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W ashington Bounty, 



Historical Notes on the Various Towns. 












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§8&> F A TRUTH it may be said that History, the highest form of prose literature, 

is fast becoming one of the most popular and important branches of human 
knowledge. It has rapidly risen in our day from an empirical state to the rank 
of a science, and the master minds of this century that have devoted their 
energies to efforts in behalf of its advancement in accuracy, interest and value, have 
transformed it from the princely eulogy and fairy tales of olden times into a vast super- 
structure only less real than the great drama of actual events it is intended to perpetuate 
in human memory. This improvement has popularized History until it is no longer the 
Pactolus of the learned, but has risen to be the guiding star of modern civilization. In 
it are reflected the principles that govern the character and destiny of nations, and from 
it the statesman and reformer may construct a chart to guide all intelligent effort at 
reform in our old civilization, or in the upbuilding of the new. As in ancient times, so 
even at this hour, "Experience is a light for our footsteps," no less for the Nation or 
community than for the individual, and true History is human experience condensed and 

Local history particularly has rapidly risen in importance since our Centennial year, 
when the Congress of the United States, by joint resolution, recommended to each city, 
town and county in this country the duty of collecting for permanent preservation their 
local history and biography. In the first century of our National existence the annals of 
town and county, together with the individuality of the citizen, had been absorbed by the 
history of the State and the still more masterful theme of the life of the Nation. Since 
the opening of our second century it is becoming more generally understood that the 
history of a people resolves itself largely into the achievements of its leading men and 
women, and that in biography may be found that department of history most valuable for 
the intelligent study of National life and human advancement. Hence in the series of 
County Cyclopedias that bear the imprint of the publishers of this volume, much attention 


has been given to the collection and publication of biographical sketches of leading 
citizens, past and present. It is a fact that biography of this character must have promi- 
nent place in the local history of the future, and that the important and useful lessons it 
teaches will never fail to excite interest and give pleasure. It subserves the highest good 
by presenting examples worthy of emulation, and by perpetuating the memories of those 
who are worthy of remembrance. 

From the time when this territory was yet a wilderness down to the present day, 
Washington county occupies an important position among her sister counties of the 
Empire State — a proud eminence based alike on her wonderful development, her indus- 
trial prosperity, and the prominent place she occupies in the history of the Revolution — 
that gigantic struggle for the rights of man, when a Nation was born in a day, and the 
dial hand on the clock of human progress moved forward in a greater advance than it 
had hitherto marked in five centuries. 

That Washington county has kept well to the front in that general improvement 
which distinguishes these later times — in industrial development, art, science, literature, 
and everthing that tends to ennoble life and make its possession priceless — is largely 
due to the energy, ability and character of the men who have found fitting notice on the 
pages of this volume — worthy descendants of the pilgrims and pioneers who first conquered 
this soil, and by brawn and brain reduced it to the uses of civilization. 





History of Washington County 17-79 

CHAPTER I. — Introduction —Geography — 
Topography — Lake George — Diononda- 
howa Falls — Geology — Minerals 17-23 

CHAPTER 1 1. — Mound Builders — Indians — 

War-path of America 23-27 

CHAPTER III. — Champlain's Invasion — 
Hudson's Discovery — Iroquois Raids into 
Canada— Father Jogues Discovers Lake 
George 27-29 

CHAPTER IV.— French Invasions of the Mo- 
hawk Country — Iroquois Ravages of Can- 
ada 29-30 

CHAPTER V.— Destruction of Schenectady— 
Winthrop and Schuyler's Expeditions — 
French Invasion — Dellius Land Patent. . . 30-32 

CHAPTER VI.— Nicholson's Expeditions — 
Saratoga Settlement — -Campbell Colony — 
Lydius' Establishment 32-34 

CHAPTER VII.— Destruction of Old Sara- 
toga — Fort Clinton — French Expeditions 
— English Abandonment of the County. . . 34-35 

CHAPTER VIII.— Battle of Lake George — 
Rogers, Putnam and Stark's Rangers — Fall 
of Fort William Henry — Abercrombie and 
Amherst's Campaigns 35-40 

CHAPTER I X— Early Settlements — Provin- 
cial and Artillery Patents — New Hamp- 
shire Grants 40-42 

CHAPTER X. — County Formation under 

Name of Charlotte 42-43 

CHAPTER XL— Commencement of the Rev- 
olution — Burgoyne's Invasion — Battle of 
Fort Ann — Burgoyne's Slow Advance — 
Murder of Jane McCrea — Bennington — 
Saratoga — Union Convention — Revolu- 
tionary Soldiers 43-51 

CHAPTER XII.— Charlotte becomes Wash- 
ington County — Cambridge and Eaton An- 
nexed — Canals — County Seat Struggles — 
Turnpikes — Warren County Erected — 
Battle of Plattsburg 51-53 

CHAPTER XI II.— New Industries — Cham- 
plain Canal — Plank Roads — Early Rail- 
roads 53-55 

CHAPTER XIV. — Commencement of the 
Civil War — Regimental Histories and Mor- 
tuary Lists — Peace 55-62 

CHAPTER XV. — Later Railways — Present 

Industries — County Progress 62-63 

CHAPTER XVI.— Statistics of Population. 
Manufactures, Agriculture. Mining, and 
Trade, and Transportation 63-66 


CHAPTER XVI I. — Agricultural and Medical 
Societies — The Early Press — Churches — 
Schools — Early Banks— Secret Societies 

CHAPTER XVI 1 1.— County Political and 
Civil Lists 

CHAPTER XIX.— County Home— Early Iron 
Enterprises — LaFayette's Visit — Steam- 
boat Navigation — Indian Names — Histor- 

Historical Notes upon the Villages and Towns 
of Washington County 

CHAPTER I. — Village and Town of Salem. . 

CHAPTER II.— Village of Sandy Hill, and 
Town of Kingsbury 

CHAPTER 1 1 1. —Village and Town of White- 

CHAPTER I V. —Villages of Fort Edward and 
Fort Miller, and Town of Fort Edward. . . 

CHAPTER V.— Village and Town of Green- 








90-9 5 



CHAPTER VI.— Village and Townof Argyle. 10~>-1 10 

CHAPTER VII. — Towns of Jackson and 

White Creek 110-116 

CHAPTER VIII —Village and Town of Cam- 
bridge 116-122 

CHAPTER I X.— Villages of Easton and North 

Easton. and Town of Easton 122-124 

CHAPTER X —Village of West Hebron and 

Town of Hebron 124-127 

CHAPTER X I. — Village and Town of Gran- 
ville 128-132 

CHAPTER XII. —Village of Hartford and 

Towns of Hartford and Hampton 132-136 

CHAPTER X I I I —Village and Town of Fort 

Ann 136-138 

CHAPTER X I V— Towns of Dresden and 

Putnam 138-142 

Historical Notes upon the Village of Glens Falls 

and the Town of Queensbury 143-148 




Adams, James 275 

Adams, J. M 208 

Allen, Fred. W 370 

Allen, Hon. C. L 318 

Ambler, S. B 350 

Anderson, Rev. John 402 

Armstrong, Adam, jr 315 

Ashton, J. W 412 

Ashton, W, J '. 433 

Baker. N. G 349 

Bancroft Public Library, The. . 361 

Bartlett, Dr. W. R 390 

Bascom, Hon. 385 

Bascom. R 284 

Bates, Homer B 318 

Bemis, E. H 336 

Blackfan, H. S , M. D 193 

Blashfield, C. E 426 

Bratt, Frederick A 387 

Brayton, John 256 

Briggs, David 192 

Brooks. John 246 

Brown, Maj. Daniel 389 

Buck, Charles H 294 

Bullock, Rowland S 156 

Burdett, James H 383 

Burditt, E. L 273 

Burleigh, Hon. H. G 249 

Byrne Hon. Frank 231 

Cameron, Hon. W. M 161 

Carver. J. W 292 

Chase, D. A. M. D 407 


Chase, Elijah 424 

Cipperley, John, M D 321 

Clark, Asahel 190 

Clark, Dr B. J 337 

Clark, E. G 260 

Clark, Guy R 418 

Clark, Rev. Thomas. M. D 409 

Cleveland, W. W 242 

Cole. A. B 274 

Cole. Hiram 436 

Colvin. H. D 419 

Contryman, Capt. A B , . 242 

Cornell, Flavius J 410 

Cotton, Willard H 187 

Cozzens. W. L 419 

Craadall. Alden M 379 

Crandall, Henry 203. 

Crandall, W. H 369 

Crocker, B P 367 

Cronkhite, L. W 201 

Cronkhite. William 174 

Cruikshank, Robert 224 

Culver, George B 167 

Cushman Family 356 

Davis, C. G 209 

Davis, L. L 235 

Davis, O. F 422 

Davis, Rufus R 282 

Dearstyne, Andrus 155 

Dennis, W. H 427 

Derby. Hon J. H 105 

Dillingham, Henry 306 

Donahoe, Rev. John F 176 


Doren, James 215 

Doremus, G. W 417 

Dorr, Geo. E 420 

Earl. J. C 384 

Eldridge, Ahira 316 

Eldridge, William 353 

Ellis, James 308 

Ethier, Rev. J S 329 

Farr, Dr. D. C 343 

Fennel, Rev A. J 215 

Fenton, C. S 387 

Ferriss, J. A 160 

Field, Rev. T. A 186 

Filkins, David 386 

Finch, George N 225 

Finch, S. L 283 

Fishier, Franklin 324 

Fitch. Hon. Asa, M. D 338 

.Fitch, Prof Asa, M D 412 

Flood, Thomas 381 

Foster, John B 188 

Frazer, Frederick 378 

Fryer. Wilbur 345 

Ganly, John 428 

Gayger, W. H 287 

Getty, George D 211 

Gibson. Hon James 151 

Gifford, Thomas C 305 

Gilchrist Family 362 

Gilroy, John 339 

tioodson. Isaac A 380 



Goodman, Hon. J. E 351 

Gray, Capt. E. J 322 

Gray, Henry, M. D 204 

Gray. J. W 298 

Gregory, Sylvanus 355 

Greenough, E. A 194 

Griffin, B. H.... 411 

Griswold. S. K 221 

Haines. AG 282 

Hall. Austin 431 

Hall, John 340 

'Hamilton. Robert 168 

Harris. G D 415 

Harris, John F 175 

Haviland, Joseph 184 

Hill, Fred E 244 

Hodgman, A C 251 

Holcomb. B. R, M. D 178 

Holmes, Cornelius, M. D 388 

Horsfield. Rev. F. H. T 433 

Horton. E, T„ M, D 293 

Howard, Henry A 276 

Howe, Prof W. W 253 

Howland, L. M 215 

Howland, Amasa 219 

Hubbard, Martin D 316 

Hughes. Charles 195 

Hughes. William H 372 

Ingalsbe. G. M 320 

Ingalsbe. Milo 264 

Ingalsbe. Myron D 193 

Jenkins. C. A 425 

Jenkins, Gamalael 197 

Jenkins, Lyman 386 

Jenkins, N. L 162 

Jones, O. D 429 

Johnston, Rev. John 251 

Keenan, John 379 

Kellogg, Rev. Charles D 258 

Kenyon, Sylvanus H 157 

King, Lieut. John 216 


Lapham, Hon. Jerome 375 

Larmond, Capt. John 430 

Lashway, Albert H 378 

LaVake, James O 297 

Law, James 326 

Lawrence, W. E 278 

Lillie. Judge Thomas A 169 

Linendoll. R. A , A. M., M. D. 220 

Long. A J 229 

Lotrace, Charles H 337 

Lowber, R.W 236 

Lyon. Charles 291 

Manville, Capt. J. H 262 

Marline, Hon. G. R . M D ... 311 

Mason, H L 385 

Mason, S. C 312 

Masters. J T 207 

McArthur, James L 153 

McArthur, Thomas W 162 

McCarty, Maj. James 222 

McCormick, J. B 277 

McDermott, Rev. James 166 

McDonald, Hon. Wm 325 

McKensie, David C, M. D 389 

Mc Wayne, LeRoy, M D 364 

Mealey, Cornelius 377 

Mealey, Jno. H 304 

Miller, Frank 409 

Miller, Joseph 313 

Miller, W. H , M. D 190 

Millington, John, M. D 361 

Moneypenny, Dr. John 400 

Montgomery, L. E 285 

Morey, C. L 366 

Mott, O H, M. D 257 

Mowry, Henry L 177 

Neddo, Capt. George 348 

Newman, Alfred J 416 

Northrup, H Davis 234 

Northup. Judge L H 160 

Norton, N. R 414 

O'Brien, Rev. James J 204 

O'Brien, M. H 307 


Ordway, James M 184 

Ottarson, B. F 314 

Packer, Nathan E 335 

Palmer, W. M 382 

Paris, C R 222 

Paris, Hon. U G 223 

Parks, S. H 201 

Parrish, H. H 432 

Patterson, Charles R 366 

Peck Family 353 

Pember, F. T 287 

Petteys, Edgar M 188 

Pierce. C. H 344 

Piser, Leonard 368 

Potvin, Mitchel 354 

Powell, W. H 294 

Pratt, Albert V 355 

Pratt, De Morris 433 

Pratt, James E 303 

Pratt, John L, jr 363 

Pruyn, Samuel 185 

Reed, Edward 286 

Rice, OK 165 

Rice, R. Niles 405 

Rich, L. M 403 

Rider, James M 159 

Robertson, H G 414 

Robinson, J.J 272 

Robinson, O. C 353 

Rochon, C. A 262 

Rogers, Deliverance 273 

Rogers, Hon Charles 376 

Rogers, Lieut. Harper N 388 

Rogers, W. G 421 

Root, Henry, A. M., M. D 232 

Rosekrans, Hon E. H 339 

Russell, S W 180 

Satterlee. George 296 

Sawyer, Rev. E. R , D D 189 

Scales, Charles 402 

Seeley, Jurden E 170 

Sheldon, Hon. O W 191 



Sheldon, N. E., M. D 857 

Sherrill, George 263 

Sherrill, J. D 254 

Sherman, Alex M 404 

Shiland, John 40* 

Shipman, Hiram 196 

Sisson, Hon. Hiram 156 

Sickles, Maj. Gen. D. E 384 

Skeels, E. W 349 

Skiff, S. M 422 

Smith, Henry 404 

Somers, John 434 

Sprague, AT 381 

Sprague, Watson N 171 

Stevenson, Hon. W. D 252 

Stillman, S. L 210 

Sullivan, D. J 322 

Sweet, B. G 233 

Taber, Charles R 302 

Teftt, Frances A 257 

Tefft, Hon. W. H 179 


Thebo, P. C 245 

Thomas, Mel vin 344 

Thompson, J. H 206 

Thompson, LeRoy 213 

Thompson, Thomas 357 

Thomson, Lemon. M D 346 

Tidmarsh, H L 415 

Travis, W. B 418 

Trumbull, G. E 212 

Underwood, Christopher 154 

Underwood. George F 220 

Vandewerker, H. W., M. D 214 

Van Dusen, Hon. N. W 286 

Van Ness, C. H 318 

Van Wormer, Francis M 173 

Van Wormer, Rodney 293 

Vaughan. A C 323 

Wallace, H. H 292 

Wallace, J. W 243 


Wallace, Theo. C 347 

Ward, T. L 426 

Watkins, John L 358 

Wells, WW 410 

Wentworth, Rev E, D D. ... 192 

Weston, Hon. Roswell 417 

Whitcomb, George H 261 

White, J. H 281 

Williams, General John 393 

Williams, R Jay 301 

Williams, Sherman 226 

Williamson, Alex 234 

Wilson, Joseph 365 

Wilson. Ross 435 

Wing, Hon. H R 411 

Witherbee, R. M 295 

Woodard, Daniel D 326 

Wright. C. T 255 

Wright, Maj. James 202 

Young. Cornelius 253 




Bancroft Public Library, The facing 361 

Cronkhite, Leonard W. 
Ethier, Rev. Joseph S. . 
Gibson, Hon. James. . 

Howland, Amasa 

Ingalsbe, Milo 

Lapham, Hon. Jerome. 

Long, A. J 

Lowber, Robert Wilson 
Lyon, Charles 


Martin, Godfrey R, M. D " 311 

Rice, Orrin Kellogg " 165 

Russell, Solomon W " 180 

View of Altars in St. Alfonsus' Church, Glens 

Falls between 326 and 329 

View of Altars in St. Mary's Church at Glens 

Falls between 326 and 329 

White, James Hylar facing 281 

Williams, General John " 393 

Williams, R. Jay " 301 


OF )SJ^~> 

Washington County, flecu York. 






• lJ LONG the shore of one of the world's 
Q/ -*- most' beautiful lakes, and in the historic 
upper valley of the noble stream made famous 
forever by the " Prince of American Letters," 
lies an old and time -honored county, first 
called Charlotte for Queen Charlotte, wife of 
George III., of England, and afterward given 
its present name of Washington, in honor of 
the master-spirit of the American Revolution. 

Washington county, New York, the "'war- 
path of America, " owes its military importance 
during war, and its commercial advantages in 
times of peace, to its geographical position ; 
but its history — like that of any other county — 
is the result of the character, the spirit, and 
the intelligence of its people. 

To write the history of Washington county 
from its creation, under the name of Charlotte, 
by legislative enactment in 1772, down to the 
recorded events of the present, and confine 
the work to the limited space which the scope 
3 ( 

of this volume will but necessarily allow, is 
an undertaking of no small degree. 

In attempting to some extent the investiture 
of this important history with the interest that 
naturally belongs to it, we shall seek to trace 
the first attempted settlement on the Hudson, 
and the fate of Captain Campbell's Scottish 
colony, events occurring between 1737 and 
1745. We shall attempt to give what can be 
secured of the fort building, the passing of 
hostile expeditions, and the battles in Wash- 
ington county during King George's and the 
French and Indian wars. We shall endeavor 
to examine carefully the Hudson river, the 
Salem and the Skenesborough settlement be- 
ginnings of 1761, made respectively by New 
Yorkers, Massachusetts pioneers, and Scotch 
Highland soldiers. We shall notice the later 
coming ef the Kingsbury Connecticut colony, 
and the Campbell and Clark colonies, respec- 
tively, of Argyle and Salem. We shall record 
the settlement, in 1770, of the Irish Methodist 
colony at Ash Grove, under the leadership of 
Philip Embury, the founder of Methodism on 
the American continent. We shall endeavor 
to chronicle the birth and mark the course of 
the two great New York and Vermont parties 
on the soil of the county, struggling for civil 



supremacy over its entire sweep of territory. 
We shall record the fraternizing, to a certain 
degree, of these hostile factions in the com- 
mencement of the common'war waged by the 
Thirteen Colonies against England, and call 
especial attention to the noble spirit of patri- 
otism and self-sacrifice, throughout the larger 
part of the count}', awakened by the opening 
thunders of the Revolutionary struggle. We 
shall give brief mention to the Tory defection 
in Wood Creek valley, and then follow the 
slow and toilsome march of Burgoyne's glit- 
tering legions over the "war-path of America" 
to the fateful field of Saratoga, where splen- 
did victory crowned the efforts of Arnold and 
Morgan in the cause of American indepen- 
dence, while not neglecting notice of the 
tragic death of lovely Jane McCrea and Baum's 
ill-starred expedition through the beautiful 
Cambridge valley to meet disaster and defeat 
at the battle of Bennington. We shall pro- 
ceed rapidly over the closing days of the 
Revolution and the insurrectionary Salem at- 
tempt of county annexation to Vermont. We 
shall next attempt to trace the progress of the 
county since the struggle for independence, 
noticing its several stages of growth, and re- 
cording its single accession and afterward 
great losses of territory. We shall endeavor 
to give the patriotic position the county occu- 
pied in the late Civil war, and the proud and 
honorable part its noble sons took in that 
great struggle for national supremacy and an 
undivided country. We shall attempt the 
record of county progress since the war, and 
give due attention to the efforts that have 
been made to place Washington in the front 
rank of the counties of the Empire State. 
We shall seek to tell the story of the develop- 
ment of her material resources and her com- 
mercial facilities, give her educational advan- 
tages and high moral and religious standing. 
and speak of the potent influence for the 
common weal and public prosperity wielded 
by an intelligent and progressive county 

To write the history of the county intelli- 
gently it is absolutely necessary to trace the 
territory of Washington under the succeeding 
jurisdictions of Dutch New Netherlands and 
English New York, chronicling during that 
time the march of Indian and French war 
parties and expeditions over the densely 
wooded Champlain and Hudson portage. 

Associated with the history of the present 
territory of Washington county under the 
rule of the white race, is the story of its In- 
dian occupation as a hunting ground and its 
use by the red lords of the forest as a great 
war trail between American and Canadian 

It should awaken a feeling of pride in the 
heart of every citizen of Washington county 
when they view the wonderful progress the 
county has made from a few colonies planted 
in an unexplored wilderness to wealthy com- 
munities and populous villages. 

But little more than a century ago, dense 
forests covered mountain, hill and valley 
throughout Washington county, where green 
meadows and golden harvests now lie warm 
in heaven's bright sunshine. Such progress 
is far beyond any fairy result ascribed to the 
magic wand of enchantment. 


Washington county, New York, is in the 
historic, beautiful and far-famed valley of the 
upper Hudson river, and the basins of the 
northern lakes of St. George and Champlain, 
and lies between forty-two degrees and fifty- 
four minutes and forty-three degrees and 
forty-seven minutes north latitude ; and three 
degrees and ten minutes and three degrees 
and twenty-one minutes east longitude from 
Washington, or seventy-four degrees and ten 
minutes and three degrees and twenty-one 
minutes west longitude from Greenwich, Eng- 
land. As a political division of the State, it 
is bounded by Essex county ; on the east, by 
the State of Vermont; on the south, by Rens- 
selaer county, and on the west by Saratoga 



and Warren counties. It is sixty-one miles 
in length, and for forty miles from the southern 
boundary line has an average width of eighteen 
miles, which then abruptly contracts down to 
nine miles; when it reaches the peninsular 
portion of the county, that narrows down to 
five miles at the Essex county line. In geo- 
graphical position Washington county is one 
of the northeastern counties of New York, 
while its geographical center and center of 
population are located respectively in the 
towns of Fort Ann and Hartford. Its lat- 
itude and longitude center is in the town of 
Hartford. The computed area of Washington 
county is eight hundred and thirty square 


The surface of Washington county is di- 
vided into three separate and distinct physical 
parts — a northern or mountainous peninsular, 
a central valley stretching from Lake Cham- 
plain to the Hudson river, and a great 
southwestern mountain region composed of 
three ridges and their two separating valleys, 
running from southwest to northeast, and em- 
bracing the larger part of the central, and all 
of the southern townships. 

The highest mountain in the county is 
Black mountain, which is in the town of 
Dresden, and has an altitude of twenty-eight 
hundred and seventy-eight feet above the 
waters of Lake George. 

The soil of the county is loam in the val- 
leys, and sand and clay on the hills and 
ridges; while the original heavy forests that 
covered mountain and plain, and hill and 
dale, were mainly of ash, oak, beech, maple, 
elm and pine, in whose depths gamboled the 
deer, and lurked the bear, panther and wolf. 
In the rocks once dwelt the deathful rattle- 
snake, and high in the air swept the fierce 
and vengeful eagle. 

The drainage of Washington count}* is by 
the Hudson river and the Lake Champlain 
systems. The northern peninsula is drained 
west and east by several small streams into 

Lakes George and Champlain, while the 
north, central and eastern parts have their 
drainage north by Wood creek, and Pawlet 
and Poultney rivers, into the narrows of Lake 
Champlain. The south, central and southern 
parts of the county have their drainage south 
by the Batten Kill and Hoosick river, into 
the Hudson. 

The broad plain around Sandy Hill and 
Fort Edward, running northward, soon nar- 
rows into the valley of Wood creek, the lar- 
gest stream in the county that flows into Lake 
Champlain. This remarkable depression af- 
fords a fine portage from Lake Champlain to 
the waters of the Hudson river, and the march 
of invading armies through this valley, in 
the struggle of warring races for the mastery 
of the North American Continent, has made 
Washington county the "War-path of Amer- 

The Batten Kill, whose beautiful Indian 
name was Ondawa, is the largest stream that 
flows directly from the county into the Hud- 
son, and its head waters of Black and White 
creeks, drain the valley between the first and 
second great ranges of hills, ere it breaks its 
way through the first great range trending 
from southwest to northeast. It also drains 
largely this first mountain range which con- 
stitutes the highlands of the towns of Easton, 
Greenwich, Argyle, Hartford, Granville, 
Hampton and east Whitehall. Gathering its 
wealth of waters from the beautiful Cossa- 
yuna and Argyle lakes, and a score of bright 
and sparkling creeks and rivulets, the Batten 
Kill becomes a swift-flowing and strangely 
picturesque stream, whose wonderful Dionon- 
dahowa, or Middle Falls, have a descent of 
seventy-five feet in a distance of three hun- 
dred. Northward from the mouth of the 
Batten Kill, in early pioneer days, stretched 
twelve miles in length and six in width, the 
eastern part of the great Saraghtoga wilder- 
ness, one of the famous Indian hunting 
grounds, through which roamed for untold 
years the lordly and masterful Iroquois. 



In the valley between the second and third 
range of hills, flows the Owl Kill, the princi- 
pal Washington county branch of the Hoosick 
river. Draining largely the second range of 
hills which constitutes the high ground of 
Cambridge, West Jackson and east Salem, 
and Hebron, and the western part of the 
third ridge, which constitutes the highland in 
the extreme eastern parts of Jackson and 
White Creek, it wends southward into the 
Hoosick river, and through the populous Cam- 
bridge valley, noted for fertility, and famous 
for beautiful scenery. 


Andiatirocte, Saint Sacrament, and George 
are three names in three different languages 
for a mountain -walled and island -gemmed 
sheet of beautiful water whose fame is world 
wide. The Indian name was supplanted by 
the French, which in turn gave way to the 
English, and to-day throughout the bounds of 
civilization Lake George is the only name 
that has ever been heard by unnumbered 
thousands for the lovely sheet of water around 
which history and romance strangely cling in 
song and story. 

The first white discoverer of Lake George 
was Father Isaac Jogues, a French Jesuit 
missionary, who first beheld its waters on 
August ii, 1642, while being carried a captive 
by Iroquois Indians from Canada to the banks 
of the Mohawk river. He escaped the next 
year, and in 1646, when returning to the Iro- 
quois as a French ambassador, he reached 
Lake George "on the eve of Corpus Christi, 
which is the feast of the Blessed Body of 
Jesus, and in honor of the day named the 
lake 'the Lake of the Blessed Sacrament.'" 
This name was contracted to that of Lake 
Saint Sacrament, by which it was known until 
1755. In August of that year General William 
Johnson encamped with his arm}' on the head 
waters of the lake, and changed its name from 
Lake Saint Sacrament to Lake George, in 
honor of George II., of England. 


On the Batten Kill are three falls — one at 
Greenwich ; the second at Galesville, forty 
feet high, and the third and most remark- 
able, half a mile below and west of Galesville, 
known by its Indian name of Dionondahowa. 
"For forty or fifty rods above the last falls 
the stream runs in a gently-descending rapid, 
curving to the_ right and descending more 
rapidly as it nears the fall. It then suddenly 
narrows its channel, inclines to the left be- 
tween rough walls of slate-rock, and falls over 
four successive terraces, each narrower and 
higher than the preceding, and having a total 
fall of seventy-five feet in three hundred feet 
of distance. The waters, now of creamy 
foam, here gather together, and entering a 
rocky gorge, hurl themselves madly over the 
brink into the ' Devil's Caldron.' Now lashed 
to fury, beaten to spray, dashed hither and 
thither with resistless force, they sullenly pour 
over another fall of twelve or fifteen feet, and 
turning to the right flow through a dark ravine 
between high rocky banks on their way to the 
Hudson. The scenery at' this point is beauti- 
ful and picturesque, and may well repay the 
tourist for a trip to view this woderful mani- 
festation of the power and masterly skill of 
Nature's great Architect." 


We condense the following account of the 
geology of Washington county from the geo- 
logic description of the same by Asa Fitch, 
M. D., who adopted the Taconic theory that 
the rocks of the county were an independent 
series lying between the primary and transition 
strata, and rejected the Metaphoric theory 
that placed them as lower members of the 
primary strata, changed from their appearance 
by the agency of heat : Starting from Lake 
George on the stratified or granitic rocks and 
passing to the southeastern part of the county, 
the following different rocks occur : at Wood 
creek a hard white sandstone rests upon the 
granite, and is known as the Potsdam sand- 



stone, whose eastern edge lies along a soft 
lime and sand rock, named the calciferous 
sandstone, which is succeeded by the pure 
blue Chazy limestone. Twelve miles from 
this, in the Bald mountain range of hills 
along the Hudson river is the Trenton lime- 
stone. Bordering on the two last named 
limestones is the Hudson river slate. Upon 
the east side of the Bald mountain range 
commences the Taconic slate that occupies 
the eastern part and underlies three-fifths of 
the county. Principally gray in color, yet it 
changes to green Magnesian slate, and to pale 
blue Sparry and snow-white Stockbridge lime- 
stones, the latter being the celebrated Rut- 
land marble. 

Lying in a trough between the primitive 
rocks of New York and the Green mountains, 
the strata of the county are sedimentary and 
belong to the lowest known paleozoic rocks. 

The granite rock is a granitic gneissoid, and 
underlies nearly all of Putnam, all of Dresden, 
and Fort Ann and Whitehall, north of Half- 
way brook and west of Wood creek. Two 
valuable minerals — iron ore and block lead — 
are found in the area named, but the last 
mineral is most abundant in north Putnam. 

The Potsdam sandstone is well developed 
from Whitehall to Fort Ann, and thence west 
along Half-way brook to the Warren county 
line. It usually crops out in precipices facing 
westward, and furnishes the best of firestones 
for furnaces, although very inferior for smooth 
stones or pavements. Occurring in uniform 
layers, it looks in cliffs like solid courses of 
masonry laid up for a wall of some great 
fortification, tower or castle of olden times. 

Succeeding the Potsdam is the calciferous 
sandstone, intermediate in position and com- 
position between the sandstone below and the 
limestone above it. Soft enough to quarry in 
smooth faced blocks, it is in high repute for 
flagging. Several quarries are open in the 
towns of Kingsbury and Fort Ann, and north 
of Dewey's bridge this rock shows a thickness 
of two hundred feet. 

Chazy limestone, pale blue or dove-colored, 
reaches from Fort Ann to the Mettowee river, 
and occupying northwest Hartford, and the 
east border of Kingsbury, reappears on the 
west side of Wood creek and passes to Glens 
Falls, where it has changed in color to a jet 
black. Its fossil shell, the Maclurea Magna, 
is abundant in the northwest part of Granville. 
This limestone is valuable for lime, and, tak- 
ing a high polish, becomes a good marble. 
In twelve miles distance, from Lake Cham- 
plain to the Hudson river, this limestone 
changes into a well-marked Trenton. 

Trenton or Bald mountain limestone stands 
in the midst of slate rocks like an oasis in a 
desert. It constitutes Bald mountain, in the 
town of Greenwich. This mountain is a mile 
in length and seven hundred feet high, hejng 
made up principally of the blue Trenton 
limestone, and ranks as pure carbonate of 
lime, producing one of the finest of "rich 
limes." The Bald mountain lime has always 
ranked superior to any other lime offered for 
sale in the leading cities of the United States. 

Hudson River slate is well exposed all 
along the Hudson, from Sandy Hill to Schuy- 
lerville. It extends three miles east from the 
Hudson to the base of Bald mountain, and is 
generally a shale rather than a slate. The 
Graptolithus pristis, the fossil of this slate, 
which occurs abundantly at Baker's Falls, re- 
sembles a narrow blade of grass, having teeth 
like a saw along both edges. The shale or 
slaty gravel of this slate makes a very fine top 
dressing for a sticky ciay road. 

Taconic slate is dark colored where in con- 
nection with Hudson River slate, and quite 
black when in contact with the limestone of 
the western part of the county. Silex is the 
largest ingredient of this rock that occupies 
the eastern part of Washington county, and 
whose characteristic fossil, Buthoirephis ftex- 
uosa, which appears like curved and branching 
marks painted on the stone, has numberless 
shades of different colors and contains milky 
quartz and iron pyrites. This rock affords a 


splendid roofing slate that is in demand in 
Europe, South America and Australia. 

Taconic sandstone is a harsh gray rock with 
seams of white quartz running through it, 
and widely scattered throughout our soils. It 
shows a thickness from a bed of a few inches 
up to a rock of two hundred feet, and is pre- 
ferred to any other stone for the walls of 
buildings, as it can be readily quarried into 
narrow blocks. 

The sparry limestone extending through 
the Taconic district resembles a chain, the 
successive links of which connect the west 
Trenton limestone with the east side granular 
limestone. It is a blue or bluish-gray rock, 
veined and marked with white calcareous 
spar, and occurs all through the Taconic dis- 
trict, at numerous points, in insulated masses. 

Magnesian slate has widely different shades 
of color and degrees of hardness, as occurring 
in a few places in the west and in the east, 
but the main mass of rock lies in the extreme 
southeastern part of the county, where it is 
more uniform in color. 

Granular limestone or Rutland marble 
touches the southeast corner of Washington 
county for the short distance of one mile. 
It is a white crystalline rock, and has been 
favorably known in the marble markets of the 
world for the last fifty years, under different 
names, such as Dorset marble, Stockbridge 
limestone, Arlington stone and Sutherland 

Granular quartz, alhough not a formation 
in the county, yet is everywhere abundant in 
the form of pebbles and cobble-stones. 

The geologic record of the county is one 
that goes back into the very dawn of the 
creation of the world, and its rock-written 
chapters, if ever deciphered, will constitute a 
history of startling past changes of wonderful 


In 1880 there was nearly eight million tons 
of iron ore mined in the United States, and 
the center of total production of this iron ore 

was twelve miles northwest of Meadville, in 
Crawford count)', Pennsylvania. The meri- 
dian and paralleled center of production then 
intersected in the eastern part of Center 
county, Pennsylvania. 

The great coal field of the central United 
States is nearly enclosed by the older rocks of 
the Wisconsin, Michigan, the Appalachian 
and the Ozark regions. In this basin and its 
rock border lie the fuel and ore with which the 
United States must make its material pro- 
gress in the twentieth century. On the north- 
eastern border of this great coal basin, we 
find the Archaean rocks, a narrow belt of which 
is found in Washington county. 

The geological column of iron ores in New 
York commences down in the Archaean rocks, 
and with a few breaks extends up through the 
Lower and Upper Silureans, the Devonian, 
Carboniferous and Triasic rocks, and missing 
the Jurassic, attains its height in the Creta- 
ceous rocks. The iron ores of New York, 
and the number of tons of each mined in 
1880, were as follows: 


Magnetite 927,000 

Limonite 155,000 

Hematite 95,000 

Fossil 85,000 

Carbonate ores, which are alone in Colum- 
bia county, were not reported in 1880. 

The Archaean rocks come to the surface only 
in the northwestern part of the county, east 
of Lake George. Magnetic ores occur in 
this narrow belt, and in 1880 were only mined 
at the Potter and Mount Hope mines. The 
Potter mine is nearly five miles from Fort 
Ann, and in 1880 produced twelve thousand 
one hundred and seventy-two tons of ore, 
which was disposed of to Fort Edward fur- 
nace, fourteen miles distant, except a part 
that was hauled to the canal and shipped to 
the Hudson river furnaces. The Potter is 
named for Joseph Potter, its owner, and was 
opened in 1879, being worked the next year 
by John T. Harris & Son. The mine is situ- 



ated between the headwaters of two small 
runs, the ore being granular, and containing 
more or less pyrite, but in places grades into 
a magnetite hornblende gneiss. A sample 
taken in 1880 from a pile of fifteen hundred 
tons, contained 62. 82 per cent of metallic iron 
with no phosphorous or titanic acid. 

The Mount Hope mine is a half-mile north- 
west of the Potter, and in 1880 produced 
six thousand seven hundred and twenty tons 
of ore. The ore outcrops on the west, south 
and east side of Mount Hope ridge, and is 
finely granular in texture, being largely mixed 
with hornblende, and to a lesser extent with 
quartz, feldspar, mica, and occasionally with 
pyrite. A sample of the ore yielded 36.99 
per cent of metallic iron, 0.055 P er cent 
phosphorus, and no titanic acid, while the 
phosphorous in 100 parts iron was 0.149 per 

The old Pedunk mine is two hundred and 
fifty feet northwest of the Potter, was worked 
for several years, but became idle about 1875. 

Some five miles north of Fort Ann, and 
northeast from the Potter, are several small 
beds of limonite iron ore. 

No statistics, at this writing, can be ob- 
tained of any of these mines or beds later 
than 1880. In that year the Potter and 
Mount Hope mines furnished employment for 
sixty miners, twenty-seven laborers, and five 
of a supervising force, all of whom received 
twenty-six thousand dollars wages. There 
was two hundred and fifteen thousand five 
hundred dollars of capital invested in them, 
and adjoining real estate, while the value of 
the yearly products was returned at forty-seven 
thousand seven hundred dollars. The iron 
made from the ore of these mines is used for 
the manufacture of Bessemer at Fort Edward 
and elsewhere in New York, and at several 
places in Ohio. 

In 1880 there were four quartz and feldspar 
mines in operation in Washington county, in 
which fifty-two thousand two hundred dollars 
capital was invested, and where seventeen 

hands were employed. Their yearly output 
was one thousand nine hundred and seven 
tons, valued at seven thousand eight hundred 
and twelve dollars. 

Graphite is found in Putnam, brick clay 
exists in several towns, and lead containing 
silver is in White creek, but the latter so far 
has not been developed in paying quantities. 
Roofing slate is in the eastern part in consid- 
erable quantities, and the celebrated Rutland 
marble also lies in the southeastern part of 
the county. 




The aboriginal history of the territory of 
Washington county would be extremely inter- 
esting, if it could be presented. But the 
mute ruins of mound and temple of the 
earliest inhabitants of America can tell noth- 
ing of their builders, while the traditions of 
the Indian are too dim as well as too fanciful 
to give anything of their own origin or the 
fate of their predecessor, the Mound-builder. 

While there is abundant evidence of the 
Mound -builders residing in western New 
York, yet there is nothing known so far to 
warrant their permanent occupation of the 
territory of Washington ; no record of mound, 
temple, altar or fortification ruins having ever 
been discovered in the count}-. 

Four principal theories exist for the emigra- 
tion of the Mound-builder from the old to the 
new world. 

The existence, in past ages, of a narrow- 
north Atlantic isthmus from England to Maine 
afforded them a route if they were of European 
origin ; and the rending of this narrow stretch 
of land by the great ice fields of the glacial 
age into mere island fragments, of which 
Greenland and Iceland alone remain, would 



have cut them off from all communication 
with their native land, whose shores they may 
never have revisited, as in all probability it 
became the home of strangers after their 
westward emigration. 

The study of the ocean currents, the winds 
and temperature of the South Pacific, with 
the record of drifting boats from the "Flowery 
Kingdom" and the East Indian isles being 
cast upon the western shore of South America, 
allow the possibility of a Mound-builder emi- 
gration from southeastern Asia to western 
South America. 

The ice-bound floor of Behring's strait in 
winter and the chain of the Aleutian islands, 
stretching from Siberia and Japan to Alaska, 
is the third and most probable route of the 
Mound-builders from the shores of the old to 
the lands of the new world. 

Some have thought that when fabled At- 
lantis was sinking in earthquake throes, they 
left its shores and their drifting boats floated 
into some south Atlantic harbor. 

The seat of the Mound-builder's empire 
was in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, 
where his temple, altar, effigy and tomb 
mounds are abundant, and in which his num- 
erous forts and fortifications were erected, 
with skill, and in places upon quite a large 

Schoolcraft states that the Mound-builders 
existed in considerable numbers along Lake 
Ontario before the twelfth century, and were 
the ancient Alleghans, who left their name 
upon the Allegheny mountains. 

Stretching over the western part of New 
York in towns protected by forts and sur- 
rounded by mounds and temples were the 
Mound-builders, and it is highly probable that 
hunting parties of this great lost race once 
followed the chase and sought for fish on the 
territory and in the streams of Washington 


When the "Great Admiral" placed the im- 
perial standard of Spain upon the shores of 

the western world he gazed upon an empire 
more vast than any of the empires of the 
east. Yet that mighty Indian empire, stretch- 
ing nine thousand miles from pole to pole, and 
more extensive in territory, greater in popula- 
tion, and more abundant in rich mines, than 
imperial Rome during her golden age, has 
passed away, and all its greatness lies buried 
in the graves of Powhatan, King Philip, Pon- 
tiac, Tecumseh, and a score of other great 

Of the eight great Indian families occupy- 
ing the territory of the United States at the 
time of the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, the Algonquin and the Huron-Iroquois 
were the two most prominent in warfare. 

The Algonquins stretched along the Atlan- 
tic coast and extended back to the lakes and 
the Allegheny mountains. 

Encircled by the Algonquins were their in- 
veterate enemies, the Huron-Iroquois of the 
present territory of western and central New 
York and western Canada. 

The fiercest and bravest of all the Huron- 
Iroquois was the Five Nations, after 1715 the 
Six Nations, whose home was in central New 

The Six Nations, stretching in a narrow belt 
from east to west, through central New York, 
were the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, 
Cayugas, Tuscaroras and Senecas. Sylvester 
says that they celebrated five great feasts every 
year: New Year's Festival or Sacrifice of the 
White Dog, Maple Feast, Planting Festival, 
Feast of the Strawberries, Feast of the Green 
Corn Moon, and Harvest Festival. 

The confederacy of the Five Nations, after 
1715 the Six Nations, was the result of the 
wonderful "Tribal League of the Hodeno- 
saunee, or People of the Long House. " This 
league made them powerful and successful. 

In each of the Five Nations there were eight 
tribes, arranged in two divisions and named as 
follows : 

Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, 
Deer, Snipe, Heron, Hawk. 



• Each tribe was divided in five parts, and 
one-fifth of it placed in each of the Five Na- 
tions. Thus the Mohawk of the Beaver tribe 
recognized the Seneca of the Beaver tribe as 
his brother, and they were bound together by 
the ties of consanguinity closer than could 
have been effected by any separate tribal 
relation which could have been devised. This 
league, the highest effort of Indian legislation, 
forms a splendid and enduring monument to 
the proud and successful confederacy that was 
reared under it, and that spread the terror of 
its name among every Indian tribe east of the 
Mississippi river and residing in Canada. 

The Six Nations, "The Indians of Indi- 
ans," and "The Romans of the West," was 
the highest type of a thorough, finished, and 
developed savage. 

John Bach McMaster, in his History of the 
People of the United States, speaks of the 
Indian as follows : 

"The opinion which many careful and just 
minded persons of our time have formed 
touching the Indians, of whom the settlers in 
the border-land then stood in constant dread, 
is a singular mixture of truth and romance. 
Time and absence have softened all that is 
vile and repulsive in his character, and left in 
full relief all that is good and alluring. We 
are in no danger of being tomahawked. But, 
one hundred years ago there were to be found, 
from Cape Ann to Georgia, few men who had 
not many times in their lives seen numbers of 
Indians, while thousands could be found scat- 
tered through every State whose cattle had 
been driven off, and whose homes had been 
laid in ashes by the braves of the Six Nations. 
In every city were to be seen women who had 
fled at the dead of night from their burning 
cabins ; who had, perhaps, witnessed the de- 
struction of Schenectady ; or whose children 
had, on that terrible day when Brant came 
into Orange county, stood in the door of the 
school house when the master was dragged 
out, when their playmates were scalped, when 
their aprons were marked with the black mark 

which, like the blood upon the door-posts, a 
second time stayed the hand of the Angel of 
Death. The opinions which such men and 
women held of the noble red man were, we 
may be sure, very different from those current 
among the present generation, and formed on 
no better authority than the novels of Cooper, 
and the lives of such warriors as Red Jacket 
and Brant. 

"Of the true character of the Indian it is 
difficult to give any notion to those who are 
acquainted with it only as it appears exalted 
or debased in the pages of fiction. In him 
were united, in a most singular manner, all 
the vices and all the arts which form the 
weapons, offensive and defensive, of the weak, 
with many of those high qualities which are 
always found associated with courage and 
strength. He was, essentially, a child of na- 
ture, and his character was precisely such as 
circumstances made it. His life was one long 
struggle for food. His daily food depended 
not on the fertility of the soil, or the abund- 
ance of the crops, but on the skill with which 
he used his bow ; on the courage with which 
he fought, single-handed, the largest and 
fiercest of beasts ; on the quickness with 
which he tracked, and the cunning with which 
he outwitted, the most timid and keen-scented 
of creatures. His knowledge of the habits of 
animals surpassed that of Audubon. The 
shrewd devices with which he snared them 
would have elicited the applause of Ulysses : 
the clearness of his vision excelled that of the 
oldest sailor; the sharpness of his hearing 
was not equalled by that of the deer. 

"Yet this man, whose courage was unques- 
tionable, was given to the dark and crooked 
ways which are the resort of the cowardly 
and the weak. Much as he loved war, the 
fair and open fight had no charms for him. 
To his mind it was madness to take the scalp 
of an enemy at the risk of his own, when he 
might waylay him in an ambuscade, or shoot 
him with a poisoned arrow from behind a tree. 
He was never so happy as when, at the dead 



of night, he roused his sleeping enemies with 
an unearthly yell, and massacred them by the 
light of their burning homes." 

In the foregoing description McMaster, 
while giving the Indian character, has failed 
to allow the Red Man credit for his honorable 
treatment of the Quaker, who bought his 
land in a satisfactory manner, and has not 
criticised the Puritan, Patroon and Cavalier 
for not adopting the policy of Penn, and 
averting nearly all of the Indian wars of the 
colonial period. 

Washington Irving, in concluding his sketch 
of the "Traits of Indian Character," says: 
"Should he (the poet) venture upon the dark 
story of their (the Indians') wrongs and wretch- 
edness ; should he tell how the)' were invaded, 
corrupted, despoiled ; driven from their native 
abodes and the sepulchers of their fathers ; 
hunted like wild beasts about the earth ; and 
sent down with violence and butchery to the 
grave — posterity will either turn with horror 
and incredulity from the tale, or blush with 
indignation at the cruely of their forefathers." 

Of the Indian occupation of Washington 
county but little can be learned at this late 
day, while it is a subject that the early his- 
torians of eastern New York were quite neg- 
lectful of, and so nearly all knowledge of camp 
and trail, of hunting ground and village, has 
passed away. 

It seems that the Mohawks were the "over- 
lords" of the count} 7 , but had no permanent 
settlement within its boundaries when the 
white race made its appearance in the upper 
Hudson valley. Some years later they made 
no use of the county beyond occasionally 
hunting in its forests, and it became the resi- 
dence of their tributaries, the Mohicans, of 
western Massachusetts. 

The Pompanuck tribe of Indians, and prob- 
ably a branch of the Mohicans, is said to have 
come to the vicinity of Pumpkin Hook, in the 
present town of White Creek. But nothing 
further of them is preserved in history or has 
been handed down in tradition. 

As late as 1850 a company of Saint Francis 
Indians, from Canada, carrying bead-work, 
visited Granville, where they claimed the right 
by immemorial usage of camping at various 
places near the village. The leader of the 
party claimed that one of the traditions of his 
people was that their ancestors had camped 
and hunted for untold ages there, and there 
had made their hatchets and arrows, and 
found the best beavers in the, Pawlet river. 
In excavating for buildings defective arrow- 
heads and hatchets were found afterward, by 
a Mr. Thompson, which confirmed the Indian 

The Mohicans had hunting camps on the 
territory of the count}', in the vicinity of the 
sites of Fort Ann and Fort Edward, as late, 
if not later, than 1755. But nothing can be 
found now to tell how soon thereafter they 
left, or where their camps were located, or 
the names and directions of the trails by 
which they had intercourse with the tribes of 
New England. 


Situated on the great water-ways of the 
continent, the Five Nations had three great 
war-paths over which they passed to wage 
unceasing war with the rival Indian nations 
then inhabiting the United States and Can- 

From their great council fire in central New 
York the Cataba war-path led through Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia to the Carolinas ; the 
Niagara trail passed into western Canada and 
westward along the great lakes to the head- 
waters of the Mississippi ; and the Canadian 
trail, or the War-path of America, ran through 
Washington county to Lake Champlain, 
which afforded a water route to the heart of 

Over the first path they marched south to 
carry the terror of their name to the gulf. 
Over the second path they swept to visit ruin 
on other nations of their own family along 
Lake Erie, and to wreak vengeance on the 



tribes west of the great lakes. Over the 
third path they passed to battle with the 
Huron and afterward to mark the Canadian 
frontier with a wide swath of flame and a dark- 
trail of blood. 

The War-path of America was originally 
the portage from the site of Fort Edward, on 
the Hudson, and extended along the valley of 
Wood creek to the site of Whitehall, at the 
head of boat navigation on Lake Champlain. 

From Fort Ann, on this portage, Johnson 
cut a road, in 1755, to Fort William Henry, 
on Lake George, and it was used to some ex- 
tent by succeeding expeditions during the 
French and Indian wars. 

But the chief interest of French and Eng- 
lish expeditions is with the old war-path 
through the Wood Creek valley, over which 
the legions of Burgoyne moved to impending 
ruin. The story of Saratoga and the raid of 
Clinton are, so far, the last chapters of the 
military history of this old war-path, whose 
earliest use was in the days of Iroquois su- 
premacy, and whose last military memory was 
in the closing hours of the great Revolution- 
ary struggle. 

From the great carrying place at Fort Ed- 
ward the road passed for some distance 
through a great wilderness of mighty pines, 
and where it descended some hill into a deep 
valley the forest depths were so dark and 
gloomy that the rays of the sun never pierced 
them. Toward Fort Ann heavy but more 
open forests extended, and from that place 
the road struck Wood creek, whose waters 
often bore, both northward and southward, 
invading forces. 

Ambush and battle were frequent along this 
road, massacre and torture were no strangers 
to it, and tradition has handed down many a 
legend of its scenes of horror and blood-shed. 
Until the axe of the lumberman and farmer 
cleared out these dense forests, the supersti- 
tious peopled some of its spots after night- 
fall with the spirits of its once marching war- 
riors, and the sounds of battle strife. But 

the sunlight has dispelled the gloom of the 
road depths, scattered the flitting spirits 
among the shadows, and sent into oblivion 
many of the superstitions of a part of the 
early settlers. 

On the War-path of America, over which 
once marched embattled hosts, now surge a 
resistless tide of trade and travel. 




In all the history of New France there was 
no event that was fraught with such far-reach- 
ing consequences as that of the invasion of 
the territory of what is now Washington 
county, in July, 1609, by Samuel de Champ- 
lain, whose name is borne by the beautiful 
lake once known as the "Wilderness Sea" of 
the Iroquois. On the 4th day of July, 1609, 
the daring and adventurous Champlain, with 
two Frenchmen and sixty Huron Indians, dis- 
covered and entered the great forest-sur- 
rounded and mountain-walled lake that will 
carry his name down through all the ages to 
come. Floating for two days on the calm and 
placid waters of the new found lake, the dis- 
tinguished French discoverer, with his feeble 
little flotilla of twenty-four canoes, hove in 
sight of a fleet of Iroquois warriors on their 
way to raid some Algonquin Indian village of 
Canada. Notwithstanding conflicting ac- 
counts, the weight of evidence is to establish 
the locality of this eventful meeting to be on 
the west shore of Lake Chaplain, in what is 
now the town of Putnam. 

The dreaded Iroquois, two hundred in num- 



ber, landed along the shore, while the Hurons 
remained on the lake, but sleep was a stranger 
to both savage bands, who spent the swiftly 
flying hours of the short summer night in the 
elegant pastime of reviling and abusing each 
other in a manner that would have done 
credit to civilized adepts in the quarrelsome 
art. At the dawn of day, on the 7th of July, 
1609, the French and Hurons went on shore, 
and the two Indian bands, burning with the 
engendered animosity of untold years, faced 
each other eager for the approaching fray. 
Then, to the astonishment of the Iroquois, 
who already anticipated an easy victory from 
their largely superior number, appeared in 
front of the Hurons a being such as they had 
never gazed upon before in the person of 
Champlain, whose white face, dark hair, and 
shining armor, produced a stupefying effect 
for a few minutes on the warriors of the Long 
House. Recovering from their momentary 
stupor, the Iroquois bent their bows to test 
the power of the strange intruder. Seeing 
this, Champlain raised his arquebus and 
fired, killing the two tall and haughty chiefs 
leading the Iroquois war party and also wound- 
ing a warrior. A thunderbolt from a clear 
and cloudless sky could not cause greater 
astonishment than the apparent lightning 
and thunder from the iron mouth of Champ- 
Iain's fire arm produced upon the stoutest 
hearted savages of the North American con- 
tinent. Although surprised, appalled, and 
stupefied, the Iroquois promptly rallied, and, 
for a few moments, sent a vigorous flight of 
arrows against their hereditary foes and the 
strange invader. Before Champlain could 
reload one of his French companions ad- 
vanced in sight and fired. Another Iroquois 
fell dead, and this increase of the strange in- 
truders and the second gleam of deathful 
flame shook the indomitable courage of the 
bold-hearted warriors of the Five Nations, 
and wavering, their line broke, under a weight 
of disasters that seemed as supernatural as it 
was incomprehensible. Flying into the forest 

the escaping Iroquois carried the news of this 
unwonted French attack on their confederacy 
and bequeathed its bitter memory to succeed- 
ing generations. 

The French and the Hurons re-entered 
their canoes and returned to Canada, but 
Champlain's death shot on the territory of 
Washington county, New York, was fatal for 
France in the new world, and its echo ringing 
through nearly two centuries of Indian inva- 
sions of Canada, died only on the Plains of 
Abraham, when French power in North 
America fell before the arms of England. 

Hudson's discovery. 

The greatest body of water bordering on the 
northern part of the county was discovered by 
Champlain, and bears his name, while the 
largest stream flowing southward along the 
western boundary of the county was discov- 
ered, where it empties into the ocean, two 
months later, by Henry Hudson, another of 
the world's great discoverers. Champlain 
claimed the territory of New York for France, 
and Hudson, although an Englishman, was 
in the service of Holland when he discovered 
the river which bears his name. On this 
stream settlements were afterward made by 
the Dutch, who claimed the territory of the 
Empire State as a part of New Netherlands, 
in right of Hudson's discovery. 

Hudson, on a second voyage of discovery for 
Holland, discovered the great bay which bears 
his name, and which in all likelihood became 
his grave, as his crew mutinied there and cast 
him afloat in an open boat, from which no 
tidings ever came. 


The Iroquois were beaten by Champlain, or 
rather by his strange arms, and for a few years 
ceased to war with the Canadian Algonquins, 
but they were not subdued, and afterward be- 
came friendly with the new-settling Dutch, at 
Fort Orange, now Albany, in order to procure 



the death dealing arms of the white man, which 
they obtained from the traders there in ex- 
change for their furs. Thus supplied with 
the weapons of the dreaded French invaders, 
they again took the war path, and in bands 
numbering from ten to a hundred, repeatedly 
overran the southern part of Canada, spread- 
ing terror and desolation in their track, and 
arresting French settlement in the valley of 
the Saint Lawrence. Their routes of inva- 
sion were by the west shore of Lake Saint 
George, and over the portage between the 
Hudson and Lake Champlain, through the 
territory of this county. 

But little authentic account can be obtained 
of these raids, which, tradition says, com- 
menced between 1630 and 1640, and were 
made principally by the Mohawk and Oneida 
nations, as the other three of the Five Na- 
tions were engaged in a war of extermination 
against the Eries, Hurons, and other western 
Indian tribes. 


In 1642 one of these raiding bands of Iro- 
quois captured Father Isaac Jogues, a French 
Jesuit priest, who was born at Orleans, France, 
in 1607, and had come to Canada as a mis- 
sionary. After visiting terrible tortures upon 
him, they carried him, mangled and bruised, 
as a prisoner to the Mohawk country, from 
which he afterward escaped, and in which he 
was treacherously slain on October 18, 1646, 
at his Mission of the Martyrs, Saint Mary's of 
the Mohawks, that he had founded in the 
month of May, that year. 

While bearing Father Jogues as a prisoner 
to the Mohawk country, the Iroquois band 
reached Lake George, on August 1 1, 1642, and 
their captive on that day was the first white 
man to gaze upon the waters of that beautiful 
lake, which four years later he named the 
"Lake of the Blessed Sacrament." Nine 
years later Sir William Johnson re-christened 
the lake as George, in honor of George II. of 




A solemn treat}' of peace between the 
French and Iroquois had been negotiated in 
1746 by Father Jogues, but the inveterate 
hate of the Iroquois soon caused them to dis- 
regard its provisions and to continue their raids 
into Canada with but little interruption for 
nearly twenty years. 

In 1664, the English conquered the New 
Netherlands, and the Five Nations transferred 
their allegiance from the old to the new mas- 
ters of New York without any hesitation, and 
continued their summer pastime of plunder 
and murder in Canada. 

Finally aroused to resistance, the French 
colonists obtained aid from France, and in 
1665 a veteran regiment was sent over to stop 
the ravages of the Iroquois. After the arrival 
of these troops Governor Courcelle, of Can- 
ada, in January, 1666, started with a force of 
four hundred troops and two hundred Algon- 
quin Indians to invade the territory of the 
Five Nations. From the head of Lake 
Champlain he crossed the northern part of 
this county to Lake George, and then, by 
carelessness of his guides, missed the Mohawk- 
castles and arrived near Schenectady, from 
which he was compelled, in February, to re- 
treat to Canada by the way which he had 
come, and on the return trip his force was se- 
verely harrassed by the Iroquois, as well as 
suffering terribly by the weather and for want 
of provisions. 

The fruitless winter invasion of the Mohaw k 
country of 1666 was followed by a more suc- 
cessful autumn one, led by Marquis de Tracy, 



whose force is placed by Johnson at six hun- 
dred, while Sylvester states that it numbered 
one thousand three hundred. Tracy had two 
pieces of artillery and only succeeded in burn- 
ing the Mohawk villages, as their owners, ap- 
prised of his invasion, fled before his arrival. 


Tracy's invasion had such an effect on the 
Five Nations, that for nearly twenty years 
Canada enjoyed peace at their hands, but at 
the end of that time the unwise course of 
action pursued by Denonville, the Governor 
of Canada, and the weakness of that country, 
served as provocation and was temptation, 
and the relentless Iroquois sharpened up the 
hatchet. Once more the terrific war-whoop 
rang in the forest regions of the lakes as the 
Iroquois swept over the portage war-path in 
the summer of 16S9. They were nine hundred 
strong by Johnson, while Sylvester makes 
them one thousand five hundred in numbers. 
Like the angry waters of a torrent-flooded 
stream spreading over all the adjoining low- 
land, so this fierce savage wave swept over 
the entire open country around Montreal, and 
only receded when reaching the forts before 
the gates of that city. Canada, hopeful of 
prosperity from a score of years of peace, 
now lay desolate and blackened beneath 
the scalping knife and flaming torch of a mer- 
ciless savage horde. 

Widely spread under the summer's sun were 
smoking ruins, wasted fields, and an unsepul- 
chered host of the dead, in which were in- 
volved alike the valiant soldier, the fearless 
hunter and the prosperous farmer, with the 
busy matron, the beautiful maid and the inno- 
cent babe. Through the darkness gleamed 
the death fires of the unfortunate captives, 
where fiendish cruelty exhausted human in- 
genuity in the infliction of most horrible tor- 
tures. The Iroquois had paid a large in- 
stallment on the debt of vengeance the}' owed 
to Champlain for his raid of 1609. 




The period of French and Iroquois wars, 
eight}' years in length, ended in 1689, when a 
second war period of seventy-four years com- 
menced, which is known in the history of this 
country as the inter-colonial wars. During 
this last named period four wars were waged 
between French and English, called in the 
new world King William, Queen Ann, King 
George's, and the French and Indian wars. 
Although these wars were terminated in 
Europe by treaties of peace, yet fighting never 
totally ceased at any time between the oppos- 
ing colonies in America, within the seventy- 
four years from 1689 until 1763; when New 
France ceased to exist as a political division 
in the new world. 

King William's war opened in 1689, and in 
February of the following year a small detach- 
ment of French and Algonquin Indians, under 
Mantet and Sainte Helene, passed to the west 
of Washington county and surprised Schenec- 
tady. After killing sixty persons, they laid 
the place in ashes and retreated with upward 
of ninety prisoners. 


The massacre of Schenectady by the French 
and Indians aroused the provincial authorities 
of New York and Connecticut, and they re- 
solved upon retaliatory measures by raising a 
force and capturing Montreal. 

Gen. Fitz John Winthrop, of Connecticut, 
was appointed to command this force, which 
consisted of four hundred from New York 
(mostly Dutch), one hundred and thirty-five 
Connecticut men, and thirty "River" and 



one hundred and fifty Mohawk Indians. On 
the 5th of August General Winthrop crossed 
the Hudson at the "Great Carrying Place" 
(Fort Edward) and, preceded by a Dutch 
company under Major Peter Schuyler, the 
next day marched to the "Forks of Wood 
creek," now Fort Ann. From there he 
marched to the mouth of Wood creek. At 
that place, receiving word that he would not 
be joined by the Seneca and Iroquois Indians 
at the north end of Lake Champlain, on ac- 
count of small-pox breaking out in their coun- 
try, he did the most sensible thing that he 
could do under the circumstances by resolving 
to abandon the expedition. 

A council of war, called on the 15th, sanc- 
tioned this course, and Winthrop returned to 
Albany, where he was put under arrest for 
retreating. Before retiring from Wood creek 
General Winthrop sent Captain John Schuyler 
with forty men and one hundred and twenty 
Indians against any French detachment that 
might be at the northern part of Lake Cham- 
plain. Schuyler was soon joined by a return- 
ing party of thirteen men and five Indians, 
under Captain Glen, who had been on a scout, 
and, with this slight accession to his small 
force, proceeded to La Prairie, on the lake, 
where he inflicted some damage on the French. 

Schuyler's expedition. 

During the next year Major Peter Schuyler 
collected a force of two hundred and sixty 
whites and Iroquois Indians, and proceeded, 
by the way of the portage route, from the 
"Great Carrying Place" to the falls of Wood 
creek, from which he descended the lake in a 
small fleet of canoes that he had built at Fort 
Ann. Arriving at La Prairie, he had a fight 
with the French, in which he had twenty-one 
men killed and five wounded, and was com- 
pelled to retreat. 


Several small Indian depredations on either 
side occurred during 1692, but it was reserved 

for the next year to witness a French winter 
expedition, upon quite a large scale. 

De Mantelle, with a force of four hundred 
and twenty-five French and two hundred 
Huron Indians, on snow shoes and provision 
sledges, came over the ice of Lakes Cham- 
plain and George and pushed through the 
forests into the Mohawk country, where they 
burned several castles or forts and captured 
quite a number of prisoners. On their retreat, 
Sylvester says that Major Peter Schuyler, with 
a body of English and Iroquois, fought them 
at Greenfield Hills, in Saratoga county, on 
February 27, 1693 ; while Johnson states that 
five days before this the French had arrived 
at Lake George. Schuyler did not follow 
farther than the Hudson river, and at the 
lake the French pushed on for Ticonderoga, 
while the Hurons crossed to Lake Champlain. 
A large number of their prisoners escaped, 
their depot of provisions was spoiled by rain, 
and the invaders did not reach Montreal until 
March 9, after suffering great hardships. 


While there was a cessation in military 
affairs along the lakes in 1696, a move was 
made in a civil line that came very near trans- 
ferring the entire county to one individual. 
Rev. Godfredius Dellius, pastor of the Re- 
formed church at Albany, secured a patent 
from Governor Fletcher, for all the land north 
of the Saratoga patent on the east side of the 
Hudson, ninety miles northward, embracing 
more than half of Washington, all of Warren 
and the larger part of Essex counties, being 
in all two thousand square miles of territory. 
The quit rent to be paid to the crown Yearly 
for this land was one raccoon skin. Dellius 
claimed to have purchased this land from the 
Mohawks prior to 1696, but the settlement 
would have been retarded by this grant. which 
was vacated by the legislature in 1698, upon 
the persuasion of the Earl of Bellamont. 
Dellius resisted this vacation, and returning 
to Holland, is supposed to have transferred 



his claim to Rev. John Lydius, his successor 
in the Alhany church. 

King William's war, which has principally 
occupied this chapter, closed in 1697, by the 
treaty of peace, at Ryswick, in Holland, and 
for the remaining three years of the seven- 
teenth century comparative quiet reigned 
along the northern lakes and the dense forests 
of Washington county, but it was only a lull 
preceding another oncoming storm between 
England and France. 




The waning of the light of the seventeenth 
century was over peaceful days, but the sun 
of the new century was soon obscured by 

In 1702 war was declared between France 
and England. 

It was but the second stage of the great 
struggle between those two great powers for 
territorial supremacy in America, and was 
known in Europe as the "War of the Spanish 
Succession," while in the history of this coun- 
try it has place as "Queen Anne's War." 

The heaviest part of this war fell upon the 
New England colonies, while New York was 
for the most part spared, which one historian 
says was on account of the French having 
made a treaty with the Iroquois, and then re- 
fraining from invading their territory.' 

Be it as it may, concerning the last state- 
ment, yet but few and very small war parties 
of either Iroquois or Hurons traveled over 
Washington county during Queen Anne's war. 

After seven years of comparative peace had 
prevailed in the Upper Hudson valley, the 

English projected an expedition against Can- 
ada by the way of Washington county. Con- 
necticut, New York, New Jersey, and Penn- 
sylvania furnished fifteen hundred troops, 
which were joined at Albany by several inde- 
pendent New York companies, one hundred 
Mohawks, and a few British regulars. This 
army was commanded by Gen. Francis Nich- 
olson, and was preceded in its march by a de- 
tachment of laborers, under Col. Peter Schuy- 
ler, who built Fort Saraghtoga on the east side 
of the Hudson, just below the mouth of the 
Batten Kill. Proceeding northward, Schuyler 
built stockades at Stillwater and Fort Miller 
falls, opened a road from the Batten Kill up 
to the "Great Carrying Place" at Fort Ed- 
ward, where he erected Fort Nicholson, and 
then pushed forward to the "Forks of Wood 
creek," at which place he built Fort Schuy- 
ler, on the site of Fort Ann. Nicholson 
moved up with the main part of his army 
to Fort Schuyler, while a French force, re- 
ported to be sixteen hundred strong, lay on 
the northern part of Lake Champlain to watch 
his movements. 

The expedition against Quebec from New 
England, with which Nicholson was to co- 
operate, failed to accomplish its purpose, and 
the NewYork forces could not move. They were 
soon depleted by a severe sickness which broke 
out in their camp, and in November retired 
down the river, after destroying Forts Nichol- 
son and Schuyler, and the posts at the second 
carrying place. 

In 1 71 1 another expedition by sea and a 
land force by the lakes was projected by the 
English. General Nicholson was again placed 
in command of the land force, and arriving at 
the ruins of Fort Schuyler, built a new fort, 
called "Queen's Fort." Fearing that the 
Champlain route would be unhealthful, Nich- 
olson's arm} 7 , then increased to four thousand, 
took up its line of march to Lake George, but 
ere reaching its shore, learned of the English 
fleet, intended to operate against Quebec, 
being shattered at sea. This news caused 



Nicholson to abandon "Queen's Fort," and 
to disband his army at Albany. 

Fort Saraghtoga remained as the northern 
outpost of the Hudson river settlements, and 
two years later Queen Anne's war was termi- 
nated by the peace of Utrecht in 1713. Des- 
ultory fighting still continued along the New 
England and western frontiers, but Washing- 
ton county and the northern lake region en- 
joyed peace for over thirty years, during 
which time the French sought to effect a set- 
tlement on the lake territory whose ownership 
had not been definitely settled by the peace 
of Utrecht. In 1731 the Governor of Canada 
built a fort at Crown Point, around which was 
planted a French settlement. This move 
alarmed the colonists as moving the French 
center of military operations so much nearer 
Albany, but the legislature and governor of 
New York were engaged in a constant conflict 
with each other and nothing was done toward 
building a fort at Ticonderoga as a check to 
French aggression. The building of the 
Crown Point fort was but a part of the grand 
design of France to found a mighty empire in 
the great extent of country watered by the 
Saint Lawrence, the Great Lakes and the 
Mississippi, and having for its eastern boun- 
dary the Appalachian mountain system. 

The only means used by New York to coun- 
teract the French move at Crown Point was 
to countenance a settlement by the Schuylers 
at Fort Saraghtoga and invite "Loyal Pro- 
testant Highlanders" to settle on the lands 
between the Hudson and the northern lakes. 


The Schuylers, some years after the peace 
of Utrecht, were instrumental in securing the 
settlement of a tract of land at the fort of 
that name on the east side of the Hudson 
river in what is now the town of Easton. This 
was the pioneer settlement of the county and 
was extended to the western side of the river. 
Nothing definite can be obtained of the year 
of its settlement, and its total destruction in 

1745, led to its being confounded, in after 
years, with the Saratoga settlement and vil- 
lage on the west side of the river. 


In 1737, Capt. Laughlin Campbell, a soldier 
of great courage, visited Washington county 
in response to the invitation of the New York 
authorities to Scotch Highlanders to settle 
there. Being pleased with the country, he 
was promised, according to his account, a 
grant of thirty thousand acres for colony use 
for survey fees and quit rent by Lieutenant 
Governor Clark. Campbell then returned to 
Scotland, sold his property, raised a colony of 
four hundred and twenty-three adults, and, 
with a part of them, came the next year to 
New York, where Governor Clark insisted on 
full fees and a share in the land. Campbell 
refused to comply with these terms, likely not 
having the money to pay the fees demanded, 
and Clark recommended the legislature to 
grant the colony assistance, but that body, 
then at war with the governor, declined to re- 
spond, as the money, they suspected, would 
have to go to the colonial officials for fees. 
The colonists were obliged to separate to earn 
their living, and Campbell died in poverty, 
but his account of his treatment is, in all prob- 
ability, correct, for the colonial officials then 
in office enjoyed an unenviable reputation for 
double-dealing and charging extortionate fees. 


At some time between 1730 and 1744, ac- 
cording to all accounts, Col. John Henry 
Lydius, son of Rev. John Lydius, came to the 
site of Fort Nicholson and built a fortified 
house as a trading post, where he enjoyed a 
large trade with both the Iroquois and the 
Canadian Indians, as he sold goods cheaper 
than the French traders. He claimed the 
vast Dellius tract of land in right of his father, 
who had purchased the title of Rev. Dellius, 
the patentee. 

The legislature did not recognize Lydius as 



the owner of the land, and in 1740 granted 
twelve thousand acres of the tract comprising 
the larger part of the town of Fort Edward 
to John and Philip Schuyler and others. The 
next year Samuel Bayard obtained a grant of 
one thousand three hundred acres, extending 
into the very heart of Colonel Lydius' settle- 
ment. The Hoosick and the Rensselaer pat- 
ents were granted about 1740, and part of 
these tracts extended into the towns of Cam- 
bridge and White Creek. 

The selfish course of the colonial officials, 
the war between the governor and assembly, 
and the likelihood of war breaking out at any 
time on the frontier, where the tomahawk and 
scalping-knife of the cruel Indian would play 
an important part, had prevented any consid- 
able settlement in the decades succeeding the 
treaty of Utrecht. 




The slow progress of settlement was arrested 
in 1744 by the outbreak of war again between 
France and England, in Europe, over the 
Austrian Succession, and which soon extended 
to the colonies, where it was known by the 
name of King George's war. 

The preceding colonial war had been noted 
for attempted English invasions of Canada by 
the way of Lake Champlain, but King George's 
war was to be distinguished in the upper Hud- 
son valley only by French invasions and the 
total abandonment of Washington county in 
1747 'by the English. 

Soon after war was declared, Indian scouting 
parties lurked about Lydius' post and Fort 
Saraghtoga, but did no damage. The next 

year Colonel Philip Schuyler repaired and 
strengthened the forts at Saratoga, which 
were attacked, captured and destroyed on 
November 28, 1745 (New Style), by M. Marin 
and a force of three hundred French and as 
many Algonquin Indians. M. Marin's origi- 
nal destination was Connecticut, but on his 
march he changed his plan and attacked Sara- 
toga, which lay on both sides of the Hudson, 
with a fort on each side. There were about 
thirty families in the settlement, and Colonel 
Philip Schuyler, refusing to surrender, was 
shot down in his brick house on the west side 
of the Hudson, according to Lossing and 
others, while Johnson is strongly of the opin- 
ion that his residence was on the east side of 
the Hudson, as well as that most of the set- 
tlement was on the Batten Kill on the east, 
and not on the Fish Kill on the west side of 
the river. 

Marin captured one hundred and nine pris- 
oners and retreated by Lake Champlain to 
Canada. No attempt at pursuit was made. 


In the spring of 1746, Fort Clinton was 
built near the ruins of one of the Saratoga 
forts, to protect the cultivation of the cleared 
fields of the destroyed settlement. Fort Clin- 
ton was named for Governor George Clinton 
(father of Sir Henry Clinton), cost three hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars, and was one 
hundred and fifty feet long by one hundred 
and forty feet in width, with six wooden re- 
doubts for barracks, and mounting six twelve- 
pound and six eighteen-pound cannon. 

The location of Fort Clinton has been a 
matter of some dispute. Johnson says the 
fort was on the east side, while Sylvester 
claims that it was on the west side of the 


During the year 1746 over twenty small 
French and Indian expeditions passed over 
the soil of the county to attack the settlers 



along the frontiers of New York and Massa- 
chusetts, and one force four hundred and fifty 
strong, under Monsieur de Mery, camped on 
Wood creek, into which they felled the trees 
growing on its banks for several miles up from 
the mouth, so as to render its navigation im- 
practicable to any English expedition moving 
against Canada by that route. 

War parties of the French and Indians 
continued throughout the next year to pass to 
their work of plunder and murder, but the 
only one that inflicted any damage in the 
county was that of Saint Luc, who, in July, 
1647, made his way stealthily to the vicinity 
of Fort Clinton, with twenty Canadians and 
two hundred Indians. He had six of his 
warriors in the night approach close to the 
fort, and in the morning they fired on two 
men who came out of the fort and then rose 
up and fled, drawing slowly after them one 
hundred and twenty of the garrison into an 
ambush prepared by the French leader. The 
French and Indians fired, and then closed in 
with their tomahawks, killing twenty-eight 
and capturing forty-five on the spot, while 
many others were drowned or shot while try- 
ing to swim the river. Saint Luc's loss was 
one Indian killed and five wounded. 

The French leader remained near Fort Clin- 
ton until he ascertained that there were over 
one hundred and fifty men yet in the garrison — 
a force too strong for him to attack while it 
was behind the walls of the fort — and then 
retreated leisurely, with his prisoners, to 


The English continued to hold Fort Clinton 
until October, when Governor Clinton, upon 
the plea that the assembly had not voted 
money enough to keep it up, ordered the can- 
non and stores removed and the troops with- 
drawn to Albany. As the last of the garrison 
withdrew the torch was applied, by the gov- 
ernor's orders, and the fort was burned to the 

Thus the first English occupation was of 
short duration, not lasting much over ten 
years at the farthest. 

The next year the war was closed by the 
treaty of peace signed at Aix la Chapelle, and 
the French and Indian war parties ceased to 
pass through the county, but the distrust 
caused by the inefficient action of the New 
York authorities was sufficient to discourage 
all attempts at further settlement, until pro- 
vincial affairs should be in better shape. 





The last of three peace intervals between 
the four inter-colonial wars that constituted 
the great struggle for territorial supremacy 
between France and England in North Am- 
erica, lasted but six years. The first two of 
these wars were fought while Louis XIV., the 
"Grand Monarque, '' was on the throne of 
France. During his minority and early reign, 
his minister, Cardinal Mazarin, kept peace 
with England, because Cromwell was too 
powerful to be encountered, but in his later 
years, when dictating law to Europe, Louis 
foolishly refused to acknowledge the Prince 
of Orange as William III. of England. From 
that day his power waned and the House of 
Bourbon was doomed to fall. Under his pro- 
fligate successor, Louis XVI., the struggle 
was continued with England, ruled by the 



House of Brunswick. The third war had been 
fought, and now the fourth, last and greatest 
of these wars, was about to begin. The first 
three wars had their origin in Europe, but the 
fourth, known in this country as the French 
and Indian war, originated in America in 1754, 
in the contest of the Virginians and French 
over the Monongahela valley in southwestern 

Northward along the entire frontier line the 
contest spread and raged for two years before 
a formal declaration of war was made be- 
tween France and England, although during 
this time, while Louis XVI. and George II. 
were expressing friendship for each other, 
they were sending large bodies of troops to 
help their respective North American colonies 
in their great struggle. 

During the last peace period the Mohicans, 
by permission of the Mohawks, had hunting 
camps in the county, and a dim tradition ex- 
ists of a settlement beginning in the town of 
Greenwich on the Schuyler patent, where, in 
all probability, a few settlers may have strug- 
gled back to the devastated fields of the Sara- 
toga settlement. 

In 1755 England planned three expeditions 
against the French in America. The third of 
these expeditions was placed under command 
of Maj. Gen. William Johnson, and had for 
its object the capture of Crown Point. On 
August 14, 1755, General Johnson arrived at 
the site of Fort Edward, where General Ly- 
man had erected Fort Lyman on the site of 
Fort Nicholson, near the site of Lydius' estab- 
lishment. By August 25th Johnson had over 
four thousand troops, consisting of two Con- 
necticut, three Massachusetts, a Rhode Island, 
a New Hampshire, and a New York regiment, 
the latter of which contained three Connecti- 
cut companies. Two hundred and fifty Mo- 
hawk braves joined the expedition under com- 
mand of the celebrated King Hendrick. Gen- 
eral Johnson, on the 25th, moved with two 
thousand five hundred troops and his Indians 
toward Lake George, where he arrived on the 

28th, and encamped within the territory of 
Warren county. A few days later he was 
joined by Gen. Phineas Lyman, with addi- 
tional reinforcements, and Colonel Blanchard 
was left in command of Fort Lyman. 

The departure of Johnson was reported to 
Baron Dieskau, "the Dutch-Frenchman," 
as a retreat to Albany. The French com- 
mander, upon this intelligence, resolved to 
divide his force, and with one part of it cap- 
ture Fort Lyman. This course of action was 
resolved upon against the positive command 
of the governor of Canada. Dieskau, with 
twelve hundred and eighty Canadians and In- 
dians, landed at South Bay, on the 4th of 
September, and the next day took up their 
march for Fort Lyman, where they arrived 
on the 7th. His six hundred Indians refused 
to attack .the fort — really on account of its 
cannon — as property of King George, but 
offered to attack Johnson (as they supposed 
he had no cannon), as he was on French terri- 
tory. Dieskau was compelled to give up the 
attack on the fort, and seek battle with John- 
son. Moving toward Lake George the next 
day he learned that Johnson had started one 
thousand men, under Colonel Williams and 
King Hendrick, to relieve the fort, and 
planted an ambuscade into which the English 
and Indians fell, at Bloody Pond, in the edge 
of Warren county. Williams and King Hen- 
drick were killed, and their force nearly all 
destroyed. After this signal victory the obsti- 
nate and rash Dieskau pressed forward to the 
assault of Johnson's fortified camp, where he 
was wounded and captured, and his force de- 
feated and scattered. The battle of Lake 
George raged from noon till four o'clock, and 
was determined by a charge of the English 
after repulsing several desperate French as- 
saults. Johnson was wounded early in the 
fight, and Lyman really won the victory. 
The French and Indians retreated toward 
South Bay, but one detachment was sur- 
prised at Bloody Pond, and routed by a 
detachment of English sent out from Fort 



Lyman, under Captain McGuinness. From 
South Bay the remnant of the French and In- 
dian force returned in their boats to Crown 

Johnson ignored General Lyman in his re- 
port of the battle, and treated him with great 
shabbiness in changing the name of Fort Ly- 
man to that of Fort Edward, for Edward, 
Duke of York. Johnson was made a baron 
and given a gratuity of five thousand pounds 
for winning the battle of Lake George — the 
only English victory of that year, and Lyman, 
the true hero, went unnoticed alike by the 
Provincial authorities and the Crown. 

Johnson wisely refrained from attacking 
Crown Point with his force, as the French 
had as many men as he had, and the advan- 
tage of their fortifications. Reinforcements 
came so late in the season that after building 
Fort William Henry, on Lake George, John- 
son returned to Albany and disbanded his 

During the latter part of the year Captains 
Robert Rogers and Israel Putnam, and Lieu- 
tenants John Stark and Noah Grant (great- 
grandfather of General U. S. Grant) led nu- 
merous successful scouting expeditions toward 

Dissatisfaction prevailed at Johnson's fail- 
ure to capture Crown Point, and in 1756, the 
colonies raised six thousand troops, who were 
sent to Fort Edward, under command of Gen. 
Seth Winslow of Massachusetts. There 
Winslow was soon joined by Gen. James 
Abercrombie with a body of British regulars. 
General Abercrombie assumed command and 
marched to Fort William Henry, where he 
allowed the daring and intrepid Marquis de 
Montcalm, the commander of the French 
forces, to completely outwit him in every way 
and capture Oswego, on Lake Ontario. Aber- 
crombie was too slow to attempt anything, 
and the Earl of Loudon, commander-in-chief, 
was less energetic, so the army, after laving 
at Fort William Henry till fall, was marched 
back to Albany and disbanded. 


While the imbecility of the English com- 
manders was inviting defeat at the hands of 
the French, there were three partisan leaders 
— Rogers, Putnam and Stark — whose daring 
scouts and successful fights taught the enemy 
respect for provincial prowess. In June, 1756, 
Rogers and Putnam, with two pieces of light 
artillery and one hundred men, at the narrows 
of Lake Champlain, ambushed Saint Luc 
with a force of several hundred French and 
Indians, and killed a large number, besides 
sinking many boats. They also passed Crown 
Point in the night and raided into the edge of 
Canada. In January, 1757, Rogers and Stark, 
with seventy-four men, on snow-shoes, suc- 
cessfully attacked a French party on the ice 
between Ticonderoga and Crown Point, but 
one French soldier escaped, and a force of 
two hundred and fifty men, on snow-shoes, 
were sent to capture the audacious rangers. 
A battle of four hours, in snow four feet deep, 
followed ; the French drew off and the rangers 
retreated. Rogers was wounded early in the 
fight, and Stark (second lieutenant) won the 
victory and conducted the retreat. In March, 
Captain Stark prevented the surprise and 
probable capture of Fort William Henry by 
Vaudreuil and a force of one thousand five 
hundred French and Indians, who came from 
Ticonderoga on snow-shoes, along Lake 
Champlain, and through the towns of Dres- 
den and Fort Ann. Stark, by a ruse, kept his 
company of New Hampshire Scotch-Irish 
from getting drunk on Saint Patrick's day, 
and thus had sober sentinels, while the regu- 
lars were all hopelessly drunk. After a few 
days investment of the fort the French burned 
a lot of vessels and retreated. 


During 1757, Abercrombie remained at Al- 
bany and sent Gen. Daniel Webb, with some 
regiments of British regulars and several 
thousand of provincial troops, to Fort Ed- 



ward. Webb had distinguished himself the 
preceding year by a rapid flight down the 
Mohawk valley when no enemy was in pur- 
suit, and hence was not popular with either 
soldiers or colonists. 

Montcalm frightened Webb from all offen- 
sive operations by two swift and bloody raids. 
Lieutenant Marin, the daring French partisan, 
on. July 25th landed at South Bay with two 
hundred French and Indians and killed nearly 
all of sixty men of a patrol and guard in sight 
of Fort Edward, where cautious Webb would 
not allow any of his regiments to go out and 
make short work of the butcher. On July 
25th, the second raid was made under Lieu- 
tenant Corbierie, who with fifty French and 
two hundred Ottawas, came up Lake George 
to near Sabbath Day point and ambushed the 
barges, carrying a New Jersey regiment, three 
hundred strong, under Col. John Parker, kill- 
ing one hundred and thirty-one and capturing 
one hundred and fifty- seven, with a loss of 
only one Indian wounded. 

Webb was most terribly frightened, and, 
going to Fort William Henry, his fears were 
not lessened any by learning there of an ad- 
vancing French force. He immediately re- 
turned to Fort Edward and dispatched a 
Scotch regiment to reinforce it. while he sent 
expresses through ail the colonies calling for 
reinforcements, which were promptly raised, 
to the extent of twenty thousand, and sent, 
although arriving too late to be of any use. 

In the meantime Montcalm swiftly ascended 
Lake George and surrounded Fort William 
Henry with seven thousand five hundred 
troops, of which one thousand eight hun- 
dred were Indians. General Webb lay quaking 
in his trenches at Fort Edward, with five 
thousand men, and informed Colonel Munro, 
commanding Fort William Henry, that he 
could not relieve him until the militia arrived, 
and if he could not hold out till then he must 
make the best terms of surrender that he 
could. Putnam and Sir William Johnson on 
the 8th obtained permission to raise volun- 

teers and advance to the relief of Munro, but 
when they drew out a considerable force to 
start, Webb countermanded the permission 
and ordered the troops back. The next day 
Munro surrendered, with two thousand two 
hundred men, under stipulations that his 
troops should retire the next day, with their 
arms and baggage, to Fort Edward. The re- 
treat the next day was turned into a flight, 
and the larger part were massacred by the 

This massacre is the one dark stain on the 
otherwise bright character of Montcalm, who 
did not prevent it, while it is alike disgraceful 
to two thousand troops, with arms in their 
hands, to allow themselves to be butchered by 
an inferior force of Indians unless they feared 
to resist, under the impression if they did so 
the French would open fire on them. 

Webb was relieved of his command by Ly- 
man, but escaped punishment and even cen- 
sure, although ordered to England. 

The army and the militia returned to Al- 
bany and were disbanded. A strong garrison 
was left at. Fort Edward, and Putnam and 
Rogers, with their rangers, were stationed 
along the northern frontier. Putnam, in No- 
vember, saved Captain Little's detachment 
from capture by Levis, who, in that mon'h, 
made a dash into the neighborhood of Fort 
Edward with several hundred French and 

Disaster to the English arms had marked 
the year 1757, but three years of repeated 
reverses were now to be succeeded by two 
years of victories, as Pitt had become prime 
minister; and under his genius success was 
to be organized. Loudon was removed and 
Abercrombie given the chief command in his 

Lord Howe led the advance of Abercrom- 
bie's army to Lake George, on June 22, 1758, 
and shortly after this Putnam, with fifty men, 
was sent by Howe to guard the head of Lake 
Champlain and prevent French reconnoitering 
there. Fifteen of his men became' sick, and 



with the other thirty-five he erected a stone 
wall at Fiddler's Elbow, three-quarters of a 
mile below Whitehall. Ambushing his wall 
with pine, the sturdy Putnam waited until 
fate sent no less a foe than the dreaded Marin 
or "Molang," with five hundred French and 
Indians. It took Marin nearly twelve hours 
to dislodge Putnam, and cost him nearly two 
hundred men, while the rangers had but two 
men wounded. 

abercrombie's campaign. 

On July 28, 1758, Abercrombie's army ar- 
rived at Fort Edward. He had the 27th, 
44th, 46th, 55th and 80th regiments of regu- 
lars, two battalions of the 60th and 42d High- 
landers, or the celebrated "Black Watch," 
six thousand five hundred men, all told, and 
the flower of the British army. Ten thousand 
provincial troops and five hundred Iroquois, 
commanded by Sir William Johnson, -were 
with him. A magnificent arm)', if it only had 
had a commander of any military ability at 
its head. 

On July 7, Abercrombie crossed Lake 
George and landed unopposed. Montcalm 
had only three thousand men, but he was an 
host within himself. In the skirmishing that 
ensued after the landing, Lord Howe, the 
idol of the English army, was killed. On the 
8th, "Flung with blundering bolt-headness 
against a rude intrenchment protected by 
abatis and defended by only three thousand 
Frenchmen and Canadians, under the fiery 
Montcalm, the sixteen thousand British and 
Americans wore out the long, hot summer 
afternoon in hopeless attacks, and retreated 
at night with the loss of two thousand men, 
while that of the enemy scarcely reached three 

Abercrombie retreated after his defeat, and 
later threw up fortifications at the head of 
Lake George, which he occupied until fall. 
He then marched his army back to Alb^nv. 

Before Abercrombie retreated from the 
county, he allowed Colonel Bradstreet to col- 

lect a small force and proceed to Lake On- 
tario, where he captured Fort Frontenac, with 
some cannon and a large amount of military 

Also, while Abercrombie was at the head 
of Lake George, Saint Luc, on July 30, at 
the head of a large body of Canadians, de- 
stroyed a train between Fort Edward and 
Lake George, taking one hundred and ten 
scalps and eighty-four prisoners. Putnam 
and Rogers were selected to make the pursuit, 
with five hundred men, but they were not 
soon enough to intercept the French at South 
Bay. They then divided their force and 
scouted for a short time, when they re united 
on information of Marin being in the vicinity 
with five hundred French and "Indians. 
Marin formed an ambusqade, into which 
Putnam ran unsuspectingly, but the rangers 
soon withdrew, and desperate fighting ensued 
in which Putnam was captured. The French 
finally retreated and took with them Putnam, 
whom Marin saved from the stake to which 
the Indians had tied him, and around which 
they had built a fire to burn him. 

amherst's campaign. 

In October, 1758, Gen. Jeffrey Amherst su- 
perseded Abercrombie, and while brave and 
energetic, yet was a man of no great military 
ability. The next spring another army moved 
from Albany, and in June arrived at Fort Ed- 
ward, where Amherst rested for a few days. 
He then marched for Lake George with six 
thousand British and nine thousand provincial 
troops. Crossing the lake he appeared suc- 
cessively before Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 
each of which was abandoned to him, as their 
garrisons combined only twenty-three hun- 
dred strong, fell back to aid in the defence of 

Amherst now showed his lack of general- 
ship by halting at Crown Point on the first of 
August, and instead of pressing forward to aid 
Wolfe at Quebec, actually gave up his cam- 
paign, and after building a fort or two, re- 



turned to Albany, where he went into winter 

The next spring Colonel Haviland led a 
small force through Washington county to 
Canada, while General Amherst went with the 
main army by the way of Oswego and appear- 
ing before the walls of Montreal, where he was 
joined by Murray's army from Quebec. Mon- 
treal surrendered without offering any resist- 
ance, and the war was virtually ended in Am- 
erica, although peace was not declared until 
three years later. Amherst being in chief 
command at the close of the struggle was made 
a baronet, and afterward received the title of 
lord. " But it has been truly said that if Wolfe 
had been such a soldier as Amherst, the Gib- 
ralter of America would not have been cap- 
tured, and history has justly flung her laurels 
on the corpse of the hero of Quebec, rather 
than bind with them the brow of the cautious 
and successful commander-in-chief." 

The French and Indian war of America, 
known in Europe as the "Seven Year's War," 
had closed, and its results in America had 
largely changed the political map of the 
country. Louis XVI. had able generals, but 
too few soldiers, in Canada to hold that country 
against the English. If instead of sending 
one hundred thousand soldiers to defend his 
European friends and three thousand to Can- 
ada, he had sent more regiments to America, 
New France might not have been swept from 
the map of the new world. Likewise if 
France had accepted a water line boundary 
instead of a mountain one in 1754 the French 
and Indian war would have likely been de- 
ferred for some years. The Indian war period 
lasted eighty years, and the Inter-colonial war 
period had now closed after fifty-four years of 
duration. Each of these periods was opened 
by a single shot upon whose flight hung mo- 
mentous destinies. The echo of the one shot 
— Champlain's- — died only when Quebec fell ; 
the echo of the other — Washington's — rung 
until Yorktown made supreme the cause of 
American Independence. 




The capture of Canada and the prospect of 
peace between France and England led im- 
mediately to the permanent settlement of the 
central and southern parts of Washington 

During the year 1761 settlers came a second 
time to the Saratoga tract on the Hudson, and 
James Turner and Alexander Conkey, from 
Pelham, Massachusetts, located a colony site 
on the flats where Salem village now stands, 
while some families settled in Cambridge, 
and Major Philip Skene brought thirty 
families and founded Skenesborough (White- 
hall ) settlement. 

In 1763 peace was declared, and under the 
royal proclamation issued offering land in 
America without fee to all British officers and 
soldiers serving in the French and Indian 
war, large tracts were set aside in Washington 
county for them. 

Two years later quite a tide of emigration 
set in toward Washington county. The chil- 
dren of Captain Laughlin Campbell settled 
on ten thousand acres granted them in Argyle. 
Major Skene had brought quite a number of 
negroes to his settlement, where part of his 
colon)' had died from an unhealthy location, 
and was pushing forward his work with en- 
ergy. James Bradshaw had settled in Kings- 
bury. The advance of the colony from Pel- 
ham, Massachusetts, had arrived in the Salem 
country, which they named White Creek ; 
and at the same time Dr. Thomas Clark came 
with a colony of Scotch-Irish and settled 
among them, called the section New Perth. 
Scotch Highlanders, mostly of the 77th regi- 
ment, commence to settle on the military 
patents granted in the county. 



In 1768 Albert Baker settled at Sandy Hill. 
In the next year a colony of Irish Methodists 
located near Ash Grove, and the smoke from 
the settler's cabin rose in every valley in the 
county by 1767, so rapidly had population 
poured from New England and New York, 
and from Scotland and the north of Ireland. 


The Saratoga, Hoosick,Walloomsac, Schuy- 
ler and Bayard patents, all granted by 1740, 
were still in force. 

The Cambridge patent for thirty-five thous- 
and five hundred acres in Cambridge and 
White Creek was granted to a Connecticut 
colony on July 21, 1761. 

The Anaquassacook patent for ten thousand 
acres in Jackson and White Creek was granted 
to ten parties from Schenectady on May 11, 

The Kingsbury patent of twenty-six thous- 
and acres in the town of Kingsbury was 
granted to James Bradshaw and others on 
Mav 11, 1762. 

The Campbell patent for ten thousand acres 
in Argyle, now in Greenwich, was granted to 
the children of Captain Laughlin Campbell 
in the autumn of 1763. 

The Turner patent of twenty-five thousand 
acres in Salem was granted to James Turner 
and others in 1764. 

The Provincial patent for twenty-six thous- 
and acres in the town of Hartford was speci- 
ally granted to twenty-six New York infantry 
officers in Ma}', 1764. 

The Artillery patent of twenty-four thous- 
ang acres in Fort Ann was granted to twenty- 
four New York artillery officers in 1764. 

The Argyle patent of forty-seven thousand 
four hundred and fifty acres in Argyle was 
granted to the descendants of Captain Camp- 
bell's colony in May, 1764. 

The Skenesborough patent of twenty-five 
thousand acres, now in the town of Whitehall, 
was granted to Major Skene in the spring of 

The rest of the county, aside from the patents 
named, was nearly all set apart to British offi- 
cers and soldiers under the royal proclama- 

Some of these patentees in addition to the 
fees of seventy-five dollars per each thousand 
acres, had to deed an undivided half as a bribe 
to the New York authorities in order to secure 
any patent at all. No price, however, was 
■asked for any of the land, only a small quit 
rent each year was to be paid in addition to 
the fees. 


After the close of the French and Indian 
war the old boundary trouble between New 
York and New Hampshire was revived, and the 
eastern part of the territory of Washington 
county was in the disputed strip. The con- 
troversy arose in 1749, when New Hampshire 
put forth her claim of her western boundary 
being within eighteen miles of the Hudson 
river, and New York claimed eastward to the 
Connecticut river above the colony of Massa- 
chusetts. New Hampshire asked a very low 
quit rent of nine pence per hundred acres, 
while New York assessed for the same 
amount of land the sum of two shillings six 

In 1751 both colonial governments appealed 
to the " Lords of Trade " in London to decide 
the controversy, which that remarkably dila- 
tory body naturally delayed doing until 1764, 
when George III. issued an order in council 
declaring that New York extended to the Con- 
necticut river. But afterward the Crown or- 
dered New York to issue no more grants until 
further orders. This kept the dissention alive 
between the adherents of each side, and on 
October 29, 1 77 1 , Ethen Allen and others of 
the New Hampshire settlers invaded east 
Hebron and tore down the house of Corporal 
Charles Hutchinson, beside driving away 
some eight or nine families. A squire's war- 
rant was issued and twenty pounds reward 
were offered for the raiders, but they laughed 



at both and remained unmolested on the east- 
ern border of the county. 

The final result of the controversy was the 
establishment of the disputed land east of 
Washington county as an independent territory 
that afterward under the name of Vermont, be- 
came the first State admitted into the Union. 



The supposition has been advanced that the 
idea of getting a new set of officers nearer to 
the Hampshire Grant troubles, than the Al- 
bany county officials, might have had some- 
thing to do with the erection of Washington 
county under the name of Charlotte by legis- 
lative enactment, on March 12, 1772. The 
county was taken from Albany and received 
the name of Charlotte, in honor of Queen 
Charlotte, of England, the wife of George III., 
and a native of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 

The north line of the county was the south 
boundary line of Canada until it struck the 
Green Mountains, which formed the eastern 
boundary down to the west line of Cumber- 
land count)', and then west to the south line 
of Princetown, in which it struck the Batten 
Kill, and from a point on that stream ran north 
to a point three and three-sixteenths miles east 
of the mouth of Stony run. From there it 
ran west to the mouth of Stony run on the 
Hudson, and then followed that river up to 
the northwest corner of the town of Luzerne, 
Warren county, ran west along the north line 
of Saratoga county, its northwest corner, and 
north along the present west line of Warren 
county, extended to the Canada line. 

Thus constituted Charlotte county contained 
all of the present Washington county, except 
the towns of Easton, Cambridge, Jackson, 
White Creek, and the southwest part of 

Greenwich, which remained in Albany county, 
while to the northward it included all Warren, 
Essex, and Clinton, and the eastern part of 
Franklin county, and eastward embraced all 
the western part of Vermont, north from the 
corner of Jackson. The Green mountains was 
its eastern boundary line, and its territory was 
sufficiently ample to have constituted a State. 

A year passed away before any effort was 
made toward the appointment of count}' offi- 
cers and the location for the seat of justice. 
Major Skene sought to have the county seat 
located at Skenesborough, and also desired to 
receive the appointment of first judge, but was 
disappointed in both objects, as Philip Schuy- 
ler received the judgeship and Fort Edward 
was designated as the temporary county seat. 

The first court convened with Judge William 
Durer on the bench, in place of Schuyler, who 
was sick. Philip Lansing was sheriff, Patrick 
Smith clerk, and Ebenezer Clark, Alex. Mc- 
Naughtori and Jacob Marsh were the justices 
present. The grand jury was Archibald Camp- 
bell, foreman ; Michael Huffnagle, Robert 
Gordon, Albert Baker, David Watkins, Joseph 
McCracken, Joshua Conkey, Jeremiah Bur- 
rows, Levi Stockwell, Levi Crocker, Moses 
Martin, Alex. Gilchrist, and Daniel Smith. 

In the meantime the border troubles in- 
creased and criminals of many kinds became 
so numerous as to defy the civil authorities. 
In March, 1775, Judge Durer held a court 
under the bayonets of • Captain Mott's com- 
pany of British regulars, who had been stopped 
by him on their way to Ticonderoga, and in- 
dictments were found against the guilty par- 
ties, who were never apprehended on account 
of the breaking out of the Revolutionary strug- 
gle. These outlaws had broken up the Cum- 
berland county court, but found William 
Durer, the East Indian soldier, a man not 
easily to be intimidated. 

The leading men of the new county were : 
Major Skene, Dr. Clark, Judge William Durer, 
Mr. Embury and Dr. John Williams, a young 
English physician, who had settled at Salem 



in 1773- Dr. Williams and Judge Durer, al- 
though but recently from England, both em- 
braced the cause of the colonial struggle then 
rapidly gathering force for the Revolutionary 
trial by arms. It is a question with some that 
if Skene had been treated more leniently at 
the start that he would have cast in his for- 
tunes with the Continental cause. 




The French and Indian war was the splen- 
did training school in which the thirteen col- 
onies fitted themselves for their oncoming 
magnificent and successful struggle for inde- 
pendence from Great Britain. 

From weight of numbers and aggressive- 
ness of character, three elements of Ameri- 
can civilization — the Puritan, the Cavalier 
and the Scotch - Irish — were predominent 
factors in organizing armed resistance to par- 
liamentary usurpations and carrying on in 
America the Revolutionary struggle against 
the armies of England. 

The Dutch of New York, the Catholics of 
Maryland, and French Huguenots of Georgia 
and the Carolinas, in proportion to their num- 
bers, bore well their part in the great contest. 

The Puritan of New England received the 
first shock of the contest that was carried 
southward to its termination. The Cavalier, 
like the Puritan, fought chiefly in his own ter- 
ritory, but the Scotch-Irish from their center 
in western North Carolina spread along the 
Allegheny mountains both northward and 
southward, and fought from Bennington to 

King's mountain, at which places they turned 
the tides of war that led to the surrenders of 
Burgoyne and Cornwallis. 

The spring of 1775 was one of event in 
Washington count}'. 

Fast-flying steeds along the forest roads of 
the county carried the news of Lexington to 
every settlement, and the mass of the people, 
under the leadership of Dr. Williams and 
Judge Durer, resolved to support the cause 
of the men of New England. Event rapidly 
followed event, and on the 10th of May canoes 
came up Lake Champlain with the tidings of 
the fall of Ticonderoga to the forces of Ethan 
Allen and Benedict Arnold. 

A respectable minority of the citizens were 
slow to give up their loyalty to the king. 
They were mostly Scotch and English, and 
among their number were Dr. Clark and 
Major Skene, who was then absent in England 
it was asserted to secure the establishment of 
a new province, by the name of Ticonderoga, 
and obtain the governorship of the same. 
His tenantry, on the 13th of May, were sur- 
prised by the arrival in their midst of Captain 
Herrick's company of west Massachusetts 
men, who assumed the major's absence as an 
indisputable evidence of Toryism and confis- 
cated a considerable portion of his property, 
including the splendid Spanish horse which 
was shot under Arnold when he was wounded 
at the second battle of Stillwater. They also 
took his son, Andrew P., fifty of his tenants, 
and twelve of his negroes as prisoners, and 
carried to Arnold the major's schooner, which 
became the flag-ship of the miniature Ameri- 
can navy on Lake Champlain. Shortly after 
this Major Skene arrived at New York, where 
he was arrested and thrown into prison, while 
his papers were seized and examined. If they 
contained his commission as governor of 
Ticonderoga, embracing northern New York 
and the New Hampshire grants, it would 
have been destroyed or kept secret by the 
Continental authorities in order not to offend 
New York and New Hampshire. 



The county committee met on the 15th of 
August, 1775, at Dorset's in the "Grants," 
but only acted for the western part of the 
county, and provided that every able-bodied 
man from sixteen to sixty should be enrolled 
and drilled once a month. It also recom- 
mended the raising of a regiment of militia 
in the western part of the county, to be com- 
manded by Dr. John Williams. 

During 1775, General Montgomery and 
General Schuyler passed through the county 
on their way to join the northern army in 
Canada, and were followed during the autumn 
by small bodies of troops and scanty supply 
trains. The capture of Montreal raised hope, 
but the death of Montgomery and the defeat 
at Quebec sickened anticipation in the hearts 
of the Whigs. 

The year 1776, although it gave definite 
purpose and a grand object to the men of the 
colonies by the Declaration of Independence, 
yet closed in Charlotte county with ominous 
threatenings of British raids over the old War- 
path of America. The Charlotte County 
Rangers guarded the lake frontier, and the 
county assessed a home bounty for volunteers 
for the northern army as follows in the differ- 
ent districts in proportion to their number of 
voters : 

Districts. Voters. Bounty. 

Argyle 90 £6 14 3. 

Black Creek .36 214 

Camden 12 10 

Granville .30 2 o 

Kingsbury 75 5 7 

New Perth 160 12 o 

Skenesborough 41 3 i}4 

Total 464 32 ey 2 

There was a small property qualification on 
voters for the legislature which this list rep- 
resented, and making allowance for the few 
non-freeholders, the population of the county 
must have been about three thousand. 

While the New Englanders and a small 
portion of the Scotch were ardent patriots, 

yet the larger body of the Scotch preserved 
neutrality in the Revolutionary struggle, and 
a portion of them became active Tories. The 
disaffected and British element were mainly 
resident in Wood Creek valley, and the north- 
ern part of them settled part of the county. 

Jonathan and David Jones were Tory lead- 
ers in Kingsbury and Fort Edward, where 
they raised a company of fifty men, ostensibly 
to serve at Ticonderoga, but which they 
marched past that fort to join the British in 
Canada, where Jonathan was commissioned 
as a captain and David as a lieutenant in the 
English forces. 

This company came with Burgoyne's army 
of invasion, and David Jones attained a world- 
wide celebrity in connection with the tragic 
fate of Jane McCrea. 

Another Tory or Royalist company was 
raised in Washington county by Capt. Justus 
Sherwood and joined the English army, serv- 
ing in Colonel Peter's regiment. Some of 
Sherwood's men were from the southern part 
of the county. 

burgoyne's INVASION. 

In the meantime the New Hampshire grants 
had declared themselves an independent State 
under the name of New Connecticut, which 
was soon changed to that of Vermont, and al- 
though Congress refused to recognize them 
and New York was unable to enforce author- 
ity over them, yet considerable local trouble 
existed over the matter in Charlotte county, 
whose officers finally confined their jurisdic- 
tion to the western part of their territory. 

Great uneasiness prevailed among theWhigs 
on the report of an advancing English and 
Indian army, but they placed great hopes on 
the fortress of Ticonderoga being strong 
enough to stay the dark and deathful wave of 
threatened invasion. 

They were, however, doomed to a dreadful 

The English projected two grand campaigns 
for 1777, the first under Howe to capture 



Philadelphia, and the second under Burgoyne 
to move from Canada, and in connection with 
the forces of Clinton at New York, secure the 
line of the Hudson river, thus separating com- 
munication between the New England and 
the Middle States. 

Gen. John Burgoyne landed in Canada, and 
in June came up Lake Champlain with an 
army of nearly ten thousand men, composed 
of the gth, 20th, 21st, 24th, 47th, 53d and 62d 
regiments of British regulars, dismounted 
German dragoons, Hessian rifles, mixed 
Brunswickers, some Canadians, and five hun- 
dred Indians under the partisan Saint Luc, 
then sixty-six years of age. 

Schuyler, commander of the northern de- 
partment, made his headquarters at Fort Ed- 
ward, and engaged energetically in collecting 
and hurrying up men and provisions from the 
colonies, while he placed the command of 
Ticonderoga under Saint Clair, who had two 
thousand five hundred regulars and six hun- 
dred militia under him on July 1st. The 
Charlotte county regiment, under Colonel Wil- 
liams, was ordered out and stationed at Cas- 
tleton and Ticonderoga. 

General Burgoyne profiting by one mistake 
of General Abercrombie, did not assault Ticon- 
deroga, and taking advantage of another mis- 
take made by Generals Amherst, Schuyler and 
Saint Clair and their engineers in not fortify- 
ing Mount Defiance, only fifteen hundred feet 
away, took possession of that frowning height 
during the night of the 4th. On the 5th Brit- 
ish cannon were being placed in position to 
open fire into the great fortress, and on the 
night of the same day Saint Clair retreated. 
He left Ticonderoga with some of its stores to 
the peaceable possession of the English. 

Schuyler and Saint Clair were denounced 
all through the country for the loss of Ticon- 
deroga. They were both patriotic and brave, 
yet in this case it would have been better gen- 
eralship of Schuyler to have been at Ticon- 
deroga than at Fort Edward, and Saint Clair 
should have consulted his engineer and not 

allowed a frowning height within fifteen hun- 
dred feet of his fort to have been peaceably 
occupied by the British. 

General Saint Clair's line of retreat from 
Hubbardstown, Vermont, was through Hart- 
ford and Greenville to Fort Edward. 

The stores were brought in a fleet of two 
hundred batteaux, protected by five galleys, 
on the 6th, to Skenesborough. Colonel Long's 
force then was largely composed of invalids, 
but he completed the transfer of the stores to 
Wood creek before the arrival of the British 
frigates Royal George and Invincible. Three 
of the galleys were blown up and two sur- 
rendered, while Long dismantled his fort, 
which he set on fire, together with the mills, 
iron works and shipping, unable to escape up 
Wood creek, and retreated to Fort Ann. A 
detachment of the English went in boats up 
South bay, with the idea of crossing the ridge 
from there and striking Wood creek in time 
to cut off Long's retreat, but failed to accom- 
plish their design. 


Col. Henry K. Van Rensselaer, the father 
of Gen. Solomon Van Rensselaer, of the war 
of 1812. commanded at Fort Ann, and with 
five hundred militia from the manor of Rens- 
selaer and five hundred of Long's convales- 
cent Continentals, met the British advance 
one-half mile below the fort on July 8. The 
British force consisted of eight hundred of 
the gth regiment, commanded by Colonel Hill. 
Long received the British attack while Van 
Rensselaer crossed the creek and poured in a 
heavy fire. The British then charged, were 
repulsed, and the Americans, following that 
advantage, encircled and drove them slowly 
up a steep, rocky hill, from which perilous 
position they were rescued by the arrival of a 
band of Indians. The Americans, now scant 
of ammunition, fell back on the approach of 
the Indians, while the British, glad of the 
opportunity, retreated rapidly toward Skenes- 
borough. The fighting was very severe, and 



a British officer in his testimony before Par- 
liament, declared the firing was the heaviest 
he had heard in America, except at Stillwater. 
Fort Ann was the most important battle that 
has ever taken place in the count}', and but 
few details are to be found anywhere concern- 
ing it. In the heat of the fight Colonel Rens- 
selaer fell, badly wounded, and would not 
allow his men to stop to pick him up. He 
lay on the field until the battle was over. 
For the number of men engaged, Fort Ann 
has been pronounced one of the most hotly 
contested battles of the Revolutionary war. 

hurgoyne's slow advance. 

Colonel Long burnt Fort Ann and retreated 
to Fort Edward, which General Schuyler left 
on the 22d of July, with four thousand four 
hundred men. On the 27th Schuyler was at 
Moses creek, and his force had decreased to 
two thousand seven hundred Continentals and 
a few militia. The decrease was caused by 
the almost wholesale desertion of the militia. 

Schuyler soon crossed the Hudson and re- 
treated to the Mohawk, where, on August 1, 
he was relieved of his command. 

Burgoyne had displayed fine generalship in 
the capture of Ticonderoga, and manifested 
unusual energy in his advance to Skenesbor- 
ough, but there he unaccountably delayed for 
three weeks and allowed the opportunity of 
scattering Schuyler's army to slip from his 
grasp. Four days march brought Burgoyne 
to Fort Edward, where he passed into a sec- 
ond inactive state that lasted four weeks and 
gave the demoralized Continental forces time 
to rally and receive sufficient reinforcements 
to become a formidable army. On September 
13th the British crossed the Hudson and 
pressed vigorously forward until the 19th, 
when they were brought to a standstill by 
Morgan and Arnold. Falling back a short 
distance, Burgoyne had his third and last 
resting spell, which proved fatal to all his 
hopes of conquest and led to the surrender 
of his army. After the first battle of Still- 

water he could have retreated, but after the sec- 
ond battle of Stillwater retreat was out of the 
question, and his surrender at Saratoga that 
followed was the turning point in favor of the 
colonies in their glorious struggle for political 
independence among the nations of the earth. 
While Burgoyne's forces were in Washington 
county two events — the murder of Jane Mc- 
Crea and the battle of Bennington — occurred 
that led to his defeat. 


Burgoyne attempted to check the ferocity 
of his savage allies, and so far succeeded that 
before his campaign closed they had all de- 
serted his standard. His error was in ever 
allowing them to join his army. 

Before leaving him, they however contribu- 
ted their full share toward his final defeat by 
the murder of Jane McCrea, on July 27, 1777, 
near Fort Edward. Her untimely death has 
received more versions than any other event 
in ancient or modern warfare. She was visit- 
ing at a house close to Fort Edward and dis- 
regarded her brother, Col. John McCrea's re- 
quest to go down the Hudson .to a place of 
safety, as it is supposed that she had an ar- 
rangement to meet and wed Lieut. David 
Jones, a former acquaintance and then a Tory 
officer in Burgoyne's advancing army. On 
the 27th Jane McCrea left her stopping place 
and went to the house of Mrs. McNeil, a rel- 
ative of General Frazer, and who lived one 
hundred rods north of the fort. At nine 
o'clock in the forenoon a band of Indians sur- 
prised and routed an American picket force 
of a dozen men beyond the McNeil house, 
into which another band then rushed and car- 
ried off Mrs. McNeil and her youthful guest. 
A quarrel ensued among the Indians and one 
of them killed Jane McCrea, although one ac- 
count states that she was killed by the fire of 
the Americans upon the Indians. 

The sober truth of history is that Jane Mc- 
Crea was really a very handsome woman, and 
thus it argrees with romance and tradition 



that in this, as in other tragic deaths of a 
woman, makes the victim beautiful and at- 

The next day the scalped and mangled re- 
mains of Jane McCrea were found and buried 
temporarily in a spot three miles down the 
river, from which they were afterward removed 
and now lie in their present resting place in 
Union cemetery, between Fort Edward and 
Sandy Hill. 

Gates wrote sharply about her murder to 
Burgoyne, who attempted to punish the mur- 
derers of Jane McCrea with death, but was 
compelled to forego his purpose by the force 
of circumstances. 

The tragic death of Jane McCrea aroused a 
storm of indignation throughout the colonies 
that contributed largely to Burgoyne's defeat, 
and is a sad memory of the Revolution that 
will live unto the end of time. 


Another event that was a weight in the turn- 
ing scale against Burgoyne was the defeat of 
his foraging expedition at the battle of Ben- 
nington, which was fought in New York just 
outside the boundary line of Washington 
county, and not at Bennington, Vermont, for 
which point the marauders were heading. 
Colonel Baum led this plundering expedition 
of nearly six hundred Germans, Canadians, 
Tories and Indians, which left Fort Miller on 
August nth. Their first camp was near old 
Fort Saraghtoga, which they left on the 13th, 
to camp near Wait's Corners, in Cambridge, 
and from which he moved to be attacked by 
Stark on the 16th, in the town of Hoosick, 
Rensselaer county. Col. John Stark, with his 
Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts 
militia, together with some men from the 
southern part of Washington county, made 
such a successful attack that Baum was mor- 
tally wounded and his force entirely routed. 
Baum, on the 14th. had sent a messenger for 
reinforcements, and Burgoyne, on the 15th, 

started Colonel Breymann with five hundred 
Hessian light infantry and two cannon. Brey- 
mann unwisely halted for the night at a point 
seven miles northeast of Cambridge, and on 
the 1 6th marched to Little White Creek bridge, 
which William Gilmore and some others had 
just succeeded in unplanking. The delay too 
in crossing occasioned by the unplanking of 
the bridge gave Warner time to arrive in 
season for the second fight and was the pivot 
on which Burgoyne's fortunes turned at Ben- 

Breymann encountered Stark's pursuing 
forces ere he knew there had been a battle, and 
was driving them back when Seth Warner rein- 
forced Stark with a regiment of Green Moun- 
tain boys, and made complete the victory of 
the morning. Breymann was repulsed and re- 
treated, and Bennington passed into history 
as the first check Burgoyne received in his 
invasion. It roused the spirits of the Ameri- 
cans. Raw militia had defeated British sold- 
iers; the Indians, enraged at being restrained, 
began to desert from the English army, and 
the inevitable result in defeat and surrender 
followed at Saratoga. 

Before Baum had marched southward the 
Whigs of New Perth and White Creek tore 
down their log church to make a stockade 
around their frame church, which they forti- 
fied, but later abandoned when the German 
raiding force marched through the Cambridge 
valley. The church fort was burned by the 
Tories, who also attacked Captain McNitt 
and a part of the Black Creek Whig militia, 
in a plank house, but were repulsed. 

During Burgoyne's advance Sclruyler or- 
dered the Whigs to retire from the country 
and leave their harvests, while the English 
general ordered all who remained and desired 
his protection to fall in the rear of his army. 
These non-combatants, and all others who re- 
moved to the rear of the British army, were 
called '-protectioners," and afterward were 
often subjected to harsh treatment at the 
hands of the Whigs. 




The surrender at Saratoga gave peace to 
the county, and the northern frontier re- 
mained quiet until 1780, when in April a 
threatened invasion was reported by an es- 
caped prisoner. The militia was ordered out, 
and Governor Clinton, with a large militia 
force, hastened from Albany to Fort George. 
The alarm soon passed, and the forces were all 
either disbanded or withdrawn. 

During the autumn the threatened invasion 
became a reality. In October, Maj. Christo- 
pher Carleton, a nephew of Sir Guy Carleton, 
with eight hundred regulars and royalists and 
a small party of Indians, came up Lake 
Champlain, and landed from his fleet of eight 
vessels and twenty-six boats, at Skenesbor- 
ough. From there he advanced rapidly to 
Fort Ann, which surrendered to him on Octo- 
ber 10, 17S0. The captured garrison con- 
sisted of seventy-five men, commanded by 
Captain Sherwood. From Fort Ann Clinton 
marched to Fort George, which also surren- 
dered to him, and on the 12th sailed down 
Lake Champlain. The militia were not ral- 
lied in time to prevent his retreat, and thus 
ended the last expedition that has marched 
over the War-path of America. 


In 1 781 Vermont still claimed all the pres- 
ent territory of Washington county, and di- 
rected that a convention be held at Cambridge 
to decide whether and on what terms the dis- 
tricts of that county and part of Rensselaer 
should be united with the "Green Mountain 

The Seceders, mostly New Englanders, 
elected delegates to this convention, while 
the New York supporters paid no attention to 
these proceedings. 

The "Union Convention" met at Cambridge 
on May 9, 1781, and after seceding from New 
York, chose delegates to the Vermont legisla- 
ture. Vermont was to defend them and sub- 
mit any state boundary line dispute to Con- 

gress or any other tribunal mutually agreed 
on by New York and Vermont. 

County and town secession was not a fav- 
orably received doctrine with any State be- 
yond Vermont, and a majority of the inhabi- 
tants of the county were opposed to the 
movement, and so the work of the convention 
never amounted to anything. 

Vermont parties were then negotiating with 
England to acknowledge Vermont as a neutral 
State, but Yorktown was the death-knell of 
this move, and the Green Mountain State 
never attempted to take possession of the 
county. One year later Vermont renounced 
all claim to all of the present territory of 
eastern New York. 

Yorktown not only gave the county peace 
on the northern frontier from England, but 
led to the peaceful relinquishment of all her 
present territory by the Vermont authorities. 


At this late date it is impossible to secure 
but a fragmentary list of those noble settlers 
of Washington county who bore arms in the 
War of the Revolution, but we present the 
names of what few could be secured. 

Colonel Williams' Charlotte county regi- 
ment served in the Burgoyne campaign. It 
consisted of five or six companies, of which 
we have only an account of Captain Charles 
Hutchinson's company of fifty-two men, Cap- 
tain Thomas Armstrong's company of thirty 
men, and Captain John Hamilton's company 
of thirty-two men. No complete roster can 
be presented of these companies that are 
named, and but a few scattering names of 
others of the county that served in other regi- 
ments can be obtained. The following scant 
list of names has been obtained, together 
with some little information as to some of 
those named : 


Captain Charles Hutchinson's company was 
largely from New Perth, or Salem, and there 



is record of it being in service from June 20 
to October 20, 1777, and again serving in 
March, 1778. 

captain Hutchinson's company. 
Charles Hutchinson, captain. 
Edward Long, first lieutenant. 
Robert Stewart, second lieutenant. 
Alexander Turner, ensign. 
Daniel McNitt, sergeant. 
James Stewart, sergeant. 
Thomas Williams, sergeant. 
Thomas Lyons, sergeant. 
Isaac Gray, corporal. 
David McNitt, corporal. 
Robert Hopkins, corporal. 
James Tomb, corporal. 


Chambers, John. 
Creighton, Robt. 
Dunlap, John. 
Gray, John, sr. 
Gray, John, jr. 
Gray, Nathan. 
Hamilton, James. 
Harsh a, John. 
Henderson, Alex. 
Henderson, James. 
Hopkins, David. 
Hopkins, David (2d). 
Hopkins, Isaac. 
Hopkins, John. 
Hopkins, Robert. 
Hopkins, Samuel. 
Hunsden, Alex. 
Lyon, Samuel. 
McAllister, John. 

The above fifty-two names of officers and 
privates are on a pay-roll of November 10. 
1777, and a memorandum attached states that 
twenty-two of this company had marched to 

On another pay-roll of the same company 

we find the following additional names : Isaac 

McClure, John. 
McMichael, John. 
McNitt, Alex. 
McNitt, Alex., sr. 
McNish, Alex. 
Martyn, Hugh. 
Miller, John. 
Moore, James, jr. 
Rogers, William. 
Rowan, John. 
Simson, Andrew. 
Simson, Alex. 
Simson, John. 
Thompson, James. 
Thompson, John. 
Webb, David. 
Williams, John. 
Williams, Lewis. 
Wood, Reuben. 

and John Gray, jr.; Alex. McNish, John Liv- 
ingston, Joseph Tomb, John, William, Andrew 
and John Lytle (2d); William Sloan, Andrew 
Simpson, Turner and James Hamilton, jr.; 
Lewis, Thomas and Lewis Williams, jr.; 
Robert Stewart, James and Samuel Hopkins, 
sr. ; Francis Lemon, John Chambers, Samuel 
Lyon, John Rowan, Ebenezer Russell, and 
James Moore, sr. and James Moore, jr. 

On a third pay-roll of this company, in 
1778, appear the following additional names : 
Thomas Bar, William Campbell, George 
Easton, Alex. Garrett, Nathan Gray, Robert 
Gilmore, Richard Hoy, Daniel Livingston, 
William and Robert Matthews, Hamilton 
McCollister, Matthew McClaughery, Daniel 
Mathison, William Moffit, William Miller, jr., 
George Miller, Peter McQueen, Thomas 
Oswald, David, Archibald and Alexander 
Stewart, George Robinson, Timothy Titus, 
Samuel Wilson, and John Webb. 

From memoranda attached to this last pay- 
roll we find that the company was afterward 
commanded by Captain Edward Long, and 
that Reuben Wood became a sergeant, Thomas 
Williams clerk of the company, while John 
Gray and David Hopkins, the one exempt 
and the other above age, yet served. 


Thomas Armstrong, captain. 
John Armstrong, first lieutenant. 
Daniel McCleary, second lieutenant. 
John Martin, ensign. 
Zebulon Turner, sergeant-major. 
John Gibson, sergeant. 
John Hunsden, sergeant. 
David McKnight, sergeant. 
Robert Caldwell, sergeant. 
William Lytle, corporal. 
William Smith, corporal. 
Jonathan Nivens, corporal. 
William Huggins, corporal. 
Robert Armstrong, drummer. 
James Turner, fifer. 



Blakeney, George. 
Boyd, John. 
Boyd, Robert. 
Cleveland, Benjamin. 
Gibson, Thomas. 
Lytle, Isaac. 
Lytle, William, jr. 
Lytle, Robert. 


Moncrief, William. 
McMichael, Robert. 
McArthur, Robert. 
Means, James. 
Wilson, John. 
Wilson, Joseph. 

These names are taken from a pay-roll from 
June 20 to October 20, 1777. 

capt. john Hamilton's company, 

John Hamilton, captain. 
James Wilson, first lieutenant. 
George H. Nighton, second lieutenant. 
Samuel Croget, ensign. 
David Hopkins, sergeant. 
R.V.Wilson, sergeant. 
Nathaniel Munson, sergeant. 
William Smith, sergeant. 
Jonathan Barber, corporal. 
Robert Getty, corporal. 
Isaac Hopkins, corporal. 
David Wheaton, corporal. 


Brown, James. 
Duncan, John. 
Fisher, Daniel. 
Fisher, John. 
Getty, Adam. 
Getty, David. 
Getty, John. 
Gammis, Samuel. 
Harmon, Martin. 
Harmon, Selah. 

Harmon, Alpheus, sr. 
Lytle, Isaac. 
McCloud, Daniel. 
Sharp, Abel. 
Parrish, Josiah. 
Tirrell, Samuel. 
Wilson, David. 
Whitten, David. 
Wade, Solomon. 

Captain Hamilton's company was largely 
from Hebron. 

The following persons, from the towns 
named, served in the Revolutionary war : 

John Smith. 


John Taylor. 


Capt. Geo. Gilmore. Azor Bouton. 

James McKie. Elisha Gifford. 

Joseph Volentine. John Weir. 

Jesse Averill. John Wait. 
Earl Durfee. 


The following soldiers served in Capt. Silas 
Child's company : 

Ebenezer Danforth. Henry Watkins. 
Daniel Stewart. 


Capt. Samuel Taylor. Nathan Taylor. 

Col. John Buck. Samuel Bowen. 

Capt. Asahel Hodge. Doctor Jones. 

Alexander Arnold. Asher Ford. 


Col. Alex. Webster. Guile Wilson. 
Capt. John Getty. John Wilson. 

Isaac Morehouse. Robert Getty. 


Colonel Tiffany. William Gilmore. 

Capt. Jon. Gardner. Isaac Fowler. 
Hiram Hathaway. Aaron Perry. 

The revolutionary period had now drawn to 
a close, and the settlement period, which- it 
rudely terminated, was to find its successor in 
a pioneer period, following the war and 
stretching till the closing of the eighteenth 

The story of the Revolution, that has so 
often and so eloquently been told by the au- 
thors of America as not to need repetition 
here ; yet it might be well, before leaving the 
subject, to correct two once prevalent errors 
concerning that struggle. 

The German troops in America were not all 
Hessians. The latter were not such a blood- 
thirsty people as represented, only being con- 
scripts against their will to fight a ferocious 
set of rebels. 

The leading statesman and the intelligent 
mass of the people of Great Britain were not 
in favor of the measures of the Parliamentary 



party in power that provoked the Revolution- 
ary war. Taxation without representation in 
America was a violation of the Magna Charta 
of England, that Englishmen would have 
fought against as quick as the Americans. 




When the Revolution closed, the stream of 
settlement, which it had interrupted, poured 
again into the southern and central part of 
the county, and by 1784 settlers were securing 
farms in the north in Dresden and Putnam. 
The three thousand inhabitants of 1774 grew 
to fourteen thousand in 1790, and this great 
increase was nearly all from 1784. 

The Revolutionary war left the Americans 
at its close with a hatred of everything Eng- 
lish. The names of Tryon and Charlotte 
were unendurable to the people of the coun- 
ties so called, as the one recalled the last Eng- 
lish governor and the other recalled the name 
of the Queen whose husband sent his armies 
to ravage the last-named county. This dis- 
gust took form in public expression, and on 
April 2, 1784, the legislature passed an act 
changing these names, and which, after the 
enacting clause, read as follows : 

"From and after the passage of this act the 
county of Tryon shall be known by the name 
of Montgomery, and the count) 7 of Charlotte 
by the name of Washington." 

Thus the first Washington county in the 
United States came into existence, and the 
name of Queen Charlotte was left for preserva- 

tion in the United States to the county in Vir- 
ginia that is still called Charlotte. 

Courts had ceased to be held in the county 
m J 775>and although ordered in 1779 to be 
convened again, yet there is no record of any 
court under the State being held until 1786. 

On February 5, 1787, an act was passed di- 
recting the courts to be held at Salem — which 
had been formerly known as Scottish New 
Perth, and Puritan White Creek — but the in- 
fluence of Fort Edward was such that on 
April 21, 1788, the law was so changed that 
one of the three yearly terms was to be held 
at the house of Adiel Sherwood, in the village 
of Fort Edward. 

In the meantime the lands of the Tories had 
been forfeited by an act of the legislature, 
passed May 12, 1784, and Col. Alex. Webster, 
commissioner under this law for eastern New 
York, sold many tracts of land in Washington 
county. He sold one hundred and sixty-two 
tracts of Philip Skene's land ; one hundred 
and thirty-one of Oliver De Lancy's ; ten 
Jessup tracts ; three Jones tracts, and many 
other tracts. Col. John Williams was the larg- 
est purchaser of these forfeited lands, buying 
sixty-five tracts in different parts of the county. 
Major Skene sought to regain his forfeited 
lands and resume his residence at Skenesbor- 
ough (Whitehall), but his effort was of no 
avail and he remained in England. 


During the year 1791 the town of Cam- 
bridge, including the present territory of Jack- 
son and White Creek, was transferred from 
Albany to Washington county, to which was 
also annexed the parts of Saratoga and Still- 
water towns on the east side of the Hudson 
as a town by the name of Easton. This trans- 
fer of territory was likely- secured by Gen. John 
Williams in order to strengthen the chances of 
SaLm to secure the permanent location of the 

In March, 1791, some of the residents of 
Salem and Cambridge, whose markets were in 



Rensselaer county, got an act passed in the 
assembly annexing them to that county, but 
General Williams defeated it in the senate. 


About 1794 considerable interest was awak- 
ened in the subject of canals, and two com- 
panies were formed to build one canal from 
the Mohawk river to Lake Oneida, and an- 
other canal to connect the waters of the Hud- 
son river with Lake Champlain. 

The Northern Inland Lock Navigation 
Company was formed to construct the Hud- 
son and Champlain canal, and among its pro- 
moters were General Schuyler and General 
Williams. The company commenced clearing 
out the obstructions in Wood creek, but had 
to cease for want of funds, and their great 
work was not completed until thirty years 


In 1792 three places — Salem, Fort Edward 
and Fort Miller — were rivals for the county 
seat. The legislature left the matter to the 
board of supervisors, who met and located 
the count}' seat at Salem. Fort Edward 
sought to have the vote reconsidered, but 
while failing in that direction made a success : 
ful move to retain the holding of the courts 
for a part of each year at that place, and se- 
cured the passage of a law to that effect. 
A court house and jail were commenced at 
Salem in 1792, but were not completed till 
1796. In the last named year, Adiel Sher- 
wood, at whose house the court held its Fort 
Edward session, one day near the dinner hour 
ordered the judges to vacate the court-room, 
which was his dining-room, so that the table 
could be set for dinner. The judges resented 
this insult by fining Sherwood and passing a 
sentence of fifteen days imprisonment against 
him, and three of the honorable body being 
State Senators, procured a law at the next 
session of the legislature which removed the 
holding of courts from Fort Edward to Sandy 
Hill, where the}' have been held ever since, 

and where, in 1806, a two-story frame court 
house was completed. 

The county clerk's office was kept at neither 
court house, but at the clerk's residence until 
1806, when it was located by law within one- 
half mile of Peleg Bragg's house in Argyle. 


The first important movement toward good 
roads was the incorporation, on April 1, 1799, 
of the Northern Turnpike Company, which 
built a turnpike from Lansingburg, in Rens- 
selaer county, through Cambridge, Salem, 
Hebron, Granville and Hampton, to the State 
line, and connecting with a similar road to 
Burlington, Vermont. This company also 
built a branch from Salem northeastward to 
the State line, and another from Granville to 
Whitehall. Seven years later the Waterford 
and Whitehall turnpike, sixty miles long, was 
built, and crossing the Hudson ran from Fort 
Miller, by the way of Fort Edward and Fort 
Ann, to Whitehall, from which the Whitehall 
and Fair Haven, and the Whitehall and Gran- 
ville pikes were built, beside the Mitchell 
and Shaftsbury, and the East Salem roads, 
constructed about the same time. 

Closing the pioneer period of the old cen- 
tury, in whose last year the turnpikes had 
their beginning, we see the county with a 
newspaper, the Northern Centinel, that was 
started in 1798 as the second successor of the 
pioneer sheet, the Times or National Courier, 
whose existence was confined to the year 
1794 ; and also having five militia regiments, 
under the command of General Williams. 

In the opening decade of the nineteenth 
century we see the county equipped with three 
great pikes running north and south, one from 
Whitehall to the Hudson, a second from 
Whitehall to Salem and Lansingburg, and the 
third from Lansingburg to Bennington. Over 
these roads often passed north long lines, of 
teams, carrying grain and pot and pearl ashes 
to be shipped by Lake Champlain to Montreal, 
Canada, while south they bore the same arti- 



cles (especially when the lake was frozen) to 
the local markets of Lansingburg. 

During this pike period, that extended from 
1799 to 1824, when it began to decline, several 
events of importance occurred, among which 
were the introduction of merino sheep in 1809, 
the raising of flax in 181 2 for manufacturing 
purposes, the great loss of territory by the 
erection of Warren county, and Prevost's 
threatened invasion, that was stayed by the 
battle of Plattsburg. 


On March 12, 1813, Warren county was 
erected whereby the county of Washington 
lost all her territory west of Lake George and 
the Hudson river, and in the neighborhood of 
eight thousand population. This was her 
second great loss of territory, the first being 
when Vermont became a State and she lost 
all the lands east of the Green Mountains. 


For three years the second war of Inde- 
pendence had been dragging its weary way on 
the Niagara frontier, but nothing had occurred 
to disturb the Champlain region until August, 
1 814, when the cry of invasion over the old 
War-path of America spread on the very 
wings of the wind all over the county. The 
militia was called out en masse and marched 
northward, but ere they reached Plattsburg 
McDonough's naval victory over the "cream 
of Nelson's marines" had caused Prevost's 
land forces, called the "flower of Welling- 
ton's army,"' to beat a hasty retreat, and their 
services were not needed. The Washington 
county men mostly went by the way of Bur- 
lington, Vermont, where they were very poorly 
equipped with arms. 

For ten years after the close of the war of 
181 2, the turnpikes were the main avenues of 
traffic and principal routes of travel in the 
county, and then came a change wherein 
Washington county took her first important 
step in the great material progress of this 
most wonderful nineteenth centurv. 




The pike period, toward the close of its 
most active years, was noted for the long pro- 
cessions of teams and the large number of 
big yellow stage coaches that passed over the 
three great roads of the country. In the lat- 
ter part of the pike period the log cabin and 
hewed log-house had given away largely to 
frame dwellings, and the people turned their 
attention to the development of several new 
industries, although not neglecting the manu- 
facture of potash and the raising of grain for 
home use and exportation. Hats, caps, and 
shoes were largely manufactured at every vil- 
lage, and fulled cloth, flannel, tow cloth and 
linen were made in nearly every farm house. 
But to new and increased home manufactures 
was added the business of wool-raising. 

Wool-raising soon became the leading in- 
dustry of the count)', a position which it held 
for nearly thirty years. Granville, Salem and 
Cambridge, and one or two other places in the 
county, became such noted markets for com- 
mon and merino wool that large quantities of 
wool were brought to them for sale from Ver- 
mont and several New York counties. 


The active pike period was succeeded by 
the canal period, which commenced with the 
construction of the Champlain canal, and ex- 
tended from 1823 to 1848, when it was suc- 
ceeded (although it has never been superse- 
ded) by the railroad period. 

The Champlain canal is next in importance 
to the Erie canal, and runs from Waterford, 
seven miles from Albany, to Whitehall, com- 
pleting the water-way between the Atlantic 
seaboard and the navigable Saint Lawrence. 
The construction of the canal was authorized 



in 1817, and on June 10, 1818, work was com- 
menced on this great avenue of commerce. 
The canal crossed the Hudson at Schuylerville, 
by means of a seven hundred foot dam, and 
followed the east bank of the river to Fort 
Edward, where it left the Hudson and passed 
over a ridge to the valley of Wood creek, 
down which it passed (running part of the 
time in the bed of the creek) to Whitehall, 
where it united with the headwaters of Lake 

On September 10, 1823, the whole work 
was completed and commerce had a water- 
route from New York to Montreal. In 1825, 
Gov. DeWitt Clinton recommended to the 
legislature that the Hudson be made naviga- 
ble for steamboats to Fort Edward, and that 
the Batten Kill be made navigable for steam- 
boat travel to the Vermont line, but both pro- 
jects failed. The next year the canal was im- 
proved by the abandonment of slack-water 
navigation and the construction of a boat 
channel, independent of the river, all the way 
from opposite Schuylerville to Fort Edward. 
Other improvements were made in succeeding 

The length of the Champlain canal is sixty- 
six miles, including Waterford side-cut and 
the Cohoes and Saratoga dams. When con- 
structed the size of prism was forty feet wide 
on the top water-line, narrowing to twenty-six 
feet at the bottom, and having four feet depth 
of water. In 1870 the size was increased to 
fifty-eight feet width at the top, forty-four feet 
at the bottom and six feet depth of water. 
Boats drawing five feet of water and the same 
size as those on the Erie were then placed on 
this canal. From its junction with the Erie 
canal to one mile north of Waterford the sup- 
ply of water is from the Mohawk river at 
Cohoes ; from Northumberland to Whitehall* 
the supply of water is from the upper Hudson 
through the Glens Falls feeder, supplemented 
on the north by Wood creek at Fort Ann. 
Droughts and the destruction of the forests on 
the water sheds of the upper Hudson decreased 

the supply of water there to such an extent 
that in 1880 no surplus could be retained, 
and there was barely quantity enough to meet 
the demand. The canal has thirty-three locks, 
cost. nearly two and one-half million dollars, 
and in 1880 carried one million two hundred 
thousand tons of freight, yielding an income 
of over fifty-one thousand dollars. 

When the canal was built farmers feared 
that there would be no sale for horses or oats, 
and that hauling would be destroyed, but they 
soon found that their fears were groundless. 


Toward the close of the canal period the 
"plank road fever" broke out in Washington 
county, and four of these roads were con- 
structed between 1847 and some time prior to 
i860. These roads were as follows: White- 
hall and Hampton, Fort Edward and Fort 
Miller, Fort Edward and Argyle, and Hart- 
ford and Sandy Hill. The first: two went 
down in less than twenty years, and the others 
were in operation in 1880. 


The period of the canal's supremacy in the 
material history of the county drew toward a 
close in 1848, when the first railroad train ran 
from Saratoga to Whitehall. Washington 
county had entered upon the second epoch of 
her progress from pioneer days to her present 
prosperity and advancement. 

The railroad movement in the county dates 
back as early as 1834. On May 2, of that 
year, the Saratoga and Washington Railroad 
Company was incorporated, with a capital of 
six hundred thousand dollars, but did not 
fully organize until April 20, 1835, and its 
operations were checked by the panic of 1837. 
An increase of stock to eight hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, and an extension of 
time until 1850 were secured, and the com- 
pany, in April, 1848, commenced laying their 
track, which was completed in December of 
that year. The road was soon extended to 

niOGL'M'iry and iiistohy 


the Vermont State line, and in 1855 was sold 
on a mortgage to parties who formed a new 
company, whose corporate name of Saratoga 
and Whitehall is now borne by the road. 

The second railroad of the county was built 
in 1 85 1 and 1852, under the name of the Troy 
and Rutland Railroad, running through the 
towns of Cambridge, Jackson and Salem to 
the village of Salem. It was opened June 28, 
1852, and then leased by the Rutland and 
Washington Railroad Company, whose road 
ran from Salem to Rutland, Vermont. Three 
years later it passed into the hands of a re- 
ceiver and was operated in connection with 
the Albany Northern. 

The canal and the remaining pikes of the 
county now had a formidable rival for the 
freight of the one and the freight and passen- 
gers of the other. 

But a dark shadow was falling on railroad 
and canal alike, and on every farm and shop, 
and the country from a peace dream of half a 
century was rudely summoned to meet the 
shock of civil war. 

The latter part of the pike and the canal 
and railroad periods, stretching for a half cen- 
tury through peaceful times, were now to be 
succeeded by the civil war period, that was to 
become an important chapter in the history of 
every county in the United States. 




On that dark April day in 1861, when the 
storm of civil war burst upon the Nation, and 
the Union was apparently rent in twain, there 
was no county in the United States more de- 
votedly loyal to the Federal government than 

Washington county, New York. All through 
the war it gave no uncertain support to the 
Union, and every call for troops received a 
prompt support from each town and village. 

The county sent its sons by hundreds to the 
battle field, but most of them, and in many in- 
stances, whole companies of them, were en- 
rolled in regiments recruited in other counties 
of the State. 

One distinctively Washington county regi- 
ment was in the Federal service, and while its 
record is one of imperishable glory, yet every 
company that went in other regiments made 
for itself a history of splendid and brilliant 


We give a brief account of each regiment 
or some mention of its career, in which were 
any companies from Washington count}'. 


This regiment was organized June 6, 1861, 
and being fired on by a Baltimore mob on the 
28th, when passing through that city, returned 
the fire. The 22d fought with great bravery at 
Second Bull Run, out of which it came with only 
one hundred men fit for duty. It also fought 
at South Mountain, Antietam, Chancellors- 
ville, and Fredericksburg, and was mustered 
out of the service on June 19, 1863. Capt. 
Thomas J. Strong became lieutenant-colonel, 
and Duncan Cameron and Lucius E. Wilson 
were mustered out as captains of companies 
G and D. 

Four companies of this regiment were re-, 
cruited in Washington county, as follows : 

Company. Recruited. Captain. 

B Fort Edward, Robt. E. McCoy. 

D Cambridge, Henry S. Milliman. 

G Whitehall, Edmund Boynton. 

H Sandy Hill, Thomas J. Strong. 


Company G — Capt. H. S. Milliman, Cam- 
bridge, wounds ; Lieut. W. T. Beattie, Sa- 



lem, killed; Corp. J. W. Arnold, White 
Creek, died • Sergt. C. S. Eaton, White 
Creek, died. 

Company B — Lieut. D. Lendrum, , 

killed ; Edward Blanchard, Kingsbury, died ; 
L. Chamberlain, Kingsbury, died ; C. H. 
Bowen, Kingsbury, died ; Rollin Wyman, 
Kingsbury, killed ; Stephen Podoin, Kings- 
bury, wound; James Wythe, Hartford, killed ; 
G. W. Miner, Hartford, killed ; S. L.Whitney, 
Kingsbury, killed. 

Company D — Louis LaDoo, Fort Ann, 
killed ; Isaac Plue, Fort Ann, killed. 

Company G — L. Y. Johnson, Greenwich, 
killed ; C. J. Greene, Cambridge, . 

Company D — C. D. Whittaker, Greenwich, 


The 43d was raised in the summer of 1861; 
suffered terribly in the Peninsular campaign, 
especially in the Seven Days' Fight ; and bore 
well its part at Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, Gettysburg, and Second Winchester. It 
was mustered out of the service June 27, 

One company — F — was raised at Sandy 
Hill and vicinity, under Capt. James C. Rog- 
ers, and suffered such loss that it finally be- 
came a part of Company B. No list could be 
found of its loss. Lieut. Hugh Knicker- 
bocker, of this company, was killed at Chan- 
cellorsville, and Sergt. Charles H. Davis, of 
Company G, and a native of Greenwich, died 
of wounds ; R. W. Walker, of Company F, 
of Dresden, died. 


This regiment was known as the "Ells- 
worth Avengers," and was intended to be com- 
posed of two picked men from every town in 
the State. It served in all of the battles of 
the Arm}' of the Potomac from 1862 to Octo- 
ber, 1864. 

From twenty to thirty men from Washington 
county served in its companies, and of these 
men we have record that three died. Two 

were John H. Pullman and Charles Van Val- 
kenburg, both of the town of Greenwich, the 
former of Company B, and the latter of Com- 
pany G. The third, James F. Burnett, of 
Putnam, and a member of Company C, died 
in 1863. John Brackett, of Company K, and 
James Clements of E, died of wounds. Wil- 
liam Craig, of Greenwich, was in Company 
C and died of wounds. 


Count Lionel J. D' Epineuil, of France, 
the author of a new drill, came, in 1861, to 
New York and endeavored to raise a brigade 
of French Americans, but failed, and his 
men, including some Germans, were mustered 
in as the 53d regiment, whose weakness of 
numbers led to its being mustered out of the 
service early in 1862. 

Some fifty of his men were recruited at 
Whitehall, but we have not been able to ob- 
tain any list of those who never returned. 


This regiment participated in several hard 
battles, and of the men in its ranks from this 
county we have record of six that never re- 
turned. From Greenwich, and in Company I, 
were : Lieutenant-Colonel N. E. Franklin, 
who died of wounds ; Sergeant Pat. Gilroy, 
missing, and J. E. Davidson, killed. Peter S. 
Taylor, Erastus Wade, and S. H. Warner, 
who died, were from Easton. 


This regiment was raised principally in 
Brooklyn, in 1861, and served gallantly on 
the Peninsula, where it was so depleted by 
battle and disease that it was consolidated, in 
September, 1862, with the 40th regiment, into 
which it was merged, and served until June 
27, 1865. 

Company A, of the 87th, was raised in the 
towns of Dresden and Putnam, this count)', 
and we find record of three of its members 
from Dresden who died. They were : Leon- 



ard W. Barrett, A. P. Chase and J. J. 


This regiment was raised at Albany in 1861 
by Col. John S. Crocker, of Cambridge, and 
contained three Washington count}- compan- 
ies. It did headquarter and provost guard duty 
during the Peninsular campaign and until May, 
1864, when it was relieved from guard duty, 
and fought bravely through the Wilderness 
battles. It suffered heavily at Spottsylvania, 
Cold Harbor and Petersburg. The regiment 
was at Deep Bottom and served under Sheri- 
dan in the closing hours of the Southern Con- 
federacy, when it was commanded by Lieut. - 
Col. Haviland Gifford, of Easton. 

The three companies of this regiment, re- 
cruited in Washington county, were as fol- 
lows : 

Company. Recruited. Captain. 

F Fort Edward, Wm. B. Moshier. 

G Cambridge, M. S. Gray. 

I '. , N.J.Johnson. 

Company I was recruited at Granville, Argyle 
and other points in the count}". 


Company D — Thomas McGwerk, Easton, 

Company G — Serg.-Maj. N.W. Gray, Cam- 
bridge, ; First Serg.W.B. Barber, Hamp- 
ton, wounds ; Lieut. R. L. Gray, White Creek, 

Company E — Lieut. E. W. Gray, White 
Creek, killed. 

Company G — Corp. A. M. Lawton, White 
Creek, killed; James Smith. White Creek, 
disease; Corp. W. H. Pierce, White Creek, 
disease ; Corp. A. McGeoch, Jackson, disease ; 
P. A. Goodell, Hartford, died ; A. J. Beattie, 
White Creek, killed ; L. N. Ford, White 
Creek, died. 

Company H — I. Fairbrother, White Creek, 

Company G — D. Millington, White Creek, 

Company I — Welcome Thomas, Granville, 
disease ; William Searles, Hampton, disease ; 
Jerome Sears, Greenwich, killed ; Albert 
Honey, Hampton, disease ; V. W. New, 
Hampton, disdase. 

Unknown companies — Dan'l Morgan, Gran- 
ville, ; Thomas Clark, Putnam, disease; 

C. B. Pitney, . 


This regiment was raised in 1861 and served 
with great gallantry in the armies of the James 
and the Potomac, and made a desperate charge 
at Cold Harbor, in which it lost nearly half its 
officers and men. It served until 1866, and 
company E was raised by Capt. James S. 
Cray at Sandy Hill and Fort Edward. 

Company E was in the dreadful Cold Har- 
bor charge of its regiment, and lost its captain, 
James S. Cray, who fell mortally wounded, and 
twenty of its rank and file that were killed 
or wounded. We find no record of its fallen 
heroes and have obtained only three of their 
names beside that of Captain Cray, and they 
were William Ansment, of Granville, who died; 
Francis A. Granger, of the same town, who 
died at Andersonville, and G. R. Hopkins, 
Dresden, who died. 


The regiment of which Washington county 
may be justly proud until the end of time was 
the one which bore her honored name and was 
known as the 123d New York Infantry. It was 
raised in Washington county after the disas- 
trous Peninsular campaign, in response to Lin- 
coln's call for three hundred thousand men in 
the summer of 1862. War meetings were held 
all over the county after Lincoln's call, and it 
was resolved that the men raised should con- 
stitute a Washington county regiment. Camp 
Washington was established at Salem, and 
companies were recruited in every part of the 
county. The regiment was practically full by 
the last of August, and its companies were : 






A .... 


Abram Reynolds. 

B .. .. 


Geo. \\ T . W'arren. 


[ Ft. Ann, 
j Dresden, 
' Putnam, 

Adolph H. Tanner 

D .. .. 

r John Barron. 


E .. .. 

\ Hartford, 
( Hebron, 

- Norman F. Weer. 

F .. .. 


Duncan Robertson 

G .. .. 

H .. .. 

\ White Creek, 
1 Jackson, 

' Henry Gray. 
John S. Crary. 


j Cambridge, 
( Easton, 

[- Orrin S. Hall. 

K .. .. 

\ Granville, 
1 Hampton, 

1 Henry O. Wiley. 

The field and staff officers were : Colonel, A. 
L. McDougal ; lieutenant colonel, Franklin 
Morton; major, James C. Rogers; adjutant, 
George H. Wallace ; surgeon, John Money- 
penny ; assistant surgeons, LysanderW. Ken- 
nedy and Richard S. Connelly; quartermaster, 
John King ; and chaplain, Henry Gordon. 

The non-commissioned staff were: Sergeant- 
major, Walter F. Martin ; quartermaster ser- 
geant, Charles D. Warner; commissary ser- 
geant, Clark Rice ; and hospital steward, 
Seward Corning. 

On September 4th, 1862, the Washington 
county regiment was mustered into the United 
States service as the 123d New York volunteer 
infantry. It reached Washington on the 9th, 
and in October was assigned to the 22d brig- 
ade, 1 st division of the 12th corps. 

The regiment was in the " mud march " on 
Richmond, and received its baptism of fire 
and blood at Chancellorsville, where it lost 
one hundred and fifty men killed, wounded 
and missing. The 123d was engaged at Get- 
tysburg, and on September 24th, 1863, was 
sent west as a reinforcement to General Rose- 
crans, whose base of supplies it guarded for 
several months. Under Sherman, in the 
spring of 1864, the 123d entered upon the 

Atlanta campaign, through which it passed 
after fighting several hard battles. 

From Atlanta the Washington county regi- 
ment swung loose with Sherman in his " March 
to the Sea," and, after reaching Savannah, 
marched north into North Carolina, where 
Sherman received the surrender of Johnston's 
army. The regiment took part in the grand 
review at Washington, was mustered out on 
June 8th, 1865, and left for home the next 

Quite an interesting history of this regiment 
has been written by Rev. Seth C. Carey, one 
of its adjutants. 


Company A — Capt. W. H. Dobbin, Green- 
wich, disease ; Sergt. W. J. Hamilton, Green- 
wich, killed ; Albert Allen, Greenwich, dis- 
ease ; Evander Bertis, Greenwich, disease ; 
William Bartlett, Greenwich, killed ; Oscar 
Baumes, Greenwich, killed ; Charles Lapoint, 
Greenwich, killed ; John H. Lampson, Green- 
wich, wounds ; Alexander Mitchell, Green- 
wich, disease ; Albert Potter, Greenwich, 
killed ; Leroy Wright, Greenwich, killed. 

Company C — Sergt. William Hutton, jr., 
Putnam, wounds. 

Company D — Corp. R. O. Fisher, Fort 
Ann, killed; Sergt. J. L. Cummings, Put- 
nam, wounds ; Sergt. A. C. Thompson, Put- 
nam, disease; William Anderson, jr., Put- 
nam, disease ; H. A. Dedrick, Putnam, dis- 
ease ; Darwin Easton, Putnam, disease ; Jere. 
Finch, Fort Ann, killed ; Charles Grout, Fort 
Ann, disease ; J. H. Haynes, Putnam, dis- 
ease ; James H. Loomis, Fort Ann, disease ; 
John Lapraine, Fort Ann, disease ; Isaac Mc- 
Nutt, Fort Ann, wounds ; J. M. Mattison, 
Fort Ann, disease ; Edward Rice, Fort Ann, 
disease ; A. Ward, Dresden, disease. 

Company E— Capt. Norman F. Weer, 
wounds ; Lieut. John H. Daicey, killed ; F. 
Archambolt, Hartford, killed ; Alexander Bev- 
eridge, Hebron, disease ; Byron Briggs, Hart- 
ford, killed ; John Bell, Hartford, killed ; 



James Dickenson, Hartford, disease ; George 
Donley, Hebron, killed ; W. J. Gilchrist, 
Hebron, disease ; Smith Hewitt, Hebron, 
disease ; A. Jeffaway, Hartford, killed ; Sam- 
uel Johnson, Hebron, disease ; Ira Munson, 
Hebron, disease ; James McEchron, Hebron, 
disease ; John Patrick, Hebron, disease ; 
Nath. Raymond, Hebron, disease ; Philo 
Smith, Hebron, disease ; H. L. Thomas, 
Hartford, killed ; John Wright, Hartford, 

Company F — Sergt. J. M. Ronan, Argyle, 
wounds ; James Cartwright, Argyle, disease ; 
W. H. Emerson, Argyle, disease ; Theo. 
Hogart, Argyle, disease ; T. A. Hopkins, Ar- 
gyle, killed ; George McKibben, Argyle, kill- 
ed ; J. H. Morrish, Argyle, disease ; H. M. 
Reid, Argyle, disease ; D.' G. Stewart, Ar- 
gyle, wounds ; George L. Taylor, Argyle, 
wounds ; W. J. Wood, Argyle, killed. 

Company G — Clarence Coulter, Jackson, 
wounds ; A. J. Coon, White Creek, disease ; 
Peter Cromby, White Creek, wounds ; Thos. 
Dickenson, Hartford, disease ; John McUm- 
ber, White Creek, wounds ; W. H. Martin, 
White Creek, killed ; Chancey Parker, White 
Creek, disease ; H. W. Welch, Jackson, killed. 

Company H — Corp. J. H. Cowan, Salem', 
disease ; Corp. J. C. Gray, Salem, disease ; 
Corp. W. H. Stewart, Salem, wounds ; Corp. 
F. I. Williamson, Salem, disease ; J. L. 
Beattie, Salem, killed ; M. H. Brown, Salem, 
disease ; Charles Billings, Salem, disease ; 
Henry Danforth, Salem, wounds ; Jacob 

Heber, Salem, ; A. Johnson, Salem, 

wounds; J. A. Mains, Salem, killed ; Charles 
Marshall, Salem, killed; J. McMurray, Hart- 
ford, ; P. McNasser, Salem, killed ; 

W. J. Orcutt, Salem, disease ; W. L. Rich, 
Salem, killed ; George Sweet, Salem, disease : 
H. G. Sweet, Salem, disease : D. H.Warner, 
Salem, disease; Rich. West, Salem, disease. 

Company I — Joseph R. Beade, Easton, 
disease ; Alonzo Morehouse, Hebron, disease. 

Company K — Capt. Henry O.Wiley,Gran- 
ville, killed ; Serg. H. E. Howard, Granville, 

wounds ; W. C. Allard, Hampton, disease ; 
Visti Bodevin, Granville, disease ; D. S. Car- 
mody, Granville, disease ; Horace Dowd, 
Granville, disease; A. W. Doane, Granville, 
killed ; James Gordon. Granville, disease ; 
R. E. Hall, Granville, disease ; George Os- 
borne, Granville, disease ; A. C. -Osborne, 
Hampton, killed ; John Pitts, Granville,killed ; 
William Reardon, Hampton, disease ; Milo 

Shaw, Granville, ; W. A. Tooley, 

Granville, killed ; H. H. Tooley, Granville, 
killed ; Edward Tanner, Granville, killed ; N. 
G. Thayer, Granville, killed ; William Walter, 
Dresden, killed ; Edson Whitney, Granville, 
disease ; C. H. Waite, Granville, disease ; B. 
F. Wright, Granville, disease. 

On the soldiers' monument in Woodlands 
cemetery in the town of Cambridge appears 
the following names of " fallen heroes " who 
were members of the 123d regiment : Serg. 

C. Darrow, Corp. C. L. Coulter, J. Herman, 
W. Skellie, C. C. Parker, W. J. Scott, J. P. 
Wood, A. ]. Coon, R. K. Bishop, ]. ]. Mc- 
Comber, J. Foster, R. Hennelly, J. L. Skellie, 

D. Baldwin, jr.; W. H. Martin, R.W. Skellie, 
P. Crombie, W. H. Welch, W. H. Phelps, 
and H. King. 


The 125th was raised in 1863 in Rensselaer 
county; fought in the principal battles of the 
army of the Potomac from Gettysburg to 
Petersburg, and was mustered out June 5th, 

Part of one company was raised in the town 
of Easton, and Capt. Lewis H. Crandell of 
the regiment was from Easton. 


Like the 125th regiment, so the 169th was 
raised in Rensselaer county, excepting com- 
pany F, commanded by Capt. Warren B. Col- 
man, that was recruited at Sandy Hill. The 
regiment was in the siege of Fort Wagner, 
fought at Cold Harbor and around Petersburg, 



was in the storming of Fort Fisher, and served 
until July 19, 1865. 


Corp. J. D. Warren, Granville, killed. 

Company F — Serg. S. O. Benton, Fort 
Ann, wounds ; Serg. H. Chamberlain, Fort 
Ann, killed ; Alex. P. Blowers, Fort Ann, 
killed ; W. H, Chase, Fort Ann, disease ; Len. 
Fish, Fort Ann, killed ; Amos Green, Fort Ann, 
disease ; Albert Keech, Fort Ann, disease. 

Company C — Alanson Lewis, Easton, dis- 
ease ; Michael McBryan, Granville, . 


This regiment was organized in 1861, and 
was mustered out of the service March 31, 
1862, because the War Department concluded 
that there was too much cavalry in the field at 
that time. 

Company A of this regiment was recruited 
at Salem, but contained men from several 
towns. It was raised and commanded by 
Capt. Solomon W. Russel, jr. 


This regiment was known as the Harris 
Light Cavalry for some time after the Second 
Cavalry was mustered out of the service, and 
then received its name. The regiment was 
raised in 1861, and saw the last days of its 
active service at Appomattox. It did a large 
amount of skirmishing and raiding, but did 
splendid fighting at Brandy Station and Get- 
tysburg, was in the two celebrated raids on 
Richmond, and served in the valley under 
Phil. Sheridan. 

Company E of this regiment was raised at 
Fort Edward, but contained men from other 


Company F — N. L. Allard, Hampton, . 

Company K — Lorenzo Palmer, Fort Ann, 

Company L — Lent. Smith, Fort Ann, dis- 

ease; J. H. Smith, Fort Ann, disease; J. L. 
Perry, Fort Ann, disease; William Keech, 
Fort Ann, disease. 


In 1863 many veteran soldiers desired to 
re-enter the cavalry service, and two New 
York regiments were organized to accommo- 
date them. One of these regiments was the 
2d Veteran cavalry. It served in the Red 
River expedition, where it did splendid fight- 
ing at Pleasant Hill ; afterward made two dar- 
ing raids in Mississippi and Florida, and ren- 
dered efficient service in Alabama from the 
siege of Mobile until November, 1865, when 
it was mustered out. 

Company D, commanded by Capt. Thomas 
F. Allen, was from Whitehall, and parts of 
Companies A, E, and M were from Washing- 
ton county. 

The Cambridge Soldiers' monument bears 
the names of M. L. Moore, J. Smith and W. 
Pratt, of this regiment. 


In July, 1862, the mounted battalion known 
as Wool's Body Guard was made the nucleus 
of a regiment that was raised in Rensselaer 
county, and became the First New York 
Mounted Rifles. The regiment was engaged 
in scouting, raiding and picket duty, under 
General Butler, and around Petersburg, until 
the fall of Richmond. In July, 1865, it was 
consolidated with the 3d New York cavalry, 
and the new organization became the 4th 
Provisional cavalry, which was mustered out 
in November, 1865. 

Twenty or thirty men of Company E were 
recruited at Salem, and Cornelius S. Masten, 
of that village, was one of the captains of the 


This regiment served in the Army of the 
Potomac, and was engaged at Second Bull 
Run and in other hard battles. Several men 
from the county served in its ranks. 




Company I — Sergt. J. M. Burdick, Green- 
wich, disease. 

Company B — D. B. Cunningham, Easton, 
killed ; A. E. Gage, Cambridge, . 

Company H — S. P. Milliard, Easton, dis- 


In December, 1863, Col. Thomas J. Strong 
sought to raise a new regiment but was re- 
fused, as no new regiments were being author- 
ized. He then made an arrangement to raise 
four companies for Colonel Morrison's 16th 
Heavy Artillery that was not yet full. Col- 
onel Strong agreed to serve as Major of this 
regiment. The 16th numbered four thousand 
men when it assembled in Virginia, and was 
the largest regiment that was ever seen in the 
new world. 

About eight hundred of these men came 
from Washington county. Company I, com- 
manded by Capt. Henry C. Sherrill, was or- 
ganized at Sandy Hill. Thirty men from Sa- 
lem and Cambridge were in Company K, and 
the remainder of the men from the county 
were transferred to other regiments, as the 
government had to send hundreds of this 
mammoth regiment to other organizations. 
The regiment was left with fourteen compa- 
nies and two thousand eight hundred men, 
and then had been more than once mistaken 
for a brigade. The government could not 
furnish them cannon at that time and they 
were mostly armed as infantry. The 16th 
lost heavily by battle and disease around Pe- 
tersburg, and one part of it was given cannon 
and did good service in the attack on Fort 
Fisher and afterward on Cape Fear river. The 
regiment was mustered out on August 21, 


Company H — W. J. Graham, Hebron, dis- 
ease ; William Armstrong, Argyle, disease ; 
George Congdon, Argyle, disease ; John Scott, 
Argyle, disease. 

Company K — Geo. F. Burke, Greenwich, 
wounds ; John Shields, Greenwich, disease ; 
Rufus Hall, Greenwich, disease; Ira Haw- 
thorne, Jackson, disease ; A. E. Higby, Hart- 
ford, disease. 


Second Regiment — C. H. Westcot, Hamp- 
ton, wounds. 

Second Rifles — G. C. Fairbrother, Salem, 

Third Cavalry — A. McLaughlin, Putnam, 

Seventh Cavalry — M. L. Moore, Jackson, 

Twelfth Infantry — Jas. Cassidy, Hampton, 

One Hundred and Seventy-Sixth — J. M. 
Austin, White Creek, disease ; N. Tucker, 
White Creek, disease. 

One Hundred and Seventy-Seventh — C. W. 
Billings, Easton, killed; Elisha Hurley, 
Easton, ■. 

One Hundred and Ninety-Second — George 
Parrish, Easton, disease. 


First — Thomas Cassidy, Hampton, killed. 

Fifth — T.W. Taylor, White Creek, wounds. 

Seventh — Lieut. R. M. Green, Hampton, 

Tenth — J. S. McBride, Hebron, disease. 

Eleventh — C.B.Russell, Hampton, wounds; 
N. Coda, White Creek, wounds ; E. C. Allard, 
Hampton, disease ; Isaac Susment, Granville, 


Corp. A. Wilson, Granville, wounds; Corp. 
John A. Wiley, Granville, wounds. 

Serg. J. A. Norton, Hartford, killed ; Henry 
Orcutt, Hartford, killed ; John Wright, Hart- 
ford, killed : Barney Shandy, Fort Ann, 
wounds ; Jos. Kearney, Salem, wounds. 


Twentieth United States — S. P. Chase, 



Thirtieth United States — Henry Jones, dis- 

Thirty-first United States — Abner Jackson, 

No mortuary lists, at this writing, can be 
obtained of the towns of Cambridge, Fort 
Edward and Whitehall ; and, despite the most 
zealous efforts of many citizens of the count}', 
it has not been possible to secure but a ma- 
jority of the names of those from Washing- 
ton county who yielded their lives as a sacri- 
fice for their country's liberties. 

Peace has her victories as well as war ; and, 
with the close of hostilities, we turn to trace 
again the progress of the count)' so sadly in- 
terrupted by four years of war, of bloodshed, 
and of ruin. 




With the end of the war business revived 
throughout the county, and manufactures and 
agriculture again received their full share of 
attention. Hundreds of soldiers returned 
from the army to the field, the workshop and 
the manufacturing establishment, and every 
industry was quickened into new life and in- 
creased production. 

The railroad period had been suddenly 
checked by the war, and the latter was suc- 
ceeded by a period of development into which 
the old and some new railways were import- 
ant factors. 

The Greenwich and Johnsonville railway, 
the earliest of the new railways, was projected 
as far back as 1857, but the war stopped its 
building, and it was not completed until 1870. 
Its length is fourteen miles, running through 
the towns of Cambridge and Easton. This 

road, in 1880, carried ten thousand six hun- 
dred and sixty-two passengers and nine thou- 
sand seven hundred and thirty-nine tons of 

The Glens Falls railway, running from Fort 
Edward to Glens Falls, in Warren county, 
a distance of five and three-quarter miles, was 
projected in 1867. It was built soon after- 

The New York and Canada railway, run- 
ning from Whitehall north, along the west 
shore of Lake Champlain to the northern 
boundary of the county, and connecting there 
with another railroad running to Montreal, 
Canada, was built in 1874 and 1875. 

By the centennial year of the Republic the 
county possessed good communication by rail 
and water with the leading cities of the Uni- 
ted States. 


Sheep raising and wool growing has ceased 
to be the profitable industry that it once was, 
and the great wool trade of the county since 
the late war has dwindled to small proportions, 
although there are many fine flocks of sheep 
to be found in the different towns. Corn, oats, 
potatoes, apples, and dairy products are now 
the main resources of the farm. 

Turning from agricultural pursuits to the 
mining interests of the county, we find that 
lime burning in Greenwich could be made a 
source of wealth. 

Iron ore lies within the hills of the northern 
peninsula, and the furnace production in 1880 
was very creditable to the county. 

Slate and marble quarrying have been de- 
veloped in the eastern part of the count}'. In 
Granville fine roofing slate and excellent block 
marble quarries have been opened. 

Ticonderoga black lead is obtained in Put- 
nam in considerable quantities. 

Manufacturing establishments are situated 
at many places in the county, and prominent 
in this great branch of material wealth are 
agricultural and carriage works, iron foundries 


and steel, hosiery, flouring, paper, cotton and 
woolen mills. 

The garden seed business was started in the 
Cambridge valley as early as 1816, and the 
first manilla paper mill in the United States 
was built in 1846. 

With good soil and considerable water 
power, and lying on the great inland route of 
commerce the county should be noted for the 
prosperity of the present industries and fine 
facilities for future enterprises. 


The growth of the county has been slow 
but substantial through its century and a third 
of white inhabitation, while the history of its 
territory extends through nearly three centur- 
ies of time. The Indian war period of eight}' 
years was followed in 1689 by the inter-colon- 
ial war period, whose ending in 1763 was two 
years beyond the first permanent settlement 
beginnings. Ten years of an early settlement 
period was distinguished for the incoming of 
three thousand white settlers, and a county 
formation, and was succeeded by the Revolu- 
tionary period of eight years, during which the 
county was severely ravaged. Following the 
Revolution was a pioneer period of nearly 
twenty years, in which the earlier industries 
sprang up and emigration sent the volume of 
population from about three thousand to thir- 
ty-five thousand. Then came a pike period, 
during which Warren county was cut off and 
the population fell off nearly six thousand. 
After nearly twenty-five years of pre-eminence 
the pike yielded to the canal, and the first 
great stride of progress was taken by the 
county. Wool growing and other industries 
came with it, and passed in 1848 into the rail- 
road period, that was terminated by the Civil 
war period, whose disastrous effects on the 
county retarded its advancement for some 
time. Succeeding the Civil war has followed 
the third great material advance of the people 
of Washington county, which may be designa- 
ted the progressive period noted for invention, 

the introduction of labor-saving machinery, 
and a spirit of general improvement. 

The financial panic of 1873 had some de- 
pressing effect upon the county, and occasion- 
ally the dullness of times may temporarily 
check the flow of business, but will never stop 
the march of improvement. 

Washington county, rich within her own 
agricultural resources, her manufacturing in- 
terests and her commercial facilities, need 
never occupy any but a proud and prominent 
position in the wealth and development of the 
mighty State that stretches from the Hudson 
to the great lakes. 



Census statistics have been specially intro- 
duced in this volume to supply a feature that 
is largely wanting in so many county histories 
published in the United States. While num- 
bers are not essentially necessary to the de- 
velopment and progress of a county, yet their 
increase stands for growth in industries as 
well as population, and their decrease tells 
the story of abandoned enterprises and the 
loss of territory as well as every great drain 
by emigration. The condensed statistics of 
agriculture, manufactures, mining and trade 
and transportation will forcibly tell their own 
story without need of illustration or explana- 

The census of 1S90 has been issued so 
slowly that many statistics of interest con- 
cerning the county have not yet been pub- 



V. S. Census. White. Colored. Aggregate. 

1790 I3-99 2 50 14,042 

1800 35.393 399 36,79 2 

i8ig 4 I . I 59 3>i3° 44-289 



U.S. Census. White. Colored. Aggregate. 

1820 38,427 404 3 8 > 8 3! 

1830 42,242 393 4 2 > 6 35 

1840 40,808 272 41,080 

1850 44,400 350 44.75° 

i860 45> 6 43 2 59 45.9°4 

1870 49,186 379 49.5 68 

1880 47.523 340 47,87i 

1890 45> 68 7 2 5 2 45,939 

Washington county had two Indians re- 
ported in i860, three in 1870, and six in 1880. 
Its Chinese inhabitants in 1880 were two. The 
3,130 colored population reported in 1 810 is 
undoubtedly a mistake, and is more likely 313. 


1870. 1880. 

Born in the State 2 7, 2 53 37,5 68 

Vermont 2,605 2,678 

Massachusetts 43 2 33 8 

Connecticut 180 136 

Pennsylvania 114 127 

New Jersey 29 53 

Total native born 41,274 4i,5 J 7 

Born in Ireland 5,° 2 4 4>°4 6 

British America i,999 *.3 2 3 

England and Wales 888 661 

Scotland 198 137 

Germany 124 125 

France 14 8 

Sweden and Norway 3 17 

Total foreign born. .. . 8,294 6,354 

In i860 the the native population was re- 
ported at 39,248 and the foreign as 6,656. 


Towns. 1870. 1SS0. 1890. 

Argyle 2,850 2,775 2,313 

Argyle village 351 316 158 

Cambridge 2,589 2,324 2,162 

Dresden 684 730 636 

Easton 3,072 2,740 2,500 

Fort Ann, including vil- 
lage 3,329 3,263 2,996 

Fort Edward, including 

village 5,125 4,680 4,424 

Towns. 1870. 1880. 1890. 

Granvillle 4,003 4, 149 4,715 

Greenwich 4,030 3,860 4,196 

Greenwich village 1,231 1,663 

Hampton 955 833 791 

Hartford 1,989 1,760 1,470 

Hebron 2,399 2,383 2,044 

Jackson 1,662 1,562 1,278 

Kingsbury 4> 2 77 4,614 4,677 

Sandy Hill 2,347 2,487 2,895 

Putnam 603 611 568 

Salem 3,556 3,498 3,127 

Salem village 1,239 1,410 

White Creek, excluding 

part Cambridge village 2,881 2,742 2,690 
Cambridge village (a part) I . I 53 
Whitehall, including vil- 
lage 5.564 5.347 5.4° 2 

Whitehall village 4.3 22 4, 2 7° 4.434 

Town of Queensbury.. 11,849 

Glens Falls village 9,5°9 

In 1880 there were 23,955 males and 23,916 
females in the county. Of school age — from 
five to seventeen years — there were 6,380 
males and 6,143 females; and of military 
age — from eighteen to forty-four years — 
there were 9,312, while of citizenship age the 
number was 13,656. 

The statistics of manufactures in any census 
of the United States so far have never em- 
braced the full production of the hand-trades of 
mason, carpenter, blacksmith, cooper, plum- 
ber, and others of less importance ; but the 
tables for 1880 include every establishment of 
mechanical or manufacturing industry which 
was returned at the Tenth census as having 
had during that census year a product of five 
hundred dollars or more in value. 

In all comparisons between values reported 
in 1870 and in 1880, it should be recollected 
that the values of the former year were ex- 
pressed in a currency which was at a great 
discount in gold. For purposes of compar- 
ison the values of 1870 should be reduced one- 




Establishments. Capital. Employees. 

1870 427 $3,561,980 2714 

1880 355 2,658,188 2205 

The introduction of machinery will explain 
the decrease in the number of establishments 
and employees in 1880. 

Wages. Material. Products. 

1870 $928,398 $2,927,615 $5,028,391 

1880 5 6 5-335 2,208,225 3>597>5 I 2 

In 1870 there were twenty-eight steam en- 
gines and two hundred and fourteen water 
wheels in Washington county. 

Of the four hundred and thirty-seven estab- 
lishments mentioned there were twenty-six 
cheese and butter factories, seven foundry and 
machine shops, twenty-eight flouring and 
grist mills, four tanneries, three lime works, 
eleven carriage and wagon factories or shops, 
one hosiery mill, eight woolen goods factories, 
four marble and stone works, one malt liquor 
manufactory, one iron and steel mill, thirty- 
one sawed lumber plants, one slate and marble 
mantel works, and nine paper mills. 


Cereals. Busbs. 1870*. Bushs. 1880. 

Wheat 24,091 16,809 

Corn 3 8 4.7°^ 537>o6o 

Oats 761,489 889,834 

Barley 6,021 4j4 : 4 

Buckwheat 5 X >479 52,660 

Rye 105,932 100,981 

There were four thousand two hundred and 
seventeen farms with an average size of one 
hundred and sixteen acres in 1880. 

LIVE STOCK, 1870 AND 1 880. 

Nn. 1S70. No. 1880. 

Horses 10,222 11,360 

Milch Cows 18,352 21,762 

Oxen 554 307 

Sheep 102,045 64,606 

Swine 9j3°i 17,908 


Other cattle, in 1880, in addition to milch 
cows and oxen, were reported at thirteen 
thousand three hundred and thirty-two. In 
1880 the spring clip of wool was given at three 
hundred and thirty-eight thousand eight hun- 
dred and eleven pounds. 

1870. 1880. 

Bus. Potatoes 2,141,464 2,216,648 

Lbs. Butter 1,606,457 1,793,243 

Lbs. Cheese 225,002 104,914 

In 1879 there were one hundred thousand 
four hundred and forty-two tons of hay cut ; 
fifty-nine thousand five hundred and sixty- 
seven pounds of honey, and one thousand 
one hundred and forty-two pounds of wax 
taken ; and five thousand twenty-five bushels 
of beans harvested. Orchard products were 
worth eighty thousand five hundred and fifty- 
five dollars, and market garden products nine 
thousand five hundred and sixty-three dollars, 
in that year, while there were one hundred 
and thirty-six thousand five hundred and sixty- 
seven poultry fowls in the county, whose pro- 
duct of eggs was five hundred and twenty-five 
thousand one hundred and eighty-seven dozen. 


Ores. Tons in 1880. 

Magnetite iron ore . 18,892 

Quartz and feldspar !,907 

There were two mines in which two hun- 
hundred and fifteen thousand five hundred 
dollars capital was invested, and ninety-two 
hands employed. Twenty-six thousand dol- 
lars yearly wages was paid, and the value of 
the output was forty-seven thousand two hun- 
dred dollars. The maximum yearly capacity 
of these mines was forty-four thousand eight 
hundred tons. 

There were four quartz and feldspar mines 
in which fifty-two thousand dollars capital was 
invested, and seventeen hands employed. The 
wages paid was three thousand three hundred 
and fifty-two dollars, and the value of the out- 


put was seven thousand eight hundred and 
twelve dollars. 


In 1880 New York had seven canals, whose 
aggregate length was six hundred and seven 
miles, with four hundred and eleven miles of 
slackwater, that were built between 181 7 and 
1862, at a cost of nearly sixty-nine million 
dollars. Those canals were : Erie, Oswego, 
Cayuga and Seneca, Champlain, Black River, 
Oneida River, and Delaware and Hudson. 

The fou/th named canal, the Champlain 
canal, with its feeder and dam, was built be- 
tween 1817 and 1837, at a cost of two million 
three hundred and seventy - eight thousand 
nine hundred and ten dollars. It runs from 
Whitehall to Waterford, is eighty-one miles 
in length, and has a width of fifty-eight feet 
at the surface and forty-four feet at the bot- 
tom, being six feet in depth. It has thirty- 
three locks, one hundred and ten feet long 
and eighteen feet wide, with a rise and fall of 
one hundred and seventy-nine and one-half 
feet. In 1880 its freight traffic was one mil- 
lion two hundred thousand five hundred and 
three tons ; gross income, fifty-one thousand 
two hundred and sixty-seven dollars ; and ex- 
penditures, one hundred and thirty-six thous- 
and five hundred and twenty dollars. 

Of the railways of the county we can se- 
cure no statistics in 1880, beyond the Green- 
wich and Johnson road, whose length was fif 
teen miles and its transportation expenses 
twenty-eight thousand four hundred and fifty 
dollars and fifty-nine cents. It employed 
thirty-five persons, and carried ten thousand 
six hundred and twenty-two passengers and 
nine thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine 
tons of freight in 1879. 


Ig70. 1880. 

Real estate 815,866,649 

Personal property 3,091,234 

State tax $65,791 57,577 

1870. 1880. 

County tax $45,347 $ 50,194 

Local and school taxes, 46,483 107,771 

County debt 63,000 2 3>525 

Local debt 67,800 12,944 

Total wealth 18,957,883 

Total taxes 157,621 215,542 

Total debt 130,800 36,469 

In 1880 instead of count}' and local debt 
the headings in the census were bonded and 
floating debt, and with net debt for total debt. 
The valuation given is the assessed valuation. 




It is an encouraging fact that the ratio of 
increase of the principal agricultural products 
of Washington county has more than kept 
pace with its increase of population, while 
every indication warrants an abundant supply 
for all future contingencies. It is also a mat- 
ter of gratification that the enterprising farm- 
ers of the county have been fully in sympathy 
with the progressive agricultural spirit of the 
age for over three-quarters of a century. 

The people recognizing the value of an 
agricultural society as early as December 2, 
1 81 8, met at the Sandy Hill court house for 
the purpose of considering how the interests 
of agriculture could be best promoted. Hon. 
Asa Fitch was chairman, and Isaac Bishop 
secretary of that meeting, which resolved to 
organize a county agricultural society, and 
then appointed a committee to prepare a con- 
stitution and by-laws. This committee con- 
sisted of Hon. Asa Fitch, Isaac Bishop, Gar- 
rett Wendell, Zebulon R. Shipherd, David 
Russell, and Roswell Weston. 



An adjourned meeting was held at Argyle, 
in the house of Joseph Rouse, on February 
ii, 1819. There the meeting gave organized 
form to the effort, and the first Washington 
county agricultural society came into exist- 
ence then and there, with a membership of 
fort}'. Hon. Asa Fitch was elected president, 
and a series of meetings were held at differ- 
ent places in September. 

The first "Farmers' Holiday" or county 
fair was held on the second Tuesday of Oc- 
tober, 1822, at Major Andrew Freeman's 
hotel, at Salem. In 1825 the fair was held 
at Greenwich, and in 1826 at Argyle, where 
the premiums offered only amounted to two 
hundred and eighty-three dollars. The badge 
of membership was a spear of wheat and a 

Under the general apathy concerning agri- 
cultural matters that prevailed in the State 
about 1826, the society went down, and its 
successor did not appear until fifteen years 

On August 4, 1 84 1, the second Washington 
count}- agricultural society was organized at 
Argyle, with Henry Holmes as president. Its 
first fair was held at Salem, in 1842, and at 
the next fair at Argyle two days were given 
to the exhibition. From 1844 to 1861 the 
fairs were held as follows : Salem, 1845. 1858; 
Cambridge, 1846, 1855, i860 ; Greenwich, 
1847, 1852, 1856 ; Argyle, 1848, 1S50 ; White- 
hall, 1849; South Hartford, 1851 : Granville, 
1853; North White Creek, 1854; Hartford, 
1857 ; Fort Ann, 1859. In 1861 and in 1862 
the excitement of the war prevented the hold- 
ing of any fair, but in 1863, Salem agreed to 
erect the buildings and furnish the grounds 
for a fair, if the society would exhibit at that 
place yearly until 1872. This proposition 
was accepted, and during that time, on March 
25, 1865, the society was incorporated under 
the law of 1855, as "The Washington County 
Agricultural Society." The fair was also in- 
creased to four days, and in 1867 Horace 
Greeley delivered the address. In 1872 Fort 

Edward and Sandy Hill agreed to furnish 
twenty-five acres in their vicinity and two 
thousand five hundred dollars if the society 
would hold their fairs there until 1882. This 
proposition was accepted, and the county 
fairs have been held there regularly until the 
present time; and have grown in importance, 
both in the quality of their exhibitions of 
blooded cattle, horses, sheep, swine, etc., and 
in the number of attendance of the people, 
second only to the State Agricultural society. 
In connection with the County Agricultural 
society, two other agricultural associations 
were formed. The Stock Breeders' associa- 
tion, February 20, 1816, and the Northern 
New York Poultry association, organized 
February 26, 1878, with headquarters at Sandy 


The pioneer physician of the county was 
Rev. Thomas Clark, M. D., who came to 
Salem in 1765, when the oldest settlements 
had not been made more than four years. He 
was the only physician in the county for eight 
years, and then Gen. John Williams, M. D., 
came to Salem. Clark and Williams were na- 
tives of England, and attended to all the home 
practice of the county until 1780. when Dr. 
Peletiah Fitch arrived at Salem from Vermont, 
although a native of Connecticut. The first 
native and the fourth physician of the county 
was Dr. Joseph Tomb, of Salem, who read 
with General Williams. Among the prominent 
physicians succeeding them were: Zina Hitch- 
cock, M. D., of Connecticut, who settled at 
Sandy Hill about 1783. Hon. Asa Fitch, M.D., 
son of Dr. Peletiah Fitch, commenced practice 
at Salem in 1795 ; the same year, Dr. Andrew 
Proudfit, a student of Benjamin Rush, and a 
native of Pennsylvania, became a resident at 
Sandy Hill. Jonathan Dorr, M. D., of Lyme, 
Connecticut, and Hon. James Stevenson, M. 
D.. of Kilsyth, Scotland, read medicine at 
Salem, and entered upon practice about 1797. 
Cornelius Holmes, M. D., of Plymouth, Mas- 


sachusetts, in 1805, was one of the first physi- 
cians of the present century and the last in the 
county, ere we come to the record of a county 
medical society with the year 1806, although 
a medical organization is said to have had an 
earlier existence than the year given. 

The Medical Society of the county of Wash- 
ington held its first meeting at the Sandy Hill 
court house, July 1, 1806. Dr. Andrew Proud- 
fit was president of the society during 1806, 
and the charter members were twenty-three 
in number, as follows : Drs. Zina Hitchcock, 
Philip Smith, Andrew Proudfit, Isaac Sar- 
gent, Leonard Gibbs, Asa Stover, Cyrus Bald- 
win, William Livingston, Asa Fitch, Abram 
Allen, James Green, Ephraim Allen, Jonathan 
Mosher, John McKinney, Robert Cook, Daniel 
Hervey, Thomas Patterson, Liberty Branch, 
Israel P. Baldwin, Artemus Robbins, Asahel 
Morris, PenfieldGoodell and Cornelius Holmes. 

The Society soon took high rank. and has done 
much since toward establishing the medical 
profession of the State upon an honorable and 
firm foundation. 


The newspaper of to-day, with its command- 
ing position and wide influence, has grown 
from very small and very humble beginnings. 

The press of Washington county is repre- 
sentative of the best interests of the people in 
every department of thought and field of ac- 
tivity, and aids largely in giving standing and 
moral and religious character to the county. 

It is interesting as well as instructive to trace 
the early beginnings and slow growth of this 
press, now so active and potent for the progress 
of the county. 

The pioneer of journalism in Washington 
county was George Gerrish, who on Wednes- 
day, June 18, 1794, issued the initial number 
of The Times or National Courier. It was 
issued at Salem, and bore the motto: ,L May 
we never seek applause from party principles, 
but always desire it from public spirit." This 
paper was printed "three doors south of the 

court house," at 12s. per annum, and its his- 
tory is summed up in seven months of a pre- 
carious existence. 

The second paper of the county was the 
Washington Patrol, to which fortune was no 
more propitious than to its predecessor. It was 
published at Salem, by William Wand, and 
edited by Saint John Honeywood, a lawyer of 
talent and education. The first number came 
out on May 27, 1796, and its last issue was at 
some time within the same year. Its mottoes 
were " Impartial and Uninfluenced." "All is 
well." "La unit est passee," and " Watch for 
the Republic." 

Following the. Patrol at Salem came the 
Northern Ceniinel, the first permanent pa- 
per of the county. Its first issue was on Mon- 
day, January 1, 1798, and its publisher and 
editor, Henry Dodd, was a man of remark- 
able business ability. In May, 1803, the 
Ceniinel ceased, but was succeeded by the 
Northern Post, under the management of Henry 
Dodd and David Rumsey. James Stevenson, 
jr., and Edward and Henry W. Dodd, sons of 
Henry Dodd, were afterward associated with 
the paper that subsequently changed its name 
to that of Washington County Post. The Dodds 
were able editors and their connection with 
the paper ceased January 7, 1835, when Wil- 
liam A. Wells bought it and consolidated it 
with the Whitehall North Star, under the name 
of County Post and North Star. On May 17, 
1837, the paper passed into the hands of 
Thomas G. Wait, who changed its name back 
to that of Tlie Washington County Post, and in 
1838 sold it to James Gibson, who made it 
intensely whig through the presidential cam- 
paign of 1840. Its successive proprietors 
were: William B. Harkness, 1841; F. B. 
Graham, 1846; and Graham & Martin, 1847- 
48. The Post was strongly federal and whig 
in politics, and a year after its death, in 1848, 
the press and type were sold to Robert G. 
Young, who gave another paper to the public 
by the name of The Washington County Post, 
at Cambridge, where it has been successively 


true american and republican in politics, 
under the management of Mr. Young, Edward 
Gardner, R. K. Crocker, James K. Smart, and 

The Washington Register was the second 
permanent paper in the county, and made its 
appearance in October, 1803, at Salem, as the 
advocate of democratic principles, and was 
established by Hon. Edward Savage and oth- 
ers to counteract the influence of the federal 
doctrines put forth by the Post. It was pub- 
lished from 1803 to 1830, arid its press and 
type were then used to print the Anti-Masonic 
Champion, of Greenwich, which existed but a 
short time. The editors of the Register were: 
John M. Looker, John P. Reynolds, Timothy 
Hoskin, James B. Gibson, Beriah Stiles, John 
P. Reynolds, and Alexander Robertson. 

The Post and Register for twenty years con- 
stituted the press of the county, although the 
Cambridge Gazette was started but it had only 
an ephemeral existence. 

In 1 8 19 the Sandy Hill Times was issued by 
Adonijah Emmons, in the interests of the 
Federal party. Five years later it passed into 
the hands of James Wright, who called it 
The Political Herald, and in 1S25 the name 
was changed to that of Sandy Hill Times, and 
its politics became democratic. It remained 
democratic until 1865, when its political com- 
plexion became republican. 

The Sandy Hill Sun was started in 1826 by 
Mr. Emmons, but only run a short time. 

For six years after the start of the Sun there 
were no new papers in the county, and then in 
1832 there were three new ventures in journ- 
alism at Sandy Hill. First came the Temper- 
ance Advocate, next the Independent Politician, 
a Henry Clay paper, by C. J. Haynes and S. 
P. Hines : and third, the Free Press, an anti- 
masonic sheet, by A. Emmons. Short life 
was the fate of the Politician and Press, but 
the Advocate was destined to some length of 
years, and enjoyed the distinction of being 
the first total abstinence paper published in 

the United States. S. P. Hines edited the 

Advocate at Sandy Hill for some time, and 
then removed it to New York city, where he 
published it under the patronage of the State 
Temperance society. 

From 1832 to 1855 we have record of the 
following papers in Washington county: The 
Whitehall Republican, by J. K. Averell, 1833; 
Whitehall Chronicle, byH. T. Blanchard, June 
18, 1840; TheWashingtonian, of Salem, W. B. 
Harkness and John W. Curtis, 1842; White- 
hall Democrat ', 1845; Whitehall Telegraph, 1847; 
Washington Telegraph of Granville, Zebina 
Ellis, 1847, afterward Granville Telegraph and 
Granville Times ; The Whitehaller, W. S. 
Southmaid, 1849 ; The Granville Register, 
1849; The Salem Press,W. B. Harkness, 1850 ; 
The Granville News, 1851 ; The Public Ledger, 
of Fort Edward, T. A. Blanchard, 1854; 
American Sentinel { afterward Whitehall Times), 
John E. Watkins, June, 1855. 

During this period Greenwich had eleven 
sheets, all of which went down prior to 1850, 
except the People's Journal, founded in 1842 
by John W. Curtis. The ten defunct papers 
between 1832 and 1850 were : The Banner, 
The Union Village Courant, The Union Village 
Democrat, The Democratic Champion, The Wash 
ington County Sentinel, The Union Village Jour- 
nal, The Champion, The Eagle, The Union Vil- 
lage Eagle, and the Union Village Democratic 


The pioneer settlement but scarcely pre- 
ceded the pioneer church and school house in 
the county. 

The United Presbyterian church is the old- 
est religious denomination of Washington 
county, being planted at Salem in 1766 by 
Rev. Thomas Clark and his colony from Bali- 
bay, Ireland, and in 1875 numbered thirteen 
churches and two thousand five hundred and 
twenty-nine members. 

The Presbyterian church is second in order 
of age, and was founded but two years later, 
at Salem, by the Massachusetts colony, whose 
church faith would have been supposed to 



have run in Congregational grooves. In 1875 
there were nine Presbyterian churches and 
eight hundred and ninety-three members. 

The third place in order of age of the relig- 
ious denominations is contested for by the 
Baptist and Methodist Episcopal churches. 

The Baptists claim the foundation of Botts- 
kill church of Greenwich, as early as 1770, 
while some hold for 1767, and none later "than 
1775. The Baptists, in 1875, had twenty-one 
churches and two thousand two hundred and 
sixty-eight members. 

The Methodist Episcopal church dates its 
existence to the year 1770, when Philip Ems- 
bury, the founder of Methodism in the new 
world, organized Ash Grove, the second Meth- 
odist church in America. The Methodists, in 
1875, had twenty-three churches and two 
thousand six hundred and thirty-five mem- 

The Moravian mission and church of Salem 
were established, and a century later went out 
of existence as a religious body. 

The Friends, or Quakers, established Easton 
meeting or church in 1775, and one hundred 
years later numbered three churches, or meet- 
ings, with one hundred members. 

The Revolutionary struggle stopped settle- 
ment and church growth, and the first new 
church^rafter its close, to be established in the 
county seems to have been the Congregation- 
alist. A society of this church was organized 
in Granville in 1782. The denomination in 
1875 numbered five churches and three hun- 
dred and twenty-one members. 

The Protestant Episcopal church was or- 
ganized, as early as 1790 in Kingsbury, where 
the Hitchcock family was prominent among 
its members. In 1875 there were six Episco- 
pal churches and five hundred and seventy- 
seven members. 

We have record of the Reformed church, 
of Easton, as being organized in 1807. This 
denomination, in 1875, had four churches, 
with a membership of two hundred and four- 

The Free Will Baptists were organized in 
1817 in Putnam. 

The next denomination of which we have 
trace as being organized in the county is the 
Catholic. Christ, now Saint Mary's, Catholic 
church, of Sandy Hill, was formed in 1830. 
The Catholic churches of the county in 1875 
numbered ten, with a membership of four 
thousand five hundred and fifty. 

The Second Adventist church was organized 
in Hebron in 1849, and a quarter of a century 
later numbered three congregations and two 
hundred and five members. 

Three denominations that went down in 
the county were : the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch church, organized in Argyle in 1809 ; 
the Argyle Reformed Presbyterian church, 
formed in 1828 ; and the West Fort Ann 
Protestant Episcopal church, organized in 

In the census of 1875 no mention is made 
of the existence of the Universalists, whose 
First Society of Hartford was formed in 1834; 
or the Wesleyan Methodists, whose Granville 
church was organized in 1843. 


With the planting of the New Perth colony 
of Dr. Clark at Salem, in 1767, the school 
house was built by the side of the church, 
and other log school houses were built in the 
county prior to the Revolutionary war. After 
that struggle private schools were maintained 
until State legislation provided for a public 
school system, under whose continued im- 
provements the district and Union graded 
schools of the county have made good pro- 

Higher education was introduced into the 
county at an early day. Washington academy 
was commenced in 1780, as a classical school, 
and in 1791 became the fourth incorporated 
academy in the State. Fairville academy, at 
North Granville, was opened in 1807, and 
there the celebrated Salem Town did normal 
school work in training teachers that made 



his name famous in this and adjoining coun- 
ties. Other academies were soon established 
in other places and higher education has been 
well provided for ever since in numerous 
academies, seminaries, and collegiate insti- 


Whitehall was the earliest center of bank- 
ing operations in the county. The old Na- 
tional bank of Whitehall was chartered as 
the bank of Whitehall in 18-29. The Com- 
mercial bank of Whitehall came into exist- 
ence August 15, 1849. The National bank 
of Fort Edward was organized in 1851, and 
the bank of Salem in 1853. The Cambridge 
Valley bank was chartered in 1855, and the 
Farmers' bank of Washington county came 
into existence at Fort Edward in 1856, while 
Sandy Hill, the western county seat, did not 
have banking privileges until as late as 1864, 
when the First National, of that place, was 


Of all secret societies in the county the 
Free Masons are the oldest. Nearly all the 
prominent American officers in the Revolu- 
tionary war, from Washington down, were 
Free Masons, and floating bodies called 
" military lodges" were often held within the 
different regiments stationed in the county. 
But permanent Free Masonry dates its exist- 
ence in Washington county to Fort Edward, 
where in July, 1785, Washington Lodge, No. 
1 1 , Free and Accepted Masons, was instituted, 
with Colonel Adiel Sherwood as master. 

The following thirteen lodges were instituted 
in the county from 1785 to 1813 : 

No. Name. Place. Year. 

11.... Washington .... Fort Edward . . . 1 785 

Aurora Hampton 1793 

28. . . \ Livingston Kingsbury : 793 

32 . . . Rural Cambridge 1793 

51.. . . North Star Salem 1 796 

Liberty Granville 1 796 

Herschel Hartford 1800 

No. Name. Place. Year. 

Farmers' Easton 1802 

Rising Sun Greenwich 1805 

Brothers' Fort Ann 1806 

96 ... . Social Hall Whitehall 1806 

Hebron Hebron 1813 

Argyle Argyle. 181 3 

All of these lodges went down in the anti- 
masonic war of 1828-32. For twenty years 
every lodge fire was out, and during the period 
from 1844 to 1866 but eight of the given 
lodges were revived, and nearly all under dif- 
ferent names, and but two new lodges insti- 
tuted. Phoenix, No. 96, came first at White- 
hall, followed by Granville, No. 55, in 1851 ; 
Mount Hope, No. 260, Fort Ann, 1851 ; 
Fort Edward. No. 267, 1852; Sandy Hill, 
No. 372, 1855 ; Salem, No. 391, 1855 ; Cam- 
bridge Valley, No. 481, Cambridge, i860; 
Herschel, No. 508, Hartford, 1861 ; Argyle, 
No. 567, 1865 ; and Ashlar, No. 584, Green- 
wich, 1866. 

Previous to the anti-masonic war Royal 
Arch chapters and Mark lodges had been es- 
tablished as follows : De La Fayette Chapter, 
No. 9, at Fort Edward, in 1801 ; Federal, 
No. 10, Cambridge. 1801 ; Hartford Mark 
Lodge, No. 45, Hartford, 1808; Social Friends 
Mark Lodge, No. 62, Whitehall, 1810, suc- 
ceeded by Williams Chapter, No. 37, in 1829; 
Washington, No. 49, Easton, 1816, removed 
to Greenwich, 1819 ; and Fort Ann Mark 
Lodge, No. 83, from 1819 to 1823. 

No chapters were revived until 1850, but in 
the sixteen years following four chapters were 
opened as follows : Champlain Chapter, No. 
25, at Whitehall, in 1850 ; Fort Edward, No. 
171, in i860; Sandy Hill, No. 189, 1866; 
and Hartford, No. 192, 1866. 

Of the other secret and beneficial societies 
existing in the county but little definite infor- 
mation could be secured. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
seem to have had an existence in Washington 
county as early as 1844, at Whitehall. Hart- 
ford and Greenwich. Whitehall Lodge, No. 



5, was instituted July ig, 1844, by the same 
name but bearing 54 as its number under a 
former grand lodge jurisdiction. North Hart- 
ford Lodge was instituted February 12, i< s 44, 
but soon went down. Union Village Lodge, 
No. 122, was organized August 15, 1844, at 
Greenwich. In 1846 Arcturus Lodge, No. 55, 
was organized at Sandy Hill, and Salem, No. 
45, at Salem. The last of the early Odd Fel- 
low lodges of which we find account was Jane 
McCrea Lodge, No. 267, instituted at Fort 
Edward, August 10, 1848. The earliest en- 
campment was Horicon, No. 29, established 
at Whitehall about 1846. It became extinct in 
later years, and was succeeded by Whitehall 
Encampment, No. 69, organized April 29,1872. 
The Knights of Pythias organized North 
Star Lodge, of their order, at Whitehall, on 
December 27, 1871. 

Seven years later the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen had an organization at 
Fort Edward. 

Temperance societies were numerous in 
the count}' in the early years of temperance 
organization. Champlain Division, No. 267, 
Sons of Temperance, was organized in 1847, 
at Whitehall, and a Tent of Rechabites 
formed there at the same time. Temperance 
organizations were formed at other places, 
but have all become extinct. The Good 
Templars organized at several places in later 
years, but most of their organizations met 
with the fate of the Sons of Temperance. 



Under this heading will be given the State 
senators and members of assembly. 


1777. — William Duer. 

1777-79. — JohnWilliams ; also served 1783- 

1777-85. — Alex. Webster. 
1778-82. — Ebenezer Russell; also 1784- 
88, 1795-1803. 

1779. — Elishama Tozer. 

1786-90. — David Hopkins; also 1809-13. 

1788-02. — Edward Savage; also 1801-07. 

1793-1803. — Zina Hitchcock. 

1796-1802. — Ebenezer Clark. 

1796-98. — James Savage. 

1804-08. — Stephen Thorn ; also 1823-26. 

1807-11. — John McLean; also 1836-37. 

1812-15. — Gerritt Wendell. 

Allen Hascall. 

1817-21. — Roger Skinner. 
1821. — David Shipherd. 
1823-25. — Melanchthon Wheeler. 
1825-29. — John Crary. 
1829-33. — John McLean, jr. 
1S34-36. — Isaac W. Bishop. 
1838-42. — Martin Lee. 
1844-48.— Orville Clark. 
1852-54. — Daniel S. Wright. 
1856. — Justin A. Smith. 

— Ralph Richards. 

— James Gibson. 

— Isa^c V. Baker, jr. 

— Charles Hughes. 

— A. C. Comstock. 

— M. F. Collins. 

— J. H. Derby. 


The unusual number of State senators from 
1777 to 1791 is accounted for by the fact that 
the Vermont territory sent no senator to Albany 
for their part of the senatorial district, includ- 
ing Washington and a part of that State, and 
the whole number was elected in Washington 


1777-78. — John Barnes, Ebenezer Clark, 
John Rowan, Ebenezer Russell. 

1778-79. — Elishama Tozer, Albert Baker 
(served to 1781), and David Hopkins, who 
served until 1786. 

1779-80. — John Grover, Noah Payne. 

1780. — Hamilton McCollister, served until 



1785, and Matthew McWhorter, who served 
until 1782. 

1781-82. — John Williams. 

1782-83. — Benjamin Baker, Joseph Mc- 
Cracken, who served in 1786. 

1784-85. — Edward Savage, Adiel Sherwood. 

1785 86. — Albert Baker. 

1786. — Joseph McCracken, who also served 
in 1788 89. 

1 786 87. — Ichabod Parker, Peter B. Tearse, 
who served until 1790. 

1787. — Adam Martin, Edward Savage, who 
served from 1795 to 1802. 

1788-89.— Alex. Webster. 

1789-91. — John Rowan, Zina Hitchcock, 
who served until 1794. 

1 79 1. — Thomas Converse, Daniel Curtice, 
who served until 1794. 

1792. — John Conger. 

1792 93. — David Hopkins, served 1795-96. 

1794. — William Whiteside, Benj. Colvin, 
Philip Smith, David Thomas. 

1796. — Thomas Smith, served 1798. 

1796-97. — Timothy Leonard, A. L. Blanch- 
ard, G. G. Lansing, Andrew White, Daniel 
Mason, served 1798. 

1898. — Reuben Pride, MelanchtonWheeler. 

1798-99 — Charles Kane, Seth Crocker, 
Philip Smith, David Thomas. 

1800. — Micajah Pettit, Isaac Sargent, Ben- 
jamin Colvin. 

1 800-1. — Gerrit G.Lansing, Timothy Leon- 
ard, William McAuley. 

1802. — Micajah Pettit. 

1802-3. — -Alex. Cowen, Jason Kellogg, John 
McLean, Isaac Sargent. 

1803-4. — David Austin, John McLean. 

1804. — Stephen Thorn, Dr. John McKinney. 

1804-5. — Isaac Harlow, Jason Kellogg, 
Solomon Smith, James Sarbuck. 

1804-6. — William Livingston, John Mc- 

1806. — Isaac Sargent, Nathaniel Pitcher, 
Daniel Shipherd. 

1807. — Jason Kellogg, Peleg Bragg, John 

1807-9. — James Hill. 

1808. — Thomas Cornell, Lyman Hall, Henry 
Matteson, Gideon Taft. 

1808-9. — Alex. Livingston, Reuben Whal- 

1808-10. — Roger Skinner. 

1S10. — John Gale, Win. Livingston. 

181 1. — John Baker, John Richards, Isaac 
Sargent, Reuben Whallon, David Woods. 

1812. — Lyman Hall, James Hill, John Kirk- 
land, Alex. Livingston. 

1812-13. — John Beebe, Jason Kellogg, 
Francis McLean, M. Wheeler. 

1S14. — Paul Dennis, Samuel Gordon, John 
Savage, Charles Starbuck, John White. 

1814-15. — John Richards, Henry Matteson, 
John Gale, Nath. Pitcher, Isaac Sargent. 

1S16. — Michael Harris, John Reid, David 
Russell, Jas. Stevenson, Roswell Weston. 

1816-17. — John Gale, Nath. Pitcher, David 

1816-18. — Isaac Sargent. 

1818. — Jason Kellogg, Alex. Livingston, 
John McLean, jr. 

1819. — William McFarland, John Gale, 
John Doty, Wm. K. Adams. 

1820. — David Austin, Peleg Bragg, James 
Hill, John Kirtland. 

1820-21. — Wadsworth Bell, James Mallory, 
John Moss, William Richards, John Baker. 

1822. — Silas D. Kellogg, James Tefft. 

1823. — Timothy Eddy, John King, Martin 
Lee, Jas. McNaughton. 

1824. — John Crary, Silas D. Kellogg. 
1824-25. — David Campbell, Ezra Smith. 

1825. — Lemuel Hastings, Samuel Stevens. 

1826. — Hiram Cole, Jas. Stevenson, Israel 
Williams, David Woods. 

1827. — John McDonald, P. J. H. Myers, 
Samuel Stevens. 

1828. — Jonathan Mosher, Henry Thorn, 
Henry Whiteside. 

1829. — John McDonald, Robert McNiel, 
Richard Sill. 

1830. — David Russell, Robert Wilcox, David 


1 83 1. — George W. Jermain, Henry Thorn, 
William Townsend. 

1832. — Isaac W. Bishop, John McDonald, 
James Stevenson. 

1833. — Walter Cornell, Charles Rogers, 
David Russell. 

1834. — Charles F. Ingalls, Melanchthon 
Wheeler, James Wright. 

1835. — Jonathan K. Horton, George Mc- 
Kie, Allen R. Moore. 

1836. — Aaron Barker, Alex. Robertson, 
Stephen L. Viele. 

1837. — Joseph W. Richards, Charles Rob- 

1838. — Erastus D. Culver, Leonard Gibbs. 

1839. — Salmon Axtell, Jesse S. Leigh. 

1840. — John H. Boyd, Anderson Simpson. 

1841. — Erastus D. Culver, Reuben Skinner. 

1842. — James McKie, jr., Daniel S.Wright. 

1843. — Anson Bigelow, James W. Porter. 

1844. — John Barker, John W. Proudfit. 

1845. — James Rice, John Stevenson. 

1846. — James S. Foster, L. S. Viele. 
1847. — A.F. Hitchcock, Samuel McDonald. 

1848. — Benjamin Crocker, Elisha A.Martin. 

1849. — Leroy Mowry, Alex Robertson. 
1850. — David Sill, Calvin Pease. 

1851. — Thomas C. Whiteside, James Farr. 

1852. — Elisha Billings, David Nelson. 
1853. — Charles R. Engalls, Samuel S. Bea- 


1854. — Ebenezer McMurray, George W. 

1855. — James J. Lowrie, Justin A. Smith. 
1856. — John S.Crocker, Henry S. Northup. 

1857. — Anson Ingraham, Henry W. Beck- 

1858. — Thad. H. Walker, Ralph Richards. 
1859. — =James M. Northup, James Savage. 
i860. — James Savage, Peletiah Jackway. 
1861. — Peter Hill, Nicholas M. Catlin. 
1862. — George H. Taylor, Philip H. Neher. 
1863. — Asa C. Tefft, Ervin Hopkins, jr. 
1864. — R. King Crocker, And. G. Meikle- 


1865. — Sylvester E. Spoor. 

1865-66. — Alex. Barkley. 

1866. — James C. Rogers. 

1867. — Thomas Shiland, Adolp. F. Hitch- 

1868. — David Underwood, Nath. Dailey. 

1869. — William J. Perry. 

1869-71. Isaac V. Baker, jr. 

1870-71. — Thomas J. Stevenson. 

1872. — George W. L. Smith. 

1872 73. — Edward W. Hollister. 

1873. — Eleazer Jones died, and William FI. 
Tefft elected to fill the vacancy. 

1874-75. — Alex. B. Law, Emerson E.Davis. 

1876. — Henry G. Burleigh. 

— Isaac V. Baker, jr. 
77. — Townsend J. Potter. 

— Abraham Reynolds, Geo. L. Terry. 

— A. Reynolds, G. L. Terry. 

— G. L. Terry, Hiram Sisson. 

— Hiram Sisson, J. E. Goodman. 

— Robt. Armstrong, jr., George Nor- 






— Robt. Armstrong, jr., George Nor- 

— D. M.Westfall, Charles K. Baker. 

— George Scott, Charles K. Baker. 

— D. M. Westfall, J. H. Manville. 
-J. Warren Fort, J. H. Manville. 

— J. Warren Fort, O. W. Sheldon. 

— C. W. Larman, W. H. Tefft. 

— C. W. Larman, J. A. Johnson. 

— W. D. Stevenson, J. A. Johnson. 

— W. D. Stevenson, William Reed. 

— W. R. Hobbie. 


— Philip Schuyler. 

— William Duer. 

— Ebenezer Russell. 

— Ebenezer Clark. 

— Anthony I. Blanchard. 

— John P. Wendell. 

— Roswell Weston. 

— John Willard. 

— John McLean, jr. 



1847. — Martin Lees. 
1852. — James Gibson. 
1S56. — A. Dallas Wait. 
i860. — Oscar F. Thompson. 
[864. — Joseph Potter. 
1872. — A. Delias Wait. 
1884.— R. C. Betts. 
1887. — J. M. Whitman. 
1888.— T. A. Lillie. 


1859. — Oscar F. Thompson. 
i860. — Henry Gibson. 
1864.— Royal C. Betts. 
1871. — Samuel Thomas. 
1875.— C. L. Allen, jr. 



— Patrick Smith. 


— Ebenezer Clark. 


— Edward Savage. 


— Melanchthon Woolsey 


— Edward Savage. 


— Isaac Sargent. 


— Edward Savage. 


— Isaac Sargent. 


— Nathaniel Pitcher. 


— Edward Savage. 


— Henry C. Martindale. 


— Calvin Smith. 


— Leonard Gibbs. 


— Samuel Standish, jr. 


— John Willard. 


— Alexander Robertson. 

1 841. 

— John C. Parker. 

>S 4 5- 

— Luther Wait. 


— Joseph Boies. 


— David A. Boies. 


— Marinus Fairchild. 


— Urias G. Paris. 


— James J. Lowrie. 


78. — Lonson Frazer. 


— I. V. Baker. 


— H. D. W. C. Hill. 


i857- — John H. Boyd. 
i860. — Leonard Wells. 
1866.— Daniel M. Westfall. 
1873-78. — Leonard Fletcher. 
1879. — L. Flether. 
1880. — J. K. Larmon. 
1882.— C. L. McArthur. 
1888.— A. D. Arnold. 
1889.— C. G. Davis. 


1 801. — Anthony L. Blanchard, who served 
as assistant attorney general from 1796. 
1803. — John Russell. 
1806. — John Savage. 
181 1. — Roger Skinner. 
1812. — John Savage. 
1813. — David Russell. 
1815. — Jesse L. Billings. 
1818. — John Savage. 
1820. — Jesse L. Billings. 
1 82 1. — Henry C. Martindale. 
1828. — Leonard Gibbs. 
1836. — Cornelius L. Allen. 
1843. — Charles F. Ingalls. 
1847. — Henry B. Northup. 
1851. — Joseph Potter. 
1857.— Archibald L. McDougall. 

1862. — Joseph Potter. 

1863. — A. Dallas Wait. 
1869.— Royal C. Betts. 
1875. — Samuel Thomas. 
1S78. — Marinus Fairchild. 
1881.— Edcar Hill. 

SHERIFFS, 1772-1894. 
1772. — Philip P. Lansingh. 




— Jonathan Parker. 

— Edward Savage. 

— Joshua Conkey. 

— Hamilton McCollister. 

— Peter B. Tearse. 

— Andrew White. 

— Philip Smith. 

— Abner Stone. 

— Nathan Wilson. 



1806. — David Woods. 

1810. — Simon Stevens, jr. 

181 1. — John Doty. 

18 1 3. — Wadsworth Bull. 

1819. — John Doty. 

1821. — John Gale. 

1826. — William McFarland. 

1829. — Warren F. Hitchcock. 

1832. — Darius Sherrill. 

1835. — Benjamin Ferris. 

1838. — Philander C. Hitchcock. 

1841. — Leonard Wells. 

1844. — Horace Stowell. 

1847. — Daniel T. Payne. 

1850. — William A. Russell. 

1853. — James R. Gandall. 

1856. — Hugh R. Cowan. 

1859.— Oliff Ab'ell. 

1862. — Benjamin F. McNitt. 

1865. — Dennis P. Nye. 

1868. — James C. Shaw. 

1871.— Orria S. Hall. 

1874. — John Larmon. 

1877. — George W. Baker. 

1880. — James Hill. 

1883. — David Johnson. 

1886. — George Marshall. 

1889.— F. D. Hill. 

1891. — G. N. Finch. 

COUNTY CLERKS, 1773 1894. 

1773. — Patrick Smith. 
1777. — Ebenezer Clarke. 
1785. — John McCrea. 
1797. — Saint John Honeywood. 
1798. — Gerrett L. Wendell. 
1806. — Daniel Shipherd. 
1821. — Matthew D. Danvers. 
1826. — Jesse S. Leigh. 
1835. — Edward Dodd. 
1844. — Henry Shipherd. 
1853. — Nathaniel B. Milliman. 
1859. — Philander C. Hitchcock. 
1871. — William H. Kincaid. 
1877. — Charles W. Taylor. 
1888. — Rodney Van Wormer. 


1 807-1 847. — Ebenezer Russell, held by ap- 
pointment of the supervisors. 
1847. — Calvin L. Parker. 


l8 59 




— Edward Bulkley. 

— John M. Barrett. 

— John King. 

— Nelson G. Moor. 

— Samuel W. Crosby. 

— Asahel R. Wing. 
-James M. Northup. 

— H. Davis Northup. 

— John King. 

— James O. LaVake. 

— W. H. Hughs. 




While one court house was fixed in the east 
and the other located in the west, the other 
county buildings were placed in the center, 
the clerk's office being established at Argyle 
in 1806, and the county home located two 
miles south of that village, on a farm of two 
hundred and forty acres. A substantial brick 
building was erected in 1827, and Joseph 
Stewart became the first keeper. 


The use of iron can be traced back to Asia 
and the days of Tubal Cain. The Phcenecians 
are said to have introduced the art of iron 
working into Europe about the time of Moses. 
Iron was made about the middle of the first 
century in England, and in 1620 the first iron 
works in the United States were built near the 
site of Richmond, Virginia. The first iron 
works in New York consisted of a blast fur- 



nace and refinery forge built on Ancram creek, 
in Columbia county, a short time prior to 
1740, by Philip Livingston. 

The introduction of the manufacture of iron 
into Washington county has always been 
placed at about 1802, when Ephraim Griswold 
erected a forge for the manufacturing of 
chains and anchors at Griswold's Mills, in the 
town of Fort Ann. But in the history of 
Colonel Long's retreat from Whitehall, John- 
son speaks of the Americans setting fire to the 
mills and iron-works. This retreat was in 1777, 
and if Johnson's information is correct about 
iron-works then being in existence at White- 
hall, they must have been erected some time 
prior, and the iron-producing period of the 
county must be earlier than its commonly ac- 
cepted beginning, by nearly forty years, and 
would rank Washington as one of the earlier 
iron-producing counties of the State. 

Griswold's forge was succeeded by a fur- 
nace, whose recorded history is limited to the 
mere fact of its existence. In 1827 Mix, Has- 
kins and Spaulding erected a forge and an 
anchor shop at West Fort Ann, but the iron 
venture was short lived, and the works went 
to ruin. 

The Fort Edward blast furnace was built by 
George Harvey & Co. in 1854. 


In 1824, when LaFayette revisited the land 
whose freedom his sword had helped to win, 
he passed through the count}' on his way from 
Burlington, Vermont, to Albany, New York. 
LaFayette came on the steamer " Phoenix" to 
Whitehall, where he was received with great 
display, and after being handsomely enter- 
tained at Wish well's hotel, took his departure 
by land for the State capital. 


Steamboat navigation in the county has 
been chiefly on Lake Champlain, and its 
southern terminal point for over half a century 
was the port of Whitehall, created in 1799, 

but not recognized till 1849. For a period of 
sixty-five years passenger travel continued 
north by boat. The end came in 1875, when 
the Canada railroad carried passengers to Ti- 
conderoga, which then became the southern 
lake terminal for steam passenger boats. The 
following boats run during this period : Ver- 
mont, 1810-17 ; Phcenix, 1816 -19 ; Cham- 
plain, 1816-17 ; Congress, 1819 ; Phcenix (2d), 
1822; Franklin, 1826 ; Washington, 1727-29; 
Burlington, 1830 ; Whitehall, 1833 ; Saranac, 
1833 ; Francis Saltus, 1845 ; United States, 
1847; Canada, 1852; R. W. Sherman, 1852; 
Montreal, 1857-75 '■> Adirondack, 1865-75 ; 
Vermont (2d), 1871-75. A short line of steam- 
ers ran from Whitehall to Ticonderoga, from 
1875 to 1877, when they were withdrawn. 

When the passenger boats were withdrawn, 
boats and barges were towed by three steamer 
lines : The Northern Transportation, estab- 
lished in 1857 ; The Whitehall, that was put 
on in 1865 ; and H. G. Burleigh's private line. 


Many a mountain and river of this broad 
land will carry its Indian name down to 
the end of time, through the English lan- 
guage. Mrs. Sigourney has truthfully said of 
the Indians : 

" But their name is on your waters ; 
Ye may not wash it out." 

"Your mountains build their monuments, 
Though ye destroy their dust " 

The Indians passing through Washington 
county gave names to rock and stream, and to 
the mountain and plain ; and seventy years 
ago a majority of these names might have 
been secured in New York and Canada from 
persons then living. 

From different sources we have collected 
the following list of Indian names of places, 
with the meanings assigned to some of them 
by different authors : 

Adirondack, Bark-eaters. 

Andiatorocte, The place where the lake con- 
tracts, name of Lake George. 



Apalachian, Endless mountains. 

Astorenga, Hills at Little Falls. 

Caniaderi Oit, Tail of the lake : a name 
of Lake George. 

Cossayuna, The lake at our pines. 

Dionondehowa, Lower falls of the Batten 

Kahchoquahna, Fish dipping place. The 
site of Whitehall village. 

Kingiaquahtonec, A stone-throw portage 
between Fort Edward and Wood creeks, near 
Mors street in Kingsbury. 

Mettowee, Pawdet river. 

Ondawa, White creek. 

Onderiguegon, Wood creek, drowned lands 
near Fort Ann. The word meaning contlux 
of waters. 

Ossaragas, Wood creek. 

Saratoga. There are seventeen spellings 
of this word, with three meanings given : 
Salt place, swift water, and track of the heel. 

Tacundewide, Harris bay, on Lake George. 

Ticonderoga. Twenty spellings, and mean- 
ing where two rivers or waters meet. 

Tightilligaghticook, South branch of the 
Batten Kill. 

Wahcoloosencoochaleva, Fort Edward. 

Wampachookglenosuck, Whitehall. 

The Dutch called Wood creek Hout Kill. 
and named Lake Champlain, Corlar, while 
nearly every Indian tribe had a particular 
name for Lake Champlain and the Hudson 


Dr. Asa Fitch and Hon. James GibsOn, 
with other local writers, did much to create 
an interest in securing the history of Wash- 
ington count}' in permanent shape by con- 
tributing articles to the press concerning the 
early settlers and the growth of the count} 7 . 

In 1874 A. W. Holden issued his "History 
of Queensbury," in which he devotes consid- 
erable space to those military operations of 
the French and Indian and Revolutionary 
wars that occurred on the present territory of 
Washington county. Dr. Holden's work is 

well written and contains a large amount of 
valuable information. 

Judge Nathaniel Bartlett Sylvester, in his 
"History of Saratoga County," in 1878, 
traces at length the track of marching armies 
through the territory of Washington county, 
from the impolitic invasion of Champlain to 
the fateful march of Burgoyne. The Judge 
is a fine descriptive writer, and at times grows 
eloquent in portraying the beauty and the 
glory of the "old wilderness" country that 
was an unbroken sea of foliage in summer, 
from the Hudson to the Green mountains. 
Speaking of the discovery of Lake Champlain 
Sylvester describes it as follows: "Cham- 
plain entered the lake — the far-famed 'wil- 
derness sea ' of the Iroquois, whose tranquil 
waters, studded with islands, stretched far 
beyond the southern horizon. From the for- 
est-covered shores on either side rose lofty 
mountain chains, whose highest peaks were 
yet covered with patches of snow. Over all 
was flung the soft blue haze called mountain 
snake, that served to temper the fierce sun- 
shine of our American summer, and to fill all 
the landscape with spectral -like forms of 
shadowy beauty." 

To meet an urgent demand for an exhaustive 
general history, Crisfield Johnson, in 1878, 
wrote his " History of Washington County." 
The work was well and conscientiously done, 
and the volume is a reliable standard of refer- 
ence in regard to all historical events that 
have occurred in the county. Mr. Johnson is 
an able and accurate writer, whose style is 
pleasing and interesting. At times when the 
subject allows he indulges in a keen irony, as 
when speaking of Ethan Allen's capture of 
Ticonderoga, he says, "that Allen had de- 
manded and received its surrender 'in the 
name of the Great Jehovah and the Conti- 
nental Congress,' to neither of which authori- 
ties had he ever before been supposed willing 
to yield obedience." 

In the introductory chapter of his history 
Johnson draws a very fine and beautiful pic- 


ture of Washington county territory, as circled 
by the fortunes of war with famous battles. 
He says, "Had a cordon of sentries been 
patrolling the boundaries of the county during 
the eventful quarter of a century which suc- 
ceeded the great French and English war, 
some of them would have learned, by eye or 
ear, of the occurrence of all the important 
contes's for-the mastery of this great strategic 
locality while they were being fought. Those 
who, in the autumn of 1755, had been guard- 
ing the western line of the present towns of 
Fort Ann and Kingsbury, would have heard 
the thunder of General Johnson's artillery as 
he repulsed the columns of Dieskau from the 
rude breast works on the shore of Lake 
George, only four miles to the westward ; 
those who occupied the same posts two years 
later might often have stayed their course to 
listen to the roar of Montcalm's guns, and the 
more feeble replies of the ill-fated Fort Wil- 
liam Henry; while they who, in July, 1758, 
had stood on the northermost peaks of Put- 
nam, would have known by the terrific can- 
nonade that a desperate battle was being 
fought five miles northward, around the ram- 
parts of Ticonderoga. In the Revolution the 
famous fields were still closer. The sentries 
on the southern line of the town of White 
Creek, in August, 1777, would have seen close 
before them, in the valley of the Walloomsac, 
the rude farmers of New England and New 
York driving in disastrous rout the disciplined 

mercenaries of Brunswick and Hesse ; those 
who, a month later, had stood where the west- 
ern border of Easton is washed by the placid 
Hudson, might have watched the red-coated 
battalions of England on the other shore re- 
coiling before the terrible fire of the Conti- 
nentals in the first battle of Saratoga; while 
those who stood there on the 12th day of Oc- 
tober, would have seen those same proud 
battalions, English and Hessian alike, fleeing 
before their despised antagonists to the shelter 
of their intrenchments, and the fate of Amer- 
ica decided in favor of Independence." 

The long struggle of one hundred and seven- 
ty-four years, from 1609 to 1783, for national 
dominion over the territory of Washington 
county and of New York State, may be com- 
pared to a great game of chess, in which the 
Indian wars constituted the pawn opening, 
the Inter-colonial wars exhibited the deploy- 
ment of the minor pieces, and the Revolu- 
tionary war represented the late development 
and desperate struggle of the major pieces for 

The spirit of change is such and the march 
of progress has always been so wonderful that 
the prophecy of the present but seldom be- 
comes the history of the future ; yet if material 
development has meaning, and if mental cul- 
ture and moral growth stand for life and prog- 
ress, then will the future career of Washing- 
ton county be as splendid as her past record 
is brilliant. 

Historical Notes 


Village^ and ^oumf of Washington Gounty. 




Solid, substantial and progressive is the 
quiet and peaceful village of Salem, the eastern 
seat of justice for Washington count)', and 
whose early growth was the result of New 
England thrift and Scotch-Irish prudence. 

The site of the village of Salem was the 
initial point of settlement in the town of Salem, 
and is claimed to have been the first perma- 
nently settled spot in the county, a claim that 
can only be disputed by Cambridge and White- 
hall, whose chances of greater antiquity de- 
pend upon whether Turner and Conkey built 
a cabin or not when they came out in 1761 to 
locate their land. 

James Turner and Joshua Conkey came to 
the site of Salem in the sping of 1761, and in 
the fall went back to their native place of Pel- 
ham, Massachusetts. In the spring of 1762 
they returned to Salem, accompanied by Ham- 
ilton McCollister. Their hut or cabin stood 
on the site of the Ondawa house. They brought 
their families in 1763 or 1764, and several 
other settlers from Massachusetts came with 
them at the time, or shortly afterward. The 
NewEnglanders called the place White Creek, 


which name was used without opposition until 
1767, when Dr. Clark's colony came, and set- 
tling in and around the little hamlet, sought 
to have it known as New Perth. Settlers now 
came in rapidly, and the double named ham- 
let soon grew into an important village, and in 
1773 there appeared at the place a young En- 
glish physician, Dr. John Williams, who was 
to have much to do with its future growth and 
importance. The Revolutionary war inter- 
rupted its growth, but before its close the vil- 
lage assumed its present name of Salem, 
either from the name of a fort erected in 1777, 
by the inhabitants, or as a compromise desig- 
nation of the place between White Creek 
adherents and New Perth supporters. 

After the Revolution Salem became an as- 
pirant for the county seat, and through the 
efforts of Gen. John Williams, partly secured 
the coveted honor. The construction of the 
first court house was commenced in 1792, and 
ever since then Salem has remained as one of 
the two county seats provided by law for 
Washington county. 

In 1803 the village had attained such a size 
that it was incorporated on April 4th of that 
year. Its growth from then was slow, but 
substantial, up to the late war, that checked 
all village growth. At the first census after 
the war the village showed a population of 
one thousand two hundred and thirty-nine, 



and since then has enjoyed a steady growth 
and satisfactory progress. 

The fire department of the viljage dates 
back to 1803, when one hundred dollars were 
voted by the freeholders to purchase fire im- 
plements, and an additional one hundred dol- 
lars to buy a fire engine. These authorized 
expenditures were never made, and in 1804 
the fire apparatus of the village consisted of 
four ladders, a number of leather buckets, 
and a few hooks. About this time Major 
James Harvey owned a small fire engine, and 
two years later the first fire com pan)', con- 
sisting of seven members, was formed. A 
small engine was purchased in 18 10, which 
was replaced in 1838 by a larger one that was 
used in the two great fires of September and 
October, 1840. Old Union Fire Company, 
No. 1, was organized in 1861, and purchased 
Cataract engine, No. 8, of Troy, for eight 
hundred dollars, but the fires of 1874 showed 
the necessity for more than one engine, and 
Osoma fire steamer was bought in 1875. The 
Osoma Steamer Company was organized 
January 23, 1875 ; the A. M. Wells Hook 
and Ladder Company on the same date ; and 
the Marion Hose Company, No. 2, May 1, 

The first hotel in the village was opened by 
James Turner in a log house that was built 
by him in 1766, and on the site of which was 
built the Ondawa house, that was first known 
as the Washington coffee house. Another 
old hostelry of the village was the Salem 
hotel, opened by James Rowan in a log house 
that was torn down in 1802 by General Wil- 
liams, who erected the handsome Salem hotel 
that burned in 1877. 

While providing for the wants of the trav- 
eling public, the mercantile interests of the 
village also received early attention. The 
pioneer store was opened by James Turner in 
1773, on the site of the Fitch & Beattie store. 
Major Harvey built the store building, in 
1822, owned by L. M. Liddle in 1877. Priest 

Nichols erected a store building before 1800 

on the site of the McNaughton & Beattie es- 
tablishment, and the "Corner Store" was 
opened between 1801 and 1803, by Ebenezer 

Rev. Thomas Clark was the pioneer physi- 
cian, followed in 1773 by General John Wil- 
liams, who, in 1780, had a competitor to some 
slight extent in the person of Dr. Peletiah 
Fitch. Among the early physicians of Salem 
who became eminent in their profession were: 
Drs. Joseph Tomb, Hon. Asa Fitch, Abram 
Allen, and Ephraim Allen. 

Salem village took an active interest in the 
early railroad, building of the county, and 
that part of the Troy and Rutland railroad 
from Eagle Bridge to Salem was commenced 
at Eagle Bridge, June 3, 1850. About 1850 
the Rutland and Washington railroad, from 
Salem to Rutland, Vermont, was put under 
construction, and two years later both roads 
were in full operation. The Troy and Rut- 
land Railroad Company, in 1850, purchased 
five acres of land at Salem, on which they 
erected their depot and machine shops, the 
latter of which were partly destroyed by fire 
in 1876. 

Financial matters have also received due 
attention by the village. The Bank of Salem 
was organized in 1853, with a capital of one 
hundred and ten thousand dollars, and its first 
officers were : Bernard Blair, president; Isaac 
W. Bishop, vice-president ; and B. F. Ban- 
croft, cashier ; while A. L. McDougall was 
employed as attorney. The bank advanced 
funds to the town and county in the raising of 
troops during the late war, and closed a highlv 
honorable career in July, 1865, when it dis- 
solved. Its successor, the National Bank of 
Salem, was organized in 1865, with a capital 
of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
The first officers were : C. L. Allen, president; 
D. Woodward, jr., vice-president; and B. F. 
Bancroft, cashier. 

The church history of the village of Salem 
is extremely interesting. The first church in 
order of age is the United Presbyterian church, 


which was rather transplanted to than founded 
at Salem, in 1766, by Rev. Thomas Clark, 
M. D. This church was organized at Bali- 
bay, Ireland, previous to 1747, and religious 
persecution led them to come to America in a 
body in 1764. They halted at Stillwater in. 
1765, until Dr. Clark chose Salem as their 
future home. In 1766 this congregation, two 
hundred strong, including baptized children, 
removed to Salem, where they had erected a 
church building out of small round logs, and 
having a bark roof and a dirt floor. No list 
of this congregation can be found. Its dea- 
cons were : George Oswald, David Tomb, 
William Thompson, William Moncrief, Wil- 
liam Wilson, Richard Hoy, John Foster, and 
David Hanna. The little log church was 
abandoned in 1770 and a larger church build- 
ing erected by its side. Seven years later the 
logs of the pioneer church were used for mak- 
ing a breastwork around the Presbyterian 
church that was fortified by the whigs and 
afterward burned by the tories. Dr. Clark 
performed a vast amount of labor, and in 
1782 went to South Carolina, where he died 
in 1792, while in charge of two congregations. 
Rev. James Proudfit succeeded Dr. Clark as 
pastor in 1783. In 1795 Rev. Alexander 
Proudfit was installed as assistant pastor to 
his father, and after the death of the latter in 
1802, served the church until 1835. During 
his pastorate, in 1797, a new church was 
erected, at a cost of four thousand dollars. 
Rev. James Lillie, D. D., followed Rev. 
Proudfit, and was succeeded by Dr. Halley, 
T. B. Farrington, J. C. Forsythe, W. A. Mc- 
Kenzie, and others. 

The Presbyterian church was organized in 
1769 by members of the New England colony, 
who once seemed on the point of uniting with 
Dr. Clark's church. The Presbyterian church 
had fifty-two members when it organized, and 
the elders were : Alexander Turner, Edward 
Savage and Daniel McCleary. No list of these 
members can be obtained, and their first house 
of worship was not built until 1774. Three 

years later, in an uncompleted state, it was 
turned into a stockade fort by the whigs, and 
afterward burned by the tories. A second 
church was built, which burned in 1836, and 
its successor was erected in 1837. Rev. John 
Warford became pastor in 1787, and served 
until 1802. His successors were : Revs. Samuel 
Tomb, 1806 to 1832 ; John Whiton, A. B. 
Lambert ; J. Henry Brodt, 1865 ; and others. 

The Welsh Presbyterian church was organ- 
ized in 1868 by Griffith Jones and John Ed- 

The Methodist Episcopal church only dates 
back to the Salem mission, established in 
1844, yet Methodist services had been held at 
the court-house as early as 1821. Rev. John 
Fassett was the first minister in charge, and 
the first church edifice was built in 1.846. The 
present fine church structure was erected in 

Saint Paul's Episcopal church was organized 
February 18, i860, and the corner-stone of 
the church structure was laid on September 
10th of the same year. Rev. Charles Purvi- 
ance was the first rector. 

The Holy Cross Catholic church was organ- 
ized, and its church edifice erected in 1859. 
It was the successor of the Salem mission, 
and its first resident pastor was James S. 

The village graveyard, set apart by Dr. 
Clark, became so filled with graves that Wil- 
liam McKie and Asa^ Fitch, M. D., agitated a 
cemetery. Their views were carried out, and 
nearly twenty years ago Evergreen cemetery 
was laid out one mile south of the village, 
where taste and skill and art have wrought, 
and a beautiful city of the dead greets the 


Salem is bounded on the north by Hebron ; 
on the east by the State of Vermont ; on the 
south by Jackson ; and oil the west by Jack- 
son, Greenwich and Argyle. Salem has fifty 
square miles of area, and its surface consists 
of moderately elevated ridges, separated by 



narrow valleys. It is drained by the Batten 
Kill and Black, White and Trout creeks. 
Lytle's pond is in the north, and McDougall's 
lake on the west boundary. Roofing slate 
quarries have been opened in the north, and 
other industries have been projected. 

Salem consists mostly of the Turner patent 
of twenty-five thousand acres, one-half of 
which had to be given to the colonial officials 
as a bribe. The bribed officials sold their 
share to Dr. Clark, and the Scotch and New 
Englanders divided the entire patent by lot. 

No list of the members of the two colonies 
can be found. With Alexander Turner, James 
Conkey and Hamilton McCollister were : John 
Savage and his sons, Edward and James, Gid- 
eon Safford, and Matthew McWhorter. 

Among those who came with Dr. Clark were: 
Robert Clark, Thomas Beattie, John Harsha, 
William, John, and Daniel McCleary; John 
Rowan, David Hanna, William Thompson, 
James Thompson and David Edgar. 

Other settlers besides the New England and 
Dr. Clark colonies came from Ireland, Scot- 
land, and the New England provinces and set- 
tled in the Camden valley and other parts of 
the town. 

In 1789 two schedules of the Turner patent 
contained one hundred and twenty family names 
and two hundred and eighty- two proprietors, 
which embraced the larger part of the popula- 
tion of the town. Among the families were 
the Armstrongs, Beattys, Blakeleys, Bartletts, 
Bells, Boyds, Browns, Carswells, Conkeys, 
Clarks, Clevelands, Chambers, Collances, 
Covenhovens, Conners, Craigs, Crossets, 
Cruikshanks, Duncans, Edgars, Fitches, 
Gaults, Gibsons, Gettys, Grays, Gilmores, 
Harshas, Hannas, Hopkins, Hunsdens, Hen- 
dersons, Huggins, Henrys, Hoys, Linceys, 
Lyons, Lytles, Longs, McCarters, McFar- 
lands, Moors, McMichaels, McCollisters, Mc- 
Nitts, Moncriefs, McNishes, McCrackens, 
Mulchenas, McMurrays, McMillans, Martins, 
McDougalls, Nelsons, Oswalds, Orrs, Ram- 
ages, Rowans, Rogers, Robinsons, Stewarts, 

Sloans, Savages, Stones, Steeles, Stevensons, 
Scotts, Smiths, Terrals, Turners, Tombs, 
Thomases, Willsons, Williamses, Webbs, and 

The Camden valley was covered principally 
with land grants made by the king in 1770 to 
English soldiers, whose lands in a couple of 
years came into possession of James Duane. 
On May 1, 1773, Duane leased the most of these 
lands to Philip Embury and his Irish colony. 

The civil organization of the town was by 
act of legislature, passed March 7, 1788, and 
the first officers were: John Rowan, super- 
visor; James Tomb, Clerk ; and Elisha Fitch, 

The unincorporated villages of the town of 
Salem, are : Shushan, Eagleville, Clapp's 
Mills, and Fitch's Point. 

Shushan is six miles south of Salem, on the 
Batten Kill, and takes its name from the post- 
office which was so called by the postal au- 
thorities to avoid the title of South Salem, 
proposed by the inhabitants. It has a rail- 
road station, a factory, mills, and shops, and 
in 1880 had a population of three hundred and 
twenty-eight. The place was settled prror to 


Eagleville is on the Batten Kill and two 
miles east of Shushan. Its postoffice name is 
East Salem, and a grist mill was built there 
prior to the Revolution. A woolen factor}' 
was erected about 1820, and the place enjoys 
a good local trade. 

Clapp's Mills, or Baxterville, is three miles 
south of Salem, on the Batten Kill. Its early 
industries were a grist mill, saw mill, Reid's 
nail mill, and clothing works ; its later manu- 
factures are the sawed marbles of the Baxter 
Manufacturing company, who built a marble 
mill in 1865 to saw their Rutland marble. 

Fitch's Point, at the confluence of Black 
creek and Batten Kill, is an old settled place, 
and has been the residence of the Fitch family 
for many years, besides being the home of Dr. 
Asa Fitch, the noted physician, naturalist and 



The churches in the town outside of Salem 
village are not many. 

The First Baptist church of Salem was con- 
stituted at Shushan, June 19, 1790. Asa and 
Silas Estee and Oliver Brown, and Sarah 
Huff were of the original members. The 
house of worship was erected between 1800 
and 1803, and was enlarged and improved in 
1845, and again in 1876. The first minister 
was the Rev. Obed Warren, and in eighty- 
eight years twenty-two pastors had labored 
with the church. 

The Moravian church had its origin in 1770, 
in the "valley of Camden," where its life 
record numbered one hundred years. The 
first of its eight pastors was Rev. Father Abra- 
ham Bininger, and its last, Rev. Benjamin 
Ricksecker, whose departure virtually dis- 
solved the church. 

The United Presbyterian church of East 
Salem was organized in 1820, with twenty 
members. A church edifice was built in 1S22, 
at a point one mile east of Shushan, and a 
parsonage was erected five years later. The 
first pastor was Rev. James Whyte. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Shu- 
shan was organized in 1846, with fifteen mem- 
bers, and Rev. Edward Noble served as the 
first pastor. A church edifice was built in 
1847. But three-quarters of a century before 
this organization had been effected Philip 
Embury preached in the southern part of the 
town of Salem, and for fifty years prior that 
section had been traversed by circuit riders, 
one of whom was the celebrated Lorenzo Dow. 

The schools of the town were subscription 
until 1813, when the system of public schools 
was introduced. In 1843 there were six hundred 
and eighteen children between five and sixteen 
years of age, and in 1877 that number had in- 
creased to one thousand three hundred and 
forty-eight. At the present time the public 
schools are in good condition. 

Higher education was looked after at an 
early day, and in 1780 a classical school was 
in operation in which four students were pre- 

pared for college. This school was taught by 
Rev. Thomas Watson, and afterward by Saint 
John Honeywood, and in 1791 had attained 
such rank that it was incorporated as an acad- 
emy by the regents of the university of the 
State, under the name of Washington acad- 
emy. A long line of competent principals 
have had charge of this institution of learning, 
and its influence for good has extended far be- 
yond the limits of the county. 




On the Hudson, in the southeastern part of 
the town of Kingsbury, is Sandy Hill, the west- 
ern seat of justice of Washington county, and 
one of the foremost manufacturing villages 
north of Albany. By the provisions of chap- 
ter XL. of the laws of 1810, passed March 9th 
of that year, it was enacted that ' ' All that part 
of the town of Kingsbury, in the county of 
Washington, known by the name of lot No. 93, 
lying on the Hudson river, and all that part of 
the plat of said town lying south of lots Nos. 
33 and 34, and west of the great or middle 
road of said town plat, as laid down on the map 
of the division of the said town, shall be known 
and distinguished by the name of the village of 
Sandy Hill." 

The boundaries were considerably extended 
by the act of March 21, 1856, which also 
granted additional powers and privileges, which 
are recorded in chapter XLVIII. of the act. 

The incorporation of the village of Sandy 
Hill was fully completed by the action taken 
at the annual meeting held on February 23, 
1875, when it was "Resolved, That this village 
become a corporation under the provisions of 
chapter CCXCI. of the laws of 1870, and pos- 



sess the powers given thereby." This resolu- 
tion passed by a vote of one hundred and forty- 
six ayes to thirty-eight noes, and the return 
was recorded in the clerk's office as the last 
step in the course of perfecting the corpor- 

There are no village records to be found back 
of 1856, in which year Orson Richards was 
president of Sandy Hill. 

The site of Sandy Hill was passed over by 
an Indian trail from the Hudson to Lake 
George, and through what is now the public 
park ran the greaj: military road from Fort Ed- 
ward to Fort William Henry, which was cut 
out through "an unbroken forest of mighty 
white pine trees into whose gloomy shadow 
the sun's rays seldom penetrated and in whose 
dim recesses innumerable deeds of horror and 
massacre were done." 

Over the founding and early history of the 
old Indian trail oblivion has settled such an 
impenetrable gloom that even tradition has 
not dared to penetrate its depths, and only 
imagination can vainly conjecture the swift 
march of avenging war parties and the fear- 
ful scenes enacted around the torture stake 
and in the gauntlet running. The earliest 
event in the recorded history of Sandy Hill 
was the tragedy of murder and massacre, from 
which, by some strange freak of fancy, a prac- 
tically inclined northern Pochahontas was ac- 
tuated to save John Quackenboss. Impressed 
as a teamster to haul supplies from Fort Ed- 
ward to Lake George, Quackenboss was cap- 
tured, together with Lieutenant McGinnis and 
the train guard of fifteen men. Their Indian 
captors halted on the site of the public park 
of Sandy Hill, where the seventeen unfortu- 
nate men were seated on the trunk of a fallen 
tree. The Indians soon resolved to murder 
their close-bound captives, and commencing 
at one end of the line, tomahawked each one 
in succession until the lieutenant and Quack- 
enboss were the only ones left. As they ap- 
proached the lieutenant he dodged the blow, 
and throwing himself back on the ground tried 

to burst his bonds ; but death came in the whir 
of a dozen tomahawks. Quackenboss then 
closed his eyes to receive his death blow, but 
was unexpectedly saved by the interposition 
of a squaw, who demanded that as he was no 
soldier he should be spared and given to her 
for a slave. Her request was granted, and 
Quackenboss was spared, although he was 
afterward made to run the gauntlet. He after- 
ward obtained his freedom in Canada, and 
finally settled in the town of Cambridge. 

When the Kingsbury patent was laid out 
into lots, the last one, No. 93, covering the 
corporate limits of the village, was not sold, 
but held in common by the patentees because 
it covered the entire river frontage at the 

The third settler in the town, and the pioneer 
at Sandy Hill, was Albert Baker, of New York 
city, who, in 1768, came with his wife and two 
children — Albert and Charles — to the site of 
the Hiram Allen residence, and near the falls 
that now bear his name. He built a short 
wing dam and put up a saw mill, and was soon 
jo'ned by Michael Huffnogle, who built a 
house near the site of the Waite residence. 
The Revolution came, and in 1780 Baker and 
Huffnogle were compelled to fly before the 
Indian bands of Carleton's invasion of that 
year. When peace was declared, or probably 
sooner, Baker returned to find his improve- 
ments in ashes and ruins. He went to work, 
however, energetically, and in a short time 
had erected another mill and dwelling. 

In 1784 John Moss built a dam and saw- 
mill above the village. Dr. Zina Hitchcock, 
Jonathan Harris and others also came about 
1784 and the little hamlet soon grew into some 
size and considerable importance. 

In 1793 Washington passed through the 
place on a visit of inspection to the northern 
lake posts. 

By the year 1800 the village had a postoffice, 
two taverns and several stores and shops, and 
sessions of the courts of the county had been 
held at the tavern of Mary Dean since 1797. 



It now commenced a steady career of progress, 
that has continued ever since. In 1806 the 
old court house • was completed on grounds 
donated by Dr. Hitchcock, and the Moss grist 
mill was built at the dam, while in the next 
year Albert Baker built a new grist mill, and 
changed his old mill, put up in 1795. into a 
carding and fulling mill. About the same 
time of Baker's improvements Ahijah Jones 
erected a carding mill and clothiery. 

Four years later, in 181 1, "the public 
square " or present park was surveyed, and for 
some time went by the name of the -'Green." 
The commissioners were Russel Cole, William 
High and Thomas Bradshaw, and the date of 
the survey was August 4, 181 1. 

Then clustered on three sides of this square 
and extended along the main street above and 
below it, all the buildings of the village of 
Sandy Hill in the second year of its corporate 
existence. The residents of that year and the 
business and public houses of the place are 
nearly all embraced in the following account : 

The corner tavern was kept by Ashley, 

whose predecessor was Daniel Cook, who kept 
as early as 1800. This tavern was burned in 
1855. The Eagle tavern was on the site of 
Clark's store, and also burned in the fire of 
1855. Its earliest proprietor was a Mr. Dean, 
from New York city, and it was headquarters 
for the Cleveland & Taylor stage line. The 
Doty tavern was kept in 1800 by Alpheus 
Doty and afterward until 1834 by his widow, 
whose successor, Thomas Toole, changed its 
name to that of the Bull's Head. The Bull's 
Head in 1850 was enlarged and became the 
Park hotel. It burned in 1873, and on its site 
was erected the Rexford house, whose fate 
was to burn three years later. Captain Wil- 
liam High had a tavern. The residences were 
those of John Lamb, Henry C. Martindale, 
Capt. John Thomas, Mr. Rood, Capt. Solo- 
mon Day, Darius Sherril, Dr. Russel Clark, 
Judge Roswell Weston, Jonathan Harris, Dr. 
Zina Hitchcock, Israel Hand, Judge John 
Baker, Micajah Pettit, Brannock, Clark 

Colton, Curtis, Luther Johnson, Bogar- 

dus Pearson, Bird, Squire Collamer, Maj. 

Thomas Bradshaw, and Albert and Caleb 
Baker. The stores were kept by John Lamb, 
Carmi Dibble, Samuel M. Hitchcock and an- 
other merchant whose name has been lost. 
Rood's pottery, Johnson's tannery, Hand's 
currier shop, Amos Call's wagon shop, An- 
drew's blacksmith shop, and Thomas' saddlery 
shop, with the mills, made up the industries 
of 181 1. 

During the war of 1812 a toll bridge was 
erected. It stood from 1813 to 1835, when it 
was swept away by a flood. Progress was 
slow until 1819, when the village made a long 
stride ahead by the establishment of the Sandy 
Hill Times, and the Washington and Warren 
bank that afterward went down in disaster. 
Jacob Barker was president and Benjamin F. 
Butler cashier, while the celebrated poet, 
Fitz Greene Halleck, was a temporary cashier 
for a short time. Between 1824 and 1832 the 
construction and enlargement of the Glens 
Falls feeder was completed, and has been a 
source of material prosperity ever since. 

Prosperity of an abundant character seemed 
to hover over the place in 1836, when the 
Washington and Saratoga railroad was pro- 
jected through Sandy Hill. Six heavy stone 
piers were built in the river below the dam 
for a bridge, but the panic of 1837 suspended 
operations, and afterward the route was 
changed. Had the road been built through 
Sandy Hill it has been asserted that Glens 
Falls, Sandy Hill and Fort Edward would 
have all been consolidated into one village, or 
rather city. From that unfortunate day Sandy 
Hill has grown steadily by means of her mills, 
factories and other industries, and on July 5, 
1869, the village secured railroad communica- 
tion by the opening of the Glens Falls rail- 
road through the western part of her corporate 
limits. Toward this road the village voted 
twenty-five thousand dollars of bonds. Four 
years later the enterprising citizens of the 
place secured the erection of the present beau- 



tiful court house, toward whose construction 
the town of Kingsbury issued twenty-five 
thousand dollars worth of bonds. And to- 
day the western county seat is holding well 
its own in material advancement with the 
other villages of equal size in the State. 

The population of Sandy Hill in 1855 was 
1,360; in 1865, 1,939; ' n I ^7°> 2 >35°; i n 
I,s 75> 2 >5 C)I i i n 1880, 2,487; and in 1890, 

The industries of Sandy Hill during its 
early years were about summed up in the 
mills and factories of Baker and Jones, and 
the second stage of manufacturing commenced 
in 1844, when Stephen Howland purchased 
the Baker mills, then gone to ruin, and erected 
the first manilla paper mills of the United 
States. In 1845 the Wilber & Witpen and the 
Tarter & Luther carriage factories were built, 
and the succeeding year Benjamin Ferris 
erected a manilla paper mill that afterward 
was changed to the Waite wall paper mill. 
A shoddy mill was started in i860, and then 
changed to a straw printing paper mill that 
was burned, rebuilt, burned again, and rebuilt, 
a third time to become a prey to the flames. 
The Washington Mowing Machine works 
were built in 1868. Howland & Co.'s paper 
mill was built in 1S66, the Baker Fails Iron 
Machine works were started afterward, and 
the Halm Art Pottery works were erected in 

Orsen Richard's upper and lower saw mills 
succeeded several old saw mills, and in 1872 
were connected by a railroad track at a cost of 
thirty thousand dollars. Other industries have 
come into existence, and not over one-tenth of 
the vast water power at Baker's Falls has yet 
been used. The clear fall of the Hudson at 
this point is fully seventy feet, and affords the 
opportunity for the future establishment of 
some great manufacturing plant. 

The fire department of Sandy Hill has been 
in existence since 1833, when the first fire com- 
pany was organized and purchased a small ro- 
tary engine of but little force. A small brake 

engine equally as worthless replaced the rotary 
in 1850, and was succeeded in 1858 by the 
Rescue engine that did duty up to 1872, when 
it gave way to the Independent, a second-class 
engine, purchased in that year. In 1878 the 
the fire department consisted of Rescue Fire 
Company, No. 1 ; Eber Richards Independent 
Fire Company, No. 2 ; Rescue Hose Com- 
pany, and Wakeman Hose Company. Sandy 
Hill had her first great fire October n, 1876, 
and after that loss, the purchase of a fire 
steamer, or the introduction of the Holly Sys- 
tem, was warmly urged. 

Sandy Hill has moved slowly forward in 
many lines. The Sandy Hill Gas Light com- 
pany was incorporated in 1876. The First Na- 
tional bank of Sandy Hill was established Jan- 
uary 1, 1864, and various societies and benefi- 
cial organizations have been formed. The 
postoffice, established in 1798, with Roswell 
Weston as postmaster, has grown to an office 
of quite large dimensions. 

Likewise the church growth of the village 
has been one of interest. The Presbyterian 
church at Sandy Hill was organized in 1803 by 
Rev. Lebbens Armstrong, at the house of 
Capt. William Smith, some four miles north 
of the village. The court house was their 
first place of worship at Sandy Hill, and so 
continued until 1827, when they erected a 
church edifice. The pews of the church were 
declared free in 1869, and a flourishing Sab- 
bath school was organized at an early day. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Sandy 
Hill was organized in 1825, with thirteen 
members : Benjamin Clark, Nathaniel W r ickes, 
Jacob Lattimer, Seth Smith and George Har- 
vey and their wives, and Mary M. Lee, Katy 
Carrier and Carmi Dibble. The court house 
and school house, No. 16, served as their 
places of worship until 1840, when they erected 
a church edifice on Main street at a cost of 
four thousand dollars. A parsonage was pur- 
chased in 1S55 for twelve hundred dollars. 

Saint Mary's Catholic church, the mother 
church of Catholicity in Washington, Warren, 


and Essex counties, was organized about 1830 
as Christ's church, by emigrants who came 
from different parts of Ireland. The name 
was afterward changed to Saint Mary's. The 
resident pastor was Rev. John Kelly, S. J. A 
stone church was built, and the congregation 
became so strong in numbers in 1873 that 
Saint Paul's church was formed of the French 
members, under Rev. G. Huberdault. The 
members of Saint Paul purchased the first 
Baptist church building at Park Place for a 
house of worship. 

Sandy Hill Baptist church was constituted 
in April, 1840, with forty members. Rev. J. 
B. Murphy was the first pastor, and the 
church, on December 5, 1872, dedicated their 
second and present beautiful church structure 
at a cost of fifty-seven thousand dollars. The 
church is Gothic in style and cruciform in 

The Advent Christian church was organized 
with about twenty members in 1859, by Rev. 
Joseph Parry, who became its first pastor. 
Their church on Main street was built in i860. 
In education as in religion the village is 
favorably known for its interest and its first 
class school buildings. The Union Free 
school was opened in 1869 in the handsome 
school building at the head of Oak street, un- 
der Prof. William McLaren, as principal. An 
academical department was established in 
1871. The building cost twenty-three thous- 
and dollars. Private schools of high grade 
have been taught in the village, and one of 
merit was that of Rev. Dr. Bostwick. 


The form of the town of Kingsbury is that of 
a square, and its boundaries are : Fort Ann on 
the north, Hartford on the east, Argyle and Fort 
Edward on the south, and Warren and Saratoga 
counties on the west. The surface is level 
and rolling, with hills in the east. Its drain- 
age is by Wood, Half- Way and Bond creeks. 
Its surface was once crossed by the old Indian 
war trails, from the Hudson to the lakes, and 

an important canal and railway now pass 
through its territory along Wood creek, while 
the canal's main feeder crosses its southwest 
corner. It was originally heavily timbered. 

The territory of the town is embraced in 
the Kingsbury patent, that was granted to 
James Bradshaw, of New Milford, Connecti- 
cut, on May n, 1762. There were twenty- 
two associates in the patent with Bradshaw. 
They were Daniel and Nathaniel Taylor, Sam- 
uel Brownson, Comfort Star, John Warner, 
Kent and Abel Wright, Benjamin and Eben- 
ezer Seelye, Preserved Porter, Gideon and 
Thomas Noble, Partridge Thatcher, Daniel 
Bostwick, Samuel Canfield, Isaac, John and 
Jonathan Hitchcock, John Prindle, Benjamin 
Wildman, Amos Northup and Israel Camp. 
Nearly all of these were residents of Connecti- 

The first settler was Bradshaw, who came 
in 1763, but did not bring his family until two 
years later. Oliver Colvin, sr., the second 
settler,located in the north, and Albert Baker, 
the third pioneer, made his home at Sandy 
Hill, in the southwestern part of the tract. 
Michael Huffnogle joined Baker in a short 
time, and of other early settlers we have 
record of Samuel Brownson (a patentee), Jo- 
seph, Moses and William Smith, Thomas 
Grant, Benjamin Underbill, Solomon King, 
Henry Franklin, S. Dillingham, Ennis Gra- 
ham, George Wray, John Moss, Timothy, 
Moses, Samuel and Gilbert Harris, Nehemiah 
Seelye, John Griffith, John Munroe, Leonard 
Decklyn, Amos McKeney, Asa Richardson, 
John Phillips, Adam Wint, Samuel, Andrew, 
Adiel and Samuel Sherwood, and the widow 
Jones, from New Jersey, and her six sons, 
John, Jonathan, Dunham, Daniel, David and 
Solomon. David Jones became noted as the 
affianced lover of Jane McCrea. John Moss 
settled at Moss street. 

When the Revolution broke out the Jones', 
Adam Wint, Gilbert Harris and many others 
became tories, and took up arms for the Eng- 
lish. Many of these tories were with Bur- 



goyne when he crossed the town in 1777, and 
some of them three years later came with 
Carleton when his track through Kingston was 
marked with murder, fire and pillage. 

After the Revolution, the town was not 
changed in either name or territory from the 
patent grant of 1762, and received State re- 
cognition March 23, 1786. 

The unincorporated villages of Kingsbury 
are: Kingshury Street, Patten's Mills, Smith's 
Basin, Dunham's Basin, Adamsville, Moss 
Street, Vaughn's Corners and Langdon's Cor- 

Kingsbury Street, five miles northeast of 
Sandy Hill, is a place of nearly two hundred 
inhabitants and was early settled. Several 
stores and taverns have heen kept there, and 
the postoffice was established in 1810, with 
Jonathan Bellamy as postmaster. 

Patten's Mills is a small village in the north- 
west, and was known as Jones' mill-place until 
Edward Patten came and built a later mill, 
thus giving his name to the hamlet, where a 
postoffice was opened in 1825, with James Pat- 
ten as postmaster. There have been several 
stores but no hotel at Patten's Mills. 

Smith's Basin, five miles northeast from 
Sandy Hill, came into existence with the open- 
ing of the canal in 1822. It is named for Eze- 
kiel Smith, the proprietor of the first store 
and hotel. The postoffice was established in 
1849, with L. C. Holmesas postmaster. The 
village has about two hundred population and 
is a railroad station. 

Dunham's Basin is like Smith's Basin, a 
station on the railroad and canal. It is named 
for Daniel Dunham, an early settler, lies two 
miles east of Sandy Hill, and has a hotel and 

Adamsville, named for John Ouincv Adams, 
is six miles east of Sandy Hill. The post- 
office was established in 1827 and gave name 
to the hamlet. The first postmaster was Cal- 
vin H. Swain. 

Moss Street is a rural settlement one-half 
mile north of Sandy Hill, and was named for 

Deacon John and Captain Isaac Moss. A 
hotel was once kept there. 

Vaughn's Corners was founded by William 
M. Vaughn, \\\\o opened a tavern and hotel 
there at an early day. The hamlet is five 
miles north from Sandy Hill, and once had a 

Langdon's Corners is a farming neighbor- 
hood four miles north of Sandy Hill, in the 
western part of the town. 

Church history goes back over a century, to 
1790, when an Episcopal church was organized 
in Kingsbury. Twenty-three years later the 
church was reorganized under the name of 
Zion church, and in 1854 a beautiful stone 
rural church edifice was erected. From a 
missionary station the church has become a 
self-supporting parish, and has sent mission- 
aries to China, the Sandwich islands, and the 
Indian territory. Rev. S. B. Bostwick served 
as rector from 1846 to 1877. 

The Kingsbury Baptist church was organized 
about 1790, and two years later had a mem- 
bership of ninety-three, with Rev. Ebenezer 
Willoughby as pastor. They helped to build 
a Union church edifice on the Joseph Adams 
farm, and this building, in 1843, was removed 
to Kingsbury street and became known as a 
Baptist meeting house. 

The Adamsville Baptist church was consti- 
tuted in 1795 by the name of the Second 
Hartford Baptist church, with thirty - two 
members. The name was changed in 181 3 to 
that of Hartford and Kingsbury, and then in 
1827 to Adamsville, from the name of the 
postoffice established near in that year. Dur- 
ing 1832 a portion of the members left and 
formed Hartford and Kingsbury church, which 
disbanded ten years later and the members 
returned to the Adamsville church. 

About 1800 Sandford's Ridge Methodist 
Episcopal church was organized, with Daniel 
Brayton in charge. A church building was 
erected in 1832. 

The school interests of the town have been 
well protected, and in 1878 the sixteen school 



districts of the town contained one thousand 
five hundred and thirteen children of school 

Kingsbury is noted for its unusually large 
proportion of improved land and its stead)' 
increase of population. 




A monument to the ungratified ambition of 
Philip Skene, whose name if once bore, is 
Whitehall, that to-day ranks as one of the 
largest and most important villages of the 

Whitehall was incorporated as a village in 
1820, and thirty years later, on March 16, 
1850, an act of legislature was passed, revis- 
ing and consolidating previous laws in regard 
to the village of Whitehall. This charter was 
amended in 1853, 1859, 1869 and 1876. 

Whitehall was founded in 1761, under the 
name of Skenesborough, by Major Philip 
Skene, an English half-pay officer, who is de- 
scribed in the Gentleman 's Magazine as being 
the grandson of John Skene, of Halyards, in 
Fifeshire, Scotland, and as a relative of the 
famous Sir William Wallace. Skene entered 
the English army in 1739, was at the taking 
of Carthagena, and in the battles of Fontenoy, 
Culloden and Laffeldt. He came to America 
in 1756, was promoted to a company in the En- 
niskillen foot, and a year after, being wounded 
under Howe, at Ticonderoga, was appointed 
major of brigade by General Amherst, who 
encouraged him to project the settlement he 
made in 1761 at Whitehall. 

When Skene and his colony of about thirty 
families arrived at Whitehall, they found an 
old stockade fort of the French and Indian 
war standing in what is now the southeast 
angle of High and Church streets. 

The next year he was ordered on the expe- 
dition against Martinico and Havana, and was 
among the first to enter the breach at the 
storming of Moro castle. 

On his return to his colony he brought a 
number of slaves with him, but to his aston- 
ishment found his settlers nearly all gone. Be- 
ing a man of energy and business ability, he 
set about to make his colony what he intended 
it to be. Having considerable private means 
he soon placed the affairs of the infant settle- 
ment on a firm basis! In 1768 his regiment 
was ordered to Ireland, but he exchanged into 
the 10th foot, and soon sold out so as to be 
able to establish his residence at Skenesbor- 
ough and carry out his ambitious design of at- 
taining a prominent position in the colonies. 
He now gave his whole attention to the devel- 
opment of his colony, and with the labor of 
his negroes, his colonists and some discharged 
soldiers, he built a sloop to open transportation 
on the lake, constructed a passable road of 
thirty miles to Salem, and improved another 
road to Bennington. He built a saw and grist 
mill, and erected a two-and-one-half story 
stone mansion on the present roadway of Wil- 
liams street. His massive stone barn, as it 
was pierced with port holes, was probably in- 
tended for defense in time of danger as well as 
for housing horses and feed during periods of 

During the county-seat struggle in 1772, 
Skenesborough had so increased in size and 
importance that Major Skene sought to have 
the seat of justice established there, and him- 
self commissioned as judge of the courts. Fail- 
ing in these objects, it is thought that he then 
entertained the loftier ambition of making his 
village a colonial capital and himself the gov- 
ernor of a new province of Ticonderoga, em- 
bracing the territory of northern New York 
and the present State of Vermont. When the 
Revolution opened Skene was in England, 
where it is said he was then successful in secur- 
ing the grant of the new province and its gov- 
ernorship, but the same parties who had 



thwarted his earlier scheme of a county seat 
now defeated his more matured scheme of 
colonial establishment by fanning the spark of 
discontent against parliamentary impositions 
into the fierce name of armed rebellion against 
all English authority. 

Skene returned but to hear of the confisca- 
tion of his schooner, his slaves and his other 
property by the soldiers of Captain Herrick 
and other New England leaders, and to be 
arrested as a tory. He was exchanged in 1 776, 
and the next year served as a volunteer with 
Burgoyne, being at the battles of Bennington 
and the Saratogas. Skene was attainted and 
his property confiscated by New York in 1779, 
and after failing to recover his property he 
made his residence in England, wliere he died 
October 9, 1810, at Addersy Lodge, Stoke 
Goldington, Bucks. In his obituary notice 
Philip Skene was styled, "formerly lieutenant- 
governor of Crown Point and Ticonderoga, 
and surveyor of his majesty's woods and for- 
ests bordering on Lake Champlain." 

Skenesborough was held by the Continental 
troops during the Revolutionary war, except 
when occupied by Burgoyne and Carleton for 
a few weeks and a couple of days respec- 

In 1786 the name of the place was changed 
from Skenesborough to Whitehall, and four 
years later its houses were said to only num- 
ber eight or ten. The postoffice was estab- 
lished in 1796, and in 1812 the place became 
a base of supplies and a stragetic point for the 
American operations against Canada. Mc- 
Donough anchored his captive fleet and some 
of his own vessels in 1814 in East bay, where 
they decayed and sunk, one by one, in the 
succeeding years. In 1 Si 7 Whitehall con- 
tained about fifty houses, a fulling and a stave 
mill, a saw and grist mill, and the government 
houses and a school house. The taverns were: 
Anthony Rock's, Henry Wiswell's, and the 
Bellamy house; while the stores were con- 
ducted by James H. Hooker, Capt. Archibald 
Smith, James Perry, Ezra Smith, and Rock 

& Fonda. Five years later the Champlain 
canal was opened and the first newspaper, 
77ii i Whitehall Emporium, came into existence. 
In 1824 the canal was completed and the same 
year Whitehall entertained LaFayette at the 
Wiswell hotel when he was passing on his 
way from Burlington to Albany. Steamboat 
navigation, that commenced in 1810, was .now 
attaining respectable proportions. 

The village grew slowly until 1848, when the 
Washington and Saratoga railroad was opened 
and a period of great prosperity commenced. 
The next year Whitehall was first recognized 
as a port by congress, although the district of 
Champlain, including Whitehall, was created 
by act of congress, approved March 2, 1799. 
In 1875 passenger traffic on the lake from 
Whitehall as the southern terminal was closed 
by the opening of the New York and Canada 
railroad, which has made Ticonderoga the 
successor of Whitehall. Freight traffic still is 
carried northward on the lake from the village 
by means of company and private transporta- 
tion lines. Since 1875 the population of the 
village has decreased some, but present indi- 
cations warrant future development and pros- 
perity as the result of the healthy growth set- 
ting in to-day. 

The fire department of Whitehall com- 
menced in the year 1835, when the small Tor- 
rent fire engine was purchased, although a 
small hand engine had been presented to the 
village by Col. John Williams. The Torrent 
cost one thousand three hundred and fifty 
dollars, and additional engines and fire equip- 
ments have been purchased from time to time 
until Whitehall now has an efficient fire de- 
partment. In 1878 there were, the Empire 
hook and ladder, Whitehall steamer, W. F. 
Bascom engine, and W. H. Cook engine com- 
panies: and the James Doren, George Brett, 
jr., B. F. Lacca, and A. C. Hopson hose 
companies. In i860, 1864, 1875 and in 1876, 
there were fires at which the fire and hose 
companies rendered efficient service. The 
canal is one main dependence for water in case 



of fire, as the water works cannot furnish an 
adequate supply. 

The early water supply was by the aqueduct 
of 1828, and a later source of supply was the 
three reservoirs receiving the waters of Smith's 
and Adam's ponds. 

The Whitehall gas works were started in 
i860. Hall's opera house was opened in 1875, 
and various public improvements have been 
made since then. 

The pioneer church of Whitehall is the 
Whitehall Methodist Episcopal church, or- 
ganized in 1822. The church was organized 
under Rev. Philo Ferris, and a house of wor- 
ship was erected in 1832 on Church street. 
This church has since been remodelled and 

Trinity Episcopal church was organized 
about 1834, and a church edifice was erected 
in 1837, on Division street. A second church 
was built in 1843 on Church street, and their 
third church edifice, a fine structure, was 
erected in 1866, on the west side of Church 
street, at a cost of thirteen thousand dollars. 

The First Baptist church of Whitehall was 
formally organized July 15, 1840, with ten 
members : W. W. Cooke, Hearty C. Cooke, 
Stephen N. Bush, Salome Bush, Henry J. 
Day, Lester Leach, Mindwell Leach, Mrs. 
Phebe Blinn, Laura Chalk, and Mrs. Jane 
Stephens. There were meetings held as early 
as 1838, and after the church was organized 
it bought the Episcopal church on Division 
street. That building was burned in 1874, 
and the second house of worship was erected 
in 1876 on the east side of the creek. 

The Catholic church of Our Lady of Angels 
was organized at the house of Antoine Renois 
as Saint Anthony's church. A church build- 
ing was erected in 1841, in what is now 
Saunder's street, and when that highway was 
opened in 1867, the congregation, being large, 
divided into two parts, the English and the 
French. The English part erected their pres- 
ent handsome church in 1870, at a cost of 
thirty thousand dollars. 

Notre Dame De La Victoire church was 
organized by the French catholics of Saint 
Anthony's church in 1868, and the same year 
the}' purchased the second Episcopal house 
of worship for a church, at a cost of nearly 
four thousand dollars. 

The banking institutions of Whitehall have 
always been safe and reliable. The Bank of 
Whitehall was chartered in 1829, and became 
a national bank May 4, 1865, with H. G. Bur- 
leigh, president, and A. C. Sawyer, cashier. 
The First National bank of Whitehall was 
organized February 22, 1864, with A. H. Gris- 
wold, president, and William Keith, cashier. 
The Commercial bank of Whitehall went into 
operation August 15, 1841, and continued 
until State bank circulation was taxed by the 
United States. TheBank of Whitehall was char- 
tered in 1873, and on March 12, 1875, became 
the Merchants' National bank of Whitehall. 

The manufacturing interests of the village 
have never been what they should be, as the 
falls of Wood creek furnish fine water power. 
Wait's ingrain carpet factory, that run from 
1848 until destroyed by fire in 1864, was the 
earliest manufacturing of any importance run 
by this water power. The most important in- 
dustry succeeding Wait's has been the saw 
and planing mill plant of W. W. Cook & Son, 
which has been twice destroyed by fire and 
twice rebuilt. 

Education in the village of Whitehall has 
been properly cared for by its public spirited 
citizens. The earliest recollected school was 
in 1814, and the next year the village became 
one of the districts into which the town was 
divided. The public school system is well 
sustained at the present time. It was organ- 
ized in 1866, as Whitehall Union free school. 
In 1878 the buildings occupied were Central 
High school, on Pierce's knoll, costing twenty 
thousand dollars, and Wheeler avenue, Bell, 
and Adams houses. The want for academic 
education at home for nearly twenty years was 
met by the Whitehall academy, which ran from 
1848 to 1865. 



The population of the village in 1870 was 
four thousand three hundred and twenty-two, 
composed of three thousand one hundred and 
thirty-six native and one thousand one hun- 
dred and eighty-six foreign inhabitants. There 
were four thousand two hundred and seventy- 
three white and forty-nine colored people. In 
1880 the population was four thousand two 
hundred and seventy, a slight decrease in a 
decade, but the manufacturing power and 
transportation facilities of Whitehall village 
should give it wealth, population, size and 
importance in the years of the twentieth cen- 
tury to come. The population in 1890 was 
four thousand four hundred and thirty-four. 


The town of Whitehall is bounded on the 
north by the State of Vermont ; on the east by 
Hampton ; on the south by Granville and Fort 
Ann; and on the west by Fort Ann and Dresden. 

The surface is rolling in the center and east, 
but in the west is hilly and becomes moun- 
tainous about the head of Lake Champlain. 
The drainage is by Wood creek and Pawlet, 
or Mettowee river into Whitehall harbor and 
the head of Lake Champlain. 

The town of Whitehall was patented to 
Maj. Philip Skene, by royal grant, on March 
13, 1765, as the township of Skenesborough. 
No trace however can be found of any town 
organization until 1778, and eight years later, 
in 1786, the town was .reorganized under its 
present name of Whitehall. The western part 
of Whitehall is historic ground, where the 
earth almost constantly felt the tread of march- 
ing and warring hosts for nearly two centuries. 
The hideously painted savage bands, the white 
and blue uniformed regiments ol France, the 
red coated battalions of Great Brittain, and 
the yellow and blue half clothed Continentals, 
alternately advanced and retreated over its 
hills and through its valleys, while the whir of 
arrows, the rattle of musketry and the boom 
of cannon mingled with the charging cheer 
and the terrific war-whoop often made strange 

and fearful music on its waters, and through 
the lone depths of its great forests. The his- 
tory of these past scenes of bloodshed and 
marching armies have been related in the 
general history, and our attention now will be 
entirely confined to the settlement and growth 
of the town. 

The twenty-four patentees associated with 
Skene were: John Maunsel, Thomas Moncrief, 
John and Nathaniel Marston, Hugh and Alex- 
ander Wallace, Lawrence Read, Thomes 
White, John Gill, Robert Alexander, Robert 
Stevens, John Moore, Joseph Allicock, Gerard 
and Evert Bancker, Richard Curson, John 
Lamb, James Deas, Boyle Roche, Atcheson 
Thompson, Peter Kettletas, John R. Meyer, 
Levinus Clarkson, and Abraham Brazier. The 
interests of these twenty-four patentees were 
only nominal, and Skene was the real owner. 
On July 6, 1771, Skene obtained his "Little 
Patent " of nine thousand acres to the north- 
east of the original grant, and it extended into 
Hampton. These two patents covered all of 
the present town of Whitehall except the Mc- 
intosh patent of four thousand acres on the 
east side. 

The settlement and history of the town was 
during its early years centered in the history 
of the village already given, and all that we 
can obtain of the early settlers are the names 
of the following persons, many of whom 
most likely came after 1781: Zebulon Fuller, 
Daniel Brundage, Elisha Martin, Levi Stock- 
well, Zeb. Tubbs, Josiah Farr, John Conner, 
James and Jeremiah Burroughs, Joseph, Dan- 
iel and Nathaniel Earl, Silas Childs, William 
Graham, John Gault, Gideon Taft, Cornelius 
Jones, William Higley, Levi Falkenbury, Joel 
Adams, Thomas Lyon, George Douglass, Sam- 
uel Hatch, Rufus Whitford, Simon Hotchiss, 

John Coggswell, Pangborn, Stephen 

Knowles, Joseph Bishop, Thomas McFarren. 
Eph. Thomas, Andrew Law, Enoch Wright, 
Lemuel Bartholomew, Stephen Parks, Silas 
Baker, Israel Warner, and Robert, Samuel, 
and Thomas Wilson. 



The town has slowly filled up with an agri- 
cultural population outside of the village of 
Whitehall, and while cereal crops are raised 
in paying quantities, yet the land is better 
suited to grazing. Many farmers have turned 
their attention in that line, and prior to 1877 
the Rogers and Hollister cheese factories and 
the Rathbun creamery were in successful op- 
eration. Some tobacco has been raised, and 
a few vineyards planted in the limestone sec- 
tion of the town. 

Slate formations exist in the eastern part, 
and the Eureka and Spink were among the 
first quarries opened. 

It is asserted that Major Skene had a fur- 
nace on the west side of Wood creek for melt- 
ing crude iron ores. 

The First Congregational church of East 
Whitehall was organized in 1805,' with twelve 
members and Rev. James Davis as pastor. 
Their first church was burned, and its suc- 
cessor was built in i836,at a cost of two thou- 
sand dollars. 

The First Presbyterian, which, through the 
efforts of General Williams, was to have its 
home two miles south of the village, but after 
his death it built a house on Williams street, 
in Whitehall village, where it only existed two 

The oldest church in the town is the East 
Whitehall Methodist Episcopal church, organ- 
ized in 1796 with ten members, by the cele- 
brated Lorenzo Dow. They erected a brick 
structure in 1826. 

The public school system of the town went 
into operation in i8i5,and has been judiciously 
sustained ever since. 

The population of Whitehall was five thou- 
sand five hundred and sixty-four in 1870 ; and 
five thousand three hundred and forty-seven 
in 1880. 

In 1875 there were eight hundred and fifty 
frame, one hundred and twenty-five brick, and 
six stone houses in the town, valued at one 
million eight hundred and twenty thousand 
dollars. In the same year the acres of im- 

proved land was given at twenty thousand 
four hundred and eight, and the unimproved 
as seven thousand eight hundred and sixty. 
The milch cows were one thousand two hun- 
dred and fifty in number, and the sheep shorn 
were four thousand one hundred and seventy- 
nine, with a clippage of twenty-four thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-four pounds of wool. 
Before closing this account of the town of 
Whitehall we give the reported tory raid of 
1779 into Whitehall, as stated by Dr. A. B.' 
Holden in his "History of Queensbury": 
"Before the ice had cleared out from Lake 
Champlain, and while it still remained pass- 
able, it was made available by a band of one 
hundred and thirty Indians, led by the infa- 
mous Joe Bettys and two Canadian French- 
men, who made an attack upon the little set- 
tlement at Skenesborough, then garrisoned by 
a body of militia sixty in number, drafted 
from the towns of New Perth, now Salem, 
and Cambridge on the eastern border of Char- 
lotte county. The assailants approached the 
settlement from East bay, crossing the moun- 
tain east of Whitehall village. A man and 
his wife, who lived a short distance from the 
stone house built by Skene, were tomahawked 
and scalped ; a part of the garrison, perceiv- 
ing their approach, attempted to escape by 
swimming across the icy waters of Wood 
creek, but their fleet-footed pursuers were too 
quick for them. When midway of the stream 
they were sternly ordered to return or they 
would be shot. They accordingly went back 
and surrendered themselves. The attack was 
made about two o'clock on the afternoon of 
the 2istof March (1779), and before sundown 
the party, loaded with plunder and accom- 
panied by their prisoners, had started on its 
retreat. In this raid three persons (the two 
already named and one soldier) were killed, 
and ever} 7 building in the settlement was fired, 
so that of the once flourishing hamlet of 
Skenesborough not a roof was left, and -Fort 
Anne for a brief period became the frontier 
post at the north. The Indians comprising 



this marauding party were the Caughnawaga 
or Saint Regis tribes, and the prisoners, after 
reaching Saint Johns, were conducted through 
the wilderness to the Indian settlements at 
Cliateaugay and French Mills, whence, after 
a short detention, being robbed of all their 
valuables, even to clothing, they were con- 
veyed to Montreal, where they were ransomed 
by the British officers for eight dollars apiece, 
and imprisoned until they were exchanged, 
some of them in the meantime making their 
escape and some remaining prisoners for two 
years or more." 

Dr. Holden says : "For this narrative, not 
hitherto published in any of our local or gen- 
eral histories, the author is indebted to Dr. 
Asa Fitch," of Salem, by whom a full account 
was published in the Salem Press of Novem- 
ber 5 and 12, 1867." 




The village of Fort Edward was incorpor- 
ated by an order of court on August 28, 1849, 
which also provided for its ratification or re- 
jection by a vote of the electors. On Septem- 
ber 28th the vote was taken at the house of 
Gideon Carswell, and the act of incorporation 
was ratified by a vote of eighty-one to sixty- 
seven. The incorporated territory included 
one thousand acres, beside the greater part of 
Freeman's island in the river. The first offi- 
cers were : Edward Washburn, H. W. Ben- 
nett, and George H. Taylor, assessors ; Edwin 
Crane, collector ; E. B. Nash, treasurer, and 
William Wright, clerk. The trustees were : 
F. D. Hodgeman, Charles Harris, J. R. Gan- 
dull, D. S. Carswell, and John Williams. The 
charter was soon allowed to die, and had to be 
revived by a special legislative act passed Feb- 

ruary 26, 1857. On March 30, 1859, an act 
was passed to enlarge the village and confer 
additional powers on the trustees so they could 
facilitate the construction of a bridge across 
the Hudson to the town of Moreau, in Sara- 
toga county. An amendatory act was passed 
April 14, 1866, and on February 25, 1873, the 
electors voted to adopt the act of April 20, 
1870, for the incorporation of villages. 

Fort Edward, Fort Lyman, Fort Lydius, 
Fort Nicholson, and the "Great Carrying 
Place," are names that carry the history of the 
village and its site back through a long and 
stormy war period from the closing of the Rev- 
olution to the days of the first inter-colonial 

Wahcoloosencoochaleva, the Indian name 
of Fort Edward, carries the historic record of 
the site of the village back into tradition, the 
border land of oblivion. Unnumbered warrior 
bands advanced and retreated over its site dur- 
ing the centuries of Indian occupation. 

General Winthrop marched over the site 
of Fort Edward in 1790, and the expeditions 
of the two Schuylers and Nicholson's two 
expeditions passed over its site, and during 
Nicholson's first campaign, Fort Nicholson 
was both built and destroyed. The Del- 
lius and Bayard patents of 1696 and 1743 in- 
cluded the village site, and not later than 1 744. 
Col. John Henry Lydius settled under the an- 
nulled Dellius patent, and erected an Indian 
trading post on the ruins of Fort Nicholson. 
His trading post was called Fort Lydius, and 
was destroyed by the French in 1745. Fort 
Edward then lay desolate and waste for ten 
years. At the end of that time, in 1755, Gen. 
Phineas Lyman erected Fort Lyman, on the 
ruins of Forts Nicholson and Lydius, in the 
northern angle formed by the creek and the 
river at their confluence. Fort Lyman was an 
earth and timber structure, with ramparts six- 
teen feet high and twenty-two feet thick, pro- 
tected by a deep moat on the front extending 
from stream to stream. < hiadrangular in form, 
it had three bastions, the fourth angle being 


covered by the river and mounted six guns. 
Within its inclosure were barracks, hospital, 
store house and magazine, while barracks and 
store houses were also erected on the island in 
the river. At the rear angle, a postern gate 
opened on the river and a bridge was thrown 
across the creek near its mouth. Johnson 
changed the name of the fortification from 
Fort Lyman to Fort Edward, in honor of Ed- 
ward, Duke of York. 

Gen. Phineas Lyman, whose name the fort 
should have borne, was a lawyer and graduate 
of Yale college. He was born at Durham, 
Connecticut, about 1716, really fought the 
battle of Lake George, for which Johnson got 
the honors, and served under Abercrombie 
and Amherst. He commanded the provincial 
troops in the expedition against Havana in 
1762, and the next year went to England, 
where in 1774 he obtained a grant of land on 
the Mississippi river. He died in West Florida 
in 1775. 

From Fort Edward, now the outpost on the 
northern frontier, a road was cut to Lake 
George, and over it marched the armies of 
Johnson, Abercrombie and Amherst. Within 
its intrenchments lay the cowardly Webb when 
the butchery of Fort William Henry occurred, 
and beneath its sheltering walls were brought 
the hundreds who were wounded in Aber- 
crombie's rash attack on Ticonderoga. It was 
the scene of two of Putnam's daring exploits. 
In 1757 he saved Captain Little's party from 
massacre, when the gates of the fort had been 
closed against them through fear of a pursu- 
ing army being at their heels ; and in 1758 he 
prevented the fire of the burning barracks 
from reaching the powder magazine, only 
twelve feet away, when everyone else was 
ready to quit the struggle and let the ammu- 
nition be blown up and the fort wrecked. 

Fort Edward had become dilapidated in 
1775, and then it was repaired and a cordon of 
block-houses erected around it. 

From the walls of Fort Edward was wit- 
nessed the murder of Jane McCrea, and a few 

days later its ramparts were manned by the 
soldiers of Burgoyne, whose occupation was 
of short duration. With the days of the 
Revolution the tread of the sentinel passed 
away, and the gates stood wide open until the 
ravages of time had leveled alike bastion and 
wall. Its fast disappearing ruins will soon be 
gone, and but the memory of the great fortress 
will remain. 

After the destruction of the Lydius settle- 
ment, there is no record of any settler until 
1765, when Patrick Smyth, either by purchase 
or lease, became a resident at Fort Edward, 
and built a large and substantial house, which 
afterward served successively as the head- 
quarters of Schuyler and of Burgoyne, as a 
court room, a store and a hotel. 

From 1765 down to 1800 but little can be 
learned of who settled or what was done at 
Fort Edward. John Eddy was an early land 
owner, having seven hundred acres in the 
northern part of the village, and William 
Finn had a large tract in the southern part 
and about the old fort. The McNiel house, 
at No. in Broadway street, from which Jane 
McCrea went forth to her death, is said to 
have been built by Major Peter B. Tearse. 
The McCrea spring, where the unfortunate 
and beautiful maiden met her untimely fate, 
is on the George Bradley land in the northern 
part of the village. 

The first store was probably kept in the 
Smyth house, or by Colonel John Kane ; and 
James Rogers, Peter Hilton, and Dr. John 
Lawrence, a surgeon in Burgoyne's army, 
were among the early merchants of the place. 
Livy Stoughton had a store in 181 1, and in 
1820 Daniel W. Wing became a merchant of 
Fort Edward. The earlypracticing physicians 
were Drs. Willoughby and Morton. The first 
tavern was kept by Russell Rossiter in the old 
Smyth or Yellow house, and among the early 
hostelries were the Baldwin, Eddy and Man- 
sion houses. 

The opening of the Champlain canal in 
1822 gave the village a start, and the comple- 



tion of the Saratoga and Washington railroad 
in 1848 gave transportation and an outlet to 
the manufacturing interests that had their 
origin in 1845, and that have since been in- 
strumental in bringing growth and prosperity 
to the village. These manufacturing enter- 
prises are the results of a company of public- 
spirited and far-sighted citizens, who, in 1845, 
purchased the old feeder and feeder-dam from 
the State, and bought ten acres of land from 
Timothy Eddy, below the dam, for the sites 
of the numerous mills that have since been 
erected there. These citizens were E. B. Nash, 
H. W. Bennett. D. W. Wing, James Chees- 
man, Morril Grace, Lansing G. Taylor, E. 
Washburn, A. I. Fort, and John Doty, who 
associated themselves with J. S. Beach, G. 
Kennedy, Harvey Chapman, Roscius Ken- 
nedy, and Frederick D. Hodgeman, as the 
Fort Edward Manufacturing Company. This 
company furnished sites to all who desired to 
engage in manufacturing, and reduced the 
dam from twenty-eight to sixteen feet. 

Timothy Eddy had run a clothing mill prior 
to 1827. As soon as the mill sites were avail- 
able several saw mills were erected, and Mil- 
liman's first planing mill was built in 1861. In 
1877 nearly five million feet of lumber, timber 
and staves were cleared at Fort Edward. Im- 
mediately after the saw mills came grist mills, 
machine shops and foundries, and in 1853 the 
Beach & Co. paper mill started in a building 
erected three years before for a cotton factory. 
The paper mill passed into other hands, was 
twice burned and rebuilt, the second time un- 
der the firm of Hodgeman & Palser. The Fort 
Edward blast furnace was started in 1854 by 
George Harvey & Co., and afterward became 
the property of the Albany & Rensselear Iron 
and Steel company, who commenced the use 
of Crown Point and Fort Ann iron ores at the 
village. Stoneware manufactories, bridge 
works, brick kilns, malt houses, and breweries 
came later, and added to the volume of business, 
which was affected some by the panic of [873. 

The fire department of Fort Edward was or- 

ganized in 1857, when the Relief fire engine 
was purchased and a fire and a hook and lad- 
der company formed. This engine answered 
until June, 1874, when the steam fire engine, 
John F. Harris, was bought at a cost of four 
thousand dollars. Four years later the fire de- 
partment consisted of John F. Harris Steam 
Company, No. 1 ; Satterlee Hose Company, 
No. 2 ; and John R. Durkee Hose Company, 
No. 3. The first destructive fire of the village 
was on November 19, 1877, when the Col- 
legiate institute was destroyed. 

The early water supply of Fort Edward was 
obtained by an acqueduct from springs north 
of the village. The acqueduct was superseded 
in 1855 by the construction of the water works 
of the Fort Edward Water Works company, 
whose supply of water came from the Case cV. 
Mclntyre reservoirs, fed by perennial springs. 

Fort Edward enjoys good postal and bank- 
ing facilities. The Fort Edward postoffice 
was established in 1800, and James Rogers 
appointed as the first postmaster. The Bank 
of Fort Edward was chartered in 1851, and in 
1865 became The National bank of Fort Ed- 
ward. The Farmers' bank of Washington 
county was organized in 1856, and in 1865 
was reorganized as the Farmers' National 
bank of Washington county. The third bank 
was The State bank of Fort Edward, that was 
chartered April 1, 1871. None of these banks 
were chartered with a capital of less than one 
hundred thousand dollars. 

Methodist Episcopal services were held as 
early as 1788 at Fort Edward, where a church 
organization was effected in 1828 by Rev. 
Julius Field. The present church edifice was 
erected in 1S53. 

The present Presbyterian church, on Eddy 
street, was organized January 17, 1854, with 
seventeen members, under charge of Dr. E. 
E. Seelye. Their present church was com- 
pleted in 1870. This congregation is the suc- 
cessor of an early Presbyterian church formed 
at Fort Edward between 1820 and 1830, but 
which went down in a short time. 


The Baptist church was organized March 
17, 1842, with the following fourteen members : 
James Cheesman, Nelson Combs, George 
Mills, Lucinda Van Dusen, Melissa Hall, 
Electa Shaw, Isabel Sanders, Clarissa Hen- 
derson, Polly Sprague, Lucinda Bovee, and 
Thomas, Abigail, Sally and Emma Pike. Rev. 
Solomon Gale was the first pastor, and the 
church edifice was erected in 1851 and 1852. 

Saint James Episcopal church was organ- 
ized in 1844, the members prior to this hav- 
ing formed a congregation in connection with 
the Episcopalians of Sandy Hill. The first 
rector was Rev. J. A. Spooner, and their 
brick church edifice on Broadway street was 
erected between 1844 and 1M4N. 

Saint Joseph's Catholic church was organ- 
ized in 1869 for the accommodation of about 
three hundred families of Fort Edward that 
were then worshiping at Sandy Hill. They 
purchased the East Street Methodist church 
and repaired and refitted it at a total cost of 
nearly ten thousand dollars. The first pastor 
was Rev. James MoGee. 

Subscription schools were succeeded by the 
free schools about 1814 or 1815, and in 1848 
Fort Edward became one of the first villages 
in the State to organize a union free school. 
A brick union school building was erected in 
1849, at a cost of thirteen thousand dollars, 
and the Seminary Street school house was 
built in 1868, at a cost of four thousand dol- 
lars. Academic education commenced with 
the Hudson River academy that closed in 
1864, and the second high school was Fort 
Edward Collegiate institute, which was erected 
in 1854, with buildings equal to many a col- 
lege. Its principal was Rev. Joseph E. King, 
D.D., who had entire charge of the school 
from its opening until the building burned, 
November 19, 1877. 

The garrison Burgoyne left at Fort Edward 
when he moved across the Hudson was cap- 
tured by Gen. John Stark and one thousand 
troops from Vermont and New Hampshire. 
A few days later Stark's force was increased 

by reinforcements to two thousand five hun- 
dred, when he moved down the river and 
helped to close up Burgoyne's northern ave- 
nues of retreat. 


Three villages in Washington county owe 
their early prosperity, and much of their after- 
ward progress to the three most prominent pub- 
lic men in the county at the commencement 
of the Revolution. Major Skene founded 
Whitehall as Skensborough, General Williams 
secured for Salem its early prosperity and 
county seat honors, and Judge Durer devel- 
oped the early industries of Fort Miller, to 
whom his influence brought many settlers. 
Skene was the most ambitious, Williams the 
most successful, and Durer the least fortunate 
of these village builders. 

Fort Miller was named for the defensive for- 
tifications thrown up opposite the site of the 
village on the west side of the Hudson, and 
named Fort Miller in honor of their builder, 
Colonel Miller, whose christian name has not 
been preserved by any of the early historians. 

Nathaniel Gage was the pioneer settler, 
coming in 1762. In 1766 Noah Payne, Levi 
Crocker, and Timothy Buel, from Connecticut, 
came to the site of the village, and two years 
later, Judge William Durer purchased a tract 
of land including the falls and erected a saw 
and a grist mill, which he followed some time 
afterward with the erection of snuff mills and 
a powder mill. 

William Durer was the son of John Durer, 
one of the King's council for Antigua, in the 
West Indias. He was born in England, March 
18, 1747, and in 1765 became aide decamp to 
Lord Clive, governor general of India. After 
coming to Fort Miller, at the suggestion of 
Philip Schuyler, he became prominent and 
active in public affairs, and was elected a colo- 
nel of militia and a judge of the county court, 
which positions he held until the close of the 
Revolution. In 1776 he married Katy, daugh- 
ter of Lord Stirling, of New York city, and 



after some time spent at his spacious mansion 
at Fort Miller, lie removed to Fishkill, and 
afterward went to the site of Patterson, New 
Jersey, where he erected the first cotton mill. 
Later in life he erected a cotton mill in West- 
chester county, and suffered heavy losses by 
speculations in public securities and military 
tracts of land. He died May 7, 1799. Judge 
Durer held several public offices, the most im- 
portant of which was that of assistant secre- 
tary of the United States treasury under Ham- 

The improvements at Fort Miller seemed to 
have been made first at the lower falls, while 
the utilization of the upper falls for motive 
power for manufacturing purposes did not 
take place until 1822. The Wagman Thorpe 
lV Co. paper mill was started in 1865, and 
about the same time boat building was com- 
menced on a small scale by G. W. Kingsley. 

The early taverns were : the McAdou, Viele 
and Kittle houses. The pioneer stores were 
those of Jesse Patrick, Ashbel Meacham, and 
Thomas Carpenter. The first physician was 
Ur. John De Garmo. The postoffice was es- 
tablished in 1815, with S. G. Bragg as post- 

The Reformed church of Fort Miller was or- 
ganized in 1822, with fifteen members, and the 
first minister was Rev. Philip Duryea. This 
congregation met in a union church built in 

The Fort Miller Presbyterian church was or- 
ganized September 6, 1853, with twelve mem- 
bers. The first pastor was Rev. A. G. Coch- 
ran, and the church became extinct about 

The Baptist church was organized in De- 
cember, 1858, as a branch of the Fort Edward 
Baptist church. They erected a house of wor- 
ship in 1868. 


Lying on the west boundary of Washington 
county, Fort Edward is bounded on the north 
by Kingsbury ; on the east by Argyle ; on the 

south by Greenwich ; and on the west by Sar- 
atoga county, from which it is separated by 
the Hudson river. 

The surface is rough in the east, hilly in the 
center, and level in the west. The main stream 
of the town is the Moses Kill, which flows into 
the Hudson. The latter has five islands along 
the Fort Edward border : Muro, Bell, Taylor, 
Galusha's and Payne's. The Champlain canal 
runs the entire length of the town, and is joined 
by the Glen's Falls feeder near the northern 
boundary line. The Rensselaer & Saratoga 
railroad crosses the northwest corner, and 
passes into Saratoga county. Four-fifths of 
the town lies in the Schuyler and Bayard pat- 
ents, and the area of the town is six thousand 
three hundred and seventy-six acres. 

While the red tide of battle never ebbed and 
flowed within the borders of the town of Fort 
Edward, yet armies of invasion and defense 
passed over her soil, and the greatest frontier 
fortress between Albany and the lakes was on 
her territory. 

The town of Fort Edward was formed from 
Argyle on April 10, 1818, by an act of legisla- 
ture, but of the movement leading to its erec- 
tion we have no history. The first town meet- 
ing was held at the house of Solomon Emmons, 
on May 22, 1818, and the following officers 
were elected : Moses Carey, supervisor ; Wal- 
ter Rogers, town clerk ; James Durkee and 
Daniel Payne, assessors ; Nicholas Mclntyre, 
collector ; Noah Pa) ne, jr. , and David Bristol, 
constables ; and Alex. Gilchrist, overseer of 

The earliest settlements were at Fort Ed- 
ward and Fort Miller, and beyond the names 
of the pioneers given in the history of those 
places, but little can be gained of those who 
settled elsewhere in the town. 

In addition to the churches described at 
Fort Edward and Fort Miller, there is one 
other church in the town, being the First Bap- 
tist church, at Durkeetown, whose organiza- 
tion was effected April 4, 1832. Rev. Calvin 
H. Swain was pastor until 1833, and soon 



after the organization a house of worship was 

The public schools were opened about 1818, 
and have been in successful operation ever 

Fort Edward has a clay soil, except a small, 
sandy area on the northeast, and while pro- 
ducing good crops of rye, oats, hay and pota- 
toes, is excellently adapted to grazing and 
dairying. A cheese factory, some years ago, 
was started at Durkeetown, and there were 
seven hundred and thirty three milch cows in 
the town in 1875, whose product of butter 
was nearly fifty-eight thousand pounds. 

The county fair ground, in the northern 
part of the town, was laid out and the first 
improvements made on it in 1872. 




On the old-time southern boundary of Wash- 
ington county, and five miles up the Batten 
Kill from its confluence with the Hudson river, 
is Greenwich, one of the most beautiful and 
flourishing villages of its class in the State. 

Greenwich, originally known as Whipple 
City, was incorporated March 2, 1809, as 
Union village. Its first president and clerk 
were Job Whipple and Jonathan K. Horton. 
Public opinion, in 1867, changed the name of 
Union village to that of Greenwich, as the 
growth of the place was principally on the 
Greenwich, and not on the Easton, side of 
the Batten Kill. The fact of its corporate 
limits being in two towns, led to the former 
name of Unionville. The village is hand- 
somely shaded and beautifully ornamented 
with shrubbery and statuary indicative of the 
fine taste of its citizens. 

The earliest settler at Greenwich was a 

Mr. Carbine, of Albany, who, in 1780, built 
a house, opened a store and built a saw mill 
and dam. Not having a strong relish for 
pioneer life he sold in 1791 to Job Whipple, 
an industrious and energetic Rhode Islander. 
While Carbine was the nominal, Whipple 
and his son-in-law, William Mowry, became 
the real founders of the village. His first 
move was to make his water power a center 
of profitable industries, and to accomplish this 
he secured the services of William Mowry, 
an experienced operative and manager of 
Samuel Slater, the father of American cotton 
manufactures, at Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 
Mowry left Slater because an increase of sal- 
ary was refused him, and engaged with Whip- 
ple, whose daughter he afterward married. He 
came to Greenwich and set up spinning frames 
there in the year 1800. His yarn was jobbed 
out for weaving, during several years, to the 
farmers' wives and daughters, some of whom 
came from a great distance. The enterprise 
became a success, a strong company was 
formed in 1812, and four years later Mowry 
sailed for Liverpool, England, with a Mr. Wild, 
who was a skilled mechanic, for the purpose 
of inspecting the improved cotton machinery 
then being introduced into that city. In de- 
fiance of all rules Mowry and Wild forced 
themselves into factories and spent a few 
moments by the machines they most desired 
to see, before they could be forcibly ejected. 
Thus Wild in a few seconds obtained such a 
clear idea of the double-speeder that, on their 
return, he successfully constructed at Green- 
wich the first one of those machines used in 
this country. The cotton manufacturing in- 
dustry brought prosperity to the village and 
flourished until 1845, when competition else- 
where led to the abandonment of the factory, 
then under charge of Henry Holmes, a son- 
in-law of Mowry. 

Other industries in the meantime had been 
established, and -new ones were soon to be 
inaugurated. Saw mills and grist mills were 
erected during the first quarter of the present 



century. Perry Miller opened a plow shop 
in 1800, and thirty-two years later Eddy, 
Reynolds, Langdon & Co. commenced the 
manufacture of the '-Old Rough and Ready 
Wrought Iron Beam" plow. In a few years 
they built up a large business. The boot and 
shoe manufacture was carried on extensively 
from 1848 until 1870. Tea tray stamping was 
commenced in 1851, the Batten Kill Knitting 
works were erected in 1862 at the upper dam, 
and Ballou & Craig built the Angell, Safford 
& Company paper mill in 1863. In 1868 a 
third dam and a factory were built for the 
Greenwich Linen Company, which failed to 
operate them. In 1870 William Weaver 
opened the Greenwich Machine works for the 
manufacture of wood-working machines of 
his own invention. 

Araspaes Folsom opened the first store in 
1800, William Tefft, jr., kept one of the first 
taverns about that time, and the postoffice was 
established soon afterward, with John Har- 
rington as postmaster. Moses Cowan, Lewis 
Younglove, and Edwin Andrews had early 
stores, and David Whipple and John Bassett 
were hotel keepers about 1810. The first 
lawyer at Greenwich was Charles Ingalls, of 
Andover, Massachusetts ; and the pioneer 
physicians were Dr. Hiram Corliss, whose son, 
George Corliss, was the constructor of the 
great centennial Corliss engine ; and Dr. Cor- 
nelius Holmes, of Plymouth, Massachusetts, 
who gave the first impulse to tree planting at 

The fire department dates back to 1819, 
when a small engine was ordered, and in 
1837 fire company No. 1 was formed. Rough 
and Ready Fire Company, No. 2, was organ- 
ized August 8, 1851, and a No. 3 Button and 
Blake engine was purchased in 1859. 

The banking interests of the village have 
always been well cared for by reliable banks. 
The Washington county bank was organized 
in 1838, with Henry Holmes as president. In 
1865 this institution became the Washington 
County National bank. The Peoples' bank 

ran from 1868 to 1872, and then disposed of 
its interests to other banks. 

Soon after the establishment of the village 
we find that the Bottskill Baptist church pre- 
pared to erect a house of worship there. This 
church was established some time between 
1767 and 1775. The first meetings were held 
at the house of Nathan Tefft below the Mid- 
dle falls. The Tefft, Rogers, Bentley, Rose, 
Tanner, Kenyon, Petteys, and Burdick famil- 
ies were among the early attendants of its ser- 
vices. With no ministers except an occasional 
visiting brother, the congregation kept up the 
organization for several years, and in 1783 
built its first house of worship one mile south 
of Greenwich, where Elder Nathan Tanner, 
the first pastor, preached until 1794, having 
been ordained in 1782. The second church 
building was built at Greenwich in 1795, which 
was succeeded in 1866 by their present fine 
brick church structure. This church has al- 
ways opposed Masonry and other secret orders. 

The "Reformed Church of Union Village" 
was formed in 1807, with Rev. Philip Duryea 
as pastor. The first house of worship was 
built in 1810, and five years later Rev. James 
Christie became the first regular pastor. The 
present fine church edifice was dedicated Jan- 
uary 29, 1874. 

The Orthodox Congregational church of 
Greenwich came into existence March 15, 
1837, with thirteen members : Daniel, jr., and 
Roxana Frost, Hiram and Susan Corliss, Wil- 
liam H. and Angelina G. Mowry, Charles J. 
and Abigail Gunn, John and Martha Clark, 
Roswell Grandy, James and Lydia Watson, 
Edwin Wilmorth, Beulah Downs, Elizabeth 
Horton, Mary F. Corliss (Cook), and Lucy 
Pattison. These members withdrew from the 
Reformed church upon the question of slavery. 
The first clergyman was Rev. R. A. Avery, 
and the church has always taken advanced 
ground on questions of humanity and reform. 

Phineas Langworthy was really the founder 
of the present Methodist Episcopal church, in 
the town of Greenwich, and that was organ- 



ized April 20, 18 18, at North Greenwich. In 
1838, on April 21, a society was formed at 
Greenwich. The first house of worship was 
built in 1839, and the present splendid church 
edifice was dedicated in 1870. 

Saint Joseph's Catholic church was organ- 
ized in 1871 as the result of the labors of 
Father Waldron. The congregation purchased 
and moved the old Methodist Episcopal meet- 
ing house, which they changed into an invit- 
ing church edifice. 

Saint Paul's Episcopal church was formed 
as a mission, under the care of Reverend 
Walker, in 1872, and worship was held for 
some years in the Congregational meeting 

Good educational advantages are offered by 
the village. The Union Free school has 
taken the place of the old public schools, and 
in 1868 Greenwich academy, that had been 
founded in 1836, was merged with it, but re- 
tained its individuality and academical de- 


Greenwich was taken from the town of Ar 
gyle in 1803, and named after Greenwich, 
Rhode Island. The first supervisor was John 
Hay, and Araspaes Folsom served as the first 

Greenwich is bounded on the north by Fort 
Edward and Argyle ; on the east by Salem 
and Jackson ; on the south by Jackson and 
Easton; and on the west by Saratoga county, 
from which it is separated by the Hudson 

The town of Greenwich has an area of 
nearly twenty-seven thousand acres of land. 
The surface is level, except in the east where 
high hills abound. Bald mountain, west of the 
center, which rises nine hundred and twelve 
feet above the surrounding plain, and contains 
one thousand five hundred acres of land. 
Drainage is principally by the Batten Kill, on 
which are the three remarkable falls described 
in the general history. In soil, the surface 

varies from a sandy loam to a heavy clay, and 
is fertile and productive. Originally the town 
was covered with heavy forests of pine, hem- 
lock, and hard woods. 

The hunting camp of the Indian was on the 
territory of Greenwich, and his bark canoe 
glided over its waters, but its soil had peace- 
ful rest until the battalions of Baum passed 
through on their way to Bennington, and even 
then fire and the Indian were not loosed on the 
affrighted town. Prior to human habitation, 
a straggling band or two of Indians may have 
passed southward to the destruction of Sara- 
toga, or on some other scouting raid along the 
Hudson, but no trails, no war paths, no great 
military roads were broken or cut through its 

The land in the town is nearly all embraced 
in the Saratoga, Campbell and Argyle pat- 
ents. The first known permanent settler was 
a desperado named Rodgers, who was on the 
Batten Kill as early as 1763. Alexander 
McNaughton, Archibald Livingston, Duncan 
Campbell and Rodger Reid, settled near the 
Batten Kill in 1765. William H. McDougal 
came about this time on the Argyle patent, 
and brought a few store goods from New York 
city. In 1766 settlement was commenced on 
the Saratoga patent by Judge Nathan Tefft, 
and his two sons, Stanton and Nathan, the 
latter of whom came into Greenwich and built 
the first saw mill on the Batten Kill at Middle 
Falls. The next year Captain Foster, from 
Rhode Island, came to the town, and a man 
named Bryant. Samuel Dickenson settled in 
1769 near Center Falls, and by the commence- 
ment of the Revolution many families were 
residents of Greenwich. After the Revolu- 
tion, settlement was rapid and lumbering be- 
came quite a business. 

At the present time Greenwich has good 
shipping facilities in the west by the Cham- 
plain canal, and enjoys first-class railroad ac^ 
commodations by the Greenwich and John- 
sonville railway that extends from the village 
of Greenwich through the towns of Easton 



and Cambridge to Johnsonville on the Boston 

There are several hamlets and unincorpora- 
ted villages in the town of Greenwich. 

The village of Battenville, four miles from 
Greenwich, and on both sides of the Batten 
Kill, was settled about 1815, by John McLean, 
Pardon Tefft, Nathan Cottrell, and others. 
Saw mills were operated, and a cotton factory 
built that burned in 1868. The postoffice was 
secured about 1829, with Daniel Anthony as 
postmaster, and in 1872 the Phoenix Paper 
Company erected a mill whose products were 
soon in good demand. The Methodist church 
was formed in August, 1829, but its legal or- 
ganization was not effected till December 2, 
1833. The population in 1880 was one hun- 
dred and forty-two. 

Center Falls, two miles above Greenwich, 
was settled about 1790 by Smith Barber and 
Nathan Rogers. Saw mills, a grist mill, and 
a paper factory were built on the Greenwich 
side of the Batten Kill. The paper mill was 
burned in 1865. On the Jackson side a cot- 
ton factory and flax mill were built and after- 
ward destroyed by fire. 

East Greenwich is a village on the Batten 
Kill near the Salem line, and ranks as one of 
the oldest places in the town. The first set- 
tlement was by Robert Reid. A dam and saw 
mill were erected in 1800, and millions of feet 
of lumber were sawed. The place was called 
" Slab City " at first. Other saw mills were 
built and two woolen factories have been op- 
erated as well as a grist mill and tannery. 
The postoffice was established in 1835, with 
Moses Robinson as postmaster. The United 
Presbyterian congregation of East Greenwich 
was organized May 30, 1849, with fifty-one 
members, most of whom had withdrawn from 
the South Argyle congregation. 

Middle Falls is two miles below Greenwich 
on the Batten Kill, and its settlement was com- 
menced before the year 1789. A. G. Lansing 
built a house and mill in 1790, and about 1810 
John Gale built flouring mills on the Easton 

side, and the place was known as Galesville 
until 1875, when J. H. Reynolds got the name 
of the village and of the postoffice changed to 
Middle Falls, as the Hardscrabble falls were 
above and the Dionondohowa falls below. The 
falls here are forty-five feet high, and afford 
great water power. The postoffice was first 
established as Galesville in 1735, with Bryant 
Sherman as postmaster. Woolen factories, 
fulling and flouring mills, distilleries, and ce- 
ment and plaster mills have been built and 
operated at Middle Falls within the last cen- 
tury. The West Greenwich Baptist church 
was formed at Middle Falls June 10, 1837, with 
sixty members, mostly from the Bottsville 

Clark's Mills is at the first water power on 
the Batten Kill above its confluence with the 
Hudson river, and was improved as early as 
1731. A planing mill and store, and over 
twenty houses are comprised in the place. 

Lake, nine miles northeast of Greenwich on 
Cossayuna creek and lake, is a place of some 
manufacturing importance. It was settled 
prior to 1782, and has produced some eminent 
men, such as Judge William Pratt, and Gov. 
John L. Beveridge, of Illinois. Saw, grist, 
and fulling mills were erected, and at the 
present time the place has several success- 
ful industries. The postoffice was secured 
about 1840, with R. W. Richey as the first 
postmaster. TheLakeville Baptist church is a 
branch of the Bottsville church, and was or- 
ganized September 10, 1834. Their house of 
worship was built in 1S37, and enlarged in 

North Greenwich is on the Argyle line, and 
was formerly known as Reid's Corners, from 
William Reid, an early settler there. The 
place was settled before 1800, and in 1825 the 
postoffice was established, with William Reid as 
postmaster. Stores have been kept since 1800. 
The Methodist Episcopal church was formed 
April 20, 1818, at school house No. 6, and in 
1S19 the first meeting house was built at North 
Greenwich. Near the village G. H. Wells 



planted an apple orchard of four thousand 

Bald Mountain village lies at the hase of 
the celebrated mountain of the same name, 
and owes its existence to Robert W. Lowber. 
Scattering settlements had been made at the 
base of the mountain as earl)' as 1785, and 
some lime burned. Limekilns were afterward 
erected, and a few houses built, but nothing 
of a village or a business was established 
until 1852, when Mr. Lowber purchased the 
quarries and much of the surrounding land. 
He built sixty houses, made a three-mile ma- 
cadamized road, at a cost of ten thousand 
dollars, to reach the canal, erected the largest 
and finest of kilns, and as a result had an 
annual shipment of one hundred and sixty 
thousand barrels of lime. In 1872 the Bald 
Mountain Lime company purchased Mr. Low- 
ber's plant, aud as they were then operating 
kilns at Glens Falls, allowed the village and 
the works to go down, only operating one kiln 

Below the State dam on the Hudson, Rich- 
ards & Company, in 1870, erected saw mills, 
which were purchased two years later by L. 
Thompson, who immediately enlarged the 
mills until they became one of the most com- 
plete plants of their kind in the county. 
Above the dam the Fort Miller wooden 
bridge, a thousand feet in length, had been 
thrown across the Hudson before the building 
of the Thompson mills. In 1790 it is said 
that seven mills were operated by the same 
stream in the town of Greenwich. 

There is record of two hundred and thirty- 
one men furnished by the town of Greenwich 
for the Federal army, during the late Civil 
war, and it is said that over one hundred of 
these lost their lives in the service of their 
country. The town expended eighty-eight 
thousand seventy-four dollars and eighty-two 
cents for war purposes, and extended relief to 
the indigent families of soldiers in the service 
from November 15, 1863, to the close of the 

Several commissioned officers were from 
Greenwich, and one of the number was Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Franklin Norton, who was 
mortally wounded at Chancellorsville by a 
Confederate sharp-shooter, while raising the 
flag of his regiment that had fallen several 
times in a few minutes by the fall of succes- 
sive color bearers. 

Greenwich has partly on its northern border 
Lake Cossayuna, one of the finest sheets of 
water in the State, and capable of being made 
a first-class summer resort. To this lake the 
Massachusetts Indians resorted to fish, before 
the discovery of America, and their trail ran 
along the Cossayuna creek. 

Of the early patents the northeast part of 
the Saratoga patent was in Greenwich, and 
adjoining it William Kettlehuyn and Cornel- 
ius Cuyler obtained a grant of one thousand 
six hundred acres on May 6, 1732. 

The Campbell patent of ten thousand acres 
was north of the last two named grants, and 
was granted to General Donald, George, and 
James Campbell, and their sisters, Rose Gra- 
ham, Margaret Eustace, and Lilly Murray; 
and four others, Allan Campbell, John Camp- 
bell, sr., James Calder, and John Campbell, jr. 
General Donald Campbell was a whig, while 
his two brothers were tories, and after the 
Revolution all trace of the family disappeared. 

The Argyle patent extended over the parts 
of the town not included in the patents named. 
The lots, owners and acres of the Argyle pat- 
ents in Greenwich were : 
Lots. Names. Acres. 

29 Daniel Clark 250 

30 Angus McDougall 300 

31 Donald Mclntyre 350 

32 Alexander McNachten 600 

33 John McCore 300 

34 William Fraser 350 

35 Mar} - Campbell 250 

36 Duncan Campbell, sr 450 

37 Neil McFadden 300 

38 Mary Torry 250 

39 Margaret McAllister 250 



Lots. Names. Acres. 

40 Robert Campbell, jr 450 

41 Catherine Shaw 250 

42 .John McGuire 400 

43 Elizabeth McNeil 200 

44 Duncan McArthur 450 

50 John McGowan, sr 300 

55 Ann Campbell 300 

56 Archibald McCollum 350 

57 Alexander McArthur 250 

58 Alexander McDonald 250 

59 John McEwen " 500 

62 Mary Baine 300 

63 . Margaret Cargyle 300 

64 Neil McEachern 450 

69 Hannah McEven 400 

70 John Reid 450 

71 Archibald Nevin 350 




Beautifully situated on an elevated plain on 
on the Moses Kill and a few miles west of the 
center of the town, is the village of Argyle, 
one of the important places of Washington 

The village of Argyle was incorporated un- 
der a special act of legislature March 27, 1838, 
providing for the annual election of five trus- 
tees, from whom a president was to be chosen. 
At the first election, held June 5, 1838, the fol- 
lowing trustees were elected : Ransom Stiles, 
George Gillis, John M. Stewart, James Caul, 
and James Savage. At the same election, 
William H. King was elected clerk; Benjamin 
Caswell and George W. Harsha, assessors; 
Mason Martin, collector; and James Stewart, 
constable. The incorporation of the village 
has added much to its appearance and con- 
siderable to its progress. 

The earliest settlement at Argyle was made 

by George Kilmer, who, although not a paten- 
tee, yet became a large land purchaser, and 
owned the site of the village in an early day. 
Kilmer is said to have come about 1 768. There 
is no account of when he built the first house 
of the village. That the early growth of Ar- 
gyle was slow is attested by the recollections 
of John Ross, who stated that there were only 
half a dozen houses in the place in 1817. Of 
these buildings one must have been the county 
clerk's office that was established there in 1806, 
and another was the storehouse of Stiles Ran- 
som. A third building was the Peleg Bragg 
tavern, that came in charge of Joseph Rouse 
in 1800, and the postoffice established in 1807 
was kept by Rouse, who was the first post- 
master, and held that position for thirty-four 
years. Within some of these six houses must 
have resided at different times, Drs. Andrew 
Proudfit, Robert Cook, Robert Clark, Zebulon 
Rood and James Green, who were there at dif- 
ferent times between 1790 and 1816. 

Of the early merchants were Alexander 
Backup, Stiles Ransom, Carl & Dodd, and 
John Ross ; and in the number of hotel keep- 
ers before 1830 were Peleg Bragg, Joseph 
Rouse, John Ransom, Daniel Buck, and 
James Carroll. From 1817 up to the present 
time, stores and hotels have continued and 
increased in numbers, and carriage factories 
and other industries have been established. 

The religious history of the village goes 
back to about 1770, when those who lived at 
Argyle were afforded the opportunity of at- 
tending meetings held there or at houses in 
the neighborhood, at which Dr. Clark, of 
Salem, preached. Dr. Clark left in 1780, and 
Rev. James Proudfit, after 1783, also preached 
occasionally. These occasional services by 
Dr. Clark and Rev. Proudfit culminated in 
the organization of the United Presbyterian 
church of Argyle in November, 1792. One 
year later Rev. George Mairs, of Coothill, 
Ireland, became pastor of the church, which 
erected a log meeting house one mile south of 
their present church edifice at Argyle. In 

lOt J 


1800 the church had increased so in numbers 
that a larger meeting house was required, and 
which was built at Argyle, where it stood 
until 1S44. A second church then erected 
was burned, and a third church was built in 
1845, whose successor, the present handsome 
Gothic structure, was consecrated Jul}' 18 of 
the centennial year. Rev. George Mairs 
served as pastor until 1823, when he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Rev. George Mairs, jr., 
whose ministry extended till 1850. 

In 1814 the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Union church built a meeting house at Argyle 
that afterward became the property of the 
Methodist church. Rev. Isaiah Johnson and 
others were pastors of the Reformed church 
until it went down some years later. 

Another church whose career was run at 
Argyle was the Reformed Presbyterian church, 
whose legal organization was effected on April 
14, 1828, with Rev. James Stewart as minister. 
This church was generally known as the Cam- 
eronian church, and in a short time after its 
formation went down. The meeting house 
was removed and changed into a furniture shop 
by John Ross. 

Succeeding the Cameronian in order of for- 
mal organization came the First Methodist 
Episcopal church of Argyle, whose incorpor- 
ate existence commenced on November 20, 
1850. The record of Methodism in the village, 
however, goes back to January 16, 1815, when 
a meeting was held at the house of Ichabod 
Davis, to form a legal societ}'. No records of 
this or any succeeding class up to 1835 are to 
be found. Then Rev. Daniel Brayton came 
on the circuit and urged a church organiza- 
tion, that was effected fifteen years later. The 
first meeting house, a frame, was replaced in 
1876, with their present fine brick structure, 
principally through the efforts of the Rev. J. 
W. Shank. 

After the Methodists came the Presbyter- 
ians in the history of this village, the First 
Presbyterian church of Argyle being formed 
June 29, 1873, with thirty-eight members. 

Rev. George Ainslie became the first pastor in 
1874, in which year their present nine thous- 
and dollar frame church structure was com- 
menced. The church edifice was finished in 


In addition to the churches and the Sunday 
schools in connection with them, Argyle has 
supported the Argyle Bible and Tract society, 
which was formed February 6, 1837, as the 
Young People's Bible society. 

Argyle village made its first provision against 
fire in 1845, when Argyle Fire Company, No. 
1, was formed. That company was succeeded 
by a new company in 1866, that also had 
charge of a new engine costing nine hundred 
dollars, and a good engine house, but which 
in a few years disbanded. 

In addition to the public schools the village 
has an academy and had two organized library 
companies before periodical literature was 
very common. 

Argyle academy was incorporated May 4, 
1841, although the building had been erected 
in the southern part of the village in 1840, and 
in that year the school had been opened under 
Prof. Earl Larkins. 

The early libraries were the Argyle library, 
formed at the house of Peleg Bragg, May 1, 
1805, and the Argyle Social library, formed at 
the house of Joseph Rowe, March 26, 1823. 
Both of these libraries went down a good many 
years ago. 


Bounded on the north by Kingsbury and 
Hartford, on the east by Salem and Hebron, 
on the south by Greenwich, and on the west 
by Fort Edward, is the town of Argyle,which 
lies in the central part of Washington count}', 
and was named for the Duke of Argyle of 
Scotland. Its present area is nearly thirty- 
five thousand acres, and it formerly included 
the territory of Greenwich and Fort Edward, 
which towns were taken from it respectively 
in 1803 and 1818. 

The surface is broken, being hilly in the 
west and mountainous in the east, while pleas- 



ant valleys are along the streams in the south, 
and a cedar swamp of some size lies in the 
north. The soil is a clay loam intermixed in 
some places with gravel or slate. It is pro- 
ductive and grain and grass yield well. 

The principal stream is Moses Kill (likely 
a corruption of Moss' Kill, after Captain Moss, 
an early settler on the stream), which has 
several tributaries and drains to the westward, 
the northern and central parts of the town. 
In the southeast are two beautiful lakes, Ar- 
gyle and Cossayuna. Lake Argyle' has bright 
waters and charming scenery, that has made 
it popular as a pleasure resort. It is tributary 
to Cossayuna lake, whose length is three and 
one-half miles, with a breadth of one-half 
mile. Lake Cossayuna has deep, clear waters 
stocked with fish, and is surrounded by pine- 
covered hills. A beautiful island is in the 
northern part of Cossayuna, whose southern 
extremity is in Greenwich. If the Indian 
name of Lake Argyle could have been pre- 
served, it would have been probably as soft 
and beautiful as that of Cossayuna. Care and 
taste could make these two lakes — so near 
together, the one sleeping on a highland and 
the other in a forest-embowered vale — an at- 
tractive summer resort, whose popularity 
would divide honors and patronage with other 
and more famous lake resorts, where fashion, 
wealth and beauty gather yearly. 

On March 2, 1764, Alexander McNaughton 
and one hundred and six others of the origi- 
nal Campbell colony and their decendants, 
petitioned for one thousand acres of land each, 
all to be in a single tract between South bay 
and Kingsbury. On May 21st, the council 
recommended that forty-seven thousand seven 
hundred acres be granted, and the grant was 
made for that amount and covered largely the 
present towns of Fort Edward, Greenwich, 
and all of Argyle. The grant or patent gave 
the name of Argyle to the township, but the 
first record of a town meeting bears date of 
April 2, 1 77 1 . The town was officially organ- 
ized by the State council March 23, 1786, and 

the first officers elected under this organiza- 
tion were: Duncan Campbell, supervisor; 
Archibald Brown, town clerk; Roger Reid, 
collector ; Archibald Campbell and Neal Shaw, 
assessors ; John Offrey and John McNeil, con- 
stables ; and a number of others as roadmas- 
ttfrs, fence viewers, and poor masters. 

The granting of a tract to Capt. Laughlin 
Campbell's children in Greenwich, led to the 
application for the Argyle grant by the one 
hundred and seven others mentioned of Cap- 
tain Campbell's immigrants. 

The Argyle patent specified the number of 
acres to each applicant, and those lots in the 
present town of Argyle, on the south side of 
a street that was to run through the center 
from the Hudson to the Salem patent were as 
follows : 
Lots. Names. Acres, 

1 Catherine Campbell 250 

2 Elizabeth Cargill 250 

3 Allan McDonald 300 

4 . . Neil Gillaspie 450 

5 Mary Campbell 350 

6 Duncan McKerwin 250 

7 Ann McAnthony 300 

8 Mary McGowne 300 

9 Catherine McLean 300 

10 Mary Anderson 300 

11 Archibald McNeil 300 

12 Dougall McAlpine 300 

13 David Lindsey 250 

14 Elizabeth Campbell 300 

15 Ann McDuffie 350 

16 Donald McDougall 300 

17 Archibald McGowne 300 

18 Eleanor Thompson 300 

19 Duncan McDuffie 350 

20 Duncan Reid 600 

21 John McDuffie 250 

22 Dugall McKallor 550 

2} Daniel Johnson. 350 

24 Archibald Campbell 250 

25 William Hunter 300 

26 Duncan Campbell. 300 

27 Elizabeth Frazer 200 



Lots. Names. Acres. 

28 Alexander Campbell 350 

Glebe lot 5°° 

29 Daniel Clark 35° 

43 Elizabeth Campbell 300 

44 Duncan McArthur 450 

45 John Torrey ' 3°° 

46 Malcom Campbell 300 

47 Florence McKenzie 200 

48 John McKenzie 300 

49 Jane Cargill 250 

50 John McGowan 3°° 

59 John McEwen 500 

60 John McDonald 300 

61 James McDonald 400 

62 Mary Belton 300 

72 Rachel Nevin 300 

73 James Cargill 400 

This stately street, twenty-four rods wide, on 
which each grantee was to have a town lot, 
• and the remainder of his land was to be sur- 
veyed back of it for a farm, was found to do 
better on paper than on land where hills too 
rough to grade and uninhabitable land was in 
its pathway. Archibald Campbell and Chris- 
topher Yates were the surveyors, and com- 
menced their labors June 19, 1 764. 

On the north side the lots, owners, and 
acres were as follows : 

Lots. Names. Acres. 

74 John Cargill 300 

75 Duncan McDougall 300 

76 Alexander Christie 350 

77 Alexander Montgomery .... 600 

78 Marian Campbell 250 

79 John Gilchrist 300 

80 Angus McDougall 300 

81 Duncan McGuire 500 

82 Edward McKallor 500 

83 Alexander Gilchrist 300 

84 Archibald McCollum 350 

85 Archibald McCore 300 

86 John McCarter 350 

87 ... Neil Shaw 600 

88 Duncan Campbell 300 

89 Roger McNeil 300 

Lots. Names. Acres. 

90 Elizabeth Ray 200 

91 Nutt 300 

92 Donald McDuffie 350 

93 George Campbell 300 

94 J ane Widrow 300 

95 John McDougall 400 

96 Archibald McCarter 300 

97 Charles McAllister 300 

98 William Graham 300 

99 Hugh McDougall 300 

00 James Campbell 300 

01 George McKenzie 400 

02 John McCarter 400 

03 Morgan McNeil 250 

04 Malcom McDuffie 550 

05 Florence McVarick 300 

06 Archibald McEwen 300 

07 Neil McDonald 500 

08 James Gillis 500 

09 Archibald McDougall 450 

10 Marian McEwen 200 

11 Patrick McArthur 350 

12 .John McGowne, jr 250 

13 J onn Shaw, sr 300 

14 Angus Graham 300 

15 Edward McCoy 300 

16 Duncan Campbell, jr 300 

17 Jenette Ferguson 250 

18 Hugh McElroy 200 

19 Dougall Thompson 400 

20 Mary Graham 300 

21 Robert McAlpine 300 

22 Duncan Taylor 600 

23 Elizabeth Caldwell 250 

24 William Clark 350 

25 Barbara McAllister ....... 300 

26 Mary Anderson 300 

27 Donald McMullen 450 

A number of the grantees came on their lots 
and settled. Others never claimed their lands, 
which passed into the hands of other settlers, 
or were occupied by squatters. Duncan McAr- 
thur, who drew lot No. 44, James Gillis, grantee 
of lot No. 108, and Duncan Taylor, allottee of 
lot No. 122, came in 1765, and settled on their 



land. Other settlers came in, and after the 
Revolution a considerable number settled in 
different parts of the town and became owners 
of land by purchase of the grantees or by years 
of peaceable possession. In 1790 Dr. Andrew 
Proudfit and Judge Ebenezer Clark, sons of 
Rev. James Proudfit and Doctor Clark, of Sa- 
lem, settled near Argyle and became promi- 
nent citizens of the town. By 181 5 the jury 
list showed the residence in the town of thirty- 
seven yeomen, one hundred and forty-five 
farmers, three joiners, five blacksmiths, two 
saddlers, three shoemakers, one surveyor, one 
inn-keeper, one doctor, two lawyers, and ten 
merchants. Thirty years later the population 
was one thousand six hundred and forty-one, 
and in 1880 numbered two thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-five. 

Limited water power has made agriculture 
the main pursuit of the people, yet the town 
has had a few mills and factories on the. Moses 
Kill and Lake Argyle. The earliest mill was 
that of George Kilmer, on the site of the 
present Argyle mill, on the Moses Kill. Sev- 
eral miles below Argyle Thomas N. Clark put 
up saw and grist mills about 1807. A woolen 
factory and a fulling mill were erected near 
Argyle and run for many years. Several saw 
mills were erected at the outlet of Lake Argyle 
and operated long enough to cut up the pine 
about the lake. At the head of the lake Mrs. 
E. Gifford, a woman of energy and business 
ability, built a cotton factory and dug a tun- 
nel from the lake through which she brought 
a sufficient stream of water to operate her 
machinery. This draft of water on the lake 
alarmed the saw mill owners for their supply. 
They procured an injunction preventing her 
from thus turning the course of the lake, and 
her efforts deserving success became unavail- 
ing. Saw and feed mills are at North Argyle, 
where formerly there were a plaster mill and a 
fulling mill. 

Of late years dairying has been successfully 
carried on in the town, and several cheese fac- 
tories have been built. 

Of the early schools of the town there is no 
record to be found, and to those established 
under State provision in 1 S 1 5 , not much atten- 
tion was paid for a few years. After that a 
proper interest was awakened in education, 
and has been maintained ever since. 

In addition to several small private bury- 
ing grounds, the town contains three well laid 
out cemeteries. The Prospect Hill cemetery 
was opened at Argyle in 1855, the North Ar- 
gyle cemetery was laid out in 1873, and the 
Cossayuna Lake cemetery was opened in 1877. 

Good roads are to be found in every part of 
Argyle, and in 1850 the Argyle and Fort Ed- 
ward plank road was built, and became a prin- 
cipal thoroughfare. 

There are two unincorporated villages and 
one hamlet in the town of Argyle. 

The Hook, formerly called Coot's Hill, is a 
hamlet two miles northeast of North Argyle, 
where a store and a tavern were kept many 
years ago. A postoffice was established in 
1829, but removed the next year to North Ar- 
gyle. The Hook now contains some mechanic 
shops and several houses, and in 1880 had a 
population of forty-one. 

North Argyle, two and one-half miles from 
Argyle, was first called Stevenson's Corners, 
after Daniel Stevenson, who was the first post- 
master in 1830. Shops, mills and stores have 
been continued at the place ever since Steven- 
son commenced business there. The popula- 
tion in 1880 was ninety-five. The United Pres- 
byterian church of North Argyle was organized 
in 1830 with the following members : Daniel 
Stevenson, sr. , Robert Robertson, William 
Shepherd, Duncan Shepherd, John Stevenson. 
John Tilford, Alex. McGeoch, William Swale, 
Nicholas Robertson, Robert G. Hale, Alex. 
Bachop and Nathaniel Reynolds and their 
wives, and Ann and Mary Robertson, Andrew 
Haggard, Phebe Coulter, Sarah Coulter, Mrs. 
Archibald Gillis and John Robertson. This 
church was organized to accommodate mem- 
bers living in the north and west parts of the 
town. Rev. Duncan Stalker became the first 



pastor in 1831, and the present church edifice 
was built in 1866, to take the place of the first 
church erected in 1831. The North Argyle 
Dairy association in 1875 erected a two story 
cheese factory just east of the village, which 
produced forty-three thousand pounds of 
cheese in 1876. 

South Argyle was founded in 1824, when 
John Mitchel opened a store. A carriage fac- 
tory was started by William Congdon in 1827, 
and three years later the postoffice was estab- 
lished, with Rev. J. P. Miller as postmaster. 
Since then shops and stores have been con- 
tinued, and in 1874 the South Argyle Dairy as- 
sociation erected a four thousand dollar cheese 
factory, that the first year of its operation pro- 
duced forty thousand pounds of cheese. It is 
the pioneer cheese factory of the county. The 
population of South Argyle numbered fifty in 
1880. The South Agyle church was organized 
about 1785, by Rev. Thomas Beveridge, under 
the shade of a tree and by the name of the 
Argyle congregation. Three churches have 
been built, the present fine one being erected 
in 1852. The church assumed its present name 
in 1858. It is the mother church of two other 
prosperous churches and has given many able 
ministers to the country. 

The territory of Argyle was not in the line 
of march or the path of foray during the In- 
dian and inter-colonial wars of the frontier, 
and while not a camping ground or battle-field 
in the Revolution, yet it was the theatre dur- 
ing that great struggle of the massacre of the 
Allen family by the same band of ferocious 
savages who, two days later, murdered Jane 

In July, 1777, Le Loup, an Iroquois chief, 
with a small party of warriors, left the vicinity 
of Salem to rejoin Burgoyne at Fort Edward. 

The Indians had one prisoner and resolved 
to murder the first family that they came 
across in their march. They were frightened 
away from Duncan McArthur's house by the 
appearance of too many men being about the 
premises, and on July 25th, came to John Al- 

len's residence, which they attacked when the 
family and three slaves were at dinner. The 
attack, sudden and swift, was only too success- 
ful, and in a few minutes nine scalped, bleed- 
ing and mutilated forms lay cold in death. Mr. 
Allen, his wife and three children, and his 
wife's sister, and three slaves — two men and 
a woman — were-the victims of the attack. Al- 
len's wife was the daughter of George Kilmore, 
who then lived at Argyle, and the slaves be- 
longed to Mr. Kilmore, who had sent them to 
help Allen with his wheat harvest. The bodies 
lay till Sunday before they were discovered and 

The massacre of the Allen family sent a 
thrill of dread and fear all through the town. 
Man} left, others sought protection in the rear 
of Burgoyne's army, and some families resid- 
ing on Lake Cossayuna sought safety by se- 
creting themselves on the island that is in the 
northern part of that sheet of water and which 
then was heavily wooded. 




Irregular in shape and named for the hero 
of New Orleans, is the town of Jackson, in the 
southern part of the county, and which was 
formerly a part of Cambridge. 

Jackson is bounded on the north by Green- 
wich and Salem ; on the east by the State of 
Vermont ; on the south by White Creek and 
Cambridge ; and on the west by Easton and 

The area of the town is twenty-two thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-one acres, of which 
nineteen thousand three hundred and seven- 
teen acres were improved in 1875, and the 
principal productions are corn, oats, rye, po- 
tatoes, and hay. 

The soil is a slaty loam and productive. 



The surface is broken and hilly, several par- 
allel ranges of the Taghanic mountains pass- 
ing through the town, with hills from three to 
eight hundred feet above the intervening val- 

The drainage of the town is by the waters 
of the Batten Kill to the northward, and of 
those of the Owl Kill to the southward. The 
Batten Kill receives eight rivulets from the 
northern and central parts, while the Owl Kill 
does not receive any number of tributaries in 
the southern part. There are four ponds in 
the town. Big pond is drained by a tributary 
of the Batten Kill, and the waters of Dead, 
McLean and Long ponds, on the slight water 
shed, south of the center, find their way by 
the Owl Kill to the Hoosic river. 

Jackson, from its situation and lack of water 
power, is necessarily an agricultural township, 
where profitable returns reward the labors of 
the industrious and thrifty husbandman. 

The town of Jackson was organized by act 
of legislature in 1815, being taken from the 
territory of Cambridge and named for Gen. 
Andrew Jackson, the victor of New Orleans, 
and then the hero of the nation. Of the move- 
ment for this new town we have no account, 
and whether it was originated to gratify local 
political ambition, to secure the enjoyment of 
some invaded civil right by the parent town, 
or on territorial considerations, its early his- 
torians are silent. 

On the first Tuesday in April, 1816, the first 
town meeting was held, and the following offi- 
cers were elected: James Irvin, supervisor; 
Kirtland Warner, town clerk ; William Adams, 
James Richardson and Edward Cook, asses- 
sors ; Robert Simpson and John McDonal, 
collectors ; and quite a number of others as 
school commissioners, school inspectors, com- 
missioners of highways, overseers of highways 
and fence viewers and appraisers. Benjamin 
Scott was elected to act with the two collec- 
tors as constables. 

Well provided in number with town offi- 
cials, Jackson entered upon the threshold of 

its civil history, which has been one of 
substantial progress. The railway running 
through the eastern part affords means of exit 
and egress, and furnishes shipping facilities 
for farm and market garden products. 

In the by-gone ages of Indian occupation 
and supremacy in the Upper Hudson valley, 
the territory of Jackson seems to have been 
used as a hunting ground, and sometime to- 
ward its close, and probably during the earlier 
of the inter-colonial wars, a deadly battle was 
fought by hostile Indian tribes at the water- 
shed or highland ponds for the control of the 
pass below them. The tradition of this forest 
struggle is silent alike as to its result or the 
nationality of the contending tribes. From 
this time on peace reigned in its valleys and 
on its hills until August 23, 1746, when Van 
Dreuil with nine hundred French and Indians 
camped by these highland ponds and near 
tradition's Indian battle-field. Three days be- 
fore Van Dreuil had stormed and captured 
Fort Massachusetts, in the town of Hoosic, 
and had brought with him as captives, those 
of the inhabitants who were spared from the 
knife and tomahawk. A sorrowful night it 
must have been for those captives whose 
march the next day was to be resumed for 
Canada, where, if escaping the torture stake, 
the miseries of a long if not a hopeless capti- 
vity awaited them. 

Thirty-one years later, and in the month of 
August, the last armed force that has entered 
the territory of Jackson made its appearance 
in the troops of Baum, whose axmen cut out 
his way along the southwestern boundary line 
of the town. The common alarm prevailing 
throughout the count}- during Burgoyne's in- 
vasion was felt by the citizens of the town. 

The largest portion of Jackson is on the 
Cambridge patent of July 21, 1761, while in 
the east is the lands of the Schermerhorn pat- 
ent of ten thousand acres, granted to Ray 
Schermerhorn and others, May 11, 1762. This 
last patent was often called the Anaquassa- 
cook patent, and was laid out in 1763 into 



twenty-five lots, commencing at the north end. 
The owners of these lots were Thomas Smith, 
William Smith, Johannes Quackenboss, and 
Ryer Schermerhorn, who each owned five lots, 
and Jacob and Barnardus Vrooman Scher- 
merhorn, who owned the other five lots. 

The pioneer settlers came from 1 761 to 1765, 
and were from New England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. Many of them held offices in Cam- 
den, where their names appear in the early 

Among the settlers coming between 177.0 
and 1790 were Jobn R. Law, whose grandson, 
George Law, of New York city, was at one 
time named prominently as a candidate for 
the presidency ; Andrew Thompson, Ebenezer 
Billings, Obadiah Culver, Isaac Watters, Seth, 
Eleazer, Nathaniel and John Crocker, James 
and John Telford, Alex. Lourie, John and 
Walter Maxwell, Thomas and James Green, 
Joseph Archer and John Ferguson. 

Jackson by its shape is peculiarly situated 
in regard to places of business and churches. 
All around its boundary lines are villages, 
whose stores and churches its citizens have 
visited for the last century. 

No churches were in the town in 1880, and 
the only church ever within its bounds before 
that time was the Reformed Dutch church, in 
the western part and opposite Battenville vil- 
lage. The old brick meeting house there was 
erected in 1833, through the influence of Judge 
John McClean. The church was organized 
December 24, 1833, and on February 19, 
1834, Rev. James Stewart was installed as 
pastor, serving in that relation for two and 
one-half years. The last pastor was Rev. 
John H. Pitcher, who left in 185 1, and soon 
afterward, death and removal had so thinned 
the membership that the church became dis- 

The schools of the town have kept up in 
efficiency and progress with the schools of the 
surrounding towns. In 1877 there were ten 
districts, with an enumeration of over five 
hundred children of school age. 

The business of the town is mostly done at 
villages beyond its boundary lines, and this, 
with lack of water power, has caused but few 
industries to be established in the town, as 
they would have to depend upon steam as 
motive power, and the enhanced cost of thus 
operating machinery would be too large for 
the possible profits that could be realized. 

Of late years flax has been raised in some 
quantity, and potatoes have become the chief 
article of export. 

The main villages of Jackson township are 
Coila, in the south, and Jackson Centre, south 
of the highland ponds. 

Coila is on the northern extremity of Cam- 
den, in which the main part of the village and 
its mills, stores and churches lie. 

Jackson Centre is south of the highland 
ponds. The Pond Valley hotel there was 
opened many years ago. 

At Anaquassacook there are a few dwellings, 
a tannery established before 1800, and some 
shops started in later years. 

Opposite East Greenwich is a place of some 
business, where a woolen mill was once oper- 
ated on the waters of the Batten Kill. 

The old Reformed church opposite Batten- 
ville once promised to become the center of 
a small village. 

Nearly forty years ago the farmers of Jack- 
son made a move to protect their buildings 
against fire at a cheaper rate than was then 
given by leading insurance companies, and on 
November 27, 1858, organized the Jackson 
Fire Insurance Company. 


The southeastern town of Washington county 
is White Creek, whose boundaries are Jack- 
son, on the north ; the State of Vermont, on 
the east ; Rensselaer county, on the south ; 
and Cambridge, on the west. 

The area of White Creek is twenty-eight 
thousand three hundred acres of land,' of which 
twenty-one thousand nine hundred and ninety- 
three acres were improved in 1875. The sur- 



face in the south is rolling, and the central 
and northern parts arc mountainous, while the 
soil in the tillable parts is a fine gravelly loam, 
being fertile and productive. The hilly dis- 
tricts are well adapted to pasturage. Lime 
h;is been found, and had was discovered on 
the Noxon farm, near Post's Corners, but is 
not in paying quantities, although twenty-two 
per cent, of the ore is silver. 

The drainage is to the southwest by the 
Owl Kill and its numerous tributaries. The 
principal tributary is North White creek, then 
come five small eastern and three small west- 
ern creeks, below which in the southeastern 
part of the town is received the last tributary, 
Little White creek. 

The town of White Creek was taken from 
Cambridge in 1815 by act of legislature, and 
in 1 816 the first town officers were elected. 
William Richards was the first supervisor, and 
Ira Parmely the first town clerk. An attempt 
had been made by the citizens of White Creek 
to obtain a separate organization as early as 
1775, but had failed. 

One-third of White Creek is on the Cam- 
bridge patent, and the remainder of its terri- 
tory is included in the Schermerhorn, Lake & 
VanCuyler, Wilson or Embury, Bain, Grant, 
and Campbell patents. 

Settlement commenced between 1761 and 
1765, but we find no account of the pioneer 
settlers whose names if found would be in the 
lists of early settlers of Cambridge. Of those 
who came between 1770 and 1790 there is 
record of Thomas and James Ashton, from 
Ireland ; John Allen, a Friend from New Bed- 
ford, Connecticut ; Dr. William Richards, 
David Sprague, Seth Chase, and Rev. William 
Waite, from Rhode Island ; John and Isaac 
Wood, Jonathan Hart, Joseph Mosher, and 
Johnson Perrine, from New Bedford; Amos 
Hoag, and John, Aaron, and William Perry, 
from Dutchess county; and Zebulon Allen, 
who lived to be one hundred and four years 
of age. 

Record nor tradition assigns anything of 

military interest to the territory of White 
Creek, until the opening of the Revolution, 
when dread, uneasiness, and a spirit of rest- 
lessness was awakened there, as well as 
throughout the whole county and the entire 

Baum's route to Bennington was through 
White Creek, and entering at the northwest 
that officer probably passed through North 
White Creek village. His night camp on 
August 13, 1777, was near Waite's Corners, 
and south of a small rivulet that empties into 
the Owl Kill. The next day he marched be- 
yond the boundaries of the town, and passed 
southward into the valley of the Hoosick. 
Just beyond the White Creek line was fought 
the battle of Bennington, and cannon balls 
fired at that engagement are said to have 
fallen in the southeast corner of the town and 
caused a Quaker and his sons to beat a precip- 
itate retreat from their meadow. It is also 
said William Gilmore, working that day on the 
B. B. Kenyon farm, unyoked his oxen, gath- 
ered up a few Whigs, and started for the 
Hoosick. Learning of Breyman's approach 
with reinforcements for Baum, Gilmore and 
his companions commenced tearing up Little 
White Creek bridge, and as the last plank was 
barely removed, the British reinforcements 
arrived in sight. Gilmore and his compan- 
ions escaped among a shower of bullets, but 
the slight halt occasioned by the tearing up of 
the bridge caused just enough delay to Brey- 
man in crossing to enable Warren to reach the 
Bennington battle-ground in time for the sec- 
ond struggle, and to ensure final victory to 
the American arms. Thus Gilmore's patriotic 
act made certain the victory that othenvise 
might have been a defeat, and in ensuring 
Bennington had an indirect effect toward tri- 
umph at Saratoga. 

The principal villages of White Creek are : 
White Creek, Martindale Corners, Pumpkin 
Hook, North White Creek, Dorr's Corners, Ash- 
grove, Post's Corners and Centre White Creek. 

White Creek village, the largest place in 



the town, is situated on the waters of White 
creek, in the southeastern part, and in 1880 
had a population of 189. It was settled at 
an early day, and has heen a place of business 
importance ever since the close of the Revo- 
lution. The first house, a log building, was 
put up by John Allen, and stood on the creek 
below the old hat factory, while the first store 
was originally established southwest of the 
village by Jacob and Benjamin Merritt, who 
soon removed to White Creek, where they 
built on the site of the Sisson store. They did 
a wonderfully extensive business for their day, 
buying large quantities of wheat and selling 
fifty-thousand dollars worth of goods yearly. 
Edward Aiken's grist mill and house had been 
erected before the Merritts brought their 
store to the place. The Aiken grist mill build- 
ing was successfully used as a cotton factory, 
a woolen mill and a flax mill. John Allen 
and Paul Cornell built the second grist mill, 
James Allen, Jonathan Hart and Sylvanus 
Tabor erected tanneries, and John Allen 
erected a hat factory, in which George N. 
Briggs worked when a boy. Two trip ham- 
mers were operated at an early day by Paul 
Cornell, who made scythes and hoes, and 
George Mann, who manufactured scythes. 
Edwin Hurd built an ax factory and Garner 
Wilkinson had a scythe-snath factory. All 
of these business enterprises were founded 
before 1820. The first tavern was kept by 
Garner Wilkinson, and the postoffice dates 
its establishment to 1822, when Daniel P. 
Carpenter was commissioned as the first post- 
master. White Creek with Camden were the 
important early business centers of the south- 
eastern part of the county. 

Center White Creek, while not central geo- 
graphically, yet may hold claim to its name 
as being half way between White Creek and 
North White Creek. This village is in the 
southwestern part of the town and for many 
years was known as Waite's Corners, from be- 
ing founded by Rev. William Waite, a Bap- 
tist preacher. An early grist mill was built by 

James Hay, while a rope factory stood near 
it, but both have passed away. A saw mill 
was built near the village in 1790, and about 
the same time a flax mill was put up a short 
distance above the small collection of houses. 
Zerah and Ezra Waite opened the first store, 
while Ishmael Gardner swung the first tavern 
sign to the breeze. The village was a favorite 
place for early town meetings. The postoffice 
was removed in 1866 from Post's Corner to 
Center White Creek, and was first kept there 
by Thomas Fowler. 

Pumpkin Hook, while having an agricul- 
turally sounding name, yet derives its more 
practical than euphonious title not from a farm 
product but from the Pompanuck tribe of In- 
dians, who lived at its site for a time and were 
originally from Massachusetts. The corruption 
of the Indian name gave rise to the present 
designation of the place. A mill and a chair 
factory were among the first buildings, and 
about 1816 to these industries were added 
clock and comb factories and a woolen mill. 
John Warren, a Mr. Glass, and Joseph War- 
ren, were among these early manufacturers. 
Leonard Darby had a machine shop, and 
John Rhodes a fulling mill in operation about 
the time the woolen mill was started. In 
time competition elsewhere in the county led 
to the abandonment of all these enterprises, 
and a chair factory only remained. 

North White Creek is the old name for the 
eastern part of the village of Camden, and its 
enterprises are described in the historical notes 
on that place. 

Dorr's Corners were named for Dr. Jona- 
than Dorr, and is now a part of Cambridge 
village. A Mr. Stillwell was the first merchant 
at Dorr's Corners, and a mill and a machine 
shop are near the place. 

Post's Corners, a short distance east of Cen- 
tre White Creek, is at the confluence of several 
roads, and derives its name from a Dr. Post. 
Formerly a store was kept here. A postoffice 
was established, but was removed in 1866 to 
Centre White Creek. 



Ashgrove, two miles east of Camden village, 
derives its name from Thomas Ashton, an 
earl)' settler, and who built the first frame 
house at the little hamlet. Ashgrove has be- 
come famous in connection with the Methodist 
church and its founder in the new world, 
Philip Embury. 

Martindale Corners, near the eastern town 
line, takes its name from the early resident 
family of Martindale. Kinkaid's store was 
there in an early day, and the place, from its 
present resident family, is known generally as 
Briggs' Corners. 

The church history of White Creek town is 
important, for within its borders was the second 
Methodist Episcopal church of the United 
States and America, and were also early Bap- 
tist churches and Friends' meetings. 

The Baptist church of White Creek was 
organized in 1772, by Rev. William Waite, 
from Rhode Island. Some of its members 
fought with Baum's forces against Stark, at 
Bennington, which was but a short distance 
away, and this action of theirs led to the tem- 
porary disbanding of the church. But Elder 
Waite gathered three members the next year, 
and in 1779 the church was formally reorgan- 
ized. In 1788 the first meeting house was 
built, and in 1796 the second church was 
erected at Centre White Creek. In 1855 a 
second church at the last named place was 

Friends' White Creek meeting has record 
back to the seventh of Tenth month, 1783, al- 
though the meeting is supposed to have been 
established earlier than that year. Their first 
meeting house west of White Creek was built 
in 1785, and the second church, erected in 
1805, was burned in 1874. 

The first Methodist Episcopal chapel at 
Ashgrove was erected in 1788, and rebuilt in 
[832. The Ashgrove church afterward went 
down, and the ashes of its celebrated founder, 
Philip Embury, rest in the cemetery at the 
village of Camden. 

Further mention here is appropriate of 

Philip Embury, who has been frequently men- 
tioned elsewhere in this volume. 

Philip Embury was licensed as a local 
preacher in Ireland, where he married Mary 
Switzer, and in 1760 left Balligarrane, that 
country, for New York with several Palatines 
or Methodists. For five years Embury did 
no ministerial work, but a second company of 
Irish Methodists came in 1765, and one of 
their number, Mrs. ' Barbara Heck, induced 
the young retired preacher to resume his 
sacred calling. Embury's preaching in New 
York city led to the organization of the John 
Street church there. In 1769 Embury trans- 
ferred his congregation — the First Methodist 
Episcopal church on the continent to mission- 
aries sent over by Mr. Wesley, and removed 
to Salem. He soon made his purchase of 
land in Camden, but kept his residence in the 
town of Salem, where he died in 1773 from an 
overheat in the hay field. Philip Embury 
formed the Ashgrove class in 1770, ancj 
preached throughout the southern part of the 
county until his death. He lived and died 
with apparently but a frontier fame, and 
whatever may have been the measure of his 
ambition, his name is enrolled as the founder 
of a mighty church in the New World, and 
among those who are honored of men, while 
the story of his life has been eloquently told 
in the pulpit, on the platform and by the fire- 

The Methodist Episcopal Church at Post's 
Corners was organized about 1856, and con- 
tinued in existence until 1875. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at White 
Creek was organized in 1831, and held their 
services for years in the Union church. 

The public schools succeeded the subscrip- 
tion schools in this as in other towns. In 1825 
there were twelve districts and six hundred 
and twenty-five pupils, which fifty years later, 
in 1875, had increased to fourteen districts 
and eight hundred and eighty-nine pupils. 

Union academy of White Creek village was 
established in 1810 by the subscriptions of the 



prominent citizens of the community. It was 
opened in the autumn of 1810 by Isaiah Y. 
Johnson, who was succeeded successively as 
principal by a Mr. Marsh and Ambrose 
Eggleston, and during their administrations 
some eminent men were students at this 
academy. The academy went down about 
1IS75, and the building became a dwelling. 

Sheep raising was an extensive industry in 
the town of White Creek until late years, 
when it has been largely supplanted by dairy- 
ing and the raising of flax and potatoes. 
Flocks of sheep as high as three thousand in 
numbers were owned by single persons in 
1850, when there were over thirty thousand 
sheep kept in the town. In 1875 White Creek 
had still more sheep than any other town in 
the county, her flocks then containing nine 
thousand six hundred and forty-six sheep. 

The dairy interests of the town were ma- 
terially advanced as early as 1877, when Jer- 
main's White Creek village creamery was es- 
tablished. It took the milk of one hundred 
and fifty cows, and produced two thousand 
pounds of butter, and over twenty-one thous- 
and pounds of cheese during the first year of 
its operation. 



In the northeastern part of the town of Cam- 
bridge, in a small and beautiful valley horizon- 
bounded with surrounding hills, lies the old, 
populous, and thriving village of Cambridge, 
one of the railroad and business centers of 
Washington county. Since its incorporation, 
in 1866, Cambridge has comprised within its 
chartered bounds, what were formerly known 
as Cambridge, and North White Creek, and 
Dorr's Corners, which are on the territory of 
the town of White Creek. The Owl Kill and 
other streams run through the village, and 

while not large enough there to afford water 
power, yet give good drainage. Fine shaded 
streets, fine public and private buildings, and 
a general appearance of neatness, make Cam- 
bridge a beautiful and pleasant village. 

The site of Cambridge was originally owned 
by James and Thomas Morrison, and around 
the cross roads there settlement was first 
made about 1770. Soon a hamlet came into 
existence, that with the development of the 
country, grew into a village sustained by the 
business interest of a surrounding section of 
rich farming lands. The completing of the 
Troy & Rutland railroad in 1852 through Cam- 
bridge, gave it an assured future and secured 
it connection with New York, Montreal, and 
the eastern cities. Since then a slow growth 
but of a subtantial character has marked the 
history of Cambridge, whose population in 1880 
numbered one thousand four hundred eighty- 
two, an increase over the census return of ten 
years earlier. In 1890 the population was 
one thousand five hundred and ninety-eight. 

But little account is to be obtained of the 
early settlers. Ruel Beebe kept the first tav- 
ern where the Presbyterian church now stands, 
and opposite Beebe, Adonijah Skinner built 
a tavern in 1795, which in later years became 
the Fenton house. The Irving house was 
partly built in 1842 by James Durwell, its first 
landlord. The Union hotel, destroyed by fire 
in 1875, was partly built about 1800, by a man 
named Peters. Jeremiah Stillwell, at Dorr's 
Corners, was the first store keeper. Among 
the early merchants were : Rice & Billings, 
Eddy & Brown, Paul Dennis, Clark Rice, jr., 
Ransom Hawley, J. D. Crocker, Aaron Cros- 
by, Leonard Wells, and Carpenter & Liv- 

The Cambridge postoffice was established 
about 1797, with Adonijah Skinner as post- 
master, and the office being moved a short 
distance in 1829, North White Creek post- 
office was established in the old locality, with 
L. J. Howe as postmaster. In 1866 both 
offices were merged and moved to the center 



of the united villages, under the present name 
of Cambridge. 

The manufacturing interests of the village 
have 1800 as their initial year. Then a hat 
factory was built and a saw mill was erected 
on the Owl Kill. Forty years later a small 
furnace was erected on the site of the Beebe 
tavern. It was afterward changed to machine 
shops and moved to Dorr's Corners, where 
they were destroyed by fire in 1875. The 
shops were rebuilt the next year by A.Walsh. 
In i860 Alfred Woodworth and William Qua 
put up a saw mill, to which they attached a 
planing mill and sash and blind factory, and 
ran up to 1876, when part of their plant was 
burned. Mechanic shops of all kinds are 
carried on in the village. 

Judge John L. Wendell and G. Wendell 
were pioneer lawyers, and next, in 1813, came 
John P. Putnam, a grandson of Gen. Israel 
Putnam, and who practiced law and was other- 
wise engaged at Cambridge until his death in 

John P. Putnam was the owner of the fa- 
mous Major Pitcairn pistols, whose shot at 
Concord in April, 1775, rang round the world. 
Since his death they have been carefully pre- 
served at Cambridge. 

Dr. Jonathan Dorr was an early physician, 
and his second daughter, Elizabeth, married 
John P. Putnam. Two other early physicians 
were Drs. William Stevenson and Henry C. 

One of the first moves on the part of the 
board of trustees, after the incorporation of 
the village, was to organize a fire department. 
The J.J. Gray Fire Company, No. 1, and the 
]. J. Gray Hose Company, were organized in 
1866, and a fire hook and ladder company was 
formed at a later date. A good second-hand 
fire engine of a peculiar construction and un- 
couth in appearance was bought, yet it pos- 
sesses great force and has won the premium in 
every one of the many prize contests in which 
it has been pitted against some of the finest, 
largest and most expensive fire engines made. 

Soon after the railroad was built to Cam- 
bridge the subject of a home bank was dis- 
cussed, and led to the organization of the Cam- 
bridge Valley bank, on September 15, 1R55, 
with a capital stock of one hundred and fifteen 
thousand dollars subscribed by one hundred 
and thirty-seven persons. Orrin Kellog was 
elected president, and James Thompson, cash- 
ier. In May, 1865, this bank became a Na- 
tional bank, and two years later the directors 
built a handsome banking house on Majn 

The Cambridge seed business was originally 
started by Simon Crosby, in 1816, at Coila, on 
a small scale, and in 1836 his sons established 
their garden and vegetable seed house at 
Dorr's Corners. Roswell Rice now engaged 
in the seed business, and in 1844 R. Niles 
Rice transferred his seed business from Salem 
(where he started in 1834) to Cambridge, and 
bought out S. W. Crosby and Roswell Rice. 
In 1865 R. Niles Rice associated his son, Je- 
rome B. Rice, with him, and extended his 
business to the eastern and middle, and some 
of the southern States. 

The religious history of the village is of 
interest, as some of its churches have entered 
upon the second century of their existence. 

The oldest church is the United Presby- 
terian church of Cambridge. Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Clark preached in the town in the fall of 1765, 
and that year the synod of the Secession 
church of Scotland was petitioned for a min- 
ister. Rev. David Telfair came, but did not 
remain, and the associate synod of Pennsyl- 
vania was then petitioned. They directed Dr. 
Clark, on April 19, 1769, to organize a con- 
gregation at Camden, which it is supposed he 
did, as William Smith, an original patentee, 
then donated a glebe lot for a church, which 
was commenced in 1775, but not completed 
until 1783. The next year a personal petition 
for a minister was resolved upon to the Pres- 
bytery of Pennsylvania, and a pious Irish wo- 
man, Widow Nancy Hinsdale, undertook the 
mission. She walked to Philadelphia and 



secured the appointment of Rev. Thomas Bev- 
eridge, who had just arrived from Ireland. 
Reverend Beveridge came to Camden, and on 
January 5, 1785, the church was legally organ- 
ized as the Protestant Presbyterian Congrega- 
tion, of Cambridge. A dissention afterward 
took place, resulting in the formation of the 
Coila church. In 1845 a new church building 
was erected on Main street, where the congre- 
gation has since worshiped. 

The first United Presbyterian congregation 
in Cambridge was organized August 17, 1793, 
and their first pastor was Rev. Gershom Wil- 
liams. The church they first occupied was 
built in 1792. Their present fine church, cost- 
ing thirty thousand dollars, was built in 1870 
on the site of the old Beebe tavern. On July 
12. 1836, the cornerstone of the third Ash- 
grove church was laid at Cambridge, on land 
bought of Philip Blair. This time-honored 
church has its most interesting history con- 
nected with the first two of its church build- 
ings at Ashgrove, and is given in the account 
of White Creek town in the preceding chap- 
ter. Ashgrove church was founded by Philip 
Embury, in 1771, afterward served in 1779 by 
the celebrated Lorenzo Dow, and in all has had 
over one hundred pastors. 

The First Baptist church of Cambridge was 
organized with twenty-six members, at the 
house of Benajah Cook, Jul}' 8, 1843. Rev. 
Levi Parmely was the first pastor, and the 
brick church structure was consecrated June 
5, 1845. 

Saint Patrick's Catholic church was organ- 
ized about 1853, by Rev. Dr. Hugh Quigley, 
who commenced the building of the church 
structure in the same year. 

Saint Luke's Episcopal church was duly or- 
ganized September 23, 1866, and Rev. Clar- 
ence Buel became its first rector. 

For the burial of its dead, Cambridge has 
one of the finest cemeteries in the county. 

Woodlands cemetery, one mile north of the 
village was chosen in 1852 by J. C. Sidney, a 
civil engineer and rural architect of Philadel- 

phia, who six years later upon its purchase 
surveyed it into walks and lots. It has since 
been enlarged and beautified. Of its many 
monuments there are two deserving more than 
passing notice — the one erected by patriotism, 
the other built by love. 

The Soldiers' monument was erected in 
1868 by the citizens of the "old town of Cam- 
bridge." The monument, twenty-one feet high, 
is a beautiful shaft of Italian marble, sur- 
mounted by a draped urn. Below is a marble 
die bearing the names of the fallen heroes, and 
the whole rests on a granite base. 

The other monument is a shapely pile of 
Barre granite, thirty-one feet high, erected by 
the Preacher's National association in 1873 to 
the memory of Philip Embury. This monu- 
ment cost two thousand four hundred and fifty 
dollars, and was unveiled October 20, 1873, by 
Bishop Simpson in the presence of a vast as- 
sembly. In front of the monument, which 
bears only the simple inscription " Philip Em- 
bury," is the old Ashgrove tablet placed over 
the remains and bearing the eloquent inscrip- 
tion dictated by the brilliant Maffit, 


the earliest American minister of the Metho- 
dist church, here found his last earthly resting 

" Born in Ireland, an emigrant to New York. 
Embury was the first to gather a little class in 
that city, and to set in motion a train of meas- 
ures which resulted in the founding of John 
Street church, the cradle of American Meth- 
odism, and the introduction of a system which 
has beautified the earth with salvation and in- 
creased the joys of heaven." 

The early settlers at Cambridge appreciated 
the true value of learning, and the log school 
house was succeeded in the year 181 5 by the 
Cambridge Washington academy, built by 
subscriptions, some of which were taken as 
early as 1799. Two thousand three hundred 
dollars of a permanent fund was obtained after 
the house was built, and Cambridge Wash- 



ington academy was in due time incorporated 
by the board of regents. The academy was 
opened August 16th, and dedicated Septem- 
ber 5, i8i6. The institution was organized 
with a classical and an English department, 
and opened with fifty-one scholars. A new 
academy building was erected in 1844, and 
the school with varying fortunes continued its 
existence until 1H73, when its portals were 
closed after a long and useful career, during 
which time it sent forth many students who 
made their mark in life. The building in 1873 
was leased to the school trustees of the west 
district, who promised to maintain an acad- 
emic department. The principals of the acad- 
emy were: David Chassell, Rev. Alex. Bul- 
lions, Rev. N. S. Prime, Rev. John Monteith, 
William D. Beattie, Addison Lyman, Russell 
M. Wright, Rev. T. C. McLaurie, Rev. E. H. 
Newton, Rev. A. M. Beveridge, Rev. C. I. 
Robinson, C. H. Gardner, J. H. Burtis, A. 
P. Beals, D. M.Westfall, William S. Aumock, 
Rev. George I. Taylor, Daniel Marsh, jr., J. P. 
Lansing, and Miss Amelia Merriam. The 
presidents were: Rev. John Dunlap, Alex. 
Bullions, and E. H. Newton, J. M.Stevenson, 
and Rev. Henry Gordon. 


Cambridge is bounded on the north by Jack- 
son ; on the east by White Creek ; on the 
south by Rensselaer county ; and on the west 
by Easton. When erected Cambridge em- 
braced its present territory and that of Jack- 
son and White Creek with a part of Vermont. 
It was organized as a district of Albany county, 
March 12, 1772, became a town in 1788, and 
as such was annexed to Washington county 
in 1791. The present area of Cambridge is 
twenty-two thousand six hundred and fifty- 
seven acres of land, of which eighteen thous- 
and eight hundred and seventy-five acres 
were improved in 1875. 

The first town officers of which we have an}' 
record were those of 1774, m which year Sim- 
eon Covell was elected supervisor ; William 

Brown, town clerk ; and Edward Aikin, collec- 
tor. At a town meeting in 1812, one hundred 
and four pathmasters were appointed. 

The surface of the town is hilly in the north 
and west, level along the Hoosick river, and 
on the eastern border is a part of the Owl Kill 
or famous Cambridge valley, noted for fertile 
soil and beautiful scenery. Originally covered 
with heavy forests, a part of the uplands are 
yet well wooded. The soil varies from a heavy 
s,and to a light clay loam, with some few small 
gravel areas. This soil is productive, and 
flax and potatoes are raised in large quanti- 
ties, while the production of garden seeds has 
been an important industry for nearly half a 

The drainage of the town is by several small 
streams, chiefly flowing into the Hoosick river. 

About four thousand acres of the Hoosick 
patent, granted in 1688, lie in the southern 
part of the town. The Cambridge patent, 
issued in 1671, embraces the remainder of the 
town, and gave name to the beautiful valley 
stretching northward along the waters of the 
Owl Kill. The Cambridge patentees were : 
Isaac Sawyer, Edmund Wells, Jacob Lansing, 
William Smith, Alex. Colden, Goldsboro 
Bangor, and others. 

Between 1761-63 among those who came 
on the Camden patent were : John McClung, 
James and Robert Cowan, Samuel Bell, Col- 
onel Blair, George Gilmore, George Duncan, 
David Harrow, William Clark, John Scott 
and Thomas Morrison, some of whom were 
in what is now the town of White Creek. 
Other early settlers were : Ephraim Cowan, 
Robert Gilmore, Austin Wells, Samuel Clark, 
Jonathan Morrison, Edwin Wells, John Allen, 
David Sprague, Seth Chase, John Woods, 
John Harroun, Thomas McCool, Thomas 
Ash ton, Simeon Fowler, John Young, Josiah 
Dewey, Rael Beebe, Samuel Clark, William 
Eager, William Selfridge, John Younglove 
and John Corey, of whom some resided onWhite 
creek. In addition to these we have the 
names of the following early settlers taken 



from the record of those disturbed in the pos- 
session of their lands during the Revolution : 
Ephraim Bessey, Benj. Smith, John Morrison. 
William Cooper, Isaac Gibbs, George Searl, 
William Bleck, Archibald, John and William 
Campbell, George Telford. Winslow Heath, 
William King, Timothy Heath, Amos Buck, 
John Austin, James and Eben Warner, and 
James, Samuel, James S. and David Covvden. 
Some of these settlers were in White Creek 
and a few in Jackson. 

Edmund Wells, one of the Cambridge pat- 
entees, came in 1773, and settled on the 
Thomas Cornell farm. He was the only 
patentee that became a settler. Capt. Daniel 
Wells came in 1779, and the Cowdens and 
Longs settled on the Owl Kill several miles 
below Cambridge. James Long opened the 
first tavern in the town, and Major Cowden 
built and painted the original "Checkered 
House." Phineas Whiteside came into the 
southwestern part of the town in 1766. Hugh 
Larmouth (now Larmori), from Scotland, was 
an earl}' settler, as was also Capt. Elihu 
Gifford, who served on a privateer in the Rev- 
olution and commanded a company in the 
war of 1S12. While privafeering; Captain 
Gifford was captured by a British seventy-four, 
and escaped from her off the coast of Cuba by 
swimming three miles to shore. The Lees, 
Gilmores, Stevensons, Ackleys, Bowens, 
Websters, Greens, Weirs, Averills, Englishes, 
Waites, Wrights and Coulters were among 
the early families of prominence and note. 

Of the pre-historic history of the town of 
Cambridge, there are neither ruins to indicate 
its character or tradition to tell of the people 
who made it. The Indian hunter came and 
passed away, and the pioneer clearing appeared 
on the stream and in the forest, but ere the 
early settlement had attained any proportions 
the Revolution burst upon the land. In 1777 
Baum's foraging column passed along the pres- 
ent northern boundary line of Cambridge to 
seek for plunder, but to find annihilation at 

The unincorporated villages of the town of 
Cambridge are: North Cambridge, Centre 
Cambridge, Buskirk's Bridge, and Coila. 

North Cambridge is on Lot No. 70, and four 
miles west of Cambridge. Esek Brownell and 
John Willis settled there at an early day, and 
Brownell opened a store and afterward se- 
cured a postoffice, of which he was commis- 
sioned postmaster. Years later the postoffice 
was discontinued, and the business of the 
place became limited to a few mechanic shops. 
Near North Cambridge in 1838, a Methodist 
Episcopal church was organized, whose first 
trustees were Peter Hill, sr., Isaiah Darrow.and 
Edward F. Whiteside. A meetinghouse cost- 
ing one thousand five hundred dollars was 
built, and the Rev. Reuben Wescott served as 
the first pastor. 

Centre Cambridge lies in the heart of a rich 
and beautiful country, and is near the centre 
of the town on the old thoroughfare locally 
known as the "Shun pike." The Whitesides, 
Kenyons, Aliens, Shermans, Hills, Skinners, 
Pratts, Burrows, Millers, Halls and Willetts, 
were among the early settlers at that place. 
Valentine Randall opened a public house 
about 1800, Joseph Palmer kept the pioneer 
store, and James H. Hall was the first post- 
master of North Cambridge postoffice, which 
was established in 1829. Dr. Morris was the 
first physician. A mile west of the village is 
the station on the Greenwich & Johnsonville 

The Whiteside church, on a hill near the 
village, was built in 1800 by the Whiteside 
family. Mrs. Phineas Whiteside left by will 
one hundred pounds toward its erection, and 
other members of the family contributed suffi- 
cient to ensure its completion. In 1825 the 
house was rebuilt, and although no regular 
church organization was effected, yet preach- 
ing has always been steadily maintained. Rev. 
Mr. Dunlap was the first minister, and after 
him Rev. Henry Gordon held regular services. 

As early as 181 3 Fenner King was leader of 
a Methodist class at Centre Cambridge, and 



on March 15, 1823, the Methodist Episcopal 
church of East Cambridge was formed. The 
first preacher was Rev. Samuel Draper, and 
the church edifice was erected at a cost of 
one thousand dollars. 

Buskirk's Bridge is partly on the Rens- 
selaer county side, to which, of late years, the 
business interests of the place have passed. 
Martin Buskirk, from whom the place derives 
its name, kept a pioneer tavern on the Cam- 
bridge side, and built the first bridge across the 
stream. Two early Cambridge-side stores 
were kept by Carpenter and Allen, whose 
Christian names are not recollected. 

Coila, once Stevenson's Corners, and later 
named for Coila, in Scotland, is one mile from 
Cambridge village, and lies partly in the town 
of Jackson. The locality was first known as 
the Green settlement, from early settlers of 
that name, and subsequently became Steven- 
son's Corners, in honor of William Stevenson, 
who had a store there at an early day. His 
successors were McNeil and McNaughton. 
John Gow opened a store in 1840, and be- 
came the first postmaster. Rich's tannery 
started in 1806, came into the possession of 
the Robertsons in 1816, and in 1879 was oper- 
ated by J. E. Robertson. 

The United Presbyterian church of Coila 
was formed in 1786, under the name of the 
Associate Presbyterian congregation of Cam- 
bridge, being the part of the old Cambridge 
church that withdrew with the pastor, Rev. 
Thomas Beveridge, in the Burgher and anti- 
Burgher contest. The "old yellow meeting 
house" was the first church built, and in it 
there were no fires in winter. Reverend Bev- 
eridge served as pastor until his death, in 
in July, 1798. In 1833 a new brick church 
was built, which in late years has been repaired 
and refitted, making a very .fine and well fur- 
nished building. 

Along the line of the Greenwich and John- 
sonville railway several hamlets sprang up be- 
tween 1870 and 1880. Some of them promise 
to be of size and importance in the future. 

West Cambridge secured a postoffice, which 
was kept at first in the depot building, and a 
steam saw mill was erected about 1875. 

South Cambridge, another of these promis- 
ing hamlets, soon possessed a store, postoffice 
and several mechanic shops. The country 
surrounding South Cambridge is very beauti- 
ful and was formerly known as Quakerhood, 
on account of the Aliens and other Quaker 
families that were early settlers there. 

The early roads in the town of Cambridge 
were such as neighborhood wants required, 
but soon after the close of the Revolution the 
need of a substantial highway leading south- 
ward was felt, and led to the formation, in 
1799, of the Northern Turnpike company, of 
which William Hay, Edmund Wells, jr., Da- 
vid Long, Martin Van Buskirk, John Williams, 
Edward Savage, and others, were directors. 
The road was constructed from Lansingburg 
to Cambridge, and then was carried forward 
to Burlington, Vermont. This turnpike was 
the main thoroughfare of travel until 1852, 
when the Rutland railroad was built along its 
general course, and took its trade and travel. 

While this railway does not run through 
Cambridge, yet it is sufficiently near it in 
western White Creek so as to supply it with 
good shipping facilities, and within the last 
few years a station has been established at the 
village of Cambridge. 

The Greenwich & Johnsonville railroad was 
completed in the western part of the town in 
1870, in a general course along Wampecack 
creek. Its stations in Cambridge are at Sum- 
mit, West Cambridge, South Cambridge, and 

The earliest school report of the town, made 
in 1821, shows six hundred and fifty-nine chil- 
dren between five and fifteen years of age to be 
in Cambridge. In 1876 there were fifteen dis- 
tricts and nearly nine hundred children 

The first Sunday school was organized at 
Cambridge village, where a missionary society, 
called the Cambridge Circuit branch of the 



Troy Missionary society, was formed January 
7, 1832. 

A temperance society was organized at Cam- 
bridge in 1 83 1, under the auspices of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. 




Easton is the oldest village in the. town of 
Easton, and lies near the center of the south- 
ern half of the town. Jacob Benson was the 
first settler, and Dr. Jonathan Mosher was the 
first physician. The northern part of the vil- 
lage was first settled, and the southern part is 
sometimes called Barker's Grove. The first 
blacksmith shop was started by Stephen and 
George Allen about 1800, and a store, hotel, 
and mechanic shops came into existence dur- 
ing the early years of the present century. 

Friends' meeting of Easton dates back to 
1773, at the house of Zebulon Hoxie, who had 
come that year from Dutchess count)', accom- 
panied by his brother in-law, Rufus Hall, who 
was also a Friend. Several Quaker families 
soon came from Rhode Island, and other 
Quakers from Dutchess county, and in 1775 
the first preparative meeting was established, 
and a log meeting house was built one mile 
east of Easton. During the Revolution, on 
account of their peace principles and neutral- 
it)', they suffered much in loss of property and 
persection by soldiers of both armies. After 
the Revolution the society grew in numbers 
and influence, and in 1787 erected a frame 
meeting house on the site of the log one. In 
1838 a preparative meeting was established in 
the north part of the town, where a brick 
church was built, and while this branch pros- 
pered and flourished, the parent meeting lost 
in numbers and finally ceased to exist. 

Marshall seminary was established at Easton 
in 1863, and derived its name from Benjamin 
Marshall, one of the principal stockholders. 
The building cost over four thousand dollars, 
and in 1868 was sold to the Easton and Sara- 
toga Quarterly meeting of Friends for three 
thousand dollars. Five years later the build- 
ing burned, but was rebuilt the next year by 
the Easton meeting at a cost of twelve thous- 
and dollars. The early principals of the 
school were : Rev. A. G. Cochran, Miss Maria 
Shepherd, and Andrew J. Qua. 

In 1880 Easton had two stores, a hotel, a 
large carriage factory, and several mechanic 


Two miles north of Easton is the village of 
North Easton, formerly called Easton Corners. 
The site of the village was principally owned 
by Nathaniel Starbuck, who became one of its 
carl) business men. For some years after the 
first houses were built the place was called 
Starbuck's Corners, and then as it increased 
in size the name of Easton Corners came into 
use, and finally to designate it from the older 
Easton it was named North Easton. Garrett 
Lansing kept the fifst store in 1794. He had 
as competitors and successors in the mercantile 
business, Jacob Van Buren, Charles Starbuck, 
and John Gale, who served as the first post- 
master in the early years of the present century. 

North Easton has two churches, a Reformed 
and a Methodist Episcopal. 

The Reformed church of Easton was organ- 
ized at North Easton in 1803, under the name 
of "The Reformed Protestant Dutch church 
of Easton." It was reorganized under its 
present title February 8, 1872. The first pas- 
tor was Rev. Philip Duryea. The first church 
structure was built between 1803 and 1807, 
repaired in 1845, and some years later torn 
down to make room for the present church 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Easton 
was originally organized near CrandalPs Cor- 



ners at an early day, and in 1835 the society 
left that point as a worshipping place and 
erected a church near North Easton. This 
church was replaced by a larger and better 
structure in 1850. The first pastor at North 
Easton was Rev. Roswell Kelly. 

North Easton has grown but slowly, yet has 
never gone back, and is now one of the most 
important business places in the town, con- 
taining a carriage factory, store, hotel, and 
various mechanic shops. The town meet- 
ings of late years have been usually held at 
the village. 


Easton, the southwest town of Washington 
county, is bounded on the north by Green- 
wich ; on the east by Jackson and Cambridge ; 
on the south by Rensselaer county ; and on 
the west by Saratoga county, from which it is 
separated by the Hudson river. 

The town of Easton was organized in 1789, 
from the parts of the towns of Saratoga and 
Stillwater lying east of the Hudson river, and 
remained in Albany county until February 7, 
171)1, when it was transferred to Washington 
county. The town records only go back to 
to 1793, when Philip Smith was elected super- 
visor, and Richard Macomber, clerk. 

The area of Easton is thirty-eight thousand 
eight hundred and thirty-four acres. The sur- 
face is level along the Hudson, then rolling 
and hilly, and finally mountainous in the east. 
The principal peaks are Willard's and Swain's 
mountains, and Harrington, Whelden, and 
Louse hills. The soil is a rich loam variously 
intermixed with clay, gravel and sand. There 
is scarcely an acre of waste land in the town. 
Farming is the main occupation, although 
manufacturing establishments are operated at 
Galesville and Greenwich. Cement mountain 
in the north contains heavy veins of fine ce- 
ment, rock and limestone. 

The drainage is by the small streams falling 
into the Batten Kill and the Hudson river. 
The valley of the Hudson has made the 

western territory of Easton war trail and battle 
ground for every rival race or nation struggling 
for mastery of the Upper Hudson. Some of 
the great military expeditions of the inter-col- 
onial wars passed through the town of Easton. 
Fort Saraghtoga was built on the eastern bank 
of the Hudson in 1709, and was destroyed in 
1745. Its successor, Fort Clinton, was erected 
some distance back from the river in 1746, and 
its walls were razed to the earth during the 
next year. All traces of these fortresses have 
disappeared, but judging from the most relia- 
ble sources of information, Fort Clinton stood 
about half a mile south of Galesville or Mid- 
dle Falls. With the destruction of the earlier 
fort was swept away the first settlement of 
Washington county. Some of these dispersed 
settlers may have wandered back to their 
wasted fields, but they made no stay, and the 
tide of settlement did not return to the county 
till 1761. 

Of the settlers in Easton from 1761 to 1774, 
we have very little account. Nathan Tefft and 
his son, Stanton, a surveyor, came from North 
Kingston, Rhode Island, in 1766, and pur- 
chased land on both sides of the Batten Kill, 
near Middle Falls. Killian De Ridder came 
from Holland and settled in the north part 
about 1766 or 1767. Of the settlers from 
1 773 to 1789 we have record of Thomas Bea- 
dle, Elijah Freeman, Thomas Dennis, Jacob 
Haner, Jonathan Wilbur, John Fish, George 
Deul, Abner Fuller, Richard Davenport, 
Charles Russell, Peter Becker,William Abeel, 
Abraham Wright, Rensselaer Schuyler, Wil- 
liam Thompson, Gerrett Wendell, Nathaniel 
Potter, Jacob and Peter Miller, Garrett Van 
Buren, Peter Rundel, Captain Van Yorst, 

Samuel Sheldon, Yandenburgh, James 

Storms, Rufus Hall, Zebulon Hoxsie, William 
Foster, David and David Pettys, jr., Stephen 
Anthony, Benjamin and Ephriam Fish. Samuel 
Cook, Morton and Henry Van Buren, Gideon 
Bowditch, Joseph Potter, Abel Coon, Elihu, 
Edmund and Jedediah Robinson, Robert 
Dennis, Richard Macomber, Barzilla and 



Abraham Pease, Benjamin Starbuck, James, 
Philip and Joseph Smith, Eleazer Slocum, 
Elisha Freeman, Sylvester Satterlee, Jacob 
Benson, Tyler Wilcox, Abraham Russell, 
Greeve Hall, Garrett Lansing, Squire Thomas 
Smith, Sterling Waters, Asa and Ezra Cran- 
dall, Roswell Osborn, Alex. Case, Francis 
Brock, John Pettys, and David Remington. 

Some time previous to the Revolutionary 
war the following captains of whaling vessels 
at Nantucket and Dartmouth came toEaston: 
Daniel Folger, William Coffin, William Swain, 
Robert Meader, BarzillaHussey, David Beard, 
John Swain, and Nathan Coffin. 

Garrett Lansing was the pioneer merchant 
of the town; John Gale built the first grist 
and woolen mills, the former in 1810, and the 
latter in 1846, and both at Galesville. The 
first foundry and the first flax mill were put 
up at Greenwich, where the pioneer paper 
mill was erected in 1863 by Ballou and Craig. 
Greenwich is also entitled to the credit of the 
first knitting mill, which was erected in 1862. 

In addition to the principal villages of 
Easton and North Easton already mentioned, 
the town of Easton contains the villages of 
South Easton, Crandall's Corners, and Fly 
Summit, and a part of the incorporated vil- 
lage of Greenwich, and a part of Galesville. 

South Easton is two miles east of Easton 
and near the Cambridge line. Five brothers 
of the name of Cook were the first settlers, 
and the locality was known for some years as 
Cook's Hollow. Isaac Merritt kept the first 
store before 1800, and his successor, Thomas 
D. Beadle, remained long enough to give the 
name of Beadle Hill to the little hamlet. 
Beadle was also the first postmaster. In the 
course of years Beadle Hill became South 

Crandall's Corners, two and a half miles 
south of Easton, and near the town and county 
line, was named in honor of Holden Crandall, 
an early merchant and hotel keeper of the 
place. The postoffice was established in 1867 
with Warren Crandall as the first postmaster. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was formed 
at Crandall's Corners, Rev. Roswell Kelly 
being the first pastor, and services were held 
in the school house until 1834, when the so- 
ciety built a small church. The year follow- 
ing the society erected a church at North 
Easton. The old church building was finally 
purchased by Warren Crandall, who repaired 
it thoroughly in 1868, when it was dedicated 
as a union church. 

The southern part of the incorporated vil- 
lage of Greenwich is in Easton, and includes 
a furnace, carriage factory, and paper, knit- 
ting and flax mills. 

That part of Galesville, or Middle Falls, in 
Easton, contains a few dwellings, a woolen 
factory, and saw, plaster and grist mills. 

An embryo village in an early day was started 
about a mile and a half south of Greenwich, 
where Benjamin Prosser had a saw mill and a 
store, and Andrew Ferguson ran a wheelright 
shop, but the near and larger village drew 
away its business and killed its growth. 

On the Hudson, coming north from the town 
line, are three ferries, Searl, Smith, and Hogan, 
and opposite Schuylerville a toll bridge eight 
hundred feet long was built in 1837. A cheese 
factory was built two miles north of North 
Easton in 1874, by Job H. Wilbur and John 




West Hebron is the largest village in the 
town of Hebron, and lies at the junction 
of the two branches of Black creek. "On 
all sides excepting the road valleys, it is 
guarded by wooded mountains. On the south- 



east Wilson's mountain stands perpetual guard ; 
the fury of the western winds is broken by 
Patterson's range, and the ragged side of the 
' Devil's Threshing Floor 'stands like a sentinel 
of protection on the north and east. The val- 
ley just north of the village is the finest in the 
county. For half a mile the road passes 
through a narrow defile that in the distance 
closely resembles an Alpine pass." 

West Hebron was settled at an early day 
on account of the water power there. Bev- 
eridge's saw mill was built at an early day, 
and one mile above the village a carding ma- 
chine was operated half a century ago. Gar- 
rett Quackenbush built an early grist mill, 
which was equipped with a single run of rock 
stone. The postoffice was established in 1816, 
with George Getty as the first postmaster. 
Stores, hotels and shops came in due time, 
and dwellings increased in number until in 
1880 West Hebron contained a population of 
two hundred and five, and had one hotel, three 
stores, a drug store, harness shop, two 
churches, clothing store, blacksmith shop, 
marble works, cheese-box factor}', saw mill 
and starch factory. The starch factory was 
built in 1866, by Rae and McDowell, who 
used annually six thousand bushels of pota- 
toes, and produced forty-eight thousand 
pounds of starch. 

Around the village are superior roads, fine 
scenery and man)' delightful drives. 

The Associate, now United Presbyterian 
church of West Hebron has records running 
back to 1790, when a meeting was held at 
Andrew Beveridge's, three miles north of the 
village. Rev. Robert Laird, of Argyle, 
preached for this congregation as early as 
1807, and the first trustees of whom there is 
any account were: Andrew Beveridge, Hugh 
Moncrief and William McClellan. The first 
. church, a frame, was completed in 1S02, and 
stood one mile east of the village. The next 
church structure was erected at the village 
in 1 831, and was repaired in 1859. The par- 
sonage was built about i860. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of West 
Hebron dates back to a class organized in 
1859 with nine members, as a part of the 
Belcher church. The third chapel of the 
Ashgrove church was bought and moved in 
1859. This class separated from the parent 
church, and was formally organized under the 
name of the Methodist Episcopal church of 
West Hebron, November 29, 1869. Rev. 
Cyrus Meeker was the first pastor, and in 1874 
a new frame church was erected, the old build- 
ing becoming a hall. The new church struct- 
ure is a handsome frame building, costing 
over seven thousand dollars. 

The West Hebron Classical school was char- 
tered March 22, 1855, by the regents of the 
university of New York. The school build- 
ing was erected during 1855, and the institu- 
tion was opened with Prof. G. D. Stewart as 
principal ; Miss Harriet Rowan, preceptress, 
and J. K. McLean, assistant. Ten years later 
it was found expedient to change it into a 
union free school, but the academical depart- 
ment was retained. 


Hebron is bounded on the north by Hart- 
ford and Granville ; on the east by the State 
of Vermont ; on the south by Salem, and on 
the west by Argyle and Hartford. The town 
has an area of thirty-two thousand six hundred 
and fifty-three acres. The soil is a "slaty 
gravel " loam, of a porous nature, easy of cul- 
tivation, well calculated to stand extremes of 
weather, and very productive of potatoes and 
most of the cereal crops. Potatoes are the 
chief article of production for export; white 
corn, oats, buckwheat and rye are raised. 

A broad mountain range extends through 
the center, and a series of high hills running 
through the eastern and western sections are 
separated by the valleys of Black creek and 
other streams. 

The drainage of the town is mostly to the 
south and southwest by Black creek and its 



From its location the territory of Hebron 
escaped being either a war-path or a military 
road, and its inhabitants have never been dis- 
turbed by raid or battle, only being annoyed 
and distressed in the Revolutionary war when 
Burgoyne lay at Whitehall and at Fort Ed- 

The town of Hebron is largely embraced in 
the Campbell, Kempe, Munro, DeForest, Lin- 
tot, Blundel, DeConti, Farrant, Sheriff and 
Williams patents. The Campbell patent'of 
two thousand acres was first granted to Lieut. 
Nathaniel McCullough, who sold to Duncan 
Campbell in 1765. Kempe's patent of ten 
thousand two hundred acres was granted to 
John Tabor Kempe, May 3, 1764. Munro's 
patent of two thousand acres and the most of 
the other patents named were granted about 

The early settlements in the northern and 
eastern parts of the town were made by New 
Englanders, while those in the southern and 
western parts were planted by Scotch and 

The first settlement was made in 1769-70 
by David Whedon, John Hamilton and Robert 
Creighton. In 1772 John and Joseph Hamil- 
ton, Robert, Thomas, James and John Wilson, 
and David Hopkins, of Rhode Island, settled 
on one-half of the Campbell patent, lying be- 
tween the old pike and Chamberlain's mills, 
which was purchased the preceding year of 
Duncan Campbell, for four hundred pounds, 
by Capt. John Hamilton and Robert Wilson. 
Amos and Samuel Tyrrell, of Connecticut, 
came in 1772, and in that year also came James 
and Robert Wilson, and Hon. David Hopkins, 
from Rhode Island, and Jedediah Darrow from 

Hon. Alex. Webster came from Scotland in 
1772, and settled north of West Hebron, and 
settlers were coming in rapidly when the Rev- 
olution stopped all emigration. 

From the fragment of a tax list, whose date 
must have been between 1780 and 1786, we 
find at the time it was made out that the fol- 

lowing families were in Hebron: The Afleshs, 
Bellowses, Cases. Cluffs, Cutlers, Crossetts, 
Clarks, Coltons, Cummings, Duncans, Dicks, 
Dickinsons, Fowlers, Fosters, Hamiltons, 
Harveys, Hopkinses, Gears, Gambles, Gettys, 
Gibbses, Kinneys, Lyttles, Millses, More- 
houses, McKnights, McLeods, McDonalds, 
Munsons, Osgoods, Parrishs, Pecks, Rays, 
Rosses, Robinsons, Shipherds, Smiths, Stew- 
arts, Tyrrells, Websters, Whedons, Wades, 
Wilsons, Wilcoxes, and Whittemores. 

Hebron was known as the district of Black 
Creek until 1786, when the town commenced 
its existence under its present title of Hebron, 
named for the town of that name in Connecti- 

The first road in the town was the one cut 
by Major Skene from Whitehall to Salem, and 
passed through the town close to North Heb- 
ron and Chamberlain's Mills to the south 
boundary line. It was known as the "Skene 
Road." The next road on record was from 
David Whedon's to the Granville line, in 
1783, followed soon after by a road from the 
Provincial line to Lytle's mills. 

The villages of the town of Hebron are : 
West Hebron (already described), East Heb- 
ron, North Hebron, or Munro's Meadows, 
Slateville, Belcher, and Chamberlain's Mills. 

East Hebron is in the southeastern part of 
the town, and on the old turnpike. Dr. David 
Long opened a store there before 1800. The 
first postofnee under the name of Hebron was 
established at East Hebron about the com- 
mencement of the present century, and Wil- 
liam Porter was the first postmaster. Jacob 
Braymer had a tannery, in early times, two 
miles north of the place. The Methodist 
Episcopal church of East Hebron was organ- 
ized August 2, 1847, under the pastoral charge 
of Rev. B. O. Meeker. 

North Hebron, or Munro's Meadows, was 
founded by the Rev. Harry Munro, an Epis- 
copal minister and chaplain in a Highland 
Scotch regiment. In 1774 he laid his grant 
of two thousand acres of land here, and 



settled on it six Highland families. Of the?e 
Highlanders were John McDonald, Norman 
and Donald McLeod, and John Duncan. A 
marsh of twenty-five acres was on the center 
uf the tract, and Munro set high store by this 
marsh as being fit to be made into fine meadow 
land. Munro married, for his second wife, a 
sister of Governor Jay, and went to England, 
and his son afterward sold the tract to occu- 
pants and others. The old Skene road passed 
near it, and in 1833 the postoffice was estab- 
lished by the name of North Hebron, with 
William Reynolds as postmaster. A store and 
shops are there, and if there were sufficient 
water power, manufacturing establishments 
could be built and operated. The Baptist 
church of North Hebron was formed January 
1, 1818, and the first pastor was Rev. W. P. 
Reynolds. The present church structure was 
built in 1826, and remodelled in 1873. 

Belcher is in the western part of the town, 
and derives its name from Belchertown, Mas- 
sachusetts, the early home of many of its pio- 
neer settlers. The village grew up around the 
junction of several roads, and although having 
no water power to develop manufacturing in- 
terests, yet has made substantial growth. 
There are stores, a hotel, shops, and numerous 
dwelling houses. The Methodist Episcopal 
church of Belcher has had an interesting his- 
tory, as from it has grown three other churches. 
It was organized in 1836, when a fifteen hun- 
dred dollar house was erected. Growing 
strong, Argyle and Hartford charges were 
taken from it, and later West Hebron church 
was organized from its members. In 1875 the 
church building was moved to the village and 
repaired. The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Brey- 

Slateville is a small hamlet in the northeast 
that owes its existence to the efforts of the 
New York Slate and Tile Company to operate 
slate quarries in that section. 

Chamberlain's Mills is a short distance west 
of East Hebron, and its valuable water power 
was utilized at an early day. The first build- 

ings were erected in 1778, and Asa Putnam 
built a cloth dressing mill prior to 1800. 

In noticing these villages we find an account 
of all the churches in the town except two, 
the United Presbyterian and the East Presby- 

The United Presbyterian, once the Associ- 
ated Reformed church, was organized about 
1780, as the result of the preaching of Dr. 
Clark and others. The first members were : 
Hon. Alex., George, Alex, and JamesWebster ; 
John Francis, Joseph, William, Robert, Sam- 
uel, Benjamin and Mary Livingston ; Adam, 
Robert, John, David and Ebenezer Getty; 
Alex., James and William McClelland ; Sam- 
uel, William and Isaac Lytle ; Edward, Wil- 
liam and Oliver Selfridge ; Stephen and 
James Rowan ; Daniel and John McDonald ; 
John Wilson, Isaac Gray, Andrew Proudfit, 
Thomas Gourley, Robert and John Qua, 
Boyd Donaldson, Samuel and William Cros- 
set, James Flock, sr., and James Flock, jr. 
The first meeting house was built in 1792, and 
stood until 1855, when a new church edifice 
was erected at a cost of three thousand 

The East Presbyterian church was formed 
February 24, 1804, as the outgrowth of a re- 
ligious society organized ten or fifteen years 
earlier. The first house of worship was built 
about 1790, and the first minister was Rev. 
Walter Fullerton, who served from 1805 to 
1809. In 1846 the old house was replaced by 
a second and larger church structure. 

Sheep raising in Hebron has been, to some 
extent, limited by the development of dairy- 
ing. Among the cheese factories started, are : 
North Hebron, West Hebron, East Hebron, 
Valley, and one near West Pawlet. 

The schools of the town of Hebron are in 
good condition, and in 1877 the school com- 
missioners' report showed seventeen districts 
with seven hundred and ninety one children. 
In higher education the West Hebron clas- 
sical school and the North Hebron institute 
are the pioneer institutions. 





Granville, in the beautiful valley of the Paw- 
let river, and the farthest eastern and one of 
the more important villages of the county, had 
its beginning in the closing years of the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

Drawn by the beauty of the spot and im- 
pressed with its future importance as a busi- 
ness center, John Champion Bishop settled on 
the site of Granville in 1780, and built a house 
on the site of the Marcus Allen residence. Be- 
ing a man of energy Mr. Bishop soon opened 
a store, and was joined by Eliphalet Petty and 
other settlers. A saw mill, grist mill and full- 
ing mill were erected at an early day. Mr. 
Bishop was succeeded by his son, Isaac Bishop, 
who changed the business part of the village 
from the west to the east side of the river, 
and secured the construction of the shun pike 
through Granville. Isaac Bishop had for mer- 
cantile partners his brother Arch., Wadsworth 
Bull and Howell Smith. An early merchant 
was Reuben Skinner, from 181 1 to 1830, who 
was also a manufacturer. Other early mer- 
chants from 1825 to 1850 were : Jonathan 
Todd and Col. L. T. Rowley, Rufus Graves 
and Dr. McClure, William Graves, Rufus G. 
Fordish, Joseph Allen, Morgan Duel, and 
Samuel Smith. 

The Bishops had an ashery and afterward a 
foundry on the site of the Burdick property, 
and an early hemp mill was replaced in 1840 
by a woolen mill, which was afterward con- 
verted into a knitting mill. Charles Kellogg 
kept a hotel in 1800 on the site of the Central 
house, and the early small shops so common 
in villages in the first quarter of the present 
century were well represented at Granville. 

A partial incorporation of the village to se- 
cure adequate protection from fire was made. 

but in a later election the friends of the cor- 
poration measure were defeated. 

The population of Granville in 1880 was 
one thousand and seventy one. 

The National bank of Granville, was organ- 
ized April 21, 1875, and the first officers were : 
Daniel Woodard, jr., president; Edwin B. 
Temple, vice-president ; George R. Thomp- 
son, cashier, and D. D. Woodward, teller. 

Granville was the headquarters for the Mu- 
tual Insurance company of Washington county 
from its origin until it retired from business. 

The religious interests of the village of 
Granville are well cared for by several church 

Trinity Episcopal church of Granville was 
organized July 15, 1815, of Episcopalians re- 
siding there and in the adjoining towns of 
Pawlet and Wells, in Vermont. Rev. Stephen 
Jewett was the first rector, and the first church 
structure was erected in 1815. It cost three 
thousand dollars, and was taken down in 1850, 
when a frame edifice, costing five thousand dol- 
lars, was commenced. The second edifice 
burned in 1854, and the next year another five 
thousand dollar edifice was erected on the site 
of the first church structure. 

On June 15, 1843, the Wesleyan Methodist 
church was organized by Rev. Lyman Prin- 
gle, on the grounds of decided opposition to 
slavery, intemperance, and secret societies. 
The congregation met in the school house but 
never built a church, and went out of exis- 
tence shortly after 1850. Its membership was 
formed largely of seceding Methodists, Epis- 
copalians, and Congregationalists, who had 
become radical upon the slavery question. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was or- 
ganized in 1827, and the first pastor was Rev. 
Joseph Ames. A house of worship was built 
in 1832. 

The" name of Mettowee City has been sug- 
gested from Mettowee, the Indian name of the 
Pawlet river, as a more romantic, historic and 
beautiful designation for the village than that 
of Granville. 




The town of Granville is bounded on the 
north by Whitehall and Hampton ; on the 
east by the State of Vermont ; one the south 
by Hebron ; and on the west by Hartford and 
Fort Ann. It contains thirty-three thousand 
one hundred and forty-three acres, or nearly 
fifty-two square miles. 

The surface of Granville is undulating and 
hilly, and "there is a quiet pastoral beauty, 
very attractive and charming, in the natural 
scenery of the town." The soil is a slaty, 
gravelly loam, specially adapted to potatoes, 
which are raised in large quantities for expor- 
tation. This soil is also well adapted to every 
product of this latitude. Roofing slate is 
abundant, and brick clay has been found in 
many places. 

The drainage is to the north and northeast, 
by the Pawlet or Mettowee river and its trib- 
utaries. A large amount of water is furnished 
by the river and its main branches, which are 
clear and limpid, and are fringed by alluvial 

No trace can be found of the year of the 
organization of Granville as a district, but it 
is presumed that the district was organized 
twelve or fifteen years prior to the first town 
meeting of which we have record. The lat- 
ter was in 1787, one year after the forming 
of the town by legislative enactment. At the 
first town meeting, held April 2, 1787, Capt. 
Daniel Curtis was elected supervisor, Gurdon 
Johnson, clerk, and Daniel H. White, collec- 

Alexander Menzies, on September 11, 1764, 
received a patent for two thousand acres of 
land in the northern part of the town, and the 
same day his brother, Thomas, received a 
patent for an equal amount in the same part 
of Granville. John Maunsell, on March 7. 
1771, was granted five thousand acres in the 
northeastern part. On September 5, 1764, 
Erick Sutherland obtained two thousand acres, 
and on March 2, 1775, John Watkins received 
two thousand acres northward of the site of 

North Granville. The other patents in the 
town were the Berry, Byrnes, Farquar, Suth- 
erland, Dupason, Hutchinson, Atlas, Camp- 
bell and Grant. It is doubtful if any of the 
patentees ever settled on their manorial tracts. 
It is said that these patentees were captains 
and lieutenants in the French and Indian wars, 
and that their tracts, passing into the hands of 
land jobbers, retarded settlement until the 
close of the Revolution. 

Many of the early settlers being New Eng- 
enders sided with Vermont in the contest of 
that State with New York for supremacy over 
the territory of Washington county. These 
settlers afterward returned to their allegiance, 
and asking both pardon and protection, were 
called submissionists. 

On April 4, 1782, the following submission- 
ists petitioned the New York authorities for 
immunity of past offences : Moses Sawyer, 
Daniel Curtice, Asaph Cooke, Henry Watkins, 
Benjamin Baker, David Doane, Gideon Allen, 
Eliphalet Parker, Aaron Smith, Micah Grif- 
fith, Peter Harrington, Moses Powers, Joseph 
Barker, Thomas Griffith, Josiah Mix, Samuel 
Harnden, James Covel, Isaiah Bennett, Theo- 
dorus Norton, Jon. Harnden, EbenezerWalker, 
Ichabod Parker, John Bateman, James Otis, 
Peter Grover, Abraham Van Dursee, John 
Grover, John Barnes, David Blakeslee, John 
Walker, John Spring, Solomon Baker, Thos. 
Grefes, Joseph Herrington, Ebenezer Gould, 
Jesse Atwater, and Hein Williams. Many of 
these submissionists were among the pioneer 

Among other early settlers were: Nathaniel 
Spring, Timothy Allen, David Skinner, Chris- 
topher Potter, Gurdon Johnson, Maj. Thomas 
Corners, Capt. John McWhorter, Lt. Henry 
Watkins, Capt. Seth Wheeler, Daniel H. 
White, Benjamin Wait, Joseph Wait, Zach. 
Loomis. Richard Barns, Timothy Case. Jos- 
eph Andrews, Joseph Woodworth, Joseph 
Northup, Joseph Cook, Elijah White, Amos 
Beard, John Champion Bishop, Coomer Ma- 
son, Lewis Hatch, and Noah Day. 



Asaph Cooke, who supported the claims of 
Vermont, was an early resident, and one of 
his grandsons was Jay Cooke, the noted finan- 

Of the aboriginal history of the town of 
Granville, there is but little to be found. The 
Saint Francis Indians of Canada give it as the 
tradition of their people that their ancestors 
for ages hunted and fished on the Mettowee 
river, and also at the site of Granville had 
one of their favorite camps and best places 
for making their stone hatchets and arrow 

During the Revolution nothing occurred of 
special military interest in the town. 

The principal villages of the town of Gran- 
ville are: Granville (ahead)' described), 
Middle Granville, North Granville and South 

Middle Granville, the earliest business 
point in the town according to tradition, was 
founded by Capt. David Rood, who built the 
first house and erected a saw mill on the site 
of the present paper mill. Capt. Abraham 
Dayton and William Hollister were early tan- 
ners, who carried their leather to Canada, 
where they received gold coin for it. Capt. 
Cowan had another early tannery, and a trip- 
hammer and blacksmith shop were run by a 
Mr. Kingsley, while the Goodrich grist mill 
was then standing on the site of the present 
Ellis mill. In 1800 Asa Rood had a saw mill, 
a cider mill and a clothier's shop, for which 
latter he refused five thousand dollars offered 
him by Roger Wing. Rood afterwards put a 
carding machine into his clothier shop, but 
did not realize a fortune. A cotton mill was 
next built and operated until 1847, when it 
was burned. Paint works and a flax mill suc- 
ceeded the cotton mill, and the flax mill was 
changed in 1868 into a paper mill. Of late 
years the carding machine factory was 
changed into a cheese box factory. Middle 
Granville lies between Granville and North 
Granville, and has sufficient manufacturing 
facilities, if utilized, to give it importance and 

prosperity. The flourishing Union school 
there was opened in 1868, with Prof. Edward 
C. Whittemore as principal, and three assist- 
ant teachers. 

The Congregational church was formed in 
i860 under Rev. Griffith Jones, and the same 
year the congregation erected a good church 

The Catholic church of Our Lad)' of Mount 
Carmel was established in 1867. A church 
edifice costing five thousand dollars had been 
built in advance, and Father W. B. Hannet 
became the first pastor. A pastoral residence 
worth seven thousand dollars was added to 
the church edifice, and both are fine structures. 

North Granville, including the hamlet of 
Truthville, which is but a suburb of the village 
proper, lies in the northwestern part of the 
town. Benjamin Baker kept an inn at North 
Granville in 1790, and five years later a Mr. 
Jenks opened a store. The manufacturing in- 
terests are represented by two saw mills, a 
hub factory, two grist mills, a cotton bat fac- 
tory, and a cough syrup manufactory. 

The North Granville Baptist church was 
formed August 18, 1784, at the house of John 
Stewart, with twenty-two members. Rev. 
Richard Sill became the first pastor. The 
first house of worship was erected in 1802, at 
a cost of seven hundred dollars. The church 
suffered from divisions over Masonry in 
1829-30. Nearly a thousand members were 
received by letter and baptism into the church 
during the first century of its existence. The 
deacons from 1784 to 1876 were : Joseph 
Calkins, Benjamin Baker, John Savage, John 
Leonard, Samuel Standish, Truman Mason, 
Zach. Waldo, Coomer Mason, Linas R. Ma- 
son, John B. Brown, William Nelson, Sardis 
Otis, Silas Beecher, and William A. Grimes. 

The Presbyterian church at North Granville 
was organized February 22, 1810, as a Con- 
gregational society. Thirteen years later it 
became Presbyterian. The corporate name of 
the society was " The Fair Vale Religious so- 
ciety," and its first members were Sylvanus and 



Charity Cone, David Martin, Joseph and 
Esther Chandler, Peter and Esther Parker, 
Joseph, Asenath, Benjamin and Hannah Town, 
David Graves, Obediah and Elizabeth Archer, 
Butler and Hannah Bcckwith, Ichabod, Anna 
and Sally Morse, Triphena Huggins, Susanna 
Leavins, and Elizabeth Cady. The first regu- 
lar minister of this church was Rev. R. Robin- 
son, and the organizing minister was Rev. 
Nathaniel Hall. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of North 
Granville was formed in i860, and a house of 
worship costing five thousand dollars was com- 
pleted the same year. The first class was 
formed under the leadership of Peter Grant, 
and consisted of twenty members. 

Saint Patrick's Catholic church of North 
Granville was founded about 1852, although 
meetings had been held for several previous 
months at the house of Miles Cahoes. The 
present church edifice was built in 1866 at a 
cost of four thousand dollars.. 

Fairville academy was established in 1807 at 
North Granville, and under the celebrated 
Salem Town did the work of normal schools 
for many years. This academy was continued 
until 1870, when the "building was purchased 
by the school district. The North Granville 
Ladies' seminary was established by the re- 
gents in 1854, and buildings were erected in 
the same year which were afterward burned. 
W. W. Dowd rebuilt and sold the seminary 
building in 1876 to Prof. Wallace C. Wilcox, 
who started the present North Granville Mili- 
tary school, where a president and five pro- 
fessors constitute the corps of instructors. 

The North Granville bank commenced busi- 
ness in 1871. 

South Granville is a pleasant little village 
in the southern part of the town and has a 
postoffice, school house, cheese factor}', church, 
some shops and several dwellings. 

A Methodist Protestant church was organ- 
ized at South Granville April 18, 1830. They 
had a meeting house on the hill southwest of 
the village, but meetings having been discon- 

tinued about 1870, the house was taken down 
two years later. 

The Welsh churches of the town of Gran- 
ville came into existence by the settlement of 
Welsh immigrant miners, who came to the 
slate works- between 1850 and 1870. Mr. 
Davies and John Pritchard formed a union 
society, but an addition of Presbyterian Welsh 
immigrants in i860 led to the founding of two 
churches, the Welsh Presbyterian church, and 
the Welsh Congregationalist church. 

The Friends' society of Granville was or- 
ganized in 1800 by John C. Bishop and others, 
with twenty-six members. The first meeting 
house was built in 1806. In 1828 another so- 
ciety of Friends was formed a mile south of 
Granville, and a brick meeting house erected. 
In 1872 this last society dissolved, and the 
meeting house was sold for school purposes. 

There were log school houses and fair 
schools in the town of Granville as early as 
1784. The Friends at a very early day estab- 
lished a school, and their present school of an 
academic character was started about 1873, 
with Lulu Trump, of Baltimore, as principal. 
The present free school system in Granville 
has been brought up from its crude state in 
18 1 3. to an efficient condition at the present 

The Mettowee Valley Agricultural society 
was formed at Granville April 4, 1874, and 
provided for the holding of annual fairs. The 
Union Musical association of Granville was 
organized in December, 1861. The North 
Granville National bank, that commenced 
business in 1871, was originally the Farmers' 
bank of Washington county, and was first or- 
ganized at Fort Edward in 1855. 

Of late years the sheep husbandry of the 
town has not increased, but the dairy interest 
has made marked progress. Cheese factories 
are at Granville, Middle Granville, and South 
Granville, and are a manufacturing center for 
a large surrounding territory in other towns 
and in Vermont. 

Commercial facilities are within reach of 



every section, as one railroad running the en- 
tire length of the town in the east with two 
stations, and a canal and railroad within easy 
reach from the western boundary afford near 
markets to the farmer, the tradesman, the 
merchant and the manufacturer. 

The slate interests of the town of Granville 
are of importance. Slate was discovered in 
1850, near Middle Granville, and the Empire 
Slate Company was soon formed, but went 
down before i860. The Middle Granville 
Slate Company was formed in i860, the Pen- 
rhyn Slate Company about the same year, and 
the Warren Slate Company at Granville about 
1864. The quarries produce large quantities 
of the finest quality of roofing and school slates, 
and an article excellent for marbleized work. 




Pleasantly situated in the central and eastern 
parts of the town of Hartford, chiefly on lot 
48, and partly on lands once owned by De Witt 
Clinton, is the village of Hartford, formerly 
known as North Hartford. The village is on 
elevated ground, with some beautiful scenery 
surrounding it, and has a branch of East 
creek near it. Col. John Buck is said to have 
been one of the earliest settlers of the place. 

Ethel Cummings kept the first tavern, Col. 
John Buck had the first store on the site of 
the Hiram Swain house, and William Covel 
operated the first saw and grist mill, which 
was east of the village, on a branch. of East 
creek. Nearer the village clothing works and 
carding machines were next started by Joel 
and Samuel Downs, and close to them were 
built Hoffman's distillery and Higby's tannery. 

Soon after 1800 business increased rapidly 
at the village, and many new houses were 

erected. In 1807 the postoffice was estab- 
lished, and Aaron Norton became the first 
postmaster. A few years later Amasa Rug- 
gles opened an extensive hat factor}', Parks 
lV Carlisle started a shoe factory, and Nathan 
Hatch and others engaged in the cabinet man- 
ufacturing business. The first physician was 
Dr. Cutter, and the first lawyer was Slade D. 

A bank of exchange was started in 1850, 
and in a few years became a bank of issue, 
under Charles Wesley and brother, who after- 
ward moved it to Buffalo, New York. 

Since 1850 the village has gradually in- 
creased in wealth and population, and is now 
well supplied with stores, shops, mills and 
churches. The population in 1880 was three 
hundred and ninety-two. 

The Baptist church of Hartford was organ- 
ized about 1787, in a barn near the present 
church building, as the Baptist church in West- 
field. In 1789 Rev. Amasa Brown, of Swan- 
sea, Massachusetts, was chosen as the first 
settled pastor. In 1830 the church took ex- 
treme grounds against Masonry, and eighty of 
its members withdrew to organize the South 
Baptist church. The seceders called Rev. B. 
F. Baldwin as their pastor, built a meeting 
house and existed as a separate church until 
1S43, when they reunited on a satisfactory 
basis with the old church and sold their meet- 
ing house to the Methodists. The present 
Baptist church edifice stands on a lot deeded 
for church purposes by DeWitt Clinton. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Hart- 
ford was legally organized in 1844, and pur- 
chased the lower Baptist church through the 
efforts of Rev. Ensign Stover, then on the 
circuit to which the Hartford class belonged. 


This town was erected March 12, 1793, from 
Westfield, now Fort Ann, and was named for 
Hartford, Connecticut. The town of Hartford 
is bounded on the north by Fort Ann ; on the 
east by Granville and Hebron ; on the south 



by Afgyle, and on the west by Kingsbury. It 
has an area of twenty-seven thousand five 
hundred acres, of which twenty-two thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-two acres were im- 
proved in 1875. 

The soil on the hills is slaty, producing 
good wheat and grass, and in the valleys are 
found dark loams and heavy clays noted for 
their fertility and productiveness. 

The general surface is uneven. In the south- 
east and northwest are the highest hills, some 
of which are seven hundred feet above Lake 
Champlain. In the south exists a cedar 
swamp, extending into Argyle and containing 
peat deposits. 

The drainage is westwardly to Wood creek 
by East creek and its small tributary streams. 
Several calybeate springs have been found in 
the town. 

The town of Hartford was formally organ- 
ized at the first town meeting, held April 1, 
1794, at the house of Daniel Mason, near 
South Hartford. At that meeting Daniel Ma- 
son was elected supervisor ; Asahel Hodge, 
clerk, and Ezekiel Goodell, collector. 

The town of Hartford is embraced in the 
Provincial patent granted May 2, 1764, to the 
following twenty-six officers of the New York 
infantry : Peter Dubois, William Cockroft, 
Bernard Glazier, Charles Le Roux, Michael 
Thody, George Brewerton, sr. , George Brew- 
erton, jr , Robert McGinnis, Peter Middleton, 
Isaac Corsa, Joshua Bloomer, Tobias Van- 
Zandt, George Dunbar, Barak Snethew, Jona- 
than Ogden, Richard Rea, Verdin Ellsworth, 
Barnaby Byrne, Cornelius Duane, Abraham 
De Forest, Joseph Bull, Tennis Corsa, Thomas 
Jones, David Johnson, Henry Dawson and 
Alexander White. Each officer received one 
thousand acres, and the patent was surveyed 
in 1764, into one hundred and four lots con- 
taining three hundred acres, more or less. 

The earliest settlement in the town, it 
seems, was not made until after the Revolu- 
tionary war. It is probable that Col. John 
Buck was the first settler. He located on lot 

31, and at the same time Manning Bull 
settled on lot 43. Other early settlers were : 
Stephen, Laban and Wanton Bump, on lot 
89; Aaron and Eber Ingalsbe, in 1782, on lot 
87; and Lt. Nathaniel Bull, on lot 6. David 
Austin was the agent of DeWitt Clinton, and 
came to the North village at an early day. 
Jabez Norton was an early settler, as were : 
John H. Kincaid, Ezekiel Goodell, Daniel 
Mason, Daniel Brown, A?ahel Hodge, Jona- 
than Wood, Dr. Isaac W. Clary, Calvin 
Townsend and Thomas Thompson, whom 
tradition says settled near South Hartford in 

The town of Hartford has three main vil- 
lages, Hartford (already described), South 
Hartford, and East Hartford. 

South Hartford village dates its first settle- 
ment to 1790, when a man named Foster made 
an improvement, and commenced the erection 
of a grist mill. Foster sold to Daniel Brown, 
who completed the mill, and in 1810 trans- 
ferred it to William Covel, who added a saw 
mill. The place then was known for many 
years as Covel's mills. Below the village, 
distilleries, saw and grist mills, a carding ma- 
chine and a woolen factory was erected at 
different times between 1800 and 1850, but 
most of them have been destroyed, or are in 

While Daniel Brown was at South Hart- 
ford he built a tannery, which he sold about 
1800 to Calvin Townsend. and which in 1846 
became the property of Levi Hatch. A plaster 
mill was in existence for a time, and on its 
ruins a planing mill was erected. Various 
mechanic shops have been built and oper- 
ated until the present. Maj. Caleb Brown 
in 1797 opened the first tavern. In 1800 
Daniel Brown and John P. Webb opened tav- 
erns. The first stores were kept in 1795 by 
Caleb Brown and Daniel Mason, and the first 
physician was Dr. Isaac W. Clary. The post- 
office was established in 1820, with Joseph 
Harris as postmaster. 

The First Congregational church of Hart- 



ford was legally organized September 18, 1810, 
although it seems to have been in existence 
since 1800, and a church building had been 
erected in 1805, which, enlarged and improved, 
was in use in 1880. This church is now asso- 
ciated with the Hudson River conference. 

The First Universalist society of Hartford 
was formed at South Hartford, June 20, 1 S 3 4 , 
with forty-six members. In 1838 a plain brick 
meeting house was erected, and services were 
held until about 1870, when the society went 

Hartford academy was established in De- 
cember, 1865, in the lower part of the Congre- 
gational church at South Hartford. Lewis 
Hallock was the first principal, and the school 
became prosperous. 

East Hartford is a small village, but was 
settled at an early day. Laban Bump put up 
a saw mill, Hezekiah Mann built a grist mill, 
and John Park commenced the tanning busi- 
ness about 1800. Earl) - stores were kept by 
Fred Baker and John Carlisle. 

The earliest school in the town of Hartford 
of which there is record, was at North Hart- 
ford in 1790, with Thomas Payne as teacher. 
The present public schools are such as to re- 
flect credit on the town. 

Agricultural pursuits have always been pre- 
dominent in the town, and of late years the 
dairying interest has been pushed forward 
toward the front. The oldest cheese factory in 
Hartford is the old Hartford factory, erected 
in 1869. The South Hartford cheese factory 
was built in 1878. 

Bee keeping as a paying industry of Hart- 
ford, was commenced by John H. Martin, of 
North Hartford. 


The town of Hampton is bounded on the 
north by the State of Vermont : on the east by 
Vermont : on the south by Granville, and on 
the west by Whitehall. The area of Hamp- 
ton is twelve thousand six hundred and sixty- 
four acres, of which eight thousand five hun- 

dred and eighty-three acres were improved in 

The western part of Hampton is mountain- 
ous, while in the east are hills and small val- 
leys, and along the Poultney river are alluvial 
flats. The soil is well adapted to potatoes amd 
grass, and all of the cereal grains are raised. 

The drainage in the central and northern 
parts of Hampton is by the Poultney river, 
and in the south principally by the tributaries 
of the Pawlet river. 

The town of Hampton was organized by act 
of legislature, March 3, 1786, having been 
previously called Greenfield by the early set- 
tlers. The first town meeting was held at the 
school house near Col. Gideon Warner's, May 
2, 1786, and Capt. Lemuel Hyde and John 
Howe were elected as supervisors ; James 
Kellogg as clerk, and Asa Tyler as collector. 

The north part of the town embraces about 
two thousand acres of " Skene's Little pat- 
ent," and the remainder of the territory is 
largely included in patents granted to pro- 
vincial officers after the French and Indian 

The early settlers of Hampton were mainly 
from Massachusetts, and some came from 
Connecticut. They settled as early as 1781, 
if not earlier. Among the early Massachusetts 
settlers were 1 Col. Gideon Warner, Capt. 
Benjamin C. Owen, Jason Kellogg and Shubal 
Pierce, From Connecticut came in pioneer 
days, Rufus Hotchkiss, Abiather Millard and 
Col. Pliny Adams. Other early settlers were: 
Ashbel Webster, William Morris, Elisha Kil- 
bourne, Enoch Wright, Samuel Waterhouse, 
Samuel Hooker, William Miller, Squire Sam- 
uel Beaman, Major Peter P. French, Mason 
Hulett, and Squire Jason Kellogg. 

The town of Hampton, from its location 
and the nature of its surface, was not a very 
favorable locality for inhabitation or military 
movements on the part of the pre-historic 
peoples of this country. In the Revolution 
it largely escaped visitation by the English or 



The town contains two villages, Hampton 
Corners and Low Hampton. 

Hampton Corners is in the southeast, on 
the Poultney river, and one mile west of 
Poultney, Vermont. Solomon Norton built a 
saw and grist mill on the Vermont side of the 
river at an early day, and this led to the es- 
tablishment of the village. Col. Pliny Adams 
kept the first store, and a distillery was built 
about the same time by Miner Webster. 

Christ's Episcopal church of Hampton was 
organized in 1798. A church building was 
erected between 1798 and 1800, on la,nd given 
by Col. Gideon Warner. Among the early 
supporters of the church were Major French, 
Squire Samuel Beaman, Jason Kellogg, and 
Col. Pliny Adams. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Hamp- 
ton was formed in 1841, when the Methodists 
of Hampton withdrew from the Poultney so- 
ciety. The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Cooper, 
and the first church edifice was erected in 
1842. A Methodist society in Hampton had 
been organized prior to 1773 by Philip Em- 
bury and Barbara Heck, and to it, at Hamp- 
ton Hill, Bishop Ashbury preached when he 
visited New York. 

Low Hampton is a small village on the 
Poultney river, and five miles above Hampton 
Corners. A store and a woolen factory were 
established there a number of years ago. 

The Baptist church of Low Hampton was 
organized prior to 1799 by Elder Elnathan 
Phelps, and its first pastor, Rev. Elisha Mil- 
ler, served from 1799 to 1821. A majority of 
the church, in 1845, followed William Miller, 
the celebrated Adventist, and were expelled 
from the Baptist denomination. This left the 
minority too weak to continue their organiza- 
tion, and the church disbanded. 

The Second Advent church was organized 
September n, 1850, with thirty members, and 
Elder Leonard Kimball as pastor. A church 
edifice was built in 1848, but in a few 3 ears 
the society went down. 

William Miller was a minister in the Hamp- 

ton Baptist church from 1832 to 1845, and in 
a biography of him, Lossing says : "The au- 
thor of Millerism, familiarly known, like the 
founder of Mormonism, as The Prophet, was 
William Miller, a plain, uneducated, religious 
zealot, who was born in Pittsfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1 77 1. Of his early life we have no 
important record. He seems not to have been 
distinguished from his fellow men by anything 
remarkable, except that he was an honest man 
and good citizen. When war between the 
United States and Great Britain was kindled 
in 1812, Mr. Miller was captain of a company 
of volunteers on the northern frontier, and 
did good service at Sackett's Harbor, Wil- 
liamsburg and Plattsburg. When peace came 
he resumed his farm labors, and we hear noth- 
ing more of him until about 1826, when he be- 
gan to promulgate his peculiar views concern- 
ing prophecy. It was not until 1833 that he 
commenced his public ministry on the subject 
of the approaching millennium. Then he went 
forth from place to place throughout the 
northern and middle States, boldly proclaim- 
ing the new interpretation of Scripture, and 
declaring that Christ would descend in clouds, 
the true saints would be caught up into the 
air, and the earth would be purified by fire, in 
1843. No doubt the aged zealot was sincere. 
He labored with great fervor; and during the 
ten years of his ministry he averaged a sermon 
every two days. As the time for the predicted 
consummation of all prophecy approached, 
his disciples rapidly increased. Hundreds 
and thousands embraced his doctrine, with- 
drew from church fellowship, and banded to- 
gether. Other preachers appeared in the 
field. The press was diligently employed ; 
and an alarming paper, called The Midnight 
Cry, was published in New York, embellished, 
sometimes, with pictures of hideous beasts, 
and the image seen by the Babylonian Em- 
peror in his dream; at others with represen- 
tations of benignant angels. The appointed 
day passed by. The earth moved on in its 
accustomed course upon the great highway of 



the ecliptic. Full thirty thousand people em- 
braced the doctrine of Miller, and had un- 
bounded faith in his interpretation of all 
prophecy. In the course of a few weeks the 
excitement subsided, and soon the rushing 
torrent of delusion dwindled into an almost 
imperceptible rill. Mr. Miller acknowledged 
his error, and seldom preached about the 
millennium. He died at Hampton, Washing- 
ton county, New York, on the 29th of Decem- 
ber, 1849, at the age of seventy-eight years." 

The manufacturing industries of Hampton 
commenced with the establishment of iron in- 
dustries at an early day in the northern part 
of the town. The Leonard, Carver, and Smith 
forges ran on iron ore brought from the west 
side of Lake Champlain. The Quackenbush 
& Steere powder mills were built about 1850.. 
Low Hampton had a woolen mill, and all the 
slate factories of the town are situated near 
Hampton Corners. The Hampton Cheese 
Manufacturing Company was organized in 
May 1869. 

The public schools are in good condition, 
and the earliest report to be obtained was made 
in 1849, when there were six districts in the 




The old and historic village of Fort Ann 
was incorporated March 7, 1820, and since 
then its boundaries have twice been enlarged. 
The first village election was held May 9, 1820, 
and the following officers elected : William A. 
Moore, president ; Lemuel Hastings, William 
A. Moore, Henry Thorn, George Clark, and 
John Root, trustees ; Amos T. Bush, treas- 
urer, and Charles McCracken, collector. In 
1867 the corporation became a separate road 
district, and on September 11, 1873, the char- 

ter was rescinded and the village incorporated 
under the general law passed on April 20th of 
that year. Fort Ann had its postoffice estab- 
lished in the year 1800, with George Clark as 
postmaster. The village has built up princi- 
pally on its mercantile trade. Stores, shops, 
and a hotel were started at an early day. A 
tannery, bank, and other enterprises were 
started later, and in 1865 a cheese factory was 

The village has a station on the Rensselaer 
& Saratoga railroad, and the Champlain canal 
passes through its corporate limits. Well situ- 
ated on the great water-way from the Hudson 
to the northern lakes, and being on the line of 
a main railway from New York to the Domin- 
ion of Canada, increased size and prosperity 
are only questions of time. 

The history of the old Fort Anne from which 
the village is named, has been given in the 
general history, as well as the battle fought 
near it in 1777, and needs not repetiton here. 

The Baptist church of Fort Ann village was 
organized June 12, 1822, with twenty-seven 
members. The first settled minister was Rev. 
Bradbury Clay. The congregation first wor- 
shipped in the school house, and afterward 
helped build a union church, which they pur- 
chased entire in 1836. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Fort 
Ann was formed some time prior to 1826, in 
which year they helped build a union church. 
After 1836, when the Baptists bought the 
building, they held services for a time in the 
old Presbyterian church and in the hotel ball 
rooni. Their present church edifice was ded- 
icated March 8, 1838. 

The Presbyterian church of Fort Ann was 
organized about 1823, but some years later 
the membership was so small that the church 
became extinct, and their building was taken 
down and removed to Kingsbury. 

A Universalist church was in existence at 
Fort Ann in 1826. 

A northern suburb of Fort Ann village is 
Kane's Falls, where Major Skene built mills 

lillHUiAPlTY AND iriSTOh'Y 


before 1773. Charles Kane purchased the 
mills and manufactured iron and cables. 
Woolen mills and the Bridgeport Wood Fin- 
ishing Company's works are located there. 


Fort Ann, the largest town in the county, 
is bounded on the north by Dresden and 
Whitehall ; on the east by Dresden, White- 
hall and Granville ; on the south by Hartford 
and Kingsbury ; and on the west by Warren 
count)-, from which it is partly separated by 
Lake George. The town has an area- of fifty- 
six thousand three hundred and eighty-six 

The soil varies from a sand to a clay loam 
on the hills and in the valleys, but in the 
mountains is sterile. The surface in the south 
consists of rolling and level land, while the 
remainder of the town is divided by three 
mountain ranges, between which lie two fer- 
tile valleys. These mountain ranges coming 
from the east are Fort Ann, Putnam and Pal- 
mertown. The valleys are Tuttle or Welch, 
and Furnace. The highest peak is Buck 
mountain, which is two thousand five hundred 
feet above Lake Champlain. 

Drainage is by Wood, Half-Way and Fur- 
nace creeks. Half-Way creek was formerly 
known as Scoon creek or Clear river. Numer- 
ous ponds are in the western valley, and 
Kane's Falls are in Half-Way creek, a mile 
above the village of Fort Ann. 

Iron ore is found in the mountains, and the 
Mount Nebo mine was worked from 1825 to 

The town of Fort Ann was formed March 
23, 1786, under the name of Westfield, and 
included its present area and the territory of 
Hartford, Dresden and Putnam. In 1808 the 
name was changed from Westfield to Fort 
Ann in honor of the old Fort Anne named for 
Queen Anne of England. By some strange 
freak of fortune the spelling of Anne was 
changed to that of Ann. At the first regular 
town meeting of Fort Ann, on April 4, 1786, 

Stephen Spencer and Silas Childs were elected 
supervisors ; Isaiah Bennett, clerk, and George 
Scranton, collector. 

The town of Fort Ann embraces the Artil- 
lery patent, part of the Lake George tract in 
the west, part of the Saddle mountain tract in 
the northeast, and the Westfield, Fort Ann 
and Ore Bed tracts in the central part. 

The territorial history of the town prior to 
its settlement, is a record of nearly all the 
expeditions of the Indian, inter-colonial and 
Revolutionary wars that crossed Washington 
county. Beside the great military road from 
Fort Edward to Whitehall that passed through 
the town, there was another military road 
from Fort Ann to Queensbury, and a trail 
from that post to South Bay. The story of 
Fort Ann as a military post and the desperate 
struggle on its near-by battle-field, is history of 
such importance that fort and battle-field will 
never be forgotten. 

The record of early settlement is meagre. 
Prior to 1773 Major Skene erected mills at 
Kane Falls, and in that year the Harrisons 
and Braytons settled in the town. The Revo- 
lution then checked all further settlement 
until the winter of 1781, when Joseph Hen- 
negan, Isaiah Bennett, Hope Washburn, 
Ozias Coleman, John Ward, Joseph Bacon, 
George Scranton, Caleb Noble, Josiah Welch, 
Samuel Ward and Samuel Hurlburt came on 
the Artillery patent as actual settlers.. They 
were joined in 1784 by Silas Tracy, Elijah 
Backus, Andrew Stevenson, Joseph Kellogg 
and James Sloan. In 1785 Medad Harvey, 
Nathaniel Osgood and Zephaniah Kingsley 
came to the Artillery patent, and in the suc- 
ceeding year were joined by Silas Childs, Al- 
pheus Spencer, Samuel Wilson, Elijah Bills, 
Israel Brown and Samuel Chapin. Among 
other early settlers who became prominent in 
the town were: Ephraim Griswold, Jacob 
Van Wormer, Benjamin Copeland, Thaddeus 
Dewey, George Wray and Daniel Comstock. 

The unincorporated villages of Fort Ann 
are West Fort Ann, South Bay, Comstock's 



Landing, Griswold's Mills and Kane's Falls, 
which is a suburb of Fort Ann. 

South Bay, in the northern part, has a 
church and store, and is headquarters for 
lumbermen. The church is the Second Bap- 
tist, organized January 10, 1810. The first 
pastor was Rev. C. H. Swain, and the church 
edifice was built in 1868. 

West Fort Ann, once Van Wormer's, is in 
the southwestern part of the town, and has 
some manufacturing establishments. The 
place was started about 1800 by Jacob Van 
Wormer, who built the first saw mill there. 
Stephen Palmer built a grist mill about 1815, 
a forge was erected in 1827, and Kingsley's 
tannery was built in 1843. The Methodist 
Episcopal church of West Fort Ann was 
formed about 1820, and fifty years later was 
incorporated under the name of the " Evan- 
gelical Union church of West Fort Ann." 
Their present church structure was built in 
1833 as a Union church, but the Baptists, 
Presbyterians and Universalists, who aided in 
its construction, have used it but little of late 
years. The Protestant Methodist church 
formed at Fort Ann about 1830, went down 
in 1858, and their church building was torn 
down in 1872. 

Comstock's Landing is named for Daniel 
Comstock, who settled near the place about 
1790. The postoffice was established in 1832 
with Peter Comstock as postmaster. A bote', 
store, Baptist church and numerous dwellings 
constitute the place. The First Baptist 
church of Fort Ann has been at Comstock's 
Landing since 1858, when the present church 
edifice was built there. The church was or- 
ganized in 1789, and Rev. Sherman Babcock 
was the first pastor. The first church was 
three miles east of the present house, and the 
second building was at Polley's Landing. 

Griswold's Mills are in the southwest, and 
were founded about 1791 by Ephraim Gris- 
wold, who put up a grist mill the next year. 
A pottery, woolen mill and furnace were after- 
ward built and run. The postoffice was es- 

tablished in 1833, with Elisha M. Forbes as 

It is said that Podunk brook takes its name 
from the eastern Indians called the Podunk 
tribe. A remnant of this tribe was in the 
Furnace Valley for several years. 



Dresden, the first of the two peninsula 
towns of Washington county, is bounded on 
the north by Putnam ; on the east by Lake 
Champlain ; on the south by Fort Ann ; and 
on the west by Lake George. Dresden has 
an area of thirty-one thousand two hundred 
and thirty-six acre6. 

The soil of the arable lands along the lakes 
is a hard clay, mixed in places with gravelly 
or sand}' loam. It is a productive soil and 
well adapted to grazing and stock raising. 
The general character of the surface is rough 
and mountainous, and the chief occupations 
of the inhabitants are lumbering, farming, and 

Dresden was originally a part of Westfield. 
In 1806 it was set off as a part of Putnam. 
On March 15, 1822, it was organized as South 
Bay, but on April 17 of the same year it 
was re-named Dresden. In 1 823 Isaac Boomer 
was elected supervisor, and Doty Allen clerk. 
In 1875 all the town records up to that year 
were burned. 

The town of Dresden is formed from parts 
of the six following patents : Turner's great 
patent, Turner's little patent, Thomas and 
Turner patent, Stewart patent, Lake George 
tract, and South Bay tract. 

The pioneer settler of Dresden was Joseph 
Phippeny, of Connecticut, who located in 
1784 at the mouth of South Bay, on a part 
of the Stewart tract. Among the early set- 



tiers were : Ebenezer Chapman, Boggs, 

Daniel Ruff, Roger Barrett, James Snody, 
Palmer Blunt, Abraham Clemons, Daty Allen, 
Orin Brewster, Israel Woodcock, John Bur- 
gess, Harvey Hulett, Amariah Toft, Elijah 
Nobles, Amos Slater, Welcome Hulett, Charles 
Nobles, John H. Waters, Isaac Hurlburt, Dr. 
Nathaniel Rhoads, Levi and Solomon Belden, 
Nathan Curtis, Jonathan Mclntyre, Elnathan 
Duthan, and Walter Benjamin. 

Dresden Center is the only village in the 
town. It is a station on the New York and 
Canada railroad, and has a church, store, and 
numerous dwellings. The First Baptist church 
of Dresden was organized in 1823, at the house 
of Deacon Huntingdon, with twenty-one mem- 
bers from the Huntingdon, Guilford, Bosworth, 
Stockwell, Wetherbee, Blunt, and Barker 
families. The church building at Dresden 
Center was erected in 1850. The Dresden 
Center postoffice was established in 1872, with 
Thomas Bartholomew as postmaster. 

Chubb's Dock is another station on the New 
York and Canada railroad, and at Bosom and 
Knowlton bays on Lake George popular sum- 
mer resorts have been established. 

The first inn in the town was kept by Solo- 
mon Belden, the earliest store was opened by 
John Chubb, and the pioneer sawmill was built 
by Amos Collins. 

An interesting cave was discovered on Spruce 
mountain in 1877. The only pond in the town 
is Long's Pond. Deer still gambol in the 
mountains, but wolves and bears have passed 


Putnam, named for the brave Israel Putnam 
of Revolutionary fame, who performed some 
of his most daring exploits on her soil, is the 
second of the peninsula townships of Wash- 
ington county. Putnam is bounded on the 
north by Essex county ; on the east by Lake 
Champlain ; on the south by Dresden, and on 
the west by Lake George. Putnam has an 
area of nineteen thousand two hundred and 
seventy-nine acres of land. 

The tillable soil is mostly a hard gravelly 
loam intermixed with clay, but productive. 
The surface is rough and mountainous. It is 
divided into three ranges by the valleys of 
Mill and Charter brooks. 

The drainage is by several small streams 
into Lakes Champlain and George. In the 
southern part Mud pond lies three hundred 
feet above Lake George. 

Putnam was erected from Westfield, (now 
Fort Ann) February 28, 1806, and at that time 
included the territory of the town of Dresden. 
The first town meeting was held at the house 
of James Burnet, on April 4, 1806, when John 
Gourly was elected supervisor ; George Wdley, 
clerk, and Peter Hutton, collector. 

The western half of the town is embraced 
in the Turner patent, and the eastern half is 
included in the Hutton's Bush patent. The 
eastern half was first owned by one Hodgson, 
and then by a firm, one of whose members, 
William Hutton, came from Scotland to Wash- 
ington county. John Williams contested Hut- 
ton's claim for a time. Hutton employed a 
lawyer named Dickenson to defend his title, 
and a surveyor named William Cockburn to 
survey and lay out the land into lots. After 
the survey was completed in 1801, Hutton 
gave the lawyer one third and the surveyor an- 
other third of the land for their pa)'. 

The first settler was Joseph Haskins on lot 
22, in 1782. William Hutton came on his 
land in 1784, and the next year George Easton 
came from Cambridge. Between 1789 and 
1803 a large number of settlers came to Hut- 
ton Bush, of whom were : Robert Cummings, 
Alexander Corbet, Alex. McLaughlin, James 
Burnet, John Gourly, Robert Patterson, Pela- 
tiah Bugbee, William Jones, George Willey. 
James McArthur. and Luther Grant. During 
the same period of time the following persons 
settled in the western or hill settlement : George 
Rickert, Aaron Backus, Chris. Burgess, Levi 
and Asahel Harrington, Abiathur and Jonas 
Odell, Samuel and Philo Rogers, Samuel Mc- 
Carl, Dyer Perry, Josiah Clark, Lemon 



Bunce, Frederick Dedrich, John and John 
Hale, jr., Eph. Case, Peleg Durfee, John But- 
terfield, and Ords B. Johnson. 

Putnam is the only village in the town, and 
it has not attained to much size yet. Putnam 
academy was built in 1854, and the first prin- 
cipal was Joseph McKirahan. 

Black Point, on Lake George, tradition says 
was owned by Prince Taylor or Black Prince, 
and that its first settlers were negroes. 

Six Mile Point, on Lake Champlain, is 
sometimes called Negro Point, because the 
body of a negro was buried there. 

There are two churches in the town of Put- 

The Free Will Baptist church of Putnam 
was organized April 7, 1823, as a Baptist 
church, but in the same year became Free 
Will Baptist. The first pastor was Rev. John 
S. Carter, and the twenty-eight organizing 
members were from the Carter, Woodstock, 
Fish, Backus, Congdon. Shear, Bugbee, Mor- 
ton and Dedrich families. The present church 
building was erected in 1841, and repaired in 

The United Presbyterian church of Putnam 
was organized at the house of William Hut- 
ton in the year 1803, with seventeen members, 
from the Hutton, Gourly, Easton, Corbet, 
Cummings, Willey, Robertson, Shiel and Mc- 
Laughlin families, which had mostly come 
from Scotland. The first minister was Rev. 
James Miller, and the third and present 
church edifice was built in 1857. 

Within the boundaries were performed some 
of the most daring exploits of Putnam, who 
fought at Bunker Hill, of Stark who won 
Benmington, and of Rogers whose effort to 
support Royalty seemed to have cost him his 
personal bravery and his military genius. 

"Gen. Israel Putnam was born at Salem, 
Massachusetts, on the 7th of January, 1718. 
He was descended from one of the first set- 
tlers of that ancient New England town. His 
education was neglected, and he grew to man- 
hood with a vigorous but uncultivated mind. 

He delighted in athletic exercises, and gener- 
ally bore the palm among his fellows. At the 
age of twenty-one years he commenced the 
the life of a farmer, in Pomfret, Connecticut, 
where he 'pursued the even tenor of his way ' 
until 1754, when he was appointed to the com- 
mand of a company of Connecticut troops, 
destined for the war with the French and In- 
dians on the northern frontier. He performed 
essential service under General Johnson at 
Lake George and vicinity during that cam- 
paign ; and the following year he had com- 
mand of a corps of rangers, and bore the 
commission of a captain in the provincial 
army. He had many stirring adventures in 
the neighborhood of Lake Champlain. In 
August, 1758, he was near the present White- 
hall, at the head of the lake, watching the 
movements of the enemy, and had a severe 
encounter with the French and Indians, in the 
forest. Putnam was finally made prisoner, 
and the savages tied him to a tree, and pre- 
pared to roast him alive. A shower of rain 
and the interposition of a French officer, saved 
his life, and he was taken to the headquarters 
of the enemy at Ticonderoga. From thence 
he was sent, a prisoner, to Montreal, in Can- 
ada, where, through the kindness of Colonel 
Peter Schuyler, of Albany (who was also a 
prisoner), he was humanely treated. The fol- 
lowing spring he was exchanged, and returned 
home. He joined the army again, soon after- 
ward, and was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. 
He was a bold and efficient leader during the 
remainder of the war, and then he returned 
to his plow and the repose and obscurity of 
domestic life in rural seclusion. Colonel Put- 
nam was an active friend of the people when 
disputes with government commenced ten 
years before war was kindled ; and when the 
intelligence of bloodshed at Lexington reached 
him, while plowing in the field, he had no 
political scruples to settle, but, unyoking his 
oxen, he started, with his gun and rusty sword, 
for Boston. He soon returned to Connecti- 
cut, raised a regiment, and hastened back to 



Cambridge, then the headquarters of a motley 
host that had hurried thither from the hills 
and valleys of New England. When, six 
weeks afterward, Washington was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the Continental army, 
Putnam was chosen to be one of four major- 
generals created on that occasion. He per- 
formed bravely on Bunker Hill before his com- 
mission reached him, and from that time, 
throughout the whole struggle, until the close 
of 1779, General Putnam was a faithful and 
greatly esteemed leader. His services were 
too numerous to be detailed here — they are 
all recorded in our country's annals, and re- 
membered by every student of our history. 
At West Point, on the Hudson, his military 
career was concluded. Late in 1779 he set 
out to visit his family in Connecticut, and on 
the way he suffered a partial paralysis of his 
system, which impaired both his mind and 
bod}'. At his home in Brooklyn, Connecti- 
cut, he remained an invalid the remainder of 
his days. With Christian resignation, and the 
fortitude of a courageous man, he bore his 
afflictions for more than ten years, and then, 
at the close of the beautiful budding month 
of May (29th), 1790, the veteran hero died, at 
the age of seventy-two years. His memoir, 
prepared by Col. David Humphreys, from 
narratives uttered by the patriot's own lips, 
was first published, by order of the State So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati of Connecticut, in 
1788, and afterward published in Humphrey's 
collected writings, in 1790. A neat monu- 
ment, bearing a suitable inscription, marks his 
grave in Brooklyn, Connecticut." 

" Gen. John Stark was the son of a Scotch- 
man, and was born in Londonderry (now the 
city of Manchester), New Hampshire, on the 
28th of August, 1728. His early childhood 
was spent in the midst of the wild scenery of 
his birth-place, and in youth he was remark- 
able for expertness in trapping the beaver and 
otter, and in hunting the bear and deer. Just 
before the breaking out of the French and In- 
dian war, he penetrated the forests far north- 

ward, and was captured by some St. Francis 
Indians. He suffered dreadfully for a long 
time, and then was ransomed at a great price. 
This circumstance gave him good cause for 
leading a company of Rangers against these 
very Indians and their sometimes equally sav- 
age French allies, four years afterward. He 
became a captain, under Major Rogers, in 
1756, and in that school he was taught those 
lessons which he practiced so usefully twenty 
years later. 

" When intelligence reached the valleys of the 
North, that blood had been shed at Lexing- 
ton, Stark led the train-bands of his district to 
Cambridge, and was commissioned a colonel, 
with eight hundred men under his banner. 
With these he fought bravely in the battle of 
Bunker's Hill. He went to New York after 
the British evacuated Boston, in the spring of 
1776. Then, at the head of a brigade in the 
northern department, under Gates, he per- 
formed essential service in the vicinity of Lake 
Champlain ; and near the close of the year, he 
commanded the right wing of Sullivan's col- 
umn in the battle at Trenton. He shared in 
the honors at Princeton ; but, being overlooked 
by congress when promotions were made, he 
resigned his commission and retired from the 
army. But when the invader approached 
from the North, his own State called him to 
the field, in command of its brave sons ; and 
on the Walloomscoik, a few miles from Ben- 
nington, he won that decisive battle which 
gave him world-wide renown. Then it was 
that he made the rough but effective speech 
often quoted, that indicated the alternative of 
death or victory. Congress was no longer 
tardy in acknowledging his services, for he 
had given that crippling blow to Burgoyne, 
which insured to Gates' arm}- a comparatively 
easy victory. The national legislature gave 
him grateful thanks, and a brigadier's commis- 
sion in the Continental army. He joined Gates 
at Saratoga, and shared in the honors of that 
great victory. In 1779 he was on duty on 
Rhode Island, and the following year he fought 



the British and Hessians at Springfield, in 
New Jersey. In the autumn of 1780 he was 
one of the board of officers that tried and con- 
demned the unfortunate Major Andre ; and 
until the last scenes of the war, he was in ac- 
tive service. When he sheathed his sword, 
he left the arena of public life forever, though 
he lived almost forty years afterward. General 
Stark died on the 8th of May, 1822, at the age 
of almost ninety-four years. Near his birth- 
place, on the east side of the Merrimac, is a 
granite shaft, bearing the simple inscription, 
Major-General Stark. His eulogium is daily 
uttered by our free institutions — his epitaph 
is in the memory of his deeds." 

"The French and Indian war developed 
much military genius among the American 
colonists, which was afterward brought into 
requisition by the demands of the revolution- 
ary contest. It did not always take its place 
on the side of republicanism, as in the case of 
Ruggles and many others. Major Robert 
Rogers, the bold commander of a corps of 
Rangers, and a companion-in-arms with Put- 
nam and Stark, was another example of de- 
fection to the cause of freedom in America. 
He was a native of Dunbarton, in New Hamp- 
shire, and having entered the military service 
in 1755, became an eminent commander of a 
corps which performed signal services as 
scouts, and executors of small but important 
enterprises, when not engaged with the main 
army. After the peace in 1 763, he returned to his 
native place, and received the half pay of a 
regular British officer of his rank, until the 
war for Independence broke out. In 1766, 
he was made governor of Michillimackinac, 
in the far North-west, where he had confronted 
the confederates of Pontiac, a few years be- 

fore. He was accused of a design to plunder 
his own fort, and was sent in irons to Mon- 
treal. After his release he went to England, 
was presented to the king, and met with royal 
favor ; but extravagant habits led him into 
debt, and he was cast into prison. He finally 
returned to America, and when the revolution- 
ary contest began, the color of his politics 
was doubtful. His movements, toward the 
close of 1775, gave reason to suspect him of 
being a spy ; and in June, 1776, Washington 
had him arrested, at South Amboy, and 
brought to New York, where he professed great 
friendship for his native country. He was re- 
leased on parole, by Congress, and directed 
to return to New Hampshire, which he did. 
He soon afterward boldly espoused the royal 
cause, raised a corps, which he called the 
Queen's Rangers, and was with Howe, in 
Westchester, previous to the battle at White 
Plains. He soon afterward left his corps in 
command of Lieutenant-colonel Simcoe, and 
went to England. By an act of his native 
State, he was banished, and never returned to 
America. When, and where he died, is not 
on History's record. He was a brave soldier; 
but, according to his own confession, his half- 
pa) 7 from the crown made him an adherent of 

The territory of Putnam is historic ground, 
and on her soil was the tread of the warrior, 
the scout and the soldier, from Champlain's 
attack on the Iroquois, in 1609, on her eastern 
lake border, until the October sun of 1777 
shone down, just across her border, on the 
field of Saratoga, " Upon whose hoof-beaten 
bosom, red battle so deeply stamped his foot 
and made it famous forever." 

]4lST0HlGflLi J^OTES 


Village of Qkns Jaill^ and tfye^oiion of (gueengbuF£, 


From a forest hamlet to the proportions of 
a nineteenth century city tells the story of the 
growth of Glens Falls, during its one hundred 
and thirty years of existence. 

Glens Falls, once Wing's Falls, a place of 
nearly twelve thousand population, is situated 
on the Hudson river, in the town of Queens- 
hury, Warren county, New York. 

While the town of Queensbury was largely 
in the Kayaderosseras patent, and some claim 
was laid to its territory under the Dellius pat- 
ent, yet it seems from the confused accounts 
of the early historians that the site of Glens 
Falls village was at the edge of the Glen pat- 
ent, which is mentioned as early as 1769. 

On May 29, 1762, Daniel Prindle and twenty- 
two others became the patentees of the town 
of Queensbury, six by eight miles in extent, 
and so named in honor of the lately wedded 
consort of King George III. When the town 
was surveyed in 1762, Abraham Wing drew 
lots 29, 36, and 37, on which the more thickly 
settled portion of Glens Falls is situated. 

In 1763 or 1765, Abraham Wing and Icha- 
bod Merritt commenced improvements at 
Glens Falls, where Wing erected at consider- 
able expense a saw and a grist mill. Three 
years later Wing was given thirty acres of un- 
appropriated land at the falls by the proprie- 
tors of the town of Queensbury for building 


these mills, whose existence was an incentive 
to settlement in the town, as well as a source 
of profit to their owner. 

Wing opened a store and an inn, and be- 
came the prominent man of the place, which 
was then known throughout the province as 
Wing's Falls. Wing, it seems, between 1765 
and 1773, had Ichabod Merritt, Samuel Brown- 
son and Daniel Jones as partners in his mill 
enterprises. In 1776 irresponsible parties of 
Continental soldiers visited Queensbury and 
Wing's Falls, and carried away considerable 
property. A Capt. Marion Lamar's company 
seems to have been the worst depredators. 

The next year came Burgoyne's invasion, 
and as General Schuyler retreated before the 
British he sent out detatchments of Continen- 
tal troops to gather up all the grain, cattle and 
mill irons of the surrounding country to pre- 
vent them from falling into the hands of the 
enemy. One of these detachments visited 
Wing's Mills and despoiled Abraham Wing of 
horses, cattle and sheep, to the value of nearly 
five hundred dollars, while they dismantled 
his mills of irons worth about seven hundred 
dollars. His losses did not stop with his cat- 
tle and mill irons, but included the taking of 
over one hundred and fifty bushels of grain 
and three tons of hay. 

When Burgoyne arrived at Fort Edward in 



Washington county, flying parties of Indians 
and tories ravaged the country and visited 
Wing's Mills in common with all other places 
in the town of Queensbnry. 

The Baroness Riedesel passed through the 
village on August 14, 1777, to join her hus- 
band at Fort Edward. 

During 1778 requisitions for supplies were 
made on Wing's Mills, or Wing's Corners, as it 
was sometimes named, and Abraham Wing, 
his sons-in-law, and his neighbors never re- 
ceived adequate recompense from the Conti- 
nental authorities for their losses of this, or 
the preceding year. 

Two years later, in 1780 — called in local tra- 
ditions the year of the burning — Carleton made 
his raid into what are now Washington and 
Warren counties, and his tories and Indians 
laid waste the whole country with fire and 
sword. All the buildings in Queensbnry were 
burned, and Wing's Corners, with its houses 
and mills, were destroyed. Before the arrival 
of the miscreant bands the inhabitants had fled 
and for fifteen months the country was waste 
and desolate. 

A visitor to the site of Glens Falls, or 
Wing's Corners, in 1780, thus describes the 
falls : " It is not a sheet of water, as at Cohos, 
and at Totohaw ; the river, confined and inter- 
rupted in its course by different rocks, glides 
through the midst of them, and precipitating 
itself obliquely, forms several cascades. That 
of Cohos is more majestic. This, more terri- 
ble. The Mohawk river seemed to fall from 
its own dead weight ; that of the Hudson frets 
and becomes enraged ; it foams and forms 
whirlpools, and flies like a serpent making its 
escape, still continuing its menaces by horri- 
ble hissings." 

By 1783 the village was partly rebuilt, and 
in 1784 Abraham Haviland erected a dwelling 
at the corner of South and Glen streets. 

Five years later, in 1788, Abraham Wing 
had a store and inn on the corner of Ridge 
and Warren streets. At this inn the choicest 
liquors from Albany, Montreal and Nova 

Scotia were furnished, and the wealthier resi- 
dents and prominent men of that day often 
held high revel there. At one of these con- 
vivial entertainments in 1788, Col. John Glen 
proposed to pay all the expenses of a wine 
supper if Abraham Wing would transfer to 
him all claim and title to the name of the falls. 
For some reason unknown Wing assented, the 
supper was held, and while the landlord gath- 
ered in quite a little sum of money on the en- 
tertainment, Glen acted with rapidity on the 
proposed change of name of the place. He 
had bills printed, announcing the change of 
name from Wing's Falls to Glens Falls, and 
posted on every road and bridle path between 
Albany and Queensbury. 

From that time on the village has been 
known as Glens Falls. The church history 
of Glens Falls is one of interest, and goes 
back over a century. Abraham Wing and his 
other Quaker neighbors worshiped according 
to their faith, but as the village grew many 
braved the danger of crossing the Hudson on 
string pieces to attend a Congregational church 
in Saratoga county. 

The Presbyterian church of Glens Falls was 
originally organized December 18, 1808, with 
the following members : Mary Folsom, Naomi 
Ranger, Amy Sandford, John, Elizabeth, and 
Gl. Folsom, Solomon P. and Ann Goodrich, 
and John Moss. A church building had been 
commenced in 1803, but was not completed 
till shortly before the organization of the 
church. The first pastor was Rev. William 
Boardman, who served from 1808 to 181 1. 
The present and third church structure was 
completed in 1867, at a cost of nearly thirty 
thousand dollars. 

The Baptist church of Glens Falls was or- 
ganized March 11, 1834, and its first regular 
pastor was Elder Amos R. Wells, who served 
from 1839 to 1846, and secured the building 
of the church, which was completed in 1842, 
and afterward repaired in 1866. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Glens 
Falls was organized with twelve members in 



1824, by Rev. John Lovejoy. The first church 
structure was built in 1829, and the present 
church edifice was commenced in 1865, and 
completed in 1873, at a cost of over twenty- 
five thousand dollars. 

The Episcopal church of the Messiah was 
organized February 10, 1840, and the first 
church building was erected in 1844. 

Catholic and Universalist churches were 
started half a century ago, but of their history 
we have no account. 

In the late civil war Glens Falls was well 
represented in the Union armies. Volunteers 
from the village served in the 91st, 93d, 96th, 
115th, 1 1 8 1 h , 125th, 126th, 153d, 156th, 169th 
and i92d New York volunteer regiments, and 
an entire Glens Falls company was recruited 
for a District of Columbia regiment. 

The town of»Queensbury, including Glens 
Falls, raised over one hundred thousand dol- 
lars to encourage enlistments, and when the 
war closed there was an unexpended balance 
of several thousand dollars. Halsey R. Wing 
secured the appropriation of eight thousand 
dollars of this money toward the erection of 
the present, beautiful Soldier's Monument at 
Glens Falls. The contract for this monu- 
ment was let to R. T. Baxter, a marble manu- 
facturer of the village, and a public spirited 
citizen, who completed the great work at a 
loss of four thousand dollars to himself. This 
beautiful monument, that has been so often 
praised and so much admired, stands on a 
choice and selected spot at Glens Falls, and 
was dedicated on Decoration Day, 1872, when 
a large concourse of citizens and visitors were 
present. On the monument thus erected by 
the town of Cjueensbury, is inscribed the 
names of the following battles in which her 
soldiers fought : Bull Run, Antietam, Gettys- 
burg, Hanover, Wilderness, South Mountain, 
Yorktown, Cold Harbor, Drewry's Bluff, Fair 
Oaks, Fort Fisher and Bermuda Hundred. A 
list of the names of the soldiers of the town 
who lost their lives from 1861 to 1865, is given 
on the different sides of the graceful marble 

shaft, and a tablet on one side is inscribed 
with the names of Capt. Edward Riggs and 
Daniel V. Brown, who perished at sea, Jan- 
uary 8, 1865, off the Virginia coast, while in 
the discharge of their duties as military 
agents of the town of Cjueensbury. 

Since the late civil war, Glens Falls has 
grown in wealth, population and importance. 

The population in 1870 was four thousand 
five hundred, and ten years later was reported 
at four thousand nine hundred. In 1890 the 
population was nine thousand five hundred 
and nine. 

Glens Falls has outstripped many of its 
contemporaries ; its present is full of possi- 
bilities, its future is one of hope. The village 
has water power, and is situated within reach 
of the coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania, and 
the forest region of northern New York, and 
manufacturing might be made the keynote of 
its future progress, as it is connected by canal 
and rail with many leading markets. 

Glens Falls, the hamlet of the past, the 
village of the present, and the city of the 

There is much of interest in the early history 
of the village and in the lives of its pioneer 

Dr. A. W. Holden, in his valuable " History 
of Queensbury," has preserved much informa- 
tion of the early families of Glens Falls, that 
without his zealous labors would have passed 
into oblivion. 

Abraham Wing, the pioneer settler and 
founder of the village, was of Welch descent, 
and tradition states that the Wing family in 
Wales wrote their name Winge. John Wing 
came from London, in 1632, and settled at 
Lynn, Massachusetts. He afterward removed 
to Sandwich. His eldest son, Daniel, married 
Hannah Swift, and their eldest son, Daniel, 
wedded Deborah Dillingham, and became the 
father of Edward Wing, whose son, Edward, 
by his second wife, Sarah Tucker, was the 
father of Abraham Wing, whose birthplace 
was Dartmouth, Bristol county, Massachu- 



setts. Abraham Wing wedded AnstisWood, 
and at an early age removed to Oblong, in 
Dutchess count}', where he remained until 
1763. In that year he came to the site of 
Glens Falls, and, as founder and chief citizen 
of the village, passed the remaining years of 
his life, which drew to its close on May 3, 
1765. He was born August 4, 1721. His life 
was one of activity, event, and usefulness. 

The next most important personage in the 
early history of the village, after Abraham 
Wing, the founder, was Col. John Glen, whose 
name the place now bears. The immigrant 
ancester of Col. John Glen was Sander Leen- 
dertse Glen, a servant of the West India Com- 
pany, at Fort Nassau. He came to New 
York, bought land, and traded to some extent 
with the Indians. He married Catalyn Don- 
cassen, or Dongan, and his eldest son, Jacob, 
was the father of Johannes, whose son, Jacob, 
married Elizabeth Cuyler, and was the father 
of Col. John Glen, who was born July 2, 1735. 
Col. John Glen served as a quartermaster in 
the French and Revolutionary wars. He mar- 
ried Catharine Veeder, bought land of Daniel 
Park, near Wing's Falls, and in 1788 paid for 
a wine supper to have the privilege of giving 
his name to Wing's village. Colonel Glen 
died at Schenectady, September 23, 1828. 

The postoffice was established in 1808, while 
the village does not seem to have been incor- 
porated until 1840. 


The town of Queensbury, patented May 29, 
1762, to Daniel Prindle and twenty-two others, 
originally comprised in addition to its present 
territory the towns of Bolton, Caldwell, Ches- 
ter, Hague, Johnsonburg, Luzerne and Thur- 
man. It was one of the original townships 
erected March 7, 1788. The northern and 
eastern parts of the town are hilly, while the 
western part is a sandy plain extending to the 
foot of the Palmerton mountains. 

The town occupies a plateau on the great 
watershed between the Hudson and the Saint 

Lawrence rivers, while its drainage in the 
northern and central parts is through Half-way 
brook into the waters of Lake Champlain, but 
the Harrissena part is to Lake George, and the 
remainder is to the Hudson The more 
important of the creeks, brooks and runs of 
the town are : Reed's Meadow creek ; Cold 
brook, noted for a terrible massacre during the 
French and Indian war; Meadow run, some- 
times called Four Mile run; Rocky brook, on 
which stood Fort William; Butler brook; 
Roaring brook ; and the celebrated Half-way 
brook, on the old military road from Fort Ed- 
ward to the head of Lake George. On Half- 
way brook was laid out in 1762 the site of a 
town village that never got beyond the paper 
state of its existence. 

The principal places in the town beside 
Glens Falls are : Oneida, where Joshua Chase 
erected the first house about 1793 ; Goodspeed- 
ville, founded in 1845 by Stephen Goodspeed ; 
and the Harrissena, Sandford Ridge and Brown 
settlements, so thickly dotted with dwellings, 
churches and school houses as almost to be 
counted as hamlets. 

The Baptist church was first organized in 
the town of Queensbury in a log building on 
Round pond that served for a school house 
and church for several years. The Round 
Pond Baptist church was organized in 1795 
by Elder Hezekiah Eastman, of Danby, Ver- 
mont, and had an existence of thirty years. 

The first Baptist church of Queensbury, 
or Oneida, was organized November 13, 1832, 
with the following thirteen members : James 
and Betsey Fuller, Franklin and Samantha 
Guilford, Aaron and Amanda Kidder, Isaac 
and Amy Nelson, A. M. and Maria Odell, Ellis 
and Lucy Pettis, and William Niles. A church 
structure was built at Oneida, and reguiar 
services were held until 1853. 

The second Queensbury or West Mountain 
Baptist church was formed in 1837, and the 
next year had a membership of forty-nine, 
with Deacon Moses Randall as minister. Ser- 
vices were held as late as 1870, in the old 



church building erected between 1838 and 

The fourth Baptist church in the town of 
Queensbury was the Baptist church at Glens 
Falls, which has been described in connection 
with that village. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Thur- 
mantown, or Johnsburg, was organized about 
1798, by Rev. David Noble. 

The Friends, or Quakers, built a log meet- 
ing house in 1787. on the Bay road, just south 
of the Half-way brook, and services were held 
there for many years. 

The population of the town of Queensbury 
and the village of Glens Falls, at the three last 
United States censuses, has been as follows: 


Queensbury, 8,387 

Glens Falls, 4,500 

1880. 1890. 

9,805 11,849 

4>9oo 9,509 

We have account of the following saw mills 
in the town of Queensbury : Phineas Austin's 
saw mill was built on the outlet of Big pond 
in 1808, and in the same year Solomon Austin 
built his saw mill on the same outlet. Bald- 
win's mill, near the left bank of the Hudson, 
was built between 1854 and 1857; David Bar- 
ber's mill, on Trout brook and near West 
mountain, was put up in 1837, and Fuller's 
mill built between 1786 and 1794, was on tne 
outlet of the Big pond. Joseph Hull's saw 
mill, on Trout brook, was built in 1826 ; Moon's 
mill, on Long pond outlet, in 1808, and Odell's 
mill in the last named year on Big pond out- 
let. Nichol's saw mill, below Little bay, was 
built between 1824 and 1835 ; Odell's mill, on 
Ogden brook, in 1823, and Micajah Pettit's 
mill, that was near the river bridge, dated 
back to 1802. Job Wilbur had a saw mill in 
1785 on Cold brook. The following list in- 
cludes some of the most prominent and im- 
portant localities in the town of Queensbury : 

Big bay, an expansion of the Hudson river 
above the Big bend. 

Little bay, an expansion of the Hudson river 
above the Big bay. 

Big bend, a curve in the Hudson resembling 
the letter U, and inclosing a peninsula of three 
square miles. 

Blind rock is a gneiss boulder, along the 
route of the old military road from Fort Ed- 
ward to Fort William Henry, and was used as 
a sacrificial stone by the Indians, who tortured 
and burnt a large number of prisoners on its 
surface. One tradition says that the name 
came from a blind man being burned there. 

Block Island swamp is the western part of 
the Big Cedar swamp, and contains Block 
island, on which a block house was built dur- 
ing the Revolutionary war. 

Hunter's bridge was a famous runway for 
deer and other game, in pioneer days, and is 
on a small rivulet west of the Bay road. 

The Caves are passages through the bed 
rock at Glens Falls, by the action of water. 
They are very small, and figure in Cooper's 
novel, the "Last of the Mohicans." 

Big Dam is a structure fourteen feet in 
height that was originally built across the 
Hudson river, two miles above Glens Falls, 
by the State, for the purpose of creating a 
pond for the canal. It was rebuilt in 1872. 

Dunham's bay, at the southern extremity of 
Lake George, was named for Elijah Dunham, 
an early merchant and lumberman. 

Park's ferry was established just above the 
falls by the Parks family, and just prior to the 

Forbes and Johnson's charcoal forge was at 
the outlet of Forge pond, and was built about 

Sand Beach ford was a ridge of bed rock 
making a rough fording at low water. 

Morgan's ford, at the old Morgan place, be- 
tween Glens Falls and Sandy Hill, was a cross- 
ing place for a portion of Burgoyne's army in 

Fort George was planned and partly built 
by Col. James Montressor, in June, 1759. It 
was on an elevation six hundred yards south 
from the lake, and about the same distance 
east of the ruins of Fort William Henry. It 



was often called Montressor's folly. Near it, 
in 1 776, was erected the two hospitals in which 
over three thousand smallpox patients from 
Schuyler's army were treated. When Bur- 
goyne's advance occupied Fort George, there 
were only two of its fourteen cannon that were 

Harrissena is the northern part of Queens- 
bury, and derives that name from the numer- 
ous Harris families settling there at an early 

Harris's bay is the southeastern extremity 
of Lake George, and was named for old Bill 
Harris, whom tradition says killed eight In- 
dians at one time, by stratagem, near this part 
of the lake. 

Hendrick's rock, a large boulder determined 

by Judge Hay's measurement as the spot 
where King Hendrick fell on the morning of 
the bloody morning scout. 

Jessup's Falls are ten miles above Glens 
Falls, and there the Hudson river has a sheer 
descent of seventy feet. 

Northwest bay is on Lake George, and often 
goes by the names of North arm and Kan- 
kusker bay. Norman Shelden, Van Wormer, 
and Phelps bays are on the southeastern part 
of Lake George. 

Wild-cat swamp was just west of Glens 
Falls, and in early days was a harbor for wild 
beasts of prey. 

William's rock is a huge boulder, where 
tradition says Col. Ephraim Williams fell. 

II : [ASTER. 186 8-6 9 

Washington County and the Town of Queensbury 


HON. J A M ES (J I BSON, lawyer, editor 
and historian, is descended from John Gib- 
son, of Providence, Rhode Island, and by his 
grandmother is ninth in descent from John 
Brown, the assistant of the Plymouth colony, 
and by his mother seventh in descent from 
John Townsend, of Warwick, Rhode Island, 
afterward of Oyster Bay, Long Island. His 
parents were James B. Gibson and Margaret 
Townsend ; and he was born at Salem, New 
York, September 5, 1S16. James B. Gib- 
son was a lawyer of distinction, and was 
held in high esteem by his fellow-towns- 
men. His wife was a lady of rare attain- 
ments, highly cultured and deeply versed in 
literature. She died July 20, 1825, and her 
husband on May 10, 1S27. James Gibson at 
the time of his father's death was only eleven 
years old. He was educated in the Washing- 
ton academy, and while a student there entered 
the law office of his uncle, Samuel Stevens, a 
former partner of his father, who was at that 
time an eminent lawyer, and who afterward 
became one of the leading members at the Al- 
bany bar. After the departure of Mr. Stevens, 
young Gibson studied in the office of Cyrus 
Stevens, at Salem, and subsequently with Hon. 
John H. Boyd, of Whitehall. In 1836 Mr. 
Gibson was admitted to practice, and on the 
first of January of the following year he formed 
a partnership with Cyrus Stevens, which con- 

tinued one year, until the latter removed to 
Albany. From that time on he practiced his 
profession alone in his native village, where he 
has ever since resided. In October, 1839, he 
was admitted as a counselor at law. He was 
successful from the outset in his profession. 
" His qualifications," to quote the language of 
another, " were such as to attract the attention 
of the public, and in a brief time he gathered 
to himself an expended practice." Very many 
important cases, civil and criminal, have been 
intrusted to him during the fifty years of his 
professional life. From 1853 Judge Gibson 
has been largely engaged in railroad suits,and 
in the latter part of the '70's he was the attor- 
ney for the Boston, Hoosic Tunnel & West- 
ern Railway company in several important 
causes, and especially in re-opening the Al- 
bany Northern railroad. After reaching his 
majority he entered with great spirit into poli- 
tics, joining the Whig party, with which he 
remained until the organization of the Repub- 
lican party in 1856. In 1838 he assumed the 
editorial chair of the Washington County Post, 
at Salem, and continued as editor through the. 
presidential campaign of 1840, and till Janu- 
ary 1, 1 84 1, when he sold the paper. At the 
first judicial election after the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1846, he was nominated as a 
candidate for justice of the supreme'court by 
the whigs, but was defeated. He owed his 


(151 ) 



defeat to his connection with the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, as at that time the 
feeling against secret societies was of consid- 
erable force, and he encountered the tide be- 
fore its ebb. In November, 1850, Mr. Gibson 
was elected count}' judge, serving four years, 
the duties of which office he discharged with 
marked ability. In November, 1866, he was 
elected State senator from the district com- 
posed of Rensselaer and Washington coun- 
ties. His reputation preceded him, and led to 
his appointment as chairman of the committee 
on claims, and a member of the judiciary, two 
of the most important committees in the sen- 
ate. In the senate body he took an active 
part in legislation, making several speeches, 
the most notable, perhaps, being the one sus- 
taining the policy of the National government 
on the then pending issues. He was an active 
member of the Republican party from its birth 
to the presidential canvass of 1871, when he 
became a liberal republican, and labored 
earnestly during that campaign for the success 
of the principles of the liberal party. For 
many years Judge Gibson has been identified 
with the Democratic party. In early life he 
manifested great interest in military affairs, and 
in 1840 raised and was made captain of a com- 
pany of light infantry, attached, by special 
order, to the 50th regiment of infantry in the 
State militia, subsequently became major, 
thence promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and on 
the disbandment of this regiment he was at- 
tached to the 30th regiment of the New York 
State National guard, of which he was 
promoted to colonel. During the war of the 
Rebellion the 30th regiment was twice filled 
up by draft, in readiness for service, but many 
of its members volunteered into the United 
States army and thus reduced its membership. 
In 1867 he became brigadier-general of the 
1 2th brigade, which disbanded in 1874. This 
brigade was one of the best drilled and best 
disciplined in the State. He became an Odd 
Fellow in 1845, served as district deputy 
grand master during 1856 and '57 ; elected 

grand warden of the grand lodge of northern 
New York in 1857 ; deputy grand master in 
1858, and grand master in the year following. 
In i860 he was elected worshipful master of 
Salem Lodge, No. 391, Free and Accepted 
Masons ; appointed senior grand deacon of the 
Grand lodge of New York in 1862, elected 
junior grand warden in 1863, and again in 
1865 ; senior grand warden in 1865, holding 
the office for three years ; grand master in 
1868, and was re-elected in 1869. As 
grand master he, on June 8, 1870, assisted 
by the Grand lodge and twelve thous- 
and of the craft, laid the corner-stone of the 
Masonic temple in the city of New York. It 
appears that he has been grand master of both 
these great fraternities. In this he stands 
alone in this State, as no other person who 
has been grand master of Free Masons has 
ever been at the head of Odd Fellows, and vice 
versa. During the war of the Rebellion his 
voice was often heard in public debate, urging 
the people of his county to do all in their 
power toward the preservation of the Union. 
The same spirit that filled the hearts of "the 
fathers " during the dark days of the Revolu- 
tion animated him at this time. He was a 
member of the war committee at Salem, which 
by the way did its duty so well that the town 
had its quota raised in advance of every draft, 
except on the occasion of the first one. The 
old court house in Salem was erected about 
1790, and after standing for sixty-seven years 
had outlasted its usefulness, and was only valu- 
able as a relic. The circuit judges, lawyers and 
laymen complained of it, and it was proposed, 
in 1867, to make needed repairs, and an order 
therefor was granted. This started a discus- 
sion as to the advisability of the erection of a 
new edifice ; Mr. Gibson being strongly in fa- 
vor of this, he was in the spring of 1868 elected 
supervisor of Salem for the purpose of carry- 
ing out the desires of his constituents on that 
subject. But other towns wanted a court 
house, and a strong, though unsuccessful ef- 
fort was made to get it away from Salem. In 



December, 1868, Judge Gibson brought the 
matter before the board of supervisors, where- 
upon a committee was appointed with Mr. 
Gibson to obtain plans, etc. In January fol- 
lowing it was resolved to build at Salem,. and 
he was appointed as chairman of the building 
committee, and they were to use not to exceed 
thirty thousand dollars in its construction, 
which they did. On June 17, 1845, Judge 
Gibson was chosen as a member of the board 
of trustees of Washington academy, one of the 
oldest educational institutions in the State. He 
drew the charter of the village of Salem, which 
wentinto effect in 1851. He takes a deep inter- 
est in educational matters, and was elected a 
member of the board of education soon after 
its organization. Notwithstanding his long 
service he still frequently visits the academy, 
and assists at examinations, and in every pos- 
sible way shows his love for the institution 
wherein he received his education. In i860 
he assisted in the organization of Saint Paul's 
Episcopal church, and was chosen one of the 
wardens of the congregation ; was licensed as 
a lay reader by Bishop Potter, of the New 
York diocese, in i860. Judge Gibson has for 
several years devoted much of his time to the 
collection of facts pertaining to the history of 
Washington county, and at the- organization 
of the Washington County Historical societ}', 
in 1876, was elected its president. He is a 
member of the American Geographical society; 
director of the National bank at Salem ; trus- 
tee of the Evergreen Cemetery association, and 
is interested in nearly all public matters con- 
cerning his native town. On October 17,1841, 
he wedded Jane, the daughter of Ira Wood- 
worth and Wealthy Ann Gilbert, his wife. 
They have had three children : Mary, wife of 
T. A. Wright, of New York city ; James, who 
was a practicing lawyer at Salem, is now dead. 
In "Life Sketches of Members of the Leg- 
islature," published in 1S67, we find the fol- 
lowing : " Senator Gibson is a gentleman of 
quiet dignity. His long, flowing hair and 
whiskers, tinged with gray, his mild eye, which 

seems to be overflowing with kindly feelings, 
his low, persuasive voice, which is seldom 
brought up to a high pitch, unite in throwing 
around him a personal atmosphere, which 
renders his presence both pleasant and pow- 

JAMES L. McARTHUR, editor and 
proprietor of the Granville Sentinel, has 
been for a number of years a prominent leader 
in the Republican party of Washington county. 
At present he is the head clerk of the Corpor- 
ation department in the State treasury, under 
Hon. A. B. Colvin. He is a son of William 
and Elsie (Lillie) McArthur. William McAr- 
thur (father) was a native of the town of Put- 
nam, this county, where he was born in the 
year 1824, and resided up to the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1874. He was a man 
of considerable prominence in his neighbor- 
hood, having held the office of supervisor for 
a period of twenty consecutive years, and also 
for many years acted as justice of the peace. 
By occupation he conducted a carriage manu- 
factory, practiced law, and also managed his 
farm. A member of the Presbyterian church, 
and in his political tenets he w T as identified 
with the Republican part}'. James L. McAr- 
thur's grandfather, James McArthur, found his 
way from the Highlands of the same interest- 
ing land to settle down permanently on Amer- 
ican soil. He belonged to that strong Scottish 
family known as the McArthur clan, of which 
ex-Senator MacArthur, of the Troy Budget ',has 
the original coat of arms. His grandfather 
Lillie was a highly educated man, and a grad- 
uate of the University of Glasgow. He was 
a pioneer of whom any new country might 
have been proud. And it may be stated here 
that Scotchmen have the chief honor of hav- 
ing been the first settlers of the town of Put- 
nam, New York. Numbers of them emigrat- 
ing from their highland homes to this pictur- 
esque mountainous region, found something 
here to remind them of the early scenes of 
their lives beyond the ocean, and as they 



looked upon the lovely waters of Lake George 
and Lake Champlain they must have often 
thought of the beautiful "lochs" of their na- 
tive land. And so they became attached to 
their new pioneer homes in the northern wilds 
of old Washington county. 

William McArthur married Elsie Lillie,who 
was one of fifteen children, and a member of 
an early settled family in the town of Putnam. 
She is a member of the Presbyterian church, 
and is now in the sixtieth year of her age. 
Her parents came from Glasgow, Scotland. 

James L. McArthur was born in the town of 
Putnam, Washington county, NewYork, March 
16, 1844. Here he grew to manhood, and re- 
ceived the rudiments of his education in the 
common schools. Possessing a natural taste 
for newspaper work, he established, at the age 
of twenty-one years, the Granville Sentinel, in 
1875. For a period of forty years various at- 
tempts had been made to establish a paper in 
that village, but without success. The Sentinel 
at once took rank among the leading papers 
of the count)', and is considered to be the ablest 
and most influential journal in northeastern 
New York, and having a circulation larger 
than any two other leading papers of the 
county. In 18S0 he sold the paper to his 
brother-in-law, George Weller, and went to 
Plattsburg, New York, where he started the 
first daily morning newspaper that village ever 
had, and was called the Morning Telegram. 
He managed it very successfully for one year, 
when he sold it to a stock company, going 
from there to Schenectady, where he worked 
for three years on the Daily Star of that city. 
During the presidential campaign of 1884, Mr. 
McArthur did editorial work on the Schenectady 
Union, the leading republican paper of that 
place. In 1886 he went to Albany, where he 
became a member of the editorial staff of the 
Argus, holding the position for two years. Re- 
turning to Granville in 1888, he again as- 
sumed charge of the Granville Sentinel, which 
has ever since been ably edited, widely circu- 
lated, and is one of the best advertising medi- 

ums in this section of the State. After A. B. 
Colvin was elected State treasurer in the fall 
of 1893, he made Mr. McArthur head clerk of 
the Corporation department, a very deserving 
compliment to one who has labored long and 
earnestly for the success of the Republican 
party. Mr. McArthur took charge of this de- 
partment on January 1, 1894. In February, 
1878, Mr. McArthur wedded Anna W., a 
daughter of Nathan Lewis, deceased, of the 
village of Granville. To their marriage has 
been born one child, a daughter, Belle. 

James L. McArthur is a charter member of 
the Mettowee Lodge, No. 559, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows; of Whitehall Encamp- 
ment, and Sandy Hill Council of the Royal 
Arcanum. Of many newspaper notices in 
reference to making the Sentinel a. semi-weekly 
paper, we quote the following from the Glens 
Falls Times: 

"With characteristic foresight and an in- 
domitable zeal, Editor J. L. McArthur has 
plunged into his latest venture — the weekly 
special edition of the Granville Sentinel. That 
the giant of the Washington county press will 
make a success of his pet scheme no one will 
gainsay. The Sentinel possesses much prestige 
on account of its immense country circula- 
tion ; the territory is so well adapted to pro- 
mote the circulation of a semi-weekly country 
paper, and Brother McArthur has such splen- 
did success in developing bright journalistic 
ideas, we feel that it becomes us to congratu- 
late our Washington county readers on the 
fact that they are no longer dependent upon 
Glens Falls papers for speedy disbursement 
of home news. Welcome to the Semi-weekly 


^^ the grandson of John Underwood, who was 
a native of England, and the founder of this 
branch of the Underwood family in the United 
States, who located in the vicinity of Cam- 
bridge and Boston, Massachusetts, and subse- 
quently removed to the town of Millbury, 



Windsor count)', Vermont, where he purchased 
two farms and followed the occupation of 
farming until his death, which occurred some 
years previous to the war of 1812. He was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary war, and fought 
at the battle of Bunker Hill, where he received 
a bayonet wound in the thigh, but he served 
through the entire war and lived to see the 
crowning glory of a permanent and final sepa- 
ration from the mother country. His wife was 
a Miss Morgan, by whom he had a family 
of children : Oliver, father to Christopher; 
Jonathan, James, Erastus, and Polly. Chris- 
topher Underwood was engaged in the lum- 
bering business nearly all his life, retiring 
from business in 1883. On July 3, 1841, he 
wedded Mahala Griffin, by whom he had two 
children : George F. and Myron S. The 
father of Christopher Underwood, Oliver Un- 
derwood, was born in Millbury, Windsor 
county, Vermont, where he received the bene- 
fits of a common school education, and lived 
in that town the greater part of his life, remov- 
ing in his latter years to the town of Bolton, 
Warren county, this State, thence to the town 
of Horicon, the same county, where he fol- 
lowed the pursuits of farming until his death. 
He was a member of the Whig part)', and he 
and his wife were members of the Presbyterian 
church, and in the war of 181 2 he was one of 
many who left Washington county for the bat- 
tle of Plattsburg, but who arrived there after 
the battle had ended. His wife was Maria 
Nichols, and had a family of eleven children, 
nine sons and two daughters: Oliver, jr., Da- 
vid, John, Christopher, whose name heads 
this sketch ; Samuel, Thomas H., Lemuel, 
Miles, Sydney, Rosanna, and Lucie, all of 
whom are now deceased, excepting Thomas 
and Rosanna. 

Oliver Underwood, sr. , lived to be eighty- 
four years of age. His son, Christopher, was 
born September 6, 1814, in the town of Mill- 
bury, Widsor county, Vermont, and has been 
engaged in the lumbering business all his life, 
residing with his father up to the time of his 

marriage, when he removed, in 1847, to the 
village of Fort Edward, where he accepted em- 
ployment with the firm of Underwood & Brad- 
ley, with whom he continued until the break- 
ing out of the late Civil war. On August 27, 
1862, he enlisted in the 169th New York vol- 
unteer regiment, Co. E, and served two years 
and four months, doing duty mostly in Florida, 
and was at the siege of Charleston, and after- 
ward, on account of ill health, was confined 
in the hospital and was discharged from the 
service at Washington, District of Columbia. 
He was in the Atlanta campaign, Harrison's 
Landing, and did duty along the coast. After 
the close of the war, he returned to NewYork 
and was for five years engaged in farming in 
Fulton county, at the end of which time he 
returned to Fort Edward, where he now re- 

£1 NDRUS DEARSTYNE, a well known 
and prosperous resident of Sandy Hill, 
who has spent a lifetime on the saw mills of 
eastern New York, and is an expert in lumber 
making machinery, isasonof Johnand Hannah 
(Van Vorst) Dearstyne, and a native of the 
town of Greenbush, Rensselaer county, New 
York, where he was born on the 25th of Sep- 
tember, 1822. The family is of German ex- 
traction, but have been natives of New York 
since early times. John Dearstyne (father) was 
born and reared in Greene county, this State, 
but while yet a young man removed to Rensse- 
laer county, where he spent the remainder of his 
life and died in 1827, aged fifty-six years. He 
was a farmer by occupation, a democrat in pol- 
itics, and served as a soldier in the war of 1812. 
He married Hannah Van Vorst, of the county 
of Rensselaer, and to them was born a family of 
nine children. Mrs. Dearstyne was born in the 
town of Greenbush, Rensselaer county, this 
State, in 1789, and died in 1S70, when well 
advanced in the eighty-first year of her age. 

Andrus Dearstyne grew to manhood in his 
native town of Greenbush, and obtained his 
education in the common schools. When 



twenty-one years of age he began work for a 
saw mill firm, taking charge of all work outside 
of the mill. From that day to the present he has 
been connected with the saw mill and lumber 
business, generally as foreman or superintend- 
ent of some part of the work. In 1852 he came 
to Sandy Hill, and began work in the saw mill 
owned by Orson Richards. In one capacity or 
another he remained in the employ of Mr. Rich- 
ards for a period of twenty-six years, during part 
of which time he had entire charge of the mills 
at Sandy Hill. Since that time Mr. Dearstyne 
has worked for a number of lumbering firms 
on the saw mills in and around Sandy Hill. 

On April 2, 1S61, Mr. Dearstyne was united 
in marriage to Mary J. Downs, a daughter of 
David Downs, of West Haven, Vermont. To 
this union was born one child, a daughter named 
Florence E., now living at home with her par- 
ents in Sandy Hill. Politically Mr. Dearstyne 
is a democrat ; a member of the Royal Arcanum, 
and is esteemed very highly as a gentleman and 
a citizen. He owns considerable real estate in 
Sandy Hill, and has always taken an interest in 
matters concerning the public welfare. 

nOWLAND S. BULLOCK, a success 
ful business man and a highly respected cit- 
izen of the village of Granville, is a son of Smith 
R. and Eunice (Duel) Bullock, and was born 
in the village of North Hartford, Washington 
county, New York, December 20, 1838. The 
family comes of sturdy English stock, and the 
American branch, which was transplanted in 
the new world, has been characterized by 
those substantial traits for which the name 
has been honored for centuries in England. 
Elkanah Bullock, the founder of the family 
in Washington county, who was a native of 
Connecticut, coming, in early life, to this 
county, where he followed agricultural pur- 
suits until his death. He married and raised 
a family of eleven children. One of his sons 
was Smith R, Bullock, the father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. He was a native of the 

town of Hartford, this county, during the first 
decade of the present century. He was reared 
on the farm, and at the age of thirty-four 
years he removed to the town of Granville, 
where he followed the same occupation dur- 
ing the remaining active years of his life. His 
death occurred in 1875, when well advanced 
in the sixty-fifth year of his age. In his politi- 
cal opinion he was a whig and a republican, 
and married Eunice Duel, who was born in 
the town of South Granville, and was also 
one of eleven children born to her parents. 
Mrs. Eunice Bullock (mother) was born on 
the same day, month and year that records the 
birth of her husband, and whose death oc- 
curred in 1863, in the fifty-third year of her 

Rowland S. Bullock grew to manhood on 
his father's farm, receiving his education in 
the ordinary district schools of the neighbor- 
hood, and afterward followed farming until 
1882, when he retired from all active business 
pursuits, and removed to the village of Gran- 
ville. In 1865 he was wedded to Frances 
Lee, of South Granville, and has one child, a 
daughter, Stella. 

In political opinion Mr. Bullock is a stanch 
republican. He is a stockholder of the First 
National bank, and owns a farm of one hun- 
dred and fifty acres immediately across the 
State line, in Vermont, and located on this 
farm are two slate quarries that have been suc- 
cessfully operated by him for a number of years. 
Mr. Bullock has won success in business life 
by his energy, prudence and good judgment, 
and has an enviable standing in the community 
in which he lives. 

HON. HIRAM SISSOX, a successful 
produce dealer and trader and a well 
known business man of Eagle Bridgets a son of 
Ira and Betsy M. (Hill) Sisson,and was born in 
the town of White Creek, at the place where he 
now resides, on December 1 1, 1829. IraSisson 
(father) was a native of the town of Hoosick, 



Rensselaer county, and was born on April 21, 
1799. He received a good common school edu- 
cation, and early came into the town of White 
Creek, this county, and commenced farming, 
his original farm containing only twenty-nine 
acres, but kept adding on to this tract, by his 
industry and good judgment, until he owned 
one hundred and five acres, constituting one of 
the best farms of its size in the town. He be- 
came successful, and at his death had consider- 
able money at interest. Politically he was a 
whig and later a republican, and in about 1825 
he married Betsy M., a daughter of Thomas 
Hill, a farmer of the town of Hoosick. To this 
union were born two sons and three daughters: 
Thomas H. , who died in 1837, at the age of ten 
years ; Hiram, whose name heads this sketch ; 
Sarah M., the widow of the late Isaac Durfee, 
of the town of Cambridge ; Julia A. and Mary 
J. Sisson. Ira Sisson's death occured March 
12, 1872 ; his wife followed him March 14,1877, 
and who was born in 1806. She was a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. 

Gideon Sisson (grandfather) was a native of 
the State of Rhode Island, removing when a 
boy, with his father, to the town o£ Hoosick, and 
there he afterward became one of the thrifty 
farmers of that section. He took to wife Anna 
Cornell, of Washington county, and by whom 
he had thirteen children : Willard ; Abner ; 
Leonard ; William ; Ira ; Ann (who became 
the wife of Joseph Wallace, of the town of 
White Creek) ; Ruby (who became the wife 
of Jerome B. Mosher, of the same town) ; Eliza 
(who became the wife of Thomas Mapes of the 
town of Hoosick); Benjaman, and Prudence 
(who became the wife of Philip Henington, of 
Hoosick) ; Willard, and one other. 

Gideon Sisson's father was born in Rhode 
Island, and became one of the pioneers of Hoo- 
sick, Rensselaer county, where he lived and died 
following the occupation of a farmer. This 
family of Sissons are of Puritan stock. 

Hiram Sisson was reared upon the farm and 
after leaving the district schools of the neigh- 
borhood he became a pupil at the Greenwich 

academy, and after taking the required course 
of study in that institution he returned to the 
farm in the town of White Creek, where he was 
engaged in general farming up to the year 1879. 
In connection with farming, in the year 1862, 
he dealt in coal, lumber, grain, wool, pork, flax, 
and did a general merchandising business at 
Buskirk's Bridge. In 1879 he removed from 
his farm to the village of Eagle Bridge, where 
he still carries on the same business, dealing in 
all articles above named, excepting flax, and 
handles produce of all kind, doing a business 
of about $30,000 annually. In 1879 he turned 
his entire attention in this channel, turning the 
management of his farm over to his son, 
Walter M. Sisson. In politics Mr. Sisson is a 
leading republican of his section of the county. 
He served six terms as supervisor of the town 
of White Creek ; in 1867-8-9 and 1877-8-9, and 
was chairman of the board in 1869. In 1879 
he was elected to the State assembly, and re- 
elected in 1880, and as a member of that body 
took an active and influential part in its pro- 

On September 2, 1851, he was united in mar- 
riage with Mary E., daughter of Pardon Mosley, 
a farmer of the town of Hoosick, Rensselaer 
county. To this marriage were born three 
children : Emily J., wife of Edgar B. Chase, 
a farmer of the town of Cambridge; Walter 
M., who wedded Mary, daughter of D. W'ait, 
of the town of Easton ; and Frances L. (dead), 
who was the wife of F. D. Mosher. Mrs. Mary 
E. Sisson died April 24, 1893, having been 
born January 26, 1830. 

CVLVAMS II. KEXYOX, one of the 

many successful business men of Sandy 
Hill, is a gentleman who commenced life with 
little, but now controls large and diversified 
business interests. He is general manager of 
the Kenyon Lumber company, one of the larg- 
est lumber firms in northern New York, and 
is descended of a family who, for several gen- 
erations back, on both sides, have been prom- 



inently identified in the lumber and saw mill 
business. He is a son of Hiram Kenyon and 
Hannah A. Griffin, and was born in the town 
of Chester, Warren county, New York, No- 
vember 14, 1834. Hiram Kenyon was a native 
of the same county, born in the town of Lu- 
zerne, where he grew to manhood and received 
the rudiments of a common school education. 
During his whole life he was engaged in the 
lumber business, and in 1842 located in the 
town of Monroe, just across the Hudson from 
Sandy Hill, in Saratoga county, where he 
owned and operated a saw mill. Here he suc- 
cessfully conducted a lumber business, manu- 
facturing lumber and boating it across the 
river to the Glens Falls feeder of the Cham- 
plain canal, whence it was shipped to market. 
In 1846 he removed his plant to this village, 
where he was not long in building up a pros- 
perous trade, and where he continued to re- 
side until his death in 1884, at the age of sev- 
enty-five years. From 1852 to 1872, the year 
he retired from all active business, covering a 
period of twenty busy and successful years, 
he was the leading lumber dealer at Sandy 
Hill. He owned extensive tracts of timber 
land in the northern counties ; a member of 
the Presbyterian church, a democrat in his 
political principles, and filled the office of 
supervisor of his town some two or three 
terms. He was a man well liked and highly 
respected in the community, and commanded 
general recognition as a successful business 
man, and for having performed all the duties 
of good citizenship. His early business ad- 
vantages were very limited, remaining at home 
until he had arrived at the age of twenty years, 
when he paid his father one hundred dollars 
for the remaining one year, when he went to 
work at fourteen dollars per month. William 
Kenyon, the grandfather of the subject, was a 
native of the State of Rhode Island, having 
migrated from there and settled in Warren 
county, New York. He was a farmer by occu- 
pation, owned and conducted a small saw mill, 
and died in that county. The Kenvoiis trace 

their ancestry back to Scotland, but for many 
generations have resided in this country. Han- 
nah A. (Griffin) Kenyon resides in the village 
of Sandy Hill, born in the town of Queens- 
bury, Warren county, and was a daughter of 
Jonathan Griffin, who was a native of Rhode 
Island, removing to the town of Queensbury 
in an early day, where he farmed, owned a saw 
mill, and died. Mrs. Kenyon is a member of 
the Presbyterian church. 

Sylvanus H. Kenyon has been a resident of 
Sandy Hill since 1846. Here he attended the 
common schools, and afterward Glens Falls 
academy and a seminary at Poultney, Vermont, 
where he remained until 1853. Leaving school 
he assisted his father in his lumber business, 
where he remained until 1853. In 1855 he was 
taken in as partner with his father, and the 
firm was then known by the title of Kenyon. 
Robinson & Company. This firm continued 
business up to 1872, when Mr. Robinson died, 
and the partnership was dissolved. In the 
same year this plant was purchased by Mr. 
Kenyon and William B. Baldwin, and the firm 
name became Kenyon & Baldwin, and so con- 
tinued until January 1, 1894, when it was formed 
into a stock company, under the name of Ken- 
yon Lumber Company, with a paid-up capital 
of S20o,ooo, of which Mr. Kenyon is general 
manager. This business has steadily grown 
and extended, and is at present one of the 
largest and most favorably known lumber firms 
in this section of the State. In connection 
with keeping a large supply of all kinds of 
lumber, they conduct the excelsior steam, saw, 
planing and moulding mills, where they man- 
ufacture pine, spruce and hemlock lumber and 
lath; also make a specialty in doors, sash and 
blinds, window and door frames. 

In addition to his lumber interests, Mr. 
Kenyon is vice president and manager of the 
Sandy Hill Power Company, which is a pulp 
mill, having a capacity of about four thousand 
dry tons of pulp yearly, and employs forty 

Sylvanus H. Kenyon, in i860, was wedded 



to Josephine McFarland, who was a daughter 
of Joseph McFarland, of Sandy Hill. Two 
children have been born to this union, one son 
and a daughter : William M. and Anna A. In 
his political sentiment Mr. Kcnyon has always 
been a stanch democrat, and while his town 
has always been strongly republican, he has 
twice filled the office of supervisor, and for 
twenty-five years has served as treasurer of 
the Union school, in whose welfare he takes a 
deep interest. The father of Mrs. Kenyon, 
Joseph McFarland, was born in the town of 
Luzerne, Warren county. Mr. McFarland 
came to Sandy Hill in 1848, and was engaged 
in the lumber and planing mill business for 
many years. His death occurred at the age 
of fifty-nine years, in December, 1871. A 
democrat, prominent in politics, he was for 
many years, while residing at Sandy Hill, 
superintendent of the Champlain canal. 

JAMES M. RIDER, a well known and 
highly respected citizen of the village of 
Coila, was born in the town of Salem, Wash- 
ington county, New York, November 28, 1827, 
and is a son of Zerah and Sarah (Coggswill) 
Rider. The family of Riders is an early set- 
tled one in this count}', as Zerah Rider, we 
find, was born in the same town in 1799. His 
education, for that earl} 7 day, was above the 
average, writing an elegant hand, and a man 
possessing good general information. Reared 
on the farm he followed farming for a few 
years, when he gave it up and turned his at- 
tention to auctioneering, and later he was en- 
gaged in buying and selling stock and pro- 
duce. In 1836 he removed to the town of 
Cambridge, where he resided the remainder 
of his life. He wedded Sarah, a daughter of 
Clark Coggswill, a native of Newport, Rhode 
Island. To them were born seven children, 
all of whom received a good education. He 
was a member of the Cambridge Baptist 
church, and died in 1868 ; his wife preceded 
him to the grave in 1854. at the age of fifty- 

six years, and was a member of the Epis- 
copal church. The names of their children 
are : Zerah, a prominent farmer of the town 
of Cambridge; George W. , of Providence, 
Rhode Island, who died in 1882 : James M. and 
George W., were twins ; Henry and Elizabeth 
also twins ; Henry M., has been at the head of 
the machinery department of the appraiser's 
office at the port of New York for several years; 
Elizabeth, the widow of William Mason, of 
Cambridge ; Phcebe A., died in 1863. Zerah 
Rider (grandfather) was one of the early school 
teachers of the county, and a native of Con- 
necticut. He came into the county in about 
1795, and located at Camden, in the town of 
Salem, where he carried on farming quite ex- 
tensively, also run a dairy and taught school. 
Jared Spark, the American historian and bio- 
grapher, and president of Harvard college at 
one time, was one of his pupils. He was a 
man of splendid ability, public spirited, and 
highly esteemed in the community in which 
he lived. He married in Connecticut, and was 
the father of the following children : Zerah, 
Hiram, Sarah, who married B. W. Walkley, 
a merchant of Cambridge ; Phcebe, who be- 
came the wife of A. Webb, of the same town, 
and Mary, who became the wife of Calvin 
Skinner, a prosperous farmer of the town of 
Cambridge. Zerah Rider (father) died in 1810. 
The family was of English extraction, and 
among the pioneer settlers of Connecticut. 

James M. Rider received his education at the 
common schools, most of which was received 
under the tutelage of Regina Arthur, who was 
a sister of the late President Arthur, whose 
father at that time was pastor of the Baptist 
church at Greenwich, New York. After leav- 
ing school Mr. Rider was apprenticed to Mer- 
rit Lumis, of Cambridge, to learn the trade of 
painting, and in 1848 he went to New York 
city, where he found employment with Boot- 
man & Smith, who were then the most exten- 
sive steamboat painters of the city. He re- 
mained with them for three years, and this firm 
made him manager of their works, which po- 



sition he held for about seventeen years. Dur- 
ing the Civil war they painted a number of 
war ships, among the number being the 
" Monitor." On account of ill health in 1865, 
Mr. Rider was forced to relinquish his work 
here, and for the next five years was not regu- 
larly employed in any business. Having re- 
gained sufficient health, in 1870 he engaged in 
the same line of work on his own account, 
conducting quite an extensive and prosperous 
business up to 1884, when his health again 
failed him and he was forced to retire from ac- 
tive business. In the same year he located in 
the village of Coila, where he has ever since 
lived a retired life. He was an old line whig 
and is now a republican, and takes an active 
interest in his party's success. On February 
13, 1853, he wedded Susan C, a daughter of 
Samuel W. Allen, a farmer of Connecticut. and 
had born to their marriage one son, who is 
now deceased. 

Benjamin Rider, a brother of the subject of 
this sketch, not above mentioned, was born 
in 1844, and died at Jacksonville, Florida, in 
1871. He was a graduate of Cooper's insti- 
tute, of New York city, and afterward became 
professor of penmanship in some of the lead- 
ing colleges. 


one of the oldest and best known practi- 
tioners at the Washington county bar, is a na- 
tive of the town Hebron, Washington county, 
New York, and was born December 18, 1821. 
He is a son of John H. and Anna (Wells) 
Northup, who were natives respectively of 
Rhode Island and Saint Lawrence count)', New 

John H. Northup settled in this county in 
1773, and followed the occupation of farming, 
and died in the town of Hebron in 1834. 

Judge Northup never attended any college 
and had the advantages of none but the com- 
mon schools, working on the farm until he had 
reached the age of twenty-one years, and going 

to school a few months in the winter. At the 
age of about twenty- one he received an injury 
which incapacitated him for physical labor, 
which was principally the reason for his taking 
up the study of law. He became a student at 
law in the law office of his brother, H. B. 
Northup, and was admitted to practice in De- 
cember, 1847, and in April, i85o,formed a part- 
nership with Hon. Chas. Hughs, which lasted 
until the latter's death in August, 1887. From 
1888 to 1892 Judge Northup was associated 
with the firm of Young & Kellogg, as senior 
counsel. Since 1892 he has been engaged in 
practice alone. Under the tutelage of Judge 
Northup there have probably more young men 
been prepared for admission to the bar to prac- 
tice law than under any other lawyer in North- 
ern New York. 

In 1843 he wedded Eliza Hall, of this county. 
Her death occured in 1884, and in the follow- 
ing year Judge Northup married for his second 
wife Mrs. Lydia A. M. Lewis. Judge Northup 
has always been public spirited and identified 
with every movement for good as far as his 
means would allow. A man in whose integrity 
and sincerity the public have the utmost con- 
fidence, further eulogy would be irrelevant. 

JOHN AKIN FERRISS, a prominent 
and successful business man of Glens 
Falls, was a son of Edward and Mary (Akin) 
Ferriss, and a grandson of Reed Ferriss, who 
came from Great Britain to Dutchess county 
about 1750. 

John Akin Ferriss was born at the Oblong, 
in Dutchess county, October 17, 1772, and 
after learning the trade of hatter, removed 
about 1794 to Glens Falls, where he died Sep- 
tember 8, 1840. He was a man of push and 
energy, and did much in building up the vil- 
lage during its early years, while he also con- 
tributed to its development in a later period. 
He served as the first postmaster of the village, 
was an influential politician, and commanded 
the respect of all who knew him. 



who was a member of the State assem- 
bly of New York' in 1890, and a prominent 
lawyer of Glen Falls, is a son of Wiiliam J. 
and Jane (Gallup) Cameron, and was born in 
the town of Thurman, Warren county, New 
York, July 27, 1859. William J. Cameron is 
also a native of the same town, where he was 
born in 1824, and at present resides, engaged 
in farming. He is a democrat in politics and 
very acceptably filled the office of supervisor 
of his town for three terms. 

Duncan Cameron (grandfather) was born in 
the parish of Blair, County Perth, Scotland, who 
emigrated prior to the breakingoutof the Revo- 
lutionary war to the United States, and settled 
in Warren county. He followed farming and 
contracting up to the time of his death, in 1832. 
A member of the Presbyterian church, he also 
affiliated with the Democratic party and served 
three terms as a member of the assembly, his 
district being composed of Washington and 
Warren counties. His services as a law maker 
were so acceptable to the people, that the Dem- 
ocratic party made him their candidate for the 
State senate, but on the morning of the elec- 
tion, in 1832, his death occurred. His father 
was John Cameron, who did not leave his 
native Scotland for America until a few years 
after his son had arrived. Duncan Cameron 
wedded a Miss Griffin, whose father, John 
Griffin, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. 

William J. Cameron married Jane Gallup, 
who was born in Warren county, and is still 

Hon. William Marshall Cameron grew to 
manhood on a farm in his native town, where 
he remained until he was eighteen years of age 
and received his education in the Warrensburg 
and Glens Falls academies. Leaving school 
he became a student in the law office of Judge 
A. D. Wait, of Fort Edward, and finished his 
studies with Judge Urias G. and C. R. Paris, 
of Sandy Hill. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1884, and remained with Judge Paris and 
son in the practice till in March, i< ss j, when 

he located in the village of Glens Falls, where 
he has been actively engaged in the work of 
his profession ever since. On May 1, 1886, 
Mr. Cameron formed a law partnership with 
Thomas W. McArthur, the title of the firm 
being Cameron & McArthur, who have a large 
general practice and is one of the well known 
legal firms of the county. Mr. Cameron was 
married December 23, 1884, to Elizabeth A., 
a daughter of Charles H. and Delila A. Pasco, 
of the town of Thurman. Her death occurred 
on July 1, 1893. Mr. Cameron is connected 
with several of the leading secret societies : 
member of Senate Lodge, No. 456, Free and 
Accepted Masons ; Glens Falls Chapter, No. 
55 ; Washington Commandery, No. 33, of Sara- 
toga Springs, and the Oriental Temple of Troy. 
Also Horicon Lodge, No. 349, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and is a past grand 
of this order, and member of Chepontuc Tribe 
of Red Men, No. 139, of which he was the first 
man to take a degree in this order in the 
county ; he is also a member of Laphen Hose 
company, No. 3, and the Social Club of Glens 

Mr. Cameron's political careerbeganin 1887, 
when he was defeated by J. Freeman Wells, 
for school commissioner of the county by only 
seventy-five votes. In 1890 he was the nom- 
inee of the Democratic party and was elected 
supervisor of his town, which contains the vil- 
lage of Glens Falls, the metropolis of the 
county, over James W. Morgan, by five hun- 
dred and eighty-five majority, and in the fall 
of the same year was elected to the assembly 
from Warren county by a majority of three 
hundred and thirty-nine over A. Willard Hitch- 
cock, of the same town. In the fall of the fol- 
lowing year he was defeated for the same 
office by Howard Conkling(nephew of Roscoe 
Conkling), by 33 votes ; the county giving 
Fassett. republican nominee for Governor in 
the same election, 1200 majority. Mr. Cam- 
eron while a member of the assembly served 
on the judiciary committee, also on the pub- 
lic lands and forrestry committees. He has 



obtained considerable eminence and popular- 
ity in bis profession and in the field of politics, 
and bis friends, who are numbered by legions, 
confidently predict for him a brilliant future. 
Mr. Cameron took an active part in the sena- 
torial contest between Hon. Smith M. Weed 
and Hon. David B. Hill, candidates for the 
United States Senate, and supported Mr. Hill 
in preference to Mr. Weed, although the latter 
was a resident of Mr. Cameron's senatorial 
district. Mr. Hill was elected by a majority 
of two votes in caucus, Mr. Cameron's vote 
being one of them, and the next day, January 
20, 1891, was elected United States Senator 
from New York for the full term of six years. 

T^IIOMAS W. 3Io ARTHUR, a well 
read and popular young attorney, and 
member of the law firm of Cameron & Mc Ar- 
thur,' and a brother of J. L. McArthur, of 
Granville [see his sketch for ancestry], was 
born in the town of Putnam, Washington 
county, New York, on March 14, i860. He 
received his early education in the common 
schools of his town, and afterward attended 
two terms at the State Normal school, at Al- 
bany, and subsequently was graduated from 
the Albany Law school in 1883. He then went 
into the office of Robert Dornburg, of Ticon- 
deroga, where he read law, and later read 
with Charles R. Patterson, of Glens Falls. In 
January, 1885, he was admitted to the bar,and 
on May 1, 1886, formed a partnership with 
William M. Cameron, and since which time 
has been actively and successfully engaged in 
the practice of his profession. On September 
26, 1893, Mr. McArthur was married to Jean 
B., a daughter of William Pesinger,of Brook- 
lyn, New York. He is a member of the Royal 
Arcanum, and the Tribe of Red Men. In 
politics Mr. McArthur is a stanch and influ- 
ential republican, and while residing in the 
town of Putnam filled the office of justice of 
the peace. In the fall of 1893 he was elected 
delegate to the Constitutional convention o( 

1894, from the twenty-first senatorial district. 
He has already won an honorable place at the 
bar, and appears to be on the threshold of a 
successful and brilliant career. 

KjlCHOLAS L. JENKINS, one of the 

\ leading business men of the village of 
Cambridge, and dealer in harness and saddles, 
horse blankets, and all kinds of horse furnish- 
ing goods, is a son of John and Sallie Ann 
(Howard) Jenkins, and was born in the town 
of Hebron, Washington county, New York, 
November 1, 1844. John Jenkins (father) was 
a native of the same town, where he was born 
September 19, 1814. He learned the trade of 
carpenter, and afterward followed contracting 
and building for a number of years, having 
built the Methodist church of Cambridge, and 
many other buildings, which have added to his 
reputation in this line. In late years he has 
followed the trade of wagon making. [For 
further facts see sketch of son, Dr. Charles A. 
Jenkins, of Cambridge.] 

Nicholas L. Jenkins received his education 
principally at the Washington Cambridge aca- 
demy, and after leaving here he was apprent- 
iced to James Barr, to learn the trade of har- 
ness and saddler. After completing his trade 
he did journey work up to 1873, when he 
started in business for himself at his present 
stand, No. 88 West Main street, where he car- 
ries on an extensive business, his stock amount- 
ing, on an average, to about two thousand 
three hundred dollars, and does an annual 
business of about five thousand dollars. Mr. 
Jenkins is a republican in his political opin- 
ion, and has held most of the principal offices 
of the village and town. At present he is one 
of the trustees of the Cambridge Union Free 
school, and for two years served as supervisor 
of the town of Cambridge. On November 24, 
1875, he was united in marriage with Eliza- 
beth Hill, of the village of Cambridge. To 
their marriage has been born one child, a son, 
Gu\ G. 

C. <^£. <%. 



^^ wich, a prominent citizen of the county, 
and extensively known throughout the United 
States, was born at Cambridge, Washington 
county, New York, December 27, 1815. He 
is a son of Daniel Rice, a native of the state 
of Connecticut, and a grandson of Thomas 
Rice, born in the same State, from whence he 
removed to the State of New York, over a cen- 
tury ago, and located on a farm of one hundred 
acres, in the town of Cambridge. He followed 
farming all his life. After a few years' farm- 
ing in Cambridge, he traded his farm there, of 
one hundred acres, for a tract of two hun- 
dred acres in the town of Salem, where he 
ever afterward continued to reside. He was 
a soldier in the war of the Revolution, and 
assisted in building the fort at Lake George. 
He was a man of remarkable strength and 
prowess, and even retained a considerable 
amount of strength and activity when in his 
eightieth year. He died at the age of eighty- 
eight years. Daniel Rice, son of Thomas, 
and the father of the subject of this sketch, 
was a farmer all his life, started to the war of 
1812, and after arriving at Plattsburg, peace 
was declared, when he returned to the farm. 
Orrin Kellogg Rice, a son of Daniel Rice and 
Zina Kidder, both natives of Connecticut, was 
reared on the Cambridge farm until at the age of 
fifteen, when, with his parents, he removed to 
the farm in the town of Salem. In 1838 he en- 
tered the academy at Poultney, Vermont, 
where he pursued the regular studies of that 
institution, with the object of entering the 
legal profession. Here he remained until 
1840. In that year he went to Kentucky, 
and began the study of law in the office of 
Socrates Holbrook, of Clarksburg, the seat of 
justice of Lewis county, that State, with 
whom he remained two years. At the end of 
that time, in 1842, Mr. Rice was admitted 
to practice in all the inferior and superior 
courts of the State of Kentucky. For a short 
time after his admission he practiced law 

there, when he returned home. Coming to 

Greenwich, in 1843, going into the law office 
of Judge Ingalls, remaining with him, as a 
student, the required time necessary for his 
admission, the term of four years, when, 
accordingly, in 1847, he was admitted to 
practice before all the courts of the State of 
New York. He then practiced in the office 
of his preceptor, and being more or less dis- 
satisfied with indoor life, and the tedious de- 
tails incident to the practice of law, he, in 
1848, began to handle patent rights. His 
first experience in this line was selling terri- 
tory for a wheat fan, for cleaning grain, and 
at the same time to some extent did some law 
business. But his greatest success has been 
as a patent right man, and to-day probably 
stands without an equal, everything consid- 
ered, in this country. He has managed the 
sales of some dozen of the most important 
patents of the United States, one sale amount- 
ing to $250,000, on a sewing machine. His 
operations in this line have been carried into 
almost every state of the Union, and he is pop- 
ularly known by people throughout the coun- 
try as the great American travelers having in 
one year traveled over 36,000 miles, and in 
eight successive years covered a distance of 
over nine times the circumference of the 
globe. For over fifty years Mr. Rice has 
kept a daily journal, chronicling the important 
events of his business career and other mat- 
ters of importance that came under his obser- 
vation. The patents he has so successfully 
handled have all been invented by other peo- 
ple, and he has been the instrument in build- 
ing up many large fortunes, and made a suc- 
cess of every one he has ever worked. His 
labors have been useful in other directions. 
For many years he carried excursions of peo- 
ple west, to find homes in the boundless West, 
being first employed by the land department 
of the Union Pacific railroad, and making 
homes for the excursionists, mainly in the 
State of Nebraska. He afterward was em- 
ployed in the same work for the Chicago and 
Northwestern. Retiring from this business 



several years ago, he now lives the life of a 
farmer, owning a farm of ninety acres adjoin- 
ing the village of Greenwich, some of it lying 
within the corporation, and it is one of the 
most valuable farms in the county. He here 
breeds the finest blooded horses and cattle in 
his section. The cattle are the brown Swiss 
breed, and he never yet sold one for less than 
one hundred dollars. His horses are of the 
Hambletonian breed, one of the best breeds of 
horses in the world. 

O. K. Rice, on October 3rd, 1842, wedded 
Mary Augusta Wheeler, of Ontario, New 
York, who died in 1891. To this union eight 
children were born: Charles I., who is a 
clerk in the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
railroad office, at Chicago ; he married Sarah 
Orson, of Indianapolis, and has three children. 
George C, a college graduated veterinary sur- 
geon, residing on the farm at Greenwich. He 
married Amelia Bayle, of Greenwich, and has 
six children ; Catherine Augusta, wife of 
William R. Peters, a shoe manufacturer, of 
Rochester — they have two children; Ella 
Mariah, wife of William T. Moore, of Me- 
chanicville — they have two children; Lil- 
lie (deceased), wife of S. S. Spencer — she 
was the mother of four children ; Edmund J. 
and Edna J. (twins). Edmund J., profes- 
sional acrobat, married Henrietta Scott, of 
Cambridge, and has one child. Edna J. is 
the wife of M. H. Robertson. 

In 1893 O. K. Rice married, for his second 
wife, Mrs. Mary Kennedy, of Easton, this 
county. He is a prominent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, of Greenwich, 
having held many of the offices of the same ; 
of the village he has served as president, 
trustee, and other offices. Of the town of 
Easton he was commissioner of highways, 
and was one of the most efficient the town ever 
had. He has always been public spirited and 
in earnest in all movements calculated for the 
betterment and improvement of his commu- 
nity, and stands pre-eminent as a self-made 
and a successful business man. 

present popular pastor of Saint Mary's 
church of Glens Falls, and dean of the diocese 
under Bishop Francis McNierney, is a native of 
the town of Enniskillen, County Fermaugh, 
Ireland, where he was born December 23, 
1836. He is a son of Patrick McDermott and 
Ann McDevitt, both born in the same county, 
where they resided until their final summons 
came. Patrick McDermott was a man of con- 
siderable influence and wealth, and a consist- 
ent member of the Catholic church, whose 
death occurred in the year 1838. His wife 
outlived him fifty-one years, dying in 1889, in 
the eighty-eighth year of her age. 

Father McDermott grew to manhood in his 
native county, receiving there a classical edu- 
cation, and in 1854 sailed for the United 
States and located in Baltimore. Here he 
entered Saint Mary's Theological seminary, 
where he completed his classical education. 
On August 22, 1862, he was ordained priest 
at Albany, New York, by Bishop McClosky. 
Three days after his ordination he was ap- 
pointed rector of Saint Mary's church at 
Glens Falls, where he has since labored. 
Since then, beside administering to the spir- 
itual welfare of his congregation, Father Mc- 
Dermott has built a handsome church edifice, 
a large school building, and commodious con- 

It is here very appropriate to add a brief 
history of this church, in with the life sketch 
of Father McDermott, who has given the best 
years of his life to give it the influence the 
church wields over the community to-day. 

"In the year 1848 the Rev. M. Olivette, 
who at that time resided at Whitehall, pur- 
chased a small stone building, which had been 
used as a Methodist church, for the sum of 
$801. It was appropriately dedicated and 
opened for worship the same year. Prior to 
that date there were few Catholics living at 
Glens Falls, their spiritual wants being min- 
istered by pastors at Sandy Hill — Revs. 
Guerdet, Coyle, Doyle, and Kelly — each of 


'• ■-■•■ -V "■ '. • 






whom in succession was placed in charge of 
that village of extensive surrounding district. 
The first resident pastor at this place was 
Rev. John Murphy, who officiated from 1848 
to 1865, being succeeded by Rev. McDer- 

The present splendid brick edifice was built 
in 1867 and dedicated in the year following. 
In 1882 he built the large brick parsonage, 
adjacent to the church, and in the same year 
built the Saint Mary's academy, also Saint 
Mary's convent. This school has an average 
attendance of about eight hundred. The con- 
vent is presided over and taught by fifteen Sis- 
ters of Saint Joseph's and Saint Mary's 
churches, of a membership of about 630 fam- 

Father McDermott, in addition to his pas- 
torage of Saint Mary's church and his remark- 
able record in the interest of his church and 
faith, is dean of his diocese. When he first 
arrived at Glens Falls, Father McDermott 
held services at Fort Edward, Sandy Hill, 
and other points in Washington county, be- 
side at places in Warren county. He preached 
in private houses at many places, and has ac- 
complished great good wherever he has gone. 
Among the people of the village of his adopted 
home nobody is personally more popular and 
beloved among members of all denominations 
than Father McDermott, and his remarkable 
accomplishments toward making his church a 
power in the community, attests his strong 
personality and influence. 

/"JEORGE B. CULVER, cashier of the 
^^ North Granville National bank, well and 
favorably known among the business men of 
the county and vicinity, is a son of James and 
Kezia (Lee) Culver, and was born January 
16, 1835, at Sandy Hill, Washington county, 
New York. His father, James Culver, was 
born in the town of Hebron, September 11, 
1796, but lived nearly all his life in Sandy 

Hill, where he died April 15. 1872. His wife, 
Kezia Lee, was born May 12, 1803, at Sandy 
Hill, where she died May 23, 1886. Her 
great-great-grandfather was Thomas Lee, who 
came from England in 1641, and settled in 
Lyme, Connecticut. Her father, Stephen 
Lee, came to Sandy Hill about the close of 
the last century, and there married Mary 
Little in 1802. The Culvers were among the 
early settlers of the town of Hebron, and were 
of English descent. James Culver's great- 
great-grandfather came from England in the 
latter part of the seventeenth century, and 
settled in Southampton, Long Island. From 
thence George B. Culver's grandfather, David 
Culver, moved to Hebron, Connecticut, whence 
his father, whose name was also David, moved 
in 1795, to Hebron, this county. Both Davids 
fought in the war of the Revolution. 

George B. Culver spent his boyhood at 
home in Sandy Hill, and was educated in a 
private school taught in that village by Rev. 
Dr. Samuel B. Bostwick, who was a prom- 
inent educator of his day, and a man of 
scholarly attainments. In 1850 Mr. Culver 
went to New York, where he lived over four 
years in the family of Abram Wakeman, a 
rising young lawyer and politician, then a 
member of the legislature, and whose first 
wife, Mary Harwood, was a cousin of Mr. 
Culver. Leaving New York, he attended Pro- 
fessor Fowler's school at Poughkeepsie, and 
afterward the law department of the University 
of Albany, from which he was graduated in 
1856, and was admitted to practice. He read 
law with Wakeman & Latting, of New York, 
and Hughes & Northup, of Sandy Hill. 

When the rebellion broke out, Mr. Culver 
enlisted, on August 24, 1861, as first lieuten- 
ant in Co. F, 43d New York volunteer regi- 
ment ; serving with his regiment for about one 
year, when he contracted the typhoid fever in 
the Chickahominy swamps, in the campaign 
on the peninsula, and was sick in the navy 
yard. Washington, under the care of the late 
C. D. Maxwell, surgeon, U. S. N.. until the 



following autumn. The 43d, at Harrison's 
Landing, Virginia, was found to be reduced 
by losses to about three hundred and fifty 
men, and upon Colonel Vinton's proposal to 
recruit by consolidating, taking in outside 
companies, fully officered, was adopted, and 
which resulted in the resignations of ten or 
more officers of the 43d, field and line, Lieu- 
tenant Culver among that number, he at the 
time being very ill. Returning home as soon 
as he was sufficiently convalescent, he ac- 
cepted a position in the New York postoffice, 
under his friend, Abram Wakeman, who was 
then postmaster of that city ; this position 
Mr. Culver held five years, excepting, by con- 
sent of the postmaster, an absence of about 
one year, when he joined the army again, in the 
pay department, and was stationed in Wis- 
consin and Illinois. Soon after the close of 
the war he returned to New York, and re- 
sumed his old place in the postoffice. From 
New York he went to Elizabeth, New Jersey, 
where he was engaged in the lumber business, 
in which pursuit he continued up to 1871. In 
May of the same year he came to North Gran- 
ville and accepted the cashiership of the North 
Granville National bank, a place he has filled 
very satisfactorily ever since, and also that of 
one of the bank's directors. 

George B. Culver was married in 1869 to 
Lucy Comstock Baker, daughter of Isaac Y. 
Baker and Laura D. (Comstock) Baker, of 
Comstock's, this county. Mrs. Culver is the 
oldest grandchild of the late Peter Comstock, 
and belongs to the fourth generation of the 
Baker family and the Comstock family in this 
count}'. Mr. and Mrs. Culver are the parents 
of one child, Laura Baker Culver. Mr. Cul- 
ver is a member of the Episcopal church; a 
republican in his political opinion, and be- 
longs to the Masonic fraternity, the Society of 
the Sons of the Revolution, and the M. O. 
Loyal Legion of the United States. For over 
twenty years he has been one of the trustees 
of the North Granville seminary, under the 

nOBERT HAMILTON, proprietor of 
the well-known and popular Hamilton 
House, of Greenwich, this county, and a 
veteran of the civil war, is a son of Joseph 
and Jane (Moore) Hamilton, and a native of 
Schaghticoke, Rensselaer county, this State, 
where he was born September 7, 1838. His 
father, Joseph Hamilton, was born and reared 
in County Tyrone, Ireland, which he left when 
twenty-two years of age to find a new home 
in America. Soon after arriving in this coun- 
try he settled at Schaghticoke, New York, 
where he passed the remainder of his life, 
dying in 1856, at the age of fifty-eight years, 
having been born in 1798. He was a linen 
weaver by trade, and worked at that occupa- 
tion in the factories at Schagticoke for a num- 
ber of years. Politically he was a whig, and 
in religion a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. A short time previous to sail- 
ing for America he married Jane Moore, a 
daughter of Charles Moore, of County Ty- 
rone, Ireland, and by that union had a family 
of eight children, five sons and three daugh- 
ters : James, Mary, Eliza Jane, Hugh, who 
was killed in the last day's fight at Peters- 
burg, Virginia, leaving a wife and children in 
Massachusetts; William H., Charles, Robert, 
and Ann Jane. They are all now deceased 
except Robert, the subject of this sketch. 
Mrs. Jane Hamilton died in 1849, in the 
fiftieth year of her age. 

Robert Hamilton was reared in his native 
county of Rensselaer, and obtained an excellent 
English education in the public schools. In 
1856 he came to the village of Greenwich, 
where he learned the trade of shoemaker, and 
followed that occupation until 1861. He then 
enlisted in the Federal army, as a member of 
Co. D, 22d New York Infantry, being one of 
the first to enlist from this town, and partici- 
pated in the historic battles of Granville, 
Cedar Mountain, and the second Bull Run, 
where, on August 30, 1862, he was wounded 
by a ball, which tore its way through his right 
wrist, thus making him a cripple for life. On 



account of this wound he was discharged from 
the service February 14, 1863, and at once re- 
turned to Greenwich. Being unable to work 
at his trade, he engaged in the saloon busi- 
ness, but after three years abandoned that and 
removed to Middle Falls, where he embarked 
in the hotel business. There he remained 
until 1869, when he returned to Greenwich, 
and became proprietor of the Greenwich 
House, which he successfully conducted until 
1881. He then purchased what was known 
as the Bulson House, changed its name to 
the Hamilton House, and has ever since de- 
voted his time and attention to conducting 
this hotel. It is the largest and best hotel in 
the village of Greenwich, and is located in 
the business center of the place. As a land- 
lord Mr. Hamilton is popular, and his hostelry 
is now widely known and liberally patronized 
by the traveling public. 

On October 4, 1865, Mr. Hamilton was 
united in marriage to Ellen M. Lee, only daugh- 
ter of Edward Lee, of Rockville, Connecti- 
cut, and to them was born a family consisting 
of one son and three daughters : Frances, 
Nellie, Edward and Jennie, the latter now de- 

In his political affiliations Mr. Hamilton is 
a stanch democrat. He is a member of Ash- 
land Lodge, No. 584, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, of Greenwich ; Home Chapter, No. 
158, Royal Arch Masons, of Schuylerville ; 
and Washington Commandery, No. 33, 
Knights Templar, of Saratoga Springs. He 
is also a member and past grand of Union 
Village Lodge, No. 253, Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows : and of Albert Cook Post, 
No. 326, Grand Army of the Republic. 

judge of Washington county since 1887, 
to which office he was re-elected in 1893, has 
long been a prominent and successful lawyer 
of Whitehall. He is a son of Thomas and 
Jane (McLaughlin) Lillie, and was born 

February 20, 1852, in the town of Putnam, 
this county. He is of Scotch descent, on both 
paternal and maternal sides, and his ancestors 
belonged to two old families of Scotland. 
Judge Lillie remained on his father's farm 
until fifteen years of age, and obtained his 
elementary education in the public schools of 
his native town. In 1869 he entered the 
State Normal school, at Albany, from which 
institution he was graduated with honors in the 
spring of 1871. He then accepted a position 
as teacher in Cedar Grove academy, Cald- 
well, New Jersey, where he remained for two 
years. Meanwhile he had determined on law 
as a profession, and in the fall of 1873 he en- 
tered the law department of Union university, 
at Albany, New York, and began preparing 
for the bar. Here he studied industriously 
until 1875, when he was duly graduated, and 
on May 20th of that year was admitted to 
practice in the courts of this county. He at 
once located at Whitehall, for the practice of 
law, and was soon in the enjoyment of a 
profitable business. From that time to the 
present he has been regularly engaged in ac- 
tive practice, and in a few years has won dis- 
tinction at the bar and an honorable position 
among the legal fraternity of Washington 
county. In 1883 Judge Lillie was elected 
supervisor of the town, and in the following 
year was re-elected by an increased majority, 
and upon the organization of the board of su- 
pervisors was unanimously selected as its pre- 
siding officer. In 1886 he was nominated, on 
the republican ticket, and elected to the re- 
sponsible position of judge of Washington 
county, taking the office in 1887. So well did 
he perform the important duties of his posi- 
tion, that in 1893 he was renominated without 
opposition, and again elected to the office of 
county judge, the functions of which post he 
is now performing with an ability and imparti- 
ality that reflects credit on himself, and gives 
entire satisfaction to the people whom he 
serves. An indication of his popularity as 
a judge may be found in the fact that he has 



been called upon to hold courts in six coun- 
ties outside his own, including those of Al- 
bany and Rensselaer. 

Judge Lillie has always taken a prominent 
part in the politics of this section, and for 
fifteen years has been among the most elo- 
quent and convincing advocates of his party 
on the stump, and a most successful cam- 
paigner. He is a member of Whitehall 
Lodge, No. 5, Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, in which he has filled all the chairs, 
and since 1880 has been a trustee of the First 
Baptist church of this village, and is now 
president of this board. 

In 1879 Judge Lillie was married to Flor- 
ence L. Broughton, a daughter of James R. 
Broughton, a merchant of Whitehall. To 
the Judge and Mrs. Lillie have been born four 
children, one son and three daughters : 
Louise, Alice, Annie and Thomas A., jr. 

The paternal grandfather of Judge Lillie, 
Thomas Lillie, was a native of Scotland, 
where he resided until after his marriage, 
when he came to the United States, and set- 
tled in the town of Putnam, Washington 
county, New York. Here he continued to re- 
side, engaged in agricultural pursuits, and as 
a veterinary, (being a graduate of the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh,) until his death in 1856, at 
an advanced age. Among his children was 
Thomas Lillie (father), who was born in 
the town of Putnam, in 1821, where he still 
resides, being now in the seventy-second 
year of his age, and still engaged in farming, 
to which he has devoted his entire life. He 
has been very successful in agricultural pur- 
suits, and has always been known as among 
the most progressive farmers of his section. 
He is a member and deacon of the Presbyte- 
rian church of Putnam, and in political faith 
an ardent republican. At one time or another 
he has filled all the offices of his town, and 
served as supervisor for a number of years. 
In 1848 he married Jane McLaughlin, a 
daughter of Alexander McLaughlin, and a 
native of the town of Putnam. She was a 

member of the Presbyterian church, and in 
her daily life exemplified the religion she pro- 
fessed. Her father, Alexander McLaughlin, 
was born and reared in the Scottish highlands, 
where he married. About 1820 he emigrated 
to America, with his family, and settled in 
Putnam, this county, where he passed the 
remainder of his days. 

. JURDEX E. SEELEY, the well known 
lawyer of Granville, who has been in 
practice since 1881, is a son of John I. and 
Avis A. (Oatman) Seeley, and a native of 
Hartford, this county, where he was born 
July 30, 1858. The family is of English 
descent, but have been residents of America 
since the revolutionary period. The paternal 
great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch 
was a resident of Massachusetts, where he 
married an English lady, who came to this 
country during the Revolutionary war. Among 
their children was J urden Seeley (grandfather), 
who was born in Connecticut in 1797, and 
when only four years of age was brought by 
his parents to Hartford, Washington county, 
New York, where he grew to manhood and 
passed the remainder of his life engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. He died here in 1836, 
at the early age of forty years. He married 
Philinda Oatman, and reared a family of 
twelve children. One of his sons, John I. 
Seeley (father), was born at Hartford, this 
county, in 1822, and resided here all his life. 
He was a prosperous farmer, and became 
prominent in the local affairs of this section. 
Politically he was a republican, and served as 
justice of the peace continuously for a period 
of twenty-eight years, beside occupying numer- 
ous other positions of trust and responsibility. 
He was an active member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, which he served as steward 
for many years ; his death occurred in April, 
1893, when he was well advanced in theseventy- 
first year of his age. In 1844 he married Avis 
A. Oatman, a daughter of Elisha Oatman, and 



native of Batavia, New York. To them were 
born three children. Mrs. Seeley resides with 
her son, Jurden E., at Granville. She has 
been a life-long member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and her life has been char- 
acterized by all the virtues of genuine Chris- 
tian womanhood. 

Jurden E. Seeley was reared on his father's 
farm, and obtained his education in the pub- 
lic schools of Hartford. After completing his 
studies he taught in the public schools for 
two winters, working on the farm during the 
summer season. He then, at the age of 
eighteen, entered the law office of Pond, French 
& Brackett, at Saratoga Springs, and began 
preparing for the bar. On May 4, 1881, he 
was admitted to practice, and in September of 
the same 3'ear located at Granville, where he 
has been engaged in active general practice 
ever since. Soon after locating here he formed 
a law partnership with Levi D. Temple, who 
had also been admitted to the bar that year, 
and they conducted a legal business together 
for one year, when Mr. Seeley purchased his 
partner's interest, and Mr. Temple entered 
the ministry of the Baptist church. Mr. See- 
ley continued his legal business alone until 
September, 1892, when he admitted John Gil- 
roy, of Ritchfield Springs, New York, into 
partnership, under the present firm name of 
Seeley & Gilroy. Mr. Gilroy had studied law 
in Mr. Seeley's office, and has won good 
standing at the bar. These gentlemen have a 
fine general practice, and the firm is alreadj' 
well known. In addition to his property at 
Granville, Mr. Seeley also owns the old home- 
stead of one hundred and fifty acres of val- 
uable land in Hartford. 

In June, 1885, Mr. Seeley was united in 
marriage to Cora A. Collins, a daughter of 
Thomas M. Collins, of Dorset, Vermont. 
Politically he is a stanch republican, taking an 
active part in local politics, and being now a 
member of the county committee and of the 
executive board. For seven years he filled 
the position of justice of the peace at Gran- 

ville, and has held other positions of honor 
and emolument. He is at present clerk of 
the village of Granville, and is recognized as 
among the trusted local leaders of his party. 
He is a member of Sandy Hill Council, No. 
587, Royal Arcanum, and sachem of Illini 
Tribe, No. 256, Improved Order of Red Men. 
For nearly ten years Mr. Seeley has been 
foreman of the Henry Hose Company, No. 1, 
of Granville, and to his sagacity and ability is 
due much of the efficiency of that organization. 

\kt ATSON N. SPRAGUE, president of 
the Battenkill Paper Mill Company, of 
Middle Falls, this county, is a veteran of the 
Civil war whose military record is unique and 
perhaps without a parallel. He is indus- 
trious and enterprising, and as a businessman 
and manufacturer has met with great success. 
He is a son of Nathan and Sarah (Andrews) 
Sprague, and was born January 13, 1844, at 
Hinsdale, New Hampshire. The Spragues are 
of English descent, and trace their American 
ancestry back to three brothers who came over 
early in the seventeenth century. One of these 
brothers settled in Rhode Island, and from 
him was descended Governor Sprague. An- 
other settled in New York and became the 
progenitor of the large family of Spragues in 
this State. The. third settled in Massachu- 
setts, and from this one is descended the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Old Governor Sprague 
of Rhode Island, was a second cousin to Wil- 
liam Sprague, paternal grandfather of Watson 
N. Sprague. William Sprague was born and 
reared at Templeton, Massachusetts. He 
was a blacksmith by trade and a member of 
the Baptist church. His son, Nathan Sprague 
(father), was also a native of Templeton, 
where he was born in 1803. After attaining 
manhood he learned the trade of shoemaker, 
and worked at that occupation for a number 
of years. In 1S33 he removed to Hinsdale, 
New Hampshire, where he followed shoe- 
making and farming, owning a small farm 



upon which he resided until 1865. In the 
latter year he sold out, removed to Winches- 
ter, that State, and purchased a farm of one 
hundred and thirty acres. The latter part of 
his life was devoted wholly to agricultural 
pursuits, in which he became very successful, 
and which he continued to follow until his 
death in 1866, when in the sixty-third year of 
his age. He was a member and deacon of 
the Hinsdale Baptist church, and in politics 
was a whig, abolitionist and republican. In 
1831 he married Sarah Andrews, a daughter 
of Elisha Andrews, of Templeton, Massachu- 
setts. Their union was blessed by the birth 
of four children, three sons and a daughter : 
Ellen, married Alfred Mansfield, of Keene, 
New Hampshire; Frank L., also a resident 
of Keene; Andrew T., of Middle Falls, New 
York ; and Watson N. Mrs. Sprague died in 
1869, at the age of sixty-eight years. 

Watson N. Sprague was reared and educa- 
ted at Hinsdale, New Hampshire. After 
leaving school he learned the trade of wool 
sorter, and worked at that for a short time. 
On September 15, 1861, when only seventeen 
years of age, he enlisted in Co. F, or the Ver- 
mont company of the first regiment Berdan 
sharpshooters, and served with that organiza- 
tion for three years. He participated in the 
heroic struggles of Yorktown, Hanover Court- 
house, Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mills, Malvern 
Hill, second Bull Run, Antietam, Blackburn's 
Ford, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Get- 
tysburg, Kelly's Ford, Mine Run, the Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania Courthouse, and Peters- 
burg. He was wounded twice, but not seri- 
ously. The company (F) was organized at 
West Randolph, Vermont, and left there Sep- 
tember 15, 1861, with one hundred and seven- 
teen men. Exactly three years later it was 
mustered out at the same place, and only nine 
of the original members remained. Of these 
nine Mr. Sprague was the only one who had 
never missed a day's duty on account of 
wounds or sickness during the entire three 
years the company was in active service. This 

record, taken all in all, is perhaps without a 
parailel in the history of the civil war. 

After the war closed Mr. Sprague returned 
to New Hampshire and engaged in the sieve 
hoop business at Keene, that State. Three 
years later he removed to Marlow, New Hamp- 
shire, where he embarked in the lumbering 
business and the manufacture of shoe shanks, 
and followed that occupation some four years. 
About 1 87 1 he returned to Keene, where he 
manufactured shoe shanks for two years and 
then transferred his operations to Boston, 
where he was successfully engaged in the same 
business for six years. In 1880 he came to 
Greenwich, where he began the manufacture of 
leather board and paper. The mills are loca- 
ted at Middle Falls, two miles northwest of 
Greenwich, and are known as the Battenkill 
Paper mills. The works have a capacity of 
six tons per day, and employ some thirty peo- 
ple the year round. This plant is owned by 
a joint stock company, of which Mr. Sprague 
is president. The capital invested is about 
eighty thousand dollars, and the annual pro- 
duction of goods amounts to nearly one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Sprague is also a 
stockholder and director in the Ondawa Paper 
Mill Company at Middle Falls, which manu- 
factures manilla paper exclusively, and it may 
be said that to his untiring efforts is largely 
due the development and improvement of 
Middle Falls. 

On March 14, 1870, Watson N. Sprague was 
united by marriage to Melissa M. Reed, a 
daughter of Edwin Reed, of Marlow, New 
Hampshire. To Mr. and Mrs. Sprague was 
born one child, a daughter named Mabel S. 
Politically he is an ardent republican, taking 
an active part in local politics, and earnestly 
supporting the protection policy of his party. 
He has served as supervisor of the town for 
two years, and was president of the board of 
supervisors for one year. He is a member of 
Ashland Lodge, No. 584, Free and Accepted 
Masons, and one of the public spirited and 
useful citizens of the county. 



served in the army of the Potomac dur- 
ing the late Civil war, and is now one of the 
principal owners of the well known Sand}' 
Hill Iron and Brass works, was born at Fort 
Ann, Washington county, New York, in 1846, 
and is a son of Henry F. and Jane M. (Fuller) 
Van Wormer. On his paternal side he is a 
descendant in the fourth generation from Jacob 
Van Wormer, a revolutionary soldier, who 
came from Schaghticoke, and was one of the 
early settlers of the town of Fort Ann. His 
son, Henry Van Wormer, who served in the 
American army at the battle of Plattsburg, 
was the father of Henry F. Van Wormer, who 
is still living at Fort Ann. Henry F. Van 
Wormer was born in 1812, and married Jane 
M. Fuller, a native of Washington county. 
The Van Wormers are of Dutch descent. 

Francis M. Van Wormer was reared at Fort 
Ann until he was sixteen years of age, when 
he enlisted in Co. D, 123d New York volun- 
teers, and served as a musician until the close 
of the war in 1865. He participated in the 
battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Sher- 
man's campaign to Atlanta, march to the sea, 
and through the Carolinas and Johnston's 
surrender. One year later, in 1866, he came 
to Sandy Hill and soon became one of the 
proprietors of the Sandy Hill Iron and Brass 
works. These works were founded about 
i860, known then as Baker's Falls Iron Ma- 
chine works, and after several changes they 
were purchased in 1874 by Mr. Van Wormer 
and Thomas E. Wells. They continued un- 
der their administration up to the commence- 
ment of the year 1882, when N. E. Packer and 
O.'A. Tefft became members of the firm. In 
September, 1883, O. A. Tefft was succeeded 
by R. C. Tefft, and in a short time Messrs. 
Wells and Packer sold their interests to F. M. 
Van Wormer and R. C. Tefft, who have con- 
ducted the works very successfully ever since. 
The present buildings of the company were 
erected in 1882, at a short distance from the 
first buildings and just south of Howland 

Paper Company's paper mill, and since known 
as the Sandy Hill Iron and Brass works. They 
consist of a foundry thirty by seventy- two feet 
in dimensions ; a machine shop forty by one 
hundred and fifteen feet, with a wing thirty by 
forty feet, and a construction room fifty-two 
by one hundred and sixty-five feet. The 
buildings are all brick, being substantially 
built and well arranged for the business in 
hand with all the skill that experience could 
suggest. They are well lighted and illumin- 
ated with electric light at night, and the works 
are operated by water power, aggregating 
forty-five horse-power ; the works when run- 
ning full force require sixty-five men, and are 
equipped with every device and appliance for 
expeditiously executing work. The present 
firm, while doing a general business as machin- 
ists, are engaged in the manufacture of special- 
ties. Their main work is the making of paper 
machines, and two of their Harper-Fourdrinier 
machines are in operation close to the works, 
where they have given the best of satisfaction. 
One of their specialties is the manufacture of 
turbine water wheels, which are used in nearly 
every State in the Union. The firm of Van 
Wormer & Tefft manufacture paper and pulp 
machinery of all kinds, including fourdrinier 
and cylinder paper machines, paper engines, 
rag and jute cutters, and dusters and wet 
machines ; also manufacture the Hercules 
friction clutch, together with a variety of gen- 
eral machinery, and have a large demand for 
their work on account of its durability and 
splendid workmanship. 

In 1869 Mr. Van Wormer was married to 
Sarah M. Cornell, of Washington county. 

Francis M. Van Wormer is a member and 
past commander of William M. Cullen Post, 
No. 587, Grand Army of the Republic. He 
is also a member of the Royal Arcanum, and 
deputy grand regent of that order for the dis- 
trict composed of the counties of Warren and 
Washington ; also been identified with the 
village fire department for the past thirteen 
years, for several years president and foreman 



of the J. W. Wait Hose company, which is 
one of the best organizations in this part of 
the State. His excellent reputation as a 
manufacturer is due to his skill and energy 
and to the fact that he always adopts every 
new improvement in the working or style of 
the machines which he manufactures. 

nent merchant of Glens Falls, and a 
representative of an old and honored family 
of Washington county, is a son of George 
Cronkhite and Permelia Persons, and was 
born in the town of Fort Ann, Washington 
county, New York, December 8, 1815. The 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, James 
Cronkhite, served in the war of 1812, and re- 
moved to the town of Queensbury, where he 
died at the age of fifty years. He married, 
and among his children by this marriage was 
George Cronkhite (father), who was born in 
the town of Greenwich in 1790, and who be- 
came prominent in business affairs and well 
known in Washington, Warren, and Saratoga 
counties. For a few years he owned and ran 
a grist mill in Sandy Hill, which he afterward 
removed to this village, where he resided and 
carried on milling for man)' years. He was a 
whig and republican in politics, and a strict 
member of the Presbyterian church. His 
death occurred in the village of Glens Falls 
in 1878, in his eighty-eighth year. He was 
united in marriage to Permelia Persons, who 
was a native of West Fort Ann, and whose 
sad death occurred in 1855, by being run over 
by a train at Schenectady. She was a con- 
sistent member of the Presbyterian church. 

William Cronkhite principally grew to man- 
hood in Sandy Hill, where he attended school 
until at the age of thirteen, when he became 
an employee in a general merchandising store 
in that village, where he remained until 1837. 
In that year he came to Glens Falls and en- 
gaged in the same line, in which he continued 
until 1839, when he removed his stock of 

goods to Salem, but in a short time sold out 
and went to farming just across the line from 
Salem, in Vermont. In 1844 Mr. Cronkhite 
returned to Sandy Hill, where he again 
branched out in the merchandising business, 
in which he remained successfully engaged 
until 1853. During his residence at Sandy 
Hill he served two years as town clerk, and 
for four years was postmaster under President 
Fillmore. In the fall of 1853 he came to 
Glens Falls, where he has since resided and 
is known as one of the leading merchants of 
the village. In the big fire that occurred at 
Glens Falls in 1864, Mr. Cronkhite was burned 
out, and in 1865 he built and had his present 
stand equipped and ready for occupancy. He 
then took his son, Henry Orville, in as a part- 
ner, under the title of William Cronkhite & 
Son, which has existed ever since, and is 
known as one of the most successful dry goods 
firms in northern New York. On November 
6, 1837, William Cronkhite was married to 
Esther Ann Milliman, a daughter of Thomas 
Milliman, of Salem. To this union were born 
two children : Henry Orville, and Harriet, 
now deceased. 

William Cronkhite is a Presbyterian in re- 
ligious faith and a republican in politics ; 
served one term as village trustee, but he has 
always been too much engrossed in his business 
affairs to ever accept office. His son and 
business partner, Henry Orville Cronkhite, 
was born in the village of Salem, Washington 
county, New York, May 4, 1839, and educated 
in the Glens Falls academy. At the first call 
for troops by the president, in 1861, he en- 
listed in July of that year as a private in Co. 
E, 22d New York volunteer regiment, and 
served two years. He was wounded by a 
piece of shell striking him in the head at the 
battle of Bull Run. At the expiration of his 
term of service he was honorably discharged 
at Albany and returned home. He has been 
a life-long republican, and has served as town 
clerk of Queensbury for thirteen years. At 
present he is a member of the board of health ; 



for eight years he was register of vital statis- 
tics and permit officer, and is now serving his 
fourth term as notary public. In 1864 Mr. 
Cronkhite was married to Mary A., daughter 
of Capt. John Bailey, who was killed in the 
battle of the Wilderness ; he resided in the 
town of Honey Creek, Warren county. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Cronkhite have been born four 
children, two living: Minnie and Helena, the 
latter now the wife of Elmer E. Pepper, 
of Glens Falls. Mr. Cronkhite is a member 
of Edgar M. Wing Post, 147, Grand Army of 
the Republic, and ranks among the useful 
citizens and successful merchants of his village. 

JOHN F. HARRIS, a descendant of an 
old New England family, and retired iron 
manufacturer of New York, is one of the 
leading business men of Fort Edward. He 
was born at Stowe, Vermont, in 1832, and is 
a son of Moses and Relief (Flanders') Harris. 
The Harris family of New York is of Eng- 
lish origin, and traces its American ancestry 
back to one of four Harris brothers, who came 
to America, and settled respectively in New 
England, the Middle States, the South, and the 
West. From the New England brother was 
descended Ira Harris, of Sharon, Connecticut, 
who was known as one of the early railroad 
kings of the United States. His son, Hon. 
Ira Harris, so prominent in the legislature of 
New York since the war, was a descendant 
of Samuel Harris (grandfather), who was a 
native of New Hampshire, and a resident of 
Stowe, Vermont, where he died at eighty-nine 
years of age. Samuel Harris was a carpenter 
and joiner by trade, and a farmer by occupa- 
tion. He married and reared a family of 
eight children : Moses, James, Sarah, Har- 
lowe, Horace, John, Matilda and Joseph. 
Moses Harris (father) was born in New Hamp- 
shire in 1800, and died in 1878. He was an iron 
manufacturer, and in earl}' life operated the 
first two furnaces owned by Charles C. Alger, 
who in that day was the iron king of the 

United States. After fifteen years spent with 
Mr. Alger, he went to Ontario, New York, 
where he purchased a large tract of land, and 
operated an iron and charcoal furnace for 
some time, of which he was half owner. He 
then removed to Smytheport, Pennsylvania, 
and opened up iron-ore mines, which he dis- 
posed of a few years later to return to New 
York, where he died in Columbia county, 
Hudson city, May 12, 1871, when in the sev- 
enty-first year of his age. He was originally 
a democrat, and after the late civil war be- 
came a republican in politics. He was twice 
married. By his first wife, whose maiden 
name was Relief Flanders, he had five chil- 
dren : Samuel, who was a well-known iron 
manufacturer of New York and Alabama ; 
Loran W., who was a blast furnace operator 
in Missouri and New York ; John F. ; Hor- 
ace, who was. in California during the early 
gold excitement, and served as surgeon of the 
Harris light cavalry regiment, of New York, 
in the late civil war ; and Mary E., wife of 
William Daniels, a retired iron manufacturer 
of Missouri. 

John F. Harris received his early education 
in the private schools of Stockbridge, Massa- 
chusetts, and later took a full college course 
in one of the leading educational institutions 
of that State. Leaving school he was en- 
gaged for some time in practical engineering, 
and then entered the employ of the Hudson 
Iron Company as manager of its furnaces, 
which position he held until 1856. In that 
year he came to Fort Edward, and assumed 
management of the Griswold blast furnace of 
that place, which he superintended until it 
was sold to Erastus Corning, of Albany. 
After the sale he went to Breaker's Island, 
where lie was superintendent for several yeais 
of the three large blast furnaces then owned 
by the Troy Iron & Steel Company. Retiring 
from the furnace business at the close of his 
work at Breaker's Island, Mr. Harris turned 
his attention to dealing in real estate, and at 
the present time owns "Harris Place," a 



large and well arranged block of buildings 
containing a fine public hall and the offices of 
several of the leading manufacturing compa- 
nies of the county. He is a stockholder and 
one of the main organizers in the Fort Ed- 
ward furniture factory ; he owns the Appen- 
heimer clothing establishment, a large mill 
property, two stores, the old canal basin, a 
hotel and forty building lots. He is a demo- 
crat in politics, and has served as president 
of the village and a member of the school 
board for several terms ; is also a member 
and the chairman of Fort Edward Baptist 
church board. 

On November 20, 1852, Mr. Harris married 
Olive E. Carey, and to their union was born 
three children : George D., whose sketch ap- 
pears elsewhere in this volume ; Delia M., 
wife of George E. Rogers, a furniture dealer 
of Fort Edward; and Sarah E., who died in 
infancy. Mrs. Harris received her education 
at Walworth academy, and is a member, with 
her husband, of Fort Edward Baptist church. 
She is a daughter of Isaac and Sarah Ann 
Wyatt, natives of New York. 

|DEV. JOHN F. DONAHOE, the pas 

r tor of the Catholic church at Salem, was 
born in Utica, New York, in 1854. The rudi- 
ments of his education were received in the 
public schools and at West Win field academy. 
After some experience in teaching he took up 
the study of medicine, but not finding it con- 
genial to his tastes he abandoned it after one 
year, and entered Manhattan college, New 
York city, where, at the end of four years, he 
graduated with honor, and received the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts. On leaving college 
he went to Montreal, Canada, where he en- 
tered the Grand Seminar}' of Saint Sulpice of 
that city, and remained there three years as a 
theological student. He then went to Saint 
Mary's seminary, Baltimore, Maryland, to 
continue his studies for the priesthood, and at 
the end of two years was ordained by Cardinal 

Gibbons, at the famous Jesuit college at Wood- 
stock, Maryland. After his ordination he did 
light missionary work in Baltimore for a short 
time, when he came to Albany, New York, 
and was assigned by Bishop McNierney to be 
assistant priest at the cathedral, where he 
labored assiduously for nearly a year. He 
was then transferred by the bishop to Rock 
City Falls, Saratoga county, to build up the 
abandoned parish at that place. This was a 
scattered and laborious mission field, compris- 
ing large portions of Saratoga, Fulton and 
Hamilton counties. His predecessor had 
been obliged to abandon the arduous under- 
taking some months previously, but Father 
Donahoe, although not in robust health, threw 
himself heart and soul into the work, and in 
a short time had brought order out of chaos. 
He remained in this charge less than four 
years, but during that time he repaired the 
old church at Rock City Falls, and left the 
congregation in a flourishing condition. In 
addition he founded two new congregations, 
built two new churches, one in Galway, Sara- 
toga county, and the other in Broadalbion, 
Fulton county. These churches were neat 
and well furnished, the congregations being in 
a growing and prosperous condition, with 
scarcely five hundred dollars debt on the entire 
property. Father Donahoe had arrangements 
nearly completed to build a new church at 
Wells, Hamilton county, also, when he was 
transferred to Salem in May, 1888, where he 
has since resided. Here he found a scattered, 
dispirited and dissatisfied congregation. They 
had an old dilapidated frame church, hardly 
worthy the name, in a town like Salem, cold 
and cheerless, standing on a beautiful but neg- 
lected lot, the lot being the only thing the 
church possessed. Rev. Father O'Sullivan 
had recently died in his own rented house, 
almost in as cheerless condition as was 
his church. Directly on the coming of Father 
Donahoe, it was evident that a master's 
hand was energetically at work reorgan- 
izing and consolidating the latent elements 



and resources of the congregation. His atti- 
tude was at once recognized in the community 
as that of the self-respecting, high-minded 
gentleman, who bore himself in a kindly and 
gracious manner toward all, and rapidly made 
friends among all classes. In less than three 
years a marvelous change had taken place in 
the affairs of the congregation ; a new and 
commodious brick church, with fine appoint- 
ments, welcomed the thankful worshippers, 
and an elegant parochial residence had been 
erected; in all a property worth not less than 
twenty-five thousand dollars, with not over 
three thousand dollars of debt. The parish- 
ioners are united, happy and prosperous, and 
Father Donahoe claims that he has the best 
congregation for its size and the easiest to 
manage in northern New York. He has done 
much toward elevating the intellectual and 
social standard of his young people, and is 
ever on the alert to advance their happiness 
and welfare. Father Donahoe has been some- 
what of an extensive traveler ; beside short 
trips to some of the western and southern 
States, he has made an extended trip to the 
West Indies, visiting among other places the 
old city of Santo Domingo, founded by Colum- 
bus in 1494, near the spot where he first 
touched the soil of the new world. In 1891 
he made an extended tour through Europe 
and the East, beingabsent aboutseven months, 
visiting nearly all the great continental cities: 
Paris, Nice, Genoa, Rome, Naples, Florence, 
Milan, Venice, Berne, Munich, Vienna, Carls- 
bad, Cologne and Brussels, besides spending 
six weeks in Jerusalem, and among the holy 
places in Palestine. On his return he visited 
England and Ireland. Father Donahoe is a keen 
and appreciative observer of men and things, 
and looks below the surface. He is eminently 
a practical man, both in religious and business 
affairs ; a zealous priest in his own church, 
broad-minded and kind in his attitude toward 
his fellow Christians not of his fold. He is 
emphatically American in all his ideas, and 
aims at and believes in equal rights for all. 

He is a close student, and keeps himself 
abreast of the times in current affairs and liter- 
ature, and is on the right side of temperance 
and every moral question which affects the 
well being of the community. A genial and 
loyal friend, he sincerely detests hypocricy 
and dishonesty. A clear and logical thinker, 
an earnest and convincing speaker, he carries 
his hearers more by the force of the truth pre- 
sented than by mere dependence upon ora- 

HENRY L. MOWRY, a well-known pa- 
per manufacturer of Greenwich, and a 
prominent citizen of Washington county, is a 
son of William H. and Angelina ( Gifford ) 
Mowry; and is a man whose achievements in 
the business world entitles him to rank among 
the leading citizens of his village. 

William H. Mowry (father) was born in 
the town of Greenwich, this county, in the 
year 181 1, and died October 28, 1850, at the 
early age of thirty-nine years. He was a 
man of frail constitution, being an invalid the 
most of his life ; one of the original agitators 
of the anti-slavery question, he earl)' became 
an active partisan in the cause of emancipa- 
tion, and his home became a resort for many 
fugitive slaves. Being a man of abstemious 
habits he was an active and zealous promoter 
in the temperance cause. He was one of the 
founders of the Congregational church of his 
village, and served as one of its trustees. 
He wedded Angelina, a daughter of Gideon 
Gifford, of Easton. His marriage was 
blessed by the birth of five children, three 
sons and two daughters: Jane M., widow of 
D. D. Haskell, of Greenwich ; Henry L. Le- 
roy ( dead ) ; William G. , of the same village ; 
and Mrs. Sarah G., wife of J. O. LaVake, of 
this place. His wife, and the mother of this 
subject, died on May 19, 1853, aged thirty- 
nine years. 

William Mowry (grandfather ) was born at 
Slaterville, Rhode Island, but in earl)- man- 
hood migrated to and settled in the village of 



Greenwich ; and according to statistics 
he erected the first cotton mill in the 
State of New York, and the second one 
built in the United States, and which busi- 
ness he successfully followed the greater part 
of his life. After he had his mill started in 
successful operation he went to England, with 
the object in view of visiting the leading cot- 
ton mills of that country in order to better 
equip himself in making a permanent success 
of this new American industry ; and of which 
he should have the credit of being one of its 
pioneers and earliest promoters. Upon his 
arrival he was refused entrance to any of the 
mills, but resorted to a subterfuge in the dis- 
guise of a day laborer, and was admitted, 
gaining valuable information in the manufac- 
tory of cotton goods, and thus accomplished 
his aim. Some time afterward his mission 
was discovered by the English manufacturers, 
who it is supposed forwarded to him a box of 
deadly explosives, but he, with true Yankee 
shrewdness, did not open it in a manner that 
would cause any serious damage. For many 
years after his return to America he was suc- 
cessfully engaged in the manufacture of cloth, 
sheeting, etc. He was an old line whig, and 
took an active part in the political measures 
of his day. A prominent Mason in his time, 
he became the founder of the lodge of his 
village. He wedded Lydia Whipple, who 
was a member of one of the pioneer families 
of Greenwich. Four children were born to 
them : Leroy, Anna C. , wife of Henry Holmes ; 
William H. (father), and Mary E., who is 
the wife of John T. Masters. 

The Mowrys are of Anglo-Saxon descent, 
their progenitor having early emigrated from 
England to the United States, and settled in 
Rhode Island long before the war of the Revo- 

Henry L. Mowry was born in the village of 
Greenwich, on December 13, 1837, and in 
which he has always resided. He attended 
the Phillips academy at Andover, Massachu- 
setts, and afterward the Williston seminar}', 

located at East Hampton, in the same State. 
In 1872, in conjunction with W. R. Hobbie, 
erected the Phcenix paper mill, in which they 
have since been engaged. The capacity of 
these mills is three and one-half to four tons 
of straw wrapping paper daily, and which re- 
quires sixteen hands steadily employed. Mr. 
Mowry is a member of the Masonic lodge of 
Greenwich, and of the Commandery Knights 
Templar of Saratoga Springs. He is a 
member and warden of the Episcopal church. 
Henry L. Mowry, on November 19, 1879, 
was married to Jane F., daughter of Rev. W. 
W. Dowd, now of La Junta, Colorado. 

to R. HOLCOMB, M. D., one of the 

• leading physicians of Washington 
county, who served as surgeon of the 157th 
New York infantry during the civil war, and 
now has a large practice in the village of 
Whitehall, where he has been successfully 
engaged in his profession for more than a 
quarter of a century, is a son of Diadorus S. 
and Maria (Cole) Holcomb, and was born 
November 1, 1840, at Westport, Essex county, 
New York. The Holcombs trace their trans- 
atlantic origin back to England, but have been 
settled in America since early in the seven- 
teenth century. Diadorus Holcomb, paternal 
grandfather of Dr. Holcomb, was a native of 
New Hampshire, where he was reared and- 
educated. He studied medicine, and soon 
after beginning practice removed to Essex 
county, New York,settling at Westport. There 
he won prominence in his profession, and for 
man}' years enjoyed a large and lucrative 
practice. He died at Westport in 1855, at 
the age of eighty-three years. One of his 
sons was Diadorus S. Holcomb (father), who 
was born at Westport, New York, in the 
initial year of the present century. There he 
grew to manhood and received a superior 
English education. After his marriage he 
engaged in the hotel business, and in 1861 
removed to Plattsburg, this State, where he 



became proprietor of a leading hotel, and suc- 
cessfully conducted that business until com- 
pelled to relinquish the active duties of life 
by the increasing infirmities of age. He died 
at Plattsburg, New York, in 1873, in the 
seventy-third year of his age. Politically he 
was an ardent democrat, and in religion a 
member of the Baptist church. In 1837 he 
married Maria Cole, a native of New Hamp- 
shire and a daughter of Stephen Cole. They 
reared a family of four children. Mrs. Hol- 
comb was a member of the Episcopal church, 
and died in 1883, in the seventieth year of 
her age. 

Dr. Benjamin R. Holcomb was principally 
reared in the village of Champlain, Clinton 
county, this State, and received an academic 
education in the Champlain academy. After 
completing his English studies he began read- 
ing medicine with Dr. Dodge, of Rouse's 
Point, and finished reading with Dr. Alden 
March, of the city of Albany. He then en- 
tered the Albany Medical college, from which 
he was graduated with the degree of M. D., in 
the fall of 1864. In the same autumn he was 
appointed assistant surgeon of the 157th New 
York infantry, then doing duty in the valley 
of Virginia, and served as such until the close 
of the war in 1865. In the fall of that year 
Dr. Holcomb located at Whitehall, where he 
has ever since conducted a large and success- 
ful general practice, which is now one of the 
most extensive and lucrative in the county. 

Dr. Holcomb is a member of the Tri-county 
Medical society and of the Washington County 
Medical society. He is a constant reader, 
and endeavors at all times to keep abreast of 
all true progress made in the profession to 
which he has devoted his life. The marked 
success he has attained is the best commentary 
on the fidelity, ability and skill which he has 
brought into his practice of medicine, and it 
speaks more eloquently of his professional 
fitness than any words on this page could do. 
Politically Dr. Holcomb is an ardent demo- 
crat, but has never taken an active part in 

politics, preferring to devote his time and at- 
tention to the exacting duties of his profession. 
He is a member of Phoenix Lodge, No. 96, 
Free and Accepted Masons. 

In 1868 Dr. Holcomb was united in mar- 
riage to Helen Davis, a daughter of Hon. E. 
E. Davis, of Whitehall, who once represented 
this district in the State assembly. To the 
Doctor and Mrs. Holcomb were born two chil- 
dren, one son and a daughter: Marian and 
George B. 

ber of the Washington county bar, the 
editor of The Whitehall Chronicle, and a law 
student of President Chester A. Arthur, is a 
son of Gardner and Sarah ( Potter) Tefft, and 
was born in the town of Greenwich, Washing- 
ton county, New York, October 6, 1833. The 
Tefft family is of English lineage, and the New 
York branch was founded by Nathan Tefft, 
sr., who came from Kingston, Rhode Island, 
to the town of Greenwich in the year 1766. 
His son, Nathan Tefft, born in the same 
town, was the father of Capt. Benjamin Tefft, 
who served in the second war with England. 
Captain Tefft was born in 1776, followed farm- 
ing and contracting, and died in 1846, at 
seventy years of age. His son, Gardner Tefft, 
who was a well known citizen of Greenwich, 
was the father of the subject of this sketch. 
Gardner Tefft was born in 1805, and passed 
away in 1888. He was a farmer, a member 
of the First Baptist church of Greenwich, and 
a whig and republican in politics. Mr. Tefft 
wedded Sarah Potter, a native of Greenwich, 
and a daughter of John Potter, whose father 
came from Rhode Island. Mrs. Tefft, who 
was born in 1814, was a consistent member of 
the Baptist church, and died in 1867, when in 
the fifty-third year of her age. 

William H. Tefft at an early age entered 
the Troy Conference acadeni)', of Poultney, 
Vermont, and after finishing his studies there 
and at the Greenwich academy of this State, en- 
tered Brown university, of Providence, Rhode 



Island, pursuing a special coarse at that old 
and famous institution of learning in the 
sophomore, junior, and senior years of the class 
of 1854. Leaving Brown university, he read 
law with the legal firm of Culver. Parker & 
Arthur, the latter of whom afterward became 
the twenty-first president of the United States. 
Mr. Tefft was admitted to the bar in 1856, and 
soon afterward formed a partnership with 
George W. Parker, one of his legal precep- 
tors. This firm practiced in New York city 
until 1861, when Mr. Tefft withdrew from the 
partnership, and after practicing by himself 
in the metropolis for four years, he came, in 
1865, to Whitehall, where he has built up a 
large law practice. In 1866 Mr. Tefft pur- 
chased The Whitehall Chronicle, which he edited 
until the office was burned in 1870. Three 
years later, on January 1, 1873, he bought 
The Whitehall News, a small paper that had 
been started after the burning of the Chronicle. 
He enlarged the News, and soon changed its 
name to that of The Whitehall Chronicle. His 
paper is a four-page, thirty-six column weekly 
sheet. The Chronicle is republican in politics, 
and has a wide circulation. Its columns con- 
tain all the general news of any importance, 
and give the latest happenings of the county, 
together with everything of local interest. 
The Chronicle was established in 1840, and 
has been made a power in the county under 
the administration of Mr. Tefft. 

In i860 William H. Tefft married Sarah V. 
Cooke, a daughter of the late W. W. Cooke, 
of Whitehall. They have one child, a son, 
named Lawrence H. Tefft. 

In politics Mr. Tefft is a republican. He 
served three years and a half as school com- 
missioner of Washington county, and was 
deputy collector of customs at the port of 
Whitehall during Grant and Hayes' adminis- 
trations. In 1873 he was elected to fill a 
vacancy in the New York assembly from Wash- 
ington county, and was again, in 1888, elected 
for the full term of the legislature of 1889. 
He is a member of Phcenix Lodge, No. 96, 

Free and Accepted Masons, of Whitehall. 
Mr. Tefft and all the members of his family 
are members of Trinity Episcopal church. 
He has been identified with the progress of 
Whitehall for over a quarter of a century, and 
during all of his life has been energetic and 
persevering in every enterprise or calling in 
which he has been engaged. 

^^ of the Washington County Bar and a 
wounded veteran officer of the army of the 
Potomac, and a son of Solomon W. and 
Zada (Totman) Russell, was born at Luzerne, 
Warren county, New York, July 5, 1836. 
His paternal grandfather, Captain Abel Rus- 
sell/was a native of Massachusetts, and died at 
Petersburgh, Rensselaer county, New York, 
on the 13th day of February, 181 2, in the 
seventieth year of his age. He married Sarah 
Wright, who died at Salem, New York, Octo- 
ber 16, 1826, in the sixty-ninth year of her age, 
and whose ancestor, Solomon Wright, was the 
first judge of Bennington county, Vermont. 
Abel Russell, the grandfather, was the de- 
cendant of Richard Russell, born in Here- 
fordshire, England, in 1612, came to this 
country in 1640, was a representative in 1646, 
speaker of the House 1648-9, 1654, 1656 and 
1658, assistant in 1659-76, and treasurer of 
Massachusetts from 1644 until his death, 
which occurred at Charlestown, Massachu- 
setts. Solomon W. Russell, father of the 
subject of this sketch, was a son of Captain 
Abel Russell, who was born in Petersburgh, 
New York, and died at Salem, New York, 
October 28, 1866, in the sixty-seventh year of 
his age. Pie was a farmer for many years in 
the town of Greenwich, Washington county, 
New York. He. was a member of the first 
incorporated Presbyterian church at Salem, 
and wedded Zada Totman, who was a native 
of Warren county, New York, May 2, 1832, 
and who died in the town of Greenwich, 
September 10, 1840. 

f£JL. #. 9f. 




Solomon W. Russell was reared principally 
on his father's farm in the town of Greenwich, 
and after attending the district school in North- 
umberland, county of Saratoga, New York city 
ward School No. 2, the academy at Fort Mil- 
ler, Rev. A. G. Cockran, principal, and at 
Schuylerville, the seminary at Cooperstown, 
Charlottesville, and the institute at Fort Ed- 
ward, where he finished his preparation for 
college. He entered Union college, but in the 
middle of his college course and in the sum- 
mer of 1 861, at Salem, he raised the first com- 
pany of volunteers raised in that town for the 
war of 1861-5, Co. A, 2d New York volun- 
teer cavalry, which was mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States in September, 1861, 
He was elected captain of the company, which, 
with the regiment, was mustered out at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, March 30, 1862. 
He was afterwards commissioned adjutant of 
the 1 8th New York volunteer infantry, and 
at the expiration of the term of service of that 
regiment, he was commissioned first lieuten- 
ant of Co. B, 49th New York volunteer in- 
fantry. In that regiment he was promoted 
successively to captain and major. He was 
brevetted major United States volunteers for 
services at the battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia, 
and was also brevetted lieutenant-colonel of 
United States volunteers for gallant and meri- 
torious services before Petersburg, and at the 
battle of Sailor's Creek, Virginia. Colonel 
Russell was honorably mustered out of the 
service of the United States at Buffalo, New 
York, in June, 1865. His entire military ser- 
vice was with the army of the Potomac. He 
belonged to the Sixth army corps. Novem- 
ber 7th, 1863, at the battle of Rappahannock 
Station, Virginia, while taking part in a charge 
of the earth works of the enemy, he was shot 
through the body as he was jumping his horse 
into the enemy's works, and fell to the ground 
insensible. He was taken from the field and 
to Armory Square hospital, Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, afterwards to Seminary 

hospital, Georgetown, and in May, 1864, 

again reported for duty at the front, reaching 
the army at Spottsylvania, Virginia, and served 
continuously until the war closed. He has 
never fully recovered from the wound received 
at Rappahannock Station. He read law with 
Hon. C. L. Allen at Salem, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in December, 1862. Re- 
turning from the war, though a great sufferer 
on account of his injuries received in the ser- 
vice, he commenced the practice of the law at 
Salem, in the office of Judge Allen, and he 
has ever since been engaged in the active 
and successful practice of his profession at 
Salem. August 16, 1866, Colonel Russell was 
united in marriage with Anna A. Dixon, of 
Warrenton, Virginia, a daughter of Lucius 
and Rosena Ashton Dixon. To Colonel and 
Mrs. Russell have been born eight children, 
two sons and six daughters: Solomon W. , jr. , 
Dixon P., Anna A., Rosena E., Alice F., 
Zada T., Mary S. and Sarah H. Anna A. 
Russell married Benjamin C. Haggart, teller 
of the Peoples' National Bank, of Salem. 
Solomon W. Russell, jr., is a practicing lawyer 
of Salem, and married Anna C. Wheeler, of 
New York city. Politically Colonel Russell 
up to the first election of President Cleve- 
land was a democrat, since he has become a 
republican. He was a delegate to the Na- 
tional convention of 1876, at Saint Louis, 
Missouri, which nominated Hon. Samuel J. 
Tilden, and was always a warm supporter of 
him. He has never held a civil salaried office. 
He has been president of the village of Salem 
and also of the school board continuously for 
more than twenty-five years. He is one of the 
trustees of Washington academy, in whose 
progress and prosperity he- has ever since his 
residence in Salem taken a deep interest. He 
is an Episcopalian, and has been a member 
of the Masonic fraternity ever since he became 
twenty-one years of age. He is past master 
of Salem Lodge, No. 391, Free and Accepted 
Masons, and Past High Priest of Federal 
Chapter, No. 10, Royal Arch Masons, and 
past commander of A. L. McDougal Post, No. 



570, Grand Army of the Republic. Colonel 
Russell has a good law practice, and is pleas- 
ant and genial, easily approached and com- 
mands the respect of all who know him. 

.JA3IES 31. ORDWAY, a well known 
and respected citizen of the village of 
Sandy Hill, and a descendant of Revolu- 
tionary ancestry, is a son of James and Sarah 
(Buzzle) Ordway, and was born in .Orange 
county, Vermont, December 18, 1830. The 
Ordways are of Scotch descent, and Moses 
Ordway (grandfather) served in the Revolu- 
tionary war. His son, James Ordway, was 
born in New Hampshire, and removed in 
1869 to this county, where he died three 
years later. James Ordway was a stonema- 
son by trade, but followed farming, and mar- 
ried Sarah Buzzle, whose father was a native 
of Massachusetts, and served as a Conti- 
nental soldier in the Revolutionary struggle. 

James M. Ordway was reared on his 
father's Vermont farm, receiving but three 
month's schooling in each year, and assisting 
in farm work until he was twenty-one years 
of age. He chopped cord word for the first 
pair of boots that he ever wore, and upon 
attaining his majority came to Warren county, 
this State, where he worked for some time at 
lumbering, and then became a jobber in get- 
ting pine, hemlock and spruce lumber from 
the logging camps and mills into market. In 
this latter business he was so successful that 
in a few years he acquired sufficient means to 
purchase a farm in the town of Moreau, Sara- 
toga county, on which he lived until 1889. 
In that year Mr. Ordway came to Sandy Hill, 
where he owns a handsome residence, also a 
store building in that village, another at Fort 
Edward, and some valuable property at Glens 
Falls, besides two excellent farms in the town 
of Moreau, Saratoga count}'. 

In 1862 Mr. Ordway married Mary An- 
drews, a daughter of David Andrews, who 
drove for many years one of the coaches on 

the famous old stage line between Sandy Hill, 
Whitehall and Troy. Mr. and Mrs. Ordway 
have one child, a daughter, named Sarah. 

James M. Ordway is a democrat in political 
opinion. He is energetic, reliable and in- 
dustrious, and has acquired a comfortable 
competency through his own efforts. 

JOSEPH HAVILAND, a prominent 
farmer and blooded stock raiser, of the 
town of Queensbury, is a native of the town 
in which he now resides, and was born in 
Sanford Ridge, three miles north of Glens 
Falls, October 25, 1826. After leaving the 
common schools of his neighborhood his ed- 
ucation was supplemented by a term or two 
at the Glens Falls Academy. When he had 
come of age he engaged in farming, which he 
has most successfully pursued a greater portion 
of the time ever since. On February 5, 
1849, Mr. Haviland was married to Eliza 
Staples, of Pawlet, Vermont, and immedi- 
ately afterward left the old homestead, and 
went to occupy a farm, known as the Harvey 
farm, about one mile from where he was 
born. Eliza Staples was a daughter of Jona- 
than and Sylvia Staples (the latter a daugh- 
ter of Stephen Rogers), who owned a large 
dairy in the State of Vermont. Mr. Havi- 
land remained on this farm until 1859, when 
he purchased the farm where he now resides, 
known as the Reuben Newman farm. He is 
engaged in general farming, making a spec- 
ialty, to some extent, of breeding and raising 
superior blooded stock, and gives much of 
his attention to Holstein cattle. For three 
years Mr. Haviland served as president of the 
Warren County Agricultural society, in whose 
welfare he is deeply interested, and has been 
one of its chief factors. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Haviland have been 
born four children: Willis J., born January 
1, 1852; Merritt E., born April 11, 1855; 
Elm a S. and Emma L. , twins, born April 21, 
1858. Merritt E. is a graduate of Cornell 



university, in the class of 1877, studied law 
with Brown & Sheldon, then entered Colum- 
bia law school in September, 1878, and in 
May the following year was admitted to the 
bar, and is now practicing law in the city of 
New York; and Willis J. is a farmer on 
Sanford Ridge. 

The progenitors of the Havilands in Amer- 
ica came from France, and spelled the name 
DeHavery. The earliest record we have of 
this family is that of three brothers who emi- 
grated from France to England, and it was 
agreed among them that the first of the three 
who discovered land from the vessel should 
exclaim "Haviland," which from that time 
became the family name. The ancestors in 
direct line from Joseph Haviland, the subject 
of this sketch, were Joseph (father), Roger 
Haviland (grandfather), the latter a son of 
Benjamin Haviland, who was born in 1698, 
and died in 1757. He was the first to settle 
in northern New York, and had four sons : 
David, Solomon, Joseph and Roger. They 
were all Quakers of the Orthodox faith, and 
have been among the most numerous and 
foremost of that faith in the town of Queens- 
bury. Benjamin Haviland (third) wedded 
Charlotte Parks, and had thirteen children : 
Benjamin, Roger, Thomas, Daniel, Solomon, 
Isaac, John, Sophia, Charlotte, Althea, Sarah, 
Abigail and Mary. Benjamin third was a 
son of Benjamin second, who was born in 
1654 and died in 1724, and was the father of 
two other sons : John and Isaac. Benjamin 
Haviland first, the founder of the American, 
branch of the family, came from England in 
1647. He was the father of five children : 
Benjamin, Adam, Abigail, Bathia and John. 
They settled in Flushing, Long Island. The 
father of Benjamin first was John Haviland, 
mayor of Bristol, England, who married 
Mary Knightly. The latter was a son of 
Christopher De Haviland, who married a 
daughter of King Edward the IV., of Eng- 
land : and he, James De Haviland, was a son 
of Thomas De Haviland, who became illus- 

trious at the recovery of Mount Orgal, 

Joseph Haviland was a son of Joseph and 
Lydia Sisson Haviland, the former having 
been born at Feeder Dam, September 12, 
1793, and married May 3, 1814. His wife 
was a daughter of Nathaniel Sisson, who re- 
sided at New Bedford, and was of English 
extraction. Joseph Haviland (father) pur- 
chased a farm in 1826 on Sanford Ridge, 
where he lived until his death, November 26, 
1875. He was one of the most intelligent 
and successful farmers of his day. He was 
the father of three children : Daniel S., Jo- 
seph and Lydia Ann. He led a long life of 
usefulness, filled with kind deeds and many 
liberal acts. The wife of Joseph Haviland 
died in June, 1893. His two daughters, 
Elma S. and Emma L., are both married: 
the former to J. Corwin Jacks, of Batavia, 
New York, and the latter to Francis March, 
of Surbitton, England, now deceased. 

CA3IUEL PRUYN, one of the proprie- 
tors of the Glens Falls Company, dealers 
in lime, lumber, grain and stone, and a man 
whose successful career in business has been 
characterized by abundant energy and sound 
judgment, and who has for many years occu- 
pied an influential position in the industrial 
affairs of Glens Falls, is a native of the town 
of Cambridge, Washington county, New York, 
where he was born June 19, 1820. He is a 
son of Henry V. N. and Hannah Morton 
Pruyn. Henry V. N. Pruyn was born in 
Rensselaer county, New York, but lived the 
greater portion of his life in Washington 
county as a farmer in the town of Cambridge, 
where he died in 1864, aged seventy-seven 
years. Francis Pruyn (grandfather), was a 
native of Albany, New York, removing from 
there in an early da}' to Rensselaer count}', 
where he was engaged in farming until his 
death. The Pruyns are of Holland Dutch 
descent, and were among the earliest settlers 



in the now city of Albany. The mother of 
Samuel Pruyn was a native of New Haven, 
Connecticut, who died at the age of eighty-two 
years in 1864. Samuel Pruyn was brought to 
manhood upon the farm in Washington county, 
where he remained until he had arrived at the 
age of thirty years, when he removed to the 
village of Stillwater, Saratoga count}', where 
for three years he was engaged in the manu- 
facture and sale of lumber, going thence to 
Brooklyn, where he became a clerk in a lum- 
ber yard for one year, at the expiration of 
which time he went to Newaygo, Michigan, on 
the Muskegon river, and was there engaged 
in the same capacity for one year. This 
brought him down to the year 1856, when he 
returned to his native State and located in the 
village of Glens Falls, where he has since re- 
sided, and successfully engaged in the lumber 
business. In 1865 Mr. Pruyn formed a part- 
nership with J. W. Finch, and bought out the 
property of the Glens Falls Company, which 
company was organized as far back as 1835, 
engaged in the sale of lime, lumber, grain and 
stone, and proprietors of the celebrated Glens 
Falls Black Marble Company. Since the 
formation of this partnership in 1865 it has 
been most prosperous, and is at the present 
time doing the largest lumber business on the 
Hudson river. This firm manufacture about 
forty million feet of lumber per year, and own 
about one hundred and fifty thousand acres 
of timber land, mostly located in the Adiron- 
dacks and the Cedar river country. They 
manufacture spruce, hemlock and pine lum- 
ber exclusively, which they sell and ship them- 
selves. Their capacity for the manufacturing 
of lime is one thousand barrels per day. 
Their black marble quarries are located in the 
immediate vicinity of their mills on the Hud- 
son river. In addition to these extensive in- 
terests of this firm they own a large grain 
elevator, located on the canal, directly oppo- 
site their saw mill, and they are also the pro- 
prietors of some thirty odd canal boats, which 
are used in transporting their lumber, lime, 

stone, grain, etc., to New York city. Around 
their works they use about one hundred wag- 
ons, and some hundred head of horses, and 
give employment to about one thousand men 
the year round. This company has a branch 
office in New York city, and own a great deal 
of real estate in and around Glens Falls. 
There is another firm of Finch & Pruyn which 
superintends the timber land and sells the 
manufactured lumber, made by the Glens Falls 
Company, but it is a wheel within a wheel, so 
to speak. 

Since i860 Mr. Pruyn has been one of the 
leading directors in the First National bank 
of Glens Falls, and owns stock in the Glens 
Falls Insurance company. 

In i860 Samuel Pruyn was married to Eliza, 
daughter of James Baldwin, of Washington 
county, and has three daughters living by this 
marriage : Charlotte, Mary and Nellie. He 
is a member of the Presbyterian church, a 
democrat in his political opinion, and for many 
years has been a member of the board of edu- 
cation of his village. 

a classical scholar and cultured gentleman, 
and the popular pastor of Saint Joseph's Catho- 
lic church, is a son of Thomas and Margaret 
(Daley) Field, and was born in County Cork, 
in the south of Ireland, February 5, 1829. 
The Field family is of English descent, and 
removed about a century ago from England to 
Ireland, where Thomas Field was born in 
1794, and died in 1859, at sixty-five years of 
age. Thomas Field was a large farmer in 
County Cork. He was a Catholic, married 
Margaret Daley, and reared a family of five 
sons and three daughters, of whom but three 
are now living : John, of Beverley, Massachu- 
setts ; Mary, wife of Daniel Moriarty, of the 
same place; and Rev. Thomas A., whose 
name appears at the head of this sketch. 

Rev. Thomas A. Field received his elemen- 
tary education in the excellent National 



schools of Ireland, and then came to this 
country, where he first entered Notre Dame 
university of Indiana, and afterward went to 
Villanova college, near Philadelphia, from 
which he was graduated in 1869. While pur- 
suing his classical studies he took a full theo- 
logical course, and on April 3, 1871, was or- 
dained to the priesthood by Archbishop Wood. 
His first charge was at Lawrence, Massachu- 
setts, where he served two and one-half years. 
At the end of that time he came to Cambridge 
and had charge of the church there up to 1875, 
when he was sent to take charge of a mission 
at Ogdensburg, New York. At that place he 
remained but eight months, and then was 
transferred to Mechanicville, this State, where 
he labored zealously and with good success 
for two years and a half. His pastoral labors 
closed there in 1878, when the church at Green- 
wich asked for a resident pastor and named 
Father Field as their unanimous choice. The 
petition was granted and he immediately en- 
tered upon the numerous and arduous duties 
of his present and important charge. By zeal 
and energy he has accomplished good results 
in building up his church membership, and 
bettering the spiritual condition of his people. 
He has twice enlarged the church edifice un- 
til it has now a seating capacity of five hun- 
dred. He has also beautifully frescoed the 
church and built a neat and handsome parson- 
age. While accomplishing all these desirable 
results he has zealously counseled his people 
to be independent and self-sustaining, and to- 
day the church stands clear of debt, and has 
the proud and unusual record of having asked 
assistance of no other church. 

Father Field's labors are highly appreciated 
by his people, and has their love and respect. 
He opposes all church fairs or festivals on the 
ground that they tend to demoralize the young 
people, and exert an injurious influence on the 
older persons who take part in them. An ac- 
tive worker in the cause of temperance, he is 
earnest in every movement for the improve- 
ment and happiness of his fellow men. 

rjMlLLARD H. COTTON, dentist, a 
^ Jy - i *- representative of two of the early 
settled families of Washington county, and a 
prominent citizen of Salem, was born in the 
town of Hartford, this county, December 18, 
1836. He is a son of Thomas and Clarissa 
(Pearce) Cotton. Thomas Cotton was a na- 
tive of the town of Hartford, where he con- 
tinued to reside during his entire life. He 
was a farmer and wheelwright in business, a 
whig in politics, and a member of the Baptist 
church. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, 
and died in 1844, at the age of fifty-one years. 
He married Clarissa Pearce, a daughter of 
Daniel Pearce, who came from New England 
at an early day and settled in the town of 
Hartford. The Pearce family is of English 
origin. Silas Cotton (paternal grandfather) 
came from Connecticut with a colony from 
that section several years prior to the Revo- 
lution, and settled in the town of Hartford. 
He followed farming, and his antecedents run 
back to England. The progenitor and founder 
of the American branch of the Cotton family 
was an Episcopal minister, who came from 
England. Mrs. Clarissa Cotton was born in 
the town of Hartford in 1798, dying in 1848, 
aged fifty years. She was a member of the 
Baptist church. 

Willard H. Cotton, D.D. S., was left an 
orphan in early life, and remained in his native 
town until he was thirteen years of age, when 
he went to Rensselaer county. He received 
a common school education, and upon leaving 
school he applied his time in learning the 
trade of making fanning mills and grain cradles. 
After working at this for some time he aban- 
doned that trade in order to learn that of car- 
penter and joiner, which he soon relinquished 
to begin the study of dentistry with his brother, 
Zina Cotton, of Salem, New York. In 1867 
his brother removed to Cambridge, and in the 
same year he opened out in the practice of 
his profession, at which he has very success- 
fully continued ever since. He has succeeded 
in building up a substantial and lucrative prac- 



tice, and enjoys the esteem and confidence of 
the entire public. Dr. Cotton during the re- 
bellion responded to the first call for troops, 
and on June i, 1861, he enlisted as second 
leader of a regimental band in the 2d Vermont 
volunteers, serving six months, when the band 
was discharged. On January 4, 1864, he re- 
enlisted in Co. A, 1st New York mounted 
rifles, but was soon detailed to regimental 
band duty. In this capacity he served until 
his regiment was discharged, December 5, 
1865, and was mustered out of the service at 
Albany, New York. 

Dr. Cotton is a director of the People's 
National bank of Salem, and a member of the 
Episcopal church of the same village. He is 
also a member of Lodge No. 391, Free and 
Accepted Masons ; Federal Chapter, No. 10 ; 
and of the A. L. McDougal Fost, Grand Army 
of the Republic. 

CDGAR 31. PETTEYS, a resident of 
"^^ Middle Falls, and one of the substantial 
and prosperous farmers of the county, is a son 
of John D. and Mary (Rogers) Petteys, and 
was born at Cambridge, Washington county, 
New York, October 2, 1843. He was reared 
on the farm, attended the public schools 
and Greenwich academy, and has followed 
general farming ever since. His home farm 
of one hundred and twenty acres is in the 
northwestern part of the town of Easton, 
and on the old Troy and Whitehall road. He 
also owns a good farm of ninety acres about 
one-quarter of a mile south of his home 
place, and has expended considerable money 
in draining and improving his farms, which 
now rank among the most fertile and produc- 
tive land in the neighborhood. Mr. Petteys 
is a republican in politics, and has been a 
member and trustee of the West Greenwich 
Baptist church for many years. 

In December, 1866, Edgar M. Petteys mar- 
ried Elsie Slade, who was a daughter of Is- 
rael Slade, of the town of Easton, and who 

died in January, 1873, and left two children : 
John, and a daughter who died in infancy. 
Three years after the death of his first wife, 
he, in September, 1876, wedded Frances Da- 
vidson, daughter of James Davidson, a farmer 
of Middle Falls. By his second marriage 
Mr. Petteys has one child, a son, Jay D. 

Ephraim Petteys, the paternal grandfather 
of Edgar M., was a native of Washington 
county, and owned a farm of four hundred 
acres of good farming and grazing land in 
the town of Cambridge. He served in the 
war of 1812, and died in 1864, at about eighty 
years of age. He was twice married. By 
his first wife, whose maiden name was Debo- 
rah James, he had five children, four sons and 
one daughter: Harvey, John D. (father), 
James, Horace, and a daughter who died in 
infancy. He married for his second wife, 
Elizabeth Ferris, who bore him seven child- 
ren, six sons and one daughter: Albert, 
Lewis, Jacob, Frederick, William, Arthur, 
and a daughter who died in infancy. John 
D. Petteys, the second son by the first mar- 
riage, was born in 1812, and died January 23, 
1877. He was a farmer by occupation, and 
in 1852 purchased the farm on which his son, 
the subject of this sketch, now resides. He 
was a well respected man, a member and deacon 
of the Botskill Baptist church, and ranked 
among the most successful farmers of his sec- 
tion. He was a republican in politics, served as 
assessor of his town for several years, and in 
1841 married Mary Rogers, a daughter of 
James Rogers, of Middle Falls, who was a 
farmer and a Baptist, and died in 1866, at 
eighty years of age. 

.JOHN B. FOSTER, a resident of Green- 
wich, and who has been engaged in con- 
nection with the mercantile business for over 
ten years, is a son of Asel and Phebe (Jack- 
son) Foster, and was born at Easton, Wash- 
ington county, New York, July 6, 1865. He 
was reared on the farm, received his educa- 



tion in the public schools and Greenwich 
academy, and served as a clerk for six years, 
one year of that time being spent in the em- 
ploy of James McLean, and the remainder of 
the period with the mercantile firm of A. 
Griffin & Son. Leaving the employ of the 
firm named, he formed, in 1887, a partnership 
with S. B. Wheelock, and they were engaged 
for six years, under the firm name of Wheelock 
& Foster, in the grocery and provision busi- 
ness at Greenwich. Retiring from this firm 
in 1893, he accepted his present position as a 
traveling salesman for the wholesale grocery 
and provision firm of Squires, Sherry & Ga- 
lusha, of Troy, this State. Mr. Foster is a 
member of Ashlar Masonic and Unionville 
Odd Fellow lodges, of the village of Green- 

On June 10, 1883, John B. Foster was united 
in marriage with Kittie Fitzgerald, a daughter 
of John Fitzgerald, of Shushan, this county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Foster have four children : 
Edith, Madge, Helen, and Marion. 

The Foster family of this county are de- 
scendants of Amos Foster, sr. , who came from 
Rhode Island, and became the owner of a very 
large and valuable tract of land in one of the 
towns in Washington count}'. His son, Amos 
Foster (grandfather), was a native of the town 
of Greenwich, where he owned a large farm, 
and was a prominent whig and Baptist, being a 
member of the old Botskill Baptist church. 
He married a Miss Tefft, and reared a family 
of twelve children. One of his sons, Asel 
Foster, was the father of the subject of this 
sketch, and passed his life as a farmer in his 
native town. He was born in 1823, and died 
at the village of Greenwich, August 3, 1893, 
having reached man's allotted age of three 
score and ten years. He was a republican 
and Methodist, and married a Miss Robinson, 
who died in a few years and left one child, a 
daughter, named Elizabeth, now the wife of 
George Lee, of Philadelphia. For his second 
wife Mr. Foster wedded Phebe Jackson, a 
daughter of John Jackson, of Warrensburg, 

New York, and a relative of General Jackson. 
Mrs. Phebe (Jackson) Foster died February 
14, 1882, aged fifty-four years. To Asel and 
Phebe (Jackson) Foster were born five chil- 
dren : Emma, wife of Frederick Tefft ; Harriet 
A., wife of Fred. C. Willett ; Edith J., George 
A., and John B., whose name heads this sketch. 

YER, D. D., pastor of the Sandy Hill 
Baptist church, is a son of Rev. Reuben Saw- 
yer, a well known Baptist minister of New 
England, and was born at the village of New 
London, New Hampshire, October 20, 1838. 
He was reared partly in the "Granite State," 
and was prepared for college at Lowville 
academy, Lewis county, New York. At the 
completion of his academical course he en- 
tered Union college at Schenectady, and was 
graduated from that celebrated educational 
institution in the class of i860, at the age of 
twenty-one years. Immediately after leaving 
college he studied for the ministry, and was 
ordained at Cooperstown. His first charge 
was at that village, in that lake section of New 
York State made famous for all time to come 
by Coopers' volume of Indian romances. 
After five years profitably spent at Coopers- 
town, Dr. Sawyer was pastor for two years at 
Albion, New York. In 1870 he received and 
accepted a call from the Sandy Hill Baptist 
church, where he has labored ever since. 

In 1871 Dr. Sawyer was united in marriage 
with Sarah E. Lord, of Lewis county. They 
have two children, both sons : W. L. and J. E. 

During Dr. Sawyer's pastorate of nearly a 
quarter of a century, the Sandy Hill Baptist 
church has had a good degree of prosperity. 
The present number of members is two hun- 
dred and seventy-five. Its offerings for benev- 
olence have been very generous. Dr. Sawyer 
was largely instrumental in securing the erec- 
tion of the present Baptist church edifice, 
which is one of the finest church structures in 
the county, and cost over fifty-six thousand 



dollars. The church is free of debt, and in 
addition to their sanctuary they have a hand- 
some brick parsonage. Beside discharging 
his pastoral duties in connection with the 
church, Dr. Sawyer takes a deep interest in 
the Sabbath school of his church, which is in 
a flourishing condition. He is chairman of 
the missionary committee of the Washington 
Union Baptist association, in whose interests 
he has frequently served. Dr. Sawyer has 
broken the bread of life acceptably to his 
church for nearly twenty-five years, and has 
labored faithfully during all that time in the 
cause of Christianity. He is a courteous and 
sociable gentleman, and has the respect and 
good will of all who know him, regardless of 
church creed or denomination. 

□ SAHEL CLARK, a descendant of one 
"^^ the most prominent and honored families 
of Washington county, and a cousin of Dr. E. 
G. Clark, of Sand}' Hill, was born in the same 
village on May 20, 1830. He is a son of Or- 
ville and Delia M. Clark. The former was a 
lawyer by profession, prominent in the busi- 
ness affairs of his section, and a native of 
Mount Holly, where he was born in the year 
1800. In about 1828 he came to Sandy Hill, 
and here he made his home until his death, 
which occurred in 1862, at the age of sixty-two 
years. A democrat in his political tendencies, 
he was elected State senator from his district, 
and served in the session of 1846. He was 
afterward president of the Des Moines Navi- 
gation Company, located at Des Moines, Iowa, 
and it was here that he died while on a business 
trip. While schooled in the law, his natural 
inclination led him into business channels, and 
for the greater part of his life he was engaged 
extensively in contracting. He received im- 
portant contracts, which he would promptly 
and successfully execute, for railroad and other 
large corporations. He was a brother of Rus- 
sell Clark, a prominent physician, and uncle 
of Dr. E. G. Clark, and for the ancestry of 

the family the reader is referred to the sketch 
of the latter, found on another page of this 
book. Hon. Orville Clark was a man of di- 
versified resources, a leader in many of the 
progressive movements of his county, of un- 
impeachable integrity, and no citizen was more 
highly respected by his neighbors and by all 
who knew him. In physique he was tall and 
commanding, and his memory will long be 
cherished by many with whom he came into 
business and social contact. His wife, who 
was an estimable woman, was born in the 
town of Kingsbury, and was a daughter of 
Henry C. Martindale, of Washington county, 
New York, an old line whig and member of 
Congress. Her death occurred at the age of 
seventy-five years, in February, 1881. 

Asahel Clark's boyhood years were spent in 
Sandy Hill and the surrounding neighborhood, 
receiving the rudiments of his education in the 
village school, and later entered Union college, 
at Schenectady, New York, and was graduated 
with his class in 1849. He then went to Ro- 
chester and became a law student under the 
preceptorship of his uncle, Gen. John H. Mar- 
tindale, who was a general in the late civil 
war, but relinquished the law before his ad- 
mission to the bar, and became engaged with 
his father in railroad contracting. For a num- 
ber of years he was engaged in this business 
in the State of Iowa, continuing in the same 
up to 1884, when he branched out in farming 
in Story county, that State, which he followed 
up to 1890. In that year he came back to 
Sandy Hill, and has since been retired from 
all active business. He is an Episcopalian in 
religious belief, and is a member of the Chi 
Psi Soc fraternity of Union college. Like his 
father before him, he is a stanch and earnest 
democrat. He has never married. 


^-**-& W as one of Sandy Hill's most suc- 
cessful physicians and useful citizens ; a son 
of Abram and Rebecca (Akin) Miller; and 



was born at Pittstown, near Troy, New York, 
in February, 1821. He was reared on his 
father's farm, and at sixteen years of age en- 
tered Amenia seminary. At the close of his 
academical course he became a medical stu- 
dent with Dr. Lyon, of Schaghticoke, and 
after reading for some time, entered Albany 
Medical college, from which he was gradu- 
ated in the class of 1843. After graduating 
he practiced successively at Hoosic, Poultney, 
in Vermont, and Granville. In 1854 he came 
to Sandy Hill, and was a general practicioner 
here until his death, although he desired to 
retire from practice during the latter years of 
his life, but was constrained not to do so by 
many of his patients. His knowledge was 
such that he was called to lecture on anatomy 
at Fort Edward seminary, and at Troy Con- 
ference academy, at Poultney, Vermont. 
After becoming a resident of Sandy Hill, Dr. 
Miller was not only a popular physician but 
was a successful manufacturer, an extensive 
farmer, and an efficient public official, serving 
for some time as supervisor of the town of 
Kingsbury. He was a charter member of the 
First National bank, of which he served as 
vice-president during the year preceding his 
death. He owned four hundred acres of land 
in the town of Moreau, Saratoga count)'. 

In 1846 Dr. Miller married Frances A. 
Wentworth, a native of Connecticut, and a 
member of the old and honorable Wentworth 
family of New England, founded in 1639 by 
four brothers by that name, who came from 

Dr. Miller died in 1873, and his remains 
rest in Sandy Hill Union cemetery. He was 
a self-made man, in the true sense of that 
term, and whatever he laid his hand to do he 
did with great concentration of energy and 
determination to succeed. Sandy Hill is 
largely indebted to him for its present growth 
and prosperity. It was through his efforts 
that Baker's Falls was built up and made a 
prosperous annex to the village. To him 
Sandy Hill is also indebted for its court house, 

its railroad, and its first bank, as much so as 
to any other man ; beside his encouraging 
and urging into life a score of private enter- 
prises that added to the wealth and business 
of the place. Dr. Miller's mind was so com- 
prehensive that he could instantly turn from 
the consideration of gigantic business enter- 
prises to complicated and intricate medical 
cases : and it was to this he was most de- 
voted, and to which the best years of his life 
were given. 

inent and active in financial affairs in 
New York and Kansas for over a quarter of a 
century, and who enjoys the popular distinc- 
tion of being one of the few democrats that 
have ever carried the republican stronghold of 
Washington county, is a son of Uriah and 
Calista (Spicer) Sheldon, and was born in the 
town of Cjueensbury, Warren county, this 
State, September 2, 1828. At four years of 
age he was brought by his parents to Fort 
Ann, where he grew to manhood and has re- 
sided ever since. He received his education 
in the common school, and early in life en- 
gaged in canal boating, which he followed to 
1862, when he embarked in his present lumber 
business. In addition to lumbering Mr. Shel- 
don has for the last twenty-five years given 
considerable attention to financial matters. 
He served for several years as president of the 
bank of John Hall & Co., and is now presi- 
dent of the Smith County National bank, of 
Smith Centre, Kansas. He is a member of 
Mount Hope Lodge, No. 260, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons. 

On March 19, 1850, Mr. Sheldon was united 
in marriage with Esther B. Broughton, daugh- 
ter of Amos Broughton, of Fort Ann. They 
have two children, a son and a daughter : 
Albert U. and Helen M. 

The political career of Orson W. Sheldon 
commenced in 1872, when he was elected by 
the democrats as supervisor of the town of 
Fort Ann, an office to which he was re-elected 



in the years 1873, 1877, 1878, 1879, and 1887. 
His course as a town officer having been so 
satisfactory to all parties, led to his nomina- 
tion by the Democratic party of his district 
for the assembly. Strong within his own 
party, and popular with the general masses, 
he carried Washington county, which has 
always been one of the great republican strong- 
holds of the State, by a handsome vote, over- 
coming the average three thousand majority 
given to the other nominees on the republican 
ticket. Mr. Sheldon served very creditably 
in the general assembly of New York in the 
session of 1887-88, and then withdrew in a 
large measure from politics to give needed 
attention to his business affairs, although he 
is still active in the interests of the Democratic 
party, and in any political emergency is always 
found at the front, working for the success 
and supremacy of the party of Jackson and 

Nathan Sheldon, the founder of the Sheldon 
family in this county, was a native of Dutchess 
county, and in early life removed to the town 
of Fort Ann, where he died at an advanced 
age. He served in the second war with Eng- 
land for independence. His son, Uriah Shel- 
don (father), was born December 23, 1799, in 
the town of Fort Ann, where he died June 23, 
1836, when in the thirty-seventh year of his 
age. He was a Jacksonian democrat and a 
powder manufacturer, and married Calista 
Spicer, who was born Jul} 7 3, 1801, and passed 
away August 15, 1854. The Sheldon family 
is of English lineage, and possesses many of 
the commendable traits of that powerful race. 

T D.D., a prominent minister of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, was a son of Erastus 
and Esther (States) Wentworth, and was born 
at Stonington, Connecticut, August 5, 1813. 
He was of Dutch and Pilgrim ancestry, a grad- 
uate of Wesleyan university, and in 1841 be- 
came a Methodist clergyman. He was presi- 

dent of McKendree college in 1846, acted as 
professor of natural sciences in Dickenson col- 
lege in 1850, and served as a missionary in 
China from 1858 to 1862. From 1862 until 
his death in 1886, he was engaged largely in 
ministerial duties, his last charge being at Fort 
Edward. He received his degree of D. D. 
from Allegheny college in 1858. 

Dr. Wentworth in 1839 married Mary Alex- 
ander, who was a daughter of Seth Alexander, 
of De Kalb, New York, and died in 1852. Two 
years later he wedded Anna M. Lewis, a 
daughter of Joseph Lewis, a lawyer of West 
Chester, Pennsylvania. He afterward mar- 
ried Phebe E. Potter, of Dutchess county, New 

Dr. Wentworth died at Sandy Hill, May 25, 
[886, when in the seventy-third year of his 
age. He was a man of varied attainments, a 
fine preacher, a well known newspaper corre- 
spondent and editor, and a man whose amount 
of information was encyclopaedic. 

f^AVID O. BRIGGS, who has achieved 
considerable success in the business 
world, is a native of Steuben county, New 
York. He was early in life brought to Fort 
Ann by his parents, where he grew up, and 
attended the common schools of that village. 
On leaving school he went to Rutland county, 
Vermont, where he worked on a farm for four 
years, at the end of which time he returned 
to the village of Fort Ann, where he engaged 
in canal boating, at which he also continued 
for four years. In March, 1848, while blast- 
ing in rock on the Delaware & Hudson Canal 
Company railroad, near this village, he met 
with the sad accident of losing both arms by 
the premature explosion in the rock. In 1849 
he engaged in the grocery business, but in 
1857, however, he returned to canal boating 
on his own account, which he followed very 
successfully up to 1864. In that year he en- 
gaged in the grocery business, which he has 
since followed, and for the last seven or eight 



years, in addition to his mercantile duties, he 
has been in the employ of the State, running 
the repair boat on the Champlain canal. In 
1856 Mr. Briggs was married to Fannie. 
Chestnut, daughter of Thomas Chestnut, the 
latter being a native of Ireland. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Briggs have been born seven chil- 
dren, two sons and five daughters: Sarah J., 
present wife of Abner Scott, of Fort Ann ; 
Carrie E., now the widow of Cornelius Gor- 
man; Frank W., Harriett L., Julia E., mar- 
ried to Claude Bailey ; Mary A. and David 
O. They have also five sons deceased. Mr. 
Briggs is a democrat in his political affilia- 
tions, and for many years has served as town 

David O. Briggs is a son of Daniel and 
Sarah (Hall) Briggs. His father was a na- 
tive of the town of Hartford, having been 
born in 1794, and died in Fort Ann, at the 
age of forty-six, in 1840. He was a democrat 
in politics, and followed the occupation of 
farming. His father, Jeremy, was born in 
Rutland county, Vermont, and became one of 
the early settlers of the town of Hartford, 
where he died, aged sixty-nine years. The 
Briggs family are of Scotch and English 
origin. Sarah Hall Briggs was also a native 
of Rutland county, Vermont, who died at the 
age of fifty-eight, in 1855. 

HARRY S. BL, ACKFAN, M. D., who 
is a physician by inheritance as well as 
the right of adoption, as both his father and 
grandfather and several other members of the 
family have been disciples of Esculapius. He 
is a son of Edward Blackfan and Susan W. 
Trego, and was born in Orion, Henry count}', 
Illinois, June 13, 1857. His father was a na- 
tive of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who was a 
graduate of the medical department of the 
university of Pennsylvania, and he with his 
brother Benjamin, who was also a practicing 
physician, when young men went west, locating 
in Henry county, Illinois, where they became 

early settlers of that section. Dr. Edward 
Blackfan died at Orion in 1866, at the age of 
forty-seven years. His father was Joseph 
Blackfan, a physician by profession, who was 
a native of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, and 
practiced medicine in Philadelphia for many 
years ; his death occurred at the age of eighty 
years. His father was a relative of William 
Penn, coming from Lancashire, England, and 
was a Quaker in religion. The mother of the 
subject of this sketch, Susan W. Trego, is a 
native of Pennsylvania, and now residing at 

Harry S. Blackfan grew to manhood in his 
native village, receiving his primary education 
in the high school of that village. In 1879 
he came to Washington county and com- 
menced the study of medicine in the office of 
Dr. D. H. Chase, of Cambridge, and was 
graduated from the Eclectic Medical college 
of Cincinnati in 1885, and in the same year 
located at Shushan, where he has succeeded 
in building up a substantial practice. He is 
a member of the New York State Eclectic 
Medical society. At the beautiful little sum- 
mer resort, Lake Lauderdale, two miles from 
the village of Shushan, Dr. Blackfan owns a 
summer hotel, where he spends his summer 
months. He was married in 1880 to Estella 
L., who is a daughter of D. A. Chase, of 
Cambridge. To Dr. and Mrs. Blackfan have 
been born three children : Hallie M., Kenneth 
D., and Harry C. Dr. Blackfan is a member 
of the United Presbyterian church of his vil- 
lage, and Cambridge Valley Lodge, No. 481, 
Free and Accepted Masons, and isarepublican. 

JWrVRON I>. INGALSBE, the well 

\ known and successful merchant of Fort 
Ann, was born in the town of Hartford, Wash- 
ington county, New York, July 1, 1846, and is 
a son of David Ingalsbe and Emily E. May- 
nard. The Ingalsbe family were among the 
first to settle in the town of Hartford, which 
was founded by Aaron and Eber Ingalsbe, 



two young unmarried men who came from 
Massachusetts in 1782, and settled on lot 87. 
Here they built a shanty near where A. Gil- 
christ's now stands ; went back to Massachu- 
setts in the fall, but returned the next spring. 
Eber removed to the north, but Aaron married 
Polly Hicks, of Granville, by whom he had 
ten children, his sons being: James, Silas, 
Belas, Aaron, Reuben, Levi, Elias and Lewis. 
James was born in July, 1789, and had four 
sons: Milo, Royal, Homer and James L., 
who became prominent citizens of that town. 
David Ingalsbe was a native of the town of 
Hartford, but removed to the town of Gran- 
ville, where he died in August, 1880, aged 
sixty years. He was a member of the Baptist 
church, a republican in political sentiment, 
and a farmer by occupation : he resided in 
the town of Granville about fifteen years prev- 
ious to his death. He was a son of Zachariah 
Ingalsbe, who was also born in the town of 
Hartford, where he died at the age of seventy- 
five years ; a cooper by trade, and was a sol- 
dier in the war of 181 2. Emily E. Maynard, 
also a native of Hartford, dying at the age of 
sixty-seven years, in 1886, and was a member 
of the Baptist church. 

Myron D. Ingalsbe remained on the farm 
in his native town until he arrived at the age 
of thirteen, when he removed with his parents 
to the town of Granville. He received a com- 
mon school education and continued to farm 
until he had arrived at the age of twenty-one 
years, when he engaged as a clerk in general 
stores at Truthville and Granville, where he re- 
mained three years. Then he formed a part- 
nership with Isaac Finch, under the firm name 
of Finch & Ingalsbe, who did a general mer- 
chandising business at Fort Ann for one year, 
when Mr. Ingalsbe sold his interests and the 
following fall took a position as bookkeeper 
in O. G. How's sash and door factor)-, of the 
same village. Here he remained until the 
next year, in the fall of which he engaged as 
partner with H. C. Clements in the same line 
of business, the title of the firm being H. C. 

Clements, Ingalsbe & Co. This firm did busi- 
ness for three years, when Mr. Ingalsbe again 
sold his interest, and, in 1879, opened out at 
his present stand, which is a grocery and meat 
market, where he carries on a successful and 
prosperous trade. In addition he handles ice 
during the summer season and owns ten acres 
of land inside the corporation of Fort Ann, 
which he farms. In 1871 Mr. Ingalsbe was 
married to Mary S., daughter of Harvey Oat- 
man, of the town of Hartford. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Ingalsbe have been born four children, 
Harvey D., Densy A., Julia E. and Emily D. 
He is a republican in politics and a popular 
business man, who commands the esteem and 
respect of all who come in contact with him. 

"^■^ of the 9th separate company of the Na- 
tional Guard, State of New York, was born in 
the village of Whitehall, Washington county, 
New York, June 11, 1864. Here he grew up, 
attending the public schools, and later on en- 
tered the North Granville Military academy, 
and after leaving this institution was in the 
employ of contractors on public works in the 
capacity of book-keeper, superintendent, etc., 
up to 1888. In that year he engaged in the 
piano business, in which he has been exten- 
sively engaged ever since. On January 10, 
1881, Captain Greenough enlisted as a private 
in the 9th separate company, and since then 
has gone through all the grades of promotion of 
this company, and on May 12, 1893, was 
elected captain, and is now serving in that 
office. This company was organized April 27, 
1876, and is one of the efficient and well dis- 
ciplined companies of the State. In June. 
1891, he was married to Frances S. Allen, 
a daughter of Hannibal Allen, of Whitehall. 
Captain Greenough is a member of the Epis- 
copal church, and a democrat in political opin- 
ion, and takes an active part in politics. 

Capt. Ernest A. Greenough is a son of J. 
Henry and Mary L. (Allen) Greenough, the 



former having been born in this village on 
February 4, 1830, and has resided in his native 
village ever since, engaged in the carriage 
making business. He is a member of the 
Episcopal church, and Phoenix Lodge, Free 
and Accepted Masons, a democrat in his po- 
litical sentiment, and is now holding the office 
of village assessor. His father was James 
Greenough, who was a native of Lebanon, 
New Hampshire, coming to this village in 
1829, where he spent the remainder of his life, 
dying in 1884, aged eighty-four years. He 
was a Jacksonian democrat, served as trustee 
and poor master of the village, and was for 
many years engaged in the carriage manufac- 
turing business. He was a descendant of an 
old New England family. The mother of the 
subject of this sketch was born in Wells, Ver- 
mont, April 1, 1832, and died December 16, 
1892. She was a devoted member of the 
Episcopal church of Whitehall. 

QHARLES HUGHES was born Febru- 
^^ ary 27, 1822. In 1837 he began the study 
of law in the office of H. B. Northup, at Sandy 
Hill, New York. He was admitted to the bar 
in January, 1845. In 1852 he was elected to 
Congress. In 1857 he was elected clerk of 
the court of appeals. In 1862 he took an 
active part in raising and organizing thefamous 
Washington county regiment, 123d New York 
volunteers. Ill health prevented his taking 
command of the regiment and going to the 
field. In 1863 he was appointed provost 
marshal, and was in command at the time of 
the July (1863) riots in Troy. The mob, wisely 
for themselves, left his office alone. They 
knew he was prepared for them. 

In 1877 he was elected senator of the State 
of New York. He filled all public offices with 
ability and with great credit. On April 26, 
1850, the law firm of Hughes & Northup was 
formed. Charles Hughes and Lyman H. 
Northup composed the firm. That firm ex- 
isted until the death of Mr. Hughes, August 

10, 1887, a period of more than thirty-seven 

Mr. Hughes was the advocate and trial 
member of the firm. He was an able advocate 
and a great orator. He had a wonderful 
knowledge of human nature, and rarely erred 
in his judgment of a juror. He was engaged 
in nearly every important case, civil and crim- 
inal, in the county for nearly a quarter of a 
century. His summing up in the Billings 
murder trial, in the Willett murder trial, and 
in the Clements bank case were marvels of 
eloquence. No poor man ever applied to him 
for professional aid and was refused for his 
poverty. His was a genial nature. The world 
would be better were there more men like 
Charles Hughes. 

HON. JOHN H. DERBY, ex state sen 
ator and manufacturer of Sandy Hill, is 
the only child born to George F. Derby and 
Jane F. Howland (see sketch of Amasa How- 
land). The former was a son of John Derby, 
who was born in the town of Hebron, this 
county, in 1787, and belonged to the Massa- 
chusetts family of Derbys, whose progenitors 
came to the new world in about the year 
1700; he died early in life. George F. 
Derby was a native of Glens Falls, and was 
born in 1817; he was a railway contractor, 
and died in 1873. He wedded Jane How- 
land, a sister of Amasa Howland, of Sandy 
Hill, and whose death occurred in 1871. 

John H. Derby was born at Sandy Hill, 
Washington county, New York, June 20, 
1845, and there grew to manhood. At the 
age of sixteen Mr. Derby, accompanied by 
his father, went to western New York, Ohio 
and Pennsylvania, where his father was 
called as a railway contractor. His splendid 
business talent had already begun to develop 
itself, and he proved a read}' and valuable as- 
sistant to his father ; also as clerk employed 
by the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad 
Company, with which his father was for a 



time connected. In 1873, after an absence 
of twelve years, Mr. Derby returned to Sandy 
Hill, then at the age of twenty-eight, and 
has ever since resided here. The firm of 
Howland & Co. was formed to succeed How- 
land & Miller, and consisted of Amasa How- 
land, L. M. Howland and John H. Derby, 
and continued to 1892, wheh it was succeeded 
by the Howland Paper Co. But this by no 
means measures the limit of his usefulness or 
the extent of the trust reposed in him. 
There is hardly an interest in the thriving 
village of Sandy Hill with which John H. 
Derby is not connected. Perhaps first in im- 
portance as affecting the higher welfare of 
the place may be mentioned the schools of 
his native place. Sandy Hill, with its popu- 
lation of three thousand or more progressive 
and enterprising people, takes great pride in 
its public schools. It has an excellent system, 
including a high school, from which graduates 
may pass directly to college. Its scholars are 
housed in four well-equipped buildings, and 
a force of about twenty capable teachers is 
under the control of the board of education. 
This system has not been the growth of a 
day. It represents the result of intelligent, 
well-directed effort, inspired by the laudable 
ambition to provide the best and most prac- 
tical education for the children, with a view 
to developing useful, honorable man- and wo- 
manhood. In this work Mr. Derby has borne 
a leading part, for he has been for fifteen 
years a member of the school board, and is 
now its vice-president. For three years in 
succession he was elected supervisor of the 
town of Kingsbury. The first year the demo- 
crats nominated a candidate against him, but 
the following year he had the field to himself, 
and the last time was again returned with 
practically no opposition. The last year his 
colleagues in the Washington county board of 
supervisors attested their apprec : ation of his 
worth when he was made chairman. When 
the Sandy Hill Power Company was organized 
Mr. Derby was chosen its president, an office 

he still retains ; he is also a director and sec- 
retary of the Howland Paper Co., director of 
Spring Brook Water Co., and the Electric 
Light Co. Of course financial interests also 
enlist Mr. Derby's support, and are benefited 
by his counsel, and the First National bank 
of Sandy Hill numbers him among its most 
active and efficient directors. He has been 
for years a communicant of the Presbyterian 
church, and a short time ago was ordained as 
an elder, the highest honor to which a layman 
can attain in that denomination. He is a 
charter member and treasurer of the Royal 
Arcanum council of Sandy Hill, organized 
twelve years ago, and stands high in this suc- 
cessful benevolent order, having been for 
seven years a member of the grand council 
for the State, and for five years one of the fi- 
nance committee of that body. Politically 
Mr. Derby has been an earnest republican, 
and besides filling the offices above enumer- 
ated he has twice been a delegate to the re- 
publican State conventions. 

He was married at Meadville, Pennsylvania, 
September 6, 1870, to Margaret F. Steuart. 
To that union three children have been born : 
Archibald F., Anna Louise and John H., jr. 

John H. Derby was elected State senator 
from the sixteenth senatorial district, com- 
posed of the counties of Rensselaer and 

HIRAM SHIPMA1V, an expert mine in- 
spector and a man who has extensively 
traveled over two continents, was born in the 
village of Fort Ann, Washington county, New 
York, March 8, 1834. He is descended from 
English and Dutch ancestry, and is a son of 
Hiram Shipman and Mary Anne T. Bush, the 
former a native of Vermont, having been born 
in the vicinity of Montpelier, and was of Eng- 
lish origin. He was a tanner by trade, and 
built and operated the first tannery in Fort 
Ann. This tannery stood across the canal 
where the house of Myron Ingalsbe stands, 



but was removed soon after the canal was 
completed to the location where the present 
one is now situated. He afterward became a 
member of the firm of Pike & Shipman, en- 
gaged in tanning and shoe making, where he 
continued until his death. He died in 1847. 
His wife was Mary Anne T. Bush, who was a 
native of Fort Ann. She was of Holland- 
Dutch descent. The name Bush was Angla- 
cised from Ter Bosch, the original way of 
spelling the name. She was a daughter of 
Lemuel T. Bush, who came to Fort Ann, and 
was engaged in farming. Hiram Shipman, 
by his marriage to Mary Anne T. Bush, had 
two children : Margaret, who married the 
Rev. Wallace Sawyer, and now resides at 
Milford, Ohio, and Hiram. 

Hiram Shipman, jr., was left an orphan at 
the age of fourteen, when his father died, his 
mother having preceded his father to the grave 
when he was only three years of age. In the 
winter of 1850 Mr. Shipman went to White- 
hall, where he attended school, and in the 
following summer went into the forwarding 
office as an employee of Nathan Jillson. In 
the spring of 1852 he went to California by 
the way of the Isthmus of Panama, paying a 
fare of two hundred and fifty dollars, taking 
second cabin passage on this side of the Isth- 
mus, and steerage on the other until he reached 
San Francisco. After arriving at San Fran- 
cisco he worked in a mine near that city for 
three years, when he returned east, but soon 
recrossed the continent to California and ac- 
cepted work in the same mine. For a short 
time Mr. Shipman served as one of Lincoln's 
body guards. In 1861 he went to Honduras 
and engaged in mining and coffee growing, 
but was soon compelled to leave that section 
on account of a severe attack of the Panama 
fever. In 1862, leaving St. Louis, he went 
by the way of the Missouri river to Fort Ben- 
ton, thence to Walla Walla, a distance of eight 
hunered miles, traveling on mule back, and 
from there to Boise City, where he was en- 
gaged in mining until the close of the war. 

In 1865 he visited New York, returning to 
California by the way of the Isthmus, where 
he again engaged in mining, the last mine he 
owned and operated being the Clip mine, of 

In 1884, having sold his interests in mining, 
he returned to his native village of Fort Ann, 
where he was married to Mrs. Sarah Dewey 
Pike, by whom he has had one daughter : 
Mary Bush Shipman. On August 13, 1886, 
Mr. Shipman sailed for Rio Janeiro in the in- 
terest of a New York syndicate for the pur- 
pose of inspecting their mines, located in the 
interior of South America. He traveled from 
San Paulo, about twelve hundred miles to the 
head waters of the Tocantine river, in the 
golden diamond region. This journey he 
made mostly on mule back, which required 
three months to complete the trip. 

Mr. Shipman, beside receiving the rudi- 
ments of a good common school education, 
attended the school of mines in the city of 
San Francisco. In the business world Mr. 
Shipman has been successful, possessed of a 
handsome competency, and now living a quiet 
and retired life, but for several years past has 
been in poor health. His wife was a daughter 
of Thaddeus N. Dewey, of Fort Ann. She 
was the widow of Silas P. Pike, a lawyer of 
Fort Ann, by whom she had one son, John M. 
Mr. Shipman's father's and mother's deaths 
occurred on the following dates respectively, 
February 27, 1847, aged fifty-two years ; Oc- 
tober 4, 1836. The latter was born in 1804. 

QA3IALAEL JENKINS, a prominent 
inventor and a man of diversified business 
and legal attainments, was born on the farm 
where he now resides, in the town of Queens- 
bury, Warren county, New York, December 
5, [824. He is the son of Palmer B. Jenkins 
and Louisa Brayton. The former was born 
in Dutchess county, New York, in 1792, and 
removed to the town of Queensbury in 1795 
with his father, Simon Jenkins, who was born 



in Rhode Island, and of Welsh descent. He 
was born on November n, 1760, died June 9, 
1831, and removed to this town in the same 
year as his son, Palmer B., in 1795. from 
Dutchess county. He became one of the 
thrifty and successful farmers of Warren 
county, and married Sarah Carey, who was of 
the Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania, and had 
two nieces, Phcebe and Alice Carey, who be- 
came quite famous as poetesses in the State of 
Pennsylvania. Palmer B. Jenkins was, dur- 
ing his active business career, engaged in 
farming and lumbering, which he successfully 
followed until his death, March 26, 1877. A 
successful business man and popular and well 
liked by his neighbors. He was a member 
of the Universalist church, a democrat in his 
political opinion, and acceptably filled a 
number of the town offices, among the num- 
ber being that of justice of the peace, and 
was a soldier in the battle of Plattsburg dur- 
ing the war of 181 2. 

The progenitors and founders of this branch 
of the Jenkins family in this country, were 
three brothers, who came over from Wales in 
the early part of the eighteenth century and set- 
tled on Nantucket island. One of these broth- 
ers afterward migrated to this State and set- 
tled in Dutchess county, and from him the 
subject of this sketch is descended. Gamalael 
Jenkins is the eighth in direct line from the 
immigrant who settled in Dutchess county. 
His mother was a native of the town of Queens- 
bury, and was a daughter of John Brayton, 
who was one of the pioneer settlers of that 
town, and was a farmer by occupation, a dea- 
con in the Baptist church, and was of Irish 
extraction. Mrs. Jenkins (mother) was a 
member of the Universalist church, and died 
in 1886, at the advanced age of ninety-one 

Gamalael Jenkins grew to manhood on the 
farm on which he now resides, receiving his 
education in ordinary schools of. the neighbor- 
hood, supplemented by a term at a select 
school, and one term at the. State Normal 

school at Albany. Leaving school he was for 
two years engaged in merchandising in the 
village of Queensbury, at the end of which 
time he relinquished this and began farming 
and lumbering, owning a saw mill, and has 
been more or less engaged in the manufacture 
of lumber ever since. From 1857 to 1861 Mr. 
Jenkins was engaged in the making of hubs, 
spokes and felloes, and is at present, in addi- 
tion to his saw mill, conducting a grist mill ; 
he also owns and resides upon the old home- 
stead, which contains one hundred acres of 
pleasantly situated and well improved land. 
On March 28, 1893, Mr. Jenkins patented his 
automatic car coupler, which does away with 
the old fashioned link motion coupler, and is 
destined to become in general use by all the 
great railroad systems of the civilized world ; 
he has patents from Canada also. In regard 
to this important patent, we quote from the 
Glens Falls Star : 

"Gamalael Jenkins, Queensbury, has in- 
vented and is the patentee of a new automatic 
car coupler which is destined to supersede the 
old link and pin coupling which has hereto- 
fore been the only connection that could be 
made between freight cars. The model is a 
very ingenious device, and is applicable to 
either freight or passenger cars. Its construc- 
tion is such that any number of cars can be 
connected or coupled by one move of the en- 
gine without the aid of any trainmen except 
the engineer. Connection is made by a knuckle 
joint, which is always positive in its action, 
and which will wholly do away with the old 
coupling and all danger to human life and limb, 
as no person is required to oversee its work or 
place themselves in danger between connect- 
ing cars. The cars can be instantly discon- 
nected while standing or in motion at the will 
of the trainmen, but at no other time. The 
coupling is very simple, strong and complete, 
and will be hailed with delight by the general 
community, who have been so often horrified 
by the mangling process of the old link and 
pin system. It is to be hoped that it may be 

<". Of. (&~~£Au~. 



adopted by the railroad officials. The sooner 
the better." 

Gamalael Jenkins was united in marriage in 
1853 to Augusta W., a daughter of Ansel 
Winship, of the town of Oueensbury. Mr. 
Jenkins is also vice-president of the New York 
State Farmers' Union League, a growing and 
influential organization, that has already re- 
sulted in much good to the farming commun- 
ity of the State. 


^^ of the prominent men of affairs in this 
county, residing in the village of Sandy Hill, 
was born in the same village, Washington 
county, New York, May 3, 1826. His parents 
were Woolsey and Ann Freeman Cronkhite, 
who settled in the town of Kingsbury, coming 
from Dutchess county, New York, about the 
beginning of the present century. Woolsey 
Cronkhite was a merchant and manufacturer, 
a man of sterling worth and prominence in 
the community in which he resided. Leonard 
W. Cronkhite attended the schools of that 
neighborhood and in due time enjoyed the ad- 
vantages somewhat rare in those early days, of 
an English and classical education, at Barnes' 
Classical school, and later in the Granville 
academy. Upon leaving school he became a 
salesman in a dry goods store. At the end of 
his five years' engagement in this capacity he 
went into business on his own account, as a 
merchant, at Sandy Hill ; in this he continued 
successfully for twelve years. In 1852 he mar- 
ried Bessie A. Green, daughter of Henry and 
Anna Green, of Queensbury, New York, who 
is still his life partner. 

In i860 he engaged in the sheep husbandry 
in Illinois, afterward in the ship timber busi- 
ness on Lake Huron, Michigan, in both of 
which he was successful. Subsequently he 
turned his attention to the banking business, 
both at Sandy Hill and in Michigan. He is 
president of the National bank of Sandy Hill 

and a director of the First National bank of 

Fort Edward. The National bank of Sandy 
Hill was organized in 1864 and reorganized 
in 1883. During the thirty years since its or- 
ganization it has always paid a semi-annual 
dividend and has earned for its stockholders 
an average of over twenty per cent, per annum. 

Mr. Cronkhite is a deacon of the Baptist 
church and a member of its Board of Trustees. 
He has been several times elected as presiding 
officer of the Washington Union Baptist asso- 
ciation ; has been a trustee and the secretary 
and treasurer of the Board since its organiza- 
tion. Mr. Cronkhite has for many years taken 
great interest in education ; is president of the 
Board of Education of his native village. 
During many years he has been a member of 
the Board of Trustees of Colgate university, 
and until disabled by sickness, chairman of 
its finance committee. He has also been a 
director of the New York State Baptist Edu- 
cation society. This society financially aids 
more than one hundred young men annually 
in their preparation for the Christian ministry. 
For seventeen years he has been a member 
of the Board of Directors of the Washington 
County Agricultural society, and has served 
two terms as president of that society. 

Mr. Cronkhite has been invited to be a can- 
didate for important official positions in civil 
life, but has uniformly declined, preferring 
what to him is a more congenial and indepen- 
dent sphere of usefulness than the atmosphere 
and turmoil of politics. 

Leonard W. Cronkhite has been the archi- 
tect of his own fortune ; his father dying when 
he was four years of age, leaving to his family 
the priceless heritage of a spotless name and 
an exalted Christian character. 

OOL03ION H. PARKS, a union officer 
*"^ in the late civil war and the senior mem- 
ber of the well known business firm of Parks 
& Mosher, of Sandy Hill, is a son of M. B. 
and Gertrude A. (Cooper) Parks, and was 
born in the town of Monroe, Saratoga county, 



New York, October 29, 1841. He was reared 
on the farm ; received his education in public 
and private schools and Glens Falls academy. 
Leaving the academy he was variously en- 
gaged until 1863, when he enlisted in Co. A, 
2d New York veteran cavalry. Some time 
after enlisting he was promoted from a private 
to sergeant, and served until October 8, 1865, 
being honorably discharged from the Federal 
service at Talladega, Alabama. Returning 
from the army he accepted the position of 
shipping clerk and time keeper at the saw 
mill of Finch, Pryne & Co., on the Hudson 
river in Saratoga county, where he remained 
six years with that firm and one year longer 
with their successors. In 1873 he went to 
South Glens Falls, where he formed a part- 
nership with T. Z. Adams, and they were en- 
gaged there in the general mercantile business 
for three years. He then disposed of his 
mercantile interests and spent one year with 
the firm of Finch, Pryne & Co. At the end of 
that time, in 1877, he came to Sandy Hill, 
and formed a partnership with his father-in- 
law, James P. Buck, under the firm name of 
Buck & Parks. They engaged in the hard- 
ware business, and the next year opened a 
coal yard. This firm continued up to 1888, 
when Mr. Buck withdrew and was succeeded 
by William E. Mosher, and the firm name 
was changed to the title of Parks & Mosher, 
now S. H. Parks. The present firm do a 
profitable hardware business and have large 
coal yards. 

On January 4, 1870, Mr. Parks married 
Laura J. Buck, and their union has been 
blessed with one child, Eliza G. Solomon 
H. Parks is a warden of Sandy Hill Episcopal 
church, and has always been independent in 
politics. He is a member of Sandy Hill Ma- 
sonic Lodge, No. 372 ; Sandy Hill Masonic 
Chapter, No. 189, and William M. Collin 
Grand Army Post, No. 587, of which he was 
commander for six years, and has served as 
adjutant since 1891. He was master of his 
Masonic lodge for seven years in succession, 

and served as high priest of his chapter for 
two years. Mr. Parks has been successful in 
his business operations and well deserves his 
present reputation for energy, activity and 
correct business methods. 

The Parks are of English extraction, and 
the earliest member of the family in this 
country, of which we. have mention, was 
Daniel Parks, who served as an American 
officer in the Revolutionary war, and after- 
ward removed to Saratoga county. Daniel 
Parks married and reared a family. One of 
his sons was Solomon Parks, the grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch. Solomon Parks 
served as a teamster in the Revolutionary war, 
and after peace was declared, removed to 
Monroe township, Saratoga county, where he 
spent the remainder of his life in farming. 
He married and reared a family of children, 
one of his sons being M. B. Parks, who was 
born in Saratoga county. M. B. Parks was a 
farmer by occupation and died in his native 
town in 1888, at seventy-three years of age. 
He was a Presbyterian and a democrat, and 
held the office of assessor of his town for 
many years. 


4 founder of the Sandy Hill Herald, and 

one of the early business men of Washington 
county, was a son of John Tidd Wright and 
Hannah Proctor Wright, and was born at 
Westfield, Massachusetts, in 1802. He was 
reared in his native State until he was fourteen 
years of age. He then went to live with ex- 
Governor Slade, of Vermont, with whom he 
learned the trade of a printer. After com- 
pleting his apprenticeship lie came to Ballston 
Spa, Saratoga county, but in a short time 
settled at Sandy Hill, where, in 1821, he 
founded the Herald. He edited the Herald 
for twenty years, and then sold it to Elisha 
Baker. During that period he served as post- 
master for fourteen years, and established a 
drug store, which he conducted until 1845, 



when he removed to New York city, where he 
resided until his death, which occurred at 
Sandy Hill, September 17, 1858. 

Major Wright was a prominent member of 
the Presbyterian church, and an active and 
useful citizen during his many years of busi- 
ness life at Sandy Hill. He was married 
twice. His first wife, Emerine Caldwell, of 
Kingsbury Street, died in 1828. For his sec- 
ond wife he wedded Charity T. Baker. To 
them were born three boys — James Caldwell, 
William E., and Silas — and four girls, Mar- 
garet, Frances M., Elizabeth Baker, and Abbe 
A., three of whom, Silas, Elizabeth B. Denton 
and Abbe, still survive. 

Silas Wright, a cousin of Major Wright, 
was a distinguished statesman, who honored 
the offices of comptroller, United States sen- 
ator, and governor of New York State. He 
was a law student with Martindale & Muzzy, 
at Sandy Hill, from 1815 to 1819. 

Mrs. Charity T. (Baker) Wright was born 
at Sandy Hill in 1804, and is remarkably well 
preserved, both mentally and physically, for 
one of her advanced years. Her grandfather, 
Hon. Albert Baker, was a native of West- 
chester county, where he married Rachel Sut- 
ton. He removed to New York city and fol- 
lowed carting sugar until 1768, when he came 
to the site of Sandy Hill and built a house 
near the falls of the Hudson, which now bears 
his name, Baker's Falls. He was the second 
settler at Sandy Hill, where he took up six 
hundred acres of land, and built at the falls 
the earliest grist and saw mill of the town of 
Kingsbury. He served in the Revolutionary 
war, and was one of the representatives of 
Washington county to the convention of del- 
egates, which assembled at Kingston in 1777 
and framed the first State constitution. He 
died in 1805, and his widow passed away in 
1815. They had four sons: Lieutenant Al- 
bert, who served in the Revolutionary war, and 
was a farmer and miller ; Charles, who never 
married, followed farming and milling ; Caleb, 
the first child born in the town, was a prom- 

inent politician and justice of the peace ; and 
John, the father of Mrs. Charity T. Wright. 
Hon. John Baker was a miller and a contractor, 
and served as coroner and associate judgeof his 
county, and as a member of the State legisla- 
ture in 181 1, and from 1821 to 1823. While 
engaged in contracting he erected the finest 
locks and bridges on the canal ever built up 
to that time. He died in 1824, at forty-four 
years of age. 

E. D. Baker was a son of E. D. and Mary 
( Buckbee) Baker, and was born in New York 
city, November 9, 1812. His father was a 
native of Massachusetts and his mother of 
New York. E. D. Baker received a common 
school education, and at seventeen years of 
age entered the Herald printing office, where 
he learned the printer's trade. In 1841 he 
bought that paper and owned and edited it 
for a quarter of a century. ' He was a dem- 
ocrat, and in 1834 wedded Ellen Matthews, a 
daughter of David Matthews, of Salem, and a 
soldier of the war of 1812. David Matthews 
was a son of William Matthews, who came 
from Ireland, and served as an American sol- 
dier in the war of the revolution. Mrs. Charity 
Wright died in 1894. 

HENRY CRANDALL, one of the most 
enterprising arid public spirited citizens 
of the village of Glens Falls, was born in the 
town of Caldwell, Warren county, New York, 
February 13, 1821. He received onty the ad- 
vantages of a common school education, and 
when at the age of twenty-four years went to 
work by the month in the lumber woods, where 
he remained as a common laborer for a period 
of ten years. At the expiration of this time, 
in 1855, he formed a partnership in the lumber 
business at Glens Falls with James C. Finch 
and John J. Harris, which partnership carried 
on a very successful trade until 1880, when he 
withdrew from the lumber business, and has 
since been engaged in real estate and building. 
Mr. Crandall is a director in the Glens Falls 



National bank, and is a trustee of the board 
of education ; he is a republican in his political 
opinion, and owns considerable real estate in 
Glens Falls. He built, and is the present 
proprietor of the Crandall block, one of the 
most artistic and tastefully built blocks in the 
village. The Glens Falls public library has 
free use of this building, and not only in this, 
but in many other particulars, has Mr. Cran- 
dall evinced his philanthropy and progres- 

He was married, in. 1858, to Betsie Waters, 
of Warren county. As a citizen and friend, 
Mr. Crandall occupies an enviable position in 
his community : his rise from poverty to afflu- 
ence is a splendid example for the struggling 
and ambitious youths of to-day ; having fol- 
lowed through all his successful business 
career the one avenue, only, that leads to per- 
manent and honorable success, which is con- 
centrating of mind and devotion to duty, en- 
twined with truth and unblemished character. 

nEV. JAMES J. O'BRIEN, a popular 
and scholarly gentleman, and the present 
pastor of St. Mary's Catholic church of 
Sandy Hill, was born January 16, 1856, in 
Oswego, New York, where his parents still 
reside. He is a son of Thomas and Ellen 
O'Brien, who came from Ireland. Father 
O'Brien was educated in the public schools of 
his native city of Oswego, and was graduated 
from its high school in 187 1, at the age of 
fifteen years delivering the Latin salutatory. 
He afterward entered and completed his col- 
legiate course of studies in the Niagara uni- 
versity, conducted by the Lazarist Fathers, 
located at Niagara Falls, New York, and 
entered St. Joseph's seminary, at Troy, New 
York, in September, 1874. There he re- 
mained until 1879, when he was ordained 
priest by the Right Reverend Francis Mc- 
Nierny, D. D., Bishop of Albany, and as- 
signed to the curacy of St. Mary's church, 
Syracuse, New York, where he was assistant 

to the late Reverend Dr. O'Hara, in which 
capacity he remained for three years. In 
1882 Bishop McNierny selected him for the 
new mission of Fonda and Tribes Hill, where 
he labored most devotedly for five years, and 
in 1887 was promoted to his present important 
charge at Sandy Hill. During his able pas- 
torate at this place the debt on the church 
and parochial residence has been liquidated, 
and in addition to that he has purchased and 
paid for a magnificent new pipe organ at the 
cost of three thousand four hundred dollars, 
and placed it in the church. 

The Catholics of Fort Ann, although few 
in number, reverence Father O'Brien, for the 
erection in that village of one of the hand- 
somest and most substantial country churches 
in the Albany diocese. Within two years this 
handsome church edifice, at a cost of five 
thousand dollars, has been completed, and 
only a few hundred dollars of indebtedness 

Father O'Brien is popular with all classes, 
energetic and progressive in his work, and de- 
voted to his church. The success that he 
has already achieved at this early period of 
his life, and the esteem in which he is held by 
his congregation and by the public generally 
give assurance of the larger work yet remain- 
ing to be done by him for the greater glory of 
God. Since his coming to Sandy Hill he has 
labored and been active in the advancement 
of religion and civilization. He was the 
chief promoter and organizer of the Young 
Men's Catholic Union, the Young Ladies' 
B. V. M. society, Holy Name society for 
men, a Catholic Mutual Benefit association, 
Branch No. 120, and several smaller societies 
for children. 

HENRY GRAY, M. D., a prominent 
physician of Greenwich, who is descended 
from a long line of successful practitioners, 
and who served during the civil war as cap- 
tain and major in the Federal army, was born 



at Cambridge, Washington county, New York, 
September 6, 1842, and is the eldest son of 
Dr. Henry C. and Jeannette (Bullion) Gray. 
Dr. Joseph Gray, great-grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was an Englishman by 
birth and education, who came to America 
and settled in New Hampshire, early in the 
eighteenth century. His son Henry Gray, 
M. D. (grandfather), was a native of New 
Hampshire, studied medicine, and while yet a 
young man located at White Creek, New 
York, where he followed his profession nearly 
all his life. He acquired a large practice and 
became prominent. Politically he was a 
Jacksonian democrat, and married Ruby Car- 
penter, a native of New Hampshire, by whom 
he had a family of eight children. One of 
his sons was Henry C. Gray, M. D. (father), 
who was born in New Hampshire, in January, 
181 1, but was reared and educated in New 
York. His medical studies were conducted 
at Andover, Massachusetts, and in the city of 
Philadelphia, where he received his degree. 
For nearly half a century he lived and prac- 
ticed his profession in the village of Cam- 
bridge, where he became very successful and 
was regarded as one of the leading physicians 
of the county, and he became widely known 
and was greatly esteemed. He was com- 
missioned surgeon of the 114th New York in- 
fantry by Gov. William G. Marcy. Politi- 
cally he was a democrat, and a member of the 
Baptist church. He married Jeannette Bul- 
lion, a daughter of Rev. Alexander Bullion, 
of Corla, this county, and by that union had 
a family of eight children, three sons and 
five daughters: Mary B., married Rev. John 
Anderson, of Cambridge; Eliza N., wife of 
Dr. B. F. Ketchum, of Brattleboro, Vermont ; 
Dr. Henry, the subject of this sketch ; 
Robert L., who was killed at the battle of the 
Wilderness, May 5, 1864; Dr. Charles A., a 
practicing physician of Hinsdale, New Hamp- 
shire ; Florence G., wife of J. J. Estey, the 
well-known organ manufacturer of Brattle- 
boro, Vermont ; Fannie G., "married Thomas 

Cull, D. D., of the village of Greenwich ; 
and Anna R., widow of the late M. L. Cobb, 
of Sing Sing, New York. Mrs. Jeannette 
Gray died in 1849, aged thirty-nine years. 

Dr. Henry Gray grew to manhood in this 
county, receiving his education in the Cam- 
bridge academy, Princeton and Jonesville, 
and was graduated from the New York Col- 
lege of Physician and Surgeons in 1867. In 
the autumn of the same year he located in 
Greenwich for the practice of his profession, 
and has remained here ever since. Inheriting 
from a long line of ancestors many of the 
leading characteristics of the true physician, 
and having carefully prepared himself for the 
duties of his profession, it was not long until 
he found himself in the enjoyment of an ex- 
tensive practice, which has steadily increased 
until it may now be said to be among the lar- 
gest in this section. Dr. Gray is a member 
of the New York State Medical society, and 
of the Washington County Medical society, 
in the latter of which he has held all the 
offices from secretary to president. 

In politics Dr. Gray adheres to the tradi- 
tions of his family, and is an ardent demo- 
crat, believing implicitly in a government 
of the people by the people, and opposed to 
all legislation intended to benefit certain 
classes at the expense of others. In 1862 he 
enlisted in the Federal service, was made cap- 
tain of Co. G, 123d New York infantry, and 
was afterward promoted, for gallant conduct, 
to the rank of major. He participated in the 
battles of Chancellorsville, May, 1-4, 1863; 
Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863; beside a num- 
ber of others, and was with Sherman in his 
famous march to the sea. During his service 
Major Gray was thrice wounded, in the leg, 
on the arm, and on the head, but none of 
these injuries proved serious. He was dis- 
charged with his command in the summer of 
1865, and returned to Washington county, 
where he took up the study of medicine, and 
prepared himself for practice as previously 



On May 7, 1867, Dr. Gray was united in 
marriage with Annie B. Buell, a daughter of 
Eliakim Buell, of the city of Troy, New 
York. To Dr. and Mrs. Gray was born an 
only child, a son named Harry C. , who be- 
came an electrician, and is now superintendent 
of the Consolidated Electric Light & Power 
Company of the village of Greenwich. 

.TAMES H. TH03IPSOX, superinten- 
dent and general manager of the Green- 
wich & Johnsonville railroad, and one of the 
most successful and highly esteemed citizens 
of the village of Greenwich, where he has re- 
sided since 1872, is a son of Colonel Andrew 
and Eliza (Stevens) Thompson, and was born 
February 13, 1844, in the town of Easton, 
Washington county, New York. The Thomp- 
sons are of Scotch extraction, and the family 
was first planted in Connecticut prior to the 
Revolutionary war. From that State members 
of it came into New York about 1780, and 
settled in Washington county, which was then 
comparatively a new and unimproved country. 
Andrew Thompson, paternal grandfather of 
the subject of this sketch, was born and reared 
in the town of Jackson, this county. After 
securing such education as was afforded by 
the country schools of that day, he engaged 
in farming, the occupation of his ancestors, 
and devoted all his life to agricultural pursuits. 
He owned and cultivated a farm of three 
hundred acres in the town of Jackson, and be- 
came quite prosperous. He was an old line 
whig in politics and a member of the Presby- 
terian church. His death occurred in 1844, 
at which time he was about eighty years of 
age. One of his sons was Colonel Andrew 
Thompson (father), who was born on the old 
homestead in the town of Jackson, in 1808, 
where he grew up and received an excellent 
English education in the district school. He 
then engaged in farming in the town of Easton, 
where he owned a fine' farm of two hundred 
and seventy acres of valuable land. At dif- 

ferent times he was also engaged in a number 
of other business enterprises, and was very 
successful in everything he undertook to do, 
being endowed with great energy and sound 
judgment. Politically he was a whig and re- 
publican, and always took an active interest 
in local politics. He was several times elected 
supervisor of his town, and held a number of 
minor offices. In 1857 he was nominated and 
elected to a seat in the State assembly, and 
re-elected in 1858. His influence was felt in 
that honorable body, where he exerted him- 
self to carry through measures required by 
his constituents and demanded by the public 
welfare. There was also a strong military 
side to his nature, and he early identified him- 
self with the 30th New York State militia, of 
which he was made colonel when only twenty- 
one years of age. At the age of twenty-three 
he was a candidate for the rank of brigadier 
general, and came within one vote of securing 
the election. He was a member and deacon 
of the Reformed church, in which he was al- 
ways active, and in 1840 married Eliza Stev- 
ens, a native of Washington county and a 
daughter of Simeon Stevens, a prosperous 
farmer of the town of Jackson. To them 
was born a family of six children, five sons 
and a daughter : Simeon A., a farmer of the 
town of Cambridge; James H., the subject of 
this sketch ; Margaret, who died in youth ; 
LeRoy, a merchant of Greenwich, a sketch 
of whom appears elsewhere in this volume ; 
William A., now a civil engineer in the em- 
ploy of the government at Rock Island, Illi- 
nois ; and Frank, a farmer living on the old 
homestead in the town of Easton, of which 
town he is at present serving as supervisor. 
Colonel Thompson died August 10, 1891, aged 
eighty-three, and his wife still survives, being 
now in the seventy-eighth year of her age. 
She is a member of the Reformed church, 
and resides in the village of Greenwich. 

James H. Thompson was reared on his 
father's farm in the town of Easton, and re- 
ceived liis education in the district schools, 



the Greenwich academy and the Eastman 
Business college, of Poughkeepsie, New York. 
At the age of twenty-eight he entered the 
employ of the Greenwich & Johnsonville Rail- 
road Company, as station agent in the village 
of Greenwich, which position he acceptably 
filled until 1879. In that year the road was 
reorganized by the stockholders, and Mr. 
Thompson, being one of them, was elected 
superintendent and general manager, which 
office he has held ever since, discharging its 
duties in a manner at once creditable to him- 
self and advantageous to the interests of the 
road and its general business. 

In politics James H. Thompson is a stanch 
republican, taking an active interest in the 
success of his party at the polls, and has 
served as president of the village. In 1892 
he served as alternate in the National conven- 
tion that nominated Benjamin Harrison for 
president the second time. All his life Mr. 
Thompson has been deeply interested in the 
great cause of popular education, and for 
twenty years has been a member of the board 
of education. In religion he is a member of 
the Reformed church, of Greenwich, and 
actively supports its various interests. 

On February 10, 1870, Mr. Thompson was 
united by marriage to Cornelia Coulter, the 
youngest daughter of James Coulter, of the 
town of Jackson. To Mr. and Mrs. Thomp- 
son have been born two daughters : Blanche 
D. and Nancy C, both living at home with 
their parents in their handsome residence in 
the village of Greenwich. 

JTOHN T. MASTERS, who died at his 
• home in Greenwich in 1894, was for many 
years a prominent citizen of northern New 
York, and a well known and estimable gentle- 
man of the old school. He was the only son of 
JudgeNicholas Merrittand AnnaT. (Thomas) 
Masters, and was born March 25, 1819, in the 
city of Troy, New York. His paternal great- 
great-gfTandfather, Nicholas Masters, was a 

native of the island of Guernsey, where he was 
reared and lived until after his marriage. He 
was a wealthy shipowner, married the daugh- 
ter of a Rev. Mr. Sheldon, a clergyman of the 
church of England, and came with his wife on 
his own ships to visit this country. Pleased 
with America, they determined to remain here, 
and settled in Connecticut, where they passed 
the remainder of their lives. Their son, 
Nicholas Masters (great-grandfather), was 
born and grew to manhood in Connecticut, 
but while yet a young man removed *o Rens- 
selaer county, New York, where he engaged 
in farming and became a large land owner. 
One of his sons was Nicholas Masters (pater- 
nal grandfather), who also devoted himself to 
agricultural pursuits, and became one of the 
large land owners in that section. He and 
his brother, Judge Josiah Masters, built and 
operated the famous powder mills at Valley 
Falls, Rensselaer county, which enterprise 
they undertook at the personal solicitation of 
President Madison. Judge Josiah Masters 
was a very prominent man in his day, and was 
sent to England by President Madison on a 
business mission. 

Judge Nicholas Masters (father), the fourth 
of the same name in regular line of descent, 
was born at Schaghticoke, Rensselaer county, 
in the initial year of the present century. He 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in due 
course, and became one of the most promin- 
ent attorneys of eastern New York. He served 
as master in chancery, surrogate of Rensselaer 
county, and member of the State assembly. 
He was also a member of one of the constitu- 
tional conventions of New York. Politically 
he was a democrat until 1850, when he became 
a republican. He owned an interest in the 
Schaghticoke powder mills at Valley Falls, 
and during the Civil war they manufactured 
powder exclusively for the Federal govern- 
ment, turning out five hundred kegs every 
twenty-four hours. Judge Masters was a mem- 
ber and the principal officer of the Presbyte- 
rian church of Schaghticoke for more than 




forty years. He married Anna T. Thomas, a 
daughter of John Thomas, of Sandy Hill, and 
by that union had two children, one son and a 
daughter : Sarah Ann, who died at the age of 
six years ; and John T., the subject of this 
sketch. Judge Masters died March 28, 1873, 
in the seventy-third year of his age, and his 
wife, who was also a member of the Presby- 
terian church, passed from earth July 23, 1878, 
aged seventy-three. 

John Thomas Masters was educated at Ben- 
nington, Vermont, and at Union college. He 
then studied law, but never engaged in prac- 
tice. He owned a large interest in the pow- 
der mills at Valley Falls, and for many years 
was president of the company which operated 
them. He continued the manufacture of pow- 
der until 1878. In 1869 Mr. Masters was ap- 
pointed collector of internal revenue for the 
fifteenth district of New York, which office he 
held for nine years. In August, 1878, he was 
appointed by President Arthur to an import- 
ant clerkship in the war department at Wash- 
ington, the duties of which he continued to 
discharge until 1888. He then resigned, re- 
turned to Greenwich, where he lived a retired 
life until his death, in the seventy-fourth year 
of his age. 

Politically John T. Masters was a democrat 
until 1850, when he joined the republican 
ranks, and was sent as a delegate from New 
York to the first National convention ever held 
by that party. He was also a delegate to the 
convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln 
for president the second time. In religion he 
was a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
church, and while his health permitted was al- 
ways active in church affairs, serving as ves- 
tryman and warden for many years. 

In the spring of 1840 Mr. Masters was united 
by marriage to Mary Elizabeth Mowry, a 
daughter of William Mowry, of the village of 
Greenwich, and to them was born a family of 
four children: William M., Nicholas Merritt, 
Elizabeth and Leroy, all now deceased. Mrs. 
Masters was born November 21, 1821, and 

died November 11, 1882, aged sixty-one. She 
was a member of the Congregational church. 
Her father, Col. William Mowry, erected and 
put into operation the first cotton factory ever 
built in the State of New York, and the sec- 
ond in the United States. 

J" MELVIN ADAMS, cashier of the 
* banking house of John Hall & Co., and 
a financier of considerable ability and experi- 
ence, was born in the town of Fort Ann, Wash- 
ington county, New York, April 16, 1857, and 
is a son of John G. and Sallie M. (McMore) 
Adams. The Adams family is of English de- 
scent, and John Adams, the grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was a son of Jonathan 
Adams, a native of England, and came from 
New Hampshire to the northern part of the 
town of Fort Ann, where he resided up to the 
time of his death. His son, John G. Adams 
(father), was born in 1825, and has been en- 
gaged in the general mercantile business for 
the last thirty-eight years. He is a democrat 
in politics, and has been a member for man}' 
years of the Second Baptist church of Fort 
Ann, in which he is now serving as deacon. 
Mr. Adams married Sallie M. McMore, who 
died in 1878, at the age of forty-seven years. 
Mrs. Adams was a daughter of Eleazer Mc- 
More, a native of Connecticut, who came in 
early life to the town of Fort Ann, where he 
followed farming up to his death, in 1886, at 
seventy-eight years of age. Eleazer McMore 
was a son of Alexander McMore, a native of 
Ireland, and who settled in this country pre- 
vious to the Revolutionary war, in which he 
was engaged as a soldier. 

J. Melvin Adams was reared in his native 
town, received his education at Fort Edward 
Collegiate institute, and taught in the district 
schools for two terms. In 1879 he became a 
clerk in the banking house of John Hall & 
Co., where he was promoted to his present 
position of cashier in 1880. 

In 1893 Mr. Adams was united in marriage 



with Mina S. Belden, daughter of George 
Belden, of Whitehall. In the affairs of his 
village Mr. Adams has always taken a deep 
interest. For some time he has served as 
treasurer of the village corporation. He is a 
member, and past master and the present sec- 
retary of Mount Hope Masonic Lodge, No. 
260. He also is a member of Fort Edward 
Chapter, No. 171. Mr. Adams, while active 
in business and political matters, and prom- 
inent in Masonic circles, yet takes a deep in- 
terest in church and Sunday school affairs, 
being a member, trustee and the treasurer of 
the Fort Ann Village Baptist church, of whose 
Sunday school he has served as superintendent 
for three years. 

QHARLES G. DAVIS is one of the 

leading members of the Washington 
county bar, and at present holding the office 
of special surrogate of the same county. He 
is a son of Nicholas and Almira (Wilcox) 
Davis, and was born in the town of Saratoga, 
Saratoga county, New York, May 27, 1847. 
The family from which Charles G. Davis is 
descended is of Welsh origin. George Davis 
(grandfather) was a native of New Bedford, 
Massachusetts, where the family was planted 
in an early day, and where he grew to man- 
hood and received an ordinary education. He 
was one of the early settlers and pioneers in 
the town of Saratoga, having removed there 
soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, 
in 1788. He became prominent in the early 
affairs of his town, was a Quaker in his re- 
ligious principles, and died in the year 1829. 
The lineal ancestor of the subject of this 
sketch and the progenitor of the American 
branch of the Davis family, according to tra- 
ditions and the records in the possession of 
his descendants, came from Wales in the clos- 
ing years of the sixteenth century. Nicholas 
Davis (father) was born in Saratoga count) 7 , 
New York, having first seen the light of day 
in the town of Saratoga, in 1798, where he 

died in May, 1873, in the seventy-fifth year of 
his age. He married Almira Wilcox, who was 
born in the same county as her husband, in 
1806, and died in November, 1874, at the age 
of sixty-eight years. She was a consistent 
and life-long member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. She was of French descent, her 
ancestors coming from France and landing at 
Quebec in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. By trade Nicholas Davis was a 
blacksmith, but in the latter part of his life he 
followed the pursuit of farming. A Quaker 
in religion, in political tenets he was a whig 
and ardent abolitionist, and joined the Repub- 
lican party soon after its birth, in 1854. 

Charles G. Davis spent the early years of 
his life on the farm where he was born, at- 
tended the common schools of his neighbor- 
hood, and afterward entered the Connecticut 
Literary institute, at Hartford, Connecticut, 
from which he was graduated in the class of 
1870. Upon leaving this literary institute, 
and having decided on the profession of law 
as his life vocation, he immediately commenced 
the study in the offices of Pond & French, in 
the village of Saratoga Springs, and subse- 
quently studied in the office of Judge Joseph 
Potter, of the village of Whitehall. Here 
Mr. Davis carefully prepared himself for the 
general practice of his profession, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Albany, New York, in 
January, 1876, since which time he has been 
in active and successful practice, engaged in 
many of the leading cases that have come be- 
fore the courts in Washington county. In 
1873-74 he was deputy collector of customs 
at the port of Whitehall, and is now serving 
his second term of four years each as special 
surrogate of the county. Mr. Davis, previous 
to having held this position of honor and 
trust, served as justice of the peace, and sev- 
eral terms as police justice of Whitehall. He 
is an earnest republican in politics, and in 
every important political campaign is on the 
platform, advocating the principles of his 
party. In 1880 he married Libbie E., who is 



a daughter of A. T. Lyon, of this village. 
Mr. Davis is a Methodist in religion, and 
active in all branches of church work that 
pertain to good Methodism. 


many years a leading dentist, and the 
present postmaster of the village of Green- 
wich, was born May 16, 1832, in the city of 
Newburg, New York, being the youngest of 
four sons born to Stephen Lewis and Sarah 
(Sperry) Stillman. Rev. Stephen L. Stillman 
(father) was a native of the village of YYeath- 
ersfield, Connecticut, where he was born in 
1795, but at the age of about twenty- two, 
left Connecticut and came to New York and 
located at Schenectady, where he was for sev- 
eral years engaged in gun making and the 
manufacture of surgical instruments. Born 
and reared in the Baptist faith, he at the age 
of about twenty-three years, joined the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, and in a few years 
thereafter became a licensed minister in that 
denomination. His first work in the ministry 
was in the New York conference, his princi- 
pal appointments being in Brooklyn, New- 
burg, Hudson, Poughkeepsie and New Haven, 
Connecticut, and was subsequently transferred 
to the Troy conference, where he labored suc- 
cessfully as pastor at the following places: 
Garretson Station, Washington street, Albany, 
the North Second street church in the city 
of Troy, Ballston Spa, Greenwich, Waterford 
and Salem. Retiring from his work in the 
church in 1865, he died at Albany in 1869, at 
the age of seventy-four years. Originally a 
democrat he became a republican. At about 
the age of twenty years he wedded Sarah 
Sperry, of Weathersfield, Connecticut. To 
this marriage were born four children, all 
sons : H. F., who resided in Chicago and is 
now dead; William S. ; deceased, at the age 
of twenty years ; George Henry, lives at 
Portsmouth, Ohio, and Dr.- Stephen L. 

Rev. Stillman was a native of Connecticut, 

and was born in 1795. Ethan Stillman (grand- 
father) was a native of Connecticut, a machin- 
ist by trade, and a Seventh-day Baptist in re- 
ligion. The Stillmans are of English extrac- 
tion, and the name was originally Prichard. 
Three brothers by the latter name came to 
America in early colonial times on account of 
religious and other persecutions, and after 
their arrival dropped the name Prichard, and 
adopted that of Stillman, as a gentle and sig- 
nificant reminder that religious controversies, 
if engaged in at all, should be conducted 
very quietly. 

Dr. Stephen L. Stillman received his edu- 
cation in the Jonesville academy, Saratoga 
county, New York, and in the schools of the 
city of Albany. In 1846 he began the study 
of dentistry in the office of Dr. Allen Clark, of 
Lansingburg, New York. Remaining there 
for one year he went to Ballston Spa, where 
his father then lived. In 1848 Dr. Stillman 
removed to Greenwich, where he has ever 
since resided. Here he finished his dental 
studies with Dr. J. B. Crosby, and with whom 
he was associated until the death of the latter 
in 1865 ; buying Dr. Crosby's interest in the 
office, Dr. Stillman has since conducted the 
business alone with remarkably good success. 
During the Civil war Dr. Stillman was a mem- 
ber of the war committee of the town, and ac- 
tive in his support in securing volunteers for 
the Union. For thirty years he has been a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and was 
one of the organizers and founders of Ashlar 
Lodge, No. 584, of Greenwich ; for ten con- 
secutive years he served as master of this 
lodge, and for two years was district deputy 
grand master of the thirteenth Masonic dis- 
trict. He is also a member of Home Chapter, 
No. 176, Royal Arch Masons, Schuylerville, 
New York; Washington Commandery, No. 33, 
Knights Templar, Saratoga Springs, and 
Oriental Temple of Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine, of Troy; and is a past grand and 
member of the Encampment, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and was at one time a 



member of the Knights of Pythias. Reared 
a democrat, at the breaking out of the war he 
became a republican^ and cast his first presi- 
dential vote for Lincoln in 1864, and since 
that time has been identified with that party. 
He was chairman of the Republican county 
committee in 1889 and 1890, in which he 
served for two years, and in 1891 he was ap- 
pointed postmaster by President Harrison at 
Greenwich. He is an attendant and vestry- 
man of the Episcopal church. 

On October 20, 1888, Dr. Stillman was uni- 
ted in marriage to Ruth, daughter of Elisha 
and Cynthia McGown, of Wayne county, New 
York, and to them have been born one child, 
a son, Paul Roscoe, who is at present assist- 
ing his father in the business of dentistry. 

rjEORGE D. GETTY, the present post- 
^^ master at Middle Granville, and a young 
man of varied business experience, is a son of 
Chester L. and Marilla B. (Woodward) Getty, 
and was born in the town of Hebron, Wash- 
ington county, New York, September 29, 1862. 
His father, Chester L. Getty, was born in the 
same town, where he lived all his life, follow- 
ing farming, and dying in 1879, at the age of 
fifty-six years. He was a republican in poli- 
tics, serving two terms as supervisor of his 
town, and was a man of intelligence, highly 
respected and honored by his neighbors. His 
farm contained two hundred acres of highly 
improved land, and he was one of the pros- 
perous and successful farmers of his section. 
The Getty family was prominent in the early 
settlement of the town of Hebron : as early 
as January 1775, we find the names of David 
and John Getty, among several others, peti- 
tioning the Colonial assembly for the privilege 
of electing a representative from Charlotte 
county. James, John any Robert Getty came 
from Newry, Ireland, soon after the colony 
under Dr. Clark settled in Salem. James 
settled in Salem, where the name is frequent 
in the early records. John, with his family. 

removed to Pennsylvania and founded Gettys- 
burg. Robert moved into Hebron, and settled 
there permanently. He left four sons : Adam, 
Robert, John and David ; and one daughter, 
Jane. Two of the sons of James Getty, of 
Salem, came into Hebron : Ebenezer, who 
settled one mile south of Monroe's Meadows, 
and Robert, one mile northeast of Belcher. 
The latter afterward moved to Lansingburg. 
Of the family of Ebenezer there are now liv- 
ing, Mrs. J. S. McClelland and Mrs. J. W. 
Beatty. Ebenezer, jr. , is deceased ; it is his 
grandson, John, who resides on the homestead. 
John, David and Ebenezer were members of 
the first Presbyterian congregation organized 
in Hebron about the year 1780. The grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, James 
Getty, was son of Ebenezer, sr. , and was born 
in the town of Hebron, where he resided up to 
his death in 1836. Marilla B. (Woodward) 
Getty was a native of the same town, and a 
daughter of Benjamin. She resided here 
until her death in 1884, at the age of sixty- 
one years. She was a member of the Baptist 
church, and led a devoted Christian life. 

George D. Getty remained on the farm in 
his native town until he arrived at the age of 
manhood, receiving his education in the pub- 
lic schools. He successfully followed the oc- 
cupation of farming in that town until 1887, 
when he removed to the village of Granville, 
and embarked in the boot and shoe business. 
Selling out his stock in 18S8, he came to Mid- 
dle Granville, where he purchased the general 
store of the C. H. Bull estate, which he ran 
up to 1890, when he burned out. For one 
year and a half after his fire he traveled for a 
creamery firm at Middle Granville, and on 
November 25, 1889, was appointed postmas- 
ter, and has since filled the office to the gen- 
eral satisfaction of the people. In addition 
to his other interests, he is engaged in the 
manufacturing business, being treasurer and 
director of the Carver Manufacturing Com- 
pany. In 1886 he wedded Helen M., who is 
a daughter of Edgar O. Barden, of the town 



of Wells, Vermont. Mr. and Mrs. Getty are 
the parents of two children : Ethel and G. 
Douglass. George D. Getty is a member of 
Hershall Lodge, No. 508, Free and Accepted 
Masons, of Hartford, this county ; he is also 
a member of the Illini Tribe, Independent 
Order of Red Men, and Sandy Hill Council 
of the Royal Arcanum. He is a leading re- 
publican of the county, and prominent in the 
councils of his party. He is one of nine 
children born to his parents, four sons and 
five daughters, the eight others being : Mary, 
the wife of Judson F. Barker; Sarah, the wife 
of William Fleming ; Maggie, married R. 
Slorah ; Adella A., James A. and Benjamin F. 
Two are deceased, Chester and Ann Maria. 

/"JEORUE E. TRUMBULL, a success 
^^ ful merchant and business man of Bald 
Mountain, in the town of Greenwich, and a 
very well known citizen of the county, is a son 
of George F. and Mary H. (Sheldon) Trum- 
bull, and was born at the village of Rupert, 
Vermont, August 20, 1852. His father, George 
F. Trumbull, was born May 4, 1822, and was 
a native of the same village in Vermont. He 
was a well-to-do farmer of his day, owned a 
tract of three hundred acres of land in the 
vicinity of his native village, which he always 
kept in a high state of cultivation, and also 
dealt extensively in meats and potatoes. He 
removed to New York State in 1866, and lo- 
cated in the town of Greenwich, where he 
followed that occupation until his retirement 
from business, in 1880. A soldier in the war 
of the rebellion, enlisting in Co. B, 7th New 
York heavy artillery, he served as detached 
guard at Hart's Island, and during this time 
he contracted a severe case of typhoid fever, 
which ever afterward affected his health. For 
sixteen months he performed his duties as a 
soldier, and at the close of the war was hon- 
orably discharged at Hart's Island. He was 
a stanch republican. In 1845 he was married 
to Mary H., a daughter of Titus Sheldon, of 

Rupert, the latter a prominent farmer and in- 
fluential citizen of that locality, and for thirty 
years a deacon in the Congregational church. 
Four sons and three daughters were born to 
their union, of whom four are living : Titus 
S. and George E., of Greenwich; Arthur S. , 
residing at Fort Miller ; and Eliza J. , the wife 
of Thomas Wheelwright, of Harvey, Illinois. 
Mr. and Mrs. Trumbull reside in the town of 
Greenwich, and the latter is a member of 
the Congregational church. David Sheldon 
(maternal grandfather) was among the first to 
settle in the town of Rupert, and for many 
years held the office of county judge. He re- 
moved from Connecticut, where he was born. 
The paternal grandfather, Horace S. Trum- 
bull, was a farmer by occupation and a native 
of Vermont, and who married Dorothy Spear, 
by whom he had twelve children, six sons and 
six daughters. Both he and his wife were 
members of the Congregational church. His 
death occurred in 1856, at the age of eighty- 
two years. Levi Trumbull, the great-grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, was born 
in the State of Connecticut, was a farmer by 
occupation, and came of Puritan ancestry. 

George E. Trumbull grew up on the farm, 
receiving the greater part of his education in 
a select school at Glens Falls, and after leav- 
ing this school he returned to the farm, where 
he remained for a short time. Soon afterward 
he left the farm and engaged in the carpen- 
ter's trade, at which he worked for two years, 
when he abandoned this and began dealing in 
produce and meats, at which he successfully 
continued until 1878. In the latter year he 
branched out into the mercantile business at 
Bald Mountain, where he has since lived, and 
has succeeded in building up a profitable 
trade. Here he keeps a general store, carry- 
ing a large stock of goods, and from 1882 up 
to 1888, in connection with his general mer- 
chandising, he was engaged in selling coal, 
which he abandoned in the latter year. He 
is half-owner in the Trout Brook farm, of two 
hundred and fifty-eight acres, constituting one 



of the best bodies of land and the most val- 
uable farm in the town. He also owns an in- 
terest in another farm of eighty acres in the 
same town, which he manages and farms him- 
self. Mr. Trumbull is a director in the Green- 
wich Town Fire Insurance Company, and is an 
active and influential republican of his section 
of the county. 

On March 17, 1883, he was married to Car- 
oline A. Edwards, who was a daughter of 
Daniel Edwards and Amy Hunt. The former 
was an extensive farmer, and for. many years 
a heavy speculator in grain and potatoes ; a 
highly respected citizen, who died in March, 
1889. To Mr. and Mrs. Trumbull have been 
born two children : Jennie C. and George Lee. 

IjEROY THOMPSON, the well-known 
coal and produce merchant of Green- 
wich, who is also a director in the Greenwich 
& Johnsonville Railroad Company, and trus- 
tee of the Consolidated Electric Light & 
Greenwich Union Water Company, was born 
May 13, 1849, in the town of Easton, and is 
the third son of Col. Andrew and Eliza (Ste- 
vens) Thompson. He grew to manhood on 
his father's farm in that town, and obtained 
his education in the public schools and the 
Greenwich academy. Immediately after at- 
taining his majority Mr. Thompson went to 
Kansas, where he pre-empted one hundred 
and sixty acres of land in Butler county, and 
remained in that State about fifteen months. 
At the end of that time his health began to 
fail, and he was compelled to return east. He 
soon afterward established himself in the city 
of New York, where for seven years he was 
successfully engaged in the wholesale produce 
and commission business. In 1871 Mr. 
Thompson returned to Washington county, 
and locating in the village of Greenwich he 
embarked in the coal and produce business in 
partnership with his brother, James H. 
Thompson (see his sketch), under the firm 
name of J. H. & L. Thompson. They con- 

tinued the business together until 1893, when 
LeRoy purchased the interest of his brother, 
and since that time has conducted the enter- 
prise alone and in his own name. Prompt 
and careful in his dealings, Mr. Thompson 
has built up a large and lucrative business, 
and is one of the best known and most popu- 
lar citizens of Greenwich. 

On December 7, 1881, LeRoy Thompson 
was united in wedlock with Ella Eddy, a 
daughter of Waldron Eddy, an extensive 
manufacturer of agricultural implements, of 
the village of Greenwich. To them have 
been born three children, one son and two 
daughters : LeRoy, jr., Katie Eliza and Myra. 

In political faith Mr. Thompson is an ar- 
dent republican, well grounded in the princi- 
ples of his party and a firm friend to the policy 
of protection to American industries. He is 
a trustee of the Consolidated Electric Light 
& Greenwich Union Water Company, of 
Greenwich, and a director in the Greenwich 
& Johnsonville Railroad Company. 

The family from which Mr. Thompson is 
descended is of Scotch ancestry, and among 
the oldest in America, having been settled in 
the colon}' of Connecticut prior to the Revo- 
lutionary war. From that State they came to 
Washington county, New York, about 1780. 
Here Andrew Thompson (paternal grand- 
father) was born and passed a long and active 
life engaged in agricultural pursuits. He was 
a whig and Presbyterian, and lived to be 
eighty years old. His son, Col. Andrew 
Thompson (father) was born in the town of 
Jackson, in 1808, and died here August 10, 
1891, aged eighty-three. He was a farmer 
and general business man, accumulated con- 
siderable property, and was twice elected to 
the State assembly, beside occupying many 
other positions of trust and responsibility. 
When only twenty-one years of age he was 
elected colonel of the 30th New York State 
militia. In 1840 he married Eliza Stevens, a 
daughter of Simeon Stevens, of this county, 
and by that union had a family of six children : 



Simeon A., James H., Margaret, LeRoy, 
William A. and Frank. Margaret died in 
early youth, but the sons all attained manhood 
and are still living. For additional facts see 
sketch of James H. Thompson, found else- 
where in this volume. Mrs. Eliza Thompson 
survives her husband, and now resides in the 
village of Greenwich, in the seventy-ninth 
year of her age. She is a member of the 
Reformed church, as was Colonel Thompson, 
and in her long and active life has abundantly 
exemplified the characteristics which distin- 
guish true Christian womanhood. 

M. D., of Sandy Hill, who now ranks 
with the most successful and skillful physi- 
cians of the county, and of northeastern New 
York, was born at Fort Miller, Washington 
county, October 8, 1855. He is a son of 
James H. and Mary (Wheeler) Vandewerker, 
both natives of Saratoga county. Martin M. 
Vandewerker (grandfather) was one of four 
brothers, who emigrated from Holland to this 
country in early colonial days and took up a 
tract of land and settled in the town of 
Northumberland, Saratoga county ; and from 
them all the Vandewerkers of this section 
have descended. Hiram Wheeler (maternal 
grandfather) was a son of Alonzo Wheeler, 
and was born and reared in Saratoga county, 
New York, and in the early stage days, kept 
the old Wheeler tavern, located midway be- 
tween Saratoga Springs and Glens Falls, and 
a number of years later on he owned and con- 
ducted a store at Fortsville. James Vande- 
werker was born in 1829, at Northumberland, 
and learned the trade of jeweler, and was for 
many years a prominent jeweler at Fort Mil- 
ler, where he now lives a retired life. 

Dr. Hiram W. Vandewerker was reared to 
manhood in his native village, attending the 
schools of that place, and afterward entered 
King's institute at Fort Edward, from which he 

was graduated in 1875, and immediately began 
teaching school. With the desire of better 
equipping himself with a literary education, 
he went to Albany and became a student in 
the State Normal school, located at that 
place, graduating therefrom in 1877. In the 
same year he went to Poughkeepsie, New 
York, and took a thorough business course in 
Eastman's Business college, and was the third 
time graduated in 1880. For two years he 
taught in the seminary at Glens Falls. In 
1884 he went to New York city, where he be- 
came an apothecary of the Homeopathic hos- 
pital, and during the first year of his connec- 
tion with that institution, served as apothe- 
cary, and for the two succeeding years he 
was both apothecary and assistant house sur- 
geon. He matriculated at the New York Homeo- 
pathic Medical college and hospital, and after a 
thorough course of study was graduated from 
that prominent institution in 1888. In Octo- 
ber of the same year he went to Hartford, 
Connecticut, and took a course known as a 
doctor's practice, remaining there until 1890, 
when he came and located at Sandy Hill, 
where he met with immediate success and 
soon had a large and lucrative practice. After 
his graduation he did not begin practice with 
the idea that he knew it all. On the contrary 
he remained and still is an earnest student of 
the healing art, keeping in touch with the 
leaders of his profession, and alive to every 
new thought or improved method discovered 
or suggested by the experienced men of the 
medical world. To this end he early became 
an active member of the State Homeopathic 
society of New York, and of the American 
Association of Homeopathy, and is a constant 
reader and frequent contributor to some of 
the leading medical journals of his school of 

Dr. Vandewerker, on June 20, 1883, wedded 
Mary Andrews, of Patten's Mills, this county; 
He is medical examiner for several of the 
leading life insurance companies doing busi- 
ness in this section. 



JAMES DOREN, one of the prominent 
and active business men of the county, 
and deputy collector of customs at Whitehall, 
was born in Pomfret. Connecticut, February 
16, 1822. In 1837 he came to Whitehall, 
where he has made his home ever since. He 
received a common school education and 
learned with his half-brother, Oliver L. Steere, 
the trade of carpenter and joiner, which he 
followed in connection with contracting up to 
1852. In that year he engaged in the furni- 
ture and undertaking business and carries a 
larger and better assorted stock of furniture 
and burial caskets than is usually found out- 
side of a city. He does a large and lucrative 
business, having a patronage that is rapidly 
increasing each year. 

In 1846 Mr. Doren married Lovina Fran- 
cisco, of West Haven, Vermont, who died in 
1855, leaving three children ; a son, George 
D., surviving. In 1857 Mr. Doren was uni- 
ted in marriage with Arabella Francisco, also 
of West Haven, Vermont, and by his second 
marriage has four children : John J., Charles 
A., James E. and Fred C. Charles A. is a 
contractor and builder ; the other sons are 
engaged with their father in the furniture and 
undertaking business. 

In politics James Doren is a strong repub- 
lican, and his services have been in constant 
demand by his party. He has served repeat- 
ed!}' as a member of the Republican county 
committee, of which he was chairman several 
times. He was deputy sheriff for nine years, 
held the office of coroner for six years, and 
served as canal collector for seven years. He 
was appointed as deputy collector of customs 
of his district in 1885 by President Harrison, 
and still holds that position. Mr. Doren has 
served for nearly thirty years as a member of 
the board of education of his village, where he 
was a member for fourteen years of the fire 
department, being assistant and chief engineer 
for eight years. In connection with operating 
his furniture and undertaking establishment, 
he has been successfully engaged for thirty 

years in the fire insurance business, represent- 
ing the old and reliable Etna Fire Insurance 
Company, of Hartford, Connecticut. Mr. 
Doren is a member and past grand of White- 
hall Lodge, No. 5, and a member and past 
chief patriarch of Whitehall Encampment, 
No. 69, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 
He is among the oldest and most reliable busi- 
ness men of the village ; energetic and enter- 
prising, he discharges all of his transactions 
with promptness and fidelity. 

TlANSING M. HOWLAXD, treasurer 
of the Howland Paper Company, and 
prominently identified with the manufacturing 
interests of Sandy Hill, is a son of Enos and 
Susan C. (Murphy) Howland. (See sketch 
of Amasa Howland.) He was born in the 
village of Sandy Hill, Washington county, New 
York, August 19, 1850. His father, Enos 
Howland, was a brother of Amasa Howland, 
and a native of the town of Galway, Saratoga 
county, and when a young man removed with 
his father to Sandy Hill, where for a few years 
he was engaged in the book binding business. 
A few years later, with his father and brother, 
he engaged in the paper manufacturing busi- 
ness, and they were among the pioneer paper 
makers of the Upper Hudson. 

Enos and Amasa Howland removed their 
business to Fort Ann, where they were suc- 
cessfully engaged in paper making until 1867. 
In that year the former retired from active 
business. He died at his home in Fort Ed- 
ward in 1877, at the age of fifty-seven years. 

Lansing M. Howland was principally reared 
in Fort Edward, excepting a period of ten 
years' residence at Fort Ann. Since 1867 he 
has resided between Fort Edward and Sandy 
Hill, where he has recently completed one of 
the most costly and tastily arranged residences 
in Washington count}'. His education was 
mainly received in the Fort Edward institute, 
and in the year 1873 Mr. Howland became a 
partner of his uncle's in the old Howland 



Paper Company, at Baker Falls. He is presi- 
dent of the Fort Edward Electric Light Com- 
pany, and a director of the First National 
bank of Fort Edward. For many years Mr. 
Howland has been prominently identified with 
the various industrial enterprises of his sec- 
tion, and has given his v aid and influence to 
every movement for the development or im- 
provement of the same. 

In December, 1871, Mr. Howland married 
Harriet C, a daughter of David M. O'Dell, of 
Fort Edward. He is a member and deacon 
of the Baptist church of Fort Edward. In 
his political tenets he is a republican, taking 
an active interest in the success of his party. 
For three years he filled the office of super- 
visor of his town, and since 1892, the reor- 
ganization of the paper company, he has 
served as treasurer of the Howland Paper 

TlIEUT. JOHN KING, one of the old 

■^"^ est business men of Salem, and ex-treas- 
urer of Washington county, is a son of Henry 
and H-uldah (Cook) King, and was born at 
Salem, Washington county, New York, Janu- 
ary 18, 1823. His paternal grandfather, Henry 
King, sr. , was a native of Massachusetts, and 
came to Whitehall, where he died at an ad- 
vanced age. His son, Henry King (father), 
was born at Whitehall, and in early life re- 
moved to Salem, where he died in August, 
1822. Henry King was a farmer by occupa- 
tion, and married Huldah Cook, who was a 
native of Dorset, Vermont, and died in 1854, 
at seventy-one years of age. Mrs. King was 
a daughter of Shubal Cook, of Connecticut, 
who served in the Revolutionary war and had 
two sons who were soldiers in the American 
army during the second war with England. 

John King was reared at Salem, received 
his education in the common schools and 
Washington academy, and at an early age 
became a clerk in a store, where he remained 
for seven and one-half years. At the end of 
that time, in 1847, he succeeded the firm at 

Salem in the general mercantile business, with 
the late Dr. J. H. Guild as partner, and after- 
ward with several other partners, which he 
followed up to 1876, when he disposed of his 
establishment on account of ill health. In 
two years after retiring from the store his 
health was so far recruited that he established 
his present fire insurance business, in which 
he has been successfully engaged ever since. 

In 1863 Mr. King married Elizabeth C. 
Shepard, a daughter of Chauncey L. Shepard, 
of St. Lawrence county, New York. She 
died in 1887. They had three children, one 
son and two daughters living: John S., Julia 
and Fannie. The son, John S. King, is now 
engaged in the banking business in Omaha, 

In 1862 Mr. King enlisted in the 123d regi- 
ment. New York volunteers. He was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant and quarter master, 
and served from July 23 to November 12, 1862. 
He is now a member and the adjutant of 
A. L. McDougall Post, No. 570, Grand Army 
of the Republic. John King was a democrat 
up to the birth of the Republican party, and 
since then has been active in its councils and 
success. He has served in various village, 
town and county offices, beside holding the 
position of deputy collector of revenue of 
Warren and Washington counties from 1878 
to 1883. He has served as village trustee, 
member of the school board, and postmaster 
of Salem, and was treasurer of Washington 
county from January 1, 1859, to January 1, 
1862, and from January 1, 1885, to January 1, 
1888. Mr. King is a member of the United 
Presbyterian church, and has been active and 
useful in religious and moral work, serving 
for the last fifteen years as financial agent for 
the Presbytery of Argyle, and for forty years 
as treasurer of the Washington County Bible 
society. He has always been active and en- 
ergetic in whatever enterprise he has engaged, 
and at the present time does a fire insurance 
business, representing reliable and leading 





FTMASA HOWLAND, president and 
**" founder of the Howland Paper Company, 
of Sandy Hill, is one of the pre-eminently 
successful business men and public spirited 
citizens of Washington county and northern 
New York. He has been for nearly four 
decades closely identified with the industrial 
and moral progress of his village, and is the 
eighth in direct line from Henry Howland, a 
Quaker immigrant, who became the progeni- 
tor and founder of the Howland family in 
America. He arrived in 1625 and joined the 
Plymouth colony, accompanied by his brother 
Arthur, his brother John having preceded 
them, and was one of that immortal little 
band of pilgrim? who left their native land on 
account of religious and political intolerance 
and landed at Plymouth rock in the Mayflower 
in 1620. Henry Howland's death occurred in 
1671, and among his children was Zoeth 
Howland in direct line, who was born at 
Duckbury, Massachusetts. Zoeth Howland 
suffered much oppression on account of his 
devotion to the Quaker religion. He was a 
member of the Plymouth colony, and was 
killed in the King Philip war in 1676. Among 
his children one in direct line was Henry 
Howland, who was born on the 30th day, 
sixth month, 1672, and took to wife Deborah 
Briggs. Of his children, one was Stephen 
Howland, the great-grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, who was born at Dartmouth, 
Massachusetts, on the 14th day of fifth month, 
1716, and wedded Mary Briggs. Of this 
marriage was born Stephen Howland (grand- 
father) on the 21st day of sixth month, 1754, 
in Dutchess county, New York, from whence 
he removed to Saratoga county and became 
one of the first settlers in the town of Galway. 
He married Anna Reynolds, and died in 1831, 
ninth month, twentieth day. Of his children 
was a son, Stephen, the father of Amasa 
Howland, and who was a native of Dutchess 
county, New York, where he was born in 1793, 
fifth month, twenty-ninth day. He wedded 
Susan McOmber in 1S12, who was born in 

1789, eighth month, twelfth day, and died in 
1879, on the 8th day of the seventh month. 
She was a devoted Friend and a daughter of 
Garner McOmber, who was of Scotch descent. 
Stephen Howland left the town of Galway in 
1844 and came and settled in Sandy Hill. 
Here he, with his sons, built the paper mills 
at Baker's Falls, the first of the kind in the 
State of New York, thus becoming the pio- 
neers in one of the most important industries 
at Sandy Hill. He rented his half interest to 
Amasa Howland, the other half being owned 
by his son Enos, and retired from all active 
business in 1852. He died in 1862, and was 
known as an industrious and enterprising 
manufacturer who commanded the esteem 
and friendship of all. 

Amasa Howland was one of eleven children, 
and was born in the town of Galway, Saratoga 
county, New York, June 29, 1827. He wedded 
Mary L. Green, who died in 1864. By her 
he had one child, Mary Louise, who is also 
deceased. Mr. Howland married for his 
second wife, Lydia Groesbeck, of Fort Ann, 
by whom he has two children, both sons : 
James Edward, who was born March 17, 1861, 
married Jennie E. Ottman, of Fort Edward, 
and is vice-president of the Howland Paper 
Company; and Frederick Derby, born June 17, 
1865, married Cora Woodward, of Saratoga 
count}', and is also a stockholder in the How- 
land Paper Company. 

In 1855 Amasa Howland, with his brother 
Enos, disposed of their paper interests at 
Sandy Hill and went to Fort Ann, where they 
built a mill which they successfully operated 
until 1865, when Mr. Howland sold his inter- 
ests there to his brother Enos and returned to 
Sandy Hill. In the same year he associated 
with himself in business Guy Clark and Dr. 
Miller, under the firm name of Howland, 
Clark & Company, and built one of the pres- 
ent immense paper mills at Baker's Falls. 
In 1873 Dr. Miller died ; Mr. Clark having 
retired from the firm in the same year, Mr. 
Howland became sole proprietor, and the 



name of the firm was succeeded by that of 
Howland & Company, taking into partnership 
his two nephews, L. M. Howland and John 
H. Derby. On December i, 1893, this com- 
pany was succeeded by the Howland Paper 
Company; Amasa Howland was chosen presi- 
dent ; J. E. Howland, vice-president; John 
H. Derby, secretary, and L. M. Howland, 
treasurer, and the stock of the company cap- 
italized at one million dollars. These mills, 
including the bag factory, furnish employment 
to about three hundred operatives. 

Amasa Howland has permanently linked 
his name with the most successful manufac- 
turers of New York, being a man of fine ex- 
ecutive ability and great capacity for looking 
after the various details of an immense busi- 
ness. In his religious belief he adheres to 
the Friends' religion, as did all his ancestors 
back to the member who joined the Plymouth 
colony and founded the American branch of 
the family. But in his religious opinion, as 
on many other important questions, Mr. How- 
land is very liberal in his views, and is not 
actively connected with any church. 

M. D., who has been engaged in the con- 
tinuous and successful practice of his profes- 
sion at Fort Edward for the last fifteen years, 
was born at Fort Edward, Washington county, 
New York, September 15, 1845, and is a son 
of John and Hannah (Caldwell) Linendoll. 
His paternal grandfather, Capt. John Linen- 
doll, came with his mother from Prussia in 
1775 or 1776, and settled at Rhinebeck, Dutch- 
ess county. He served as a captain of cav- 
alry in the Revolutionary war, and lived to be 
ninety-two years of age. He was a saddler 
and harness maker by trade, but was chiefly 
engaged during his active years of life in farm- 
ing and lumbering. Captain Linendoll was a 
Lutheran, and married Catherine Shoemaker, 
by whom he had eight children : John, George, 
Jacob, Walter, Thomas, Helena Bell, Maria 

Robinson and Serena Stewart. John Linen- 
doll served as a private in the war of 181 2, 
and then engaged in lumbering, which he fol- 
lowed for many years. He was a democrat 
and an Episcopalian, and died in May, 1869, 
at seventy-eight years of age. He wedded 
Hannah Caldwell, and their children were: 
John, who is in the lumber business at Gar- 
land, Pennsylvania ; Stephen, now dead, who 
served on the police force of New York city 
for twenty-five years; William, who died at 
twenty-eight years of age ; Antoinette, and 
Dr. Robert A. 

The early education of Dr. Robert A. Linen- 
doll was in the Fort Edward public schools. 
He attended Fort Edward collegiate institute 
and afterward finished his education in Mon- 
treal, Canada. Returning from Canada, he 
taught in New York as a private tutor for three 
years, and at the end of that time, in 1875, 
commenced the study of medicine with Drs. 
Cornell and Little. At the close of his office 
reading he took a course in Homeopathy at 
the Boston Medical college and another course 
at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and then entered 
Albany Medical college, from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1879. After gradua- 
tion he returned to Fort Edward, where he 
has practiced his profession successfully ever 
since. He is democratic in political senti- 
ment, and for several years has been a mem- 
ber of the New York State Homeopathical 

On January 18, 1884, Dr. Linendoll wedded 
Anna L. Nash. Dr. and Mrs. Linendoll have 
two children : Mildred and Edith. 

^^ AVOOD, a prominent business man of 
Fort Edward, and who carries on the most 
extensive lumbering operations in the Adiron- 
dack mountains, is a son of Christopher C. 
and Mahala (Griffin) Underwood, and was 
born at Horicon, Warren county, New York, 
July 18, 1845. His paternal grandfather, 



Jonathan Underwood, was a native of Massa- 
chusetts, but spent the larger part of his life 
at Mulberry, Vermont, where he had a grist 
and saw mill and did considerable of a lum- 
bering business. His children were : Oliver, 
David, John, Christopher C. , Samuel, Hooton, 
Mills and Rosanna, wife of Lorenzo Hem- 
minway. Christopher Underwood married 
Miss Griffin, and removed to New York. 

George F. Underwood received his educa- 
tion in Fort Edward Union school and Fort 
Edward collegiate institute, and afterward 
took the full course of Eastman's Business 
college, from which he was graduated in the 
class of 1867. Leaving the college be became 
general manager for the lumber firm of Bradley 
& Underwood, at Fort Edward, and remained 
with them for fourteen years. At the end of 
that time he assumed the management of the 
Bloomingdale lumber business at Sandy Hill, 
which he left in 1880, to engage in lumbering 
wholly for himself. From year to year he in- 
creased his working force and widened out 
his field of work, until he now employs as 
high as two to three hundred men and one 
hundred and fifty teams, and owns large tim- 
ber tracts in various parts of the State. He 
has valuable tracts of timber on Schroon and 
Indian lakes, Canadaqua creek, Saguendago 
river, and in various parts of the Adirondack 
mountains, with all of whose gorges he is ac- 
quainted. He is one of the largest contract 
lumber dealers in the State, while he also 
speculates in timber, selling in 1892 over ten 
thousand acres of timber land. Mr. Under- 
wood takes interest in the material prosperity 
and advancement of- his own village, and has 
invested there largely in real estate, owning 
the Hotel Hudson and much other valuable 
property. Republican in politics, and a strong 
supporter of the Presbyterian church, he has 
served as trustee of the village and has aided 
considerably in religious work for the good of 
the co mm unit)-. 

On June 24, 1875, George Frederick Under- 
wood was united in marriage with Jennie 

Gregory, of Lewis county. To their union 
have been born four children : Grace F., 
Maud S., Harry G., and an infant that died 
when but a few days old. Mrs. Underwood 
is a daughter of Simeon R. Gregory, a native 
of Pawlet, Vermont, who was a hatter by trade, 
and removed to Martinsburg, in Lewis county, 
where he was a deacon in the Presbyterian 
church, "and where he resided until his death. 
Samuel R. Gregory wedded Jane D. Underbill, 
whose mother was a Miss Cushman before 
marriage, and who was a lineal descendant of 
Robert Cushman, who tradition says came 
over in the Mayflower and preached the first 
sermon to the Pilgrims after landing at 
Plymouth rock. 

CAMUEL K. GRISWOLD, one of the 

representative business men of Washing- 
ton county, is a son of Isaac C. and Eliza G. 
(Ketelas) Griswold, and was born at White- 
hall, Washington county, New York, January 
28, 1844. He was reared in his native village 
and received his education in the common 
schools, and pursued a special course in a 
school at Claverick, this State. Leaving 
school he entered his father's store, where he 
served as a clerk until 1866. In that year he 
succeeded his father, and has conducted ever 
since one of the largest general mercantile 
businesses in northern New York. Mr. Griswold 
owns a large amount of real estate at White- 
hall, including eight store buildings and the 
opera house. 

On June 19, 1867, he was united in mar- 
riage to Martha Eddy, daughter of W. S. 
Eddy, of Whitehall. The}' have one child, 
Morgan Billings, who is now in his senior 
year at the Cornell university. 

Samuel K. Griswold is a democrat, but his 
large business interests have always possessed 
a charm for him greatly superior to all the 
allurements of office seeking or office holding. 
However, deeming it a duty of good citizen- 
ship to serve the true interests of his village 



when possible to do so, he accordingly ac- 
cepted the office of trustee for one term at the 
time the water works were constructed. Pos- 
sessed of a capacity for work, and a natural 
aptitude for business, he has achieved well 
deserved success in the line of his chosen 
pursuit. Essentially a man of action his 
knowledge of affairs has not been derived 
merely from intuition, but from actual obser- 
vation and experience and after careful reflec- 
tion. Mr. Griswold is a member and trustee 
of the Whitehall Presbyterian church, and 
ranks in the county as a man of character and 
business ability. 

The Griswolds are of English lineage, and 
honorable mention of the family occurs at an 
early day in the history of New England. 
Isaac C. Griswold, the father of the subject 
of this sketch, was a native of Benson, Ver- 
mont, and in 1827 came to Whitehall, where 
he served for five years as a clerk in a store. 
He then engaged in the general mercantile 
business, which he followed successfully until 
1866, when he retired from all active life pur- 
suits. Mr. Griswold was a man of promi- 
nence and influence in his neighborhood. He 
was a member of the First Presbyterian 
church ; and a whig and afterward a democrat 
in politics. He held several of the village 
offices, and was vice-president of the First 
National bank. He was a large real estate 
holder, and died in 1879, at sixty-nine years 
of age. Mr. Griswold wedded Eliza G. Ket- 
telas, who passed away in 1892, when in the 
seventy-fifth year of her age. Mrs. Griswold 
was a native of Whitehall ; reared and died 
in the faith of the Presbyterian church, of 
which she was a life-long member. 

f^HARLES R. PARIS, a member of the 
^^ Washington county bar, and an influen- 
tial and respected citizen of Sandy Hill, is the 
eldest son of Hon. U. G. and Cordelia (Rog- 
ers) Paris, and was born at Sandy Hill, Wash- 
ington county, New York, in 1851. He re- 

ceived his education principally in the schools 
of Sandy Hill, read law with his father, and 
was admitted to the bar of Washington county 
in 1880. Immediately after admission to the 
bar he opened an office in his native village, 
where he has been engaged in active and suc- 
cessful practice ever since. 

In 1879 Mr. Paris was united in marriage 
with Alma Biggart, of Sandy Hill. 

Charles R. Paris is a republican in politics, 
and served for several years as a member of 
the board of supervisors of Washington county, 
representing the town of Kingsbury, and dur- 
ing his last term was chairman of that body. 
Mr. Paris is well known for his legal ability 
and substantial business qualities. He takes 
an active interest in the affairs of Sandy Hill, 
and is prominent in the law and the business 
life of his county. 

lWTAJ. JAMES McCARTY, who made 

A a brilliant record during the great Civil 

war, and now living a retired life at Sand} 7 
Hill, was born in the town of Hartford, Wash- 
ington county, New York, January 6, 1840. He 
received a common school education in his 
native town, where his parents, then engaged 
in farming, resided. He attended school at 
the North Granville academy one term, in the 
fall of i860. He is a son of Patrick and Mary 
( Donavan) McCarty. His father was a native 
of Ireland, who came to the United States 
when a young man, and located on a farm in 
the town of Hartford, where he continued to 
live until his death, which occurred in 1886, 
aged eighty-three years. His wife, Mary 
Donavan, was also born in Ireland, whom he 
married in that country. James McCarty, after 
leaving the academy at North Granville, en- 
tered the Fort Edward Collegiate institute, 
and when the president of the United States 
called for five hundred thousand volunteers, 
Mr. McCarty volunteered, from this collegiate 
institute, on the 4th day of November, 1861. 
He became a private in Co. E, 96th regiment 



New York volunteers, then being organized 
under Col. James Fairman, at Plattsburg, 
New York. The officers of the company then 
being recruited at Fort Fdward were : captain, 
Hiram Eldridge ; first lieutenant, A. J. Rus- 
sell ; and second lieutenant, James L. Cray. 
Mr. McCarty was appointed sergeant, Novem- 
ber 22, 1861, and in March, 1862, was assigned 
to duty as commissary sergeant of his regi- 
ment ; promoted to second lieutenant Sep- 
tember 25, 1862, and to first lieutenant and 
regimental quartermaster on July 17, 1863. 
In May, 1864, he was assigned to duty as 
brigade commissary on the staff of Brigadier- 
General Gilman Marston. He served on staff 
duty in different capacities in the "Army of 
the James" until the close of the war. On 
May 15, 1865, he was promoted to the rank 
of captain. After the close of the war he 
served on the staff of Brevet Major-General 
N. M. Curtis as assistant adjutant-general in 
the department of Virginia, and received com- 
mission as major by brevet from the president, 
and also from the governor of the State for 
gallant and meritorious service. Major Mc- 
Carty served nearly five years in the war, and 
during which time he participated in some 
sixty odd engagements. He was honorably 
discharged from the service at Hart's Island, 
New York, in February, 1866. Returning 
home, he spent two years in learning the lan- 
guages, and soon thereafter came to Sandy 
Hill. In 1868 he became the manager of the 
Washington Mowing Machine Company of 
this village, a position he held for ten years. 
At the expiration of this time, he, with James 
T. Outterson, purchased this plant, which 
they owned and conducted up to 1891, when 
they sold out. This company was first or- 
ganized for the purpose of manufacturing 
mowing machines, which they did for one year 
only, after which they made milling machinery. 
Major McCarty was married, in 1867, to 
Mary C, daughter of William Johnston, of 
Hartford, this county. To their marriage 

have been born one son and three daughters : 

Sarah J., Alice H., Le Roy }., and Grace W. 
He is a member of the First Presbyterian 
church of Sandy Hill ; member of Hershal 
Lodge, No. 387, Free and Accepted Masons ; 
and a republican up to four years ago, when 
he identified himself with the People's party. 
Major McCarty has served as a member on the 
school board and other village offices. 

HON. U. G. PARIS was one of the most 
prominent lawyers and successful busi- 
ness men of Washington county, in whose his- 
tory his name will always occupy a high and 
honorable place. He was born at Fairfield, 
Herkimer county, New York, August 14, 1819, 
and was of German descent. When he was 
quite young his parents removed to Harris- 
burg, in Lewis county, where he grew to man- 
hood on the farm that he helped to transform 
from the wilderness. He enjoyed but limited 
opportunities for obtaining an education, and 
at twenty-one years of age went to Watertown, 
in Jefferson county, where he learned the trade 
of carpenter. Mr. Paris while learning his 
trade gave his leisure hours and evenings to 
reading and study with such encouraging re- 
sults that he soon decided to leave carpenter- 
ing at the earliest opportunity, and seek his 
life vocation in a profession more congenial to 
his tastes, although possessing mechanical 
ability of a high order. In a short time his 
opportunity came, when he entered the office 
of Judges Rosekrans and Ferris, of Glens 
Falls, with whom he read law. At the end of 
his required course of reading he was admit- 
ted to the bar and soon removed to Sandy Hill, 
where during a lifetime of devotion to his 
profession, he won success, fame and fortune. 
At the very opening of his legal career he en- 
countered some of the ablest members of the 
northern New York bar. He always made an 
exhaustive preparation of his cases and fought 
them to completion. He soon secured a re- 
munerative practice and rose to the front rank 
of his profession. He held the confidence of 



the solid business men of the county, and so 
judiciously invested his earnings that he be- 
came one of the wealthiest men of his section. 
He was prominent in the business enterprises 
of his village, and was one of the founders of the 
Peoples' National bank of Sandy Hill. Mr. 
Paris was a man of strong and earnest con- 
victions, and fearless in his expression; being 
a hater of shams and frauds and an enemy to 
all hypocrisy. He was the soul of sincerity, 
and his devotion to a friend or a cause stop- 
ped at no effort that he could make. In pol- 
itics Mr. Paris was imbued with a strong Na- 
tional feeling that caused him to ally himself 
with the whig party, and afterward support 
its successor, the republican. He was nomi- 
nated and elected in 1859 as surrogate of 
Washington county, and in 1863 was elected 
for a second term, which he also filled. As a 
surrogate he was able and satisfactory, as his 
decisions were based on justice and the law. 

In 1850 Mr. Paris married Cordelia Rogers, 
a daughter of Hon. Charles Rogers, of Sandy 
Hill, who was a prominent citizen of the 
county, and served in the State legislature, 
and as a member of the twenty-eighth Con- 
gress. (See sketch of Mr. Rogers on another 
page.) To Mr. and Mrs. Paris were born 
eig'ht children, two of whom died young ; six 
are now living, viz.: Charles R., Dr. Russell 
C.j a prominent physician of Albany; Preston, 
of Kansas ; Lincoln, of the same State ; and 
two daughters, one of whom was graduated 
from Vassar college, and the other from a 
Boston institution. 

During the latter part of the summer of 
1891 Mr. Paris became enfeebled in health, 
after returning from a tour through the south- 
ern States and the West Indies, he grew 
worse, and at sunrise on September 15, 1892, 
his final summons came. His funeral was 
very impressive, and his remains were en- 
tombed with appropriate ceremonies in Union 
cemetery, between Sandy Hill and Fort Ed- 

Of U. G. Paris it was eloquently and truth- 

fully said by one who knew him : "Mr. Paris 
was an illustration of what a man of character, 
ability and determination can accomplish in 
the face of adverse circumstances, and his 
career is a perpetual encouragement to strug- 
gling young men. He fought the battle of 
life honorably and manfully, and obtained a 
full share of its honors and fortune, and at its 
close could serenely retire ' like one that wraps 
the drapery of his couch about him and lies 
down to pleasant dreams. ' " 

V the Salem Axiom, and one of the public 
spirited citizens of Salem, is a son of Peter 
and Elizabeth (McKnight) Cruikshank, and 
was born in the town of Salem, in which he 
now resides, September 1, 1836. His father, 
Peter, was a native of the same town, where 
he resided up to his death, in 1887, at the age 
of eighty-one years. He was a member of 
the United Presbyterian church, and a demo- 
crat in his political opinion. Peter Cruik- 
shank, sr. (grandfather), was born in the town 
of Salem, where he followed the occupation 
of farming all his life, dying in 1856, at the 
age of eighty-four. In the early settlements 
of Washington county he served as captain 
of a company of mounted troops, and was 
ever after known as Captain Cruikshank. His 
father, who was the founder of the family in 
America, was William Cruikshank, who came 
from Scotland about the time of the emigra- 
tion of Dr. Clark's congregation. He pur- 
chased a tract of land in the northern part of 
the town of Salem, and of his sons, Peter 
settled in Salem. Elizabeth McKnight, the 
mother of the subject of this sketch, was born 
in the town of Hebron, and was a member of 
the United Presbyterian church, who died at 
the age of eighty years, in 1892. James Mc- 
Knight (paternal grandfather) was born in 
Salem, and settled in the town of Hebron, 
where he was engaged in tilling the soil the 
remainder of his life. 



Robert Cruikshank grew to manhood on 
his father's farm, receiving the advantages of 
a common school education, and on leaving 
school he learned the trade of carpenter and 
joiner. He was afterward engaged in con- 
tracting and building, which he successfully 
carried on until 1867, when he was compelled 
to give it up on account of ill health. In 
August of 1862 Mr. Cruikshank enlisted in 
Company H, 123d New York infantry ; after 
six months he was promoted from private to 
second lieutenant, and in the fall following 
made first lieutenant of his company. Imme- 
diately after the battle of Gettysburg was 
fought his regiment was transferred from the 
army of the Potomac to that of the Cumber- 
land. In the winter of 1863 his regiment 
guarded the Nashville & Chattanooga Rail- 
way, and in the spring of the following year 
it started on the Atlanta campaign. In all 
the battles, until after the capture of Atlanta, 
lieutenant Cruikshank was the commanding 
officer of his company. On arriving at At- 
lanta he was detailed as acting adjutant of the 
regiment, in place of the regular one who had 
recently been wounded. Just before leaving 
Atlanta with Sherman, on his march to the 
sea, he was detailed provost-marshal, first 
brigade, first division, 20th army corps, and 
in which capacity he served until the close of 
the war. He was honorably discharged at 
Washington, D. C, and mustered out of the 
service at Albany, New York. 

Lieutenant Cruikshank, in 1867, after giv- 
ing up building and contracting, embarked in 
the harness business at Salem, New York, 
where he continued for seven years. In 1874 
he was commissioned postmaster of his vil- 
lage, which office he held for twelve years 
and four months. In 1885 he founded his 
present newspaper, a weekly eight-column 
folio sheet, republican in politics, which is 
well filled with local news of the count}', and 
ably edited. Its circulation is steadily in- 
creasing, and in connection with the paper he 
conducts a job printing department. 

Robert Cruikshank, in i860, wedded Mary 
E., daughter of Henry M. Wells, of Salem. 
His marriage has been blessed by the birth of 
six children, five sons and one daughter: 
Ella, Harry B., Robert A., Everett and 
Earnest W. Ella is now the wife of Dwight 
P. Cruikshank, who is an importer of spices 
in New York city. A son died in infancy. 

Robert Cruikshank, with his wife and three 
sons, is a member of the United Presbyterian 
church ; a member of Salem Lodge, 45, I. 
O. O. F., and is at present commander of A. 
L. McDougall Post, No. 570, Grand Army of 
the Republic. He is a stanch republican, 
and has always taken an active and leading 
part in politics. 

QEORGE N. FINCH, the present pop- 
^^ ular sheriff of Washington county, was 
born in Schuylerville, Saratoga county, New 
York, August 12, 1856, He is the son of 
Charles B. Finch and Sarah M. Slade, both 
natives of Saratoga county. Charles B. Finch 
was reared and educated in his native county, 
and was afterward engaged in the livery busi- 
ness at Troy, New York, and in 1861 removed 
to this county, and located at Granville. Here 
he continued to reside until 1871, when he "re- 
moved with his family to Eagle Bridge, in 
Rensselaer county, where he continued to re- 
side until 1882, engaged in the hotel business. 
He wedded Sarah M. Slade, and for eleven 
years has been the proprietor of the Central 
House at Granville, which is one of the popu- 
lar and well known hostelries of this county, 
returning from Eagle Bridge in 1882 to Gran- 
ville, which has since been the home of the 
family. He was born in 1829, and is at pres- 
ent acting in the capacity of under sheriff. 
He was the son of Rev. Finch, who was an 
early settler in Saratoga count)', where he be- 
came one of the pioneer ministers of the Bap- 
tist church. 

George N. Finch received the rudiments of 
an education in the schools of Granville, and 



later pursued special studies at the Friends' 
seminary at Easton, this county. From 1877 
to 1881 he was engaged in the wholesale pro- 
duce business at Eagle Bridge, and in the 
latter year went to New York city, embarking 
in the same line, and where he continued suc- 
cessfully for two years. Returning to Gran- 
ville in 1882 he became manager of the Cen- 
tral House in partnership with his father, 
under the firm name of C. B. Finch & Son, 
which firm existed up to the spring of 1891. 
In the fall of the same year George N. Finch 
was elected on the republican ticket sheriff of 
Washington county, and was conducted into 
office on January 1, 1892. Mr. Finch takes 
an active and leading part in the politics of 
his county, and is influential in the councils 
of his party, and is a capable officer and pop- 
ular with members of both parties. He is 
still the proprietor of the Central House, which 
he has leased. George N. Finch wedded 
Helen B. Hunt, a daughter of John P. Hunt, 
of Eagle Bridge, in 1S82. To their marriage 
has been born one child, a son, Royal G. He 
is prominent in Masonry, being a member of 
Granville Lodge, No. 55, Poultney Chapter, 
No. 10, and Washington Commandery, No. 33, 
Saratoga Springs, and also of the Oriental 
Encampment at Troy. 

dent of the Union school of the village 
of Glens Falls, and a man of extensive liter- 
ary and scholarly attainments, was born at 
Cooperstown, Otsego county, New York, No- 
vember 21, 1846. He is a son of Justin Wil- 
liams and Mary Sherman. Justin Williams 
was also a native of Otsego county, and now 
resides at Cooperstown, that county, in the 
seventy-third year of his age ; a farmer by 
occupation, and a republican in his political 
belief. He was a son of Isaac Williams, 
pioneer, and one of the most prominent men 
in the early history of Otsego county ; born 
at Lebanon, Connecticut, and while yet a boy 

he drove an ox team from his native town to 
Cooperstown, where the remainder of his life 
was spent in advancing the interests of his 
adopted county, and as a member of congress. 
He died in December, i860, in his eighty- 
third year. He ran a farm and hotel, and 
was a whig and afterward a republican in 
politics. He was a member of three con- 
gresses ; he also served as sheriff and surro- 
gate of Otsego county, and being a man of 
wonderful resources and great natural attain- 
ments, he became very popular and strong 
before the people. The Williams family is of 
Welch extraction, and the founder of this 
branch of the Williams family in America 
was Robert Williams, who emigrated from 
Wales in 1638, and settled in Massachusetts 
for several generations, thence into Connecti- 
cut, and from there migrated to the State of 
New York. Mrs. Mary (Sherman) Williams 
was born in Cooperstown in 1821, and is now 
in her seventy-third year. 

Sherman Williams was reared on the farm 
in the vicinity of Cooperstown, where he at- 
tended the common schools; subsequently en- 
tered the Albany State Normal school, from 
which institution he was graduated in the 
class of 1871. He immediately engaged in 
teaching school, first at Little Neck, Long 
Island, where he taught for seven months ; 
giving up this position he went to Flushing, 
Long Island, where he successfully acted in 
the capacity of superintendent of public 
schools of that city for a period of over eleven 
years. Leaving there in 1882, he came to 
Glens Falls, where he has ever since remained 
as superintendent of the Union school. The 
schools of this village are organized under 
the free school act, having two large school 
buildings, erected since Mr. Williams' incum- 
bency. For nine years Prof. Williams, asso- 
ciated with Charles F. King, of Boston, sus- 
tained by some of the most prominent busi- 
ness men of Glens Falls, conducted a sum- 
mer normal school for the benefit of the 
teachers of this county and those adjoining. 



In the early history of the village, a Mr. Wil- 
liam J. Ballard, of Jamaica, Long Island, 
originated the idea of running a school for 
teachers, of three weeks duration, in the lat- 
ter part of July and August, obtaining special 
instructors from all over the country ; the 
cost of running this school is in the neighbor- 
hood of five thousand dollars per year. 
Teachers from fort)' states and territories of 
the Union have been in attendance, and there 
have been about four thousand teachers in 
attendance since its inception and organiza- 

Prof. Sherman 'Williams was married in 
1874 to Margaret, a daughter of Dr. Wilbur, 
of Pine Plains, Dutchess county, New York. 
To his marriage have been born two children, 
Henry W. and Paul. Mr. Williams is a mem- 
ber and steward of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and of the Senate Lodge, No. 456, 
Free and Accepted Masons, of Glens Falls, 
and is a liberal republican in his political 

I*T J. LONCr. In the year 1694 Joseph 
* Long moved from Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, to Coventry, Tolland county, Connecticut, 
where he purchased a farm, which still remains 
in the Long family, and which has never 
passed out of its possession, two centuries the 
present year. He was present at the organi- 
zation of the first Congregational church in 
Coventry, and for several years one of its 
deacons, and his remains lie buried in that 
town. Before his descendants took any in- 
terest in their genealogy, the bleak New Eng- 
land climate had so wrought upon his grave 
stone that the inscription could not be de- 
ciphered. Whether he came from France as 
De Long, or the north of Ireland of Scotch- 
Irish descent, or from England, cannot be 
definitely established. But the Bible given 
names in the Long family, and their faith in 
the doctrine and practice of Calvanism strong] v 
indicate their Puritan descent. To Joseph 
Long was born Lemuel Long, July 12, 1727, 

who married Martha Baker, who was born 
September 23, 1730. To Lemuel and Martha 
Long, in Coventry, were born Lemuel, Martha, 
Joseph, Rufus, Levi, Jesse, Driadema, Ste- 
phen, and Reuben Long. Of the above chil- 
dren, Joseph and Rufus served in the war of 
the Revolution, and died in the army. Levi, 
the fourth son of Lemuel Long, was born in 
Coventry, Connecticut, July 23, 1758. At the 
age of twenty-five he married Abigail Baker, 
and removed to Rutland, Vermont, in 1783. 
To Levi and Abigail Long, in Rutland, were 
born Pamela (who died in infancy), Rufus, 
Levi, Joseph, Jared, Pamela, Harvey, Lyman, 
and Clark Long. Jared Long, the fourth son 
of Levi and Abigail Long, and the father of 
the subject of this sketch, was born in Rut- 
land, Vermont, October 13, 1791. In the war 
of 1812 the militia of Vermont was called out 
to defend their northern frontier. The com- 
pany in which Jared Long served was sta- 
tioned in the town of Highgate, and was com- 
posed of the yeomanry of Vermont. And no 
invasion from Canada being threatened at that 
point, left the Green Mountain boys leisure to 
indulge in things not strictly in line of mili- 
tary duty. One of the results was that Jared 
Long won the heart of a farmer's daughter, 
by the name of Martha Barr, and brought her, 
as a rich trophy of that campaign, to Rut- 
land. They were married December 25, 1814. 
She was the third daughter of Conrad and 
Elizabeth (Weaver) Barr, who emigrated from 
Wurtemberg, German)', in 1775, and located 
in Dutchess county, New York. In 1780 they, 
with several German families, who were in- 
clined to a monarchical form of government, 
moved to Canada, as they supposed, but when 
the line was settled between the States and 
Canada, they found themselves in Vermont. 
To this accident Vermont is indebted for some 
of her most enterprising citizens in that part 
of the State: the Hogabomes, Stearnes. Sti- 
mets, Meigs, Hinkleys, Barrs, Saxes, Stein- 
hours, etc., were all well-to-do farmers and 
business men. Peter Sax was the grand- 



father of John G. Sax, the poet. To Con- 
rad and Elizabeth Barr were born John, 
Margaret, Catherine, and Martha. Mar- 
tha, the youngest, and mother of A. J. 
Long, was born June n, 1792, in Highgate, 
Vermont. Jared and Martha Long resided 
sixteen years in Highgate, and the remainder 
of their lives in Rutland, bringing up to man- 
hood and womanhood four sons and three 
daughters, and fulfilling life's great mission 
in its highest and best sense, full of years, 
good deeds and charitable acts, and rest from 
their labors, each in the ninetieth year of their 
age. They are buried in Evergreen cemetery, 
Rutland, Vermont. To Jared and Martha 
Long was born Charles Conrad, who married 
Sarah A. Fern, and died, without issue, in 
Highgate, September 9, 1891, aged seventy- 
six years; Martha P., married John Hoga- 
bome, died in Highgate, December 31, 1892, 
aged seventy-five years, leaving a husband, 
one son, and three daughters; Julia A., mar- 
ried Asahel Cleveland, and now resides in 
Rutland, a widow, with her only child, George 
Herbert ; Benjamin F. was born in Highgate, 
August 9, 1827, married Lovina Martin, and 
moved to Rockford, Illinois. He enlisted in 
Co. K, 100th Illinois volunteer regiment, died 
in the army at the age of thirty-five years, and 
was buried in Cave Hill cemetery, Louisville, 
Kentucky ; he left one son, Carlos Long, who 
now resides in Joliet, Illinois. Levi C. , born in 
Highgate, June 2, 1831, married Eliza Mer- 
riam, and now resides in Rutland ; they have 
one son and three daughters. Mary E., born 
in Highgate, March 25, 1834, married William 
H. Crawford, a resident of Louisiana, by 
whom she had four daughters ; she died in 
Mount Enterprise, Texas, aged fifty-four years. 
A. J. Long, second son and fourth child of 
Jared and Martha Long, and the subject of 
this notice, was born in Rutland, Vermont, 
August 5, 1824. He worked on his father's 
farm until he was eighteen years of age, when 
he commenced preparation for college at Cas- 
tleton seminary, and during his entire course 

of study he taught school winters. He grad- 
uated at Middlebury college, in a class of fif- 
teen, in 1851. Eight of his classmates are 
still living. He attended his first course of 
medical lectures at Castleton, and his second 
at the university of the city of New York, 
from which institution he graduated, with the 
degree of M. D., March 9, 1853, in a class of 
one hundred and one. July 28th of the same 
year he opened an office in Whitehall, and 
from that day to this, (with the exception of 
1879, which he spent in Colorado,) he has 
been in continuous and active practice of his 
profession in Whitehall, and to one who has 
endeavored to keep abreast of the times and 
in touch with the developments and progress 
of the art and science of medicine, what 
varied, rich and profound experiences have 
not been realized during the last half of the 
nineteenth century. The doctor is a member 
of the county, State and national medical 
societies, honorary member of the California 
State Medical society, and his alma mater 
conferred upon him the M. A. degree. Al- 
though not an active politician, the town of 
his adoption has elected him to nearly all the 
offices within its gift, from village clerk to su- 
pervisor of the town. 

On December 6, 1855, he was united in 
marriage with Susan Eleanor Coulson, who 
was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1833, 
and was the third daughter of Thomas and 
Jane (Watson) Coulson. Her father was a 
native of St. Johns, New Brunswick, and her 
mother of Sussex, England. They were 
married in Albany, New York, November 15, 
1827, and to them were born twelve children, 
five sons and seven daughters. Mrs. Coulson 
died, aged fifty-two years, in 1862, and Mr. 
Coulson in 1871, aged sixty-eight years. To 
the Doctor and Mrs. Long was born Mary 
Jane, November 17, 1857. She married Dr. 
B. C. £enton, now an active practitioner in 
Rutland, Vermont. They have one son and 
four daughters : Charles Jared, born July 17, 
i860, and died July, 10, 1878 ; Freddie Coul- 



son, born August 15, 1S62, and died Novem- 
ber 17, 1864; Benjamin Alfred, born Septem- 
ber 12, 1867, and now resides in Whitehall; 
Clymer BO-rr, born December 23, 1873, is now 
a student in the medical department of Mc- 
Gill university, Montreal, Province of Que- 
bec. In 1879 Mrs. Long's health began to be 
seriously affected, and the Doctor sought a 
change of climate; with his wife and two sons 
he went to Buena Vista, Colorado. For a time 
the change seemed to do her good, but on the 
nth of May, 1880, she was attacked with 
pleuro-pneumonia, which in one week proved 
fatal. She died May iSth, 1880, aged forty- 
seven years. Her remains were brought east 
and buried with her kindred in Albany Rural 
cemetery. Mrs. Long was a lady of refine- 
ment and culture. In her character were 
harmoniously blended all the good sense, wo- 
manly virtue and Christian grace which make 
the ideal wife, mother and friend. The Doc- 
tor returned to Whitehall, after an absence of 
little more than a year, and took up his pro- 
fessional duties, in the fall of 1880, and has 
endeavored to fulfill them with credit to him- 
self and satisfaction to his patients. 

October 1, 1885, the Doctor was united in 
marriage with Mary M. Dickinson, daughter 
of Hiram and Huldah (Merrill) Dickinson. 
Her grandfather was a native of Glastonbury, 
Connecticut. He emigrated to Queensbury, 
New York, where her father was born Sep- 
tember 5, 1798. He died in Whitehall, Janu- 
ary 15, 1881. Her grandfather Merrill emi- 
grated from Canaan, Connecticut, to Addison, 
Vermont, where her mother was born Novem- 
ber 5, 1812. She died in Whitehall, January 
3, 1884. They left two children: May M. 
and Hiram W., who now reside* in West 
Union, Adams county, Ohio. 

Now, at the end of forty-one years of prac- 
tice, the Doctor looks back with some satis- 
faction on his work accomplished. He had 
in one year one hundred and twenty-five 
cases of small-pox under his care, served 
through two epidemics of cholera, been pre- 

sent at nearly two thousand child births, and 
many thrilling experiences in emergencies, 
is still in harness, and considers work as man's 
great mission on earth. 

HON. FRANK BYRNE, vice-president 
of the Merchants' National bank, and 
president of the board of health of the vil- 
lage of Glens Falls, is one of the most public 
spirited and successful business men of that 
village. He was born in the city of New 
York, October 25, 1839, and is a son of Peter 
and Catherine (Byrne) Byrne. The Byrne 
family is of ancient Irish origin. The father 
and mother of Mr. Byrne were both natives 
of County Wexford, and soon after their mar- 
riage jthey set sail for Canada, and after a 
three months' voyage, landed at Quebec. 
From there they removed to the city of New 
York, and soon after the birth of their son, 
the subject of this sketch, came to northern 
New York with the intention of making their 
permanent home at Chester, Warren county, 
arriving at Glens Falls while en route to that 
place, Peter Byrne sickened and died ; his 
wife died in this village in the seventy-sixth 
year of her age. Both she and her husband 
were worthy members of the Catholic church. 
Frank Byrne was reared to manhood in the 
town of Queensbury, where he attended the 
common schools, which was afterward sup- 
plemented by a few terms at the old Glens 
Falls academy. After leaving school young 
Byrne commenced his active business career 
as a clerk in a dry goods store, where he re- 
mained for a while, when he formed a part- 
nership with Clark J. Brown (now deceased), 
of this village, and engaged in general mer- 
chandising. This firm continued most sue 
cessfully up to the year 1S72, when Mr. Byrne 
sold his interest and at once embarked in the 
manufacturing of lime. He is at present the 
senior member of the Keenan Lime Company, 
of this village. The quarries and kilns of 
this company are located at Smith Basin, 



Washington county, and have a capacity of 
turning out one hundred and fifty thousand 
barrels of lime annually. These works employ 
eighty to one hundred hands, and the principal 
market for their product is in New York city. 
In addition to their quarries they own six 
hundred acres of land, which is adjacent to 
their works. Mr. Byrne is one of the founders 
and organizers of the Merchants' National 
bank, of Glens Falls, and is now serving as 
vice-president. In the present construction 
of a line of sewers at Glens Falls he is one of 
the commissioners of that improvement, and 
is president of the board of health, and is 
more or less identified with all movements 
calculated for the improvement of his village. 

In his political affiliations he is a stanch 
democrat, and in 1884 was elected by over two 
hundred majority, overcoming one thousand 
republican majority in the county, member 
of the general assembly. He has also served 
as village trustee. 

Mr. Byrne was married in 1871 to Elizabeth 
A. Keenan, daughter of John Keenan, de- 
ceased, of this village. In 1887 he married 
for his second wife Margaret O. Sullivan, of 
New York city, and by her has one son, John. 

Mr. Byrne is a member of the Catholic 
church, and a self-made man in the truest 
sense of that term. 


31. D., of Whitehall, who served as sur- 
geon of the 54th and 58th New York volun- 
teers during the Civil war, was brevetted 
lieutenant -colonel for his devotion to the 
Union, and has been vice-president of the 
Society of the Army of the Potomac, is a son 
of Dr. Leonard and Caroline (Dayton) Root, 
and was born at North Granville, Washington 
county, New York, April 5, 1835. The family 
is of Norman-English extraction, and among 
the early settlers of New England. Near 
Stratford on the Avon was the home of John 
Roote, whose marriage with Ann Russell in 

the year 1600 is recorded in the parish regis- 
ter, and who were the progenitors of the 
Rootes and Roots in America. Colonel Wil- 
liam Root, paternal grandfather of Dr. Henry 
Root, was a native of Massachusetts, served 
as a colonel in the American army during the 
war of 1812, and was among the early settlers 
of Hebron, this county. He married and 
reared a family of children, one of his sons 
being Dr. Leonard Root (father), who was 
born in Washington county in 1803, studied 
medicine and became a practicing physician 
of the county, and was successfully engaged 
in the practice until his death in 1851, at the 
age of forty-eight years. He died at White- 
hall, where he had resided since 1842, in the. 
house now occupied by his son, the subject 
of this sketch. In 1828 he married Caroline 
Dayton, a native of Fort Ann, and a daughter 
of Jehiel Dayton. They had a family of five 
children. Mrs. Root was a member of the 
Presbyterian church, and died in 1893, in the 
eighty-sixth year of her age.. Her father, 
Jehiel Dayton, was a native of Great Barring- 
ton, Massachusetts, who came to Wa.-hington 
county when a young man. He served as 
captain of artillery during the war of 1812, 
and an old musket owned by him is now in 
possession of Dr. Root. He died in North 
Granville, this county, at the age of eighty- 
six. By occupation he was a farmer, and also 
owned and conducted a store, grist mill and 
saw mill. 

Dr. Henry Root was reared principally in 
Whitehall, where he obtained his elementary 
education in the public schools. He after- 
ward entered Williams college, and was grad- 
uated from that institution in August of 1856. 
After graduation he became principal of the 
high school at Southbridge, Massachusetts, 
where he remained for one year. He then 
began reading medicine with Dr. Daniel S. 
Wright, a prominent physician of Whitehall, 
and later matriculated in the medical depart- 
ment of the university of New York, from 
which he was duly graduated in 1859, with 



the degree of M. D. In the same year he 
went to Liverpool, England, as a ship's sur- 
geon, and while in Europe visited the hos- 
pitals of Paris and other cities, in order to 
acquaint himself with the methods in use in 
the old world. While in Paris Dr. Root, in 
1863-64 interested himself, along with Hon. 
John Bigelow, Rev. Dr. McClintock and 
T. G. Dale, in establishing the European 
branch of the -Sanitary commission of the 
United States. Returning to the United 
States, Dr. Root located in the village of 
Whitehall for the practice of his profession, 
and was building up a good general practice 
when the Civil war broke out. In the year 
1861 he was appointed by the governor of 
New York as assistant surgeon of the 54th 
New York infantry, and in January, 1863, 
upon the recommendation of Gen. Chester A. 
Arthur, he was promoted to be surgeon of 
the 58th New York infantry. While serving 
in this capacity he was wounded at the battle 
of Chancellorsville, by a minnie ball which 
struck him on the head and unfitted him for 
duty for the space of nine months. In August, 
1863, Dr. Root was honorably discharged from 
the service on account of this wound, and im- 
mediately went to Europe, where he visited 
England, Germany and France, seeking for 
restoration to health. In Paris he again visi- 
ted the French hospitals, and during these 
visits was exposed to and took the small pox, 
with which he was confined some time to his 
hotel. Returning to America in 1S64, he be- 
came assistant surgeon in the command of 
General Sheridan, and while quartered at 
Winchester, Virginia, received a commission 
as surgeon of the 54th New York infantry, in 
his old regiment, and served until August, 
1866, during the latter part of this time act- 
ing as post surgeon at Orangeburg and Co- 
lumbia, in South Carolina, at the request of 
Secretary Stanton. In 1866 the governor of 
South Carolina forwarded a highly commend- 
atory letter to the president, advising the pro- 
motion of Dr. Root to a lieutenant-colonelcy 

by brevet, for his devotion to the Union cause, 
but his personal friend, James A. Garfield, 
afterward president, had already recommended 
him for that honor, and the president sent the 
nomination to the senate, by which it' was 
unanimously confirmed. 

After quitting the service of the United 
States, Dr. Root returned to this count)' and 
again began the practice of medicine at White- 
hall. For several years he has been health 
officer of the town, is an active member of 
the Washington County Medical society, and 
has been its secretary for twelve years. He 
is also a member of the New York State 
Medical society, and of the Congregational 
church, of Williams College, Massachusetts. 
He was president of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian association of this place in 1892, and 
takes an active part in its work. Politically 
he is a stanch republican, and for some time 
served as vice-president of the Society of the 
Army of the Potomac. 

toURDICK G. SWEET, deceased, was 
one of the prominent and well-to-do 
farmers of the town of South Hartford ; a son 
of Stephen and Freelove (Potter) Sweet, and 
was born in Hoosick, Rensselaer count)', New 
York, in the year 18 18. At the age of six 
years he came, with his father, to Granville, 
this county, and at the age of fifteen years he 
removed, with his parents, to a farm in West 
Hartford: after his marriage he purchased a 
farm near South Hartford. Here he farmed 
successfully up to 1868, when he retired from 
all active business, going to the village of 
South Hartford, where he lived until his 
death, which occurred in 1877, aged fifty-nine 

In 1849 Burdick G. Sweet was united in 
marriage to Laura A., a daughter of Xurey 
Maynard, of this town. His widow only sur- 
vives him, who resides at the old homestead 
in South Hartford, and is a member of the 
Univcrsalist church. She was born in the 



village of South Hartford, where she has al- 
ways resided. Her father was also a native 
of the town of South Hartford, and who died 
in the thirty-ninth year of his age. 

He and his brother were soldiers in the war 
of 1812. They were sons of Elisha Maynard, 
who was among the pioneer settlers of the 


^^ has risen from the humble position of a 
boot-black to that of proprietor of a plan- 
ing mill at Whitehall, was born in the 
county of Derry, Ireland, July 14, 1842, and 
is a son of James Williamson and Elizabeth 
Moore. His parents were natives of the 
same county, but both were of Scotch ex- 
traction, and emigrated from the Emerald 
Isle to the United States in 1852, locating at 
Whitehall, where his mother died, at the age 
of eighty-two years, in 1885; she was a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church in Ireland. 

Alexander Williamson was brought to 
Whitehall, with his mother, in 1852, where 
he has made his home ever since. He received 
only the rudiments of a common school edu- 
cation, but after he had learned the trade of 
carpenter with Joseph Wilson, of this village, 
he went to Memphis, Tennessee, March 5, 
1859, and remained there until after the war 
broke out, and Tennessee had passed ordi- 
nances of secession. Trained in the home 
guards of the city, he was given a choice 
to join the Confederate army or leave the 
place. He left the Confederate States, going 
to Chicago, and finally returned home to 
Whitehall in the summer of i860. He rather 
favored the Confederate cause, and was called 
at home a "fire-eater," " secesh," etc., and 
was threatened a number of times being sent 
to Fort Lafayette, but the threats were never 
executed. He continued to work up to the 
winter of 1864-5, when he went to Albany, 
where he took a commercial course in the Al- 
bany Commercial college. In 1865 he returned 
to Whitehall, and founded his present extensive 

planing mill business, and after successfully 
running it for one year, sold a half interest to 
N. H. Ames, of New York city. The name 
of the firm was then changed to N. H. Ames 
& Co. He remained with Mr. Ames up to 
1870, when the mill burned, which was imme- 
diately rebuilt and operated until 1876, when 
the mill was stopped running on account of 
the death of Mr. Ames, and for several years 
afterward it was leased and run by Mr. Wil- 
liamson. In 1886 he bought his deceased 
partner's interest, and has since been the sole 
proprietor of the mill. His business from the 
time he started it, in 1865, has steadily in- 
creased and expanded, and at present has a 
substantial patronage and extensive trade, 
giving employment to several men. He man- 
ufactures sash, blinds, doors, frames, mould- 
ing and casing, beside dealing in glass, putty, 
etc.; also turning and gig sawing. 

Mr. Williamson, in 1869, wedded Lydia S. 
Morris, of this village, who is a woman of 
superior business foresight, and to whom is 
due a great deal of the credit for the business 
success of her husband. Mr. Williamson has 
for many years been a leading member of the 
Presbyterian church, and is an elder ; also for 
a number of years was assistant superintendent 
of the Sunday school, and for eight years su- 
perintendent of the same. He is a stanch 
democrat, but has never offered for any politi- 
cal office. 

HDAA IS NORTHRUP, ex treasurer 
• of Washington county, and a successful 
manufacturer of Fort Edward, is a son of 
Hon. James M. and Julia (Davis) Northrup, 
and was born October 9, 1842, at Hartford, 
Washington county, New York. He received 
his education at Fort Edward institute, and at 
eighteen years of age engaged in the produce 
business with his father, at a point on the line 
of the Champlain canal. Three years later he 
succeeded his father, and afterward formed a 
partnership with his uncle, W. B. Northrup, 
being engaged in the business altogether for 



twenty-two years. During this time he became 
a member of the shirt and collar company, 
known as Davis & Co., which did a large 
manufacturing business at Troy, and then at 
Fort Edward up to 1890. In that year Mr. 
Northrup became a member and the secretary 
of the present company that is manufacturing 
ale taps and faucets at Fort Edward. They 
have a branch office in New York city, and 
average fifty thousand dollars of sales per 
year. This company is known as the Auto- 
matic Tap and Faucet Company. Mr. North- 
rup is a republican in politics. He served six 
years as deputy county treasurer under his 
father, and then was elected twice as county 
treasurer. He is a member of Hartford Bap- 
tist church and Masonic lodge, and a promi- 
nent Knight Templar of Washington Com- 
mandery of Saratoga. 

In January, 1864, Mr. Northrup married 
Parmelia E. Wait, who was a daughter of 
Mansur K. Wait, of Granville, and died in 
January, 1879, aged thirty-seven years. For 
his second wife he wedded, on September 10, 
1885, Kate I. Hopping, of New York city. 
By his first wife Mr. Northrup has three chil- 
dren, two sons and a daughter: James M., 
who married Lillie Hodgman, and is traveling 
for the Automatic Tap and Faucet Company; 
Mansur W. , telegraph operator for the Dela- 
ware & Hudson Canal Company, in their gen- 
eral office in New York city; and Maud E. 

Mr. Northrup traces his paternal ancestry 
back four generations to Joseph Northrup, a 
farmer of Hebron, this county, whose son, 
John Northrup (grandfather), served as a 
drummer in the war of 181 2. John Northrup 
was a very fine carpenter, and married Laura 
Baker, of English descent. They had seven 
children, two sons and five daughters. The 
elder son, Hon. James M. Northrup (father), 
was in early life the pioneer potato buyer of 
the State, some years buying and shipping to 
New York city as high as half a million bushels 
of that great root crop. In later life he was 
engaged in banking, being president of the 

First National bank of Fort Edward. A Bap- 
tist and a republican, he became useful in his 
church and active in his party. He served 
two terms as supervisor of the town of Hart- 
ford, was county excise commissioner for six 
years, served two terms as county treasurer, 
and represented Washington county in the 
general assembly for one term. Mr. North- 
rup married for his first wife Julia Davis, who 
died in June, 1850, aged twenty seven years." 
His second marriage was with Martha Dun- 
ham, who 'died in 1873, and for his third wife 
wedded Harriet D. Sill. By his first wife he 
had two children : H. Davis, the subject of 
this sketch ; and Clayton, who died in infancy. 
To his second union was born one child, Min- 
nie J., who died at twelve years of age; and 
by his third marriage two children have been 
born: Charles S., a student at school; and 
William, who died in infancy. 

T kOYAL L. DAVIS, a promising young 
lawyer of Glens Falls, was born at Bolton 
Landing, Warren county, New York, July 11, 
1862, and is a son of F. J. W. and Eliza A. 
(Heist) Davis. F. J. W. Davis was a native 
of the same place and died at Pleasant Hill, 
Missouri, at the age of thirty five years, in 
1866. He was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and removed from New 
York in 1866, to Pleasant Hill, where he died 
three months after his arrival. He was a sold- 
ier in the 1st Vermont cavalry in the late Civil 
war, and was also a member of the regulars, 
and had the rank of sargeant. He was on 
duty in Washington, District of Columbia, and 
for a while in the quartermaster's department 
as citizen's clerk in the States of Virginia and 
West Virginia. His father was Lindsey Davis, 
who was born at Clarendon, and removed into 
Warren county, New York, early in the twen- 
ties. He has always followed the life of a 
farmer, and at present resides in Oswego 
county with his youngest son, in the ninety- 
second j ear of his age. This family of Davises 



probably came originally from Wales in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, or in the 
early part of the seventeenth. The mother of 
the subject of this sketch is a native of Wash- 
ington county, New York, and resides at Glens 

Loyal L. Davis was principally reared in 
the village of Glens Falls, receiving his edu- 
cation in the private schools and the Glens 
Falls academy, and subsequently entered the 
Troy Conference academy at Poultney, Ver- 
mont, from which he was graduated in 1878. 
He afterward went to Wesleyan university at 
Middletown, Connecticut. This was in the 
year 1883, and in 1885 he took a course in 
the Albany Law school, and has been in active 
practice in the courts of Warren county ever 

Loyal L. Davis was married September 26, 
1888, to MaryF., a daughter of John Walker, 
of Albany, New York. Mr. Davis is vice- 
president of the Glens Falls Printing company 
and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. He is also a member of Senate 
Lodge of Masons, of Glens Falls Chapter, of 
Bloss Council, and Washington Commandery 
Knights Templar. He is also a member of 
Delta Lodge of Perfection, the Delta Council 
of Rose Croix, and Delta Chapter, P. of J., 
and Albany Sovereign Consistory, Oriental 
Temple of the Mystic Shrine, aad is the local 
secretary in the State of New York for the 
Quatuor Coranate Lodge, 2076, London. 


T Bald Mountain, son of John and Marga- 
ret Lowber, was born November 2, 1816, at 
the plantation of his father, near Smyrna, 
Delaware. The Lowbers are descendants of 
Gustav Lowdar, one of the privileged barons 
of Denmark, an active Roman Catholic in 
the religious war of p i6i6, between the Cath- 
olics and Protestants ; the success of the 
Protestants forced him to flee from Denmark 

to England, and in 1623 he joined a colony of 
Catholics, who, under Sir George Calvert, 
immigrated to Avalon, in Newfoundland ; 
from thence, in 1632, under Sir Cecil Calvert, 
removed with the colony to Saint Marys, on 
the eastern shore of Maryland, assuming the 
name of Lowber. Margaret Lowber was a 
descendant of Robert Wilson, a Quaker who, 
with a colony under Clariborn, in 1631, settled 
at Kent, on the northern shore of Chesapeake 
bay. John Lowber was the son of Peter 
Lowber, a tanner carrying on business near 
Smyrna, who died in 1808. John was educa- 
ted at William and Marys college, studied law 
in the office of John Sargent, in Philadelphia, 
and on the death of his father, removed to 
Smyrna, to carry on and settle up the business 
of the tannery. He married Margaret Wilson, 
at Smyrna, in February, 1812 ; and, in 1821, 
transferred the tannery and business to his 
brother Peter, and returned to Philadelphia, 
and resumed the practice of law with his 
cousin, John Cole Lowber. While residing 
in Delaware, he was for four years sheriff of 
Kent county. In 1823 he removed to Batavia, 
Genesee county, to act as attorney and legal 
advisor of the agent of the Holland Land 

Robert W. Lowber was educated at the 
Franklin institute, of Philadelphia, the Caz- 
enovia seminary and Lima institute. In 1833 
he was placed by his father in the office of the 
Holland Land Company, at Batavia. In the 
spring of 1837 he went to Chicago, from 
thence to Mackinaw, and with a party up 
Lake Superior, in an open batteau, to the 
mouth of the St. Louis river, from thence 
across the country to Fort Snelling, and spent 
several days with General Sibley, agent of 
the American Fur Company, at his post, 
where the city of Minneapolis now stands. 
While at General Sibley's, the glowing ac- 
counts by the trappers of the country induced 
him to go with them to Pembina, and thence 
to the Gulf of Fuca, traversing much of what 
is now the route of the Northern Pacific rail- 



road. Returning to General Sibley's, he 
went down the Mississippi river to St. Louis 
in an Indian canoe. In 1839 he again went 
to Chicago, thence to Galena, and from there 
to St. Croix river, joining a party of Chip 
pewa Indians, intending to cross to the 
month of Copper river. While encamped on 
Lake St. Croix, the Chippewas were attacked 
by a band of Sioux, and a bloody fight took 
place, the Sioux being finally driven off. 
Mr. Lowber, returning to St. Louis, started 
with a party to go to the Pacific, but the hos- 
tility of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes caused 
the party to give up the attempt. 

In the spring of 1840 Mr. Lowber was re- 
quested by the Farmers' Loan and Trust 
Company to come to New York and take 
charge of the land trusts held by them ; from 
that time until 1844 he was engaged in ex- 
amining the properties held in trust, and in 
settling and closing up the same, amounting 
to over four million dollars. After the settle- 
ments were made with the Ceteraque trust, 
the company, in August, 1844, sent him to 
Europe to arrange for the settlement of. the 
trust bonds issued by the company. The 
bonds were principally held by the Bank of 
England, the Rothschilds, and the East India 
Company, of London, Hope and Company, 
of Amsterdam, and Hottingus, of Paris. 
Satisfactory settlements were made and car- 
ried out. Quite an amusing incident occurred 
at the first meeting held at the office of the 
Rothschilds : the meeting was appointed for 
two o'clock p. m. Mr. Lowber was promptly 
at the meeting, being accompanied by Sir 
John Wilson, president of the Bank of Eng- 
land. A little after the hour appointed, Mr. 
Fastenrath, attorney for the East India Com- 
pany, inquired " why the agent of the New 
York company was not present," and was in- 
formed by Mr. Wilson that he was sitting by 
his side. Mr. Fastenrath, after looking at 
Mr. Lowber a moment, exclaimed, "What, 
that boy !" After Mr. Lowber had stated the 

object of his mission and explained the situa- . 

tion of matters in the United States, Mr. 
Fastenrath came to him, shaking his hand, 
saying, "I congratulate you, and beg to apol- 
ogize for my remark ; but really you Ameri- 
cans begin life early and mature rapidly." 
(In appearance Mr. Lowber did not seem to 
be twenty years of age.) Mr. Wilson took a 
warm interest in Mr. Lowber, had him pre- 
sented to Queen Victoria, accompanied him 
to Amsterdam and Paris, and had him pre- 
sented to King William, at the Hague, and 
Louis Phillipe, at Versailles. Mr. Lowber 
returned in January, 1845, to New York, in 
the Cunarder Cambria, Captain Judkins, hav- 
ing a most stormy passage of nearly twenty 
days, to Halifax. While upon the business 
of the company, in 1843, at the city of Wash- 
ington, much discussion was being had - about 
the boundary line and Lord Ashburton's claims 
for Great Britain. Mr. Lowber's description 
of the country claimed by Great Britain was 
such as to induce Mr. Douglas and other 
democrats to adopt the slogan of "54 40' or 
fight." In March, 1844, Mr. Lowber pur- 
chased an invention for making lead pipe by 
hydraulic pressure and coating the inside of 
the pipe with pure tin, obtained a patent for 
the same, established works in West street, 
New York city, putting the same in charge of 
his brother, Edward J. During his absence in 
Europe, Mr. Robert J. Cornell, president of 
the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, sup- 
ervised the business for him. In the summer 
of 1845 Mr. Jacob LeRoy became his partner, 
and under the firm name of^ Lowber & LeRoy 
the business was conducted until 1849, when 
Mr. Lowber disposed of his interest to Mr. 
LeRoy, whose sons carried it on thereafter, 
in the works erected by Mr. Lowber in Water 

In 1849 Mr. Lowber entered into an ar- 
rangement with Dr. Eliphalet Nott, and in 
the spring of 1850 went to Cuba to look after 
his interests in the Cobra copper mines, which 
he disposed of to English capitalists. In 
1S50 and 1 85 1 he investigated and managed 



for him the business of the Perkiomen mine, 
with General Cadwallader and Mr. McAllister, 
of Philadelphia, disposing of Dr. Nott's in- 
terest to them in 1852. In 1850 he purchased 
of Dr. Nott the one-half interest in the Stuy- 
vesant Cove property, in New York city, and 
in December, 1853, purchased the entire 
property undisposed of. In July, 1852, at 
the request of and in connection with Dr. Nott, 
he purchased the Bald Mountain Lime Quarry 
and erected thereon eleven lime kilns, twenty 
double and thirty-two single dwelling houses, 
a store, machine and blacksmith shop, cooper 
shops, barns and store-houses, giving employ- 
ment to over one hundred and fifty workmen. 
An engine of sixty horse power was used for 
driving the machinery required in cutting up 
lumber and making staves, etc. In December, 
1 887, Mr. Lowber purchased Doctor Nott's one- 
half interest in the works for one hundred and 
fifty-seven thousand dollars, and continued the 
manufacture of lime until January, 1872, when 
he disposed of the works and part of the pro- 
pertyto the Glens Falls Lime Company. During 
the ownership of the property from 1852 to 1872 
Mr. Lowber manufactured over two million five 
hundred thousand barrels of lime, of which 
over two million three hundred and fifty thous- 
and were sent to and sold in the city of New 
York. In 1854 Mr. Lowber became associated 
with Cyrus W. Field in forming the New York, 
Newfoundland & London Telegraph Company, 
and was secretary of the company until it dis- 
posed of its stock and franchises to the At- 
lantic Telegraph Company of London. Of 
all the original promotors of the New York, 
Newfoundland & London Telegraph Company, 
namely, Peter Cooper, Cyrus W. Field, Moses 
Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts, Chandler White, 
Wilson G. Hunt and David Dudley Field, Mr. 
Lowber is the only one now living. In 1854 
Mr. Lowber was active in organizing the Min- 
nesota & Northwestern Railroad Company, 
and was elected vice-president and manager 
of the same. Congress having made a grant 
of land to the territory of Minnesota, the ter- 

ritory conveyed the land granted to the com- 
pany. A survey of the route for the road from 
Dubuque to Saint Paul, and in part from Saint 
Paul to Superior City, was made in 1855 and 
1S56. Caleb Cushing had purchased a large 
tract of land adjoining lake Saint Croix, and 
upon the refusal of the company to locate the 
line from Saint Paul to Superior City by lake 
Saint Croix and donate to him a large amount 
of paid stock, used his position and influence 
to prevent congress from ratifying the grant 
by Minnesota to the company, and the secre- 
tary of the interior from withdrawing from 
sale the land selected by it. The continued 
opposition of government officials induced the 
company, in 1858, to suspend further efforts, 
and in 1864 Mr. Lowber sold the rights and 
franchises to some gentlemen of Minnesota. 
Efforts were made to have congress repeal the 
grant made on the ground that fraud had been 
used in its passage. An investigating com- 
mittee was appointed, who reported that no 
fraud had been committed. 

Just after the passage of the grant by con- 
gress, a man named Tyler appeared in New 
York with five drafts of five thousand dollars 
each, payable to his order, alleging they were 
for moneys promised by persons for the com- 
pany in securing the passage of the grant. 
Never having heard of such promises Mr. 
Lowber refused to sign the drafts. Mr. Tyler 
then sought the aid of Mr. Thurlow Weed, 
who' advised Mr. Marshall O. Roberts, a di- 
rector of the railroad com pan}', to have the 
drafts signed, thereby saving the company 
much trouble and loss. The drafts were not 
signed, and three days after Mr. Tyler's return 
to Washington, Mr. Solomon G. Havens, of 
Buffalo, offered (as he stated), at the request 
of Mr. Lewis D. Campbell, of Ohio, a resolu- 
tion asking for a committee to investigate the 
alleged fraud in passing the grant. A com- 
mittee was appointed, of which Lewis D, 
Campbell was chairman. The proceedings of 
Tyler having been brought out before the 
committee, Mr. Campbell resigned the chair- 



manship, and Mr. Washburn was placed in his 
stead. The investigation brought out who 
the parties were for whom Tyler was acting. 
The committee reported, by Major J. C. Breck- 
enridge, that there had been no fraud prac- 

In 1856, Mr. Lowber's elder brother having 
invented a machine for hulling and clean- 
ing cotton seed, Mr. Lowber secured, in 1856 
and 1857, patents for the same, and had the 
necessary machines constructed for mills in 
New Orleans, Montgomery, and Selma. They 
were all in active operation when the rebellion 
broke out, and were all confiscated and the 
property sold, in June and July, 1861, to a 
party of Confederate Jews, who secretly car- 
ried on the work of hulling seed, and ulti- 
mately formed the Cotton Seed Trust. The 
property confiscated cost Mr. Lowber over 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. 

Mr. John A. Dix having applied to the New 
York banks for a loan to the government of 
#15,000,000, Mr. Lowber was requested to visit 
Washington and advise as to the proceedings 
of the border States and Peace Conference. 
While there an amusing incident occurred on 
the 22d of February. General Scott had 
issued an order for the parade of all the Uni- 
ted States troops in and about Washington, 
in which the District militia were to join. 
While Mr. Lowber was in the room of Gen. 
Daniel E. Sickles, with E. M. Stanton, en- 
gaged in drafting resolutions of compromise 
to be submitted to the Peace Conference, a 
gentleman came hastily in and requested Gen- 
eral Sickles to go up to the White House, 
saying "Old Buck was on a tear." General 
Sickles went at once. On his return he told 
Mr. Stanton and myself that the President 
had received a letter from Mr. Tyler, presi- 
dent of the Peace Conference, stating that 
unless the order of General Scott was recalled 
and the parade stopped, the South would con- 
sider it a declaration of war. Buchanan called 
the cabinet together with General Scott, and 
proposed to countermand the order to parade. 

The opposition of Generals Dix and Scott and 
Mr. Holt only added to the determination of 
the President, and in this condition of things 
Sickles was sent for. Holt was arguing the 
point when Sickles arrived. In his attempt 
to change the determination of Buchanan, 
Sickles lashed him unmercifully over the 
shoulders of Holt, and in attempting to pre- 
vent Buchanan's escape from the room, Sick- 
les caught him by the coat tail and tore it up 
to the collar. The result was a modification 
of General Scott's order, by allowing only 
two companies of infantry to parade. The 
resolutions drawn were presented to the con- 
ference by Mr. Tuck, of New Hampshire, and 
refused consideration. 

Mr. Lowber was present at the inauguration 
of Mr. Lincoln. At the request of Mr. Stan- 
ton, Mr. Lowber visited Canada directly after 
the Trent affair, and reported upon the pre- 
parations of Great Britain to secure control 
of the lakes. He spent much of the summer 
of 1864 in visiting the provinces and New- 
foundland on behalf of the government. In 
the winter of 1863 and 1864 he favored the 
passage of an act by the legislature authoriz- 
ing the general government to enlarge any of 
the canals of the State for passing from the 
seaboard to the lakes gunboats and troops 
and munitions of war. 

In 1864, having furnished G. W. Billings 
with means, and aided him in carrying on his 
experiments for rhetting flax and other fibrous 
substances, and for obtaining patents for the 
same, the invention and patents were sold to 
a Boston company for the sum of three hun- 
dred thousand dollars, paid for mostly in the 
stock of the company. Since the sale of the 
lime works Mr. Lowber has devoted his at- 
tention to farming. 

Mr. Lowber has been married twice. In 
November, 1840, to Maria, daughter of John 
T. Bergen, of Brooklyn, who died in April, 
1842; and on the 15th of February. 1845, to 
Elizabeth G., daughter of Herman J. Red- 
field, who died August 10th, 1890. 




of the leading and prominent business 
men of the village of Shushan, who is suc- 
cessfully engaged in the fire insurance busi- 
ness, and in the sale of various kinds of 
vehicles, harness supplies, mowers, reapers, 
etc., was born in the town of Salem, Wash- 
ington count}-, New York, on June 17, 1851. 
He is a son of William C. and Minerva (Lyon) 
Cleveland, and the father, William C. Cleve- 
land, was a native of the town of Jackson, 
but later in life removed to the town of Salem, 
where he died in 1884, at sixty-two years of 
age. For over forty years he had been a suc- 
cessful woolen manufacturer in his native 
town, and was a republican in his political 
opinion. Associated with his brother-in-law, 
Charles Lyon (whose sketch appears on an- 
other page), as a partner, he assisted in the 
management of the woolen mills at East 
Salem, and much of the success of these mills 
is due to his able supervision and skill. He 
was a son of James H. Cleveland, who was 
born in the town of Salem, and when a young 
man removed to the town of Jackson, where 
he resided until his death, which occurred in 
1876, at the age of seventy-nine years. An 
enterprising and influential citizen of the 
neighborhood, he became prosperous and suc- 
cessful as a merchant and farmer. He was a 
leading member of the First Presbyterian 
church of Salem, and in his political belief a 
democrat. Abel Cleveland (great-grand- 
father), was one of the pioneers of the town 
of Salem, coming from his native State of 
Rhode Island. The mother of William W. 
Cleveland, Minerva (Lyon) Cleveland, was a 
member of the old and substantial Lyon family, 
of the count}', and was a sister of Charles 
Lyon, -of this village. She was born in the 
town of Peru, Bennington county, Vermont, 
and died in 1889, at the age of sixty-six years. 
William W. Cleveland received only the 
rudiments of a common school education in 
the schools of his native town. In 1879 he 
bought a farm and followed farming with very 

good results until 1890, when he rented his 
farm, which he still owns, and removed to the 
village of Shushan, where he has ever since 
resided. In 1892 he purchased the carriage 
and insurance business belonging to C. T. 
Hatch, of the same village, to which he has ever 
since devoted his energies and enlarged the 
volume of the business from year to year ; 
and at the present time has the largest fire in- 
surance business in his section of the county. 
Mr. Cleveland was married in 1872 to Laura 
E., a daughter of Henry Denforth, residing 
in the town of Jackson. To their marriage 
has been born one daughter : Maud B. 

f^APT. A. 15. CONTRYMAN, who did 

^^ brave and gallant service during the war 
between the States, and a popular citizen of 
Fort Edward, was born in the town of Pam- 
elia, Jefferson county, New York, April 3, 
1838. He is a son of Henry and Elizabeth 
Contryman. His grandfather was a native of 
Herkimer county, New York, where he fol- 
lowed farming, married, and had a family of 
eight children, four sons and four daughters. 
Henry Contryman was born in the same 
county in 1800. He was a carriage builder 
by trade, and carried on farming extensively 
for several years. In 1824 he removed to 
Jefferson county, where he died June 13, 1876, 
in the seventy-sixth year of his age, in the 
faith of the Universalist church, and his wife 
departed this life December 25, 1872, aged 
seventy-two years. He was an old-line dem- 
ocrat until the formation of the Republican 
party, when he identified himself with that 
organization ; and for ten years filled the office 
of justice of the peace in the town of Pamelia. 
He wedded and was the father of nine chil- 
dren : Alexander, Katy, George H., Louisa, 
Ludentia, Lucy, Amos B., Wilson H., and 
Oscar, who died during the war, at the age of 
twenty years. 

A. B. Contryman attended the district 
schools of his native town, and subsequently 



at Evans Mills academy and the Saint Law- 
rence academy at Potsdam, the latter having 
since been converted into a State Normal 
school. Leaving school he afterward became 
a salesman in stores at Potsdam and Ogdens- 
burg, where he remained until September 2, 
1S62, when he enlisted in Co. E, i42d New- 
York volunteers, and participated in the fol- 
lowing engagements : John's Island, Drury's 
Bluff, Bermuda Hundred, Cold Harbor, Pe- 
tersburg, Fort Gilmore, Darleytovvn Road ; 
was in both expeditions against Fort Fisher, 
all the battles in front of Petersburg, his divis- 
ion making the first charge against this strong- 
hold, beside many other less important en- 
gagements. At the battle of Fort Gilmore 
Captain Contryman received a slight wound 
by a small piece of shell striking him in the 
hip. He made some very narrow escapes, 
however, as his clothes on several occasions 
were pierced by the enemy's bullets. For 
three years he never missed a roll call nor was 
off duty a single day, which is a record few 
veterans can boast of, being honorably dis- 
charged and was mustered out of the service 
at Ogdensburg in June, 1865. Returning 
home he was engaged in the boot and shoe 
business at Potsdam for twelve years, and at 
the end of that time, 1877, came to Fort Ed- 
ward. Here he associated himself in business 
with L. H. Wing, under the firm name of 
Contryman & Wing, and who at present are the 
proprietors of one of the best stocked drug 
houses to be found in the country. Mr. Con- 
tryman, in addition to his drug interests, is 
secretary and treasurer of the Fort Edward 
Electric Light and Power Company. On 
June 6, 1876, he was united in marriage to 
Isabella H. Matthews, of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. In politics Captain Contryman is a 
stanch republican, Episcopalian in religious 
belief, Knight Templar in masonry, and a 
member of Mills Post, Grand Army of the 
Republic. In his three years' service as a 
soldier in the federal army, he was soon pro- 
moted from private to sergeant, from sergeant 

to sergeant-major, and sergeant-major to first 
and second lieutenant, and thence captain of 
the company. At the time he received his 
captain's commission he was acting as adju- 
tant of his regiment. He has filled the office 
of village trustee of Fort Edward for one 
term. Captain Contryman is as popular as a 
citizen and business man as he was brave and 
daring as a fighter ; unassuming and modest 
in his deportment toward his fellow men, he 
commands universal respect from everybody 
with whom he comes in contact. 

JAMES W. WALLACE, vice-president 
and treasurer of the Dunbarton Flax 
Spinning Company, of Greenwich, was born 
in the North of Ireland on February 8, 1859. 
Mr. Wallace is the eldest son of Hugh and 
Elizabeth Frances Wallace, nee Hunter. The 
Wallace family came from Scotland in 1611, 
four brothers of that name having settled in 
Ulster, under patents from the English crown, 
and for several generations the family have 
been connected with the linen trade of Ulster. 
One branch of the family, on the maternal 
side, came to the American colonies early in 
the eighteenth century, and during the Revo- 
lutionary war one member, a Colonel Nesbit, 
of General Washington's staff, was sent to 
France to secure financial assistance for the 
struggling colonies. 

Mr. Wallace was educated partly in the 
public schools, completing his studies in the 
private school of Mr. Andrew Mullan, and at 
the age of fifteen entered the offices of Dun- 
bar, McMaster & Co., Limited, Flax Spinners, 
Gilford, Ireland. After the Morrill tariff act 
of 1S78, which increased the duty on imported 
goods, the Gilford company decided to erect 
factories in the United States, and Mr. Wallace 
was sent by the company to Greenwich, New 
York, to look after the financial part of the 
undertaking. Since that time Mr. Wallace 
has been with the company, and on merging 
the concern in America into an incorporated 



company Mr. Wallace was elected to the 
offices which he now holds. In Ireland and 
America the company employ two thousand 
operatives, principally in linen thread manu- 
facturing. In the United States and Canada 
they have warehouses and offices in the larger 

Mr. Wallace is a member of the United 
Presbyterian church, and in politics is a repub- 
lican. In 1889 Mr. Wallace married Jennie 
May, only daughter of Mr. Sylvanus Arnold, 
of Mechanicville, Saratoga county, and has 
one daughter, Florence A. 

FRED E. HILL, ex-sheriff of Washing- 
ton county, and who has been engaged 
in various business enterprises, is a son of 
Enoch and Anna (Monroe) Hill. He was 
born in the town of Easton, this county, April 
.14, 1839. Enoch Hill (father) was a native 
of Saratoga count)', New York, and when a 
young man came and made his permanent 
home in the town of Easton, this county, and 
followed the trade of blacksmith, dying in 
this town at the age of sixty-seven years, in 
1867. He was a whig and republican in his 
political belief, and filled some town offices. 
He married Anna Monroe, by whom he had 
thirteen children, eleven of that number who 
reached man and womanhood. Mrs. Hill was 
a native of this county, where she was born 
in 1802, and died May 17, 1853. The grand- 
father Hill of the subject of this sketch, was 
born in Saratoga count}', and lived to be 
nearly one hundred years old. The Hills are 
of English extraction. 

Fred E. Hill worked on the farm until the 
age of seventeen, receiving a common school 
education, when he engaged as a salesman in 
a mercantile house. Remaining here for a 
few years, he branched out for himself in 
merchandising in the village of Easton, where 
he continued successfully up to 1880. In that 
year he came to Salem and accepted the place 

of under-sheriff with his brother, James Hill, 
who had been elected sheriff of the county in 
the fall of the previous year. During this 
term Mr. Fred E. Hill served in the capacity 
of under-sheriff under his brother, at the end 
of which time he engaged in the mercantile 
business at Salem, in which he continued for 
a few years. Relinquishing this business, he, 
in 1S85, became under-sheriff under George 
L. Marshall, and remained with Mr. Marshall 
until 1888, the close of his term. At the fall 
election, in the latter year, Mr. Hill was 
elected sheriff of the county as the regular 
nominee of his party, which office he efficiently 
and acceptably filled for one term of three 
years. Leaving the office of sheriff he engaged 
in the meat business at Salem, and has suc- 
ceeded in building up a profitable trade. 

Fred E. Hill was married to Sarah Run- 
dell in 1861, who was a daughter of Jarvis 
Rundell, of the village of Cambridge. To 
their marriage have been born two sons and 
one daughter : Amy T., who died April 26, 
1872, at the age of five years ; Frank A., born 
November 8, 1875, and Fred R. , who was born 
September^, 1877. Mr. Hill is a Presbyterian 
in his religious belief, and while he attends and 
contributes to the support of that church, he is 
not a member. He is a member of Cambridge 
Valley Lodge, 481, Free and Accepted Masons, 
and is one of the trustees of the Presbyterian 
church of his village. In the councils of the 
Republican party of the county, he is an ac- 
tive and influential leader, and has an enviable 
standing as a citizen throughout his section. 

His brother, James Hill, who had pre- 
viously filled the office of sheriff, was one of 
the most popular and successful politicians 
the county ever produced ; genial and pleasant 
in his nature, he commanded the high respect 
of all classes. For two or three terms he 
served his fellow citizens of his native town 
of Easton as supervisor. His death occurred 
May 7, 1893, having been born July 4, 1830. 

Ex-sheriff Frederick E. Hill died July 25, 



pill LIP CHARLES THEBO, a sue 

cessful merchant of Fort Edward, and a 
grandson of one of Napoleon's trusted gene- 
rals, is a son of Joseph and Louisa Thebo, 
and was born in New York city, September 22, 
1835. He was reared to manhood in his na- 
tive State, but never attended an}' institution 
of learning, and secured his education at home 
and by self stud}'. At an early age he com- 
menced to do for himself, and after working 
at the tobacco and match business, was en- 
gaged in speculating in different lines of com- 
mercial enterprises, and about 1S64 came to 
Fort Edward, where he embarked in the fruit, 
fish and grocery business. Six years later he 
opened his present establishment on Broad- 
way street, and his salesroom, thirty by seventy- 
five feet, is heavily stocked with crockery and 
china ware, and the finest assortment of fancy 
groceries to be found in the State, outside of 
the principal cities. He employs five assis- 
tants and has a large and remunerative trade, 
including among his patrons the leading 
families of the village and the surrounding 

Mr. Thebo is a democrat in politics, has 
been auditor of the town, and is now serving 
on a second term as a member of the board of 
village trustees. He is a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, Masonic 
Lodge, No. 267, and Fort Edward Episcopal 
church, of which he is a vestryman. He is 
also a member of the J. F. Harris Steamer 
Company and the Setterlee Hose Company, 
and Durkee Hose Company, and served for 
some time as a corporal in the Fort Edward 
Home Guards. 

On November 4, 1862, Mr. Thebo was 
united in marriage with Henrietta Chitty, and 
to their union have been born seven children, 
five sons and two daughters : Mary Louise 
(deceased), George W., Philip C. , jr. , William 
H., Frederick, BenjamimF., and Annie Mary. 

The name of Thebo indicates that the 
family is of French lineage, and the paternal 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch was 

General Joseph Thibult, one of Napoleon's 
trusted generals, who served under the "Little 
Corporal " during the days of the consulate 
and the existence of the first empire. When 
fate and fortune decided against the "Man of 
Destiny " at Waterloo, General Thibult, who 
was in the midst of the carnage of that great 
battle, withdrew from military life and engaged 
in peaceful pursuits and the management of 
his tobacco estate. He had eight children : 
Celestia, Joseph, Josephine, Philip Charles, 
Julia, Sofphona, Sarah, and Ida. Joseph 
Thebo (father), born and roared at Paris, 
France, was a man of good education and a 
very fine linguist, and conducted a cabinet 
making establishment at Havre, in his native 
country. In 1827 he came to New York city, 
where he spent the remaining years of his life. 
He was a democrat in politics after he came 
to the United States, and lived and died in 
the faith of the Catholic church, in which he 
was reared and taught. He was born in 1806 
and died in 1851. He married, and by his 
marriage had three children : Joseph, Ida 
(deceased), and Philip Charles, whose name 
appears at the head of this sketch. 


T NEL, who labored faithfully and con- 
scientiously for over forty-five years as a min- 
ister of the Presbyterian church at Glens 
Falls, was born in the town of Ira, Rutland 
county, Vermont, June 21, 1815. He is a 
son of Calvin and Abigail (Gorham) Fennel, 
(some times spelled Finel). Calvin Fennel 
was a native of the same county. Leaving 
home before the subject of this sketch was 
born, he died suddenly in Batavia, New York. 
This son, therefore, never saw his father. He 
was a tanner by trade and a soldier in the sec- 
ond war with England. His father was Ed- 
ward Fennel, a native of Granville, Massa- 
chusetts, and who removed to Poultney. Ver- 
mont, where his children, ten in number, were 
born, all of whom are now dead except the 



youngest, who is in his ninety-second year, 
and resides in Wisconsin. The Fennel fam- 
ily, of which Dr. Fennel is a member, is sup- 
posed to be of English extraction. Edward 
Fennel (i), the father of Edward (2), resided 
at Granville, Massachusetts, and was no doubt 
the founder and progenitor of the American 
branch of the family. Abigail (Gorham) Fen- 
nel was born in Poultney, Vermont, in 1796, 
and died in Illinois in 1864. 

Mr. Fennel spent the first seventeen years 
of his life on the farm and in the district 
school. The next eight years he spent in 
teaching and study, principally at Castleton 
seminar}', Vermont ; entering the Auburn Theo- 
logical seminary in 1840, he was graduated in 
the year 1843. In the following year he was 
ordained to preach by the Rutland county 
association of Congregational ministers. From 
1843 to 1846 he was stationed at Groton. 
,Tompkins count}', New York, as minister in 
the Congregational church. Middlebury col- 
lege conferred upon him the degree of Master 
of Arts, and a few years later the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was given him by the same 
institution. In 1846 Dr. Fennel was called 
by the Presbyterian church at Glens Falls, 
whence he removed, and became pastor of 
that church. He labored here most success- 
fully for forty-five consecutive years. In 1891, 
on account of breaking down of health and 
failure of strength, he resigned his pastorship 
to which the best years of his life had been 
most earnestly devoted. On arriving at Glens 
Falls, in 1846, Dr Fennel found an old, white 
dilapidated wooden church building, known in 
that early day as "Old White," which stood 
for some forty years. In 1848 it was torn 
down and upon its site was erected a fine 
brick edifice, which stood for fourteen years, 
when in 1S64, in the great fire of Glens Falls, 
it was burned to the ground. It was super- 
seded by another fine brick structure, and in 
just twenty years from the time of its com- 
pletion it was consumed by the flames in 1884. 
The present handsome and fine church edifice 

is one of the most costly and tastily con- 
structed buildings in northern New York. 

Dr. Fennel was married in 1843 to Racilla 
A., a daughter of Philo M. Hackley, Esq., of 
Herkimer, New York. To his marriage has 
been born three sons, all living : Andrew 
Hackley, George Hawley, and Charles Henry. 

Dr. Fennel is a man of fine scholarship, high 
ideals and culture, pleasing manners and an 
unselfish nature, and has given the best years 
of his life for the spiritual welfare of his fel- 
low men, as well as to the moral and religious 
uplifting of the human race. At his home in 
Glens Falls he is popular and beloved as a 
citizen and neighbor, where for nearly half a 
century he has been closely identified with the 
moral and religious progress of the village. 

.JOHN BROOKS, secretary of the Con- 
solidated Electric Company, of Green- 
wich, and largely interested in the cattle busi- 
ness in the State of Wyoming, is the eldest 
son of Silas N. and Melissa (Burrows) Brooks, 
and was born May 31, 1852, at Bernardston, 
Franklin county, Massachusetts. His pater- 
nal grandfather, Dr. John Brooks, was a na- 
tive of Vermont, but for many years resided 
and practiced his profession at Bernardston, 
where he died in 1864, aged eighty-four. He 
was one of the leading physicians of Franklin 
county. In religion he was a member of the 
Universalist church, in which he frequently 
preached, and in political faith was a whig 
and republican. Dr. Brooks was elected a 
member of the assembly from Franklin county, 
and served for a number of years. He mar- 
ried Mafy Bascom, by whom he had a family 
of one son and five daughters. His only son, 
Silas N. Brooks (father), was born at Bernard- 
ston, Massachusetts, in 1825, and was reared 
and educated at that place. After attaining 
manhood he engaged in the manufacture of 
agricultural machinery in his native village, 
and followed that business successfully until 
1872. He then removed to the city of Chicago, 



and became a member of the manufacturing 
firm of Sargeant, Greenfield & Brooks, with 
factories at Chicago, Rochester, New York, 
and other places. He is a member of the 
Masonic order, a stanch republican in politics, 
and while a resident of Franklin county was 
elected and served three or four terms in the 
State legislature. In 1847 he married Melissa 
Burrows, a daughter of Isaac Burrows and a 
sister to George Burrows, of the New York 
Central Railroad Company. To that union 
was born a family of four children, three sons 
and a daughter : John, the subject of this 
sketch ; Halburt G., in business with his 
father at Chicago ; Bryant B., a partner with 
his brother John in a cattle ranch in the State 
of Wyoming, at present member of the legis- 
lature of that State ; and Jennie M., living at 
home with her parents in Chicago. Both 
Silas N. Brooks and his wife are active mem- 
bers of the Universalist church. 

John Brooks was reared in his native village 
and obtained a superior English education in 
the Powers institute, of Bernardston, Massa- 
chusetts. In 1868 he engaged with Bradford, 
Thomas & Co., wholesale dry goods merchants 
of Boston, as a traveling salesman, and has 
remained with that company ever since. He 
and his brother, Bryant B., own one of the 
largest cattle ranches in the State of Wyoming, 
containing forty thousand acres of pasture 
land, five thousand of which are irrigated. 
This ranch is stocked with the largest and 
best herd of Galloway cattle to be found in 
the United States. Mr. Brooks is also secre- 
tary of the Consolidated Electric Company, 
of Greenwich, where he resides, which posi- 
tion he has held since 1891. This company 
lights the villages of Greenwich, Cambridge, 
Schuylerville and Middle Falls, their power 
station being located at the last named place. 

In 1S89 John Brooks was united by marriage 
to Lena M. Haskell, a daughter of D. D. 
Haskell, of the village of Greenwich. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Brooks have been born two 
children, sons, named Johu B. and Kenneth B. 

Politically Mr. Brooks is inclined to indepen- 
dence, voting for those he considers the best 
men. He is a member of John Abbott Lodge, 
of Summitville, Massachusetts. 

served with credit in the forty-eighth and 
forty-ninth congresses, is one whose success- 
ful efforts to develop the great transportation 
system of the Hudson rrver valley make it 
proper that some account of his life and la- 
bors should be placed upon the permanent 
historical record of the count) 7 . He is a son 
of Gordon and Elizabeth (Weeks) Burleigh, 
and was born at Canaan, New Hampshire, 
June 2, 1834. The Burleigh family is of 
English descent, and was planted in New 
England in 1640, by four Burleigh brothers, 
who settled respectively in Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Maine. 
From the brother who settled in New Hamp- 
shire was descended General Joseph Burleigh, 
the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. 
General Burleigh was a native of Dorchester, 
New Hampshire, in which State he died on his 
farm at Franklin, when in the seventy-fourth 
year of his age. He held an important com- 
mand under General Stark, and participated 
in the battle of Bennington. His son, Gordon 
Burleigh (father), was a native of Canaan, New 
Hampshire, and at the age of fifty-two years, 
removed to Ticonderoga, Essex county, this 
State, where he was engaged in the lumbering 
business until his death, which occurred when 
he was in the sixty-eighth year of his age. 
He married Elizabeth Weeks, who died at 
Ticonderoga in 1872, at seventy-one years of 
age. Mrs. Burleigh was of English lineage, 
and one of her ancestors built the "Weeks 
House," the first brick house erected in New- 

Henry G. Burleigh was reared at Concord, 
New Hampshire, received his education in 
the common, schools, and at fourteen years of 



age removed to Ticonderoga. He gradually 
enlarged his operations until 1866, when he 
found Ticonderoga did not control the volume 
of transportation that he was then prepared 
to handle, and accordingly came to White- 
hall as a better terminal to the large trans- 
portation business which he wished to estab- 
lish. He has continued successfully at White- 
hall in the transportation business ever since, 
and continually enlarging the scope of his 
operations until he now requires from one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty canal and 
steamboats to carry the immense amount of 
freight which he handles. His transportation 
line extends from the cities of Ottawa, Quebec 
and Montreal, Canada, to New York and 
Philadelphia. He owns iron ore mines «on 
Lake Champlain, from which he ships large 
quantities of ore, beside shipping lumber 
from Canada to New York, and coal from 
Pennsylvania to Canada. Mr. Burleigh em- 
ploys a large force of hands, and has built 
up one of the great transportation systems 
of this country, which has stimulated activity 
and awakened enterprise at numerous places. 
When he entered into his present business 
it was not a field full of brilliant promise 
or great expectation, but possessed only un- 
seen possibilities and plenty of hard work. 
That he has made the most of these possi- 
bilities is attested by his present success, and 
that he has worked hard to win commercial 
supremacy in his business stands recorded in 
the many severe struggles through which he 
has passed. The record of his business life 
would be incomplete if it only made mention 
of his transportation work, and while it is 
needless to speak in detail of his many other 
business enterprises, 3'et a reference to some 
of them is not out of place. He is presi- 
dent of the old National bank of Whitehall, 
and a director of the Commerce Insurance 
Campany, of Albany, the Bay State Furnace 
Company, of Port Henry, and the Lake 
Champlain and Port Henry Towing com- 
panies. In business operations Mr. Burleigh 

has very fixed views and acts on any new ven- 
ture only after mature deliberation. 

In 1869 Mr. Burleigh married Jennie E. 
Richards, of Ticonderoga, and they have three 
children : Henry Gordon, Charles Richards 
and James Weeks. Mrs. Burleigh is a daugh- 
ter of John and Elizabeth Richards. Henry 
G. Burleigh, in politics, has always been an 
active and leading republican. He was sec- 
retary of the first Republican convention held 
in northern New York, and served as a dele- 
gate to the Republican National convention 
of 1884 that nominated Blaine. In this con- 
vention Mr. Burleigh moved that the nomina- 
tion of Mr. Blaine be made unanimous at the 
request of President Arthur. Mr. Burleigh 
was also a delegate to the National Republican 
convention of 1888, which nominated Presi- 
dent Harrison the first time, and again in 1892 
that placed Harrison in nomination for the 
second time. In 1861 Mr. Burleigh was elected 
supervisor of the town of Ticonderoga, and 
remained supervisor of that town during the 
rebellion. The full quota of men were always 
raised in that town under each call of the 
President made there, thereby preventing any 
draft. After coming to Washington county 
he was nominated and elected to the State 
assembly, serving in that body during the 
session of 1876, and was chairman of the com- 
mittee on canals, Samuel J. Tilden being gov- 
ernor. In 18S3 Mr. Burleigh was elected from 
his district, composed of the counties of 
Washington and Renssalaer, to the forty- 
eighth congress, and at the end of his term he 
was re-elected and served through the forty- 
ninth. Being a clear-headed and able business 
manager, Mr. Burleigh was amply able to 
fully protect the industrial and commercial 
interests of his district, and to serve with 
ability and credit on different congressional 
committees appointed to look after the gen- 
eral business affairs of the country. For over 
thirty years Henry G. Burleigh has been one 
of the republican leaders of northern New 
York and the State. 



niiFKEI) C. HODGMAN, the present 

proprietor of the oldest clothing house 
at Fort Edward, is a son of Lebbens and 
Amanda (Stearns) Hodgman, and was born at 
Fairfax, Vermont, January 2, 1842. His pa- 
ternal ancestors were of English extraction, 
and his father was a native of Vermont, where 
he followed farming chiefly up to the time of 
his death, which occurred June 14, 1889. 

Lebbens Hodgman was a Methodist and 
republican, and wedded for his wife Amanda 
Stearns, by whom he had six children : Martha 
J. Meech ; F. L., a furniture dealer and 
undertaker in the State of Iowa; Clifton H., 
Alfred C. (subject); Homer A., a clothing 
merchant of Bellevue, Michigan, and Flor- 
ence, who died in infancy. After the death 
of his first wife, Lebbens Hodgman married 
Mrs. Lucy Luscomb, but had no children by 
his second marriage. 

Alfred C. Hodgman was reared on a farm, 
and after receiving a good English education 
in the public schools of his native State, chose 
for himself a business life instead of embark- 
ing in some agricultural pursuit. Leaving the 
farm in 1857 he came to Fort Edward, where 
he was engaged as a clerk for three years in a 
store next to his present business establish- 
ment, on Broad street. Three years later he 
embarked in the clothing and gentlemen's 
furnishing goods business, in the establish- 
ment which he afterward enlarged and still 

With years of patient effort came an ample 
measure of success, and at the present time 
he has the largest house, in his line of busi- 
ness, in Fort Edward. 

In politics he has been a republican since 
President Lincoln's first election, but gives his 
time largely to his business interests. 

On August 17, 1864, Mr. Hodgman was 
united in marriage with Fannie A. Fowler, 
then a resident of Brooklyn, New York, and 
whose father, Samuel J. Fowler, a lamp man- 
ufacturer, died in iSSS. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Hodgman were born five children, three sons 

and two daughters : Dr. A. Frederick, a prac- 
ticing physician of Auburn, New York, for 
the last five years; Fannie L., A. Harry, 
in the clothing business with his father ; Lil- 
lian, wife of James M. Northrop, a business 
man of New York City ; and Herbert A., who 
died in infancy. 

t>EV. JOHN JOHNSTON, pastor of 

V the Baptist church of Fort Ann village, 
was born in the city of Peterborough, in the 
Province of Ontario, Canada, on April 11, 
1865. He is a son of Samuel and Elizabeth 
(Furgerson) Johnston. His father was a na- 
tive of Belfast, Ireland, emigrating from the 
land of his birth in 1836, and settled in the 
city of Toronto, and afterward changed his 
residence to Peterborough, where he resided 
until his death in 1 871, at sixty-one years of 
age. He was a British sea-captain in the 
Royal Navy, and was of Scotch-Irish extrac- 
tion. He married Elizabeth Furgerson in 
1858, who was also born in Belfast, of Scotch- 
Irish origin, a,nd now resides in the city of 
Toronto, where she has lived since 1871. 

Rev. John Johnston was reared and edu- 
cated in the city of Toronto, where his mother, 
with the family, removed after the death of 
her husband. Here Reverend Johnston at- 
tended the Jarvis Street college, where he took 
a three years' course of special studies, pre- 
paratory to his entering the active ministry, 
and at the age of twenty-two he began active 
work in the cause of Christ and humanity. 
His first pastoral charge was at Grafton, Rens- 
selaer county. He remained here a short 
time, when he went to Lebanon Springs, in 
Columbia county, where he efficiently labored 
for his denomination until March 30, 1891, 
when he received the call to Fort Ann. He 
is the pastor of the Baptist church of this 
place, and also has charge of the church at 
Comstof k. The combined membership of the 
two churches number nearly three hundred, 
and they are in a prosperous condition. 



Reverend Johnston was united in marriage 
in October, 1888, to Susie M. Scriven, who 
was a daughter of Supervisor Alva H. Scriven, 
of Grafton, Rensselaer county, '-who repre- 
sented his borough for seven consecutive 
years, acting as its chairman." He died in 
Mount Vernon, New York, in December, 1893. 
His family were among the early settlers of 
the town of Grafton. To Mr. and Mrs. John- 
ston three children have been born, one son 
and two daughters : Robert A., Ruth S., and 
Leone P. 

Reverend Johnston has four brothers who 
are citizens of Toronto, Canada: Joseph, 
Maxwell, Samuel and Robert, and one sister, 
Jennie. Joseph Johnston is a wholesale book- 
binder, printer and stationer, of 105 Church 
street. Maxwell owns and operates one of 
the best equipped job-printing establishments 
in Canada, at 78 Wellington street, Toronto. 
Samuel is a machinist by trade, and is con- 
nected with his brother, Maxwell, in business. 
Robert is a professional man, and for the last 
five years has been engaged in lecturing, and 
is joint debator for the conservative party. 

who is one of the prominent men of the 
county, and president of the Washington 
County Agricultural society, was born in the 
village of North Argyle, Washington county, 
New York, December ix, 1847. He is a son 
of William and Susan (Terry) Stevenson. 
William Stevenson was a native of the town 
of North Argyle ; born in 1806, and died in 
1852, aged forty-six years. He was a mem- 
ber of the United Presbyterian church, and a 
whig in his political principles. He carried 
on a general merchandising business in North 
Argyle, and was a son of John Stevenson, a 
native of Scotland, who came to this country 
when a young man with his two brothers, Wil- 
liam and Daniel. John Stevenson, soon after 
his arrival here, located in the town of Argyle, 
where he carried on farming until his death. 

Mrs. Susan Stevenson, the mother of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in the same 
town in 1826, died in 1872, and was a consist- 
ent member of the United Presbyterian church. 
She was twice married ; her second marriage 
was to William Orr, of Troy, and in that city 
she afterward made her home until her death. 

William D. Stevenson grew to man's estate 
in his native town and in Troy. On leaving 
the common schools he attended the Troy 
academy and a select school at Geneva, New 
York, taught by Dr. Reed. Leaving the 
school room Mr. Stevenson returned to the 
village of North Argyle. He has not been 
regularly engaged in any particular calling. 
He owns several valuable farms in the county 
and handles a great deal of real estate. In 
addition to his varied investments he is presi- 
dent of the Fort Edward and Argyle Plank 
road and of the Argyle and Fort Edward 
Telegraph Company, and is at present serving 
for the fourth time as president of the Wash- 
ington County Agricultural Society. 

In 1869 Mr. Stevenson was married to Eliza- 
beth Livingston, daughter of Samuel Wallace, 
deceased, and has one child, a daughter, Anna 

William D. Stevenson is a prominent repub- 
lican of Washington county, and wields a 
strong influence in the councils of his party. 
For two terms he had the important local office 
of supervisor of his town, and was honored by 
his fellow members with the chairmanship of 
the board. He was twice elected to the gen- 
eral assembly of the State, and served in the 
sessions of 1891 and 1892. Mr. Stevenson 
resides at the old homestead in the town of 
North Argyle, about two miles from the vil- 
lage of Argyle. The house having been built 
by his father, which is a large and handsome 
brick, is one of the model country residences 
of the county. 

Mr. Stevenson is an affable gentlemen, and 
both socially and in his business intercourse 
with his neighbors, is popular and highly re- 



f^ROF. WILBER W. HOWE, superin- 

tendent of the Wliitehall Union school 
and an educator of State reputation, is a son 
of John and Maria (Wilber) Howe, and was 
born at St. Johnsville, Montgomery county, 
New York, July 29, 1862. His paternal grand- 
father, Eli Howe, was of English descent, and 
removed in early life from his native State of 
Connecticut, to Otsego county, New York. 
His son, John Howe, the father of Prof. W. 
W. Howe, was born in Otsego county, and 
has been a resident for the last forty years of 
St. Johnsville, this State, where he follows 
hydraulic engineering. He married Maria 
Wilbur, who was a daughter of David Wilbur, 
of Otsego count}*, and who died June 14, 1877, 
when in the forty-fourth year of her age. 

Wilber W. Howe was reared at St. Johns- 
ville, New York, and received his education 
in the public schools of that place and at the 
State Normal school at Albany. Leaving 
school, he taught Prang's system of drawing 
and Holt's system of vocal music for some 
time in connection with the principalship of 
the graded schools of Cleveland, New York, 
and North Bennington, Vermont. In i8go he 
resigned his position in those graded schools 
to become State instructor of drawing in the 
county institutes of New York and Vermont, 
in which he did efficient work until 1891, when 
he resigned to accept his present position as 
superintendent of the Whitehall Union school. 
This institution occupies five large buildings 
and employs a corps of twenty-one teachers, 
and under the intelligent and able manage- 
ment of Mr. Howe is rapidly pushing for- 
ward to the front rank of the graded schools 
of the State. 

On December 25, 1883, Professor Howe 
was united in marriage with Florence A. Wil- 
son, daughter of Simon B. Wilson, of Chase- 
ville, Otsego county, New York. They have 
one child, a daughter, named Majorie W. 

W. W. Howe is a democrat in politics, and 
has been a member for several years of Garoga 
Masonic Lodge, of Rockwood, this State. He 

is well liked as a citizen and popular as the 
superintendent of the village Union school. 
In May, 1893, at the teachers' institute at 
Wliitehall, Professor Howe gave, "in a most 
intelligent and satisfactory way, his theory of 
teaching, and exemplified it by the actual 
performance of pupils from the Whitehall 
schools." His lecture and the admirable 
work of his pupils were warmly applauded. 
He believes in intelligent reading as the basis 
of a good education, and his aim in the low- 
est reading grade is to get at the thought, 
leaving other things of minor importance to 
take care of themselves. He also has his 
pupils, in all of the branches taught, to get a 
clear idea of what their subject is before they 
commence work on any lesson or subject. 
His advanced methods of instruction are fully 
appreciated at Whitehall, and the intelligent 
reading and improved work in all the branches 
in the Union school attest his ability as an 
educator of rare attainments. 

QOKNELIUS YOUNG, an experienced 
paper manufacturer and the superinten- 
dent of the Ondawa paper mills, of Middle 
Falls, is a son of John and Jennie (Fisher) 
Young, and was born in the city of Amster- 
dam, Holland, August 2, 1844. J omi Young 
was a native of the same city, born Septem- 
ber 20, 1813, and came in 1847 to Rochester, 
New York, where he was an engineer in a 
paper mill until 1862. In that year he pur- 
chased a farm in Livingston count)', on which 
he remained seven years. He then returned 
to his position as engineer in the paper mill 
and served in that capacity until 1882. In 
September, 1893, Mr. Young retired from all 
active business pursuits. He is a republican, 
and a member and deacon of the Reformed 
church, and in 1836, married Jennie Fisher, 
who was born in Amsterdam in 1816, and is 
still living. They have eight children living: 
John, jr., a paper mill superintendent ; Mor- 
ean, a furniture dealer of Rochester city : 



Maggie, wife of Abram Shought ; Samuel D., 
now in the furniture business at Rochester ; 
Cornelius ; Jennie, wife of Albert Lusick ; 
Ellen, wife of Frank Laroy, and Annie, wife 
of Matthew VanDame, all of Rochester. 

Cornelius Young was reared in Rochester, 
where he became an errand boy in a match fac- 
tory at seven years of age, and two years later 
went to work in a paper mill. He attended 
the common schools a part of the time until 
he was ten years of age, and at fifteen became 
an apprentice to a large shoe manufacturing 
firm, with which he remained four years. He 
then returned to paper making, and in 1881 
became superintendent of the Howland paper 
mills, at Sandy Hill, which position he re- 
signed in 1888 to accept the superintendency 
of the Bellows Falls paper mills, of Vermont. 
At that place he remained one year, and then 
removed to Fort Edward, where he served 
one year as superintendent of a paper mill. 
He then, in 1890, came to Middle Falls and 
assumed charge of the Ondawa paper mills, 
which he has superintended ever since. These 
mills have a daily output of eight tons of 
manilla and box board paper, and furnish 
regular employment for a force of forty-eight 

On March 4, 1866, Mr. Young married 
Mary E. O'Neil, daughter of James O'Neil, 
of Greenwich. They have had seven children: 
John F., M. H., Cornelius J., Mabel, Sarah 
(dead), Mary, and Grace. Of these children, 
John F. is eagaged at a paper mill in Tyrone, 
Pennsylvania, and M. H. is employed with 
his father. 

On November 8, 1861, Mr. Young enlisted 
in Co. K. 98th New York infantry, and served 
sixteen months, being discharged at the end 
of that time on account of disability. He is 
a stanch republican, and is a member of the 
Royal Arcanum and a past vice-commander 
of the William M. Callen Post, 587, Grand 
Army of the Republic. He is an honorary' 
member of the J. W. Wait Hose Company, 
of Sandy Hill, of which he served as presi- 

dent for one year, and has been an active 
member for several years. While in active 
service as a fireman he served one term as 
assistant chief of the fire department of the 

same village. 

JAMES I). 8HERKILL, a member of 
the leading contracting firm of Flood & 
Sherrill, was born in the city of Albany, New 
York, September 3, 1848, and is a son of 
James H. and Ellen A. (Lewis) Sherrill. The 
Sherrills are of Scotch descent, and Darius 
Sherrill, the paternal grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was one of the early set- 
tlers of the village of Sandy Hill, and who 
afterward served as sheriff of Washington 
county. He ran the old coffee house at Sandy- 
Hill at the time when the old stage line from 
Whitehall to Albany passed through the vil- 
lage. His son, James H. Sherrill (father), 
was born in 1812 at Sandy Hill, where he died 
in 1886, when well advanced in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age. James H. Sherrill was 
a republican, and an Odd Fellow, and served 
for several years as superintendent of the 
Champlain canal at Sandy Hill. He was a 
contractor on public works, in which line of 
business he was very successful. Mr. Sherrill 
married Ellen A. Lewis, a native of Mobile, 
Alabama, who was born in 1826, and has con- 
tinued to reside at Sand}' Hill since the death 
of her husband. 

James D. Sherrill was reared in his native 
village, received his education in the common 
schools and Glens Falls academy, and then 
engaged with his father in the contracting 
business, which he has followed ever since. 

In 1890 Mr. Sherrill married Elnora Nash, 
daughter of Harvey B. Nash, of Sandy Hill. 

In political opinion Mr. 'Sherrill has always 
been a republican, while in religious belief and 
church membership he is an Episcopalian. 
Within the last twenty years he has been con- 
nected with the erection of some very exten- 
sive and important village, city and govern- 



ment works. He erected the reservoir at 
Rutland, Vermont, which lias a capacity of 
six million gallons of water; built the large 
water works system at Ticonderoga, and con- 
structed the fine water works in Pittsford, Ver- 
mont. He is now a member of the contract- 
ing firm of Flood & Sherrill. They have held 
several State and government contracts on 
canal work, and at the present they are en- 
gaged in building a coverly post called Fort 
Ethan Allen, near Burlington, Vermont. 


^^ popularly known as Deacon Wright, is 
one of the most intelligent and progressive 
farmers in the town of Kingsbury. He is a 
son of Abncr and Pamelia (Trumbull) Wright, 
and was born in the town of Hebron, Wash- 
ington county, New York, March 31, 1831. 
Abner Wright was a native of Williamstown, 
Massachusetts. He came to this county in 
1808, and married for his first wife a daughter 
of Dr. Oliver Brown, a practicing physician 
in the town of Salem. He was a farmer, and 
settled first in the town of Salem, then in Ru- 
pert, Vermont, then in Hebron, then in Green- 
wich, and then he removed to the town of 
Hartford, and died there in 1870, in the 
eightieth year of his age. He reared a family 
of ten children that lived to the age of man 
and womanhood. He was a soldier in the war 
of 1S12 ; a leading member and deacon in the 
Baptist church ; he did a great deal of suc- 
cessful evangelical work, and bore an envia- 
ble Christian name throughout his neighbor- 
hood. He was a whig and republican, and 
was a son of Thomas Wright, who was a na- 
tive of Massachusetts ; he was a fisherman by 
occupation, and died in Boston Harbor when 
his son, Abner Wright, was quite young. 
Pamelia (Trumbull) Wright was born in Ru- 
pert, Rutland county, Vermont ; she is now in 
the eighty-fifth year of her age, and is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. 

Charles T. Writrht t*rew to manhood on the 

farm, in this county, receiving a good English 
education in the common and a select school 
at Hartford, and when he became of age en- 
gaged in teaching school : Two terms in South 
Hartford, one in Jackson, and one term at 
Slyborough, Granville; but the greater part 
of his life has been spent in tilling the soil. He 
removed to his present finely improved farm 
of four hundred acres, at Smith's Basin, from 
Granville in 1866, where he has ever since re- 
sided. On March 24, 1857, he was married 
to Julia E. Moone, of Yates, Orleans county, 
New York, daughter of Lyman Moone, for- 
merly of Hebron. To Mr. and Mrs. Wright 
have been born three children: Lyman M., 
Ella P. and Lillian B. Ella P. being the wife 
of Leonard Johnson, of Pawlet, Vermont; 
Lillian B. married A. K. Cross, jr., of the 
town of Kingsbury; Lyman M. is a farmer, 
and resides in the town of Hartford. Mrs. 
Julia E. Wright died April 20, 1876. Charles 
T. Wright wedded for his second wife, in 
1878, Lydia A., daughter of Hiram Waller, of 
Hartford. To this last union has been born 
six children: Alice E., Charles A., Fannie E., 
Nelson W., Helen and Rollin T. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wright are both members of the Fort 
Ann Baptist church, the former being senior 
deacon of his church, and in his political 
opinion is a stanch republican. For six years 
he served in the office of town assessor, and 
was afterward elected justice of the peace, 
which office he refused to accept. His grand- 
father, Horace Trumbull, was a native of 
Connecticut, and when a young man removed 
to Rupert, Bennington county, Vermont, where 
he resided all the remainder of his life, and 
where he reared a large family of children. 
He was a farmer and a member of the same 
family of Trumbulls as was Governor Trum- 
bull, who served as governor of the State at 
the time of the war of the Revolution. After 
arriving at the age of twenty-one years, 
Charles T. Wright worked eight months of 
each year, for four years, for his father, on the 
farm, for which he received, for the entire 



time, three hundred and forty-one dollars, at 
the expiration of which time he purchased his 
father's farm of one hundred and seven acres ; 
two years later he bought an additional forty 
acres, and in 1866 sold both of these tracts 
and purchased the Baker farm, in the town of 
Kingsbury, near Smith's Basin, and where he 
has since resided. This is one of the most 
valuable farms in the county; itconta : ned then 
four hundred and sixty-six acres, for which he 
paid six thousand dollars at the time of the 
purchase, and went in debt to the amount of 
seventeen thousand dollars for farm and stock. 
He sold off sixty-six acres of the outskirts of 
the farm, and settled the last of his indebted- 
ness in 1889. Charles T. Wright has, through 
his honesty, industry and Christian manhood, 
truly earned the title of a self-made man. and 
it can be safely asserted that no one stands 
higher in his entire community than he, for 
having more of the prerequisites that go to 
make up a man. 

.JOHN BRAYTOX was born in the town 
Hartford, on what is called Brayton street, 
Washington count} - . New York, June 12, 1840, 
and is a son of William Brayton and Mariah 
Hoyt. William Brayton was also a native of 
the town of Hartford, where he was born in 
1802. He was an engineer by occupation and 
for five years ran on the Hudson river, and 
fifteen years he spent at his trade on some of 
the principal steamers that ply the Chesapeake 
bay. He died in his native town in 1871. He 
was a member of the Baptist church, and a 
republican in his political opinion. 

His father was Thomas Brayton, who was a 
native of Rhode Island, and with his two 
brothers came into the town of Hartford and 
were among the early settlers. They took up 
land and here made their homes until their 
deaths. The}' were tories. The Braytons 
are of English lineage. 

The mother of the subject of this sketch was 
born in Virginia, and died July 4, 1889, aged 

seventy-seven years. For forty-two years she 
was a devoted member of the Baptist church. 
Her father was Captain Hoyt, a native Vir- 
ginian. He served as captain in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and was a member of Washing- 
ton's staff. 

John Brayton was reared in his native town 
and received the benefit of only a common 
school education. At the age of eighteen 
years he went to Whitehall, where he learned 
the jeweler's trade with George Barney, with 
whom he continued to work up to the spring 
of 1861, when he returned to his father's farm. 
Among the first call for troops by the presi- 
dent in 1861, he early enlisted in Co. G, 44th 
New York regiment, as a private, and was 
discharged in the latter part of December, 
1862. During this term of service he was 
engaged most of the time on detached duty. 
He was taken prisoner at the seven days' fight 
at Savage Station, Virginia. On the 28th of 
I uly. i862,Mi". Brayton, with Lieutenant Kelly, 
of Co. B, made good their escape. After get- 
ting back into the Union line Mr. Brayton, by 
special order of General McClellan, was sent 
north to Philadelphia, where he was discharged 
on account of ill health. After recuperating 
his health to some extent he engaged in the 
United States Secret service, and did duty on 
the Potomac river, being transferred from 
one post to another, his boat carrying the mail 
from Fortress Monroe to Hilton Head, South 
Carolina, and three months between Hilton 
Head and Saint Augustine. His crew was 
then detailed as a flag ship going up the Saint 
John's river and captured Jacksonville, Flor- 
ida. One month afterward going up the river 
some sixty miles from Jacksonville, their boat 
was blown up by a torpedo from the rebels 
and sunk. After returning east Mr. Brayton 
went to Baltimore and was second engineer 
on a tug boat for a short time, when he en- 
gaged on a government vessel as assistant en- 
gineer, running from Boston to New Orleans 
and Cuba, where he remained up to 1868. 
He returned to Hartford in that year, where 



he has worked at his trade ever since. Since 
December, 1873, Mr. Brayton has in addition 
to his other business interests kept the Empire 
House of Hartford, which is a well managed 
country hotel. 

In 1873 Mr. Brayton was married to Arlesta 
I., daughter of Richard Smith, of the town of 
Hartford. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, Hcrshall Lodge, of his village, and 
Norman F. Weer Post, No. 453, Grand Army 
of the Republic. Since the organization of 
this post he has been its commander. He is a 
stanch republican, and has filled the office of 
town clerk and town collector, and takes an 
active part in politics. 

QKVILLE If. MOTT, M. I)., a physi- 
cian of good standing in his profession, 
residing at Fort Ann, is a native of the town 
of Saratoga, Saratoga county, New York, and 
was born April 30, 1851. He is a son of La 
Fayette and Mary A. (Weston) Mott. La 
Fayette Mott was also born in the town of 
Saratoga, where he lived all his life, dying in 
1S72, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He 
was a republican in politics, and a farmer by 
occupation. His father was a native of Dutch- 
ess county, New York, where he took up a 
grant of land that the government had con- 
fiscated from the tories. He was among the 
early settlers of Dutchess county, as well as 
one of the pioneers of the town of Saratoga. 
The Motts who first settled in this country 
were French Huguenots; the great-great- 
grandfather of Dr. Mott came over from 
England and settled on Long Island, whose 
son (great-grandfather) afterward settled in 
Dutchess count}-. La Fayette Mott married 
Mary A. Weston, who was born in the town 
of Saratoga, and who died in 1867. 

Orville H. Mott, M. D., grew up on the 
farm in his native town, attended the common 
schools of the neighborhood, and afterward 
attended the Connecticut Literary institute, 
at Suffield, Connecticut. Leaving this insti- 

tution, he took up the study of medicine in 
the New York Homeopathic Medical college, 
completing his studies there in the spring of 
x ^73> when he went to Glens Falls, and was 
there engaged in the practice with Dr. D. H. 
Bullard until the following October, going 
thence to Fort Ann, where he has succeeded 
in building up a substantial and paying prac- 
tice. Dr. Mott is a member of the Homeo- 
pathic Medical society of northern New York; 
he is also a member of Mt. Hope Lodge, No. 
260, Masonic fraternity, Chapter of the Royal 
Arch Masons, and Washington Council of 
Royal Arcanum. The greater part of Dr. 
Mott's time and attention is devoted to his 
profession, while he never neglects any oppor- 
tunity to widen his knowledge of medicine or 
to study closely the most successful methods 
of treating diseases. He occupies a useful 
position in Fort Ann, being a well-read and 
successful physician, and a pleasant and gen- 
ial gentleman. 

FRANCES A. TEFFT, a prominent 
educator and a woman of remarkable in- 
dividuality, is the daughter of John H. and 
Dyantha (Winchip) Tefft, and was born in the 
town of Kingsbury, Washington county, New 
York ; August 1, 1845. John H. Tefft was a 
native of the county and for many years a lead- 
ing farmer in the town of Kingsbury, owning 
a farm in the vicinity of Sandy Hill, where his 
death occurred in March, 1878, at the age of 
sixty-six years. For many years he was a 
consistent and respected member of Sandy 
Hill Baptist church, and a life-long republican. 
His father, Joseph Tefft, was born in Rich- 
mond, Washington county, Rhode Island, 
March, 1779, removed to Easton, Washington 
county, New York, in 1787, where he followed 
the occupation of farming for man}' years. 
He died March 1, 1870, in the ninety-first 
year of his age. The Teffts were probably of 
English extraction, and among the early set- 
tlers of this county, the first to settle in this 



section being William Tefft, the paternal 
great-grandfather of Miss Tefft, For addi- 
tional facts in the ancestry of this pioneer 
family, see the sketch of R. C. Tefft, on an- 
other page. DyanthaWinchip was born in the 
town of Queensbury ; she is a devoted mem- 
ber of the Christian church, and now residing 
in the village of Sandy Hill. Her father, 
John Winchip, lived all his life in the towns 
of Queensbury and Kingsbury, where he fol- 
lowed farming. He was a native of Queens- 
bury, and a drafted soldier in the war of 1812. 
He died in October, 1857, aged sixty-nine 
years. The Winchips are of English origin, 
but for many generations have lived in this 

Frances A. Tefft was brought up in Sandy 
Hill and received a good education at the Fort 
Edward institute, and under the tutelage of a 
private instructor, William McLoren, who was 
a graduate of the university of Glasgow, and 
one of the famous mathematicians of his day. 
Miss Tefft was graduated from the Fort Ed- 
ward institute in the class of 1864. Leaving 
the institute she became an assistant to 'Prof. 
William McLoren, jr., in the Argyle academy, 
in which she remained for three years, suc- 
ceeding Mr. McLoren as principal. Subse- 
quently she became an instructor in a private 
school at Sandy Hill, conducted by Mr. Mc- 
Loren, where she remained for one year. In 
1868, the year the Union school was organ- 
ized at Sandy Hill, William McLoren, jr. , 
was selected principal, and she preceptress, 
and here they labored together until 1876. In 
the latter year they both went to Glens Falls, 
becoming principals and joint owners of the 
Glens Falls academy, in which capacity she 
remained for eleven years, when in 1887 she 
returned to Sandy Hill, soon after becoming 
principal of the Union school of that village, 
a position she has ever since held to the gen- 
eral satisfaction of all the patrons of the school. 
During the last few years the school under her 
competent supervision has increased to such 
an extent that in 1892 there was a new high 

school building erected, and the corps of 
teachers increased from thirteen to seventeen, 
and during this year's term there is an enroll- 
ment of about nine hundred pupils. In at- 
tendance at this school there are many schol- 
ars who are non-residents of the village and 
immediate vicinity, who prepare here for 
teaching and admission to colleges. Scholars 
have been graduated from here and gone to the 
leading universities of the country : Syracuse 
university, Rochester, Middlebury, Cornell, 
Trinity, Union, and Leland Stanford, jr., uni- 
versities being among the number. 

Frances A. Tefft is at present occupying the 
principalship of this Union school, and will 
long be remembered as one of the most com- 
petent and able instructors of her time. 

pastor of the Presbyterian church at 
Sandy Hill since 1880, and one of the most 
prominent ministers and eloquent divines of 
his denomination in northern New York, is a 
son of Dan W. and Esther A. (Bull) Kellogg, 
and was born at Ann Arbor, Michigan, July 
3, 1842. The Kelloggs are of Scotch extrac- 
tion, and the family was planted in America 
early in the seventeenth century, soon after 
the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock. 
The original Scotch orthography of the name 
was Kolloch, but it was changed in America 
to the present spelling. Hon. Charles A. 
Kellogg, paternal grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, was a native of Connecticut, 
and settled at an early day in Cayuga county, 
New York. He was an ardent whig, a strong 
supporter of Henry Clay, and served one term 
in congress from the Cayuga district. In later' 
life he removed to Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
where he died about i844,atthe age of seventy- 
five. One of his sons was Day Otis Kellogg, 
at one time mayor of the city of Troy, and 
father of Charles D. Kellogg (cousin), who is 
now at the head of one of the leading charity 
associations of New York city. Another son 



was Dan W. Kellogg (father), who was born 
and reared at Galway, New York. For a num- 
ber of years he was a wholesale hardware 
merchant of Troy, under the firm name of 
Kellogg & Co., but in 1S52 the firm removed 
to the city of New York, where they engaged 
in the same business. There Mr. Kellogg 
continued the hardware business until 1870, 
when he sold out, and the next year removed 
to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he resided 
until 1883. In that year he returned to New 
York and located at Sandy Hill, where he lived 
until his death in 1885, when in the seventy- 
third year of his age. He was very successful 
in business, and accumulated a handsome for- 
tune. In religion he was an Episcopalian, 
and in politics an ardent republican. In 1833 
he married Esther A. Bull, a daughter of 
Judge Archibald Bull, and a native of the city 
of Troy. She died in August, 1842, when her 
son, the subject of this sketch, was only five 
weeks old. Judge Archibald Bull (maternal 
grandfather) was of English extraction. He 
was three times elected judge of Rensselaer 
county, and was one of the most distinguished 
Free Masons of New York. He became sov- 
ereign grand inspector general of the western 
hemisphere, and in that capacity introduced 
and first organized Free Masonry in the island 
of Hayti. 

His mother having died while he was yet 
an infant, Charles D. Kellogg was reared by 
his father's sister, Mrs. E. S. Abel, of Peeks- 
kill-on-the-Hudson. His education was re- 
ceived in the Peekskill academy, a polytech- 
nical institute at Brooklyn, and Princeton col- 
lege, from which well known institution he was 
graduated in 1861. He immediately entered 
the Princeton Theological seminary, and began 
preparing himself for the ministry of the Pres- 
byterian church. In April, 1863, he was li- 
censed to preach by the Second New York (old 
school) Presbytery, having previously con- 
nected himself with the Presbytery at the 
Scotch Presbyterian church on Fourteenth 
street, near Sixth avenue, New York city. 

Rev. Charles D, Kellogg's first charge was 
at Wilmington, Delaware, where he officiated 
from June, 1863, to April, 1867. He next as- 
sumed the pastorate of two churches, at Bacon 
Hill and Fort Miller, in New York, where he 
remained until September, 1872, after which 
he had charge of the North Reformed church 
at Passaic, New Jersey, until October, 1879. 
He then came to Sandy Hill and took charge 
of the Presbyterian churches here and at Fort 
Edward. After serving these churches for 
nearly one year he was regularly installed as 
pastor, which position he has acceptably filled 
ever since. The old Presbyterian church in 
Sandy Hill, which was built in 1826, has been 
torn down, and in its place a handsome stone 
edifice is being erected, which will shortly be 
completed and dedicated. Since being located 
in this village Reverend Kellogg has refused 
calls to take charge of churches in Boston, 
Wilmington and Philadelphia. In his minis- 
terial work he has been very successful, and is 
most highly esteemed by the people as a gen- 
tleman of lofty ideals, sympathetic character 
and scholarly attainments. 

On October 28, 1863, he was united in mar- 
riage with Mary J. Baucus, a daughter of Hon. 
Joseph Baucus, ex-sheriff and ex-assembly- 
man of Saratoga county, and a sister of Hon. 
A. B. Baucus, ex-sheriff and ex-State senator 
of the same county. To the Rev. and Mrs. 
Kellogg was born a family of four children, 
two sons and two daughters: Joseph Augus- 
tus, who was the democratic candidate for 
the State assembly from this district in 1891, 
and has served two years as third assistant of 
the attorney general of New York ; Florence 
Grace, married Preston Paris, son of Hon. U. 
G. Paris, of this village, and now resides at 
Gaylord, Kansas; Charles W. , a banker of 
Cawker City, Kansas; and Kate, living at 
home with her parents. In his political opin- 
ions Rev. Mr. Kellogg is a republican, and a 
most excellent citizen and gentleman, in addi- 
tion to being one of the best known and most 
popular pulpit orators in this part of the State. 



CRSKINE G. CLARK, who died at 
his home in Sandy Hill, May 27, 1894, 
was a distinguished physician, prominent citi- 
zen and a representative man. His personal 
merits and his identification with the whole 
county, by his erection of a monument to her 
soldiers who participated in the war for the 
suppression of the rebellion, entitle him to 
elaborate space on these pages. Dr. Clark 
was born in Hubbardton, Rutland county, 
Vermont, Octobers, 1807. His parents were 
Russell Clark, a native of the same county, 
and Aurinda Wheeler, who was a daughter of 
Seth Wheeler, a revolutionary soldier. Rus- 
sell Clark started for the battle at Plattsburg, 
in the war of 1812, but the war closed before 
he arrived there. He was a graduate of the 
old Medical college at Philadelphia, and came 
to Sandy Hill in 1810, where he practiced 
medicine the remainder of his life. He was 
the father of two children : Dr. Erskine G. 
and Susan, who was the wife of Charles 
Rogers. Dr. Russell Clark became eminent 
in his profession in his day, and his talent 
was inherited by his more eminent son, who 
attained a greater prominence and develop- 
ment than even his distinguished father. 

Dr. Erskine G. Clark had for some years 
been in feeble health, and had gradually re- 
tired from professional and active public life, 
from the decease of his wife in 1872. His 
funeral services were held on memorial day, a 
fitting day for the funeral of one who had 
done so much to perpetuate the memory of 
the soldiers of this county and had erected 
such a splendid monument to their patriotic 
service. Though he had never identified 
himself with any church organization, he was 
nevertheless a man of Christian character, in 
sympathy, and a firm believer in the sacred 
truths of the Bible. His sympathies were 
with the Universalist doctrines and interpre- 
tation of the scriptures, and the Rev. J. D. 
Corby, of Troy, an eminent clergyman of that 
denomination, was engaged to conduct the 
services and pronounce his funeral discourse. 

His family was one of character and of dis- 
tinguished talent. The late General Orville 
Clark, one of the great men of -the county in 
his day, was his "father's brother. The only 
sister, Susan A., became the wife of the late 
Honorable Charles Rogers. Dr. Clark mar- 
ried a Miss McDonalds, of Glens Falls. 

Dr. Erskine G. Clark was pre-eminently 
successful in his profession, he was correct in 
his diagnoses, prompt and skillful in treatment 
and kind and gentle at heart, though at times 
apparently brusque and abrupt in manner. 
His patients, however, learned to trust him 
and to have confidence in him. He was a 
good practical business man, as well as an 
excellent physician, and acquired a large 
competency. He had one of the largest 
farms in Kingsbury, and carried it on success- 
fully until his wife's death, which, with his 
declining years, caused an abatement of in- 
terest, to some extent, in business matters. 
He was a stockholder and director in the 
Glens Falls National bank and in the Peoples' 
National bank, of Sandy Hill, and was also 
president of the Sandy Hill and Adamsville 
Plank road company. Dr. Clark was an in- 
tense union man ; he raised and equipped, at 
his own expense, the company which his 
nephew, General Rogers, first led to the 
front, and a few years ago erected the beauti- 
ful monument, at the cost of many thousand 
dollars, to the soldier-dead of the county, 
which stands in the park in the heart of the 
village of Sandy Hill. It was a great day in 
that village when it was dedicated. Corporal 
Tanner was there and made one of his most 
effective speeches, and other men of national 
reputation. An interesting camp fire was 
held in the evening, and the venerable patriot 
who had inspired this tribute to his country's 
defenders was there, and seemed wrapped in 
thought of the events which the monument 
was intended to commemorate. He was 
wholly unmoved by the compliments which 
were so lavishly showered upon him. Sandy 
Hill has the right to be proud of the monu- 



ment and of her liberal, public spirited and 
patriotic citizen who erected it. 

The deceased was a straightforward, honest- 
hearted man, firm and positive in his convic- 
tions, endowed with strong and vigorous 
sense, sincere and hearty in his friendships, 
and perhaps to some extent in his enmities ; 
of mental activity, and yet of shrewd and 
practical capacity for business affairs ; a valu- 
able and a worthy citizen of high moral char- 
* acter, and an honest man. What higher 
eulogy can be pronounced? 

QEORGE II. WHITCOMB, a graduate 
of the medical department of the univer- 
sity of the city of New York, and member of 
the Washington County Medical association, 
is a physician who has rapidly attained suc- 
cess within the sphere of his chosen profes- 
sion. He is a son of Jasper H. Whitcomb 
and Louisa A. Harris, and was born at Ful- 
ton, Oswego county, New York, January 10, 
1853. His father, Jasper H. Whitcomb, was 
a native of Rutland, Vermont, but who in early 
life removed with his father to Fulton, where 
he grew to manhood. He was a prominent 
fanner and real estate dealer of that count}-, 
and to some extent dealt in lumber and to- 
bacco. In 1K49 he married Louisa A. Harris, 
of Keene, New Hampshire, by whom he had 
eight children, six sons and two daughters : 
George H., Herbert, Mary L. , wife of Fred 
Randall, of Hannibal, New York ; Frank J., 
Emma F., who wedded Justus Gere, of Ful- 
ton ; James- D., and Charles, at present re- 
siding on the old Whitcomb homestead ; and 
Fred, who is residing in the State of Wash- 
ington. Jasper H. Whitcomb died in 1NS3, 
at sixty years of age, after an. honorable and 
successful business life. His wife died in 
£888, at the same age. His home was the 
finest country place in his town. The Whit- 
combs are of English origin, and were early 
settlers in New England. 

George H. Whitcomb was principally reared 

in his adopted village, receiving an academical 
education in Valley seminary, at Fulton, and 
the Cazenova academy, in Madison county, 
New York. On leaving the academy, he com- 
menced the study of medicine in the office of 
Dr. Leslie Martin, of Lysander (now of Bald- 
winsville), Onondaga county. After careful 
preparation under his preceptor, he entered 
the Albany Medical college, taking one course 
of lectures, after which he entered the medi- 
cal department of the university of the city 
of New York, from which he was graduated 
in 1S76. Immediately after graduation he 
entered into the active practice of his profes- 
sion at Phcenix, New York, where he remained 
for three years, and in 1879 removed to Green- 
wich, where he has built up an extensive 
general practice. For several years Dr.Whit- 
comb has been an active and leading member 
in the Washington County Medical associa- 
tion, and has represented the society as a dele- 
gate in the State Medical association. He is 
also a member of several other medical soci- 
eties. He is a member of the Congregational 
church, and a republican. On August 22, 
1879, Dr. Whitcomb wedded Carrie A. Bying- 
ton, daughter of Rufus S. Byington, of Han- 
nibal, New York. They have two children, 
both sons : Carol B. and Homer J. He is 
public-spirited, and ranks well as a skilled 
and successful physician, devoted to his pro- 
fession. His tastes are pre-eminently scientific 
and habits studious. In the early years of 
his practice he was instrumental in organizing 
the Phcenix Science association, of which he 
became president, and before which he deliv- 
ered two courses of lectures, each on the sub- 
jects of Chemical Analysis and Physiology. 
He was one of the three selected by this so- 
ciety to give a course of popular science lec- 
tures. During the eighteen years of his prac- 
tice he has acquired a library and surgical 
armamentarium which, for their scope and 
completeness, are rarely equalled outside large 
cities. Medical literature has gained by sev- 
eral articles from his pen, some of which have 



secured permanent abiding places in leading 
text-books and works of reference. His article 
on Artificial Infant Foods and Scorbutus 
(Scurvy), with the report of a case, was the 
first American case in type. Dr. Whitcomb 
has been invited to read papers before several 
of the leading medical societies of the United 
States. At the instance of the American 
Electro-Therapeutic association, he prepared 
a paper which was read at their meeting in 
the Philadelphia Acacemy of Medicine in 
September, 1891, which was extensively 
copied in medical journals. 

QHARLES A. ROCHON, specialist on 
^^ the eye and ear, of Glens Falls, was born 
in Saint Jerome, Terrebonne county. Prov- 
ince of Quebec, Canada, August 19, i860, and 
grew to manhood in the city of Montreal, 
where he received his education at the college 
of Montreal, from which he was graduated in 
the class of 1880. On leaving there he en- 
tered Laval university of the same city and 
was graduated from the medical department 
of that institution in 1883 and again in 1884. 
After a short practice there in 1885 he came 
to New York State, locating in Glens Falls, 
where he has been engaged in active general 
practice ever since ; also making a specialty 
ipl the diseases of the eye and ear, and has 
succeeded in building up a large and lucrative 
practice. Dr. Rochon has been twice mar- 
ried : first, on January 3, 1887, to Olda Rouil- 
liard, whose death occurred in March, 1890 ; 
his second marriage was in 1892 to Flora La 
Rocque, of the same city, and a niece of the 
Rev. J. S. Ethier, the pastor of the French 
Catholic church of Glens Falls. By his last 
marriage he has had one child, a son : H. 

Dr. Rochon is a member of the French 
Catholic church, and the director of its choir. 

Charles A. Rochon is a son of Charles A. 
and Adele (David) Rochon. Charles A. Rochon 
was a native of the Province of Quebec, a 

lawyer by profession, removed into the city of 
Montreal, where he was actively engaged in 
the practice of law up to the time of his death 
in 1880, aged fifty-two years. He was a mem- 
ber of the Catholic church, and acted as agent 
for the Crown's lands. He was a good lawyer 
and stood high at the bar. 

He wedded Adele David, who was born in 
the Province of Quebec, and at present re- 
sides in the city of Montreal. 

VILLE, a valued citizen of Whitehall 
and a man of long experience in steamboating 
on the lakes, was born in that village, on Octo- 
ber 17, 1841. He is a son of Murray and 
Asenath (Searles) Manville, the former a na- 
tive of the town of Whitehall, and when a boy 
accepted a position on a sloop traversing the 
waters of Lake Champlain. He continued to 
follow the waters from his boyhood days up 
to the year 1875, duringwhich time he became 
master and owner of a sloop, and captain of a 
number of steamboats. In 1875 he quit boat- 
ing and engaged in the wholesale lumber busi- 
ness at Whitehall, in which he continued suc- 
cessfully to within about three years prior to 
his death, when he retired from all active busi- 
ness. His death occurred at the age of seventy- 
nine years, in 1891. He was at the time of his 
demise, a member and deacon of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church ; a republican in his 
political opinion, and chairman of the board 
of education of his village for a number of 
years previous to his death. His father 
(James Manville) was a native of Connecticut, 
who came and settled on a farm in the town of 
Whitehall, and was among the early pioneers 
that made homes in that section. He died at 
a ripe old age in 1848. His father was born 
in France, but when a young man emigrated 
to this country and settled in Connecticut. 
Up to this time the name of the family was 
spelled Mandeville, but thinking the "de " 
superfluous, it was dropped by the grand- 



father of the suhject of this sketch. Mrs. 
Manville (mother), who was also born in 
Whitehall, was a daughter of Jacob Searle, 
and is now residing in her native village at the 
age of seventy-four years ; for many years she 
has been a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. 

Capt. James Henry Manville grew up in 
Whitehall, attended the academy of that vil- 
lage, and afterward took a thorough commer- 
cial course in Bryant & Stratton's Business 
college at Albany. On leaving school he en- 
gaged with his father in steamboating. He 
first learned engineering, later became pilot, 
and in 1864 was made captain, which position 
he held on Lake Champlain until 1881 ; and 
from that year to 1891 was commander of 
steamboats that plied the waters of Lake 
George; and on October 17, 1891, he became 
captain of the "Dean Richmond," one of 
the handsomest steamers of the "People's 
line," running between Albany and New York 
city. This place he at present occupies, and 
it can be safely said that there is no one better 
fitted by nature and experience than Captain 
Manville for this important position. He is a 
stockholder and director of the Saranac & 
Lake Placid, a mountain railroad twenty 
miles long, in the Adirondacks ; and is also a 
stockholder in the New York and Pennsylva- 
nia long distance telephone company. 

Capt. James Henry Manville, in March, 
1865, was married to Elmira, daughter of 
Leonard K. Hatch, of Shelburne Falls, Massa- 
chusetts, and to this marriage has been born 
two children, both daughters : Lorett and 
Clara. Captain Manville is a member of 
Phoenix Lodge. 96, Free and Accepted Masons, 
Champlain Chapter, 25, Royal Arch Masons, 
and of Washington Commander}', No. 33, of 
Saratoga Springs ; and is a member of Orien- 
tal Temple of Troy. He is also a member of 
Lodge 5, of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. In his political tenets he has always 
been a consistent republican, and represented 
his district as a member of the New York as- 

sembly in the session of 1886-7, and in the 
session of 1 890-1 was elected and served as 
sergeant-at-arms of that body. Also was ser- 
geant-at-arms of the assembly of 1894. For 
seven years he was paymaster of the State 
assembly, prior to the time of his becoming a 
member ; and in 1887 was the nominee of his 
party for the State senate in the district com- 
posed of the counties of Washington and 
Rensselaer, but was engulfed in defeat on ac- 
count of Troy's tremendous democratic vote. 

QEORGE SHERRILL, superintendent 
of the Springbrook Water Company, and 
one of, the substantial business men of Sandy 
Hill, is a son of George B. and Angeline (Ben- 
nett) Sherrill, and was born October 25, 1859, 
at Sandy Hill, Washington county, New York. 
His paternal grandfather, Darius Sherrill, was 
of Dutch descent, and while residing in the 
town of Kingsbury, served as sheriff of Wash- 
ington county from 1832 to 1835. He mar- 
ried, and one of his sons was George B. Sher- 
rill, the father of the subject of this sketch. 
George B. Sherrill was born at Sandy Hill, 
where he resided until his death, which oc- 
curred in 1889, when he was in the sixty-sixth 
year of his age. He was a Presbyterian and 
democrat, and followed contracting for a num- 
ber of years previous to his death. Mr. Sher- 
rill married Angeline Bennett, who is a Pres- 
byterian in religious belief, and still resides 
at Sandy Hill. Mrs. Sherrill is a daughter of 
Robert Bennett, who was a native of Fort 
Edward, and in middle life removed to Ball- 
ston Spa, in Saratoga county, where he died 
at an advanced age. 

George Sherrill was reared in his native vil- 
lage, receiving his education in the public 
schools of that place. Leaving school he was 
variously engaged until 1SS1, in which year he 
became a partner in the hardware business 
with A. C. Vaughan & Co. This firm con- 
tinued until the death of Mr. Vaughan, in 
[884, when Mr. Sherrill purchased the inter- 



est of the Vaughan heirs, and since then lias 
conducted a very successful hardware busi- 
ness. Mr. Sherrill has a very large and hand- 
some two-story hardware establishment, where 
he carries a fine and well assorted stock of 
hardware, stoves, and tinware, roofing, and 
plumbing and heating supplies. His trade is 
not confined to Sandv Hill and its immediate 
vicinity, as he has numerous patrons at a con- 
siderable distance from the village. Mr. Sher- 
rill is identified with the public interests of 
Sandy Hill, and has served for some time as 
superintendent of the Springbrook Water 
Company. He is a Presbyterian and demo- 
crat, being a trustee alike of his church and 
village. Mr. Sherrill is a member and the 
present master of Sandy Hill Lodge, No. 372, 
Free and Accepted Masons. 

In 1881 Mr. Sherrill was united in marriage 
with Carrie B. Vaughan, daughter of the late 
A. C. Vaughan, of Sandy Hill. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sherrill have three children, two sons and a 
daughter: George V., Amos C. and Julia M. 

lUTlLO INGALSBE was born in Kings 

A bury, New York, May 29, 1818, and was 
a son of James Ingalsbe and Fanny Ingalsbe, 
the daughter of Zadock Harris and Abigail 
Harris, nee Dean, representatives of two old 
Connecticut families, who shortly after the 
birth of their daughter, Fanny, in 1795, moved 
from Plainfield, Connecticut, to Hartford, New 

James Ingalsbe (father) was born in Gran- 
ville, Washington county, New York, and was 
one of the eleven children of Aa'ron Ingalsbe 
and Polly Ingalsbe, nee Hicks. The Hicks' 
were from Vermont. 

Aaron Ingalsbe (grandfather) was one of the 
six young men who came to Hartford together 
about the year 1780-81, and were the first 
white settlers of the town; Aaron was the 
ninth of fourteen children of Ebenezer In- 
galsbe and Susannah Ingalsbe, nee Robins. 

Ebenezer Ingalsbe (great-grandfather) was 

born February 10, 1730, and his wife October 
iS. 1 729. Their earliest known residence was 
Boylston, Worcester county, Massachusetts. 
Afterward they lived in Worcester, and later 
in Shrewsbury. From the latter place they 
came to Hartford about 1790. Earlier than 
Ebene/.er Ingalsbe the history of the family is 
as yet hardly removed from the realms of tra- 
dition, but at Milo Ingalsbc's death he was 
actively engaged in working it out, and this 
work will be continued by his son. The old 
world home of the family was on the Scottish 
border, but whether in Scotland or England 
has not yet been determined. 

From there they emigrated, in the seven- 
teenth century, to Maine, settling at the point 
where Bangor now stands. From there they 
removed to Massachusetts, representatives of 
the family living at one time in Boston. In- 
ured to warfare from their location on the 
Scottish border, they took a hand in the King 
Philip and other earl}' Indian wars. 

Ebenezer Ingalsbe was a sergeant in Capt. 
Robert Andrews' company of minute men, 
which marched from the second parish of 
Shrewsbury to Cambridge on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. He was in service at 
different times during the Revolutionary war, 
attaining the rank of captain in 1777, when he 
was in the field several months on the Ben- 
nington alarm, probably reaching the Hudson 
river. His sons as soon as their age allowed, 
were also in the patriot service. A man of 
great physical vigor, his health was ruined by 
his exposure in the service, and after his final 
discharge he was never well, dying in Hart- 
ford, August 17, 1802. 

The family has been noted for its longevity. 
Milo Ingalsbe's parents died at the ages of sev- 
enty-eight and ninety-one years; his grand- 
parents at the ages of eighty- three, eighty-six, 
eighty-four, and eighty-seven years, and his 
great-grandparents at the ages of seventy-two 
and seventy-six years. The twelve brothers 
and sisters of parents attained the average 
age of over seventy-one years, and the four 



brothers and sisters of grandparents of over 
eighty-one years. 

When Milo was two years old his parents 
moved from Kingsbury to Hartford, where lie 
afterward resided till during his last illness. 
Three weeks before his death he was moved 
to the residence of his son, Grcnville M. In- 
galsbe, in the village of Sandy Hill, in his na- 
tive town of Kingsbury, and there he died on 
November 28, 1893. His remains were in- 
terred in Union cemetery, near Sandy Hill. 
Rev. Dr. Sawyer paid him a fitting tribute at 
his funeral in Sand)' Hill, from which we may 
quote : 

" In what I may say at this time of our 
friend who has been taken from us, my aim 
will be to direct attention to some facts which 
speak best for themselves, and to lessons 
which may easily be drawn therefrom. Each 
one's life supplies its own sufficient testimony 
to its quality and worth, and neither fervid 
eulogy nor frigid criticism can affect that testi- 
mony. Words of public commendation are 
not needed for the living ; and to the dead 
can do no good. Character ever makes its 
own sure impress, and the influence of years 
worthily spent can, in no case, be lost. No 
man who lives rightly and truly need fear that 
he will fail of that place to which he is enti- 
tled in the intelligent judgment of his fellows, 
and the higher one's ideal of living the less 
solicitude felt in regard to what that judgment 
will be. 

"The prominent facts of this life history, run 
ning through a period of more than three score 
and ten years, can be briefly stated, but no full 
statement can be made of what is implied in 
those years of labor performed, of duty dis- 
charged, and of a mission fulfilled. Some of 
these facts have already been given by the 
press of this vicinity. The life of Milo In- 
galsbe began in this town, where, last Tuesday 
morning, it came to its earthly close. He 
was born in 1818. In his infancy his father 
moved to the neighboring town of Hartford, 
and there, except some brief intervals, his 

whole life was passed. His early education 
was obtained in the common school, and at 
the academy in Castleton, Vermont. At the 
early age of sixteen he began teaching school, 
and to that work he devoted parts of several 
succeeding years. For a time he pursued the 
study of medicine, attending lectures at the 
medical college at Albany. 

"The life work which he mapped out for 
himself was that of a physician or teacher, 
but with a thoughtful and unselfish regard for 
the education of the younger members of the 
family, he abandoned his chosen plan, and 
sacrificed his youthful ambition to return home 
and work on the farm. There he settled for 
life and there he established for himself a 
home, the grateful and sacred memories of 
vvhich extend over a period of fifty-one years. 

"Certain features of Mr. Ingalsbe's life and 
character have been specially impressed on my 
mind ; of these I would briefly speak. He was 
a pattern of industry. Through all those 
years he was busily engaged in various lines 
of activity. Never physically strong, yet by a 
careful and strict observance of the laws of 
health, by knowing how to use to the best ad- 
vantage the means and appliances of labor, he 
was able to accomplish what comparatively 
few men have done. He was impatient of all 
careless and slipshod work, and whatever he 
attempted was done thoroughly and well. In 
addition to the constant manual labor con- 
nected with his vocation, he did more brain 
work than that of many a man in a successful 
professional career. Under the old common 
school system of our State, he was town super- 
intendent for several years, and for fifty years 
he was clerk of his school district, keeping ac- 
curate records which have been of much value 
in tracing the necrological annals of the neigh- 
borhood. For twelve years he served as jus- 
tice of the peace, and during the time of the 
war he was supervisor of his town, giving much 
time and active interest to the discharge of 
the duties of a member of the war committee. 
He was one of the founders of our count} - 



agricultural society, and twice was chosen its 
president. For eleven years he was an active 
member of the executive committee of the 
State agricultural society, and for one year its 
president. From the time of the organization 
of the United States bureau of agriculture, 
thirty years ago, to the time of his death, he 
was the county correspondent, and his published 
papers on subjects relating to the agricultural 
interests of the State were especially instruc- 
tive and valuable. He was also, for a long 
time, correspondent and observer of the Smith- 
sonian institute and signal service department. 
A simple reference to these facts enables us to 
judge of the amount of work crowded into 
these busy years. 

" Mr. Ingalsbe not only kept abreast with the 
times, but his progressive spirit, joined with 
admirable judgment, made him a leader in 
the community in education, and every wise 
project of moral reform. Very rarely, indeed, 
does one, in the quiet walks of country life, 
exhibit and maintain an interest so deep in 
all that is going on in the busy world around. 

"Naturally studious, he spent no little time 
with his books, of which he gathered a large 
and choice collection. From their first pub- 
lication, the Atlantic Monthly and Harper's 
could be found on his table ; and he conscien- 
tiously kept informed of the current news as 
supplied by the daily press. The taste for 
study and habit of reading were kept up with 
advancing years, and during the past year he 
was engaged, for a portion of his time, in pre- 
paring and writing out chapters of history 
which he felt might be prized by those who 
would come after him. It is only a little while 
since he remarked : ' I have a hundred j'ears 
of work yet mapped out to do.' I speak of 
these things more particularly, not only as re- 
vealing the character and habits of the man, 
but also as pointing out a lesson for younger 
men, as showing what can be accomplished 
by one in various lines of useful labor, though 
in the comparative retirement of country life, 
and as illustrating the pleasure and profit that 

may be found in a life so far freed from the 
feverish excitements, for which is commonly 
felt, in the present day, so eager a craving. 

"No small portion of his time and labor 
was given by Mr. Ingalsbe for the benefit of 
others. Having the confidence of the com- 
munity in which he lived, many came to him 
for advice and counsel, and it is a significant 
fact, which may be maintained in this con- 
nection, that, as an executor, confidential ad- 
viser, he settled more than a hundred and 
fifty estates, performing that labor usually 
without any pecuniary reward. In the com- 
mon use of the term he was not a politician. 
He never sought office for himself, and re- 
fused it beyond such a service as he felt called 
upon, from time to time, to render to his own 
town. But he was earnestly interested in the 
history and principles of political parties, and 
in all that pertains to the public welfare. His 
religious thinking was along the lines of New 
England Congregationalists, but his was that 
discerning and catholic spirit which sees and 
acknowledges the good that may be found 
under varying forms of religious creed. His 
faith in the Bible was vigorous and clear. 
That faith was impressively affirmed in draw- 
ing near life's close, as he remarked: ' Any- 
body would know that I was a believer in the 
Bible. One who read it so much could not 
help it.' But the most convincing testimony 
to his belief in the Scriptures as the word of 
God, was given in a life governed by its di- 
vine teachings." 

The country schools of that' day were the 
primitive district schools, but the neighbor- 
hood where Milo's father moved when Milo 
was two years old, and the one where he made 
his permanent home, two years later, were 
noted for the superiority of their schools. In 
attendance before school age was reached, be- 
ing able to read, and not able to remember 
when he could not do so,-he proved a prodigy 
in study, mastering every branch, which the 
teachers of those days were capable of teach- 
ing, and taking excursions into the then almost 



unknown realms of the higher mathematics 
and the natural sciences. In his sixteenth year 
he commenced teaching, winters, earning 
money enough thereby to enable him to take 
a short course of study at the Castleton 
Academy, Castleton, Vermont. Here he took 
the highest rank, standing in the classes on 
even terms with those who had been for years 
in the school. In 1840-4] he took a partial 
course in medicine at the Albany (New York) 
Medical school, then newly organized under 
the leadership of Drs. March and Armsby. 
Seward was at that time governor, and Albany 
was enjoying a period of unexampled intellec- 
tual and political activity. The young man 
here got a view of life which led him toward 
the educational field for his life work, and 
flattering positions were offered him in various 
sections of the country. The west presented 
the most inviting field. But his father, a poor 
man, heavily in debt for his farm, with several 
younger sons to rear and educate, besought 
him to return to the farm and help him and 
his younger brothers through. 

Probably few fiercer conflicts were ever 
waged in the human bosom than the one that 
followed. Finally, Milo Ingalsbe renounced 
a life work which could not have resulted in 
other than the highest measure of success on 
wide and public fields of action, and returned 
to the farm. His after life was a sacrifice for 
others, but he did not repine. He spent no 
time in idle regrets. Wherever he was, what- 
ever his work, he was born to be a leader. 

For some winters he continued to teach 
school with great success ; he became one of 
the organizers of the county agricultural 
society ; he was elected school inspector and 
school superintendent of his town, serving 
in these capacities a term of years ; he was a 
stanch supporter of the public school system, 
and the free district library in its early and 
critical days, and he sought by the introduc- 
tion of good literature and the circulation of 
such periodicals as the Cultivator and Tribune 
to raise the standard of general intelligence. 

His interest in educational matters continued 
throughout his life, and amid the phenomenal 
progress of the half century he kept posted 
regarding educational movements ; he wel- 
comed improved methods of training, and 
was often far ahead of his time in their advo- 
cacy. He was district clerk of his school 
district for fifty years, resigning in the sum- 
mer before his death, after having made the 
record during this long term, not merely a 
record, but a veritable district history. 

On June 5, 1842, he was married to Laura 
Cook Chapin. She was born at Chicopee, 
Massachusetts, August 21, 1817, but her 
mother dying in infancy, she was adopted by 
her uncle, Moses Cook, and his wife Sophia, 
of South Hartford, New York, and knew no 
other home than theirs until her marriage. 
She was a granddaughter of Samuel Cook, a 
soldier of the revolution, whose lineage is 
traced back to Francis Cook, who, with his 
Walloon wife, came to Plymouth in the May- 
flower. They celebrated their golden wedding 
in 1892. The wife survives her husband. 
The newly married couple immediately com- 
menced house keeping on the farm of the 
groom's father, where they continued to re- 
side until 1 85 1, when they moved to the resi- 
dence of Moses Cook, to assume charge of 
his farm and care for him and his wife in 
their old age. One child, Grenville Mellen, 
had in the meantime been born to them in 
1S46. Mr. Ingalsbe bought in succession two 
of the farms adjoining the Cook farm, and 
devoted himself assiduously to agriculture. 

In 1853 he was elected a justice of the 
peace of his town, and held the office by suc- 
cessive elections for twelve consecutive years, 
when he declined a re election. As with 
every thing he undertook he aimed to fit him- 
self thoroughly for the work in hand, he 
purchased the statutes and a choice lot of 
text-books, and studied them to such effect 
that his court was recognized as one from 
which an appeal would be unavailing, either 
on questions of law or fact. He was soon 



noted as a peacemaker, a discourager of liti- 
gation, an advocate of arbitration and a suc- 
cessful harmonizer of conflicting interests. 

In 1863 he was elected supervisor of his 
town, and held that office for three successive 
years. Upon him fell the full burden of car- 
rying the town through the trying days of the 
last years of the war, filling its quotas and 
adjusting its accounts. This took very largely 
of his time, but as a result the town's quota 
was always full, its accounts were unimpeach- 
able, and the burden of taxation was reduced 
to a minimum. The stress of war time over, 
Mr. Ingalsbe declined a further renomination 
and retired to private life. He did not after- 
ward hold any elective official position. He 
was often besought to allow his name to be 
used as a candidate for various district and 
county offices, but he invariably and positively 

In the early forties he aided in the organiza- 
tion of the present county agricultural society, 
occupied various positions on its early official 
lists, and soon was chosen its president. He 
then became its corresponding secretary, and 
continued in that position for over a score of 
years. A second time he was honored by the 
presidency. At the reorganization of the so- 
c ; ety in 1865 he was one of the leading spirits, 
and from that time until his death he was a 
member of the board of managers. He was 
always in attendance at its meetings, and de- 
voted a large amount of time to the interests 
of the society. 

In 1867, aftera thorough preparation for the 
duties in subordinate positions, he was chosen 
a member of the executive committee of the 
NewYork State Agricultural society. He held 
this position for five years. He was then, in 
1872, elected its president. This was a criti- 
cal year in its history, and witnessed a suc- 
cessful change of policy, from that of migra- 
tory fairs to the system of permanent location, 
the location at Elmira being that year inau- 
gurated. In January, 1873, in accordance 
with custom, he delivered an address as retir- 

ing president, which was widely distributed, 
in pamphlet form, and which for beauty of 
diction, breadth and thought and masterly 
grasp of the agricultural situation, will remain 
a classic among agricultural addresses. Dur- 
ing the five succeeding years he was continued 
an ex-officio member of the executive com- 
mittee, and these years found him in attend- 
ance upon the meetings of the board, wher- 
ever held, faithful to the smallest details of 

From early boyhood, Mr. Ingalsbe took the 
utmost interest in public affairs. From the 
first issue of the Weekly Tribune, in 1841, he 
was a subscriber, passing to the semi-weekly 
edition, upon the birth of the Republican party, 
and to the daily at the opening of the Civil 
war, and continuing to read that to the end of 
his life. Always a whig, until the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party, a republican after- 
ward, and supporting Horace Greeley for the 
presidency in 1872, his political reading was 
not confined to one paper, or the papers of any 
one section or party. For many years nearly 
a score of papers, representing all sections and 
parties, could be found on his table. In gen- 
eral literature he was an omniverous reader. 
Beside an untiring devotion to standard liter- 
ature, he was a subscriber to Harper's New 
Monthly Magazine and the Atlantic Monthly, 
from their first issue. Graham, the Eclectic, 
North American Review, Literary World, the 
Nation, and many other periodicals of like 
character were eagerly absorbed in his eager 
quest for knowledge. 

In the late fifties, under his tutelage, his 
son commenced the making of tri-daily me- 
teorological observations for the Smithsonian 
institution. The father always aided in the 
work, assuming the entire burden when the 
son was absent at school and college, and in 
1870, when the son removed permanently from 
the old homestead, he continued the work, un- 
til its transfer to the signal service office and 
from that time to a few weeks prior to his 
death, interrupted only b'y his absence, during 



the last winters of his life, at his son's, in 
Sandy Hill. He lived very close to nature, 
was an attentive observer of natural phenom-' 
ena, and knew her in all her varying moods. 

Upon the formation of the bureau of agri- 
culture in 1 860-61, he became its authorized 
representative in Washington county, and con- 
tinued in its service through its evolution from 
bureau to department. Upon the formation 
of its statistical division he became the statist- 
ical correspondent for Washington county, and 
so continued until his death. Upon the or- 
ganization of the State service by the State 
agent, he became and was thereafter continued 
as the county representative of the State agent. 

Commencing with the settlement of the 
estate of Obadiah Slade, in 1854, Mr. In- 
galsbe became the coveyancer, the drawer of 
wills, and the confidential legal adviser of his 
neighborhood, and he bore the test of this 
confidence so truly as to include after a few 
years almost his entire town as his clientele. 
From the close of his services as justice he 
held the position of notary public until his 

His ancestors were New England Congre- 
gationalists, as were those of his wife, who 
was a member of that church at South Hart- 
ford, of which he was a trustee and supporter, 
but not a member. His thinking and acting 
were on lines so broad that he saw good in 
varying creeds. His faith in the Bible was 
clear and uncompromising, but he preferred 
to dwell upon the principles enunciated in the 
sermon on the mount, rather than spend time 
upon the subtleties of doctrine. 

Mr. Ingalsbe was the master of a pure and 
forcible literary style. He prepared a large 
number of addresses and monographs upon 
educational, historical, biographical, meteor- 
olical, and agricultural subjects, which were 
printed in the local newspapers or read before 
various societies. During the last years of his 
life he devoted himself mainly to biographical 
and local historical subjects, and the prepara- 
tion of a family genealogy. At his death he 

had large plans fully matured in all these 
fields, for which his remarkable memory, wide 
acquaintance with men and large stores of col- 
lected material peculiarly fitted him. It was 
with this work specially in mind that he re- 
marked on his death bed : "I have a hundred 
years of work, all thought out, yet to do." His 
tributes to his friends and associates in life, 
as they were called from their labors, are 
marked by a wonderful appreciation of char- 
acter, a discriminating knowledge of human 
nature and tenderness of heart. It would 
be invidious to distinguish between doz- 
ens of these tributes, rendered to associates 
in every walk of life, but the one to his de- 
parted friend, Samuel W. Crosby, reveals the 
personality of the author, quite as much as 
any. It is in that that to enforce his thoughts 
upon one of the great problems of existence, 
he quotes : 

" The dead alone are great. 
When heavenly plants abide on earth, 
Their soil is one of dewless dearth ; 
But when they die, a mourning shower 
Comes down and makes their memories flower, 
With odors sweet, though late. 

' ' The dead alone are dear. 
When they are here, strange shadows fall 
From our own forms and darken all ; 
But when they leave us, all the shade 
Is round our own sad footsteps made, 

Add they are bright and clear. 

' ' The dead alone are blest. 
When they are here, clouds mar their day, 
And bitter snow-falls nip their May ; 
But when their tempest-time is done, 
The light and heat of heaven's own sun 

Broods on their land of rest." 

The key note of Mr. Ingalsbe's life was 
contained in his utterance only a few hours 
before his death, -'I have always tried to 
stand close by the nearest duty. I have 
known no better way." The rich fruitage of 
such living was revealed in that other remark, 
made in the presence of death, "I do not 
know that I have a grudge against anyone. " 

Milo Ingalsbe was a man ahead of his age, 
in his thinking and doing. At the time of his 



death, along man)' lines of thought and action, 
matters were just maturing into fact that he 
had eloquently and persistently advocated a 
half decade or more before. And so it had 
been all his life. 

He was a pioneer, blazing the paths, after- 
ward, man)' years afterward, perhaps, to be 
trod by the approving multitude, while he had 
gone forward into new fields, ever a leader in 
the grand forward movement of the peoples, 
in the evolution of humanity. 

JOHN J. ROBINSON is one of the 

successful business men of Fort Edward. 
He is a son of James Robinson and Ann Liv- 
ingston, and was born February 5, 1830, in 
Annsville, Oneida county, New York. John 
Robinson (grandfather), founder of the family 
in America, came from Count)' Monaghan, 
Ireland, when only twenty-one years of age, 
and settled in the town of Argyle, followed 
farming and worked some at his trade, that of 
stone-mason. He lived the remaining years 
of his life in the town of Argyle, was a demo- 
crat up to the time of the National bank veto 
by President Jackson, when he became a whig, 
and for forty-three consecutive years held the 
office of justice of the peace. In the war of 
1812 he was in the battle of Plattsburg. He 
was tall and of commanding appearance, and 
a member of the United Presbyterian church, 
was prominent in church work, and for many 
years was an elder in Rev. George Mair's 
church, at Argyle. He married and was the 
father of ten children : James, Alexander P., 
Christopher, William, George M., Eliza, Mrs. 
Paddock. Mrs. McCann, and two others, names 
not known. James Robinson (father) was 
born at Argyle, followed farming in that town 
until 1824, when he removed to Oneida county 
and remained there for ten years, in the town 
of Annsville. At the end of this time he 
came back to Washington county and located 
in the town of Hebron, and was there engaged 
in farming up to shortly before his death, 

which occurred on August 23, 1871. He was 
first a democrat in politics, and afterward a 
whig and republican, and became somewhat 
prominent in local politics, was appointed 
loan commissioner by Governor William C. 
Bouck, an office in which he acceptably served 
for five years. He was a member of the 
United Presbyterian church, and was one of 
the exhorters and local preachers of that de- 
nomination. He married Anna Livingstone, 
of Hebron, New York, who was a daughter of 
John Livingstone, and had ten children : John 
R. McClellan, who was for thirty-four years 
connected with the post office department at 
Washington, resigning recently on account of 
age, but still resides at the capital; Jane M., 
wife of Samuel Irvin, of Hebron ; Anna Eliza, 
who died June 29, 1841, born 1825 ; Mary, 
became the wife of Alexander McGeoch, of 
Argyle, both now deceased ; William, who 
resides on the old homestead, in the town of 
Hebron ; Martha Fenton ; George, who en- 
listed in the Union army in 1861, and died of 
consumption in 1862, before seeing active ser- 
vice ; James A., died at the age of twenty- 
one, in i860 ; O. C, whose sketch is on an- 
other page, and one other, whose name is 
not given. 

John J. Robinson, after leaving the district 
schools, attended the academy at Argyle, but 
soon had to leave there to aid in the support 
of his family, becoming a clerk in a store at 
North Argyle, New York, where he remained 
two years, and then engaged in business for 
himself, in partnership with Edwin Gilchrist, 
at West Hebron, which lasted until 1858. In 
i860 he purchased a farm of two hundred 
acres in the town of Argyle, and for ten years, 
up to 1870, followed farming. At the expira- 
tion of this time he engaged in the meat busi- 
ness, and later in pulling and buying fleece 
wool, and is still a wool dealer at Fort Ed- 
ward. Mr. Robinson is a republican, and for 
eighteen years has been an elder in the Pres- 
byterian church. He wedded Margaret Cogg- 
shell on March 18, 1858, and has had seven 



children, five living : Willard, John J., born 
December 23, i860; Carrie, born November, 
1861, died September 12, 1863; Clara J., 
Minnie, and John J., jr., born July 15, 1876. 
Willard is a lawyer, a justice of the peace, 
village clerk, and clerk of the board of water 
commissioners. Clara is a teacher in the 
Cortland Normal school, and enters upon her 
duties in September for the third year. Min- 
nie married and lives in New York. Annette 
and John, jr., are at home. 

CI) WIN L. BURDITT, of Sandy Hill, 
"^^ New York, is a fine example of the thorough 
going and successful business man, and his 
straight-forward, active and unpretentious ca- 
reer is well worthy of imitation. He is the son 
of Sylvester P. and Mary(Sanders) Burditt, and 
was born in Suesbury, Rutland county, Ver- 
mont, July 2, 1846. Sylvester P. Burditt was 
also born in the same place in Vermont, as was 
also his wife, Mary Sanders, and where he 
died at the age of twenty-six years. He was a 
farmer and miller by occupation, and a mem- 
ber of the Christian church. His father was 
Daniel Burditt, who was a native of England, 
who with seven of his brothers emigrated to 
the United States when quite a young man, 
settled in the State of Vermont, and was a 
soldier in the war of 1812. The mother of tlxe 
subject of this sketch died in the village of 
Sandy Hill, July 26, 1891, at the age of sev- 
enty-three years, and is buried alongside her 
husband at Suesbury, Vermont. 

Edwin L. Burditt was brought up at Sues- 
bury, Vermont, where he received the rudi- 
ments of a common school education. He 
afterward worked on the farm and in the mill 
in his native town, when, in 1875, he came to 
Sandy Hill. Since then he has been engaged 
in the manufacture of soap. 

Beginning in a very small way with a cash 
capital of only a dollar and eighty cents, and 
after making the soap would peddle it from 
house to house, and in this way he built up a 

trade, and from this insignificant capital his 
business has grown to its present proportions. 
His factory now has a capacity of turning out 
one hundred dollars' worth of soap per day, 
which finds a ready market. He manufac- 
tures a superior quality of soft, toilet and gen- 
eral family soaps. Since his coming to Sandy 
Hill he has erected his present factory, also 
his residence, which he owns. 

Edwin L. Burditt was married on January 
1, 1867, to Eliza C, daughter of Jerry Wilkins, 
formerly of Granville. To their union has 
been born three children, now living, two 
daughters and one son: Mary E., born April 
5, 1868; Carrie E., born August 16, 1870, 
and Earnest L., born December 15, 1881. 

Mr. Burditt is a member of the Advent 
church, and is a prohibitionist .in politics. He 
has served as collector of the school funds of 
Sandy Hill. 

tor of the leading grocery house, vice- 
president of the National bank of Granville, 
and a man of remarkably good business abil- 
ity, was born in the town of Granville, Wash- 
ington county, February 18, 1841. He was 
reared on the farm, obtaining his education in 
the common schools of his neighborhood, and 
an academic course, which he afterward pur- 
sued in the seminary at Manchester, Vermont. 
He returned to the farm, where he continued 
to carry on that business until 1867: selling his 
farm in that year he came to Granville and 
embarked in the grocery business. Being of 
an enterprising and energetic disposition it 
was not long until his business swept out into 
the broad sea of popular success, and he now 
carries at his elegant store, which is a brick 
structure twenty six feet by sixty-five feet in 
dimensions, and two stories in height, one of 
the largest and best assortments of groceries 
to be found in the eastern part of the county. 
Thus before reaching middle life, Mr. Rogers 
has by his own efforts and ability, placed him- 



self at the head of a permanent and one of the 
most prosperous establishments of the kind in 
this section. 

Deliverance Rogers was married in 1S61 to 
Antoinette, who was a daughter of John C. 
Bishop, of this town. Her death occurred in 
1875, leaving one daughter, Flora, now the 
wife of P. J. Staples, of Granville. Mr. Rogers 
wedded for his second wife, in 1877, Carrie 
A., a daughter of J. E. Pratt, resident of the 
village of Granville, and to his second marriage 
was born two daughters, Mabel D. and Dor- 
othy Tida. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and Granville Lodge, No. 
55, Free and Accepted Masons, and Knights 
Templar, Killington Commandery, No. 6, 
Rutland, Vermont. Being a stanch republi- 
can in his political belief, he has filled the 
office of justice of the peace of his town. Two 
years after coming to Granville he erected his 
present store building, and is now the second 
oldest merchant and longer in the service than 
any other man in the village. Mr. Rogers has 
descended from good old New England and 
Quaker ancestry, a family noted for its integ- 
rity, honor and respectability. 

David Rogers (father) was born in the town 
of Granville, Washington county, New York, 
in the year 1806, and was one of the thrifty and 
well-to-do farmers of this section. He was a 
Friend in religion and a republican in politics, 
having died in 1861, aged fifty-five years. 
He wedded Hannah Dillingham, who was 
born in the town of Granville. She was a 
member of the same church as her husband, 
noted for her intelligence and many Christian 
graces, and as a preacher of that denomination. 
She died in 1885 at the age of eighty years. 
David Rogers was a leading elder of the Qua- 
ker church, and a son of Deliverance Rogers, 
(grandfather), who was a native of Vermont. 
He migrated from his native State and located 
on a farm in the town of Granville, where he 
continued most successfully, and was recog- 
nized throughout the neighborhood as a thor- 
ough business man and successful farmer. He 

owned a dairy and kept one hundred cows, and 
was the proprietor of eleven hundred and 
twenty-five acres of land in this town. His 
death occurred in 1849, at the age of eighty- 
three years. The Rogers family is of English 
extraction, and in direct line has descended 
from John Rogers, who was burnt at the stake 
on account of his religious beliefs, Deliverance 
Rogers being of the fourteenth generation who 
have lived in this country. 

rrNDREW B. COLE, president of the 
Greenwich National bank, who has had 
an extensive and varied experience in life and 
won reputation as an educator and successful 
business man, is a native of Jackson, this 
county, where he was born June 10, 1834. 
lli^ parents were Curtis and Ann (Ford) Cole, 
the former a native of Rhode Island, and the 
latter born and reared in Washington county, 
New York. The Coles are of English extrac- 
tion, and the American progenitor of the fam- 
ily settled at Warren, Rhode Island, long 
prior to the Revolutionary war. In that col- 
ony Curtis Cole, paternal grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was born and grew to 
manhood. He was a ship-builder by occupa- 
tion, owning a ship-yard at Warren, Rhode 
Island, where he did an extensive business for 
several years. During the Revolutionary war 
he served as major of a military organization 
known as the Rhode Island minute men, do- 
ing local service during the entire war. Soon 
after its close, Major Cole removed with his 
family to Jackson, this county, where he pur- 
chased a large farm and devoted the remainder 
of his life to agricultural pursuits. One of 
his sons was Curtis Cole (father), who, at the 
age of ten years, accompanied his father to 
Washington county, where he was reared and 
educated. After attaining manhood he also 
engaged in farming, which he carried on ex- 
tensively, owning and cultivating a farm of 
three hundred acres of excellent land in the 
town of Jackson. Politically he was a whig 



and republican, well posted on all general 
topics, but of a retiring disposition. In early 
manhood he married Ann Ford, of this county, 
and by that union had a family of eight chil- 
dren, five sons and three daughters : Charles, 
deceased; Mary, who married John Herring- 
ton and is now dead ; Lewis, also deceased ; 
Caroline, wife of Anson Collins, now living 
in Ohio ; William Henry, also residing in 
Ohio ; Morgan, who studied medicine and 
was a practicing physician of Greenwich, but 
is now dead ; Amanda, wife of Frank M. Paul, 
of Nashville, Tennessee; and Andrew B., 
whose name heads this sketch. Curtis Cole 
died August 26, 1862, aged seventy-eight, his 
wife having preceded him to the grave in 1840, 
at the age of fifty-one years. 

Andrew B. Cole was reared on the farm, 
and was educated in the public schools and at 
the old Cambridge academy. He remained 
on the home farm until he was twenty two, 
when he went to Vermont and engaged in 
farming for a couple of years, after which he 
removed to Iowa and embarked in sheep hus- 
bandry. The impaired health of his wife 
compelled his early return to Vermont, where 
he purchased a large stock farm and again 
engaged in sheep raising, but giving a portion 
of each year to teaching, having charge of 
the schools of Fair Haven and Benson during 
this period. In 1862 he sold his property in 
Vermont and removed to Sidney, Ohio, taking 
with him a large flock of Spanish merino 
sheep, which, during the war following, was a 
source of much profit. He was soon called 
to the superintendence' of the schools of the 
town, and was also made a member of the 
board of school examiners for the count) 7 , 
which positions he filled until the failing 
health of his wife made necessary his return 
again to her native State of Vermont, locating 
in Shoreham, and taking charge of Newton 
academy at that place. Here he spent four 
pleasant and profitable years, and then return- 
ing to his native State of New York, located 

in Greenwich, where he has since lived. In 

1889 he was elected president of the First 
National bank of Greenwich, and has con- 
tinued to occupy that position to the present 

In 1856 Mr. Cole was married to Miriam 
Hitchcock, a daughter of Almon Hitchcock, 
of West Haven, Vermont. To them was born 
an only child, Candace, now the wife of James 
P. Duncan, of the city of St. Louis, Missouri. 
Mrs. Cole was a woman of brilliant intellect, 
and for many years took an active part in the 
efforts made for the. betterment of woman's 
condition before the law. For some time she 
edited a paper published at Dayton, Ohio, in 
the interest of that cause, taking an active 
part in the exciting campaign of that period, 
urging woman's enfranchisement in several 
addresses before the State senate of Ohio, 
and speaking from the same platform with 
such distinguished speakers as Mrs. Stowe, 
Mary A. Livermore, Lucy Stone and others. 
She was a member of the Congregational 
church, and always took an active part in the 
interest of religion. Her life was singularly 
useful and beautiful, and her death occurred 
in 1887. 

On June 11, 1890, Mr. Cole was again 
happily married, wedding Helen Wood, a 
daughter of John D. Wood, of Fair Haven, 

In his political affiliations Mr. Cole has al- 
ways been republican, casting his first vote 
for that party, and taking an active part in 
the various campaigns which have marked its 
progress, but has never permitted the use of 
his name for any office. From his youth Mr. 
Cole has had deep religious convictions, and 
wherever he has lived has taken an active in- 
terest in the religious well-being of the com- 

v TAMES ADAMS, a prominent business 
man and boat-builder of Whitehall, is a 
son of James and Kittie (Wall) Adams, and 
is a native of Gastonbury, Somersetshire, 
England, where he was born June 16, 1828. 



James Adams (father) was born in London, 
and on July 9, 1830, came to the United States 
and located at Westhaven, Vermont, about 
one mile from the village of Whitehall, where 
he resided up to his death in 1887, aged ninety- 
three years. He bought this farm upon his 
arrival, on which he always resided, engaged 
in general farming ; a democrat in his political 
affiliation, and served for several years as jus- 
tice of the peace of Westhaven. He wedded 
Kittie Wall, who was a native of Walton, in 
Somersetshire, and died at eighty-four years 
of age. 

James Adams grew upon the farm at West- 
haven, where he attended the district school. 
Remaining on the farm until he became of 
age, when he went to Whitehall and began 
learning the trade of ship-carpenter, at which 
he worked for two years, when he and his 
brother, Henry Adams, engaged in the boat- 
building business, under the firm name of J. 
& H. Adams. The style of this firm existed 
up to 1871, when another brother, George 
Adams, was taken in, and the firm name was 
succeeded by J- & H. Adams & Company, 
which continued to 1884, when Henry Adams 
withdrew, and the firm name changed to J. & 
G. Adams, which lasted up to 1890, when 
George Adams died. 

Since 1890 Mr. Adams has carried on his 
business alone, and manufactures canal boats 
exclusively, and has completed over one hun- 
dred of these boats, and gives employment to 
from five to seventeen men steadily. 

In 1852 Mr. Adams was united in marriage 
to Charlotte L., an adapted daughter of John 
Bennett, of Whitehall. To them have been 
born three daughters and two sons, one now 
living : Ida S., the wife of M. J. Brown, who 
is teller and director in the old National bank 
at Whitehall ; Roderick M., wedded Bertha 
I. Beckwith ; Willie Eugene, who died in 
1879, aged eight years ; Gertrude W. and Es- 
ther Lee, living at home. 

James Adams is a member of Whitehall 
Lodge, No. 5, Independent Order Odd Fel- 

lows, and of Whitehall Encampment, No. 
68. He is a democrat in politics, and served 
as assessor and trustee of the village of White- 
hall, and has been a resident and more or less 
prominently identified with the industral pros- 
perity of Whitehall since 1850, and with the 
temperance cause for forty-five years, having 
belonged to three secret temperance societies. 

HENRY A. HOWARD, an able lawyer, 
who enjoys the popular distinction of be- 
ing one of the leading lawyers in northern 
New York, and a resident of the village of 
Glens Falls, was born in the village of Wind- 
sor, Windsor count)', Vermont, February 18, 
1845. He is a son of Ralph and Adelia A. 
(Weaver) Howard. Ralph Howard was a na- 
tive of Windsor, where he resided until his 
death, in 1887, in the seventy-fourth year of 
his age. By occupation he followed tailoring, 
but spent the latter years of his life in retire- 
ment. His father was an officer in the Revo- 
lutionary war, captured at Quebec, by the 
British, and died there while in captivity ; he 
was also a native of Windsor, Vermont. The 
paternal great-grandfather of Henry A. How- 
ard was a native of England, who emigrated 
to this country and settled in Vermont in the 
early settling of that State. 

Ralph Howard wedded Adelia Weaver, who 
was born at Fort Ann, Washington county, 
and whose death occurred in i860. Her 
father was Andrus Weaver, and a native of 
the State of New York. Henry A. Howard's 
maternal great-grandfather, Aaron Hoesing- 
ton, lived to the remarkable age of one hun- 
dred and twenty years, and won the distinc- 
tion of having killed two Indian chiefs in his 

Henry A. Howard remained in his native 
village until he had reached manhood, gradu- 
ating from the Windsor High school, and in 
1861 entered the Kimball academy, at Meri- 
den, New Hampshire, being admitted to the 
senior classical department, from which he 



was duly graduated at the end of six months. 
In 1862 he entered the Norwich university, at 
Norwich, Vermont, and was graduated from 
that institution in 1865. In 1864, with thir- 
teen of his fellow students of the university, 
enlisted in Co. G, 60th Massachusetts regi- 
ment, as high privates, and served as such 
until they were honorably discharged, at Bos- 
ton, in December of the same year. 

Leaving college, Mr. Howard became a 
student at law in the office of J. M. Edmin- ' 
ster, at Windsor, Vermont, and in 1866 he en- 
tered the Albany Law school, and graduated 
from that well known institution in the class 
of 1867. One of his fellow graduates was 
Governor William McKinley, of Ohio. Soon 
after receiving his diploma to practice law, in 
1867, Mr. Howard located at Glens Falls, and 
for one year was in the office of Judge Brown. 
From that time to the present he has remained 
at Glens Falls, in the active practice of his 
profession, commanding one of the most lu- 
crative law businesses in Warren county. He 
owns one of the largest and most valuable law 
libraries in northern New York. 

Henry A. Howard is a stanch democrat, and 
wields considerable influence in the councils of 
his party, and has twice been elected to the 
office of district attorney, filling the office most 
acceptably to the people for a period of six 
years. During his incumbency he secured 
over one hundred convictions, failing in but 
one prosecution in all that time, discharging 
his duties in such a manner as to add to his 
high reputation for ability and uprightness. 

Making, while in office, one of the best 
records as district attorney in the State ; he 
never had a jury to disagree during his entire 
terms of six years, and secured more convic- 
tions than any other man who ever filled the 
office, in the same length of time. He is one 
of the directors of the Merchants' National 
bank. In 1875 he was married to Mary E., 
a daughter of Samuel Robins, of Boston, 
Massachusetts, who was a granddaughter of 
Joseph Buckingham, the founder of the Bos- 

ton Courier. The only brother of Mr. How- 
ard, Kenrick R. Howard, served as a soldier 
in the famous Vermont brigade, and was at 
all the principal battles of the Army of the 
Potomac. He, with thirty others from Wind- 
sor, Vermont, enlisted, and of the entire num- 
ber who enlisted, but two returned home, he 
and one other. 

Joseph b. Mccormick, one of the 

young and rising lawyers of Washington 
county and the upper Hudson valley, is a son 
of James and Catherine (Keating) McCormick, 
and was born in the town of Fort Ann, Wash- 
ington county, New York, March 3, 1863. 
James McCormick is a native of and came from 
Ireland when sixteen years of age. Catherine 
Keating, his mother, was a native of Hamp- 
shire county, Massachusetts, from whence the 
family removed to Fort Ann, where he re- 
mained until 1865. In that year he came to 
Granville and engaged in the blacksmith busi- 
ness, which he followed until 1883, when he 
removed to his present farm in the town of 
Wells, Rutland county, Vermont. His farm, 
which is in the neighborhood of three miles 
from Granville, contains several valuable slate 
quarries that are actively operated by parties 
who pay Mr. McCormick a handsome yearly 
royalty. He also owns some valuable prop- 
erty at Granville. He is a man of liberal views 
and has been for many years a republican in 
politics. Mr. McCormick was born in 1828, 
and married Catherine Keating, who died in 
1886, at fifty-six years of age. 

Joseph B. McCormick was reared in the vil- 
lage of Granville, and received his education 
in the public schools and Cook academy of 
Havana, New York. Leaving the academy 
he entered the Spencerian Business college of 
Cleveland, Ohio, and took the full course of 
that institution. Having thus thoroughly 
qualified himself he turned his attention to the 
study of law. He read with the late Judge 
Royal C. Betts, of Granville, was admitted to 



the Washington county bar May 4, 1888, and 
since then has been engaged in the active prac- 
tice of his profession in the courts of his na- 
tive county, and is in active practice in all the 
courts of the State of Vermont, and in Janu- 
ary, 1894, was admitted to practice in the 
United States court. He is a democrat in his 
political opinion, and although independent in 
local politics, yet he does not take any active 
part in politics in county, State or national 
contests. In 1892 he was honored with the 
democratic nomination for district attorney of 
Washington count}', and while polling a very 
handsome vote, yet went down with the rest 
of ticket under the republican majority which 
has prevailed in the county for many years. 
Mr. McCormick is unmarried. He has been a 
member for some time of Illini Tribe, Im- 
proved Order of Red Men, and was one of its 
charter members. 

As a citizen Mr. McCormick is respected, 
and as a lawyer has taken his place in the front 
rank of the legal profession in the county. He 
has a large practice ; is clear, logical and prac- 
tical in handling his cases, and is well deserv- 
ing of the high reputation he has acquired as 
a safe counsellor and successful lawyer. 

TA>ILL E. LAWREXCE, one of the 

leading architects of northern New 
York, is a son of Oscar and Jane E. (Barnes) 
Lawrence, and was born at Westport, Essex 
county, New York, February 9, 1850. Oscar 
Lawrence was a native of Middlebury, Ver- 
mont, wedded Jane E. Barnes, who was a 
native of Westport, where she now resides. 
Will E. Lawrence, at the age of seven 
years, was apprenticed to a well-to-do farmer 
of Canton, in St. Lawrence county, where he 
remained until he was twenty-two years of 
age. He attended the common schools, and 
at the Canton academy. In 1872 he wedded 
Estine A., daughter of William C. Wait, of 
the town of Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, 
New York, and remained on the farm one 

year after his marriage. In March, 1873, he 
went to Marshall county, Kansas, where he 
passed an examination before the count}' 
board of education and received a first grade 
certificate to teach school. He immediately 
began teaching in that county, where he 
taught for fifteen months, teaching in a 
Catholic neighborhood. In September, 1874, 
he returned to Canton, where he attended the 
Canton academy with the object in view of 
better preparing himself for teaching. Soon 
after leaving the academy he entered the St. 
Lawrence university, but being short of funds 
he applied for and accepted the principalship 
of the Morley graded school, and at the same 
time kept up his studies in the university. 
Before his school closed, however, he had to 
give it up on account of ill health, which 
compelled him to seek outdoor work, taking 
up the carpenter trade, and in the fall of 1875 
removed to the village of Potsdam, and there 
worked at his trade till the spring of 1880, 
when he was promoted to the position of 
superintendent, by his employer, in the erec- 
tion of an elegant residence in the village of 
Morley. At the completion of this contract 
he was induced by his employer, George B. 
Swan, to enter the office of G. B. Schellenger 
to learn architecture, at Ogdensburg, and in 
April, 1881, was. advised by his friends to 
move to Glens Falls, where he has since re- 
sided. He at first worked at his trade as 
carpenter, up to the spring of 1882, when he 
engaged with D. W. Sherman in remodeling 
the Marion House at Lake George. In the 
same year he accepted a position with Hiram 
Krum, one of the leading contractors of this 
section, with whom he remained as an em- 
ploye for two years, at the end of which time 
he entered into partnership with Mr. Krum, 
which lasted for three years. During this 
time this firm built some of the finest resi- 
dences found on the upper Hudson ; among 
the number are those of W. E. Spier, D. J. 
Finch and Walter Rogers, and the Presby- 
terian church. Mr. Lawrence had the entire 

=^. OfAu. 



management of the building of the residences 
of W. E. Spier and Walter Rogers. This 
firm dissolved in the spring of 1887 ; since 
this time Mr. Lawrence has been engaged in 
the contracting and building business alone, 
or rather up to the spring of 1893, and from 
that time to this he has solely confined him- 
self to architectural work. In the years 1890 
and 1 89 1 Mr. Lawrence was engaged in run- 
ning a sash, door and blind factory, on Ridge 
street, this village, associated with Herbert 
Van Derwerker, remaining with him for one 
year, when he purchased the latter's interest. 
Mr. Lawrence also designed and erected the 
residences of State treasurer A. B. Colvin, 
H. S. Crittenden, Frank Taft, and the present 
residence of Clinton Clothier ; and also built 
the Union school building number two, later 
designed Union school buildings at South 
Glens Falls, and Caldwell on Lake George. 

Will E. Lawrence is a republican in his 
political belief, was town auditor of the village 
for two years, 1887-88, and was a member of 
the board of education, to which he was 
elected in 1887, and served efficiently for 
three years. He has served as chairman of 
the republican village committee, and as a 
delegate to county, senatorial and State con- 
ventions. He is a member of Glens Falls 
Masonic Lodge and secretary of Glens Star 
Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star. 

JAMES HYLAR WHITE, a successful 
business man and member of the firm of 
Joubert & White, manufacturers of the famous 
Glens Falls Buckboard, at Glens Falls, was 
born in the town of Corinth, Saratoga county. 
New York, June 28, 1836. He is a son of 
James Madison White and Charlotte Willie. 
The former was a native of Rhode Island, and 
wedded the latter, who was of Saratoga county. 
James M. White removed with his father into 
Saratoga county, and was for many years em- 
ployed in farming, lumbering, and merchan- 
dising in the village of Corinth, and for a 

short time kept a hotel there. In 1850 here- 
moved to Glens Falls, where he kept hotel, and 
later on he for several years conducted the 
half-way road house midway between Glens 
Falls and Lake George. He was a Univer- 
salist in his religious belief, republican in 
politics, and filled the town offices of school 
commissioner and supervisor of Corinth. His 
death occurred in 1872 in Glens Falls, at the 
age of sixty-two years. His father was Isaiah 
White, also a native of Rhode Island, who re- 
moved with his family to Saratoga county, 
where he died. Prior to his coming to this 
State he was engaged in the woolen manufac- 
turing business, but the remainder of his life, 
after his arrival in Saratoga county, was spent 
on the farm. He lived to be ninety-two years 
of age, was descended from Pemroys White, 
who came over in the Mayflower in 1620. 

Mrs. Charlotte White was born in Saratoga 
county, New York. She died in 1883, aged 
seventy-five years. 

James H. White was principally reared in 
Glens Falls, where he attended the common 
schools. Leaving school he commenced 
learning carriage building with his brother- 
in-law, Edward Joubert, and remained 
with him until 1864. In that year Mr. 
White and Mr. Joubert formed their pres- 
ent partnership, which was at the time of 
this formation conducted on a very small 
scale, but it is due to the fine business abil- 
ity of each member of this firm that they 
have gradually, year by year, built up their 
present immense and prosperous business. 
Since 1865 they have been conducting their 
business at their present stand, adding to 
their buildings as their trade increased, until 
now their factory is four stories high, with a 
fifty-foot front and one hundred and fifty feet 
deep. In 1880 they received a patent on their 
"Glens Falls Buckboard," the manufacture 
of which they have made a specialty of ever 
since, and is sold to the most wealthy and 
prominent people throughout the United States 
and to many of the nobility of the old world. 



This popular vehicle was on exhibition at 
the mid-winter fair at San Francisco, and 
wherever introduced it becomes a favorite on 
account of its durability and beauty of con- 
struction and splendid workmanship. The 
firm of Joubert & White employ in the manu- 
facturing of these carts, thirty to thirty five 
men throughout the year in filling orders for 
these buckboards that pour in on them from 
every section of this country and many of the 
fashionable centers of Europe. 

In 1861 he was wedded to Susan M. Smith, 
of Glens Falls. To Mr. and Mrs. White have 
been born two children, a son and a daughter: 
J. Beecher, who is a graduate of the Glens 
Falls academy, and after leaving the academy 
spent two years as a student in the Homeo- 
pathic Medical college in the city of New York. 
At the end of the two years he had to abandon 
the further study of medicine on account of 
ill health, and took a position in his father's 
carriage factory. In January, 1894, he was 
appointed superintendent of public docu- 
ments at Albany for a term of two years, 
which position he now acceptably fills. Char- 
lotte A. is also a graduate of the Glens Falls 
academy and the La Salle seminary at Auburn- 
dale, Massachusetts. She is now studying 
vocal and instrumental music, German and 
French, at Paris, France. Mr. White has 
frequently been solicited to accept public 
office, which he has always refused to do, pre- 
ferring to devote his entire attention to his 
various business interests. He is a Mason, 
being a member of Glens Falls Lodge, No. 
121, and with the other members of his family 
he is a member of the Presbyterian church. 

nUFUS R. DAVIS, a democratic presi- 
dential elector in 1892, and a prominent 
and successful young lawyer of the county, was 
born in the village of Whitehall, September 7, 
1857, and is the son of Oscar F. and Charlotte 
T. (Rowe) Davis. [See sketch of father, O. 
F. Davis, on another page.] 

Rufus R.Davis was brought up in his native 
village, attending the public schools and later 
the Granville seminary, from which he was 
graduated in 1877. Leaving school, he began 
reading law with his father and was admitted 
to the bar in 1881, since which time he has 
been actively engagad in the practice with his 
father, under the firm name of O. F. & R. R. 
Davis. This firm has a good general law prac- 
tice and a splendid law library. R. R. Davis 
is an active and influential democrat of his sec- 
tion, and for the past five years, or since 1889, 
he has filled the office of supervisor of his town 
most acceptably to the business men of both 
parties, and is consequently a hard man to de- 
feat for office. In the general election of 1892, 
he was chosen by the State democracy as one 
of the Cleveland electors. Mr. Davis is a man 
of good business qualifications and has a bril- 
liant future as a lawyer, and enjoys the confi- 
dence and esteem of all who know him. 

TTXDREW G. HAINES, the youngest 
of the three Haines brothers, builders of 
street railways, telephone lines and like enter- 
prises, and now a citizen of Sandy Hill, was 
born on what is known as the Merritt farm, 
near Medusa, Green county, New York, Jan- 
uary 10, 1863. When about two years of age 
his parents removed to Coxsackie, New York, 
where he received his education in the public 
and private schools. . On account of failing 
health in 1879, his father gave up active busi- 
ness, and went to reside at Sandy Hill, where 
he died in June, 1881. Andrew then joined 
his brothers in New York, and the brother- 
hood thus completed was made the firm which 
afterward gained public recognition as a signal 
success. In April, 1881, Mr. Haines sailed 
for Mexico with his eldest brother, David, who 
was the general manager of the Mexican Tel- 
ephone company, of the Republic of Mexico, 
and of which his brother, John, was presi- 
dent. Mr. Haines remained in Mexico some 
four years, when he returned to New York and 



again joined his brothers in the railroad busi- 
ness. While the Haines brothers were build- 
ing the Newburg Street railroad, in 1887, 
John D. Haines, the second eldest of the 
brothers, died at the United States hotel, on 
January 8 of that year. He had contracted 
a severe cold while superintending the con- 
struction of the railway, resulting in pleuro- 
pneumonia, and finally in death. Mr. Haines, 
while in Mexico, in addition to his telephone 
business, held the position of administrator 
general of La Compania Telegrafica Y. While 
there the government of Mexico became so 
interested in him that they gave him exclu- 
sive concessions and subsides, and placed at 
his disposal, free of any expense, two hun- 
dred workmen to carry out his plans ; and on 
its completion he was honored with one of the 
grandest celebrations. In 1887 he became 
manager of the Cayuga Lake Park resort, 
which he managed successfully for a few years, 
which was among the leading summer resorts 
of the country, and at the same time, although 
but twenty-four years of age, he was vice- 
president of three prominent railroads; in fact 
the early life of this young man would afford 
a veritable romance. While acting as general 
superintendent of the Seneca Falls and Water- 
loo railroad, he won the confidence of the 
business community and traveling public. 
Few people seemed to realize the magnitude 
of the carrying out of this project, and giving 
to that part of the country a resort that has 
all the attractions of a Manhattan beach or 
Coney Island. 

The Lochmede Weekly paper, published at 
Winter Park, Florida, said, in regard to the 
first train over the Orlando & Winter Park 
railway, on the 25th of July, 1888: "Every- 
thing passed off satisfactorily, with Col. A.G. 
Haines, vice-president of the company, in 
charge. Mr. Haines, while still a young man, 
has had a history that very few men ever have. 
Before he reached his majority he was at the 
head of the entire telephone system of Mex- 
ico, Central America and the West Indies. 

More concessions were granted him, including 
the work of two hundred men free, than were 
ever granted a foreigner in Mexico. He is a 
restless, energetic worker, and we look for a 
prompt completion of the Orlando & Winter 
Park railway, and hope for the same of the 
Orlando & Lake Jesup railroad." The Cox- 
sackie News, of March 26, 1887, gives a page 
to the history of the Haines family, with cuts 
of all the Haines brothers. The head lines 
were: "Home talent abroad — The remark- 
able history of a family of Coxsackie boys 
who went out into the world and made them- 
selves famous — The most extensive street 
and short line railroad builders in the world — 
a most unexampled exhibition of enterprise 
and pluck." Hon. Charles D. Haines, who is 
now a member of congress from the nineteenth 
district, was one of the originators of the 
Glens Falls, Sandy Hill and Fort Edward 
street railway company, having a controlling 
interest, and was elected president of the 
Winooski and Burlington Railway company. 
He is now serving his first term in congress', 
where he took a prominent part from the 

Andrew G. Haines was married to Mamie 
L., daughter of Captain Merchant, of Savan- 
nah, Georgia. His father was David T. Haines, 
who died at Sandy Hill in 1881, having been 
born in Albany county, New York, July 28, 


sentative of an old and honored family of 
Sandy Hill and Glens Falls, was born in the 
village of Sandy Hill on August 21, 1859, and 
is a son of Edwin A. and Harriet (Cooper) 
Finch. His father, Edwin A. Finch, is a na- 
tive of the town of Kingsbury, and is at pres- 
ent residing in Sandy Hill, at the age of sixty- 
three years. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. In political opinion he 
is a democrat and for many years held the 
offices of constable and street commissioner ; 



and for a long time was engaged in the ice 
business. He wedded Harriet Cooper, a na- 
tive of the town of Kingsbury, who was a 
daughter of John H. and Lavinna (Parks) 
Cooper, and is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Edwin A. Finch's father 
was Samuel Finch, and his mother Zilpha 
(Colvin) Finch. 

Samuel Leroy Finch was reared in his native 
village, receiving his education in the Union 
school, and soon after leaving school he 
started in the ice business and teaming, which 
he has very successfully continued at ever 
since. In 1891 he took into partnership Guy 
R. Clark, under the firm name of Finch & 
Clark, and conducted business in the same 
channel up to 1893, when they added, in 
connection with their ice and teaming, coal 
and wood, keeping twenty-two horses, and 
their sales have steadily grown until the pres- 
ent, becoming one of the leading firms in these 
lines in the vicinity of Sandy Hill. 

In 1879 Mr. Finch wedded Julia A. Rich- 
ards, of Sandy Hill. He is a democrat in 
politics, and holds membership with the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. 

nO. BASCOM, lawyer at Fort Edward 
• and a representative of one of the early 
settled and prominent families of New Eng- 
land, is a son of Samuel H. Bascom and Eliz- 
abeth Clark, his wife, and was born at Orwell, 
Vermont, November 18, 1855. The progeni- 
tor and founder of the Bascom family in Amer- 
ica came from England in 1734 or '35, and 
made his settlement in the vicinity of Dorches- 
ter, Connecticut, together with his wife and 
eldest daughter. He remained there for a 
time, when he removed from Dorchester to 
Northampton, Massachusetts, where he spent 
the remainder of his life and where many of 
his descendants now reside. Elias Bascom 
(paternal great-grandfather) was a native of 
Northfield, Massachusetts, where he lived and 
followed the trade of clothier. He was a sol- 

dier in the war of the Revolution, was at the 
battle of Saratoga, and witnessed Burgoyne's 
surrender. In 1792 he removed to Orwell, Ver- 
mont, where he made his home until his death. 
He served as deacon in the Congregational 
church of Orwell, and was the father of four- 
teen children : Elias, Reuben, Eunice, Jeru- 
sha, Joseph (1), Joseph (2), Zina, Arteme- 
dorus, Elisha, Cynthia, Lucie, Rebecca, Ira, 
and Lucinda. Elias Bascom departed this 
life on November 29, 1833, at the age of ninety- 
six years. Artemedorus Bascom, the grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Northfield, Massachusetts, December 19, 
1774, and was for many years prominent in the 
Congregational church work and held the 
office of justice of the peace of his town. He 
wedded Chloe Hurlburd on March n, 1800, by 
whom he had ten children : Thankful Cobb, 
Elvira Wilcox, Clarinda H., Emily Sanford, 
Oliver, Samantha, wife of Rev. H. H. Bates ; 
Dorus, William F. and Samuel H. The last 
named (father) was a native of Orwell, Ver- 
mont, where he at present resides and is 
engaged in farming. He was born on Febru- 
ary 18, 1819, and prepared himself during his 
earlier manhood for college, with the object in 
view of entering the ministry of the Congrega- 
tional church, but he was compelled to aban- 
don his labors on account of ill health. While 
ex-Senator Edmunds was speaker of the house 
of the Vermont legislature, he served as a 
member from his county in that body and took 
a leading part in its proceedings, and took a 
deep interest in the success of the Republican 
party in his county; he was prominent in local 
affairs, and like his father and grandfather, he 
held the office of justice of the peace formany 
years ; he is at present deacon in the Congre- 
gational church of his village and zealously 
looks after the church's welfare. He wedded 
twice ; by his first wife, Elizabeth Clark, he 
had the following children: Anna, wife of C. 
N. North, of Shoreham, Vermont ; Samuel J., 
who resides in western Kansas; Wyman H. 
(deceased), Clarinda (deceased), George B., 



of Ticonderoga, New York, where he is super- 
intendent of a paper mill; Robert O., Jesse 
(deceased), and Cassius Clay, of Orwell, Ver- 

Robert O. Bascom received his elementary 
education in the high school at Brandon, and 
at Newton academy, Shoreham, Vermont, and 
was afterward graduated from the Fort Edward 
Collegiate institute in 1876. In the same year 
he entered the office of Don D. Winn, of that 
village, as a student at law, and was admitted 
to the bar to practice in all the courts of New 
York State in 1883. He resides at Fort Ed- 
ward, where he has built up a very substantial 
practice in the law. 

On December 20, 1882, Mr. Bascom was 
married to Mary Larrabee Piatt, of Larrabee's 
Point, Vermont, and has two children : Wy- 
man and Robert Piatt. He is a member and 
vestryman of the Saint James Episcopal 
church of Fort Edward, and a member of Jane 
McCrea Lodge, No. 267, of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. Mrs. Bascom is a 
daughter of Myron Piatt, who is descended 
from Richard Piatt, who came from England 
in 1638, and settled at New Milford, Connecti- 
cut ; among others of his descendants are Sen- 
ator Orville C. Piatt, of Connecticut, and ex- 
Senator Thomas C. Piatt, of NewYork,and the 
Piatt family who founded and settled Platts- 
burg, New York. 

ERY, one of the leading business men 
of Fort Edward and Washington county, is a 
son of Adelman and Elizabeth (Richmond) 
Montgomery, and was born at Middle Falls, 
Washington county, New York, December 13, 
1863. The Montgomery's are of Irish des- 
cent and Colonel Robert Montgomery, who 
served in the war of 181 2, was the paternal 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch. 
Colonel Montgomery married, and one of his 
sons was Adelman Montgomery (father), who 

followed coopering at Greenwich, this State, 
and Middle Falls, this county, for many 
years. He is a man of good business ability 
and has held several local offices. A republi- 
can and Baptist, he has been trusted alike by 
his party and his church, in which he is now 
serving as trustee. He married Elizabeth 
Richmond and their family consists of two 
children, a son and a daughter : Nellie, wife 
of George Wells, a liveryman and bottler of 
Fort Edward, and Lyman Edward. 

Lyman E. Montgomery received his early 
education at the hands of private teachers, 
and then after attending the Island Grove 
school, from which he was graduated, he en- 
tered Union College in 1882, with the inten- 
tion of fitting himself for the profession of 
civil engineering. After some time spent 
profitably in studying at Union College, his 
eyesight became so impaired as to compel him 
to leave school and abandon all thought of 
civil engineering. He then turned his atten- 
tion to business pursuits, and after serving for 
four years as book-keeper for the lumber firm 
of Sherman & Green, of Glens Falls, this 
State, he came to Fort Edward and became a 
partner with his father in the firm of A. Mont- 
gomery & Son. In 1889 he succeeded his 
father and has constantly enlarged his busi- 
ness, until now it is the largest of its kind in 
the village, if not in the county. 

Mr. Montgomery has his main office on No- 
tre Dame street and his up-town office at the 
corner of Broadway and Mill streets. He 
does a large wholesale and retail business in 
coal, wood, salt, flour, feed of all kinds and 
lime and cement, being agent for the finest 
kinds of cement, plaster and fertilizers. He 
also does a very large produce shipping busi- 
ness to the Boston and New York markets by 
the canal and railroads. He employs as 
high as fifteen men in his business, which is 
continually increasing. Mr. Montgomery is 
a republican politically. He is vice-president 
of the Satterlee Hose Company, and in many 
other ways is useful to his fellow townsmen. 



a prominent and well-known citizen of 
Glens Falls, was born at West Mountain, in 
the town of Queensbury, Warren county, New 
York, February 27, 1843, and is a son of Wil- 
liam and Betsy M. (Ward) Van Dusen. He 
was reared to manhood in his native town 
and was principally educated at the Glens 
Falls academy. After leaving school he as- 
sisted his step-father, Zenas Van Dusen, in 
the lumber business, with whom he remained 
up till within a short time before the latter's 
death, when the business was sold to George 
H. Freeman, of Troy. 

Mr. Van Dusen is one of the leading demo- 
crats of the town of Queensbury, and served 
as supervisor of that town in 1881, and again 
in 1884; in 1882 he was elected to the State 
assembly, where he bore a conspicuous part 
in the proceedings of that body. In 1868 
he was united in marriage to Mary A , a 
daughter of Alfred E. Metcalf, of Worcester, 
Massachusetts ; to their union has been born 
one son, Alfred M. 

Mr. Van Dusen is a member of the Glens 
Falls Masonic Lodge, No. 121, Glens Falls 
Chapter, No. 44, and Washington Comman- 
der}', No. 33, Knights Templar, at Saratoga 

William Van Dusen, the father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was also a native of the 
town of Queensbury, where he was born in 
the year 1807; and in 1842 associated with 
his brother Zenas, engaged in the general 
lumber manufacturing business, their mill be- 
ing located on the upper Hudson, at the 
feeder dam. He continued business here up 
to the time of his death, which occurred Oc- 
tober 15, 1847. William Van Dusen was a 
son of John Van Dusen, who was born in 
Dutchess county, New York, on February 16, 
1775. He removed when a young man, with 
his brothers, Robert, David and Abraham, to 
the town of Queensbury, where they became 
early settlers in that section. They were all 
engaged in farming, and Robert served in the 

war of 181 2. The family is of Holland 
Dutch descent. William Van Dusen wedded 
Betsy M. Ward, who was a native of Vermont, 
where she was born October 29, 181 7, and 
died in 1881. After the death of her husband 
she married his brother, Zenas Van Dusen. 
The latter was born March 6, 1809, and died 
at the feeder dam, February 22, 1S89. 

COWARD REED, sheriff of Warren 
county, was born in the county of Wash- 
ington, New York, July 11, 1857. He re- 
mained in his native county until he had 
reached the age of ten years, when he went 
to live in the village of Glens Falls, where he 
has ever since resided. He attended the p.ub-- 
lie schools of the village until he was fourteen 
years old, when he became an employe in 
the grocery store of Peck & De Long, remain- 
ing with them for one year. After leaving 
their employ he commenced to learn the 
butcher business, which he followed most of 
the time up to the year 1879. In this year he 
was appointed to the police force of the vil- 
lage, discharging his duties in a most satis- 
factory way to the authorities of the village 
until 1885, when he was appointed deputy 
sheriff of Warren county, by George F. Bry- 
ant. He served in this capacity one year and 
a half, when he was promoted to the place of 
under-sheriff, where he remained until the 
expiration of Mr. Bryant's term. Bryant was 
succeeded in office by Joseph B. Mills, who 
continued Mr. Reed as his under-sheriff dur- 
ing nearly his full term. In the fall of 1891 
Mr. Reed was elected sheriff of the county, 
as the regular nominee of the Republican 
part}', for the term of three years. He is the 
present incumbent of the sheriff's office, and 
is popular with the people and conscientiously 
discharges every duty imposed upon him. 

On May 29, 1878, Mr. Reed was married to 
Mary E., a daughter of David Norton, of 
Glens Falls. To their union has been born 
one child, Nellie E. 



Edward Reed is a stockholder in the Glens 
Falls Printing Company, in the Merchants' 
National bank, the Glens Falls Agricultural 
society, and the Glens Falls Breeding associa- 
tion. He is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity and of the Horricon Lodge of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows ; also the Red 
Men and Elks. Mr. Reed has for many years 
been actively engaged in politics, and enjoys 
the fullest confidence of the people of both 
parties. He has been the architect of his 
own fortune, and deserves considerable credit 
for having won his way to the front. 

IA/ILLIA3I H. GAYGER, an old and 

* prominent citizen of the village of Glens 

Falls, and a retired business man, is a son of 
Beverly Gayger and Elizabeth (Ray) Gayger, 
and was born in Willsborough, Essex county, 
New York, October i, 1815. Beverly Gayger 
was a native of Rensselaer county, and when 
a young man removed from there to Essex 
county, where he resided until 1843, when he 
came with his family to Glens Falls and lived 
until his death, which occurred in 1868, in the 
eighty-third year of his age. He was a black- 
smith and farmer by trade and occupation, a 
whig, and afterward a republican in politics ; 
and was of Holland Dutch descent. He wed- 
ded Elizabeth Ray, who was born in the town 
of Greenwich, and lived to be eighty-four 
years of age. 

William H. Gayger remained in his native 
county until he had reached manhood, attend- 
ing the common schools of the neighborhood 
until at the age of twenty, when he com- 
menced to learn the trade of blacksmith with 
his father. Remaining there but a short time, 
he went to Keesville, in Essex county, 
where he worked at his trade for one year. In 
the spring of 1S36 he came and located in 
Glens Falls, where he followed his trade for 
five years, when he opened out in the manu- 
facture of carriages, which business he car- 
ried on very successfully for twenty-five years. 

Some of his carriages were shipped as far 
west as California, but on account of failing 
health, at the end of this time, he had to close 
out his business, and has since lived practically 
a retired life. At present Mr. Gayger deals to 
some extent in real estate. 

William H. Gayger has, for the past thirty- 
five years, been a director in the First National 
bank at Glens Falls, which is one of the safe 
and solid financial institutions in northern New 
York. He is also a stockholder in the Glens 
Falls Insurance company, a company known 
throughout the United States as one of the 
most reliable and conservative insurance com- 
panies in existence. 

In 1 841 Mr. Gayger was united in marriage 
to Julia A. Newman, a daughter of Lewis 
Newman, of Glens Falls ; she died December 
25, 189b, and was a member of the Presby- 
terian church. William H. Gayger is a repub- 
lican in his political opinion, and is one of the 
conspicuous self-made men of the flourishing 
and beautiful little city on the falls of the 

made a fortune as a fur dealer and 
orange grower, and is widely known as a 
naturalist, is a native of Washington county, 
and has his summer home at Granville. He 
is of English descent, and comes of a family 
planted in America two centuries ago. His 
paternal grandfather, Frederick Pember, was 
a native of Connecticut, and was taken by his 
parents when only seven years of age to Rut- 
land county, Vermont, where he grew to man- 
hood and received such education as was af- 
forded by the country schools of that day. 
After attaining his majority he engaged in farm- 
ing, and spent a long and active life in agricul- 
tural pursuits in his -adopted State, dying in 
Rutland county at an advanced age. One of 
his sons was Reuel Pember, father of the subject 
of this sketch, who was born in Rutland county, 
Vermont, in 1811, and was reared and educa- 
ted there. In 1833 he married Maria R. Tan- 



ner, a native of Washington county, and a 
daughter of Joseph Tanner, and soon after- 
ward removed to this county, and settled in 
the town of Granville. Here he engaged in 
farming and dealing in cattle and horses, which 
he followed successfully for many years, and 
here he continued to reside until his death in 
1873, when in the sixty-second year of his age. 
He was a whig and republican in politics, and 
during his more active years took a prominent 
part in the political affairs of his locality. For 
many years he served as justice of the peace 
in the town of Granville, and occupied other 
positions of trust and responsibility. He was 
a strict member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and was always active in support of 
the various denominational interests of that 
body. By his marriage to Maria R. Tanner 
he had a family of children. Mrs. Pember 
was born in the town of Granville in 1S16, and 
died at her home here in 1892, aged seventy- 
six years. She was a life-long member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

Franklin T. Pember, son of Reuel and Maria 
(Tanner) Pember, was born on the old home- 
stead in the town of Granville, Washington 
county, New York, November 2d, 1841. His 
boyhood days were spent on the farm and his 
primary education was received in the public 
schools, after which he took a preparatory 
course of study with a view to entering college, 
but did not do so. Leaving school he en- 
gaged in farming in the town of Granville, and 
followed that occupation until 1874. In con- 
nection with his farming operations he also 
began dealing in furs, which latter business 
increased in importance until by 1874 it had 
become so large as to demand his whole at- 
tention, and he abandoned farming and re- 
moved to New York city, where he gave his en- 
tire time to the fur trade until 1S85, purchas- 
ing furs from all parts of the United States and 
exporting them in large quantities to the 
European markets. 

Having been extremely successful in this 
line, and built up a large trade, he disposed of 

the business in the fall of 18S5 and went to 
southern California, where he purchased a large 
tract of land. He at once began planting 
orange groves, and has also sold a large quan- 
tity of land to other parties for similar pur- 
poses, and at a handsome profit. He now has 
fifty acres of orange groves at Riverside, some 
sixty miles south of Los Angeles, which are 
now all in bearing condition. These groves 
form one of the most valuable properties in 
that section, and were all set out and brought 
to their present state of perfection by Mr. Pem- 
ber, who, together with his wife, spends the 
winter season among his California groves, 
though he passes his summers principally in 
New York, having a handsome residence at 
Granville, which has always been his home. 
In addition to his orange groves Mr. Pember 
also has some banking interests in California, 
and owns considerable property in the oil and 
gas fields of Ohio. He has crossed the United 
States from the Pacific to the Atlantic some 
eighteen times, beside other extensive travel 
in this country, and in 1882 he visited Europe 
and spent several months in sight- seeing 
through the principal countries and capitals of 
the continent. 

From his earliest years Mr. Pember was in- 
terested in birds and animals, and has become 
a naturalist of considerable note. He has one 
of the finest collections of birds and bird's 
eggs to be found in America, gathered at great 
expense of time and money from all parts of 
the world. The eggs range all the way from 
that of the ostrich to the smallest humming- 
bird, and in addition to these collections he 
also has a number of others, pertaining to and 
illustrating various branches of natural history. 

In 1868, Mr. Pember was married to Ellen 
J. L. Wood, a daughter of David Wood, of 
Granville. He is a republican politically, and 
while residing on the farm held the office of 
justice of the peace for several years. He is a 
member and trustee of the Baptist church in 
Granville, and president of the Mittowee Val- 
ley Cemetery association of this place, of which 


■J2* *^ 



association he was one of the principal organ- 
izers. He is also treasurer and general mana- 
ger of the Carver Manufacturing company, a 
young but successful corporation, doing busi- 
ness in Granville, New York. 

f^HAKLES LYON, who has been 'the 
^^ architect of his own fortune in the truest 
sense of that term, and now president of the 
People's National bank of Salem, was born 
in the village of Bennington, Vermont, Janu- 
ary 4, 1817. He is a son of Freman and La- 
visa (Pease) Lyon, and for many years has 
been widely known throughout the county for 
his remarkable business ability and integrity. 
His father, Freman Lyon, was a native of 
Westminster, Massachusetts, who in early life 
was brought by his parents to Bennington 
county, Vermont, where he lived, and died in 
the fall of 1866, at the age of seventy-seven 
years. A prominent farmer of his county and 
a whig in politics, he represented his county 
in the legislature of his adopted State, and 
several years served as justice of the peace of 
his town. Deacon Seth Lyon, grandfather, 
was one of the pioneers of the town of Peru, 
Bennington county, having settled there from 
Massachusetts, his native State. He was one 
of the organizers of the Congregational church 
in his town, and upon its completion he and 
his brother-in-law, Thomas Wyman, were 
elected and served as first deacons, which of- 
fice the former filled for about forty years. 
He led an exemplary christian life, and was a 
man well liked and highly respected by all 
who knew him. He died in 1844 at Peru, aged 
eighty-two years. The Lyons are of English 
extraction, but the family has long been resi- 
dent of this country. Mrs. Lavisa (Pease) 
Lyon was born at Weston, Windsor county, 
Vermont, in 1786, dying in 1828, aged forty- 
two years, and leaving seven children. 

Charles Lyon was, at the death of his mother, 
only eleven years of age. His father being in 

rather limited circumstances, he was com- 
pelled at that early age to begin the struggle 
of life alone. For about nineteen years he 
worked by the month and piece, principally in 
woolen factories at Hoosic, Salem and other 
points, giving his earnings to his father, and 
at the age of nineteen years he sent his father 
a hundred and fifty dollars to recompense him 
for the time until he would come of age. He 
attended school but little on account of his 
early struggles against poverty, and while his 
educational advantages were limited, his sub- 
sequent learning came from the great school of a 
successful business career. In 1848 he branched 
out into the business world for himself, engag- 
ing in the woolen manufacturing at Rexlie, 
this count}', which he carried on for about ten 
years, when he sold it, and in 1858 bought a 
woolen mill at East Salem, where he had for- 
merly worked as an employe. This he suc- 
cessfully conducted until 1869, when this mill 
changed hands and he purchased the mill at 
Shushan, changing his residence to that place, 
removing from East Salem in 1870. Here he 
ran this mill until 1885, when he sold it out to 
his nephews. In 1890, to secure himself, he 
foreclosed the mortgage on the East Salem 
mill, and has ever since owned and conducted 
this plant. For twenty years previous to his 
becoming proprietor, he acted in the capacity 
of foreman in a woolen mill, a position he 
held up to the time he went into business, and 
in his own mills he has always filled that position 
himself. Some seven or eight years ago he 
was elected president of the Peoples' National 
bank of Salem, and owns stock in other banks 
and a great deal of valuable real estate. In 
politics he is a liberal republican, and has 
often been solicited by his friends to accept 
town offices, and this he has always refused to 
do with one exception, when he was appointed 
to fill a vacancy in the office of supervisor of 
his town. 

Charles Lyon was married in 1861 to Mrs. 
Susan Abbie (Burton) Hatch, of Manchester, 
Vermont He has been a total abstainer from 



the use of tobacco or whisky during his whole 
life ; liberal to the worthy poor of his neigh- 
borhood, and contributor to the Methodist 

.TAMES WOOD CARVER, a success 
ful business man and well known inventor 
of the county and promoter of manufacturing 
enterprises, was born in the Town of Pawlet, 
Rutland county, Vermont, November 26, 1858 
and is a son of Chester L. Carver and Emeline 
(George) Carver. Chester L. Carver was a 
native of the same place and resided in that 
town during his entire life, his death occurring 
in the sixty-fifth year of his age, in 1863. He 
followed the occupation of a farmer, and at 
one time of his life was considered a very 
wealthy man. He was a son of Nathaniel 
Carver, who was a native of the State of Con- 
necticut, removing from Canterbury, in that 
State, in 1780, to the State of Vermont, set- 
tling on a farm in the town of Pawlet, in Ver- 
mont, where he resided up to the time of his 
death, in 1805, in the fifty-second year of his 
age. The Carvers are of English descent, and 
the progenitor and founder of the family in 
this country was John Carver, who was at 
one time Governor of Massachusetts. In 
company with him, in his voyage over, were 
two of his brothers, from one of whom the sub- 
ject of this sketch has descended. 

Chester L. Carver wedded Emeline George, 
who was born in Massachusetts, is now a 
resident of Pawlet, and is in the seventy-first 
year of her age. 

James Wood Carver grew up in his native 
town of Pawlet, on the farm, and after reach- 
ing manhood continued on the farm up to 
1886, since which time he has been devoting 
his entire attention to invention, and has at 
the present time two hundred and thirty in- 
ventions gotten out wholly by himself, and has 
had issued to him patents from the different 
governments on a great many of them. When 
the Carver Manufacturing company was or- 
ganized in 1892, he was elected vice-president, 

but he has since sold his patents that this 
company was interested in, to his brother, 
George H. Carver, the sale including only 
patents prior to June 4, 1891. Mr. Carver is 
now industriously engaged in manufacturing 
in Granville, New York, of farm implements, 
fire arms, etc. Nathaniel Carver (grand- 
father), reared a family of seven children: 
John, Betsy, David, Chester L., Lucy, Lydia 
and Olivia. 

James W. Carver in 1882 was united in 
marriage to Fannie W. Soullard, of Pawlet, 
Vermont. To them has been born three sons, 
Chester E., Merritt and Hascall; the two last 
named have died. Chester E. is also an in- 
ventor and has several valuable patents, and 
is only twelve years of age on July 4th, 1894. 
Mr. Carver is a member of the Congregational 
church, and in his political belief endorses the 
principles of government advocated by the Re- 
publican party. As an inventor Mr. Carver 
ranks high, and is destined to be classed 
among the leading inventors of his day. 

HUGH H. WALLACE, a successful 
young merchant of Greenwich, and who 
is prominently identified with the business in- 
terests of that village, was born in Count}' 
Down, Ireland, February 10, 1864, and is a 
son of Hugh and Elizabeth Frances (Hunter) 
Wallace. (For facts pertaining to ancestry, 
see sketch of brother, James W. Wallace.) 
He was educated in the National schools of 
his native county, and at the age of fourteen 
went to Staffordshire, England, where he ap- 
plied his time in learning civil engineering 
under the tutelage of the royal engineers, 
where he remained for one year. At the end 
of that time, owing to an accident which hap- 
pened him, he was unable to longer pursue 
his work, so he returned to County Down, 
where he accepted a clerkship with a mercan- 
tile firm. He remained in that capacity for 
two years, when, in 1883, he came to this 
country and located in the village of Green- 



wich, where he was first engaged as a book- 
keeper for the Dunbarton Flax Spinning com- 
pany. He remained as a book-keeper for that 
company until 1885, when he associated with 
his brother, J. H., opened a dry goods store 
at number 71 Main street, under the firm name 
of J. H. Wallace & Company, where they 
carry a full line of dry goods and all other ar- 
ticles found in a first-class store of the kind. 
In addition to their Greenwich stand, they 
own one at West Hebron. Hugh H. Wallace 
is a member of the First United Presbyterian 
church, and is a prohibitionist in his political 
belief. Mr. Wallace is a young man of intel- 
ligence and energy, and has taken an active 
part in promoting the best interest of his 
town, as well as devoting his best endeavors 
to the permanent establishment and success- 
ful prosecution of his mercantile enterprises. 

ORNEST T. HORTON, M. D., a lead 
ing homeopathic physician at Whitehall 
since 1882, is a son of Dr. A. E. and Ellen 
(French) Horton, and was born at Mount 
Holly, Rutland county, Vermont, June 28, 
1858. Dr. A. E. Horton was a native of the 
same place, and was a graduate of the medi- 
cal department of the university of Vermont, 
at Burlington. Since 1864 he has been prac- 
ticing his profession at Poultney, Vermont. 
He was born in 1835, and was at one time 
president of the Vermont State Homeopathic 
Medical society. His father was Alva Horton, 
who was also born at Mount Holly, and now 
resides at Clarendon, in Rutland county, and 
is in the eighty-second year of his age. For 
many years he was engaged as a lumber mer- 
chant. The Hortons are of English descent. 
Some four or five generations of them have 
resided in Rutland county ; the first of the 
name to settle in Vermont came from Massa- 

Dr. Ernest T. Horton was reared at Poult- 
ney, Vermont, receiving his education princi- 
pally at the public schools and Saint John's 

parish school, of that village; the latter is an 
Episcopalian institution taught by Rev. E. H. 
Randall. Choosing the medical profession as 
his life's vocation, after leaving school Dr. 
Horton commenced reading medicine with 
his father, and after pursuing the regular 
course of study he entered the New York 
City Homeopathic Medical college, from 
which well-known institution he was gradu- 
ated in the class of 1881, when immediately 
thereafter he located at Sandy Hill, where he 
practiced up to the fall of 1882, removing 
thence to Whitehall, and has continued to 
practice there with brilliant success ever since. 
In 1882 Dr. Horton wedded Cornelia, a 
daughter of L. J. Eddy, of Rutland, Vermont. 
To them have been born two children : Mil- 
dred and Gertrude. 


T Washington county, and one of the coun- 
ty's most popular citizens, was born in the 
town of Fort Ann, Washington county, New 
York, December 9, 1850. [For family history 
see sketch of brother, F. M. Van Wormer, of 
Sandy Hill.] 

Rodney Van Wormer grew to manhood in 
his native town, where he attended the com- 
mon and select schools of the neighborhood. 
Leaving school he soon became a student in 
the law office of Silas P. Pike, of Fort Ann, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1882. From 
his admission up to 1SS9 he was actively and 
successfully engaged in the practice of law at 
Fort Ann. In the fall of 18S8 he was elected 
to the office of county clerk for a term of three 
years, taking charge of the same January 1, 
1S89. At the expiration of his term it was 
through his popularity and efficiency as a 
county official that he was re-nominated by ac- 
clamation and re-elected to the same office in 
the fall of 1892, and again re-nominated by ac- 
clamation in 1894, which assures his re-elec- 
tion for a third term. 

In 1871 Mr. Van Wormer was united in 



marriage to Cornelia L., a daughter of Samuel 
and Emma Lamb, of Fort Ann. To their 
union has been born one child, a daughter, 
Letta A., who graduated from the Fort Ed- 
ward Collegiate institute, class of 1894. 

Rodney VanWormer belongs to the Masonic 
fraternity and is a member of Mount Hope 
Lodge, No. 260, of Fort Ann. He is a stanch 
republican and an active and effective worker 
in the ranks of the Republican party. 

7jMlLLIAM II. POWELL, a retired 
^■ J ~* merchant of Philadelphia, and a man 
of varied business experience now residing in 
the town of South Hartford, was born in the 
town of Hartford, Washington county, New 
York, September 13-, 1822, and is a son of John 
and Phoebe Powell. 

John Powell was a native of the town of 
Hartford and was one of the town's thrifty 
farmers during his active business life. His 
death occurred in 1856, aged fifty-eight years. 
He was a consistent member of the Presby- 
terian church, and a whig in his political 
principles. He started to the war of 1812, 
but before seeing any active service peace was 
declared. He was a son of Thomas Powell, 
who was a native of Wales, and who came to 
the United States when a young man, locating 
in the town of Hoosick, Rensselear county, 
New York. Of this town he was one of the 
early settlers, taking up a farm on which he re- 
sided until he met his death by accident, at the 
age of forty years, by being thrown from his 

Phoebe was born in the town of Hebron 
in 1800, and died in 1877. She was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

William H. Powell grew up on the farm and 
received his education in the common schools 
of the neighborhood. In 1844 he wedded 
Louisa, daughter of Israel McConnell, of He- 
bron. For three years after his marriage Mr. 
Powell continued to farm and trade in live 
stock. In 1848 he went to the State of Wis- 

consin, where he was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, farming and lumbering until 1852, 
when he went to California, where for one 
year he was engaged in meat marketing and 
buying and selling cattle. In 1853 he removed 
to New York city, where he branched out in 
the fruit and produce business at which he 
successfully continued up to 1862, when he 
went to Philadelphia. Here he carried on the 
same line doing a large wholesale business, 
also buying and selling fish in large quantities, 
and continued to reside in Philadelphia up to 
May, 1890, covering a period of twenty-eight 
years of an active and successful business ca- 
reer in that city. In that year he returned to 
South Hartford where he has since lived re- 
tired, owning one of the most beautiful homes 
in that section of the county. 

William H. Powell is a Mason, belonging 
to Atlas Lodge, No. 116, of New York city, 
joining this lodge some forty years ago. He 
is a stanch democrat. His wife is a member 
of the Universalist church of Hartford, and 
is a lady of many accomplishments. 

r^IIARLES H. BUCK, editor of the 
^^ Glens Falls Republican, one of the influ- 
ential democratic organs of northern New 
York, was born at Troy, Bradford county, 
Pennsylvania, February 18, 1853, and is a son 
of William Russell and Betsy C. (Leonard) 

William Russell Buck was a native of the 
same State, being born at Ridgebury, March 7, 
1819, and was for many years proprietor and 
manager of a large tannery at Wellsboro, on 
the Chemung river, in his native State. Sub- 
sequently he removed to Troy, Pennsylvania, 
where he purchased a farm, on which he re- 
sided up to his death, on January 5, 1889. 
He was a leading member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and for two terms served 
as postmaster of East Troy, under President 
Grant. He was a stanch republican, and a 
member in good standing of the Independent 



Order of Odd Fellows. His wife was Betsy 
C. Leonard, who was a native of Pennsylvania, 
being born at Springfield, Bradford county, 
May 1 8, 1824, and died August 3, 1887. 
Her parents settled in Bradford county, from 
Springfield, Massachusetts. The Buck family 
is of English and Scotch origin. 

Charles H. Buck was reared to manhood in 
his native village, and after completing his 
academical education entered the office of the 
Northern Tier Gazette, of that village, and 
three years later became foreman of the office. 
And after leaving there did reportorial work- 
on the Williamsport News and the Lockhaven 
Record. In 1876 Mr. Buck went to Buffalo, 
New York, where he accepted the place as 
assistant proof reader on the Buffalo Commer- 
cial Advertiser, and in 1879 he went to Yonkers, 
New York, and did general work on the 
Yonkers Gazette, remaining there until 1887, 
when, at the death of W. A. Wilkins, editor 
of the Whitehall Times, Mr. Buck was called 
to that village to take charge of that paper as 
editor and manager. He remained here until 
September 1, 1888, when he moved to the 
village of Glens Falls and purchased the 
Glens Falls Republican. This plant is the 
oldest in the county, being a weekly sheet, 
and is thoroughly democratic in principle, and 
is the only one in Warren count)'. .The paper 
is ably edited and has a splendid job work 
department. In his political tenets Mr. Buck- 
is a consistent democrat, and in the session 
of r.892 and 1893 he was postmaster in the 
State senate. 

In October, 1883, Charles H. Buck was 
wedded to Anna L., a daughter of David 
Wiggins, ex-postmaster of Greenport, Suffolk 
county, New York. To their marriage have 
been born one son, Leonard H.,