He was always devoted 
to the pursuits of agriculture, and followed this occupation 
successfully, acquiring by industry and thrift large real estate 
holdings. He acquired the best education that the times and 
community around about afforded, and his reputation for wisdom 
and integrity led in time to his selection to serve as one of the 
associate judges of the county. For ten years he filled this 
position with dignity and credit. Judge Irvin was the father of 
nine children, all well known in the history of Beaver County. 
Judge Irvin died October 30, 1884, in his eighty-seventh year. 

William Cairns was bom October 1, 1793, in Westmoreland 
County, Pa. In the early part of the following century he came 
to Beaver where he remained until 1837, when he removed to 
Industry, Pa. His education was obtained in his native county, 

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James Sharp Wilson. 
Proidenl Judge, 1S96- 

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History of Beaver County 329 

and he followed the lumber business and boat building for many 
years. He was a commissioner from 1810 to 1811 and sheriff 
of Beaver County from 1815 to 1818 and again from 1833 to 
1836. In 1861 he was elected an associate judge of the county. 
Judge Cairns was a Republican and a member of the United 
Presbyterian Church. He was a man highly respected in the 
community. He died in Industry, Beaver County, Pa., May a, 
1876, and is buried in the new cemetery in Beaver. 

John Scott was born January 31, 1804, at New Scottsville, 
Beaver County, Pa. He was the fourth son and seventh child 
of David and Jane (Walker) Scott. His grandfather, James 
Scott with his wife, Margaret (Tully) Scott, came to this country 
from Roxbury shire, Scotland, in 1775, arriving at Philadelphia 
when that city was in possession of the British. Their ship was 
the last one permitted to land emigrants until the war was over, 
They subsequently came to Fort Pitt, now Pittsburg, and settled 
upon land which is now in the heart of the city, an interest in 
which his descendants retain to this day. In 1792 the family 
leased their land in Pittsburg, and removing into the wilderness 
settled on what was called Zion Hill tract, on the Brodhead 
Road. On this farm John Scott was born and reared. He re- 
ceived his education under the difficulties incident to a frontier 
life, walking from New Scottsville to the old log schoothouse at 
Service in the winter. January 6, 1836, he was married to Mary 
Walker, daughter of Major Isaac Walker (of Walker's Mills), an 
early settler of Allegheny County, Pa. He began house-keeping 
on the farm on Raccoon Creek, near New Sheffield, this county. 
In the spring of 185a, he left the farm, and moved into the 
village of New Sheffield, where he started a general store, which 
was the principal trading-place on the south side at that time, 
The following year he was elected justice of the peace on the 
Whig ticket. He became interested in politics, and was one of 
the leaders of his section in helping to form the Republican 
party. In 1856 Mr. Scott was elected an associate judge of 
Beaver County. He served one term, and was re-elected in 
1 86 1, receiving his commission a short time before his death, 
which took place February 4, 186a, when he was in the fifty- 
eighth year of his age. Judge Scott was a member of the United 
Presbyterian church, and a ruling elder for many years. He 

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330 History of Beaver County 

was one of the promoters of the Beaver County Agricultural 
Society, and was active in all good things. On March 10, i86a, 
fitting respect was paid to his memory at a meeting of the judges, 
bar, and officers of the several courts of the county, and resolu- 
tions prepared by a committee consisting of Hon. B. B. Chamber- 
lin, and Esqs. Richard P. Roberts, and Thomas Cunningham, 
were read and adopted. 

Milton Lawrence is mentioned in our next chapter, to which 
the reader is referred for the facts of his life. 

Agnew Duff was born in Darlington township, April 16, 1817, 
where he was raised on a farm, and for many years engaged in 
the business of farming, spending a part of the time in his youth • 
teaching school. In the spring of 1854 he sold his farm and 
came to Pallston, where he engaged in the lumber business with 
Messrs. M. T. Kennedy and Andrew Stewart under the firm 
name of Kennedy, Stewart & Duff. In 1866 he sold his interest 
in the lumber business and connected himself with Mr. Emmet B. 
Thompson in merchandizing in New Brighton, under the firm 
name of Duff & Thompson. They remained in this hne until the 
panic of 1873, when they were compelled to close out the business. 

In i860 Mr. Duff was elected one of the associate judges of 
Beaver County, and was re-elected to the office, holding it two 
terms. Mr. Duff held, besides, many positions of trust, in all of 
which he was faithful. In 1883 he was appointed by the com- 
missioners of the county to the office of mercantile appraiser, 
filling the post for one year. He was appointed notary public 
by Governor Hoyt in 188a, and re-appointed just before his 
death by Governor Pattison. At the time of his death he was 
serving as justice of the peace, to which office he had been 
elected by the citizens of the North Ward of New Brighton. 
Mr. Duff was long an honored member of the United Presby- 
terian Church. In politics he was a Republican. Judge Duff 
died suddenly February 26, 1885. 

Joseph C. Wilson was born in 1814 in Burgettstown, Wash- 
ington County, Pa.', where he was reared and obtained bis early 
education. He learned the harness- and saddle-makers' trade, 
and pursued it for some years in Burgettstown, Fairview, and 
Beaver. Afterwards he became a merchant in partnership with 

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History of Beaver County 331 

William K. Boden and William McGaffick at Beaver, where he 
remained until 1877, when he removed to his farm in Ohio town- 
ship, this county. He was largely engaged for many years in 
settling estates throughout the Beaver valley. He became one 
of the associate judges of Beaver County, he and Milton Law- 
rence, M.D., being the last to occupy that position. 

Judge Wilson married Miss Eliza Jane Moore, daughter of 
Thomas and Eliza (Cunningham) Moore of Ohio township, and 
had nine children, all of whom died in infancy except Mrs. Wil- 
liam P. Littell, now deceased; William C, now of Beaver; Lillie, 
wife of Fred. N. Bixby of Beaver, and David Walker Scott, 
who died at twenty-four years of age on the farm. 

In politics Judge Wilson was a Republican and in religious 
association a United Presbyterian. 

He remained on the farm in Ohio township until his death, 
which occurred January a8, 1896. He was buried in the old 
cemetery in Beaver. 

In the eaTly days of our legal history, when several counties 
belonged to one district, the members of the bench and the bar 
traveled from one county-seat .to another in the practice of their 
profession, following the woodland trails or the primitive roads 
on horseback, with saddlebags and whip or spurs. There was 
an element of romance in this mode of living, with adventures 
upon the road, and the gatherings of the legal fraternity in the 
country taverns, that has entirely vanished. At the first court 
held in Beaver, February 6, 1804, there was, as we have seen, 
a large representation of the attorneys of other counties present, 
a number of whom applied for admission to practise at this 
court. There is on file at Beaver the original of the following 
paper, bearing date, February 6, 1804: 

The subscribers, practicing attorneys in the Fifth Circuit, desire that 
they may be admitted attorneys of the Court of Beaver County: 
Alexander Addison David Redick 

Thos. Collins Parker Campball 

Steele Serople David Hayes 

A. W. Foster C. S. Sample 

John B. Gibson Thos G. Johnston 

Sampson S. King Henry Baldwin 

Obh. Jennings Isaac Kerr 

Wm. Wilkins 
H. Haslet 

James Allison, Jr. 
ohn Simonson 

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33 2 History of Beaver County 

These gentlemen were all admitted. From the Attorneys' 
Register it would appear as stated in a former chapter, that two 
others, William Larwill and William C. Larwell, who presented 
certificates of his being a practising attorney in the courts in 
the States of Maryland and Ohio, were both admitted at the 
same time. The similarity of names is so singular that we 
might suppose them to belong to one and the same person, 
were it not for the fact that the Appearance Docket shows that 
they were separately sworn. On this roll of attorneys are several 
stars of the first magnitude in the legal firmament of the State. 
Hon. Daniel Agnew has written of it : 

Among these names will be recognized some of the most eminent men 
in Western Pennsylvania, at a time when the bar of the Fifth Circuit 
was unsurpassed by any bar in the State. The only name I miss from 
this roll is that of James Ross, the leader of the bar at that early day, 
unrivalled for learning, polish and legal erudition; also John Woods. 

Having given some account of the men who composed the 
bench of Beaver County, we shall now give so much of the history 
of its bar as we have been able to learn and as our space will allow . 

Hon. Alexander Addison was the first president judge ap- 
pointed for the Fifth District under the Constitution of 1790, 
and it is to be remembered that at that time his jurisdiction 
extended over the territory of both counties, Allegheny and 
Washington, from which, later, Beaver County was formed. 
Interesting illustration of this will be seen in the letter from 
Judge Addison to Governor Thomas Mifflin printed in a note to 
the chapter on Beaver borough. 

Alexander Addison was a native of Morayshire, Scotland, 
born in 1759, educated at Aberdeen University, and licensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Aberlour [Aberdour ?] . E migrating to 
America in 1785, he came directly to Washington County, and was 
taken under the care of the Presbytery of Redstone "with some 
imitation," on December ao, 1785, permission being given him 
to preach within its bounds.' On April 18, 1786, Mr. Addison's 

•' Pioboh Cum. Dm. jo. ijBj.— The 
poil prKii Hdtntnt, the Rev. Mean. Jar 
Mr. Addison, a, candidate from Scotland, * 

■The Presbytery met according to adjou: 

" Mr. Alexander Addiacm, a candi ..._ .... 

having produced a copy of oil licenaure. and a certificate o( 
Preabytery, and having alao applied to thii Presbytery tc 
Presbytery proceeded to make tome inquiries of him, in 

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Hon. Thomas Henry. 

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History of Beaver County 333 

leave to supply the church at Washington, granted the previous 
year, was extended "until the next meeting of Synod," but he 
seems to have grown weary of "the law's delay" in ecclesiastical 
courts, for, registering with David Redick, Esq., he was admitted 
to the bar of Washington County in March, 1787. 

Judge Addison attained the first rank in the legal profession, 
and was universally esteemed as an upright and incorruptible 
jurist, and a man profoundly learned both in the law and in 
letters. He was politically a Federalist and an ardent friend of 
Washington and Adams, standing fearlessly on the side of the 
Government in the troublous days during and succeeding the 
Whisky Insurrection. This course made him some bitter ene- 
mies, among them Hugh Henry Brackenridge and John B. Lucas, 
the latter of whom, through the incoming of Jefferson's adminis- 
tration, was appointed an associate judge of Allegheny County, 
July 17, 1800. Lucas at once set himself to oppose Judge Addison, 
and several times attempted to charge grand and petit juries in 
opposition to him and when Addison instructed the juries to dis- 
regard the remarks of his subordinate, the latter complained of 
his being arbitrary and tyrannical. With the aid of Addison's 
political opponents Lucas finally succeeded in causing him to be 
impeached before the Senate off Pennsylvania, 1 and in one of the 
most shamefully partisan trials that disgraces the records of any 
age or nation, he was found guilty as charged, the sentence of the 
Senate as passed on January 97, 1803, reading as follows: 

That Alexander Addison, President of the several courts of Common 
Pleas, in the fifth District of this State shall be, and he hereby is, removed 
from his office of President aforesaid ; and also is disqualified to hold and 
exercise the office of Judge in any court of law within the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania. 

Judge Addison died at Pittsburg, where he then resided, on 
November 24, 1807, four years after his impeachment, at the 

neeting of Presbytery, Application was made 
d labors of Mr. Addison until our next meeting, and al 
The Presbytery agree that Mr. Addison's If 

sbytery agree that Mr. Addison's labors be 
town of Washington ; but as the moderating, 
ninute of Synod on thio subject, wt cannot 

enemies had previously applied to the Supreme Court to file an indictment M 
a misdemeanor in office. The Supreme Court dismissed the application: m. 
papers did not show an indictable offense U Dallas, R. at]}. 

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334 History of Beaver County 

early age of forty-seven, his death doubtless hastened by the 
dastard conduct of his enemies. He was buried in the church- 
yard of the First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburg, and on the 
slab which covers his grave was placed the following inscription, 
prepared by the Hon. James Ross : 

In memory of Alexander Addison, who died on the 14th day of Novem- 
ber, 1807. In this great and good man. prominent powers of mind were 
happily united with the most precious attainments of science; an ac- 
complished classic scholar, profoundly skilled in jurisprudence, combining 
purity of taste with the cogency of reason. Mis talents as an author, an 
advocate and a judge were universally admired and revered. In the 
latter character, which he sustained for twelve years, he was a luminous 
expositor of the law, prompt, correct, impartial and decisive; in dis- 
patch of business never surpassed, and from his judgements there never 
was an appeal. These splendid ornaments of the mind were accompanied 
by a heart without disguise, constant and ardent in its friendships and 
generous to the full measure of its means. Beneficent and charitable to 
the unfortunates, ever ready without reward to defend the oppressed, a 
tender husband and an affectionate father, he left a widow and eight 
children to mourn over his premature grave. 

We are not, as a rule, disposed to trust implicitly to the 
testimony of epitaphs, but a cloud of witnesses could be sum- 
moned to corroborate this one as bearing true testimony con- 
cerning the character and worth of its subject, and so mournful 
was the fate of this good man that we feel justified in giving it 
space here. The sentence by which it was sought to rob him of 

That good fame 

Without which Glory 's but a tavern song 

still stands upon the records of the Senate; it can no longer 
harm him against whom it was fulminated, but it is a blot that 
should, for the honor of the Commonwealth, be formally wiped 


Thomas Collins, whose name is second on the roll of attorneys 
admitted at our first term of court, was an AlleghenyCounty attor- 
ney, and one of the ablest men of its bar, to which he was admitted 
on motion of Hugh H. Brackenridge, December 3, 1794. He 
was born in Dublin in 1774 and was educated at Trinity College, 
that city. He studied law under Marks Biddle, Esq., in Reading, 
Berks County, Pa., and was admitted to the bar of that county 
in 1794. The same year he came to Pittsburg. Collins was 

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History of Beaver County 335 

generally looked upon as a rival of Hugh H. Brackenridge, 
though he was not so erratic as that celebrated character. He 
frequently practised in the Beaver County courts. Collins 
township, now a part of Pittsburg, was named after him. So- 
cially he stood high and had two daughters, both passing fair 
and intelligent, and both of whom married judges, one Wilson 
McCandless and the other William B. McClure. He died in 
Butler whither he had removed, late in his legal career, but still 
in the prime of life, February 17, 1814. 

Steele Semple, third on the list, was one of the legal giants of 
the Pittsburg bar in the early days, though little of his history 
has been preserved. He has been classed in ability as a lawyer 
with such men as Walter Forward and Henry Baldwin. His 
specialty was land cases and ejectment suits, which made up a 
large part of the business of the lawyers of that period. Semple 
was noted for his forensic eloquence and his knowledge of the 

Alexander W. Foster, at one time a member of the bar at 
Greensburg, later removed to Pittsburg, where he died in March, 
1843. He was admitted on motion of Steele Semple, Esq., to 
the bar of Allegheny County, December Sessions, 1798. He 
was an able lawyer, and like Steele Semple, was prominent in 
land cases. In 1804, the year of his admission to the Beaver 
County courts, he fought a duel with Major Roger Alden near 
Meadville, Pa., wounding his antagonist. On the occasion of 
Foster's death the Pittsburg bar adopted resolutions, in which 
they referred to his " long career at the bar as distinguished by 
profound and varied learning, and endeared by the many virtues 
of his private life." 

John Bannister Gibson, LL.D., was one of the greatest lawyers 
and jurists that Pennsylvania has ever produced. He was born 
in Shearman's Valley, Pa., November 8, 1780, the son of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel George Gibson, 1 a Revolutionary officer who fell 

1 The father of John Bannister Gibson, then Captain, afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel. 
George Gibson, with Lieutenant William Linn, engaged in the hazardous and successful 
exploit of descending the Ohio and Mississippi riven from Pittsburg to New Orleans (then 
under Spanish dominion), and purchasing a large quantity of powder, part of which was 
taken by Gibson, by sea, to Philadelphia, and part by Htm in flat-boats to Pittsburg, the 
journey of the latter taking seven months to Wheeling. This powder was a great boon 
to the Americans. From the portion brought to Pittsburg Colonel George Rogers Clark 
drew his supply, in the spring of 1778, for his famous expedition to the Illinois country. 

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336 History of Beaver County 

in General Arthur St. Clair's disastrous campaign against the 
Maumee Confederacy, in 1791, and the nephew of Colonel, 
afterwards General, John Gibson, who was at one time (1781) in 
command of the Western Department, succeeding General 

Gibson's early life was connected with Cumberland County, 
Pa. He was educated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, studied 
law with Thomas Duncan, Esq., and was admitted to the bar of 
Cumberland County in 1803. After a short period of practice 
at that bar, he came to Beaver, and as the record shows, was 
enrolled on the list of attorneys entitled to practise there. He 
remained but a short time at Beaver, and gave no particular dis- 
covery of his great talents while there. He seems never to have 
looked upon his stay in Beaver with much affection. The story 
goes that on one occasion when he was advanced in life he was 
speaking to some friends of his career and gave his age as sixty- 
two. "But," said one, "you were twenty-four when you went 
to Beaver, and you were there several years." "My God!" 
exclaimed the old Chief, "you are not going to charge me with 
that I hope . ' ' His practice at Beaver was small and principally in 
petty cases, of one of which there is an interesting memorandum 
in the records, as follows : 

Elias Milor vs James Magaw, issue summons, wherefore with force and 
arm, he the said James Magaw, on the said Elias Milor an assault did 
make at the county aforesaid, and him did there beat, wound and evilly 
treat and other wrongs to him did to the great damage of the said Elias 
and against the peace. 

(Signed) Elias Mi lob. 
To Daoid Johnson, prothonotary. 

The bearer says he has not money enough about htm to pay for the 
writ, but if you don't think to trust him I will be accountable for the 
price of it. 

(Signed) John B. Gibson. 

It is not a matter of record whether the future chief justice 
was out of pocket or not by this transaction. 

John Bannister Gibson was a big man, both in body and 
brain. He was over six feet in height, strongly built and strong 
in features, with a face full of character and intelligence as may 
be seen in his portrait on the opposite page. It is said that he was 
nick-named "Horse-head Gibson," on account of the height of his 
head. Mr. Gibson was very fond of the violin, and report says that 

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History of Beaver County 337 

he studied out some of his ablest decisions while drawing forth 
its sweet strains, • 

From Beaver Gibson removed first to Hagerstown and after- 
wards to Carlisle. He now began to take a prominent place in 
the political and legal world. In 1810 he was sent to the 
Assembly, and re-elected several times. In July, 1813, he was 
appointed president judge of the Eleventh Judicial District 
and three years later an associate judge of the Supreme Court. 
In 18a 7 he was appointed the successor of Chief Justice Tilghman 
in that court and retained his position until 1851, when by a 
change in the State Constitution, the judiciary became elective. 
He was then elected by the people an associate justice of the 
same court, but even in a subordinate position, " his great learn- 
ing, venerable character and overshadowing reputation still 
made him," says Judge Black, "the only Chief whom the hearts 
of the people would know." He remained in this position until 
his last illness prevented bis further employment in public 
duties. His death occurred in Philadelphia, May 3, 1853. 

Sampson Smith King. Of this attorney we know only that 
he was admitted to the bar of Allegheny County March 26, 1801, 
on motion of Cunningham S. Sample. 

Obadiah Jennings, whose name is on the roll of attorneys 
given above, was one of the group of Washington County lawyers 
who came to this country to practise. He was bom in the neigh- 
borhood of Baskingridge, N. J., December 13, 1778. Coming 
to Washington County, Pa., he was educated at the Canonsburg 
Academy, and studied law with John Simonson, who was from 
the same State. He began practice at Steubenville, Ohio, and 
remained there until 1811, when be returned to Washington. 
Shortly afterwards he forsook the law for the study of theology 
and was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Ohio in 1816. 
He received the degree of D.D. a little while before his death, 
which occurred at Nashville, Tenn., January n, 1833. 

William Wilkins, whose name follows on the roll, has already 
been spoken of in this chapter. 

H. Haslet. Beyond the record of his admission to the Alle- 
gheny County bar, September 37, 1803, we have been unable to 
learn anything of this lawyer. 

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338 History of Beaver County 

James Allison, Jr., was born in Cecil County, Maryland, 
October 4, 1772. His father, Colonel James Allison, removed 
to what is now Washington County, Pa., in 1774, where at 
seventeen years of age, the son entered the first Latin grammar 
class established west of the mountains and taught by David 
Johnson, who later became a teacher in the academy in Beaver, 
and the first prothonotary of Beaver County. 

After some service in the Indian warfare, he entered the pro- 
fession of law, having studied in the office of his uncle, David 
Bradford, at Washington, Pa., and in 1803, came to Beaver. 
He practised in the several courts of the district until 182a, when 
he was elected to Congress. He was re-elected in 1824, but so 
strong was his dislike of political strife and his love of a domestic 
life that he declined to serve, and resigned his seat before the 
term began. Mr. Allison has left behind him a tradition of high 
legal attainments, classic taste, and learning, and especially of 
a pure, honest, and loving heart. For fifty years his name was 
associated with all the best things in the social and public life of 
the town and county of Beaver. He died in Beaver, June 17, 
185+. Edward J. Allison, Esq., cashier of the First National 
Bank of Beaver, is his grandson, and the only male descendant 
of the name now remaining in the county. 

John Simonson was originally from New Jersey, and came to 
Washington, Pa., where he was admitted to the roll of attorneys 
in January, 1796. He bore the reputation of good character 
and ability in his profession. He died in Steubenville, Ohio, 
December a, 1809, at thirty-six years of age. 

David Redick was a man of mark in western Pennsylvania. 
He was a son of John Redick, who was a native of Ireland. His 
mother was Rachel, daughter of John Hoge, who was a native of 
New Jersey and the son of William Hoge, a Scotchman. David 
was born about 1745 in East Pennsborough township, then in 
Lancaster, now Cumberland County, Pa., nine miles west of 
Hanisburg, where the village of Hogestown now is. He studied 
law at Carlisle, and married his cousin, Ann Hoge, a daughter of 
Jonathan Hoge, the brother of David Hoge, the proprietor of 
what is now Washington, Pa. In 1788, he was chosen vice- 
president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 

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History of Beaver County 339 

and was a delegate from Washington County to the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1790. He was appointed protbonotary of 
that county in 1791. He took a prominent part on the side 
of the Government in the Whisky Insurrection, and was one of 
the commissioners who visited President Washington when at 
Carlisle with the army, in order to make a report to him con- 
cerning the state of affairs in the disturbed counties. He died at 
Washington, Pa., September 28, 1805, about twenty months 
after his admission to practice in the Beaver County courts.' 

Parker Campbell was born in Carlisle, Pa., in 1768, and was 
admitted to the roll of Washington County attorneys in 1794. 
March a, 1795. he was admitted to the bar of Allegheny County. 
He practised there, in Beaver, and in all the adjoining counties 
until his death, which occurred in Washington, Pa., July 36, 1824. 
Tradition ranks him as the most distinguished lawyer of this 
region at that time. 

David Hayes was born about the year 1766 or 1767, and 
died in North Beaver township, this county, October 39, i8ai, 
He was esteemed a good citizen and lawyer, and practised for 
some years at the bar of Beaver County. He was a brother-in- 
law of Associate Judge Joseph Hemphill, who married his sister. 

Thomas G. Johnston. We have learned nothing more of 
him than that he was admitted to the bar of Allegheny County 
September 3, 1799. 

Henry Baldwin was a native of New Haven, Conn.; born 
January 14, 1780, and graduated from Yale College in 1797. In 
1830 he received from his Alma Mater the degree of Doctor of 
Laws. He studied law in Philadelphia with Alexander J. Dallas, 

1 Prophecy is always a dangerous business — for the reputation of the prophet. Redick 
had a Email opinion of the worth of the Allegheny reservation, the 3000 acres reserved to 
the use of the State, opposite Port Pitt, where the city of Allegheny now stands. In e. letter 
to President Benjamin Franklin and the Supreme Executive Council of February id. 1 ;88, 
he toys: 

il other gentlemen to fix on the epot for laying out 
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34<> History of Beaver County 

and was admitted to the bar in that city. In 1800 he removed to 
Meadville, Pa., and took part in the organization of the first 
court of Crawford County. In 1801 he located for the practice 
of his profession in Pittsburg, being admitted to the bar of Alle- 
gheny County April 30th of that year. In 1804, as we have seen, 
he was entered on the roll of those first admitted to practise in 
the several courts of this county. He was elected from the dis- 
trict including Allegheny County to the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, 
and Seventeenth Congresses, resigning in i8as. In Congress he 
was a strong advocate of a high tariff to protect domestic manu- 
factures. In the contest between Mr. Adams and General Jack- 
son in i8a8, he was a warm supporter of the latter. Upon the 
election of Jackson to the presidency he became an applicant 
for the position of Secretary of the Treasury, but failing in that 
he was in 1830 appointed a member of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

In 1843 he returned to Meadville, where he resided until his 
death, which occurred on April 21, 1844, while he was attending 
court in Philadelphia. Judge Baldwin was a -man of great 
physical and mental powers, having few superiors on the bench. 
He was very popular, and won triumphs as a politician and as 
an orator. He was also largely interested in some of the great 
business enterprises of his day. Baldwin was one of the "three 
mighty men" of Beaver County's first court, Wilkins and Gibson 
being the other two. His library was the finest in the West, 
composed of all the English and American Reports, many of the 
former being in black letter. 

Isaac Kerr was admitted to the bar of Washington County in 
August, 1800, and to that of Allegheny County, December 25, 
1800, on motion of Parker Campbell, which would indicate that 
he belonged to Washington. We can learn nothing further of 

James Mountain was born in 1771, in the north of Ireland, 
and was a typical product of the sod. His petition to be made 
a naturalized citizen of the United States was presented to the 
Circuit Court for Washington County, Pa., November 7, 1801. 
He was entered on the roll of attorneys in that county in the 
same year, having studied law and been admitted to the bar in 
his native country. The fame of his eloquence, wit, and humor 

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History of Beaver County 341 

still remains at the bar of Washington County. In 1796 he 
was teaching in the Canonsburg Academy, at Canonsburg, Pa., 
and is said to have been of large classical attainments. 1 After 
his admission at Washington he went to Pittsburg to practise, 
and died there September 13, 1813, when only forty-two years 
of age. He was buried in the graveyard of the First Presbyterian 
Church of that city. A son, Algernon S. Mountain, was after- 
wards a well known attorney in the same city. The father did 
considerable business at the Beaver County bar, and was counsel 
for the defense of James Bell in one of the first murder trials of 
the county. 

Robert Moore was one of those signing the roll of first at- 
torneys admitted to practise at Beaver, and was one of the most 
eminent for learning and ability among the lawyers who located 
there. He was the grandfather of the attorneys Winfield S. 
Moore and Alfred S. Moore, of Beaver. He remained in Beaver 
from 1803 until the time of his death, which occurred on the 
14th of January, 1831, when he was fifty-four years of age. At 
the following April term, Judge Shaler, on leaving the bench, de- 
livered a glowing tribute to his memory. At a meeting of the 
bar, of which James. Allison, Jr., was chairman, and William B. 
Clarke, Secretary, fitting testimonial -to bis worth and ability 
was given in remarks from members of the bar and the adoption 
of resolutions of respect. 

The title of General was given to Robert Moore, and was 
probably obtained during his services in the War of 1812. He 
was a member from Beaver County of the Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth Congresses. General Moore was born on a farm four 
miles southwest of Washington, Pa. Part of his early education 
was obtained at Doctor John McMillan's Log Cabin College, out 
of which grew Jefferson College at Canonsburg, Pa. 

1 On the 38th of April, 1706, Junes Mountain and David Johnson (Beaver County's 
first prothonotary) were employed by the trustees of the academy (afterwards Jefferson 
College) at Canonsburg. Pa., to teach the Greek and Latin languages, commencing on the 
sd of Uay, 1796. at a salary, each, of ninety pounds a year- In an advertisement of the 
trustees of the academy, published in the Wtsttrn TfUgrapki and Washington Advtrtisir, 
dated June p. I7g6. is the following concerning these gentlemen: 

"The characteristics and literary accomplishments of Messrs. Johnson and Mountain are 
too well-known in this county to need any recommendations. Mr. Mountain is a young 
gentleman from Inland, who. after he had finished his education, has been in the habit of 
teaching for several years, and has such an accurate knowledge of the I^tin and Greek 
authors, of their references to antiquitie" "•« ""•>• ■ ™™«™i **** ™™«r nl DinmnnL 
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34 2 History of Beaver County 

William Ayres was a first rate lawyer, and noted for his wit 
and learning. On motion of Cunningham Sample, Esq., he was 
admitted to the bar of Allegheny County at December Sessions, 
1 798. He was a resident of Butler, to which place he came 
from the southeastern part of the State. In his practice in 
Butler County he had a large share in the land cases and eject- 
ment suits, which made the principal part of the legal business 
of that period. He was elected a member of and Bat in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1837. Ayres was a man of fine 
presence and courtly manners. He lived a bachelor and died 
at an advanced age. 

We have now given such information concerning the attor- 
neys of the first court of the county as was obtainable. It 
remains to tell so far as possible, somewhat of those who were 
nearly contemporary with, and those who followed, them in 
after years. 

In an address made at the dedication of the present court- 
house, Hon. Daniel Agnew said: 

When I came from Pittsburg to this county in 1889, the resident 
lawyers were James Allison, Robert Moore, John R. Shannon, William 
B. Clarke and Sylvester Dunham. The court was frequented, however, 
by eminent lawyers — Walter Forward, W. W. Fetterman, Henry M. 
Watts and 'William Wilkins. N. P. Fetterman, a younger brother of 
W. W. Fetterman, did not come until 183a. The most regular prac- 
titioner from abroad was Isaac Leet, of Washington. 

By a reference to the list of attorneys admitted to practise 
in the county (see end of this chapter) it will be seen that there 
were but few admissions between the date of the first court (1804) 
and the year mentioned in this quotation. 

The notices to follow will be mainly limited to deceased 
lawyers who were resident for a shorter or longer time in the 
county, and will be in the order of their dates of admission. 

John R. Shannon was born in Washington County, Pa., 
October 11, 1784, and was admitted to the bar of Beaver County 
October 3, 1808. He became a good lawyer and was a man of 
influence. In politics he was a Democrat, and he was a member 
of the lower branch of the Legislature for four years, 1826-99. 
There, with General Samuel Power, he was instrumental in 
securing an appropriation of $100,000 for the construction of the 

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History of Beaver County 343 

Beaver division of the Pennsylvania Canal. Mr. Shannon re- 
mained a bachelor to the end of his life. He died in Erie, Febru- 
ary 4, i860, having removed from Beaver to that city just before 
the war. He was brought back to Beaver and buried in the 
old cemetery. 

Sylvester Dunham, a native of New England, was in his day 
a prominent practitioner at the Beaver bar, to which he was ad- 
mitted June a, 1817. He was a Whig in politics, and a good 
stump speaker. He died in Rochester, Pa., May 34, 1867, aged 

Walter Forward, a frequent practitioner in Beaver, was one 
of the most talented of this early group of lawyers; a man 
massive in body and intellect. He came from Somerset County, 
to Pittsburg, where most of his laurels were won. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar of this county, April 9, 1821. We cannot re- 
peat the full tale of his honors: He was a member of Congress 
from Allegheny County, Secretary. of the United States Treas- 
ury, Minister to Denmark, and President Judge of Allegheny 
County. He died November 34, 1853. It is an unsupported 
tradition that he was at one time a student at Greersburg (Dar- 
lington) Academy, in this county. 

William B. Clarke was born in Beaver in 1804. His education 
was obtained at the Beaver Academy and at Jefferson College, 
Canonsburg, Pa., where he graduated. He studied law with 
Robert Moore, Esq., in Beaver and was admitted to the bar of 
this county May 31, 1837. He was a Whig in politics, and 
afterwards a Democrat and became a staunch supporter of the 
Federal Government during the Civil War. He was appointed 
in 1830 Deputy Attorney-General for Beaver County. Shortly 
after the war he removed to Pittsburg, making his home with a 
daughter, Mrs. Arthurs, who lived on the line of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, three or four miles out of the city. 

Simon Meredith came to this region from the eastern part of 
the State. He was admitted to the bar of Beaver County 
October 28, 1830, and three years later formed a partnership 
with N. P. Fetterman of the same bar. He was a good lawyer. 
After about ten years of practice here, he removed to Pittsburg. 

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344 History of Beaver County 

James H . Stewart of Pittsburg was admitted to the Beaver 
County bar, April 8, 1833. His grandfather was Genera) Abner 
Lacock of Beaver, and his father was recorder of deeds in Alle- 
gheny' County. He was a son-in-law of Ephraim Pentland, Esq., 
mentioned below. 

Ephraim Pentland was a Pittsburg lawyer, son-in-law of 
General Abner Lacock of this county. He came to Pittsburg 
in 1801 or 1802, and was prothonotary of the county of Alle- 
gheny from 1807 to 1821, sitting with the aldermen as judge of 
the Recorder's court in the old court-house for the disposition of 
minor cases. He was a short, heavy man, very fond of his joke, 
and a well-known figure in the history of Pittsburg. He had 
been a printer and editor, and in 1803 started there the Common- 
wealth, a weekly Democratic newspaper. His connection with 
the Stewart-Bates duel has been mentioned in connection with 
the sketch of William Wilkins. April 11, 183 1, he was admitted 
to practise in the several courts of this county, and appeared 
there occasionally until the time of his death, which took place 
in 1839. He had three daughters, Susan, Caroline, and Min- 
erva, delightful ladies, who lived many years in the General 
Lacock homestead at Freedom. 

N. P. Fetterman was born in the northwestern part of the 
State, February 4, 1804. He studied law with his brother W. 
W. Fetterman of Pittsburg, and was admitted to the bar of 
Allegheny County, August 14, 1825. After several years* resi- 
dence at Bedford Pa., whence he was sent to the Legislature for 
three successive terms, he came to Beaver, and, June 6, 1831, 
was admitted to the bar of this county. He remained here 
until 1849, when he removed to Pittsburg, where he formed a 
partnership with his nephew, G. L. B. Fetterman. Mr. Fetter- 
man had an extensive practice in all the western counties of the 
State and was a noted legal and popular orator. He was a 
war Democrat, two of his sons enlisting with his hearty approval 
as members of the 101st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. He 
was married, December 28, 1828, to Miss Anna M. Dillon of 
Bedford, Pa., by whom he had eight children. He died in 1877. 

William Allison was born in Beaver, January 3, 1810. After 
enjoying the advantage of thorough preliminary training under 

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History of Beaver County 345 

such teachers as David Johnson and Professor John Scott, 
he entered Washington College at the age of thirteen and 
graduated with honors in the class of 1838. He then studied 
law with his father, James Allison, Jr., and was admitted to the 
bar of Beaver County, December 4, 1833. He died July 23, 
1844, in the thirty-fifth year of his age. His reputation is that 
of a fine lawyer, especially skilled in the art of conveyancing. 
He married a daughter of Hon. Thomas Henry, and left no 

Thomas Cunningham was a very influential citizen and an 
excellent lawyer. He was bom in Ohio, February 21, 1S11. 
He read law under John R. Shannon, Esq., and was admitted 
to the bar of Beaver County, March 4, 1835. Mr. Cunningham 
held the office of district attorney for some time, and filled many 
positions of public and private trust in the town and county. 
He was appointed by President Buchanan one of the Supreme 
Court judges of Kansas, but preferring to practise, he left the 
bench. Judge Cunningham was a leading Democrat in this 
county, receiving many honors from his party, being one of the 
electors in 1856 and a delegate to the Charleston convention in 
i860. Becoming a Republican, he was one of the electors at 
large in 1864. When the Union was threatened, his voice was 
heard in no uncertain tones in rebuke of its enemies and in 
loyal support of the National Government. He died in Beaver, 
September 29, 1865, and is buried in the old cemetery. Strong 
and heartfelt expressions of regret at his death were heard in 
private, and formally uttered in public assemblies. A large 
meeting of the bench and bar was held in his memory. His 
widow, the youngest daughter of Judge Joseph Hemphill, died 
in Beaver, November 23, 1903. 

Isaac Jones was born at Halifax, Dauphin County, Pa., 
about the year 1800. He was admitted to the bar in 1833, and 
in 1837 came with his family to Beaver, where, being admitted 
to the bar, June 5, 1837, he practised his profession until his 
death in March, 1852. A daughter of Mr. Jones married I. N. 
Atkins of Beaver. 

Lewis Taylor was bom in the State of New York, Decem- 
ber 10, 1818. In his infancy his father died, and his mother 

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346 History of Beaver County 

married Ovid Pinney. The latter came early to Rochester, where 
he built the house now owned and occupied by John J . Hoffman . 
In this house Mr. Taylor passed his boyhood days. He pursued a 
classical course for several years at Yale College, and later stud- 
ied law in Beaver with John R. Shannon, Esq., and was ad- 
mitted to the bar there, September 4, 1S43. Soon after his 
admission to the bar, Mr. Taylor was appointed to the office of 
Deputy Attorney General of Beaver County, which he held for 
six years. He became one of the ablest criminal lawyers in the 
State. Upon the erection of Lawrence County in 1849, he re- 
moved to New Castle, and formed a partnership with the late 
Jonathan Ayres of that place, and the law firm of Ayres & 
Taylor continued until 1853. During this period Mr. Taylor 
became a leader at the bar of Lawrence County. In 1867 he 
removed to this county, residing at the old Pinney residence, in 
which his mother had then recently died. Here he lived in 
retirement until the time of his death, December 15, 1884. He 
was buried in the new cemetery at Beaver, where his grave is 
marked by a splendid shaft, on which his friend, Samuel B. 
Wilson, Esq., caused the following inscription to be placed: 
" Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, rectique cultus pectora 

John Allison, son of James Allison, Jr., was born in Beaver, 
August 5, 1813. He was a hatter by trade, and followed his 
business in Beaver and Marietta, Ohio, until the year 1843, 
when he began the study of law with his father, being admitted 
to the bar of Beaver County, November 26, 1845. Mr. Allison 
was a prominent member of the Whig party, being elected 
on its ticket to the Assembly three times — in 1846, 1847, and 
1849. He was elected a Representative in Congress in 1850, 
defeated for a second term, but elected with a handsome major- 
ity in 1854. In the Assembly and in the National Legislature 
his voice was ever heard in opposition to slavery, and when the 
Republican party was organized he was a member of the con- 
vention at Pittsburg, and represented Pennsylvania on the 
Committee on Platform. In May, 1856, he was chosen chairman 
of the Republican State Committee, and in i860 he was a dele- 
gate to the National Convention at Chicago. Mr. Allison served 
as paymaster from the beginning to the close of the Civil War, and 

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Admitted Feb., ifio,. Died June ij, .8 

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History of Beaver County 347 

after his return became for a time a farmer in Mercer County. 
On April i, 1869, he was appointed by President Grant to the 
office of Register of the Treasury. He was married in 1836 to 
L. A. Adams, a daughter of Dr. Milo Adams, and died in New 
Brighton, Pa., March 23, 1878. 

Hon. Oliver James Dickey, the eldest son of John and Elvira 
Adams Dickey, was bom April 6, 1833, at Old Brighton, now 
Beaver Palls, Pa. He received his education at the Beaver 
Academy and Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., closing his classi- 
cal career one year short of graduation. He entered the law 
office of James Allison, Esq., one of the oldest leading lawyers of 
the county, and was admitted to the bar of Beaver County, 
November 36, 1845. In 1846 he went to Lancaster, Pa., and 
was in the office of his father's life-long friend, Thaddeus Stevens, 
whose partner he soon became. This partnership continued 
until his election to the office of district attorney. Upon the 
death of Mr. Stevens in 1868, he was elected to fill his unex- 
pired term in Congress, and was elected to the two following 
terms. He was a man of large views and abilities, and an 
ardent Republican of the Stevens school. He died greatly 
esteemed, at Lancaster, April ai, 1876. 

Richard P. Roberts was born near Frankfort Springs, Pa., 
June 5, 1830. After study in the academy at Frankfort, he 
entered as a law student in the office of N. P. Fettennan, Esq., 
at Beaver, and was there admitted to the bar, March 15, 1848. 
Mr. Roberts became an able lawyer, and an eloquent speaker 
on any subject, especially distinguishing himself for his brilliant 
patriotic addresses at the outbreak of the Rebellion, and he 
soon sealed his testimony with his blood. At Gettysburg, at 
the head of his regiment, the 140th Pennsylvania Volunteer 
Infantry, and in temporary command of his brigade, he bravely 
fought and nobly died on the ad of July, r863. Colonel Roberts 
was married, May t, 1851, to Caroline Henry, daughter of Hon. 
Thomas Henry of Beaver. Of three children by this marriage, 
the sole survivor is Emma R., wife of Mr. Isaac Harter of Canton, 
Ohio. The resolutions adopted at the meeting of the bench 
and bar of Beaver County, in honor of this brave and good man, 
are quoted by Judge Hice in his Centennial address, which will 
be found in the second volume of this work. 

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348 History of Beaver County 

Joseph H. Wilson was the son of Thomas and Agnes Hemp- 
hill Wilson, and an uncle of the present judge of Beaver County, 
Hon. James Sharp Wilson. He was born May 16, 1830, in 
North Sewickley, now Franklin township, this county, where he 
received his early education. He graduated at Jefferson Col- 
lege, Canonsburg, Pa. He was admitted to the bar of Beaver 
County, June 5, 1850. From 1856-61 he represented his native 
county in the State Legislature, and at the breaking out of the 
Rebellion he enlisted and was commissioned as Colonel of the 
101st Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. As stated 
in the chapter on the military history of the county, Colonel 
Wilson died in the Peninsular campaign of typhoid fever. His 
remains are interred at Zelienople, Butler County, Pa. 

Samuel B. Wilson was born on a farm near New Castle, Pa., 
February 20, 1824, a son of Patrick and Rebecca (Morehead) 
Wilson. After having received a common school education he 
took an academic course and then entered Jefferson College, 
Canonsburg, Pa., graduating with the class of 184S. Shortly 
after his graduation Mr. Wilson was chosen principal of the 
Darlington Academy, in which position he remained until the 
fall of 1849, when he went to Somerset, Pa., and began the study 
of law in the office of Hon. Jeremiah S. Black, who was always 
his warm friend. In 1850 Mr. Wilson was admitted to the 
bar, and, at once removing to Beaver, was admitted on the 18th 
of November of the same year to practise in the several courts 
of this county. Here he soon took the commanding position 
as a lawyer, which he held with increasing power until the time 
of his death, which took place on the 17th of January, 1889. 

Samuel Magaw was born in North Sewickley township, 
Beaver County, Pa., June 8, 1814. His education was obtained 
at the North Sewickley Academy; at Zelienople; at Olmstead's 
Institute, New Brighton; at the Beaver Academy; at Canons- 
burg (Jefferson College); and at Allegheny College, where he 
graduated in 1853. After his graduation Mr. Magaw studied law 
with the Hon. Thomas Cunningham of Beaver, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar of this county, June 4, 1855. He was a good 
lawyer and secured a remunerative practice. In political affilia- 
tions he was a Republican, and his religious connection was 

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History of Beaver County 349 

with the Baptist Church. He died at New Brighton, Septem- 
ber 13, 1879. 

Warren S. Dungan, a grandson of Levi Dungan, who was 
probably the first settler of Beaver County, was born Septem- 
ber 13, 1823, at Frankfort Springs, where Levi Dungan had 
located in 1773. He was educated at Frankfort Academy, and 
studied law with Colonel Calvin Miller of Panola, Miss., and 
with Roberts & May in Beaver. March 10, 1856, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Beaver County, and at once removed to 
Chariton, Iowa, where he commenced to practise, and where he 
still resides. He was elected on the Republican ticket in 1861 
as a member of the Senate of his State, but at the outbreak of the 
Rebellion he resigned, enlisted as a private, recruited a company of 
which he was chosen captain, and took the field. Later he was 
commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the 34th Iowa Infantry, and 
was made Brevet-Colonel of United States Volunteers for gal- 
lant conduct at Mobile, Ala. In 1873 he was a delegate to the 
Republican National Convention, and in the following election 
was a presidential elector. Twice since he has been in the Iowa 
Legislature as a representative, and in 1887 was elected to the 
Senate; and he has been twice a delegate to the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church, in 1875 at Toledo, Ohio, and in 
1885 at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

William Seely Morlan, the son of Richard and Mary Erwin 
Morlan, was born in Fallston, Beaver County, Pa., April 19, 
i8a8. He learned the trade of blacksmith and worked at the 
forge for many years, but, having a taste for learning, he studied 
law with Brown B. Chamberlin and John Cuthbertson, Esqs., 
and was admitted to the Beaver County bar, September 14, 
1857, entering at once upon the practice of his chosen profession. 
His wife having died, he enlisted in Company F, 101st Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteer Infantry, on November 9, 1861, serving through 
all campaigns in which his regiment took part. He was cap- 
tured at Plymouth, N. C, April 30, 1864, and was confined in 
Andersonville Prison until December li, 1864. On the expira- 
tion of his term of service (being mustered out, March 8, 1865), 
he returned to New Brighton, where he resumed the practice of 
law, and was elected a justice of the peace. Mr. Morlan died 
June 15, 1895, at the Soldiers' Home at Dayton, Ohio, to which 

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350 History of Beaver County 

he had been admitted about a month before. Squire Morlan, as 
he was familiarly called, was an upright man, a good and faith- 
ful soldier and a conscientious lawyer. His perception of legal 
principles was unusually clear. 

Edward Black Daugherty was bom in New Sewickley town- 
ship, afterwards Pulaski, now Daugherty, township, Beaver 
County, October aa, 1833. His ancestors were pioneers in this 
region. Daniel Daugherty, father of Edward B., was born in 
Londonderry, Ireland; and in 1796, when he was six years of 
age, was brought by his father to America, the family settling in 
Delaware County, Pa. Later the family removed to Beaver 
County. Daniel Daugherty married Elizabeth Black, who was 
born in this county in 1805. Edward B. Daugherty, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was reared on his father's farm, attended the 
common schools and Beaver Academy, taught school and stud- 
ied civil engineering and surveying, and followed the latter 
occupation for some time. Finally choosing the law as his pro- 
fession, he studied under the late Samuel B. Wilson, Esq., and 
was admitted to the bar of Beaver County, June 4, i860. He 
located at New Brighton, where he remained for nine years, 
when he removed to Beaver. Mr. Daugherty became one of the 
ablest lawyers at the county-seat, and for years occupied a posi- 
tion of prominence in the community, beloved and respected by 
all who knew him. May 5. 1870, he was married to Mary Cun- 
ningham, by whom he had two children, Samuel Wilson, de- 
ceased, and Mary. Mr. Daugherty was a devout and consistent 
member of the Roman Catholic Church, and a Democrat in 
politics. Perhaps the bar of Beaver County never had a mem- 
ber who left in the memory of his associates so many of his apt 
and peculiar expressions, which still pass as current coin. Mr. 
Daugherty died March 99, 1896, and his body was laid beside 
that of his only son in St. Mary's Cemetery, Pittsburg. 

James S. Rutan was a native of Carroll County, Ohio, on one 
of whose beautiful farms he was born, May 39, 1838. His edu- 
cation was obtained at Richmond College, in the same State 
and at the Beaver Academy. After a brief experience as a 
teacher, he turned to the profession of the law as his life work, 
and entered the office of Col. Richard P. Roberts as a student. 
He was admitted to practise in Beaver County, January 16, 1861, 

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History of Beaver County 351 

and in the fall of that year enlisted in the army and was made 
First Lieutenant of Company F, 101st Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry. He was discharged July 18, 1863, on account 
of sickness, and returning to his practice in Beaver, he was 
elected to the office of district attorney, which he held for six 
years. In 1865 he was married to Miss Eliza Cox, a daughter 
of Rev. William Cox, D.D., of Beaver. In 1868 he was the 
representative of Pennsylvania to carry the electoral count to 
Washington. In the following year he was elected to the State 
Senate, and was speaker of that body in 1872. He served, 
from 1870 to 1875. Removing afterwards to Allegheny City, 
he was elected from that Senatorial District, and served from 
1887 to 1890. He died at his home in Allegheny City, June r8, 
189a, and is buried in the new cemetery at Beaver. 

Frank Wilson was born in Beaver in 1844. His education 
was obtained in the common schools and at the Beaver Acad- 
emy. For three years he taught school, at the same time pur- 
suing the study of law in the office of his uncle, Samuel B. 
Wilson, Esq., of the Beaver County bar. He was admitted to 
practise at that bar, March 37, 1866. In 1877, Mr. Wilson was 
married to Miss Anna Gregg of Washington, Iowa. What 
promised to be a useful and brilliant career was cut short by 
death, February 33, 1883. The good which he did has not been 
interred with his bones, as he is spoken of affectionately by 
all who knew him. 

E. P. Kuhn was born in Brighton township, Beaver County, 
Pa., October a8, 1838. He was educated in the common schools, 
in the Beaver Academy, and at Allegheny College, Meadville, 
Pa., and read law with S. B. Wilson, Esq., of Beaver. March 
37, 1868, he was admitted to the bar of Beaver County, and 
immediately began practice in the county-seat. 

In 1866 Mr. Kuhn was married to Miss Maria L. Smith, 
daughter of Captain Samuel and Margaret (Richardson) Smith, 
of Smith's Ferry, this county. There were born of this union 
four children, Margaret, Lucy, Paul, and E. P. Kuhn, all of 
whom are living, except Paul. Mr. Kuhn was a Democrat in 
political affiliation. He died in Beaver, May 4, 1873, and is 
buried in the cemetery at that place. 

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352 History of Beaver County 

Nathaniel Callender Martin was born in East Liverpool, Ohio, 
April 3, 1848. His early education was obtained in his native 
place, and he read law with E. P. Kuhn, Esq., in Beaver, where 
he. was admitted to practise in the several courts of this county, 
September 1, 1873. He practised in Beaver until his death, 
which occurred November 39, 1880. He was buried in the new 
cemetery in Beaver. In religious connection Mr. Martin was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in politics a 
Republican. November 3, 1873, he was united in marriage to 
Miss Margaret M. Taylor, daughter of Rev. W. G. Taylor, D.D., 
then of Phillipsburg (now Monaca), who lately died in Beaver. 
There were three children of this union, William T., Erwin S., 
and Charlotte E., all living. His widow resides in St. Paul, Minn. 

John Wilson Moorhead was born near Venice, in Cecil town- 
ship, Washington County, Pa., May 17, 1853, and was educated 
at Hookstown and Frankfort Springs academies and in Wash- 
ington College. He read law in the office of Wilson & Moore, 
Esqs., of Beaver, and was admitted to the bar of Beaver County, 
June 7, 187s. Beginning the practice of his profession at the 
Washington County bar, he later removed to Beaver, and was 
there entering upon a successful career as a lawyer, when his 
health began to show signs of breaking. Hoping to restore his 
strength he went to New Mexico, but, realizing that he was 
sinking, he turned his face homewards. He was only able to 
reach the home of a near relative, S. M.S. Campbell, Esq., near 
Wichita, Sedgwick County, Kansas, where he died April 39, 
1884. His body was brought back and buried in the church- 
yard at Clinton, Allegheny County, Pa. 

May 5, 1884, John M. Buchanan, Esq., announced in court 
the death of Mr. Moorhead, and the court appointed a commit- 
tee consisting of John M. Buchanan, J. R. Harrah, and J. H. 
Cunningham, Esqs., to prepare suitable resolutions of respect. 
July 30th following, the report of the committee was presented, 
approved, and filed and recorded at length in Minute Book, 
No. 3, page 319. 

Alexander Winfield McCoy was born in Hanover township, 
Beaver County, Pa., August 14, 1853, the son of William W. 
and Nancy (Campbell) McCoy. He was educated in the public 
schools, later attended New Sheffield Academy and Westminster 

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History of Beaver County 353 

College, New Wilmington, Pa., and graduated at Monmouth 
College, Monmouth, 111. Having studied law with Samuel B. 
Wilson, Esq., of Beaver, he was admitted to practise in the 
several courts of this county, June 10, 1878. He was a diligent 
worker in his chosen profession, in which he had high hopes of 
success, when he was stricken with typhoid fever in the fall of 
1890, and died November 3d of that year. He is survived by 
his widow, Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCoy, who is a successful teacher 
in the public schools of Rochester, Pa., and principal of the 
Second Ward building. 

Ellis N. Bigger was born in Hanover township, Washington 
County, Pa., in 1856, on the farm now owned by the heirs of 
Alexander McConnell. His parents were Thomas and Mary 
(Nicholson) Bigger. He was the eldest of three children, and 
was reared in Hanover township, Beaver County, his parents 
having moved over into this county while he was a boy. He 
attended the common schools and the Frankfort Academy, and 
was afterwards a teacher, first in the district schools and then 
in the Frankfort Academy as assistant principal. Mr. Bigger 
studied law with Samuel B. Wilson, Esq., and was admitted to 
the bar of Beaver County, June a, 1879. He began practice 
with the late Frank Wilson, of the Beaver bar, in November, 
1881; and in 1883 formed a partnership with Thomas Maxwell 
Henry, now of the Allegheny County bar, which lasted for some 
years thereafter. Mr. Bigger was a man of unusual literary 
taste and gifted as a speaker. He occupied in his time several 
offices of trust and honor in the borough of Beaver and the 
county, having served as a member of the borough council and 
of the school board, and he was solicitor for the county commis- 
sioners at the time of his death and for several years previous 
thereto. He died June 15, 1903, in the forty-sixth year of his age. 

Louis Edwin Grim was born in Beaver, February 18, 1855, 
and was the son of Philip L. and Matilda Grim. The family 
moved from Beaver to New Galilee when he was eight years old, 
and he remained there until about ten years ago. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools and in Washington and Jefferson 
College, from which institution he graduated in 1S79. He read 
law in the office of the late Frank Wilson, and was admitted to 
the bar of this county, January a, i88z. Soon afterwards he 

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354 History of Beaver County 

formed a partnership with the late D. S. Naugle, since whose 
death he pursued his practice alone, He attained such a knowl- 
edge of the law as to be recognized by his associates as one of 
the best-read attorneys at the bar of Beaver County. On No- 
vember 9, 1893, he was united in marriage with Miss Hallie 
Belle Edie, daughter of the late Rev. Joseph A. Edie and Sara 
A., his wife, of Beaver. Mr. Grim was a member of the Beaver 
United Presbyterian Church. After an illness of three weeks 
from typhoid fever, he died at his home in the county -seat. May 
30, 1901; He is survived by his widow and one daughter, Mary 

David Seeley Naugle was of German and Irish extraction, 
and was born in Big Beaver township, Lawrence County, Pa., 
May a6, i860, the son of Rezin and Emeline (Cochran) Naugle. 
With his parents he came to Chippewa township, Beaver County, 
while quite young. He attended the common schools until 
1875, and then spent two years in the academy at Darlington, 
Pa. Following this he attended the Beaver Seminary, and then, 
in 1878-79, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. To 
finish his training he went to the Shoemaker School of Oratory 
in Philadelphia, from which institution he graduated, June 18, 
1881. Soon after this he entered the office of the late Samuel 
B. Wilson, Esq., and after pursuing the study of law the re- 
quired time, he was admitted to practise in the several courts 
of this county, May 19, 1884. Shortly after his admission to the 
bar he formed a partnership with the late Louis E. Grim, Esq., 
which continued until his death. 

July 2, 1895, Mr. Naugle was united in marriage to Mary P. 
Fawkes of West Grove, Chester County, Pa., who, with two 
children, Essie and Frank, survives him. Mr. Naugle died Octo- 
ber 37, 1897, of tubercular meningitis, after an illness of several 
months. He became a good lawyer, and as a man was gener- 
ally respected and beloved. A committee of the bar, consisting 
of Winfield S. Moore, Edwin S. Weyand, William B. Cuthbert- 
son, Hon. Henry Hice, and W. J. Mellon, was appointed by 
the court to draft appropriate resolutions in reference to the 
death of Mr. Naugle, and reported in strong and feeling terms 
the testimony of his brother officers to the worth of his character 
and to his ability as a lawyer. 

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History of Beaver County 355 

The century gone has witnessed many changes in the life and 
customs of the people, and the difference is no less marked in 
all that belongs to legal matters. The cases that came before 
the early courts of the county were simple, growing out of the 
natural conditions of a new country in process of settlement. 
In the Court of Quarter Sessions, at the first term held in 
February, 1804, there were eight cases, six of which were for 
assault and battery and one for assault. In the other courts 
the subjects of conflict were equally simple, as, for example, this 

Thomas Hartshorne v. Thomas Sprott, Esq. Replevin for one sow 
and ten pigs, marked with a crop off the right ear and half a crop out of 
the under side of the left ear, of the value of $10. Verdict for the de- 
fendant — a new trial, and judgment for the plaintiff for $6 damages — 
costs, $36.87- 

Lawyers' fees were on the same scale — a fee of $5 or $10 was 
regarded in those early times as generous, only exceptional cases 
enabling the attorney to charge $50 or $100. Sometimes the 
early lawyer, like the early minister, or school teacher, had to 
take his compensation for service rendered in farm products. 
Found among the effects of William Clarke, Esq., of Beaver, 
was the following note : 

Three months after date 1 promise to pay David Hayes, or order two 
dollars in merchantable wheat, rye or other trade, as will suit satd David, 
for attending to a case of habeas corpus in which Charles Take, im- 
prisoned, was discharged. 

(Signed) Job Mase. 
July 4, 181 1. 

With the increase of population and the advance along the 
lines of industry and business, the complexity of legal procedure 
has become greater and greater, until, in this profession, as in 
all other departments of modern life, the day of the specialist 
has arrived, no man being able to master all the branches of 
practice, and lawyers are now occasionally paid for one case 
more than the business of our early courts would have amounte