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The history of Boone 
County, Iowa 

Union Historical Company 


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i\ \ 

\ « 1 


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1 "-2 


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A History of the County, its Cities, Towns, &c., 

Biographioal Sketches of its Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers in the late Re- 
belUoD, General and Local Statistics, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prom- 
inent Men, History of the Northwest, Hisu>ry of Iowa, 
Map of Boone County, Constitution of Iowa, 
Miscellaneous Matters, &c., &c. 




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R 1916 L 

Entered, eooording to Act of Oongrees, In the yeur 1880, by 


In the Office of the Libnurlan of Oongreef, At Waehington, D. 0. 




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Thb American people are mach given to reading, but the character of the matter read ii 
each that with reg^ard to a large proportion of them it may indeed be said that *' tmth ia 
stranger than fiction." Especially is this the case in respect to those factR of local histoiy 
belonging to their own immediate country and neighborhood. This, perhaps, is not so 
much the fault of the people as a neglect on the part of the book publishers. Books, as a 
rule, are made to sell, and, in order that a book may have a large sale, its matter must be 
of such general character as to be applicable to general rather than special conditions — to the 
Nation or State rather than the County or Township. Thus it is that nohistones heretofore 
published pertain to matters relating to county and neighborhood affidrs, for such books, in 
order to have a sale over a large section of country, must necessarily be very voluminous, and 
contain much matter of no interest to the reader. The publishers, having received a liberal 
patronage from the people of Boone county, have endeavored to prepare a work containing 
a full and minute account of the local sffain of the county. 

The following pages constitute a history of the Northwest and a detailed account of the 
early settiement, natural resources and subsequent development of Boone county, together 
with reminiscences, narratives, and biographies of the leading citizens of the county. 

The work may not meet the expectations of some; and this is all the more probable, see- 
ing that it falls short of our own standard of perfection: however, in size, quality of mater- 
ial and typographical appearance, it is such a book as we designed to make, and fills the con- 
ditions guaranteed by our prospectus. 

To the early settier, who braved the dangers, endured the hardships and experienced the 
eiijojrments of pioneer life, it will be the means of recalling some of the most grateful mem- 
ories of the past; while those who are younger, or who have become citizens of the county 
in more recent times, will here find collected in a narrow compass an accurate and succinct 
account of the beginning, progress and changes incident to municipal as well as individual 

The old pioneer, in reviewing the history of the county, all of which he saw, and part of 
whidi he was, will find this work a valuable compendium of facts, arranged in analytical 
order, and thus will events which are gradually vanishing into the mists and confusion of 
fbrgetfulness be rescued from oblivion. 

The rising generation, which is just entering upon the goodly heritage bequeathed by a 
hardy and noble ancestry, will find in this work much to encourage them in days of de- 
spondeni^, and intensify the value of success when contrasted with the trials and compared 
with the triumphs of those who have gone before. 

In the preparation of this work we have been materially aided by numerous persons in 
qrmpathy with the enterprise and solicitous for its success: to all such we feel ourselves un- 
der great obligations, and take this method of acknowledging the same. To Judge I. J. 
Mitchell, John A. Hull, to the publishers of the various newspapers and the incumbents of 

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the several county offices, we are under special obligations, and whatever of merit the work 
may have is largely due to their assistance. 

In presenting this work to our many hundred patrons, we have the satisfaction of knowing' 
that they are of sufficient intelligence to appreciate merit when it is found, and errors will 
be criticised with the understanding that book-making, like all other kinds of labor, has its 
peculiar vicissitudes. 

Whatever of inter^t, of profit, or of recreation the reader will find in perusing the follow- 
ing pages will be a source of satisfaction, gratitude and happiness to the 


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Tbm Korlhwwt Territoir: 
Saily French ExplontionB in 

tlM mnlMlppi v«n«7 7 

EaciyBeHleinentBin the North- 

The Kcnrttrmtern' Territory'.'. 23 

Tbe Loiilaiftn» PnrcihAse 28 

Indifln Wars in the NortiiweBt 84 
Sketches of Black Hawk and 

other CUefe 42 

Kaclj Navigation of Western 


ArohAology of the Northireet. 69 
Sketohee of Weetem and 

Northwestern States 67 

Expedition of Lewis and Clarke 86 

Sketch of Ohlcago 96 

History of Iowa: 
DescriptlTe and Qeographical 

Sketch 106 

Geology of Iowa 117 

Economic Geolo^ 125 

How the Title to Iowa Lands is 

dertred 180 

Early Setttements and Territo- 
rial Organisation 141 

Territory of Iowa . US 

State OrganisaUon 168 

Educational 16) 

State Institations 160 

Railroads 172 

Official Beoord 174 

TheJndioiary 176 

Oongressional Bepresentation.177 
State Agrionltnral Society. . . .178 
Centennial Awards 191 


Co nnty- -i ts Location and Name 
— Cspilain Boone and the United 
StatssDrwoons 257—262 


TUBKS. Sltnstlon — Extent— 
Horfaee—Btrers— Timber— CU- 
nat»~PrBiries— Soil— Geology 
—Economic Geology —Coal- 
Building Stone— Clays— Spring 

SDd Wd Water 262-270 

OHAPTEB in. — ijn>iAV af- 
FAiBS. Policy of the Govem- 
ment— Treaties— Annuities — 
The Sao snd Fox Indians— 
Keokuk— WspeUo-Indlan In- 
cidents snd Beminiscenoes— 
The Heottal Strip— The Potta^ 
wnttamies— John Green e and 
His Bsnd — The Sioux— The 
LoU Atrootty — The Be- 
▼enge 271—298 


TX.BKnm. Importance of 
first Beginnings— Character of 
First Seitos— Noah's Bottom 
SDd CoL Babbitt— Elk Bapids 
—Swede Point— Hull's Point 
—Pea's Point — Boonesboro— 
lOlfOTd— The Bush of 1866 snd 

1865 298-820 

CHAPTEB y.— PionxB I.XVB. 
Oharacteristics of the First 
Se ttlw s Oomvenlencee snd In- 
eoBTsnlenoes — The Historic 

t PAOX. 

Log Cabin— Agricultural Im- 
plcdoients — Household ftimi- 
ture— Pioneer Com Bread- 
Hand Mills and Hominy Blocks 
—Going to Mill — Trading 
Points— Hunting and Trapping 
—Claim Clubs and Claim Laws 
—A Border Sketch —Surveys 
andLand Sales— Western Stage 
Company — First Becords- 
Growth of tike County— Table 
of Eventa 320—848 


OP THX oouKTT. Couuty and 
Township Organization — Con- 
dition of Territory Before Or- 
ganisation—Act of Organixa- 
tton-S. B. McCaU Commis- 
sioned Sheriir— First Election 
—Proceedings of Commission- 
ers—The Location of County 
Seat— County Judge System- 
First Courts— Fint Precincts 
—Ferries— First Jail— Organi- 
s^ion of Townships — First 
Court-house — The Township 
Board — Early Officers and 
Finances- Public Highways- 

Public Buildings 848—888 

oouMTT APPAIB8. Finauoes— 
Defalcations — Official Direct- 
ory 888-406 

BXWSPAPBBS— SCBOOI.S . . 406 —434 


CHAPTEB IX.-01d Ssttlers' As- 
sociation— Churches— Agricul- 
tural Societies— Gold Excite- 
ment- Acddents snd Crimes 
—Mine Statistics 484— MO 


Original Blver Improvement 
Grant— Subsequent Modiilca- 
tion of the Grant— Extent of 
Improvement in the Channel 
of the Biver— Extension of the 
Grant, and its Diversion to 
Bailroad Purposes— Difficulties 
Between the Settiers and the 
Biver Land Company— Swamp 
Lands— How Disposed of— Ink- 
pa-du-ta War — The Pardee 
Siege — The Biver Land 
War 460—474 


Fort Sumter and Lincoln's 
Proclamation — Becruitlng in 
Boone county— Account of 
Companies Beomited in Boone 
County with Full and Accurate 
Lists of Names — Soldiers' 
Beoord— Sherman^s March to 

the Sea 474—494 



lOAi. 555 


Westward the Star of Empire 

takes its Way 17 

An Indian Camp 88 

Indians Trying a Prisoner 49 

APioneer Winter 65 



Lincohi Monument, Springfield, 

Illinois 72 

Chlcsgo, in 1820 97 

Present Site Lake Street Bridge, 
Chicago, 1838 97 


Old Fori Dearborn, 1880 108 

The "Old Kinzie House " 108 

A Prairie Home 129 

Breaking Prairie 145 



JohnA.HulL 278 

John A. MoFarland 807 

WnUam F. Churk 841 

Theodore DtfTarr 875 


C. J. A. Erioson 409 

JohnH. Jennings... 448 

Frank ChampUn 477 

J. W. Black 511 


A. Downing 545 

J.B.Hurlburt 679 

W.L. Before 618 

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Dm Molnea. , 




















Pilot Mound 






Hsninon ......... ... 








Adoption Of Obfldnn ao8 

BlUs Of Exchange and Promls- 

sorx NotM 196 

Capital Punlshmmit. 109 

Commerolal Terms .908 

DamagM ftom TrespaM 301 

DsMMnt 196 

Xstrajs .301 

Exemption from Exeootlons .... 900 

Fences, 303 


Article of Agreement 909 

Bills of Bale 910 

Bondfor.Deed 317 

Bills of Purchase 907 

Chattel Mortgage 915 



Confession of Judgment 908 

Lease 914 

MortgagM ....919,918 

Notice to Quit. 910 

Notes. 907-915 

Orders 307 

Qnlt-dalm Deed. 316 

Beodpts 308 

Wills and Codldls .311, 319 

Warranty Deed ....316 

Birds and Quadrupeds... ....917 

FlshandFlsh Wi^s 918 

InterMt 196 

Jurisdiction of Courts 198 

Jurors. ..,,. 199 

Landlord and Tenant • . 900 

Limitation of Actions 199 

Married Women ..900 

Marks and Brands 901 

Meehanlos' Liens. 904 

Purchasing Books by Subscrip- 
tion 919 

Beads and BridffM 904 

Surreyors and Surveys . . . « 904 

SupportofPoor 965 

TaxM 197 

Wills and BstatM 196 

Weights and MeMurM 9n7 

Wolf Scalps 901 

Map of Boone County Front. 

Iowa , 

of the State of 





Constitution of the UnltedStatM.940 

Practical BuIm for erery-day 

UM 969 

Population of Iowa CltlM. 


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Ti^ J57 S S T E R CI 

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—James Marquette — Looii 
^ and Green Bay — Hie 
r the Great River — Indian 
ana on Iowa Soil— Feast— 
Vater " — The Arkansas— 
nt Vovace — La Vantam — 
aent Exmorations— Robert 
-Port CSrevecoBur— Henne- 
's Claims as an Explorer — 

>rld first to raise the 
imerica were France^ 
»st settlements in the 
1 at Jamestown, Vir- 
niards on the barren 

discovering and colo- 
ev of the Mississippi, 
•ibutaries of the Grea, 
earlier (1538-41) tht 
Florida, penetrated the 
*eaching the banks of 
liiem^his now stands, 
heir journey for some 
)nntains and the Hot 
death on the banks of 
I, characterized by all 
1 Spanish adventurers 
b Europeans to behold 
failure- so far as related 
tnions as his remains 

had discovered, died 
the white man's voice 
dred years. De Soto 
[th a fleet of nine ves- 
ied, and the remainder 

>n the wild New Eng- 
inetrated the region of 

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the great lakes of the north, then the home of the Iroquois and the Huron.Sy 
but a French settlement had been established at Quebec by Samuel de 
Ohamplain in 1608. This was followed by the establishment of various 
colonies in Canada, and the hardy French aaventurers penetrated the coun- 
try by the way of the St. Lawrence and the lakes. In 1625 a number of 
missionaries of the Society of Jesus arrived in Canada from France, and 
during the succeeding forty years extended their missions all along th.e 
shores of Lake Superior. 

In 1637 a child was bom at the little city of Laon, in France, whose 
destiny it was in the fullness of time to be instrumental in the hands of 
Providence in giving to the world a definite knowledge of the grandest and 
most fertile region ever opened up to civilization. That child was James 
Marquette, the descendant of a family of Celtic nobles. He entered the 
Society of Jesus when seventeen years of age, and soon conceived a desire to 
engage in the labors of a missionary among the Indians. He sailed for 
Quebec in 1666, and two years later founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie 
at the Falls of St. Mary. The winter of 1669-70 he spent at Point St. 
Iffnatius, where he established another mission. Here the old town of 
liichillimackinac, afterward called Mackinaw, was founded. It was from 
Indians of the different tribes who came to this mission that he received 
some vague intimations of the great river — the father of all the rivers. He 
at once conceived a desire to penetrate to the banks of the wonderful river, 
and carry his missionary work to the tribes which he had learned inhabited 
its borders. He applied to his Superior, Claude Dablon, for permission to 
"seek new nations toward the Southern sea." The authorities at Quebec were 
equally desirous of having new regions explored, and therefore appointed 
Louis Joliet to embark upon a voyage of discovery. Joliet was a native of 
Quebec and had been educated in a Jesuit College. He had at the age of 
eighteen taken minor orders, but had abandoned all thoughts of the priest- 
hw)d and engaged in the fur trade. He was now twenty-seven years of age, 
with a mind ripe for adventure. He left Quebec, and arriving at Mackinaw 
found Father Marjjuette highly delighted with the information that they 
were to be companions in a voyage wiich was to extend the domain of the 
King of France, as well as to carry the Gospel to new nations of people. The 
explorers, accompanied by five assistants, who were French Canadians, started 
on their journey, May 13, 1673. Marquette has himself recorded in the fol- 
lowing simple language their feelings on this occasion: " We were embark- 
ing on a voyage the character of which we could not foresee. Indian corn, 
with some aried meat, was our whole stock of provisions. With this we set 
out in two bark canoes, M. Joliet, myself and five men, firmly resolved to do 
all and suffer all for so glorious an enterprise." They coasted along the 
northern shore of Lake Michigan, entered Green Bay, and passed up the 
Fox river, carrying their canoes across the Portage to the " Ouisconsin," now 
called Wisconsin. At Lake Winnebago, before crossing the Portage, they 
stopped at an Indian village, which was the furthest outpost to whicn Dab- 
Ion and AUouez had extended their missionary work. Here thej^ assembled 
the chiefs and old men of the village and told them of the objects of the 
voyage. Pointing to Joliet, Father Marquette said: " My friend is an envoy 
of France to discover new countries, and I am an ambassador from God to 
enlighten them with the truths of the Gospel." The Indians furnished two 
guiaes to conduct them to the Wisconsin river. It is related that a tribe of 
Indians endeavored to dissuade tiiem from pursuing their perilous journey 

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by telling of desperate and savage tribes that they would meet; that the 
forests and the rivers were infested with frightful monsters; that there were 
great fish in the rivers that would swallow up men and canoes together, and 
of a demon wlio could be heard from a great distance, and who destroyed aU 
who approached. Unmoved bv these friffhtful stories, Marquette, Joliet, 
and their five brave assistants, launched their little canoes on the waters of 
the Wisconsin, and moved slowly down the current After a lapse of seven 
days, June 17th, 1673, they reached the mouth of the Wisconsin and glided 
into the current of the Mississippi, a few miles below the place now mown 
as Prairie du Chien. Here, and on this day, the eye of tlie white man for the 
first time looked upon the waters of the Upper Mississippi. Marquette called 
the river " The Broad Eiver of the Conception." The Indian name is derived 
from the Algonquin language, one of the original tongues of the continent 
It is a compound of the woras Misdy signifying great, and Sepe^ a river. 

The explorers felt the most intense ioy on beholding the scene presented 
to their enraptured vision. Here was the great river whose waters somewhere 
thousands oi miles away flowed into a Southern sea, and whose broad valley 
was the fairest and richest in the world, but unknown to civilized man, save 
as an almost forgotten dream or a va^ue romance. They had solved one of 
the great mysteries of the age in whicn they lived. As they glided down tlie 
stream the bold bluflB reminded Marquette of the "castled shores of his own 
beautiful rivers in France.*' The far stretching prairies alternating with 
forests, on either side, were adorned in all the wild glories of June. Birds 
san^ the same notes that they had simg for ages amid those "forests prime- 
val," while herds of buffalo, aeer and eUc were alarmed and fled to the dense 
retreats of the forest or the broad prairies beyond. Not until the 25th June 
did they discover any signs of human habitation. Tlien, about sixty leagues, 
as thev thought, below the mouth of the Wisconsin, at a place where they 
landed on the west bank of the river, they found in die sand the foot-prints 
of man. Marquette and Joliet left their five companions in charge of the 
canoes and journeyed away from the river, knowing that they must be near 
the habitation of men. They followed a trail leading across a prairie clothed 
in the wild luxuriance of summer for a distance of about six miles, when 
they beheld another river and on its banks an Indian village, with other vil- 
lages on higher land a mile and a half from the first. The Indians greeted 
the two white stran^rs, as far as their ability permitted, with a splendid 
ovation. They appointed four of their old men to meet the strangers in 
coimcil. Marquette could speak their language. They informed him that 
they were " lUini" (meaning "we are nieu''), and presenting the calumet of 
peace, invited them to share the hospitalities of their village. Marquette told 
them of the object of their visit, and that they had been sent bv the French, 
who were their friends. He told them of the great God that the white man 
worshiped who was the same Great Spirit that they adored. In answer, one 
of tlie chiefs addressed them as follows: 

"I thank the Black Gown Chief (Marquette) and the Frenchman (Joliet) 
for taking so much pains to come and visit us; never has the earth been so 
heautiful, nor the sun so bright as now; never has the river been so calm, nor 
BO free from rocks, whiah your canoes have removed as they passed ; never 
Imw our tobacco had so fine a flavor, nor our com appeared so beautiful as we 
behold it to-day. Ask the Great Spirit to give us life and health, and come 
ye and dwell with us." 
After these ceremonies the strangers were invited to a feast, an account of 

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which is given by Marquette. It consisted of four courses. First, there 
was a large wooden bowel filled with ta^mity, or Indian meal, boiled in 
water and seasoned with oil. The master or ceremonies, with a wooden spoon, 
fed the tagamity to their guests as children are fed. The second course con- 
sisted of nsh, which, after the bones were taken out, was presented to the 
mouths of the strangers as food maj be fed to a bird. The third course was 
a preparation of dog meat, but learning that the strangers did not eat that it 
was at once removra. The fourth and final course was a piece of buffalo 
meat, the fattest portions of which were put into the mouths of the guests. 
The stream on whose banks took place this first interview between the 
explorers and the untutored Indians, after parting with their guides, was the 
Des Moines river, and the place of their landing was probably about where 
the town of Montrose is now located, in Lee county, Iowa. One of our 
sweetest American poets has rendered Marquette's narrative in vorse^ as 

'' Came a people 

From the distant larid of Wabun; 

From the fiurthest reahns of morning 

Game the Black Robe Chief, the Prophet, 

He the Priest of Prayer, the Pale-fiEU>a, 

With his ffuides and his companions. 
Ana the noble Hiawatha, 

With his hand alofb extended. 

Held aloft in siffn of wdcome, 

Cried aloud ana spoke in this wise: 
' Beautiful is the sun, strangers. 

When you come so fiur to see us; 

All our town in peace awaits you; 

All our doors stcuid open for you; 

Tou shall enter all our wiff warns; 

For the heart's right hand we give you. 

Never bloomed the earth so t 

Neieer shone the sun so briffht^i 

As to-day they shine and blossom 

When you came so far to see us.* 

And the Black Robe Chief made answer, 
Stammered in his speech a little, 
Speaking words yet unfamiliar: 
* Peace be with you, Hiawatha, 
Peace be with you and your people, 
Peace of pra^, and peace of pardon. 
Peace of Christ, and joy of Mary I * 

Then the generous Hiawatha, 
Led the strangers to his wigwam. 
Seated them on skins of bison, 
Seated them on skins of ermine, 
Brought them food in bowls of bass-wood, 
Water brought in birchen dippers, 
And the calumet, the peace-pipe. 
Filled and lighted for their smoung. 
All the warriors of the nation. 
Came to bid the strangers welcome; 
' It is well,* they said, *0 brother. 
That you came so far to see us.' * 

Marquette and Joliet remained at the Indian villages six days, and were 
then accompanied to their canoes by an escort of six hundred Indians. In* 
vitations were extended to the strangers to renew their visit, after which the 
explorers embarked in their boats and floated on down the stream, passing 
the sites of fixture great cities of the valley, and passing the mouths of the 
Missouri and Ohio rivers, and as far down as the mouth of the Arkansas. 

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Karqnette named the Missouri river Pekitanouij or "Muddy "Water/* on 
aoooont of the now well-known character of that stream. 

After extending their voyage to the mouth of the Arkansas, where thej 
found a viUage ot die Arkansas tribe, they ascended the Mississippi to the 
mouth of the Illinois. They ascended the latter river to its source. Alonfi^ 
this stream they found many villages of the Illinois, or Illmiy a large and 
powerful tribe, who were subdivided into five smaller tribes — the Tamaroas, 
Michigamies, Kahokias, Kaskaskias, and Peorias. TJie country between the 
Illinois and Mississippi rivers was inhabited by the three last named tribes. 
The Michigamies resided in Uie country bordering on Lake Michigan, and 
the Tamaroas occupied the territory now includedin the counties oi Jersey, 
Madison and St. Cuair, Illinois. Kaskaskia — also designated by the early 
explorers as " La Vantum " and " Great Illinois Town ' — was the larg^t of 
the villages, containing, according to Marquette, seventy-five lodges. With- 
out the loss of a man, or any serious accident, the party reached Green Bay 
in September, and reported their discoveries. Marquette made a faithful 
record of wlmt they had seen and the incidents of the voyage. That record 
has been preserved. The report of Joliet was unfortunately lost by the 
upsetting of his canoe while on the way to Quebec 

At the request of the Illinois Indians, Marquette soon returned and es- 
tablished the mission of the Immaculate Conception at La Vantum. In 
the spring of 1676, on account of failing health, he started to i^tum to 
Green Bay. While passing alon^ the shore of Lake Michigan, conscious 
that he was nearing the end of his earthly labors, he observed an elevated 
place near the moutli of a small river. He told his companions that the 

f>lace was suitable for his burial, and requested them to land. On that 
onely and desolate coast. May 18, 1675, at the a^ of thirty-eight, James 
Marquette ended his last earthly voyage, and received burial at the hands 
of his devoted companions. Two years later some Indians of the mission at 
Kaskaskia disinterred his remains, and conveyed them in a box made of 
birch bark, with a convoy of over twenty canoes, to Mackinaw, where they 
were reinterred at the mission church. The post was abandoned in 1706, 
and the church burned. The place of burial was finally lost, and remained 
lost for two hundred years. In May, 1876, the foundations of the old 
Jesuit Mission were accidentally discovered on the farm of one David 
Murray, with a number of church relics, the mouldering remains of the 
great missionary and explorer, and a cross with his name inscribed upon it. 

Joliet, after has return to Quebec, became again a trader with the Indians. 
His services were rewarded by the French government by the gift of the 
island of Anticosta, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Little atlter this is known 
of him. He died about 1730. 

The reports given of the discoveries of Marquette and Joliet, served to 
©aconrage other adventurers to engage in the effort to extend their explora- 
tions. JKobert La Salle, a French navi^tor, who was bom at Bouen about 
the year 1635, had long cherished a project of seeking a route to China by 
^ay of the Great Lakes. Before the return of Marcjuette and Joliet, he had 
explored Lake Ontario and visited the different Indian tribes. In 1675 he 
^^t to France and obtained irom the government a grant to a large tract 
of land about Fort Frontenac, the exclusive right of traffic with the Five 
I^ations, and also a patent of nobility. He laid before his government his 
^iie to explore the Mississippi to its mouth, and take possession of all the 
regions he might visit in the name of the Eling of France. His plans were 

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warmly ap]jroved, and he was provided with the means for carrying them 
into execution. In July, 1678, he returned to Fort Frontenac, soon after 
established a trading house at Niagara, and visited the neighboring Indiaa 
tribes for the purpose of collecting furs. He engaged the services of thirty 
mechanics ana mariners and built the first ship n)r the navigation of the 
lakes. It was called the Griffin, and was a bark of sixty tons. Having^ 
been joined by Louis Hennepin and Chevalier de Tonti,the latter an Indian 
veteran, on the 7th of August, 1679, they launched the Oriffin on Niagura 
river, and embarked for the valley of the Mississippi. They crossed LsJsb 
Erie and Lake St Clair, reaching Green Ba^, September 2d. For the pur- 
pose of relieving himself of some pressing fmancial obligations at Montreal^ 
La Salle here engaged for a time in collecting furs with which he loaded the 
Griffin, and sent it in the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors on its return 
trip, with orders to return immediatelv; but the vessel was never heard of 
afterward. He waited until all hope bad vanished, and then, with Father 
Hennepin, Chevalier de Tonti, the Sieur de la Motte, and about thirty fol- 
lowers, began a^n the voyage. They ascended the St Joseph in canoes to 
the porta^, and carried their barks to the Kankakee, a distance of six miles, 
descended the Kankakee and the Illinois until they reached an Indian col- 
lage on the latter stream, at the expansion of the same, known as Lake 
Peoria. The village was situated on the west bank of the lake, and must 
have been passed by Marquette and Joliet on their voyage up the river in 
1673, although no mention is made of it bv them. La Salle, Hennepin, Tonti 
and their foUowers landed at Lake Peona, January 3d, 1680. The Lidians 
received them hospitably, and they remained with them for several days. 
Here a spirit of discontent began to manifest itself amon^ the followers ot 
La Salle, and fearing trouble l^tween his men and the Indians, they crossed 
the river and moved down about three miles, inhere they erected a fort,^ 
which La Salle named I^oH Creveco&wr (heart-break) a name expressive of 
La Salle's sorrow at the loss of his fortune by the disaster to the Griffin, and 
also his feelings in the fear of mutiny among his men. The party remained 
here until in February, when Tonti was placed in command of the post, and 
Hennipin charged wilJi a voyage of discovery to the sources of the Missis- 
sippi. La Salle returned on foot with three companions to Fort Frontenao 
for supplies. On his arrival he learned of the certainty of the loss of the 
Griffin, and also of the wreck of another vessel which had been sent with 
resources for him from France. 

Father Hennepin, with two companions, Picard du Gay and Michel Ako, 
on the 29th of February, 1680, emoarked from Fort Crevecoeur in a canoe 
down the Illinois to its mouth, which they reached in a few days. They 
then turned up the Mississippi, reaching the mouth of the Wisconsin, April 
11th. Above this point no European had ever ascended. They continued 
the voyage, reaching the Falls of St. Anthony, April 80, 1680. Hennepin 
so named the falls in honor of his patron Saint When they arrived at the 
mouth of St Francis river, in what is now the State of Minnesota, they 
traveled along its banks a distance of 180 miles, visiting the Sioux Indians, 
who inhabitM that region. The river, Hennepin so named in honor of 
the founder of his order. In his account of this voyage, Hennepin claims that 
they were held in captivity by the Indians for about three months, although 
they were treated kmdly by them. At the end of this time a band of 
Frenchmen, under the leadership of Seur de Luth, in pursuit of furs, had 
penetrated to this part of the country by the way of Lake Superior. The 

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Indians allowed Hennepin and his companions to return with the traders. 
Thej descended the Mississippi to the month of the Wisconsinypassinff up 
that stream and down the Fox river, and so on through Oreen Eaj to Lake 
Michigan. Hennepin went to Quebec, and thence to France, where, in 1688, 
he published an account of his explorations and a description of the r^on 
of uie Tipper MississippL In 1697 (two years after La Salle's death) he 
noblishedan enlaiged work^ which he claimed that he had descended the 
Mississippi to its mouth. His £uthM description of the yallej lor a time 
gave him credit for veracity, but the impossibility of reconciling his dates, 
and other circnmstances, are bj the best authorities r^arded as stamping 
his claim false. Before the time this work was publisned, as we shall see. 
La Salle had descended the Mississippi to its mouth« Hennepin explained 
his long silence as to his exploration to the mouth of the Mississippi, bj 
claiming that he had feared the enmity of La Salle, who had ordered him 
to follow a different course, and had also prided himself upon his own daims 
as being tibe first European to descend the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, leather Hennepin died in Holland, about the year 1699. 

We now return to the further adventures of the brave and intrepid La 
Salle. He returned to Fort Crevecoeur in the latter part of the year 1680, 
to find that Tonti had been abandoned by his men, and obligea to take 
refuge among the Pottawattamies. He spent another year in ccSlecting his 
scattered followers, finally succeeded, and on the 6th of February, 1682, he 
had reached the mouth of the Illinois. As they passed down the Mississippi 
La SaUe noted the different streams tributary tnereto. They erected a fort 
near the month of the Ohio, and a cabin at the first Chickasaw bluff. On 
the 9th of April they entered the Oulf of Mexico. They reascended the 
river a short distance, founded the Fort of St Louis, took possession of the 
whole valley in the name of France, and called it by the name of Louisiana, 
in honor of the king. 

La Salle, having accomplished much for the glory of France, now retraced 
his steps northwara. After B{>endin^ one year about the gpreat lakes, actively 
engaged in laying the foundations of French settlements in the new regions 
he h^ discovers, in Kovember, 1688, he reached Quebec, and soon after 
^nbarked for France. The government, with marks of great esteem, be- 
stowed upon him a commission placing under his authority all the Frendi 
and natives of the country,''firom Fort St Louis to New Biscay. An eicpe- 
dition, with four vessels and 280 persons, was fitted out for the colonization 
of Lousiana; it saQed August 1, 1684. Associated with La Salle, in this 
expedition, was Beaujeu, as naval commander. The mouth of the Missis- 
^ppi was the objective point, but by mistake the fieet passed on norUnrord. 
When the error was discovered La Salle desired to return, but Beaujeu per- 
sisted in advancing. Dissensions arose, and La Sallc^ with 230 colomsts, 
diBembarked. This was in February, 1685. A fortified post, which was 
edled Fort St. Louis, was established, and attempts made at agriculture, but 
without success. Attempts were made to reach the Mississinpi, which they 
thought near, but failed. La Salle and his followers traversea the wilderness 
toward New Mexico, and in Januair, 1687. by sickness and disaster, his 
party was reduced to thirty-seven. Some of these, following Beaujeu's ex- 
ample, revolted. La Salle, with sixteen men, then determine to reach the 
ooontry of the Illinois. Two men, who had embarked their capital in the 
enterorise, were bitter in malignitv toward the leader of this unsuccessful 
expedition. Their feelings found some gratification in the murder of a 

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nephew of La Salle. The latter sought to investigate as to the death of his 
relative, but onhr shared his fate, as one of them fir^ upon him from ambush, 
and the heroic La Salle fell, the victim of qaarrels and dissensions among 
his own followers. This event happened alter he had passed the basin oi 
the Colorado and reached a branch of Trinity river, in l^xas. 

We have thus briefly outlined the part taken by this energetic and ad- 
venturous explorer, in giving to civilization a knowledge of a region that 
was destined to constitute the richest and most productive portion of the 
American continent, if not indeed, of the world. 


EgjJT French Settlements— Indian Tribes— Mission at Easkaskia— Eahokia— Vinoennes— Fort 
Pcmchartrain— Fort Chartres— La Belle Riviere— La Salle— The English Claim ** From Sesk 
to Sea'*— Treaty with Indians in 1684— English Grants— French and Indians Attack Pick- 
awillany— Treaty with the Six Nations— French and English Claims— Oeoige Washington 
—French and Indian War— Fall of Montreal— Treaty of Paria— Pontiac^ Conspiracy — 
Deteoit— Pontiac's PromissuTv Notes— Pontiac's Death— France Cedes Louisiana to Spain 
—Washington Explores the Ohio Valley— Emi^tion— Land Companies— The Revolution 
—Colonel Clark— Surrender of French Poets m lllinoia— Surrender of Vincennes— Oct. 
Hamilton Taken Prisoner— Daniel Boon&— Simon Girty— Yii;ginia*s " Land Laws/* 

As THE French were the first to explore the region known as the North- 
west, so they were the first to improve the opening thus made. The earliest 
settlements were in that part of tne country east of the Mississippi and south 
of the Great Lakes, occupied chiefly by the Illinois tribes of the Great Algon- 
quin family of Indians. The Illinois were divided into the Tamaroas, Mich- 
igamies, Ksikokias, Easkaskias, and Peorias, and were sometimes designated 
as the Five Nations. The three last-named tribes occupied the country 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers; the Michi^mies the region bor- 
dering on Lake Michigan, and the Tamaroas, a small tnbe, in the same re^on 
occupied by the Kahokias, and now embraced in the counties of Jersey, Madi- 
son, and St. Clair, in the state of Illinois. The French opened the way for 
colonization by the establishment of missions among these tribes, their efforts 
in this direction having been attended with ffreat success in Canada. A 
mission was founded at Kaskaskia by Father Gravier about the year 1698. 
This at the time of the visit of Marquette and Joliet, in 1673, was the 
largest and most important of the Illinois villages, and contained seventy- 
four lodges, or about fifteen hundred inhabitants. By the early explorers it 
was called by the several names of "Kaskaskia," "La Vantum," and "Great 
Illinois Town.*' Here, in 1675, Father Marquette had attempted to christian- 
ize the Indians by establishing the mission of the Immaculate Conceptioru 
For years it was nothing more than a missionary station, occupied only by 
the Nations and the missionary. About the year 1700 missions were also 
established at Kahokia and Peoria, the latter being near the site of old Fort 
CrevecoBur. Another of the early French settlements was at Vincennes on 
the Oubache (Waba, now Wabash) river. Authorities disagree as to the 
date of liis settlement, but it was probably about 1702. lor many years 
this was an isolated colony of French emigrants from Canada, and several 
generations of their descendants lived and passed away in these vast solitudes, 
before either they or their savi^ neighbors were disturbed by the encroach- 
ments of an expanding civilization. During all this time they nad maintained 
friendly relations witn the natives. In Jmy, 1701, a station was established 

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by De la Motte on the Detroit river, called Fort Pondiartrain. While these 
attempts to colonize the Northwest were in progress, similar efforts were 
bein^ made bj France in the Southwest, bat without maintaining like 
friendly relations with the natives, for in a conflict with the Chickasaws, an 
entire colony at Natchez was cut off. As these settlements in the North- 
west were isolated but little is known of their history prior to 1750. In this 
year Vivier, a missionary among the Illinois, near Fort Chartres, writes of 
five French villages, witn a population of eleven hundred whites, three hun- 
dred bla(^ and sixty red slaves or savaj^ He says there were whites, 
n^roes and Indians, to say nothing of hall-breeds. They then raised wheat, 
caUle, swine and horses, and sent pork, grain and flour to New Orleans. On 
the 7th of November, 1760, the same priest writes: 

^For fifteen leagues above the mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwell- 
ings, the ground being too low to be habitabla Thence to New Orleans the 
lands are only partialfy occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and 
red, not more, I think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come 
all lumber, bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease; and above 
all, pork and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, 
as forty vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans 
plantations are again met with; the most considerable is a colony of Oermans 
some ten leagues up the river. At Point Ooupee, thirty-five leagues above 
the German settlement, is a fort Along here, within five or six leagues, are 
not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues further up is the N atchez 

Sst, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners through fear of the 
lickasaws. Here ana at Point Coupee they raise excellent tobacco. An- 
other hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, where we have also a fort 
and a garrison for the benefit of the river traders. From the Arlomsas to 
the Blmois, nearly five hundred leagues, there is not a settlement There 
should be, however, a fort at the Oubache f Ohio), the only path by which 
the English can reach the Mississippi. In tne Illinois country are number- 
less mines, but no one to work them as they deserve.'' 

The fame of Bobert Cavelier de La Salle was not achieved alone by his 
explorations of the Valley of the Mississippi, for, in 1669, four years before 
the discovery of the Mississippi b^ Marquette and Joliet, La Salle discovered 
the Ohio river, or Ld Belle liimere (Beautiful River), as the French called 
it Being conversant with several Indian dialects, he had learned from some 
Senecas of a river called Ohio which rose in their country and fiowed a long 
distance to the sea. La Salle then held the belief that the river flowing to 
the west emptied into the Sea of Oalifomia, and lon^(^ to engage in the enter- 
prise of discovering a route across the continent He obtains the approval 
of the government at Quebec, but no allowanoe to defray the expense. He 
8oId his property in Canada for two thousand eight hundred dollars, and 
with the prooeeds purchased canoes and the necessary supplies. With a 
party of twenty-four persons he embarked in seven canoes on the St Law- 
wiM», July 6th, 1669. Orossinff over Lake Ontario, they were conducted by 
Man guides to the Genesee, about where the city of Eochester, New York, 
is now located. The enterprise did not receive the approbation of the Indians 
At the Seneca village then situated on the bank of the Genesee at this point, 
^d they refu^ to fiimish him ^deg to conduct him further. After a 
mopth'g delay he met an Indian belonging to the Iroquois tribe on Lake On- 
tario, who conducted them to their vifl^e, where they received a more 
Uemdly welcome. From the chief of the &>quois at Onondaga he obtained 

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guides who conducted the party to a river south of Lake Erie. This proved 
to be a tributary of the Ohio. Thev descended it, and thence down the 
Ohio to thegreat falls where Louisville now stands. By virtue of this dis- 
covery the French claimed the country tdouff the Ohio, and many vears after 
established military and trading posts at dinerent points. One ot these was 
Fort Du Quesne, erected in 1654, which was taken A*om them by the English 
a few years later and called Pittsburg, in honor of William Pitt, then prime 
minister of England. 

Notwithstanoing the discoverer of the Ohio by the French under La Salle 
as early as 1669, the English claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific on the 

Sound that her sea-coast discoveries entitled her to the sovereignty of all 
e country from "sea to sea.'* In 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, held a treaty with Indian tribes known as the Northern Confederacy, 
to-wit: the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. The Tus- 
caroras being subsequently taken in, these tribes became known as the Six 
Nations, and the Eufflish assumed their protection. They purchased from 
them la^ge tracts of land and aimed to obtain a monopoly of the Indian 
toule. Tne English government made grants of land west of the AUe^hanies, 
and companies were formed for their settlement. France, seeing the Eng- 
lish obtaming a foothold by planting trading posts in the Northwest, in 
1749 sent Louis Celeron with a smdl force of soldiers to plant in mounds at 
the mouths of the principal tributaries of the Ohio, plates of lead with the 
claims of France inscribed thereon. The English, however, still continued 
to make explorations and establish trading jposts. One of these grants of 
Englf^d was to a company known as the "Ohio Company,*' and embraced a 
tract of land on the Great Miami, described as bein^ one hundred and fifty 
miles above its mouth. Christopner Gist was sent by this company in 1750 
to inspect thier lands and to establish a trading post In 1752 a small party 
of French soldiers, assisted by Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked this post 
and captured the traders after a severe battle. Tue English called this post 
Pickawillany — the name being subsequently contracted to Pickaway or 
Piqua. The location of this post was doubtless near that of the present 
town of Piqua, on the Great Miami, about seventy-eight miles north of 
Cincinnati. Tbus on the soil of what became a part of the state of Ohio 
was shed the first blood between the French and English for the possession 
of the Northwest 

In 1744 the English had entered into a treaty with the Six Nations at 
Lancaster, Penni^lvania, by which they acquired certain lands described as 
being within the "Colonv of Virginia.'* The Indians subsequently com- 
plained of bad faith on tne part of the English in failing to comply with 
some of the stipulations of the treaty. The Governor of V irginia appointed 
commissioners to hear the grievances of the Indians. They met at Logs- 
town, on the north bank of tine Ohio, about seventeen miles below the present 
city of Pittsburg, in the sprint of 1752. Notwithstanding the complaint of 
the Indians that the Engnsh had failed to supply them with arms and am- 
munition as they had agreed, they succeeded m obtaining a confirmation of 
the treaty of Lancaster. 

In the meantime the French were quietlj preparing to maintain their 
cldms to the countiy in dispute. They provided cannon and military stores 
in anticipation of the coming conflict. The French were notified to give up 
their posts, but they failed U) comply. Governor Dinwiddle finallv deter- 
minea to leam definitely their intentions, and for this purpose selected Major 

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George Washington, then twenty-two years of age, as a messenger. "With 
Christopher Gist as guide, and four attendants or servants, Washington set 
out through flie wil(femess on his perilous joumej. He held a conference 
with the diiefs of the Six Nations at Logstown in November, 1768. He 
learned something of the condition of the French, but the Indians desired to 
remain neutral and were disposed to be non-committal. Washington pro- 
ceeded to Venango, where there was a French j)ost called Fort Machault. 
Here he delivered to the French governor Dinwiddle's letter, and received 
the answer of St. Pierre, the commander of the fort, declining to give up 
without a struggle. Preparations for war were made in all the Engfish col- 
onies while the French continued to strengthen their lines of fortifications. 

It will thus be seen that what is known as the French and Indian war had 
its origin in this dispute about the possession of what is now one of the 
fairest and richest portions of our Republic. It resulted, not only in Eng- 
land maintaining her right to the territory in dispute, but in wresting Can- 
ada from France. It was a war of eight vears duration, commencing with 
the attack of the French and Indians on the English post at Piqua in 1752, 
^nd virtually ending with the fall of the city of Montreal in April, 1760. 
Ticonderoffa, Crown Point, Niagara, and Quebec had all previously surren- 
dered to me English, the first two without resistance. After the fall of 
Montreal the Governor of Canada signed a capitulation surrendering the 
whole of Canada to the English. One post, however, that of Detroit still 
remained in possession of the French. Major Sogers was sent from Mon- 
treal to demand its surrender. Beletre, the commander of the post, at first 
refused, but on the 29th of November, having heard of the defeat of the 
French arms in Canada, he also surrendered. September 29th, 1760, the 
treaty of peace between France and England, known as the treaty of Paris, 
was made, out not ratified until February 10th, 1763. Meantime theNorthwest 
territory was entirely under English rule and settlements began to extend. The 
Indians who had l>een the friends and allies of the French during the war 
were not reconciled to the English, claiming that they had not carried out 
their promises. Under the famous Ottawa chief, Pontiac, they united in a 

general conspiracy to cut off all the EiLfflish posts on the frontier. The 
hippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawnese, Delawares and Mingoes, 
buned the hatchet in their local quarrels, and united to exterminate the 

Owing to treachery on the part of some of Pontiac's followers, he failed 
in the complete execution of his plans, but in May, 1763, several British 
posts fell, and many whites were victims of the merciless tomahawk. In 
the arrangement among the Indians it was agreed that Pontiac's own imme- 
diate field of action was to be the garrison at Detroit. He laid siege to the 
post May 12th, and continued it until October 12th. To obtain focS for hia 
warriors during this time, he issued promissorv notes, drawn upon birch 
bark and signe3 with the figure of an otter. All these notes were faithfully 
redeemed. Being unsuccessful in reducing the garrison, the tribes generally 
sued for peace, but Pontiac remained as yet imsubdued. To Alexander 
Henry, an Englishman who visited Missillimacinac the next spring, he said: 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not yet 
conquered us. We are not your slaves ! These lakes, these woods, tliese 
mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, and we 
will part with them to none. Tour nation supposes that we, like the wliite 
people, cannot live without bread, and pork and beef ; but you ought to 

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know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided food for as 
upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

Pontiac still entertained the hope that the French would renew the war, 
and finally conquer UtiQ English, and endeavored to incite the Indians on the 
Miami, and in other parts of the West, to continue hostilities. He applied, 
but unsQCcessfullv, to the French commander at New Orleans. Bein^ un- 
able to unite agam those who entered so eagerly into his original conspiracy 
for destroying the English settlements, he went to the Illinois countiy, where 
he made a stand, and nad for a time the sympathy and co-operation of the 
French fur traders in that region. Soon, however, all but his immediate 
followers deserted his cause, and he then reluctantlv accepted peace on the 
terms offer^ by the English. From this time he had but little influence 
with the tribes. He was killed b^ an Illinois Indian, while drunk, at Ka- 
hokia, in 1769. At the time of his death he was about fifty-seven years of 

Great Britain now held sovereignly over the entire Northwest, and to pre- 
vent Louisiana from also falling into the hands of the English, France by 
secret treaty, in 1762, ceded it to Spain. The next year the treaty of Paris 
formally gave to England possession of the Northwestern Territory. The 
English now began to prepare for settlement and occupation of the country. 
In 1770 persons from Virginia and other British provinces took up the 
valuable lands on the Monongahela and along the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Little Kanawa. In October of the same year George Washington with a 
party descended the Ohio from Pittsburg to the Kenawa, which last named 
stream they ascended about fourteen miles, and marked out several large 
tracts of land. Bufialo were then abundant in the Ohio valley, and several 
of them were shot by "Washington's party. Pittsburg was then a village of 
twenty houses, the iimabitants oeing mostly Indian traders. 

The British government was incfined to observe a liberal policy toward 
the French settlers in the West In 1763 the king, by royal proclamation, 
had forbidden his subjects from making settlements beyond the sources of 
the rivers which fall into the Atlantic ; but his subjects in the colonies were 
little disposed to observe this restriction. Finally, in 1774, Governor Dun- 
more, of Virgim'a, began to encourage emigration to the West. A number 
of settlements were made in the Ohio vafley, the settlers often coming in 
conflict with the Indians. Several battles were fought, ending in the battle 
of Kenawa, in July, when the Indians were defeated and driven across the 
Ohio. During the years following, up to 1770, several land companies were 
formed, and engaged in extensive operations. One, called the ^^ Illinois 
Land Company,^ obtained from the Indians large tracts of land on the Mis- 
sissippi river, south of the Illinois. An association, styling itself the " Wa- 
basli Land Conopany," obtained a deed from eleven chiefs to 37,497,600 acres 
of land. The War of the Revolution interfered with these and many other 
\' " ' ^ ' " The parties interested subsequently made 

< sanctioned by Congress, but did not succeed. 

t information we have, Kaskaskia contained 
bousand inhabitants, white and black. Ea- 
with three hundred wliite inhabitants, and 
few families at Prairie du Eocher, on the 
jouis. At Detroit, there were in 1766, about 
36 was founded by Antoine de la Motte Ca- 
b town in the Northwest 

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Whon the War of the Revolution commenced tlie British held Kaskasklay 
Kahokia, Yincennes, Detroit, and other important posts in the West CoL. 
George Eogers Clark, a master spirit of the frontier, who wa& familiar witli 
all the important movements of the British in the West, and also with the 
disposition of the Indians, formed a plan nnequalled in boldness, for subja- 
gatmg theseposts. He repaired to the capital of Virginia, Patrick Henry 
bein^ then Governor, and nresented to the authorities his plan of operations, 
whicSi was approved by Governor Henry. He was accordingly furnished 
with two sets of instructions — one secret and the other open. His open in- 
structions authorized him to enlist seven companies to go to Kentucky, sub- 
ject to his orders, and serve three months from their arrival in the West. 
The secret order authorized him to arm and equip his troops at Pittsburg, 
and proceed to subjugate the countrv. Col. Clark succeeded in raising but 
three companies, but with these and a few private volunteers, he descended 
the Ohio as far as the falls, in the spring of 1777. Here he fortified a small 
island, known as Com Island, and uien announced to his men their real des- 
tination. Leaving a small garrison, on the 24th of June, during a total 
eclipse of the sun, he moved down the river. Under a burning July sun, 
with his chosen band, he marched to Kaskaskia, reaching that post on the 
evening of July Ith. Without the loss of a man on either side rae fort and 
village were captured. He easily induced the Indians to give their allegi- 
ance to the American cause, lliey accompanied him to -Kahokia on me 
6th, and through their influence the inhabitants of that place surrendered 
without resistance. The priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, hastily joined in 
rendering all the aid he could to forward the purposes of Clark. He estab- 
lished a government for the colonies he had taken, and then made ready to 
march upon St. Vincent, or Vincennes, as it is more commonly known. 
But Gibault offered to go alone and induce the post on the " Oubache " to 
throw off the authority of England. Clark accepted the offer, and on the 
14:th of July Gibault started on his mission. On the Ist of August he re- 
turned, with intelligence of entire success, the garrison at Yincennea having 
taken the oath of cQl^ance to Virginia. CoL Clark placed gamsons at 
E^askaskia and Ejdiokia, and sent orders for the erection of a fort at the Falls 
of the Ohio, where the Citv of LouisviUe now stands. He also sent Eoche- 
blave, the former commander of Kaskaskia, a prisoner of war to Eichmond. 
The county of Illinois was established in Octooer of the same year, bv the 
Legislature of Virginia. John Todd was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel and 
actmg governor. Courts were established, and the colony was provided with 
a government complete. The Indians acknowledged aU^ance to the new 

While Col. Clark was arranging for the government of the Illinois colo- 
nies, the British Governor, Eiamilton, was planning an expedition to move 
from Detroit down the Wabash to Vincennes, intending to recapture the 

S»sts which had surrendered to Clark, and thence extena his ope^ions to 
entucky. He knew nothing of the capitulation of Vincennes until his 
arrival, when he found the fort in command of Capt Helm, who had been 
sent by Col. Clark to take charge of the garrison. Hamilton demanded the 
surrender of Uie fort, and being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, Capt 
Helm surrendered to a superior force. On the 29th of Januaiy, 1879, Cliurk 
received intelligence of what had transpired at Vincennes, and of ^e in- 
tended operations of Hamilton. Having su£Sciently garrisoned Kaskaskia 
and Kahokia, and dispatched a force down the Mississippi to ascend the Ohio 

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and operate with the land forces in that direction, on the 5th of February he 
set out himself with one hundred and twenty men on his hard march to 
Vincennes. He reached the fort on the 22d, and was joined by the re- 
mainder of his command, which had come by water. He immediately com- 
menoed his attack on the fort, and on the 25th Gov. Hamilton surrendered. 
He was sent as a prisoner of war to Virffinia^ where he was kept in close 
confinement, and thus failed to accomplish his purpose of unitmg the In- 
dian tribes a^inst the Americans. All the important posts in the North- 
west, exceptX>etroit, were now in the hands of the Americans. Had Clark 
received reinforcements, which had been promised, he would doubtless have 
captured Detroit also ; but Yirginia and the other colonial governments at 
this time doubtless had all they could do to attend to the operations of the 
war east of t^e Alleghanies. The Legislature of Yirginia passed resolutions 
complimenting Col. Clark and his men, and in 1781 he was promoted to 
the rmk of ^neral. Previous to this he had taken part with Steuben 
^lainst Ammd, When the latter invaded Virginia, in 1780. Subsequently, 
Virginia gave to Gen. Clark and his men one hundred and fifirv thousand 
acres of &nd, wherever they might choose to locate it, north of the Ohio. 
They made selection of a tract opposite the Falls of the Ohio, between New 
Albany and JeffersonviUe, Indiana. Qen. Clark died near Louisville, £en- 
tackjy February 13th, 1808. 

The years 1781 and 1782 were dark years in the bistory of the infant set- 
tlements of the Northwest, in consequence of the manv outrages practiced 
by the Lidians. Many deeds of cruelty were committed under the leader- 
ship of the outlaw, Simon Girty, occurring chiefly in the Ohio Valley. Sev- 
eral battles between the Indians and frontiersmen occurred north of the 
Ohio, while in Kentucky the famous Daniel Boone and his companions were 
engaged in protecting the frontier outposts. 

In 1783 tne treaty of peace, which ended the Eevolutionary struggle, was 
concluded, and by its terms the boundaries of the West were defined as fol- 
lows : On the north, to extend along the center of the Great Lakes ; from 
the western point of Lake Superior to Loi^ Lake ; thence to the Lake of 
the Woods ; thence to the heaa of the Mississippi river, down its center to 
the 31st parallel of latitude ; thence on that line east to the head of Appa- 
lachicola river, down its center to the junction with the Flint ; thence straight 
to the head of St Mary's river ; ana thence down along its center to the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

For some time after the cessation of hostilities, General Haldimand, the 
British commander at Detroit, refused to evacuate, on the ground, as he 
claimed, that his king had not ordered him to do so. It shortly, however, 
passed under the control of the United States, and so remained, except when 
neld by the British, through the surrender of Gen. Hull, for a few weeks in 
AuMist and September, 1812. 

Tne war of independence had been fought and gained, and England, as 
we have seen, had renounced her claim to the Northwest, but the Indian 
title was not yet extinguished. From 1783 to 1786 various treaties were 
made, by which the Indians relinquished their title to extensive tracts of 
territoTy. The individual States also held claims to the territory surrendered 
by Great Britain, and acts of cession were necessary to vest the title to the 
soil in United States ; but of this we shall treat more fully in another place. 
In 1779 Virginia had passed her "land laws,'* by which grants made to set- 
itere were confirmed, and providing for selling the rest at forty cents per 

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acre. Kentucky was included in the territory of Virginia until 1792. It 
was originally explored by Daniel Boone and his compeers about die year 
1769. Harrodsburg was founded in 1774, and Lexington a year or two 
later, when the news of the battle of Lexington was fresh in the minds of 
its founders. 


Territory held by Stafces^-Aiticles of Confederation— ejections of certain States— Delaware 
Resolations — ^Action of Congress — Maryland— New York — Cession of Territory by Stales — 
Ordinance of 1787— Territorial Organization of the Northwest— Port Washington— Wm. 
H. Harrison. Arthur St. Claii^-Eariy American Settlements— New England Company — 
Gen. Rufus Putnam— John Cleyes Symmes— Cincinnati Founded— Treaty with Spain — 
Division of the Northwestern Territory — Or^^anization -of the Territory of Indiana — 
Division of Indiana Territory— Territory of Michigan— Gov. Wm. Hull— Destruction of 
Detroit by Fire. 

At the time the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were pend- 
ing a number of the States held, or claimed, large tracts of territory not now 
included in those States. New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia, all held such territory. Yir- 

E'nia claimed all that vast region which now embraces the States of Ohio, 
idiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota east of the 
Mississippi river. That State had made provision, by le^slative enactment, 
to dispose of her lands to settlers. Certam States, claiming that the unoccu- 
pied western lands were rightfully the common property of aU the States, io^ 
sisted on limiting the area of those States claiming western territory. This 
was a subject of warm and protracted discussion in the adoption of the Arti- 
cles of Confederation. The ael^ates from Marvland, under instructions frona 
the General Assembly of that State, declined, in the Congress of the Confed- 
eration, to sijgn the Articles of Confederation until provision was made for 
restricting the boundaries of the States, and vesting the soil of the western 
territories in the Confederation for the common benefit of all the settlers. 
Virginia had remonstrated against this course. On the 25th of November, 
1778, the act of New Jersey for ratifying the Articles of Confederation 
was presented in the Congress. Her delegates were directed to sign the arti- 
cles ^^in the firm reliance that the candour and justice of the several States 
will, in due time, remove as far as possible the mecjuality which now sub- 
sists." The delegation from Delaware, after havmg signed the articles, 
on the 23d of February, 1779, presented sundry resolutions passed by the 
le^slature of that State, among which were the following: 

^^Besolvedj That tiiis State tiiinks it necessary, for the peace and safety of 
the States to be included in the Union, that a moderate extent of limits 
should be assigned for such of those States as claim to the Mississippi or 
South Sea; and that the United States in Congress assembled, shoulo, and 
ought to, have the power of fixing the western limits. 

^'Resol/oedy That this State consider themselves justiy entitled to a right in 
common with the members of the Union, to that extensive tract of country 
I which lies westward of the frontier of the United States, the property of 
which was not vested in, or granted to, private individuals at the com- 
mencement of the present war. That the same hath been, or mav be, 
gained from the King of Great Britain, or the native Indians, by the blood 
and treasure of aU, and ou^ht, therefore, to be a common estate, to be 
granted out on terms beneficial to the United States." 

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The same day, after the presentation of these resolutions, Congress passed 
the following: 

^ResohyeSy That the naper laid before Congress bj the delegates from 
Delaware, and read, be nied; provided, that it shall never be considered as 
admitting anj claim by the same set np, or intended to be set np.'' 
Eight States voted in favor of this resolution, and three against it 
The State of Maryland still persisting in her refusal to ratify the Articles 
of Confederation, on the 80th of Octoter, 1779, Couffress, by a vote of eight 
States to three, and one being divided, passed the following: 

" Whereas, Tlie appropriation of vacant lands by the several States, durinff 
the continuance of the war, will, in the opinion of Congress, be attended 
with great mischiefs: Therefore, 

^ReaoVoedy That it be earnestly recommended to the State of Virginia, to 
reconsider their late act of Assembly for opening their land office; and that 
it be recommended to the said State, and all other States similarly circum- 
stanced, to forbear settling or issuing warrants for unappropriated lands, or 
granting the same during the continuance of the present war." 

On the 19th of February, 1780, the Legislature of New York passed an 
act authorizing h^ delegates in Congress, for and on behalf of tnat State, 
by proper and authentic acts or instruments, '^to limit and restrict the 
boundaries of the State in the western parts thereof, by such line or lines, 
and in sudi manner and form, as thev shall judge to be expedient," and 
providing for the cession to the Unitea States of certain '^ waste and uncul- 
tivated" territory. This act was fully carried into effect by her delegates 
on the 1st of March, 1781. 

On the 6th of September, 1780, Congress passed a resolution earnestly 
recommending the btates having ^'claims to the western country, to pass 
SQchlaws^ and give their delegates in Congress such powers'' as might 
effectually remove the only obstacle to a final ratification of the Articles of 
Confederation, and requesting the Legislature of Maryland to authorize her 
delegates in Congress to subscribe to the articles. 

On the 10th of October, 1780, a further resolution on this subject was 
passed by the Congress of the Confederation, as follows: 

^Resotvedj That the unappropriated lands that may be ceded or relin- 
quished to the United States, by any particular State, pursuant to the recom- 
mendation of Congress of the SUi day of September last, shall be disposed 
of for the common benefit of the TJmted States, and be settled and formed 
■ into distinct republican States, which shall become members of the Federal 
Union, and have the same rights of sovereimty, freedom and independence 
as the other States; that each State which SiaU be so formed shall contain a 
snitable extent of territory, not less than one hundred, nor more than one 
hundred and fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit ; 
that the necessary and reasonable expenses which any particular State shall 
have incurred since the commencement of the present war, in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts or garrisons within and for the defense, 
or in squiring any part of the territory that may be ceded or relinquished 
to the United States, shall be re-imbursed; that the said lands shall be 
granted or settled at such times, and under such regulations, as shall here- 
after be agreed on by the United States, in Congress assembled, or any nine 
or more of them.'* 

In pursuance of the recommendation of Congress, of September 6th, 1780, 
several States made cessions of territory to me United States. Virginia 

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ceded her northwestern territoiy March 1st, 1784, and by an act of her 
Legislature of December SOth, 1788, agreed to change the conditions of tiie 
act of cession of 1784, so far as to ratify the 5th article of the ordinance of 
1787, passed by Congress for the government of the territory. The dele- 
gates m Congress from Maryland si^ed the Articles of Confederation at 
tne date of the cession of territory oy New York, March 1st, 1781, liin» 
completing the confederation. 

On the 23d of April, 1784, Congress passed a resolution for the govern- 
ment of the territory ceded by Virgima, which was superceded oy the 
famous ordinance of July 13th^787, entitled "An ordinance for the govern- 
ment of the territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio.^ 
The first part of this important enactment provides for the temporary gov- 
ernment of the territory, and concludes with six "articles of compact between 
the original States and the people and States in the said territory, and forever 
to remain unalterable, unless by common consent." The provisions of these 
six articles are of such importance as to justify tlieir insertion here in full: 

"Aetiolb 1. No person, demeaning himself in a*peaceable and orderly 
manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious 
sentiments, in the said territory. 

"Abt. 2. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled, to 
the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jur^; of a proportionate repre- 
sentation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings accord- 
ing to the course of tiie common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless 
for capital oiSenses, when the proof shall be evident, or the presumption 
great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punishment 
shall be inflicted. No person shall be deprived of his liberty or property^ 
but by tiie judgment or his peers, or the law of the laud, and should the 
public exigencies make it necessary for the common preservation to take any 
person's property^, or to demand nis particular services, full compensation 
shall be made K>r the same. And, in the just preservation of rights and 
property, it is understood and declared that no law ought ever to oe made, 
or have force in the said territory, that should, in any manner whatever, in- 
terfere with or affect private contracts or engagements, lonafidey and with- 
out fraud previously formed. 

"Aet. 3. Reliffion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good gov- 
ernment and the happiness of mankind, schools ana the means of education 
shall be forever encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed 
towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from 
them without their consent; and in their property, rights, and liberty, 
thev shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wara 
autnorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, 
from time to time, be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and 
for preservingpeace and friendsnip with tnem. 

"Aet. 4. The said territory, and the States which majr be formed therein, 
shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of Amer- 
ica, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein 
as shall be constitutionally made; and to all the acts and ordinances of the 
United States, in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants 
and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal 
debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses 
of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the 
same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall bo 

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made on the other States; and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be 
laid and levi^ bj the authority and direction of the legislatures of the dis- 
trict or districts, or new States, as in the original States, within the time 
agreed upon by the United States, in Oongress assembled. The legislatures 
^ those districts, or new States, shall never interfi^^ with the primary dis- 
posal of the soil of the United States, in Congress assembled, nor with any 
regulations Congress may find necessary, for securing the title in such soil, 
to the honafide purchasers. Ko tax shall be imposea on lands the property 
of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors oe taxed 
higher than residents. 'Bie navigable waters leading into the Mississippi 
and St Lawrence, and the carrying places betwe^i the same, shall be com- 
mon highways and forever £ree, as well to the inhabitants of said territory as 
to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may 
be admitted into the Confederacy, without anj^ tax, impost, or duty therefor. 
^'Abt. 5. There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three, 
nor more than five States; afnd the boundaries of the ^tes, as soon as Yir- 
ffinia shall alter h^ act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become 
fixed and established as follows, to-wit: tlM Western States in the said terri- 
tory riiall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and Wabash rivers; a 
direct line drawn fix>m the Wabash and Post Yincents due north to the ter- 
ritorial line between the United States and Canada, and b^ the said territorial 
line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The Middle States shall be 
bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Yincents to the 
Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the 
. Great Miami to the said territorial line and by the said territorial line. The 
Eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the; Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line; provided, however, and it is 
further understood and declared that th« boundaries of these three States 
shall be subject so &r to be altered that if Congress shall hereafter find it 
expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of 
the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of 
the said States shall have sixty thousand free iimabitants therein, such State 
shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States 
on an equal footing vrith the original States, in all respects whatever; and 
shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government, 
provided the constitution and government so to be formed shall be republi- 
can, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles, and so 
&r as can be consistent with the general interests of the Confederacy, such 
admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may w a less 
number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand. 

"Aet. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntarjr servitude in the 
the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the 
party shall be duly convicted; provided, always, that any person escaping 
mtx) the same from whom labor or service is lawfiilly claimed in any one oi 
the ori^nal States, such ftiffitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to 
theperson claiming his or ner labor or services as aforesaid." 

These artides, sometimes known as the "Compact of ITST,** form the 
basis of the organization of the Northwestern Territory and of the several 
Btates into which it was subsequently divided. Although the original act 
of cession was adopted by Yir^nia in 1784, it will be seen that it was 
^^^^^ years later before Congress agreed upon a plan of government. The 

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subject was one of serious and earnest discussion at various times. At one 
time a motion prevailed to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition of 
slavey. Another proposition was agreed to by which the territory was to 
be divided into States oy parallels and meridian lines, making ten States 
which were to be named as follows: Sylvania, Michiganiay Ohersonesua, 
Assenisipia, Metropotamia, lUenoia, Saratoga,- Washin^n, Polypotamia and 
PeUsipia. When this plan was submitted to the le^slatures of the States 
there were serious objections made, e^>ecially by Massachusetts and Vir- 
ginia. There were objections to the categorv of names, but the chief diffi* 
culty was the resolution of Congress of Octooer 10th, 1780, which fixed the 
extent of each State at not less man one hundred nor more than one hundred 
and fifl^ miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances might admit. So 
the subject was again taken up in 1786, and discussed during that year and 
until July 12th, 1787, when the ordinance finally passed, as stated above. 

An act of territorial organization was approved August 7th, 1789. Gren. 
Arthur St Clair was appointed Governor, and William H. Harrison Secre- 
tary. In 1788 a town nad been laid out by John Cleves Symmes at Fort 
Washington, and was named Losantiville, but afterward Cincinnati. The 
place was settled by persons from the New En^and States and from "New 
Jersey, but did not extensively improve until rfter Gten. Wayne's defeat of 
the Indians in 1794. This became the seat of the new territorial govern- 
ment. The election of representatives for the territory was held February 
4th, 1799. As required by the ordinance of 1787, these representatives met 
at the seat of the territiorial government to nominate ten persons, out of 
which Congress was to appoint five to serve as the territorial council. The . 
following persons were commissioned: Henry Vandenburg, of Vincennes; 
Eobert Oliver, of Marietta; James Findlay and Jacob Burnett, of Cincin- 
nati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. The first Territorial Lerislature met 
September 16th, 1799, and on the 24th both houses were duly organized, 
Henry Vandenburg being elected w^ident of the council. On the 18th of 
October the l^slature elected Wm. Henry Harrison as delegate to 
Congress. He received eleven of the votes cast, being a majority of one 
over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of the Governor. At this session 
thirtv-seven acts were passed and approved. Eleven other acts were passed 
which the Governor vetoed. The greater part of the legislation of the ses- 
sion related to the organization of the militia and to revenue matters. The 
session closed Decenioer 19th, 1799. President Adams appointed Charles 
Willing Bryd as secretary of the territory to succeed Wm. Henry Harrison, 
elected to Con^ss, and the senate confirmed the nomination. James N. 
Vamum, S. H. JParsons and John Armstrong were appointed to the judicial 
bench of the territory in October, 1787. 

Having briefly outlined the legislation which resulted in the formation of 
a Territorial government, we return to notice some of the earlier American 
settlements in the Tenitory. As elsewhere stated, a few French settlements 
had been made by emigrants from Canada and Louisiana, on the Ohio river 
and in the region known as the Illinois country, but it was not until aiter 
the Virginia cession that any permanent American settlements were made. 
Then several treaties were made with the Indians, in which they relinquished 
their title to large portions of the territory. The government made several 
large grants to companies and individuals, for the purpose of colonizing the 
country. One of Uiese was to a company from Massadiusetts and Connect!* 
cut, called the New England Company, of a tract lying along the Ohio and 

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Unskingain riven, embracmg 1,500,000 acres. Here the town of Marietta 
TO laid out, in August, 1787, at theoonflnence of the Mnskingiiin and Ohio 
riven. Fort Harmar was built on the opposite, or west bank of the Mas- 
kingnm, the year before. The Ne^ England Company sent its first party 
of BsttlerB in the spring of 1788. They oonsistea of eight fiunilies, and 
some other persons, and all under the snperintendency of Gen. Roftis Pat- 
nam. T^ psyrty, siler a lon^ and weary jonmey o^er the Alleg^ianiee, and 
down the Onio, arrived at Marietta on the 7th of April, 1788. This litde 
band had the honor of bein^ the pioneers of Ohio, nnless the Moravian 
mifisionaries may be so r^araed. The settlement was first Imown as the 
i'Mofikingam,'' bat on the 2d of July, 1788, at a meeting of the directors 
' and agents of the company, the name was changed to Marietta, in honor ot 
Marie Antoinette. 

In 1786, John Cleves S^mmee, of New Jersey, visited the country be- 
tween the Miamies, and being pleased with its appearance, made application 
to the government for the purcnase of a laim tract of land, to be settled on 
similar conditions with those of the New England Company. The grant 
was made to Symmes and his associates the tbllowing year. Associated with 
Symmee, was Matthias Denniian, also of New Jersey, who located, amon^ 
ooier tracts in the Symmes purchase, the section upon which Cincinnati 
was laid out Denman sold to Bobert Patterson and John Fil8on,each one- 
third of his location, retaining the other third himselfl In August, 1788, 
they laid out the first portion of what, in a few years, became one of the 
great cities of the West Fort Washin^n was erected here in 1790, and 
was for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military govem- 
menta of the Northwestern Territory. There were but few settlers here 
until after 1794, when settlers began to arrive rapidly. In July, 1815, the 
popnlatioQ was 6,500. 

In October, 1796, the treaty was signed between the United States and 
Spain, which secured to the former the free navigation of the Mississippi. 
After this the Northwest be^n to settle rapidly. During the next year 
settlementa were made at various points along the Miami and Scioto rivers, 
indnding those at Piqua and Chilncothe. In September, of the same year, 
the city of Cleveland was laid oat 

The great extent of the Northwestern Territory, and the rapid increase 
of popmation at the beginning of the new century, besan to render the effi- 
cient action of the courts impossible ; and to remedy Siis evil a division of 
the Territoiy was proposed. A committee in Congress, to whom the mat- 
ter had been referred, on the 8d of March, 1800, reported in favor of two 
diatinct territorial governments, and that the division be made by a line 
bc^nnin^ at the mouth of the Great Miami river, and running directly to 
the boonaaxy line between the United States and Canada. The report was 
aeeepted, and an act passed, which was approved May 7th, of the same year, 
makmg the division. It provided, among other things, that from and after 
the next 4th day of Jufy, "all that rSrt of the territory of the United 
States northwest of the Ohio river, which lies to the northward of a line 
beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky 
rirer, and ranmng thence to Fort Beoovery, and thence north until it shall 
intersect the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for 
the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate territory, and 
be called the Indiana Territory." The same act provided, that until the L^- 
iaktures of the Territories, respectively, otherwise ordered, Chillicothe, on 

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the Scioto river, should be the seat of government of the Territoir east of 
the line of division; and that Yincennes, on the Wabash river, shoolJ be 
tlie seat of government of the Indiana Territory. On the 3d of November, 
of that year, the Territorial Legislature met at Chillicothe. William Henrjr 
Harrison was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, and entered upon 
his duties in 1801. Th^ new Territory then embraced all that region now- 
comprising the States of Indiana, Ilhnois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and tliat 
part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi river. Nearly the whole of it 
was at that time in thepossession of the Indians. Soon after the arrival of 
Governor Harrison at V incennes, he concluded several treaties with the In- 
dians, whereby large grants of land were obtained from the various tribes. 
By a treaty made at St Louis, August 18th, 1804, he obtained a relinqaiahr 
ment of Indian title to over 51,000,000 of acres. The vear before the goir- 
emment had obtained Louisiana from France, by purchase, and that heins 
divided, the "District of Louisiana'' (the "New Northwest") was annexed 
to Indiana Territory, thus extending Gov. Harrison's authority over a vast 
domain, occupied chiefly by savage tribes. 

By an act of Congress, of January 11th, 1805, Indiana Territory was di- 
vided into two separate governments, and the new Territory of Micfaigmii 
formed. William Hull was appointed Governor of the new Territory, and 
Detroit was designated as the seat of government On the 30th of Jane 
the Territorial government of Michigan was to go into operation. When 
Gov. Hull, and the other Territorial omcers, reached Detroit, they found the 
place in ruins and the inhabitants scattered. On the 11th of tlutt month a 
fire had destroyed almost every building in the place. Gov. Hull adopted a 
new plan for rebuilding the town, and m population and importance it soon 
regained all it had lost by the fire. 

Other changes were subsequently made in the boundaries of the Western 
Territories, as new States were from time to time admitted into the Union, 
until finally, all that vast domain originally designated as the ^^Nordiwestem 
Territory*' became sovereign States. 


Discovery of the Mouth of the Mississippi— Founding of New Orleans— French Grantr— John 
Law— The ** Mississippi Bubble "—Territory West of the Mississippi-^France Cedes to 
Spain — Spain Cedes Back to France — France Cedes to the United States — Right to 
Navigate ihe Mississippi — Particulars of the Negotiations With France — Extent of the 
Territory — ^Possession Taken by Uie United States — Division of the Territory. 

That vast region of territory once known as Louisiana, came under the 
jurisdiction 6f civilized men by the right of discovery — a right which hus 
long been known and recognized among civilized nations, though often 
necessarily followed by conquest to render it eflTective. For two centuries 
the Spaniards had navigatedTthe Gulf of Mexico, so far as we know, ignorant 
of the fact that it received the waters of one of the largest rivers of the 
world. About the year 1660 the French, who had re-established tliomselves 
in Canada, received some information of this great river, but did not discover 
its mouth until 1691, when, according to some authorities, La Sallo succeeded 
in reaching it Iberville founded ms first colony in 1699, but it did not 
assume importance until 171T, when the citv of New Orleans was founded. 
In 1712 Louis XIV of Franco granted to M. Crozart a charter to the whole 
territory of Louisiana, which was so named in honor of the king. Und^ 

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tlie leadenhip of John Law, in 1716, a company was fonned at Paris and 
incorporated as the ^^Mississippi Gcmipanj," which purchased Louisiana 
from the crown. The fbancial disasters in France caused by Law l^rought 
about the &ilure of his Mississippi scheme, and the explosion of what is 
known in history as tiie ^Mississippi bubble." Louisiana was then resumed 
by tho crown, and the commerce of the Mississippi was declared free. The 
French retained possession until 1762, when they ceded it to Spain, includ- 
ing the whole country to the head waters of the great river and west to tlie 
Bocky Mountains. The jurisdiction of France, which had continued for 
nearly a century, thus ended, until in 1800 Bonaparte, then first consul, 
iadnoed the Spanish government to cede it back to France. During the 
time that Louisiana remained a Spanish denendency, that government 
claimed the exclusive right of navi^atin^ the Mississippi river. The free 
navigation of that river was essential to the prosperity and commerce of the 
United States. Spain then having jurisdiction also over the Floridas east of 
the great river, and that river tor several hundred miles flowing wholly 
through the Spanish dominions, the question of it« navigation south of tlie 
soutiiem bounaaiy of the United States became a serious one to our govern- 
ment and people. The people in the western part of the United States 
ei^pecially (temanded the free navigation of the river as a right But Spanish 
military posts enforced the collection of duties on imports by way of the 
river for tiie upper region. Boats descending were forced to submit to reve- 
nue exactions by Spanish authorities. These exactions were a constant 
source of trouble and disaffection, and led to a threatening state of affairs 
betwe^i the United States and Spain. Spain, however, by the treaty of 
Madrid, October 20, 1795, conceded to the United States the free navigation 
ot the river from its source to the Gulf, and also the free use of the port of 
New Orleans for three years as a port of deposit. 

The treaty of Madrid, however, did not quiet aF troubles between the 

United States and Spain. In 1802, during the admini^'ration of President 

Jefferson, there was some apprehension of a war growing o it of the continued 

disputes respecting the soutnwestem boimdwy. These disputes had led to 

many difSculties between the people of the United States and the Spanish 

authorities. These affairs, however, assumed a new aspect, when in the 

spring of 1802 the government of the United States received intelligence 

tnat, by a secret trea^ made in October, 1800, Spain had ceded Louisiana to 

France. At this time Mr. Livingston was the United States Minister to 

France, and President Jefferson, soon after learning of the Spanish cession to 

France, wrote to Mr. Livingston in reference to acquiring the right to deposit 

at the port of New Orleans, and other matters which nad been iu dispute 

between the United States and Spain. In his annual message to Congress, 

in December of the same year, the President alluded to the subject of the 

Spanish cession to France. Congress passed resolutions asserting the right 

of navigating the Mississippi, and insisting upon the right to the use of a 

port or placo of deposit At that time it was understood in the United States 

that the Spanish cession to France included the Floridas, which, however, 

wiB not the case. The policy of the President was to enter into a treaty 

with France for the purchase of New Orleans and the Floridas, and with this 

view, on tho 10th of January, 1803, he appointed James Monroe minister 

plenipotentiary to France to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Mr. 

Monioe^s nomination was confirmed by the senate. The instnictions to the 

American ministers only asked for the cession of the city of New Orleans 

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and the Floridas, together with the free navigation of the Mississippi. Th 
cession at this time of the entire Territory of Louisiana was not a subject o^ 
discussion. Mr. Monroe sailed from New York, March 8, 1803, and arrive 
in Paris April 1. 

Bonaparte was then first consul, «nd France was on the eve of a war witj 
Englana. He supposed the American ministers w^^ authorized to ente 
into more extendea stipulations than the^ really were. Marquis de Marboi 
was directed to n^otiate with the American ministers. Said the first con 
sul to his minister, as recorded by the latter: 

'^Irresolution and deliberation are no longer in season. I renoano< 
Louisiana. It is not only New Orleans that I will oede; it is the whole col 
ony, without any reservation. I know the price of what I abandon, and ] 
have sufficiently proved the importance that I attach to this province, since mi 
first diplomatic act with Spain had for its object the recovery of it. 1 
renounce it with the greatest regret To attempt to retain it would be folly 
I direct you to n^otiate this affair with the envoys of the United States. 
Do not even await the arrival of Mr. Monroe; have an interview this day 
with Mr. Livingston. But I require a great desl of money for this war, and 
I would not like to commence with new contributions. If I should r^ralate 
my terms, according to the value of these vast regions to the United Sitates, 
the indemnity would have no limits. I will be moderate, in consideratioD 
of the necessity in which I am of making a sale. But keep this to yourself 
I want fifty millions francs, and for less than that sum I will not treat; 1 
would rather make a desperate attempt to keep those fine countries. To- 
morrow you shall have full powers. Mr. Monroe is on the point of arriving. 
To this minister the President must have given secret instructions, more 
extensive than the ostensible authorization of Congress, for the stipulation 
of the payments to be made. Neither this minister nor his colleague is 
prepared for a decision which goes infinitely beyond anything that they are 
about to ask of us. Begin by making them the overture without any sub- 
terfuge. You will acquaint me, day by day, hour by hour, of your progress. 
The cabinet of London is informed of the measures adopted at Washington, 
but it can have no suspicion of those which I am now taking. Observe the 
greatest secrecy, and recommend it to the American ministers; they have 
not a less interest than yourself in conforming to this counsel. You will 
correspond with M. de Talleyrand, who alone knows mj intentions. If I 
attended to his advice, France would confine her ambition to the left b^k 
of the Ehine, and would only make war to protect any dismemberment of 
her possessions. But he also admits that the cession of Louisiuia is not a 
dismemberment of France. Keep him informed of the progress of this 
* affair." 

On the same day that Napoleon thus confided to Marbois his determina- 
tion, conferences began between the latter and Mr. Livingston. The Amer- 
ican minister had been in Paris about two years, endeavoring to obtain in- 
demnities claimed by American citizens for prizes made by the French 
during peace, but so far, without result further than vague answers. Mr. 
Livingston had become distrustful of the French government, and feared 
the Louisiana overtures were but an artifice to gain still frirther time. Soon 
after these preliminary discussions were enteral upon, Mr. Monroe arrived 
in Paris, and the next day began his conferences with Marbois. Bapid pro- 
l^ress was made in the negotiations, for both sides had an interest in hasten- 
ing the matter. Mr. Monroe was surprised to hear the first overtures made 

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30 frankly by the French miniBter, when he proposed to cede to the United 
States so vast a region of country, with the largest rivers of the world, in- 
stead of merely a town and an inconsiderable extent of territory. The offer 
embraced infinitely more than the American ministers were empowered to 
aak for, or accept Their powers onl^r extended to an arrangement respeet- 
ing the left banK of the Mississippi, mdndin^ New Orleans. But the mo- 
ment was a critical one with France, hostilities being about to commence 
with England. There was not time for farther instructions from the gov- 
ernment of the United States before the opportunity would pass, perhaps 
forever. The American ministers therefore assumed the responsibility of 
treating for the purchase of the entire colony, or territory of Louisiana — an 
extent of countiy soffici^it in itself for an emj^ire. The terms were soon 
agreed upon. The United States was to pay for this vast acquisition the 
3um of fifteen millions of dollars. In tne treatv of October 1, 1800, be- 
tween France and Spain, the latter had reserved the right of preference in 
sase France should cede this territory to another power ; but here again 
France could not afford to wait The treaty was concluded and subsequently 
mbmitted to the Spanish cabinet They complained that no regard had 
been paid to their reserved ri^ht, and for almost a year that court delayed its 
approoation of the treaty. On the 10th of February, 1804, however, Don 
redro Cavallos, the Spanish minister, wrote to Mr. Pinckney, the American 
minister, that ^^His Catholic Majesty had thought fit to renounce his oppo- 
lition to the alienation of Louisiana made by France, notwithstanding the 
3olid reasons on which it is founded, thereby ffiviuff a new proof of his be- 
Qevolence and friendship to the United States." The important treaty that 
gave to the United States this vast region, with all its wonderful resources, 
was concluded on the 30th of April, 1803, and four days later the instru- 
ments, in French and English, were signed by the ministers. After affixing 
their signatures, the ministers rose and shook hands, each expressing his sat- 
isfaction with the result Mr. Livingston said: " We have lived long, but 
this is the noblest work of our whole lives. The treaty which we have just 
signed has not been obtained by art, or dictated by force ; equally advanta- 
^us to the two contracting parties, it will change vast solitudes into flour- 
ishing districts. From this dav the United States take their place among 
the powers of the first rank ; the English lose all exclusive infiuence in the 
affiurs of America.'* 

The first consul, who had followed the n^otiation with a lively interest, 
aequiesoed in the result, and said to Marbois : ^^ It is true, the negotiation 
does not leave me anything to desire. Sixty millions [francs] for an occupa- 
tion that will not, perhaps, last for a day I I would that France should en- 
joy this unexpected capital, and that it may be employed in works beneficial * 
to the marine. This accession of territory strengthens forever the power 
of the United States ; and I have just ^ven to Inland a maratime rivaJ 
that will sooner or later humble herpriae." 

On the 22d day of May, 1808, Enghuid commenced hostilities against 
France by the capture of some of her merchant vessels, and on the same 
day Bonaparte gave his formal ratification of the Louisiana treaty of cession. 
In July, the treaty was received in the United States, and on the 20th of 
October, 1803, it was ratified hj the Senate, b^ twenty-four against seven 
votes. The country ceded by this treaty, as estimated at that time, exceeded 
& million of square miles, all occupied by savages, except a few sparse settle- 
ments, aggregating firom 80,000 to 90,000 inhabitants, about 40,000 of whom 
were slaves. The whites were chiefly French, or descendants of French* 

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Congress, a few days after the ratffieatioii of liie treaty by the Senate, passed 
an act making provision for the occnnation and temporary government ot 
the territory acquired. Eleven millionB of dollars were appropriated as 
payment for the pmx^hase— the remaining fonr millions being reserved, ac- 
cording to a stipulation in the treaty, to indemnify citizens of the United 
States who had sustained losses at the hands of the French. The resolution 
for carrving the trea^ into effect was sustained by the House of Bepresen- 
tatives by a vote of mnety to twenty-five. 

Even before the acquisition of Louisiana, it had been a favorite object of 
President Jefferson to have an exploring expedition sent across the continent 
to the Pacific Ocean, and in January, 1803, he had recommended an appro- 
priation for that purpose. The aj)propriation was made, and the enterprise 
was placed under the direction of Captains Lewis and Clarke. The treaty 
with France, hoWever, was ratified berore the exploring expedition was ready 
to start On the 14th of May, 1804, Captains Lewis and Clarke, with their 
companions, consisting in all of thirty persons, left the banks of the Missis- 
sippi on their long and perilous voyage of two years and three months, to 
seek out and give to their country ana the world some more accurate knowl- 
edge respecting this vast region of country, of which civilization at that 
time knew so httle. The expedition was in every way successful, and the 
report made by Captains Lewis and Clarke enabled the ffovemment and peo- 
ple of the United States to form a better judgment oi the immense value 
of the country acquired. 

It will be seen that the region acquired by the Louisiana purchase, com- 

Erehended not only the present State of Louisiana, but all the vast region 
etween the Mississippi river and the Pacific Ocean, and as far north as the 
British possessions. The great States of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Ne- 
braska, Kansas, the greater part of Minnesota, and several of our great Ter- 
ritories, are but parts of this purchase. 

On the 20th of December, 1803, in pursuance of authority given by act 
of Congress, Gov. Claiborne and Gren. "Wilkinson took possession of the Loui- 
siana purchase, and raised the American flag at New Orleans. The Span- 
ish authorities there objected to the transfer, but early in 1804 they acqui- 
esced and withdrew. The newly acquired territory, by authority of Con- 
gress, was, on the first of October, 1804, divided as follows : All south of 
the 83d parallel of north latitude, was called die Territory of Orleans, and 
all north of that parallel became the District of Louisiana, and was placed 
under the authonty of the officers of the then Indiana Territory. It so re- 
mained until July 4, 1805, when the District of Louisiana was given a ter- 
ritorial government of its own. In 1812, the Territory of New Orleans be- 
came the State of Louisiana, and the Territory of Louisiana become the 
Territory of Missouri. On the 4th of July, 1814, Missouri Territory was 
divided— that part comprising the present otate of Arkansas, and the coun- 
try west, being organized as me Territory of Arkansas. In March, 1821, a 
part of Missouri Territory was organized as the State of Missouri, and ad- 
mitted into the Union. On the Isth of June, 1834, the territory west of 
the Mississippi river and nordi of Missouri, was made a part of the Terri- 
tory of Micnigan, so remaihinff imtil July 4th, 1836, when Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory was organized. This emoraced witnin its limits the present States of 
Iowa, Wisconsin , and Minnesota. An act of Congress, approved June 12, 
1838, created the Territory of Iowa, ambracing not only the present State of 
Iowa, but the greater part of the present State of Minnesotl^ and extending 
northward to me British Possessions. 

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Gen. Harmar*s Defeat— Gen. St. Clair— His Defeat— Gen. Wamie—fiis Vicfcory— His Treatiefl 
Wifch the Indians — ^British Posts Surrendered — Death of Wayne — Gren. Harrison — ^Tecnm- 
ieh— The Prophet— Battle of Tippecanoe— Tecumseh's Alliance With the British— Harri- 
son Appointed Briffadier-General— Perry's Victory— Gen. McArthur— Battle of the Thames 
— Tecumseh Killed— Peace With the Indians— Indian l^tles Extinflnished— Military Poels 
Established at Belle Pbint, Cooncii BlufiGs, and St. Peters— TheKicarees— Gen. Cass — 
Treaty at Fort Dearborn— Fort Atkinson— Grand Council at Prairie du Chien— Indian 
Outrages— The Militia Called Out— Gen. Atkinson— Poli^ of Bemoving the Indians West 
—Treaty With the Sacs and Foxes— Black Hawk— He Befoses to Ccmiply With Treaties 
—Black Hawk War— Battle of Bad Axe— Gen. Heniy Dodge— Black Hawk Captured— 
Taken to Washingtooi— Keokuk— Black Hawk Purchase— Gen. Winfield Scott— Treaties 
at Davenport — Antoine Le Claire — Removal of Sacs and Foxes to Iowa— Gen. Street — 
Wapello— Maj. Beach— Sac and Fox Villages on the Des Moines— Gov. Lucas— Got. 
Chambers— Visit of Hard-Fish to Burlington— An Incident— Speech of Keokuk. 

Almost every advance of civilization on the American continent has boon 
made at the expense of more or less conflict and bloodshed at the hands of 
the savage tribes who were the occupants and owners of the soil prior to the 
advent of the white man. Passing over the conflicts of tiie colonists in the 
early settlements of the East, the later straggles of the pioneers of the ^^ Dark 
and Bloody Ground," and the Indian wars of the South, we shall briefly 
refer to some of the troubles with the aborigines in the Northwest With 
the opening of the new countrjr to white setflers it was necessary to establish 
military posts for the protection of the pioneers against the attacks of the 
Indians. In 1790, all pacific means having &iled with the tribes north of 
the Ohio, President Washington sent Gen. Harmar with a military force 
against them. After destroying several of their villa^, he was defeated in 
two battles near the confluence of the St Joseph's and St Mary's rivers, and 
not far from the present city of Fort Wayne, Indiana. In 1781 Gen. Arthur 
St Olair was promoted to the rank of major general, and was entrusted with 
a command against the hostile Miamis. On assuming his command, the 
last admonition of Washington was, " Beware of surprise." Gen. St Olair 
marched with his troops to the vicinity of the Miami villages on the Mau- 
mee. On the 4th of ^November, 1791, he was surprised in camp on the St 
Mary's river, and his force of 1400 ill discij^lined men was cut to pieces. He 
soon after resigned his commission. In this defeat St Glair's loss was about 
600 men. The savages were greatly emboldened by their successes, and it 
was soon found that more vigorous measures were necessary. The Indians 
continued to commit outrages against the infant settlements. In some cases, 
doubtless, the whites were the aggressors, for Washington in his annual mes- 
sage of November 6, 1792, recommended more adecjuate measures "for re- 
straining the commission of outrages upon the Indians, without which all 
pacific plans must prove nugatory.'^ Attempts were made to treat with the 
Indians, but t}ie attempted negotiations proved unsuccessful. 

After the unsuccessml and msastrous campaigns of Generals Harmar and 
St Clair, General Anthony Wayne, who had won distinguished laurels in the 
war of the Eevolution, was, in April, 1792, promoted to the rank of major 
general, and made commander-in-chief in the war against the western Indians. 
In August, 1794, he gained a signal victory over the Miamis, near the rapids 
of the Maumee, and compelled them to sue for peace. In the same year a 
fort was erected by his order on the site of the old "Twightwee Village" of 
the Miami tribe, where the city of Fort Wayne is now located. It continued 
to be a military post until 1819. 

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After his successful campaign of 1794, Gen. Wayne was appointed sole 
commissioner to treat with the Indians, and also to take possession of the 
forts still held by the British in the Northwest He negotiated the treaty 
of Greenville which was signed by all the principal chiefs of the Northwest. 
By this treaty the Indians relinquished their title to a large tract of country. 
Tnat characteristic determination which, during the war of the Revolution, 
had gained him the sobriquet of ^^Mad Anthony," impressed the hostile 
tribes with a dread of him which operated as a wholesome restraint Gen. 
Wayne also took possession of the British posts in the Northwest, which 
were peaceably surrendered, in accordance with Jay's treaty, and from this 
time tnere was assurance of peace on the frontier. He died in the garrison 
at Presque Isle (Erie\ Pa., December 14, 1796. 

From the date of Wayne's victory up to 1809 the whites maintained com- 
paratively peaceable relations with the Indians. During this year. Gen. 
Harrison, tnen Governor of Indiana Territory, entered into a treaty with the 
Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawattamies, Miamis, Eel Biver Indians and 
Weas, in which these tribes relinquished their title to certain lands on the 
Wabash river. About this time the noted chief Tecumseh comes into prom- 
inence as the bitter opponent of any more grants of land being made to the 

Tecumseli was a chief of the Shawnees, bom on the Scioto river near 
Chillicothe, about the year 1770. It was said that he was one of three 
brothers who were triplets. The other two brothers were named £um- 
shaka and Elskwatawa. Sumshaka is believed to have died while voun^, 
but Elskwatawa became the Prophet who co-operated with the chief in tul 
his plans. His father, Puckeshinwa, had risen to the rank of chief, but was 
killed at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774. In 1795 Tecumseh was de- 
clared chief at or near where Urbana, Ohio, is now located. In 1798 he 
went to. White river, Indiana, and his brother, the Prophet, to a tract of 
land on the Wabash. Tecumseh, by reason of his oratory, had great influ- 
ence over the savage tribes, and his plan was to unite all of them against the 
whites in a conspiracy, similar to that of Pontiao nearly half a century before. 
For this purpose he'visited all the tribes west to the Mississippi, and upon 
Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. At the same time his brother, the 
Prophet, pretended to be directed by the Great Spirit to preach a^nst the 
influence and encroachments of the white men. Their efforts to incite the 
Indians to hostilities were successful, and thev gathered a large force of war- 
riors, making their headquarters at a stream tney called Tippecanoe, near the 
Wabash river. 

Meantime Gk)v. Harrison was watching the movements of the Indians, 
and being convinced of the existence of Tecumseh's srand conspiracy, had 
prepared to defend the settlements. In August, 1810, Tecumseh went to 
Vinoennes to confer with the Governor in remtion to the grievances of the 
Indians, but demeaned himself in such an an^ry manner that he was dis- 
missed from the village. He returned to complete his plans for the conflict 
Tecumseh delayed his intended attack, but in the meantime he was gather- 
ing strength to his cause, and by the autumn of 1811 had a force of several 
hundred warriors at his encampment on the little river called by the Indians 
-ffi?^fp^pd-o«-ntm*, or Tippecanoe. Harrison, with a force of eight hun- 
dred men, partly regulars and partly volunteers, determined to move upon 
the Prophet's town, as it was called. He encamped near the villi^ early in 
October, and on the night of the 5th of Kovember his camp was furiously 

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bnt nnsaccessfullj attacked. On the morning of the 7th he was again 
attacked by a large body of the Indians, bnt Tecnmseh's warriors were 
completely routed, but not without a severe and hotly contested battle, and 
the loss of about 200 of Harrison's men. 

President Madison, in a special message to (Congress of December 12, 
1811, speaking of this engagement, says: 

"While it is deeply lamented that so many valuable lives have been lost 
in the action which took place on the seventh ultimo, Congress will see with 
satisfaction the dauntless spirit and fortitude victoriously aisplayed by eveir 
description of the troops engaged, as well as the collected firmness which 
distinguished their commander on an occasion requiring the utmost exer- 
tions of valor and discipline. It may reasonably be expected that the good 
effects of this critical defeat and dispersion of a combination of savages, 
. which appears to have been spreading to a greater extent, will be experi- 
enced, not only in the cessation of murders and depredations committed on 
our frontier, but in the prevention of any hostile excursions otherwise to 
have been apprehended." 

The result of the battle of Tippecanoe utterly ruined the plans of Tecum- 
seh, fer his arrangements with the different tribes were not yet matured. 
He was greatly exasperated toward the Prophet for precipitating the war. 
Had Tecumsen himself been jpresent it is likely the attack would not have 
been made. The defeated Indians were at first inclined to sue for peace, but 
Tecumseh was not yet conquered. The breaking out of the war with Great 
Britain at tliis time inspired him with new hope, and his next endeavor was 
to form an alliance with the English. In this he succeeded, and was i»>- 
pointed a brigadier general. He was entrusted with the command of all the 
Indians who co-operated with the English in the campaigns of 1812-13, and 
was in several important engagements. 

After the surrender of Detroit by Qen. Hull, August 18, 1812, Har- 
rison was appointed to the command of the Northwestern frontier, with a 
commission as brigadier general As this was in September, too late in the 
season for a campaign, he did not assume active operations until the next 
year, by which time ne was promoted to the rank of major general. After 
Commodore Perry won his signal victory on Lake Erie m September, 1813, 
Harrison hastened with his command to capture Maiden. On arriving there 
late in September he found that Proctor, the British general, had retreated. 
About the same time Qen. McArthur took possession of Detroit and the 
Territory of Michigan. Pursuing the British army into the interior of Can- 
ada West, Harrison overtook Proctor at the Moravian settlements, on the 
river Thames, on the 5th of October. The British general had an auxiliary 
force of two thousand Indians under the command or Tecumseh. The battle 
was opened by the American cavalry under the command of Col. Bichard 
M. Johnson, afterward vice-president of the. United States. Early in the 
engagement Tecumseh was killed at the head of his column of Indians, who, 
no longer hearing the voice of their chief, fled in confusion. It has been 
claimed by some authorities that this celebrated chief was killed by Col. 
J ohnson, who fired at him with a pistol. This, however, will remain one 
of the unsolved problems of history. The result of the battle was a com- 
plete victory for me Americans, with the capture of 600 prisoners, six pieces 
of cannon, and a large quantity of army stores. 

This decisive victory over the combined forces of the British and Indians 
practically closed the war in the Northwest, and as a consequence peace 

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with the Indian tribes soon followed. Other treaties were negotiated with 
the Indians by which they gave up their title to additional large tracts of 
territory. Tne secernent of the country progressed rapidly, and again an 
era of apparent good will prevailed between the whites and Indians. By the 
end of me year ISIT, the Indian title, with some moderate reservations, had 
been extingnidied to the whole of the land within the State of Ohio, to a 
great part of that in Michigan Territory, and in the State of Indiana. In 
1817 Gov. Oass, of MichigMi, in conjunction with Gov. McArthur, of Ohio, 
obtained a cession of most of the remaining lands in Ohio with some adjoin- 
ing tracts in Indiana and Michigan, amounting in all to about 4,000,000 of 
acres, and in 1819 Gov. Oass met the Chippewas at Saginaw and obtained a 
eession of lands in the peninsula of Michigan to the extent of about 6,000,000 
of aa*es. The next year a treaty was made at Chicago, then nothing but a 
military post, called Fort Dearborn, with the Chippewas, Ottawas and Potta- 
wattamies, by which a large additional tract was obtained, which completed 
the extinguishment of the Indian title to the peninsula of Michigan south of 
the Grand river. By 1820 a number of mihtary posts were established far 
in the interior, and among them was one at Belle Point on the Arkansas, at 
Council Bluffs on the Missouri, at St Peters on the Mississippi, and a1^ Green 
Bay on the upper lakes. 

During the month of June, 1823, Gen. Ashley and his party, who were 
trading under a license from the government, were attacked oy the Bicarees 
while trading with the Indians at their request Several of Uie party Were 
killed and wounded, and their property taken or destroyed. Col. Leaven- 
worth, who commanded Fort Atkinson at Council Bluffs, then the most 
western post, took immediate measures to check this hostile spirit of 
the Bicarees, fearing that it might extend to other tribes in that quarter 
and endanger the lives of traders on the Missouri. With a detachment of 
the r^ment stationed at Council Bluffs, he successfully attacked the Bica- 
ree vifiage. The hostile spirit, however, still continued and extend<^ to tiie 
tribes on the upper Mississippi and the upper lakes. Several parties of 
citizens were plundered and murdered by those tribes during the year 1824. 
An act of Congress of May 25th of this year, made an appropriation to de- 
fray the expenses of making treaties of trade and friendsnip with the tribes 
west of file Mississippi, and another act of March 3, 1825, provided for the 
expense of treaties with the Sioux, Chippewas, M^iomonees, Sacs and Foxes, 
and other tribes, and also for establishing boundaries and promoting peace 
between them. These objects were in the main accomplished, and oy the 
treaties made liie government secured lar^ acquisitions of territory. Gov. 
Cass, in oonjimction with Gov. Clark, of Missouri, attended a grand council 
of the tribes this year at Prairie du Chien to carry out the purposes of the 
act of Congress last mentioned. During his continuance in office as Gov- 
ernor of Michigan Territory, Gov. Cass made, or participated in the making 
dT nineteen treaties with the Indians, and by them acquired lands in Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, to an amount equal to one-fourUi 
of the entire area of those States, 

During the sommer of 1827, when the commissioners appointed to carry 
into execution certain provisions of a treaty, made August 19th, 1825, with 
various northwestern tribes, were about to arrive at the appointed place of 
meeting, several citizens were murdered, and other acts of hostility were com- 
mittedf especially against the miners at Fever river, near Galena, by a party 

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of the Winnebaffo tribe, which tribe was one of those associated in the 
treaty. To quell these outrages the ^vemors of the State of Illinois and 
the Territory of Michigan, made levies of militia. These forces, widi a 
corps of seven hundred United States troops, under the command of Genend 
Atkinson, repaired to the scene of danger. Tlie Indians, overawed by the ap- 
pearance of the military, surrendered the perpetrators of the muraers, and 
gave assurances of future good behavior. 

For many years it had tocu the policy of the government to obtain a re- 
linquishment of the title of the Indians to all lands within the limits of the 
States, and as rapidly as possible cause the removal of the tribes to territoiy 
beyond the Mississippi. In 1830 the Chickasaws and Choctaws, occupying 
portions of the States of Alabama and Mississippi, a^-eed to remove, ana 
in due time carried out their agreement in good faith. The same year a 
treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes, by which the^ agreed to cede tiieir 
lands to the United States, and remove beyond the Mississippi. The prin- 
cipal village of these united tribes was located at the mouth of Eock river, 
on the east side of the Mississippi, near where the city of Bock Island now 
stands. Here had been an Indian village, accordiu^ to tradition, for one 
hundred and fifty years. These tribes hM owned and occupied the country 
bordering on the Mississippi, to an extent of seven hundred miles, from the 
moutib of the Wisconsin almost to the mouth of the Missouri. The Indians 
did not seem disposed to compl]^ prompfly wiUi the terms of the treatjr, and 
one band, under the noted chief !Black Hawk (Ma'ka4ai'me^he'hta'kiak)y 
evinced a determination to keep possession of tneir old village. John Bey- 
nolds. Governor of Illinois, coDstrued their continaed residence in the ceded 
territory as an invasion of the State, and under his authority to protect the 
State from invasion, ordered out seven hundred militia to force their re- 
moval, according to the treaty. This interference of the governor of Illi- 
nois with the duties belonging to the Federal Government, obliged the com- 
mander of United States troops in that quarter to co-operate with him, in 
order to prevent a collision between the State militia and the Indians. Fort 
Armstrong, on Bock Island, had been established as early as 1816, and when 
the Black Hawk trouble commenced, was in command of G«i. Atkinson. 
The Indians were overawed by tliis imposing military force, and yielding to 
necessity, crossed the Mississippi. Black Hawk, feeling exasperated at the 
harsh treatment his people haa received, resolved to prosecute a predatory 
war against the white settlements. He united his band of Sacs and Foxes 
with the Winnebagoes, under the command of the Prophet Wabo-ki-e-shiek 
(White Oioud), ana in March, 1832, recrossed to the east bide of the Missis- 
sippi. They murdered a number of defenseless fiimilies, and committed 
many outrages upon the settlers. The whole frontier became alarmed, and 
many of the settlers fled for safety. The governor of Illinois ordered out 
the State militia, which being joined by four hundred regular troops, con- 
stituted a force of about one thousand, under the commanid of Gen. Atkin- 
son. They pursued the Indians, and after a campaign of about two months, 
during whicn two enga^ments were fought, liie war was brought to an end. 
t The last, and the decisive battle of the war, is known in history as the bat- 
tle of Bad Axe, being fou^t on a small tributary of the Wisconsin of that 
name. This battle took place August 2d, 1832, and the fc»-oe a^nst Blade 
Hawk was commanded by Gten. Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin. The Indians 
lost forty of their braves, and Gen. Dodge one. The Indians made but little 

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TBS KOBTowsm TKBxnxmr. 39 

farther resistance^ and Black Hawk's ^British Band," as it was styled, be- 
came demoralized and fled. They reached the Mississippi and were making 
preparations for crossing when tnej were checked by the captain of tlie 
steamboat ^^ Warrior," who ditchaiged a six-poonder at Aem, although they 
had displayed a flag of trace. The next mominff Qen. Atkinson arrived 
witb his army, and made an attack, which the Inmans were now powerless 
to resist Black Hawk escaped, but was taken by some treacherous Winne- 
bagoes, and delivered alons with the Prophet, on the 27th of August, to 
Gen. Street, at Prairie du Cliien. Two of Black Hawk's sons, the Prophet 
and other leaders, were also taken, and by order of the government were con- 
veyed through the principal cities and towns on the seaboard, in order that 
they might be impressed with the greatness and power of the United States. 
For some time Black Hawk was held as a captive, and then through the in- 
tercession of Keokuk, who had been opposed to the war, and had not par- 
ticipated in the hostilities, he was allowed to return to Bock Island, and per- 
mitted to join his people. Treaties were made with the offending tribes by 
which they agreed to compensate for the expense of the war, by ceding a 
valuable part of dieir territory on the west side of the Mississippi, and to 
immediately remove from the east side. The United States stipulated to 
pay to the three tribes annually, thirty thousand dollars for twenty-seven 
years, and sdso to make other provisions for their improvement. Bv tliis 
treaty the United States acquired the first territory in Iowa 'vdiicli was 
opoaed to settlement It is what is known as the ^* Black Ks^wk Purchase," 
and embraced a strip of territory extending from the northern boundalry of 
Missouri to the mouth of the Xfpper Iowa river, about fifty miles in width, 
and unbracing an area of about six millions of acres. This treaty was mai^ 
<m the 21st day of S^tember, 1832, at a council held on the west bank of 
the Mississippi river, where the city of Davenport now stands. Gen. Win- 
fidd Scott and Oov. John Beynolds, of Illinois, represented the United 
States, and on the part of the Lidians there were present Keokuk, Pashe^ 
pdbo, and about thirty odier chiefs and warriors of the Sac and Fox nation. 
Widiin the limits of this purchase was reserved a tract of 400 square miles, 
situated on Iowa river, and including Keokuk's village. This tract was 
known as ^^ Keokuk's Reserve," and was occupied by the Indians imtil 1836. 
wiaa it was ceded to the United States. This treaty was negotiated by Gov. 
Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, and on the part of me Indians Keo- 
kuk was die lenling spirit This council was also held on the banks of the 
Mississippi, near the site of the present city of Davenport The treaty stip^ 
ulated for tlie removal of the Indians to another reservation on the Des 
Moines rivw. On this an agency was established, where the present town 
of Age»OT Oity, in Wapello county, is located. Out of the ^^ Blade Hawk 
Pnrchase'' was conveyed to Antoine Le Claire, who was interpreter, and 
whose wife was an Indian, one section of land opposite Bock Island, and 
anolji^ at the head of the first rapids above the Island. 

General Joseph M. Street, the agent with the Winnebagoes at Prairie da 
Ghi^ was transferred to the Sac and Fox agen<^ on the Des Moines river, 
tnd in 1888 took measnres for building and makmg the necessary inmrove- 
inents. In April, of the next year, he removed wi£ his family from rrairie 
dn Cfaien. His health soon liegan to fail, and on the 5th of May, 1840, 
Qen. Street died. Wapello, a prominent chief of the Sao and Fox nation, 
died in 1842. His remains were int^red near those of Oen. Steeet llie 
«toiie slabs placed over their graves soon after, are inscribed as follows: 

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Meuobt of 


Son of Amihony and MoUy Street. 

Bom Oet. JSthf 178$, in TvrgtMa; 

Died at the Sue and Fox Agenoy, 

May 6th, I84O. 


Mkmost or 


Som at 

Prawrie du CMen^ 1787 : 

Died near the Forks of Skunk, 

Ma/rch ISthy 184£—Sao and Fox Nation. 

Wapello Iiad requested that at his death his remains be interred near those 
of Gen. Street 

After the death of Gen. Street, Haj. John Beaoh, his son-in-law, received 
the apj^intment as agent for the Sacs and Foxes, and filled the position to 
the satisfaction of the government Major Beach was bom at Gloucester^ 
Massachusetts, Feb. 2^, 1812. After a course of study at Portsmouth 
Academy, in New Hampshire he received at the age of sixteen, the appoint- 
ment of cadet at the West Point Military Academy, graduating in the class 
of 1832. Becriving his commission as Second Lieutenant by brevet in the 
First U. S. Infantry, of which Zachary Taylor was then colonel, he was or- 
dered to duty on the frontier, and was alternately stationed at Fort Arm- 
strong, Fort Crawford, Prairie du Ghien, and Jefferson Barracks, near St 
Louis. His hearing having partially failed, m 1838, he resigned his com- 
mission in the army, and was, at the time of his appointment as Indian 
agent, engaged in the U. S. Land Office at Dubuque. He remained at 
Axrency Gi^, engaged in mercantile and literary pursuits until his death 
which occurred August 81st, 1874. * 

At the time of wm. Street's death, the Indians were occupying their res- 
ervation with their permanent, or spring and summer villages, as follows : 
Upon the banks of the Des Moines, opposite the mouth of Sugar Credk, 
was the villa^ of Keokuk, and above were those of Wapello and Appa- 
noose. The village of Hardfish, or Wish-e-co-me-aue, as it is in the Indian 
tongue, was locat^ in what is now the heart of Edayville, whore J. P. Eddv 
was licensed by Maj. Beach, the agent, in the summer of 1840, to establiiJi 
a trading post Not fer from the "Forks of Skunk '* was a small village 
presidea over by Eish-ke-kosh, who, though not a chief, was a man of con- 
siderable influence. Poweshiek, a Fox chief of equal rank with Wapello, 
still had a village on the bank of Iowa river. 

It has been remarked above that Keokuk, who was the chief next in au- 
thority and influence to Black Hawk, was opposed to tiie war against the 
whites, and persistentljr refused to take part in the hostilities, yfhsti Black 
Hawk's attempt to defy the power of the United States resulted so disas- 
trously to the Indians, and they were obliged to cede still more territory, 
his influence among his people declined, and that of Eeokuk increased. 
Black Hawk, however, retained a party of adherents, and for some time a 

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sort of rivalry existed between the two ohieft, and this feeling was shared 
to some extent by their respective friends in the tribes. An incident is rela- 
ted by Maj. Bea^ to show how die traders were ready to take advantage of 
this state of things for their own mercenary purposes. 

When GenJEIarrison became President m 1841, John Chambers, an ex- 
congressman of Kentucky, was appointed Governor of the Territory, suc- 
ceeaing Grov. Bobert Lucas. The governor was esBhofficio superintendent 
over the Indians and their agencies. Gov. Lucas had favored the Black 
Hawk band, whose chief was Hardfish. Accordingly when tlie new gov- 
ernor was appointed, both Eeokuk and Hardfish felt that it would be some- 
thing of an object to gain his favor. The latter desired the new governor 
to pursue the policy of his predecessor, while Eeokuk wished at least an 
impartial course. Keokuk requested the consent of the agent for him and 
his principal men to visit the governor at Burlin^n. As it was the policv 
of me government to discountenance such pilgrimages of the Indians, Maj. 
Beach suggested that Gov. Chambers mi^ht see proper to visit them at the 
agency, w^ith this expectation Keokuk diose to wait The Hardfish band, 
under the influence of some of the traders, were less patient They hast- 
ened to Burlington in a large body, and on their arrival encamp^ near the 
town, sending to the governor a written notice of their presence, and a 
request for supplies. The governor answered, declining to accede to their 
request, or to hold a councu with them. Hwlfish and his men returned 
over their weary journey of seventy miles to the agency, very much dis- 
appointed. In tne meantime the governor communicated with Major 
B^ach, informing him that he would visit the agency soon, and requesting 
him to use his influence to prevent the Indians from making incursions 
through the white settlements. When the governor fixed his time to be 
present, the bands were all informed, and it was arranged that a grand conn- 
dl should be held. When the day arrived all the Indians, except the Pow- 
eshiek band of Foxes, who were so far away on the Iowa river, were en- 
camped within a convenient distance from the agency. Long before the 
hour fixed for the meeting, the Hardfish party, arrayed in all their toggery, 
and displaying their richest ornaments, came m grand procession upon the 
gromid. Having dismounted from their ponies, they lormed in file on foot 
tod inarched into the agency headquarters, where the governor was to receive 
them. Hardfish and some of his principal men shook hands wiUi the gov- 
ernor and then sat down. 

The reader will remember that at this time the nation was in mourning 
for the sudden loss of a President by death, and that Gov. Chambers had 
been one of the warmest and most devoted friends of Gi3n. Harrison, a fact 
of which Keokuk was fully advised. Chambers had been aid-de-camp to 
Oen. Harrison in the war of 1812, and they had ever after been as father 
tnd son. Eeokuk was shrewd enough to nrnke the most of this. 

llie appointed hour for the meeting had passed, and the governor began 
to become impatient for the appearance of Eeokuk. At last the sounds of 
the appoaching bands were heard faintly floatiog upon the breeze. After a 
time the procession marched with slow and solemn tread into view, not ar- 
n.^ed in gaudy feathers, ribbons and trinkets, like the Hardfish band, but 
With lances and staves wrapped around with wilted grass. No sound of 
Wb responded to the tramp of their ponies, and instead of being ])ainted 
in yennillion, their fsK^es presented the sombre hues produced by a kind of 
^J they were wont to use on occasions of solemnity or mourmng. Their 

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appearace betokened sadness and affliction. Mr. Josiah Smart, the interpre- 
ter, informed Gov. Chambers that this was a funeral march, and that some 
one of their principal men must have died daring the night Even Hard- 
fish and his men were at a loss to account for what they saw, and wondered 
who could have died. At last Keokuk and his men dismounted and filed 
slowly and solemnly into the presence of the governor. Keokuk signed to 
the interpreter, and said : 

^^Say to our new fiither tiiat before I take his hand, I will explain to him 
what all this means. We were told not long a^ that our Great Father was 
dead. We had heard of him as a great war chief, who had passed much of 
his life amon^ the red men and knew their wants, and we believed that we 
would alwaysHbave friendship and justice at his himds. His death has made 
us very sad, and as this is our first opportunity, we thought it would be 
wrong if we did not use it, to show that the hearts of his red children, as 
well as his white, know how to mourn over their great loss; and we had to 
keep our father waiting while we performed that part of our mourning that 
we must always attend to before we leave our lodges with our dead." 

At the conclusion of this speech, Keokuk steppped forward and extended 
his hand. The hearty grasp of the governor showed that the wily chief had 
touched the proper cord. The result was, that the Hardfish band received 
no special favors after that, at the. expense of the other bands. 


Black Hawk— Treaty of 1804— Black Hawk's account of the Treaty— Lieut. Pike— Ft. Ed- 
wards — ^Ft. Madison — Black Hawk and the British — Keokuk recognized as Chief— Ft. 
Armstrongr— Sac and Fox Villages— Black Hawk's ** British Band "—Black Hawk War— 
Black Hawk's old age— His death in Iowa— His remains carried away, but reooyered— 
Keokuk — Appanoose — Wapello — Poweshiek — Pash-e-pa-ho — ^Wish-e-co-ma-que — Chaa- 
chun-ca — Mau-haw-gaw— Ma-has-kah— Si-dom-i-na-do-tah — Heniy Lett— ATiragedy in 
Humboldt Couuty—Jok-pa-du-tah— Spirit Lake Massacre— Expedition from Ft. Ifcdge— 
Death of Capt. Johnston and WiUiam BurMiolder. 


Tms renowned chief, the "noblest Boman of them all," was bom at the 
Sac village on Rock river, about the year 1767. His first introduction to 
the notice of the whites seems to have been in 1804, when William Heniy 
Harrison, then the Governor of Indiana Territory, concluded his treatywith 
the Sac and Fox nation for the lands hording on Eock river. Blscknswk 
was then simply a chief, though not by election or inheritance, of his own 
band of Sac warriors, but from that time he was the most prominent man 
in the Sac and Fox nation. He considered the action of the four chiefs who 
represented the Indians in making this treaty as unjust and refused to con- 
siaer it binding. The territory ceded embraced over fifty-one millions of 
acres, extending almost from opposite St Louis to the Wisconsin river. 
He claimed that the chiefs qr braves who made the treaty had no authority 
to make it, and that they haa been sent to St Louis, where the treaty was 
negotiated, for quite a different purpose, namely: to procure the release of 
one of their people who was held there as a prisons on charge of Ulling a 
white man. The United States regarded this treatv as a bona iide transac- 
tion, claiming that the lands were sold by res})onsible men of tne tribes, and 
chat it was further ratified by a part of tne tribes with Gov. Edwards and 

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Anguste Ghoteau, in September^ ISIS, and again with the same oommis- 
uonen in 1816. They claimed that the Indians were only to oocnpy the 
lands at the Sae village on Bock river until they were snrveyed and sold hy 
the government, when they were to vacate them. The treaty of St Lonis 
was signed bj five chiefs instead of four, although Black Hawk claimed that 
the latter number only were sent to St Louis for a different purpose. One 
of these was Pash-e-pa-ho, a head chief among' the Sacs. Black Hawk him- 
sdf thus describes the return of the chiefs to Kock Island after the treaty: 
^Quash-qna-me and party remained a long time absent They at length 
returned, and encamped a snort distance below the ^U^^^ but did not come 
up that day, nor did any person approach their camp. They appeared to be 
dressed in fine coats, and had meaals. From these circumstances we were 
in hopes that they had brought good news. Early the next morning the 
counm lodge was crowded. Quash-qua-me came up and said that on their 
arrival in St. Louis they met their American fiither, and explained to him 
their business, and urgc^ the release of their friend. The American chief told 
them he wanted land, and that they had agreed to give him some on the west 
side of the Mississippi, and some on the Iflinois side, opposite the Jefireon: 
that when the business was all arranged, they expected tneir friend releasea 
to come homQ with them. But about the time they were ready to start, 
their friend was let out of prison, who ran a short mstance, ana vhzs shot 
dead! This was all myself or nation knew of the treaty of 1804. It has 
be«i explained to me since. I find, by that treaty, that all our country east 
of the Mississippi, and south of the Jeflfreon, was ceded to the United States 
for one thousana dollars a year I" 

The treaty was doubtless made in good faith on the part of the commis- 
sioners, and with the full conviction that it was by authority of the tribes. 
From this time forward Black Hawk seems to have entertained a distrust of 
the Americans. 

Although Spain had ceded the country west of the Mississippi to France 
in 1801, the former power still held possession imtilits transfer to the United 
States by France, black Hawk and his band were at St Louis at this time, 
and he was invited to be present at the ceremonies connected with the 
ckange of authorities. He refused the invitation; and in giving an account 
of the transaction, said: 

^ I found many sad loid gloomy &ces, because the United States were about 
to take possession of the town and country. Soon after ^q Americans came, I 
took my band and went to take leave of our Spanish father. The Americans 
came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out of one door as 
they entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for our village 
on Eock river, not liking the change any more than our friends appeared 
to at St Louis. On arriving at our vilh^, we gave the news that strange 
people bad arrived at St Louis, and that we should never see our Spanish 
uither again. The information made dl our people sorry." 

lu August, 1805, Lieut Zebulon M. Pike ascended the river from St 
Lotus, for the purpose of holding councils with the Indians, and selecting 
sites for military posts within the country recently acquired from France. 
At the mouth of Kock river he had a personal interview with Black Hawk, 
the latter being fitvorably impressed with the young lieutenant Speaking 
of this interview. Black Hawk himself said: 

''A boat came up the river with a young American chief, and a small 
P^ of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed Salt river. 

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Some of our young braves watched them every day, to see what sort of peo- 
ple he had on boiuxL The boat at length arrived at Eock Island, and tiie 
young chief came on shore with his mterpreter, and made a speech, and 
gave us some presents. We, in turn, presented them with meat and such 
other provisions as we had to spare. We were well pleased with the young 
chief. He gave us good advice, and said our Amencan father would treat 
us well.'' 

Lieut. Pike's expedition was soon followed hy the erection of Fort Ed- 
wards and Fort Madison, the former on the site of the present town of 
Warsaw, Iljinois, and the latter on the site of the present town of Fort 
Madison, Iowa. When these forts were being erected, the Indians sent down 
delegations, headed by some of their chiefs, to have an interview with the 
Americans. Those who visited Fort Edwards returned apparently satisfied 
with what was being done. The erection of Fort Madison they claimed was 
a violation of the trea^ of 1804. In that treaty the United States had 
agreed that if "any white persons should form a settlement on their lands, 
such intruders should forthwith be removed." Fort Madison was erected 
within the territory reserved for the Indians, and this they considered an intru- 
sion. Some time afterward a party under the leadership of Black Hawk 
and Pash-e-pa-ho attempted its destruction. They sent spies to watch the 
movements of the garrison. Five soldiers who came out were fired upon by 
the Indians, and two of the soldiers were killed. They kept up the attack 
for several davs. Their efforts to destroy the fort being unsuccessful, they 
returned to ICock river. 

When the war of 1812 broke out, Black E!awk and his band allied them- 
selves with the British, which was the origin of his party, at a later date, 
being known as the "British Band." In narrating the circumstances which 
induced him to loin the British, he says: 

^^ Several of tne chiefs and head men of the Sacs and Foxes were called 
upon to ffo to Washington to see the Great Father. On their return they 
related what had been said and done. They said the Great Father wished 
them, in the event of a war taking place with England, not to interfere on 
either side, but to remain neutral. He did not want our heln, but wished us to 
hunt and support our families and live in peace. He said tnat British traders 
would not be permitted- to come on the Mississippi to furnish us with goods, 
but that we should be supplied by an American trader. Our chiefs then told 
him that the British traders always gave them credit in the fall for guns, powder 
and goods to enable us to hunt ana clothe our families. He replied tnat the 
trader at Fort Madison would have plenty of goods; that we should go there 
in the fall, and he would supply us on credit, as the British traders had 

According to Black Hawk, this proposition pleased his people, and tliey 
went to Fort Madison to receive their promised outfit for the winter's hunt, 
but notwithstanding tlie promise of the Great Father, at Washington, the 
trader would not give them credit In reference to their disappointment, 
Black Hawk says: 

"Few of us slept that night; all was gloom and discontent. In the morn- 
ing a canoe was seen descending the river; it soon arrived, bearing an ex- 
press, who brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Eock 
Island, with two boats loaaed with goods, and requested us to come up im- 
mediately, because he had good news for us, and a variety of presents. The 
express presented us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The news ran 

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THB NOKrruwJorr tebbitobt. 46 

tLrongh our camp like fire on a prairie. Oar lodges were soon taken down, 
and aS started for Bock Island. Here ended all hopes of our remaining at 
peace, having been forced into the war by b^ing deceived." 

Black Hawk and his band then espoused the cause of the British, who, as 
in the case of Tecumseh, gave him tne title of ^^ Glen. Black Hawk." But 
a large portion of the Sacs and Foxes, at the head of whom was Keokuk, 
chose to remain neutral, as well as to abide by the treaty of 1804. Of this 
party Keokuk was the recognized chief. The nation was divided into the 
" war party " and " peace party." Black Hawk maintained his fidelity to 
the British imtil the end of the war, and was the intimate fi-iend and sup- 
porter of Tecumseh, until the death of the latter at the battle of the Thames. 

At the close of the war of 1812, Black Hawk returned to his village on 
Rock river, to find Keokuk still the friend of the Americans, and the recog- 
nized war chief of that portion of the Sac and Fox nation which had re- 
mained neutral. As stated elsewhere, a new treaty was concluded in Sep- 
tember, 1815, in which, among other matters, the treaty of St Louis was rati- 
fied. This treaty was not signed bv Black Hawk, or any one representinff his 
band, but was signed by chiefs of both the Sacs and Foxes, who were fully author- 
ized to do so. This treaty was held at Portage des Sioux,and was a result of tlie 
war of 1812, with England. In May, 1816, another treatj^ was held at St 
Louis, in which the St Louis treaty of 1804 was reco^zed. This treaty 
was si^ed by Black Hawk and twenty other chiefs and braves. The same 
year K)rt Armstrong was erected upon Eock Island, a proceeding very dis- 
tasteful to the Indians. Of this Black Hawk says: 

"We did not, however, object to their building the fort on the island, but 
we were very sorry, as this was the best island on the Mississippi, and had 
long been the resort of our young people during the summer. It was our gar- 
den, like the white people have near their big villages, which supplied us with 
strawberries, blackbemes, plums, apples and nuts of various kinds; and its 
waters supplied us with pure fish, being situated in the rapids of the river. In 
my early life, I spent many happy days on this island. A good spirit had care 
of it, who lived m a cave m the rocks, immediately under the place where 
the fort now stands, and has often been seen by our people. He was white, 
with large wings like a swan's, but ten times larger. We were particular 
not to make much noise in that part of the island- which he inhaoited, for 
fear of disturbing him. But the noise of the fort has since driven him away, 
and no doubt a bad spirit has since taken his place." 

The expedition which was sent up the river to erect a fort at or near Rock 
Island, consisted at first of the Eighth United States Infantry, and started 
fipom St Louis in September, 1815, under the command Col. ii. C. Nichols. 
Tlicy reached the mouth of the Des Moines, where they wintered. In April, 
1816, Gen. Thomas A. Smith arrived and took command of the expedition. 
They reached Eock Island on the 10th of May, and, i^r a careful exami- 
nation, the site for the fort was selected. The regiment being left under the 
command of Col. Lawrence, the work on the fort immediate^ commenced. 
It was named in honor of John Armstrong of New York, who had recently 
been Secretary of War. 

After the establishment of the fort and garrison at Eock Island settlements 
b^an to be made at and near the mouth of Eock river, on the east side of the 
Mississippi. Keokuk, as the head chief of the Foxes, with his tribe, in accord- 
ance witli the treaties they had made with the Uniteii States, left in 1828 and 
established themselves on Iowa river, but Black Hawk and liis '' British 

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Band*' of abont 500 warriors remained in their village and persistently 
refdsed to leave. Tlie settlers began to complain of frequent depredations at 
the hands of Black Hawk's people, and feared that the neighboring tril>es of 
Kickapoos, Pottawattamies, and Winnebagt)es9 might be induced to join 
Black Hawk in a war of extermination. Finally, in tlie spring of 1831, Black 
Hawk warned the settlers to leave. Tliese troubles culminated in the 
"Black Hawk War," and the final capture of the chief and some of his prin- 
cipal men, as related elsewhere. The Black Hawk War ended hostilities 
with the Indians at or near Eock Island. A garrison, however, was main- 
tained there until 1836, when the troops were sent to Fort Snelling. TJie 
tort was left in chai^ of Lieut John Beach, with a few men to take care of 
the property. 

After his capture. Black Hawk and several of his principal men were 
taken to Jeflferson Barracks, where they were kept until the the spring of 
1833. They were then sent to Washington, where they arrived on the 22d 
of April, and on the 26th were confined in Fortress Monroe. On the 4th of 
June, 1833, they were set at liberty by order of tlie government and per- 
mitted to return to their own country. 

In the fall of 1837 Black Hawk, accompanied bv Keokuk, Wapello, Powe- 
shiek, and some forty of the principal chiefs and braves of the Sac and Fox 
nations, again visited Washington, in char^ of Col. George Davenport, who 
by his influence with the Indians assisted the government m making another 
large purchase of territory in Iowa. This tract adjoined the "Black Hawk 
Purchase," and embraced 1,260,000 acres. 

After Black Hawk's release from captivity in 1833, he seemed unwilling 
to reside in any of the villages of the tribe. His band was broken up and 
dispersed, as stipulated in the treaty of peace, and he seemed to seek seclu- 
sion from his people. While tlie garrison remained at Rock Island, he 
usually lived near it, and often put up his wigwam close to the fort, where 
his vision could take in the beautiful country on the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi, which had been his home for more than half a century. But the time 
came when he must go with his people to the new reservation on the banks 
of the Des Moines. He was then in the waning years of his life, and the 
other chiefs of the nation seemed disposed to pay him but little attention. 
His family consisted of Ids wife, two sons and one daughter. He established 
his lodge on the east bank of the Des Moines, about thi*ee miles below the 
site of the present town of Eldon. Gen. Street presented tlie family witli a 
cow, whicli was a piece of property which exacted much solicitude and care 
at the hands of Madame Black Hawk. His lodge was near the trading post 
of Wharton McPherson; and James Jordan, who was also at that time con- 
nected with the post, had his cabin within a few rods of Black Hawk's lodge. 
This was in the summer of 1838, and the old chief who had defied the power 
of the United States and caused the expenditure of millions of treasure to 
subdue him, was nearing his departure for a final remove beyond the power 
of earthly governments. Near his lodge, on the bank of the river, stood a 
large elm tree, with its spreading branches overhanging the stream, and 
flowing from its roots was a crystal spring of pure water. Here during the 
sultry summer days of that year Black Hawk was wont to repose and dreain 
over the years of his former greatness and the wrongs that his people had 
suftered. At last, on the 3d of October, 1838, death came to his relief, 
and, according, to the Indian idea, his spirit passed away to the happy hunt- 
ing grounds. 

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The remains of Black Hawk were interred by his family and friends near 
his cabin on the prairie, a short distance above the old town of lowaville. 
The body was nlaced on a board, or slab, set up in an inclining position, with 
the feet extenoing into the ground some fifteen inches and the nead elevated 
above the surface some three feet or more. This was enclosed by placing 
slabs around it with the ends resting on the ground and meeting at tne top, 
forming a kind of vault The whole was then covered with dirt and neatly 
sodded. At the head of the ^rave was placed a flag-staff thirty feet high, 
from which floated the Amencan flaff until it was worn out by the wind. 
Interred with the body were a number of his prized and long-treasured 
relics, including a militaiy suit presented by Jadmon's cabinet; a sword pre- 
sented by Jackson himself; a cane presented by Henry Clay, and another 
by a British oflScer : and three silver medals — one presented by Jackson, one 
by John Quincy Adams, and the other by citizens of Boston. Near the 
grave a large post was set in the ground, on which were inscribed in Indian 
characters, emblems commemorating many of his heroic deeds. The 

Save and flag-staff were enclosed by a rude picket fence in circular form, 
ere the body remained until Julv, 1839, when it disapp^red. On com- 
plaint being made by Black Hawk's &imily, the matter was mvestigated, and it 
was finally traced to one Dr. Turner, who then resided at a place called Lex- 
ington, in Van Buren county. The remains had been taken to Illinois, but 
at the earnest request of Black Hawk's relatives. Gov. Lucas interposed and 
had them sent to Burlington. The sons were informed that the remains 
were in Burlington and went to that place to obtain them. While there it 
was suggested to them that if taken away they would only be stolen again, 
and they concluded to leave them where thejr thought they might be more 
safely preserved. Thejr were finally placed m a museum in that city, and 
years after, with a lar^ collection of other valuable relics, were destroyed by 
the burning of the building. In the meantime the relatives of the renowne!! 
chief removed westward with the rest of the tribe, and were finally lost to 
all knowledge of the white man. 


Keokuk (Watchful Fox) belonged to the Sac branch of the nation, and 
was bom on Bock river, in 1780. He was an orator, but was also entitled 
to rank as a warrior, for he possessed courage and energy, but at the same 
time a cool judgment. He had an intelligent appreciation of the power and 
greatness of the United States, and saw the futility of Black Hawk's hope to 
oontend successfully against the goyemment. in his first battle, while 
youD^, he had killed a Sioux, and for this he was honored with a feast by 
iUB tribe. 

At the beginning of the Black Hawk War an affair transpired which was 
fignified by the name of the ^^ Battle of Stillman's Kun," in which some three 
hnndred volunteers under Maj. Stillman took prisoners five of Black Hawk's 
men who were approaching with a flag of truce. One of the prisoners was 
•hot by Stillman^s men. Black Hawk had also sent five other men to follow 
the b^o-ers of the fia^. The troops came upon these and killed two of them. 
The other three readied their camp and ^ve the alarm. Black Hawk's 
vwriors then charged upon Stillman's advancing troops and completely 
routed Item. This failure to respect the fla^ or truce so exasperated the 
Ipdians that it waslvith great diflSculty that ^okuk could restrain his war- 
riors from espoxising the cause of Black Hawk. Stillman's defeat was fol- 

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lowed by a war-dance, in which Keokuk took part After the dance he 
called a council of war, and made a speech in which he admitted the justice 
of their complaints. The blood of their brethren slain by the white men, 
while bearing a fla^ of truce, called loudly for vengeance. Said he: 

" I am your chiet, and it is my duty to lead you to battle, if, after fully con- 
sidering the matter, you are determined to co. But before you decide on 
taking this important step, it is wise to inquire into the chances of success. 
But it you do determine to go upon the war path, I will agree to lead you on 
one condition, viz.: that be^re we go we will kill all our old men and our 
wives and our children, to save them from a lin^ring death of starvation, 
and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on the other side of 
the Mississippi." 

Keokuk so forcibly portrayed in other parts of this speech the great 
power of the United States, and of the hopeless prospect before them, that 
his warriors at once abandoned all thought of joimng Black Hawk. 

The name Keokuk signified Watchful Fox. As we have seen, he eventu- 
al! v superseded Black !&wk, and was recognized by the United States as tlio 
pnnciptd chief of the Sac and Fox nation, which, indeed, had much to do in 
stinginff the pride of the imi)erious Black Hawk. In person he was strong, 

fracefuT and commanding, with fine features and an intelligent countenance, 
[e excelled in horsemanship, dancing, and all athletic exercises. He was 
courageous and skillful in war, but mild and politic in peace. He had a 
son, a fine featured, promising boy, who died at Keokut's village on the 
Des Moines. Keolmk himself becaine somewhat dissipated during the later 
years of his life in Iowa. It was reported tiisX after his removal with nis people 
to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi, he died of deUrvum tremens. 
Iowa has honored his memory in the name of one of her counties, and one 
of her principal cities. 


Appanoose was a chief who presided over a band of the Sacs. His name, 
in the lanffuajge of that tribe, signified "A Chief When a Child," indicating 
that he inherited his position. It was said he was equal in rank with Keo- 
kuk, but he did not possess the influence of the latter. He was one of ike 
" peace chiefs " during the Black Hawk War. During the last occupation of 
Iowa soil by the Sacs and Foxm, Appanoose had his vifla^ near the site of the 
present city of Ottumwa. His people cultivated a portion of the CTOimd on 
which that city is located. He was one of the deleeation sent to Washing, 
ton in 1837, at which time he visited with the other diiefs the city of Boston, 
where they were invited to a meeting in Fanueil Hall. On that occasion he 
made the most animated speech, both in manner and matter, that was deliv- 
ered by the chiefs. After JBIeokuk had spoken, Appanoose arose and said: 

" You have hesud just now what my cnief has to say. All our chiefs and 
warriors are very much gratified by our visit to this town. Last Saturdav 
they were invited to a great house, and now they are in the great council- 
house. They are very much pleased with so much attention. This we can- 
not reward you for now, but shall not forget it, and hope the Great Spirit 
will reward you for it Tins is the place which our forefathers once inliabi- 
ted. I have often heard my father and grandfather say they lived near the 
sea-coast where the white man first came. I am glad to hear all this from 
^ou. I suppose it is put in a book, where you learn all these things. As 
ar as I can understand the language of the white people, it appears to me 

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that the AmericanB have attained a very high rank among the white people. 
It is the same with us, though I say it myself. Where we live beyond the 
Mississippi, I am respected by all people, and tliey consider me the tallest 
among them. I am happy that two great men meet and shake hands widi 
each other." 

As Appanoose concluded his speech, he suited the action to the word by 
extending his hand to Gov. Everett, amid the shouts of applause from the 
audience, who were not a little amused at the self*-complacency of the orator. 
But few of the incidents in the life of this chief have passed into history. 
His name has been perpetuated in that of one of the Iowa counties. 


Wapello, or Waupellow, was one of the minor chiefs of the Sac and Fox 
Nation. He was bom at Prairie du Chien, in 1787. At the time of the 
erection of Fort Armstrong (1816) he presided over one of the three prin- 
cipal villages in that vicinity. His village there was on the east side of the 
Imssissippi, near the foot of Kock Island, and about three miles north of 
the famous Black Hawk village. In 1829 he removed his village to Musca- 
tine Slough, and then to a place at or near where the town of Wapello, in 
Louisa county, is now located. Like Keokuk, he was in favor of abiding 
by the requirements of the treaty of 1804, and opposed the hostilities in 
which Black ELawk engaged against tlie whites. He was one of the chiefs 
that visited Washington in 1887, and his name appears to several treaties 
relinquishing lands to the United States. He appears to have been a warm 
personal friend of Gten. Jos. M. Street, of the Sac and Fox agency, and made 
a request that at his death his remains be interred along side of those of 
Qen. Street, which request was complied with. He died near the Forks of 
Skunk river, March 15th, 1842, at the age of 65 years. His remains, with 
those of Qen. Street, repose near Agency City, in the county which honors 
his memory with its name. The two graves and the monuments have re- 
cently been repaired by parties connected with the Cliicaeo, Burlington & 
Quincy Eailroad, whose line passes within a few rods of them. 


Poweshiek was a chief of the same rank with Wapello, and near the same 
Bge. He also was one of the chiefs who visited Washington in 1837. When 
the greater portion of the Sac and Fox nation removed to the Des Moines 
river, he retained his village on the Iowa river, where he presided over 
what was known as the Musquawkie band of the Sacs and Foxes. In May, 
1838, when Gen. Street organized a party to examine the new purchase made 
the fall before, with a view of selecting a site for the agency, the expedition 
was accompanied by about thirty braves, under the command of Poweshiek. 
At that time the Sacs and Foxes were at war with the Sioux, and after leav- 
ing their reservation these men were very fearful that they might be sur- 
Ensed and cut off by the Sioux. A small remnant of his band make their 
omo on Iowa river, in Tama county, at this time. He also remained the 
friend of tiie whites during the Black Hawk war, and the people of Iowa 
have honored his memory oy giving his name to one of their counties. 

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Paah-e-pa-ho, called also the Stabbing Chief, at the time of the treaty of 
I8O49 and until after the Black Hawk war, was head chief amon^ the Sacs* 
He waa also present in St Louis at the making of that treaty, ana was even 
then well advanced in years. It has been related that he laid a plan to at- 
tack Fort Madison, not long after its erection. His plan was to gain an the fort with concealed arms under their blankets, under a pre- 
tense of holding a council. A squaw, however, had secretly conveyed intel- 
ligence to the commandant of the garrison of the intended attack, so that the 
troops were in readiness for them. When Pash-e-pa-hoand his warriors ad- 
vanced in a body toward the closed gate, it suddenly opened, revealing to 
the astonished savages a cannon in the passage-way, and the gunner stand- 
ing with lighted torch in hand ready to fire. Paah-e-pa-ho deemed " discre- 
tion the better part of valor ", and retreated. 

Some time after the plot a^inst Fort Madison, Pash-e-pa-ho made an at- 
tempt to obtain a lodgment m Fort Armstrong, though m ouite a different 
way. Several of his oraves had the year before, while out nunting, fell in 
with a party of their enemies, the Sioux, and had lifted several of their scalps. 
The Sioux complained of this outrage to the Department at Washington, 
and orders were issued demanding the surrender of the culprits. They were 
accordingly brought and retained as prisoners in Fort Armstrong, where they 
had comfortable quarters and plenty to eat during the winter. Having fared 
sumptuously for several montns, without effort on their part, they were re- 
leased on the psmnent of a small amount out of the annuities of their tribes, 
to the Sioux. The next fall Pash-e-x>a-ho thought he might avoid the trouble 
of stocking his larder for the winter. So he voluntarilv called on the com- 
mandant oi Fort Armstrong, and informed him that wnile on a recent hunt 
he had unfortunately met a Sioux, and had yielded to the temptation to get 
his scalp. He confessed that he had done a very wron^il ac^ and wished 
to save the Great Father at Washington the trouble of sendii^ a letter or- 
dering his arrest; thei^fore he would surrender himself as a prisoner. The 
commandant saw through his scheme to obtain comfortable quarters and 
good boarding for the winter, and so told him he was an honorable Indian, 
and that his voluntary offer to surrender himself was a sufficient guarantee 
that he would appear when sent for. That was the last that was heard of 
the matter. Pash-e-pa-ho vras never sent for. 

Dorii^ the first quarter of the present century the Sacs and Foxes were 
freqneotnr at war with the lowas. The latter had one of their principal villa- 
ges on tne Des Moines river, near where Black Hawk died many years af- 
terward. It was here that the last great battle was fought between these 
tribes. Pash-e-pa-ho was diief in command of the Sacs and Foxes. Black 
Hawk was also a prominent actor in this engagement, but was subject to 
his senior, Pash-e-pa-ho. Accounts conflict as to the date, but the eviden- 
ces of the conflict were plainly visible as late as 1824. The Sacs and Foxes 
surprised the lowas whue the latter were engaged in running their horses 
oa the prairie, and therefore unprepared to defend themselves. The result 
was that Pash-e-pa-ho acliieved a decisive victory over the lowas. 

Paah-e-pa-ho was among the chiefs present at the making of the treatv 
ctl832f when the " Black Hawk Purchase '' was made. He was veiy much 

S'vm to intemperate habits whenever he could obtain liquor, and it is prob- 
? tiiaU lik^ Keokuk, he died a drunkard. 

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Quite prominent amon^ the Sacs and Foxes, after their removal to Iowa, 
was a man known by me name of Hardfish, or Wish-e-oo-ma-qne, as it 
is in the Indian tongae. He was not a chief, but a brave who rose al- 
most to the prominence of a chief. He adhered to Black Hawk in his hoB- 
tility toward the whites, and when Black Hawk died, Hardfish became tiiie 
leader of his band, composed mostly of those who had participated in tihe 
Black Hawk war. When the Sacs and Foxes occupied tneir reservation on 
the Des Moines river, Hardfish had his village where Eddjville is now lo- 
cated. It was quite as respectable in size as any of the other villages of die 
Sacs and Foxes. Hardfisn's band was composed of people from the Sae 
branch of the Sac and Fox nation. One Jolm Goodell was the interpreter 
for tJiis band. The name of Hardfish was quite femiliar to the frontier 
settlers of Southeastern Iowa. 


When, in 1884, Gen. Henry Dodge made a treaty with the Winnebagoes 
for the country occupied by them in Wisconsin, they were transferred to a 
strip of land extending west fix)m the Mississippi, opposite Prairie du Chieiu 
to the Des Moines river, being a tract forty mues in widtL The chief of 
the Winnebagoes at that time was Ohos-chun-ca, or Big Wave. Soon after 
their removafto this reservation they were visit^ by Willard Barrows, one 
of the pioneers of Davenport, who had an interview with Chos-chun-ca. 
He found him clothed in a buffalo overcoat, and wearing a high crowned 
hat. His nose was surmounted by a pair of green epectaaes. Mr. Barrows 
held his interview with the chief just south of the lower boundary of the 
reservation. Ohos-chun-ca was quite reticent as to the aftairs.of his people, 
and refused permission to Mr. Barrows to explore the Winnebago reserva- 
tion, being impressed with the idea that the whites had sent him to seek out 
all the fine country, and that if their lands were found desirable, then the 
Indians would be compelled to remove again. Mr. Barrows, however, with- 
out the chief's permission, passed safely through their territory. 


The greater portion of the territory embraced within the limits of Iowa, 
was once occupied by a tribe, or nation of Indians, known in history as the 
lowas (or loways), who for many years maintained an almost constant war- 
fare with the Sioux, a powerful rival who lived to the north of them. Tlie 
lowas were originally me Pau-hoo-chee tribe, and lived in the region of the 
lakes, to the northeast, but about the year 1700 they followed their diief) 
Mau-haw-gaw, to the banks of the Mississippi, and crossing over, settied on 
the west bank of Iowa river, near its month, and there estaolished a village. 
They cdled the river on which they established their empire, Ne-o-ho-nee, 
or "Master of Rivers.'* For some years they prospered and multiplied, but 
the Sioux began to envy them the prosperity which they enjoyed, and with 
no good intentions came down to visit them. Sending to Mau-haw-gaw 
tiie pipe of peace, with an invitation to join tiiem in a dog feast, the^ made 
great professions of friendship. The Iowa chief, having confidence in their 
protestations of good feeling, accepted the invitation. In the midst of the 

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feast the perfidious Sioux suddenly attacked and killed the unsuspecting 
llAu-haw-gaw. This outrage was never forgiven by the lowas. 


One of the most noted chiefs of the lowas was Ma-has-kah (White 
Cloud), a descendent of Mau-haw-gaw. He led his warriors in ei)^hteen 
batties againat the Sioux on the north, and the Osages on the soum, but 
never £med to achieve a victory. He inade his home on the Des Moines 
river, about one hundred miles above the mouth, and must have been some- 
thing of a Mormon, for it is said he had seven wives. In 1824 he was one 
of a party of chiefs who visited Washington. He left his home on the Des 
Moines to ^ down the river on his way to join his party, and when near 
where the city of Keokuk is now located, he stopped to prepare and eat his 
venison. He had just commenced his meal when some one struck him on 
the back. Turning round, he was surprised to see one of his wives, Eant- 
che-wai-me (Female Flying Pigeon), standing with an uplifted tomahawk 
in her hand. She accosted nim with—" Am I your wife ! Are you my hus- 
band t If BO, I will ffo with you to Maw-he-hum-ne-che (the American big 
bouse), and see and 3iake the hand of In-co-ho-nee ", meaning the Great 
Father, as they called the President. Ma-has-kah answered: " i es, you are 
my wife ; I am your husband ; I liave been a long time from you ; I am 
glad to see you ; you are my pretty wife, and a brave man always loves to 
see a pretty woman." Ma-has-kah went on to Washington accompanied by 
his "pretty wife ", Eant-che-wai-nue, who received many presents, but saw 
many thii^ of which she disapproved. When she returned, she called to- 
gether the matrons and maidens of the tribe, and warned them against the 
vices and follies of their white sisters. This good Indian woman was killed 
by being thrown from her horse, some time filter her return from Washing- 
ton. In 1834 Ma-has-kah was also killed about sixty miles from his home, 
on the Nodaway, by an enemy who took a cowardly advantage of him. At 
the time of his death he was fifty years of age. After his death all his sur- 
viving wives went into mourning and poverty, according to the custom oi 
the tnbe, except one named Mis-so-rah-tar-ra-haw (Female Deer that bounds 
over the prairie), who refused to the end of her life to be comforted, saying 
that her nnsband "was a great brave, and was killed by dogs", meaning 
bw, vulgar fellows. 

8oon after the death of Ma-has-kah, his son of the same name, at the age 
of twenty-four, became the chief of the lowas. His mother was Kfmt-che- 
wai-me, whose tragic death is mentioned above. He also visited Washing 
ton in the winter of 1836-7, for the purpose of obtaininff redress for injus- 
tice^ which he claimed had been done to his people by tne government, in 
failing to keep intruders from their lands, ana in disregarding other stipu- 
lations of the treaty made with his father in 1825. 


When the whites began to make settlements on the upper Des Moines, 
the region about Fort Dodge and Spirit Lake was inhabited by Sioux In- 
diaiis, made up principally of that division of the great Sioux or Dacotah 
nation known oy the name of Sisiton Sioux. When, in 1848, the govern- 
ment Burvevs ot the lands purchased north of the Raccoon Forks were in pro- 
gress, Mr. Marsh, of Dubuque, set out with liis party to run the correction 

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line from a point on the Mississippi, near Dabnque. to the Missouri ri^er. 
In this work he wad not molestea until he crossed the Des Moines, when on 
the west bank of the river, he was met by a party of Sioux, under the lead- 
ership of their chief, Si-dom-i-na-do-tah, who notified Mr. Marsh and his 
farty that they should proceed no farther, as the country belonged to the 
ndians. The Sioux then left, and Mr. Marsh condudea to continue his 
work. He had not proceeded more than a mile when Si-dom-i-na-do-tah 
and his band returned and surrounded the party, robbing them of every- 
thing. They took their horses, destroyed their wagons ana surveying instru- 
ments, destroyed the land-marks, and drove the surveying party Da<S to the 
east side of the river. This, and other outrages committed on families who, 
in the fall of 1849, ventured to make claims on the upper Des Moines, led 
to the establishment of a militarypost at Fort Dod^ m 1850. 

In the winter of 1846-7 one Henry Lott, an adventurous border char- 
acter, had, with his fiEtmilv, taken up his residence at the mouth of Boone 
river, in what is now Webster county, and within the range of Si-dom-i-na- 
do-tah's band. Lott had provided himself with some goods and a barrel of 
whisky, expecting to trade with the Indians, and obtain their furs and robes. 
In a short time he was waited upon by the chief and six of his braves and 
informed that he was cm intruder and that he must leave within a certain time. 
The time having expired, and Lott still remaining, the Indians destroyed 
his property, shooting his stock and robbing his Bee-hives. Lott and his 
step-son made their way to the nearest settlement, at Pea's Point, about 16 
miles south, and reported that his family had been murdered by the Indians, 
as he doubtless thought they would be after he left. John rea and half a 
dozen other white men, accompanied by some friendly Indians of another 
tribe, who happened to be in that vicinity, set out with Lott for the mouth 
of Boone river. When they arrived they found that the family had not 
been tomahawked, as he had reported. One little boy, however, a^ed about 
twelve years, had attempted to follow his father in his flight, by gomff down 
the Des Moines river on the ice. Being thinly dad, the fittle fellow froze to 
death after traveling on the ice a distance of about twenty miles. The body 
of the child was subsequently found. The sequel shows that Lott was de- 
termined on revenge. 

In November, 1853, Lott ventured about thirfy miles north of Fort Dodge, 
where he pretended to make a claim, in what is now Humboldt cotmty. He 
took with him several barrels of whisky and some goods, and he and his 
step-son built a cabin near what is now known as Lett's creek in that 
county. Si-dom-i-na-do-tah had his cabin on the creek about a mile west of 
Lett's. In January, 1854, Lott and his step-son went to the cabin of the 
old chief and told lum that they had seen, on their way over, a drove of elk 
feeding on the bottom lands, and induced the old man to mount his pony, 
with gun in hand, to go in pursuit of the elk. Lott and his step-son fol- 
lowed, and when they had proceeded some distance they shot and killed Si- 
dom-i-na-do-tah. That same night they attacked and killed six of the chief's 
I family, including his wife and two children, his aged mother, and two young 
' children she had m charge— including with the chief, seven victims in all. Two 
children, a boy of twelve, and a ffirl of ten years of age, escaped by hiding 
themselves. Some days after, the Indians reported the murders at Fort 
Dodge, thinking at first that the slaughter had oeen perpetrated by some of 
their Indian enemies. Investigation soon revealed the fact that Lott and bis 
step-son had committed the de^ Their cabin was found burned down, and 

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a slight snow on the ground showed the track of their wagon in a circuitous 
route southward, avoiding Fort Dodge. Intelligence of them ¥nis received 
at various points where tney had been trying to sell furs and other articles, 
and where the chief 's pony was noticed to to in their possession. Having 
several days start, they made their way across the Missouri and took the 
plains for Califomia, where, it Was subsequently learned, Lott was killed in 
a quarrel. It is believed by many of the old settlers of Northern Iowa that 
this outrage of Henry Lott was the cause of that other tragedy, or rather 
series of tragedies, in the history of Northern lowa^ known as the ^Spirit 
.Lake Massacre." 


Ink-pa-du-tali, it is said, was the brother, and became the successor, of the 
chief \dio was murdered by Henry Lott He is known to the whites chiefljr 
in connection with the horrible outrages committed at Spirit and Okoboji 
Lakes in Northern Iowa, and at Spriogfield in Southern Minnesota. He, 
in connection with U-tan-ka-sa-pa (Black Bufialo), headed a band of about 
eighteen lod^ of Sioux, who, m the spring of 1857, robbed the settlers and 
committed the most inhuman outrages, culminating in the massacres of the 
8th and 9th of March of that year. . During the year 1856 a dosen or more 
families had settled about the lakes, while along tte valley of the Little Sioux 
riv^ at Smithland, Cherokee, and Kock Bapids there were settlements. 
Ink-pa-du-tah and his band commenced their depredations at Smithland, and 
passmg up the Little Sionx made hostile demonstrations both at Cherokee 
and Rock Kapids, killing stock and carrying away whatever they saw proper 
to take, but committed no murders until they reached the infant settlement 
at the lakes. There, and at Springfield, a small settlement in Minnesota a 
few miles northeast, they killed forty-one, wounded three, and took with 
them as captives four women — Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Thatcher, Mrs. Marble, and 
Miss Gardner. Twelve persons were missing, some of whose remains were 
aften^aird found, having been killed while attempting to escape. Of the 
four women taken captives, two were killed on their night, Mrs. Howe and 
Mrs. Thatcher. Tlie other two, Mrs. Marble and Miss Gardner, were some 
months after, through the efibrts of Gov. Madarie, of Minnesota, and the 
Indian a^nt at Laqua Parle, purchased from Ink-pa-du-tah by employing 
friendly fiidians to aifect the purchase. By this raid and massacre the set- 
Uement at the lakes was entirely swept away. All the houses were burned, 
. and all the stock either killed or taken away. At Springfield the settlers 
were somewhat prepared to defend themselves, having beam of the slaughter 
at the lakes. Seven or eight persons, however, were Jdlled at Springfield. 

The winter preceding these massacres had been unusually severe, and 
snow had fallen to the depth of from one to two feet In March all the 
ravines were filled with drifted snow, with a thick and heavy crust, so that 
travel in that region was almost impossible. For this reason those infant 
settlements were almost cut off from intercourse with the thickly inhabited 
parts of the country. It was, therefor^ some time before the news of the 
massacres reached Fort Dodge, the nearest settlement. The messengers 
who conveyed the intelligence were Messrs. Bell and Williams, who lived on 
Litde Sioux river. Messrs. Howe, Snyder and Parmenter, of Newton, who 
had attempted to relieve the inhabitants at the lakes with provisions, also 
Ufon arriving there found all the setlders murdered. They, too, hastened as 
npidly as posaible to Fort Dodge and reported. Messengers were at once 

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sent to Webster City and Homer to request the dtusais to torn out for tfap 
relief of the frontier, and they responded prcHnpUy. Those two places for 
nished forty men and Fort Dodge eighty. The force of 120 men was 
formed into three companies of forty men each, under Captains 0. R 
Bichards, John F. Duncombe, and J. C. Johnston. The battalion wat 
commanded by Major W. Williams. On the 25th of March the battalion 
started from Fort JDodge, the snow still covering the ground and all the 
ravines being so goi^ed with drifted snow that in places it was necessary to 
cut their wa^ through snow-banks from ten to twenty teet deep. After 
marching thirty miles ten men had to be sent back, reducing the force to 
110 men. In the meantime a force from Fort Bidgely was approaching 
from the nortL The Indians, expecting these movements, had taken their 
flight across the Big Sioux river to join the Yanktons, in what is now 
Dakota. The troops, after almost incredible hardships and sufibrings for 
eighteen days and nights, being without tents, &iled to get sight of a single 
hostile Indian. They found and buried the bodies of twenty-nine persons. 
A number were burned in the houses bv the savages, and their remains 
were found in the ashes. The expedition lost two valuable citizens. Captain 
J. C. Johnston, of Webster City, and William Burkholder, of Fort Dodge, 
the latter being a brother of Mrs. Gov. C. C. Carpenter. They were fix)zen 
to death on their return from the lakes. Eighteen others were more or less 
frozen, and some did not recover for a year after. Several years after his 
death the remains of ^oun^ Burkholder were found on the prairie, being 
recognized by the remains oi his gun and dothinff. When overcome by the 
cold he was separated fix^m his companions, ana his &te was for sometime 

From this brief account of Ink-pa-du-tah, it will be conceded that there is 
no reason to cherish his memory with any d^;ree of admiration. He was 
the leader of a band comprising even the worst element of the Sioux nation, 
the best of which is bad enou^, even for savages. The germ of the band 
of which he was chief, was a family of murderers, known as Five Lodges, 
who, it was said, having murdered an aged chief, wandered away and formed 
a little tribe of their own, with whom rogues from all the other bands found 
refuge. At the time of these hostilities a£;ainst the whites under Ink-pa-du- 
tflJi, they numbered probably over 150 lodges. They were constantly roving 
about in parties, stewing wherever thev could from trappers and settlers. 
The subsequent career oflnk-pa-du-tah has been west of the borders of Iowa 
and Minnesota. 


Kayigabion of the Mississippi by the Early Explorers—Flat-boats— Barges— Methods of Ptt>- 
polsion— Brigs and Schooners— The first Steamboat on Western Waters— The ** (Means " — 
The "ComeT '— The "EnfcOTrise"— Capt. Shreve— The " Washington "—The •'General 
Pike**— First Steamboat to »t. Louis— The "Independence** the first Steamboat <m the 
Missoori— €apt. Nelson— " Mackinaw Boats '*— Navigation of the upper Mississippi— The 
•* Virginia *'— The '* Shamrock **— Capt. James May— Navigation of the upper Missouii— 
Steamboating on the Smaller Rivera. 

We have acconntB of the navifi^tion of the Mississippi river as early as 
1539, by De Soto, while in search of the "fountain of youth''. His voyage 
ended with his life, and more than a hundred ^ears passed away, when Mar- 
quette and Joliet again disturbed its waters with a small bark transported 

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fit>m the shores of Lake Superior. At the month of the WiscoDsin thej 
mt&red the Mississippi, and extended their voyage to the mouth of the 
Arkansas. Their acoonnt is the first which ^ve to the world any aocnrate 
knowledge of the mat valley of the Mississippi river. Their perilous voy- 
age was made in the summer of 1673. The account was read vrith avidity 
by the missionaries and others about Lake Superior, and soon after a young 
jtenchman named La SaQe set out with a view of adding further informa- 
tion in relation to the wonderful vallev of the great river. His expedition 
was followed by other voyages of exploration on western rivers, but the nar- 
ratives of the explorers are most! v lost, so that very little of interest remains 
from the voyage of La Salle to the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
when the Frendi, then holding Fort Du Quesne, contemplated the establish- 
ment of a line of forts which would enable them to retain possession of the 
?ast territory northwest of the Ohio river. Begular navigation of the Ohio 
and Mississippi, however, was not attempted until after the Bevolution, when 
the United States had assumed control of the western waters. Trade with 
New Orleans did not begin until near the close of the century. A tew flat 
boats were employed in the trade between Pittsburg and the new settlements 
along the Ohio river. The settlement of Kentucl^ gradually increased the 
trade on the Ohio, and caused a demand for increased facilities for convey- 
ance of freight Boatmen soon found it profitable to extend their voyages 
to the Spanish settlements in the South. Freight and passengers were con- 
veyed in a species of boat which was sometimes called a barge« or haraes by 
the French. It was usually from 75 to 100 feet long, with breadth of beam 
from 15 to 20 feet, and a capacity of 60 to 100 tons. Tho freight was re- 
ceived in a large covered coifer, occupying a jportion of the hulk. Near the 
stem was an apartment six or eight feet m length, called ^^the cabin", 
where the captain and other officials of the boat quartered at ni^ht The 
hehnsman wss stationed upon an elevation above the level of the deck. The 
barge usually carried one or two masts. A large square sail forwioxl, when 
the wind was favorable, sometimes much relieved the hands. The work of 
propelling the barges usually required about fifty men to each boat There 
were several modes of propelling the barges. At times all were engaged in 
rowing, which was often a waste of labor on such a stream as the Missis- 
sippi. Sometimes the navigators resorted to the use of the oordelle^ a strong 
rope or hawser, attached to the barge, and carried along the shore or b^tch 
on the shoulders of the crew. In some places this method was imprac- 
ticable on account of obstructions along the shores. Then what was known 
as the ** warping" process was resorted to. A coil of rope was sent out in 
the^wl, and &stented to a tree on the shore, or a ^^snag" in the river. 
While the hfmds on board were pulling up to this point, another coil was 
earned further ahead, and the ^^ warping'^ process repeated. Sometimes it 
was expedient to use setting poles, but this method was used chiefly in the 
Ohio. During a x>eriod of about twenty-five years, up to 1811, the mode of 
conveyance on our western rivers was by fiat-boats and barges. It required 
three or four months to make a trip from Pittsburg to New Orleans, pass- 
engers between these points were charged from $125 to $150, and freight 
ra^^ from $5 to $7 per 100 pounds. It cannot be supposed that under 
sncE circumstances, the commerce of the West was very extensive. 

Previous to the introduction of steamers on western waters, attempts were 
made to use brigs and schooners. In 1803 several ships were built on tibe 
Ohio, and in 1805 the ship " Scott'* was built on the Jlentucky river, and 

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in the fall of that year made her first trip to the falls of the Ohio. While there 
two other vessels, built by Berthone & Co., arrived. All of them were com- 
pelled to remain three months, awaiting a snflScient rise in the river to carry 
them over the falls. In 1807 Mr. Dean built and launched a vessel at Pitts- 
burg. This vessel made a trip to Leghorn, and when making her entry at 
the custom house there, her papers were objected to on the ground that no 
such port as Pittsburg existed m the United States. The captain called the 
attention of the officer to the Mississippi river, traced it to its confluence 
with the Ohio, thence following the latter stream past Cincinnati and Mari- 
etta, to the new citv in the wilderness, more than two thousand miles by 
water from the Gulf of Mexico 1 All tiiese vessels were found inadequate for 
the purpose of trading on the western rivers, and were soon abandoned. 
They could not stem the current of the Mississippi. They were transferred 
to the gulf, and the commerce of the rivers was abandoned to Mike Fink 
and his followers, remaining with them until 1811. In this year Fulton and 
Livingston opened a ship-yard at Pittsburg, and built the small propeller 
^^ Orleans ", which was also furnished with two masts. She was a boat of one 
hundred tons burthen, and the first steamer that was launched on western 
waters. Li the winter of 1812 she made her first trip to New Orleans in 
fourteen days. As she passed down the river, the settlers lined the banks, 
and the greatest excitement prevailed. The flat-boatmen said she never could 
stem the current on her upward trip. After her first trip, the "Orleans " 
engaged in the Natchez and New Orleans trade, and paid her owners a 
handsome profit on their investment The next steamer was tlie "Comet", 
and she was built by D. French. She carried but twenty-five tons, and 
made her first trip to New Orleans in the spring of 1811. Soon after she 
was taken to pieces, and her engine used in a cotton factory. The "Vesu- 
vius", of 48 tons burthen, was launched at Fulton's ship-yard in the spring 
of 1814, made a trip to New Orleans, and on her return was grounded on a 
sand bar, where she remained until the next December. This ooat remained 
on the river until 1819, when she was condemned. The "Enterprise" was 
the fourth steamboat, and was built by Mr. French, who built the "Comet'' 
The "Enterprise'' carried seventy-five tons, and made her first trip to New 
Orleans in tne summer of 1814. When she arrived at her destination she 
was pressed into the service of the army, under Gen. Jackson, then at New 
Orleans. She was very efficient in carrving troops and army supplies from 
the city to the seat of war, a few miles oelow. During the battle of the 8th 
of January she was busily engaged in supplying the wants of Jackson's 
army. On the 6th of May following she left New Orleans, and arrived at 
Louisville in twenty-five days. 

In 1816 Captain Henry Shreve built the "Washington" with many im- 
provements in construction. The boilers, which had hitherto been placed in 
the hold, were changed by Captain Shreve to the deck. In September, 1816, 
the "Washington " successfully passed the falls of the Ohio, made her trip 
to New Orleans, and returned in November to Louisville. On the 12th of 
March, 1817, she departed on her second trip to New Orleans, theice then 
running in the Ohio sb'ghtly retarding her progress. She made the trip 
successfully, and returned to the foot of the falls in forty-one days— the 
upward trip beii^ made in twenty-five days. By this time it was generally 
conceded by the flat-boatmen that Fitch and Fulton were not visionary fools, 
but men of genius, and that their inventions could be turned to immense 
advantage on the rivers of the West. Steamboats from this time on rapidly 

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multiplied, and the occupation of the old flat-bo&tmen began to pass away 
On Captain Shreve's return to Louisville the citizens gave him a public re- 
ception. Toasts and speeches were made, and the ^^ Washington'' declared 
to be the herald of a new era in the West. Captain Shreve in his speech 
asserted that the time would come when the trip to New Orleans would be 
made in ten days. His prediction was more than verified, for as early as 
1853, the trip was made in four days and nine hours. 

While these festivities were going on in Louisville, the "Gteneral Pike" 
was stemming the current of tne Mississippi for a new port in steamboat 
navigation. With a heavy load of freiglit and passengers she left New 
Orleans for St Louis. On her arrival at the latter city several thousand 
people greeted her as she slowly approached the landing. 

Steam navigation commenced on the Missouri in 181 9, the first boat being 
the " Independent ", commanded by Captain Nelson. She ascended as far as 
Chariton and Franklin, at which points she received a cargo of furs and 
buffalo hides, and returned with them to St Louis. 

In 1816 Fort Armstrong was erected at the lower end of Eock Island. On 
the 10th of May of this year Col. Lawrence, with the Eighth Begiment and 
a company of nflemen, arrived here in keel boats. Col. George I)avenport 
residea near the fort and supplied the troops with provisions, andalso engaged 
in trading with the Indians. Most of his ^oods were brought from "Macki- 
naw'' through Green Bay, thence up Fox nver to the "Portege", where they • 
were packedacross to the Wisconsin river, and carried down the Mississippi 
in what were called "Mackinaw Boats." The navigation of the upper Missis- 
sippi was confined to keel-boats until 1823, when the first steamooat — the 
"Virginia'' — from Wheeling ascended with provisions to Prairie du Chien. 
This boat was three or four days in passing the rapids at Bock Island. 
After this, up to 1827, steamboats continued to ascend the upper Mississippi 
occasionally With troops and military stores. In this year Capt James M^y, 
of the steamboat "Shamrock", made the first voyage with her from Pitts- 
burg to Galena. This was the first general business trip ever made on the 
upper Mississippi by a steamboat Capt. May continued as master of a 
steamboat on tnis part of the river until 1884. 

The first navigation of any considerable portion of the Missouri river was 
fliat of Captains Lewis and Clarke, when in 1804 they ascended that river in 
keel-boats, or barges, frt)m its inouth almost to its source. Of late years 
steamboats have navigated it regularly to Fort Benton. Steamboat navi- 
gation has also been employed on many of the smaller rivers of the West, 
including the Des Moines and Cedar rivers in Iowa. The introduction of 
railroads has superseded the necessitv of depending upon the uncertain nav- 
igation of the smaller rivers for carrymg purposes. Tne great water-courses, 
however, will doubtless always remain the indispensible conunercial high- 
ways of the nation. 


Andent Woria — Coiyectares — WoAb of the Mound BuOders in Ohio— Different fonns and 
Clftoooi — ^Moonds ai (^allipolifi, Marietta, and ChilHcothe — Relics Foond — Ancient Fortifi- 
caticms at Circleville and Other Places— Pre-historic Remains in Other States— In lowa^ 
EnaTation of Moonds— Elongated and Round Mounds— Their Antiquity— Who were the 
Mound Builders? 

Sqatfbbsd all over the great I^orthweet are the remains of the works of an 

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ancient people, who must have been infinitely more advanced in the arts 
than the Indian tribes who inhabited the countrv at the time of the advent 
of the European. The Question as to whether the Indians are the descend- 
ants of that people, the Mound Builders, is a subject of antiauarian specula- 
tion. One thing, however, is certain, that a people once innabited all this 
vast region who possessed some considerable knowledge of the arts and even 
the sciences; a .people of whom the Indians possessed no knowledge, but 
whose works have survived the mutations of hundreds, and perhaps thous- 
ands of years, to attest that they lived, and acted, and passed away. There 
have been various conjectures of the learned concerning the time when, by 
what people, and even for what purpose, these monuments of human ingenuity 
were erected. Their origin is aeeply involved in the obscurity of remote an- 
tiquity. Neither history, nor autnentic tradition, afford any light by which 
to conduct inc^uiries concerning them, and it is probable that no certainty 
upon the subject will ever be attained. Brief mention of some of these 
ancient works cannot fail to interest the reader. Tliey are found distributed 
over the country generally from the Alleghany Mountains to the Eocky 
Mountains. They are more numerous ana more remarkable, however, in 
some parts of the country than in others. 

Some of the most remarkable fortifications in Ohio are at Worthington, 
Granville, Athens, Marietta, Gallipolis, Chillicothe, and Oirdeville; also, on 
Paint Creek, 18 miles northwest of Chillicothe, and on a plain three miles 
northeast of the last named city. In some localities there are both mounds 
and fortifications, while in others there are mounds only. The mounds vary 
in magnitude, and also somewhat in shape. Some are conical, ending sharply 
at the summit, and as steep on the sides as the earth could be made to lie. 
Others are of the same form, except that they present a fiat area on the top, 
like a cone cut off at some distance from its vortex, in a plane coincident 
with its base, or with the horizon. Others again, are of a semi-globular 
shape. Of this description was that standing in Gtillipolis. The largest 
one near Worthington is of the second kind, and presents on the summit a 
level area of forty feet in diameter. Tliere is one at Marietta of this kind, 
but the area on top does not exceed twenty feet in diameter. Its perpendic- 
ular height is about fifty feet, and its circumference at the base twenty rods, 
"niose in Worthington and Gallipolis are each from fifteen to twenty feet in 
circumference at their bases. A lai^ mound once stood in the heart of tlie 
city of Chillicothe, but was leveled rorty or fifty years ago to make room for 
the erection of a block of buildings, and in its aestruction a number of relics 
were exhumed. Several smaller mounds were located in the same vicinity. 
They are found scattered in profusion in the vallies of the Miarais, Scioto, 
Hocldng and Muskingum rivers, as well as south of the Ohio river. One 
of the hirgest is near the Ohio river, 14 miles below Wheeling. This ia 
about 33 rods in circumference, and consequentl;;^ between ten and eleven 
rods in diameter at its base. Its perpendicular height is about seventy feet 
On the summit is an area of nearly sixty feet in diameter, in the middle of 
which is a regular cavity, the cubical content of which is about 3,000 feet. 
Within a short distance of this mound are five smaller ones, some of which 
are thirty feet in diameter. Some of the moimds mentioned, and others not 
referred to, have been excavated, either by the antiquarian or in the construc- 
tion of public works, and in most of them human bones have been discov- 
ered. Most of these bones crumble in pieces or resolve into dust shortly 
after being exposed to the air; except in some instances, wherein the tec^th. 

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jaw, skull, and sometimes a few other bon^ by reason of their Deculiar 
solidity, resist the effects of contact with the air. From the fact of tne find- 
ing human remains in them many have inferred that they were erected as 
burial places for the dead. In some of them, however, which have been ex- 
aminedy no human remains have been discovered, but pieces of pottery, stone 
hatchets, and other relics, are found in nearly all. 

Many of these mounds are composed of earth of a different quality from 
that which is found in their immeaiate vicinity. This circumstance would 
seem to indicate that the earth of which the^r were composed was transported 
some distance. A striking instance of this difference of composition was 
first noticed some sixty or seventy years a^, in a mound at Franklinton, 
near the main fork of the Scioto river. This mound was composed alto- 
gether of clay, and the brick for the court-house in that town were made of 
it at that time. In it were likewise found a much greater number of hu- 
man bones than is usually found in mounds of its size. The characteris- 
tics mentioned in connection with the mounds in Ohio apply to those gen- 
erally throughout the Northwest. 

Not so numerous as the mounds, but more remarkable as involving the 
principles of science, especially mathematics, are the fortifications, or earth 
walls, found in many places. ^^ <u^ commonly supposed to have been 
forts, or military fortifications. They generally consist of a circular wtdl, 
composed of earth, and usually as steep on the sides as the dirt could con 
veniently be made to lie. Sometimes, though rarely, their form is elliptical, 
or oval, and a few of them are quadrangular or square. In height they are 
various; some of them are so low as to be scarcelV perceptible ; some from 
twenty to thirty feet in height, while others agam are of an intermediate 
elevation. The wall of the same fort, however, is pretty uniformly of the 
same height all around. Thev are likewise equally various in the contents 
of the ground which they enclose, some containing but a few square rods of 
ground, while others contain nearly one hundred acres. The number of their 
entrances, or gateways, varies in different forts fi-om one to eight or more, 
in proportion to the magnitude of the enclosure. The walls are mostly sin- 
gle, but in some imstances these works have been found to consist of two 
pai^el walls, adjacent to each other. The forts are generally located on 
comparatively elevated ground, adjoining a river or stream of water. Their 
situation is usually suoi as a skillful military engineer or tactician would 
have selected for military positions. This fact would seem to strengthen 
the theory that thev were designed and constructed for fortifications. 

The city of Circleville, Ohio, is located on the site of one of the most re- 
markable of these fortifications, and from this circumstance takes its name. 
There are, or were, indeed, two forts at that place, one circular, and the other 
square, as represented in the diagram on the opposite page. 

In tliis, it will be seen that a square fort adjoins a circular one on the east, 
communicating with it by a gateway. The black points in the square fort, 
opposite the ^teways, show me location of mounds, each about three feet 
high. The circular fort consists of two parallel walls, whose tops ar^ ap- 
parently, about three rods apart, the inner circle being forty-seven rods m 
diameter. Between these two walls is a fosse, excavated sufiiciently deep 
and broad to have afforded earth enoagh for the construction of the exterior 
wall alone^ and no more. From this circumstance and others, the eardi for 
the constmction of the inner wall is supposed to have been transported from 
$ distance, ll^^ inner wall is composea of clay, and the outer one of dii't 

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end gravel of similar quality with that which composes the neighboring 
ground, which is another circumstance quite conclusive of the correctness 
of the conjecture that the material for tne inner wall was brought from a 
distance. There is but one original opening, or passage, into the circular 
fort, and that is on the east side, connecting it with the square one. The 
latter has seven avenues leading into it, exdusive of the one which connects 
with the circle. There is one at every comer, and one on each side equi-distant 
from the angular openings. These avenues are each twelve feet wide, and 
the walls on either nand rise immediately to their usual height, which is 
above twenty feet When the town of Circleville was originally laid out, 
the trees growing upon the walls of these fortifications and the mounds 
enclosed in the square one, were apparently of equal size and age, and those 
lying down in equal sta^s of decay, with those in the surrounding forest, 
a circumstance proving me great antiquity of these stupendous remains of 
former labor and ingenuity. Of course, the progress of modem civiliza- 
tion in the building of a city over these ancient remains, has long since 
nearly obliterated many of tneir parts. The above is a description of uiem as 
they appeared sixty years ago, when Circleville was a mere village, and be- 
fore the hand of modem vandalism had marred or obliterated any of the 
parts. A somewhat minute description of these ancient remains is given, 
not because they are more remarkable than many others found in different 
parts of the Northwest, but as an example to show the magnitude of many 
similar works. Among others in the same State may be mentioned a re- 
markable mound near Marietta, which is enclosed by a wall embracing an 
area 230 feet long by 215 wide. This mound is thirty feet high and ellip- 
tical in form. This mound, with the wall enclosing it, stand apart from two 
other irregular enclosures, one containing fifty and the other twenty-seven 
acres. "Within the larger of these two enclosures there are four truncated 
pyramids, three of which have graded passa^ ways to their summits. The 
largest pyramid is 188 feet long by 132 feet wide, and is ten feet high. 
From the souihem wall of this enclosure there is a graded passage way 150 
feet broad, extending 600 feet to the immediate valley of the Muskingum 
river. This passage way is guarded by embankments oh either side from 
eight to ten feet high. Li the smaller square there are no pyramidal struc- 
tures, but fronting each gate-way there is a circular mound. The walls of 
these several enclosures are from twenty to thirty feet broad at the base, and 
from five to six feet high. Besides these, many similar embankments may 
be traced in the same vicinity. 

Squier and Davis, authors of that most elaborate work, entitled "The An- 
cient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley '^ estimated that there were in 
Eloss county, Ohio, at least one hundred enclosures and five hundred mounds. 
They give the probable number in that State at from one thousand to fifteen 
.hundred enclosures, and ten thousand mounds. These estimates are quite 
likely to be far below the actual number, as their investigations were made 
many years ago, when large portions of the State were yet covered with for- 
ests, and before any general interest had been awakened on the subject of 
which they treated. Among the remarkable fortifications in Boss county 
is one at Cedar Bank, on the east side of the Scioto river, about five miles 
north of Chillicothe. It is of a square form, enclosing an area of thirty, 
two acres. The west side of this enclosure is formed by the high bluif bor- 
dering the river at this point. There are two ^te-ways opposite each other, 
one on the north and the other on the south side. Inside of the enclosure, 

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_i. ,.) .^-w W 

JhaiSr ^'fffiiolAJ^inck 

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)D a line with the gate-ways, there is a mound 245 feet long and 150 feet 
i)road. The form of this work is shown by the diagram on the opposite P&g^ 
When this work first attracted the attention of Mr. E. G. oquier, Dr. 
Davis, and others engaged in archaeological research, it was in the midst of 
I dense forest of heavy timber. Trees of the largest growth stood on the 
embankments, and covered the entire area of ground enclosed. About a 
mile and a half below, on the same side of the Scioto, are other fortifica- 
tions, both circular and square, even more remarkable than the one last de- 
scribed, on account of tue forms and combinations which they exhibit 
Another fortification in this county, in the form of a parallelogram, 2,800 
feet loi^ by 1,800 feet wide, encloses several smaller works and mounds, 
which altogether make 3,000,000 cubic feet of embankment 

A series of the most wonderful and most gigantic of these pre-historio 
works, is to be found in the Licking Valley, near Newark They cover an 
area of two square miles. The woncs are of such vast ma^itnde that even 
with onr labor-saving implements to construct them, would require the la- 
bor of thousands of men continued for many months: ^^Fort Ancient'', as 
it is called, in Warren county, Ohio, has nearly four miles of embankment, 
from eighteen to twenty teet high. 

Mounds and fortifications similar to those in Ohio are found in all the 
States of the Northwest, and indeed, throughout the entire valley of the 
Mississippi and its tributaries. In the valley of the Wabash, in Indiana, 
are many interesting remains of the works of the Mound Builders. Near 
Eahokia, lUinois, there is a mound 2,000 feet in circumference, and ninety 
feet higk Many remarkable objects of interest to the antiquary are found 
in Wisconsin. Scattered over her undulating plains are earth-works, mod- 
eled after the forms of men and animals. At Aztalan, in Jefferson county, 
is an ancient fortification 550 yards long and 275 yards wide. The 
walls are from four to five feet high, and more than twenty feet in thickness 
at the base. Near the Blue Motmds, in that State, there is another work, 
in form resembling a man in a recumbent position. It is one hundred and 
twenty feet long and thirty feet across the trunk. At Prairicville there is 
still another resembling a turtle in shape which, is fifty-six feet in len^h. 
At Gassville there is one whieh is said to resemble the extinct masteoon. 
In some instances these animal resemblances and forms are much defaced 
hj time, while in other cases they are distinctly visible. Fragments of an- 
cient pottery are foimd scattered about most of them. 

Scattered over the surfiice of Iowa, also, are to be found many of these 
monuments of a pre-historic race. The mounds especially are numerous, 
appearing most in that portion of the State east of the Des Moines river, 
butin a tew instances west of it Groups of mounds are found alone Iowa 
river, in Johnson county, presenting the same general appearance with those 
«i the States east of the Mississippi. Near the mouth of this river, in Louisa 
county, are the remains of an ancient fortification, with a number of mounds 
in the same vicinity, which have attracted the attention of the curious. In 
the vicinity of Ottumwa, Wapello co^mtj^ are a lai^ number of mounds, 
s^eral of which have been examined. Hiere is a chain of them in this last 
named county, commencinff near the mouth of Sugar Creek, a small tribu- 
J^of the Jjes Moines, and extending twelve miles nortward, with distances 
between fliem in some instances as great as two miles. Two of them were 
exttvated several years ago. One of them was about 46 feet in diameter, 
and tttuated upon the highest ground in the vicinity. The other was directly 

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north about one-fourth of a mile. Its diameter at the base was about 75 
feet In the center of this last named mound, was found, at the depth of 
four feet, a layer of stone, with the appearance of having been subject^ to 
the action of iire. There were also found a mass of charcoal, a bed of ashes, 
an<^ calcined human bones. A number of relics were also found in the 
smaller mound first mentioned. These examinations were made by several 
gentlemen of Ottumwa. 

Mr. F. C. Boberts, in a Fort Madison paper, writ^ of the examination of 
a mound situated about six miles north of that city, a few years a^. It is 
located on the brow of a hill, is of an elliptical shape, and smaU in size, 
bein^ only about 30 feet long, and fifteen ieet wide; its height was about 
six ieet. The mound contained a number of separate compartments, con- 
structed as follows: First, there was a floor maoe of limestone, which must 
have been brought a distance of several miles, as none nearer could have 
been obtained. This floor was laid regular and smooth, the best stone only 
being used. Above the floor, with an intervening space of about twenty 
inches, there was a roof, also made of limestone. Tlie sides of this vault, if 
it may so be called, seemed to have once had stone walls, but they were more 
or less caved in. It was also thought that the roof had originally been much 
higher. The compartments were made bv partitions or walls of stone. Each 
compartment was occupied by a human skeleton, and articles of flint and 
stone, as well as some Dones of animals. All the skeletons of human origin 
were placed in a sitting position, with the knees drawn up, and the head m- 
clinea forward between them. The arms were placed by the side, and some- 
times clasped around the knees. Besides the human bones, there were those 
of some large birds and of some animal. Some of these were charred, and 
were found in connection with charcoal and ashes. There were numerous 
flint weapons, and small three cornered stones. 

• In Cl^ton and other counties in the northeastern part of the State, the 
Mound Builders have left numerous monuments of their existence in that 
region in pre-historic tinies. The researches of Hon. Samuel Murdock, of 
Clayton county, have been extensive and successfiil in giving to the scien- 
tific and antiquarian world much information in relation to these works 
of an ancient people who once occupied our continent. He has collected 
a' vast number ot relics from the mounds in that portion of the State. 
After long and thorough investigation, he gives it as his opinion that in 
Clayton county alone mere are not less than one himdred thousand arti- 
ficial mounds, including the two classes, the round and the elongated, 
the latter ranging from, one hundred to six hundred feet in lenfftli. 
All of them, so far as examinations have been made, contain more or less 
skeletons. One which was examined near Clayton was estimated to have 
contained over one hundred bodies. From investigations made, tlie infer- 
ence is drawn that the elongated mounds are of greater antiquity tlian the 
round ones. The skeletons found in the former are in a more advanced state 
of deicay, and in some of them there is scarcely any trace of bones. In 
nearly all the round mounds skeletons were found in a remarkably good 
state of preservation, and can be obtained by tlie tliousand. These facts in- 
dicate most conclusively that the elongated mounds were the work of an 
older race of the Mound Builders, and tliat they were erected ages before the 
round ones were. Tlie fact that human remains have been found in nearly 
all of both classes &vor8 tlie theory that they were erected as receptacles for 
the dead. 

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f A'\JJ:% XtJBiJlli TV AX^ A JO«J»« 

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WUle workmen were excavating a monnd for the foundation of a ware- 
house in the city of McGregor, in the Bummer of 1874, human bones were 
found, and also a stone axe weighing thirteen pounds. It was embedded 
twenty feet below the original surface. 

As stated, the work of the Mound Builders was not confined to that por- 
tion of the State embracing the Mississippi drainage. Similar remains, 
though not so numerous, are observed on the western 3opeof tibe water- shed 
between the two great rivers bordering the State. Some five miles below 
Denison, Crawford county, in the valley of Boyer river, there is a semi-cir- 
cular group of artificial mounds. They are situated on a plateau, rising 
above the first, or lower bottom, and are about nine in number, each rising 
to a height of from five to six feet above the general level of the grouncL 
Another similar group is located on a second bottom, at the moul^ of Para- 
dise creek, in the same county.. Human remains have been found in some 
of them. 

Having noticed briefiy some of the various forms in which these stupen- 
dous woi^ of men who lived &t back in the centuries, whose annals nave 
not come down to us in any written language, we can say now that the most 
learned have only been able to conjecture as to the remoteness of their an- 
tiquity. The evidences that they are of very great age are abundant and 
conclusive, hvt how many h/imdrede or thovscmda of yea/rsf This is the 
problem that many an antiquary would freely give years of study and inves- 
tigation to solve. The length of time whicn elapsed during which these 
works were in progesss-is another of the unsolved questions connected with 
them, and yet there is abundant evidence that some of them are much older 
than others; that the process of their construction extends over a large dura- 
tion of time — a time auring which the Mound Builders themselves passed 
through the changes which mark the monuments that they have left oehind 
them. It is a well known fact that the manners and customs of rude nations 
isolated from intercourse and commerce with the world, pass through the 
process of change and development very slowly. The semi-civilized nations 
of eastern lands, after the lapse of thousands of years, still cling to the man- 
ners and customs, and the superstitions of their ancestors, who lived at the 
early dawn of our historic period. They use the same rude implements of 
husbandry, the same utensils in the household, the same arms in warfare^ 
and practice the same styles of dress — ^all with but little change or modifi- 
cation. The changes are only sufficiently marked to be perceptible after 
many generations nave passed away. Situated as the Mound Builders were, 
we can but infer that they too passed slowly through the processes of change, 
and the works which they have left behind them tnorougnly attest the truth 
of this proposition. Their older works appear to be more elaborate and 
more intricate, showing that the earlier worKers were possessed of a liigher 
degree of attainment in the mechanical arts than those whose works are 
more recent. The inference is that probably after long ages, thqr gradually 
retrograded, and were finally subdu^ or driven southwara into Mexico and 
Central America, by the ancestors of the Indians, who came upon them from 
the northwest, as the Goths and Vandals invaded and subverted the Boman 
Empire. This final subjugation may have resulted after centuries of war- 
fare, during which time these fortifications were constructed as defences 
against the enemy. That they were for military purposes is scarcely sus- 
ceptible of a douDt. This implies a state of warfare, and war implies an 
enemy. The struggle ended in the final subjugation of that people to whoni 

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we applj the name of Mound Builders — ^their oonon^rors and suooeseore 
being a race of people in whom we recognize to tnis day, traces of t^e 
Asiatic type. 

We, another race of people, after the lapse of other Bff&^ tread to-day, in 
onr turn, on the ruins of at least a limited oivilization — a civilization older 
tlian that of the Aztecs, whom Cortez found in Mexico. This great Missis- 
sippi valley was once a populous empire, millions of whose subjects repose 
in me sepulchers scatterea in our valleys and over our prairies. While we 
bow at the shrine of a more intellig^it Deity, and strive to build up a truer 
and better civilization, let us still remember that we tread on classic ground. 


Legidaticm in Regard to Ohio— Admini<m as a State— Description— Climate and Sofl— Ori^ 
of Name^-Seat oi GoYemment— Legislation in Regard to Indiana— Deecription — Lost 
River— Wyandot Cave— Seat of Qoyemment — Internal Improrements — Vmcennes — lili- 
noia— Admission as a State— DeKaiptMm—Prodaction»— Towns and Cities— "Lorer's 
Leap'*— **BnfEab Rock**— "Cave in the Rock**— Michigan— The Boondary Qaestion 
—Admission as a State— Description— Histonr— Towns and Cities— Wisconsin— Descrip- 
tioii— Climate and Prodnctions— Objects of Inteiestr— Towns and Cities— Sketch of Mil- 
wankee — Minnesota— Description — Lake»— Climate and Prodoctions — Natnral SceneiT— 
Red Pipe Stone— Historical Sketch— Towns and Citie»— Nebraska— Description— Towns 
and Citie»— Missonri-TOrgiinic Legislation— The " Missouri Compromise **— Description— 
Early Settlement— Stl Louis— Other Towns and Cities. 


Ohio was the first State formed out of the territory northwest of the river 
Ohio, which was ceded to the United States by the General Assembly of 
Yimnia in 1783, and accepted bj the Oongress of the United States, March 
1, 1T84. This territory was divided into two separate governments by act 
of Congress of May 7, 1800, Ohio remained a Territorial government until 
imder an act of Congress, approved April 80, 1802, it adopted a State consti- 
tution, and was allowed one representative in Congress. On the first of 
November of the same vear the constitution was presented in Congress. 
The people having, on November 29, 1802, complied with the act of Con- 
gress of April 30, 1802, whereby the State became one of the United States, 
an act was passed and approved February 19, 1803, for the due execution of 
tbe kws of the United States within that State. 

The State embraces an area of about 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 
acres. There are no mountains, but the central portion of the State is ele- 
vated about 1000 feet above the level of the sea, while other portions are 
from 600 to 800 feet in elevation- A belt of highlands north of the middle 
of the State separates the rivers Aowi^ north into Lake Erie from those 
flowing south into the Ohio river, ^e mid^e portion of the State in 
peat part is an elevated plain with occasional patches of marsh land. A 
uige proportion of the State when first settled was covered with forests, but 
in the coitral part there was some prairie. Boulders are found scattered 
over the snrfiEice, as thev are generaUy throughout the Northwest. 

The bituminous coal-field of the State extends over an area embracing 
uwl^ 12,000 square miles. It occupies the eastern and southeastern parts, 
with its northern boundair running near Wooster, Newark, and Lancaster. 
There are also firequent beds of limestone, as well as sandstone well suited for 
heavy masonry. The most important of the other mineral productions is 

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iron, which it possesBes in great abundance. This is fonnd running through 
the counties of Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Meigs, Vinton, Athens, and 
Hocking, in a bed 100 miles long by 12 wide. For fine castings it is not 
surpassed by that found in any otner part of the United States. Salt 
springs are also frequent 

The ffreat river of the State is the Ohio, which forms its southern bound- 
ary, and receives the tributary volume of waters flowing from the Muskin- 
^m, Scioto, and Miami, as well as those of many smaller streams. The 
mterior rivers mentioned vary in length from 110 to 200 miles. The Ohio 
is navigable by steamboats of the fijst-class during one-half die year to Pitts- 
burg. The Muskingum is navi^ble by means of dams and locks to 
Zanesville, 70 miles from its mouth, and at times 80 miles tarther up to 
Coshocton. On the northern slope of the State, beginning at the northwest, 
are the Maumee, Sandusky, Huron, and Cuyahoga, all flowing into Lake 
Erie, and all flowing their entire course within the State, except the Mau- 
mee, which rises in Indiana. The last-named river is navigable for lake 
steamers a distance of 18 miles. Lake Erie coasts the state about 150 miles 
on the north and northeast, affording several good harbors. 

The climate in the southern part of the State is mild, while in the north 
the temperature is equally as rigorous as in the same latitude near the 
Atlantic Great droughts have occasionallv prevailed, but the State is re- 
garded as one of the most productive in the Union. , Indian com, wheat, 
rye, oats, and barley, are the leadii^ cereals. All the fruits of the temperate 
latitudes are generally abundant. The forest trees are of many kinds, includ- 
ing the several varieties of oak, hickory, sugar and maple, beech, poplar, ash, 
sycamore, paw-paw, buckeye, dogwood, cherry, elm, and hackbOTy. 

The State receives its name from that of the river which forms its southern 
boundary. It is of Indian or aboriginal origin. It is not easy to determine 
its real signification in the Indian leui^i^, but some writers have claimed 
that it means handsome or beautiful. This opinion would seem to be some- 
what plausible from the fact that the early French explorers called it Za 
Belle Riviere^ or the Beautiful River, having probably learned the si^fica- 
tion of the Indian name, and therefore gave it a French name with Uie 
same signification. 

Ohio was first partially settled by a few French emigrants on the Ohio 
river, while they possessed Canada and Louisiana, about the middle of the 
the last century. But these settlements were very inconsiderable until the 
year 1787 and 1788, when the Ohio Company and others from New England 
made the settlement at Marietta. The early inhabitants were much annoyed 
by the incursions of the Indians, who had successively defeated Gren. Harmar 
and Gen. St. Clair, in 1791 and 1792, but were themselves utterly routed by 
Gen. Wayne in August, 1794. Fort Sandusky, in the war of 1812, was suo- 
cessfully defended by Maj. Croghan, then but 21 years of ace, with 160 men 
against the attack of Gen. Proctor, with 600 British regulars and as many 
Indians. Cincinnati was laid out as early as 1788, but there were only a few set- 
tlers until after Wayne's victory. It then improved rapidly, having in 1818 
a population of upward of 9,000. Chillioothe was laid out in 17 w, and in 
1818 had a population of 2,600. Columbus, the present capital, was laid 
out early in tne yeur 1812, and in 1818 contained about 1,500 inhabitants. 
Cleveland was laid out in 1796, and about the same time a number of set- 
tlements were miade along the Miami. Until the le^slature met in Colum- 
bus, in December, 1816, Cincinnati and Chillioothe bad alternately enjoyed 

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thedifitinctioii of bein^ both the Territorial and State capitals. In 1814 the 
first State-house, a plain brick building, was erected at OolnmbuB, the per- 
manent seat of the State Govemmoit In Februair, 1852, it was entirely 
consumed by fire, and was succeeded by the present nne State capitol, which 
had been oonunenced prior to the destruction of the old one. The conven- 
tion which formed the first constitution of the State was held in Ohillioothe, 
in Kovember, 1802. 

The following table shows the population of Ohio at the close of each 
decade fiom 1800 to 1870: 




































•The above 

_ _ 1 for 1860 indudet 30 ennmerated as Indiam, and the aggregate for 
renunerated at Indiaoi. 


Indiana was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territory which 
was ceded to the United States by the Virginia. It received a separate Ter- 
ritorial form of government by act of Congress of May 7, 1800, and William 
Hemy Harrison was appointed Gk>vemor. At this time it included aU the 
territory west to the mssissippi river, indading all now embraced in the 
States of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of 
the Mississippi. The seat of the territorial government was established at 
Yincennes. By act of January 11, 1805, it was divided into two separate 
governments, and tiiat of Michigan created. Again, February 8, 1809, that of 
Illinois was created* On the 19th of April, 1816, Congress passed an act 
to enable the people of Indiana to form a constitution ana State ^vernment 
On ihe 29th of June of the same year the people formed a constitution, and 
on Hie nth of December, 1816, an act of Congress was approved admitting 
the State into the Union. The laws of the United States were extended to 
the State b^ an act of March 8, 1817. 

Indiana is 278 miles in its greatest length from north to south, and about 
144 miles in width, and includes an area of 83,809 square miles, or 21,637,- 
760 acres. It has no mountains or ei'eat elevations, but portions south of 
White river are somewhat hilly. North of the White and Wabash rivers 
the country is generally level or slightly undulating. The rivers are gener- 
ally bordered by rich alluvial bottom lands, sometimes extending for several 
miles in width. Some of the southeastern counties in places present a 
toekj eoT&ee. The eastern part is generally heavily timoered, while the 
western is chiefly prairia The State has a gradual mdination toward the 
(Mo, and most of^the streams flow into that riter. Lake Michigan borders 
die State on the northwest for a distance of about 40 miles, while the Ohio 
£»rms the entire southern boundary. In the northern part there are some 
small lakes. The Wabash is the largest interior river, and with its tributa- 
ries drains nearly three-fourths of the State. At high water it is navigable 

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by BteamlxJats aa ffir as Oaviiigton. White river is its principal tributary. 
It rises in two branches in the eastern part of the State, the two branches 
uniting about 30 miles from the Wabash. The Maumee is formed by the 
St Joseph's and St. Mary's in the northeastern part of the State, and passes 
off into Ohio. The Kankakee, one oi the sources of the Illinois, drains 
the northwestern part of the State. Among other streams are the Tippeca- 
noe, Mississiniwa, Whitewater, Flat Rock, and Blue rivers. 

The State yields an abundance of coal, the great deposit being in the 
southwestern portion, and embracing an area of nearly 8,000 square miles, or 
some twenty-two counties, in most of which it is profitably mined. There 
are also iron, zinc, gypsum, and lime and sandstone. Many quarries of stone 
yield excellent building material. 

Indiana is not without its natural wonders which have attracted the atten- 
tion of the curious. Among these is Lost river, in Orange county. This 
stream is about fifty feet in width. It sinks many feet under ground, and 
then rises to the surface at a distance of 11 miles. Then there is Wyandot 
Cave, in Crawford county. In beauty and magnificence it almost rivals the 
celebrated Mammoth Cave in Kentuckv. It has been explored a distance 
of over twenty miles. Its greatest width is about 800 feet, and its greatest 
height 246 feet Among its interior wonders are "Bandit's Hall," "Flute's 
Eavine," "Monument Mountain," "Lucifer's Gtorge." and "Calypso's 
Island." The interior is brilliantly sparred with pencmnt stalactites. 

The climate is milder than in the same latitude on the Atlantic coast, but 
somewhat subject to sudden changes. The soil is generally productive, and 
in the river bottoms very deep, well adapted to Indian com and other kinds 
of grain* The alluvial bottom lands of the Wabash and its tributaries are 
especially noted for their fertility. The productions are the various kinds 
ot grain, vegetables, and fruits common in temperate latitudes. 

Indiana has a large variety of forest trees. Among those indigenous to 
the State are several kinds of oak, poplar, ash, walnut, hickory, elm, cherry, 
maple, buckeye, beech, locust, sycamore, cottonwood, haekberry, mulberry, 
and some sassafras. 

Indianapolis is the capital, and is situated on the west fork of White 
river, in Marion ounty. The site was selected for the capital in 1820, while 
the whole country for forty miles in every direction was covered with a 
dense forest. Previous to 1825 the State capital was at Corydon, but in 
that*year the public offices were removed to Indianapolis. The State-house 
was erected at a cost of $60,000, and at that time was considered an elegant 
building. It is now unsuited for the purposes of a great State like Indiana 
and will soon give place to a larger ana more elegant structure. Indianapolis, 
in 1840,had a population of 2,692 : in 1850 it had 8,900 ; in 1860 it had 18,611 ; 
and in 1870 it had 48,244. 

In works of internal improvement Indiana stands amon^ the leading States 
of the Mississippi valley. Bailroads radiate in all directions from Indian- 
apolis, and there is scarcely a place in the State of any c<msiderable import- 
ance that is not connecteo, directly or indirectly, with the larger cities. 
Among her early imwovements were the Wabash and Erie Canal, connect- 
ing Evansville with Toledo, and the Whitewater Canal, connecting Cam- 
bridge City with Lawreiiceburg, on the Ohio. Of the Wabash and Erie 
Cand, 379 miles are within the limits of Indiana. The Whitewater Canal 
is 74 miles long. Indianapolis is the largest and most iniportant city in 
the State, and among the principal cities may be mentionea New Albany, 

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Evansville, Fort Wayne, La Fayettei Terre Haute, Madison, LaDorte, Jeflfer- 
BonTille, Logansport, Crawfordsville, Lawrenceburg, South Bena and Michi- 
gan City. tJorydon, the former State capital, is 116 miles south of Indian- 
apolis, in Harrison county. When the seat of government was removed from 
this place to Indianapolis, in 1834, it remained stationary for a long time, 
but within a few years it has become more flourishing. Vincennes, the an- 
cient seat of the Territorial government, is on the len bank of the Wabash 
river, 120 miles south of Indianapolis. It is the oldest town in the State, 
and possesses much historic interest, bein^ first settled by the French about 
the year 1735. Many of the present imiabitants are of French descent. 
The seat of ^vemment was removed from Vincennes to Corydon in 1818. 
The following table shows the population of Indiana, at the close of each 
decade, from IdOO to 1870: 





























•The above aggregate for 1860 incliidef 290 enumerated m Indians, and the aggregate for 
1870 indodes 2& enumerated as Indians. 


Illinois was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territonr, which 
was ceded to the United States by the State of Virginia. An act for divid- 
ing the Indian Territory, was passed by Congress, and approved February 
3<^ 1809. An act to enable the people of the Territory to form a constitu- 
tion and State government, and authorizing one representative in Congress, 
was passed and approved April 18th, 1818. By the same act a iMit of the 
Temtory of Illinois was attached to the Territory of Michigan. The people 
having, on the 26th of August of the same year, formed a constitution, a 
joint resolution was passea by Congress, and approved December 8d, 1818, 
admitting the State into tiie Union, and on the 2d of March following, an 
•act was approved to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United 
States within the State of Illinois. 

The extreme length of Illinois from nortii to soutii is about 880 miles, 

and its greatest width about 200 miles. It embraces an area of 55,409 square 

miles, or 35,459,200 acres. The surface of the State is generally level, with 

a g^ieral inclination from north to south, as indicated oy the course of its 

rivers. There are some elevate blu£b alonff the Mississippi and Illinois 

rivers, and a small tract of hilly country in me southern part of the State. 

The northwest part also contains a considerable amount of broken land. 

8ome of the prairies are lai^ but in the early settiement of the State there 

woe many small prairies, sEirted with fine groves of timber. The prairies 

•re generally undulating, and in their native state were clothed in a great 

variety of lleautiful wila flowers. The State is well supplied with mii^rals 

Gf great economic value. The region of Gulena, in the northwest part, has 

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for many years yielded vast qnantities of lead. The coal fields oover an area 
of 44,000 square miles. There are salt spring in Oallatin, Jackson and 
Yemullion counties; and medicinal spring chiefly sulphur and chalybeate, 
have been found in several places. "ExiceSent building stone tor heavy ma- 
sonry, are quarried at Joliet, La Mont, Quin<^, and oUier places. 

IlBnois possesses pre-eminent &cilities for water transportation, the Missis- 
sippi river forming me entire western boundary, and the Ohio the entire 
southern, while L&e Michigan bounds it on the northeast 60 miles. The 
Illinois river is navigable mr steamboats 286 miles. Bock river, though 
having obstructions near its mouth, has in times of high water been navi- 

eted for a considerable distance. Kaskaskia, Sangamon and Spoon rivers 
ve also been navigated by steamboat, but the construction of railroads has 
in a great measure superseded the necessitjr of this means of trans]x>rtation. 
Among the rivers are the upper portion of the "Wabash, which receives from 
this State the waters of the V ermillion, Embarras and Little Wabash. The 
OTindpal tributaries, or sources, of the Illinois river are Easkaskia, Bes 
Plaines and Fox rivers. Lake reoria is an expansion of the Illinois river, 
near the middle of the State. Lake Pishtoka, m the northeast part, is a lake 
of some importance. 

BlinoifiL extending tinough five degrees of latitude, presents considerable 
variety of climate. Peaches and some other fruits, which do not succeed so 
well in the northern part, rardy £Edl to yield abundantly in the southern part. 
The State has imm«[ise agricultural capabilities, unsurpassed, indeed, by any 
other State in the Union, unless it may be the yoimger State of Iowa. Amon^ 
its agricultural staples are Indian com, wheat, oats, lye, potatoes, butter and 
cheese. Stock raising on the prairies of Illinois has, for many years, been 
carried on ext^isi vely. All the fruits and ve^tables common to the latitudes 
in which it is situated are successfully and aoundanily produced. 

Timber is plentiful, but not very equally difiused. The bottom lands are 
supplied with fine growths of black and white walnut, ash, hackberry, elm, 
sugar manle, honey locust, sycamore, Cottonwood, hickory, and several species 
of oak. Dome of these also grow on the uplands, and in addition white oak, 
and other valuable kinds of timber. White and yellow poplar fiourish in 
the southern part, and cypress on the Ohio bottom lands. 

As we have seen, Illinois did not become a member of the Federal Union 
nntil 1818, yet settlements were made within its limits about the same time 
that William Penn colonized Pennsylvania, in the latter nart of the seven- 
teenth century. These settlements, like other French colonies, failed to in- 
crease very rapidly, and it was not until after the close of the Bevolution, 
that ext^isive colonization commenced. 

Springfield, the capital of Illinois, was laid out in 1822. It is situated 
thuee miles soudi of the Sangamon river, in Sangamon county, and is sur- 
rounded by rich and extensive prairies, which have been transformed into 
splendid rarms. Larm quantities of bituminous coal are mined in this 
Tidnily. This city wul ever bememorable as the home of Abraham Lincoln, 
and as the jdace where his remains are entombed. In 1840 it had a pop- 
ulation of 2,679: in 1850 it had 4,583; in 1860 it had 7,002; and in 1870 
it had 17,364. bince the last date ihe population has increased rapidly. A 
new and magnificent State capitol has been erected, and Springfield, may 
now be regarded as one of the fiourishing cities of Illinois. 

Cbie^go, on the site of old Fort Deartom, is now the largest interior city 
of <ii6 United States. It stands on the shore of Lake Mi<migan, with tlie 

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Chicago river flowing through it. As the great commercial emporium of 
the Northwest, a special/accomit of this city will be riven elsewhere. Among 
other large and thriving cities are Peoria, Quincy^ Galena, Belleville, Alton, 
Bockfor^ Bloomington, Ottawa, Aurora, Lincoln, Bock Island, Gralesburg, 
Joliet and Jacksonville. 

The internal improvements of Blinois are on a grand scale. Tlie rail- 
roads traverse almost every county, connecting her towns and cities with her 
^reat commercial city on the lake, and with the markets of the East. Besides 
liiese, she has her great canal, from Chicago to Peru, uniting the waters of 
Lake Michigan wim the Mississippi river. This canal is 100 miles long. 

A few stiSring features of the natural scenery of this State may be men- 
tioned. Along tne Mississippi are bold and picturesque blufis, rising from 
one to three hundred feet " Starved Bock " and " Lover's Leap " are eminen- 
ces on Illinois river, the former being a perpendicular mass of limestoncL 
eight miles below Ottawa, and rising 150 feet above the river. It is so called 
from an incident in Indian warfiure. A band of Illinois Indians took refuge 
on this eminence from the Pottawattamies, but being surrounded by the 
latter, they all died, it is said not of starvation, but of thirst. Nearly oppo- 
site "Lover's Leap" is "BuflEeilo Bock,'* 100 feet high. Here the Indians 
formerly drove the bu£Sdo, and wit^ shouts caused them to crowd each other 
over the precipice. On the banks of the Ohio, in Hardin county, is "Cave 
in the Bock," the entrance to which is but little above the water. The cave 
ascends gradually from the entrance to the extreme limit, back 180 feet. In 
1797 it was the rendezvous of a band of robbers, who sallied forth to rob 
boatmen and emigrants. Other outlaws have since made it their abode. 

The following table shows the population of Illinois at the close of each 
decade, from 1800 to 1870. 

























• The above u^fffregate for 1860 includes I 
enomerated as Indiajos in 1870. 

I enumerated as Indians, and the same nmnber 


Michigan was formed out of a part of the territory ceded to the United 
States by the State of Virginia. It was detached m>m Indiana Territory, 
and become a separate Territorial government under an act of Congress ap- 
proved January 11, 1805. It remained for more than thirty years under a 
^ territorial form of government, but embraced a vast region not now inclu- 
ded in the State. JDuring this time there was consicterable legislation in 
regard to its boundaries, me most important of which was the adjustment 
of the boundary line between Michigan and the State of Ohio, in 1836. In 
January, 1833, a memorial of the Legislative Council of the Ten'itory was 
presented in Congress, praying for admission into the Union as a State. 
The prayer of the memorial was not granted at that time, partly on account 

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of the disputed boundary question. Finallj, on the 15th of June, 1836^ an 
acrt was passed *' to establish the northern boundary of the State of Ohio, 
and to provide for the admission of the State of Miohigan into the Union, 
upon conditions therein expressed." One of the con£tions was, that if a 
convention of delegates elected by the people of Michi^n for the purpose 
of giving their assent to the boundaries, as declared ana established by the 
act of June 15th, 1836, should first give their assent, then Michigan was to 
be declared one of the States of the Union. This condition having been 
complied with, Congress, on the 26th of January, 1837, passed an act de- 
daring Michigan one of the United States, and admitting it into the Union 
upon an equaifooting with the original States. 

Michigan occupies two peninsulas, the southern one lying between Lakes 
Erie, St. Clair and Huron on the east, and Lake Michigan on the west ; and 
the northern one between Lakes Michigan and Huron on the south, and 
Lake Superior on the north. The northern peninsula is about 320 miles in 
extreme length, from southeast to northwest, and 130 miles in its greatest 
widtiu The southern peninsula is about 283 miles from north to south, and 
210 from east to west in its greatest width. The joint area of the two 
peninsulas is 56,243 square miles, or 35,595,520 acres. The northern penin- 
sula embraces about two-fifths of the total area. 

The southern peninsula is generally an undulating plain, with a few slight 
elevations. The shores of Lake Huron are often characterized bv steep 
blufis, while those of Lake Michi^em are coasted by shifting sand-hills, ris- 
ing fit>m one hundred to two hui]^red feet in height. In the southern part 
of this peninsula are large districts covered with tninly scattered trees, ciuled 
"oak openings." 

The northern peninsula is in striking contrast with the southern, both as 
to soil and surface. It is rugged, wim streams abounding in water-falls. 
He "Wisconsin, or Porcupine Mountains, form the water-shra between Lakes 
• Midiigau and Superior, and attain an elevation of 2,000 feet in the northwestern 
'portion of the peninsula. The shores of Lake Superior are composed of 
sandstone rock, which in places is worn by the winds and waves into many 
strange and fanciful shapes, resembling the ruins of castles, and forming 
the celebrated "Pictured Kocks." The northern peninsula of Michigan 
possesses probably the richest copper mines in the world, occupying a belt 
one hundred and twenfrjr miles in length by from two to six mnes in widtlu 
It is rich in minerals, but rigorous in climate and sterile in soil. Coal is 
plentiful at Oorunna, one hundred miles from Detroit. 

The State is so surrounded and intersected by lakes as to fairly entitie it 
to tiie soubriquet of " The Lake State." There are a number of small lakes 
in the interior of the State, which add to the general variety of scenery, but 
are not important to navigation. The Straits of Mackinaw (formerly writ- 
ten Michilimackinac^ divide the southern from the northern peninsula, and 
connect the waters ot Lakes Michigan and Huron by a navigable channel. 
There are a number of small rivers, the most important in the southern pe- 
ninsula being St. Joseph's, Ealamazoo, Grand, Mluskegon and Manistee, all 
emptying into Lake Michigan; and Au Sable and Siganaw, flowing into 
iMke Huron, and the Huron and Eaisin discharging their waters into Lake 
Erie. The principal rivers of the northern pemnsula are the Menomonee, 
Montreal and Ontonagon. The shores around the lakes are indented by nu- 
merous bays. Several small islands belong to Michigan, the most impor- 
tant of which is Isle Eoyale, noted for its copper mines. 

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The climate of Michigan is generally rigorous, except in proximity to the 
lakes, where the fruits of the temperate zone succeed aamiraoly. 'Fhe norfli- 
em peninsula is favorable for winter wheat, but Indian com does not suc- 
ceed well. In the southern peninsula, Indian com is produced abundantly, 
as well as the winter grains. This part of the State is pre-eminently agri- 

Portions of the northern peninsula are heavily timbered with white pine, 
spruce, hemlock, birch, aspen, maple, ash and elm, and vast qujmtities of 
lumber are manufactured at the fine mill-sites afforded by the rapid streams. 
Timber is plentiful also in the southern peninsula, and consists chiefly of 
several species of oak, hickory, ash, basswood, maple, elm, linden, locust, 
dogwood, poplar, beech, sycamore, Cottonwood, black and white walnat, 
cherry, pine, tamarack, cypress, cedar and chestnut. 

Northern Michigan alJounds in picturesque scenery, among which may 
be mentioned the " Pictured Rocks," composed of sandstone of various col- 
ors. They extend for about twelve miles, and rise 300 feet above the water. 
Sometimes cascades shoot over the precipice, so that vessels can sail between 
tihiem and the natural wall of the rock. This portion of the State every sea- 
son attracts large numbers of excursionists and pleasure-seekers, on account 
of its charming and interestiuff scenerjr. 

The State is named for the lake whidi forms a part of its boundary, and 
signifies in the Indian language, "Great Water.'' The first white settle- 
ments were by the French, near Detroit and at Mackinaw, in the latter hall 
of the seventeenth century ; but these colonies did not progress rapidly. 
This territory, with other French possessions in North America, came into 

Possession of Great Britain at the peace of 1763. It remained under the 
ominion of Great Britain until the American Revolution, when it became 
the possession of the United States. The British, however, did not surren- 
der betroit until 1796. This region was chiefly the scene of the exploits 
of the celebrated chief Pontiac, alter the expulsion of the French. During 
the war of 1812, Michigan became the theater of several of the battles ana 
many of the incidents connected with that war. At Frenchtown, in this 
State, Januarj^ 22, 1813, occurred a cruel massacre by the savages of a party of 
American pnsoners of war. Gen. Harrison soon after drove the enemy out 
of the Territory, and removed the seat of war into Canada, where he fought 
and gained the battle of the Thames. 

Lansing, the capital of Michigan, is situated on Grand river, in Ingham 
county one hundred and ten miles northwest of Detroit It was selected for 
the seat of government in 1847, at which time it was surrounded by an al- 
most unbroken wilderness. The river here affords excellent water power. 
A new and handsome State capitol has just been completed. 

Detroit, situated on the river from which it takes its name, eighteen milea 
from the head of Lake Erie, is the largest city in the State. It was the 
capital until the removal of the seat of government to Lansing, in 1850. 
HistoricaUy it is one of the most interesting cities in the "West. The Frendi 
had here a military post as early as 1670. Three Indian tribes, the Hurons, 
Pottawattamies and Ottawas, had their villages in the vicinity. With other 
French possessions, it passed into the hands of the British at the peace of 
1763, and twenty years later it came under the jurisdiction of the United 
States, although, as stated above, it was not surrendered until 1796. June 
11th, 1805, it was almost totally destroyed by fire. Q^n. Wm. Hull, first 
governor of the Territory of Michigan, then projected the city on a new 

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plan. On the 18th of An^t, 1812, this same Gten. Hull surrendered it 
into the hands of the BritiSi, bat the latter evacaated it September 29th of 
the same year. In 1870 the population was 79,577, and since then has rap- 
idly increased. 

Among the other important towns and cities in the State, are Grand Bap- 
ids^ Adrian, Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Jackson and Monroe. 

The following table shows the population of Michigan at the close of each 
decade, fipom 1800 to 1870 : 



























*Tbe above aiggreftai» for 1860 includes 6.172 eaamerated at Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 incdudee 4,926 enumerated as Indians. 


Wisconsin was formed out of a portion of the Territoir of Michigan, but 
was originally a part of the Northwestern Territory ceded by the State of 
Virginia to the United States. On the l2th of December, 1832, a resolution 
pa^ed the house of representatives directing, a committee to inquire into the 
expediency of creating a Territorial government for Wisconsin out of a part 
of Michigan. On the 20th of April, 1836, an act was passed and approved 
establishing a Territorial government On the 20th of June, 1838, an act 
was passed and* approved to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to estab- 
lish the Territorial government of Iowa. June 12, 1838, an act was passed 
designa ting the boundary line between the State of Michigan and the Terri- 
tory of msconsin. On the 6th of August, 1846, an act was passed and 
approved to enable the people to form a constitution and State government. 
On the 21st of January, 1847, the people adopted a constitution, and on the 
3d of March of the same year an act of Congress was passed and approved 
for the admission of the State into the Union. By act of May 29, 1848, the 
State was declared admitted into the Union, to be entitled to three represen- 
tatives in Congress after March 3, 1849. 

The extreme length of Wisconsin from north to south is about 285 miles, 
and its greatest breadth from east to west is about 255 miles. It includes 
an area of about 53,924 square miles, or 34,51 1 ,360 acres. It is generally of an 
elevated rolling surface, with a large proportion of prairie. There are no 
mountains, properly so called, thoum the descent toward Lake Superior is 
quite abrupt, and the rivers full of rapids and falls, which aflEbrd valuable 
miU-sites. The great lakes, Superior and Michigan, lave the northern and 
eastern borders, besides which there are a number of smaller lakes, the most 
important of which is Lake Winnebago, southeast of the middle of the State. 
It 18 28 miles long and 10 miles wide, and communicates with Qreen Bay 
trough the Fox or Neenah river. In the northwestern part are numerous 
smalJlakes, with dear water, gravelly or rocky bottoms, ana bold picturesque 

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shores. The rivers ^nerall^ flow in a southwest direction aiid discharge 
their waters into the^ississippi, which flows along the southwest border of 
tifie State for more than 200 miles. The most important interior river is the 
Wipconsin) which has a course of about 200 miles almost directly souih, 
when it changes its course westwardly, and flows about 100 miles further to 
its junction with the Mississippi. At favorable stages it is uavi^ble for 
steamboats 180 miles. The Baa Axe, Black, Chippewa, and St Croix riv^^v 
are important streams for floating timber and lumber from the pine region 
in the northwest part of the State. The streams flowing into Lake Superi<n- 
are small, but rapid, aflbrding excellent mill-sites. 

The climate is severe and me winters long, but the State is free from the 
unhealthy changes which are common farther south. The south and middle 
portions form a flne agricultural i^gion. Wheat is the great staple produc- 
tion, though all kinds of small grain and Indian com are raised successfully. 
Large portions of the State are well adapted to grazing and the dairy. The 
normem part of the State, about the head-waters of the Black and Chippewa 
rivers, ana the sources of the rivers emptying into Lake Superior, has but 
limited agricultural capabilities, as in tnat region are many ponds and 
marshes, and also large quantities of boulders scattered over the surface. 

There are many oDJects of interest to the tourist and the lover of the 
picturesque. The rivers abound in rapids and fidls. In St Louis river 
there is a series of cascades which have a descent of 320 feet in 16 miles. 
The JMenomonee river at Quinnesec Falls dashes down over a perpendicular 
ledge of rocks 40 feet, and has a fall of 184 feet in a mile and a halt. Among 
other noted falls are the St Croix, Chippewa and Big Bull Falls in the Wis- 
consin river. Alonff the rivers are many grand views of bluffs, rising from 
150 to 200 feet, ana at one place in Richland county on the "Wisconsin, 
where it passes through a narrow gorge, the cliffs have an elevation of from 
400 to 600 feet On the Mississippi, in La Crosse county, the rocks rise 
600 feet perpendicularly above the water. 

The great lead region extends into the southwestern part of Wisconsin. 
The deposit here is intermingled to some extent with copper and zinc, 
together with some silver. Copper is found in a number of places, and also 
some iron ore* The iron ores of^the Lake Superior region extend into Wis- 
consin. Beautiful varieties of marble^are found on the Menomonee river and 
in other localities. 

On the upper Wisconsin river, and other tributaries of the Mississippi, 
north of the W isconsin, are vast forests of pine, and immense quantities are 
annually floated down the Mississippi to supply the markets in other States. 
Among other forest trees are spruce, tamaracK, cedar, hemlock, oak of sev- 
eral varieties, birch, aspen, basswood, hickory, elm, ash, poplar, sycamore and 

Wisconsin was visited at an early period by French missionaries, and a 
settlement was made in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

Madison, the capital of the State, is situated on an isthmus between Lakes 
Mendota and Monona, 80 miles west of Milwaukee, and 132 miles northwest 
of Chicago. When the place was selected for the seat of government in 
1836, there were no buildmgs except a solitary log cabin. The State capitol 
is a fine looking stone builcung erected at a cost of $600,000, and stanas on 
an elevation seventy feet above the lakes. The city overlooks a charming 
country, diversified by a pleasing variety of scenery. It has steadily and 
rapidly increased in population. 

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The ^-eat dty of Wisoonsin is Milwaukee (called at an early daj ^Mfl- 
wackj '^ and next to Chi<»go may be regarded as the commercial metronolis 
of the Northwest. It is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan, aoont 
90 miles north of Chicago. Milwaukee river empties into the l&e at this 
point The city is situated on both sides of the riyer, and has one of the 
oest harbors on the whole chain of lakes. The fine water power of the Mil- 
waukee river is an important element in its prosperity. Being a port of 
eaitrjj the government has expended hrge sums in the improvements of its 
hsrbor, and in the erection oi public building 

In 1805 Jacques Yiean, a half-breed trader whose house was at Gh-een 
Bay, visited the country at the mouth of the Milwaukee river for the pur- 
pose of trading with the Indians. This he did annually until in September, 
1818, when he brought with him a young man named oolomon Juneau, who 
became his son-in-law. The young man established friendly relations with 
the Indians, and in 1822 erected a olock-house on the site of the present dtv 
of Milwaukee. He remained for 18 years the only permanent white resi- 
dent, being visited occasionally by fur traders to whom he sold goods. In 
1836, the village which has grown to be a large dty, began to appear. Jun- 
eau died in 1856, at the age of 64 years, having lived to see the place he 
founded grow to a prosperous and flourishing city. In 1886 the population 
WIS 275; in 1840, it was 1810; in 1850, it was 19,873; in I860, it was 45,286; 
in 1870, it was 71,640; and at the present time (1878) it is estimated at 123,- 

Among other important towns and cities of Wisconsin are Badne, Janes- 
viUe, Os&osh, Fond du Lac, ^7atertown, Sheboygan, Beliot, Kenosha, La 
CiocBe, Wauwatosa, Manitowoc, Portage City, Platteville, Sheboygan Falls, 
Beaver Dam, Whitewater, Port Washington, Oreen Bay, Mineral Point, 
Shullsbuig, Monroe, Prescott, and Hudson. 

The folfowing table shows the population of Wisconsin at the dose of each 
decade from 1800 to 1870: 










• • . . 










80 945 






•llie above afm;^;ate for 1860 indudes 1017 enomerated at Indians, and the aggregate 
for 1870 inclndeii 1206 enumerated as Indians. 


The eastern portion of Minnesota formed a part of the territory surrendered 
hj the FpKich to Great Britain at the peace of 1763, and subsequently by 
toe latter to the United States at the close of the Bevolution. The western 
wrtion is a part of the territory known as the Louisiana Purchase, ceded by 
France to the XTnited States in 1808. It received a Territorial form of gov- 
ernment under an act of Congress which became a law March 3, 1849, and 
WIS admitted into the Union as a State May 11, 1853. 

The extreme length of Minnesota north and south is about 880 miles, and 

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in width is about 80Q miles. It embraces an area of 81,259 sanare miles, oi 
52,005,760 acres. The £ace of the ooontrj generally presents tne appearance 
of an undulating^ plain, although it is the most elevated tract of country 
between the Gulf of Mexico and Hudson's Bay. There are no mountains, 
but the summits of the water-^heds rise to a height of nearly two thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. 

Minnesota is one of the best watered States in the Union, being drained bj 
many rivers and dotted over with innumerable small lakes and some of con- 
siderable size. The^'eat Mississippi has its humble origin as a mere rivulet 
in Lake Itasca. This diminutive stream, here but a few feet in width, iirst 
meanders in a northeasterly direction, receiving tribute as it parses from a 
number of other small lakes, when it changes its course to tne south, and 
after meandering a length of six hundred miles in Minnesota, dashes its 
waters down over the Falls of St. Anthony, then flows along the border of 
the State two hundred nules further, and thence grandly j>ursues its course 
to the Gulf of Mexico. Several tributaries of tne Mississippi drain the 
southeastern portion of the State. The Red River of the North drains the 
northern part, passing off into Hudson's Bay. It is the outlet of a number 
of lakes, amonff whidi are Traverse, Otter Tail, and Red. This river also 
forms the west l)oundary of the State for about two hundred miles. That 
portion of the State sloping^ toward Lake Superior is drained by the St. Louis 
and its tributaries. St x^eters, or Minnesota river, has a total length of 
over four hundred miles within the State. Its principal branch is Blue 
Earth or Mankato river, which flows nearly north. The St Peters, Crow- 
Winff and Crow rivers are tributaries of the Mississippi from the west 

Ls^e Superior forms a part of the eastern boundary, and the Lake of the 
Woods a part of the northern. Amon^ other lakes of considerable size are 
Rainy, Red Lake, Lake Cass, and Leecm Lake. Devil Lake in the north- 
west part is about 40 miles long and 15 miles wide, and is said to have no 
visible outlet Lake Pepin is an expansion of the Mississippi in the north- 
eastern part of the State, and is a beautifdl sheet of water. The State abounds 
in small lakes which are mostly clear and beautifdl. Owin^ to the multitude 
of lakes Minnesota seldom suffers from inundations, as Siey tend to check 
the sudden rise and violence of the streams. 

The climate of the northern part of Minnesota is severe, but in the 
southern part is not so rigorous as to prevent fair crops of Indian com from 
bein^ produced some seasons. Wheat and other winter grains succeed ad- 
mirably in nearly all parts. In the valleys of the rivers the soil is excellent, 
and even the valley of the Red River of the North is regarded as a fine 
agricultural region. Wheat is the great staple and the facilities for manu* 
facturing flour are unsurpassed, as the water power is practically unlimited. . 

A portion of the State is heavily timbered ^th pine, and one of the great 
industries is the manufacture of lumber. Extensive forests of pine grow on 
the Rum, St Croix, and Pine rivers, and on the shores of the Mississippi, 
below Pokegamin Falls. Taken, as a whole, however, Minnesota cannot oe 
called a weU-wooded country. The river bottoms furnish some very good 
growths of oak, aspen, soft maple, basswood, ash, birch, white walnut, linden 
and elm. In the swamps or marshy places are found tamarack, cedar, and 

Minnesota presents to the tourist many natural objects of interest, especially 
in her grand and beautifril scenery along the Mississippi and around her lakes. 
St Anthony's Falls are celebrated, not so much for their magnitude as a 

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cataract, as for their geological interest and the wild scenery connected with 
them. Like Niagara, the fialls are divided bj an island, with the larger 
Yolnme of water passing on the west side. This west division is 310 
jards wide. The greatest perpendicular fall of water is bat 16^ feet, bat in- 
clading the rapids the descent is 58 feet in 260 rods. The rivers of Minne- 
sota have nomeroas picturesque fSaUs and rapids, and are in many places 
bordered with perpendicular bluiFs of limestone and sandstone. 

So far as revetded b^ geolo^cal examination, Minnesota possesses no 
great mineral or metalhc wealth. There is, however, a rich deposit of iron 
ore in that part of the State bordering on Lake Superior. A thin vein of 
lead was discovered by the ceological corps of Prof. Owen on Waraju river, 
and some copper was found, but not "in place," haying prc^bly been car- 
ried thither Dy the drift. Stone suitable for building purposes exists in 
S^t abundance. In the southwest part of the State is a singular deposit 
own as ^'red pipestone." Of this the Indians made their pipes, and the 
place of its deposit was held in great sacredness by them. It is said that 
different trib^ at enmity with each other, met here on terms of amity and 
smoked the pipe of peace. Longfellow has rendered this locality odebrate^ 
in " Hiawatha." It was here— 

" On the Mountains of the Prairie, 
On the great Bed Pipe-stone Quany, 
Gitche Manito, the mi^iy» 
He the Master of Life, descending, 
On the red crags of the qnany. 
Stood erect, and called the nations, 
Called the tribes of men together.** 

The first white men who are said to have visited the conntry now embraced 
b Minnesota, were two fur traders in the year 1654. They returned to Mon- 
treal two years afterward and gave a glowing account of the countrv. This 
was followed by the visits of trappars and missionaries, and to the latter we 
are indebted for the first printed accounts of Minnesota. In 1805 an explor- 
ing expedition under Pite traversed the country. A military post was 
established at Fort Snelling in 1819. Excepting a British settlement at 
Pembina, which was not then known to be within the limits of the United 
States, no settlements were formed in Minnesota until after 1840. 

St Paul, the capital of Minnesota, is in Bamsey county, on the bank of 
the Mississippi, 2070 miles from its month, and 9 miles by land below the 
Falls of St Anthony. The first settlement was made about the year 1840. 
The population has ino-eased rapidly, and as a manufiacturinff, commercial 
and business place it has assumed considerable importance. Minneapolis, a 
few miles above St Paul, is a rapidly growing city, and is noted for its 
great water power and manufacturing resources. Among other important 
towns are Stillwater, Bed Wing, St Anthony, Fort Snelling, and Mankato. 

The following table shows the population of Minnesota at tJie close of eadi 
• decade from 1850 to 1870: 












* The above aggregate for 1860 inclades 2369 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate 
ita 1870 indndes d90 enumerated at Indians. 


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Nebraska is formed out of a part of the territory ceded to the United 
States by France by the treaty of April 30, 1804. It was erected into a 
separate Territory j£b,j 80, 1854, the limits subseguenily being greatly 
reduced by the formation of Dakota Territory in 18ol, a right resCTved in 
the act creating the Territory of Nebraska. It was admitted into the Union 
as a State, March 1, 1867. 

Nebraska is in its extreme length from east to west about 412 miles, and 
in breadth from north to south a1x)ut 208 miles, embracing an area of 75,905 
square miles, or 48,636,800 acres. The greater portion of the State is an 
efeyated undulating prairie with a general inclination toward the Missouri 
river. There are no mountains or very high hills. The soil is various, but 

Snerallv fertile, except in the western portion near the base of the Eocky 
ountams. The bottom lands along the rivers are not surpassed in fertility 
by any in the United States, while the higher undulating prairie is equally 
productive with that of other western States. When the prairies are once 
Droken they are easy of cultivation, the soil being light and mellow. The 
staple productions are wheat, Indian com, oats, and other cereals common 
to the btitude. The climate is mild, as compared with that of the same 
latitude on the Atlantic. The summers are sometimes very warm, and the 
extreme western part is occasionally deficient in rain, l^en as a whole^ 
however, this is destined to become one of the foremost agricultural States 
in the Union. 

Nebraska is deficient in native timber, but the older settled portions are 
dotted over with groves of artificial or cultivated timber, which is so rapid 
in its growth as to require but a few years to produce enough for the ordinary 
wants of tiie settler. The rivers and streams aie generally bordered with 

S-oves of native trees, including oak, walnut, hickory, Cottonwood and willow, 
long the Missouri river in places are some heavy growths of oottonwood. 

The Missouri river forms the entire eastern boundary, and is navi^ble 
for steamboats throughout the whole extent of that boundary and for liun- 
dreds of miles above. Amongthe important interior rivers are the Platte, 
the Niobrara, the Kepxiblican Fork of the Kansas, the Elkhom, the Loup 
Fork of tiie Platte, the Big Blue and the Nemaha. These rivers are so dis- 
tributed, as, with tneir numerous tributaries, to afford admirable drainage to 
all parts of the State, and as a consequence it is fi-ee from marshes, conduc- 
ing to the excellent health for which Nebraska is noted. 

So &r as yet revealed, the State is not rich in minerals. Goal, however, 
has recently been discovered in the southeastern part, in a vein sufSciently 
thick for mining. Near Lincoln are some salt springs of sufficient magni- 
tude to yield large quantities of salt. On Platte river and other streams 
both limestone and sandstone are obtained of suitable quality for building 

Bapid progress has been made in the construction of railroads in Nebraska, 
Among them are the Union Pacific and its branches, the Burlington & Mis- 
souri Kiver and its branches, and others, affording railroad advanta^ to a 
large portion of the State, and connecting the principal towns with die 
mam unes, east, west and south. 

Lincoln, tiie capital of Nebraska, is in Lancaster county, in the soutlieast- 
em part of the State. Here are most of tlie State institutions. It is a 
thriving youn^ city and is in the midst of a fine agricultural portion of the 
State. Near it, on a little stream known as Salt Creek, arc a number of 

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salt springs, and considerable quantities of salt have been manufSsM^tared. 
Bailroads oonnect it with all the ^reat markets of the country. 

Omaha is the leading commercial city of the State, and is located on the 
west bank of the Missouri river in Douslas county. It is 18 miles by land 
above the mou& of the Platte river. The principal portion of the ci^is 
situated on gently rising slopes extending from the river to the blu£Fs. The 
elevations are crowned with fine residences, and command pleasant views of 
the river and valley, with the city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in the distance. 
Since the completion of the Union Pacific Bailroad it has grown in popula- 
tion and wealtn very rapidly. A costly iron railroad bridge spans the if is- 
Bouri river at this point As a produce, shipping and general commercial 
point it is rapidly growing into prominence, it was the first capital of the 
territory ana State, and takes its name from a tribe of Indians. 

Among other important towns and cities are Nebraska City, Colxmibus, 
Kearney, Qrand Island, Hasting Plattsmouth, Tecumseh, and Niobrara. 

The following table shows the population of Nebraska by the census of 
1860 and 1870: 









InHie _, 

for 1860, the eninneration indudet 63 Indians, and in that of 1870, the 
ides 87 Indians. 


Missouri was formed out of a part of the territory ceded by France to the 
CTnited States in 1803. By an act approyed March 26th, 1804, the Freoich, 
or Louisiana purchase, was divided, that part embracing tiie i)resent State 
of Missouri being at first designated as the District of Louisiana. The 
name was chmg^ to Territory of Louisiana, by an act passed March 3d, 
1805, and &^n by an act of June 4, 1812, Louisiana Temtory was cbanged 
to Missouri Territory. By an act passed March 2. 1819, the southern por- 
tion was detached and organized as the Territory ox Arkansas. During the 
same jrear thepeople of me Territory of Missouri, through their Legislative 
Council and House of Bepresentatives, memorialized Congress for admis- 
sion into the Union as a State. On the 6th of March following an act was 
passed to authorize the people of the Territory to form a State constitution. 
Missouri bein^ the first State formed wholly out of territory west of l^e 
Mississippi, the question of the extension of slavery came up and gave 
rise to a stormy debate in Con^^ress while the Missouri bill, as it was 
called^ was pending. The propriety and expediency of extending that in- 
stitution to the new States west of the Mississippi, was powerfidly and eam- 
estlj^ contested, and resulted in a compromise restricti^ slavery to certain 
limits, and prohibiting the extension of slavery to certain territory. The 
bill, however, of March 6th, passed without restrictions. The people on the 
19th of July, 1820, adopted their constitution, which was laid before Con- 
gress November 16th or the same year. The Senate passed a joint resoln- 
non declaring the admission of the State of Missouri into the U nion. • This 
was referred to a select committee in the House of Bepresentatives, and on 

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the 10th of February, 1821, Mr. Clay made a report The House rcgected 
the resolution, and on motion of Mr. Clay, a committee on the part of the 
House was appointed to join a committee on the part of tlie Senate to con- 
sider the subject and report On the 26th of February, Mr. Clay, from the 
joint committee, reported a **Ee8olution providing for the admission of the 
State of Missouri into the Union, on a certain condition.'' This resolution 
Was passed and approved, March 2, 1821. The condition was that Missouri, 
by its legislature, should assent to a condition that a part of the State con- 
stitution should never be construed to authorize the passa^ of a law by 
which any citizen of either of the States in the Union shomd be excluded 
from the enjoyment of any of the priviliges and immunities to which such 
citizen is entitled imder the Constitution of the United States. What was 
known as the ^^ Missouri Compromise,'' was embraced in the act of the pre- 
vious session, which authorized the people of the State of Missouri to form a 
State constitution, and consisted of a compromise section in the bill by which 
slavery was to be forever prohibited in that part of the territory west of the 
Mississippi (except the State of Missouri), lying north of thirty-six degrees 
and thirty minutes north latitude. Thus, after fierce and stormy debates, 
running through two sessions of Congress, Missouri came into the Union, 
and the exciting question of slavery was supposed also to have been settled. 
On the 10th oi August, 1821, President Monroe issued his proclamation 
declaring the admission of Missouri completed, according to law. 

Missouri in its greatest length from east to west is about 285 miles, and 
in width from north to south, 280 miles. It embraces an area of 67,380 
square miles, or 43,123,200 acres. That portion of it north of the Missouri 
river is mostly undulating prairie and timber land, while that pjortion south 
of the Missouri river is Siaracterized by a great variety of sunace. In the 
southeast part, near the Mississippi, is an extensive area of marshy land. 
The r^pn forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains is hilly and bro- 
ken. West of the Osage river is a vast expanse of prairie. The geological 
features of Missouri are exceedingly interesting. Coal, iron and several 
kinds of stone and marble for building purposes exist in great abundance. 
A vast region, in the vicinity of Iron Mountain and Pilot Ejiob, pxnluces 
iron of the best qualitv, and exists in inexhaustible quantity. It is also 
found in other parts oi the State. There is also lead, which lias been mined 
in considerable quantities. Copper is found throughout the mineral region^ 
but is found combined with other minerals. Silver is also combined with 
the lead ore. The bituminous coal deposits are mainly on both sides of the 
Missouri river, below the mouth of the Osage, and extending forty miles up 
that river. Cannel-coal is found in Callaway county. 

Missonri possesses the advantages of two of the greatest navigable rivers in 
the United otates — ^the Mississippi, which forms her entire eastern boundary, 
and the Missouri, which flows iQong her northwestern border nearly two 
hundred miles, and crosses the State in a south-easterly course to its junc- 
tion with the Mississippi. As both of these rivers are navigable for the 
largest steamers, the State has easv and ready commercial intercourse to the 
Gulf of Mexico and the Bocky Mountains, as well as up the Ohio to Pitts- 
burg. Besides the Missouri, me State has several important interior rivers, 
to-wit : Grand river and Chariton, tributaries of the Missouri river from 
the north, and the Osage and Gasconade from the south ; also, Salt river and 
Maromeo, tributaries of the Mississippi. The St Francis and White river 

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drain the southeastern part, passing from the State into Arkansas. The 
Osa^ is navigable for steamboats about 275 miles. 

Imssouri as a State has many material resources, fitting her for becoming 
one of the most wealthy and populous States in the Union. The soil is gen- 
erally excellent, producing the finest crops, while those portions not so well 
adapted to agricmture are rich in minerals. The greater portion of the State 
is well timbered. In the river bottoms are heavy growths of oak, elm, 
ash, hickory, cottonwood, sugar, and white and black walnut On the 
uplands also are found a great variety of trees. Various fruits, including 
apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries and strawberries, are produced in the 
greatest abunoance. Among the staple productions are Indian com, wheat, 
oats, potatoes, hemp and tobacco. A great variety of other crops are also 

'Die State has an uneven and variable climate-— the winters being very cold 
and the sunmiers excessively hot. Chills and fever are common to some 
extent along the rivers. 

The earliest settlement in Missouri seems to have been by the French, about 
the year 1719. About that time they built what was called Fort Orleans, 
near Jefferson City, and the next year worked the lead mines to some extent. 
Ste. Genevieve was settled in 1755, also by the French, and is the oldest town 
in the State. Missouri's greatest commercial metropolis, St Louis, was first 
settled in 1764, the earliest settlers being mostly French. 

Jefferson Cit^, the capital of the State, is situated on the ri^ht bank of the 
Missouri river, in Cole county. It is 128 miles by land, and 155 miles by 
water from St Louis. The location being elevated, commands a fine view 
of the river, with the pleasant and picturesque scenery which is presented at 
this point on the Missouri. 

St Louis, the great commercial city of Missouri, as weU as of a lar^ por- 
tion of the Nortnwest, is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi, 
twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 174 above the mouth of 
the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, and 1194 miles 
above New Orleans. The city enjoys many natural advantages as a com- 
mercial emporium, being situated nearly midway between the two oceans, 
and centrally in the finest agricultural r^on on the globe. With the 
greatest navigable river on the continent, arording her a water highway to 
uie ocean, and to many of the large inland cities of t^e country, St Louis is 
rapidly and surely going forward to a grand future. Her already great and 
constantly improving system of railways, is tending every year to open up to 
her larger fields of ousiness and commercial intercourse. Of late years a 
strong rivalry has sprung up between St. Louis and Chicago, in regwxi to 
nopuEttion, etc., each claiming to be the third city in the Union. The in- 
rrease of St Louis since the war has been great, tne ascendency being at an 
^nual rate of about ten per cent. At this increase she is fast earning the 
^ubriqnet of the " Future Great City.'* 

The site on which St Louis stands was selected February 15th, 1764, by 
Laclede;, as a post possessing peculiar advanta^s for collecting and trading 
in furs, as well as for defense a^inst the Indians. For many years it was 
but a frontier village, the principal trade of which was in furs, Duffalo robes, 
and other collections of trappers and hunters. A great part of the popula- 
tion was absent during the hunting and trapping seasons, so that the in- 
fimoy of this (Atv was almost a struggle for existence. As late as 1820, the 
population was but 4,598. The first brick house was erected in 1813. In 

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1822, St. Louis was cha rtered as a citr, tinder the title ^iyen by Laclede in 
in honor of Louis XV of France. In 1880 the popu&tion was 6,694« an 
increase of only 2,096 in ten years. In 1840 the population had reached 
16,469; in 1850 it was 77,950, induding 2,650 slaves; in 1860 the popular 
tion was 160,773 ; and in 1870 it was 812,963. 

Kansas City, one of the rapidly advancing young cities of the State, ia 
situated on the Missouri river just below the mouth of the Kansas. Li 
1870 the population was 32,260. Since that time there has been a rapid in- 
crease, both in population and business. 

St. Joseph is one of the flourishing cities, and is situated on the left, or 
east bank of the Missouri river, 496 miles by water from St. Louis. It was 
laid out in 1843, and became an important point of departure tor overland 
emiffration to Califomia and Oregon. In 1870 the jwpulation was 19,560, 
but has rapidly increased since then. 

Among the important and thriving towns and cities are Hannibal, Spring- 
field, Boonville. Lexin^n, Chillicothe, Independence, Palmyra, Canton, 
Iron Mount and Moberly. 

The following table shows the population of Missouri at the close of each 
decade, from 1810 to 1870 : 











*Th6 affjB^reKate for 1860 indudes 20 enumerated at IndiaDs, and the a^^gregate for 1870 
indudee Toenumerated as Indians. 

















Organization of Exploring Parbr—Deparhiie— Osage Indians— Starange Tradition of the Ori* 
gin of the Osage Nation— The MiBSOoris— Old firendi Fort— Artindal Moands— The Ot- 
toes and Pawnees — Indian GraTes— The Ayaaway Indians — Council with Indians at Conn* 
cil Blnflb— littie Sioux River— Death of Seraeant Floyd— Great Sioux River— Bed Pipe- 
stone Quarries— Buffinlo and other Animals-Fountain of the Littie Spirits— Council with 
the Sioux— Indian Idol*— TJhe Mandans— Winter Quarters— White and Brown Bears — 
Antelopes— Black Hills— First View of Bocty Mountains— Natural Sceneiy- The Great 
Falls of the Missouri— Shoshones—Souites of the Missouri— Columbia River— The Toah- 
epaws— Short of Provisions— Pieroed-Nose Indians— Down Lewis River— The Sokulka — 
Great Falls of the Columbia— The Echeloots— Wooden Houses— Fingers as War Tro- 
pies-Sight of the Padfio— Fort Clatsop— Return— Arrival at St Louis. 

Ik Jannarjr, 1803, President Jefferson, in a confidential message to Con- 
gress in regard to Indian aflairs, took occasion to recommend, among other 
tilings, the organization of a party to trace the Missouri river to its source, 
and thence proceed to the Pacific ocean. The recommendation was fitvor- 
ablj considered, and Capt Merriwether Lewis^was, on his own application, 
appointed to take charge of tlie expedition. Wm. Clarke was sabseq^aently 
associated with him, so that this celebrated expedition is known in our his- 
tory as that of Lewis and Clarke. The incidents of this long, tedious, and 
romantic journey are worthy to be related as among the most interesting 

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Ib the annals of American adventure. At that time all that vast re^on 
bordering on the Upx)er Missouri and its tributaries, as well as the regions 
bordering on the Pacific, were unknown and unexplored bv white men. By 
the latter part of the year 1803 the party comprising the expedition was 
made up and ready to start The highest settlement of whites on the Mis- 
souri river at tliat time was at a j)lace called La Charrette, sixty-eight miles 
above the mouth. At this place it had been the design of Capt Lewis to 
winter, bat the Spanish authorities of Louisiana had not yet received official 
information of the transfer of the country to the United States. For this 
reason the party remained in winter quarters at the mouth of Wood river, 
on the east side of the Mississippi. 

BcMades Captains Lewis and Olarke, the party was made up nine young 
men from Kentucky, twelve soldiers of the regular army, two Frenchmen 
as watermen and interpreter^, and a colored servant belonging to Captain 
Clarke — twenty-six persons in alL A corporal, six soldiers and nine water- 
men^ in addition to the above, were engaged to accompany the expedition as 
far as the country of the Mandans, as there was some apprehension of at- 
tadu by the Indians between Wood river and that tribe. 

Three boats were provided for the expedition. The largest was a keel- 
boat, fifty-five feet long, drawing three feet of water, carrying one large 
square sail, and twenty-two oars. The other two were open boats, one of 
SIX, and Uie other of seven oars. 

The expedition started from the encampment at the mouth of Wood 
river on Monday, May 14, 1804. Captain Lewis, who was at that time in 
St. Loms, joined the expedition at St Charles, twenty-one miles up the 
Missouri, which place they reached on the 16th. Here they remained until 
the 2l8t, when tney proceeded on their voyage, reaching La Charrette, the 
last white settlement, on the evening of the 25th. The village consisted of 
but seven poor families. On the 1st of June they arrived at the mouth of 
the Osage, one hundred and thirtv-three miles on their journey. The coun- 
try bontering on this river was inhabited by a tribe known as the Osage 
Indians. They had a remarkable tradition among them as to the origin of 
their nation. They believed that its founder was a snail passing a quiet ex- 
istence along the banks of the Osage, till a flood swept him down to the Mis- 
souri and there left him exposed on the shore. By the heat of the sun he 
was changed to a man. The change, however, did not cause him to forget 
his native place away up on the banks of the Osage, and he immediately 
sought his old home. Bein^ overtaken with hunger and fatigue, the Great 
Spirit a{)peared, gave him a bow and arrow, and taurfit him to kill deer and 
prepare its flesh for food and its skin for clothing. When he arrived at his 
original place of residence he was met b^ a beaver, who inquired who he 
was, and by what authority he came to disturb his possession. The Osage 
replied that he had once lived on the borders of that river and that it was 
his own home. While thw were disputing the daughter of the beaver ap- 
peared, and entreated her mther to be reconciled to the young stranger. The 
mher yielded to her entreaties, and the Osage soon married the beaver's 
dan^ter. They lived happily on the banks of me Osage, and from them soon 
came the villages and nation of the Osages. Ever since they entertained a 
pious reverence for their ancestors, never killing a beaver, for by so doing they 
wotdd slay a brother. It has been observed, however, that after the opening 
of the fur trade with the whites, the sanctity of their maternal relations was 
very much reduced. 

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Tho next tribe meDtioned by the explorers was that of the Missooris. onoe 
a powerful nation, but then reduced to about thirty families. They nnally 
united with the Osages and the Ottoes, and as a separate nation became ex- 
tinct The Sauks, Ayauways (lowas), and the Sioux are mentioned as being 
the enemies of the Osages, and as making frequent excursions against them. 
On the 26th of June they arrived at the mouth of the Kansas, 840 miles 
from the Mississippi, where they remained two days for rest and repairA. 
Here resided the tribe of Indians of the same name, and had two viUages 
not far firom the mouth of the river. This tribe at that time had been re- 
duced by the Sauks and Ayauways to only about three hundred men. Tb» 
party at this sta^ of their journey, saw numerous bujQ&lo on the prairiea. 
On the 2d of Ji3y the partv j)ass^ Bear Medicine Island, near which were 
the remains of an old tort, Duilt by the French, the ruins of the chimnejB 
and the general outline of the fortification being visible. On the 8tli oi 
July they reached the mouth of the Kodawa. xhe river is mentioned as 
navi^ble for boats some distance. On the 11th thejr landed at the mouth oi 
the Nemahaw. Mention is made of several artificial mounds on the ^e- 
mahaw, about two miles up the stream at the mouth of a small cre^. 
From the top of the highest mound there was a fine view of the country. 
On the 14th they passed the Kishnahbatona river, finding it to be only three 
hundred ycutls fix>m the Missouri at a distance of twelve miles from its 
mouth. !rlatte river and other streams, both in Iowa and Nebraska, are men- 
tioned and the country described with great accuracy. Along in this part 
of the country were the first elk they had seen. 

On the 22d of July the explorers encamped on the north (Iowa) side of 
the river, ten miles above the mouth of the Platte river, to make observa* 
tions and to hold an interview with the neighboring tribes. They remained 
here in camp until the 27th. Among the streams mentioned in this vicin- 
ity are the Papillon, Butterfly Creek and Moscheto Creek, the last named 
being a small stream near Council Blufis. In mentioning them we use the 
orth<^raphy of the explorers, which in some instances diners from that now 
in use. The Indians who occupied the country about the mouth of Platte 
river at this time were the Ottoes and Pawnees. The Ottoes were much 
reduced, and formerly lived about twenty miles above the Platte on the 
Nebraska side of the river. They lived at this time under the protection 
of the Pawnees. The latter were also much dispersed and broken. One 
band of the nation formerly lived on the Bepublican branch of the £anzas 
River. Another band were the Pawnee Loups, or Wolf Pawnees, who re- 
sided on the Wolf fork of the Platte. Another band originally resided on 
the Elanzas and Arkansaw, but in their wars with the Osages they were 
often defeated and retired to the Bed river. Various other tribes living fur- 
ther west, are mentioned. On the 27th they continued their journey, and 
about ten leagues from th^ encampment, on the south (Nebraska) side of 
the river, their saw and examined a curious collection of graves, or mounds. 
They were oi diiferent heights, shapes and sizes. Some were of sand, and 
others of both earth and sand. They were supposed to indicate the position 
of the ancient vUla^ of the Ottoes before they retired to the protection of 
the Pawnees. On me 29th they passed the spot where the Ayauway Indians, 
a branch of the Ottoes, once lived, and who had emigrated from that place 
to the Des Moines. Mention is here made of an interview with one of the 
Missouri Indians who lived with the Ottoes, and the resemblance of his 
language to that of the Osages, particularly in calling a chief ^noa. 

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On the 30th of July the party eaaoampedi on the sonth (Nebraska) side of 
the river. At that place next to the river was a plain, and back of it a 
wooded rid^ rising about seventy feet above the plain. At the edge of 
this ridge l£ey formed their camp, and sent an invitation to the Indians to 
meet thenL From the blufis at this point they mention a most beautiful 
view of the river and adjoining conntiy. The latitude of the camp was de- 
tramined by observation to be 41 d^rees 18 minutes and 14 seconds. The 
messenger sent to invite the Ottoes returned on the evenin^g of the 2d of 
August, with fourteen Ottoe and Missouri Indians, accompanied by a French- 
man who resided among them, and who acted as interpreter. Lewis and Clarke 
made them presents of pork, flour and meal, and the Indians returned presents 
of watermelons. The next morning (Aug. 3d) a council was held with the 
six ehiefe who w^re of tiie party of Indians; they were told of the change 
in the govenmient, and promised protection and advised as to their future con* 
duct All the chieft expressed their joy at the change in the government, 
and wished to be recommended to the Great Father (the President) that 
they miffht obtain trade and necsssaries. They asked the mediation of the 
Great lather between them and the Mahas (Omahas), with whom they were 
then at war. At the conclusion of the council meoals and other presents 
were given to the chiefs, and also some presents to the other Indians who 
were widi them. The grand chief of me Ottoes was not present, but to 
him was sent a flag, a medal, and some ornaments for clothing. The ex- 
plorers gave to the place wh^fe this cotmcil was held the name of Council 
Bluffe. The reader will remember, however, that it was above the present 
dlv of Oouncil Bluffs, Iowa, and was on the Nebraska side of the river. 

On the afternoon of the 8d of August they resumed their ioumey, and on 
the 7th arrived at the mouth of a river on the north side, called by the Sioux 
Indians, Eaneahwadepon (Stone river), and by the French, Pet%te Riviere 
dee SiouXj or in English, Little Sioux river. The explorers were informed 
by Aeir int^reter (M. Durion) that this river rises within about nine miles 
or the Des Moines; that within fifteen lei^es of that river it passes through 
a large lake, nearly sixt^ miles in drcum^rence, and divided into two parts 
by rocks, which approacn each other very closely. Its width is various; it 
contains many islands, and is known by the name of Zoo d^ Esprit — Spirit 
Lake. The country watered by it is open and undulating, and may be visited 
in boats up the river for some distance. The interpreter further added that 
the Des Moines was about eighty yards wide where the Little Sioux ap- 
proaches it; that it was shoaUy, and that one of its principal branches was 
cdled Oat river. The interpreter claimed to have been to the sources of the 
Little Sioux, and those who are familiar with the country about Spirit Lake, 
will concede that he described it quite accurately. The explorers speak of a 
lon^ island two miles above the mouth of the Little Sioux, which they named 
Pehcan island, from the large number of pelicans which were feeding on it, 
one of which thev killed. They also killed an elk. On the 10th they passed 
the first highland near the river, after leaving their encampment at OouncU 
Blti£Eft. Not far from this, on a high bluff, was the grave of Blackbird, one 
of ^^^^^ chiefs of the Mahas, wo had died of small-pox four years be- 
fore. The grave vras marked by a mound twelve feet in diameter at tiiebase, 
and six feet high, and was on an elevation about 800 feet above the water. 
In the center of the grave was a pole eight feet high. Kear this the Mahas 
had a village, and lost four hundred men of their nation, and a like proportion 
of women and children by the small-pox at the time that Blackbird died. 

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After this dreadful soonr^ they burned their village, which had consisted of 
three hundred cabins. On a hill at the rear of the place where the village 
stood were the graves of the nation. On the evening of the 18th the ex- 
plorers were again visited at their camp by a party of Ottoes and Missouris, 
who entertained them with a dance. The professed object of their visit was 
to ask intercession for promoting peace between them and the Mahas, bnt 
probably the real object was to i3iare a portion of the strangers' provisions 
and liquors. 

The next day, August 20th, after passing a couple of islands, they landed 
on the north side of the river, under some Wufis — ^the first near the river on 
that side after leaving the A^auway village. It was here that the party had 
the misfortune to lose one oi their men— ^rgeant Charles Floyd. He had 
the da^ before been siezed with a billions cohc Before his death he said to 
Captain Clarke, " I am going to leave you; I want you to write me a letter." 
Soon after making this request the brave soldier passed away. He was buried 
on the top of the oluff, with honors due to a soldier. The place of his inter- 
ment was marked bv a cedar post, on which his name and the day of his 
death were inscribed. About a mile further up on the same side of the Mis- 
souri, they came to a small river, to which they gave the name of Floyd river, 
in honor of their deceased companion. The place of the burial of Sergeant 
Floyd was but a short distance oelow where tiioux City now stands. During 
a great freshet in the spring of 1857, the Missouri river washed away a por- 
tion of the bluff, exposing me remains of the soldier. The citizens of Sioux 
City and vicinity repairea to the place, and with appropriate ceremonies, re- 
intorred them some distance back from the river on the same bluff. The 
same cedar post planted by his companions over his grave on that summer 
day more than half a centurv before, remained to mark the place of inter- 
ment up to 1857, although during nearly all this time the country had been 
inhabited only bv savages. 

On the 21st of August the expedition passed the site where Sioux City 
now stands, and noted in their journal the confluence of the Great Sioux 
river with the Missouri. From their interpreter, M. Durion, they received 
an account of the Great Sioux river. He stated that it was navigable for 
more than two hundred miles, to the great falls, and even beyond them. The 
reader will remember that this was before the time of steamboats on western 
waters. He mentioned a creek that emptied into the Great Sioux below the 
falls, which passed through cliffs of red rock, out of which the Indians made 
their pipes; that the necessity for procuring that article had caused the intro- 
duction of a law among the nations, by which the banks of that creek were 
held to be sacred, and even tribes at war met at the quarries without hos- 
tility. These were what are now known as the " Ked Tipestone Quarries," 
in southwestern Minnesota. 

A few miles above the mouth of the Great Sioux, on the north, or Dakota 
side of the river, they killed a buffalo, a deer and a beaver. They also saw 
some elk. The place where the buffalo was killed they described as a beau- 
tiful prairie, ana gave it the name of Buffalo Prairie. Thev mention on the 
south side of the river, a bluff of blue clay, rising to the height of 180 or 
190 feet. Several miles from this, on the south side of the nver, Captains 
Lewis and Clarke, with ten of their men, went to see a mound regardea with 
great terror by the Indians, and called by them the Mountain oi the Little 
Spirits. They believed it was the abode of little devils in human form, 
eighteen inches high, and having large heads; that they had sharp arrows, 

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and were always on the watch to kill those who might approach their place 
of residence. The Sioux, Mahas and Ottoes never wonld visit the hill or 
mound for fear of the yengeance of the Little Spirits. The mound, though 
extraordinary in its formation, they did not regard as artificial. From its 
top they comd see large herds of buffalo feedii^ at a distance. 

On the 26th they passed the mouth of Yankton river, and, on landing, 
were met by several Indians, who informed them that a large body of Sioux 
were encamped near. On the 30th and 31st they held a council with the 
Sioux, and sraoked with them the pipe of peace. The Indians exhibited 
their skill in dancing and various other amusements to entertain their vis- 
itors. These Indians were the Yankton tribe of the Sioux nation. Their 
grand chief was We-u-cha, or in English, Shake Hand. Speeches were 
made and presents exchanged. 

On the Ist of September the explorers passed Calumet Bluffs, and the 
next day Bonhomme Island, near which tney visited some ancient earth- 
works, or fortifications, on the south, or Nebraska, side of the Missouri. 
They made a minute and careful examination of these works. Tliey 
embraced nearly five hundred acres. A day or two after, on a hill to the 
south, near Cedar Island, the^ discovered the backbone of a fish, 45 feet 
lon^, in a perfect state of petrifaction. 

After several conferences with different tribes, and observations in regard 
to the country, its formation, and the different animals seen, on the 13tn of 
Octob^ thOT reached a small stream on the north side, to which thev gave 
the name of Idol Creek. Near its mouth were two stones resembling human 
figures, and a third like a dog. These were objects of creat veneration amon^ 
die Ricaras (Bicarees), who occupied the country in that vicinity. They had 
a legend that a young brave was deeply enamored with a girl whose parents 
refused their consent to the marriage. The young brave went out into the 
fields to monm his misfortunes, ana a sympathy of feeling led the lady to 
the same spot The faithful dog would not cease to follow his master. The 
lovers wandered away together with nothing to subsist on but grapes, and 
thej were at last changea into stone, with tne lady holding in her nands a 
bunch of grapes. When the Ricaras pass these sacred stones, they stop to 
make offerings of dress to propitiate tne deities, as they regard them. Sudi 
was the account given to I^wis and Clarke, bv the Bicara chief As they 
found here a great abundance of fine grapes, they regarded one part of the 
story as very agreeably confirmed. 

(m the 19th they reached the ruins of one of the Mandan villages. It 
had been fortified. This, they were informed by the Bicara chief, was one 
of several villages once occupied bv the Mandans until the Sioux forced them 
forty miles hi^er up the river. In this vicinity they counted no less than 
52 herds of buffalo, and 8 herds of elk at a single view. 

About the 1st of November, 1804, the expemtion reached the country of 
the Mandans, where they went into winter quarters. These Indians had 
ndsed considerable com, some of which they presented to the party. During 
(he winter they obtained a great deal of information in regara to the history, 
traditions, ana manners ana customs, not only of this peculiar and remark- 
able nation, but of other tribes. Their huts, or cabins, were all completed 
b]r the 20di of the month, and the place was named Fort Mandan. U was 
<m the norlJi side of the Missouri, in a grove of cottonwood. The place, as 
ascertainol by observation, was in latitude 47 deg., 21 min. and 47 sec., and 
the computed distance from the mouth of the Missouri was 1600 mUes. 

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During the winter they were visited by a great many Indians of the Man- 
dan and other tribes. A few French and traders of the Northwef^t For 
Company also visited them. 

The party remained at Fort Mandan until April 7, 1805, when thej 
resumed their journey. There were then thirty- two persons in the expe- 
dition, some of the parly having returned to St. Louis. In this portion of 
the country they be^n to see numbers of white bear, antelope, and other 
animals, which they nad not seen lower down on the river. On the 12th 
they arrived at the mouth of the Little Missouri, near which they found large 
quantities of small onions, about the size of a bullet, of an oval form and 
white. The next day they passed a small stream to which tliey gave tiie 
name of Onion Creek, from the great abundance of that vegetable ^rowin^ 
near it Along this part of the Missouri were large numbers of bald eagles, 
and also many geese and brant Numerous deserted Indian lodges were 
noticed, which thiey supposed to have belonged to the Assiniboins, as there 
were the remains of small kegs. That tribe was the only one in this region 
that then used spirituous liquors. They obtained it from the traders or the 
Hudson Bay Company, bartering their furs for it Here many plants and 
aromatic herbs are mentioned, and some resembling in taste and smell sage, 
hyssop, wormwood and juniper. On the 26th they csmiped at the mouth of 
the 1 ellowstone, where game of various kinds was venr abundant Frequent 
mention is made of the burned hills along that part of the Missouri for some 
distance above and below the Yellowstone. Among the animals killed by 
the hunters of the expedition in this part of the voyage were several 
brown bears. On the evening of the 14th of May the men in one of the 
canoes discovered a large brown bear lying in the open grounds about three 
hundred yards firom the river. Six of uiem, all gooa hunters, went to attack 
him, and, concealing themselves by a small eminence, four of them fired at 
a distance of about forty paces. Each of them lodged a ball in the bear's 
body, two of them directly through the lungs. The animal sprang up and 
ran open-mouthed toward them. As he came near, the two hunters who had 
reserved their fire, ^ve him two more wounds, one of which, breaking his 
shoulder, retarded his motion for a moment Before they could reload he 
was so near upon tliem that they^ were obliged to run to the river, the bear 
almost overtaKing them. Two of the men sprang^ into the canoe, and the 
others concealed themselves in some willows and nred as fast as they could 
reload, striking him several times. The shots seemed only to direct him 
toward the hunters, till at last he pursued two of them so closely that they 
threw aside their guns and pouches, and jumped twenty feet down a perpen- 
dicular bank into the river. The bear sprang after them, and was widiin a 
few feet of the hindmost when one of the hunters on shore shot him in die 
head, and finally killed him. They dragged the bear to shore and found 
that eight balls nad passed through his body in different directions. 

On Uie 20th of May the party reached the mouth of the Muscleshell, a 
river of considerable size from the south. They were then 2270 miles above 
the mouth of the Mississippi, in latitude 47 deg., 24 min. Mention is made 
of what the French traders called Cote Koire, or Black Hills. On the 26th 
of May they had the first view of the Eocky Mountains, ** the object," as the 
journalist remarks, ^'of all our hopes, and the reward of all our ambition." 
The view was obtained from what they called one of the last ridges of the 
Black Mountains. On the 80th they had reached that part of die river 
which passes through between walls of rocks, presenting every form of 

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senlptnred rains, and having fbe appearance of being the prodnctionB of art 
Of these objects of natural scenery they give a most flowing deecaiption. 

On the 3a of June the expedition reaiched a junction of two branches of 
the river, when they were at a loss to determine which was the true Mis- 
soturi river. Parties, one under Captain Lewis and the other under Captain 
Clarke, proceeded to explore both oranches by land. The party under Cap- 
tain Lewis, on the 13th, reached the Great Falls of the Jllsisouri on the 
Bouthem branch, which determined the question. One of the men was 
sent to inform Captain Clarke of the discoveiy. The explorers give a vivid 
description of the wonderful and beautiful scenery whicn is here presented. 
In the vicinity of the falls they saw a herd of at least a thousand buffalo, 
one of which they shot Here Captain Lewis himself had an encounter 
with a lai^ brown bear, fit>m which he escaped by plunging into die river. 
Mention is made of grasshoppers at the mouth of Medicine river, about 
twelve miles above the Great Tails, in such multitudes that the herbage on 
the }>lains was in part destroved by them. At that point the Missouri is 
described as being three hundred yards wide, and Medicine river one hun- 
bundred and thirty-seven yards wide. The party remained here until the 
15th of Jidy, examining the surrounding country, constructing canoes, and 
making general prenarations for oontinumg the journey. On uiat day they 
again embarked wim eiglit heavily loaded canoes, encountering many diffi- 
cult places tor navigating, owing to the rapids. Toward the bitter part of 
July they reached a point where the Missouri is formed of three branches, 
one of whidi they called Jefferson, one Madison, and one Gkllatin. Here 
the party divide and explore the several branches, partly for the purpose of 
finding the Shoshones, the Indians that were known to inhabit that region. 
On the 11th of Ai^ust iiiev encountered a single Indian on horselMick, who 
proved to be one ofthat tribe or nation. Captain Lewis, who had continued 
his course up the Jefferson, or principal branch forming the sources of the 
Missouri, r^iched a point where it had so diminished m width diat one of 
his men in a fit of enthusiasm, with one foot on each side of ti^e rivulet, 
tiianked God that he had lived to bestride the Missouri. A few miles 
further on they reached the point where issues the remotest water — the 
hitherto hidden sources of that river, which had never before been seen by 
civilized man. Th^ sat dovm by the brink of the little rivulet, and 
quenched their thrist at the chaste and icy fountain, which sends its modest 
tribute down to the great ocean thousands of miles away. Crossing over the 
the dividing line between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, at a 
distance of three-quarters of a mile, they stopped to taste for the first time 
the waters of the Columbia, here a stream oi dear, cold water flowing west- 
ward. On the same day Captain Lewis succeeded in gaining a friendly in- 
terview with the Shoshones. Captain Clarke, with a part of the expedition, 
was at this time at the junction of the three branches of the Missouri, and 
Captain Lewis engaged a number of the Indians, with about thirty of their 
horses, to transport their merchandise and outfit to the Shoshone camp. 

The Shoshones are described as being a small tribe of the nation called 
the Snake Indians, an appellation which embraces the inhabitants of the 
-southern parts of the BocW Mountains and of the plains on either side. 
During the summer the Shoshcmes resided about tne headwaters of the 
Columbia^ where they lived chiefly on salmon. In their joumd tibe explorers 
give s Jong and interesting account of the habits, traditions, and manner of 

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life of thiB ^ple. TRiejr found them honest, friendly, and ready to render 
them all assistance in their power. 

After purchasing twenty-nine horses from the Shoshones, the party on the 
30th of August resumed their joumOT toward the Pacific. On the 4th of 
September, after many difficulties in finding a practicable route, they came 
to a large encampment of Indians who received them wiAgreat eoraiality. 
The pipe of peace was introduced and a council held. They represented 
themselves as a band of a nation called Tushepaws, a numerous people then 
residing on the headwaters of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, xhe In- 
dians shared their berries and roots with the strangers and received some 
presents. Several horses were purchased from them. On the 6th thej 
reached a stream to which they gave the name of Clarke river, Captain 
Clarke bein^ the first white man who ever visited its waters. The route 
was a rugffM one, and in many places almost impracticable, and to add to 
the difficiuties of the situation, snow had been falling, so that on the 16th it 
was six or eight inches deep. The difficulty of procuring game or other 
subsistence made it necessary for them to kill several of their horses on this 
part of their journey, for food. They had a little of what was called portable 
soup which they used by melting some snow. This, and about twenty 
pounds of bear's oil, was uieir only remaining subsistence. They were now 
m a region where their guns were of little service, for there was scarcely a 
living creature to be seen in those mountains. Captain Clarke and bIt 
bimters searched the moimtains all day for game but found none, and a^ 
night encamj>ed on a small stream to wnich they gave the name of Hunsri' 
Creek. Their only refreshment during the day was a little of the portwjj 
soup. On the 26th, Captain Clarke and his hunting party encountered three 
Indian boys, and sent mem forward to the village with some presents. An 
Indian came out to meet them, and conducted them to a large tent in the 
village, which was the residence of the ^*eat chief. After some introductory 
ceremonies by signs, the Indians set b^ore the strangers some buffido meat, 
dried salmon, berries and several kinds of roots. This, after their long 
abstinence, was a sumptuous treat One of the chiefs conducted them to 
another village, two miles away, where they were received with great kind- 
ness and passed the night l!nese Indians called themselves Chopunish, or 
Pierced-!Nose (Nez Perces). With a few articles Captain Clarke (manced to 
have in his pockets he purchased some dried salmon, roots and berries and 
sent them by one of his men and a hired Indian back to Captain Lewis. 
The main body with Captain Lewis had been so fortunate as to kill a few 
pheasants and a prairie wolf. As soon as it was known in the villages that 
the wonderiul stran^rs had arrived the people crowded in to see them; 
Twists Hair, the chief, drew a chart or map of the country and streams on 
a white eUc-skin, which was of great service m guiding them on their course. 
From these Indians as many provisions were purchased as could be carried 
on their horses. Afl»r proceeding down the river some distance, they 
determined to continue their journey in canoes, which they set about con- 
structing. By the 7th of October the canoes were launched and loaded. 
The horses were branded and left with the Indians to be kept until their 
return. Accompanied by some of the Indians down Lewis river, the ex- 
pedition finally reached the Columbia on the 16th, having stopped at a 
number of villages on the way. The Columbia at the mouth of Lewis river 
they found to be 960 yards wide, and Lewis river 676 yards wide. Here 
they found themselves among a nation who called themselves Sokulks, a 

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THB NOBrTHWxerr tebbitobt. 96 

people of a mild and peaceable di8rK>8ition. Fish was their princit^ artide 
of food. On the 18th thej resnmea their joumej down the Colamoia in the 
presence of many of tixe Sokulks who came to witness their departure. 
Tbej passed many different tribes who inhabited the borders of the Colam- 
hia, all of whom they visited in their villages and encampments^ learning 
their condition, habits, history and mode of living. Wherever they haltea 
lai^ numbers of Indians gathered to see them, ana generally manifested the 
greatest kindness and hospitality. All of them had pierced noses. 

On the 22d of October the party reached the Great Falls of the Colum- 
bia. Many Indians inhabited this portion of the country, and some of them 
assisted the party in unloading the canoes, transporting the goods around 
the &Us, and in bringing down the canoes. At one place it was necessary to 
haul the canoes over a point of land to avoid a perpendicular fall of seventy 
feet Some distance below the fSEills they came to a villa^ of another tribe, 
or nation, called the Echeloots. Here they found the nrst wooden houses 
&ey had seen after leaving the settlements near the Mississippi. They were 
made of logs and poles, with poles for rafters and covered with white cedar, 
kept on by strands of cedar fifbres. The inhabitants received the strangers 
with great kindness, invited them to their houses, and came in great num- 
bers to see them. They were surprised to find that these Indians spoke a 
language quite different from that of the tribes above the Great Falls. 
Some of their customs, however, were the same. Like the tribes thev had 
leeently visited, they flattened the heads of their children, and in nearly the 
same manner. Amouff the mountain tribes, however, this custom was con- 
fined to the females Mmost exclusively, whereas the Echeloots subjected 
both sexes to &e operation. On the 18th they came to another tribe where 
ttiey saw a British musket and several brass tea-kettles which the Indians pri^d 
▼eiy highly. In the interview with the chief he directed his wife to hand 
him his medicine-ba^, from which he drew out fourteen forefingers, which 
he said had belonged to the same number of his enemies whom he had 
kiUed in battle. These fingers were shown with great exultation, after which 
they were carriull^ reph^ed amon^ tlie oth^ valuable contents of the 
medicine-bag. This was the first instance in which the explorers had 
observed that any other trophy than the scalp was ever carri^ from the 
ield in Indian warfiBu:e. 

On the 2d of November the party passed the rapids which form the last 
descent of the Columbia, and tide-water commences. On this part of the 
Gokmbia they began to meet with tribes who had some knowledge of the 
whites, and from articles in their possession, it was observed that they had 
maintained some sort of trade or barter with the whites. The Indians here 
also began to be troublesome and were disposed to pilfer whenever an oppor- 
tmdly offered, showing that in their intercourse with the whites they haa con- 
tracted some vices that they are free from in the absence of such intercourse. 
On the 16th of November,^ 1805, the expedition encamped in full view of 
the Pacific Ocean, at Haley's Bay, as laid down by Vancouver. Their long, 
tedious and eventful journey to the Pacific having ended, they made prepa- 
ntbns for goin^ into winter quarters. Some distance below the mouth of 
the Columbia, tnree miles above the mouth of a little river that empties into 
the bay, in a thick grove of lofty pines, thev formed their winter encamp- 
pcni Gkune was exceedingly plenty, and during the winter they were vis- 
ited by a large number of me Indians inhabiting the coast region. They 
o^ the place Fort Olatsop, from the tribe of Indians inhabiting the imme- 

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diate viomity. Here thej remained until the 28d of March, I8O69 when 
they commenced their return, by the same route. 

Before leaving, Captains Lewis and Clarke posted up in the fort a note 
to the following effect: 

^'The object of this is, that tlirough the medium of some civilized person, 
who may see the same, it may be mMe known to the world that the party con- 
sisting of the persons whose names are hereto annexed, and who were sent 
out by the ffovemment of the United States to explore the interior ot the 
continent ot North America, did cross the same by the way of the Missouri 
and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific ocean, 
where they arrived on the 14th day of Kovember, 1805, and departed tlie 
23d day of March, 1806, on their return to the United States, by the same 
route by which thejr came out" 

It is somewhat singular that this note a short time after fell into the hands 
of a Captain Hill, while on the coast near the mouth of the Columbia river. 
It was aelivered to him by some Indians, and taken to Canton, China, from 
whence it was brought to the United States in January, 1807. On the 23d 
of September, 1806, the party reached the mouth of the Missouri, and 
deoended the Mississippi to St. Louis, arriving at 12 o'clock. Having firtjd 
a salute, they went on shore, where they "received a most hearty aiS hos- 
pitable welcome from the whole village." 

This is but a very partial and hasty review of that romantic and extraor- 
dinanr expedition — ^the first exploration by authority of the government of 
the United States, of that wonderful region which of late ^ears has attracted 
so much attention. It gave to the wond the first authentic account of the 
upper Missouri and its tributaries, and of the rivers that flow from the west- 
em slopes of the Bocky Mountains and seek the Pacific Ocean through the 
great Columbia. It imparted to civilized man some definite knowleoge of 
,me strange tribes whose homes were on the borders of those rivers; of their 
habits, traditions and modes of life; of the fauna and flora of a region hitli- 
erto unknown, and of natural scenery not surpassed in grandeur and sub- 
limity by that of any other part of the world. Other explorers have since 
revealed a portion of the hiaden treasures of that part of our national do- 
main, but the pioneer expedition of Lewis and Clark^, so successfully accom- 
plished, will always possess a peculiar and thrilling interest 


First White Viritow— The Name— Jean Baptiste— John Kinzie— Ft. Dearborn— Evacuation — 
The Massacre— Heroic Women— Capt. Heald— Capt. Wells— Scalpingr the Wounded— Ft. 
Dearborn Re-bnilt— Illinois and Michigan Canal — Chicago Laid Out— Removal of In- 
dians—City Organization^-Pidneer Religions Societies — ^I^blic Improvements — Locatioa 
of City— GrowQi— The Great Fire— Rise of the New Chicago. 

Thb history of so great a city as Chicago, like that of London, or Paris, 
or New Yorlc, by reason of its commercid, financial and other relations to 
the world at large, is a history of world-wide interest Not that Chicago 
may yet be compared in size, population or wealth with the great cities 
named, would we mention it in connection with them, and yet, considering 
its age, it is greater than either of them. In its ratio of increase in popu- 
lation, commerce, and general progress, it is to-day outstripping diem. In 
what civilized part of we globe is Chicago not heard of, read oi, and known i 

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If, BO many centuries after the founding of Borne, mankind still feel inter- 
ested in the mythical story of Bomulus and Bemus, may not the present 
and future generations read with equal interest the more authentic story of 
the founding of a great modem city} 

The Jesmt missionary and explorer, Marquette, first visited the place 
where Chicago is located, in 1673. Again, m the winter of 1674-5, he 
camped near the site of the present city, from December until near the close 
of March* Upon his arrival, in December, the Chicago river was frozen 
over, and the ground covered with snow, llie name is of Indian origin, and 
was applied to the river. By^ the French voyageurs it is variously spelled^ 
the majority rendering it Cmoagou. The place is mentioned by *Berrot in 

In 1796, Jean Baptiste, a trader from the West Indies, found his way to 
the mouth of the little stream known as Chicago river, and engaged in trad- 
ing with the Indians. Here for eight years, almost alone, he maintained 
tr^e and intercourse with the savages, until, in 1804, Fort Dearborn was 
erected, and a trading post was established by John Kinzie, who became 
the successor of Jean JSaptiste. Fort Dearborn, as first constructed, was a 
very rude and primitive stockade, which cost the government onljr about 
fifty dollars. It stood on the south bank of Chicago river, half a mile from 
the lake. The few soldiers sent to erect and garrison it were in charge of 
Major Whistler. For a time, being unable to procure j^^n for bread, the 
soloiers were obliged to subsist in part upon acorns. The original settler, 
Jean Baptiste, or as his full name was written, Jean Baptiste Point au Sable, 
sold his cabin to Mr. Kinzie, and the latter erected on the site the building 
known to t^e earlv settlers as the ^^ Kinzie House." This became a resort 
lor the officers aua others connected with the garrison. In 1812 the garrison 
had a force of 54 men, xmder the command of Capt. Kathan HeaM, with 
Lieutenant Lenai L. Helm and Ensign Bonan. Dr. Yoorhees was surgeon. 
The only white residents, except the officers and soldiers, at that time, were 
Mr. Kinzie and his familv, the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieut. Helm, and 
a few Canadians, with tneir families. Nearly up to tliis time the most 
friendly relations had been maintained with the Indians — the principal tribes 
by whom they were surrounded being tlie Pottawattamies ana Winnebago^. 
Ijie battle of Tippecanoe had been fought the year, before, and the influence 
of Tecumseh began to be observable in the conduct of the Indians. They 
were also aware of the difficulties between the United States and Great 
Britian, and had yielded to the influences brought to bear by the latter. In 
April of this year, suspicious parties of Winnebagoes began to hover about 
the fort, remaming in the vicinity for several days. Tlie mhabitants became 
alarmed, and the families took refd^ in the fort On the 7th of August 
a Pottawattamie chief appeiu^ at me fort with an order or dispatch from 
Gten. Hull, at Detroit, ducting Capt Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
distribute all the government propertv to the neighboring Indians. Tlie 
chief who brought the dispatch advised Capt Heald to make no distributioR 
to the Indians. He told him it would be better to leave die fort and stores 
as they were, and that while the Indians were distributing the stores among 
themselves, the whites might escape to Fort Wayne. On tlie 12th of August 
Capt Heald held a council with the Indians, but the odier officers refused to 
join him. They feared treachei^ on die part of the Indians, and indeed liad 
oeen ii^ormed that their intention was to murder the white pcoi^Ic. In tlie 
council Capt Heald liad taken the precaution to open a port-liolo displaying 

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a cannon directed npon the council) and probably by that means kept the 
Indians firom molesting him at that time. Acting under the advice of Mr. 
Einzie, he withheld the ammunition and arms from the Indians, throwing 
them, together with the liquors, into the Chicago river. On that day Black 
Partridge, a friendly chief, said to Oapt. Heald: "Linden birds have been 
Ringing in my ears to-day; be careful on the march j^ou are going to take." 
On the 13th the Indians discovered the powder floating on the simace of the 
water, a discovery which had the effect to exasperate them the more, and 
they began to indulge in threats. Meantime preparations were made to 
leave the fort. 

Capt Wells, an unde of Mrs. Heald, had been adopted by the famous 
Miami warrior. Little Turtle, and had become chief of a band of Mittmis. 
On the 14th he was seen approaching with a band of his Miami warriors, 
coming to assist Capt Heala in defending the fort, having at Fort Wayne 
beard of the danger which threatened the earrison and the settlers. But all 
means for defending the fort had been destroyed the night before. All, 
ti^erefore, took ut> their line of march, with Capt, Wells and his Miamis in 
the 1^, followea bv Capt Heald, with his wife riding by his side. Mr, 
Einzie had alwavs been on the most friendly terms with the Indians, and 
BtUl hoped that his personal efforts might influence them to allow the whites to 
leave unmolested. He determined to acconipany the expedition, leaving^ 
bis family in a boat in the care of a friendly Indian. In case any misfor- 
tune should happen to him, his family was to be sent to the place where 
Kiles, Michigan, is now located, where he had another trading post Along 
the shore of Lake Michigan slowly marched the little band of whites, witli a 
friendly escort of Pottawattamies, and Capt Wells and his Miamis, the lat- 
ter in advance. When they had reached what were known as the *^ Sand 
Hills,*' the Miami advance guard came rushing back, Capt Wells exclaim- 
mg, ''They are about to attack; form instantlv." At that moment a shower 
of bullets came whistling over the sand hills, behind which the Indians 
had concealed themselves for the murderous attack. The cowardly Miamis 
were panic-stricken, and took to flight, leaving their heroic leader to his fate. 
He was at the side of his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the attack was made, and, 
after expressing to her the utter hopelessness of their situation, dashed into 
the firfit There were 54 soldiers, 12 civilians and three women, all poorly 
anne^ against 500 Indian warriors. The little band had no alternative but 
to sell their lives as dearly as possible. They charged upon their murder- 
ous assailants, and drove them from their position back to the prairie. 
There the conflict continued until two-thirds of the whites were killed and 
wounded. Mrs. Heald, Mrs Helm and Mrs. Holt, all took part in the combat 
In a wagon were twelve children, and a painted demon tomahawked them 
all, seeing which, Capt Wells exclaimed, "If butchering women and chil- 
dren is your game, I will kill too," and t^en spurred his horse toward the 
Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and papooses. He was pur- 
sued 1^ sevmd young warriors, who sent DuUets whistling about him, killing 
Ms horse and wounding Capt Wells. They attempted to take him a prisoner, 
but he resolved not to oe taken alive. Calling a young chief a squaw, an 
epithet which exdtes the fiercest resentment in an Indian warrior, me young 
ctiief instantly tomahawked him. 

The three women fought as bravely as the soldiers. Mrs. Heald was an 
expert in the use of the rifle, but received several severe wounds. During 
Ae conflict the hand of a savage was raised to tomahawk her, when she ex- ^ 

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claimed in his own lan^age, " Surely you will not kill a gquaw." Her 
words had the effect to cEan^ his purpose, and her life was spared. Another 
warrior, attempted to tomahawk Mrs. Helm. He struck her a glancing 
blow on the shoulder, when she sized him and attempted to wrest from him 
his scalping knife, which was in the sheath attached to his belt. At that 
moment the iriendly Black Partridge dragged her from her antagonist, and 
in spite of her struggles carried her to the lake and plunged her in, at t^e 
same time holding her so she would not drown. By this means he saved 
her life, as he intended. The third woman, Mrs. Holt, the wife of Sergeant 
Holt, was a larse wc^man, and as strong and brave as an amazon. She rode 
a fine, spirited horse, which more than once the Indians tried to take from 
her. . Her husband had been disabled in the fight, and with his sword, which 
she had taken, she kept the savages at bay for some time. She was finally, 
however, taken prisoner, and remained a long time a captive among the In- 
dians, but was subseouently ransomed. 

After two-thirds or the whites had been slain or disabled, twenty-eight 
men succeeded in gaining an eminence on the prairie, and the Indians de- 
sisted from further pursuit The chiefs held a consultation, and gave tlie 
sign that they were ready to parley. Capt Heald went forward and met 
the chief. Blackbird, on the prairie, when terms of surrender were agreed 
upon. Ilie whites were to deliver up their arms and become prisoners, to 
be exchanged or ransomed in the future. All were taken to the Indian 
camp near the abandoned fort, where the wounded Mrs. Helm had previ- 
ously been taken by Black Partridjge. By the terms of surrender no pro- 
vision had been made as to the disposition of the wounded. It was the 
onderstandin^ of the Indians that the British general, Proctor, had offered 
a bounty for American scalps delivered at Maiden. Here there was another 
scene ot horror. Most of the wounded men were killed and scalped. 

Such is a hasty glance at scenes that were witnessed on this then wild 
shore of Lake MiSiigan. Such were the experiences and the struggles of 
the heroic men and women who ventured forth into the wilderness to plant 
the germs of civilization, and to lay the foundations of future cities and 
States. The site on which now stands a city which ranks among the great- 
est on the continent, is consecrated by the blood shed by heroes on that 
bright 15th day of August, 1812. 

Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816, under the direction of Capt. Bradley, 
and was occupied until 1837, when, the Indians having removed from the 
country, it was abandoned. 

Congress, on the 2d of March, 1827, granted to the State of Illinois every 
alternate section of land for six miles on either side of the line of the then 
proposed Blinois and Michigan canal, to aid in its construction, 6x>m Chi- 
cago to the head of navigation of the Illinois river. The State accepted tlMB 
grant, and on the 22d oi January, 1829, organized a board of canal commis- 
sioners, with power to lay out towns alongthe line. Under this authority 
the commissioners employed Mr, James Thompson to survey the town of 
Chicago. His first map of the town bears date August 4, 1630. In 1831 
the place contained about a dozen families, not including the officers and sol* 
diers in Fort Dearborn. On the 10th of August, 1833, it was organized by 
the election of five trustees — ^there being twenty-eight voters. On the 26th 
of September of the same year, a treaty was signea with the chie& of .the 
Pdttawattamies, seven thousand of the tribe beinf^ present, and on the Ist 
of October they were removed west of the Mississippi. The first charter oi 

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the city was passed by the Legislature of niihois, and approved Mardi 4th, 
1837. Under this charter an election was held May Ist, of the same year. 
A censns was taken on the Ist of Jnlj^, when the entire population was 
dK>wn to be 4,170. The city then contained four warehouses, three hundred 
and twenty-eight dwellings, twenty-nine dry goods stores, five hardware 
stores, three drug stores, nineteen provision stores, ten taverns, twenty-six 
grocmes, seventeen lawyers' offices, and five churches. It then embraced 
an area of 660 acres. At this date grain and flour had to be imported from 
the East to feed the people, for the iron arteries of trade did not men stretch 
out over the prairies of Illinois, Iowa, and other States. There were no ex- 
portations of produce until 1839, and not until 1842 did the exports exceed 
the imports. Grain was sold in the streets hj the wagon load, the trade 
bein^ restricted to a few neighboring farmers of Illinois. 

Of religions organizations the Methodists were the pioneers, being repre- 
sented in 1831, 1832 and 1833, by Eev. Jesse Walker. Their first quarterly 
meeting was held in the fall of 1833, and in the spring of the next year the 
first regular class was formed. The first Presbyterian church was organized 
June 26tb, 1833, the first pastor being Bev. James Porter. It consisted at 
the time of twenty-five members from the garrison and nine from the citi- 
zens of the town. The first Baptist churdi was organized October 19th, 
1833 : and the first Episcopal church, St James, in 1834. The first Cath- 
die chureh was built by Kev. Schofier, in 1833-4. 

The first great public improvement projected was the Illinois and Mich- 
igan canal, one hundred miles in length, and connectim; Chicago witli La 
StUe, at the head of navigation on the Illinois river. It was completed in 
the spring of 1848. 

To the eye of an observer, Chicago seems to be situated upon a level plain, 
but in reality the height of the natural surface above the Ic^e varies from 
three to twenty-four feet, and the grade of the principld streets has been 
raised from two to eight feet above the original surface. A complete sys- 
tem of sewerage has been established. The surrounding prairie for many 
miles is apparently without much variation of surface. Though it cannot 
be observed by the eye, yet the citv really stands on the dividing ri<^ be- 
tween tiie two great rivers that drain half the continent, and is about six 
hundred feet al^ve the ocean. Chicago river, before being widened, deep- 
ened, and improved, was a veiy small stream. It has but very little per- 
ceptible current, and for several miles is very nearly on a level with tlie 
lake. It is formed by two branches, one from Uie north and the other from 
south, which unite about a mile from the lake. From this junction the 
stream flows due east to the lake. These streams divide the city into three 
parts, familiarly known as !N'orth Side, South Side, and West Side. Bridges 
constructed upon turn-tables, or pivots, are thrown across the streams at 
mauy places. By swinging the bridges round, vessels are allowed to be 
towed up and down the river by steam tu^, so that there is very little diffi- 
eolty in the way of passing from one division of the city to another. The 
stream has be^i made navigable for several miles for sail vessels and pro- 
pellers, and immense warehouses and elevators have been constructed along 
its banks, where vessels are loaded and unloaded with ^reat rapidity. 

We have seen that when the first census was taken in 1837, the city had 
a population of 4,170. By 1840 it had increased to only 4,470 ; in 1845 it 
was 12,088 ; in 1850 it was 28,269 ; in 1855 it was 83,509. The census of 
1870 showed a population 298,977. 

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One of the gigantic Dublic improvementB of Chicago is that for supplying 
the city with water. Owing to the £EU^t that the water in the lake, near the 
shore, was polluted by filth from the river, in 1865 a tunnel was cut under 
the lake, extending a distance of two miles from the shore. This tunnel is 
thirty-five feet below the bed of the lake. This work is regarded as an ex- 
ample of great engineering skill, and has proved to be successful. The con- 
tract price for this work was $316,139. Another great work is the tunnel 
onder the Chicago river at Washin^n street, cut for the purpose of dis- 
pensing with the bridge over the nver, and to obviate the necessity of the 
public waiting for vessels to pass. The contract price for this great work 
was $200,000. 

There are other ^reat public improvements of the city, which with her rail- 
roads leading out m all directions, her immense lake shipping trade, and her 
population of nearly half a million people, show the greatness that Chicago 
nas attained, all within so short a time. As she has been great in her prosper* 
ity, so also has she been great in her calamities. On the 8th and 9th of Oc- 
tober, 1871, this citrjr was the scene of one of the greatest oonfli^grations 
known in the annals of the world — greater than that of London in 1666, 
when thirteen thousand buildings were burned. In Chicago twenty thou- 
sand buOdinffs were swept away by the devouring element, with miles of 
magnificent business blocks, palatial residences, and costly ornamentations 
— dl covering an area of over Jive tJu/usa/nd acres! In all that part of the 
city between Harrison street and the Chicago river, and on the North Side 
for nearly four miles to Lincoln Park, there was nothing to be seen but the 
ruins of a city that had suddenly ffone down at the merciless bidding of the 
fire-fiend. It was a scene of desolation and ruin, and its announcement at 
the time thrilled a sympathetic chord which vibrated throughout the whole 
civilized world. Like the fabled Phcenix, Chicago rose smm fix>m her own 
ashes, but grander and more magnificent than she was b^ore. Chicago is 
now, and has for some years been, we greatest pork packing and grain shipping 
market of the world. Her commerce is of immense proportions and reaches 
to all lands where American trade is known. She is the commercial metrop- 
olis of the CTeat Northwest, and the States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wis- 
consin and Minnesota, pour their tributes of wealth over thousands of miles 
of railroads into her kp. 

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History of Iowa. 


Eztent--^iiifiuse---BiTeTB--Lake8---Spmt Lake— Lake Okobcji— Clear Lake— Umber-Cli- 
mate— Praiziee— Soils. 

JSsoi&nt. — ^lowa is about three hnndred miles in length, east and west, and 
a little over two hundred miles in breadth, north and south; having nearly 
the figure of a rectangular parallelogram. Its northern boundaiy is the par- 
allel of 48 decrees 80 minutes, separating it from the State of Minnesota. 
Its southern limit is nearly on the line of 40 degrees 81 minutes from the 
point where this parallel crosses the Des Moines river, westward. From 
this point to the southeast comer of the State, a distance of about thirty 
miles, the Des Moines river forms the boundary line between Iowa and Mis- 
sourL The two great rivers of the North American Continent form the 
east and west boundaries, except that portion of the western boundary ad- 
foining the Territory of Dakota. The JBig Sioux river fix>m its mouth, two 
miles above Sioux Citv, forms the western boundary up to the point where 
it intersects the parallel of 48 degrees 80 minutes. These limits embrace an 
area of 65,046 square miles; or, 86,228,800 acres. When it is understood 
that all this vast extent of sur£EU!ie, except that which is occupied bv the riv- 
ers, and the lakes and peat beds of the northern counties, is susceptible of the 
highest cultivation, some idea may be formed of the immense agricultural re- 
sources of the State. Iowa is nearly as large as England, and twice as large 
as Scotland; but when we consider the relative area of surface which mav 
be made to yield to the wants of man, those countries of the Old World will 
bear no comparison with Iowa. 

Surface. — ^The surfstoe of the State ie remarkably uniform, rising to nearly 
the same general altitude. There are no mountains, and yet but little of 
the 6m-&ce is level or flat. The whole State presents a succession of gentle 
elevations and depressions, with some bold and picturesque bluffs alons the 
princiiMd streams. The western portion (^ the State is generally more eleva- 

thwestem part being the highest Nature 
e perfect system of (frainage, and at the same 
pletely adapted to all' the purposes of agricul- 
lowa, we see two systems of streams or rivers 
with each other. The streams which dis- 
Mississippi flow from the northwest to the 
>ther system flow towards the southwest, and 
former drain about three-fourths of the State, 
le-fourth. The water-shed dividing the two 

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106 mffroBY of iowa. 

systems of streams, represents the highest portions of the State, and grad- 
ually descends as you tollow its course from northwest to southeast. Low- 
water mark in the Missouri river at Council Bluffs is about 425 feet above 
low-water mark in the Mississippi at Davenport At the crossing of the 
summit, or water-shed, 245 miles west of Davenport, the elevation is about 
960 feet above the Mississippi. The Des Moines river, at the city of Des 
Moines, has an elevation of 227 feet above the Mississippi at Davenport, and 
is 198 feet lower than the Missouri at Council Bluffs. The elevation of the 
eastern border of the State at McGregor is about 624 feet above the level of 
the sea, while the highest elevation in the northwest portion of tiie State is 
1,400 feet above the level of the sea. In addition to the grand water-shed 
mentioned above, as dividing the waters of the Mississippi and Missouri, 
there are between the principal streams, elevations commonly called " di- 
vides," which are drained by numerous streams of a smaller size tributary to 
the rivers. The valleys along the streams have a deep, rich soil, but are 
scarcely more fertile than many portions of those undulating prairie " di- 

Rivera, — ^As stated above, the rivers of Iowa are divided into two systems, 
or classes — those flowing into the Mississippi, and those flowing into the 
Missouri. The Mississippi river, the largest on the continent, and one of the 
largest in the world, washes the entire eastern border of the State, and is most 
of the year navigable for a large class of steamers. The only serious ob- 
struction to steamers of the largest size, are what are known as the Lower 
Eapids, just above the mouth of the Des Moines. The government of the 
United States has constructed a canal, or channel, around these rapids on 
the Iowa side of the river, a work which will prove of immense advantage 
to the commerce of Iowa for all time to come. The principal rivers which 
flow through the interior of the State, east of the water-shed, are the Des 
Moines, Skunk, Iowa, Wapsipinicon, Maquoketa, Turkey, and Upper Iowa. 
One of the largest rivers m the State is Eed Cedar, which rises in Minne- 
sota, and flowing in a southeasterly direction, joins its waters with Iowa 
river in Louisa county, only about thirty miles from its mouth, that portion 
below the junction retaininff the name of Iowa river, although above the 
junction it is really the smaller stream. 

Tlie Des Moines is the largest interior river of the State, and rises in a 
group or chain of lakes in Minnesota, not far from the Iowa border. It 
really has its source in two principal branches, called East and West Des 
Moines, which, after flowing about seventy miles through the northern por- 
tion of the State, converge to their junction in the southern part of Hum- 
boldt county. The Des Moines receives a number of large tributaries, 
among whicn are Eaccoon and Three Eivers (North, South and Middle) on 
the west, and Boone river on the east Raccoon (or 'Coon) rises in the vi- 
cinity of Storm Lake in Buena Vista county, and after receiving several 
tributaries, discharges its waters into the Des Moines river, within the lim- 
its of the city of Des Moines. This stream afibrds many excellent mill 
privileges, some of which have been improved. The Des Moines flows from 
northwest to southeast, not less than three hundred miles through Iowa, and 
drains over ten thousand square miles of territory. At an early day, steam- 
boats, at certain seasons of the year, navigated this river as mr up as the 
" Eaccoon Forks," and a large grant of land was made by Congress to the 
State for the purpose of improving its navigation. The land was subse- 
quently diverted to the construction of the jDes Moines Vdley Railroad. 

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Before this diversion several dams were erected on the lower portion of the 
riveTy which afford a vast amount of hydraulic power to that portion of the 

The next river above the Des Moines is Skunk, which has its source in 
Hamilton county, north of the center of the State. It traverses a southeast 
ooorBe, having two principal branches — their ag^^te length being about 
four hundred and fifty miles. They drain about eight thousand square miles 
of territory, and afford manv excellent mill sites. 

The next is Iowa river, which rises in several branches among the lakes 
in Hancock and Winnebago counties, in the northern part of the State. Its 
sreat eastern branch is Eed Cedar, having its source among the lakes in 
Minnesota. The two streams, as before stated, unite and flow into the Mis- 
sissippi in Louisa county. In size, Eed Cedar is the second interior river 
of the State, and both are valuable as affording immense water power. Shell 
lioek river is a tributary of Eed Cedar, and is important to Northern Iowa, 
on account of its fine water power. The agsreffate length of Iowa and Eed 
Cedar rivers is about five hundred miles, and they drain about twelve thou- 
sand square miles of territory. 

The Wapsipinicon river rises in Minnesota, and flows in a southeasterly 
direction over two hundred miles through Iowa, draining, with its branches, 
a belt of territoiT only about twelve miles wide. This stream is usually 
called " Wapsie" by the settlers, and is valuable as furnishing good water 
power for machinery. 

Maquoketa river, the next considerable tributary of the Mississippi, is 
about one hundred and sixty miles long, and drains about three thousand 
square miles of territory. 

Turkey river is about one hundred and thirty miles long, and drains some 
two thousand square miles. It rises in Howard county, runs southeast, and 
empties into ti^e Mississippi near the south line of Clayton county. 

Upper Iowa river also rises in Howard county, flows nearly east, and 
empties into the Mississippi near the northeast comer of the State, passing 
through a narrow, but picturesque and beautiful valley. This portion of 
&e State is somewhat broken, and the streams have cut their channels deeply 
into the rocks, so that in manyplaces they are bordered by bluffs from three 
to four hundred feet high. They flow rapidly, and furnish ample water 
power for machinery at numerous points. 

Having mentional the rivers wmch drain the eastern three-fourths of the 
State, we will now cross the great "water-shed" to the Missouri and its 

The Missouri river, forming a little over two-thirds of the length of the 
western boundarr line, is navigable for large sized steamboats for a distance 
of nineteen hunored and fifty miles above the point (Sioux City) where it 
first touches our western border. It is, therefore, a highway of no little im- 
iwrtance to the commerce of "Western Iowa. During the season of naviga- 
tion some years, over fifty steamers ascend the river above Sioux City, most 
of which are laden with stores for the mining region above Fort feentonT 
We win now refer to the larger tributaries of &e Missouri, which drain the 
western portion of Iowa. 

The Big Sioux river forms about seventy miles of the western boundaiy 
of the State, its general course being nearly &om north to south. It has 
Beveral smaJl tributaries draining the counties of Plymouth, Sioux, Lyon, 
Osceola, and O'Brien, in northwestern Iowa. One of the most important 

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of these is Bock river, a beantiftil litde Btream miming through the oonn- 
ties of Ljon and 8ionx. It is supported by sprinffs, and affords a voIuum 
of water sufficient for propelling machinery. Big Sionx river was onoe re^ 
garded as a navigable streun, and steamboats of a small size have on sev* 
eral occasions ascended it for some distance. It is not, however, now oon^ 
sidered a safe stream for navigation. It empties into the Missouri about 
two miles above Sioux City, and some four miles below the northwest cor- 
ner of Woodbury county. It drains about one thousand square miles oi 
Iowa territory. 

Just below Sioux City, Floyd river empties into the Missouri. It is d 
small stream, but flows through a rich and beautiful valley. Its length i« 
about one hundred miles, and it drains some fifteen hundred square miles ol 
territory. Two or three nulls have been erected on this stream, and there 
are oQier mill sites which will doubtless be improved in due time. 

Little Sioux river is one of the most important streams "^of northwestern 
Iowa. It rises in the vicinity of Spirit ana Okoboji lakes, near the Minne^ 
sota line, and meanders through various counties a distuioe of nearly three 
hundred miles to its confluence with the Missouri near the northwest corner 
of Harrison county. With its tributaries it drains not less than five thou- 
sand square miles. Several small mills have been erected on this stream^ 
and others doubtless will be when needed. 

Boyer river is the next stream of considerable size below the Little Sioux. 
It rises in Sao county and flows southwest to the Missouri in Fbttawattamie 
county. Its entire length is about one hundred and fifty miles, and drains 
not less than two thousand square miles of territory. It is a small stream, 
meandering through a rich and lovely vaUey. The Chicago and Northwest^ 
em Railroad pass^ down this valley some sixty miles. 

Going down the Missouri, and passing several small streams, which have 
not been di^pified with the name of rivers, we come to the Nishnabotna, 
which empties into the Missouri some twenty miles below the southwest 
comer of the State. It has three principal branches, with an aggr^ate 
length of three hundred and fifty miles. These streams drain about five 
thousand sauare miles of southwestern Iowa. They flow through vall^rs of 
unsurpassea beauty and fertility, and furnish good water power at variouB 
points, though in this respect tney are not equal to the streams in the north- 
eastem portion of the State. 

The southem portion of the State is drained bj several streams that flow 
into the Missouri river, in the State of Missoun. The most important of 
these are Chariton, Grand, Platte, One Hundred and Two, and the three 
Nodaways — ^East, West and Middle. All of these afford water power for 
machinery, and present splendid valleys of rich fiurming lands. 

We have above only mentioned the streams that have been designated as 
rivers, but there are many other streams of great importance and value to 
different portions of the State, draininfi| the country, furnishing mill-sites, 
and adding to the variety and beauty of the scenery. So admirable is the 
natural drainage of almost the entire State, that the farmer who has not t 
stream of living water on his premises is an exception to the general rule. 


In some of the northem counties of Iowa there are many small, but bean- 
tifbl li^es, some of which we shall notice. They are a part of the system <rf 

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lakes extending fkr northward into Minnesota, and some of them present 
manj interesting features which the limits of Uiis work will not pennit ns 
to give in detaiL The following are amon^ ^Jbe most noted of the lakes of 
northern Iowa: Clear Lake, in Cerro Gh>rdo county; Bice Lake, Silver Lake 
and Bri^ht's Lake, in Worth county; Crystal Lake, Eagle Lake, Lake Ed- 
ward and Twin Ls^es, in EEanoock county; Owl Lake, in Humboldt county; 
Lake Gertrude, Elm Lake and Wall Lake, in Wright county: Lake Oaro, m 
Hamilton county; Twin Lakes, in Calhoun county; Wall Lake, in Sao 
connty; Swan Lake, in Emmet county; Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county; 
and Okoboji and Spirit Lakes, in Dickinson count^. Nearly all of these 
are deep and dear, abounding in many excellent varieties of fish, which are 
eaoght abundantly by the settlers at all proper seasons of the year. The 
name ^Wall Lake,' applied to several of these bodies of water, is derived firom 
the &ct that a line or ridge of boulders, extends aroimd them, giving them 
somewhat the appearance of having been walled. Most of them exmoit the 
same appearance in this respect to a greater or less extent Lake Okoboji, 
Spirit Lake, Storm Lake and Clear Lake are the largest of the Northern 
Iowa lakes. All of them, except Storm Lake, have fine bodies of timber on 
their borders. Lake Okoboji is about fifteen miles long, and firom a quarter 
of a mile to two miles wide. Spirit Lake, just north of it, embraces about 
ten square miles, the northern border extendmg to the Minnesota line. Storm 
Lake is in size about three miles east and west by two north and south. 
Clear Lake is about seven miles long by two mUes wide. The dry rolling 
land usually extends up to the borders of the lakes, making them oelightfiu 
resorts for excursion or fishing parties, and they are now attracting attention 
as places of resort, on account of the beauty of their natural scenery, as well 
as the inducem^its which thev afford to hunting and fishing parties. 

As descriptive of some of tne lakes of Northern Iowa, the author would 
here introduce some former correspondence of his own on the occasion of a 
visit to Spirit and Okoboji Lakes, in Dickinson coimty. At that time he 
wrote in regard to Spirit Lake: 

With a party of delisted friends — seven of us in all — ^we made the cir- 
cle of Spirit Lake, or Mifme-Wcntkon as the Indians called it Starting 
from the village of Spirit Lake early in the morning, we crossed the upper 
portion of East Okoboji on a substantial wooden bridge about three hundred 
feet in length, a half mile east of the village. Going around a farm or two, 
we proceeoed up along tiie east shore of lM)irit Lake to what is known as 
"Stony Point." Here a point of land has oeen gradually forming, for, we 
do not know how many years, or even centuries, but large trees have grown 
from the rocks, gravel and sand thrown together by vanous forces far back 
in the past From the inner edge of the growth of timber, a ridge of rocks 
extends some forty rods into the lake, graoually lessening until, at the fur- 
ther extremity, it onlv affords a dry foot-way by stepping from rock to rock. 
This point is said to be constantly extending and it is not improbable that 
in time, two lates may be formed instead of one. " Stony Point'' is almost 
wholly composed of lioulders of various sizes and shapes, brought together 
by the action of water, on either side. It is the resort of innumerable birds and 
water fowl of various kinds, including pelicans, black loons and gulls. When 
we approached they were holding high carnival over the remains of such un- 
fortnnate fish as happened to be thrown upon the rocks by thedashin^ of the 
waves. Our presence, however, soon cleared the coast of its promiscuous 

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gathering of feathered tenants, but after we left, they doubtless returned to 
their revelij. 

We continued our journey up the lake a mile further to the " inlet/' Here 
a small stream makes its way in from the east, and, having high steep banks, 
all we had to do was to go round its mouth through the Is^e, the water bein^ 
very clear, with a fine gravel bottom, and suflSdently shallow for good f<»^ 
in^. Just aboye this, a sand-beach extends for some distance, portions of 
which are covered with dumps of willows and other small trees. No heavy 
groves of timber border on tne east side of the lake, but scattered trees and 
small groves extend all the way along. The adjoining prairie land is gencr- 
allv dry, roUing and well adapted to farming purposes. Several &rms are in 
cultivation along the banks of this part of me lake. 

Nearly east of the north end of me lake, we crossed the Iowa and Minne- 
sota line. Our road led us about a mile further north, where it diverged 
westerly to the south bank of a pleasant little sheet of water, known as Loon 
Lake. This has an outlet connecting it with other small lakes, which lie 
near the head of Spirit Lake, and which were doubtless once a part of the 
same. In a pretty little grove on the shore of Loon Lake, in the sovereign 
State of MinnesotEi, we paused for our nooning. 

From Loon Lake the road turns southward, passing several miles through 
groves of timber that border the west shore of Spirit Lake. A numb^ of 
clear and quiet little lakes are nestled romantically in the groves west of 
Spirit Lake with only sufficient room in many places for a roadway between 
them and the latter. Of these charming little lakes, the three principal ones 
are Lake Augusta, Plum Lake, and Bound Lake. In the formation of the 
last named, nature has indulged in one of her most singular and interesting 
freaks. It is something over a quarter of a mile in diametw, and so nearly 
round that the eye can detect no irregularity. The bank, all around, rises 
to the uniform height of about thirty feet, sloping at an angle of forty-five 
degrees, and giving the lake the appearance of a huge basin. A dense forest 
approaches on all sides, with large trees bending over the water, which is so 
deep down in its reservoir that the wind rarely ruffles its surface. Tliere is 
no visible inlet or outlet, but the water is always deep and clear. It is 
indeed worth a day's journey to see this charming little gem of a lake, 
reposing so quietly in the midst of its wild surroundings of lofty trees, 
tangled vines and wild fiowers. 

rlum Lake is so called from the fact that there are many groves of wild 
plums aroimd it It lies between Lake Augusta and Botrnd Lake. Near 
the north end of Plum Lake is a commanding elevation called " Grandview 
Mound." From the summit of this moimd there is a fine view of Spirit 
Lake, and a portion of the surrounding country. There is every appearsmce 
that these little lakes were once a portion of the greater one that lies east of 
them, and they are now separated from it by a strip of land only wide enough 
in many places for a good wagon road, but it is gradually increasing in witrni 
from year to year. It is covered with a growm- of cottonwood, soft maple, 
elm, wild plum, and other trees, with a dense profusion of wild ^pe vines 
clinging among the branches. The beach along the edge of ^irit Lake 
here is composed of gravel, sand and shells, with a ridge of boulders, rising 
and extending up to tne timber, through which the tom passes. 

Eound Lf£e, above mentioned, is situated in what is known as ^^ Marble 
Grove,'* one of the finest bodies of timber to be found about the lakes, and is 
so named from its early occupant, who was killed by the Indians. It was in 

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HI8T0BT cm IOWA. Ill 

this grove, after tiie massacre, that the Indians peeled the bark from a tree, 
and with a dark paint, made a pictnre-record of what thej had done. The 
killed were represented by rude drawings of persons in a prostrate position, 
anrresponding with the number of victims, lectures of cabins, wim smoke 
issuing from their roofs, represented the number of houses burned. In the 
murder of Marble and his child, and the capture of Mrs. Marble, the Indians 
completed the annihilation of the settlement at the lakes, and thus left a 
record of their fiendish work. ^'Marble Grove" at that time was doubtless 
a scene of savage rejoicing over the perpetration of deeds which cast a gloom 
over all Northwestern Iowa, and which the lapse of years only could remove. 

From the south end of " Marble Grove *' to the village of Spirit Lake, the 
road passes oyer undulating prairies for some tliree or four miles, with 
eevenu new farms now being improved on either side. The principal groves 
of timber about this It^e aro at the west side and the north end, winLe a 
oarrow belt extends around the other portions. The water is deep, and the 
wind often dashes the waves against the banks with great violence. At 
other times the surface is smooth and placid. 

There is a le^nd which we give briefly, for the benefit of those who may 
be curious to know the origin of the name of Spirit Lake. Many moons 
brforo the white man took up his abode or built his cabin on the shores of 
the lake, a band of Dakota warriors brought a pale-faced maiden hero, a 
captive taken in one of their expeditions against the whites who had ven- 
tured near their hunting grounds. Among the warriors was a tall young 
brave, £ur^r than the rest, who had been stolen from the whites in infancy 
by the wife of Um-pa-sho-ta, the chief! The pale-faced brave never knew 
his parentage or origin, but the chief's wife called him Star of Day, and he 
knew not bat that she was his own mother. All the tribe expected that he 
would sometime become their chief, as no warrior had proved so brave and 
daring as he. Star of Dav, only, had performed deeds which entitled him 
to snoce^ to the honors of the aged TJm-pa-sho-ta. But all the distinctions 
or titles that his nation mi^ht bestow, possessed no attraction for him while 
he beheld the grief of the beautiful pale-faced captive. He theroforo deter- 
mined to rescue her, and also made up his mind to flee with her from the 
tribe and make her his wife. The maiden had recognized in the blue eyes 
and fair face of her lover, something which told her that he, like herself, 
was a captive. One night, while all the warriors wero asleep in their lodges. 
Star of Day and the maiden slumbered not He silently unbound the 
thongs whitm fastened her to the lod^ frame. Only a few paces through 
the Slick forest brought them to the lake shoro, where, under the willows, 
hk light canoe was in readiness. Soon the lovers wero midway across the 
lake, but the Oreat Spirit who ruled in the wind and the water, as well as in the 
fiH^t, willed that their home should be together beneath the waters whero 
no Dakota should henceforth ever disturb mem. And so a broath of the 
Oreat Spirit in the wind dashed a wave over the little canoe, and it went 
down with the lovers. Since that time no Indian's canoe has ever dared to 
venture upon the lake. Onlv the white man's canoe is always safe, for the 
spirits of Star of Day and the maiden still abide under the water, in a 
miutiful cave of shells, guarding only the white man's canoe Irom danger, 
as spirits ever know their own. From that time the Dakotas called the hke 
Mirme-WatJkony or Sjpirit-Water. 

Okobaji.'^kohoji is the most beautiful of all the lakes of Northwestern 
Iowa. Walter Scott could not invest the historic lakes of Scotia with moro 

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of the wild beauty of scenery Bn^estive of poetry and romance, than we here 
find around this loveliest of Iowa lakes. 

Okoboji lies immediately south of Spirit Lake, and is of very irregular 
shape, its whole length is at least fourteen miles, but it is nearly separated 
into two parts. The two parts are called, respectivdy, East and West Okoboii. 
A woodei^ bridge has been erected across the straits, on the road &om tne 
village of Spirit Lake to that of Okoboji, the water here being ordinarily not 
over a couple of hundred feet wide and about fifteen feet deep. West Otoboji 
is much the larger body of water, stretching west and northwest of the straits 
some eight miles, and varying in width from one to two miles. As you pass 
around this lake, the scene constantly changes, and from many dijQTerent 
points the observer obtains new views, many of which might furnish inspira- 
tion to the pencil of the artist The water has a deep sky-blue appearance, 
and the sunace is either placid or boisterous, as the weather may nappen to 
be. The dry land slopes down to the margin on all sides. 

Huge boulders are piled up around me shores several feet above tbe 
water, forming a complete protection against the action of the waves. 
These rocks embrace tne different kinds of granite which are found scat- 
tered over the prairies, with also a la^^ proportion of limestone, from which 
good quick-lime is manufactured. This rocK protection seems to be charac- 
teristic of all that portion of the lake-shore most subject to the violent beat- 
ing of the waves. But there are several fine gravel beaches, and one on the 
north side is especially resorted to as being the most extensive and beautiful. 
Here are immense wind-rows of pebbles, rounded and polished by the vari- 
ous processes that nature employs, and in such variety that a single handful 
taken up at rftndom would constitute a miniature cabinet for the geologist 
Agates, cornelians, and other specimens of exquisite tint and beauty, are 
found in great profusion, being constantly washed up by the water. The 
east end erf West Okoboji, at the straits, is some five miles south of Spirit 
Lake, but the. extreme west portion extends up to a point west of Spirit 
Lake. East Okoboji is not so wide or deep as the other part, but is nearly 
as long. It extends up to within a quarter of a mile, or less, of Spirit Lake, 
and is now connected with it by a mill-race, being some four or five feet 
lower than that lake. At a narrow place near the upper end of this lake, a 
bridge some three hundred feet long has been erected on the road leading to 
EstherviUe. The Okoboji outlet heads at the south end of East Okoboji, 
and in its passage flows through three lakes called Upper, Middle and Lower 
Gar Lakes. These little lakes are so named because large quantities of the 
peculiar long-biUed fish designated bv that name, are found therein. This 
outlet has a rapid fall all the way to its junction with the Little Sioux river, 
some five miles below, and is about bein^ turned to good aocoxmt by the 
erection of machinery on it This outlet is also the greatest of the fishing 
resorts about the lakes 

The groves around Lake Okoboji embrace over one thousand acres of good 
timber. The liurger groves are found on the south side, where the principal 
settlement was at the time of the Indian massacre. There are two or three 
fine bodies of timber on the north side of West Okoboji, and a narrow fringe 
of timber borders nearly all the lake shore between the larger sroves. On 
the north side of West Okoboii, near the west end, is a splendid grove of 
hard maple, of large size, while none of this kind of timber is found else- 
where about the lake. On the same side in another grove, we observed 
many red cedars of large growth. We noticed one nearly three feet in 

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diameter, and a fine crop of young cedars, from three to ten inches high, 
have taken root along the shore. Burr oak seems to predominate among 
the yarions kinds of timber, and the ctovcs on the south side are mainly 
composed of this kind, with considerable ash, elm and walnut In many 
places the ground is covered with a dense growth of wild gooseberry and 
wild currant bushes, all now giying promise of a fine yield or fruit Many 
plum groves are scattered about the lake, and grapes also grow in profusion. 
We noticed, however, that the wild crab-apple, so plentiful in other parts of 
the State, was wanting. 

The land rises from the lake nearly all the way round, with a gradually 
sloping bank, to the height of some thirty feet, and then stretches away in 
andulating prairie or woodland, as the case may be. In some places, the 
anbroken prairie extends to the beach without a tree or shrub. A splendid 
body of prairie, embracing several thousand acres, lies in the peninsula 
Conned by Lake Okoboji with its outlet and the Little Sioux river. Between 
Okoboji and Spirit Lakes, there is also a good body of prairie with some 
well improved farms. A lake of considerable size, called Center Lake, with 
a fine body of timber surrounding it, lies between Okoboji and Spirit Lakes. 
In point of health, as well as in the beauty of its natural sceneir, this 
locality far surpasses many others that have become fashionable and famous 
resorts. A month or two in the summer season might be spent here with 
constant change, and a pleasing variety of attractions. The invalid or 

Eleasure seeker might divide the time oetween hunting, fishing, driving, 
athing, rowing, sailing, rambling, and in various other ways adapted to his 
taste or fancy. He could pay homage to Nature in her playful or her 
milder m^KMls; for sometimes sue causes these little lakes to play the role of 
miniature seas by the wild dashing of their surges against their rocky shores, 
and then again causes them to become as calm and placid as slumbering 

Clear Lake. — Clear Lake^ in Cerro Gk)rdo county, is among the better 
known lakes of the State, on account of its easy accessibility by rail, as well 
as its many and varied attractions. It is a beautiftil little sneet of water, 
and as a pleasure resort has for several years been constantly growing in 
favor. This, and Storm Lake, in Buena Vista county, as well as some 
others, are deserving of special description, but what is already given will 
afford some idea of the lakes of Northern Iowa. 

Timber. — One of the peculiar features of the topography of the north- 
west, is the predominance of prairies^ a name of French origin, which sig- 
nifies grass-land. It has been estimated that about nine-tenths of the sur- 
face of Iowa is prairie. Tlie timber is generally found in heavy bodies skirt- 
ing the streams, but there are also many isolated groves standing, like islands 
in the sea, £ar out on the prairies. The eastern half of the State contains a 
larger proportion of timber than the western. The following are the leading 
varieties of timber: White, black and burr oak, black walnut, butternut, 
hickoiT, hard and soft maple, cherry, red and white elm, ash, linn, hackberry, 
birch, honey locust, cottonwood and quaking asp. A few sycamore trees are 
found in certain localities along the streams. Groves of red cedar also pre- 
vail, especially alon^ Iowa anaCedar rivers, and a few isolated pine trees are 
scattoed along the oluffs of some of the streams in the northern part of the 
}fcarly all lands of timber common to Iowa have been found to grow rap- 


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idly when transplanted upon the prairies, or when propagated fix)m the plant- 
ing of seeds. Unlj a few years and a little expense are required for the 
settler to raise a grove sufficient to afford him a supply of fud. The kinds 
most easily propa^ted, and of rapid growth, are cottonwood, maple and wal- 
nut. All our prairie soils are adapted to their growth. 

Prof. 0. E. Bessey, of the State Amcultural OoUe^ who supervised the 
collection of the different woods of Iowa for exhibition at the Oentennii^ 
Exposition, in 1876, has given a most complete list of the native woody 
plants of the State. Below we present his list When not otherwise stat^ 
they are trees. The average diameters are given in inches, and when tJie 
species is a rare one, its locality is given: 

Papaw— Bhrab; 2 to 8 inches. 

Moonseed— climbinff shrab; ^inch. 

Basswood. Lynn or Linden— 20 inches. 

Piiddy A8h---shrab; 2 inches. 

Smooth Samadb— shrub; 2 inches. 

Poison lyy— •dimbinff shrab; 1 inch. 

Framnt Samach--8hrab; 2 inches. 

Frost QnHje— vine; 2 inches. 

River Bank Grapre-— vine; 2 indies. 

Backthom— shrub: river bluffis; 2 to 3 indies. 

New Jersey Tea— low shrub; }iuicik. 

Red Root— low shrub; H inch. 

Bitter«swee(f— climbing shrub; 1 inch. 

Wahoo— shrub; 2 inches. 

Bladder Nut— shrub; 2 inches. 

Buckeye— 20 to 30 inches. 

Sugar Maple— 20 to 24 inches. 

Black Maple— 12 to 18 inches. 

Silver or Soft Maple— 20 to 80 inches. 

Box Elder-3 to 12 inches. 

False Indigo— shrub; ^ inch. 

Lead Plant— low shrub; }^inch. 

Red Bud— 6 to 8 inches. 

Kentucky Coffee Tree-3 to 12 mches. 

Honey liocust— 12 to 20 inches. 

Wild Plum— shrub or tree; 2 to 5 inches. 

Wild Red Cheny— shrub or tree; 2 to 6 

Choke Cherry— shrub; 2 to 8 inches. 
Wild Black Uherrv— 12 to 18 inches. 
Wine Bark— shrub; }^inch. 
Meadow Sweet— shrub; ^inch. 
Wild Red Raspberry— shrub: j ' 
Wild Black Raspberry— shrub. 
Wild Blackberry— shrub; J^inc 
Dwarf Wild Rose— low shrub; Ji inch. 
Early Wild Rose— low shrub; Ji inch. 
Black Thorn— 8 to 5 inches. 
A^Hiito Thorn— 3 to 5 inches. 
Downy-leaved Thom— 2 to 3 indies. 
Wild Crab Apple— 8 to 6 inches. 
Service Berry or June Beny—8 to 5 inches. 
Small June Beoxy— shrub; 2to8inches. 
Prickly Wild (Gooseberry— shrub; H iiich. 
Smoow Wild Qooseb oiiy s hrub; fi inch. 
Wild Blade Currant— shrub; ^indi. 
Witoh Haael— shrub; 1 to 2 inches; said to 

d^row in N. £• Iowa. 
Einnikinnik— shrub; 2 inches. 
Bough-leaved Dogwood— shrub; 1 to 8 

Puiided Cornel— flhmb; 2 inches. 

Altemato-leaved Comd— shrub; 2 inches. 

Wolfberry— low shrub; ^inch. 

Coral Berry— low shrub; >^inch. 

Small Wild Honeysuckle— climbing shrub; ^ 

Blackberried Elder— shrub; lto2 inches. 

Red-berried Elder— shrub; 1 to 2 inches. 
This one I have not seen, but feel quite 
sure that it is in the State. 

Sheep Berry— shrub; 2 inches. 

Downy Arrow-wood— shrub 2 inches. 

High Cranberry Bush— shrub; 1 indi. 

Buttcm Bush— shrub; 1 inch. 

Black Huckleberry— low shrub; J^indi; near 
Davenporfcy according to Dr. Pany. 

White Ash— 12 to 18 inches. 

Green Ash— 8 to 12 indies. There is some 
doubt as to the identic of this species. 

Blade Ash— 12 to 16 inches. 

Sassafras— 3 to 18 inches. Said to grow in 
the extreme southeastern part of the 

Spice Bush— dimb; 1 inch. Said to grow in 
Northeastern Iowa. 

Leatlierwood or Moosewood— shrub; 1 to 8 
inches. In Northeastern Iowa. 

Buffalo Beny— shrub; 1 to 2indies. Possi- 
bly this may be found on our western 
borders, as it occurs in Nebraska. 

Red Ehn— 12 to 14 inches. 

White Elm— 18 to 80 inches. 

Corky Elm— 10 to 15 indies. I haye seen no 
spedmens which could certainly be re- 
ferred to this spedes, and yet I tliink 
there is little doubt of its being a native 
of this State. 

Hackberry— 10 to 16 inches, 

Red Mulberry— 6 to 10 inches. 

Sycamore, or Buttonwood— 10 to 30 inches. 

Blade Walnut— 24 to 48 indies. 

Butternut— 12 to 20 inches. 

Shdl-bark Hidcory— 12 to 24 inches. 

Pecan Nut— 12 to 20 inches. 

Large Hickory Nut— 18 to 24 indies. 

Pig iTut Hickory— 12 to 20 inches. 

These three last spedes I have not seen 
in the State, but ttom their known dis- 
tribution, I have no doubt that they are 
to be found in the southern portions d[ 
the State. 

Butternut Hidcory— 12 to 18 inches. 

White Oak— 20 to 80 inches. 

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Burr Oak— 24 to 86 inches. Petioled Willow— «hrab; 2 indieii. 

CiiesbiQf. Oak— 6 to 10 inches. Heart-leaded WiUow— small tree; 3 to 4 in- 

Laorel Oak — 5 to 10 inches. ches. 

Scarlet Oak— 12 to 16 inches. Black Willow— 3 to 12 inches. 

Red Oak— 15 to 20 inches. Ahnond Willow— 3 to a inches. 

Haiel Nut— shrub; 1 inch. Long-leaved Willow— shrub; 2 to 8 inches. 

Lnn Wood— 4 to 7 inches. Aspen— 6 to 12 inches. 

Bhe Beech— 3 to 4 inches. Cottonwood— 24 to 86 inches. 

White Birch — 8 to 6 inches. Said to grow in White Pine— a few small trees grow in North- 
Northeastern Iowa. eastern Iowa. 

Specked Alder— shrub or smaU tree; 2 to 3 Bed Cedar— 6 to 8 inches. 

inches. Northeastern Iowa. Ground Hemlock— trailing shrub; 1 indi. 

Praiiie Willows — ^low shrub; H inch. Green Briar— climbing shrub; >§ inch. 

Glaaoons Willow— small tree; 2 to 3 inches. 

Total number of species, 104; of these, fifty-one species are trees, while 
the remaining ones are shrubs. The wood of all the former is nsed for 
economic purposes, while some of the latter fiimish more or less valuable 

CUmaie. — ^Prof. Parvin, who has devoted great attention to the climatol- 
ogy of Iowa, in a series of observations made by him at Muscatine, from 1839 
to 1859, inclusive, and at Iowa City, from 1860 to 1870, inclusive, deduces 
the following general results : That the months of November and March 
are essentially toirUer months, their average temperatures rising but a few 
degrees above the freezing point Much of the former month is mdeed mild 
and pleasant, but in it usually comes the first cold spell, followed generally 
by- mild weather, while in March the farmer is often enabled to commence 
his spring plowing. Septemb^ has usually a summer temperature, and 
proves a ripening season for the fall crops> upon which the farmer may rely 
with safety if the spring has been at all backward* May has much more 
the character of a spring month than that of summer, and ^^ May day" is 
not often greeted with a profusion of fiowers. The average temperature of 
May during thirty-two years was 59.06 degrees, while that of September 
was 63.37 degrees. Prof. Parvin states that during thirty-five years the 
mercury rose to 100 d^rees only once within the region of his observations 
in Iowa, and that was auring tne summer of. 1870. It seldom rises above 
ninety-five degrees, or falls lower than fifteen degrees below zero. The 
higheat temperature, with very few exceptions, ckscurs in the month of Au- 
gust, while July is the hottest month as indicateid by the mean temperature 
of the summer months. January is the coldest month, and in this, only 
once in thirty-two years did the mercury fall to thirty degrees below zero. 
The prevailing winds are those of a westerly direction, not ^r. the year alone, 
but K)r the several months of the year, except June, July, August and Sep- 
tember. August is the month in which the greatest amount of rain falls, 
and in January the least The greatest fall or rain in any one year, was in 
1851—74.49 inches, and the least in 1854—23.86 inches. The greatest fall 
of snow for anv one year, was in 1868 — 61.97 inches. The least was in 
1850 — ^7.90 incLes. The earliest fall of snow during twenty-two years, from 
1848 to 1869, inclusive, was October 17th, 1859, and the latest, April 29th, 
1851. The greatest fall was December 21st, 1848—20.50 inches. During 
that time no snow fell during the months of May, June, July, August and 
Septemb^, but rain usually occurs in each of the winter months. 

The dear days during the time embraced in Prof. Parvin's observations, 
were thirty4wo per cent; the cloudy twenty-two per cent, and the variable 
forty-six per cent 

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The year 1863 was very cold, not only in Iowa, but throughout the coun- 
try, and there was frost in every month of the year, but it omj once or twice 
during thirty years seriously injured the com crop. When the spring is 
late the fall is generally lengthened, so that the crop has time to mature. 
The mean time for late spring frosts is May 4th; that of early fall frost is 
September 24th. The latest frost in the spring during thirty-one years, fix)m 
1839 to 1869, inclusive, was May 26th, 1847; and the earliest, August 29th. 

Prairies. — ^The character of surface understood by the term pravriey is not 
a feature peculiar to Iowa, but is a characteristic of the greater portion of 
the Northwest Dr. 0. A. White, late State Greologist of Iowa, m his re- 
port says : 

" By the word prairie we mean any considerable surface that is free from 
forest trees and snrubbery, and which is covered more or less thickly with 
grass and annual plants. This is also the popular understanding of the 
term. It is estimated that about seven-eighths of the surface of Iowa is 
prairie, or was so when the State was first settled. They are not confined to 
the level surface, but are sometimes even quite hilly and broken; and it has 
just been shown that they are not confined to any particular variety of soil, 
lor tliey |)revail equally upon Alluvial, Drift, and Lacustral soils. Indeed, 
we sometimes fina a single prairie whose surface includes all these varieties, 
portions of which may be respectively sandy, gravelly, clayey or loamy. 
Neither are they confined to the region of, nor does their character seem at 
all dependent upon, the formations which underlie them, for within the State 
of Iowa they rest upon all formations, from those of Azoic to those of Cre- 
taceous age inclusive, which embraces almost all kinds of rocks, such as 
quartzites, friable sandstone, magnesian limestone, common limestone, im- 
pure chalk, day, clayey and san(^ shales, etc. Southwestern Minnesota is 
almost one continuous prairie upon the drift which rests directly upon, not 
only the hard Sioux quartzite, but also directly upon the granite. 

^'Thus, whatever the ori^n of the prairies might have be^ we have the 
positive assurance that their present existence in Iowa and immediate vicin- 
ity is not due to the infiuence of climate, the character or composition of 
the soil, nor to the character of any of the underl ving formations. It now 
remains to say without the least hesitation, that the real cause of the pres- 
ent existence of jnuiHes in lovHij is the prevalence of the ammal fires. 
If these had l)een prevented fifty years ago Iowa would, now be a timbered 
instead of a prairie State. 

^' Then arises questions like the following, not easily answered, and for 
which no answers are at present proposed: 

" When was fire first introduced upon the prairies, and how? Could any 
but human agency have introduced annual fires upon them? K they could 
have been introduced only by the agency of man why did the forests not 
occupy the prairies before man came to introduce ms fires, since we see 
their great tendency to encroach upon the prairies as soon as the fires are 
made to cease ? The prairies, doubtless, existed as such almost immediately 
after the close of the Glacial epoch. Did man then exist and possess tiiie 
use of fire that he might have annually burnt the prairies of so large a part 
of the continent, and thus have constantly prevented the encroachments of 
the forests ? It may be that these questions will never be satisfactorily an- 
swered: but nothing is more evident than that the forests would soon occupy 
a very large proportion of the prairie region of North America if f^e prai- 

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rie fires were made to cease, and no artificial efforts were made to prevent 
their j?rowth and encroachment'' 

bans. — ^Dr. White has separated the soils of Iowa into three general di- 
visiond, viz : the Drift, Bluff, and Alluvial. The drift soil occupies the 
mater portion of the State, the bluff next, and the alluvial the least The 
^ aiiflb is derived primarily from the disintegration of rocks, to a considerable 
' extent perhaps irom those of Minnesota, which were subject to violent gla- 
cial action during the glacial epoch. This soil is excellent, and is generallj 
free from coarse drift materials, especially near the surface. 

The bluff soil occupies an area estimated at about five thousand square 
miles, in the western part of the State. It has many peculiar and marked 
characteristics, and is oelieved to be lacustral in its origin. In some places 
the deposit is as gr^t as two hundred feet in thickness, all portions of it 
beiuff equal in fertility. If this soil be taken from its lowest depth, say two 
hun£rea feet below the sur&ce, vegetation germinates and thrives as r^ily 
in it as in tHe surface deposit It is of a sliditly yellowish ash color, ex- 
cept when mixed with decaying vegetation. j[t is composed mainly of si- 
lica, but the silicious matter is so finely pulverized that the naked eye is un- 
able to perceive anything like sand in its composition. The bluffs along the 
Missouri river, in the western part of the State, are composed of this ma- 

The alluvial soils are the ^^ bottom" lands alon^ the rivers and smaller 
streams. They are the washings of other soils mixed with decayed vege- 
table matter. They vary somewhat in character and fertility, but the wst 
of them are regarded as the most fertile soils in the State. 

As to the localities occupied by each of these different soils, it may be 
stated that the drift forms tlie soil of all the higher plains and woodlands 
of the State, except a belt along the western border, which is occupied by 
the bluff sou, or bluff deposit, as it is generally called. The alluvial occu- 
pies the low lands, both prairie and timber, along the streams. It may be 
remarked that the alluvial soil composinff the broad belt of "bottom " along 
the Missouri, partakes largelv of the bluff soil, owing to continued wash- 
ings from the nigh lands or bluffs adjacent. 


Clanificadon of Rocks — Azoic System — ^Haronian Ghroup— Lower Silurian System — ^Primordial 
GroupT-Trenton Groap— Cindnnati Group— Upper Silurian System— Niagara Group — 
Devonian System — ^Hamilton Group — Carboniferous Svstem — Sub-Carboidferous Group — 
Einderhook Beds — ^Burlinffton Limestone — ^Keokuk Limestone— St. Louis Limestone — 
Goal-Measure Group— Ore&ceous System— Nishnabotany Sandstone— Woodbury Sand- 
i^nea and Shales— Inooeramus Beds. 

Ih January, 1855, the General Assembly passed an act to provide for a 
geological snryey of the State. Under authority given by tnis act Prof. 
James Hall, of Ifew York, was appointed State Geologist, and Prof. J. D. 
Whitney, of Massachusetts, State Ohemist During t£e years 1855, 1866, 
tad 1857, the work progressed, but was confined chiefly to the eastern coun- 
ties. A laige volume was published in two parts, ^ving in detail the results 
of the survey up to the dose of the season of 1857, when the work was dis- 
continued. In 1866 it was resumed under an act of the General Assembly 
passed in March of that year, and Dr. Charles A. White, of Iowa City, was 
appointed State Geologist He continued the work, and in December, 1869, 

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submitted a report to the Governor in two large volumes. From these 
reports we derive a pretty thorough knowledge of the geological character- 
istics in all portions of tne State. 

In the classification of Iowa rocks, State Geologist White adopted the 
following definitions: 

The term ^^ formation" is restricted to such assemblages of strata as have 
been formed within a geological epoch: the term "group,*' to such natural 
groups of formation as were not formed within a ffeological period; and the 
term " system," to such series of groups as were each formed within a geolog- 
ical age. 

The terms used in this arrangement may be referred to two categories — 
one applicable to geological objectSy and the other to geological time. Thus*. 
Formations constitute Oroups; groups constitute l^stems; Epochs consti- 
tute Periods; periods constifeue Ages. 

In accordance with this arrangement the classification of Iowa rocks may 
be seen at a glance in the followmg table constructed by Dr. White: 










Lower Cretaoeous- 



Saboarbcmiferoas • 
I Amilt^ni -t. 


10 to 200 

rhpdla/ieonfl ... .... 

IfUiCMmflMiM Zm<2 .••••....•.••.••• 


Woodbury Sandstone and Shales 
Utjner Co&l Meafinres 


Middle Coal Measures 


liDwer Ooal Meaanres. •••..•••••. 


rjAj4w>nif(m!Vinfl ..... 

8f. TiHTiia TiimAsfAnA .^..^. ...... 


Keoknk liimesione ••••••• 


Burlington limestone 

ITindArnAAk bfida 


Dovoniftii •»»**■*»•♦ 

Hamilton Limestone and Shales . 

^lAivstm. TiimAflfAnA 


Upper Silurian. . . . 

^iaizarA t»-»t»»*»»rT 



Trenton •.•..••.• 

M^fl/iimlrAffi. SViftlftfl. ............. 


GkJena Limestone 


T^wAT Sflnrifi.'n .... 

Primordial • 


Trenton Limestone 

St Peter's Sandstone 



Lower Ma«nesian Limestone 

Pnffldfurn nandatenfi 



Sioux Quartzite 



Skironian Oroup. — The Sioux Quartzite Formation in this Group is 
found exposed in natural ledges only on a few acres in the northwest eomer 
of the State. The exposures in Iowa are principally upon the banks of the 
Big Sioux river, for which reason the specific name of Sioux Quartzite is 
given to it It is an intensely hard rock, breaking with a splintery fracture, 
and a color varying in different localities from a bright to a deep red. 
Although it is so compact and hard the grains of sand of which it was 
origini^y composed are yet distinctly to be seen, and ev^ the ripple marks 
upon its bedding surfaces are sometimes found as distinct as they were wh^i 
the rock was a mass of incoherent sand in the shallow waters in which it was 
accumulated. The lines of stratification are also quite distinct, but they are 
not usually sufficiently definite to cause the mass to divide into numerous 
layers. It has, however, a great tendency to break up by vertical cracks 

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msroBY OF IOWA. 119 

and fissures into small angular blocks. The process of metamorj^ism has 
been so complete throughout the whole formation that the rock is almost 
everywhere of uniform texture, and its color also being so nearly uniform 
there is no difficulty in identifying it whererer it may be seen. 

In a few rare cases this rock may be quarried r^idily, as the layers are 
easily separated, but usually it is so compact throughout that it is quarried 
with the OTeatest difficulty into any forms except those into which it naturally 
eracks. ^t has a great tendency, however, upon its natural exposures, to 
bred^ up by vertical fissures and cracks into angular blocks of convenient size 
for handling. Except this tendency to cracE into an^lar pieces, the rock 
is absolutely indestructible. No ts-aces of fossil remains of any kind have 
been found in it. As shown by the table its exposure in Iowa is fifty feet in 


Primordial Group. — ^The Potsdam Sandstone Formation of this Group 
haa a geographical range extending throughout the northern portion of the 
United States and Canada, and in Iowa reaches a known thickness of about 
300 feet, as shown in tibe table. It forms, however, rather an inconspicuous 
feature in the geology of Iowa. It is exposed only in a small portion of 
the northeastern part of the State, and has been brought to view there by 
the erosion of the river valleys. The base of the formation does oot appear 
anywhere in Iowa, consequently its full thickness is not certainly known, nor 
b it known certainly that it rests on the Sioux Quartzite. The rock is 
everywhere soft; usually a very friable sandstone, but sometimes containing 
some clayey material, and approaching in character a sandv shale. It is 
nearly valueless for any economic purpose, not being of sufficient hardness 
to s^rve even the commonest purposes of masonry. No fossils have been 
discovered in this formation in Iowa, but in Wisconsin they are found quite 
abundantly in it. 

The Lower Magnesian Limestone Formation has but little greater geo- 
graphical extent m Iowa than the Potsdam Sandstone has; because, like 
uiat formation, it appears only in the bluffs and valley-sides of the same 
streams. It is a more conspicuous formation, however; because, being a 
firm rock, it presents bold and often picturesque fronts along the valleys. 
Its thickness is about 250 feet, and is quite uniibrm in composition, being a 
nearly pure buff-colored dolomite. It lacks a uniformity of texture and 
Btratmcation which causes it to weather into rough and sometimes grotesque 
shapes, as it stands out in bold relief upon the valley-sides. It is not gener- 
ally valuable for building purposes, owing to its lack of imiformity in texture 
ana bedding. Some parts of it, however, are selected which serve for such 
uses at Lansing and McGregor. It has also been used to some extent for 
making lime, but it is not equal to the Trenton limestone, near Dubuque, 
for that purpose. The only fossils that have been found in this formation in 
Iowa, are, so tar as known, a few traces of the stems of Orinoids found near 

The §t Petei^s Sandstone Formation is remarkably uniform in thickness 
throughout its known geo^phical extent. It is a (Mean grit, light colored, 
very triable rock; so pure m its sHicious compostion that it is probable some 
portions of it may be found suitable for the manufacture of glass. It occu- 
pies ^e surface of a large portion of the north half of AlTemakee county, 
immediately beneath the cuifb, and it is also exposed a couple of miles 

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below McGr^or^ where it is much colored bj oxide of iron. It contains no 

Trenton Orov/p. — ^The lower formation of this gronp is known as the 
Trenton Limestone. With the exception of this all the limestones of both 
Upper and Lower Silorian age in Iowa, are ma^nesian limestones — nearlj 
pure dolomites. The rocks of this formation i3so contain much magnesia, 
but a large part of it is composed of bluish compact common limestone. It 
occupies Tar^ portions of both Winneshiek and Allamakee counties, together 
with a portion of Olayton. Its thickness as seen along the blufis of the 
Mississippi is about eighty feet, but in Winneshiek coxmty we find the 
thickness is increased to upward of 200 feet The greater part of this 
formation is worthless for economic purposes, but enough of it is suitable 
for building purposes and for lime to meet the wants of the inhabitant. 
The worthless portions of the formation consists of clayey shales and shalj 
limestone. Fossils are abandant in this formation. In some places the 
rock is made up of a mass of shells, corals, and fraCTients of trilobites, 
together with other aliimal remains, cemented by cakareous matter into 
compact form. 

The upper portion of the Trenton Group, known as the Galena Limestone 
Formation, occupies a narrow strip of country, seldom exceeding 12 miles in 
width, but it is fully 150 miles lon^. It is about 250 feet thick in the 
vicinity of Dubuque, but diminishes m thickness as it extends northwest, so 
that it does not probably exceed 100 feet where it crosses the northern 
boundary of the State. The outcrop of this formation traverses portions of 
the counties of Howard, Winneshiek, Allamakee, Fayette, Clayton, Dubuque, 
and Jackson. It exhibits its greatest development in Dubuque coimty. It 
is not very uniform in texture, which causes it to decompose unequally, and 
consequently to present interesting forms in the abrupt bluffs of it, which 
border the valleys. It is usualljr unfit for dressing, but affords cood enough 
stone for common masonry. It is the source of the lead ore of the Dubuque 
lead mines. The full thickness of this formation at Dubuque is 250 feet. 
Fossils are rare in it 

CinomiKiU Chrowp. — ^The Maquoketa Shale Formation of this group, so- 
called by Dr. Whit^ is s;|monymou8 with the Hudson River Shales, or Prof. 
Hall, it is comprised within a long and narrow area, seldom reaching more 
than a mile or two in width, but more than a hundred miles long, in the State. 
Its most southerly exposure is in the bluffs of the Mississippi river, near 
Bellevue^ in Jaclcson county, and the most northerly one yet recognized is in 
the western part of Winneshiek county. The whole formation is largely 
composed of bluish and brownish shales. Its economic value is very sUffht, 
as it is wholly composed of fragmentary materials. The fossils contained in 
this formation, together with its position in relation to the underlying and 
overlying formations, leave no doubt as to the proprietjr of referring it to the 
same ffemo^cal period as that in which the rocks at Cincinnati, Ohio, were 
formed, j^verat qpecies of fossils which characterize the Cincinnati group 
are found in the Maquoketa Shales, but they contain a large numbsr of ' 
species that have been found nowhere else than in these shales in Iowa, and 
it is the opinion of Dr. White that the occurrence of these distinct fossils in 
the Iowa formation would seem to warrant the separation of the Mac^uoketa 
Shales as a distinct formation frt)m any others of the group, and that its true 
position is probably at the base of the Cincinnati gronp. 

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Niaoara Orowp. — ^The area occupied by the Niagara limeBtone Formatioo 
18 nearly 160 miles firom north to Bonth, and between 40 and 50 miles wide 
in its widest part At its narrowest part, which is near its northern limit in 
Iowa, it is not more than fonr or five miles wide. This formation is entirely 
magnesian limestone, with, in some places, a considerable proportion of sih- 
eioiiB matter in the form of chert or coarse flint Some of the lower portions 
resemble both the Galena and Lower Magnesian limestones, having the 
same want of uniformity of texture and bedding. It affonls, however, 
a great amount of excellent quarry rock. The auames at Anamosa, in Jones 
county, are remarkable for the imiformity of the bedding of its strata. 
Wherever this rock is exposed there is always an abundance of material for 
common masonry and other purposes. In some places excellent lime is 
made from it. 


Samilton Oronp. — ^The Hamilton Limestone and Shales Formation occu- 
pies an area of sumce as great as those occupied by all the formations of 
Doth Lower and Upper Simrian age in the State. Ine limestones of the De- 
vonian age are composed in part of magnesian strata, and in part of common 
limestone. A large part of the material of this formation is quite worthless, 
yet other portions are very valuable for several economic purposes. Having 
a veiy large geographical extent in Iowa, it constitutes one of the most im- 
portant formations. Wherever any part of this formation is exposed, the 
common limestone portions exist in sufficient quantilnr to furnish abundant 
material for common lime of excellent Quality, as well as good stone for com- 
mon masonry. Some of the beds fumisn excellent material for dressed stone, 
for all works requiring strength and durability. The most conspicuous and 
characteristic fossils m this mrmation are brachipod mollusks and corals. 


The StA-Garbomferotu Oroup. — ^This eroup occupies a very lar^ sur- 
&ce in Iowa. Its eastern border passes m>m the northeastern portion of 
Winnebago county in a southeasterly direction, to the northern part of Wash- 
in^n county. Mere it makes a broad and direct bend nearly eastward, 
strikmg the Mississippi river at the city of Muscatine. The southern and 
western boundary of tiie area is to a considerable extent the same as tiiat 
whidi separates it from the coalfield. From the southern part of Pocahontas 
county, it passes southeastward to Fort Dodge, thence to Webster City, 
thence to a point three or four miles northeast of Eldora, in Hardin county, 
thence southward to the middle of the north line of Jasper coxmty, thence 
southeastward to Sigoumey in Eeokuk county, thence to the northeast comer 
of Jefferson county, and thence, by sweeping a few miles eastward to the 
Boutheast comer or Yan Buren coxmtv. The area as thus defined, is nearly 
250 miles lon^, and from 20 to 40 miles wide. The general southerly and 
westerly dip has carried the strata of the group beneath the lower coal- 
measure alon^ tiie line last designated, but anier passing beneath the latter 
strata for a distance of from 16 to 20 Yniles, they appear a^n in the valley 
of the Des Moines river, where they have been oaned by the erosion of that 

The KinderhookBeds, the lowest Formation of the sub-carboniferous group. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


presents its principal exposures alon^ the blnffs which border the Missis Eippi 
and Skunk nvers, where tiiey form the eastern and northern boundary of Dee 
Moines county: alonff Enghsh rivor inWashin^n county; alonglowa river 
in Tama, Marshall, Hardin and Franklin counties, and along the I>es Moines 
river in Humboldt county. The southern part of the formation in Iowa 
has the best development of all in distin^ishing characteristics, but the 
width of area it occupies is much greater m its northern part, reaching a 
maximum width of eightjr miles. The Einderhook formation has consider- 
able economic value, jMurticularly in the northern portion of the region it 
occupies. The stone which it furnishes is of practical value. There are no 
e:q)OBures of stone of an^ other kind in Pocahontas, Humboldt and some 
other counties embraced in the area occupied by it, and therefore it is of veiy 
mat value in such places for building material. It may be manufactured 
into excellent lime, l^e quarries in Marshall county and at Le Grand are 
of this formation; also the oolitic limestone in Tama county. This oolitic 
limestone is manufactured into a good quality of lime. The principal fossils 
appearing in this formation are the remains of fishes; no remains of ve^ta- 
tion have as yet been detected. The fossils in this formation, so far as Iowa 
is concerned, are far more numerous in the southern than in the northern 

The Burli^ton Limestone is the next Formation in this group above the 
Einderhook &ds, the latter passing gradually into the Bnrlin^n Lime- 
stone. This formation consists of two distinct calcareous divisions, which 
are separated by a series of silicious beds. The existence of these silicious 
beds suggests tne proprietyof regarding the Burlington Limestone as really 
two distinct formations. This is strengthened also by some well marked 
palaeontological differences, especially in the crinoidal remains. The south- 
erly dip of the Iowa rocks carries the Burlington Limestone down, so that 
it IS seen for the last time in this State in the valley of Skunk river, near 
the southern boundary of Des Moines county. Northward of Burlington 
it is found frequently exposed in the blufis oi the Mississippi and Iowa riv- 
ers in the counties of Des Moines and Louisa, and along some of tlie smaller 
streams in the same r^on. Burlington Limestone forms a good building 
material ; good lime may also be made from it, and especially from the up- 
per division. G^logists have given to this formation the name of Burling- 
ton Limestone because its pecimar characteristics are best shown at the city 
of Burlington, Iowa. The great abundance and variety of its character- 
istic fossils— ^rmoicfo — ^have attracted the attention of geologists and nat- 
uralists generally. The only remains of vertebrates reported as being found 
in it are those of fishes. Biemains of articulates are rare in it, and confined 
to two species of trilobites. Fossil shells are common but not so abundant 
as in some of the other formations of the Sub-Carboniferous Group. 

The Keokuk Limestone is the next Formation in this group above tlie 
Burlington Limestone. In Iowa it consists of about fifty feet m maximum 
thickness. It is a grayish limestone, having usually a blneish tinge. It oc- 
cupies in Iowa a more limited area than any other formation of the sub- 
carboniferous group. It is well developed and largely exposed at the city 
of Keokuk. It is synonymous with the Lower Archimedes Dmestone of 
Owen and other seologists. The most northerly point at which it has been 
recognized is in uie northern part of Des Moines county, where it is quite 
thinned out It is only in the counties of Lee, Yan Buren, Henry and Des 
Moines that the Keokuk Limestone is to be seen; but it rises again and is 

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seen in the banks of the Mississippi river some seventy-five or eighty miles 
below Xeokuk, presenting there the same characteristics tiiat it has in Iowa. 
The apper silicions portion of this formation is known as the Geode bed. 
These ^odes are more or less spherical masses of silex, usually hollow and 
lined with crystals of qnartz. The Keokuk limestone formation is of great 
economic value, as some of its lavers furnish a fine (quality of building ma- 
terial. The principal quarries oi it are along the Mississippi firom Eeoknk 
to Nauvoo, a distance of about fifteen miles. The onl^ vertebrated fossils 
in it are those of fishes, consisting both of teeth and spines. Some of these 
are of great size, indicating that their owners probably reached a length of 
twenty-five or thirty feet. Several species of articulates, moUusks and ra- 
diates are also found in this formation. Among the radiates the crinoids 
are very abundant, but are not so conspicuous as in the Burlin^n Lime- 
stone. A small number of Protozoans, a low form of animal life, related 
to sponges, have also been found in the Keokuk Limestone. 

The next Formation in the Sub-Oarboniferous Group, above the Keokuk 
Limestone, is what Dr. White calls the St. Louis Limestone, and is synon- 

tmons witJi the Concretionary Limestone of Prof Owen, and the Warsaw 
limestone of Prof Hall. It is the upper, or highest formation of what Dr. 
White classifies as the Sub-Oarboniferbus Group, appearing in Iowa, where 
the lower coal-measures are usually found resting directly upon it, and where 
it forms, so to speak, a limestone floor for the coal-bearing formations. To 
this, however, tnere are some exceptions. It presents a marked contrast 
with the coal-bearing strata which rest upon it. This formation occupies a 
small superficial area in Iowa, because it consists of long narrow strips. 
Its extent, however, within the State is known to be very great, because it is 
found at points so distant from each other. Commencing at Keokuk, where 
it is seen resting on the eeode division of the Keokuk limestone, and pro- 
ceeding northward, it is found forming a narrow border along the edge of 
the coS-field in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jefferson, Washington, Keokuk 
and Mahaska counties. It is then lost sight of beneath the coal-measure 
strata and overlying drift until we reach Hamilton countv, where it is found 
in the banks of Boone river with the coal-measures resting upon it, as they 
do in the counties just named. The next seen of the tbrmation is in the 
banks of the Des Moines river at and near Fort Dodge. These two last 
named localities are the most northerly ones at which the formation is ex- 
posed, and they are widely isolated from the principal portion of the area it 
occupies in Iowa; between which area, however, and those northerly points, 
it appears by a small exposure near Ames, in Story county, in the valley of 
a small tributary of Skunk river. This formation as it appears in Iowa, 
consists of three quite distinct sub-divisions — ^magnisian, arenaceous and 
calcareous, consisting in the order named of the lower, middle and upper sub- 
divisions of the formation. The upper division famishes excellent material 
for quicklime, and in places it is quarried to serve a ^ood purpose for ma- 
sonry. The middle division is of little economic value, being usually too 
soft for practical use. The lower, or magnesian division, furnishes some ex- 
cellent stone for heavy masonry, and has proved to be very durable. This 
formation has some well marked ibssil characteristics, but they do not stand 
out with such prominence as some of those in the two preceding formations. 
The vertibrate^ articulates, moUusks, and radiates, are all more or less rep- 
resented in it Some slight vegetable remains have also been detected in it. 
The Ooal-Tneasnre Oroup. — ^The formations of this group are divided 

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124 mSTOBT OF 10M9 JL. 

into the Lower, Middle, and Upper Coal-meaBures. Omitting particiilar 
reference to the other strata of tne Lower Coal-measnre, we refer only to 
the coal which this formation contains. Far tlie greater part of that indis* 
pensible element of material prosperity is contained in the strata of the 
Lower Coal-measures. Beds are now being mined in this formation that 
reach to the thickness of seven feet of soud coaL Natural exposures of 
this formation are few, but coal strata are being mined in a number of local- 

The area occupied by the Middle Coal-measure is smaller than that of 
either of the others, and constitutes a narrow r^on between them. The 
passage of the strata of the Lower with the Imddle Coal-measure is not 
marked by any well defined line of division. 

The area occupied by the Upper Coal-measure formation in Iowa is very 

§reat, comprising thirteen whole counties in the southwestern part of the 
tate, together with parts of seven or eiffht others adjoining. It ad- 
joins by its northern and eastern boundary the area occupied by the Middle 
Coal-measures. The western and southern limits in Iowa of the Upp^ 
Coal-measures are the western and southern boundaries of the State, but the 
formation extends without interruption far into the States of Missouri, Ke- 
braska and Kansas. It contains but a single bed of true coal, and that very 
thin. Its principal economic value is coimned to its limestone. Wherever 
this stone is exposed it fomishes good material for masonry, and also for 
lime. The prevailing color of the limestone is light gray, with usually a 
tinge of blue. The sandstones of this formation are usually shaly, and quite 


The NiBhnaibotami Scmdstone. — ^This formation is well exposed in th^ 
valley of the East Nishnabotany river, from which circumstance Dr. White 
has so named it It is found as far east as the southeastern part of Guthrie 
county, and as far south as the southern part of Montgomery county. To 
the nordiwestward it passes beneath the Woodbury sandstones and shales, 
the latter in tnm passing beneath the Inoceramus, or chalky beds. It 
reaches a maximum thickness in Iowa, so far as known, of about 100 feet, 
but the exposures usually show a much less thickness. It is a soft sandstone, 
and, with lew exceptions, almost valueless for economic purposes. The meet 
valuable quarries in the strata of this formation, so far as known, are at 
Lewis, Cass county, and in the northeastern part of Mills county. Several 
buildings have been constructed of it at Lewis, but with some the color is 
objectionable, being of a. dark brown color. A few fossils have been found 
in it, being leaves too fragmentary for identification. 

ITie Woodbury Sandstones ana Shales. — These are composed of alternat- 
ing sandstones and shales, as the name implies, and rest upon the Nidma- 
botany sandstone. They have not been oDserved outside of the limits oi 
Wooabury county, but they are found there to reach a maximum of about 
150 feet Some layers are firm and compact, but the larger part is impure 
and shaly. The best of it is suitable for only common masonry, but it fur« 
nishes the only material of that kind in that part of the State. Some slight 
fossil remains have been found in this formation. 

The Inoceram/us Beds. — Theae beds constitute the upper formation of the 
Cretaceous System in Iowa, and have a maximum thickness of about 50 feet 
They rest directly upon the Woodbury sandstones and shales. They are 

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observed nowhere in Iowa except along the bluffi of the Big Sionx river, in 
Woodbnry and Pljmondi counties. Thej are composed of calcareous mate- 
rial, bat are not a tme, compact limestone. The material of the upper por- 
tion is used for lime, the quality of which is equal to that of common 
limeetone. No good building material is obtained from these beds. Some 
fiwsi] fish have be^i found in them. 

Above all the formations above-mentioned rests the Post-Tertiarv, or Drift 
deposit, whidi is more fully mentioned in connection with the Soils of Iowa. 


Cool — Peat— Bnildiiig Stone— Lime*-Lead--G7p6iim*-Sprmg aad Well Waiei^-Olay*— 
Minenil Paint. 


Every year is adding to our knowledge otj and attesting the importance 
and value of our vast coal deposits. In some unknown a^ of the past, long 
before the history of our race began, Nature by some wise ]process, made a 
bountiful provision for the time when, in the order of things, it should 
beoome necessary for civilized man to take possession of these broad rich 
prairies. As an equivalent for the lack of trees, she quietly stored away 
DCTieath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures for the use and 
eomfort of man at the nroper time. The increased demand for coal has in 
many portions of the State led to improved methods of mining, so that in 
many counties the business is becoming a lucrative and important one, 
especially where railroads furnish the means of transportation. The coal 
field of the State embraces an area of at least 20,000 s<juare miles, and coal 
is successfcilly mined in about thirty counties, embracing a territory larger 
than the State of Massachusetts. Among the most important coal produc- 
ing counties may be mentioned Appanoose, Boone, Davis, Jefferson, Ma- 
haska, Marion, Monroe, Polk, Van Buren, Wapello, and Webster. Within 
tiie last few years many discoveries of new deposits have been made, and 
counties not previously numbered among the coal counties of the State are 
now yielding rich returns to the miner. Among these may be mentioned 
the counties of Boone, Dallas, Hamilton, Hardin, and Webster. A vein of 
ooal of excellent Quality, seven feet in thickness, has been opened, and is 
now being successfully worked, about five miles southeast of Fort Do(^, in 
Webster countv. Large quantities of coal are shipped from that point to 
Dubuque and the towns along the line of the Dubuque and Sioux City Rail- 
road. A few years ago it was barely known that some coal existed in 
Boone county, as indicated by exposures along the Des Moines river, and 
it is only witnin the last few years that the coal mines of Moingona have 
fomished the vast supplies shipped along the Chica^ and Korthwestem Rail- 
road, both east and west The great pr^ucti ve co5 field of Iowa is embraced 
duefly within the valley of the Des Moines river and its tributaries, extend- 
ing up the valley from Lee county nearly to the north line of Webster 
county. Within the coal field embraced by this valley deep mining is 
nowhere necessary. The Des Moines and its larger tributaries have gener- 
ally cut their channels down through the coal measure strata. 

The ooal of Iowa is of the class known as bituminous, and is equal in 
quaKty and valne to coal of the same class in other parts of the world. 
The vans whidi have so far been worked are from three to eight feet in 

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thickness, bnt we do not have to dig from one thousand to two thousand 
feet to reach the coal, as miners are ooliged to do in some countries. Bnt 
little coal has in this State been raised from a depth greater than one hun- 
dred feet 

Prof. Gustavus Hinrich, of the State University, who jbJso oflSciated as 
State Chemist in the prosecution of the recent Geological Survey, gives an 
analysis showing the comparative value of Iowa coal with that of other 
countries. The following is from a table prepared by him — 100 represent- 
ing the combustible: 


Brown ooal, from ArbSan, Bohemia. . . . 

Brown coal, from Bilin, Bohemia 

Bitominocia ooal^ from Bentheii, Silisia . 
Cannel coal, from Wigan, Exigland . . . . 

Anthracite, from Pemisylvania 

Iowa coa]fl--Hiverage. .... * 




















In this table the excess of the equivalent above 100, expresses the amonnt 
of impurities (ashes and moisture) in the coal. The analysis shows that the 
average Iowa coals contains only ten parts of impurities for one hundred 
parts combustible (carbon and bitum^, being tiie purest of all the samples 
analyzed, except the Anthracite from rennsylvania. 


Exteidsive deposits of peat in several of the northern counties of Iowa have 
attracted consiaerable attention. In 1866, Dr. White, the State Geologist, 
made careful observations in some of those counties, including Franklin, 
Wright, Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Winnebago^ Worth, and Kossuth. It is 
estimated that the counties above named contain an average of at least four 
thousand acres each of good peat lands. The depth of me beds are from 
four to ten feet, and the quality is but little, if any, inferior to tliat of Ireland. 
As yet, but little use has been made of it as a friel, but when it is considered 
that it lies wholly beyond the coal-field, in a sparsely timbered region of the 
State, its prospective value is r^arded as very great Dr. White estimates 
that 160 acres of peat, four feet deep, will supply two hundred and thirteei) 
families with fuel for upward of twenty-five years. It must not be inferred 
that the presence of these peat beds in that part of the State is in an^ d^ree 
prejudicial to health, for such is not the case. The dry, rolling prairie land 
usually comes up to the very border of the peat marsh, and the winds, or 
breezes, which prevail through the summer season, do not allow water to 
become stagnant. Kature seeins to have designed these peat deposits to 
supply the deficiency of other material for fu3. The penetration of this 
portion of the State oy railroads, and the rapid growth oi timber may leave 
a resort to peat for fuel as a matter of choice, ana not of necessity. It there- 
f«>re remains to be seen of what economic value in the future the peat beds 
of Iowa may be. Feat has also been found in Muscatine, Linn, Ghnton, and 
other eastern and southern counties of the State, but the fertile region of 

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Northern Iowa, least favored with other kinds of fael, is peculiarly the peat 
r^'on of the Stato. 


There is no scarcity of good building stone to be found along nearly all the 
streams east of the I>os Moines river, and along that stream &om its mouth 
np to the north line of Humboldt county. Some of the counties west of the 
JjG& Moines, as Oass and Madison, as well as most of the southern counties 
of the State, are supplied with good building stone. Building stone of 
peculiarly fine quality is quarried at and near the following places: Eeosau- 
qua, Van Boren county; Mt Pleasant, Henry county; ^airfield, JeflEerson 
eounty; Ottumwa, WapeUo county; Winterset, Madison coun^ Ft Dodge, 
Webster county; Springvale and Dakota, Humboldt county; Marshalltown, 
Marshall county; Orford, Tama county; Vinton, Benton county; Oharles 
City, Floyd county; Mason Oity, Oerro Gordo county; Mitchell and Osage, 
MitdieU county; Anamosa, Jones county; Iowa Falls, Hardin county; 
Hampton, FranMin county; and at nearly all points along the Mississippi 
river. In some places, as in Marshall and Tama counties, several species of 
marble are founo, which are susceptible of the finest finish, and are very 


Good material for the manufacture of quick-lime is found in abundance in 
nearly all parts of the State. Even in the northwestern counties, where there 
are but few exposures of rock ^4n place," limestone is found among the 
boulders scattered over the prairies and about the lakes. So abundant is 
limestone suitable for the manufiEtcture of quick-lime, that it is needless to 
mention any particular locality as possessing supnerior advantages in furmsh* 
ing this usefui building material. At the following points parties have been 
CTigaged somewhat extensively in the manufacture of lime, to-wit: Ft. Dodge, 
"Webster county; Springvale, Humboldt county: Orford and Indiantown^ 
Tama county; Iowa Fws, Hardin county; Mitcnell, Mitchell county; and 
at nearly all the towns along the streams northeast of Cedar river. 


Long before the permanent settlement of Iowa by the whites lead was 
mined at Dubuque by JuUen Dubuque and others, and the business is still 
carried on successfully. From four to six million pounds of ore have been 
smelted annually at the Dubuque mines, yielding fSrom 68 to 70 per cent of 
lead. So &r as known, the lead deposit^ of Iowa that may be profitably 
worked, are confined to a belt four or five miles in width along the Missis- 
tfppi above and below the city of Dubuque. 


One of the finest and purest dei)Osits of gypsum known in the world exists 
at Fort Dodge in this State. It is confined to an area of about six by three 
miles on both sides of the Des Moities river, and is found to be from twenty- 
five to thirty feet in thickness. The main deposit is of uniform gray color. 

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but large masses of almost pare white (resembling alabaster) have been 
foond embedded in the main deposits. Tne qnantitj of this article is prac- 
ticallj inexhaustible, and the time will certainly come when it will oe a 
source of wealth to that part of the State. It lias been nsed to a consider- 
able extent in the manufacture of Plaster-of-Paris, and has been found equal 
to the best in quality. It has also been used to a limited extent for paving 
and building purposes. 


As before stated, the Burfietce of Iowa is generally drained by the rolling or 
undulating character of the country, and the numerous streams, large and 
smalL This fact might lead some to suppose that it mij^t be difficult to 
procure good spring or well water for domestic uses. Such, however, is not 
the case, for good pure well water is easily obtained all over the State, even 
on the highest prairies. It is rarely necessary to dig more than thirty feet 
deep to mid an abundance of that most indispensibfo element, good water. 
Along the streams are found many springs breaking out fSrom the banks, 
a£Ebr£nff a constant supply of pure water. As a rule, it is necessary to dig 
deeper for well water m the timber portions of the State, than on the 
prairies. Nearly all the spring and well waters of the State contain a small 
proportion of lime, as ihey^ do m the Eastern and Middle States. There are 
some springs which contain mineral properties, similar to the springs often 
resorted to bv invalids and others in other States. In Davis county there 
are some ^ Salt Springs,'' as they are commonly called, the water beinff found 
to contain a considerable amount of common salt, sulphuric acid^ ana other 
mineral ingredients. Mineral waters are found in difierent parts of the 
State. No one need apprehend anv difficulty about finding in aU parts of 
Iowa an abundant supply of good wholesome water. 


In nearly all parts of the State the material suitable for the manufacture 
of brick is founa in abundance. Sand is obtained in the bluffs along the 
streams and in their beds. Potter's clav, and fire-clay suitable for fire-brick, 
are found in inany places. An excellent article of fire-brick is made at 
Eldora, Eburdin county, where tiiere are several extensive potteries in opera- 
tion. Fire-clay is usually found underlying the coal-seams. There are 
extensivepotteries in operation in the counties of Lee, Yan Buren^ Des 
Moines, Wapello, Boone, Hamilton, Hardin, and perhaps others. 


In Montgomeiy county a fine vein of day, containing a larg^ proportion 
of ochre, was several years ago discovered, and has been extensively used in 
that part of the State for painting bams and out-houses. It is of a dork red 
color, and is believed to be equal m quality, if properly manubctured, to the 
mineral paints imported from other States. The use of it was first introdaeed 
by Mr. J. B. Packard, of Bed Oak, on whose land there is an extoiisive de- 
posit of this material 

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Right of Diflcoyery— Title of France and Spain— Cession to the United States— Territorial 
Changes— Treaties with the Indians— The Dubuque Grant— The Giard Grant— The Hon- 
ori Grant— The Half-Breed Tract— System of Public Surveys, 

The title to the soil of Iowa was, of course, primarily vested in the origi- 
nal oocnpants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery^ by the whites. 
Bat the Indians, being savages, possessed out few rights that civilized nations 
considered themselves bound to respect, so that when they found this conn* 
try in the possession of such a people they claimed it in the name of the 
mng of France, by the right of dMoovery, It remained under the juris- 
diction of France until the year 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America was divided 
between France, England, Spain, and Kussia. France held all that portion 
of what now constitutes our national domain west of the Mississippi river, 
except Texas and the territoir which we have obtained from Mexico and 
Russia. This vast region, while imder the jurisdiction of France, was 
known as the ** Province of Louisiana,'' and embraced the present State of 
Iowa. At the close of the " Old French War,'' in 1763, France gave up her 
share of the continent, and Spain came into possession of the territory west 
of the Mississippi river, while Great Britain retained Canada and tiie 
regions northwara, having obtained that territory by conquest in the war 
with France- For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced within the 
limits of Iowa remained, as a part of the possession of Spain, and then went 
back to France by the treaty of St Mefonso, October 1, 1800. On the 
30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the United States in consideration 
of receiving $11,250,000, and the liquidation of certain claims held by citi- 
zens of the IJnited States against France, which amounted to the further 
sum of $3,750,000, and making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen 
that France has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory 
embracing Iowa, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved author- 
izing the President to take possession of the newly acquired territory and 
Jrovide for it a temporary government, and another act approved March 26, 
804, authorized the division of the '^Louisiana Purchase," as it was then 
called, into two separate Territories. All that portion south of the 33d 
parallel of north latitude, was called the "Territory of Orleans," and that 
north of the said parallel was known as the "District of Louisiana," and 
was placed under the jurisdiction of what was then known as "Indiana 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the "District 
of Louisiana" was orgam'zed as the "Territory of Louisiana," with a Terri- 
torial government of its own, which went into operation tfuly 4th, of the 
same year, and it so remained until 1812. In this year the " Territory of 
Orleans" became the State of Louisiana, and the "Territory of Louisiana" 
was organized as the "Territory of Missouri." This change took place 
under an act of Congress approved June 4, 1812. In 1819, a portion oi this 
territory^ was organized as " Arkansaw Territory," and in 1821 the State of 
Missouri was a<£nitted, being a part of the former "Territory of Missouri." 
This left a vast domain still to the north, including the present States of 
Iowa and Minnesota, which was, in 1834, made a part of tne " Territ6ry of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Michiffan." In July, 1836, the territory embracing the present States of 
Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin was detached from Michigan, and organized 
with a separate Territorial government nnder the name of ** Wisconsm Ter- 

By virtue of an act of Confess, approved June 12, 1838, on the 3d of 
July of the same year, the " Territorv of Iowa *' was constituted. It em- 
Imiced the present State of Iowa, and the greater portion of what is now 
the State of Minnesota. 

To say nothing of the title to the soil of Iowa that may once have vested 
in the natives who claimed and occupied it, it is a matter of some interest 
to glance at the various chan^ of ownership and jurisdiction through 
which it has passed within the time of our historical period: 

1. It belonged to France, with other territory now belonging to our na- 
tional domain. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

8. October 1, 1800, it was ceded with other territory from Spain back to 

i. April 80, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by France to the 
United States. 

5. October 81, 1803, a temporary gov^nment was authorized by Oon- 
gress for the newly acquired territorv. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the " District of Louisiana," and 
placed under the jurisdiction of the Territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part ot the " Territory of Louis- 
iana," then organized with a separate Territorial government. 

8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the ^^ Territory 
of Missouri." 

9. June 28, 1884, it became part of the "Territory of Michi^." 

10. Jidy 3, 1836, it was included as a part of the newly organized "Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin." 

11. June 12, 1838, it was included in, and constituted a part of the newly 
organized "Territory of Iowa." 

12. December 28, 1846, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

The cession by France, April 80, 1808, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly the 
]folicy of the government to recognize. The several changes of territorial 
jurisdiction alter the treaty with France did not aftect the title to the soil. 

Before the government of the United States could vest clear title to the 
soil in its grantees it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by pur- 
diase. The treaties vesting the Indian title to the lands widiin the limits 
of what is now the State of Iowa, were made at different times. The fol- 
lowing is a synopsis of the several treaties by which the Indians relinquished 
to the Unit^ States their rights in Iowa: 

L Treaty wUh the Sacs and Foxes, Aug. 4y ISSJi^ — ^This treaty between 
tite United States and the Sacs and Foxes, was made at the City of Wash- 
ington, William dark bein^ commissioner on the part of the United States. 
By this treaty the Sacs ana Foxes relinquished their title to aJl lands in 
Missouri, Iowa then beinff a part of Missouri. In this treaty the land in 
the southeast comer of Iowa known as die ^^Half-Breed Tract,'' was re- 
Bsrved for the use of the half-breeds of the Sacs and Foxes, they holdii^ 
the title to the same in the same manner as Indians. This treaty was rati- 
fied January 18, 1825. 

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2. Treaty with various tribeSj Aug. 19 j 18S5. — This treaty was also made 
at the city of Washington, by William Clark as Commissioner on the part 
of the United States, with the Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Menomonees, 
Winnebagoes and a portion of the Ottawas and Fottawattamies. This treaty 
was intended mainly to make peace between certain contending tnbes as to 
the limits of their respective banting ^onds in Iowa. It was agreed that 
the United States should run a bouimary line between the Sioux on the 
north and the Sacs and Foxes on the south, as follows: Commencing at the 
mouth of the Upper Iowa river, on the west bank of the Mississippi, and 
ascending said Iowa river to its west fork; thence up the fork to its source; 
thence crossing the fork of Eed Cedar river in a direct line to the second or 
upper fork of the Des Moines river; thence in a direct line to the lower fork 
of the Calumet (Big Sioux) river, and down that to its junction with the 
Missouri river. 

3. Treaty with the Sacs and Fowea^ July 15^ 18S0. — ^By this treaty the 
Sacs and loxes ceded to the United States a strip of country twenty miles 
in width lying directlv south of the line designated in the treaty of Aug. 19, 
1825, and extending irom the Mississippi to the Des Moines river. 

4. Treaty with the Siouooy July lOy 1830, — ^By this treaty was ceded to 
the United States a strip twenty miles in width, on the north of tiie line 
dedicated bv the treaty of Aug. 19, 1825, and extending from tlie Missis- 
sippi to the Des Moines river. By tJiese treaties made at the same date the 
Dnited States came into possession of a strip forty miles wide from the 
Mississippi to the Des Moines river. It was known as the ^Neutral 
Ground,^^and the tribes on either side of it were allowed to use it in com- 
mon as a fishing and hunting ground until the government should make 
other disposition of it 

6. Treaty with various tribes, July 15y 1830. — ^This was a treatv with the 
Sacs and Foxes, Sioux, Omahas, lowas and Missouris, by which tney ceded 
to the United States a tract bounded as follows: Beginning at the upper 
fork of the Des Moines river, and passing the sources of the Little Sioux 
and Floyd rivers, to the fork of the nrst creek that falls into tiie Big Sioux, 
or Calumet river, on the east side; thence down said creek and the Ualumet 
river to the Missouri river; thence down said Missouri river to the Missouri 
State line above the Kansas; thence along said line to the northeast comer 
of said State; thence to the highlands between the waters falling inti> the 
Missouri and Des Moines, passing to said highlands alon^ the dividing 
ridge between the forks of the Grand river; thence along said highlands or 
ridge separating the waters of the Missouri frt)m those of the Des Moines, 
to a point opposite the source of the Boyer river, and thence in a direct line 
to the upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of beginning. The lands 
ceded by this treaty were to be assigned, or allotted, under the direction of 
the President of the United States, to the tribes then living thereon, or to 
such other tribes as the President might locate thereon for hunting and 
other purposes. In consideration of the land ceded by this treaty the United 
States stipulated to make certain payments to the several tribes joining in 
the treaty. The treatytook effect by proclamation, February 24, 1831. 

6. Treaty with the Winn^kMoeSj Sept. 15, 183£. — ^This treatv was made at 
Fort Armstrong, bvGen. Winneld Scott, and Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois. 
By the treaty the W innebs^g0€» ced^ to the United States all their lands on 
tlie east side of the Mississippi, and in part consideration therefor the United 
States granted to the Winnebagoes as a reservation the lands in Iowa known 

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SB tho Neutral Ground. The exchange of the two tracts was to take place 
on or before June 1, 1833. The United States also stipulated to make pay- 
ment to tlie Winnebagoes, beginning in September, 1873, and to contmue 
for twenty-seven snccessive years, $10,000 annoally in specie, and also to 
establish a school among them, with a farm and garden. There were also 
other agreements on the part of the government 

7. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxes^ Sept. 21, ISSi.—Th^A was the treaty 
known as tiie ^^ Black Hawk Porchase," which opened the first lands in 
Iowa for settlement by the whites. In negotiating this treaty Qea. Win- 
fidd Scott and Gov. John Eevnolds represented the United States. By it 
the Sacs and Foxes ceded to tne United States a tract of land on the eastern 
border of Iowa fif)y miles wide, and extending from the northern boundary 
of Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa river, containing about six 
millions of acres. The United States stipulated to pay annualW to the Sacs 
and Foxes $20,000 in specie, and to pay certain indebtedness of the Indians, 
amounting to about $50,000, due chie^y to Davenport & Famham, Indian 
traders, at Bock Ishmd. By the terms of the treaty four hundred square 
miles on Iowa river, in«ludingKeokuk's village, were reserved, for the use and 
oocapancy of the Indians. This treaty was made on the ground where the 
city of Davenport is now located. The government conveyed in fee simple 
out of this purchase one section of lana opposite Eock iCsland to Antome 
LeClaire, the interpreter, and another at the head of the first rapid above 
Bock Island, being the first title to land in Iowa granted by t£e United 
States to an individual 

8. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxee, 18S6. — ^This treaty was also made on 
the banks of the Mississippi, near where the city of Davenport now stands. 
G^n. Henry Dodge, Governor of Wisconsin Territory, represented the 
United States. iSj it the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States 
** Keokuk's Eeserve,^ as it was called, for which the government stipulated 
to pay $30,000, and an annuity of $10,000 for ten successive years, together 
wim certain indebtedness of the Indians. 

9. Treaty with the Sacs and Foxee, Oct. Sly 1837.— This treaty was made 
at Washington; Oarey A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Anairs, repre- 
senting the United States. By this treaty the Sacs and Foxes relinquisned 
their title to an additional tract in Iowa, described as follows: <<A tract of 
country containing 1,250,000 acres, lying west and adjoining the tract con- 
vened bv them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 1832. 
It is unoerstood that the points of termination for the present cession shall 
be the northern and southern points of said tract as fixed by die survey 
made under the authority of ttie United States, and that a line shall be 
drawn between them so as to intersect a line extended westwardly from the 
angle of said tract nearly opposite to Bock Island, as laid down in the above 
survey, so far as may be necessary to include the number of acres hereby 
oededl, which last mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five 
miles." The tract ceded by this treaty lay directly west of the ^^]Black 
Hawk Purchase." 

10. Treaty with Sacs and FoxeSy same date. — ^At the same date the Sacs 
and Foxes ceded to the United States all their right and interest in the 
country south of the boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes and the 
Sioux, as described in the treaty of August 19, 1825, and between ihe Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri rivers, the United States paying for the same $160,000. 

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, The Sacs and Foxes by this trealr also relinquished all claims and interest 
under the treaties previously made with them. 

11. Treaty with the Sac9 and FoxeSy Oct. 11, iS^iP.— This treaty was 
made at the Sac and Fox Agency, by John Chambers, as Commissioner, on 
behalf of the United States. By it the Sacs and Foxes relinquished to the 
United States all their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any 
claim or title, and agreed to a removal from the country, at the expiration of 
tliree years. In accordance with this treaty, a part of them were removed 
to Kansas in tiie fall of 1845, and the remainder in the spring of 1846. 

The treaty of 1803 with Fiince, and these several treaties with tiie Indian 
tribes, vested in the United States, the title to all the lands in the State of 
Iowa — subject, however, to claims set up under certain Spanish grants, and 
also, the claim to the ^^ Half-Breed Tract," in Lee county, which (uaims were 
afterward adjudicated in the courts or otherwise adjusted. The following 
is a brief explanation of the nature of these claims: 

The Duhuque Claim. — ^Lead had been discovered at the site of the present 
city of Dubuque as early as 1780, and in 1788 Julien Dubuque, then resid* 
ing at Prairie du Chien, obtained permission from the Fox tribe of Indians 
to engage in mining lead, on the west side of the Mississippi. Dubuque, 
with a number of other persons, was engaged in mining, and claimed a Is^ge 
tract, embracing as he supposed all the lead bearing region in that vicinity. 
At that time, it will be remembered, the country was under Spanish juris- 
diction, and embraced in the " Province of Louisiana." In 1796 Dmbuque 
petitioned the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Carondelet, for a grant of 
the lands embracing the lead mines, describing in his petition a tract con- 
taining over twenty thousand acres. The* Spanish governor granted tiie 
petition, and the grant was confirmed bv the Board of Xand Commissioners 
of Louisiana. Dubuque, in 1804, transferred the larger part of his claim to 
Auguste Choteau, of St Louis. On the 17th of M!ay, 1805, Dubuque and 
Choteau filed their joint claims with the Board of Land Commissioners, and 
the claim was decided by them to be a clear and regular Spanish fi^rant, hav- 
ing been made and completed prior to October 1st, 1800, and while it was 
yet Spanish territory. Dubuque died March 24, 1810. After the death of 
Dubuque the Indians resumed occupancy of the mines and engaged them- 
selves m mining to some extent, holoing that Dubuque's claim was only a 
permit during ms lifetime, and in this they were sustained by the military 
authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the Land 
Commissioners. In the treaty afterward between the United States and the 
Sacs and Foxes, the Indians made no reservation of this daim, and it was 
therefore included as a part of the lands ceded by them to the United States. 
In the meantime Au^ste Choteau also died, and his heirs began to look 
after their interests. They authorized their a^nt to lease the privilege of 
working the mines, and under this authority miners commencea operations, 
but the military authorities compelled them to abandon the work. i}ut little 
ftirther was done in the matter until after the town of Dubuque was laid 
out, and lots had been sold and were occupied by purchasers, when Henry 
Choteau brought an action of ejectment against ^Patrick Malony, who held 
land under a patent from the United States, for the recovery of seven undi- 
vided eijghths of the Dubuque claim, as purchased by Auguste Choteau in 
1804. The case was decided in the United States District Court adversely 
to the plaintifil It was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States 
on a writ of error, where the decision of tne lower court was affirmed. The 

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Sapreme Court held that Dubuque asked, and the Governor of Louisiana 
wanted, nothing more than neaceable possession of certain lands obtained 
srom the Indians, and that Carondelet nad no legal authority to make such 
a grant as claimed. 

TTte CHa/rd Claim, — ^The Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana, in 
1795, granted to one Basil Giard 5,760 acres in what is now Clayton county. 
Giard took possession and occupi^ the land until after the territory passed 
into Uie possession of the United States, after which the government of the 
United States granted a patent to Giard, for the land which has since been 
known as the ^' Giard Tract" His heirs subsequently sold the whole tract 
for $300. 

The Honori Claim. — On the 30th day of March, 1799, Zenon Trudeau, 
Acting Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Honori 
a tract of land on the site of the present town of Montrose, as follows: "It 
la permitted to. Mr. Louis (Fresson) Henori, or Louis Honori Fesson, to 
establish himself at the head of the rapids of the Biver Des Moines, and his 
establishment once formed, notice of it shall be ^ iven to the Governor Gen- 
enJ, in order to obtain for him a commission of a space suflScient to give 
value to such establishment, and at the same time to render it useful to the 
commerce of the jpeltries of this country, to watch the Indians and keep them 
in the fidelitv which they owe to His Majesty." Honori retained possession 
until 1805, but in 1803 it was sold under an execution obtained bv one 
Joseph Kobedoux, who became the purchaser. The tract is described as oeing 
^ about six leases above the Des Moines." Auguste Ohoteau, the executor 
of Eobedoux, m April, 1805, sold the Honori tract to Thomas F. Eeddeck 
In the grant from the Spanish government it was described as being one 
lea^e square, but the government of the United States confirmed only one 
mife square. Attempts were subsequently made to invalidate the title of 
the Scddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by the Supreme Court of the 
United States, in 1839. 

Ths Half -Breed Tract. — ^By a treaty made with the Indians, August 
4^ 1824, the United States acquired possession of a large tract of land 
in the northern portion of Missouri. In this same treaty 119,000 acres 
were reserved for the use of the half-breeds of the Sac and Fox nation. 
This reservation occupied the strip between the Mississippi and Des Moines 
rivers, and south of a line drawn from a point on the Des Moines river, 
about one mile below the present town of Farmington, in Van Buren county, 
east to the Mississippi river at the lower end of Fort Madison, including all 
the land between the two rivers south of this line. By the terms of the 
treaty the United States had a reversionary interest in this land, which de- 
prived the Indians of the power to sell. But, in 1835, Congress relinquished 
to the half-breeds this reversionary interest, vesting in %em a fee simple 
title, and the right to sell and convey. In this law, however, the right to 
sell was not given to individuals bjy name, but to the half-breeds as a class, 
and in this the subsequent litigation in regard to the ^^ Half-Breed Tract" 
originated. A door was open for innumerable frauds. The result was that 
speculators rushed in and oegan to buy the claims of the half-breeds, and, 
in many instances, a gun, a butnket, a pony or a few quarts of whisky was 
sufficient for the purchase of large estates. There was a deal of shaip prac- 
tice on both sides; Indians womd often claim ownership of land by virtue 
of bein^ half-breeds, and had no difficulty in proving their mixed blood by 
the Looians, and they would then cheat the speculators by selling land to 

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which thej had no^ rightful title. On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed land in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut dia- 
mondy until at last things became badly mixed. There were no authorized 
surveys, and no boundary lines to daims, and, as a natural result, numerona 
conflicts and quarrels ensued. To settle these difficulties, to decide the Ta- 
lidit^ of claims or sell them for the benefit of the real owners, by act of the 
L^slature of Wisconsin T^rritory^ approved January 16, 1838, Edward 
Johnstone, Thomas S. Wilson and JDavia Brigham were appointed commis- 
sioners, and clothed with power to effiact these objects. The act provided 
that these commissioners should be paid six dollars a day each. The oom- 
mission entered upon its duties and continued until the next session of the 
Legislature, when the act creating it was repealed, invalidadi^ all that had 
been done and depriving the commissioners of their pay. The repealing 
act, however, authorized the commissioners to commence action against the 
owners of the Half-Breed Tract, to receive their pay for their services, in the 
District Court of Lee county. Two ju(^[ments were obtained, and on exe- 
cution the whole of the tract was sold to Hugh T. Beid, the sheriff executing 
the deed. ^ Mr. Beid sold portions of it to various parties^ut his own title 
was questioned and he became involved in liti^tion. Decisions in &voir 
of Beid and those holding under him were ma£ by both District and Su- 
preme Courts, but in December, 1850, these decisions were finally reversed 
Dv the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Joseph W^>ster, 
plaintiff in error, vs. Hu^h T. Beid, and the judgment titles fidled. About 
nine years before the ^^ judgment titles" were finally abrogated, as above^ 
another class of titles was brought into competition with them, and in the 
conflict between the two, the final decision was obtained. These were the 
titles based on the ^^ decree of partition '' issued by the United States Di&triet 
Court for the Territory of Iowa, on tiie 8th of May, 1841, and certified to by 
the clerk on the 2d day of June of that vear. Edward Johnstone and Hugh 
T. Beid, then law partners at Fort Madison, filed the petition for the decree 
in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, 
author of the " Star Spangled Banner," who was then attorney for the New 
York Land Company, which held heavy interests in these lands, took a leacU 
ing part in the measure, and drew up the document in which it was pre* 
sented to the court. Jud^ Charles Mason, of Burlington, presided. The 
plan of partition divided the tract into 101 shares, each claimant to draw his 

i>roportion by lot,and to abide the result The plan was agreed to and the 
ots drawn. The plat of the same was filed for record, October 6th, 1841. 
The title under this decree of partition, however, was not altogether satis- 
factory. It was finally settled by a decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, in January, 1855. 


In connection with the subject of land titles, an explanation of the method 
of public surveys will prove interesting to all land owners. These explana- 
tions applv, not only to Iowa, but to the Western States generally, and to 
nearly all lands the title to which is derived from the Government. 

Soon after the orranization of our government, Vir^nia and other 
States, ceded to the united States extensive tracts of wild land, which, 
together with other lands subsequently acquired by purchase and treaty, 
constituted what is called the public lands, or pubuc domain. Up to the 
year 1802, these lands were sold without reference to any general or uniform 

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l^an. Each person who desired to purchase any j)ortion of the public do- 
main, selected a tract in such shape as suited his fancy, designating his 
boundaries by prominent objects, such as trees, rocks, streams, the banks of 
livers and creeks, cliffs, ravines, etc. But, owing to the frequent indefinite- 
ness of description, titles often conflicted with each other, and in many cases 
several grants covered the same premises. 

To obviate these difficulties, in 1802, Col. Jared Mansfield, then surveyor- 
general of tie Northwestern Territory, devised and adopted the present mode 
<rf' Borveying the public lands. This system was established by law, and is 
uniform in its application to all the public lands belonging to the United 

By this method, all the lines are run by the cardinal points of the com- 
pass; the north and south lines coinciding with the true meridian, and the 
east and west lines intersecting them at right angles, giving to the tracts 
thoB surveyed the rectangular form. 

In the first place, certain lines are established running east and west, called 
Sctse Lines. Then, from noted points, such as the mouths of principal riv- 
ers, lines are run due north and oputh, which are called Pnnd^l Jferi- 
dians. Ihe Base Jauss and Prmcvpal Meridians together, are called 
Standard LineSj as they form the basis of all the surveys made therein. 

In order to distinOTiBh from each other the system or series of surveys thus 
Ibrmed, the several Principal Meridians are designated by progressive 
numbers. The Meridian running north from the mouth of the Great Miami 
river, is called the ^irst Principal Meridian; that running north through 
tiie State of Indiana, the Second Principal Meridian; that running north 
from the mouth of the Ohio river through the State of Illinois, the I%ird 
PriiKsipal Meridian; that running north from the mouth of the Illinois 
river, mrough the States of Illinois and "Wisconsin, the Fowrth Principal 
Meridian; and that running north from the mouth of the Arkansas river, 
throujgh the States of Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin, the 
J^i^A Principal Meridian. 

Having established the Standa/rd Lines as above described, the country 
was then divided into equal squares as nearly as practicable, by a system of 
parallel meridians six miles distant from each other, crossed or intersected 
by lines east and west, also six miles from each other. Thus the country 
was divided into squares, the sides of which are six miles, and each square 
containing 36 square miles. These squares are called Tovmshij>s. The 
lines of the townships running north and south are called Ra/nge Lvnes; and 
tiie rows or tiers of townships running north and south are called Ranges: 
tiers of townships east and west are called Tovmships: and the lines di- 
viding these tiers are called Townshnm Lines. Townships are numbered 
from the Base Line and the Principal Meridians. Thus the township in 
which Sioux City, Iowa, is located, is described as township No. 89 north, 
in ranse No. 47 west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. The situation of this 
township is, therefore, 528 niiles fmaking no allowance for fractional town- 
ships^ north of the BaseLmCy as tnere are 88 townships intervening between 
it ana the Base Line; and bein^ in range No. 47, it is 276 miles west of the 
Jifth Principal Meridian, as there are 46 Kmges of townslups intervening 
between it and the said Principal Meridian, ^e township adjoining on tibe 
north of 89 in range 47, is 90 in range 47; but the township adjoining on 
the west of 89 in ranse 47, is numbered 89 of range 48, and the one north 
of 89 of range 48, is W of range 48, and so on. 

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Hierconr or iowa. 

Some of the townships mentioned in this illustration, being on the Mis- 
soori and Big Sioux rivers, are fractional. 

The lines and comers of the tawnshipB being established bj competent 
surveyors, under the authority of the government, the next work is to sub* 
divide the townships into seckons of one square mile each, making 36 sec- 
tions in each full township, and each full section containing 640 acres. The 
annexed diagram exhibits the 86 sections of a township: 





































The sections are numbered alternately west and east, beginning at the 
northeast comer of the township, as shown by the diagram. 

The lands are sold or disposed of by the government, in tracts of 640 
acres, 820 acres, 160 acres, 80 acres ana 40 acres; or by the section, half 
fiction, quarter section, half quarter section and quarter of <]^uarter sectioa. 
The annexed diagram will present a section and its sub-divisions: 



160 A 





160 A 


The comers of the section, and the comers at N., E., 8. and W. have all 
been established and marked by the government surveyor in making his 
sub-division of the township, or in sectionizmgy as it is termed. He does 

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not e&taT)liBli or mark any of the mteriar lines or corners. This work is 
left for the county surveyor or other competent person. Suppose the last 
diagram to represent section 25, in township 89, north of range 47 west, 
then the sub-divisions shown may be described as the northwest quarter of 
section 25; the southwest quarter of section 25; the southeast quarter of 
section 25, all in township 89 north of range 47 west of the 5th Principal 
Meridian. But these descriptions do not include any portion of the north- 
east quarter of the section. That we wish to describe in smaller sub-divis- 
ions. So we say, ths east half of the northeast quoHer of section SB: the 
northwest qiuzrter of the northeast qtuzrter of section S6^ and the sotUhwest 
qitarter of the northeast quarter or section 25, all in township 89 north of 
ran^ 47 west of the 5th Principal Meridian. The last three descriptions 
embrace all the northeast quarter of the section, but described in three 
distinct tracts, one containing 80 acres, and two containing 40 acres each. 

Tlie Base Lines and Principal Meridians have been established by astro- 
nomical observations; but the lines of sub-divisions are run with the com- 
pass. The line indicated by the ma^etic needle, when allowed to move 
&eely about the point of support, and settle to a state of rest, is called the 
tnaanetio variation. This, in ^neral, is not the true meridian, or north 
and souUi line. The an^le which the magnetic meridian makes with the 
true meridian, is called me vernation oftTie needle at that place, and is east 
or west, according as the north end of the needle lies on the east or west 
side of the 1/rue meridian. The variation of the needle is different at dif- 
ferent places, but in Iowa the magnetic needle points about 9^ degrees east 
of the true meridian. The lines of the lands are made to conform as nearly 
as practicable to the true meridian, but owii^ to the imperfeetions of instru- 
ments, topographical inequalities in the surrace of the ground, and various 
other causes, it is absolutely impossible in practice to arrive at perfection; 
or, in other words, to make the townships and their sectional sub-divisions 
exactly square and their lines exactly north and south and east and west. 
A detailol statement of the manner of sub-dividing a township into sec- 
tions would be too lengthy for this article. Suffice it to say, that the frac- 
tional tracts are all thrown on the north and west sides of the townships. The 
last tiers, or rows, of quarter sections on the north and west sides of a town- 
ship generally fall either below or in excess of even quarter sections. Where 
there is a large district of country of uniform level surface, the errors of 
measurement are not likely to be so great, and the fractions in that case 
may not vary much from even quarter sections. 

All measurements are made in chains. A chain is a measure of four 
rods, each link bein^ the hundredth part of a chain, and is so used in the 
field notes and calculations. For convenience in practice, however, the sur- 
veyor generaly uses a half chamy equal to two rods, or fifty links, but the 
surveyor's reckoning is kept, and all nis csdculations are maae in full chains 
of four rods, and decimal parts thereof. In the measurement of lines, every 
five chains are called an '^ out," because at that distance, the last of the ten 
tally rods or pins, with which the forward chainman set out, has been set to 
mark the measurement. The other chainman then comes forward, counts 
and delivers to him the ten tally rods which he has taken up in the last 
"out,** the forward chainman likewise counting the pins as he receives them. 
At the end of every five chains, the forward chainman as he sets the tenth 
or last tally rod, calls, " out," which is repeated by the other chainman, 
and by the marker and surveyor, each of whom keeps a tally of the " outs," 

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140 msTOBT or iowa. 

and marks the same as he calls them. Sixteen ** outs," or eighty chains, 
make a mile. 

The comers of townships, sections and quarter sections, are marked in the 
following manner: 

On the exterior township lines, comer posts are set at the distance of 
every mile and half mile m>m the township comer. The mile posts are for 
the comers 'of sections, and the half-mile posts for the comers of quarter 
sections. They are required to be driven into the ground to the depth of 
from fiilteen to twenty mches, and to be made of the most durable wood to 
be had. The sides of the posts are squared off at the top, and the angles 
of the square set to correspond with the cardinal points of the compass. 
All the mile posts on the township lines are markea with as many notches 
cut in one of the angles as they are miles distant from the township comer 
where the line commenced. But the township comer posts are notched with 
six notches on each of the four angles. The mile posts on the section lines 
are notched on the south and east angles of the square, respectively, with as 
many notches as they are miles distant irom the south and east boundaries 
of the township. If it so happens that a tree is situated to supply die 
place of a corner post, it is ^^ blazed" on four sides facing the sections to 
which it is the comer, and notched in the same manner that the comer posts 
are. At all comers in the timber, two or more bearing trees in opposite 
directions are required to be noted, and the course of each tree notea and 
recorded. The trees are "blazed" on the side facing the post, and the let- 
ters B. T. (Bearing Tree) cut in the wood below the olaze. At the quarter 
section comers, the post is jlattened on opposite sides, and marked " t>" ^^^ 
the nearest suitable tree on each side of the section line is marked to show 
the township, range and section in which such tree is situated. More recent 
regulations require four witnesses, or bearing trees, at the township and 
section comers, and two at the quarter section comers, if within convenient 

In the prairies, and other places where bearing trees could not be noted, 
quadrangular mounds of eartn are raised around the posts, the angles of the 
mounds corresponding with the cardinal points of the compass. The 
mounds are required to be two and a-half feet high and four feet square at 
the base. The earth to form the mound at the section comer is taken from 
one place to form the pit directly sotrth of the mound; and at the quarter 
section comer it is taken directly east of the mound. The posts arc squared 
and notched as heretofore described. More recent regulations require 
stones or charcoal to be buried in the mound. 

In the timber the lines are marked in the following manner: All those 
trees which the line cuts have two notches on each side of the tree where 
the line cuts it. These are called "station trees," and sometimes "line 
trees," or " sight trees." All trees within ten or fifteen links on each side 
of the line are marked with two spots or "blazes," diagonally or quartering 
toward the line. The names ana estimated diameters of iQl the "station 
trees," with their distances on the lines, are noted. 

In the northwest part of Iowa, where the prairie so la^ly predominates, 
the landmarks, of course, are chiefly mounds and pits. The original stakes 
set by the surveyors have mostly been destroyed by the fires, but occasion- 
ally one may be found. Many of the mounds and pits have also been ptu*- 
tially obliterated, but the experienced surveyor will generally identify them 
widi very little Irouble. A person in search of the landmarks on the prai- 

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msTOBT or IOWA. 141 

rie should provide himself with a compass with which to trace the lines. A 
smsdl one will answer the purpose of ascertaining Unes approximately, but 
for finding the sub-divisions accurately, a good compass or transit and chain 
are required. 

The field notes of the original surveys furnish primarily the material 
from wnich the plats and calculations of the public lands are made, and die 
source from whence die description and evidence of the location and boun- 
daries of those surveys are drawn and perpetuated. The surveyors of the 
public lands were, therefore, required to Keep an accurate record of the 
topoCTaphy of the country, with a description of evervthing which mi^ht 
anora useml information. The crossings of streams, lakes, ponds, slou^s, 
etc, with Uieir location on the lines, were all required to be carefully noted. 


Jnlien Dabaqne— Sponifih Lead Mines — ^Ear^ Settlement at Dabaqoe — Settlement at Mont- 
rose — Old Apple Trees— Fort Madison— ALeoknk— First Settlement at Borlinffton— First 
Settlement in Scott County— Ominization of Scott County— Murder of Col. Davenport— 
Band of Outlaws broken up-^me First Things— Temtorial Convention— Subject of 
Pre-emptions— Missouri Boundary— Question of Separate Territorial Organization— Me- 
morials to Congress. 

Thx first wliite men who are known to have Bet their feet npon the soil of 
Iowa, were James Marquette and Louis Joliet, in 1673, as we have seen in 
a former part of this work. It was 115 years after the visit of these cele- 
brated French voyagewra before any white man established a settlement, 
during which time several generations of the Indian tribes occuj>ied the val- 
leys of the beautiful rivers of Iowa, or roamed over her broad prairies. Dur- 
ing idl this time they doubtless kept alive among them the tradition of the 
strange Black-Bobe Chief and his pale-faced companions who came in their 
canoes to see their fathers so many years before. It was likewise a French- 
man, Julien Dubuque, who had the honerof making ihe-first permanent 
white settlement In 1788, having obtained permission from the Indians, 
he crossed the Mississippi with a small party of miners for the purpose of 
woridng lead mines at tne place where the citv is now located whicn bears 
his name, the lead having been discovered a snort time before by the wiie 
Peosta, a Fox warrior. Dubuque was a native of France, but had emigrated 
to Canada and become an Indian trader. While engaged in that business 
he rcttu^ed Prairie du Chien about the year 1785, and with two other French- 
men, laid out a villi^ which now constitutes the northern part of that cit^. 
As a trader he acquired great influence with the Sao and Fox Chiefs. Six 
years after he en^iged in mining (1796), he wrote a very diplomatic peti- 
tion to the Spanish Governor ot Louisiana, Baron de darcmdelet, to con- 
firm the Indian grant The governor referred the petition to a merchant 
and trader named Andrew Todd, who recommended that the grant be con- 
firmed, with a restriction prohibiting Dubuque from trading with the 
Indians, without first obtaining Todd's consent in writing. With this re- 
striction the petition was granted. Dubuque, as was a common custom 
among the French traders, had married an Indian woman. He ^ve to the 
district embraced in his grant the name of die Mines of Spain, in 1796, in 
oompliment to the Spanish eovemor. He remained engaged in mining, 
until his death, which occurred March 24, 1810. He was buried on a bluff 
near the present city, and at his grave wi» placed a cedar cross, hewn square, 

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and about twelve feet high. On the arms of the cross there was, in Freneh, 
an inscription, of which the following is a translation: 



DIED HASOH 24tH, 1810, 


A number of Indians were afterward buried at the same place, and among 
them the chief Kettle and his wife, who both died some ei^teen years after 
Dubuque. Kettle had requested his tribe to bury }iim and his wife in the 
vault with Dubuque. In 1828 their bodies were on the surface of the 
grotmd, wrapped in buffalo robes, protected from animals by closed walls 
and a roof. The cross and vault of Dubuque, it is said, were torn down 
about the year 1864, by some thoughtless boys, or perhaps men. The vault 
was built of roughly (U'essed limestone taken fi^Dm the ea|?e of the bluff only 
a few feet distant. But little more than is here stated is Imown of Uie first 
white man who settled on Iowa soiL 

At the death of Dubu<^ue the Indians claimed that the right, or lease of 
the whites to work the mines had expired, and but little more mining seems 
to have been done there until after the Black Hawk War. When attempts 
were made to engage in mining the military authority interfered to prevent 
intrusion upon the rights of the Indians. In 1829, James L. Langworthy, 
a native of Vermont, who had been engaged in lead mininff at Gkdena, Illi- 
nois, crossed over the river for the purpose of working l£e mines known 
then as the " Spanish Lead Mines.'' The Indians refusal to give him per- 
mission, but allowed him to explore the country. With two young Indians 
as guides, he traversed the region between Maquoketa and Turkey rivers. 
When he returned to the Sac and Fox villa^ he secured die good will of 
the Indians, and formed his plans for operating the mines. The next year, 
with his brother, Lucius H. Langworthy, and some other miners, he crossed 
over the river and engaged in mming. In June, 1880, the miners adopted a 
code of laws or rules, reported by a committee consisting of James L. Lang- 
worthy, H. F. Lander, James McPhetres, Samuel Scales and E. M. Wren. 
They erected an independent civil government of their own, the first gov- 
ernment established by white men in Iowa. Some time after this the War 
Department issued an order to CoL Zachary Taylor, then in command of the 
military post at Prairie du Chien, to cause die miners to leave the west side 
of the river. Notice was accordingly given them and the order was reluc- 
tantly obeyed, but not until a detadiment of troops was sent to enforce it 
After the close of the Black Hawk War, and die treaty went into effect which 
allowed settlement, on and after June 1, 1833, the Langworthy brothers and 
some others returned and resumed their claims, and soon there was a con- 
siderable settlement at Dubuque. The first school house in Iowa was 
erected there the same jear, and before the close of the year there were five 
hundred white people m the mining district At a meeting of the settl^^ 
in 1834, the place was named Dubuque. 

Except the mining settlement at Dubuque, the first traces of the 
white man in Iowa, are to be found in Lee county. On the 30th of 
March, 1799, Louis Honori Fesson obtained permission of the Span- 
ish government to establish himself at the head of the rapids of the 
river Des Moines for the purpose of trading with the Indians. The 
place was at this time occupied by a half-breea Indian named Bed Bird» 

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HIROBT 09 IOWA* 148 

bat known among the whites as Thomas Abbott Subsequently the town 
of Montrose was located on the ground where Fesson had his trading post 
and Bed Bird his wick-e-up. Settlers of a later day have felt much interest 
in the existence here of some full grown apple trees which must have been 
planted by some hand long before the !Black Hawk War. It has been 
claimed by some that they were planted by Fesson as early as the banning 
of the present centuiy. Hon. I>. W. Eilboume, one of me early settlers of 
Lee county, claimed that \h%j were planted by Bed Bird some time between 
the years 1795 and 1798. Mr. Kilboume was personally acquainted with 
Bed Bird as well as with Black Hawk and other noted Indians of the Sao 
and Fox tribes, and from them he receiyed what he belieyed to be an authen- 
tic account of the origin of the ^ ancient apple orchard " at Montrose. It 
was the custom of the Indians once a year to yisit St. Louis for the purpose 
of obtaining supplies of blankets and other articles. The half-breed, Ked 
Bird, then a young man, made his customary pilgrimage in the early spring, 
and on his return stopped a few days at St. Charles on the Missouri riyer. 
There a white man made him a present of about twenty small apple trees 
and gave him instructions how to plant them. Bed Bird carried tne trees 
home with him and planted them near his wick-e-up, placing stakes around 
ihem. Nearly aU oi them grew and remained to excite the wonder and 
eoriosify of succeeding generations of white men. 

In 1809 a military post was established where Ft Madison is now located, 
bat of course the country was not open to white settlers until after the 
" Black Hawk Purchase." In 1834 troops were stationed at the point where 
Montrose is now located, but at that time the place was called ^^ Fort Des 
Moines." They remained until 1887, when they were remoyed to Fort 
Leavenworch. At first they were under the command of lieut. CoL S. W. 
Kearney, who was afterward relieyed by OoL R B. Mason. The command 
consist^ of three companies of the 1st United States Dragoons, Co. 0, 
Capt E. V. Sumner, Co. H, Capt Nathan Boone, and Co. I, Capt. J. B. 
Browne. Capt. Browne resigned his position in the regular army in 1837, 
and remained a citizen of Lee county. In 1838 he was appointed by Goy. 
Lucas as Maj. Gen. of Militia. He was also elected as a member of the first 
Territorial Legislature which conyened at Burlington, and had the honor of 
being the firstPresident of the Council and afterward Speaker of the House 
of BSpresentatiyes. At the " Foot of The Lower Kapids " there was a place 
which, prior to 1834, was known as " Farmers* Trading Post." In Septem- 
ber of fliat year a meeting of half-breed Indians and their assies was held 
in the old trading house then owned bjr Isaac 0. Campbell. The object of 
tiie meeting was to petition Congress K>r the passage of a law granting them 
the privileae to self and conyey their respectiye titles to wnat was then 
known as me " Half-breed Eesenration," according to the laws of Missouri. 
In attendance at this meeting were representatiyes from Prairie du Chein 
sad St Louis. At this time there were about nine families residing in the 
vicinity, and after the adjournment of the meeting the resident citizens re- 
paired to the saloon of John Gbines to talk oyer tneir prospects when the 
naif-breed title should become extinct. They looked forward to the time 
when a city should grow up at that point. John Gaines called the meeting 
to order and made a speech in whicn he said the time had now come to 
a^pee upon a name for the town. He spoke of the chief Eeokuk as the 
friend of the white man, and proposed his name for the future town. The 
proposition met with fayor and tne name was adopted. In the spring of 

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1837 the town was laid out and a public sale of lots took place in Jane. 
Only two or three lots were sold, althongh many attended Irom St Louis 
and other points. In 1840 the greater portion of Keokuk was a dense for- 
est, the improvements being omj a few cabins. In 1847 a census of the 
place gave a population of 020. During the year 1832 Capt James White 
made a claim on the present site of Montrose, and in the same year, soon 
after the close of the !Black Hawk war, 2^hariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jen- 
nings, Aaron White, Augustine Horton, Samuel GUx^ch, Daniel Thompson 
and Peter Williams made claims at Ft Madison. In 1833 these claims 
were purchased by John and Nathaniel Knapp, upon which, in 1835, they 
laid out the town. The next summer lots were sold. The lots were subse- 
quently re-surveyed and platted by the United States Government 

The first settlement made at Burlington and in the vicinity, was 
in the fall of 1832. Daniel Tothero came with his family and settled 
on the prairie about three miles from the Mississippi river. About the 
same time Samuel White, with his familv, erected his cabin near the river 
at what is known as the upper blufi^, within the limits of the present city 
of Burlinffton. This was oefore the extinction of the Indian title, for that 
did not take place before June 1st, 1833, when thegovemment acquired the 
territory under what was known as the " Black ^wk Purchase." There 
was then a government military post at Eock Island, and some dragoons 
came down from that place during the next winter and drove Tothero and 
and White over the river, burning their cabins. White remained in Blinois 
until the first of the following June, when the Indians surrendered posses- 
sion of the ^' Black Hawk Purchase," and on that very day was on the ground 
and built his second cabin. His cabin stood on what is now Front street, 
between Court and High streets, in the city of Burlin^n. Soon after Mr. 
White's return his brother-in-law, Doolittle, joined him, and in 1834 they 
laid out the original town, naming it Burlington, for the town of that name 
in Vermont The name was given at the request of John Gray, a Ver- 
monter and a friend of the proprietors. Thus White and Doolittle became 
the Bomulus and Bemus of one of the leading cities of Iowa. During the 
year 1833 there was considerable settlement made in the vicinity, and soon a 
mill was erected by Mr. Donnell, on Flint creek, three miles from Burling- 
ton. In 1837 Major McKell erected a saw-mill in the town. In June, 
1834, Congress passed an act attaching die '^ Black Hawk Purchase " to the 
Territory of Michigan for temporary government. In September of the 
same year the Legislature of Michigan oivided this purchase into two coun- 
ties, Des Moines and Dubuque. Tne boundary between them was a line 
running due west from the lower end of Bock Island. They also organized 
a county court in each county, and for Des Moines county made t£e seat 
of justice at Burlington. Tne first court was held in April, 1836, in a log 
house. In 1838 Iowa was made a separate Territoiy and Burlington was 
made the capital and so remained until after the admission into the Union 
RA a State. The Territorial Legislature met for sevend years in the first 
church erected in Burlington, known as ^ Old Zion." In uiis same building 
the supreme judicial tribunal of Uie Territory also held its sessions, as weu 
as the district court 

The first white man to settle permanently within the limits of Scott 
county, was Capt B.W. Clark, a native of Yir^nia. He had settled and made 
some improvement on the Illinois side of the Mississippi, but in 1833 he 
moved across the river and made a ^' claim and commenced an improvemeitt 

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where the town of BuflGsJo was laid out. His nearest white neighbors on the 
west side of the Mississippi, were at Burlington and Dubuque. David BL 
Clark, a son of Capt. Clark, bom April 21, 1834, was the nrst white child 
bom within the limits of what is now Scott county. 

Before the time, June 1, 1833, that the Indians were to give 'possession 
to the whites, Geo. L. Davenport had been permitted to make a claim. He 
had been a favorite with the Indians from boyhood, and for this reason he 
was permitted to go upon the lands while otliers were kept off. The land 
upon which a pcirt of the city of Davenport is located, and adjoining or near 
"Ld Claire's reserve, was claimed by R. H. Spencer, and a man named Mc- 
Cloud. Mr. Le Claire afterward purchased their claim interest for $150. 

The project of laying out a town upon Mr. Le Claire's claim was first dis- 
cussed m the autumn of 1835, at the residence of Col. Davenport, on Kock 
Island. The persons interested in • the movement were Ad tome Le Claire^ 
Maj. Thos. Smith, Maj. "Wm. Gordon, Phillip Hambaugh, Alexander W. 
McGregor, Levi S. Colton, Capt. James May and Col. Geo. Davenport. In 
the spring of 1836, the enterprise was carried into effect by the purchase of 
the land from Mr. Le Claire, and the laying out of a town to which the 
name of Davenport was given, in honor ot Col. Davenport. The survey 
was made by Maj. Gordon. Some improvement had been made upon the 
ground by Mr. Le Claire, as early as 1833, but none of a substantial character 
until 1836. 

During this year Messrs. Le Claire and Davenport erected a building 
which was opened as a public house or tavem, by Edward Powers. During^ 
the same year John Litch from Newburyport, N. H., opened the pioneer 
whisky shop in a loff shanty on Front street. A ferry across the Mississippi 
was established by Mr. Le Claire, who was also the same year appointed the 
first postmaster, and carried the mails in his pocket while ferrying. The 
first white male child bom in Davenport was a son of Levi S. Colton, in 
the autumn of 1836. The child died in August, 1840, at the Indian village 
on Iowa river. The first female child was a diaughter of D. C. Eldridge. 
Alex. W. McGregor, opened the first law office in 1836. Kev A. M. Gavit, 
a Methodist minister, preached the first sermon in the house of D. C. Eld- 
ridge. At the close of the year 1836 there were some six or seven houses 
in the town. The Indians still lingered about the place. Col. Davenport 
still kept a trading house open on Iu>ck Island, and mmished supplies. 

When tl^e Sacs and Foxes removed from the lands embraced in the first 
purchase they settled for a short time on Iowa river, and after the second 

f)urchase removed to the Des Moines river, where they remained until the 
ast sale of their lands in Iowa when they were removed by the government 
to Kansas. 

Scott county was organized and named in honor of Gen. "Winfield Scott at 
the session oi the Legislature of Wisconsin in December, 1837. Major 
Frayer Wilson was appointed sheriff. The election for county commission- 
ers was held on the third Monday in Febraary, 1838, when the following 
were elected: Benj. F. Pike, Andrew W. Campbell, and Alfred Carter. On 
the 4th of July, 1838, by an act of Congress, Iowa became a separate Terri- 
tory, and Eobert Lucas, of Ohio, was appointed the first Territorial Governor. 
He made the following appointments tor Scott county: Williard Barrows, 
notary public; Ebenezer Cook, judge of probate; Adrian H. Davenport, 
sheriff; Isaac A. Hedges and John Porter, justices of the peace. D. C. 
Eldridge received the appointment of postmaster at Davenport The first 

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District Court met in Davenport in October, 1838, Hon. Thomas 8. Wilson, 
of Dubuque, presiding. 

For two years a contest had been goinff on between Davenport and a place 
csSled Roddngham as to which should nave the honor of the county seat 
The fourth Monday of August, 1840, was fixed for holding an election to 
decide the vexed question. It resulted fisivorably to Davenport, the citizens 
of the successful town building a court honse and jail firee of expense to the 

On the 7th of July, 1838, Andrew Logan, from Pennsylvania, arrived 
with a printing press, and on the 17th of September followinfi; issued the 
first number of a paper called loaya Stm amd Davenport and BocJc Island 
Fews, the first newspaper published in the county. On the 26th day of 
August, 1841, the first number of the Davmport WeMy Gazette was issued 
by Alfred Sanders. 

One of the most exciting incidents connected with the early history of 
Davenport and Scott county was the mxirder of Col. (Jeorge Davenport on 
Kock Island, July 4, 1845. The country on both sides of the river had been 
infested by a lawless band of freebooters, with their supnosed headquarters 
at Zfauvoo. They had organized themselves into bands and enraged in 
horse stealing, connterfeitmg, burglary, robbery, and mxirder. In some 
places men in official positions and of good standing in community were 
associated with them. On the fatal 4th of July, Col. Davenport's family was 
away at Stephenson attending a celebration when three men attacked him in 
his nouse, one of whom shot him with a pistol through the thigh. They 
then bound him with strips of bark and blindfolded him. They then made 
a search for the key of his safe but were unable to find it Returning to the 
wounded man, they carried him np-stairs where the safe was and compelled 
him to unlock it. The booty obtained was about $600 in money, a ^old 
watch-chain and seids, a donble-barrelled gun, and a few articles of minor 
valua OoL Davenport lived long enough to relate the incidents of the rob- 
bery. For several weeks no trace could be found of the murderers. Edward 
Bonney, of Lee county, Iowa, undertook to ferret out their place of conceal- 
ment About the middle of August he went to Nauvoo where he obtained 
trace of them by representing himself as one of the gang. On the 8th of 
September he arrested a man named Fox at Centerville, Indiana, and com- 
mitted him to jail there. On the 19th he arrested two others, Birch and 
John Long, at Sandnsky, Ohio, and brought them to Eock Island by way of 
the lakes and Chicago. These three men were known at the west as leaders 
of gangs of desperadoes, but operated tmder different names. Three others 
were dso arrested as accessories, Bichard Baxter and Aaron Long, near 
Galena, Illinois, and Granville Young, at Nanvoo. Aaron was a brother of 
John Long. On the 6tih of October all of them were indicted by the grand 
jury of Bock Island countv, except Fox, who had escaped from jail in Indi- 
ana on the 17th of Sq)tember. On the 14th of October the two Longs were 
put upon trial, found guilty, and sentenced to be hun^ on the 27th of the 
same montii. Birch, the greatest villain, turned Staters evidence. Baxter 
was tried separately, convicted and sentenced to be hnng on the 18th of No- 
vember. Iji his case a writ of error was obtained and a new trial granted, 
when he was again fotmd guilty and sentenced to the penitentiary for life, 
where he diea two years after. Birch took a change of venue to Knox 
county, and while awaiting trial escaped from jail. IJpon the gallows John 
Long confessed all, but died a hardened wretch without sign of repentance 
or&rof death. 

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148 H18T0BT OF IOWA. 

During the year 1834 settlements were made at various points besides 
those mentioned, in what are now the counties bordering on the Mississippi 
river, and soon other settlements began to extend to the western limit of tne 
Black Hawk Purchase. 

The first post-office in Iowa was established in Dubuque in 1833. Milo 
H. Prentice was appointed postmaster. 

The first justice of the peace was Antoine Le Claire, appointed in 1833, as 
"a very suitable person to adjust the difficulties between the white settlers 
and the Indians stiU remaining there." 

The first Methodist Society in the Territory was formed at Dubuque on 
the 18th of May, 1834, and the first class meeting was held June Ist of that 

Tlie first church bell brought into Iowa was in March, 1834. 

The first mass of the Koman Catholic Church in the Territory was cele- 
brated at Dubuque, in the house of Patrick Quigley, in the fall of 1833. 

The first school house in the Territory was erected by the Dubuque miners 
in 1833. 

The first Sabbath school was organized at Dubuque early in the summer 
of 1834. 

The first woman who came to this part of the Territoir with a view to 
permanent residence was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the fall of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of Hosea T. Camp, 
in 1832. 

The first meeting-house was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church, at 
Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubuque Visitor^ issued Maj 11th, 
1836. John King, afterward Judge King, was editor, and William C. 
Jones, printer. 

By tne year 1836 the population had increased so that the people began 
to agitate for a separate Territorial organization. There were also several 
other matters in which thev were deepfy interested. In November, 1837, a 
convention was called at !burlington to take action. Some account of this 
first Iowa convention, and the action taken by it, will be of interest to every 
citizen of the State. 


On Monday the 6th of November, 1837, a convention of delegates from the 
several counties in that portion of Wisconsin Territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river, then sometimes called Western Wisconsin, convened in the town 
or feurlin^n. Among the principal purposes for which this convention 
was callea were: 1. To memoralize CouOTess for the passage of an act 

ranting the right of pre-emption to actual settlers on government lands; 
To memoralize Congress on the subject of the attempt then being made 
by the State of Missouri to extend her northern boundary line so as to 
embrace territory claimed as being a part of Wisconsin; 3. To memoralize 
Congress for the organization of a separate territorial government in that 
part of the Territory of Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. 

The following were the accredited delegates in the convention from the 
several counties! 

Ihthuque Cotmty.—P. H. Ende, J. T. Fales, G. W. Harris, W. A. War- 
ren, W. B. Watts, A. F. Eussell, W . H. Patton, J. W. Parker, J. D. Bell, and 
J. H. Eose. 

Des Moi/nes Covmty. — ^David Eorer, Eobert Ealston, and Cyrus S. Jacobs. 

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Van Bu/ren County.— Von Caldwell, J. 6. Kenner, and James Hall. 

Sen/ry Cotufdy. — ^W. H. "Wallace, J. D. Payne, and J. L. Myers. 

MtisooHne Comity. — J. E. Struthers, M. Conch, Eli Reynolds, S. 0. 
Hasting James Davis, S. Jenner, A, Smith, and E. K. Fay. 

Louisa County. — J. M. Clark, "Wm. L. Toole, and J. J. Kinearson. 

Lee Cov/nty. — Henry Eno, John Claypool, and Hawkins Taylor. 

The officers of the convention were: President, Cyms S. Jacobs; Yice 
Presidents, J. M. Clark, and Wm. H. Wallace; Secretaries, J. W. Parker, 
and J. R. Stmthers. 

The following committees were appointed: 

To draft and report a memorial m relation to the right of pre-emption — 
Messrs. Engle, Kenner, Payne, Struthers, Patton, Eorer, and Smith. 

To draft and report a memorial on the subject of tiie boundary line — 
Messrs. Eno, Claypool, Kenner, Ealston, Davis, Watts, and Toole. 

To draft and report a memorial on the subject of a separate territorial 
organization — Messrs. Eorer, Hastings, Caldwell, Myers, Claypool, Einear- 
Bon, and Harris. 

The convention continued in session three days, and on the afternoon of the 
last day all the committees reported, and their reports were unanimously 


To the HonorcMe Senate and House of Representatives : 

A convention of citizens representing all the counties in that part of Wis- 
consin Territory lying west of the Mississippi river, have assembled at Bur- 
b'n^ton, the present seat of government of said Territory, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration several measures immediately affecting their in- 
terests and prosperity. Among the most important of these is the passage 
by your honorable bodies, at the session about to be commenced, of a pre- 
emption law by which the settlers on the public land shall have secured to 
them at the minimum price, the lands on which they live, which they have 
improved and cultivated without fear of molestation, or over-bidding on the 
part of the rich capitalist and speculator. It is a fact well known to your hon- 
orable bodies, that none of the land in Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, 
in what is called the " Iowa District," has yet been offered for sale by the 

fovemment. It is equally true that that tract of country is now inhabited 
y twenty-five thousand souls, comprising a population as active, intelligent, 
and worthy as can be found in any other part of the United States. The 
enterprise of these pioneers has converted what was but yesterday a solitary 
and uncultivated waste, into thriving towns and villages, alive with the en- 
gagements of trade and commerce, and rich and smiling farms, yielding 
flieir bountiful return to the labors of the husbandman. This district has 
been settled and improved with a rapidity unexampled in the history of the 
countij; emigrants firom aU parts ol the United States, and from Europe, 
are daily addmg to our numbers and importance. An attempt to force these 
lands thus occupied and improved into market, to be sold to the highest bid- 
der, and to put the money thus extorted from the hard earnings of an indus- 
trious and laborious people into the coffers of the public treasury, would be 
an act of injustice to the settlers, which would scarcely receive the sanction 
of your honorable bodies. In most cases the labor of years and the accu- 
mulated capital of a whole life has been emended in making improvements 
on the public land, under the strong and nrm belief that every safeguard 
would be thrown around them to prevent their property, thus dearly earned 

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by jrears of suffering, privation and toU, from being unjustly wrested from 
tneir hands. Shall they be dijBappointedf Will Congress refhse to pass 
sach laws as may be necessary to protect a large class of our citizen^ from 
systemized plunder and rapinef The members comprising this convention, 
representing a very large class of people, who delected mem to speak in 
their stead, do most confidently express an opinion that your honorable 
bodies will at your present session, pass some law removing us frx)m danger, 
and relieving us fr^m fear on this subject. The members of this conven- 
tion, for themselves, and for the people whose interests thev are sent here to 
represent, do most respectfrilly solicit that your honorable bodies will, as 
speedily as possible, pass a pre-emption law, giving to every actual settler 
on the pubhc domain, who has made improvements sufficient to evince that 
it is honajide his design to cultivate ana occupy the land, the right to enter 
at the minimum government price, one-half section for that purpose, before 
it shall be offered at public sale. 


To the HonorahUytJie Senate and jffotueqfJSepreeentatives of the United 

States in Congrees assembled: 

The Memorial of a Convention of Delegates from the several covnties in 
the Territory of "Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, convened at Bur- 
lington, in said Territory, November 6, 1837, respectfdlly represent: 

That your memorialists are desirous of asking the attention of Congress 
to the adjustment of the boundary line between the State of Missouri and 
the Temtory of Western Wisconsin. Much excitement already prevails 
among the inhabitants situated in the border counties of the State and Ter- 
ritory, and it is much to be feared that, unless the speedy action of Congress 
should be had upon the subject, difficulties of a serious nature will arise, 
militating against the peace and harmonv which would otherwise exist 
among them. At the last session of the legislature of Missouri, commis- 
sioners were appoiifted to run the northern bomidary line of the State. They 
have recently cleen engaged in the work, and, according to the line run by 
them, there is included within the limits of the State of Missouri a consid- 
erable tract of country hitherto supposed to belong to the Territory of Wis- 
consin, and which is still believed of right to belong to it The northern 
boundary line of Missouri was run several years ago by commissioners ap- 
pointed by the State of Missouri, and will cross the Des Moines river at a 
Soint about twenty-five miles from its mouth. This line, if continued on 
ue east, would strike the Mississippi river near the town of Fort Madison, 
about ten miles above the rapids in said river, long since known as the Des 
Moines rapids; and this line, so run by the commissioners, has al^^s^^ been 
considered as tiie boundary line between the State and Territory. The pres- 
ent commissioners, appomted by the State of Missouri, ^ving a dififereoit 
construction to the act defining the botrndary line of the State, passed up 
the Des Moines river in search of rapids, and have seen proper to find theon 
some twelve or fourteen miles frirther up the river than the other conunis- 
sioners of Missouri formerly did, and, selecting a point which they call 
the rapids in the Des Moines river, have fix)m thence marked out a line 
which is now claimed as the northern boundary line of the State. Were 
this line extended due east, it would strike the Mississippi river at the town 
of Burlington, some thirty miles above the rapids known, as stated above, as 
the Des Moines Bapids. 

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HI8T0BT 01* IOWA. 151 

Missouri was created into an independent State, and her boundary line 
defined, in June, 1820. At that time the country bordering on the Des 
Moines river was a wUdemess, and little was known, except from the Indi- 
ans who lived on its banks^ of its geographical situation. There was at that 
time no ^int on the river knovm as the Des Moines rapids, and at the 
present time between the mouth of the river and the Raccoon forks, a dis- 
tance of two hundred miles, fifty places can with as much propriety' be desig- 
nated as the one selected by the commissioners of the State of MTissourL 

Tour m^norialists conceive that no action of the State of Missouri can, 
or ought to, affect the integrity of the Territory of Wisconsin; and standing 
in the attitude they do, they must look to the general government to protect 
their rights and redress their wrongs, which, for so long a period oi time, 
existed between the Territory of Michigan and the State of Ohio relative to 
their boundaries, will, it is hoped, prompt the speedy action of Congress on 
this existing subject. Confidently relying upon the wisdom of the general 
gjovemment, and its willingness to take such means as will settle this Ques- 
tion, the people of Wisconsin will peaceablv submit to an extension of the 
northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, if so be that Congress 
shall ordain it; but until such action, they will resist to the utmost extrem- 
ity any attempt made by the State of Missouri to extend her jurisdiction 
over any disputed territory. 

We, thererore, pray that Congress will appoint commissioners, whose duty 
it shall be to run the line between the State of Missouri and the Territory 
of Wisconsin according to the spirit and intention of the act defining the 
boundary lines of the State of Missouri, and to adopt such other measures 
as in their wisdom they shall deem fit and proper. 


To the Honorable^ the Senate and House of RepreaentQtivee of the United 

States in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of a general convention of delegates, from the respective 
counties in the Territory of Wisconsin, west of me Mississippi river, con- 
vened at the capitol at JBurlington, in said Territory, November 6, 1837, 
respectfully represents: 

That the citizens of that part of the Territory west of the Mississippi river, 
taking into consideration tneir remote and isolated position, and the vast 
extent of country included within the limits of the present Territory, and 
the utter impracticability of the same being governed as an entire whole, by 
the wisest and best administration of our municipal affairs, in such maimer 
as to fully secure individual right and the right of property, as well as to 
maintain domestic tranquility, and the good order of society, have by their 
respective representatives, convened in general convention as aforesaid, for 
availing themselves of their right of petition as free citizens, by representing 
tiieir situation and wishes to your honorable body, and asking for the organ- 
ization of a sepMute Territorial government over that part of the Territory 
west of the Mississippi river. 

Without in the least desiring to question the official conduct of those in 
whose hands the fate of our infimt Territory has been confided, and in whose 
patriotism and wisdom we have the utmost confidence, your memorialists 
cannot refrain from the frank expression of their belief that, takin|^ into 
consideration the geographical extent of her country, in connection with the 
probable population of Western Wisconsin, perliaps no Territory of the 

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United States has been so much neglected by the parent government, so lUy 
protected in the political and individual rignts of her citizens. 

Western Wisconsin came into the possession of our government in June, 
1833. Settlements were made, and crops grown, during the same season; 
and even then, at that early day, was the impulse given to the mighty throng 
of emigration that has subsequently filled our lovely and desiraole country 
with people, intelligence, wealth ana enterprise. From that period until the 
present, bein^ a little over four years, what has been the Territory of West- 
em Wisconsin? Literally and practically a large portion of the time with- 
out a government. With a population of thousands, she has remained 
ungovemed, and has been quietly left by the parent government to take care 
of herself, without the privilege oil the one hand to provide a government of 
her own, and without any existing authority on the other to govern her. 

From June, 1833, until June, 1834, a period of oneyear, liiere was not 
even the shadow of government or law in all Western Wisconsin. In June, 
1334, Congress attached her to the then existing Territory of Michigan, of 
which Territory she nominally continued a part, imtil July, 1836, a period 
of little more than two years. During the whole of this time, the whole 
country west, suflScient of itself for a respectable State, was included in two 
coimties, Dubuque and Des Moines. In each of these two coimties there 
were holden, during the said term of two years, two terms of a county court 
(a court of inferior jurisdiction), as the only sources of judicial relief up to 
the passage of the act of Confess creating the Territory of Wisconsin. That 
act took elfect on the third &y of July, 1836, and the first judicial relief 
aflfbrded under that act, was at the April term following, 1837, a period of 
nine months after its passage; subsequently to which time there has been a 
court holden in one solitary county in Western Wisconsin only. This, your 
memorialists are aware, has recently been owinff to the unfortunate disposi- 
tion of the esteemed and meritorious judge of our district; but they are 
equally aware of the fact, that had Western Wisconsin existed under a sep- 
arate organization, we should have found relief in the services of other mom- 
bers of tne judiciary, who are at present, in consequence of the great extent 
of our Territory, and the small number of judges dispersed at two great a 
distance, and too constantly engaged in the discnarge of the duties of their 
own district, to be enabled to afford relief to other portions of the Territory. 
Thus, with a population of not less than twenty- five thousand now, and of 
near half that number at the organization of the Territory, it will appear 
that we have existed as a portion of an organized Territory, for sixteen 
months, with but one term of courts only. 

Tour memorialists look upon those evils as growing exclusively out of the 
immense extent of country included within the present boundaries of the 
Territory, and express their conviction and belief, that notliing would so 
effectually remedy the evil as the organization of Western Wisconsin into a 
separate territorial government. To this your memorialists conceive them- 
selves entitled by principles of moral right — by the same obligation that 
rests upon their present government, to protect them in the free enjoyment 
of their rights, until such time as they shall be permitted to provide protec- 
tion for themselves; as well as from the uniform practice and policy of the 
government in relation to other Territories. 

The Territory of Indiana, including the present States of Indiana, Illinois, 
and Michigan, and also much of the eastern portion of the present Territory 
of Wisconsin, was placed under one separate territorial government in the year 

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1800, at a time that the population amounted to only five thousand six hun- 
dred and forty, or thereaoouts. 

The Territory of Arkansas was erected into a distinct Territory, in 1820, 
with a population of about fourteen thousand. The Territory of Illinois was 
established in 1809, bein^ formed by di\ddin^ the Indiana Territorjr. The 
exact population of Illinois Territory, at the time of her separation from In- 
diana, is not known to your memorialists, but her population in 1812, one 
year subsequent to that event, amounted to but eleven thousand five hun- 
dred and one whites, and a few blacks — ^in all, to less than twelve thousand 

The Territory of Michigan was formed in 1805, by again dividing the 
Indiana Territory, of which, until then, she composed a part. The popula- 
tion of Michigan, at the time of her separation from Indiana, your memo- 
rialists have been unable to ascertain, but in 1810, a period of five years sub- 
sequent to her separate organization, her population amounted to out about 
four thousand seven hundred and sixty; and in the year 1820, to less than 
nine thousand — so that Michigan existed some fifteen years, as a distinct 
Territory, with a population of less than half of Western Wisconsin at pres- 
ent; and each oi. the above named Territories, now composing so many 
proud and flourishing States, were created into separate territonal govern- 
ments, with a much less population than that of Western Wisconsin, and 
that too at a time when the parent government was burdened with a 
national debt of millions. Tour memorialists therefore pray for the organ- 
ization of a separate territorial government over that part of the Territory of 
Wisconsin west of the Mississippi river. 


Territorial Organization— Members of First Legrislafcive Assembly — ^Its Presiding OflScers — 
Important Acts — ^The Great Seal of the Territory — Provision for Localdng Seat of Gov- 
ernment — Some Prominent Members— The Boundary Dispute — Its Settement— Dele^jfate 
to Congress — ^Territorial Governors — ^Death of Wm. fi. Conway — Various Incorporations. 

ComoBESS considered theprayer of the memorial favorably, and " An Act 
to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to establish the Territorial govern- 
ment of Iowa," was approved June 12, 1838, to take effect and be in force 
on and after July 3, 1838. The new Territory embraced " all that part of 
the present Territory of Wisconsin which lies west of the Mississippi River, 
and west of a line drawn due north from the head water or sources of the 
Mississippi to the territorial line." The organic act provided for a Governor 
whose term of ofl&ce should be three years, and for a Secretary, Chief Jus- 
tice, two Associate Justices, and Attorney and Marshal, who should serve 
four years, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. The act also provided for the election, by the white 
male inhabitants, citizens of the United States, over twenty-one years of 
age, of a House of Representatives, consisting of twenty-six memtJers, and 
a Cotmcil, to consist of thirteen members. It also appropriated $5,000 for a 
public library, and $20,000 for the erection of pubhc buildings. President 
Van Buren appointed Ex-Govemor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be the first 
Governor of the new Territory. "William B. Conway, of Pittsburg, was 
appointed Secretary of the Territory; Charies Mason, of Burlington, Chief 
Justice; and Thomas S. "Wilson, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of 
Pennsylvania, Associate Judges of the Supreme and District Courts; Mr. 
Van Alien, of New York, Attorney; Francis Q^hon, of Dubuque, Marshal; 

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Aimistos 0. Bodge, Begister of the Land Office at Burlington, and Thom- 
as McKnight, Eeceiver of the Land Office at Dubuque. Mr. Van Al- 
len, the District Attorney, died at Rockingham, soon after his appointment, 
and Col. Charles Weston was appointed to fill his vacancy. Mr. Conway, 
the Secretary, also died at Burlmgton, during the second session of the 
Legislature, and James Clarke, editor of the Gctaette^ was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. Lnmediately after his arrival, Gk>verDor Lucas issued a procla- 
mation for the election of members of the first Territorial Legislature, to be 
held on the 10th of September, dividing the Territory into election districts 
for that purpose, and appointii:u; the 12th day of Kovember for the meeting 
of the L^slature to w electee^ at Burlington. 

The following were the names, coun^ of residence, nativity, age, and 
occupation, of we members of that first Territorial Legislature: 



E. A. M. SwanyT. . . 


A. Inicnun 

Robert Ralston 

C. Whittlesey 


Jesse B. Browne. . • • 

Jesse D. Pajne 

L. B. Hughes 

J. W. Parker 

Stephen Hempstead. 

Warner Lewis 








New York. 








New York. 


Van Bnren. 
«< •* 

Des Moines. 
«« u 

Des Moines. 











Formerly in IJ.S.A 








Wm. H. Wallace 

Wm.G. Coop 

A. B.Porter 

Laorel Summers 

Jabez Burchard 

James Brierly 

Wm. Patterson 


Harden Nowlin 

Andrew Bankston 

Thomas Cox 


C. J.Price 


George Temple 

George H. Beeler 

V. B. Delashmutt 

Thomas Blair 

James Hall 

Samuel Parker 


Levi Thornton 

Wm. L. Toole 

Robert G.Roberts 

John Frierson 










Des Moines. 
















New York, 














iNew York. 





























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HI8T0BY or IOWA. 155 

Jes86 B. Browne, of Lee county, was elected president of the council. He 
had been an officer in the regular arm^, was a gentleman of di^fied 
appearance and commanding stature, being six feet and seven inches in 
height. "William H. Wallace, of Henry county, was elected speaker of the 
House. Some years after he held the position of receiver at the United 
States land office located at Fairfield. Me subseauently removed to Wash- 
ington Territory, and at one time served as a delegate in Congress from 
that Territory. 

Among the acts passed were those for organizing the counties of Linn, 
Jefferson and Jones; for changing the name of Slaughter county to Wash- 
ington; providing for the election in each countv of a board of commission- 
ers, to consist oi three persons, to attend to all cotmty business, and acts 
providing for the location of the capital and the penitentiary. The Terri- 
tory was divided into three judicial districts, in each county of which court 
was to be held twice a year. The counties of Lee, Van Buren, Henrv and 
Dee Moines constituted the first district, to which Charles Mason, or Bur* 
lington, was assigned as judge. The counties of Louisa, Washin^n, John- 
eon, Cedar and Muscatine constituted the second district, with Joseph 
Williams, of Muscatine, as judge. The countieja of Jackson, Dubuque, 
Soott and Cla^n constituted the third district, with Thomas S. Wilson, of 
Dnbnque, as judge. 

Among the proceedings was the passage of a resolution by the council, 
instructing Wm. B. Conway, the secretary of the Territory, to procure 
a seal, m compliance wim this instruction, on the 23d of November, 
Mr. Conway submitted to the inspection of the council what became the 
"great seal of the Territory of Iowa.'* The desi^ was that of an eagle 
bearingin its beak an Indian arrow, and clutching in its talons an unstrung 
bow. The seal was one inch and five-eighths in (uameter, and was engraved 
bj William Wagner, of York, Pennsylvania. The council passed a resolu- 
tion adopting the seal submitted by the secretaiy, but it aoes not appear 
that it was adopted by the other branch of the legislature. In his communi- 
cation to the council presenting the seal, Mr. Conway calls it the ^' great 
B^ of the Territory of Iowa,'* but the word " great ^' did not appear upon 
it This old territorial seal appears to have been lost in the removal &om 
Iowa City to Des Moines. 

Under the act Mssed for the location of the capital, Chauncey Swan, of 
Dubuoue county, John Konalds, of Louisa county, and Kobert Kalston, of 
Des Moines county, were appointed commissioners, and were required to 
meet at the town of Napoleon, in Johnson county, on the first li^nday of 
May, 1839, and proceed to locate the seat of government at the most suit- 
able point in that county. They proceeded at tlmt time to discharge the duties 
of their trust, and procured the title to six hundred and forty acres. They 
had it surveyed into lots, and agreed upon a plan for a capitol, selecting one 
of their number, Chauncey Swan, to superintend the work of erecting the 
building. The site selected was about two miles northwest of what was 
then the town of Napoleon, a place which now is not known as a town. 
The new town was named Iowa City, and the first sale of lots took place 
August 16, 1839. In November, 1889, the second Territorial Legislature 
assembled in Burlington, and passed an act requiring the commissioners to 
adopt a -phii for a building, not to exceed in cost $51,000. On the 4th day 
of July, 1840, the comer stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies, Sam- 

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uel C. Trowbridge acting as marshal of the day, and Governor Robert Lucas 
as orator. 

This first legislative body which enacted laws for the ffovemment of the 
new Territory of Iowa held its sessions in the then unlinished Methodist 
church in Burlington, the lower story or basement being built of stone, and 
the upper story of brick. It was known in later years as " Old Zion." Of 
the members of that legislature several afterward held prominent official 
positions in the State. Two of them, Stephen Hempstead, of Dubuque, 
and James W, Grimes, of Burlington, hela the ofl&ce of Governor. Tlie 
latter also became prominent in the United States Senate, and in the 
National Cabinet. 

William G. Coop continued to be returned as a member of one or the other 
branch of almost every General Assembly, up to the change of parties in 
the election of James W. Grimes, as Governor. His later legislative career 
was as a member of the State Senate from Jefferson counlr. He was the 
Democratic candidate in that county against James F. Wilson in 1856, for 
member of the constitutional convention, but was defeated by the latter. He 
was a maD of strong party attaclmients, being a Democrat in the strictest 
sense, but was faithful to his constituents, and honest in his discharge of duty. 
We recognize other names that were familiar in the subsequent history of the 
Territory or State, and among them, the following: Asbury B. Porter, who 
became the first colonel of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry during the Rebellion ; 
Hawkins Taylor, of Lee county, who, during later years, has resided most 
of the time in Washington City; Warner Lewis, of Dubuque, who afterward 
held the position of Surve;^or General for Iowa and Wisconsin; William L. 
Toole, of Louisa county, after whom the town of Toolesboro in that county 
was named; Laurel Summers, of Scott county, and others. In the organi- 
zation of this first Territorial Legislature party ties do not seem to nave 
been very strictly drawn, for General Browne, who was chosen president of 
the council without opposition, and Colonel Wallace, who was elected 
speaker of the house, with but little opposition, were both Whigs, while 
both branches of the legislature were largely Democratic. Party lines were 
not tightly drawn until the campaign of 1840, when the yoiuig Territory 
caught the enthusiasm which characterized that contest throughout the 


One of the exciting questions with which the Territory of Iowa had to deal 
was that in relation to the southern boundary. The constitution of Missouri 
in defining the boundaries of that State liad defined her northern boundary to 
be the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the Des Moines 
river. In the Mississippi river, a little above the mouth of the Des Moines 
river, are the rapids, which had been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or the 
Eapids of the Des Moines river. Just below the town of Keosauqua, in Van 
Buren county, there are rapids (though very slight and inconsiderable) also 
in the Des Moines river. The Missouri authorities claimed that the latter 
rapids were referred to in the definition of her boundary, and insisted on ex- 
ercising lurisdiction over a strip of territory some eight miles in width wliich 
Iowa claimed as being a part of her territory. At the first court held in Far- 
mington. Van Buren county, in April, 183Y, by David Irwin, Judge of the 
Second Judicial District of Wisconsin, an indictment was found against one 
David Doose for exercising the office of constable in Van Buren county 

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under authority of the State of MisBouri, This, and other similar acts 
by Missouri omcials, were -the origin of the despute which resulted in demon- 
strations of hostilities, and very nearly precipitated a border war. Governor 
Boggs, of Missouri, called out the nmitia of that State to enforce its claims, 
andCrovemor Lucas, of Iowa, called out the militia of the Territory to main- 
tain its rights. About 1200 men were enlisted and armed. There was no 
difficulty in raising volunteers, for the war spirit ran high. At this stage, 
however, it was considered best to send peace commissioners to Missouri 
with a view of adjusting the difficulties. Gen. A. C. Dodee, of Burlington; 
Gren. Churchman, of iJubuque, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were ap- 
pointed and proceeded to discharge the duties of their mission. When they 
arrived they found that the county commissioners of Clarke county, Mis- 
souri, had rescinded their order for the collection of taxes in Iowa, and the 
Grovemor of Missouri had sent messengers to Governor Lucas with a propo- 
sition to submit an agreed case to the Supreme Court of the United States. 
This proposition was declined, but afterward both Iowa and Missouri 

Setitionea Congress to authorize a suit to settle the Question. This was 
one, and the decision was adverse to the claims of Missouri. Under an 
order of the Supreme Court of the United States, William G. Miner, of 
Missouri, and Henry B. Hendershott, of Iowa, acted as commissioners to sur- 
vey and establish the boundary line. They discharged the duties assigned 
them, and peace was restored. 

In September, 1838, the election was held for dele^te to Congress. 
There were four candidates in the field, to-wit: Wilham W. Chapman 
and David Borer, of Des Moines county; B. F. Wallace, of Henry county, 
and Peter H. Engle, of Dubuque county. William W. Chapman was elected 
by a majority of thirty-six votes over 1*. H. Engle. During the time that 
Iowa remained a separate Territory, from 1838 to 1846, the office of Gov- 
ernor was held successively by KoDert Lucas, John Chambers, and James 
Clarke. Kobert Lucas haa been one of the early Governors of Ohio, and 
was appointed the first Governor of the Territory of Iowa by President Van 
Buren. John Chambers had been a Kepresentative in Confess from Ken- 
tucky, and a warm supporter of Gen. Wm. H. Harrison tor President in 
1840. After the change of the National administration he was appointed to 
succeed Governor Lucas. James Clarke had been the editor of the Gazette 
at Burlington, but at the death of Wm. B. Conway, Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, whicn occurred at Burlington, November 6, 1839, Mr. Clarke was ap- 
?ointed his successor, and afterward succeeded John Chambers as the last 
territorial Governor. 

The death of Wm. B. Conway, Secretary of the Territory, was an event 
which cast a gloom over the Territory. Prior to his appointment by Presi- 
dent Van Buren he had been a resiaent of Pittsburg, Penn. His remains 
were taken to Davenport for interment, and on the 9th of November a pub- 
lic meeting of the citizens of that place passed resolutions expressing the 
highest esteem both for his character as a citizen and as an officer of tlie 
Territory. His remains were taken to St. Anthony's Church where tlie 
solemn services for the dead were performed by Rev. Father Pelaraorgues. 
On the 11th a meeting of the members of the bar of the Territory was held 
at Burlington, in whicm his associates in the profession also passed resolutions 
of respect for the deceased. Of this meeting Charles Mason was chairman, 
and David Korer was appointed to present the resolutions to the Supreme 

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Court of the Territory, for the purpose of having them entered on the record 
of the court. The deceased left a wife and one child. 

The first Territorial Legislature provided by law that " no action commenced 
by a single woman, who mtermarries during the pending thereof, shall abate 
on account of such marriage; secured religious toleration to all; vested the 
judiciary power in a Supreme Court, District Court, Probate Court, and 
Justices of the Peace; made real estate divisible by will, and intestate prop- 
ertv to be divided equitably among heirs; made murder punishable by deam, 
and provided proportionate penalties for other crimes; established a system 
of free schools, open to all classes of white children; provided for a system 
of roads and highways; enacted a law to prevent and punish gambling, and 
in fact enacted a pretty complete code of laws, many of which still remain in 

Among the various institutions and associations incorporated were the fol- 
lowing: The Wapello Seminary, in Louisa county; the Bloomington and 
Cedar Eiver Canal Company; the Des Moines Mill Company, in Van Buren 
county; the Burlington Steam Mill Company; seminaries of learning in Fort 
Madison, West Point, Burlington, Augusta, Farmin^ton, Bentonsport, 
Rockingham, Keosauqua, Dubuque, and Davenport; the Burlington and 
lovTa Eiver Turnpike Company; the Burlington and Des Moines Transpor- 
tation Company; the Keosauqua Lyceum, and the Iowa Mutual Fire Lisur- 
ance Company at Burlington. 


First Constitation — Proposed Boundaries — Changed bjr Congress— Rejection of Constitution 
by the People— Congress Repeals its former Provision as to Boundaries and Fixes the 
fresent Limits— The Second Constitation — Its Adoption by the People — Election of State 
Offiers — First General Assembly — Seat of Government— Monroe Ciiy- Fort Des Moines — 
Final Permanent Location — ^Removal — ^Third Constitational Convention — ^New Capitol — 
Case of Attempted Bribery in First Oeneral Assembly. 

By the year 1844 the population of the Territory had reached 75,152, and 
the people began to desire a State organization. In October of that year a 
constitutional convention was held at lowa City, which formed a constitution 
defining the boundaries of the State as follows: 

"Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, 
opposite the mouth of the Des Moines river; thence up the said river Des 
Moines in the middle of the main channel thereof, to a point where it is in- 
tersected by the Old Indian Boundary Line, or line run by John 0. Sullivan 
in the year 1816; thence westwardly along said line to tne *01d northwest 
comer of Missouri'; thence due west to the nuddle of the main channel of 
the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the river 
last mentioned to the mouth of the Sioux or Calumet river; thence in a 
direct line to the middle of the main channel of the St. Peter's river, where 
the Watonwan river (according to Nicollet's map) enters the same; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said river to the middle of tie main 
channel of the Mississippi river; thence down the middle of the main chan- 
nel of said river to the place of beginning." 

On the 3d of March, 1845, Congress passed an act providing for the admis- 
sion of the State into the Union, but with boundaries different from those 
defined in the proposed constitution. By this act the State was to extend 
north to the parallel passing through Mankato, or Blue Earth river, in the 

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msTOBT or IOWA. 159 

vreoent State of Minnesota, and west to the meridian of 17 deff. 30 min. west 
nom Washington. These boundaries would have deprived the State of die 
Missouri Slope and of one of the grand rivers by which it is now bounded, 
while in shape it would have been long and comparatively narrow. As a 
result, at an election held August 4, 18^, the people of the Territory rejected 
the constitntion with the c&nge of boundaries as proposed bjr Congress. 
"Die vote stood 7,235 for, and 7,656 against it, being a majority of 421 against 
the adoption. On the 4th of August, 1846, Congress passed an act repealing 
so much of the act of March, 3, 1845, as related to the boundaries of Iowa, ana 
fixing the boundaries as now defined. On the 4th of May of that year a sec- 
ond constitutional convention had convened at Iowa City, and after a session 
of fifteen days formed the constitution which was sanctioned by the people 
at an election held August 3, 1846. The popular vote stood 9,492 for, and 
9,036 against the constitution at this election, oeing a mwority of 456 in favor 
of it A copy of this constitution was presentea in Congress, and on the 
28th of December, 1846, an act was passed and approved for the admission 
of the State of Iowa into the Union. 

On the 26tii of October, 1846, an election had been held for State oflScers, 
when the following were elected: Ansel Briggs, Governor; Elisha Cutler, 
Jr., Secretary of IS»te; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor, and Morgan Eeno, Treas- 
urer. At this time there were twenty-seven organized counties with a popu- 
lation, according to the census, of 96,088. 

The first General Assembly under the State organization, convened at 
Iowa City, November 30, 1846. Thomas Baker was elected President of 
the Senate, and Jesse B. Browne, Speaker of the House of Eepresentatives. 
As the latter had been President of the first Territorial Council, so he was 
the first Speaker of the House when Iowa became a State. 

The capitol building at Iowa City being at this time still in an unfinished 
condition, an appropriation of $5,500 was made to complete it. The boun- 
dary being so much extended west of the limits of the Territory when the 
capital was located at Iowa City, the question of removal and permanent loca- 
tion at some point further west began to be agitated, and tne first Gheneral 
Assembly appointed commissioners to locate the seat of government, and to 
select five sections of land which had been granted by Congress for the erec- 
tion of public buildings. The commissioners in discharge of their duties 
selected the land in Jasper county, lyin^ between the present towns of 
Prairie City and Monroe. The commissioners also surveyed and platted a 
town, to which they gave the name of Monroe City. Four hundrea and fif- 
teen lots were sold, me cash payments yielding $1,797.43, being one-fourth 
(d the price for which thev sola When the commissioners mtSe their re- 
port to the next General Assembly, it was observed that their cLsdm for 
services and expenses exceeded the cash received by $409.14. The report 
was referred to a committee without instructions, but the location was never 
sanctioned by the General Assembly. The money paid by purchasers was 
mostly refunded. Meantime the question of re-location continued to be 
agitated at each session. In 1851 bills were introduced in the House for 
removal to Fella and Fort Des Moines, but both of them fedled to pass. At 
the next session a bill was introduced in the Senate for removal to Fort Des 
Moines, which was also defeated on a final vote. In January, 1855, the ef-' 
&rt proved successful, and on the 15th of that month the Governor ap- 
proved the bill re-locating the seat of government within two miles of the 
Kaoooon Fork of the Des Moines, and providing for the appointment of corn- 
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missioners for that purpose. Under this act the commissioners made selec- 
tion of the present site. A temporary building was erected by an associsi- 
tion of citizens of Dos Moines, or Fort Des Moines, as it was then called 
On the 19th of October, 1857, Governor Grimes, having been advised that 
the building was completed and ready for occnpancy, issued a proclamation 
declaring tne city ot Des Moines the capital of Iowa. The oflBcers with 
the archives of the State removed during the fall and winter, and on the 
11th day of January, 1858, the Seventh General Assembly convened at Des 

Meantime a third constitutional convention had been called to frame a 
new State constitution. It convened at Iowa City, January, 19, 1857, and 
adjourned March 5th of the same year. Francis Springer, ot* Louisa coimty, 
was chosen President. The constitution as adopted by this convention whs 
approved by the people at an election held August 3d of the same year, the 
vote being 40,311 for, and 38, 681 against it. it took effect by proclamation 
of the Governor, September 3, 1857. In this constitution the location of 
the seat of government at Des Moines was made a part of the fiindamental 
law. In 1868 an amendment was made to this constitution, striking the 
word " white '^ from the clause defining the qualification of electors. The 
whole vote cast by the people on this amendment was 186,503, with a ma- 
jority in favor of striking out, of 24,265. 

The first capitol building erected in Des Moines bein^ inadequate for the 
growing wants of the State, being too small and not sufliciently safe, an act 
was passed and approved April 13, 1870, providing for the erection of a 
new one. Tlie following were constituted a Boam of Commissioners to 
liave charge of the erection: Grenville M. Dodge, of Pottawattamie county; 
James F. Wilson, of Jefferson county; James Dawson, of Washinprton 
county; Simon G. Stein, of Muscatine county; James O. Crosby, of Clay- 
ton county; Charles Dudley, of Wapello county; John N. Dewey, of Polk 
county, and William L. Joy, of Woodbury county. Tlie Governor was 
also constituted a member of the Board, and President ex-officio. A. R 
Fulton was elected Secretary of the Board. It was provided in the act that 
the plan to be selected should not be for a building exceeding in cost $1,500- 
000, and the sum of $150,000 was appropriated to commence the work. 
In the fall of 1870 excavation for the foundation was commenced, 
and on the 23d of November of the next year, the ceremony of 
laying the comer stone took place. Gen. N. B. Baker was chief marshal 
ol the day, and Governor Samuel Merrill delivered an appropriate address. 

The Board of commissioners experienced many difliculties in finding: 
stone, especially within the limits of the State, that had been sufficiently 
tested for a building of such magnitude. Tlie law required them to give 
preference to materid obtained in the State, price and quality being equal, 
and they desired to comply with the spirit of the law. As a resiut, how- 
ever, some material was placed in the foundation, which being exposed, dur- 
ing the next winter, was affected by the weather, and the next season it was 
neccessary to remove a portion of the foundation, involving a large Jwldi- 
tional expense. 

Tlie Fourteenth General Assembly cx)nvened in January, 1872, and in 
March a joint committee was authorized to examine and report upon the 
character of the material used. They reported that unfit material had been 
placed in the foundation, and recommended its removal. An act was 
passed at this session appropriating $100,000 for the work in 1872, and 

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1135,000 to be used annnallj thereafter for the prosecution of the work, 
bat the whole cost Dot to exceed the limit of $1,380,000. The Board were 
required, however, to direct all their action with a view to the completion 
of the building for $1,500,000. The same act placed the work in charge 
of a Board ol commissioners consisting of five members, including the 
Governor, who was also to be President, ex-oMcio. The follovring were con- 
tftituted the members of the new Board: tfohn G. Foote, of Des Moines 
eoonty; Maturin L. Fisher, of Clayton county; Bobert S. Finkbine, and 
Peter A. Dey, of Johnson county, and the Governor, as above stated. Ed. 
Wright was appointed Secretary by the Board. This Board proceeded with 
the work in accordance with the general plan adopted by the former Board, 
and when completed Iowa will have one of the finest and most substantial 
capitol buildings in the Union. 

Having presented a brief review of the legislation in regard to seat of gov- 
emment, wiich, as we have seen, w^ inaugurated by the first General As- 
sembly, we return to that session. The contest between the two political 
parties for ascendency was at that time a very earnest one, and especially in 
view of the election of U. S. Senators. The two political parties in the 
l^islature were nearly equally divided. The friends of the several candidates 
were present at the openmg of the session to take part in the lobby branch. 
In behalf of their respective favorites. Keokuk county was represented in 
the House by Nelson King, a Whig, although his county at that time was 
regarded as JDemocratic Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, was the prom- 
inent Democratic candidate for Senator, and the name of J. C. Hall, also 
of Burlington, was likewise favorably mentioned. On the afternoon of 
December 9th, Mr. King, of Keokuk countv, b^ consent of the House, rose 
in his place and made a statement to the followmg effect: That since he had 
presented his credentials, and taken his seat as a member, he had been ap- 
^t)ached by several different persons relative to the casting of his vote for 
United States Senators; that several distinct j)ropositions for the payment of 
money and other reward had been offered him, if he would vote for certain 
candidates, or either of them, as might be determined upon, which deter- 
mination was to be made known to him previous to casting his vote for 
United States Senator; and that the said parties offering thus to reward him 
for his vote, had promised to secure him from all blame or suspicion, by 
procuring written instructions from his constituents, urging him so to vote. 
Ue furdier stated that one Marshall had the dav previously given him a five 
dollar note on the State Bank of Ohio, and told liim to call on him at any 
future time, and he would give him one hundred dollars, or any amount he 
wimted. He said that Marshall had also surrendered to him two receipts 
for indebtedness — one for legal service while he (King) had resided in Lee 
county, and the other in disSiarge of a claim of two dollars and fifty cents, 
held against liim by one William Stotts. Mr. King having conclude his 
statement, Mr. Stewart Goodrell, then a member of the House from Wash- 
ington county, moved the appointment of a committee of five to investigate 
the charges made by Mr. King. The committee was subsequently increased 
to seven, as follows: W. J. Oachran, of Lee county; Stewart Gfoodrell, of 
Washington county; Alfred Hebard, of Des Moines county; Andrew 
Leech, of Davis county; Samuel Whitmore of Jefferson county; John L. 
Morton, of Henry county, and Robert Smvth, of Linn countv. The com- 
mittee oommenced their investigations on the same day that Mr. King made 
his statement. Marshall was arrested, and various witnesses were com- 

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manded to appear before the committee to give evidence in the case, and the 
investigation which was commenced on the 9th of December, 1846, appears 
not to have ended until the 19th of January, 1847. ITot until the 4:th of 
February was any report made to the House, and then it did not show that 
the committee had arrived at any conclusions. The report and testimony 
were ordered to be laid on the table, subject to the further order of tiie 
House. The report was never called up. On the same day that Mr. King 
made his original statement to the House of the attempted briberv, a resolu- 
tion tendering him a vote of thanks, was laid on the table. Near the close of 
the session (Feb. 24c) this resolution was called up, and a substitute offered for 
it by Mr. Smyth, of Linn, censuring both King and Marshall. The original 
resolution and the substitute were Doth laid on the table, and that was tiie 
end of the bribery case, which excited a great deal of interest among tlie pol- 
iticians and people of the State at that early day in her political history. It 
should be statea that Mr. Marshall was not a member of either branch of 
the General Assembly. The developments on investigation were generally 
understood at the time to be Q^ite as damaging to the party making the 
charge as to any other person. The legislature adjourned without electing 
TJnitod States Senators at that session. The ne3:t General Assembly elected 
George W. Jones, of Dubuque, and Augustus 0. Dodge, of Burlington. A. 
Clinton Hastings, and Shepnerd Leffler, represented the State in the 29th 
Congress, 1846 to 1847, being the first Bepresentatives in Congress from 


Poblic Schoola— How Supported— State Univendty— Its Preddents — Facolty— University 
Fund — ^Agricultural Ck>llege — State Normal School— Other State Educational InstitutioiiB 
— ^Public and Priyate Colleges and Schools. 


We have seen that the first territorial legislature made provision for gen- 
eral education by organizing a system of common schools. The famous or- 
dinance of 1787 required tlmt ^^ schools and the means of education shall be 
forever encouraged/' and this has been the policy of the government in the 
admission of every new State since that time, as evinced by tiie Uberal 
grants of the public lands for educational purposes. 

The 'public schools are supported by funds arising from several different 
sources. In the first place, tne sixteentn section of every congressional town- 
ship was set apart by the ^vemment for school purposes — teing one thirty- 
iiofth part of all the land in the State. Congress aLso made to the State an 
additional donation of 500,000 acres, and an appropriation of five per cent 
on all the sales of public lands in the State. The State also gives me pro- 
ceeds of the sales of all lands which escheat to it The money derived nom 
these sources constitutes the p&rnument school fvmd^ and, including the 
proceeds of the land still unsold, will amount to over four mdlUons ol dol- 
tars. The interest on this fund is apportioned by the State Auditor semi- 
annually to the several counties of the State, in proportion to the number 
of persons between the ages of five and twenl^-one years. The counties also 
levy an annual tax for sdiool purposes, whicn is apportioned to the several 
district townships in the same way. A district tax is also generally levied 
for the same purpose. The money arising from these sevend sources consti- 

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tutes the support of the public schools, and is sufficient to enable every sub- 
district in the State to anord from six to nine months school each year. 

While Iowa is fostering and building up many excellent institutions of a 
higher order, the glory <m her educational work consists in her admirable 
system of common scnools — ^her peoples* colleges. The superintendent of 
public instruction is tiie highest school officer of the State, and exercises a 

general supervision over its educational interests, so far as relates to the pub- 
c schools. Each county has a county superintendent, who examines appli- 
cants for teachers' certificates, visits the scnools, reports annually to the State 
Superintendent, and exercises a general charge over the schools of the county. 
Each civil township constitutes what is caUed a district township, which is 
divided into sub-districts, and each sub-district elects a sub-director. The 
several sub-directors in the district township constitute a board of directors. 
In towns and cities there are independent districts, which elect officers to 
manage their affidrs independently of the district townships. 

The common school system has recently been greatly improved by the in- 
auguration of normal institutes, under the auspices of the superintendent 
of public instruction, and also hj the establishment of a permanent State 
normal school at Cedar Falls. The total permanent school fund, November 
1, 1877, was $3,460,348.76. This is being augmented from different sources, 
and the interest only is applied toward the support of the common schools. 

8TATB UXIVKKbitx. « 

By an act of Congress of July 20, 1840, the secretary of the treasury was 
authorized to set apart and reserve firom sale not exceeoing two entire town- 
ships of land in Iowa, for the use and support of a university. The consti- 
tution under which Iowa was admitted into the Union contained a provision 
requiring the Gteneral Assembly to take measures for the protection, im- 
provement, or other disposition of the land granted by Congress for the 
university, and to create fix>m the proceeds of the same a permanent fimd 
for the use of a university. A bill was passed by the first General Assembly, 
estabhdun^ at Iowa City an institution to be called the ^^ State University,'' 
with such oranches as, m the opinion of the Q^neral Assembly, the public 
oonvenienoe might thereafter require. The same act also granted for the 
use of the university the public bnildiuff, with ten acres of ground, at Iowa 
City, the same to be used, nowever, for the purposes of the State government 
imtil the removal of the capital. By acts of January 15, 1849, and January 
16, 1849, two branches of the university, located respectively at Fairfield 
and Dubuque, were established, and placed upon eqiial footing, ^^ in respect 
to funds and other matters," with the university established at Iowa City by 
the act of 1847. The branch at Fairfield was organized May 6, 1849. A 
site of twenty acres of around was purchased and a building erected, upon 
wfaidi twenty-five hun£*ed dollars had been expended. The building was 
ahnost destroyed by a hurricane in 1851. No aid from the State or the 
University fund was ever given in 8iipi>ort of the branches. The bosa*d at 
Fairfield requested the termination of its relation to the State, and, in ac- 
oordanoe with this request, an act was passed January 34, 1853, severing the 
^oimaction. The branch at Dubuque was never organized. The new con- 
atitution, which took effect September 8, 1857, provided that ^<the State 
Uniyersity shall be established at one place, without branches at any ot^er 
plaee, and die imiversi^ fhnd shall be applied to that institution and no 


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At a special meetiiig of the board, Febmair 21, 1850, it recognized the 
"CoU^e of Physicians and Surgeons of the Upper Mississippi,'* an institu- 
tion at Davenport established under the laws of the State as the ^^CoUe^ 
of Physicians and Surgeons of the State University of Iowa,** but with the 
express stipulation that such recognition should not render the university 
liable for any pecuniary aid, nor was the board to acquire any control over 
the property or management of the medical association. Soon ailer this the 
medical collie removed to EeokuL This arrangement was terminated by 
the operation of the new constitution. 

Inllarch, 1855, the University was partially opened for a term of sixteen 
weeks, and there was an attencmnce of from seventy-five to one hundred 
students during the term. The first re^ar catalogue was published for the 
year 185d-7. At a meetiuj^ of the foard, August 4, 1858, the degree of 
[Bachelor of Science was con^rred upon Dexter Edson Smith, being uie first 
degree conferred upon a student of the University. 

From 1860 to 1877, inclusive, the total number of ladies in the coll^ate 
department was 2,994, and gentlemen 3,941; total number of ladies in the 
law department since its organization, 6, and gentlemen, 632; total number 
of ladies in the medical depcu-tment since its organization 48, and gentlemen 

The presidents since its organization have been: 

Amos Dean, of Albany, If. Y., elected July 16, 1855. 

SUas Totten, D. D., LL.D., elected Oct 25, 1859. 

Professor Oliver M. Spencer, elected August 19, 1862. 

Professor Nathan R Leonard, elected June 26, 1866, as president pro 
tem.y during absence of President Spencer in Europe fifto^ montJis by leave 
of the boara. 

James Black, D.D., elected March 4, 1868. 

Bev. G^rge Thacher, elected March 1, 1871. 

0. W. Slagle, of Fairfield, elected present jwv tem.j June, 1877. 

J. L Pickard, elected in 1878. 

The faculty of the University consists of the president, nine professors in 
the coU^ate department, one professor and six instructors in military sci- 
ence; cimncellor, three professors and four lecturers in the law department; 
eight professor demonstrators of anatomy; professor of surgery and two 
lecturers in the medical department, and two professors in the homeopathic 
medical department. 

The law department was established in June, 1868; the medical depart- 
ment in 1869; the chair of miltary instruction in June, 1874, and the depart- 
ment of homeopathy in 1876. 

From 1858 to 1876, inclusive, the General Assembly has made appropria- 
tions for buildings, and for the support of the University, sums aggr^atin^ 
$264,757. Tlie Seventeenth General Assembly, by an act approved Mar<£ 
22, 1878, made an appropriation, as an endowment fund, of $20,000 annually, 
and an additional appropriation of $10,000 for repairs of buildings, fences, 
walks and other purposes. On the 80th of September, the University hdd 
interest bearing mortgage notes amounting to $195,423.13; contract notes 
amounting to $10,857.74, and a fimd known as the Saline fund, amounting 
to $4,106.85. These amounts, aggregating $209,887.72, constitute a jm*- 
manent fimd, the interest of whicn goes to tiie support of the UniversiQr. 
There were also, September 80, 1877, remaining unsold, 2,059.70 acres of 
University lands, and 3887.10 acres of Saline lands, making a total of 5,946.80 

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HI8T0BY or IOWA. 165 

acres, the proceeds of which when sold, will go to increase the permanent 
UniTersity ftmd. At five dollars per acre these lands will add to the perma- 
nent fond $29,734, which amount added to the above will give to the Uni- 
Tersitjr a permanent endowment fund of $289,621.72. 


By an act of Congress passed in 1862, a grant of 240,000 acres of land 
was made to the State for the endowment of schools of agriculture and the 
meehanical arts. Under this act 240,000.96 acres were appropriated to the 
State; but as 85,691.66 acres were located within railroad limits, which were 
eompated at the rate of two acres for one, the actual number of acres in the 
grant was 204,809.80. In addition to this grant Congress also gave its 
assent to the State to use for the same purpose the five sections of land in 
Jasper oonnty, which had been selectea for the seat of government of the 
State. Th«!e were also donated in Story and Boone counties for the use of 
the institation 921 acres, making a srand total of 208,480.80 acres. This 
last donation of 921 acres was made by citizens of Story and Boone counties. 
The Gheneral Assemblv passed an act which was approved March 22, 1858, 
establishing die Iowa Agricultural Coll^ and Model Farm. Under this 
act a boara of trustees was appointed, which at a meeting in June, 1859, 
received propositions for the location, and in July the offer of the present 
location in Story county, was accepted. In 1864 flie (General Assembly ap- 
propriated $20,000 for the erection of a College buildin;^, and in 1866 
an additional appropriation of $91,000 was made. The bmlding was com- 
irfeted in 1868. An ofiice was opened in Fort Dodge for the sale of the Col- 
lie lands, and Hon. George W. Bassett was appointed agent for their sale. 
From the establishment of this agency in August, 186o, to November 1, 
1867, the amount received on sales of lands was $68,782.81, and the amount 
of interest collected on leases for the same time was $888,981.78, making a 
total of $406,714.65, which is a permanent endowment fund. 

Hie courses of study in the College, as revised in 1877, are as follows: 
1 — ^The Course in Science as related to A^culture. 2— The Course in 
Mechanical En^eering. 8 — ^The Course m Civil Engineering. 4 — ^The 
Ladies' Course m Science. 5 — Course for Juniors and Seniors in Special 
Industrial Sciences. 6 — ^Post-graduate Courses of Studv. 7 — ^The Prepar- 
atory Course. From 1872 to 1877, inclusive, the number of graduates of 
the College was 123. 

By the terms of the law, tuition in the Agricultural College is made for- 
ever free to pupils from the State, over sixteen ^ears of age, who have re- 
tided in the State six months prior to their admission. Each county in the 
Suite has a prior right of tuition for three pupils, and additional pupils to 
the extent of the capacity of the College, are distributed by the DOfud of 
1 ■ ' portion to the population. 

acuity:— A. S. Welch, LL D., President 
1 Philosophy of Science; Gten. J. L. Gleddes, 

[ Engineering; W. H. Wynn, A. M., Ph. 

e; 0. K Bessey, M. S., Professor of Bot- 

1 ompson, C E., Mechanical Engineering 

; F. K L. Beal, B. S., Civil Enpneering; 
L. Stalker, Agricultural and Veterinary 
; J. K. Macomber, Physics; E. W. Stan- 
^onomy; Mrs. Margaret P. Stanton, Pre- 

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ceptress, Instructor in French and Mathematics; J. S. Lee, B. S , Assistant 
Professor of Chemistry; Mrs. M. B. Welch, Instructor of the English Lan- 
guage, and Lecturer on Domestic Economy; J. C. Arthur, M. S., Librarian, 
and Demonstrator of Botany and Zoology. There are also instructors in 
Yocal and Instrumental Music 


The State Normal School was established by the General Assembly, at lows 
Falls, in 1876, and under the law the property of the Orphans' Home, at thst 

flace, was transferred for the use of the JSTormal SchooL The first Board ot 
)irectors organized June 7th, of that year. H. 0. Hemenway, was chosen 
President; J. J. Tolerton, Secretary, and K Townsend, Treasurer. At the 
same meeting Proil J. 0. Gilchrist, A. M., was elected Principal of the 

The following constitute the Faculty: — J. C- Gilchrist, A. M., Professor 
of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Didactics; M. W. Bartlett, A. M., 
Professor of Languages and Katural Science; D. S. Wright, A. M., Profes- 
sor of Mathematics; Miss Frances L. Webster, Teacher of Geography and 
History^; E. W. Bumham, Professor of Music 

During the second year 105 ladies and 50 gentlemen were in attendanoe, 
83 counties of Iowa being represented. By an act of the General Assem- 
bly, approved March 25, 1878, the sum of $13,500 was appropriated for the 
maintenance of the school for the next biennial period of two years. By 
the same act the board of directors were empowered to charge pupils a tm« 
tion fee of not exceeding six dollars per term, if necessary, in order to prop- 
erly support the schooL 


There are also in Iowa the following educational institutions: 


Des Moines . 
Fremont. . . . 



Hum Doldt . . 

Jiinn , 


Mahaska . . . 












Mount Pleasant . 




Mount Vernon... 

Western < 





College Springs. 

Des Moines 






Buriinffton Uniyersity 

Upper Iowa Uniyersity 

Tabor College 

Iowa Wesleyan Uniyersity. 

Whittier College 

Humboldt College 

Parson*s College 

Cornell College 

Western CoUepe 

Oskaloosa College 


Central Umyenityof Iowa. 

Baptist College 

Amity College • 

University <^ Des Moines . . 

Iowa College 

Griswold College 

Simpson Centeniary College. 
Luther College 

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Waukon Seminazy 

Sisters* Sdiool « 

Mrs. Houfffaton*s School .••••• 

Monlton Normal School 

C^terville Academy « 

'niford Academy ^ 

Irving Institate *. * 

Blairstown Academy 

Edeetic Institate 

Ck>n8ervatory of Mosic « 

Cedar Valley Institute 

Prairie Home Seminary 

Our Lady of Victory. . . • 

Notre Dame 

Bradford Academy 

SelectSchool * 

Graded Schod 

Osceola Priyate School 

Sisters* School 

Sisters* School , 

Sisters* School 

German School 

Rireiside Institute 

Seminary of Oor Lady of Angels. .« 

Latin School 

Easiness College 

Sisters* School 


Soathem Iowa Normal and Scientific Institate. 

Troy Normal and Classical Institate 

Lenox Collegiate Institate 

Petersborg Catholic School 

Mr. Gordon*s School for both sexes 

Eoseath Academy • . • 

Graff's School 

Young Ladies* School 

German- American School 

G^erman Eyanaelical Zion School. • 

First German Evangelical School 

St. John*s CdnYOnt , 

St. Paal*s School 

St. Patrick's School 

German Theological Seminary 

St. Jo8eph*s College • 

St. Jo8eph*s Acadfomy 

St. Mary's School 

St. Patnck*s School : 

Academy of Visitation 

St. Mana, (German) • 

Private Primary , 

Private Boarding School.. .•.....»*.. ........ 

St. Francis 

St. BonifEioe. 

Chnich School . . ^ • 

Church School 

Church School 

St. Peters* 

Epworth Seminary 

Church School ^ 

Jefferson Academy • f 

Grundj Center Academy 

Guthne Couniy High School 

Webster Giiy Academy...^ 

Catholio School 

Alkunakee ... 
Anamakee .. 
AHamakce. .. 
Appenooae. . . 



Benton .••... 


Black Hawk. 
Blaek Hawk. 
Black Hawk . 
Black Hawk. 
Bocfasanan*. .. 
C^ckasaw . . . 















Delaware. . . . 

Delaware .... 

Dea Moines.. 

Dea Moines. 

Dee Moines.. 

Dee Moines.. 

Des Moines.. 

Dea Moines.. 

Dea Moines.. 

Des Moines.. 

Dea Moines.. 

Dea Moines.. 

Daboque .... 

Dulxxiue • . • . 

Dubui^ • . . . 

Dubaqoe .... 

Duboqoe .... 

Daboque . • • . 

Dubui^ .... 

Dnbuqoe . • . • 

Dubuque . . • • 

Dubuque .... 

Dubuque . . . • 

Dubuque • . . . 

Dubuque .... 

Dubuque .... 

Dubuque .... 

Dubuque .... 

Dubuque .... 




HamiltQn . . • • 


Waukon. ....... 


TrfWIWIIg . * • 

MoalU)n.... ^... 


Vinton...^*. ..... 

West Irving... 







Independence . . . 


Fredericksburg. . 






Clayton Center.. 


Lyons ....«..*... 



De Witt 

Olive Township. 
















Dubuque ....... 



Dubuque » 





Dyersville •< 

New Vienna. ••» 


Table Mound. •• 


8herrill*8 Mount* 
Epworth. •»••*•• 
Grundy Center. 
Webster City. 

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Iow» ..••..... 





Jefferson* • • • . • 
























Muscatine .... 
Mnscatine . • • • 
Muscatine . . • . 
Foodiontas . . . 









Van Bnren. . • « 
Van Buren. . • • 




Washington • • 



Winneshiek. . . 
Woodbury . . . . 



New Ptofidenoe. • 


Mt Pleasant 

Mt Pleasant 

Mt. Pleasant 

New London 


Mavutfo. • • • ••••< 



Prairie City 


Pleasant Plaine... 



Iowa City 





Coal Creek 

Gennan Township 


Denmark >.••••• • 

Cedar Rapids.... 

Grand View 




Rose Hill 



Le Grand 

Le Grand 








Des M<Mnes 

Des Moines...... 

Des Moines 


Council Bluffs. • . • 
Council Blufi.... 




Birmingham ..... 


Ottumwa ........ 




Fort D(xlge 

Fort Dodge 



aonx City 


Private Sdiool 

New Profidenoe Academy. • 

Eldora Academy 

Female Semmary, and Howe*s Aeadeny i 

Gennan CcAege 

German Primary ..•• 


Private School 

Root*s Winter School... •«» 

Catholic School 

Lynnville Seminaiy 

South Side Academy • 

Haiel Dell Academy « 

Pleasant Plaine Academy « 

Fairfield Academy, and Private Sdiool 

EiA School 

m9^*s Academy, and St Joaeph*8 Ins«it«ls. 

St Agatha*s Seminary 

Ansniosa Academy .......•..••••. ••••••••••• 

Olin SQfl^ School 

Baden SBleet School 

Friends* Select School 

German Lutheran School » 

Algona College 

Denmark Academy 

Collegiate Institute % 

Eastsmlowa Normal Sdiodl 

Chariton Aoadraay 

Hopewell Academy » 

Select School 

Select School 

Enoxville Academy 

Albion Seminar^f 

Le Grand Qiristuui Institute • 

Le Grand Institute 

Stanford Institute 

Private School 

Cedar Valley Seminary. 

Wilton Semmary, and (}ollegiate Institnte. • . •• 

Sisters* School, and German Schod 

Business College • 

Teachers* Nonnal 

St Ambrose School 

St Maxy*s School, (German) 

business College 

Mitchell Seminary ••• 

St Francis* Boys^ School 

St Francis* Giris* Sdiod 

Gennan School • 

St Margaret's, and Sisters* Academy 

St Cunigundus* 

St Anthony's, and Business College 

Birminsham Acadony ••..• 

Select School •« 

Convent (tf St Josepk, and Commercial (kSkg!^, 

Female Seminary, and Pecks* Nonnal 

Adcworth Seminary 

Washington Academy •*« 

Convent of Our Lady of Loordes ^^^ 

(German School «« 

Deoorah Institute, and Business College. •• ••; 

Catholic School 

German School 

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HISTOBt or IOWA. 169 


for the Inaane — Golleffe for the Blind— lostitiitions for the Deaf and Dnmb— Or- 

i* Homes — Asylum forTeeble-Minded Children— The Fenitentiaiy— The Additional 

'enitentiaiy— State Reform School— State Historical Society. 


The General Assembly, by an act approved January 24, 1855, appropri- 
ated $4,425 to purchase a site tor a Hospital for the Insane, and $50,000 for 
the erection of a building. Edward Johnston, of Lee county; Charles S. 
Clarke, of Henry county, and the Gk>yemor ^Grimes), were appointed to se- 
lect the location and superintend the erection of a building, miey made 
the location at Mt. Pleasant, Henry county, and adopted a plan with suffi- 
eient capacity to accommodate three hundred patients. Henry Winslow 
was appointed to superintend the erection of the building. The building 
was not ready for occupancy until March, 1861. Witlun the first three 
months about one hundred natients were admitted. Richard J. Patterson, 
M. D., of Ohio, was appintea Superintendent, and in 1865 he was succeeded 
by Br. Mark Banney. From the opening of the Hospital to the 1st of No- 
▼ember, 1877, there had been admitted 3,584 patients, of whom 1,141 had 
been dischaiged recovered, 505 improved, 589 unimproved, and one died, 
llie total number discharged was 2,976, leaving 608 under treatment 


In 1868 a bill passed the G^eral Assembly making an appropriation of 
$125,000 for the erection of an additional Hospital for the Lisane, at Inde- 
pendence, Buchanan county. A board of commissioners was appointed, 
iHio obmmenced their duties June 8, 1868. They made the location about 
a mile firom Independence, on the west side of the Wapsipinicon river, and 
about one mile trom the river. The building was ready for occupancy 
April 21, 1873. On the 1st of October, 1877, the Superintendent, Albert 
Beynolds, M. D., reported 822 patients in the hospital 


In August, 1852, Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself blind, established an in- 
stitution at Keokuk for the instruction of the blind. In January, 1853, the 
General Assembly passed an act by which the State adopted the institution 
at Keokuk, and on the 4th of Apnl, of the same year, it was opmed tor the 
reception of pupils, at Iowa City. A board of trustees was appointed, with 
authority to receive propositions and make a permanent location. Liberal 
donations were made bv citizens of Yinton, Benton county, and that place 
was selected. In October, 1862, the institution was opened at Yinton with 
twenty-four pupils. Up to 1878 about $285,000 have been expended in 
buildings and improvements connected with this institution. During the 
y&iod of two years, ending November 6, 1877, about 185 pupils were 
m attendance. The faculty is presided over by Bev. Bobert Carothers, A. 
ICas I^incipaL 

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This institution was established first at Iowa City, by an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, approved January 24, 1865. "W; E. Ijams was the first 
Principal. He resigned in 1862, and the board of trustees appointed Ben- 
jamin Talbot his successor. In 1868 commissioners were appointcjd to re- 
locate the institution and superintend the erection of a building, and the 
sum of $125,000 was appropnated to commence the work. It was located 
about two miles south of Council Blufis, and connected with it is a tract oi 
about ninety acres of ground. The main building and one wing were com- 
pleted October 1, 1870, and immediately occupiw. On the 25th of Feb- 
ruary, 1877, the main building and east winff were destroyed by fire, and 
and on the 6th of August, of the same year, 3ie roof of the new west wing 
was blown off and the walls partially injured by a tornado. About 150 
pupils were in attendance at the time of the fire. About half of the classes 
were dismissed, reducing the number to (ibout seventy. The ii^stitution re- 
mains in charge of Benjamin Talbot as Superintendent By an act of the 
Oeneral Assembly, approved March 25, 1878, the sum of $40,000 was ap- 
propriated for the purpose of rebuilding and completing in a plain and su d- 
stantial manner the main building. 


In 1866 the General Assembly passed an act establishing, three Homes 
for the soldiers' or^ians, as follows: located at Davenport, Cedar Falls, 
and Olenwood. This was the result of a movement inaugurated by Mrs. 
Annie Wittenmeyer, d'lring the civil war. In October, 1863, she 
called a convention at Davenport, to devise measures for the support and 
education of the orphan children of Iowa soldiers who had fallen in the na- 
tional defense. An association was formed, and provision made for raising < 
funds. A sufficient amount of funds was raisea to open the Home, and I 
at a meeting of the Trustees in March, 1864, they decided to commence op- 
erations at once. A lar^ brick building in Van Buren county was secureo, 
and on the 18th of July, of the same year, the executive committee re- 
port^ that they were ready to receive P^pils* In little more than six 
months seventy pupils were in attendance. The Home continued to be sus- 
tained by voluntary subscriptions until 1866, when it was assumed by the 
State and the three Homes established as above stated. In 1876 the B^omes 
at Cedar Falls and Glenwood were discontinued, and the pupils remaining 
in them removed to the Home at Davenport. The buildings at Cedar Falls 
were appropriated to the use of the State Normal School, and those at Olen- 
wood to the use of the Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children. September 
80, 1877, there were in attendance at the Home in Davenport 189 sol- 
diers' orphans, and forty-one indi^nt children, the Sixteenth General As- 
sembly having passed an act opemng the Home for the admission of in- 
digent children. 


By an act approved March 17, 1876, an Asylum for Feeble- Minded 
Children was established at Glenwood, Mills counts. The buildings and 
grounds for the Soldiers* Orphans' Home were by the same act transferred 

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HI8T0BT or IOWA. 171 

to the nee of the new inatitution, which was placed under the management 
of llunee tmstees, who held their first meeting at Glenwood, AprU 26, 1876. 
The property having been repaired, the Asylom was opened September 1, 
1876, and the school organized on the 6th with only five pupils. In Novem- 
ber, 1877, tiie num1)er had increased to eighty-seven. 


The Territorial Le^slature by an act approved January 25, 1889, provided 
(or tlie election by joint ballot of the Council and House of Bepresenta- 
tdves of the Territory, of three directors to locate the Penitentiary within 
one mile of the public square in the town of Fort Madison, and provided 
fhrtlier, limiting the cost of the Penitentiary to an amount not exceeding 
forty thousand dollars. The same act authorized the Gtovemor to draw the 
snin of twenty thousand dollars which had been appropriated by Congress 
for the erection of public buildings in the Territory of Iowa, to pay for 
materials and work on the building. The location at Fort Madison, how- 
ever, was coupled with a proviso that the citizens of that place and Lee 
county should execute to the directors a deed for ten acres of ground. All 
the conditions were complied with, and the erection of the Duilding was 
commenced July 9, 1839. The main building and warden's house were 
completed in the autumn of 1841. Since that time additions and other im- 
provements have been made. 


The Additional Penitentiary at Anamosa was established under an act of 
the Gheneral Assembly approved April 8, 1872. Three commissioners were 
appointed to make the location and provide for the erection of the necessary 
biiildings. They met at Anamosa, June 4, 1872, and made selection of a 
Bite donated by the citizens. Work was commenced on the building Sep- 
tember 28th of the same year, and May 13, 1873, twenty convicts were 
transferred from the Penitentiary at Fort Madison to Anamosa. llie entire 
enclosure embraces fifteen acres. 


On the 31st of March, 1868, an act of the General Assembly was approved 
establishing a State Eeform School near the town of Salem, Henry county. 
A board of trustees, consisting of one from each Congressional district, was 
appointed. A proposition was accepted for the lease of White's Iowa Man* 
oaf Labor Institute at Salem, the buildings fitted up, and on the 7th of Octo- 
ber, 1868, the first inmate was received from Jasper county. In 1872, an act 
was passed and approved providing for the permanent location, and $45,000 
appropriated for erecting the necessary buildings. The permanent location 
was made at Eldora, !E&rdin county. Inmates are admitted at ages over 
seven and under sixteen years. The object of this school is the reformation 
of juvenile offenders. 


This society was organized in 1856, under an act of the Sixth General As- 
semblvj "for the purpose of collecting, arran^n^ and preserving books, 
pampnlets, maps, charts, manuscripts, papers, pamtmgs, statuary, and other 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


materials illoBtrative of the history of this State; and also to preserve the 
memory of the early pioneers of Iowa, their deeds, exploits, perils, and adven- 
tures; to secure &cts relatiye to onr Indian Tribes; to exhibit faithfully the 
antiquities, and to mark the progress of our rapidly increasing conmion- 
wealth; to publish such of the collections of the society as it shall from time 
to time deem of value and interest; to bind such publications and othei* 
books, pamphlets, manuscripts and papers ad they may publish or collect; 
and to aid in all respects as may be within its province, to develop the his- 
toiy of this State in all its departments." At tnat time the sum of $3,000 
per annum for two years was appropriated. The society is under the man- 
agement of a board of Curators, consisting of one meml>er appointed by the 
governor from each oonmssional district, and of nine additional members 
elected by the society. The ofiicers coi^sist of a president, secretary, treasurer 
and librarian. 


In May, 1854, the first rail was laid in Iowa, at or near high water mark 
on thebsuik of the Mississippi, in the city of Davenport That year the road 
was completed to Iowa City, a distance of about 54^ miles. The first loco- 
motive in Iowa was landed at Davenport in July of the same year, and was 
called the ^^Antoine LeClaire." The road was then called the Mississippi 
& Missouri Railroad. The first rail was laid at Keokuk, on what was then 
called the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines & Minnesota Railroad, ou the 9th day 
of September, 1856, and in October of the same vear two locomotives for the 
road were landed at Keokuk from a barge wnich arrived from Quincy. 
They were called the "Keokuk'* and the "Des Moines." 

In the meantime several lines of railroad had been projected to cross the 
State from points on the Mississippi. On the 15th of May, 1756, an act of 
Congress was approved making^a grant of land to the State to aid in the 
construction of railroads from Turlington to the Missouri river, near the 
mouth of Platte river; from Davenpor^ via Iowa City and Fort Des Moines 
to Council Blufis; from Lyons northeasterly to a point of intersection widi 
the main line of the Iowa Central Air Line Railroad, near Maquoketa 
thence on said main line, running as near as practicable on the forty-second 
parallel across the State to the Missouri river, and from Dubuque to a point on 
the Missouri river at or near Sioux City. The grant embraced the sections 
designated by odd numbers six miles in width on each side of the four roads 
named. Where lands had been sold the State was authorized to select other 
lands equal in quantity from alternate sections or parts of sections within 
fifteen miles of the lines located. The law provided certain conditions to be 
observed by the State in disposing of the lands to the railroads for which 
they were granted. In consequence of this grant the governor called a spe- 
cial session of the General Assembly which convened at Iowa City in July of 
that year, and on the 14tli of the same month an act was approved accepting 
the grant^ and regi^nting the lands to the railroads named, on certain speci- 
fied conditions. The roc^, with the exception of the Iowa Central Air Line, 
accepted the several grants, and located tneir lines before April 1, 1857, Uiat 
b^ng a stipulation in the act of July 14th. The lands granted to the Iowa 
Central Air Line road were again granted to the Cedar Rapids & Missouri 
River Railroad Company. The act of Congress making^ this grant named 
no companies, but designated certain lines, in aid of which they should be 

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applied, leaving the State firee to dispose of the lands to sach companies as 
would comply vdth the conditions. The state granted the lands to the folr 
lowing oonipanies: Burlington & Missonri Siver Railroad Oompanv; Mis- 
sissippi & Missouri River Railroad Company; Cedar Rapids & Missouri 
River Railroad Company, and Dnbuque & Siouz City Rwroad Company. 
These became the first land gi^nt roads in Iowa. Several subsequent acts 
of Congress modified the concutions of the first act, especially with reference 
to changes in the lines of the several roads. On the 12th of May, 1864, 
Congress made another grant of land to the State to aid in the construction 
of a railroad from McGregor to Sionx Citjr. This grant embraced every 
alternate section ten miles on each side of the proposed road, with the riglit 
to receive other lands for such as might be sola or pre-empted. 

By an act approved August 8, 1846, Congress granted to Iowa the alter- 
nate sections on each side of the Des Moines river tor the purpose of improv- 
ing the navigation of that river from the mouth to the Raccoon Fork. In 
1847 the State organized a board of public works. The boa^ constructed, 
or partially constructed, dams and locks at some four or five points on the 
river, when with the approval of Congress, the lands were transferred to a 
company styled the Des Moines Navigation and Railroad Company. At 
this time (1854) tiie board of public works had disposed of most or the lands 
below the Raccoon Fork, and 58,000 acres above it, and had incurred an 
indebtedness of $70,000 over and above the proceeds of the sales made. 
This indebtedness was assumed bv the companv. In the meantime there 
were different and conflicting ruling as to whether the lands above tibe 
Raccoon Fork were intended to be mduded in the grant This led to a 
compromise with the Des Moines Navigation and Rai&oad Company. The 
company took all the land certified to die State prior to 1857, and paid the 
State $20,000 in addition to what they had expended, and abandoned the 
worL Congress, in 1862, settled the question as to the extent of the grant 
by a definite enactment extending the grant to the north line of the State, 
and the General Assembly granted the remainder of the lands to the Des 
Moines YoUej Railroad CJompany to aid in building a railroad up and along 
the Des Moines valley, and thus this road also became a land grant road. 

Under the several acts of Congress there have been grantea to the State 
to aid in building railroads, an aggregate of 4,394,400.63 acres of land, 
mcluding the grant of August 8, 1 §46, for the Des Moines river improve- 
ment, as follows: 

Burlington and Missonri River Railroad 292,806.41 

Mississippi and Missouri River (now C. R I. & P.) 482,374.86 

Iowa Central Air Line (now Cedar Rapids & Missouri) 735,997.80 

Dubuque & Sioux City & Branch 1,282,359.16 

McGragor & Sioux City (now McGregor & Missouri River). . 137,572,27 

Sioux City & St Paul 407,910.21 

Des Moines Valley 1,105,880.43 

Total number of acres 4,394,400.63 

On the 1st of January, 1877, there were in Iowa 8,938 miles of railroad. 
Since that time the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, as it is now called, has 
l)ecn extended from Algona to Sheldon, and several other lines have been 
contracted or extended, making over 4,000 miles of railroad in the State, 
^th an aggr^ate assessed valuation of over $28,000,000. Several very 

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important roads in the State have been constructed without the aid of land 
grants, while others are projected and will be completed in due time. 



Governors — Robert Lucas, 1838-41; John Chambers, 1841-45; James 
Clarke, 1845. 

8e<yr€t€m6»—W\\\\mi B. Conway, 1838, died 1839 [James Clarke, 1839; 
O. H. W. Btull, 1841; Samuel J. Burr, 1843; Jesse Williams, 1846. 

Auditors— J ^^ Williams, 1840; Wm. L. Gilbert, 1843; Robert M. 
Secrest, 1845. 

Treaswrers-^Ti^ornXxm Bayliss, 1889; Morgan Reno, 1840. 

c7i^«9— Charles Mason, Chief Justice, 1838; Joseph Williams, 1838; 
Thomas S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council — Jesse B. Browne, 1838-9; Stephen Hempstead, 
1839-40; M. Bainridge, 1840-1; Jonathan W. Parker, 1841-2; John D. 
Elbert, 1842-3; Thomas Cox, 1843-4; S. Clinton Hastings, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1845-6. 

Speakers of the Souse^WilliBm H. Wallace, 1838-9; Edward John- 
ston, 1839-40; Thomas Cox, 1840-1; Warner Lewis, 1841-2; James M. 
Morgan, 1842-3; James P. Carleton, 1843-4; James M. Morgan, 1845; 
Geor^ W. McOleary, 1845-6. 

^1/rst ConstUtitional Con/ventionj i^4^— Shepherd Leffler, President; 
Qeo. S. Hampton, Secretary. 

Second Constitutional Con/ventionj 1846 — Enos Lowe, President; Wil- 
liam Thompson, Secretary. 


Governors — ^Ansel Briggs, 1846 to I860; Stephen Hempstead, 1850 to 
1854; James W* Grimes, 1854 to 1868; Ralph P. Lowe, 1858 to 1860; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1860 to 1864; William M. Stone, 1864 to 186S: 
Samuel Merrill, 1868 to 1872; Chrrus C. Carpenter, 1872 to 1876; Samuel 
J. Kirkwood, 1876 to 1877; Joshua G. Newbold, Acting, 1877 to lb78; 
John H. Gear, 1878 to . 

Id&utenant Governors — Office created by the new Constitution September 
8, 1857— Oran FaviUe, 1858-9; Nicholas J. Eusch, 1860-1; John K 
Needham, 1862-3; Enoch W. Eastman, 1864-5; Benjamin F. Gue, 1866- 
67; John Scott, 1868-9; M. M. Walden, 1870-1; H. C. Bulls, 1872-3; 
Joseph Dysart, 1874-5; Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-7; Frank T. Campbell, 
1878 to . 

Secretaries of State— EliskeL Cutler, Jr., Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 4, 1848; 
Josiah H. Bonney, Dec 4, 1848, to Dec 2, 1850; (Jeorge W. McCleary, 
Dec 2, 1850, to Dec 1, 1856; Elijah Sells, Dec 1, 1856, to Jan. 6, 1863; 
James Wright, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867; Ed. Wright, Jan. 7, 1867, to 
Jan. 6, 1873; Josiah T. Young, Jan. 6, 1873, to 1879; J. A. T. Hull, 1879 
to . 

Auditors of State— Joseph T. Fales, Dec. 6, 1846, to Dec 2, 1860; 
William Pattee, Dec 2, 1850, to Dec 4^ 1854; Andrew J. Stevens, Dec 
4, 1854, resigned in 1855; John Pattee, Sept 22, 1855, to Jan. 3, 1859; 

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HI8T0BT or IOWA. 175 

Jonathan W. Cattell, 1859 to 1865; John A. Elliott, 1865 to 1871; John 
RosseU, 1871 to 1875; Bnren R Sherman, 1876 to . 

Treamrers of /Sto^— Morgan Eeno, Dec 18, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850; 
Israel Kister, Dec 2, 1850, to Dec 4, 1852; Martin L. Morris^ec 4, 
1852, to Jan. 2, 1859; John W. Jones, 1859 to 1863; William H. Holmes, 
1863 to 1867; Samnd K Rankin, 1867 to 1873; William Christy, 1873 to 
1877; George W. Bemis, 1877 to . 

SupervnUndents of Public InHrucUon — Office created in 1847— 
James Harlan, Jnne 5, 1847 (Snpreme Court decided election void); 
Thomas H Benton, Jr., May 23, 1847, to Jnne 7, 1854; James D. Eads, 
1854-7; Jos^h 0. Stone, March to June, 1857; Matnrin L. Fisher, 1857 
to Dec, 1858, when the office was abolished and the duties of the office de- 
volved npon the Secretary of the Board of Education. 

Seereiarics of Board of EduocOian — Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 1859- 
1863; Oran Faville, Jan. 1, 1864. Board abolished March 23, 1864. 

SuperirUendent9 of PubUo Instrtk^ion — Office re-created March 28, 
1864— Oran Favilte, March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867; D, Franklin 
Wells, March 4, 1867, to Jan., 1870; A. a Kissell, 1870 to 1872; Alonxo 
Abemetiby, 1872 to 1877; Carl W. von CoeUn, 1877 to . 

Begisters of the State La/nd Office — ^Anson Hart, May 5, 1855, to May 
13, 1857; Theodore 8. Parvin, May 13, 1857, to Jan. 3, 1859; Amos B. 
Miller, Jan. 3, 1859, to October^ 1862; Edwin Mitchell, Oct 31, 1862, to 
Jan. 6, 1863; Josiah A. Harvey, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867; Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, Jan. 7, 1867, to January, 1871; Aaron Brown, January, 1871, 
to/anMry, 1875; David Secor, January, 1875 to 1879; J, K Powers, 1879 
to ■■ 

State Binders— OOjoq created February 21, 1855— William M. Coles, 
May 1, 1855, to May 1, 1859; Frank M!. Mills, 1859 to 1867; James S. 
Carter, 1867 to 1870; J. J. Smart, 1870 to 1874; H. A. Perkins, 1874 to 
1875; James J. Smart, 1875 to 1876; R A. Perkins, 1876 to 1879; Matt 
C. Parrott 1879 to . 

State Awi^«r»— Office created Jan. 8, 1840— Garrett D, Palmer and 
Geoi^ Paul, 1849; William H. Merritt, 1851 to 1858; William A. Horn- 
ish, 1853 (resigned May 16, 1853); Mahoney A Dorr, 1853 to 1855; Peter 
Moriarty, 1855 to 1857; John Teesdale, 1857 to 1861jFrancis W. Palmer, 
1861 to 1869; Frank M. Mills, 1869 to 1870; G. W. Edwards, 1870 to 
18T2: R P. Clarkson, 1872 to 1879; Frank M. Mills, 1879 to . 

Mmtants General— Darnel 8. Lee, 1851-5; Geo. W. McCleary, 1855- 
7; Elijah Sells, 1867: Jesse Bowen, 1857-61; iTathaniel B. Baker, 1861 to 

1877; Jolm H. Looby, 1877 to 1878; Noble Warwick, resigned; 

6. L Alexander, 1878 to . 

Attorneys General— Ihivid 0. Cloud, 1858-59; Samuel A. Rice, 1856- 
60; Charles O. Nourse, 1861-4; Isaac L. Allen, 1865 (resigned January, 
18«6); Frederick E. BisseU, 1866 (died June 12, 1867); Henry O'Connor, 
1867-72; Marscna E. Cutts, 1872-6; John P. McJunkin, 1877 to . 

Presidents of the Senate-^Thomeis Baker, 1846-7; Thomas Hughes, 
1848; John J. Sdman, 1848-9; Enos Lowe, 1850-1; William E. Leffing- 
wen, 1852-3; Maturin L. Fisher, 1854-5; WilUam W. Hamilton, 1856-7. 
Under the new Constitution, the Lieutenant Gk>vemor is President of the 

Speakers of the Hous^—Sea^ B. Browne, 1847-8; Smiley H. Bonhan, 
1849-50; George Temple, 1861-2: James Grant, 1858-4; Keuben Noble, 

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1855-6; Samuel McFarland, 1856-7; Stephen B. Sheledy, 1858-9; John 
Edwards, 1860-1 ; Eiish Clark, 1862-8; Jacob Butler, 1864-5; Ed. Wright, 
1866-7; John Russell, 1868-9; Aylett R. Cotton, 1870-1; James Wilson, 
1872-3; John R. Gear, 1874-7; John T. Stone, 1878. 

Jfew ConstittUional Con/oentiony 1867 — ^Francis Springer, President; 
Thos. J. Saunders, Secretary. 


John H. Gtear, Governor; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant (Jovemor ; Josiah 
T. Young, Secretary of State; Buren R. Sheaman, Auditor of State; O^o. 
W. BemiB Treasurer of State; David Seoon Remster of State Land Office; 
John H. Looby, Adjutant-General; John F. M^unken, Attorney-General; 
Mrs. Ada North, State Librarian ; Edward J. Holmes, Clerk Supreme Court; 
John S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme Court: Carl W. von CeoUn, Superin- 
tendent Public Instruction; Richard P. Clarkson, State Printer; Henry A. 
Perldns, State Binder; Prof. Nathan R. Leonard, Superintendent of Weights 
and Measures; William H. Fleming, Gk>vemor*s Private Secretary; Fletcher 
W. Young, Deputy Secretary of State; John C. Parish, Deputy Auditor of 
State; Erastus G. Morgan, Deputy Treasurer of State; Jolui M. Davia, 
Deputy Register Land Office; Ira C. Kling, Deputy Superintendent Pub- 
lic Instruction. 


John H. Gtear, Govanor; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor; 
J. A* T. Hull, Secretary of State; Buren R. Sherman, Auditor of State; 
George W. Bemis, Treasurer of State; J. E. Powers, Register of State Land 
Office; G. L. Alexander, Adjutant-General; John F. McJunken, Attor- 
ney-General; Mrs. Sadie B. Maxwell, State Librarian; Edward J. Holmes, 
Clerk Supreme Court; John S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme Court; Carl 
W. von Coelln, Superintendent Public Instruction; Frank M. Mills, State 
Printer; Matt C. Parrott, State Binder. 



Chief Justices, — Charles Mason, resigned in June, 1847; Joseph Wil- 
liams, Jan., 1847, to Jan., 1848; S. Clinton Hastings, Jan., 1848, to Jan., 
1849; Joseph Williams, Jan., 1849, to Jan. 11, 1855; George G. Wright, 
Jan. 11, 1855, to Jan., 1860; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan., 1860, to Jan. 1, 1863; 
Caleb Baldwin, Jan., 1863, to Jan., 1864; George G. Wright, Jan« 1864, to 
Jan., 1866; Ralph P.Lowe, Jan., 1866, to Jan., 1868; John F. Dillon, 
Jan., 1868, to Jan., 1870; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 1, 1870, to Jan. 1, 1871; 
James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871. to Jan. 1, 1873; Joseph M. Beck, Jan. 1, 1878, 
to Jan. 1, 1874; Wm. R MiUer, Jan. 1, 1874, to Jan. 1, 1876; Chester C. 
Cole, Jan. 1, 1876, to Jan. 1, 1877; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1877, to Jan. 1, 
1878; James H. Rothrock, Jan. 1, 1878. 

Associate Judges. — Joseph Williams; Thomas S. Wilson, resigned Oct, 
1847; John F. Kinney, June 13, 1847, resigned Feb. 15. 1854; George 
Greere, Nov. 1, 1847, to Jan 9« 1855; Jonathan C. Hall, Feb. 15, 1854, to 
succeed Kinney, resigned, to Jan., 1855; William G. Woodward, Jan. 9, 
1855; Norman W. Isbell, Jan. 16, 1855, resigned 1856; Laoen D. Stockton, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

mstoiBT or IOWA. 177 

Iram 3» 18ffS» to fimeoeed Tsbdl, remmcl, £ed Jmm9i 18^; Caleb Bald- 
win, Jan. 11, 1860, tc^ 1864; Balph P. Lowe, Jan. 12, 1860; Oeo. G. Wrig^tv 
June 26, 1860, to succeed Stockton, deoeased; elected U. 8. Senator, 1870; 
John F. Dillon, JaiL 1, 1864, to sncceed Baldwin, resigned, 1870; Chester 
G. €3ole, March 1, 1864, to 1867; Joseph M. Beck, Jan. 1, 1868; W. £. Mil- 
In*, Octbber IJb, 1864^ to- snceeed Dillon^ resigned; James 6. Dajy Jan; 1, 
1871, to succeed Wright 

suFBBMS eoFWP, 1879i 

Joseph M. Beck, Lee county. Chief Justice; Austin Adams, Dubuque 
eoitnly, Assoda^ Justice; William H. Seevera, Mahaska county. Associate 
Justice; James- G>. Di^, IVemont county, Amo<A$A» Justice; Jm. £L Both« 
FDck, Ce^ oounty. Associate Justice. 



rXhe first Greneral Assembly failed to elect Senators.) 

George W. Jones, Dubuque, Dec 1848-1858; Augustos C. Dodge, Bup- 
lington^Dec 7, 1848-1855; James Harlan, Mt Pleasant, Jan* 6^ 1855-1865; 
James W. Grimes, Burlington, Jan. 26, 1^58— died 1870^, 8«nuel J. Kirk- 
wood, Iowa City, elected «fan IS, 1866, to fill vacancy occasioned by resig- 
nation of James Harlan; Jtones Harlan; Mt. Pleasant March 4, 1866-187ii; 
James B; Howell, Eeokuk, elected Jan. 90, 1870, to fill ▼aoancy caused by 
the death of J. W.. Grimes — ^tenn expired March 8d^ George G. Wright, 
Des Moinee, March 4, 1871-1877; William B; Allison, Dubuqu^ March 4, 
1873; Samuel J. Eirkwood, March 4, 1877. 


Twenty-ninth Congress— 18Ji6 to t8J^—Q. Clinton Hastings; Sl^herd 


Thirtieth Congress— 18 Ji7 to /54*— First District, Willi«n Thompson; 
Second District, Shepherd Leffier^ 

Thirty-Jlrst Congress— 18^9 to 1861— First District, First Session, Wm. 
Thompson; unseated by &e House of Bepresentatives on a ooBtest^ and 

irst District, Seocmd Seftion, Daaid F. 
186S—¥iT^ Distinct, Bemhart Henn ; 

185S — ^First District, Bemhart Henn; 

> 1867— Yirst District, Augustus Hall; 

959— First District, Samuel R» Curtis; 

861^¥m% District, Samuel R Curtis; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Thirty;^0omth Conoresi—1861 to 186S— First District, First Session^ 
Samnel R. Onrtis * first District, Second and Third Sessions, Jas. F. Wil- 
son; Second District, Wm. Vandever. 

TMHy-eighth C(mgreB9—186S to 186S—Fmt District, James F. Wilson; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District, John A. Easson^ Sixth Distp, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thirty-fdnth Congre99—1866 to 1867— Yirst District, James F. Wilson; 
Second District Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District Josiah B. Grinnell; Fifth District John A. Easson; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Oongre8B—1867 to 1869— First District, James F. Wilson; Sec 
ond District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourtli 
District, William Loo^hridge; Fifth District, Grenville AL Dodge; Sixth 
District, Asahd W. £Uibba^ 

Fort/u-f/rst Congress— 1869 to 1871— First District, Geo. W. McOrary; 
Second District William Smyth; Third District, William B.Allison; Fourth 
District, William Loughridge; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer, Sixth 
District^ Charles Pomeroy. 

Forty-aeoond Congress— 1871 to 1873— First District, Geoi«e W. Mc- 
Crajy; Second District, Aylett R Cotton; Third District W. G. Donnan; 
Fourth District, Madison M. Walden; Fifth District, Frank W, Palmer; 
Sixth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty4Mrd Congress— 1873 to 1876— First District, Geo. W. McCrary ; 
Second District, Aylett R Cotton; Third District, William G. Donnan; 
Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson; Sixth Dis- 
trict, William Loughndge; Seventh District, John A Easson; Eighth Dis- 
trict James W. McDill; Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-fowth Co7i^e89—1876 to 1877— First District George W. Mc- 
Crary; {Second District, John Q. Tufts; Third District, L. L. Ainsworth; 
Fourth District, Henry O. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson; Sixth Dis- 
trict, Ezekiel S. Sconpson; Seventh District, John A. EJasson; Eighth Dis- 
trict. James W. McDill; Itinth District, Aadison Oliver. 

Fortyififih CongreBa—1877 to 1879— First District, J. C. Stone; Second 
District, Hiram Price; Third District, T. W. Burdick; Fourth District, H. 
C. Deering; Fifth District, Bush Clark; Sixth District, K S. Sampson; 
Seventh District, H. J. B. Cummings; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; JSinth 
District, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-siath Congres8—1879 to 1881— First District, Moses A. McCmd; 
Second District, Huram Price; Third District, Thomas Updegraff; Fourth 
District, H. C. Deering; Fifth District, Bush Clark; Sixth District, J. B. 
Weaver; Seventh District, E. K. Gillette; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp; 
Kinth District, Cyrus C, Carpenter. 


Oif the 14th of April, 1858, the following editorial appeared in the Faiit\ 
field Ledger: 

^^ Statb Faol— Iowa is an Agricultural State, but as yet her agricultural 
resources are but in the in&ncy of their development. In some counties, 

* Vacated seat l^ aoceplanoe of oommiMioii of Brigadier Qenoal, and J. F. 'Wilaon 
ch o sfln his iooosttor* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


however, some attention has been paid to the organization of societies for the 
promotion of the interests of agncnltore. These several societies have had 
their annaal fairs, and in this way mnoh good has been done, but the growing 
importance of onr agricultural and industrial interest now demands a more 

fsneral and extensive arrangement. Let us then have a State A^cultura] 
air sometime in next October or November. Let some central point be 
fixed upon for an exhibition which will be an honor to our voun^ State. It 
would not be expected that the first exhibition of the kina would vie with 
those of older States, where societies have long been established. But in a 
few years a well organized State Society with its annual fairs, would accom- 
plish the same good results that have attended them in other States. The 
mechanical arts, as well as the raising of stock or grain, might be brought 
to a high state of perfection. We suggest that tms matter be taken into 
consideration in time, and let there be a union of all the county societies 
that are organized, with such as m)Bty be organized, for the purpose of hold- 
ing a general Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition next fall.'' 

The suggestions of the foregoing article were heartily seconded by several 
papers of Uie State, and especially by the Iowa Fa/rmer a/ad HarticuUvHst^ 
at Burlington. 

No demiite action was taken until the 14th day of October, 1853, when 
at the close of the Second Annual Exhibiton of the Jefierson County Agri- 
cultural Society, that Society met for the election of a board of officers. 
At this meeting 0. W, Slagle offered the following resolution: 

Resolvedy That the officers of the Society be instructed to take immediate 
Btq)s to effect the organiztion of a State Agricultural Society and use their 
influence to have said Society hold its first exhibition at Fairfield, in Octo- 
ber, 1854. 

This resolution was adopted, and on the 21st of November, a notice signed 
by P. L. Huyett, 0. Baldwin, and J. M. Shaffer, was issued to the different 
county societies, inviting them to send dele^tes to a meeting to be held at 
F^rfield, December 28, 1853, to take part in the organization of a State 
Society. Pursuant to this call, the meeting was held, and delegates were 
present from the counties of Henry, Jefferson, Lee, Van Buren and Wap- 
ello. Oommunications from officers of societies, and one from Hon. James 
W. Grimes, were read, heartily approving of the movement. D. P. Ins- 
keep, of Wapello county, was chairman of the meeting, and David Sheward, 
of Jefferson county, secretary, A committee was appointed which reported 
a constitution for the society. The society was duly organized with the fol- 
following officers : Thomas W. Claggett, Lee countv. President ; D. P. Ins- 
keep, Wapello county, Vice President; J. M. Shaffer, Jefferson coun^. 
Secretary; C. W. Slagle, Jefferson county. Corresponding Secretary, and W. 
B. Ohamberlin, Des Moines county. Treasurer. 

In addition to the above officers^ the following were aj^inted a Board of 
Lee County. — Arthur Bridgeman, Beuben Brackett, and Josiah HinUe. 
Van Btiren Cotm^.— Timothy Day, Dr. Elbert, and William OampbelL 
Eewry OowUy. — Thomas Siviter, Amos Lapham, and J. W. Frazier. 
Jefferson Cownty. — ^P. L. Huyet^ John Andrews, and B. B. Tuttle. 
Wapello County. — R. H. Wwlen, Qen. Bamsay, and Uriah Biggs. 
Mahaeka CowUy.--yfm. MoKinley, Sr., John White, and M,T, WU- 
PoTJ^ Cormty. — ^Dr. Brooks, Thomas Mitchell, and William McKay. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

180 HI8T0BT or IOWA. 

Des Moines Gowntu. — J, F. Tallant, A. K. Avery, and G. Neely. 
Louisa County. — George Kee, Fruiois Springer, and Joshua Marshall* 
MusocUine County. — J. H. Wallace, James Weed, and John A. Parrin. 
Dvbuque County. — W, Y. Lovel, Orlando McOranej, and L. H. Lang^ 
Johnson County. — HL H. Sylvester, LeGrand Byington, and 0. Sannders. 
Soott Cov/nty.—5. A. Bnronard, James Thorington, and Laurel Summers. 

A resolution was adopted providing that the first State Fair be held at 
Fairfield, commencing Wednesday, October 25, 1854. A resolution was 
also adopted for the appointment of a committee of five to memorialize the 
General Assembly for pecuniary aid, and the following were appointed: 
George W. McOleary, or Johnson county; George S. Hanipton, or Johnson 
county; David Borer, of Des Moines county; Balph P. Lowe, of Lee 
county, and George Gillaspy, of Wapello county. 

At this meeting the following fourteen persons afSxed their signatures to 
the Constitution, agreeing to become members: Charles Ne^s, J. M. 
Shafifer, D. P. Inskeep, Amos Lapham, J. W. Frazier, Josiah Hmkle, J. T. 
Gibson, Stephen Frazier, Evan Marshall, Thomas Siviter, John Andrews, 
B. B. Tuttle, Eli Williams, and P. L. Huyett. 

This meeting was held in the court house at Fairfield, and was not very 
largely attended, for at that time diere was not a mile of railroad in the 


In accordance with the arrangement made at tiie organization of the So* 
ciety, the first annual fiiir was held at Fairfield, commencing October 25th, 
1854, and continued three days. The number of people in attendance was 
estimated at the time at from 7,000 to 8,000. The exhibition was consid- 
ered a grand success. Allportions of the State at that time settled, were 
represented by visitors. The fidr waa held on the grounds which have for 
man^ years beto occupied as tiie depot grounds of the Burlington & Mis* 
soun River Bailroad. Th^re was a fine Ssplay of stock, agricultural imple- 
ments, farm products, and articles of domestic manu&cture. In the lames' 
department there was an attractive exhibit of their handi-work. The nat- 
ural history of the State was illustrated by Dr. J. M. Shaflfer's collection of 
reptiles and insects, and by a fine collection of birds shown by Hx. Moore, 
of^ Des Moines. The dairy was weU represented, and a cheese weiring 
three hundred and sixty poimds was presented to Gov. Grimes by his Lee 
county friends. 

The most exciting incident of the fidr was the equestrian exhibition by 
ten ladies. This took place on the afternoon of the second and the forenoon 
of the third day. The first prize was a ^Id watch, valued at one hundred 
dollars. It was awarded by the committee to Miss Turner, of Keokuk. 
One of the fair contestants was Miss Eliza J. Hodges, then only tMrteen 
years of age. She rode a splendid and higfa-n)iritea horse, the property of 
Dr. J. 0. w are, of Fairfiela. The daring style of her riding, and the per- 
fect control of the animal m^ch she maintained, enlisted tJie^ fkvor and 
sympathy of the throng present in her behalf. The popular verdict would 
lutve awiodedliie prise to Misa Hodges* A purse of fl65, and some other 
presents, were immediately contributed for the ^ Iowa C^tr giri,'' as the 
neroine of the day was called. Provision was also made for her atteuibmce, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

maroBT o9 iowa. 181 

free of aD charge, for three terms, at the Ladiee' Sendiiary at Fairfield, and 
one term at Mt. Pleasant, all of which she graoefollj aocepted. 

Geoi^ 0. Dixon, of Eeoknk, delivered the first annnal address. Thomas 
W.Claggett was re-elected I^pesident, and Dr. J. M. Shaffer, Seoretary. The 
Becond annnal fair was appointed also to be held ai Fairfield, commencing 
on the second Wednesday m October, 1855, and continninff three days. 

Sndi is a brief aceonnt of the hnmble bevinning, and first exhibition 
of the Iowa State Agricultural Society, whidi nas since grown to be one of 
the important institntions of die State, attracting to its annnal eidiibits 
many thousands of people, not only firom all parts d Iowa, bat firom other 


The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874, passed ^ An act to provide for 
&B appointment oi a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction <^ 
Fishways for the protection and propamtion of J'ish,'' also ^ An act to pro- 
vide for famishing die rivers and laxes with fish and fish spatm.'' This 
act appropriated $^000 for the naipose. In accordance with the provisions 
<^ (he first act above mentioned^ on the 9th of April, 1874* S. B. JEvans of 
Ottumwa, Wapello coim^; B. F. Shaw of Jones county, and Charles 
A Haines, of filack Hawk county were i4>poinled to be Fish Commission- 
ers by the Governor. These Commissioners met at Des Moines, Mav 10, 
1874, and orsanixed by the dection of Mr. Evans, President; Mr. ^haw, 
Secretary uia Snperintendent, and Mr. Haines, Treasurer. During the 
first year the Commissioners erected a ^hatching house" near Anamosa, 
and (UBtribnted within the State 100,000 shad, 800/)00 California salmon, 
10,000 baas, 80,000 Penc^Mcot salmon, 5,000 land-looked salmon, and 20,- 
000 of other kinds. 

The next General Assembly amended the law, reducing the commission 
to one member, and B. F. Shaw was appointed. During the second year 
&ere were distributed 683,000 California salmon, and 100,000 youns eels; 
in 1877, there were distributed 803,600 lake trout in the rivers ana lakes 
of the ^te, and several hundred thousands of other species. During the 
jears 1876 and 1877, the total number of different lands distributecU and 
on hand, was over five and a half million. The Seventeenth General As- 
semUy, br an act approved March 28, 1878, appropriated $6,000 for con- 
tumiitf the p\>motion of fish culture in the State. B. F. Shaw was con- 
tiBuedas Commissioner. 


The first feeislative act in Iowa designed to promote immi^tion, was 
pasBed in Mardi, 1860. The law providea for the appointment by the Gk>v- 
eraor of a Commissioner of Immigration to reside and keep an office in the 
eily (^ New York, from the first of May until the first of December of 
eadi year. It was made iixe dotv of the Commissicmer to give to immi- 
grants in&nuation in rmrd to tae s(h1 and climate of the State, branches 
sf busineas to be pursued with advantage, the cheapest and best routes l^ 
vhich to reach the State, and to protect them from imposition. To carry 
out the obiects of the law, the sum of $4,500 was appropriated to be ap- 
plied as folk>?rs: for the payment of the Commissioner two years, $2,400; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

182 HisroBr ov iowa. 

for printing documents in Englishy German, and such other languages as 
the Gov^ernor might deem adyisable, $1,000, and for office and office ex- 
penses for liie Commissioner, $1,100. Under diis law, Hon. N. J. Bnsch, of 
Scott conntj, who had previously been Lieutenant Governor, was appointed 
Immigration Commissioner, ana in May, 1860, established an office m New 
York. The object of the law seems to nave had special reference to foreign 
immigration. The Commissioner in his report to the Gbvemor, in Decem- 
ber, 1861, gave it as his opinion, that the establishment of an agencj in 
New York was not the most successful method of inducing immigration to 
a particular State. He thought far more could be accomplished at less ex- 
pense by the distribution of documents. In February, 1862, the law was 
repealed, and the office of Commissioner of Immigration was discontinned 
MBj Ist of that year. 

The next effi)rt put forth by the State to promote immigration was under 
an act passed by the Thirteenth General Assembly, in 1870. Hon. M. J. 
Eohlfs, of Scott county, had at the previous session introduced a bill in the 
House of Eepresentatives for the purpose, but the measure did not then 
succeed. At the next session he renewed his efforts with success. The law 
provided for the appointment by the Governor of a Board of Inmiigration, 
to consist of one member from each Congressional district, and the Gt>v* 
emor, who was ex-qffloio President of the Board. It also provided for a 
Secretary, to be ex-ojioio Commissioner of Immigration, and to be chosen 
by the R)ard. Provision was also made for the appointment of agents in 
the Eastern States and in Europe, and for the publication and distribution 
of documents. To carry out its objects an appropriation of $5,000 was 
made. This was designed to pay expense of documents, salary of Secre- 
tary, and compensation of agents, the members of the Board receiving no 
compensation, except milea^ for two meeting each year, to be paid out of 
the general fund. Under this law the followmg persons were appointed bj 
Governor Merrill: Edward Mumm, of Lee county; M. J. Bohlis, of Scott 
county; C. L. Clausen, of Mitchell county; C. Khvnsburger, of Marion 
county; S. F. Spjoffi^rd, of Polk countr, and Marcus Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo 
county. At their first meeting, held in April, 1870, they elected A. R. 
Fulton their Secretary, and authorized him to prepare a pamphlet for dis- 
tribution, in the English, German, Holland, Swedish and Norwegian lan- 
Siages. Many thousands of copies of a pamphlet entitled ^^lowa: The 
ome for Immigrants," were prmted in the several languages named, and 
distributed throughout the East and in European countries. Many other 
pamphlets and documents were also distributed, and several agents com- 
missioned. So successful were the efforts of the Board that the next Gen- 
eral Assembly appropriated $10,000 tor continuing the work. The amend- 
atory law, however, reduced the Board to five members, including the Gov- 
ernor. Tlie Board, as reduced, was composed of the following members: 
M. J. Eohlfe, of Scott county; S. F. Spofford, of Polk county; Marcos 
Tuttle, of Cerro Gordo county; C. V. Gardner, of Pottawattamie county, 
and tJie Governor. The new Board continued the former Secretary, and 
pursued its work by the distribution of documents, through a^nts and by 
correspondence. After four years existence the Board of Immigration was 
discontinued, but not until it had doubtless been the means of inducing 
thousands to find homes within the borders of Iowa. 

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TO JANUARY 1, 1866 • 

No. Regiment. 

No. of 

No. Regiment. 

No. of 

Ist Iowa In&ntiy. 

2d " " , 

8d •• " . 

4th *• " . 

5th •• " . 

«th " •• . 

7th •* *• 

8th •• " 

«th •• ** . 

lOlh " •• . 

llfh •• 

12th " 

13th " " . 

1^1 " 

16th " " . 

16th ** *• . 

17th " 

18Qi " 

19th " 

aoth " " . 

2l8t " 

22d " •• . 

23d •* " . 

24th " 

25th •• " . 

2Wh " 

27th " 

28th " 






































39th Iowa InfantiT 

40th •* " 

4l8t Battalion Iowa In&ntiy .... 
44th Infantry (lOO-days men) .... 
45th " *• " .... 

46th *• " *• ..., 

47th " " " .... 

48th Battalion " " .... 

let Iowa Cavalzy 

2d " " 

3d •• •• 

4th " •• 

5th " " 

6th •* •* 

7th •* *• 

8th •* *• 

9th " " 

Sioox City Oavalzy t 

Co. A, nth Penn. Cayahy 

let Batteiy Arblleiy 

2d *• " 

3d " 

4th " «* 

1st Iowa African InfV 60th U. 84 

Dodffe*8 Brigade Band 

Band of 2d Iowa Infandy 

Enlistments as far as repmed to Jan. 

1 . '64, for the older Iowa re^nLments 
Enlistments of Iowa men m regi- 
ments of other States, over. . . 


Re-ezdisted Veterans for different 

re^fiments •• 

Additional enlistments 

Qrand total as fiar as reported up to 
Jan. 1,1865.... 































*This does not indnde those Iowa men who Teteraniaed in the regiments of other States, 
nor the names of men who oolisted during 1864, in regiments of other States. 

t Afterward consolidated with Serenth CaTalxy. 

I Only a podaon of this regiment was credited to the State. 

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Boena Yista. •••••.••....... 

Bntier ,.. 

Galhonn-T-f t^r *«...«., *f.. ,.,.,., 


Ca^ , 




Cherokee •••••• 

CSuckaaavr* ••.. •••••• •••• 




Clayton ••• 




Clinton- -tttt«*,................^. 








DaTis ....•• 

Decatur ;• 


Dee Moines 

Dickinson r».».»« «•*•.«•«#.••.... 

DubiKjue* •••••••••••••••• •• 











Gmndy T r. *««.«**•«•«•... 


HamiltoUt .*.*••■. t«..t.«.. 

Hanoock. • 

Hardin .•■•••••..•• 

Hanison* .••.•..••••••.. 







Iowa. • •• 






Jackson • ••• 


Jefl&rson. •••.•.•• 

Johnson* •!'-•*«.•.•••#•.• •••■•■■•• 


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STATisnos. 189 

Bif9wnre thb date ov oboahixatiov, ahd thb population of thb sbtkeal oousrisi 



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190 ffTATEmOB. 


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Centennial Awards. 


4 - 


. IJndsk tbesyBteiD of awards adopted at the Oentennial Exposition of 1876, 

*^ merj article exhibited was plaoea in one of thirtj-six ^aps, numbering 

'\ Jfirom 1 to 86. The examination was not of a competitive character, but 

• Jlpon the merit of the article. Each article of merit was entitled to receive 

r * diploma and a bronze medal of uniform value. The following awards 

^rere made to Iowa exhibitors: 


Wealey Bedhead and Mahaska Goal ICining Company are accredited with 
mplee of coal. The committee says: ^'Oommended as samples of bitum- 
>Qa eoal of Iowa." 


John Harvey, of Dubuque. — ^Beport says a large and instructive exhibit 
f Galena lead ores of Iowa. 

|r ^» P. Fox, of Des Moines. — Oommended for an instructive exhibit of the 
ratified deposits of the State of Iowa. 

[Nornt — ^In this group were shown fifty-five varieties from stone quarries 
jjowa, prepared by Donahue & McOosh, of Burlington, in blocks six by 
^ inches square; also were shown samples of building and moulding 
E^ds, and three specimens of fflass sands, twelve of fire and potters' clay, 
"^ or eight samples of miners? paint, and one sample of peat; also some 
'^samples of geodes from Keoxuk. Judge Mnrdock, of Olayton county, 
ibited a collection of relics of the mound builders. Tlie most prom- 
it one was his large collection of mound builders' skulls.] 


State of Iowa. — Oommended as a very fine collection of cereals in the 
^^w, beantifuUv cleansed; also grasses and seeds— sixtv varieties — a fine 
^ *^^tioa beautifully arranged; also a collection of Indian com, seventy 


■^<ewart& McMillen, of Manchester, Delaware county, Entry No. 
1~— Commended for the best samples of 200 lbs. and 30 Ibi. respectively, 
=^B at Kewberg factory, Edgewood and Hebran. 

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199 cnarrmuAL awasbs. 

Stewart & McMillen, Entry No. 896.— Oommended for clean, sweel 
flavor, firm textare and superior ezoellencj generallj, comprising aamplei 
of different creameries. 

[NoTB. — ^The general report of the committee on butter puts the yield of 
the United States for 1876 at 710,000,000 lbs. Messrs. Stewart & McMiU 
len had about ninety competitors, among whom were the best butter mako^ 
of the world. In addition to the centennial awards, thej got the goldea 
medal awarded by the national butter and es^ff association. Iowa creamery 
butter sells in the Philadelphia market readily with the gilt edged brand 
The butter crop in Iowa is an item of interest, and the State owes Stewart 
& McMillen a debt of gratitude for their very active exertion at the centeo^ 
nial in raising Iowa butter to a level with the gilt edge manufacturers oi 
the eastern States. Delaware county, Iowa, is to our State what Chesta 
county is to Pensylvania.] 

Bryui & Ooriis' bntter, Strawberry Point, Clayton eoanty.-^Oommeiided 
for fine quality and superior skiU ia mansfiMitiiriiig. 


Oollection of woods by Prof. McAfee, Agricultural College. — Commended 
as a good State exhibit, containing 160 specimens arranged in vertical and 
transverse sections. 

J. C. Arthur, Charles City, No. 185.— Herbarium of plants. The her^ 
barium contains species named and elasified, neatly mounted, labeled and 
one in duolicate. The duplicate collection ingenionsl v arranged for exhi^ 
bition on large sliding frames within a glass case. The whole accompan* 
ied with a printed catalogue. 


State of Iowa, No. 11. — Commended for a litrge iiwgifvf of its mineralsj 
soils, native and cultivated misses^ its pomology in Icuv* nviety, ukl ool 
lection of woodis and a valuable collectioa of mound buildeft' i«Iios; 




Board of Education, Burlington, No. 76^^— Commended for » creditably 
display of the work of pupils. 

dtate Educational Department, No. 77. — ^Beport good exhibit of the stij 
tistics of State school system and work of public schools. 

•^ • ^Educat* -— - - - 


GROUP xxn. 

tistics ot Dtate scnool system and work ot public schools. j 

Board of Education of West Des Moines, No. 78.— A creditable exhiM 
of work of pupils. 


Skinner Bros., Des Moines, No. 63. — Commended for excellence of i 
terial, good workmanship and beauty of form. 

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GEoup NO. xxm. 


John D« Metz, Dubaqae, No. 94. — ^Blank books with patent ends and 
mode of atitchin^. Beport an admirable made book aside from the patent 
iiupiovemaiit claimed* 



Eli Elliot, West Liberty.— Short Horn bull, Baron French, No. 8.— Re- 
port in fcH*m, qnalitj and usefal characteristics he is entitled to rank as a 
eaperior specimen of the Short Horn breed. 

State of Iowa, Short Horn Herd, No. 12. — One bull and four cows. The 
animals composing this herd, in high excellence of form, quality and useful 
characteristics, are entitled to be ranked as iirst-class specimens of the 
Short Horn breed. 

J. W. Jacobs, West Liberty, No. 13. — Two cows. Maid of Honor and 
Lucy Napier, commended for high excellence of form and useful charac- 
teristics, entitled to rank ^ first-class specimens of the Short Horn breed. 

E. S. Wilson, West Liberty, No. 85.— Heifer, Louden Mirrlne, for high 
excellence in form, quality and useful characteristics is entitled to rank as 
a first-class specimen of the Short Horn breed. 

E. S. Wilson, No. 36. — ^Emma Down and heifer calf Centennial Mine. 
In form and useful characteristics they are entitled to be ranked as first- 
dass specimens of the Short Horn breed. 


Henry Aveir, Burlington. — Commended for a collection of apples, 
among which Grimes' Gtolden Pippin, an excellent kind, is especially mer- 
itorious in size and flavor. 

^ David lieonard, Burlington, No. 16. — Commended for a yalnable selec- 
tion of varieties very well 'grown, and especially for a seedling named 
Robinson, which promises well for the northwest, both as respects to tree 
and fruit 

No. 27. — Polk County, by James Smith, Des Moines. Commended for 
160 varieties of apples, and for the very large number of valuable varieties 
and for the very superior manner in which they are grown; also for great 
care and correctness in naming. 

No. 80. — K H. Caulkens commended for twenty varieties and their val- 
uable characteristics; also great excellence and beauty in growth. 

B. 8. Willet, Malcolm. — Commended for 40 varieties of apples of gen- 
eral value and the superior manner of growth. 

No. 89, L. HoUingsworth, Montrose. — Seventy-five varieties of apples, 
commended for a large number of useful sorts and for the meritorious 
manner in which they are grown. 

No. 6if G. B. Brackett, Denmark. — ^Pears are Plate White Doyenne. 


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These specimens of this old and important variety reach the highest stan 
dard of excellence of larse size and oeaatifullj colored. 

No. 81, Wilson T. Smith, Des Moines. — ^Twenty varieties of pears 
commended for being well grown, and handsome collection. The Flemish 
Beantj and Beanrae Olangean being superior. 

No. 83, White Elk Yinejard, Keokuk.— Eighteen varieties, creditable 
display of pears. The Beanrae Clangean having brilliant coloring. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society wax models of fruit No. 209. — ^Three 
hundred varieties of apples in wax, of perfect accuracy and beautifully dis- 
played — ^the work of tne Iowa State Horticultural Society. 

[Note. — ^There were in all 1020 specimens. The fruit furnished as 
models was by various members of the State Horticultural Society, crop of 
1876, the greatest number of which was by James Smith, of Des Moines, 
and to whom the nomenclature is mainly due; 610 of the casts were made 
by Mrs. Wm. Greenland, of Des Moines, and 410 of them by OoL G. B. 
foackett, of Denmark. This was the most attractive display made by 
Iowa, and was universally admired; and in this line Iowa can boast of as 
fine talent for accuracy as to model and coloring as is found anywhere. 
Two hundred of these casts were sold to and exchanged with the Japanese 
authorities, and are now doing duty in the archives of their government.] 

Iowa State Horticultural Scwiety, No. 217.— September collection, report 
a very good collection, containing many varieties. 

[None — ^The Horticultural Society showed in May thirty-five varieties 
of apples of late keepers, also the summer varieties were snown in their 
season. The fall display was very fine, covering seven tables 85x6, and 
numbering about 336 varieties of apples, and filling over 2,000 plates.] 

W. W. Winterbotom, Fort Madison, No. 191.— Timothy grass seed. The 
seed is remarkably clean, and every way meritorious. 

H. 0. Gordon, luavis county. No. 204. — His yellow com was of peculiar 
weight and good quality, one ear weighing one pound and thirteen ounces. 

L. T. Ohute, Manchester, No. 207. — ^The cereals and roots in the Iowa 
collection exhibited are a well grown collection of twenty-five varieties. 
Potatoes especially meritorious. 

State of Iowa, September exhibits of the crop of 1876, No. 208.— They 
make a collection of cereals, grasses and roots, exhibiting the ability of the 
State to produce these articles in the highest degree. 

The information contained in the notes is additional to that given in the 
official reports of the Exposition, and is furnished by Dr. Alex. Shaw, of 
Des Moines, who held an official position in connection with Iowa exhibits 
up to August 18, 1876. 

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Abstract of Iowa State Laws. 


Upon n^tiable bills, and notes payable in this State, grace shall be jsl- 
lowed accoraing to the law merchant All the abo^e mentioned paper &11- 
ing due on Sunday, New Tear's Day, the Fourth of July^ Christmas, or any 
day appointed or recommended by tne President of the United States or the 
Governor of the State, as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as 
due on the dav previous. No defense can be made agamst a ne^tiable in- 
strument (assigned before due) in the hands of tha assignee wimout notice, 
except firaud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, due dili- 
gence must be used by suit against the maker or his representative. Notes 
payable to person named or to order, in order to absolutely transfer title, 
most be indorsed by the payee. Notes payable to bearer may be transferred 
by delivery, and when so payable, every indorser thereon is neld as a guar- 
antor of payment, unless otnerwise expressed. 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
flhall be considered a calendar month or tw^h of a year, and for less than 
a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes only 
bear interest when so expressed; but after due, they draw the legal interest, 
even if not stated. 


The I^al rate of interest is six per cent Parties may agree, in writing, 
on a rate not exceeding ten per cent If a rate of interest greater than ten 
mr cent is contracted tor, it works a forfeiture of ten per cent to the school 
nmd, and only the principal sum can be recovered. 


The personal property of the deceased (except (I) that necessary for pay- 
iaeat of debts and expenses of administration; (2) property set apart to 
widow, as exempt fix>m execution; (S) allowance by court, if necessary, of 
twelve months' support to widow, ana to children under fifteen years of age), 
indoding life insurance, descends as does real estate. 

One-tmrd in value (absolutely) of all estates in real property, possessed by the 
husband at any time auriuff marrii^ which have not been sold on execution 
or other judicial sale, ana to which the wife has made no relinquishment 
ci her right, shall be set apart as her property, in fee simple, if she survive 

The lime ahaie shall be set apart to the sumying husband of a deceased 

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The widow's share cannot be affected by any will of her husband's, unless 
she consents, in writing thereto, within six months after notice to her of 
provisions of the will. 

The provisions of the statutes of descent apply alike to surviving husband 
or surviving wife. 

Subject to the above, the remaining estate of which the decedent diod 
siezed, shall in absence of other arrangements by will, descend 

First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts; the 
descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of their 
deceased parents in equal shares among them. 

Seoona. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and no 
widow or surviving husband, then to the parents of the deceased in equal 
parts; the surviving parent, if either be d^, taking the whole ; and if there 
IS no parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 

ThMt. When there is a widow or survivinff husband, and no child or 
children, or descendants of the same, then one-hMf of the estate shall descend 
to such widow or surviving husband, absolutely; and the other half of the 
estate shall descend as in other eases where there is no widow or surviving 
husband, or child or children, or descendants of the same. 

FcvffiK. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, then to wife of intestate, or to her heirs, if dead, aocordiag 
to like rules. 

Fifth. K anv intestate leaves no child, parent, brother or sister, <Mr de* 
soono^ts of eitner of them, and no widow or surviving husband, and no 
child, parent, brother or sister Tor descendant of either of them) of such 
widow or surviving husband, it uiall escheat to the State. 


Ko exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will eood at law. 
Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, and evoyfemate of the age 
of eighteen years, of sound mind and memoiy, can make a valid will; it must 
be in writing, signed by the testator, or by some one in his or hw presence, 
and by his or her express direction, and attested by two or more competent 
witnesses. Care should be taken tibat the witnesses are not interested m the 
will. Inventory to be made by executor or administrator within fifteen 
days from date of letters testamentary or of administration. Executors' ^d 
administrators' compensation on amount of personal estate distributed, and 
for proceeds one-half per cent on overplus up to five thousand dollars, and 
one per cent of sale of real estate, five per cent for first one thousand dol- 
lars, two and one-half on overplus above five thousand dollars, with such 
additional aDowance as shall be reasonable for extra services. 

Within U/a dmf% after the receipt of letters of administration, the execuUv 
or administrator shall give such Hcii^ of aj^pointment as the court or derk 
shall direct 

Claims (other than preferred) must be filed within one year thereafter, or are 
forever barred, fmJ^M iheclaim Upending in the District or Suprraie Coui^ 
or ^mden peeuluvt oiroumskmeee entitle Uie claimant to equitalble rdMl 

Claims are oZdBMae? and |xiya^ in the following order: 

1. Expenses of administration, 

2. Expenses of last sickness and fimeraL 

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5. Allowance to widow snd ohildreO) if made bj the ooort 
4. Debts preferred under the laws of the Unitea States. 

6. Pnblic rates and taxes. 

e. Claims filed widiin six months aft^ the Jlnt j^sbUcfOion of the notice 
given by the execntors of their appointment 

7. An other debts. 

8. Legacies. 

The awardy or property whidi mosthe set aparitotheioidoWyinker oton 
fighiy \yf the executor, includes all personal iHt>pertj which, in die hands of 
the deceased, as head of the family, would hare been eooempt/iram eaoe&uiiofh, 


The ewners of personal property, on the first day of January of each year, 
and the owners oi real property on the first day of Kovember of each year, 
ore UdbU for the taxes thereon. 

The following property is exempt from taxation, viz. : 

1. 'Die property of the United States and of this State, including uni* 
▼ersity, agricultunu, college and school lands, and all property leased to the 
State; property of a county, township, city, incorporated town or school dis- 
trict when devoted entirely to the public use and not held for pecuniary 
piofit; pnblic fiprounds, including aU places for the burial of the dead; fire 
engines, and all implements for extinguishing fires, with the grounds used 
ezdosively for their buildings and for the meetings of the fire companies; 
all public libraries, grounds and buildings of literary, scientific, benevolent, 
agricultural and reUj^ious institutions, and societies devoted solely to the 
appropriate objects oi these institutions, not exceeding QHd acres in extent, 
and not leasea or otherwise used with a view of pecuniary profit; and all 
property leased to agricultural, charitable institutions and benevolent soci- 
eties, and so devoted during the term of such lease; provided^ that all deeds, 
by which such property is held, shall be duly filed for record before the 
property therein descritled shall be omitted from the assessment 

2. inie books, papers and apparatus belonging to the above institutions; 
used solely for the purposes above contempiatea, and the like property of 
students in any such institutions, used for their education. 

3. Money and credits belonging exclusively to such institutions and de- 
voted solely to sustaining them, but not exceeaing in amount or income the 
sum prescribed by their charter. 

4. Animals not hereafter specified, the wool shorn from sheep, belonging 
to the person giving the list, nis farm produce harvested within one year 
previous to the listing; private libraries not exceeding three hundred dol- 
kirs in value; &mily pictures, kitchen furniture, beds and bedding requisite 
for each famuy, all wearing apparel in actual use, and all food provided for 
the &mily; but no person from whom a compensation for board or lodging 
is received or expect, is to be considered a member of the family within 
the intent of this clause. 

5. The polls or estates or both of persons who, bv reason of age or in- 
firmity, may, in the opinion of the assessor, be unable to contribute to the 
public revenue; such opinion and the fact upon which it is based being in 
an cases reported to Ae Board of Equalization by the Assessor or any other 
person, ana subject to reversal by them. 

6. The fiyrming utensils of any person who makes his livelihood by fium- 


196 j^nnULOr ov tbb laws of k>wa. 

ing, and the tools of any ineehanic, not in ieitlier case to exceed three hun- 
dred dollars in valne. 

7. Oovemment lands entered or located or lands purchased from this 
State, should not be taxed for the year in which the entry, location or pur- 
chase is made. 

There is also a suitable exemption, in amoont, for planting firuit trees or 
forest trees or hedges. 

Where buildings are destroyed by fire, tornado, or other unavoidable cas- 
ualty, after being assessed for the year, the Board of Supervisors may rebate 
taxes for that year on the property destroyed, if mime haa not l^e&n sold/br 
taxes J and if said tanoes nave not been aeUnquent for thdrtj/ days at the 
time of destraction of the property, and the rebate snail be allowed for such 
loss only as is not covered d^ insurance. 

All other property is subject to taxation. Every inhabitant of full age 
and sound mmd shall assist the Assessor in listing all taxable property of 
which he is the owner, or which he controls or mana^, either as agent, 
guardian, father, husband, trustee, executor, accounting officer, partner, 
.mortagor or lessor, mortgagee or lessee. 

Boi^ beds of railway corporations shall not be assessed to owners of ad- 
jacent property, but shall be considered the property of the companies for 
purposes o^ taxation; nor shall real estate used as a public highway be as- 
sessed and taxed as part of adjacent lands whence the same was taken for 
such public purpose. 

The property of railway, tel^raph and express companies shall be listed 
and assessed for taxation as the property of an indiviaual would be listed 
and assessed for taxation. Collection of taxes made as in the case of an in- 

The Township Board of Equalization shall meet the first Monday in April 
of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court 

The County Board of Equalization (the Board of Supervisors) meet at 
their regular session in June of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court 

Taxes become delinqnent February 1st of each year, payable, without in- 
terest or penalty, at anj time before march 1st of each year. 

Tax safe is held on m*st Monday of October in each year. 

Bedemption may be made at any time within three years after date of 
^ale, by paying to the County Auditor the amotmt of sale, and twenty per 
centum of sum amount immediately added as penalty ^ with ten per cent, 
interest per a^Mywm on the whole amount thus made from the day of sale, 
and al^o all subsequent taxes, interest and costs paid by purchaser after 
March 1st of each year, and a similar ^ana^ of twenty per centum added 
as before, with ten per cent interest as before. 

If no^ce has been given, by purchaser, of the date at which the redemp- 
tion is limited, the cost of same is added to the redemption money. Nin^ 
days' notice is required, by the statute, to be published by the purchaser or 
holder of certificate, to terminate the right of redemption. 


District Courts have jurisdiction, general and original, both civil and 
criminal, except in such cases where Circuit Courts have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion. District Courts have exclusive supervision over courts of Justices 
of the Peace and Magistrates, in criminal matters, on appeal and writs of 

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Oircuii Courts have jurisdiction, general and original, with the Dis- 
trict Courts, in all civil actions and special proceedings, and exclusws ^m- 
rudicUon, in all appeals and writs of error from inferior courts, in civil 
matters. And exmtsive jtmsdiction in matters of estates and general 
probate business. 

JusHces of the Peace have jurisdiction in dvil matters where $100 
or less is involved. Bj consent of parties, the jurisdiction may be ex- 
tended to an amount not exceeding |300. They have jurisdiction to try 
and det^mine all ]^ublic offense less than felony, committed within their 
req»ective counties, m which the finsy by law, does not exceed %100 or the 
imprisonment thirty days. 


Action for injuries to the person or reputation; for a statute penalty; 
iuid to enforce a mechanics' lien, must be brought in two (2) years. 

Those a^inst a public officer within three (3) jrears. 

Those founded on unwritten contracts; for injuries to property; for 
rdief on tlie ground of fraud; and all other actions not provided for, 
within five (5) years. 

Those founded on written contracts; on judCTaents of any court (except 
those provided for in next section), and for the recovery of real property, 
within ten (10) years. 

Those founded on judgment of any court of record in the United States, 
within twenty (20) years. 

All above limits, except those for penalties and forfeitures, are extended 
in favor of minors and insane persons, until one year after the disability is 
removed — ^time during which aeiendant is a non-resident of the State shall 
not be included in compntinff any of the above periods. 

Actions for the recovery of real property, sold for non-payment of taxes, 
must be brought within five years after tiie Treasurer's Deed is executed 
and recorded, except where a minor or convict or insane person is the 
owner, and they shall be allowed five years after disability is removed, in 
which to bring action. 


An qualified electors of the State, of good moral character, sound judg- 
ment, and in full possession of the senses of hearing and seeing, are compe- 
tent jurors in their respective counties. 

United States officers, practicing attorneys, physicians and clergymen, 
acting professors or teachers in institutions of learning, and persons dis- 
abled by bodily infirmity or over sixty-^five years of age, are exempt from 
liability to act as jurors. 

Any person may be excused from serving on a jury when his own inter- 
ests or the public's will be materially injuiid by his attendance, or when tiie 
state of his health or the deaths or sickness of his &mily requires his ab- 


^^ restored by the Seventeenth General Asaembly, making it optional 
wiA the jury to inflict it or not 

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A wimmEn woman 

may convey or incumber real estate, or interest therein, belon^nng to her; 
may control the same or contract with reference thereto, as omer persons 
may convey, encumber, control or contract 

She may own, acquire, hold, convey and devise property, as her husband 

Her husbuid is not liable for civil injuries conmiitted by her. 

She may convey property to her husoand, and he may convey to her. 

She may constitute her husband her attorney in fSact 


A resident of the State and head of a family may hold the following" 
pro^ertv exempt from execution: All wearing apparel of himself and 
family kept for actual use and suitable to the condition, and the trunks or 
other receptacles necessary to contain the same; one musket or rifle and 
shot-gun; all private libraries, &mily Bibles, portraits, pictures, musical in- 
struments, ana paintings not kept for the purpose or sale; a seat or pew 
occupied by the debtor or his family in anv house of pubUo worship; an 
interest in a public or private burying grouna not exceeaing one acre; two 
cows and a calf; one norse^ unless a horse is exempt as nereinafter pro- 
vided; fifty sheep and the wool therefrom, and the materials manufactured 
from said wool; six stands of bees; five hogs and all pigs under six 
months; the necessaiy food for exempted animals for six months; all flax 
raised from one acre of ^und, and manufactures therefrom; one bedstead 
and necessary bedding for every two in the family; all cloth manufactured 
by the defendant not exceeding one hundred yards; household and kitchen 
furniture not exceeding two hundred dollars m value; all spinning wheels 
and looms; one sewing machine and other instruments of domestic labor 
kept for actual use; tne necessary provisions and fuel for the use of the 
family for six months; the proper tools, instruments, or books of the debtor, 
if a farmer, mechanic, surveyor, elerjgyman, lawyer, physician, teacher or 
professor; the horse or the team, consisting of not more than two horses or 
mules, or two yokes of cattle, and the wagon or other vehicle, with the 
proper harness or tackle, by the use of which the debtor, if a physician, 
public officer, farmer, teamster or other laborer, habitually earns his living; 
and to the debtor, if a printer, there shall also be exempt a printing press 
and the types, furniture and material necessary for the use of such printing 
press, ana a newspaper office to the value of twelve hundred dollars: the 
earnings of such aebtor, or those of his &mily, at any time within mnety 
days next precediujg the levy. 

rersons unmarried and not the head of a family, and non-residents, have 
exempt their own ordinary wearing apparel and trunks to contain the same. 

There is also exempt, to a head of a family, a homestead, not exceeding 
fbrty acres; or^if inside city limits, one-half acre with improvements, value , 
not limited. The homestead is liable for all debts contracted prior to its 
acquisition as such, and is subject to mechanics' liens for work or material 
funiished for the same. 

An article, otherwise exempt, is liable, on execution, for the purchase 
money thereofl 

Where a debtor, if a head of a family, has started to leave the State, he 

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shall have exempt only the ordinary wearing apparel of himself and fiBtmilj, 
and other property in addition, aa he may aetect, in all not exceeding seventy- 
five dollars in valna 

A policy of life insorance shall innre to the separate nao of the' husband 
or wife and children, entirely independent of his or her creditors. 


A bounty of one dollar is paid for wolf scalps. 


Any person may adopt his own mark or brand for his domestic animals, 
or have a description thereof recorded by the towiiship cleric. 

No person shall adopt the recorded mark or brand of any person residing 
in his township. 


Wlien anv person's lands are enclosed by a lawful fence, th^ owner of 
any domestic animal injuring said lands is liable for the damages, and the 
damages may be recovered by suit against the owner, or mav be made b} 
distraining the animals doins the damage; and if the party injured electa 
to recover by action against the owner, no appraisement need be made by 
the trustees, as in case of distraint. 

When trespaseinff animals are distrained within twenty-foar hours, Sun- 
day not included, the party injured shall notify the owner of said auimals, 
if jcnown; and if the owner fails to satisfy the party within twenty-four 
hours thereafter, the party shall have the township trustees assess the dam- 
ages, and notice shall be posted up in three conspicuous places in the town- 
ship, that the stock, or part thereof, shall, on tM tenth day a/ier posting 
the notice^ between the hours of 1 and 3 p. h., be sold to the highest bidder, 
to satisfy said damages, with costs. 

Appeal lies, within twenty days, from the action of the trustees to the 
circuit court 

Where stock is restrained, bv police regulation or by law, from running 
at large, any person injured in his improved or cultivated lands by auy do- 
mestic animal, may, by action a^inst the owner of such animal, or by dis- 
training such animal, recover his damages, whether the lands whereon the 
injury was done were inclosed by a lawful fence or not. 


An xmbroken animal shall not be taken up as an estray between May 1st 
and NovembOT Ist, of each year, unless the same be found within the law- 
ful enclosure of a householder, who alone can take up such animal, unless 
some other person gives him notice of the fact of such animal coming on 
his place; and if he rails, within five days thereafter, to take up such estray, 
any other householder of the township may take up such estray and pro- 
ceed with it as if taken on his own premises, provided he shall prove to the 
Justice of the Peace such notice, and shall make affidavit where such estray 
t^en up. 

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Any Bwine, sheep, coat, horse, neat cattle or other animal distrained (fi>r 
damage done to on^s endosore), when the owner is not known, shall be 
treatra as an estray. 

Within five days after taking up an estray, notice containing a full de- 
scription thereof, shall be posted up in three of the most pubhc places in 
the township; and in ten days, the person taking up such estray shsJl go 
before a Justice of the Peace in the township and make oath as to where 
such estray was taken up, and that the marks or brands have not been al- 
tered, to his knowledge. The estray shall then be appraised, by order of 
the Justice, and the appraisement, description of the size, age, color, sex, 
marks and brands of tne estray shall be entered by the Justice in a book 
kept for that purpose, and he shall, within ten days thereafter, send a certi- 
flea copy thereof to the County Auditor. 

When the appraised value of an estray does not exceed five dollars, the 
Justice need not proceed further than to enter the description of the estray 
on his book, and if no owner appears within six months, the property shall 
vest in the finder, if he has complied with the law and paid aU costs. 

Where appraised value of estray exceeds five and is less than ten dollars, 
if no owner appears in nine months, the finder has the property, if he has 
complied with the law and paid costs. 

An estray, legally taken up, may be used or worked with care and mod- 

If any person unlawfully take up an estfay, or take up an estray and fail 
to comply with the law r^arding estrays, or nse or work it contrary to 
above, or work it before having it appraised, or keep such estray out of the 
county more than five days at one time, before acquiring ownership, such 
ofiender shall forfeit to the county twenty dollars, and tne owner may r^ 
cover double damages with costs. 

If the owner of any estray fail to claim and prove his title for one year 
after the taking up, and the finder shall have complied with the law, a com- 
plete title vests in the finder. 

But if the owner appear within eighteen months from the taking up, 
prove his ownership ana pay all costs and expenses, the finder shall pay him 
the appraised value of such estray, or may, at bis option, deliver up the es- 


A lawful fence is fifty-four inches high, made of rails, wire or boards, 
with posts not more than ten feet apart where rails are used, and eight feet 
where boards are used, substantially built and kept in good repair; or any 
other fence, in the opinion of the lence viewers, shall be declared a lawful 
fence — ^provided the lower rail, wire or board be not more than twenty nor 
less than sixteen inches from the ground. 

The respective owners of lands enclosed with fences shall maintain parti- 
tion fences between their own and next adjoining enclosure so long as they 
improve them in equal sharee^ unless otherwise agreed between them. 

If any party neglect to maintain such partition fence as he should main- 
tain, the fence viewers (the township trustees), upon complaint of aggrieved 
!>arty, may, upon due notice to both parties, examine the fence, and, if 
bund insufficient, notify the delinquent party, in writingy to repair or re- 
build the same within such time as they judge reasonable. 

If the fence be not repaired or rebuilt accordingly, the complainant may 

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do 00, and the same being adjudged sniBcient bj the fence viewers, and the 
valoe thereof, with their fees, being ascertained and certified nnder their 
hands, the complainant may demand of the delinquent the sum so ascer- 
tained, and if the same be not paid in one month after demand, may recover 
it with one per cent a month interest, by action. 

In case of disputes, the fence viewers may decide as to who shall erect or 
maintain partition fences, and in what time the same shall be done; and in 
ease any party neglect to maintain or erect such part as may be assigned to 
him, the aggrieved party may erect and maintain the same, and recover 
doable damages. 

No person, not wishing his land enlosed, and not nsing it otherwise than 
in common, shall be compelled to maintain any partition fence; bat when 
he uses or incloses his land otherwise than in common, he shall contribute 
to the partition fences. 

Where parties have had their lands inclosed in common, and one of the 
owners desire to occupy his separate and spart from the other, and the other 
refuses to divide the line or onild a sufficient fence on the line when di- 
vided, the fence viewers may divide and assign, and upon neglect of the 
other to build as ordered by the viewers, the one may build the other's part 
and recover as above. 

And when one incloses land which has lain nninclosed, he must pay for 
one-half of each partition fence between himself and his neighbors. 

Where one desires to lay not less than twenty feet of his lands, adjoining 
his neighbor, out to the public to be used in common, he must give his 
neighbor six months' notice thereof. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mistake, the 
owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and material 
within six months after the division line has been ascertained. Where the 
material to build such a fence has been taken from the land on which it was 
bnilt, then, before it can be removed, the person claiming must first pay 
for such material to the owner of the land from which it was taken, nor 
shall 9uoh a fence be removed at a time when the removal will throw open 
or expose the crops of the other party; a reasonable time must be given be- 
yond the six months to remove crops. 


Any person competent to make a will can adopt as his own the minor 
child of another. The consent of both parents, if living and not divorced 
or separated, and if divorced or separated, or if unmarried, the consent of 
the parent lawfully having the custody of the child; or if either parent is 
dead, then the consent of the survivor, or if both parents be dead, or the 
child have been and remain abandoned by them, then the consent of the 
Mayor of the city where the child is living, or if not in the city, then of the 
Clerk^ of the Circuit Court of the county shall be given to such 
adoption by an instrument in writing, signed by parties consenting, and stat- 
ii^ the names of the parties, if known, the name of the child, if known, 
the name of the person adopting such child, and the residence of all, if 
known, and declaring the name by which the child is thereafter to be caJled 
And kiM>wn, and stating, also, that such child is given to the person adopting, 
for the purpose of adoption as his own child. 

The person adopting shall also sign said instrument, and all the parties 

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204 ABnsAcr of tbb laws of iowa. 

shall aoknowledffe the same in the manner that deeds oonvejring lands ishaQ 
be acknowledgea. 
Tlie instrument shall be recorded in the office of the Oonnty Recorder. 


There is in eyery county elected a Surveyor known as a County Surveyor, 
who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is responsiole. 
It is the duty of the County Surveyor, either by himself or his deputy, to 
make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within his county as 
soon as may be after application is made. The necessary chainmen and 
other assistance must be employed by the person requiring the same to be 
done, and to be by him paia, unless otherwise agreed; but the chainmen 
must be disinterested persons and approved by the Surveyor and sworn by 
him to measure justly and impartially. Previous to any survey, he shall 
furnish himself with a cop^ of the field notes of the original survey of ^e 
same land, if there be any m the office of the County Auditor, and his sur- 
vey shall be made in accordance therewith. 

Their fees are three dollars per day. For certified copies of field notes, 
twenty-five cents. 


Every mechanic, or other person who shall do any labor upon, or furnish 
any materials, machinery or nxtures for any building, erection or other im- 
provement upon land, including those engaged in the construction or repair 
of any work of internal improvement, oy virtue of anv contract with the 
owner, his agent, trustee, contractor, or sub-contrrctor, shall have a Uen, on 
complying with the forms of law, upon the building or other improvement 
tor his laoor done or materials furnished. 

It would take too large a space to detail the manner in which a sub-con- 
tractor secures his lien. He snould file, within thirty davs after the last of the 
labor was performed, or the last of the materiid sliall have been furnished, 
with the clerk of the District Court a true account of the amount due him, 
after allowing all credits, setting forth the time when such material was fur- 
nished or labor performed, and when completed, and containing a correct 
description of the property sought to be charged with the lien, and the whole 
verifi^ by affidavit. 

A principal contractor must file such an affidavit within ninety days, as 

Ordinarily, there are so many points to be examined in order to secure a 
mechanics' lien, that it is much 1]^tter, unless one is acustomed to managing 
such liens, to consult at once an attorney. 

Eemember that the proper time to file the claim is ninety davs for a prin- 
cipal contractor, thirty days for a sub-contractor, as above; ana that actions . 
to enforce these liens must be commenced within two years, and the rest can 
much better be done with an attorney. 


Persons meeting each other on the public highwars, shall give one-half of 
the same by turning to the right All persons failing to observe this rule 
shall be liable to pay all damages resulting therefrom, together with a fine, 
not exceeding five dollars. 

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The proaecation must be institated on the complaint of the person 

Any person gailty of racing horses, or driving upon the public highway, 
in a manner likely to endanger the persons or the lives of others, shall, on 
conviction, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisoned not 
exceeding thirty days. 

It is a misdemeanor, without authority from the proper Eoad Supervisor, 
to break upon, plow or dig within, the boundary Imes of any public high- 

Ilie money tax levied upon the property in each road district in each town- 
shij) (except the jgeneral Township Fund, set apart for purchasing tools, ma- 
chinery and guide boards), whether collected by the Boad Supervisor or 
County Treasurer, shall be exjJended for highwav purposes in that district, 
and no part thereof shall be paid out or expended for the benefit of another 

The Boad Supervisor of each district, is bound to keep the roads and 
bridges therein, m as good condition as the funds at his disposal will permit; 
to put guide boards at cross roads and forks of highways in his district; and 
when notified in writing that any portion of the public highway, or any 
bridge is unsafe, must in a reasonable time repair the same, and for this pur- 
pose may call out any or all the able bodied men in the district, but not 
more than two days at one time, without their consent 

Also, when notified in writing, of the growth of any Canada thistles upon 
vacant or non-resident lands or vacant lots, within nis district, the owner, 
lessee or agent thereof beins unknown, shall cause the same to be destroyed. 

Bridges when erected ana maintained by the public, are parts of the high- 
way, and must not be less than sixteen feet wide. 

A penalty is imposed upon any one who rides or drives faster than a walk 
across any snch bridge. 

The manner of establishing, vacating or altering roads, etc., is so well 
known to all township of&cers, that it sufficient here to say that the first step 
is by petition, filed in the Auditors' office, addressed in substance as follows: 

Tlie Boajrd of Supervisors of County: The undersigned asks that 

a highway, commencing at and running thence and terminating 

at , be established, vacated or altered (as the case may be). 

When the petition is filed, all necessary and succeding steps will be shown 
and eiqplwiea to the petitioners by the Auditor. 


The father, mother and children of any poor person who has applied for 
ud, and who is unable to maintain himself by work, shall, jointfy or sev- 
erally, maintain such poor person in such manner as may be approved by 
the Township Trustees. 

In the absence or inability of nearer relatives, the same liability shall ex- 
tend to the grandparents, if of ability without personal labor, and to the 
male grandchildren who are of ability, by personal labor or otherwise. 

The Township Trustees may, upon the lailore of such relatives to main- 
tain a poor person, who has made application for relief, apply to the Circuit 
Conrt tor an order to compel the same. 

Upon ten days' notice, in writing, to the parties sought to be charged, a 
hearing may be had, and an order made for entire or partial support of the 
poor person. 

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Appeal may be taken from such judgment as from other jndgments of 
the Circuit Court. 

When any person, having any estate, abandons eitiher children, wife or 
husband, leaving them chargeable, or likely to become cliar^eable, upon ib% 
public for support, upon proof of above fact,«an order may be had from the 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, or Judge, authorizing the Trustees or the Sh^iff 
to take into possession such estate. 

The court may direct such personal estate to be sold, to be applied, ai 
well as the rents and profits oi the real estate, if any, to the support of 
children, wife or husband. 

If the party against whom the order is issued return and support the per- 
son abanaoned, or five security for the same, the order shall be discharged, 
and the properbr taken returned. 

The mode or relief for the poor, through the action of the Township 
Trustees, or the action of the JBoard of Supervisors, is so well known to 
every township officer, and the circumstances attending applications for re- 
lief are so varied, that it need now only be said that it is the duty of each 
county to provide for its poor, no matter at what place they may hie. 


A tenant living notice to quit demised premises at a time named, and 
afterward holding over, and a tenant or his assignee willfully holding over 
the premises after the term, and after notice to ^uit, shall pay double r&[kt 

Any person in possession of real property, with the assent of the owner, 
is presumed to be a tenant at will until the contraiy is shovni. 

Thirty days' notice, in writing, is necessary to be given by either party 
before he can terminate a tenancv at will; but when, in any case, a rent is 
reserved payable at intervals of less than thirty days, the length of notice 
need not oe greater than such interval between the days of payment In 
case of tenants occupying and cultivating farms, the notice must fix the ter- 
mination of the tenancy to take place on the 1st of March, except in cases 
of field tenants and croppers, whose leases shall be held to expire when the 
crop is harvested; provided, that in a case of a crop of com, it shall not be 
later, than the 1st day of December, unless otherwise agr^ upon. But 
when an express agreement is made, whether the same has been reduced to 
writing or not, the tenancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without 

But where an express agreement is made, whether reduced to writing or 
not, the tanancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

If such tenant cannot be found in the county, the notices above required 
may be given to an^ sub-tenant or other person in possession of the prem- 
ises; or if the premises be vacant, by affixing the notice to the principal door 
of the building, or on some conspicuous position on the land, if there be no 

The landlord shall have a lien for his rent upon all the crops grown on the 
premises, and upon any other personal property of the tenant used on the 
premises during the term, and not exempt from execution, for a period of 
one year after a year's rent or the rent of a shorter period claimed tails due; 
but such lien sliall not continue more than six months after the expiration 
of the term. 

The lien may be effected by the commencement of an action, within the 

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period above described, for rent alone; and the landlord is entitled to a writ 
of attachment, upon filing an affidavit that the action is oommenoed to re- 
cover rent aocmed within one jear previous thereto apon the premises de- 
scribed in the affidavit 


Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or sold or 
delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to the con* 
trary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to wit: 

Applttf P^achss or Qoinoes 48 

(%arie8,Oiape8,GniTaiiiaQrGooteber'8, 40 
Stiawberries, Raspbeniet or Blackber*8, 82 

Osage Onngo Seed 32 

M^Sced 45 

Stone Coal 80 


Com in the ear. 






Shdled Com... 









, 57 




SvseiPotatoes 46 


Soi^m Seed 

Broom Com Seed. 





• 80 
. 80 
. 52 

• 50 



Castor Beans 46 

TimothTSeed 45 

Hemp Seed 44 

Dried Peaches 83 

Gate 33 

DriedApi^es 24 

Bran 20 

Blue Grass Seed 14 

Hungarian Grass Seed 45 

Penalty for giving less than the above standard is treble damages and 
costs and five dollars addition thereto as a fine. 


Form of DOte is legal, worded in the simplest waj, so that the amount 
and time of payment are mentioned: 

$100. OmcAoo, m., Sept 16, 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to £. F. Brown or order, one hun- 
dred dollara, for valae received. L. D. Lowbt. 

A note to be payable in anything else than money needs only the facts 
sabstitnted fi>r money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thns; 
Mr. F. H. Coats: OmoAoo, Sept 16, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 


W. N. Mabov, Salsk, Illinois, Sept 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Gbjlhah. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.60 $6 00 

5 Seamless Sacks *' 80 60 

Beceived payment, 

$6 60 

A. A. Obaham. 

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ReoeiptB shonld always state when received and what for, thns: 
$100. OmoAOO, Sept 15, 187<L 

Beceived of J. W. Davis, one h oadr e d cMiars, for ser- 
vices rendered in grading his Jot in Fort Madison, on acconnt. 

Thoicas Bsadt. 
If receipt is in fhll, it should be so stated. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of IT. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

£ means potmch^ English money. 

@ stands for o^ or ^; & {or pounds, and bbl. for barreh; f) for per or 
by the. Thus, Butter sells at 20® 30c 1S> &» ^^^ ^l^^r &t $8®$12 % bbl. 

®^ for per cent, and J( for number. 

May 1. Wheat sells at $1.20® $1.26, ^' seller June." Seller June means 
that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering it lit any 
time dunne the month of Jane. 

Selling mortj is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or stock, 
at a fixM price, within a certain length of time, when the seller has not 
the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling ^^ short " to 
depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and fill 
his contract at a profit. Hence the ^shorts " are termed *^ bears/' 

Buying lona, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of c^rain or 
shares of stocK at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, ex- 
pecting to make a profit by the rise in prices. The ^' longs " are termed 
** bulls," as it is for their interest to *' operate " so as to " toss " the prices 
upward as much as possible. 


-, Iowa, y 18— w 

after date — promises to pay to the order of y dollars, 

at n , for value received, with interest at ten per cent per annum after 

until paid. Interest payable , and on interest not paid when due^ 

interest at same rate and conditions. 

A Cailnre to pay said interest, or any part thereof, within 20 days after dae, shall cause the 
whole note to become dne and collectible at once. 

If this note Ib sued, or jadgment is confessed hereon, $—^- shall be allowed as attorney feet. 
No.--. P.O. , w 


— ^vs. — In Court of County, Iowa, ^ of 

County, Iowa, do hereby confess that JQstlv indebted to y in the 

sum of dollars, and the further sum of i as attorney fees, with 

interest thereon at ten per cent from y and — hereW confess judg- 
ment against as defendant in favor of said y for said sum w 

$—— , and $ as attorney fees, hereby authorizing the Clerk of the 

Court of said county to enter up judgment for said sum against 

with costs, and interest at 10 per cent from y the interest to be paid — » 

Said debt and judgment being for . 

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It 18 especiaHy agreed, however, That if t^s judgment is paid within 

twenty dajB after dnc^ no attorney feea need be paid. And ^hereby selU 

coo?ej and release all right of homestead we now occupy in favor of said 

80 far «8 this judgment is conoemedy and agree that it shall be liable 

on execution for this juogmont. 

Dated , 18—. . 

The State of Iowa, ) 

County. ) 

being duly sworn according to law, depose and say that the fore- 

Siing 8tatement and Confession of Judgment was read over to , and 
at — understood the contents thereof, and that the statements contained 
therein are true, and that the sums therein mentioned are justly to become 

dno said as aforesaid. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me and in my presence by the said 
this day of , 18—. , Notary Public. 


An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always sares misunderstand- 
ings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the fiu^ts must be 
clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a reason- 
able consideration. 

General Form of Agremnent4 — ^This lu^reement, made the second day of 
Jane, 1878, between John Jones, of Keokuk, county of Lee, State of Iowa, 
of the first part, and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second 

WUnes9eth: That the said John Jones, in consideration of the agreement 
of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and lu^rees 
to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good and 
marketable condition, at the village of Melrose, Iowa, during the month of 
November, of this year, one hundred tons of prairie hay, in the following 
lott, and at the following specified times; namely, twenty-five tons by the 
aeventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the fourteenth of the 
month, twenty-five tons more bv the twenty-first, and the entire one hun- 
dred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt fulfill- 
ment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts to 
and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per 
ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is hereby 
stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the other, one 
hundred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we h»ve hereunto set our hands the day and year first 
above written* John Jonbs, 

Thomas Whitesidb. 

Am&mofU wth CUrhfor Services. — ^This agreement, made the first day - 
of Itay, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight, between Beuben 
Stone, of Dubuque, coun^ of Dubuque, State of Iowa, party of the first 


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part, and George Barday, of McGregor, county of Clayton, State of Iowa, 
party of the Becond part — 

Wiinesseth: That the 6aid George Barclay ames faithfully and diligently 
to work as clerk and salesman for tne said Keuben Stone, for and during^ the 
space of one year from the date hereof, should both lire such len^h of tinae, 
without absenting himself from his occupation; during which tmxe he, the 
said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of Dubuque, will carefully ^nd 
honestly attend, doing and performing all duties as clerk and salesman 
aforesaid, in accordance and m all respects as directed and desired by the 
said Stone. 

In consideration of which serrices, so to be rendered by the said Barclaj, 
the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one thonsnod 
dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon the last day 
of each month; provided that all dues for days of absence rrom business by 
said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum otherwise by the agreement 
due and payable by the said Stone to the said Barclay. 

Witness our hands. Beuben Stonb. 

Gbobos Babolat* 
bills of salb. 

A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consideratioB 
to convey his riffht and interest in the personal property. Th0 purehc^^&r 
must tarn acttuu possession of the property y or the bill of sale mvst be ae^ 
hnowledged and recorded. 

Common Form of BUI of Sale. — Know all men by this instrument, that 
I, Louis Olay, of Burlington, Iowa, of the first part, for and in consideration 
of five hundred and ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, 
of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, 
and by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, his executors, administrators and assigns, my unaivided half of ten 
acres of com, now growing on the farm of Thomas xyrell, in the town above 
mentioned; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, belonging to me 
and in my possession at the farm aforesaid; to have and to hold the same unto 
the party of the second part, his executors and assigns forever. And I do, 
for myself and legal representatives, agree with the said party of the second 
part, and his legal representatatives, to warrant and defend the sale of the 
aforementioned property and chattels unto the said party of the seccmd part, 
and his legal representatives, against all and any person whomsoever. 

In witness wnereof, I have hereunto aflixed my hand, this tenth day of 
October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Olat. 


To John Wontpay: Yon are hereby notified to quit the possession of 
the premises you now occupy, to-wit: 

[Inssrt^ DescHpUkm.] 

on or before thirty days from the date of this notice. 
Dated January 1, 1878. Landlord 

[Bevsrssdfar Kaiies to Ltmihrd.] 

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AfiSrrRACT OF THB laws of IOWA. 211 


I, Charles Mansfield, of the towii of Bellevne, conntj of Jackson, State of 
Iowa, being aware of the oncertaiutj of life, and in failing health, bnt of 
sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be mj last will and 
testament, in manner following, to-wit: 

F*vr%t. I give, devise and beqneath nnto to my eldest son, Sydney H. 
Mansfield, the snm of Two Thousand Dollars, of bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself, 
in the township of Iowa, consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, with all 
the houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging; to have and 
b> hold nnto my said son, his lieirs and assigns forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Anna 
Loaise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand Dollars, in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio; and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in the township of 
Fairneld, and recorded in my name in the recorder's office in the county 
where such land is located. The north one hundred and sixty acres of said 
half section is devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 

Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mansfield, 
five shares of railroad stock in the Baltimore & Ohio Eailroad, and my one 
hundred and sixty acres of land, and saw-mill thereon, situated in Manistee, 
Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing, which said real estate is recorded in my name, in the county where 

Fourth, I give to my wife, Victoria EKzabeth Mansfield, all my house-' 
hold furniture, goods, chattels and personal property, about my home, not 
hitherto disposed of, including Ei^nt Thousand Dollars of bank stock in 
the Third Is ational Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, fifteen shares in tiie Balti- 
more & Ohio Bailroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and 
benefit of the home fiurm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower, to 
which she is entitled by law — said &rm being my present place of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid fstther, Elijah H. Manlsfield, the income 
from rents of my store building at 145 JacKson street, Chica^, Illinois, 
during the term of his natural life. Said bnilding and land therewith to 
revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon the demise 
of my said &ther. 

. Sioth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, Yic- 
toria Elizabeth Mansneld, or at any time when she may arrange to relin- 
qnish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may re- 
y^-t to my above named children, or to the lawM heirs of each. 

And Uufly. I nominate and appoint as the executors of diis, my last 
will and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest 
ion, Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I fiirther direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be 
paid from moneys now on deposit in the Saymgs Bank oi Bellevue, the 
residue of snch moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, 
fer her use forever. 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and testa- 
ment, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourm day of April^ eight- 
een hundred and seventy-two. 

Ohablbs Mansfield. 

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Signed, and declared by Charles Mansfield, as and for his last wiU and 
testament, in the presence of ns, who, at his request, and in his presenoe, 
and in the presenoe of each other, have sabsGribed our names hereanto as 
witnesses thereofl 

Pbteb a. Sohekok, Dnbuqne, Iowa. 

Fraxhe K Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 


Whereas I, Oharles Mansfield, did, on the fonrth day of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testament^ 
I do now, by this writing, add this cododl to my said will, to be taken as 4 
part thereoL 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Proyidence, my daughter, Anna LouisOt 
has deceased, Noyemt^ fifth, eighteen hundred and seyenty-three^ and 
whereas, a son has been bom to me, which son is now christened Kichard 
Albert Mansfield. I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest ana tiue in lands and bank stock and diattels bequealihed to 
my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this wiU. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hana and seal, this tenth day of 
March, eighteen hundred and seyenty-fiye. 

Charles Maesvield. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, Charlea 
Mansfield, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last win and testamentb 
And we, at his request, and in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other, haye subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereofl 

Fraex K Deet, Belleyue, Iowa. 

JoHE 0. Shat, Balleyue, Iowa. 

{Form ITo. 1.) 


State of Iowa, ) _^ 

County, f^ 

I, , <rf the county of » State of Iowa, do hereby acknowlecbe 

that a certain Indenture of ^ bearing date the day of ^ A. V. 

18 — , made and executed by and ^ his wife, to said on 

the following described £eal Estate, in the county of y and State of 

Iowa, to-wit: (h^re insert description) and filed for record in the ofiioe oi 

the Beoorder of the county of y and State of Iowa, on the day of 

^ A. D. 18—, at — — o'clock . M.; and recorded in Book . of 

Mortgage Beocnrds, on page — *•, is redeemed^ paid ofi^ satisfied and dis> 
chai]|;ea in fidl. . [seal.] 

State of Iowa, ) 

County, ) 

Be it Bemembered, That on this - — day of , A. D. 18 — , before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared 

y to me personally known to .be the identical perspn who executed the 

aboye (satisfaction of mortgage) as grantor, and acknowledged —— 

si gna ture thereto to be yonmtary act and deed. 

Witness my band and s€«l, the day and year last above 

written. — — — . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Enow all Men by thbsb Pkbbsntb: That , of oonntj, luid 

State of — , m oonsideration of dollan, in hand paid by of 

oonniy, and Stale of ^ do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

the following doKsribed premises, situated in the conntgr of ^ and 

State of — -> to-wit: (here insert desoription) and doh^ieby oorenant 

with the said ■ that lawfully seixed of said premises, that they 

are firee from ineumbranoe, that have good right and lawful authority 

to sell and convey the same; and do hereby covenant to warrant and 

defbnd the same against the lawful daims of all pOTsons whomsoever. To 

be void upon condition that the said shall pay the full amount of 

principal and interest at the time therein specified, of oertain promis- 
sory note for the sum of dollars. 

One note for $ > due , 18 — ^ with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due j 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ ^, due — — , 18, — with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ ^ due , 18—, with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said Mortgagee agrees to pav all taxes that may be levied upon 
the above described premises. It is also agreed by the Mortgagor that if 
it becomes necessary to foreclose this mortg^Q;e, a reasonable amount shall 

be flowed as an attomev's fee for foreclosing. And the said hereby 

relinquishes all her right oi dower and homestead in and to the above de- 
scribed jM^mises. 

Signed this day of , A D. 18—. 

[Acknowledge as in Form No. 1.] 


This iKDENnrBB. made and executed by and between of the 

county of and State of ^ part of the first part, and of the 

county of —— ' and State 6t part of the second part, WUnessethj that 

the said part of the first part, for and in consideration of the sum of 

ifeUars, paid bv the said part of the second part, the receipt of which is 
hereby acknowledged, have granted and sold, and do by these presents, grant, 
bargain, sell, convey and confirm, unto the said party of the second part> 
heirs and assigns forever, the certain tract or parcel of real estate, sit- 
uated in the county of and State of , described as follows, to-wit: 

{Here ineert description.) 

The said part of the first part represent to and covenant with the part 
of the second part, that he have good right to sell and convey said prem- 
ises^ that they are free fi^m incumbrance, and that he will warrant and de- 
fend them against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever, and do ex- 
pressly hcnreby release all rights of dower in and to said premises, and relin- 
quish and convey all rights of homestead tlierein. 

This instrument is mad^ executed and delivered upon the following con- 
ditions, to-wit: 

FirH. Said first part agree to pay said — or order 

Second. Said first j[Nurt iurtiiier agree as is stipulated in said note, that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


if he shall fail to pay any of said interest when due, it shall bear interest 
at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, from the time the same beoomes dae, 
and this mortage shall stand security for the same. 

Third. Said first part further agree that he will pay all taxes and 
assessments levied upon said real estate before the same become delinquent, 
and if not })aid the holder of this mortgage may declare the whole Bum of 
money herein secured due and collectable at once« or he may elect to pay 
such taxes or assessments, and be entitled to interest on the same at the 
rate of ten per cent per annum, and this mortgage shall stand as securitj 
for the amount so paid. 
. Fov/rth. Said nrst part further agree that if he feil to pay anj ot 

said money, either principal or interest, within davs after the same 

becomes due; or fail to conform or comply with any of tne foregoing con- 
ditions or agreements, the whole sum herein secured shall become due imd 
payable at once, and this mortgage may thereupon be foreclosed immedi* 
ately for the whole of said money, interest and costs. 

Fifth. Said part further agree that in the event of the non-payment 
of either principal, interest or taxes when due, and upon the filing of'^a biQ 
of foreclosure of this mortgage, an attomey^s fee of dollars shall be- 
come due and payable, ana shall be by the court taxed, and this mortg^ 
shall stand as security therefor, and me same shall be included in the de- 
cree of foreclosure, and shall be made by the sheriff on general or special 
execution with the other money, interest and costs, and the contract em- 
bodied in this mortgage and the note described herein, shall in all respects 

be governed, construed and adjudjged by the laws of , where the 

same is made. The fore^in^ conditions being performed, this conveyance 
to be void, otherwise of lull force and virtue. 

■"^■^■^ • 

[Acknowledge as in form No. 1.] 


Tms Abtiole of Aobeement, Made and entered into on this day of 

^ A. D. 187-, by and between y of the county of ^ and 

State of Iowa, of the first part, and — » , of the county of , 

and State of Iowa, of the second part, witnesseth that the said party of the 
first ]part has this day leased unto the party of the second part the following 
described premises, to-wit: 

\neT6 insert description.] 

for the term of from and afker the — day of y A. D. 187-^ at 

the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows, to-wit : 

[ffere insert terms.] 

And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due and unnaid, or if 
default be made in any of the covenants herein contained, it shall then be 
lawful for the said party of the first part to re-enter said premises, or to 
destrain for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of 
forcible entry and detainer, notwithstanding the provision of Section 3613 
of the Code of 1873; or he may use any or all of^said remedies. 

And the said party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the 
first part the rent as above stated, except when said premises are untenable 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


by reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party 
or the second part, or persons family, or in employ, or by supe- 
rior force and ineyitable necessity. And the said party of tne second part 

ooyenants that will use the said premises as a — y and for no other 

purposes whatever; and that especially will not use said premises, or 

permit the same to be used, for any unlawful business or purpose whatever; 

that win not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said premises without 

the written consent of the lessor, under penalty of a forfeiture of all 

rights under this leas^ at the election of the party of the first part; and 

that will use all due care and diligence in guarding said property, with 

the buildings, gates, fences, etc, in as good repair as they now are, or may 
at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, inevitable 
necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of tiie 

lessee, or persons of family, or in ^— employ excepted; and at the 

Expiration of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said 

covenants herein contained, will, without further notice of any kind, 

quit and surrender the possession and occupancy of said premises in as good 
condition as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, dam- 
ages by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, only excepted. 

In witness whereof tlie said parties have subscribed their names on t^e 
date first above written. 

In presence of 



On or before the^day of , 18 — , for value received, I promise to 

pay or order, dollars, with intesest from date until paid, 

at ten per cent per annum, payable annually, at Unpaid interest 

shall bear interest at ten per cent per annum. On failure to pay interest 
within days after due, the whole sum, principal and interest, shall be- 
come due at once 


Know all Men by these Peesents: That of— ^ — County, and 

State of in consideration of—dollars, in hand paid by , of 

County and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said the 

following described personal property, now in the possession of ^in the 

conn^, and State of—, to- wit: 

[Here insert DescripHon.] 

And— —do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 
any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
and to said property being the right of redemption as herein provided. This 
conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
gnuitee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, for 

the sum of r dollars. 

One note for $ — ^ due , 18—, with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — y due j 18 — y with interest annually at ^per cent. 

One note for $ — y due y 18 — y with interest annually at ^per cent. 

One note for $ — y due , 18 — , with interest annually at— —per cent. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Tbe grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any time any part 
or portion of said notes should be due ana unpaid, said grantee may proceed 
by sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said 
notes, whether due or not, the grantor to pay all neces^ry expense of such 
foreclosure, including $ Attorney's fees, and whatever remains after 
paying off said notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day o f ■ , 18 — . ^ 

[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 


Ejfow ALL Men bt tbmb Prbsknts: That of — ^ County and 

State of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, in hand paid by 

~— ^ of C!ounty, and State of——, do hereby sell and convey unto 

the said and to — heirs and assigns, the following described premisea, 

situated in the County of-^— , State of Iowa, to-wit; 

And I do hereby covenant with the said ■ that — ^lawfully seized in fee 
simple of said premises, that thev are free from incumbrance; that — ^ha good 
right and lawful authority to sell the same, and — do herebv covenant to war« 
rant and defend the said premises and appurtenances thereto belonging, 
against the lawful claims of all persons wnomsoever; and the said 
hereby relinquishes all her right of dower and of homestead in and to the 
above described premises. 

Signed the day of , A. D. 18 — . 


[Acknowledged as in Form Ko. 1.] 


Know all Mbn bt thbsb Pbbsbnts: That , of County, State 

of y in consideration of the sum of dollars, to — in hand paid by 

y of County, State of y the receipt whereof — do hereby ac^ 

knowledge, have bargained, sold and quit-claimed, and by these presents do 

bargain, sell and quit-claim unto the said —and to — heirs and assigns 

forever, all — right, title, interest, estate, claim and demand, both at law and 
in equity, and as well in possession as in expectancy, of, in and to the fol- 
lowing described premises, to-wit: [here insert description] with aH and 
slngolar the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto belonging. 

Signed this -— day of , A. D. 18—^. 

Signed in Pbbsengb of 

[Acknowledged as in Form Na 1.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Know aix Mew bt thbdb PBraEurs: That ' of County, and 

State of am held and firmly bomid unto ' of County, and 

State of , in the sum of—— doIlarB, to be paid to the said , hit 

executors or assigns, f^ which payment well and truly to be made, I bind 
myself firmly by these presents. Signed the day of -, A. D. 18 — . 

The condition of this obligation is such, that if the said obligee shall pay 
to said obligor or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at 
the time therein specified, of — promissory note of even date herewith, for 
the sum of Dollars* 

One note for $ ■ , due , 18 — ^ with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ ^ due y 18—, with interest annually at — per cent 

One note for $ , due — — , 18 — > with interest annually at — p«r cent 

And pay all taxes accruing upon the lands herein described, then said obli- 
gor shall convey to the said obligee, or his assigns, that certain tract or par- 
eel of real estate, situated in the County of ^ and State of Iowa, des- 
cribed as follows, to-wit: [here insert description] by a Warranty Deed, 
with the nsnal covenants, duly executed and acknowledged. 

If said obligee should fail to m^e the payments as above stipulated, or 
any part thereof, as the same becomes due, said obligor may at nis option, 
by notice to the obligee, terminate his liability under the bond, and resume 
the possession and absolute control of said premises, time being the essence 
of this agreement 

On the fulfillment of the above conditions, this obligation to become 
void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; unless terminated by 
the obligor as above stipulated. 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 


By the laws of Iowa, as amended by the Legislature of 1878, it is unlaw* 
fill to do any of the following acts: 


1. To kill, trap, ensnare, or in any manner destroy any of the birds of 
the State, except oirds of prey and game birds, during the open seasons as 
provided by law; or to destroy the e^^ of such bir& as are protected by 
this section— except that persons kiSSng birds for scientific purposes, or 
pres^-vation in museums and cabinets, are not Uable under this section. 
Penalty, $5 to $25. 

2. To shoot or kill any prairie chicken ttom Dec 1 to Sept 1, woodcock 
from Jan. 1 to July 10, pheasant, wild turkey or quail from Jan. 1 to Oct 
1, wild duck, snipe, goose or brant trora May 1 to Aug. 15, deer or elk from 
Jan. 1 to Sept 1, beaver, mink, otter or muskrat from April 1 to Kovem^ 
ber. Penalty, deer or elk, $25; the others, $10. 

8. To take or attempt to take at any time with trap, net or snare any 
bird or animal mentioned in Sec 2, or to willfhlly destroy the e^ or nests 
of such birds. Except that beaver, mink, otter or muskrat may be trapped 

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918 iJKnsAcrr of thb la.w19 of iowa. 

or snared dnring tlie open season, or at any time for the protection of pri- 
vate property. Penalty the same as in section 2. 

4. To shoot or kill any wild dnok, goose or brant with any kind of gan, 
except such as is commonly shot from the shoxdder, or to use medicatra or 
poisoned food to capture or kill any of the birds mentioned in section 2. 
Penalty, $25, and tnirtr^ days in jail unless sooner paid« 

5. To shoot or kiU tor traffic any prairie chicken, snipe, woodcock, quail 
or pheasant at any time; for one person to kill during one day more than 25 
of either kind of said birds; to ship or take out of the State any bird 
mentioned in section 2, deer or elk; to buy, sell, or have in possession any 
such bird, deer or elk during the close season, except the first hye days. Pen- 
alty, deer or elk, $25; others, $10. 

6. For any person, firm, or corporation to have in possession, at one 
time, more than twenty-fiye of either prairie chicken, snipe, woodcock, quail 
or pheasant, unless lawfully received for transportation; to ship to any per- 
son in the State in one day more than one dozen of the birds mentioned in 
section 2; and in case of shipment an affidavit must be made that the birds 
have not been unlawfully killed, bought, sold, or had in possession, and are 
not shipped for sale or profit, and giving name and address of consignee 
and numoer of birds shipped, and a copj of the affidavit shall accompany 
the birds, etc. Penalty, same as in section 2. The making of a false affi- 
davit is perjury. 

7. For any common carrier, its agent or servant, to knowingly receive 
for transportation any bird or animal mentioned in section two, during the 
close season (except the first five days), or at any other time, except in the 
manner provided by law. Penalty," $100 to $300, or 30 days in jail, or 

8. The having in possession during the close season, except the first fivQ 
days, of any bird mentioned in section 2, deer or elk, is prima fade evidence 
of a violation of the law. 

9. Prosecutions, except under section 1, may be brought in any county 
where the game is found, and the court shall appoint an attorney to prose- 
cute, who shall be entitled to a fee of $10; and the person filing the infor- 
mation to a fee equal to half the fine imposed on the defendant; both fees 
to be taxed as costs. The county is, however, in no event liable for either. 


10. To catch or kill bass or wall-eyed pike from April 1 to June 1; sal- 
mon or trout from November 1 to February 1. Penalty, $5 to $26. 

11. To use any seine or net for the purpose of catching fish, except 
native minnows, and except by the fish commissioner for propagation and 
exchange. Penalty, $5 to $50 for first ofiense; $20 to $50 for second. 

12. To place across any river, creek, pond or lake, any trot line, dam, 
seine, weir, fish-dam, or pther obstruction, in such manner as to prevent the 
free passage of fish, except under the direction of the fish commissioner, and. 
except dams for manufacturing purposes provided with fish-ways. Penalty, 
$25 to $100, or 10 to 80 days in iail. 

13. To continue any dan^ or obstruction heretofore erected, for an unrea- 
sonable length of time, after the 6th day of April, 1878^ without having 
fish-ways provided therein. Penalty, $5 to $50 for first offense; $20 to $50 
for the second, and the dam abated as a nuisance. 

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14. Persons raising or propagating fish on their own premises, or own- 
ing premises on which there are waters having no natnral ontlet, snppli^ 
with fish, shall absolutely own said fish. Ko person shall take, or attempt 
to take, fish therefrom without consent of the owner. Penalty, $5 to $25, 
or 30 days in jail. 

The ''close'' season is when killing is forbidden; the ''open'' season is 
when it is not 


The business of publishing hooks by subscription^ having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents masing representations and declarations 
not authorised by thepuolimery in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the follow- 
ing statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the worK described : 
the consideration is concurrent tnat the publisher shall publish the book 
namedy and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. 2%e nature and character of the work is described h/ the pro- 
speetus and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before 
subscribing^ as t^y are the basis and consideration of the promise to pav, 
and not the too often exaqgerated statements of the aaentj who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions^ for which he is usually paid a commis- 
sion for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the con- 
ditions upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the 
publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription 
conditional, or modify or change the agreement of the publishsr^ as set out 
by the prospectus and sample, in order to bind the principal ^ the sub- 
sorter should see that such condition or changes are stated over or in con- 
nectiomoith his signature, BO thsit the publisher may have notice of the same. 
All persons making contracts in reterence to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as written is, that they can 
not be alteredy varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must he 
done in writing. It is therefore important that 9!!\ persons contemplating 
subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after the 
subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. Tney are agents appointee to do a particular business in a 
T^escrihed mode and Juive no authority to do it any other way to the pre- 
judice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
ttiatter. They can not collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but moruy. They can not extend the time of payment 
heyotid the time of delivery nor bind their principal for the payment of 
sxpenses incurred in their ousiness. 

Itioouldsave a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is; and if they cannot read them- 
Belves call on some one disinterested who can. 

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Constitution of State of Iowa. 

We J the People of the State oflowa^ ^(Ueful to the Supreme Being for ike 
hUseinge nitherto enjoyed^ andfeehng owr dependence on Him far a con^ 
tinuation of those hleesinge^ do ordain and estahlish a free and independ* 
efit government^ by the name of the State oflowa^ the boundarite whrn^eof 
s/ioll be as follows: 

Beginning in the middle of the main cliannel of the Mississippi river, 
at a point dae east of the middle of the month of the main channd of the 
Des Moines river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said 
Des Moines river, to a point on said river where the northern bonndary 
line of the State of Missouri — ^as established bj the Constitution of that 
State, adopted June 12, 1820— crosses the said middle of tlie main ehannd 
of the said Des Moines river; thence westwardly along the said northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established at the time aforesaid, 
until an extension of said line intersects the middle of the main channel of 
the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said 
Missouri river, to a point opposite the middle of the main channel of the Bi^ 
Sioux river, according to IS^icollett's map; thence up the main channel of 
the said Big Sioux river, according to saia map, until it is intersected by die 
parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude; thence east 
alon^ said parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, until said par- 
allel intersects the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence 
down the middle of the main channel of said Mississippi river, to the place 
of beginning. 

Abholb 1,— Bill of Eights. 

Section 1. All men are, by nature, free and equal, and have certain in- 
alienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and 
liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing aad 
obtaining safety ana happiness. 

Ssa 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government h 
instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and th^ 
have the right, at all times, to alter or reform the same, whenever the pub- 
lic good may require it. 

Sbo. 8. The Oeneral Assembly shall make no law respecting an eatab- 
ment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; nor shw any per- 
son be compelled to attend any place of worship, pay tithes, taxes, or other 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ooNsirruTioir of thb state of iowjl 231 

rates, for bailding or repairing plaoes of worship^ or the maintenaDoe of any 
minister or ministry. 

Ssa 4. No religions test shall .be required as a qnaUfioation for any 
office of public trust, and no person shall oe deprived of any of his rights, 
privileges, or capacities, or disqualified from the performance of any ol his 
pablic or private duties, or rendered incompetent to give evidence in any 
court of law or equity, in consequence of his opinions on the subject of re- 
ligion; and any party to any judicial proceeding shall have the right to use 
as a witness, or take the testimony of any other person, not disqualified on 
accoont of interest, who may be cognizant of any fact material to the case; 
and parties to suits may be witnesses, as provided by law. 

Seo. 5. Any citizen of this State who may hereafter be engafi^ed either 
directly or indirectly, in a duel, either as principal or accessory before the 
fact, shall forever be disqualified from holding any office under the Consti- 
tQtion of this State. 

Ssa 6. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation; the 
Oeocral Assembly shall not grant to any citizen, or class of citizens, privi- 
leges or immunities, which upon the same terms shall not equally belong 
to all citizens. 

SBa 7. Every person may speak, write and publish his sentiments on 
all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right No law diall be 
passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of sneech, or of the press^ In all 
prosecutions or indictments for libel, the trutn may be given m evidence to 
the jury, and if it appear to the jury that the matter charj^ as libelous 
was true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the 
party shall be ac<^uitted. 

Ssa 8. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, Mid effects, against unreasonable seizures and searches shiJl not be 
violated; and no warrant shall issue but on probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searohedy and 
the persons and things to be seized. 

Sbo. 9. The right of trial b^ jury shall remain inviolate; but the Gen- 
eral Assembly may authorize trial by a jury of a less number dum twelve 
men in inferior courts; but no person shall be deprived of life, liber^, or 
property, without due process of law. 

Sua 10. In all criminal prosecutions, and in cases involving the life or 
liberty of an individual, the accused dball have a right to a speedy and pub- 
lic trial by an impartial jury; to be informed of the accusation a^inst him; 
to liave a copy ol the same when demanded; to bo confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for his own witnesses; and to 
have the assistance of counseL 

Ssa 11. All offenses less than felonv, and in which the punishment 
does not exceed a fine of one hundred dollars, or imprisonment for thirty 
days, shall be tried summarily before a justice of the peace, or other officer 
authorized by law, on information under oath, vriAout indictment, or the 
fnterveation of a grand jury, saving to the defendant the ri^t of appeal; 
and no persoa shali be held to answer for a higher eriminal offense, unless 
on presentment or indictment by a grand jury, except in cases arising in 
the array or navy, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war 
or jpubUc danger. 
Ssa IS. No person shall, after acquittal, be tried for the same oflbnse. 

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&28 o ojtfm ' UTi og OF thb state of iowjl 

All persona shall, before oonvictibn, be bailable by snfficient sareties, except 
for capital offenses, where tlie proof is evident, or the presamption great. 

Seo. 13. The writ of habeas corpus shall not be saspended, or refused 
when application is made as required by law, unless in the case of rebellion 
or invasion, the pnblic safety may require it. 

Sbo. 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No 
standing army shall be kept up by the State in time of peace; and in time 
of war no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than 
two years. 

Sso. 15. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house 
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war except in the manner 
prescribed by law. 

6eo. 16. Treason a^inst the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No 
person shall be convicted of treason unless on the evidence of two witnesses 
to the same overt act, or confession in open court. 

SEa 17. Excessive bail shall not be required ; excessive fines shall not be 
imposed, and cruel and nnnsual punishments shall not be inflicted. 

DBO. 18. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just 
compensation first being made, or secured to be made, to the owner thereof, 
as soon as the dama^ shall be assessed by a jury, who shall not take into 
consideration any advanta^ that may result to said owner on account of 
the improvement for whicn it is taken. 

Ssa 19. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on 
mesne or final process, unless in case of fraud; and no person shall be im- 
prisoned for a military fine in time of peace. 

Sbo. 20. The people have the right freely to assemble together to conn* 
sel for the common good; to make Known their opinions to their represen- 
tatives, and to petition for a redress of grievances. 

Sbo. 31. No bill of attainder, eso-post fcbcto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed. 

Sbo. 22. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become residents of this 
State, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment; 
and descent of propertv, as native bom citizens. 

Sbo. 23. There shall be no slavery in this State; nor shall there be in- 
voluntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime. 

Sbo. 24. No lease or grant of i^cnltural lands, reserving any rent or 
service of any kind, shall be valid for a longer period than twenty years. 

SBa 26. This enumeration of rights shul not be construed to impair or 
deny others, retained by the people. 

Asnoi^B 2. — ^BioHT of Suftbaob. 

Sbotion 1. ^"^^rj male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty- 
one years, who shall have been a resident of this State six months next per 
ceding the election, and in the county in which he claims his vote sixty 
days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or hereafter 
m^ be authorized by law. 

Sbo. 2. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of 
the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, dqring their 
attendance at such elections, going to and returning therefrom. 

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oomnrnnoN or tedb stats <^ iowjl 323 

Sua 3. Ko elector shall be obliged to perform military duty on the day 
of election, except in time of war or pnblic danger. 

Saa 4. No person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United 
States shall be considered a resident of this State b^ bein^ stationed in any 
garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station witnin this State. 

Ssa 6. No idiot or insane person, or person convicted of any infamous 
crime, shall be entitled to the privile^ of an elector. 

Ssa 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot 

Abtiolb 3. — Of thb DiSTBiBunoN of Powxbs. 

SEcnoN 1. The powers of the government of Iowa shall be divided into 
three separate departments: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial; 
and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one 
of these departments shall exercise any function appertaining to either of 
the others, except in cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted. 

LsoiSLATrvs Depabtment. 

Sbotioh 1. The legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Bepresen- 
tatives; and the style of every law shall be — ^Bs it enacted by the General 
Auembly of the State of lowa?^ 

Sbo. 2. The sessions of the General Assembly shall be biennial, and 
shall commence on the second Monday in January next ensuing the election 
of its members; unless the Governor of the State shall, in the meantime, 
convene the General Assembly byproclamation. 

Ssa 8. The members of the House of Bepresentatives shall be chosen 
every second year, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on 
tiie second Tuesday in October, except the years of the Presidential elec- 
tion, wh^i the election shall be on the Tuesday next after the first Monday 
in November; and their term of ofiice shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election, and continue two years, and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

Ssa 4. No person shall be a member of the House of Bepresentatives 
who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; be a free white 
male citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this 
State one year next preceding his election, and at the time of his election 
shall have had an actual residence of sixty days in the county or district he 
m^ have been chosen to represent 

Sia 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four yeers, at the same 
time and place as Bepresentatives; they shall be twenty-five years of age, 
and possess the qualifications of Bepresentatives, as to residence and citi- 

Sbo. 6. The number of Senators shall not be less than one-third, nor 
mcnre than one-half the representative body; and shall be so classified by 
lot, that one class being as nearly one-half as possible, shall be elected every 
two years. When the number of Senators is increased, they shall be an- 
uexed by lot to one or the other of the two dasses, so as to keep them as 
nearly equal in numbers as practicable. 

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324 oomrrnrnoN of thx 8ta.tb of iowjl 

Sbo. 7. Each Honse shall choose its own officers, and jadge of the quali- 
fication, election and return of its own members. A contested election 
sliall be determined in such manner as shall be direeted hj law. 

Seo. 8. A majoritv of each house shall constitute a quorum to transact 
business; bnt a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may 
compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such 
penalties as each house may provide. 

Seo. 9. Each house shall sit uppn its own adjournments, keep a joamal 
of its proceedings, and publish the same; determine its rules of proceed- 
ings, punish members for disorderly behavior, and with the consent of 
two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense ; and 
shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the General Assembly 
of a free and independent State. 

Sbo. 10. Every member of the General Assembly shall have the liberty 
to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think 
injurious to the puolic or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent 
entered on the journals; and the yeas and nays of the members of eitlier 
house, on any q^uestion, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be 
entered on the journals. 

Sbo. 11. Senators and Eepresentatives, in all cases except treason, felony, 
or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during the session 
of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same. 

Sfia 12. When vacancies occur in either honse, the governor, or the per- 
son exercising the functions of governor, shall issue writs of election to till 
auch vacancies. 

Seo. 18. The doors of each honse shall be open, except on such occas- 
sions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy. 

Seo. 14. Neither house shall^ without the consent of the other, adjonm 
for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they 
may be sitting. 

Seo. 16. Sills may originate in either house, and may be amended, al- 
tered, or rejected by the other; and every bill having passed both houses, 
shall be signed by the Speaker and President of their re8i>ective houses. 

Sbo. 16. Every bill wnich shall hav^passed the General Assembly, shall, 
before it becomes a law, be presented to the^overnor. If he approve, he 
shall sign it; but if not, ne shall return it with his objections, to the 
house in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, it again pass 
both nouses, by^ yeas and nays, by a majoritv of two-thirds of the members 
of each house, it shall become a law^ notwithstanding the Governor's objec- 
tions. If any bill shall not be returned witliin tliree days after it shall 
have been presented to him (Sunday excepted), the same shall be a law in 
like manner as if he had signed it^ unless the General Assembly, by ad- 
ioumment, prevent such return. Any bill submitted to the Governor for 
his approval during the last three days of a session of the General Assem- 
bly, shall be deposited by him in the office of the Secretary of State within 
thirty days after the adjournment, with his approval if approved by him, 
and with his objections, if he disapproves thereof. 

Sbo. 17. No bill shall be passed unless by the assent of a majority of 
all tiie members elected to each branch of the General Assembly, and the 
question upon the final passage shall be taken immediately upon its last 
reading, and the yeas and nays entered upon the joumaL 

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oonBimrnDH of thb statb of iowa* 235 

Seo. 18. An accurate Btatement of the receipts and expenditares of the 
pnblic money shall be attached to and add. pabhshed with the laws at every 
regular session of the General Assembly. 

SEa 19. The Honse of Eepresentatives shall have the sole power of 
impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When 
sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be npon oath or affirmation; and 
no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the 
raembers present. 

Sec. 20. The Governor, Jud^s of the Supreme and District Courts, 
and other State officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor 
or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or 
profit under this State; but the party convicted or acquitted shall neverthe- 
less be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment according to law. All 
otLer civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors and malfeasance in office, 
in such manner as the General Assembly may provide. 

Ssa 21. No Senator or Bepresentative shall, during the time for which 
lie shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under 
this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments oi which shall 
liave been increased during such term, except snch offices as may be filled 
by elections hv the people. 

Seo. 23. No person nolding any lucrative office under the United States, 
or this State, or any other power, shall be eligible to hold a seat in the 
General Assembly. But offices in the militia, to which there is attached 
uo annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmaster, whose 
compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, or notary 
public, shall not be deemed lucrative. 

Seo, 23. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of pub- 
lic moneys, shall have a seat in either house of the General Assembly, or 
be eligible to hold any office of trust or profit in this State, until he shall 
have accounted for and paid into the treasury all sums tor which he may 
be liable. 

Seo. 24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence 
of appropriations made by law. 

Geo. 25. Each member of the first General Assembly under this consti- 
tution shall receive three dollars per diem while in session; and the further 
sum of three dollars for everv twenty miles traveled in going to and return- 
ing from the place where such session is held, by the nearest traveled route; 
after which they shall receive such compensation as shall be fixed by law; 
but no General Assembly shall have the power to increase the compensa- 
tion of its members. And when convened in extra session they shall re- 
ceive the same mileage and per diem oompensation as fixed by law for the 
regular session, and none other. 

SEa 26. No law of the General Assembly, passed at a regular session, 
of a public nature, shall take effect until the Fourth day of July next, after 
the passage thereof. Laws passed at a special session shall take effect 
ninety days after the adjournment of the General Assembly, by which they 
were passed. If the General Assembly shall deem any law of immediate 
importance, they may provide that the same shall take effect by publication 
in newspapers in the State. 
Sec. 27. No divorce shall be granted by the General Assembly. 


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Ssa 28. No lottery Bhall be anthoriaed by this State; nor shall the sale 
of lottery tickets be allowed. 

Sbo* 29. Evei^ act shall embrace but one subject, and matters properly 
connected therewith; which subject shall be expressed in the title. Bat if 
any subject shall be embraced in an act which shall not be expressed in the 
title, such act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be ex* 
pressed in the title. 

Ssa 80. The Oeneral Assembly shall not pass local or special laws in 
the following cases: 

For the assessment and collection of taxes for State, county, or road par- 

For laying out, opening, and working roads or highways; 

For changing the names of persons; 

For the incorporation of cities and towns; 

For vacating, roads, town plats, streets, alleys, or public squares; 

For locating or changing county seats. 

In all the cases above enumerated, and in all other cases where a general 
law can be made applicable, all laws shall be general, and of uniform ope- 
ration throughout tne State; and no law changing the boundary lines of 
any county shall have effect until upon being submitted to the peonle of 
the counties affected by the change, at a general election, it shall be ap- 
proved by a majority of the votes in each coun^, cast for and gainst it. 

Ssa 31. No extra compensation shall be made to any ofllcer, public 
agent, or contractor, after the service shall have been rendered, or the eon- 
tract entered into; nor shall anv money be paid on any claim, the subject 
matter of which shall not have been provided for by pre-existing laws, and 
no public money or property shall be appropriated tor local or private pur- 
poses, unless such appropriation, compensation or claim, be allowed by two- 
thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly. 

Sbo. 82. Members of the General Assembly shall, before thev entet 
upon the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following 
oath or affirmation: ^' I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 
that I will support the Oonstitution of the United States, and the Constitu- 
tion of the State of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of 
Senator (or Bepresentative, as the case may be), according to the best of 
my ability*'' And members of the Gheneral Assembly are hereby empow- 
ered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation. 

Sxa 88. The General Assembly shall, in the years one thousand eight 
hundred and fiftjr-nine, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-seven, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, and one thousand 
eight hundred and sevenhr-five, and every ten years thereafter, cause an 
enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of the State. 

Sbo. 84. The number of Senators shall, at the next session following 
each period of making such enumeration, and the next session following 
each United States Odusus, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the 
several counties aoeording to the numb^ of inhabitants in each. 

Seo. 85. The Senate shall not consist of more than fifty members, nor 
the House of Bepresentatives of more than one hundred; and they shall 
be apportioned among the several counties and representative districts of 
the State according to the number of inhabitants in each, upon ratios to be 
fixed by law; but no representative district shall contain' more than four 

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oi^g^ized connties and each district shall be entitled to at least one Sepre- 
sentative. £verj connty and district wliich shall have a number ot inhabi- 
tants eqnal to one-half the ratio fixed by law, shall be entitled to one Sep- 
resentative; and any one conntj containing in addition to the ratio fixed 
by law one-half of that number, or more, shall be entitled to one additional 
Bepresentative. No floating district shall hereafter be formed* 

8Ea 36. At its first session under this Oonstitution, and at every subse- 
qnent regular session, the General Assembly shall fix the ratio of repre- 
sentation, and also, form into repsesentative districts those counties which 
will not be entitled singly to a Representative. 

Ssa 37. When a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district 
shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirely sepa- 
rated by any county belonging to another district; and no connty shall be 
divided in forming a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district. 

Ssc. 38. In all elections by the Oeneral Assembly, the members thereof 
shall vote viva-voce; and the votes shall be entered on the journal. 

Abtiglb 4 — ^ExBcunvB Depabtmsnt. 

Sbotioh 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested 
in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of 

&a 2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the 
tbne and place of voting for members of the General Assembly, and shall 
hdd his office two years, from the time of his installation, and until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. 

Ssa 3. There shall be a Lieutenant-Governor, who shall hold his office 
two years, and be elected at the same time as the Governor. In voting for 
Governor and Lieutenant-Govemor, the electors shall designate for whom 
diey vote aa Ghivemor, and fi>r whom as Lieutenant-Gt>vemor. The returns 
of every election for Governor, and Lieutenant-Govemor, shall be sealed up 
and transmitted to the seat of government of the State, directed to the 
l^eaker of the House of Representatives, who shall open and publish them 
in the presence of both houses of the Gteneral Assembly. 

Ssa 4. The persons respectively having the highest number of votes, for 
Governor and Lieutenant-Govemor, shall oe declared duly elected; but in 
esse two or more persons shall have an equal, and the highest number of 
votes for either office, the General Assembly ahall, hj joint vote, forthwith 
proceed to elect one of said persons Governor, or Lieutenant-Govemor, as 
uie ease may be. 

Ssa 5. Contested elections for Governor, or Lieutenant-Govemor, shall 
be determined by the G^ieral Assembly in such manner as may be prescribed 

Ssa 6. 'No person shall be eligible to the office of Govemor, or Lieu- 
tanaat^vemor, who shall not have been a citizen of the United States ; 
and a citizen of the State two years next preceding the election, and 
attained ^be age of thirty years at the time of said election. 

Ssa 7. Tte Govemor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the 
amy, and navy of this Stata 

Saoo. 8. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of eoy- 
enmient, civU and militaiy, and may require information in writing from 

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SS8 ooHsnnrnoH of ths state of iowa. 

the ofiScera of the execative department apon any aabject relating to die 
dnties of their reepective offices. 

Seo. 9. He shall take care that the laws are faithfollj executed. 

Sfio. 10. When any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no 
mode .is provided by the Oonstitntion and laws for filling snch vacancy, the 
Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy, by granting a commission, 
which shall expire at the end of the next session of the Oeneral Assembly, 
or at the next election by the people. 

Seo. 11. He may, on extraoroinary occasions, convene the G^eral As- 
sembly b^ proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the 
purpose ior which they shall have been convened. 

Sko, 12. He shall communicate, by message, to the Oeneral Assembly, 
at every regular session, the condition of the State, and recommend such 
matters as ne shall deem expedient 

Bko, 13. In case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to 
the time of adjournment, tha Governor shall have power to adjourn the 
General Assembly to such time as he may think proper; but no such ad- 
journment shall be beyond the time fixed for the regular meeting of the next 
General Assembly. 

Sbo. 14. No person shall, while holding any office under the authority of 
the United States, or this State, execute the office of Governor, or lieutoi- 
ant-Gx>vemor, except as hereinafter expressly provided. 

Ssa 15. The official term of the Governor, and Lieutenant-Governor, 
shall commence on the second Monday of January next after their election, 
and continue for two years, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. The Lieutenant-Grovemor, while acting as Governor, shall receive the 
same pay as provided for Gx>vemor; and while presiding in the Senate shall 
receive as compensation therefor, the same mileage and double the per 6km 
pay provided lor a Senator, and none other. 

Sbo. 16. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commuta- 
tions and pardons, after conviction, for aU ofiTenses except treason and cases 
of impeachment, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law. 
Upon conviction for treason, he shall nave power to suspend the execution 
of^sentence until the case shall be reported to the General Assembly at its 
next meeting, when the General Assembly shall either ^rant a pardon, com- 
mute the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shfQl have power to re- 
mit fines and forfeitures, under such regulations as may be prescribed by 
law; and shall report to the General Assembly, at its next meeting, eadi 
case of reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted, and the reason therefor; 
and also all persons in whose favor remission of fines and forfeitures shall 
have been made, and the several amounts remitted. 

Ssa 17. In case of the death, impeachment, resignation, removal froa 
office, or other disability of the governor, the powers and duties of the office 
for the residue of the term, or until he shall be acquitted, or the disabiliti 
removed, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor. 

Sbo. 18. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be president of the Scmate, bol 
shall only vote when the Senate is equally dirided; and in case of hk ab 
sence, or impeachment, or when he shall exercise we office of Governor, tiw 
Senate shall choose a president pro tempore. 

Sbo. 19. K the Lieutenant-Governor, while acting as €k>T«iKH% Adl 
be impeached, displaced, resign, or die, or otiierwise become incapable ol 

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performing the duties of the office, the J>re8id6nt pro tempore of the Senate 
fihall act as Governor until the vacancy is filled, or the disability removed; 
aud if the president of the Senate, for any of the above causes, shall be ren- 
dered incapable of performing the duties pertaining to the office of Gover- 
nor, the same shall devolve upon the Speaker of the House of Bepresenta- 

Sbo. 20. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of 
tt^ State of Iowa. 

Seo. 21. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the 
authority of the people of the State of Iowa, sealed with tiie Great Seal of 
the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of 

8Ba 22. A Secretary of State, Auditor of State, and Treasurer of State, 
shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office.two 
years, aud until their successors are elected and qualified; and perform such 
duties as may be required by law. 

Abtiolb 5. — Judicial Dspabtment. 

SaonoK 1. The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, 
District Court, and such other courts, inferior to the Supreme Court, as the 
General Assemblv may, from time to time, establish. 

Ssa 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of three judges, two of whom 
shall constitute a quorum to hold court 

Ssa 8. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the quali- 
fied electors of the otate, and shall hold their court at such time and place as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. ^ The judges of the Supreme Court so 
deoted, shsdl be classified so that one judge shau go out every two years; 
and the judge holding the shortest term of office under such class^cation, 
shall be Oinef Justice of the court during his term, and so on in rotation. 
After the expiration of their terms of office, under such classification, the 
tenn of eadi ludge of the Supreme Court shall be six years, and until his 
Buooessor shaU have been elected and qualified. The judges of the Supreme 
Court shall be ineligible to any other office in the State, during tlie term 
for which th^ have been elected. 

Sbo. 4. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only lu 
cases in chancery, and shall constitute a court for the correction of errors at 
law, under such restrictions as the General Assembly may by law prescribe; 
ttdd shall have power to issue all writs and process necessarjr to secure jus- 
tice to parties, and exercise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial 
tribimals throughout the State. 

SEa 5. The District Court shall consist of a single iudge, who shall be 
elected by the qualified electors of the district in which he resides. The 
judge of the District Court shall hold his office for the term of four years, 
and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified; and shall be 
ineligible to any other office, except that of judge of the Supreme Court, 
during the term for which he was elected. 

&Ea 6. The district Court shall be a court of law and equity, which shall 
be distinct and separate jurisdictions, and have jurisdiction in civil and 

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230 ooKsnnrnoH of ths tiAXB of iowa. 

criminal matters arising in their respectiye districts* in sncli manner aa ahall 
be prescribed by law. 

8eo. 7. Tbe jndges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be cons^v 
vators of the peace throughout the State. 

Seo. 8. The stjrie of aU process shall be <^ The State of Iowa," and all 
prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the 

Seo. 9. The salary of each ludge of the Supreme Court shall be two 
thousand dollars per annum; ana that of each District Judge one thousand 
six hundred dollars per annum, until the year eighteen hundred and sixty; 
ailter which time they shall severally receive such compensation as the Oen- 
eral Assembly may, by law, prescribe; which compensation shall not be 
increased or dinunished during the term for which they have been elected. 

Seo. 10. The State shall be divided into eleven judicial districts; and 
aftei: die year eighteen hundred and sixty, the General Assembly n^ay re-or- 
gam'ze the judicial districts, and increase or diminish the number of districts, 
or the number of jndges of the said court, and may increase the number of 
judges of the Supreme Court; but such increase or diminution shall not be 
more than one district, or one judge of either court, at any one session; and 
no re-organization of the districts, or diminution of the judges shall have 
the effect of removing a ludge from office. Such re-organization of the dis- 
tricts, or any chan^ m the boundaries thereof^ or any increase or diminution 
of the number of judges shall take place every four years thereafter, if nec- 
essary, and at no other time. 

Sbo. 11. The judges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be chos^ 
at the general election; and the term of office of each judge shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after his election. 

Seo. 12. The Qeneral Assembly shall provide, by law, for the election 
of an Attorney-General by the people, whose term of office shall be two 
years, and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified. 

Sbo. 13. Hie qualified electors of each judicial district shall, at the time 
of the election ot District Judffe, elect a District Attorney, who shall be a 
resident of the district for whicm he is elected, and who shall hold his o£Bce 
for the term of tour years, and until his successor shall have been elected 
and qualified. 

Sbo. 14. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide for the 
carrying into effect of this article, and to provide for a general system of 
practice in all tiie courts of this State. 

Abtiolk 6. — Mjutuu 

Section 1. The militia of this State shall be composed of all able-bodied 
male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and fbrtv-five ^ears, except sach 
as are or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of tne United States, or of 
this State; and shall be armed, equipped, and trained, as the Gtoneral Assem- 
bly may provide by law. 

Sbo. 2. No person or persons conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms 
shall be compelled to do military duty in time of peace: propided^ that such 
person or persons shall pay an equivalent for audi exemption in the same 
manner as oth^ citizens. 

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ooKfiTcnrnoH C9 vhs staib of iowa. 261 

Saa 3. All commi^oned offioeors of the miHtia (staff officers excepted) 
Bhall be elected by tbepersoas liable to perform military datj, and shall be 
commissioned by the Governor. 

AiETiOLB 7. — Statb Djebtb. 

SeonoN 1 The credit of the State shall not, in any manner, be given or 
loaned to, or in aid of, any individual, association, or corporation; and the 
State shall never assume, or become responsible for, the aebts or liabilities 
of any individual, association, or corporation, unless incurred in time of war 
for the benefit of the State. 

Sec 2. The State may contract debts to supply casual deficits or failures 
in revenues, or to meet expenses not otherwise provided for; but the aggre- 
gate amount of such debts, direct and contingent, whether contracted by one 
or more^u^ts of the Greneral Assembly, or at oifferent periods of time, shall 
never exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the 
money arising from the creation of such debts, shall be applied to the pur- 
pose for whi^ it was obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted, and to no 
other purpose whatever. 

Sfia 3. All losses to the permanent, school, or university fund of this 
State, which shall have been occasioned by the defalcation, mismana^ment, 
or fraud of officers controlling or managing the same, shall be aumted by 
the proper authorities of the State. The amount so audited shall be a per- 
manent funded debt against the State, in favor of the respective fund sus- 
taining the loss, upon which not less than six per cent annual interest shall 
be paid. The amount of liability so created shall not be counted as a part 
of the indebtedness authorized by the second section of this article. 

Sec. 4w In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, the 
State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend 
the State in war; but the money arising from the debts so contracted shall 
be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, 
and to no other purpose whatever. 

SEa 5. Except the debts hereinbefore specified in this article, no debt 
shall hereafter be contracted by, or on behalf of this State, unless such debt 
shall be authorized by some law for some single work or object, to be dis- 
tinctly specified therein; and such law shall impose and provide fbr the 
collection of a direct annual tax, sufficient to pay the interest on such debt, 
as it fjEills due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt, 
within twenty years from the time of the contracting thereof; but no such 
law shall take effect until at a general election it shaU have been submitted 
to the people, and have received a majoritv of all the votes cast for and 
against it at such election; and all money raised by authoritv of such law, 
Buall be applied only to the specific obiect therein stated, or the payment of 
tl\e debt created tliercby; and such law shall be published in at least one 
newspaper in each county, if one is published therem, throughout the State, 
for three months preceding the election at which it is submitted to the peo- 

Sfia 6. The Legislature may, at any time, after the approval of such 
law by the people, if no debt shall have been contractea in pursuance ' 
thereof, pepeal tne same; and may, at any time, forbid the oontracting of 

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oommmoH of tbb siatb or iowa. 

any farther debt, or liability under sneh law; but the tax impoeed hj foch 
law, in proportion to the debt or liabilitjr, which ma^ have be^i contraoted 
in porsuanoe thereof, shall remain in force and be irrqpealablei and be an- 
nndly collected, nntil the principal and interest are falljr paid. 

Ssa 7. Every law which imposes, continues, or revives a tax, shaU dis- 
tinctly state the tax, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall 
not be sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such tax or object 


SsonoN 1. No corporation shall be created by special laws; but the 
Greneral Assembly shall provide, bv general laws, for the oi^ganization of all 
corporations hereafter to oe createa, except as hereinafter provided. 

Sfia 2. The property of all corporations for pecuniary profit^ shall be 
subject to taxation, the same as that of individuals. 

8Ba 3. The State shall not become a stockholder in any oorporstion, 
nor shall it assume or pay the debt or liability of any ccnrporationy nnlesB 
incurred in time of war for the benefit of the Stata 

Ssa 4. No political or municipal corporation shall become a stock- 
holder in any bwkinff corporation, directly or indirectly. 

Ssa 6. No act of the General Assembly, authorizing or creating corpo- 
rations or associations with banking powers, nor amendmenta thereto shall 
take effect, nor in any manner be m force, until the same shall have been 
submitted separately, to the people, at a general or special election, as pro- 
vided bv law, to be held not less than thrae months after the passage of the 
act, ana shall have been approved by a majority of all the electora /oting 
for and against it at such election. 

Ssa 6. Subject to the provisions of the foregoing section, the Greneral 
Assembly may also provide for the establishment of a State Bank with 

Sbo. 7. If a State Bank be established, it shall be founded on an actual 
specie basis, and the branches shall be mutually responsible for each others* 
liabilities upon all notes, bills, and other issues intended for drculation as 

Sec. 8. If a general banking law shall be enacted, it shall provide for 
the registry and countersigning, by an officer of State, of all bills, or paper 
credit designed to circulate as money, and r^uire security to the vaXl 
amount thereof, to be deposited with the State Treasurer, in united States 
stocks, or in interest paying stocks of States in good credit and standing, to 
be rated at ten per cent below their average value in the city of New York, 
for the thirty days next preceding tlieir deposit; and in case of a deprecia- 
tion of any portion of said stocks, to the amount of ten per cent on the 
dollar, the bank or banks owning said stocks shall bo required to make up 
said deficiency by depositing additional stocks; and said law shall aleo pro- 
vide for the recording of the names of all stockholders in such corporations, 
the amount of stock lield by each, the time of any transfer, and to whom. 

Sea 9. Every stockholder in a banking corporation or institution sfasH 
be individually responsible and liable to its creditors, over and above the 
amount of stock by him or her held, to an amount equal to his or her re- 
spective shares so Iield, for all its liabilities, accruing while he or she to- 
mains such stocklioldcr. 

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oozrennmov of thb 8tatb of iowa* 983 

Ssa 10. In case of the insolyenqr of any banking institation, the bill- 
holders shall have a preference over its otlier creditors. 

SEa 11. The suspension of specie pajments by banking institutions 
ah^ never be permitted or sanctioned. 

Sbo. 12. Subject to the provisions of this article, the General Assembly 
shall have pov^er to amend or repeal all laws for the organization or creation 
of corporations, or wanting of special or exclusive privileges or immunities, 
by a vote of two-Siirds of each branch of the General Assembly; and no 
exclusive privil^es, except as in this article provided, shall ever he granted. 

AsnoLB 9. — ^Education and School Lands 
1. — EduoaUon. 

SEonoN 1. The educational interest of the State, including common 
schools and other educational institutions, shall be under the management 
of a board of education, which shall consist of the Lieutenant Gtovemor, 
who shall be the presiding officer of the board, and have the casting vote in 
ease of a tie, and one member to be elected from each judicial mstrict in 
the State. 

Ssa 2. Ko person shall be eligible as a member of said board who shall 
not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and shall have been one year 
a citizen of the State. 

Ssa 3. One member of said board shall be chosen by the qualified elec- 
tors of each district^ and shall hold the office for the term of four ^ears, and 
until his successor is elected and qualified. After the first election under 
this constitution, the board shall oe divided, as nearly as practicable, into 
two equal classes, and the seats of the first class shall be vacated after the 
expiration of two years; and one-half of the board shall be chosen every 
two years thereafter. 

Ssa 4. The first session of the board of education shall be held at the 
seat of government, on the first Monday of December, after their election; 
after which the General Assembly may fix the time and place of meeting. 

Ssa 5. The session of the board shall be limited to twenty days, and 
but one session shall be held in any one year, except upon extraordinary oc- 
casions, when, upon the recommendation of two-thirds of the board, the 
Goremor may order a special session. 

Ssa 6. Tiie board of education shall appoint a secretary, who shall be 
the executive office of the board, and perrorm such duties as may be im- 
posed upon him by the board, and the laws of the State. They shall keep 
a journal of their proceedings, which shall be published and distributed in 
the same manner as the journals of the General Assembly. 

Sbo. 7. All rules and regulations made by the board shall be published 
2ttd distributed to the several counties, townships, and school districts, as 
may be provided for by the board, and when so made, published, and dis« 
ttbnted, thev shaU have the force and effect of law. 

Sbo. 8. The board of education shall have full power and authority to 
lerislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to common 
sdaools, aud other educational institutions, that are instituted to receive aid 
from the m^hool or university ftmd of this State; but all acts, rules and 

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regalationB of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed bj the Gen- 
em Assemblj; and when bo idtered, amended, or repealed, they shall not 
be re-enacted by the board of education. 

Sbo. 9. The Governor of ihe State shall be, ex^ffioio^ a member of said 

Ssa 10. The board shall have no power to levy taxes, or make appro- 
priations of money. Their contingent expenses shau be provided for by the 
General Assembly. 

Sko. 11. The State University shall be established at one place, without 
branches at any other place, and the university fund shall be applied to that 
institution, and no other. 

Sbo. 12. The board of education shall provide for the education of aU 
the youths of the State, throi^h a system of common schools; and such 
schools shall be organized and kept in each school district at least three 
months in each year. Any district failing, for two consecutive jrears, to or- 
ganize and keep up a school, may be deprived of their portion of Uie 
school, fund. 

Ssa 13. The members of the board of education shall each receive the 
same per diem during the time of their session, and mileage going to and 
retummg therefrom, as members of the General Assembly. 

Ssa 14. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of busmess, but no rule, r^ulation or law, for the regulation 
and government of common schools or other educational institutions, shall 
pass without the concurrence of a majority of all the members of the 
Doard, which shall be expressed by the veas and nays on the final passage. 
The s^le of all acts of the board shall be, ^^ Be it enacted by the board of 
education of the State of Iowa." 

Sbo. 15. At any time after the year one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-three, the General Ass^nbly shall have power to abolish or re-organize 
said board of education, and provide for the educational interest of the State 
in any other manner that to them shall seem best and proper. 

2. — School Ihmds and School Lands. 

Section 1. The educational and school funds and lands, shall be under 
the control and management of the General Assemblv of this State. 

Sbo. 2. The university lands, and the proceeds tnereof, and all monevs 
belon^in^ to said fund shaU be a permanent fund for the sole use of tne 
State University. The interest arising from the same shall be annually ap- 
propriated for the support and benefit of said university. 

Sbo. 3. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, 
the promotion o^ intellectual, scientific, moral and agricultural improve- 
ment. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be, 
granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which 
may have been, or shall hereafter be, sold or disposed of^ and the five hun- 
dred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an act of 
Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several 
States of the Union, approved in the year of^our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and fortv-one, and all estates of deceased persons who may have 
died without leaving a will or heir, and also such per cent as has been, or 
may hereafter be, granted by Congress, on the sale of lands in this State, 

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ahall be, and remain a perpetnal foncL the interest of which, together with 
all rente of the unsold lands, and such oUier means as tJie Qeneral As- 
sembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of 
common schools throughout the State. 

Ssc. 4. The money which mav have been, or shall be, paid by persons 
as an equivalent for exemption u*om milittuy duty, and the clear proceeds 
of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of tne penal 
kws, shaU be exclusively applied, in the several counties in which such 
money is paid, or fine collected, among the several school districts of said 
counties, in proportion to the number of youths subject to enumeration in 
sudi districts, to the support of commen schools, or the establishment of 
libraries, as the board of ^ucation shall, from time to time, provide. 

Sbo. 5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, 
improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may here- 
after be reserved, or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, 
to tiiis State, for the use of a university, and the funds accruing from the 
rents or sale of such lands, or firom any other source for the purnose afore- 
said, shall be, and remain, a permanent fund, the interest of whicn shall be 
applied to tihie support of said universitrjr, for the promotion of literature, 
tbe arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant 
And it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to pro- 
vide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the 
fdnds of said university. 

Seo. 6. The financial ajgents of the school funds shall be the same, that 
by law, receive and controfthe State and countv revenue, for other civil pur- 
poses, under such regulations as may be provided by law. 

Ssa 7. The money subject to the support and maintenance of common 
schools shall be distributeu to the districts in proportion to the number of 
youths, between the ages of five and twenty-one years, in such manner as 
may be provided by tne General Assembly. 

AsnoLB 10. — ^Ambndmbnts to thb CoNSTrrunoN. 

SsonoN 1« Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be 
proposed in either House of the General Assembly; and if the same shall 
be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to eadi of the two 
houses, such proposed amendment shall be entered on their journals, with 
the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the Legislature to be cho- 
sen at the next general election, and shall be published, as provded by law, 
for three months previous to the time of making such choice; and if, in the 
General Assembly so next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or 
amendments shall be agreed to, by a majority of all the members elected to 
each house, then it sh^ be the duty of the General Assembly to submit 
sach proposed amendment or amencunents to the people in such manner, 
and at such time as the General Assembly shall pro viae; and if the people 
Bhall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments by a majority of 
the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly, voting 
thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of the Consti- 
tution of this State. 

Sbo. 2. If two or more amendments shall be submitted at the same 

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236 oonshtution of the statb of iowa. 

time, they shall be Bubmitted in such maimer that the electors shall vote for 
or against each of such amendments separately. 

Ssa 3. At the general election to be held m the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy, and in each tenth year thereafter, and also at such 
time as the General Assembly, may, by law, provide, the Question: ^^ Shall 
there be a Convention to revise the Constitution and ameno the same?' shall 
be decided by the electors (qualified to vote for members of the Greneral As* 
sembly ; and in case a majority of the electors so qualified, voting at sndi 
election for and against such proposition, shall deci(^ in favor of a Convoi- 
tion for such purpose, the Gheneral Assembly, at its next session, shall pro- 
vide by law for the election of delegates to such Convention. 


Sbotion 1. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall extend in all 
cases (except cases in chancery, and cases where the question of title to 
real estate may arise), where the amount in controversy does not exceed one 
hundred dollars, and bv the consent of parties may be extended to any 
amount not exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Seo. 2. No new county shall be hereafter created containing less than 
four hundred and thirty-two square miles; nor shall the territory of any or- 
ganized county be reduced below that area, except the county of Worth, and 
the counties west of it, along the northern boimoary of the btate, may be ois 
ganized without additional territory. 

Soa 3. No county, or other political or municipal corporation shall be 
allowed to become indebted in any manner, or for any purpose, to an amount 
in the ae^gate exceeding five per centum on the vidue oi tlie taxable prop* 
artv within such county or corporation — ^to be ascertained by the last State 
and county tax lists, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness. 

Sbo. 4. The boundaries of the State may he enlarged, with the consent 
of Congress and the General Assembly. 

Seo. 5. Everv person elected or appointed to any office shall, before al- 
tering upon the duties thereof, take an oath or affirmation to support the 
Constitution of the United States, and of this State, and also an oath of 

Sbo. 6. In all cases of elections to fill vacancies in office occurring be- 
fore the expiration of a full term, the person so elected shall hold for the 
residue of the unexpired term; and all persons appointed to fill vacancies in 
office, shall hold until the next general election, and until their succesaofB 
are elected and qualified. 

Sbo. 7. The General Assembly shall not locate any of the public lands, 
which have been, or may be granted by Congress to this State, and the lo- 
cation of which may be given to the General Assembly, upon lands actuallv 
settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim ot 
such occupant so exempted, shall not exceed three hundred and twenty 

Sbo. 8. The seat of government is hereby permanently established, as 
now fixed by law, at the City of Des Moines, in the county of Polk, and the 
State University at Iowa City, in the county of Johnson. 

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ooNSTrrunov of the statb or iowa. 237 


Ssanoif 1. This Gonstitation shall be the supreme law of the State, and 
any law inconsistent therewith shall be void. The Gleneral Assembly shaU 
pass all laws necessary to carry this Gonstitation into effect 

Sfia 2. All laws now in force, and not inconsistent with this Gonstita- 
tion, shall remain in force until they shall expire or be repealed. 

Sbo. 8. All indictments, prosecutions, suits, pleas, plaints, process, and 
other proceedings pending in any of the courts, shall be prosecuted to final 
kdgment and execution; and all appeals, writs of errors, certiorari, and 
mjanctions, shall be carried on in the several courts, in the same manner as 
now provided by law; and all offenses, misdemeanors and crimes that may 
have been committed before the taking effect of this Constitution, shall be 
subject to indictment, trial and punishment, in the same manner as they 
woald have been had not this constitution been made. 

Saa 4. All fines, penalties, or forteitures due, or to become due, or ac- 
emixig to the State, or to any county therein, or to the school fun4 ahall 
inore so the State, county, or school fund, in the manner nrescribed by law. 

Sfia 5. All bonds executed to the State, or to any omcer in his official 
capacity, shall remain in force and inure to the use oi those concerned. 

Sifia 6. The first election under this constitution shall be held on the 
second Tuesday in October, in the year one thousand eistht hundred and 
fftv-seven, at which time the electors of the State shall elect the Governor 
«ra Lieutenant Governor. There shall also be elected at such election, the 
successors of such State Senators as were elected at the August election, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and fifbv-tbur, and members of the 
House of Representatives, who shall be elected in accordance with the act 
of apportionment, enacted at the session of the General Assemblv which 
commenced on the first Monday of December, one thouasnd eight nundred 
and fifty-six. 

Sbo. t. The first election for Secretary, Auditor, and Treasurer of State, 
Attorney-General, District Judges, Members of the Board of Education, 
District Attorneys, members of Congress, and such State officers as shall 
be elected at the April election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven (exc^t the Superintendent of Public Instruction), and such 
county officers as were elected at the August election, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-six, except Prosecuting Attorney, shaU be held 
on the second Tuesday of October, one thousand ei^ht hundred and fifty- 
eight; Provided, that the time for which any Distnct Judge, or anv other 
State or county officer, elected at the April election in one thousana eij^ht 
hundred and fifty-eight, shall not extena beyond the time fixed for filhn^ 
like offices at the October electi<m in the year one thousand eight hundred 
tad fifty-ei^t 

Ssa 8. TThe first election for Jud^ of the Supreme Court, and such 
county officers as shall be elected at me August election, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, shall ue held on the second Tuesday 
of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine. 

Sao. 9. The first r^ular session of the General Assembly shall be held 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, commencing on ^e 
second Monday of January of said year. 

Ssa 10. Senators elected at the August election, in the year one thou- 

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238 ooNsnTunoN of thb state of iowa. 

sand eight hundred and fiftj-Bix, shall continue in ofiSce until the second 
Tuesday of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, 
at which time their successors shall be elected as may be prescribed by law. 

Sbo. 11. Every person elected bv popular vote, by a vote of the Gienend 
Assembly, or who may hold office by Executive appointment, whicli office 
is continued by this constitution, and every person who shall be so elected 
or appointed, to any such office, before the taking effect of this constitution, 
(except as in this constitution otherwise provided) shall continue in office 
until the term for which such person has been or may be elected or ap- 
pointed shall expire; but no such person shall continue in office after the 
taking effect of this constitution, for a longer period than the term of such 
office, in this constitution prescribed. 

Sbo. 12. The General Assembly, at the first session under this eonstitu- 
tion, shall district the State into eleven judicial districts, for District Court 
purposes; and shall also provide for the apportionment of the Greneral As- 
semoly, in accordance wim the provisions ot this constitution. 

Ssa 13. The foregoing constitution shall be submitted to the electors of 
the State at the August election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-seven, in the several election distncts in this State. The ballots at such 
election shall be written or printed as follows : Those in favor of the constitu- 
tion— "New Constitution — ^Tes.'* Those against the constitution, "New Con- 
stitution — ^No." The election shall be conducted in the same manner as the 
general elections of the State, and the poll-books shall be returned and can- 
vassed as provided in the twenty-fiftli chapter of the Code; and abstracts 
shall be forwarded to the Secretary of State, which abstracts shall be can- 
vassed in the manner provided for the canvass of State officers. And if it 
shall appear that a majority of all the votes cast at such election for and 
a^nst flus constitution are in &vor of the same, the Governor shall imme- 
diately issue his proclamation stating that fieu^t, and such constitution shall 
be the constitution of the State of Iowa, and shall take effect from and after 
the publication of said proclamation. 

Sec. 14. At the same election that this constitution is submitted to the 
people for its adoption or rejection, a propjosition to amend the same bv 
striking out the word " white,'* from the article on the *^ Right of Suflfirage,** 
shall be separately submitted to the electors of this State for adoption or 
rejection, in^manner ibllowin^, viz : 

A separate ballot may be given by every person having a right to vote at 
said election, to be deposited in a separate box; and those given for the 
adoption of such proposition shall have the words, " Shall the word < white' 
be stricken out of the article on the * Right of Suflfrage!' — ^Yes." And 
those given against the proposition shall have the words, " Shall the word 
* white' be stricken out of the article on the * Right of Suffrage? — No." 
And if at said election the number of ballots cast in favor of said proposi- 
tion, shfdl be equal to a majority of those cast for and a^;ainst this constitu- 
tion, then said word " white " shall be stricken from said article and be no 
part thereof. 

Sbo. 15. Until otherwise directed b^ law, the county of Mills shall be in 
and a part of the Sixth Judicial District of this State. 

Done in convention at Iowa Citv, this fiifth day of March, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundr^ and fifty-seven, and of the independence 
of the United States of America, the eighty-first. 

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Jji tmtimonj whereof, we have hereunto snbBcribed our namee: 

Timothy Day, 

8. G. WlN0HE8TEB| 

David BuincEBy 
D. P. Palhsb, 
Gbo. W. Ells, 
J. C. Hall, 
John H. Pbtbbs, 
Wm. H. Wabsek, 
H. W. Gray, 
Bobt. Gowbb, 
H. D. GiBSOK, 
Thomas Sexley, 
A* H. Mabvin, 
J. H. Emkbsok, 
R. L. R Olabkb, 
James A. Yoimo, 
D. IL Solomon, 

Tb. J. Saundbbs, Seoretary. 
E. K. Bates, AMrirtamt SM^^tofjf. 

m. w. bobinson, 
Lewis Todhunteb, 
John Edwabds, 
J. 0. Tbaeb, 
James F. Wilson, 
Amos TTabbth, 
Jno. T. Olabk, 
S. Aybes, 
Habvey J. Skiff, 
J. A. Pabvin, 
W. Penn Clabxb, 
Jebb. Holunowobth, 
Wm. Pattebson, 
D. W. Pbiob, 
Alfheus Soott, 
Gbobqb Gillasfy, 
Edwabd Johnston. 

Francss Sfbinoeb, PreddmU. 

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Constitution of United States. 

Wey thej>eople of the United StateSyin order to f(yrm a rnore perfect wnion^ 
eetabheh jueticey inet^e domeetic tranqiUlitt/y provide for the comman 
defencey promote the general toelfarey and secure the ll^eings of Hberty 
to owreeime a/nd our posterityy do ordain and establish this Constittition 
for the United States of America. 

AsnoLB I. 

SsonoN 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the Unit^ States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of 

Bbo. 2. The Honse of Eepresentatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by tne people of the several States, and the electors 
in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age 
of twenty-five years, and been seven vears a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall 
be chosen. 

Sepresentatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective 
numbers, which shall be determined b^ adding to the whole number of firee 
persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and exclud- 
ing Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumer- 
tion shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress 
of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such 
manner as they shall by law direct. 

The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thou- 
sand, but each state shall have at least one representative, and until such 
CDumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitied to 
choose three, Massachusetts eight, Bhode Island and Providence Plantations 
one, Connecticut five. New York six. New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. North Carolina five, South Caro- 
lina five, and Georffia three. 

When vacancies nappen in the representation from any State, the execu- 
tive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill sudi vacancies. 

The House of Eepresentatives shall choose their speaker, and otiier officers 
and shall have the sole power of impeachment 

Seo. 8. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Sen- 
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ators from each State, chosen by the Legialatnre thereof for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vota 

Immediately after they shall be assembled, in oonseanenoe of the first 
dection, they shall be divided as equally as may be, into tnree classes. The 
seats of the Senators of the first class snail be vacated at the expiration of 
the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year: 
and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one-third 
may be chosen every second year: and if vacancies nappen, by resij^nation 
or otherwise, during the recess or the Legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

S'o person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty 
years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Yice-President of the United States shall be president of the Senate; 
but shall have no vote, unless they be eoually divided* 

The Senate shall choose their other omcers, and also a president pro tem- 
pore, in the absence of the Yice-President, or when he shall exercise the of- 
fice of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sit- 
ting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the Pres- 
ident of the United States is tried, the Ohief Justice thaiH preside; and no 
person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from ofi&ce, and dis(|ualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, 
trust or profit, nnder the United States; but the party convicted shall, never- 
theless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment 
according to law. 

Ssa L The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Bepresentatives, shall be prescribed, in each state, by the L^slature 
thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such reg- 
iilations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint 
a diflerent day. 

Seo. 5. £ach house shall be the judge of (lie elections returns, and quali- 
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum 
to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and 
inay be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in such 
manner, and nnder such penalties, as each house may provide. 

£ach house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
bers for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel 
a member. 

£ach house shall keep a journal of its proceedings. and,ftt>m time to time, 
pubh'sh the same, excepting such parts as may, in their iudgment, require 
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either nouse, on any ques- 
tion, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of diose present, be entered on the 

ITeither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than 
ftat in whioi the two houses shall be sitting. 

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242 ooNsnnnioH of the ttnthed states 

Sjso. 6. The Senators and Bepresentatives shall leceive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid ont of the Treasoiy of 
the United States. Thej shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach 
of the peace, be privileged from arrest dnrin^ their attendance at the session 
of their respective houses, and in going to and retominff from the same; and, 
for any i^^eech or debate, in either house, the j shall not oe questioned in any 
other place. 

Ko Senator or Bep9*es6ntative shall, during the time for which he was 
dected, be appointed to any civil office, under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have 
been increased during such time; and no person, holding an^ office under 
the United States shml be a member of either house, during his continuance 
in office. 

' Sua 7« All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Bcpresentatives; but the Senate may propose or concur VE:itii amendments, 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed die House of Bepresentaties and the 
Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the 
United States; if he approve, he shall si^ it, but if not, he shall return it, 
with his objections, to that house in wnich it shall have originated, who 
shall enter me objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider 
it If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that hoase shall agree to pass 
the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of 
that house, it shall become a law« But in all sucn cases the votes of both 
houses shall be determined bv yeas and nays, and the names of the persons 
voting for and a£;ainst the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house 
respectivelv. Ii any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten 
days ^Sundays excepted) after it shall have been j>resented to him, the same 
shall DC a law, in like manner as if he had si^ed it, unless the Congress, by 
their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate 
and House of Bepresentatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn- 
ment), shall be presented to the resident of the united States; and before 
the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him ; or, being disi^proved by 
him shall be repassed by two-thiros of the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a 

Sbo. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts, and 
provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States: 
but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate commerce wiUi foreign nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 
standard of weights and measures; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and currant 
coin of the United States; ' 

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To establish post-oflSces and jjost-roads; 

To promote tne progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited 
times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 
To define and punish piracies and felomes committed on the high seas, 
and oflfenses against the law of nations; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con« 
oeming captures on land and water; 

To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years; 
To provide and maintain a navy; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for 
governing such part of them as may be employed m the service of the 
United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia, according to the discipline 
prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district 
(not exceeding ten miles square), as may, by cession of particular States, and 
the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent 
of the Legislature of the State in wnich the same shall be, for the erection of 
forts, ma^a2dnes, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and 

To make all laws whidi shall be necessary and proper for carrving into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Consti- 
tution in the government of the United States, or in any department, or 
officer diereof. 

SEa 9. The migration or importation of such persons as anjr of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the 
Congress, pnor to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax 
or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for 
each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
when, m cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it 
No bill of attainder, or ex po%t facto law, shall be passed. 
No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, umess in proportion to the 
census, or enumeration, hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No 
preference shall bs given, by any regulation of comm^xse or revenue, to the 
ports of one State over those of anouier; nor shall vessels, bound to or from 
one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appro- 
priations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts 
and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. 
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent 
of the Congress, accept of an^jr present, emolument, office, or title of any kind 
whatever, from any king, pnnce, or foreign state. 

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Seo. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make 
anything bnt gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any 
bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of con- 
tracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duticB 
on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing 
its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by 
any State on imports and exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the 
United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of 
the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Abtiole XL 

Section 1. Tlie executivepower shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of fonr 
years, and, together with the Yioe-President, chosen for me same term, be 
elected as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as die Legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and 
Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no 
Senator or Eepresentative, or person holding an office of trust or profit 
under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for 
two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same 
State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted 
for, and of the number of votes for each; which list thev shall sign and cer- 
tify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, 
in the presence of the Senate and House of Eepresentatives, open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person naving the 
greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a major- 
ity of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than 
one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the 
House of Eepresentatives snail immediately choose, by baUot, one of them 
for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest 
on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the President But 
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representa- 
tion from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose snail con- 
sist of a member or memb^ from two-thirds of the States, and a majority 
of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the 
choice of a President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the 
electors, shall be the Vice-President But if there should remain two or 
more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the 
day on which they shall give their votes; which oay shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

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Ifo parson, except a natural-bom citizen, or a citizen of the United States 
at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office 
of President: neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not 
hare attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident 
within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resig- 
nation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office, the 
same shall devolve on the Yice-Presiaent; and the Congress may, by law, 

frovide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inaoilily, both of the 
^resident and Yice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as Presi- 
dent, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensa- 
tion, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for 
which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period, 
any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

iBefore he enters on the execution of his ofBce, he shall take the following 
oath, or affirmation: 

" I do solemnly swear for affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, to the best ot my ability, preserve, 
protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Ssa 2. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy 
of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called 
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in 
writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon 
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall 
have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offisnses against the United 
States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall nave power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
make treaties, provided two- thirds of the Senators present concur; and he 
shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall 
rapoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the 
Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appoint- 
ments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be estaoushed 
by law; but the Congress may, Dy law, vest the appointment of such inferior 
officers as they think proper m the President alone, in the courts of law, or 
in die heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen dur- 
ing the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at 
the end of their next session. 

Ssa 8. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of 
the state of the Union, and recommend U> their consideration such measures 
as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinay occasions, 
convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between 
them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such 
time as he shau think proper; he sludl receive ambassadors and other public 
ministvrs; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall 
commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sia 4. The President, Yice-President, and all dvil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed fix>m office on impeachment for, and conviction of 
treasQDy brib^y, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

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Abtiole UL 

SscnoN 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in 
one Supreme Ccnrt, and in such inferior conrts as the Congress may, from 
time to time, ordain and establish. The jndges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behayior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sbo. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, aris- 
ing under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, 
or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambaa* 
sadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiraltr and 
maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a 
party; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citi- 
zens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens 
of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between 
a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have orig- 
inal jurisdiction. In all other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court 
shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with sucn exceptions 
and under such regmations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; 
and such trials shall be held m the State where the said crime shall have 
been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shal] 
be at such place or places as tiie Congress may, by law, have directed. 

Sbo. 3. Treason a^nst the United States shall consist onl]^ in levying 
war against them, or m adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and com- 
fort. Ko person shall be convicted of treason, mdess on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but 
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiturCi except 
during the life of the person attainted. 

Abtiolb IV 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State, to the pub- 
lic acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Con- 
gress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records 
and proceedings shall be proved, and ths effect thereof. 

Seo. 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and 
immunities of citizens in the several States. 

A person charged, in any State, with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of 
the Executive authorily of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, 
to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof^ 
escapin<g into another, shall, in conseauence of any law or regulation therein, 
be discmirged from such service or laoor, but shall be delivered up, on claim 
of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sbo. 8. Kew States may be admitted, by the Congress, into this Union; 

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bat no new State shall be fanned or wecled within the juriediction of any 
other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, 
or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatores of the States >con- 
cemed, as well as of the Oongress. 

Ihe Congress diall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and relations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the 
United States; and nothing in this Cionstitution shall be so construed 
aa to prejudice any elaims of the United States, or of any particular State. 

Sbc 4. The United States shall guarantee to eveiy State in this Union, 
& T^nblican form of government, and shall protect each of them a^nst 
ixnrasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the^ exeeutiye ^hen 
the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

AnnoLB V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, 
ahall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the 
X^statures of two- thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for pro- 
posing amendments, which in either case shall be valid to all intents and 
purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 
Ihree-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, 
as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Con- 
gress ; provided that no amendment, which may be made prior to the year 
one thousand eight hundred and ei^ht, shall in any manner affect the first 
and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, 
without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal sui&age in the Senate. 

Abtiolb VL 

All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption 
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the Unit^ States, under this 
Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made 
in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
autnority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of "the koid; and the 
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anvthing in the Constitution 
or fiws of any State to the contrary notwithstanoing. 

The Senators and Bepresentatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of 
the United States and of the several States, shall be bound bv oath, or affirm- 
ation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test snail ever be re- 
Quired, as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 

Abtiolb YIL 

The ratification of the oonvoitions of nine states shall be sufficient for the 
esfaiMiflhment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same 

Done in convention hr the nnanimotn fxmsent of the States present, the 
seireiiteenth day of wptemberi in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 

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hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States 
of America the twelfth. In witness whereof^ we have hereunto subscribed 
oar names. 

Prmdent and Deputy /¥im^ Vhyinia. 

Jf&w SampsMrs. 
John Lanodok, 
Nicholas Oiucak. 

Nathaniel Oobhak, 


Wm. Sah'l JohnboNi 
BooEB Shebman. 

If ew York. 
Alexabbxb Hamilton. 

Ifcw Jersey. 


Wm. PatkbsoNi 
David Bbsaslkt, 
JoNA. Dayton. 



Thob. FnzsDcoNS^ 
James Wilson, 
Thob. MiffliNi 
Obo. Cltmeb, 
Jased Inoebsoll. 


Geo. Bead, 
John DigdnboNi 
Jaoo. Bboom, 
Gunning Bediobd^ Jb.^ 


James M'HenbTi 
Danl. Oabboll, 
Dan. of 8t. Thob, Jbhuix. 

John Blaib. 
James MadisoNi Jb. 

If'orth Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Wiluamson, 

BiGh'd DoBBS SPAIGfflX. 

Soisth Carolina. 
J. Butledob, 
Ohables Finoknet, 


Pdbbgb Butleb. 

William Few, 
Abb. Baldwin. 



To the Constitution of ths United States, ratified apcording to the yrovie* 
tone of the Fifth Article of the foregomg Vonetitution. 

AsmoLR L 

Conffress shall make no law respecting an establishment of reUpon, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom 01 speech, 
or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to asBemble, and to pe- 
tition the government for a redresss of grievances. 

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"* ARD m amxhdwests. S49 

AsnoLB IL 

A weU-regoIated militia being neoessaiy to the aecnrity of a fi-ee State, 
^ right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. 

Abtiglb nL 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be qnartered in anj house without the 
eonsent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed 

AsncLS IV, 

The right of tiie people to be secure in tiieir persons, houses, papers, and 
eflfocts, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated ; 
and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the per- 
sons or things to be seized. 

Abtiolb Y. 

Ko person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise in&mous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a ^rand jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual 
service, in time of war, or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same oflense to be twice put in jeapordy of life or limb; nor shall 
be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, libcotjr, or property, without due^ process of law; nor shall 
pnvate property be taken for public use without just compensation. 

AsncLS VL 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the ri^ht to a speedy 
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the 
crime shall have lleeQ committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accu- 
sation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compul- 
sory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance 
of counsel for his defence. 


In suits at common law; where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twentv dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, 
tried by jury, shall m otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States, than according to the rules of common law. 

Abtiglb YIIL 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
and unusual punishments inflicted. 

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The enumeration in the Constitation, of certain rights^ shall not be eon- 
Btmed to deny or disparage others retained bj the people. 

Abtiolb X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States W the Constitution, nor 
prohibited bj it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to 
the people. 

Abtiolb XL 

The judicial power of the United shall not be construed to extend to any 
suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign 

Abtiolb XIL 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot, for 
President and Yice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhab- 
itant of the same State with tiiemselves; they shall name, in their ballots, 
the person voted for as President, and, in distinct ballots, the person voted 
for as Yice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted 
for as President and of all persons voted for as Yice-President, and of the 
number of votes for each, which lists they shall si^ and certify, and trans- 
mit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to 
the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in pres- 
ence of the Senate and House of Bepresentatives, open all the certificates, 
and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest num- 
ber of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have 
such majority, then from the persons having the Whest numbers, not ex- 
ceeding three on the list of those voted for as Presioentthe House of Bep- 
resentatives shall choose immediately by ballot, the Preddent. But, m 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken bv States, the representation 
Irom each State having one vote; a quorum for tnis purpose shall consist of 
a member or members from two-ihirds of the States, and a majority of all 
the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Kepresenta- 
tives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve 
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Yioe- 
Irosident shall act as President, as in the case of the death, or other consti- 
tutional disability of the President. 

The person having the greatest number of votes as Yice-President, shall 
be the V ice-President, if suiih number be a majority of the whole number 
of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the tw# 
highest numbers on tiie list, the JSenate shall choose the Yice-President ; a 
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of 
Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 

But no person, constitutionally ineligible to the^ office of President, shall 
be eligible to that of Yice-President of the United States. 

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Abtiolb XIIL 

I. Neither slaveiy, nor involnntanr servitude, except as a punishment for 
erime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within 
the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

3- Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 

Abtiolb XIV, 

1. AU persons bom, or naturalized, in the United Stat^, and subject to 
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the States 
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall 
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the tlnited States; nor 
shall any State deprive ^y person of life liberty, or property, without due 
process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Bepresentatives shall be apportioned among the several States, ac- 
cording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons 
in each State, excluding Indians not taxed; but whenever the right to vote 
at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President 
of tiiie United States, Bepresentatives in Congress, the executive and judicial 
officers of the State, or members of the le^slature thereof, is deniea to any 
of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridge, except for participation 
in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of representation shall be reduced in 
the proportion which the whole number of such male citizens shall beair to 
the whole number of male citizens, twenty-one years of age in such State. 

8. No person shall be Senator or B^resentative in Oonffress, or elec- 
tor of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civS or military, 
under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken 
an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or 
as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer 
of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion, against the same, or given aid and com- 
fort to the enemies thereof; but Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of 
each house, remove su«h disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States authorized by 
law, including debts incurred for the payment of pensions and bounties for 
suppressinjg insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 
the unitea States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation 
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion a^inst the United States, or any 
claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but such debts, obliga- 
tions, and claims shall be hela illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, 
the provisions of this article. 

Abtiolb XV. 

The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged oy the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. 

2. Hie Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appn>priate 

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now to find the gain or loss per cent, tohsn the cost and selling priceors 

KuLB. — ^Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which will 
be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost price; 
the result will be the gain or loss per cent 

now to ohomge gold into oivrrency. 

Bulb — Multiply the given sum of gold, by the price of gold. 

How to chanae currency into gold* 

Bulb. — ^Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each paHner^e share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Bulb. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quotient 
will be the gain or loss per cent 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent, the result will be each 
one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 
A short and simple method for finding the net weighty or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is giv&n^ and vice versa. 

Notb.— It is ffenerally aasiimed that the mm weif^ht of Hogs diminished by 1-5 or 20 
per cent, of its^ gives the net weight, and the net weight inoreased by jl^ or 25 per cent 
of itself equals the gross weight. 

Tofi/ne the net weiaht or gross price. 

Bulb. — ^Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Bulb. — ^Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary^ ftin, or wagon-bed. 

Bulb.— Multiply (by short method) the number of cupic feet by 6308, 
and point off onb decimal place — the result will be the correct answer in 
bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

Jf^or only an approximate answer^ multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a com-orib. 

Bulb. — ^Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or by ik 

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ordinary method, and point off okb decimal place— the result will be the 
aaswer in bashels. 

KoTB.-~In eetimating com in the ear, the qoalil^ and the time it has been cribbed 
most bf) taken into consideration, sinoe com wm shnnk considerably during the Winter and 
6pniig. This rale generally holds good for com measured at the time it is cribbed, proyided 
it ia aoond and dean. 

ffow to find the contents of a oUtem or tank. 

Bulb. — ^Maltiply the square of the mean diameter bj the depth (all in 
feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off onb decimal 
place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 81^^ gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

BcTLB.— IJnder the sanare of the mean diameter, write the length (all in 
inches) in bbvebsbd oroer, so that its units will fall under the tens; multi- 
ply by short method, and this product again by 430; point off one decimal 
place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

ffow to measure boards. 

Bulb. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and diyide 
the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet 

JSTow to measure scantUnaSyjoistSy planks^ sills ^ etc. 

Bulb. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together (the 
width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide the pro- 
duct by 12 — the result will be square feet 

Bow to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Bulb.— Multiply the length by the width (m rods), and divide the pro- 
duct by 160 (cairying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a remain- 
der); the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, add 
them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in ailoor or wall. 
BuiA— Multiply the length oy the widtji or height (in feet), and divide 
the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

ffow to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Bulb.— Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22^. 

The number or cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height and 
thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, but 
it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number qfshinales required in a roof. 

BulbI — Multiply the number oi square feet in the roof by 8, if the shin- 
gles are exposed 4^ inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find tne number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 

To find the length of the rafters, at onb-fottbth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths); at ohb-thibd pitch, by .6 
(tenths); at two-vifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths); at onb-half pitch, by 
•71 (hundredths). This g^ves the length of the rafters from the apex to 
the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be taken into 

Notb.— By AjT or K pitdi is meant that the apex or comb of the roof is to be Ji^ or ^ the 
width of the Krauding higher than the walls or base of the raften. 

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How to reckon the coet of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, and 
remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

ffow to measure grain. 

Bulb. — Level the grain; ascertain the space it occupies in cnbio feet; 

multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to the left. 

NoTB.^EzactnesB requires the addition to evezy three hundred bttshdt of one ettn 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the com in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find the 
number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of ear com 
to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, an 
ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on the 
average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means oi measuring distances, it is essential to walk 
in a straight line; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line straight 
ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote; and, In walking, keep 
these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and oth&rs by etdopting the foUowmg simple and ingenious 
contrivanoey may always oarry with them the scale to construct a correct 
yard measure. 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of the 
left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the left 
arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre^ the width being 

Bulb. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 

Sow to find the number of acres in an/y plot of landj the number of 
rods being given. 

BuLE. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 6, and 
remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

77i^ diameter beina given^ to find the circumference. 
BuLE. — Multiply the diameter by 8 1-7. 

How to find the diameter^ when the circumference is given. 
Bulb. — ^Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find how many solid feet a round stick oftimher of the same thick- 
ness throughout will contain when sf[uared. 

Bulb. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply by 
the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for mscisuring timheVj toiind the solid contents infest. 
Bulb. — ^Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and then 
multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

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Tofiiid the number offset of timber in trees toUh the bark on. 

BuLE. — ^Multiply the Bqnare of one-fifth of the circumference in inches, 
bj twice the lenp^th, in feet, and divide by 144. Dedact 1-10 to 1-15 
according to the thickness of the bark. 

Boward^s new rule for computing interest. 

Bulb. — ^The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest on 
any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal point 
two places to the left; for ten times that time, remove the point one place 
to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three places to the 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

NoTB.— The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting tne rate; thus 3 per cent, per 
month, inyerted, becomes }^ of a month, or ten dm. 

When the rate is expressed by one ngore, always write it thus: 8-1, 
three ones. 

Rvlefor cowoertina English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, by 
100 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


The following table presents the population of thirteen of the principal 
dtiesof Iowa for the years 1870, 1875 and 1878 — ^the population for the last 
named year being, in the main, estimated: 

Pop. in 1870. Pop. in 1875. Pop. in 1878. 

Des Moines 12,086 14,448 25,000 

Burlington 14,980* 19,987 25,000 

Davenport 20,088 21,284 26,827 

Ihibuque 18,484 28,605 27,500 

Keolni 12,766 11,841 15,000 

Cedar Kapids 5,940 7,179 11,350 

Iow» City 5,914 6,871 8,000 

CouncU Bluflb 10,020 9,287 11,000 

CUnton 6,129 7,028 9,000 

Muscatine 6,718 7,587 8,000 

Sioux City 8,401 4,290 6,000 

Ottumwa 5,214 6,826 10,000 

Marshalltown 8,288 4,884 6,416 

Fort Madison, Mt Pleasant and Waterloo are, probably, ^ititled to appear 
in the above table, as each of them, doubtlesai has a population of^over 
six thousand. 


Inetodei whole townsh^. 

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In the heart of the grand old forest, 

A thoosand miles to the West, 
Where a stream gashed out from the hill aide» 

They halted at last for rest 
And the silence of ages listened 

To the axe-stroke lond and clear. 
Divining a kingly presence 

In the tread of tne pioneer. 

He formed of the prostrate beeches 

A home that was strong and good; 
The roof was of reeds from the streamlet, 

The chimney he bnilt of wood. 
And there by the winter fireside, 

While the flame up the chimney roared, 
He spoke of the good time comings 

When plenty shonld crown their board — 

When the forest shonld fade like a vision, 

And over the hill-side and plain 
The orchard wonld spring in its beauty. 

And the fields of golden grain. 
And to-night he sits by the fireside 

In a mansion quaint and old, 
With his children's children around hhOf 

Haying reaped a thousand-fold. 

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History of Boone County. 


The County, its location and name — ^The United States Dragoons — Ck>lonel Boone and hit 
connection wiUi the county which beturs his name. 

But little more than a quarter of a cen tnrj has elapsed since the first per- 
manent settlement was made within the bonnds of what is now Boone 
county; it is less than a half of a centnry since the nncivilized aborigines 
roamed the prairies wild and free, nnfettered by the restraint of common or 
Btatatory law and nncircnmscribed by township boundaries and county 
lines. Almost a centnry ago a friend of America, although an English- 
man, in language almost prophetic, wrote: 

** Westward the course of empire takes its way; 
The four first acts already past, 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day; 
Timers noblest offspring is the last.** 

The compiler of a history of a county has a task which may seem to be 
comparatively easy, and the &cts which come within the legitimate scope 
of the work may appear commonplace when compared with national events; 
the narration of the peaceful events attending the conquests of industry as 
"Westward the course of empire takes its way" may seem tame when con- 
trasted with accounts of battles and sie^res. Nevertheless, the faithful gath- 
ering and the truthful narration of facts bearing upon the early settlement 
of this county and the dangers, hardships and privations encountered by 
the early pioneers engaged in advancing the standards of civilization is a 
work of no small magnitude and the facts thus narrated are such as may 
challenge the admiration and arouse the sympathy of the reader though they 
have nothing to do with feats of arms. 

Whoever nas made it his business to study the '^Great Northwest" as it 
has nnfolded itself in history during the last quarter of a century has doubt- 
less met with ever recurring surprises. The story of its unparalleled growth 
and almost phenomenal development has so often been repeated that it has 
become a commonplace platitude; but a careful study of the country will 
MMest questions which have thus far not been answered, and cannot be. 
Why, for instance, have some sections filled up so rapidly, and certain cit- 


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ies sprang up as if by magic, while others, seemingly no less favored by na- 
ture, are stilt in the first stages of development? These qnestions cannot, 
in all cases, be answered; bat whoever has stadiedthe matter carefnily can- 
not fail to have discovered a law of growth which is as unvarying as any 
law of nature. The two leading factors in the problem of manicipal 
growth are location and character of first settlers. The location of Boone 
county was most favorable; and what is true of Boone county is true of 
the whole State. Almost surrounded, as it is, by two of the most renowned 
water-courses of the world, oiie will readily see that it possessed advan- 
tages enjoyed by no other State in the Union. These conditions, so favora- 
ble to the past and future development of the country, are beautifully 
illustrated by an ingenious little poem entitled ^^Two Ancient Misses'' 
written by a gentleman who has won a wide-spread reputation at the bar, 
and whose name, were we at liberty to give it, would be familiar to most of 
the people of Boone county. We here quote it, as it well illustrates our 
our point and is of sufficient merit to be preserved. 


I know two ancient misses 

Who ever onward go, 
From a cold and rigid northern dime 
Through a land of wheat and com and wine, 
To the southern sea where the fig and the lime 

And the golden orange grow. 

In g^racefal carves they wind about 
Upon their long and lonely route, 

Among the beauteous nills; 
They never cease their onward step. 
Though day and night they*re dripping wet. 
And oft with the sleet and snowbe^t, 

And sometimes with the chills. 

The one is a romping, dark brunette, 
As fickle and gay as any coquette; 
She glides along l^ the western plains. 
And changes her bed every time it rains; 
Witching as any dark-eyed houri, 
This romping, wild brunette Missouri. 

The other is placid, mild and fab, 
With a gentle, sylph-like, quiet air. 
And a voice as sweet as a soft guitar; 
She moves along the meadows and parks 
Where naiads plav JBolian harps — 
None ever go bv fits and starts- 
No fickle coquette of the dty. 
But gentle, constant Mississippi. 

I love the wild and dark brunette 

Because she is a gay coquette; 

Her, too, I love, of quiet air, 

Because she's gentle, true and iair. 

The land of my birth, on the east and the west, 

Embraced by these is doubly blest— 

Tis hard to tell which I bve best. 

It has been intimated by one that there is nothing in a name, bat a 
name sometimes means a great deal. In this case it indicates the character 

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HnrroBT ov boohe oouhtt. 9^9^ 

of the people, who settled the county, and have given to it its distinctiye 

Names are sometimes given to towns and countries bv accident; some- 
times they originate in the childish caprice of some one mdividua!, whose 
dictate, by reason of some real or imaginary superiority, is law. However, 
in this instance, the county and its chief city did not receive a name by ac- 
cident; neither did it originate in the childish caprice of one man, but the 
christening took place after mature deliberation and by general consent 

Amonj^ the hardy pioneers whose restless and daring spirits tired of the 
staid ana monotonous ways of the older settled communities, there was one 
who early crossed the Alleghanies and wrested from the warlike savages a 
home in what has very properly been named the ^'Dark and Bu>ody 
Ground." For true manliness of character, for bravery and tor skill in 
dealing with the crafty red man of the forest he was without a peer. His 
name was Daniel Boone. This man had a son who inherited a great many 
traits of his father and was in a remarkable degree endowed with those 
characteristics which distinguished the daring frontiersman of the far 

It would be entirely unnecessary to explain to the early settlers who were 
the (Tnited States Dragoons. Though tne early settlers of this county are 
mostly well along in years and their recollection of early events is gradu- 
ally wearing away by the erasion of passing events, there are doubtless 
none but what appreciate the significance of the term '^Dragoon" and who 
even at this late day can call back the picture of those dignified and pom> 
pous, though brave and honorable, persons who were a terror alike to the 
predatory savage and the covetous claim hunter. The children of the 
pioneer and those people who have come to the country in later years have 
not been accustomed to associate with these doughty champions of law and 
order, and for the benefit of such a word of explanation would, perhaps, not 
be amiss. 

The term dragoon originated in England many years ago and was applied 
to a certain species of cavalry soldiers who rode swift horses, went lightly 
armed and whose business it was to scour the King's dominions and by 
menace or actual deeds of violence awe the obstinate Saxon into sub- 

Their first appearance in America was during the Revolutionary War 
when they performed important service by making long and rapid excur- 
sions through the country within the American lines and thus keeping open 
a line of communication with the tories who were scattered throughout the 
whole country. What the Cossack is to the Russian army, and what Mosby's 
and Forest's swift riders were to the Confederate army, that the dragoons 
were to the English soldiery. When the war of independence closed and 
the colonies, by the terms of the treaty of peace, became free and inde- 
pendent, it became necessary for the republic to organize an army, and in 
the organization of this army, that of England was taken as a model; 
and not only English tactics but English military terms were appropriated. 
The term dragoon is no longer used in military parliance but from the or- 

Sinization of the United States army till sometime after the close of the 
exican War the dragoon was an important, and what was supposed to be 
an indispensable, factor in the service. Their peculiar mission for over 
fifty years was to lead in the van of civilization and act as umpire in cases of 
dispute between the pioneer and the savage. In time of war they encircled 

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the seatterinff settlements of the frontier like a wall of fire and many a de- 
fenseless setUer owed the protection of his life and family to these men. 
They fnlly understood the Indian character and Indian tactics and under 
ordinary circumstances one dragoon was a match for five Indians in an open 
and hand to hand conflict. In time of peace, however, the dra^^^oon knew 
no friends and was as swifb and unrelenting in administering pnnishment 
to the trespassing settler as to the savage Indian. One day nis miBsioo 
would be to pursue a band of hostile Indians who had left their reservation 
and menaced the life or property of the settler; the next day, p^tdianoe, 
his task would be to search out the aggressive squatter who, ignonng Indian 
treaties, had erected a cabin across the boundary line; when ne found such 
the dragoon would invariably bum the cabin and drive the squatter back 
across uie line. 

One of the first companies of United States Dragoons stationed in this 
section of country was commanded by Colonel Boone. He was among the 
first white men who explored the region and gave a correct acoonnt of its 
natural resources and as a tribute to his memory the county bears hia 

The following brief biography of Oolonel Boone will be of interest to 
every reader of this work and will doubtless be regarded as relevant at this 
place. For the facts in this biography we are indebted to Chas. Neffos 
whose able article on the subject, published in the Annals of Iowa in IStTS, 
has come to be regardekl as an important part of the permanent history 
of the HawkEye State: 

^'There is one name, which, whenever it is mentioned among military 
men and old frontiermen, is always mentioned with respect, and that name 
is Kathan Boone. On account of his father, Oolonel Daniel Boone, of Ken- 
.tucky, the fame of the son is not as wide-spread as it should be, nor is it 
such as he was justly entitled to. He was oorn in Kentucky in 1772, in 
the settlement made by his father; lived there until he was grown to man- 
hood, and then moved to the Territory of Missouri, where, at thirty years 
of age, and on the 26th day of March, 1812, he was made, by 
the rresident of the United States, a captain of mounted ran^rs. 
These rangers, of which there were seven companies, were raised 
during the war with Oreat Britian, for the protection of the 
frontier of the United States against the Indians, and were to serve on foot 
or horseback, as the exigencies of the service might roguire. He served 
through the whole war, bis company being made up of n'ontiersmen from 
Missouri Territory. He was promoted major of the Missouri monnted 
rangers, on the 10th of December, 1818, continued as captain in 1814, and 
his command was finally disbanded when the whole army was cut down at 
the close of the war, in June, 1816. By nature he was cool and daring, 
combining the superior knowledge of the white man with the cunning of 
the Indian. He had the passion peculiar to his familv for the chase, and 
often went off on long ana lonely marches, far bevond the most extmded 
frontier settlements, m pursuit of the denizens of the forest After leaving 
the army, he was sometimes employed as a surveyor, and laid off many In- 
dian boundaries in the territory north of Missouri; and sometimes as a 
trapper, when he indulged his love for hunting for months together. .His 
home he moved beyond the Ozark Mountains, where, in a beautiful valley, 
and far in advance of civilization, he made it cheerful and happy. 

"There he lived until the breaking out of the Black Hawk War, when he 

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HiBTOBY oi* BOONS oouimr. 961 

a|;ain called upon by the Preflident to serve his coontrj in the field. A 
battalion of mounted rangers was raised and placed under the command of 
Maj<n- Henry Dodge, the. six companies of which it was composed being 
commanded respectively by Captains Lemuel Ford, Benjamin V. Becks, 
Jesse B^ Brown, Jesse Bean, Nauiai;! Boone, and Matthew Duncan. Oaptain 
Boone's comm: cion was dated June 16, 1832. This battalion rendered 
good service dr.. .qg the Black Hawk troubles, and after the war closed it 
was sent west ot the Mississippi, and served in the Indian country. Here, 
Boone's knowledge of woodcraft was invaluable, and he was known to be 
one of the ablest woodsmen that ever belonged to the United States army. 
He could go to any point in a straight line, no matter whether it was 
across the prairie or tnrough the timber, and possessed a keener instinct 
than the Indians themselves. He was an extraordinary man, and it is said 
that no Indian hunter excelled him in the knowledge of woodcraft. 

^*In August, 1833, the battalion of rangers was reorganized as the First 
re^ment of United States dragoons. Major Dod^e having been promoted 
eoTonel; Stephen W. Kearney lieutenant-colonel, and Richard B. Mason, 
major. Five of the captains in the rangers were retained. Captain Becks 
having been discharged, and five other captains from the old army ap- 

grinted to the regiment; these were Clinton Wharton, Edwin Y. Sumner, 
nstaoe Trenor, David Hunter, and Eeuben Holmes. 

^While a captain, Boone was stationed at Fort Des Moines, and at Leav- 
enworth, but every summer his company made Ipng expeditions far 
out in the Indian country. He was the favorite pioneer captain of Colo- 
nel Kearney, who had the most implicit confidepce in his knowledge and 
sagacity. It is related that at one time, while out in the buffalo range, 
several young and enthusiastic officers started out and followed a drove of 
btt&lo a long distance. They became separated from the main command 
Imd from one another, and, in fact, got lost. Night came on, but still the 
young gentlemen did not return, and all became exceedingly apprehensive 
m regard to their safety. A long night ensued, but with the nrst li^ht of 
the following morning Boone was on the trail, thouj^h in some places it had 
been obliterated by tne hoofs of thousands ofbunaloes; and after a long 
search, found them completely lost, and almost insane. 

''At another time, an officer, while in pursuit of buffaloes, after riding 
several miles, lost his hat, but in the hurry of pursuit did not stop to pick 
it up. After shooting a buffalo, he returned and tried to find it, but could 
not do so, and tying his handkerchief around his head he returned to the 
main bod^. Boone asked him where he had lost his hat, and the officer 
told him it was somewhere out on the plain — ^he did not know where. Asa 
hat at that time could not weU be replaced, it was worth looking after, and 
Boone rode out, and having been gone an hour or two, return^ with the 

''In the settlement of the Osage Indian difficulties, in 1887, and those of 
the Cherokees, which originated in the death of Boudinot and Ridges, in 
1839, Boone acted a conspicuous part. 

"During the Mexican War he was kept on the plains in the Indian coun- 
try, where it was thought he could be more usefully employed than he 
could further south. He was promoted major in the First regiment on the 
15th of February, 1847, and served as such until the 26th of July, 1850, 
when he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the Second dragoons. Feeling 
that old age was wearing upon him, and that he was no longer able to keep 

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the field, he resiraed oat of the army on the 16th of July, 1853, and died 
at his home in Missoari, in Jannary, 1857, in the seventy-fifth year of his 

^^Several of the paths leading towards the Rocky Mountains were first 
traveled by parties under the leadership of Boone, and he discovered many 
of the water-courses* and streams along which travelers have since wended 
their way to the shores of the Pacific. This work has been claimed by ex- 
plorers who have visited the country long since his time, and who hare 
robbed him of the credit which was due him as a successful pioneer and 
noted leader on our wide western domain. He was a man of great mod- 
esty and simplicity of character. His education was quite limited, as he 
lived nearly his whole life on the frontier, away from schools and the ad- 
vantages which most other Americans possess. He had the most unflinch- 
ing perseverance, combined with personal courage, and an integrity which 
nothmg could shake. In personal appearance he is said to have strongly 
resembled his celebrated father, Daniel Boone, the first settler of Kkk- 



Situation — Extent — Surface — Rivers— Timber— Climate— Prairies— Soils-^Geology — Eco- 
nomic Geology — Coal — Building Stone — Clays — Spring and Well Water. 

BooNB county is situated near the center of the State — accurately speak- 
ing it is about thirty miles west and a very little south of the geographical 
center; it is considerably west and north of the center of wealth and pop- 
ulation. Numbering by counties it is in the fifth tier numbering either 
from the north or south boundary of the State, in the eighth, numberin'iyr 
from the east, and in the fifth Irom the west boundary of the State. Its 
latitude is about 42 degrees and 10 minutes, being somewhat north of the 
city of New York, and its longitude is about 98 degrees, and 60 minutes 
west of Greenwich, and 13 degrees and 50 minutes, or about 1,150 miles 
west of Washington City. 

It is bounded, on the north by Webster and Hamilton counties; on the 
east by Story county; on the south by Dallas and Polk; on the west by 
Greene. It comprises the congressional townships 82, 88, 84 and 85 of 
ranges 25, 26, 27 and 28 west. 

Boone countv is in the shape of a square as nearly as could be made, 
estimated by the measurements of the original surveys, and is twenty-four 
miles each way, giving it a superficial area of five hundred and seventy-six 
square miles, or three hundred and sixty-eight thousand, six hundred and 
forty acres. The civil townships as now constitued are as follows: Harri- 
son, Dodge, Pilot Mound, Grant, Amaqua, Yell, Des Moines, Jackson, Ool- 
&x. Worth, Marcy, Beaver, Union, Peoples, Cass, Douglas and Garden. 
it)t' these, Harrison, Jackson, Colfax, Garden, Peoples, Union, Beaver, 
A maqua, and Grant have the same boundaries as the corresponding con- 

fressional townships; Dodge, Marcy and Des Moines are larger, while 
Hot Mound, Yell, Worth, Douglas and Cass are smaller than congres- 
sional townships. Dodge is the largest township and Douglas the smallest. 
The county was originally divided into civil townships whose boundaries 
in the main corresponded with the boundaries of the congressional toWn- 

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ships, bat in later yean some important changes were made which will be 
mentioned more partionlarlj at the proper place. All the townships, as at 
present oonstitnted have regnlar boundaries, except where they border 
upon the Des Moines river. Owing to the great expense necessarily in- 
volved in bridging this river, but few bridges have been erected, conse- 
qnetly the river forms an impassable barrier during certain portions of the 
year thas making it very inconvenient, if not altogether impassable, hence 
it has been so arrauged that no township, as at present constituted, extends 
on both sides of the stream. 

Boone county's elevation is somewhat greater than the average county of 
Iowa in this latitude; from this circumstance it earned the appellation in 
early times of ^^High Boone." 

llie elevation of the county is probably about 950 leet above the level 
of the sea, or 506 feet above low water mark in the Mississippi river at 
Eeoknk. According to the railroad levels, the highest point on a line 
drawn east and west across the center of the countv is near the east bound- 
ary line, where the elevation is 1 ,188 feet above the sea or 744 feet above 
low water in the Mississippi river at Keokuk. The elevation of the prin- 
cipal points on the railroad in the county is as follows: 

Boone 951 feet above the sea. 

Moingona 919 feet above the sea. 

Ogden ...1,080 feet above the sea. 

Beaver Station 1,039 feet above the sea. 

The water in the Des Moines river, here, is about 460 feet higher than at 
its mouth. 

The county is generally of an undulating prairie, and has altogether a 
diversity of country seldom seen in so smalfa space. At a varying distance 
from the streams rises an irregular line of bluffs, or hills, sometimes 
wooded, and sometimes, previous to improvement, covered with a luxuriant 
growth of prairie ffrass, having between them the water bottom lands of 
nnsurpassea fertility. These hills are usually a gentle slope, easily 
ascended and descended by wagons and sinking into mere benches, mod- 
erately lifted above the surface of the valley; i^ain they rise oft-times to 
the height of one hundred and fifty feet above the bed of the Des Moines 
river. From side to side between these hills the streams meander with 
banks varied by hill, meadow and forest. Bising to these higher grounds 
the eye often commands views of exquisite loveliness, embracing the silvery 
oourse of river or creek, the waving foliage of trees, the changing outlines 
of hills and the undulating surface of nower-decked prairie, with culti- 
vated farms, with farm houses from the log hut of the first settler to the 
brick or painted houses and bams of the more advanced cultivator of the 

A remarkable chain of bluffs or hills, called Mineral Bidge, extends the 
entire width of the north side of the county. The surveyors declared that 
the ridge contained deposits of iron from the fact that their compass 
needles were deflected when running lines in that locality. This is the 
reason why the elevations were called Mineral Bidge. 
An old record says that: 
^Opposite to Honey creek in section 18, township 84, range 26, is a row 

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of ancient mounds, nine in number, the largest one being in the oenter 
and over fifteen feet high. " . 

Professor Owen says: 

^' The real beauty of this section can hardly be surpassed. Undnlating 
prairies interspersed with open groves of timber and watered with pebbly 
or rocky streams, pure and transparent, hills of moderate height and gentle 
slope; here and there, especially toward the heads of the streams, small 
lakes as clear as the streams, skirted with timber, some with banks covered 
with the green sward of the prairie. These are the ordinary features of 
the landscape. For centuries tne successive annual crops have accumulated 
orfi;anic matter on the surface to such an extent that the succession even of 
exhausting crops will not materially impoverish the land. " 

The country presented to the first settler an easy task in subduing the 
wild land. Its natural prairies were fields almost ready for the planting 
of the crop, and its rich olack soil seemed to be awaiting the opportunity 
of paying rewards as a tribute to the labor of the husbandman. The 
farms of Iowa at present are generally large, level, unbroken by impassa- 
ble sloughs, without stumps or other obstructions, and furnish the best of 
conditions favorable to the use of reaping machines, mower, com planters 
and other kinds of labor-saving machinery. 

Boone county is well supplied with good living streams, many of them 
having fine mill sites. The Des Moines river is the principal stream of 
the county, as it also is of the State. It enters the county a mile west of 
the center of the nothem boundary line and pursues a southeasterly course, 
leaving the county four miles east ot the center of the south 
boundary line. Its average width is over one hundred yards and its waters 
are of a crystal clearness when not disturbed by freshets. Many mill 
sites may be found along this stream within the bounds of the county, but 
few of these have thus far been improved. No county in this or any 
other State has better facilities than this for flouring mills, or the propags- 
tion of any kind of machinery. The available water power along the Des 
Moines river in Boone county alone, were it utilized, would fumisn a remu- 
nerative occupation for all the able-bodied men in the county. It has 
been but recently that the full value of the Des Moines river for water 
power begun to be appreciated and at some points (as at Ottumwa for in- 
stance), is become to be regarded as the foundation of future municipal 
wealth and greatness. 

As to the siraificance of the name of this river. According to Nicollet 
the name Des Moines, which has been attached to the largest river, one of 
the first counties organized and the capital of tbe State, is a corruption of 
an Indian word signifying ^' at the roaa. " He remarks, *^ but in the later 
times the inhabitants associated this name {Revere des Moins) with that 
of the Trappist Monks {Moines de la Traj>pe) who resided on the Indian 
mounds of the American Bottom. It was. then concluded that the true 
reading of the Rivers Des Moins was Rivers Des Moines or River of tbe 
Monks, by which name it is designated on all the maps. 

The older settlers have doubtless noticed quite a change in the spelling 
of this name in later years, the approved way of spelling in former times 
having been Demoin. 

The other streams of the county are small, but nevertheless important 

Equaw creek in the northeast part of the county is a fine, rapid stream 
of c^ar, pure water, having a plentiful supply of timber and settlements 

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HMoroBT OF BOONB oommr. 266 

•long itB banks; it is a tribntoiy of Skunk river. It is said that EquUo^ 
is the Indians' name of the creek and signifies womwn^B. Hence the white 
settlers soon aocnstomed themselves to call it Sqitaw creek, which detest- 
aUe eastern in this case as in the case of Sknnk river has resulted in the 
dropping of the pleasant sounding Indian name and the substitution of a 
name which is unpleasant both to the ear and the e^e. Notwithstanding 
the stream has practically lost its beautiful name it has lost none of its 
beautiful characteristics for which it is deservedly noted. 

Amaqna creek waters the western portion of the county; its course is 
Boftthward and has along its banks a plentiful supply of timber. It is said 
that AfnaqtM^ an Indian word, means beaver, consequently the stream is 
frequently if not generally called by that name — another evidence of the 
efymoloeical researches of the early settlers, which is more creditable to 
their industry than good taste. Two townships, through which this tream 
flows, Amaqua and Beaver, received their names from it. This stream 
famishes abundance of water for that region. 

The other streams are short tributaries of the Des Moines river. They 
are called Bear creek, Blnff creek, Oryton's creek, all on west side; Hulrs 
cnek, Pea's creek and Honey creek on the east side. The banks of all 
these streams are lined with timber, and imbedded in them are mines of 
wealth in the form of coal, stone and potter's clay. Two of these streams, 
vii.: Hull's creek and Pea's creek, received their names from the two first 
settlers, John Pea and Hall. It is very appropriate for the names of these 
hardy pioneers thus to be perpetuated, and so long as the present race 
ooBupy the land they will remain anchanged by the vicissitudes of time. 

Among the most abundant of all trees originally found was the black 
walnut, so hi|;hly prized in all countries for manufacturing purposes. Tim- 
ber of this kind was very plentiful and of good quality originally, but the 
high prices paid for this kind of timber presented itself as a tempatation 
to destroy it which the people, frequently in straightened circumstances, 
ooaldnot resist Bed, wnite and black oak are still very plentiful, although 
they have for many years been extensively used as fuel. Crab apple, elm, 
Diaple, ash, Cottonwood and wild cherry are also found. The best timber 
in the State is to be found in this county. 

A line of timber avenging four miles in width follows the course of the 
Des Moines river, and aU the other streams are liberally supplied. De- 
tached groves both natural and artificial are found at many places through- 
oat the eounty, which are not only ornamental, in that they vary the monot- 
ony of the prairie, but likewise very useful in that they have a very impor- 
tant bearing on the climate. It is a fact fully demonstrated by the best of 
aathority that climate varies with the physiognomy of a country. 

There is a variety of soil as well as surface in this county. Portions 
along the Des Moines river are somewhat broken and uneven but the soil 
10 productive and peculiarly well adapted to the raising of wheat, com, 
oats and other cereals. Grasses of all kinds grow luxuriantly and it is one 
of the best localities for stock raising. 

Boone county is well supplied with stone for all kinds of building pur- 
poses. Quarries of limestone of the best quality, resembling the celebrated 
Joilet limestone, have been discovered and operated in various parts of the 
oooa^. The best quarries are located in the vicinity of Elk Bapids. An 
abondfance of stone suitable for the manufacture of lime is also found in 

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the county. While building stone is not well distributed over the ooanty, 
yet enoueh is readily obtained anywhere. 

Potter's clay of good quality is found all along the course of the Dee 
Moines river. This clay has for a number of years been utilised in the 
manufacture of stone and earthenware. The potteries of Boone county 
have tor many years had a wide-spread reputation and their capacity is 
only limited by the amount of capital invested. Clay also for the manu- 
facture of tiling and brick is found just above, and immediately below the 
coal veins. 

Along the river blufis at numerous places gush forth springs of living 
water whose supply even during the dryest seasons seems to be exhaustless 
while good well water can be obtained anywhere by digging or boring a 
distance of from fifteen to thirty feet. The lakes which are represented on 
the early maps prove to be nothing but small sloughs. These are to be 
found in considerable numbers all over the county. It is found that by 
draining these marshy places they afibrd the most productive spots of land. 
It will not be many years, under the present enterprising management, 
till all these sloughs will be converted into com fields. 

The climate is what is generally termed a healthy one, subject however 
to the sudden change from heat to cold. The winters, however, are as a 
general thing uniform although there seems to have been very marked modifi- 
cations in the climate during the past few years, resulting, doubtless, from 
the changes which have taken place in the physiognomy of the country. 

At one time it was asserted, with much confidence, that the climate of 
the Mississippi Valley was warmer than that of the Atlantic States in the 
same latitude, but this idea has long since been exploded by observations 
which have been made in both regions. 

From Blodgett's Climatology of the United States we learn that the 
'^early distinctions between the Atlantic States and the Mississippi Valley 
have been quite dropped as the progress of observation has shown them to 
be practically the same, or to differ only in unimportant particulars. It is 
difficult to designate any important fact entitling them to any separate 
classification; they are both alike subject to great extremes; they both 
have strongly marked continental features at some seasons and decided 
tropical features at others and these infiuence the whole district similarly 
without showing any line of separation. At a distance from the Gulf of 
Mexico, to remove the local effect, the same peculiarities appear which be- 
long to Fort Snelling; Montreal as well as to Albany, Baltimore and Bich- 

As this county is nearly on the same parallel as Central New York it is 
fair to presume that the climate is nearly identical, provided the above be 
true. X et observation shows that there is a perceptible tendency to ex- 
tremes, as we go further west, owing to the lakes and prairies prol^ibly, and 
shows that the spring and summer are decidedly warmer, and the winter 
colder here than in New York. From the open country, the Ki'eftt sweep 
of the winds, and the force of the sun, the malaria from the rich prairies 
is counteracted and dispelled so that the climate here is as healthy as in 
any portion of the known world. 

The geological characteristics of the county are'varied and form an in- 
teresting subject of study and investigation. In this progressive a^e and 
owing to the present advanced stage of scientific research, the intdligent 
people of Boone county will not fail to be interested by a somewhat 

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HmoSt OF BOONX OOimTT. 867 

dabomte dissertation upon the subjeot of local geology as applied to the 
formation of their own lands, the oonstitnents of their own soil, and the 
eomparisons and contrasts which will be made with other and adjoining 
conn ties. In discussing this subject we draw not only upon facts of our 
own observation, but avail ourselves of the best authorities at our com- 

Alluviufn. — ^The deposits strictly referable to this formation in Boone 
county, are: the soil everywhere covering the surface, and narrow belts of 
alluTial bottom lands skirting the principal streams; these consist of 
insularly stratified deposits of sand, gravel and decomposed vegetable 
matter, the whole seldom exceeding ten or twelve feet in thickness. The 
reader will understand that the original surface of the land consisted of 
rock; portions of these rocks having been detached by the action of the ele- 
ments, by chemical causes and the action of glaciers in pre-historic times 
were afterward transported by subsequent floods; this constitutes the soil 
and is alluvium or drii^, acconling to its peculiar formation. 

Dri/i Deposits. — The entire surface of the county is covered with a 
heavy deposit of drift material presenting the usual characteristics of this 
f<Mination, and consisting of irr^ularly stratified beds of sand, gravel and 
day, with an average thickness of from forty to sixty feet. 

The drift ot this re^on contains a greater amount of arenaceous or sandy 
material than is found in the same deposit farther south, which seems to 
have been derived from the decompositions of the sandstones and shales 
of the cotfl-measures in the immediate vicinity. The dark color of the soil 
is d^ved from the presence of coal, which doubtless existed here in former 
times, and still exists in large quantities. That peculiar quality of soil 
commonly called ^'hard pan,'' and which is found nirther south, is due to 
the absence of arenaceous material composed of decomposed particles of 
lime instead of sandstone. 

Outlies of these sandstones and shales must have existed all over the 
northern part of the county previous to the drift period, and have been 
broken up and redeposited by drift agencies in beds of loose sand. Frag- 
ments of coal are quite common in this formation and have been derived 
from the coal seams previously existing. 

Vodl-Mmsures.—Oxi\\\eA of rocks referable to the age of coal seem to 
originally have been spread over a considerable portion of the surface of 
the connty but have, to a great extent, been broken up and carried away by 
the drift agencies. 

With regard to the geological formation of Boone county, lying as it 
does wholly within the area of the coal field, it is referable to the middle 
and lower coal-measures. A careful examination of the strata has been 
made at three points, viz.: Elk Rapids, at the mouth of HnlPs Creek, and 
at M ilford, two and one-half miles above Boonesboro. 

The following was the result of observations near the mouth of the creek 
emptying into the Des Moines river, from the west of Elk Rapids: 

Gray Shale and Shaly Sandstone 20 feet. 

Ath-oolored Marl, containing Orihis Produetus, Chonete$, Ter^atuhB, and joints 

of Crinoids 6 feet. 

Gray Shale 16 feet 

Dark Bine Shale Sinches. 

Marly Limestone, with Produetus^ ChoneU$, $te 10 inches. 

Ash-odored Shaly Clay 4 feet. 

Boff-eolored, Arcaiaceous Limestone 4ki fleet. 

UnezpoMd 18 feet. 

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908 HVfOET 0F BOon oounr. 

The nppermoftt bed in this eection wis found to oontain marine didls in 
great pronision and in a most p^eot state of preservation. 

At the mouth of Hull's creek observations were made with the following 

Compaet Gray limestone 2 feei. 

Gray Shaly Clay 4 feet 

Maanve Sandttone 6 leet 

Gray Shale ....8 feet 

FeiTugenous Shale 4 feet 

Dark Blue Slate 4 feet 

These beds were found to be overlaid bv a heavy deposit of drift, form- 
ing hills at least one hundred feet in height 
Observations were made at Milford with the following result: 

Sandstone 4 feet 

Unexposed r 6 feet 

Bitaminous Slate, containing Tingula and Fossil wood 8 feet 

Coal 1 foot 

Unexposed 21 feet 

Coal, in the bed of the river 1 foot 

The bituminous slato in this section was found to contain large concre- 
tions of Septariay one of which having been broken was found to contain 
fish spines and a small species of Orhtoula. 

At an early day most of the coal mined in this region was (aken firom 
the bed of the river where the seams were laid bare bv the action of the 
current Along the bluffs the strata was entirely hiaden bjr the heavy 
deposits of drift clay and gravel which is spread in great profusion over the 
rock strata in this part of the State. 

As before remarked Boone countv lies wholly within the limits of the 
coal field. Goal was early discovered here and it was found to be not ooly 
of a good quality but also in great abundance at certain places. In a work 
preptu^ by Prof. C. A. White, entitled " Geology of Iowa," published in 
1870, we find the following account of the coal mterests of Boone oountv: 

** The whole of Boone county lies quite within the recognized limits of the 
coal field, and yet, so far as is known, coal has actually oeen discovered at 
only a few points near the center. This is doubtless in a great part doe to 
the great depth of the drift, which covers the strata of the whole county, 
and also in part, perhaps, to a supposed general depression of all the strata 
so that the subcarboniferous as well as the lower strata of the lower coal- 
measures are brought somewhat beneath the level of the Des Moines ri?er 
along the whole length of the county. 

^^Ooal has been extensively worked near Boonesboro and Moingont, 
on the line of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, by two companies 
organized for that purpose. Besides this, considerable quantities have been 
mined by private parties to supply local demand^. All the mines have been 
opened in the valley sides of the Des Moines river and Honey creek, one of 
its small tributaries. 

^^ There are two distinct beds of coal known and mined here, the princifMd 
one being the lowest and about four feet thick. The uppNer one is m>m two 
and a half to three feet thick. The quality of the coal is equally as good 
as that of the other, but requiring proportiouably more labor, is not so ex- 
tensively mined. These being the only mines opened along the line of 

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uiMMT ov BOotfB u0uirif . 969 

that nilroad in Iowa, they are of great Takie and imDortaaoe. There can 
be DO reasonable doubt tliat these or other beds of ooal may yet be reached 
bfanldng shafts from the prairie snrfiu^es of different parts of the oonnty 
ita oomparatively moderate depth." 

Tb'a view, written by the State G^logist, and one of well recognized 
ability, was the correct statement of the coal interests of Boone county in 
tbariDikncy. The author's prophesy of the extensive deposits of coal, at 
that time undisooYered, is bemg rapidly fulfilled. Not only is it found to 
Qoderlie the surface of the entire county and other counties in the recog- 
nized limits of the coal field, but extends much farther out in both directions, 
and the futare geologist who shall prepare a geological map of Iowa most 
extend the width of the coal field by several miles on either side. 

The quality of the coal in the county seems to improve as it is being 
worked, and is rapidly becoming the favorite of Iowa coals. For a numb^ 
of years the Oskaloosa coal was thought to be superior to any other found 
io the State, but while that coal has not depreciated the quality of Boone 
oonnty coal has so far improved as to now be its successful rival. An 
aDalyaia of Boone county cmI has been made by the State Geologist, the 
reanlt of whidi we deem to be of sufficient importance to the readers of this 
work to be given. Before doinj^ so a preparatory explanation will be 
oeeeesary, in order that the reader who is not versea in scientific and tech- 
nical terms may be able to understand the significance of the analysis. 

Fiffi. The value of coal for fuel is inversely proportional to the amount 
of moisture contained in it; that is, the more water it contains the less is 
its value. And moisture is a damage to the coal not only because it takes 
the place of what might otherwise be occupied by combustible matter, but 
beeanse also it requires some of the heat generated by the burning of the 
combustible matter to transform it into steam, and thus expel it. It will 
thus be seen that the presence of lfti*gp quantities of moisture in coal sen- 
oQsly impsir its value. But in looking over the analysis j^ven it should 
be remembered that some of the coals were taken fresh from the mines, 
others had been kept for some time in a damp room, while others had been 
Bnbiected for some time to the high temperature of a heated room. 
oeeond. The greater the per cent of ash, the less the value of the coal. 
Third. The more fixed carbon which the coal contains, the greater its 

Ftmrtk. The same holds true, to a certain extent, with regard to the 
volatile combustible matter, the precise limits of which cannot be deter- 
mined until we know the composition of this combustible matter. 
For the purpose of analysis two samples were taken. 
No. 1 was a sample from the Noruiwestem Ooal Company's mine at 

This is a hard, compact, and brittle coaL It is distinctly laminated, and 
eleaves well. There is considerable mineral charcoal, and the coal is quite 
^8ty. Quite a number o/ seams of calcareous matter are found, and some 

The coke is tolerably compact, with brilliant metallic luster. The ash is 
red. No. 2 was a sample taken from the bottom of the same mine. The 
qopearance of this coal and of its coke is anite similar to that of the top 
Bunple. The color of the ash is a very brigtit red. 

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970 naioBT or booitb ioovhtt. 


No.l. Ho. 2. 

Moittiue 18.23 11.51 

Volatile ComlmsiiWe 37.52 38^ 

Fixed Cwbon 43.69 43.74 

A«h 5.56 5.89 

TotiU 100.00 100.00 


Volalale Combustible 43,25 43.91 

Fixed Carbon 50.36 49,43 

Ash 6.39 6,66 

To*»l 100.00 100.00 

No.l. No. 2, 
To*»l Volatile 50.75 50.37. 


i81.21 82.60.) Undried. 

93.61 93.34. ; Dried. 

49.25 49.63. Undzied. 

56.75 56.09. f Dried. 


Carbon *. 88.74 87,69 

Adi 11.26 12.81 

Total 100.00 100.00 

From a specimen of Oskaloosa coal the following result was obtained: 
Moisture, 5.88; Volatile Combustible, 84.08; Fixed Oarbon, 48.60; Ash. 

In examining the principal shaft of the Lower Vein Coal Company's 
mine, two miles northwest from Boonsboro, the following formations were 


Dark soil 4 Granite rock 1 

Gravel 4 White sand rock 13 

Brown clay 12 Granite rock 1 

Bldeday 6 Sandrock 3 

Water, sand and ffrarel...: 23 Blackriate 5 

Blue clay 43 Coal 1 

Diysand 9 Sandrock 7 

Sea mud 6 Black slate 3 

Water, sand and gravel 5 Gi-aysJate 2 

Stiffclay 7 Blackslate 3 

Soap-stone 5 Coal S 

Brown rock 2 Brown Cap rock 1 i 

Soap-stone 5 Coal 2 10 1 

Sandrock 4 Fire-day.-.v 1 6l 

Soap-stone 12 Blackslate 4 6 

RedCaprock 1 Coal 3 4i 

Soap-stone 3 — —I 

Rocky marl 3 Total 218 10 ! 

So^-stone 12 

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PolicT of the GoTemment— Treaties— Annuities — The Sac and Fox Indians — Keokuk— 
Wapello— Indian Incidents and Reminiscences—Tlie Neotral Stripy-The Pottawatta- 
iDies--John Greene and His Band— The Sioox— The Lolt Atrocity— The Rerenge 
and the Retaliation. 

It has been the castom of the fi^neral government in dealing with the 
IndiaDs west of the Miseisaippi river to treat them hb independent nations. 

In these negotiations with the aborigines of Iowa the antnorities, at vari- 
ons times, entered into treaties with the Sioux, in the north, and with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in the south, the government purchasing the land from the 
Indians jnst as Louisiana was purchased from France. The Black Hawk 

fnrchase was acquired by means of the first treaty made with the Sac and 
'ox Indians in reference to Iowa lands. This treatv was made September 
If 1832, and included a portion of countrv bounded as follows: Beginning 
on the Mississippi river, where the northern boundary line of the lands 
owned by said Iiidians strikes said river, thence up or westward on said 
line fifty miles, thence in a right line to the Bed Cedar river, forty miles 
from the Mississippi river, thence in a right lino to the northern part of 
the State of Missouri, at a point fifty miles from the Mississippi river, 
thence by the said boundary line to the Mississippi river, and thence up 
^e Mississippi river to the place of beginning. The western boundary 
Kne was a very irregular one, as it followed the same general direction as 
the Mississippi river. It ran a little west of the present location of Wash- 
ington, and its general direction was a little west of south. 

jHie second purchase was made in 1837, October 21, and included a suf- 
ficient amount of territory to straighten the boundary line. The western 
boundary of the Black Hawk purchase being a very irregular line, the 
^ty of 1887 was designed for tne purpose of straightening said boundary 
line. By this treaty the Indians ceded a tract of country west and adjoin- 
ing the 6lack Hawk purchase, containing one million two hundred and 
fifty thousand acres. Upon survey, however, the number of acres proved 
insnfficient to make a straight line, as was originally intended. The Indians 
stipulated to remove within one year, except from Keokuk's village, which 
they were allowed to occupy five months longer. 

The last treaty made with the Sac and Fox Indians comprehended all the 
rest of their lands in the State. This treaty was made at Agency City, in the 
present limits of Wapello county, and was concluded October 1 1, 1842, procla- 
mation of its ratification having been made March 28, 1843, and possession 
was eiven to all that part lying east of Bed Bock, now in Marion county, 
on May 1, 1843. The last date, therefore, is the period when the whole of 
the country was thrown open to white settlement. 

The principal chief in this treaty was Keokuk. A gentleman of an ad- 
joining county heard this chief make a speech on that occasion, which he 
pronounces an unusually eloquent address. He says, that in his opinion, 
** the former standing of KeoKuk as an Indian orator and chieftain, as a 
Signified gentleman and a fine specimen of physical development, was not 
in Ae least oyerrated." During the Black Hawk trouble his voice was 
E>r peace with the white man, and his influence added much to shorten that 

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stn^MT OF BooM ooiniiT* 

war. As an honor to this chief, and owing to his inflnence in bringing 
about the treaty, a county was called £eokuK. 
Until the conclusion of the Black Hawk treaty the Indians held nndis- 

{>uted sway in Iowa. Few, if any, white peoi)le in those days ventured as 
lEir west as this, and the country was com]>aratively unknown, except as re- 
ports were brought to the frontier by roving bands of Indians, intent on 
barter. In the main the Indians subsisted upon the wild animals then 
inhabiting this country. Occasional patches of Indian com were culti- 
vated, which furnished them scanty food during a portion of the year; bat 
wild turkeys,' pheasants, deer, fisn and muskrats rormed the chief articles 
of diet. 

As they ceded their lands to the United States, strip after strip, they 
gradually withdrew, and the white settlers took their place as possessors of 
the soil. The aborigines were not forcibly ejected from their lands as in 
other parts of the country, but the change was effected by a legitimate pro- 
ceeding of bargain and sale. 

As a result of this peaceable arrangement, and the earnest efforts of the 
government to carry out, to the letter, the provisions of the treaties, the 
early settlers experienced none of the hardships which fell to the lot of the 
early settlers in other parts of the country, where misunderstanding about 
the ownership of the soil gave rise to frightful massacre and bloody wars. 
The Indians gave no serious difficulty, and seldom, if ever, disturbed the 
early settlers of this county, after they had rightfully come into possession 
of it. 

By the various treaties made with the Sac and Fox Indians, the govern- 
ment paid these $80,000 per year, by families. Mr. William 6. Street, of 
Oskaloosa, was disbursing clerk for John Beach, Indian asent, during the 
year 1841, and still retains in his possession the receipts lor the part pay- 
ment of his annuity, in his own handwriting, and the marks of the chieft 
in signing. We give an extract, including the names of part of the In- 
dians who were at that time living at Eisn-ke-kosh's village, in what is 
now the eastern part of the county, west of Keokuk county: 

*' We, the chiefs, warriors, heads of families and individuals without fam- 
ilies, of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, within the same agency, acknowl- 
edge the receipt of $40,000 of John Beach, United States Indian Agent, 
in the sums appended to our names, being our proportion of the annuity 
due said tribe for the year 1841: 




Eo-ko-ach. ... 




Ka-ke-wa-wa*te-8it. . . 




Mus-qua-ke* • . 

And fifty-nine othera. 




$71 30 

106 95 

55 65 

17 82 


53 47 

71 30 


106 95 

124 78 

'Eish-ke-kosh means *'The man with one leg off.'^ 
*Much-e-min-ne means "Biff man.** 
•Wa-pes-e-qua means "White eyes." 

*Wa-pe-ka-kah means "White crow.*' 
*Mn8-qua-ke means "The Fox.** 

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Cy Digitized by GoOglC 

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*' We certify that we were present at the payment of the above-mentioned 
amonnts, and saw the amounts paid to the several Indians, in specie, and 
that their marks were affixed in onr presence this 19th day of October, 
^•(Signed) JNO. BEACH, 

U. S. Indian Agent, 

Li€%U, Ut Dragoons. 


" We the pudersigned chiefs of the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, ac- 
knowledge the correctness of the foregoing receipts. 

"KEOKUK,* hia X mark. 
"POWESHIEK,^ his X mark." 

The payments were made in silver coins, put np in boxes, containing 
five hundred dollars each, and passed into Keokuk's hands for distribution. 
The several traders received eacu his quota according to the several demands 
against the tribes admitted by Keokuk, which invariably consumed the far 
greater portion of the amount received. The remainder was turned over 
to the chiefs and distributed among the respective bands. Great com- 
plaints were made of these allowances to the traders, on the ^jround of ex- 
orbitant prices charged on the goods actually furnished, and it was alleged 
that some of these accounts was spurious. In confirmation of this charge 
over and above the character of the items exhibited in these accounts an 
affidavit was filed with Governor Lucas, by an individual to whom the gov- 
ernor gave credence, setting forth that Keokuk had proposed to the maker 
of the affidavit to prefer a purely fictitious account against the tribe for the 
sum of $10,000, and he would admit its correctness, and when paid the 
money should be divided among themselves, share and share alike. To 
swell the trader's bills, items were introduced of a character that should 
brand fraud upon their face, such as a large number of blanket coats, arti- 
cles which the Indians never used, and telescopes, of the use of which they 
had no knowledge. This showed the reckless manner in which these bills 
were swollen to the exorbitant amounts complained of, in which Keokuk 
was openly charged with being in league with the traders to defraud the 
Indians. At this time the nation numbered about two thousand and three 
hundred and it is not possible that Keokuk could have carried on an organ- 
^z^ system of theft without the fact becoming apparent to all. As it was, 
however. Governor Lucas thought best to change the manner in which the 
annual payments were made. The matter was referred to the Indian 
bureau, and the mode was changed so that the payments were made to the 
heads of families, approximating a per capita distribution. This method 
of payment did not suit the traders, and after a short trial the old plan was 
again adopted. That the Indians, then as now, were the victims of sharp 
practice, cannot be doubted, but the fact can be attributed to the superior 
tact and the unscrupulous character of manv of the traders; this furnishes 
I a more probable explanation and is more m accord with the character of 
I Keokuk, as known by his intimate friends, still living, than to attribute 

•Keokuk means ** The watchful fox.'* Toweshiek means ** The roused bear.** 


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276 msTOBY OF books coumtt. 

these swindling operations to a conspiracy in which the illnstrions chief 
was the leading actor. 

Among the early settlors of Iowa, the names of Keokak and Wapello 
are the most noted and familiar. These two illustrious chiefs live not only 
in the recollections of these early settlers, but in the permanent history 
of our common country. Short biographical sketches of these two noted 
characters, therefore, will be of great interest to the people of this county, 
and peculiarly appropriate for a work of this kind. To the school boy who 
has frequently read of these Indians, the fact that they roved around on 
this very ground where their feet tread, and that in their hunting excursions 
these Indians crossed the same prairies where they now gather the yellow- 
eared corn, will give to these sketches intense interest, wliile the early set- 
tler who talked with Wapello and Keokuk, ate with them, hunted with 
them and fished with them, cannot fail to find in these brief and necessarily 
imperfect biographies, something fascinating as they are thus led back over 
a quarter of a century, to live over a^in the days of other years, and wit- 
ness again the scenes of early day, when the tall prairie grass waved in the 
autumn breeze, and the country, like themselves, was younger and fresher 
than now. 

Keokuk belonged to the Sac branch of the nation, and, as mentioned in 
the first part of this work, was bom on Eock river, Illinois, in 1780. Ac- 
cordingly he was sixty-three years old at the time the county was thrown 
open to the white settler, and fifty-seven when the boundary line of 1837 
was established. The best memory of the earliest settlers cannot take them 
back to a time when Keokuk was not an old man. When in 1833 the im- 
patient feet of the white men first hastened across the Mississippi eager for 
new conquests and fortunes, this illustrious chief was already neanng his 
three-score years, and with longing eyes he took the last look at the fair 
lands bordering on the Great Father of Waters and turned his weary feet 
toward the west, his sun of life had already crossed the meridian and was 
rapidly approaching its setting. 

Little IS known concerning the early life of Keokuk, except that from 
his first battle, while yet young, he had carried home the scalp of a Sioux, 
whom he had slain in a hand-to-hand conflict, and between whose tribe and 
the tribe to which Keokuk belonged there ever existed the most deadly 
enmity. For this feat Keokuk was honored with a feast by his tribe. 

It is said that a great battle was once fought by the Indians near Pilot 
Mound, one of the elevations of Mineral Ridge, on the east side of the 
river in this county. Keokuk commanded the Sacs and Foxes, and Little 
Crow commanded the Sioux. This battle must have been fought some time 
prior to the Black Hawk War. The bones of the slain were frequently 

E lowed up by the early settlers in the vicinity of Pilot Mound, and a num- 
er of skeletons have been exhumed from the top of the mound. Keokak 
is said to have been victorious. Several hundred warriors were engaged on 
either side. 

Keokuk first came into prominence among the whites at the breaking 
out of the second war with England, commonly known as the War of 1812. 
Most. of the Indians at that time espoused the cause of the English, but 
Keokuk, at the head of a large numoer of the Sacs and Foxes, remained 
faithful to the Americans. In 1828 Keokuk, in accordance with the termB 
of a treaty, crossed the Mississippi river with his tribe and established him- 
self on the Iowa river. Here he remained in peace, and his tribe flourished . 

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till the breaking out of the Black Hawk War in 1833. He seemed to have 
a much more intelli^nt insight into the great national qnestions which 
were raised daring tnese early Indian dilBcalties, as well as more thorough 
sppreciation of the resources of the national government. He opposed the 
Black'Hawk War, and seemed to fully forecast the ereat disaster wnich there- 
by befel his tribe. Although many of his warriors deserted him and followed 
Black Hawk in his reckless campaign across the Mississippi, Eeoknk pre- 
vailed upon a majority of his tril^ to remain at home. When the news 
reached Keokuk that Black Hawk's warriors had rained a victory over 
Stillman's forces in Ogle oountv, Illinois, the war spirit broke out amon^ 
his followers like fire in the dry prairie grass; a war-dance was held, and 
the chief himself took part in it. He seemed for a while to move in sym- 
pathy with the rising storm, and at the conclusion of the war-dance he 
called a council to prepare for war. In a work entitled ^'Annals of Iowa," 
published in 1865, there is reported the substance of a speech made by 
Keokuk on tliis occasion. We quote: '^ I am your chief, and it is my 
doty to lead you to battle, if, after fully considering the matter, you are 
determined to go." He then represented to them tne great power of the 
United States, against which they would have to contend, and that their 
prospect of success was utterly hopeless. Then continuing, said: ** But if 
JOQ are determined to go on the war-path, I will lead you on one condition 
—that before we go we kill all our oldf men, and our wives, and our children, 
to save them from a lingering death by starvation, and that every one ot*you 
determine to leave his bones on the other side of the Mississippi." This 
was a strong and truthful picture of the prospect before them, and was pre- 
sented in such a forcible light that it causea them to abandon their rash 

After the Black Hawk War Keokuk was recognized as the head of the Sac 
and Fox nation by the United States government, and in this capacity he 
was looked upon by his people from that time on. This honor, nowever, 
waff sometimes disputed oy some of the original followers of Black Hawk. 
A gentleman of some prominence as a writer, and who is said to have wit- 
ne^ed the affray, says: ^'A bitter feud existed in the tribe during the time 
Eeoknk resided on the Des Moines river, between what was denominated 
' Keokuk's band and Black Hawk's band.' Their distrust, and indeed 
hatred, were smothered in their common intercourse, when sober; but when 
their blood was fired with whisky, it sometimes assumed a tragic feature 
among the leaders of the respective bands. An instance of this character oc- 
curred on the lower part ot the Des Moines river, on the return of a party 
making a visit to the ^half-breeds,' at the town of Keokuk, on the Missis- 
sippi. In a quarrel incited by whisky, Keokuk received a dangerous stab 
in the breast oy a son of Black Hawk. Tlie writer saw him conveyed, by 
his friends, homeward, lying in a canoe, unable to rise." The writer con- 
tinues: " Hardfish (who was the pretended chief of the rival party) and 
his coadjutors lost no occasion to find fault with Keokuk's administration." 

In person, Keokuk was of commanding appearance. He was tall, 
straight as an arrow, and of very gn cgful mien. These personal character- 
istics, together with his native ^rvor, and ready command of language, 
gave him great power over his people as a speaker. If, as a man of energy 
and courage he gafned the respect and obedience of his tribe, it was more 
especially as an orator that he was able to wield his people in the times of 
great excitement, and in a measure shape their policy in dealing with the 

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whit^ mail. As an orator rather than as a warrior, has Eeoknk's claim to 
greatness been founded. 

" He was gifted by nature," says the author of the Annals, ** with the 
elements of an orator in an eminent degree, and as such is entitled to rank 
with Logan, Red Jacket andTecumsen; but unfortunately for his fame 
among the white people, and with posterity, he was never able to obtain an 
interpreter who could claim even a slight acquaintance with philosophy. 
With one exception, only, his interpreters were unacquainted with the ele- 
ments of the mother tongue. Of this serious hindrance to his fame Keo- 
kuk was well aware, and retained Frank Labashure, who had received a 
rudimental education in the French and English languages, until the latter 
died broken down by exposure and dissipation; but during the meridian of 
his career among the white people he Was compelled to submit his speeches 
for translation to uneducated men, whose range of thought fell below the 
flights of a gifted mind, and the fine imagery, drawn from nature, was be- 
yond their power of reproduction. He had a sufficient knowledge of the 
English tongue to make him sensible of this bad rendering of his thoughts, 
and often a feeling of mortification at the bungling efibrts was depicted 
upon his countenance while he was speaking. The proper place to form a 
correct estimate of his ability as an orator was in the Indian council, where 
he addressed himself exclusively to those who understood his language, 
and where the electric effects of his eloquence could be plainly noted upon 
his audience. It was credibly assertea that by the force of his logic he 
had changed the vote of a council against the stronglr predetermined 
opinions of its members." A striking incident of the influence of his elo- 

Sl^uence is that on^ already related in which he delivered a speech to his 
ollowers, who were bent on joining Black Hawk, after the Stillman reverse 
in Ogle county, Illinois. Mr. James, of Sigourney, being present at the 
council, at Agency Oity, when the treaty of 1842 was made, says of Keokuk: 
^' We heard him make a speech on the occasion, which, by those who under- 
stood his tongue, was said to be a sensible and eloquent effort. Judging 
from his voice and gestures, his former standing as an Indian orator and 
chieftain, we thought his reputation as a dignitiedyet gentlemanly aborig- 
ine had not been overrated. During the Slack Hawk War his voice was 
for peace with the white man, and his influence added much to the shorten- 
ingof the war. As an honor to the chief- our county bears his name. " 

Keokuk, in company with Black Hawk, Poweshiek, Kish-ke-kosh, and 
some fifteen other chiefs, under the escort of Gen. J. M. Street, visited 
Washington City and different parts of the East in 1837. The party de- 
scended the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio by steamer, and thence 
up the latter to Wheeling, where they took stage across the mountains. 
When the partv arrived in Washington, at the request of some of the gov- 
emment officials a council was held with some chiefs of the Sioux there 
present, as the Sacs and Foxes were waging a perpetual war with the Sioux 
nation. The council was held in the Hall of Kepresentatives. To the great 
indignation of the Sioux, Kish-ke-kosh appeared dressed in a buffalo hide 
which he had taken in war from a Sioux chief, and took his position in one 
of the large windows, with the mane and horns of the bumlo as a sort of 
head-dress, and the tail trailing on the floor. The Sioux complained to the 
officials, claiming that this was an insult to.them, but they were informed 
that the Sacs and Foxes had a right to appear in any kind of costume they 
chose to wear. The first speech was made by a Sioux, who complained 

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bitterly of the wrongs they had suffered, and how they had been driven 
from their homes by the Sacs and Foxes, their warriors killed and their 
villages barned. Then followed Keokuk, the great orator of his tribe, who 
replied at soipe length, an 'interpreter repeating the speech after him. 
There were those present who had heard Webster, Calhoun, Clay, and Ben- 
ton in the same hall, and they declared that for the manner of delivery, for 
native eloquence, impassioned expression of countenance, the chief surpassed 
them all and this wliile they could not understand his words, save as they 
were repeated by the interpreter. From Washington they went to New 
York, where they were shown no little attention, and, Gen. Street attempt- 
ing to show them the city on foot, the people in their anxiety to see Keokuk 
and Black Hawk crowded them beyond the point of end n ranee, and in order 
to avoid the throng they were compelled to make their escape through a 
store building, and reached their hotel through the back alleys and less fre- 
qnented streets. At Boston they were met at the depot by a delegation of 
leading citizens and conveyed in carriages to the hotel. The next day they 
were taken in open carriages, and with a guard of honor on foot, they were 
■bown the whole city. During their stay in Boston they were the guests 
of the gr^t American orator, Edward Everett, who made a banquet for 
them. When the Indians returned and were asked about New YorK they 
only expressed their disgust. Boston was the only place in the United 
States, in their estimation, and their opinion has been shared in by many 
white people who since that time have made a pilgrimage from the West to 
the famous shrines of the East. 

While residing at Ottnmwah-nac, Keokuk received a message from the 
Mormon prophet, Joseph Smith, in which the latter invited Keokuk, as 
king of the oacs and Foxes, to a royal conference at his palace at Nauvoo, 
on matters of the highest importance to their respective people. The invita- 
tion was accepted, and at the appointed time the king of the Sacs and Foxes, 
accompanied by a stately escort on ponies, wended his way to the appointed 
interview with the great apostle of the Latter Day Saints. Keokuk, as be- 
fore remarked, was a man of good judgment and keen insight into the 
hnman character. He was not easily led by sophistry, nor beguiled by 
flattery. The account of this interview with Smith, as given by the author 
of the ^^ Annals," so well illustrates these traits of his character that we give 
it in fiiU: 

^ Notice had been circulated through the country of this diplomatic in- 
terview, and quite a number of spectators attended to witness the denou- 
ment. The audience was given publiclv in the great Mormon temple, and 
the respective chiefs were attended by their suites, the prophet by the dig- 
nitaries of the Mormon Church, and the Indian potentate by the' high civil 
and military functionaries of his tribe, and the Gentiles were comfortably 
seated as auditors. 

*^ The prophet opened the conference in a set speech of some length, giv- 
ing Keokuk a brief history of the Children of Israel, as detail^ in the 
Bible, and dwelt forcibly upon the history of the lost tribes, and that he, 
the prophet of God, held a divine commission to gather them together and 
lead them to a land 'flowing with milk and honey.' After the prophet 
elosed bis harangue, Keokuk 'waited for the words of his pale-faced brother 
to sink deep into his mind,' and in making his reply, assumed the gravest 
attitude and most digniiied demeanor. He would not controvert anything 
his brother had said about the lost and scattered condition of his race ana 

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people, and if his brother was commissioned by the Great Spirit to collect 
them together and lead them to a new country it was his duty to do so. 
But he wished to inquire about some particulars his brother had not named, 
that were of the highest importance to him and his people^ The red man 
was not much used to milk, and he thought they would prefer streams of 
water; and in the country they now were there was a good supply of honey. 
The points they wished to inquire into were, whether the new government 
would pay large annuities, and whether there was plenty of whisky. Joe 
Smith saw at once that he had met his match, and that Keokuk was not the 
proper material with which to increase his army of dupes, and closed the 
interview in as amiable and pleasant a manner as possible." 

Until 1836 Keokuk resided with his tribe on a reservation of 400 square 
miles, situated on the Iowa river. His headquarters were at a village bear- 
ing his name, located on the right bank of the stream. In this year, in 
accordance with the stipulations of a treaty held at Davenport, Keoknk 
with his followers removed to this territory, now comprised in the bonnds 
of Keokuk, Mahaska and Wapello counties. The ^ency for the Indians 
was located at a point where is now located Agency Oity. At this time an 
efibrt was made to civilize the red man. Farms were opened up, and two 
mills were erected, one on Soap creek and one on Sugar creek. A salaried 
agent was employed to superintend these farming operations. Keoknk, 
Wapello and Appanoose, each had a large field improved and cultivated. 
KeoKuk's farm was located upon what is yet known as Keokuk's Prairie, 
in what is now Wapello county. The Indians did not make much progress 
in these farming operations, and in the absence of their natural andT wonted 
excitements, became idle and careless. Many of them plunged into dissi- 

f nation. Keokuk himself became badly dissipated in the latter years of his 
ife. Pathetic as was the conditition of these savages at this time, it was 
but the legitimate result of the treatment which they had received. They 
wore conhned to a fixed location, and provided with annuities, by the gov- 
ernment, sufBcient to meet their wants from year to year. They were in 
this manner prevented from making those extensive excursions, and em- 
barking in those warlike pursuits, which from time immemorial had formed 
the chief avenues for the employment of those activities which for centu- 
ries had claimed the attention of the savage mind; and the sure and regu- 
lar means of subsistance furnished by the government, took away from 
them the incentives for the employment of these activities, even had the 
means still existed. In addition to this the Indian beheld his lands taken 
from him, and his tribe growing smaller year by year. Possessed of an 
ideal and imaginative intellect he could not help forecasting the future, and 
thus being impressed with the thought that in a few years all these lands 
would be in the possession of the white man, while his tribe and his name 
would be swept into oblivion by the tide immigration, which pressed 
in upon him from every side. Keokuk saw all of tnis, and seeing it, had 
neither the power nor inclination to prevent it. Take the best representa- 
tive of the Anglo-Saxon race, and place him in similar circumstances, and 
he would do no better. Shut in by restraint from all sides, relieved from 
all the anxieties comprehended in that practical .question, what shall we eat, 
and wherewithal shall we be clothed? and deprived of all those incentives 
springing from, and inspired by a lofty ambition, and the best of us, with 
all our culture and habits of industry, would fall into idleness and dissipa- 
tion and our fall would be as great, if not as low, as was the fall of that 

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unhappy people who formerly inhabited this country, and whose disap- 
pearance and gradual extinction we shall now be called upon to contem- 

Wapello, the cotemporary of Keokuk and the inferior chief, after whom a 
neighboring county and county seat were named, died before the Indians 
were removed from the State, and thus escaped the humiliation of the 
scene. He, like his superior chief, was a fast friend of the whites and 
wielded an immense influence among the individuals of his tribe. As is 
mentioned in a former chapter, he presided over three tribes in the vicinitv 
of Fort Armstrong during the time that frontier post was being erecteo. 
In 1829 he removed his village to Muscatine Swamp, and then to a place 
near where is now located the town bearing his name. Many of the early 
settlers of the country remember him well, as the southern part of this 
county was a favorite resort for him and many members of his tribe. It 
was in the limits of Eeokuk county that this illustrious chief died. Al- 
though he willingly united in the treaty ceding it to the whites, it was 
done with the clear conviction that the countrv would be shortly over- 
ran and his hunting ground ruined by the advance of pale faces. He 
chose to sell rather than to be robbed, and then quietly receded with his 

Mr. Scearcy, of Keokuk county, relates an incident in the life of this chief 
which we here quote: "Between the Sioux, and the Sacs and Foxes, a 
bitter and deadly hatred existed. This enmity was carried to such a bitter 
extent that it caused the establishment, by the government, of the neutral 
ground, in the north part of the territory, which was a strip of country 
about thirty miles in width, over which the tribes were not allowed to pass 
in order to slay each other. The love of revenge was so strongly marked 
in the Indian character that it was not to be suppressed by imaginary geo- 

fraphiqal lines, and consequently it was not a rare occurrence for a Sac or 
'ox Indian, or a Sioux, to bite the dust, as an atonement for real or imag- 
inary wrongs. In this manner one of the sons of Wapello was cruelly cut 
down, from an ambush, in the ^ear 1836. When the chief heard of the sad 
calamity he was on Skunk nver, opposite the mouth of Crooked creek. 
He immediately plunged into and swam across the stream. Upon arriving 
at a trading-post near by, he gave the best pony he had for a barrel of 
whisky, and setting it out, invited his people to partake, a very unwise 
practice which he doubtless borrowed from the white people who availed 
themselves of this medium in which to drown their sorrows." 

Wapello's death occurred in Keokuk county, in March, 1844. In accord- 
ance which the provisions of the treaty of 1848, he had retired with his 
tribe west of Red Eock, and it was during a temporary visit to his old 
hunting ground on Rock creek, that he breathed his last. We quote from 
an address of Mr. Romig, delivered in a neighboring town a few years 
since, the following pathetic account of the death of the warrior: 

<< As the swallow returns to the place where last she had built her nest, 
cruelly destroyed by the ruthless hands of some rude boy, or as a mother 
would return to the empty crib where once had reposed her innocent babe 
in the sweet embrace or sleep, and weep for the treasure she had once pos- 
sessed, so Wapello mourned for the hunting grounds he had been forced to 
leave behind, and longed to roam over the broad expanse again. It was in 
the month of March; heavy winter had begun to shed her mantle of snow; 
ibe sun peeped forth through the fleeting clouds; the woodchuok emerged 

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from his subterranean retreat to greet the morning breeze, and all nmtnre 
seemed to rejoice at the prospect of retaruing spring. The old ebief felt 
the exhilarating inflnence of reviving nature, and longed again for the 
sports of his youth. He accordingly assembled a party and started on a 
hunting excursion to the scenes of his former exploits. 'But alas, thepoor 
old man was not long destined to mourn over his misfortunes. While 
traveling over the beautiful prairies, or encamped in the picturesque ffroves 
that he was once wont to call his own, disease fastened upon his vitals and 
the chief lay prostrate in his lodge. How long the burning fever raged 
and racked in nis brain, or who it was that applied the cooling draught to 
his parched lips, tradition has failed to inform us; but this we may fairly 
presume: that his trusty followers were deeply distressed at the sufferini^ 
of their chief whom they loved, and administered all the comforts in their 
power to alleviate his sufferings, but all would not avail. Grim Death had 
crossed his path, touched an icy finder on his browj^and marked him for 
his own. Human efforts to save couul avail nothing. Time passed, and 
with it the life of Wapello. The last word was spoken, the last wish ex- 

Eressed, the last breath drawn, and his spirit took its flight The passing 
reeze in .£olean notes chanted a i*equiem in the elm tops. The placid 
creek in its meandering course murmured in chorus over the dead. The 
squirrel came forth in the bright sunshine to frisk and chirp in frolicksome 
glee, and the timid fawn approached the brook and bathed her feet in the 
waters, but the old man heeded it not, for Manitou, his God, had called 
him home. 

^^ Although it is a matter of regret that we are not in possession of his 
dying words, and other particulars connected with his death, let us endeavor 
to be content in knowing that Wapello died sometime in the month of 
March, in the year 1844, in KeokuK county, on Rock creek, in Jackson 
township, on the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter, section 21, 
township 74, range 11 west, where a mound still marks tne spot; and with 
knowing also that his remains were thence conveyed by Mr. Samuel Har- 
desty, now of Lancaster township, accompanied by twenty-two Indians and 
three squaws, to the Indian burial ground at Agency City, where sleeps the 
Indian agent, G^n. Street, and numbers of the Sac and Fox tribe, and 
where our informant left the remains to await the arrival of Keokuk and 
other distinguished chiefs to be present at the interment." 

Keokuk, Appanoose, and nearlv all the leading men among Indians, were 
present at the funeral, which took place towanT evening oi the same day 
upon which the body arrived at the Agency. The usual Indian ceremonies 
preceded the interment, after which the remains were buried by the body 
of Gen. Street, which was in accordance with the chieftain's oft repeateo 
request to be buried by the side of his honest pale-faced friend. 

In 1845, in accordance with the stipulations of the treaty, and in obe* 
dience to the demand of the white man, whose friend he had ever 1>een, and 
whose home he had defended, both by word and act in times of great excite- 
ment, Keokuk led his tribe west of the Missouri river and located upon a 
reservation comprised in the boundaries of what is now the State of Elansas. 
What must have been the emotions which swelled the heart of this renowned 
savage, and what must have been the peculiar thoughts which came throng- 
ing from his active brain when he turned his bac^ for the last time upon 
the bark covered huts of his lovra village, the graves of his friends, and that 
portion of country which, but the year before, Imd been honored by his namel 

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It was leaving everything familiar in life and dear to the heart To him it 
was not g[oing west to grow np with the country, but to lose himself and 
hiB tribe in oolivion and national annihilation. 

Eeokak lived bnt three years after leaving the Territory of Iowa, and we 
have no facts at onr command in reference to his career at the new home 
west of the Missouri. The ^^ £eokuk Register" of June 15, 1848, contained 
the following notice of his death, together with some additional sketches of 
his Hfe: 

" The St. Louis ^ New Era' announces the death of this celebrated Indian 
ehief. Poison was administered to him by one of his tribe, from the effects 
of which he died. The Indian was apprehended, confessed his guilt, and 
was shot. 

^^ Sleoknk leaves a son of some prominence, but there is little probability 
of his succeeding to the same station, as he is not looked upon by the tribe 
as inheriting the disposition and principles of his father." 

We dose this sketch by appending an extract from a letter recently writ- 
ten by Judge J. M. Casey, of Fort Madison, to Hon. S. A. James, of 

^ While Keokuk was not a Lee county man, I have often seen him here. 
He was an individual of distinguished mark; once seen would always be 
remttnbered. It was not necessary to be told that he was a chief, you 
would at once recognize him as such, and stop to admire his grand deport- 
ment. I was quite young when I last saw him, but I yet remember his 
appearance and every lineament of his face as well as if it had been yester- 
day, and this impression was left upon every person who saw him, whether 
old or young. It is hard for us to realize that an Indian could be so great a 
man. Bnt it is a candid fact, admitted by all the early settlers who knew 
him, that Keokuk possessed, in a prominent degree, the elements of great- 

During the visit of Keokuk, Wapello, and their party at Boston, which 
has already been referred to, there was a great struggle between the mana- 
gers of the two theatres of that place to obtain the presence of the Indians 
in order to '^ draw houses. " At the Tremont, the aristocratic one, the fa- 
mous tragedian, Forrest, was filling an engagement. His great play, in 
which he acted the part of the gladiator, and aiwavs drew his largest audi- 
ences, had not yet come off^ and the manager was disinclined to bring it out 
while the Indians were there, as their presence always insured a full house. 
Creneral Street, who as before remarked, was in charge of the party, being 
a strict Presbyterian, was not much in the theatrical line, hence Major 
Beach, to whom we are indebted for the tacts of this incident, and who ac- 
companied General Street at the time, took the matter in hand. He knew 
that this peculiar play wDuld suit the Indians better than those simple 
declamatory tragedies, in which, as they could not understand a word, there 
was no action to keep them interested, so he prevailed upon the manager 
to bring it out, promising that the Indians would be present. 

In the exciting scene where the gladiators engage in a deadly combat, 
the Indians gazed with eager and breathless anxiety, and as Forrest, finally 
piereed through the breast with his adversary's sword, fell dying, and as 
the other drew his bloody sword from the body, heaving in the convulsions 
of its expiring throes, and while the curtain was descending, the whole In- 
dian company burst out with their fiercest war whoop. It was a frightful 
yell to strike suddenly upon nnaccastomed ears, and was immediately fol- 

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lowed by screams of terror from the more nervous among the women and 
children. For an instant the audience seemed at a loss, but soon uttered a 
hearty round of applause — a just tribute to both actor and Indians. 

During the same visit to Boston, Major Beach says that the Governor 
gave them a public reception at the State House. The ceremony took 
place in the spacious Hail of Representatives, every inch of which was iam- 
med with humanity. After the Governor had ended his eloquent and ap- 
propriate address of welcome, it devolved upon one of the chiefs to reply, 
and Appanoose, in his turn, as at the conclusion of his *' talk, " he advanced 
to grasp the Governor's hand, said: ^< It is a great day that the sun shines 
upon when two such great chiefs take each other by the hand 1 " The Gov- 
ernor, with a nod of approbation, controlled his facial muscles in a moat 
courtly gravity. But the way the house came down ^^ was a caution, " all 
of which Appanoose doubtless considered the Yankee way of applauding 
his speech. 

The Indians seldom occupied their permanent villages except during the 
time of planting or securing their crop, after which they would start out on 
a short hunt, if the annuity — which was usuallv paid within six weeks 
from the first of September — had not been received. Immediately after pay- 
ment it was the custom to leave the village for the winter, hunting 
through this season by families and small parties, leading a regular 
nomadic life, changing the location from time to time, a§ the supply of game 
and the need— so essential to their comfort — of seeking places near the 
timbered streams best protected from the rigors of winter, would reonira 
It was, doubtless, on one of these tours through the country that Kisn-ke- 
kosh once stopped over night at the house of a white man. He was ae- 
companied by several companions, who slept together on a buffalo hide 
within view of the kitchen. In the morning when he awoke, Eash-ke-kosh 
had an eye on the culinary operations there going on. The lady of the 
house — ^it is possible she did it intentionally, as she was not a willing en- 
tertainer of such guests — neglected to wash her hands before making up 
the bread. Eish thought he would rather do without his breakfast than eat 
after such cooking, and privately signified as much to his followers, where* 
upon they mounted their ponies and departed, much to the relief of the 
hostess. When they arrived at a house, some distance from the one they 
had left, they got their breakfast and related the circumstance. . 

This Kish-ke-kosh, previous to 1837, was simjjly a warrior-chief in the 
village of Keokuk. The warrior-chief was inferior to the village-chief, to 
whicn distinction he afterward attained. The village presided over by this 
chief is well remembered by many of the early settlers. It was located, 
some say, just over the line in what is now White Oak township, Mahaska, 
county. Major Beach thus describes it: ''The place cannot be located 
exactiv according to our State maps, although the writer has often 
visited it in Indian times; but somewhere out north from Kirkville, and 
probably not twelve miles distant, on the banks of Skunk river, not far 
above the Forks of Skunk, was a small village of not over fifteen or twenty 
lodges, presided over by a man of considerable importance, though not a 
chief, named Kisk-ke-kosh. The village was on the direct trail — in fact it 
was the converghig point of two trails — from the Hardfish village, and the 
three villages across the river below Ottumwa, to the only other prominent 
settlement of the tribes, which was the village of Poweshiek, a Fox chief 
of equal rank with Wapello, situated upon the Iowa river." 

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HI8T0ET OF BOONS oouimr. 285 

Here the squaws, after grubbing out hazel-brush on the banks of the 
ereek or the edge of the timber, unaided by either plow or brave, planted 
and tended their patches of com, surrounding them by rude fences of wil- 
low, which were renewed each year. Here the men trained their ponies, 
hunted, fished and loafed, until the first of May, 1843, when they bade 
adieu to their bark-covered huts. The following incident is located at this 
point: Some time about 1841, Maj. Beach, Indian agent, in company with 
W. B. Street and others, came up from Agency City on some business 
with Kish-ke-kosh. Arriving late in the evening they encamped near the 
village, and on the following morning Kish-ke-kosh, with his assistants, 
came over to camp to receive them. The pipe of peace was lighted and 
passed around ana the business transacted. After the council the whites 
were invited to come over in the evening to the feast which the Indians 
proposed having in honor of their visit. The invitation was accepted, and 
presently the whites heard a ^reat howling among the dogs, and looking in 
the direction of the village they could plainly see the preparations for the 
supper. A number of dogs were killed and stretched on stakes a few inches 
above the ground. They were then covered with dried grass, which was set 
on fire and the hair singed oflF, after which, after the dogs had gone through 
the scalping process, they were cut up and placed in pots along with a 
quantity of com. The whites were promptly in attendance, but on account 
of their national pr^'udice they were provided with venison instead of dog 
meat After the feast, dancing was commence<): first, the Green Corn 
dance, then the Medicine dance, and closing just before morning with the 
Scalp dance. Kish-ke-kosh did not take part in this Terpsichorean perform- 
ance, but sat with the whites, laughing, joking and telling stories. 

On another occasion, Eish-ke-kosh and his suit, consisting of several 
prominent personages of the tribe, being then encamped on Skunk river, 
went to the house of a Mr. Micksell on a friendly visit, and he treated 
them to a feast. Besides Kish-ke-kosh and his wife, who was a very lady- 
like person, this party consisted of his mother (Wyhoma), the son of 
Wapello, and his two wives; Mashaweptine, his wife, and all their children. 
The old woman on being asked how ola she was, replied : ^^ Mach-ware-re- 
naak-we-kan" (maybe a hundred); and indeed her bowed form and hide- 
ously shriveleo features would justify the belief that she was that old. 
The whole party were dressed in more than ordinary becoming style; prob- 
ably out of respect for the hostess, who, knowing something of their vora- 
cious appetites, had made ample preparations for them. When the table 
was surrounded, Kish-ke-kosh, who had learned some good manners, as well 
as acquired cleanly taste, essaved to perform the etiquette of the occasion 
before eating anything himself. With an amusingly awkward imitation of 
what he hacTseen done among the whites, Kish-ke-kosh passed the various 
dishes to the others, showing the ladies especial attention, and helped them 
to the best of everything on the table, with much apparent disinterested- 
ness. But when he came to help himself his politeness assumed the Indian 
i)ha8e altogether. He ate like a person with a bottomless pit inside of him 
or a stomach, taking everything within his reach without regard to what 
should come next in the course, so only that he liked the taste of it. At 
last, after having drank some five or six cups of coffee and eaten a propor- 
tionate amount of solid food, his gastronomic energy began to abate. See- 
ing this, his host approached him, and with apparent concern for want of 
his appetite, said: *' Why, Kish, do you not eat your dinner? Have another 

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cap of coffee and eat soemthiii^." In reply to this hospitable argency 
KiBh-ke-ko8h leaned back in his seat, lazily shook his head, and drew hit 
finger across his throat under his chin, to indicate how fall he was. Of 
course, the others had eaten in like proportion, making the most of an eyeot 
that did not happen everjr day. 
The Indians m this region had a novel way of dealing with dmnken peo- 

Ele. When one of them became unsafely drunk he was tied neck and 
eels, so that he could be rolled around like a hoop, which operation was 
kept up till the fumes of liquor had vanished, when he was released. The 
sunerer would beg for mercy, but to no avail. After he was sobered off he 
showed no marks of resentment, but seemed to recognize the wisdom of 
the proceeding. 

The Sacs and Foxes, like all other Indians, were a very relieions people, 
in their way, always maintaining the observance of a goocT many rites; 
ceremonies, and feasts in their worship of the Kitche Mulito, or Great 
Spirit. Fasts did not seem to be prescribed in any of their missals, bow- 
ever, because, perhaps, forced ones, under the scarcity of game or other 
eatables, were not ot impossible occurrence among people whose creed 

Elainly was to let to-morrow take care of itself. I^me of the ceremonies 
ore such resemblance to some of those laid down in the books of Moses as 
to have justified the impression among Biblical students that the lost tribes 
of Israel might have found their way to this continent, and that the North 
American Indians are the remnant of them. 

During sickness there was usually great attention given to the comfort 
of the Indians, and diligent effort to cure the patient, and when it became 
apparent that recovery was impossible, the sufferer while still alive was 
dressed in his best attire, painted according to the fancy of the relatives 
present, ornamented with all his trinkets, jewels, and badges, and then 
placed upon a mat or platform to die. The guns, bows, arrows, axes, 
Knives, and other ^veapons were all carried away from the house or 
lodge and concealed. Tney alleged that these preparations were necessary 
to evince their respect to the Great Spirit, who at the moment of death 
visits the body of the dying, receives the spirit, and carries it with Him to 
Paradise, while the concealment of all warh'ke weapons shows their hnmble 
submission to, and non-resistance of, the Divine will. 

Dead bodies were sometimes deposited in graves; others placed in a sit- 
ting posture, reclining against a rock or tree; others again were deposited 
in boxes, baskets, or cases of skins, and suspended in the branches of trees, 
or upon scaffolds erected for the purpose. Elevated parcels of dry gronna 
were usually selected as burial places, and not so much regard was had for 
the cardinal points of the compass as to the relative position of some neigh- 
boring object. The graves were arranged usually with reference to some 
river, lake, or mountain. Where it was convenient, the grave, when en- 
closed, was covered with stones, and under other circumstances it was 
enclosed with wooden slabs, upon which were painted with red paint cer- 
tain signs or symbols commemorative of the deceased's virtues. The death 
of a near relative was lamented with violent demonstrations of grief. 
Widows visited the graves of their deceased husbands with hair disheveled, 
carrying a bundle composed of one or more of the deceased's garments, 
and to this representative of her def>arted husband she addressed her ex- 
pressions of grief and assurances of undying affection, and extreme anxiety 
tor the comfort and well-being of the departed. 

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One of the earlj settlers in a conntj south of this relates the following 
smasing incident: 

Five negroes, having become tired of the sacred institution of slayerj as 
exemplified and enforced by the typical taskmaster of Missonri, ran off and 
sought protection among the Indians, who, never before having seen any 
negroes, and not being able to understand their language, did not know 
what to make of the strange looking animals. Consequently a council was 
held, and the wisest among the chiefs, having viewed them carefully and 
debated the matter at some length, decided that they were a peculiar species 
of bear. Having never before seen any representatives of this species they 
supposed that their pale-faced neighbors wou)d esteem it quite a favor to 
benold them, and probably they would be able to dispose of the strange 
looking animals to a certain trader and receive in return a goodly amount 
of "fire-water.'* Accordingly the negroes were taken, ropes tied around 
their necks, and they were led off to tne nearest white settlement. After 
exhibiting the ''bears," as they called them, they negotiated a trade with 
one Grimsley, the latter giving them a quantity oi whisky for them. When 
the Indians were gone Mr. Grimsley turned the negroes loose, and they 
soon became favorites among the white settlers. They worked for various 
persons in the Crooked Creek settlement during a portion of the next sum- 
mer, when their master in Missouri, hearing through an Indian trader that 
two negroes were in this vicinity, came up and took possession of the ne- 
groes and carried them back to Missouri. 

The Indian villages were of themselves quite a curiosity. Those of the 
early settlers who visited these villages describe them as being well ar- 
ranged, and the apartments of the chief making quite an attempt at roy- 
alty. This was more particularly the case with their winter quarters. The 
huts were made by driving poles in the ground and plaiting bark between 
them ; the roof was composed of matting made of grass and reeds. The hut 
of the chief, which differed from those of the other Indians in having a 
laige court enclosed in front of the entrance, was from forty to, sixty feet 
long and from ten to twelve feet wide. Along either side were arranged 
bunks where the Indians slept, and lengthwise at an equal distance from 
dther side was a trench some two feet wide and from eight to ten inches 
deep, where fires were kindled and the cooking done. Immediately above 
this trench was an opening in the roof to permit the smoke to escape. 

The summer tents erected by the squaws when on a hunting excursion 
were made by planting a circular row of willows in the ground and tying 
the tops together. These were easily constructed, and of course but tem- 

Reference has already been made to the fact that from time immemorial 
a deadly feud existed between the Sac and Fox Indians on the one part and 
the Sioux on the other part. These were the two principal tribes inhabit- 
ing the State in early days and the hatred they had for one another fre- 
quently embroiled them as well as numerous lesser tribes in long and 
bloody wars. 

In order to put an end to these sanguinary contests, and stop the 
effusion of blood, the United States Government tendered its services as a 
mediator between the two hostile tribes. As a result of the first negotia- 
tions it was agreed, in August, 1825, that the Government should run a 
line between the two tribes, and thus erect an imaginary barrier between 
the respective territory of the hostile tribes. After a trial of nearly five 

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years, it was found that the untutored mind of the red man was unable to 
discern an imaginary boundary. The Sacs and Foxes from the south in 
pursuing game northward were frequently borne beyond the boundary line 
and they were sure to have a fight with their jealous neighbors before they 
returned; the same was often true of the Sioux. The idea was then con- 
ceived by the agents of the Government of setting aside a strip of neatral 
territory, between the two tribes, of sufficient width to effectually separate 
the combatants, on which neither tribe should be allowed to hunt nor en- 

A treaty was accordingly made with the Sacs and Foxes, in July, 1830, 
whereby the latter ceded to the Government a strip of country twenty 
miles in width, lying immediately south of the line designated in the treaty 
of August, 1825, and extending from the Mississippi to the Des Moines 
rivers. At the same time a treaty was made with the Sioux, whereby the 
latter ceded to the. Government a strip of country twenty miles in width 
lying immediately north of the line designated in the treaty of August, 
1825, and extending from the Mississippi to the Des Moines rivers. By the 
provisions of these treaties, the United States came into possession of a 
strip of country forty miles wide and extending from the Mississippi to the 
Des Moines rivers, upon which it was unlawful for either Sac and Fox or 
Sioux to hunt. This strii) was known as the " Neutral Ground." Certain 
of the inferior and peacable tribes, as the Pottawattamies for instance, were 
permitted to remain on the Neutral Ground. 

That part of Boone county east of the Des Moines river was literally in 
the Neutral Ground; that part west of the river was practically in the 
Neutral Ground also, as the savages seem to have so regarded it. That 
part of the county bordering on the Des Moines river was a favorite reeort 
of the Pottawattamie Indians, and here the early settlers found them in 
great numbers. Mr. Benjamin Williams, one of the pioneers of this region, 
tound them in ^reat numbers in the vicinity of Elk Rapids, when he came 
to the county m 1846. They had been accustomed to make maple sngar 
in a large grove located upon the claim which Mr. Williams hrst took. 
After the Indians were gone, he used their appliances for catching and 
hoarding the sap in continuing the business. The sugar troughs were 
made of the bark of elm trees, and so well were they constructed Uiat they 
lasted for a number of vears. A la^e walnut trough, which the Indians 
had used for hoarding the sap, Mr. Williams continued to use for some 
five or six years after they were gone. During the winter of 1846-47 some 
five hundred of these Pottawattamie Indians were encamped in the vicinity 
of Elk Rapids, and, although several white men had settled in that vicinity 
at that time, none of them were molested by the Indians. Their chief was 
an old man by the name of Chemisne; by the early settlers, however^ he 
was known by the name of Johnny Greene. 

An incident occurred during this winter which threw the settlers into a 
fever of excitement. A man named Henry Lott had settled at the mouth 
of Boone river, in what is now Webster county. His house was in range 
of the Sioux Indians, whose chief's name was Sim-au-e-dotah. By some 
accident, or from wounds received in battle, or on account of some natural 
deformity, we know not, he had no thumb or fore-finger on his right hand; 
on account of this deformity, he was known as Old Chief Three Fingers. 
Lott had provided himself with a small quantity of goods and a barrel of 

whisky, expecting to drive a prosperous trade with the old chief and his 


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mSrOBT OF BOON! ooxrsTT. 889 

band, and buy their robes and furs for little or nothing. The first visit the 
ehief made him he was accompanied bjr six brayes of his baud, all painted 
and armed for the war-path. He informed Lott that he was an intrader; 
that he had settled on the Sioux hnntincc grounds, and warned him to leave 
before a certain time. The time having arrived, the Indians appeared, and 
finding Lott still remainiog, they commenced an indiscriminate destruc- 
tion of property. They robbed his beehives, shot his horses, cattle and 
bogs fall of arrows, so that many of them died; threatened and abused his 
family and drove him and his son from the house more scared than hurt. 
Two small girls, daughters of Lott, fled to the timber and Mrs. Lott cov- 
ered a small child, the youngest of the family, under a feather bed, and 
then, after contending with uie savages till her strength was exhausted, 
was compelled to submit to all the indignities which they chose to heap 
upon her. 

One of the most remarkable circumstances of the whole aiFair is the fact 
that although the Indians were in and around the house during a great 
part of the day, the little fellow hidden under the feather bed, not once 
moved or uttered any outcry. 

When Lott and his son reached the Boone Eiver BIuAb they looked back 
at the house, which was plainly in view, and as they thought they saw the 
Indians tomahawking the family, and heard the screams of the wife and chil- 
dren, the two having no arms concluded to make their way rapidly to the set- 
tlements and sometime the same night reached Pea's Point, spreading a 
horrible story, alarming the women and children and astounding every- 

John Pea proposed an immediate expedition to take vengeance on Sim- 
an-e-dotah, but Lott was sent to Elk Bapids, some sixteen miles below, to 
procure more men. When he reached the Rapids he found Chemisne, a Pot- 
tawattamie chief, with whom he was acquainted. This Indian was known 
to the early white settlers by the name of Johnny Greene, and was 
encamped there with several hundred of his tribe. IJpon hearing Lett's 
story he immediately called a council of his braves, wherein it was deter- 
mined that the chief should accompany the white men with twenty six of 
his warriors. After several pow-wows they painted themselves in the most 
hideous manner and mounting their ponies set ofl^ for Pea's point to join 
the expedition. 

The settlers around Pea's Point fearing that the Sioux misht follow Lott 
and his son, and fall upon the settlement and murder all, haa assembled at 
the house of John M. Crooks for better safety and defense, and were on 
the lookout for Indians. 

Lott with several white men and the Pottawattamies were rapidly ad- 
vancing across the prairie towards Crook's house, the Indians in the front 
yelling as is their custom when starting on the war-path and not in the 
vicinity of danger. The settlers supposing them to be Sioux coming to 
attack them, prepared for action, eacn singling out his Indian, and were 
upon the point of firing when they recognized Lott and other white men, 
and were happily disappointed to find them all friends. 

John Pea and six other white men accompanied Lott and the Pottawat- 
tamies to the mouth of Boone river and found that the family had not 
been tomahawked as Lott had represented, but one of his boys, a lad about 
twelve years old, in order to escape from the Indians, had undertaken to 
^foach the settlements by following down the river on the ice, and across 

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890 msTOBT or boovx oouhtt. 

the bottoms, a distance of twenty miles. The Bionx had robbed the family 
of nearly everything they had except the barrel of whisky which Lott had 
securely hidden, and the family was found in a very destitute condition. 

After making an unsuccessful scout the Potawattamies returned to 
camp. Lott g^ve them all the whisky they could carry with them as they 
would not drink any till they returned to camp. They filled their cnns 
and powder-horns and carried it in that manner all the way back to Elk 
Rapids, a distance of thirty six miles, where, to celebrate the result of their 
expedition, they took a rousing spree. 

This incident, while it resiuted in no harm to the settlers of Boone 
county, had the effect to deter many from settling in the county the ensuing 
spring and summer. 

Lott was much overcome when he found in what condition the savages 
had left his family. His wife died a short time afterward from the effects 
of the treatment she had received from the Indians. The boy, who started 
down the river :n order to reach the settlement, perished from the efiects of 
the cold, and his dead body was found on the ice. The two little girls were 
found some time afterward in a sorry plii^rht, exhausted by the cold and hun- 
ger. After burying his wife and boy, Lott secured homes for the other 
children among the> settlers of this county, and it is but proper to state, in 
this connection, that the little boy, now grown into manhood, recently made 
a visit to this locality. The two girls, having grown to be young women, 
were married and became the wives of two of the leading citizens of this 

Having thus arranged his affairs, Lott turned his attention to wreaking 
vengeance upon the savages who had despoiled his home, and the saddest 
part of the story remains to be told. 

Lott, now having determined on his plan of proceeding did not lose 
much time in carrying it out. He procured an ox team and drove to Dea 
Moines. Upn arriving there he purchased two barrels: one he filled witJi 
pork and the other with whisky. What other ingredient he mixed with 
the pork and whisky can be imagined from the effects it had upon those 
who ate it. 

Having thus laid in his stock of goods, he set out from Des Moinea to 
the hunting grounds of the Sioux. After driving around for some time 
he learned that the old chief, Sim-au-e-dotah, with a hunting party, was en- 
camped near a stream in the present bounds of Webstor county. He pro 
ceeded stealthily into the timber near by and hastily erected a tem)>o- 
rary shelter, where he stored his pork and whisky. I)uring the following 
night he kindled a large fire, and having heaped upon it a sufficient quantity 
of fuel, to keep it burning for a daj' or two, ne arranged his wagon, team ana 
cooking utensils in such a manner as to indicate sudden fiight. After Lott 
had thus fixed up matters to suit his mind he quietly let't the country. 
How the camp, with its team, wagon, pork and whisky was discovered by 
Simau-e-dotan's band next morning, and just what became of the provis- 
ions, will probably never be known. However, the fact did become public 
that during the following summer the Indians in that vicinity were greatlv 
terrified by the ravages of a peculiar and unknown epidemic, against which 
the skill of the medicine men, and the most importunate appeals to the 
Great Spirit, were of no avail. It is said that over seventy-five of the most 
robust and bravest of the warriors perished in a short time, and i^ feeling 
of melancholy and sadness took possession of the whole tribe of savagee. 

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am v om f of boovb oomnr. 391 

Notwithstanding the sad havoc among fche Sionx following Lott's last 
visit to th^ir hunting groands, the old chief Sim-aa-e-dotah and his sons 
escaped and continued to prosper. Upon hearing that the chief with his 
family still survived, Lott aetermined on a braver, as well as a more manly, 
plan of revenge. Having disguised himself so that the old chief could 
not recognize him, and armed with a trusty rifle, whose unerring aim usually 
brought down its game, Lott mounted a horse and rode into the Sioux 
conntry. He entered the camp where Sim-au-e-dotah was encamped and 
sought an interview with the old chief. After having put the wary savage 
off msgaard by the presentation of gifts and the utterance of the most 
expressive words of triendship, Lott informed Sim-an-e-dotah that a 
certain prairie, through which he had originally come abounded in game 
of the choicest kind, and thus having aroused the old man's natural pro- 
pensity for the chase succeeded in prevailing upon him and his three sons 
to accompany him on a hunting excursion. When Lott and the Indians 
arrived at the place where the game was reported to be, it was decided, 
opon the suggestion of the former, that they surround the prairie in which 
tne game was concealed. The three young Indians were sent in opposite 
directions, and as soon as Lott and the old Indian were left alone, tne for- 
mer soon dispatched the unsuspecting old chief; he then started on the 
tnck.of the young Indians ana killed all three of them in detail. It is 
fnrther reported that after killing the old Indian and his three sons Lott 
ura/;ged their dead bodies together, on an elevation near the Des Moines 
river, and having built a log heap placed them on it, and having set it on 
fire returned to Boone county. 

In the course of time reports of Lott's doings b^an to be whispered 
abroad, and his case came up for investigation before the grand jury, then 
in session at Des Moines. Among the members of the srand jurj was a 
gentleman residing at Boonesboro. Lett's case was the last one disposed 
of, and in the evening, lust before the jury was dischai-ged, a true bill was 
fonnd against Lott and he was indicted for murder in the first degree. It 
16 not positively known when the fioonesboro juror left Des Moines, 
nor when he arrived at the former place; all that is known is the fact that 
his horse was in the stable at Des Moines at dark on the evening of the day 
that the indictment was found, and that the same horse was in a stable at 
Boonesborongh the following monring. It is also known that Lott left the 
eonntrv the same night, and the sheriff who came up from Des Moines to 
arrest him the next day failed to find him. Lott was never again seen in 
this region of the country, and nothing has been definitely known as to his 
whereabouts. It was rumored at one time that he made his way to the 
Pacific slope, and after having been engaged in barter and mining for a 
number of years, was finally lynched for some alleged misdemeanor. 
Whether or not such was the tragic end of his eventful life is not positively 
known, but the incidents as above related bearing upon his career in Boone 
tnd Webster counties are vouched for by some of the early settlers then 
residing in the vicinity of Boonesboro, and they can be relied on as 
Bnbstantiallj true in all the particulars. 

The failure of the sheriff from Polk county to find Lott ended the mat- 
ter as £ar as legal proceedings were concerned, but not so as far as the sav- 
ages were concerned. 
They were greatly exasperated when they found that their chief and his 


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80118 had been decoyed and slain and they preferred complaint to the gov- 
ern inent agents, tbron^h whose influence aoabtless Lott's indictment wad 
procured. After Lottos escape it finally became whispered about lamoDg 
the savages that Lott was not only responsible for the death of their chief 
and his sons but that his pork and whisky had Iiad something to do with 
the epidemic which previously had carried off 1some seventy -five of their 
braves. They nursed their grievances and their desire of revenge increased 
until it finally found vent in the Spirit Lake massacre, which created so 
great a sensation at the time and wnich did so much to retard emigration 
to this section. The details of this massacre do not constitute a part of 
the history of Boone county, but as this massacre was intimately connected 
with the history of this county it is proper. to give a brief account of it. 

In the spring of 1857, Ink-pa-du-tan, chief among the Sioux Indians 
and cousin to the chief killed by Lott, led a band of Indians to a small 
settlement of whites near Spirit Lake, in Dickinson county. They mur- 
dered many of the settlers and carried some of the women and children 
into captivity. They plundered the settlement of all the stock and pro- 
visions and then retreated into Minnesota. Although the scene of this 
massacre was over one hundred miles away it caused a thrill of fear and 
excitement in this county. A company of rangers was organized under 
command of S. B. McOall, who immediately marched to the relief of the 
settlers. When they arrived at the scene or the massacre they buried the 
dead and scouted the country far and near but could not find any traces of 
Ink-pa-du-tah, nor any of his band. 

Du ling the following summer the government concluded a treaty with 
the Sioux Indians, and removed those living in southern Minnesota to the 
west of the Missouri, river. 

Thus did the successor and relative of Sim-au-e-dotah wreak vengeance 
on the white man for the murder of the chief and the penalty of that fool 
deed had to be paid by innocent parties. 

The Sioux Indians always noted for their fierce crueltv still are true to 
their former characteristics and it was the same tribe under the leadership 
of Sitting Bull who for some years was a source of so much terror to the 
Black Hills' miners, and who composed the army concerned in the defeat 
and death of the brave General Otister. 

The following extract of a letter written about the time of the Spirit 
Lake massacre by A. B. Holcomb to friends in the east will give some 
idea of what effect the news of that atrocity had upon the settlers at this 

'^ The Indian excitement has gone by. We had ouite an alarm here. It 
all proved false, however. But to see teams with lamilies flocking in and 
bringing in the report that Fort Dodge and Webster City were taken and 
burnt the night Wore started the patriotic blood of our citizens here. 
The Boonesborough ^^Invincibles" were soon armed and marched to the scene 
of battle, and were gone three days. I brought out my Sharp's rifle and 
made up all the powder I had into cartridges to keep garrison, but we 
could never learn that any " poor Indian " came within 100 miles of this 
place, and the alarm was soon over. If they had come this way their red 
skins would have caught a good peppering. We should have had a grand 
hunt. One woman came in here from Spirit Lake at the time of the mas- 
sacre there. She with several other women defended a lo^ cabin for sev- 
eral honrs against the Indians, and finally beat them off She had the 

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mark of a rifle ball upon one oheek and also one npon the thigh. She was 
OQt two days and one niffht in March, with nothing on but the clothes she 
wore about the hoase and a single crnst of bread to eat, and with a child 
two months old in her arms. She knew nothing of the fate of her hus- 
band nntil she got here, nor he of her. " 

Bat the Indian was destined to create no farther disturbances upon the 
soil which the white man had marked for his own. In accordance with 
the stipulations of sacred treaties and likewise agreeably to the demands 
of the times the alloted time had now come for the red man to move west- 
ward again on his roving mission and add one more proof tliat his race is 
fast passing away and must eventually disappear before the restless march 
of the Anglo Saxon race, as did the traditionary Mound Builders give 
plaoe to the predatory red man of later times. 

'* And did the dost 
Of these fair solitudes once stir with life 
And bum with passion ? Let the mighty mounds 
That overlook the rivers, or that rise 
In the dim forests crowded with old oaks 
Answer : A race that has long passed away 
Built them. The red man came — 
The roaming hunter tribes, warlike and fierce — 
And the Mound Builders vanished from the earth. 
The solitude of centuries untold 
Has settled where they dwelt. The prairie wolf 
Howls in their meadows and his fresn dug den 
Yawns by my path. The gopher mines the ground 
Where stood their swarming cities. All is gone — 
All! save the piles of earth that hold their bones 
The platforms where they worshiped unknown gods.'' 

Thus as those traditionary Mound Builders were forced to give way to 
the plundering red men of later times, so must he give place to his pale- 
facea successor, and his night of ignorance and superstition in which he so 
delights to revel, must give place to the approaching light of intelligence 
and civilization as truly as the darkest shades of midnight are dispelled by 
the approaching light of day. When the last barrier of restraint was thus 
removed, the tide of emigration, so long held in check, began to come in 
at a rapid rate over these prairies, and thus has it continued to roll, wave 
after wave, until it has reached the western shore, carrying with it the 
energy and talents and enterprise of nations; and washing to the surface 
the gold from the mountains and valleys of the Pacific slope, it has envel- 
oped our land in the mighty main of enterprise and civilization. 



Importance of First Beginnings — Character of First Settlers — Noah*s Bottom and Col. 
Bablntt— Elk Rapids— Swede Point— Hull's Point— Pea's Point— Booneshoro—Mil- 
foid— The Rash of 1856 and 1865. 

EvsBY nation does not possess an aathentic account of its origin, neither 
do all commnnities have the correct data whereby it is possible to accu- 
rately predicate the condition of their first beginnings. Nevertheless, to 
be intensely interested in such things is characteristic of the race, and it 

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is particalarly the provinoe of the historian to deal wi& first eaases. 
Should these facts, as is often the case, be lost in the mythical tradition of 
the past, the chronicler invades the realm of the ideal, and compels his im- 
agination to paint the missing picture. The patriotic Roman was not con- 
tent till be nad found the '< First Settlers," and then he was satisfied, 
although they were found in the very undesirable company of a she bear, 
and located on a drift, which the receding waters of the Tiber had per- 
mitted them to preempt. 

One of the advantages pertaining to a residence in a new country, and 
the one possibly least appreciated, is the fact that we can go back to the 
first be^nnings. We are thus enabled, not only to trace results to their 
causes, out also to grasp the facts which have contributed to form and 
mould these causes. We observe that a State or county has attained a oer- 
tain position, and we at once try to trace out the reasons for this position 
in its early settlement and surroundings, in the class of men by whom it 
was peopled, and in the many chances and changes which have wroaght 
out results in all the recorded deeds of mankind. In the history of Boone 
county, we may trace its earlv settlers to their homes in the Enstem 
States and in the countries of the Old World. We may follow the coarse 
of the hardy woodman of the "Buckeye" or the **Hoosier" State on his 
way west to "grow up with the country," trusting only to his strouff arm 
and his willing heart to work out his ambition or a home for himself and 
wife, and a competence fur his children. Yet again, we may see the path 
worn by the Missourian in his new experience in a land which to him was 
a land of progress, far in advance of that southern soil upon which he had 
made his temporary home, in his eifort to adapt himself to new conditions. 
We may see here the growth which came with knowledge, and the progress 
which grew upon him with progress around him, and how his better side 
develoi>ed. The pride of Kentucky blood, or the vain glorying of the 
Virginia F. F. V.\, was here seen in an early day only to be modified in 
its advent from the crucible of democracy when servitude was eliminated 
from the solution. Yet others have been animated with the impulse to 
" move on," after making themselves a part of the community, and have 
sought the newer parts of the extreme West, where civilization had not 
penetrated, or returned to their native soil. We shall find much of that 
distinctive New England character which has contributed so many men 
and women to other portions of our State and the West; also we shall find 
many an industrious native of Germany or the British Isles, and a few of 
' the industrious and economical French — all of whom have contributed to 
modify types of men already existing here. Moreover, there were repre- 
sentatives of a hardy, industrious and enterprising race from the inhospit- 
able climes of northern Europe, who were among the first to found homes 
on the more productive soil and under the milder skies of Iowa. Who- 
ever has read that inimitable work, the history of Charles the Twelfth, and 
with the author has followed the stalwart Swedes on their conquering 
career through northern and central Europe can but exclaim ^' how stranger 
are the facts of history than the myths of fiction." Those who have noted 
the career of the descendants of those brave, strong men in subduing the 
wilds and overcoming the obstacles and withstanding the hardships of this 
country in early times, can but admit that they are worthy sons of illustri- 
ous sires. 

With confidence that general results will prove that there is much of 

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good in ev^ything, %nd that a jastioe almost poetic has been meted oat to 
ttie faults and follies, to the foibles and the virtues of tlie early settlers of 
this county, we may now enter upon their story, 

Hie first white man who resided in the present limits of Boonecounty was 
Col. L. W. Babbitt. He had been for a number of years commanding a 
detachment of United States Dragoons, and while serving in that capacity 
had frequently crossed the country. During these excursions from Fort 
Des Moines to the vicinity of Fort Dodge, he was struck by the beautiful 
scenery and natural resources of the country lying along the Des Moines 
river. He had also noted what he regarded as a particularly favored point, 

Sst above the present site of Moingona, formerly familiarly known as 
oah's Bottom, out more recently called Rose's Bottom. At this plaee he 
bad discovered the remains of a former yillage. The character of these 
remnants of human habitation convinced him that the people who had 
previously dwelt there were not representatives of the Sioux, Potawatta- 
miee. Sac and Fox Indians, nor yet of any tribe or tribes of savages known 
to the civilized world. The dwellings were of a more permanent charac- 
ter, and the tools used in their erection were evidently of a better Quality 
and a more approved character than the Indians referred to haa been 
known to possess. There were also found the remains of cooking utensils, 
which the savages were not accustomed to use and other unmistt^able evi- 
dences of a pre-historic civilization. 

It was probably in part due to desire to investigate these remains of the 
former village, and partly due to the fact that tne surroundings were of 
such a nature as to make this location a desirable winter quarters that Ool. 
Babbit, on retiring from the United States service, determined to locate 
at this point. He arrived there in the autumn of 1848, and erected tem- 
porary quarters in which he and his attendants could comfortably pass the 
winter. Provisions were readily procured at points further down the river, 
and by reason of his familiarity with the country he had a comparatively 
easy and convenient communication with the white people who had located 
in the older settled country to the south and east. Then, too, the country 
for miles in every direction being entirely new,and many parts of it scarcely 
if ever before having echoed to the sound of that great instrument of civ- 
ilization, the rifle; game of all kinds was abundant, of the best quality, 
Mdd easily obtained. Fish were easily caught in great numbers, and the 
choicest of fur-beariog animals were numerous. Added to this the further 
fact that the Colonel bad for many years spent his time on the frontier, and 
by reason of many a solitary march and lonely can^p in the solitudes of 
the wilderness, had accustomed himself to being shut off from the conve- 
niences and luxuries of civilized society, he doubtless found his temporary 
home in Noah's Bottom a very pleasant and enjoyable one. In regard to 
the remains of the former habitations already referred to, Col. Babbit, on 
eareful examination and mature deliberation, came to the conclusion that 
they had constituted the dwellings of a band of half breeds who were 
known to have dwelt along the shores of the upper Des Moines in very 
early days. These half breeds were a cross between the French and Sioux, 
and by reason of their relationship with the Sioux were allowed to remain 
in that region long before it would have been safe for any white people to 
dwell there. These people, half French and half Indian, were frequently 
referred to in the Indian traditions; at one time they were quite numerous 
along the upper Des Moines, and it was probably they who gave the name 

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to the river. Authority has already been cited, in a former chapter, for the 
Btatement that the word Des Moines is a corruption of the French phase 
Bivere des Moines^ meaning '' river of the monks." 

After spending the winter of 1848 and 1844 in Noah's Bottom* Ool. 
Babbitt emigrated to the Missouri Slope, and was among the most ener- 
getic and innuential of the first citizens of Council Bluffs. 

Although Col. Babbitt spent the winter of 1843 and 1844 within the 
bounds ot Boone county and no other white man located here till early in 
1846, he cannot properly be regarded as the first settler, as his stay was 
but brief, and he did not locate there with the intention of making it a 
permanent home; he staked off no claim, and made no permanent improve- 

As to who was the veritable ^'first settler" in this county, accounts some- 
what differ. Though the various accounts regarding tnem are almost legion, 
yet no two of them seem to fully correspond when placed side by side. 
After examining many authorities and interviewing many of the oldest set- 
tlers now living in the county in regard to this much vexed question, it 
should not surprise the reader if the following statement of the case should 
somewhat differ from the preconceived opinions of many. The stranger 
who comes into the county with none of the information which those pos- 
sess who have resided here for years, works at great disadvantage in many 
respects. He does not at first know whom to interview, or where to find 
the custodians of important records. However, he possesses one great ad* 
vantage, which more than makes up for this: he enters upon his work with 
an unbiased mind; he has no friends to reward and no enemies to punish; 
his mind is not preoccupied and prejudged by reports which may have 
incidentally come into his possession while transacting the ordinary aflSurs 
of business; and when, in addition to this, he is a person whose business it 
is to collect statements and weigh facts of history, he is much better qual- 
ified for the task, and to discriminate between statements seemingly of equal 
weight, than those who are either immediately or remotely interested par- 
ties, and whose regular employment lies in other fields of industry. This 
is true even though the former be a total stranger and the latter have be- 
come familiar with men and things by* many years of intercourse and 
familiarity. Ee is best judge and oest juror who is totally unacquainted 
with both plaintiff and defendant, and he is best qualified to arbitrate be- 
tween connicting facts of history who comes to his task without that bias 
which is the price of acquaintanceship and familiarity. The best history 
of France was written by an Englishman, and the most authentic account 
of American institutions was written by a Frenchman, and it remained for 
an American to write the only reliable history of the Dutch Republic. 

The first settlements in Boone county, like those of all other counties 
of the State, were made in or near to the timber. As timber was originally 
found only in strips along the water-courses, we find that the first settle- 
ments were made along the rivers and creeks. In fact, the most beautiful 
prairies were shunned by early settlers. Inhabitants of to-day, whilst con- 
templating the broad prairies, dotted with neat, commodious dwellings, 
barns, orchards, and artificial groves, look back with surprise at the choice 
of the first settlers. The uninviting features of the Western prairies is sug- 
gestive of a poem written of them which many have read in their boyhood 
days. The poem was doubtless written by some New England pedagogue 

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after retarning from a flying visit to some such a ooantry as this was in 
early days: 

** 'Oh, loneaome, windj, grassy place. 
Where buffido aod snakes prevail; 

The first with dreadful looking face, 
The last with dreadful sounding tail. 

rd rather live on camel homp 
And be a Yankee Doodle beggar. 

Than where I never see a stump 
And shake to death with fever 'n' ager.' 

, f «♦ 

There were two reasons for this: First, the settlers were in the main 
the descendants of those hardy backwoodsmen who conqaered the dense 
forests of Indiana, Ohio, and the regions farther east. When farms were 
opened npin those countries a large oelt of timber was invariably reserved 
from which the farmer conld draw his supply of logs for lumber and fence 
rails, and fuel for cooking and heating purposes, liven at the present day 
a farm without its patch of timber is exceedingly rare in those countries. 
Having from their youth up been accustomed to timber, the emigrant from 
these timbered regions of the East would have ever felt lonesome and soli- 
tary deprived of the familiar sight of the tall forest trees and shut off from 
the familiar sound of the wind passing through the branches of the vener- 
able oaks. Then again, timber was an actual necessity to the early settler, 
In this day of railroads, herd laws, cheap lumber and cheap fuel, it is easy 
enough to open a farm and build up a comfortable home away out on the 
praine, far from the sight of timber. But not so under the circumstances 
surrounding the tirst settlers. There was no way of shipping lumber from 
the markets of the East, coal mines were unknown, and before a parcel of 
land could be cultivated it was necessary to fence it. In order to settle the 
prairie countries it was necessary to have riailroads, and in order to have 
railroads it was necessary that at least a portion of the country should be 
settled. Hence the most important resource in the development of this 
Western country was the belts of timber which skirted the streams; and 
the settlers who first hewed out homes in the timber, while at present not 
the most enterprising and progressive, were nevertheless an essential factor 
in the solution of the proolem. 

In one sense of the word the first settlements of Boone county were 
along the Des Moines river, in another sense they were not. They fol- 
lowed the general course of the river, but owing to the density of the tim- 
ber near its banks and the character of the soil, the country immediately 
bordering on the Des Moines was not so desirable as that somewhat more 

From either side of the river flowing in a southwestern and southeastern 
direction are a number of small streams or creeks. The uniform width of 
the belt of timber along the Des Moines was originally about four or five 
miles, but where these smaller streams empty into the river the timber ex- 
tends much further out. T]^eee places were called ^^ points " and at these 
points were the first settlements made; here were the first beginnings of 
civilization; here began to operate the forces which have made the wilder- 
Dess a fruitful place and caused the desert to blossom as the rose. 

The first settlements were made on the east side of the river, 
not because the country there was any better than on the opposite 
side, but because emigration came from the east; for the same reason the 
south part had settlements before the north part had any. With a few 

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198 HSVOBT or BOOKS oomrrr. 

ezceptioDs this hM bMn tnie t>f evtry other county and of the State itself 
— the direction which civilization has taken has been toward the northwest. 
It is trae that the first settlement in the State was at or near Dnbnqae and 
that settlements were made at other points alon^ the river at the same 
time, or even earlier than at Barlington, Ft Madison and Keokuk. But 
it is also true that Lee county in the extreme sontheast was the first county 
to be generally settled and the great tide of emigration continued to 
press from that point and even to-aav it follows the same coarse. Thus it 
is that while Boone county is near the geographical center of the State it 
is yet too far north and west to be in the center of population, and while 
the city of Boone is somewhat northeast of the geographical center of the 
county, it is, nevertheless, very near in the center of population. 

The first settlements made in Boone county were in 1846; all accounts 
agree in substantiating this fact. Daring this year some twenty settle- 
ments were made by aiiFerent individuals. In some instances claims were 
taken and permanent improvements begun, by different persons at diflTerent 
places on the same day. Some were here days, and pernaps weeks, before 
the others knew of their arrival; over thirty years have passed since then 
and as none of these first settlers took the precaution of making a record 
of the date of their arrival, they are, many of them, uncertain as to the 
precise time, consequently their accounts of whom was the veritable first 
settler are somewhat conflicting. The honor of being the Jir^ seUler is 
clain^ed for different parties; the writer having heard all the accoaots, and 
carefully weighed all the evidence, concludes that this honor, without 
doubt, rightfully belongs to Charles W. Gaston, who settled near Elk 
Rapids, on section 34, township 82, range 26, in January, 1846. Mr. Oas- 
ton had previously been in the United States service, and while performing 
the duty of a soldier had passed through this section of country as early 
as 1835. It was probably at that time, and during that joume7, that he 
was favorably impressed with the physical features and natural resources of 
this section and aetermined at some future time to make it his pdrmanent 
home. By the terms of the treaty made with the Indians they were to 
leave the Territory of Iowa in the fall of 1845, at which time some of them 
departed, but they were not all removed till some time after. Mr. Gaston, 
doubtless, was frequently very uneasy in his new home daring the first 
months of his residence in the county, as many Indians were still here. 
Though their title had expired they had not been removed to their reaerva- 
tiun in Kansas, and although the savages who still remained were of a 
peaceable disposition, they were liable when intoxicated or enraged over 
some real or imaginary wrong, to wreak their vengeance upon any repre- 
sentative of the pale-faced race who chanced to be within their reach. Mr. 
Gaston, however, was naturally of a brave and adventurous disposition, and 
his discipline while in the army, and his experiences with the Indians on 
the frontier, were all calculated to prepare nim for the hazardous under- 
taking of becoming the first permanent white settler of the county. He 
was within a distance of twenty miles from Bl>rt Des Moines, where there 
was a garrison permanently located and where quite a number of settle 
ments Iiad been begun. In case of impending danger or scarcity of proTi- 
sions a forced march of twenty miles would not have been much of an Qn> 
dertaking to a man who had undergone the privations and endured the 
hardships which he had already passM through. Then again, it is proba- 
ble that a chain of scattering settlements li^ been formed between Des 

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Moines and Elk Kapids, prior to the time Mr. GhMton settled at the latter 
place, and he doubtless had frequent communication with his white neigh- 
oors toward the south. At any rate we do not hear that Gaston was sub- 
iected to any ereat annoyances from the Indians or endured any peculiar 
hardships further than those to which the early settlers were in common 
subjected. As soon as the heavy snows of the winter melted away and 
the roads became passable he doubtless soon ceased to feel like a stranger 
in a strange land, for one by one the characteristic ox wagon of the emi- 
erant made its way up the Des Moines, and the driver was sure to stop at 
Mr. Gaston's cabin to enquire concerning the country farther north. Then, 
too, the w'ork of felling trees, making rails, building fences and other pre- 

Eratory work essential to the opening up of a field for cultivation, doubt- 
is so far employed his mind as well as his energies, that he was troubled 
very little with despondency or loneliness. Moreover, Mr. Gaston was not 
one of those shiftless and aimless adventurers who were ever liable to be 
overcome by the desire to move on; he had come stay; in other words he 
had settled. The faculty of being able fix the mind upon some definite 
plan of operations, does much to achieve success and snatch victory from 
the jaws of impending defeat Such faculty Mr. Gaston seems to have 
possessed in a remarkable degree, and as a result he has been enabled to see 
the country improved all around him, and as the country has improved he 
himself has prospered and been blessed with plenty. He still resides near 
the place where his first cabin was originally built. Not long since he took 
to himself a new wife, and although quite advanced in vears, he still has 
expectations in the future: that they may be realized is the wish of the 
writer, and his many friends throughout th^ county. 

The Hull family is the most numerous family in the county. The Jones 
and Smiths stand no show with the ELulls. Of the early settlers were three 
brothers, James, Geoi^ and Uriah. George and James came here in 1849, 
and Uriah in 1851. James was a doctor, and was known as Dr. Hull. He 
had three sons, Wesley C, Saml. A. and Fenlon W., and four daughters, 
Mrs. J no. M. Wane, Mrs. R. M. Gwinn, Mrs. Jessie Seigler and Mrs. 
Milden Luther. His widow, Sophia, still survives. 

George had four boys, Uriah, James Wm. and Geo. F., and one daughter, 
Mrs. Judge Montgomery. In later life he married Mrs. Hannah Orooks, 
mother of Hon. Geo. W., who still survives. 

Uriah had one son, Philip, and four daughters, Mrs. John Hoffman, 
deceased, Mrs. L. B. Gilden, Mrs. Ben. Holcomb and Mrs. J. B. Patterson. 
The old man still survives. 

Levi Hull, one of the early settlers, was cousin of James and Jesse. He 
died of cancer about 1860. He left one son, James, and several daughters, 
among them Mrs. £. J. Yontries. 

An uncle of these, George Hull, came to the county about 1849. Of his 
family that came to the county were Jesse, William, John, Nathan, Isom, 
G^rge, Jackson, Martin, Sarah, Anna Grogan, Mary Dickison and Martha 
Long. Of these, John, Jackson, Martin and Mary now survive. 

Jesse had three boys, David, Risse and William, and four girls, Civilla 
Oraves, Amanda Luther, Carrie Graves and Mary' all of these survive but 
William and Mary. 

John had four boys and two girls.. His son Henrv was the first child 
bom in the county. William had eight children, Nathan had seven, Isom 
liad eighjt. George was lost in the army, and the others have all done well in 

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mtiltiplication. Some of these were here as early as 1847. Jesse was m 
long time stage agent and kept a wayside tavern at Bell Point John A. 
and S. Asbury are sons of Kev. Samuel Hull, of Terre Haate, Ind., and 
nephews of Dr. James, George and Uriah. John A. came in 1854 and 
AsDury came at same time, but he returned to Terre Haute, coming back 
in 1868. 

The Hulls are of Scotch and German stock, the father of the family be- 
ing a pioneer in the mountains of Virginia, and among the first settlers of 
Licking county, Ohio. They are almost unanimous in the Methodist fidth, 
and Dr. James and his son, Wesley C, are the only two that ever faltered 
in their democracy, so far as heard from. In early days in the county, 
•When local questions were prominent and all-absorbing, they sometimes 
" bolted " and they were so strong that, by fusing with tbe three Whigs in 
the county, they could carry the elections, and for several years the old 
liners had to look out or the Hulls and Whigs would unite and beat them. 
They have all raised large families and the present generation can scarce 
be counted. 

In May, 1846, came John Pea, James Hull, John M. Crooks, S. H. Bowers 
and Thomas Sparks. They all settled in or near the timber bordering on 
a creek which enipties into the Des Moines river about three miles north 
of Elk Rapids. Two of them, John Pea and James Hull, came near the 
same time, probably on the same day, although they were not from the 
same neighborhood in the East, and probably had not met till arriving in 
this county. The others came later, but all during the month of May, 
1846. Mr. Pea was a pioneer of the old stock; a positive, outspoken, 
blunt man. He was a Pennsylvanian by birth and prior to settling in this 
county, had for a time resided in every State intervening between this and 
the place of his birth. He resided for a time in Ohio when its forests 
were in a primeval condition. That country settling up, he gathered to- 
gether his effects and penetrated the dense forests of Indiana. Having 
resided in Indiana till the representatives of a higher civilization pressed 
too close around him he again emigrated and pitched his tent in the van of 
civilization on the broad prairies of the Garden State. From Illinois he 
removed to Missouri and was one of the pioneers of that State. Whether 
he was again crowded out or whether he disliked the '^ peculiar institution " 
of the State and was induced to come to the free soil of Iowa to escape the 
blighting curse of slavery, we know not. It is sufficient to know that he 
came, and for many years was one of the leading citizens of Boone countv. 
The neighborhood in which he settled was, in his honor, named Pea's 
Point. This locality, we believe, was afterward called Flat Rock. The 
stream a short distance southeast of Boone and emptying into the Des 
Moines some three miles above Elk Rapids was called Pea's creek, and it 
is our understanding that it still bears that name. Pea's ford, a favorite 
crossing of the Des Moines directly west of Boone, was also named after 
this hardy pioneer. After the county began to be tolerably well settled up 
Mr. Pea become somewhat discontented and conceived the idea of again 
emigrating. He even made the preliminary preparations and had the lo- 
cality picked out in Nebraska where he proposed to drive his stakes for the 
sixth time. From some reason his plan of emigrating to Nebraska was 
not carried out and John Pea, one. of the most active and characteristic 
pioneers of Boone county, died a few years ago and was buried not many 
miles from the spot of ground upon which he erected his first Iowa cabin. 

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We baTO already said that John Pea was a plain, blnnt man; this state- 
ment does not necessarily conflict with the farther statement that he was a 
man of kind heart and generons impulses. He was a man of vigorous 
oonttitotion and powerful frame, and after his head was covered with the 
gray hairs of three-score and ten >»inters, such were his erect form and 
robust constitution that time seemed to have broken its billows over his 
manly form onlv as the ocean rends its fury over the immovable rocks of 
the shore. Both physically and socially he was altogether such a man as ie 
the product of a busy life on the wild frontier; from such factors, and only 
sueh, can a like product be obtained. 

One of the of most eventful scenes, and one greatly regretted both by 
friend and foe, in the life of John Pea, was enacted during the prog ress of 
the late war. Although an ardent admirer of the American Union, and at 
heart as patriotic a citizen as could be found from Maine to Oregon, Mr. 
Pea was an ultra Democrat of the anti-war stamp and was a good represent- 
ative of that class of citizens known in every community throughout the 
Dorth, vnlgarly called copperheads. It is not known that he tcNDk active 
measures to retard recruiting, or that he frequently even so much as openly 
8poke against the prosecution of the war. However, during the exciting 
times ^en the Union army was meeting with repeated reverses, and the 
call for volunteers was so large and frequent that the quota could no longer 
be filled, and it became necessary to order a draft, under the excitement of 
the honr and probably with no evil intent, Pea made some very insulting 
remarks, addressed to some recruits who were upon the point of leaving the 
county for the seat of war. The persons to whom these remarks were ad- 
dressed, being in charge of a commissioned officer, did not dare to resent 
the insult, but they treasured up in their memory the words spoken. This 
was especially true of one of the number, a man who was physically Pea's 
superior, and when in the course of time he returned to the county on a 
recruiting mission he assailed Pea on the streets of Boonesboro, and 
after addressing the old man in the most abusive language knocked him 
down, whereupon Pea inflicted upon the person of his assailant two or 
three frightful stabs, from the effects of which the officer was likely not to 
recover. A large number of returned soldiers were in the town at the 
time, and when the various accounts, as usual highly colored, were spread 
abroad, threats of lynching the old man were freely made. The civil 
authorities seeing that a movement in this direction was taking deflnite 
shape, and that a rope for that purpose had already been procured, took 
Pea to a place of safety. He was indicted by the grand jury at its next 
sitting, and although the officer who had been stabbed had in the meantime 
recovered, a powerful effort was made to convict Pea of a crime which 
would have sent him to the State prison. The accused, however, had in the 
meantime enlisted the sympathies of many of the leading citizens, and 
through the untiring efforts of his counsel, ex-Judge Mitchell he was ac- 

James Hull, who came to the county the same time John Pea did, was 
from Indiana. He was the advance guard of a numerous following of en- 
terprising farmers of the same name and of the same ancestry. He first 
located at Pea's Point, where, in years afterward, numerous representatives 
of the same family and from the same locality in Indiana settled. In later 
years he removed to Boonesboro, where he still resides. Later came 
Jssoe Holly John Hull, William Hull, and others of the same name and 

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302 BI9T0BT or Boon OOUMTT. 

family. The Halls were so nameroas at one time that thej became quite 
an important element in the politics of the county. Thei'e were in early 
days the Democratic party, the Whig party, and the Hull party. On 

iuestions of national and State politics the Hulls were Democrats, and the 
democratic party was largely iu the majority, but on local questions the 
Hulls did not always vote with the Democratic party, and if they weot 
with the Whigs the Democrats were in the minority. Thus it was th^ in 
all contests of a local character it was a matter of vital interest to know how 
the Hull party would vote. The first contest in which the Hulla showed 
their strength was in an election which decided the location of a certain 
road. The policy of the dominant party was to have the road run through 
the timber; the Hulls objected, and by uniting with the Whigs came Tery 
nearly defeating the measure, and would have done so had not some of tfa^ 
Whigs broken away from the alliance. The Hulls have always been known 
in the county as an active, energetic, and intelligent class of people; thej 
represented nearly all of the known callings, trades, and professions. Jesse 
Hull resided for many years at a place some ten miles south of Boone, 
called Bell's Point, where he kept a stage station for the Des McHuee sokd 
Fort Dodge line of the Western Stage Company. James Hull was a phy- 
sician, and lived at Pea's Point, where he erected a house, which is known 
in late vears as Dr. James Hull's old farm house. Kev. George Hall, a 
Methodist minister, or^nized the first religious society in the county, 
during the year 1848. John A. Hull, Esq., has tor many years been known 
in this and adjoining counties as one of the leading lawyers of the State. 
At another place we shall speak more fully of these repiesentative men of 
the county. 

John M. Crooks was from Indiana. He was one of the most influential 
citizens of the county in early days. It was at his house that the settlers 
congregated at the time of the Lott difficulty. When the Pottawattamies, 
under the direction of Lott, came across the prairie flourishing their weapons 
and uttering their war cries, the band of white settlers, supposing that they 
were the bloodthirsty Sioux, went out to meet them, under the command 
of Mr. Crocks. Their weapons consisted of but a few trusty rifles, while 
the larger part of the force was armed with pitchforks and scythes, yet that 
little band, under the command of their brave leader, would have made a 
desperate fight had the Indians proved to be enemies, as they were supposed 
to be, instead of friends, which they really were. John M. Crooks emi- 
grated to the West years a^o, and is now a citizen of Nevada. Jacob 
Crooks, with his wife, Hannan, the parents of J. M. Crooks, settled in the 
county the following year. They first located in Jefferson county, thia 
State, in 1845, and after remaining there two years, followed their son to 
this county. Old Jacob Crooks has long since passed away, but the mem- 
ory of the good old man still remains a grateful heritage to those who, by 
many years of intimate association, learned to prize his many sterling traits 
of character. G. W. Crooks, another son, came to the county at an early 
day. He held the office of sheriff, first by appointment to fill out an unex- 
pired term, and then by election, for a number of consecutive years. He 
afterward was elected to the General Assembly of the State, and is now one 
of the prominent attorneys of Boone. 

Thomas Sparks was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, Deeember 
28d, 1815. His parents removed to Tuscarawas county, Ohio, whenee they 
letnrned to Pennsylvania, young Sparks remaining with them. In 1846 

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be emigrated to tluB county where he has since resided. He had no eda- 
oationafadTantages in early life except sach as were furnished in the coin- 
non schools of Che States where he resided. His early education, how- 
erer, has been supplemented by extensive reading and self culture in later 
years. Mr. SparKs is a descendant of a noble line of ancestors who emi- 
grated from England with William Penn in his first voyage to Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1682. This ancestor, Oliver Copes by name, first settled on 
Naaman creek, in Pennsylvania, the record showing that he purchased of 
Penn five hundred, acres of land which were set off to him in 1682. 
Although Mr. Sparks has given his attention chiefly to the business of 
fanning he has also taken an active part' in the political affairs of the 
county. At the election held in August, 1849^ for the purpose of organ- 
ixiDg the county he was elected to the office of county surveyor, a very 
responsible and important oflSce in those days. Since that time he has been 
elected to many important offices and has invariably discharged his official 
duties with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of his constituents. 
He at present resides about six miles south of Boone, where he owns a 
fine &rm of two hundred and eighty acres in an excellent state of culti- 

Amooff the number of men of education and refinement who left their 
eomfortable homes in the East and exchanged the luxuries of an old settled 
country for the hardships and privations of the new, there are none proba- 
bly who have been more prominently associated with the development of 
thie county or who have exercised a more potent influence in moulding and 
shaping the community in which they moved than John M. \^yne. 
He came to the county shortly after the first settlement was made and still 
lives near the spot of ground where he erected his first cabin on the orig- 
inal claim. The most important part of his education was obtained in the 
office of '* The New York Tribune " where he sei'ved an apprenticeship as 
a printer. It was doubtless under the tuition of the sage of Ghapaqua that 
he imbibed these ideas of industry and economy which have since secured 
for him a successful career in business and the political principles which 
were inculcated by this leader of the Whig party Mr. Wayne carried with 
him to the new country in the defense of which he waged many a fierce 
contest At the first election held in the county, August, 1849, Mr. Wayne 
was elected to the responsible office of clerk of the district court. At this 
election party lines were not closely drawn, the only issue before the people 
being that of securing honest and competent officials. Affairs did not long 
remain in this condition and although the Democrats were largely in the 
majority Mr. Wayne adhered rigidly to his Whig principles although in 
doing so he thereby diminished nis chances for official promotion. Not- 
withstanding the fact that he was recognized as the most radical and prom- 
inent of the leaders of the minority party Mr. Wayne was frequently 
elected to important offices and by a frequent coalition with the Hull party 
elections were frequently carried in spite of the large majority of the op- 
posite party. Mr. Wayne is comfortably located on an excellent farm a 
few miles south of Boone, and enjoys the respect and confidence of all who 
know him. 

M. Hoffman was born in Indiana in July, 1827. On arriving at majority 
he came to Iowa and located in this county in 1848. His first claim was 
in section 16, township 83, range 26, and which he entered some time 
after^tiiis being the first land entered in the county. He returned to In- 
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diana the same year, and in the following spring removed with his family 
to his claim in this county. The claim was improved as rapidly as circara- 
stances would permit By patient industry ana economy Mr. Hoffman has 
become the owner of six hundred acres of well improved land, and now 
in mature age holds the position of being one of the leading farmers and 
stock raisers of the State. The only capital Mr. Hoffman had on coming to 
Iowa was two hundred dollars which his father gave him on arriving at nis 

in June 1846, Benjamin Williams took a claim near the present site of 
Swede Point. His claim was in section 34, township 82, ran^ 26. When 
he moved on this claim Mr. Williams found part of it occupied by a band 
of Pottawattamie Indians. The claim contained a fine grove of maple 
trees, which was a favorite resort of the Indians in the spnng of the year. 
They had just suspended their su^r-making operations when Williams 
arrived, an,d as stated elsewhere, he in later years utilized their implements 
in the manufacture of sirup. Mr. Williams further states that the Indians 
having committed some deprelations upon the stock of a certain settler, 
the case was reported to anomcer of the dragoons, who came to inqnire into 
the matter, ana finding the Indians all drunk selected two of the leaders 
of the band and tied them up to an elm tree until they should become sufiS- 
ciently sober to give an intelligent account of affairs. Mr. Williams still 
resides in the county and is one of the best representatives of that class of 
Iowa farmers who have become justly renowned in the history of the 
State. A native of Ohio, he emigrated to Illinois at a time when that 
country would have been sufticiently new for most of people, but finding 
that it was settling up very rapidly, and that he was too late to take full 
advantage of an unsettled country there, he set out in a short time for Iowa, 
and having visited several localities along the Des Moines river, returned to 
Illinois and informed his neighbors that he had found a much better 
country. He soon made arrangements to remove to this county, where he 
arrived, as before stated, in June, 1846. He immediately set about the 
work of improving his claim but was not satisfied with confining his'ex- 
ertious there. Hearing that preparations were being made to build a fort 
at a point further up the river, he employed two men with teams, and taking 
these, in connection with his own team, set out for the present site of Fort 
Dodge. Upon arriving there he found that Capt. Johnson, with a detach- 
ment of dragoons, had but recently arrived and that he was just in time 
to get a job, for which, as he now remarks, he knew he would receive the 
cash, and that, too, not in depreciated currency of State banks but in the 
genuine yellow eagles of the government. He was not long in concluding 
a bargain with Capt. Johnson to haul the logs for the construction of the 
fort, the compensation to be three dollars per day for each of his teams. 
After a sufficient number of logs had been hauled Johnson inquired for 
lumber and Williams informed him that a saw-mill had been recently erect- 
ed at Elk Rapids, where a sufficient amount could be procured. Johnson 
authorized him to procure the lumber, and Williams set out with his three 
teams tor that purpose. He proceeded to Elk Rapids and returned with 
the lumber, which was received by the officer, the latter paying Williams 
five dollars and giving him an order for the remainder of the bill. A short 
time afterward Ool. Armsted arrived with some more dragoons and took 
charge of the garrison at the fort. Col. Armsted was an insolent and over- 
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bearing indiyidual, and when WilliamB asked him for the money doe him 
the Ck>Tonel turned npon him and said : 

^ Yon can have no money, sir; and what is more I want yon to load up 
the lamber and take it away, as I will have none of it." 

Williams knew that his order was good and, what was more, a quantity 
of the Inmber had already been used by the garrison, the very taole and 
benches at the Colonel's headqnarters having been mannfactured ont of it. 
He therefore informed Armsted that the lumber would lie where it was till 
the judgment day if not removed until he handled it, and as for his pay he 
had an order from Capt. Johnson, which the Oovernment was good for. 
When the Colonel saw that Williams was not to be intimidated and that he 
bad an order for the money, the irate oflScer toned down wonderfully, invited 
Williams into his quarters, where he divided with him the contents of a 
black bottle, and then paid the bill entire. The lumber was just what the 
garrison needed and Armsted had no intention to part with it^ hie object 
evidently being to bruw-beat Williams, whom he deemed to be a timid in- 
dividnal and, after having frightened him, compromise the matter by pay- 
ing a small sum for the lumber. 

The mill where Williams procured the lumber was on the Des Moines 
river, and the first one erected in the county. The few settlers who were 
iu the county joined together and put in the dam. Trees were cut out the 
proper length and dragged into the river; upon these brush and stone 
were piled until the dam was constructed. The mill was at first con- 
stmcted simply for the manufacture of lumber, but in the course of a few 
years an arrangment for grinding wheat and corn was added. The burs 
were made out of some large round sandstone, commonly called nigger- 
heads, found on an adjoining prairie. 

Mr. Williams tells some interesting stories about his first trips to Des 
Moines and to Parmelee's mill, in Warren county. He was in Des Moines 
when there were but two business houses in that place and says he could 
have hauled all the goods away from there at one wagon load ; could have 
had his choice of lots in the present Capital City at the rate of fifteen dol- 
lars apiece. He went to mill down in that country once and, when arriving 
there, found the dam out of repair and the mill crowded with grists from 
all parts of the country. Not knowing what to do he walked off a few 
rods, where his team was feeding, and began to meditate. During his 
meditations he chanced to see two men wheeling rock to be used in repair- 
ing the dam, and the idea immediately suggested itself that the best way 
to get his grist ground would be to assist in repairing the dam. He im- 
mediately threw off his coat and went to work. When supper time came 
he followed the men and when they sat down to eat he sat down, too. 
When night came he undertook to sleep in his wagon, but the musquitos 
were so troublesome he slept none that night; so, on the following evening, 
when the otlier laborers went to bed, he followed them and sought to share 
their bed. They informed him that it was too hot for three in a bed, but 
be put them off with the remark that he was very fond of company and 
the more the merrier. Finally* the mill started, and some of the employes 
informed the proprietor that they had better grind Williams' grist for he 
was ai^ intolerable bore and they wanted to get rid of him. Upon making 
inquiry, the proprietor ascertained what work Williams had performed, 
ground his wneat, paid him for his work, and the latter departed in high 
spirits. On his way back through Des Moines he saw one ot the two mer- 

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806 Ull'IUKf OF BOOHB tfOliJITf. 

cfaant8, which that town then snpported, laboring very hard to mana^- 
ture stove wood from some drift which had been brought down by the cnr- 
rent of the river during the high water of the preceding spring. Williams 
saw that cutting wood was hanl work for the knight of the yard stick, and, 
accosting him, inquired what he would pay to have the wood cat up. The 
latter onered one dollar, which Williams accepted, finishing the task in 
about one hour, and again set out for home. 

Mr. Williams, at an early day, came into possession of the parcel of 
land upon which is the town of ^Boonesborongh; that is he owned tne claim, 
but had no title from the government When the county seat was located 
upon it, the county commissioners entered the land, and Williams got 
nothing for his claim. He had paid the original owner of the claim one 
hundred dollars in cash for it, which was quite a sum of money to lose in 
those days. Mr. Williams' first claim consisted of three handred and 
twenty acres, all of which was timber. His opinion was, that timber being 
scarce would always be valuable; while there was such an abundance of 
prairie land, that it would be comparatively easy to secure that at any 
time. His wife, Mrs. Elsie A. Williams, died the next year after coming 
to the connty, and was buried on section 34, where a portion of ground 
was afterward set aside as a burying-ground. Although Mr. Williams is 
nearing his three-score years and ten, he is still enjoying comparatively 
good health. 

The first settlement at Swede Point was made in 1846. In September 
of that year Mrs. Anna Delander came direct from Sweden with a family 
of four sons and three daughters, and settled npon the land where Swede 
Point now is located. * 

During the following year, 1847, quite a nnmber of settlers came, 
among whom were the following: Jesse Hull and John Hull, already 
mentioned; William Sawyer, John Dobson, Richard Green and William 
Holston. These located during the months of Atay and June of that year 
in various parts of what is now Douglas township. 

It was in this neighborhood that the first marriage and the first birth oc- 
curred. The first marriage was that of Henry Holcomb to Mary J. Hull, 
in 1848. The first birth was that of Henry, son of John and Sophia Hull. 

This part of the county was early settled by Swedes. They have always 
had the reputation of bein^ an enterprising, industrous class of citizens, 
an 1 most of them have well improved farms. 

Montgomery McCall settled near the present site of Boonesborough early 
in February, 1847. For a year or more his family lived nearer the source 
of the Des Moines river than any other white family. Mr. McCall was a 
man of more than ordinary force of character, and being a radical Demo- 
crat was for years considered one of the leaders of the party, although he 
does not seem to have held many, if any, important ofiices. He was one of 
that type of pioneers, who were so numerous in early days, partizan from 
principle rather than from policy. He was greatly exasperated at the Hull 
party for their coalition with the Whigs, and although he was a kind hearted 
man, and by his general demeanor in affairs of business and politics, drew 
around him hosts of friends, it is not clear that he ever fully forgave the 
Hulls for their union with his political enemies. Mr. McCall at one time 
owned the land where Moingonia is now situated, but he parted with the 
land and probably died withont once dreaming of the immense mineral 
wealth of which he was possessed. Two' sons, John McCall and William 

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jf /h ■7.^«'>^^ 

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McGall, still reside in the county on the west side of the river, with one of 
whom the aged widow of Montgomery McCall now resides. S. B. McCall, 
another son of Montgomery McCall, emigrated further west several years 
ago. He it was who lead the "Boone Invincibles," or "Tigers," as they 
were sometimes known, against the predatory Sioux who, under the lead of 
the chief Ink-pa-dn-tah, ravished the stricken settlement of Spirit Lake. 

Some amusing as well as pathetic incidents are related of Oapt. McOall's 
command against the Sioux. It seems that the great difficulty in fitting 
oat the "Tigers," was the scarcity of tire-arms. After the company had 
been quickly organized, upon the receipt of the news, it was found that 
there were barely enough arms, including old flint-lock muskets, squirrel 
rifles, shot guns and horse pistols, to funiish each "Tiger" with a piece. Some 
of the citizens, fearing that the settlement might be attacked, refused to 
loan their fire-arms for the use of the expedition. So it happened that 
upon the eve of their departure some of the "Tigers" had not so much as a 
flint-lock musket. Prof. Couch, of Greene county, of late years a writer 
and lecturer of considerable reputation, was then a citizen of Boonesboro. 
He had just arrived from the East a few days prior to the Spirit Lake massa- 
cre, and when the "Tigers" organized, his Yankee blood rose to the boiling 
point. He joined the "Tigers" but was unable to procure a gun; those 
who were the fortunate owners of rifles or muskets had either already 
loaned them or persisted in holding them for self-defense. When the com- 
pany were on the point of departing. Couch heard of a musket which for 
years had been stacked away among some old rubbish in the corner of a 
lawyer's ofiice. Ue rushed up into the office, and finding that the disciple 
of Blackstone was not in, searched out the musket and carried it away in 
triumph without consulting the owner or so much as examining the piece. 
Thus armed he joined the company and rode away in triumph. Owing to 
the excitement and haste which attended the organization and departure of 
the company, no examination had been made of the arms and ammunition. 
This oversight suggested itself to Capt. McOall on arriving at Hook's 
Point, in Webster county, whereupon the Captain called a halt and pro- 
ceeded to make an examination. Upon examining Couch's equipments it 
was ascertained that this doughty soldier had no ammunition, and that his 
musket had neither bayonet, ramrod nor lock. Prof Conch, however, pro- 
ceeded with the expedition, notwithstanding his indifferent outfit, and the 
result of the expedition proved him to be one of the bravest "Tigers" in 
the herd, and the old mnsKCt, notwithstanding its dilapidated condition, did 
as much execution as any Sharp's rifle in the outfit. 

S. B. McCall was the first sheriff of the county by appointment of Judge 
McKay. The order for his appointment will be found at another place. 

When the old board of county commissioners was legislated out of ex- 
istence and the county judge system was established S. B. McCall became 
the incumbent of that office. 

David Hamilton, another one of the first settlers, located further up the 
river and laid out the town of Milford. 

R. 8. Clark first located about three miles south of Boonesboro. He 
afterward removed to a claim west of Boonesboro now known as the 
Zimbleman farm. He emigrated to Missouri some years ago. 

John Gault settled near Swede Point; he afterward removed to Oregon. 

Richard Greene went to Arkansas and William Holston to Missouri. 


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John Oastla settled near Swede Point, where he still lives. 

The first settlements included about twenty families, few representatives 
of which now remain in the county. 

In 1848 emigration set in so rapidly and new settlers came in so tBLSi 
that it would be impossible to give even a passing notice of each of them. 
In 1851 the county was orranized and in 1854 there was a great rush of 
emigrati m; also in 1865. It will be proper to give a brief account of 
a few of the more prominent ones who settled in the county during these 
times. In doing this we have experienced some difficulty as well as in 
tracing out the date and location of those who settled in the county at an 
earlier day. 

The historian experiences no difficulty in ascertaining the date of battles 
and sieges, the discovery of continents and the coronation of kings, for by 
common consent these are important events, worthy of a place in the mem- 
ory of men then living, who transmit the same to their children. The date 
of a settlement on the frontier, however, is not deemed so important, and 
is sometimes forgotten by the parties themselves. 

At the time referred to settlements were scattered at regular intervals 
along the east side of the Des Moines river, but there were tew on the west 
side, arid scarcely any on the prairie at a distance from the timber which 
skirted the river. Nevertheless in that portion of the county which was 
settled affairs which heretofore were in an unsettled and chaotic condition 
uow began to take shape, and the county settled down in a state of perma- 
nent prosperity. Pioneer times had not yet ended, and there were many 
hardsnips to endure and sacrifices to make. The persons already men- 
tioned as early settlers, while they were the first, and probably endured 
the greatest hardships, they by no means controlled the future policy of 
the county; they had their share in these matters, and the names of sev- 
eral of these first settlers will be found on the public records as county 
officers, yet the men who did most to shape legislation and stamp their 
characters on the permanent institutions of the county, were those who 
came subsequent to 1849. In 1846 Iowa became a State. All that was 
done prior to 1849 was simply preparatory or introductory. From 1849 to 
1855 was the formative period of the State, and what may be said of the 
State is likewise true of the county. In many respects these six years 
were the most important in the history of the county. It was during this 

Eeriod that constitutions were adopted, churches organized and sdiool- 
ouses erected. Owing to the diflSculty with the Indians the growth of 
the county was slow from 1846 to 1849, at which time the innabitants 
numbered 419. The Indian difficulties having been disposed of by the 
new purchase, and there being much available timber lands, the growth 
during the next two years was more rapid, the per cent of increase in pop- 
ulation during these two years being probably flreater than during the 
same length of time in the history of the county. Tin 1851 the population 
was 890, or an increase of over one hundred per cent in two years. A great 
many of those who settled during this period were onlv temporary, and 
again removed westward, while nearly all of them settled in the timber, 
thus leaving the best part of the fanning lands unimproved. The settlers 
who came between the years 1849 and 1855 not only settled on the best 
lands but came to stay. As a general thing they were men of good sense, 
well educated, industrious, thrifty and in many cases were men of consid- 
erable means; men not driven from the older settlements by want, but who 

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came to better their condition. The per cent of increase during these 
jean was not so great, bat it represented a more permanent population 
and a more thrifty class of people. In 1852 the population was 1,024 and 
in 1856 it was 3,618. ^ 

Daring this period there settled in the county many persons who after- 
ward became prominently identiiied with the history of the county, and 
some of whom are still residing in the same neighborhood where they first 
settled. Special efforts have been tak