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18 82. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1882, b}' 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Wasliiugton . 

8t, Louis : Press of Nixon-Jones Printing Co. 



In presenting to the citizens of Boone County this history, it is with the 

full knowledge that there must necessarily be some errors found within its 

pages ; otherwise, it would be different from any work yet compiled by human 

hands, absolute perfection never having been reached, either in the historical 

or any other field of earthly labor. 

In attempting to compile a complete history of Boone County a great 
variety of sources of information had to be consulted by the writers hereof: 
old files of newspapers, early ofi^cial records, previously written histori- 
cal works and reviews, old settlers still living, letters of correspondence 
and private documents have all been consulted in embodying what is set forth 
in this history. Considering all these things, absolute freedom from error 
would be a miracle of wonders. Much care, however, has been taken to 
avoid ex parte statements, and the writei*s and publishers claim that this his- 
tory, while not exact in everj'thing, treats all with fairness and candor. To 
gather the incidents of the long ago has been a work of infinite care and at- 
tention to detail. Intelligent readers may judge, therefore, how this labor 
has been performed, and do us the justice to accredit us with an honest en- 
deavor to make this history worthy, in all respects, the careful perusal of the 

To name all persons to whom tlie publishers are indebted for the facts 
herein, would be an undertaking of too great a magnitude, for there is 
scarcely a citizen of any prominence in the county who has not, in soine way, 
contributed to the compilation of this work. First and foremost the publish- 
ers desire to acknowledge themselves indebted to Col. Wm. F. Switzler, of 
Columbia, who has written the greater part of the general history, besides re- 
vising and correcting the condensed matter of this publication pertaining to 
the State of Missouri. To Dr. George C. Swallow, late of Columbia, the 
publishers are under special obligations for many favors extended them, and 
particularly for the very able and scientifically written chapter on the geology 
of the county. Mr. John W. Hatton, one of Columbia's literary authors, 





has aided, by his faithful labor, the completion of these pages, the most of 
the biographical matter being the arrangement of his ready pen. Mr. Ed. 
W. Stephens, editor of the HeroUd, has been freely drawn upon in his histor- 
ical skletch of Boone County, published in the County AUas of 1876. All the 
editors of all the papers of the county, also Dr. A. F. Sneed and Dr. P. S. 
Hocker, of Centralia, Gen. Odon Guitar, Maj. Jas. S. Rollins, and other cit- 
izens of Columbia, Dr. F. G. Sitton, of Ashland, and a host of other private 
citizens too numerous to mention have assisted in furnishing the information 
herein embodied ; and to the entire citizenship of the county, the publishers 
return thanks for the universal courtesy with which they and their assistants 
have been treated. 

With these few preliminary remarks we submit this work to the tender crit- 
icism of a charitable public. And when, in days to come, its pages shall be 
conned by children yet unborn, it is hoped that they may be able to say that 
its perusal, besides entertaining and instructing them, has the better prepared 
them for the exercise of all the functions of intelligent citizenship in a free 
and enlightened land. 





Tkk Louisiana Pubchabx — Bkeef Historical Skxtch 1-7 



Geoloot or MiuoxTRi 18-21 

TiTLK AXD Early Sxttlxrs 21-27 

Territorial Oroakization 27-31 

Admission into the Union 81-37 

Missouri as a State 87-43 

CivFL War in Missouri 4:^-63 


Eaklt Military Record of the State . . 53-59 


Agriculture and Mineral Wealth 59-65 

Education — The Public School System 65-78 

Religious Denominations 73-79 

Gov. Crittenden's Administration 79-85 


From 1762 to 1882 — Leading Institutions, etc 86-106 


Public and Personal Rights, Legal Forms, etc. 107-120 


vi Contents. 



PopuLATioK, Vital, Imdxtbtsial and Political Statistics .... 121-124 


iKTBODueriov— Eablt Histobt 125-148 


From the OBOAinzATiov ot ths County, in 1820, to 1830 .... 148-182 

History of the County trom ItSO to 1840 182-216 

Early Colleoxs and Academies 217-229 

Early History ov the Missouri State University 229-269 

History or the State University from 1848 to 1860 .... 270-290 

History or the State University from 1860 to 1882 .... 291-880 

History of the County from 1840 to 1860 880-869 

History of the County from 1850 to 1860 360-894 

The Civil War Commenced— History from 1860 to 1863 . . . 394r426 

The Citil War Concluded 427-486 

History of the County from 1866 to 1870 486-502 

History of the County from 1870 to 1882 . . y . . . . 503-530 

Geology of Boone County . • 581-588 


BoxTRBON Township 539-614 

Cedar Township 614-692 

Obntbalia Township 682-788 





CToLiTMBiA Township 784-800 

Th« Citt of Columbia 801-974 

MiBsouRi Township 075-1064 

Febohz Township 1066-1104 

BoGXT FoBK Township 1104-1186 


Boons Countt Live Stoc?k Interests 1186-1142 

List of County Officials ^ . 1148-1144 



Normal School, Cape Girardeau 
St. Louis Bridge ...... 

Pour Courts, St. Louis .... 

St. Louis Fair Grounds . . . 
New Custom House, St. Louls . 
St. Louis Union Depot .... 

View in Shaw's Garden, St. Louis 
St. Louis High School .... 

New Armory Building, St. Louis 
Washington University . . . 
St. Louis Merchants* Exchange 
Mo. University Buildings, opposite 















Agricultural Farm Mansion, Mis- 
souri University, opp. ... 807 
English and Art Sch'l, Mo. Un., opp. 807 
The Laws Observatory, opp. . . 826 
Chalybeate Spring, Mo. Un., opp. . 826 
Residence of J. Lucas Turner, Esq. 684 
Stephens Female College . . . 808 

Christian College 810 

Columbia Public School, opp. . . 816 

Residence of Gen. Odon Guitar . 878 

Residencb of Hon. J. S. Rollins . 984 

Residence of Caft. J. H. Rollins . 986 


Hon. J. S. Kollins (Frontispiece). 

Col. Wm. F. Switzler, opp. . . . 126 

Di. A. W. Rollins 264 

President J. H. Lathrop, opp. . . 295 

Prsbidknt Daniel Read, opp. . . . 824 

Gen. John B. Henderson 898 

Dr. George C. Swallow, opp. . . . 681 

Dr. J. S. LocKRiDOE, opp 696 

S. W. Turner opp 612 

Maj. Wm. W. Bryan, opp 644 

Ifis. Co&kelia a. Robinson, opp. . 674 

Wm. Bmitb, opp 679 


N. W. Wilson, opp 795 

J. L. Matthews, opp 908 

J. K. Rogers, opp 929 

John M. Samuel, opp. ..*.,. 946 

Hon. J. L. Stevens, opp 966 

W. M Scott 960 

Geo. p. Ejcnnan 960 

M. P. LiENTZ, opp 1040 

David Pipes, opp 1061 

John S. Wilhite, opp 106^ 

Capt. David Prowell, opp. . . . 1098 
David S. Shock, opp 109^ 





The purchase in 1803 of the vast territory west of the Mississippi 
River, by the United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific 
coast and south to the Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most im- 
portant event that ever occurred in the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Republic additional room for that expansion and 
stupendous growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it 
strong and enduring, and forms the seat of an empire, from which 
will radiate an influence for good unequaled in the annals of time. In 
1763, the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, 
was ceded to Spain by France. By ^a secret article, in the treaty of 
St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain ceded it back to France. 
Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island of St. Domingo, not only 
because of the value of its products, but more especially because its 
location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field whence he could the more effectively guard his 
newly-acquired possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain 
should be kept a profound secret until he succeeded in reducing St. 
Domingo to submission. In this undertaking, however, his hopes 
were blasted, and so great was his disappointment that he apparently 
became indifferent to the advantages to be secured to France from his 
parchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the 



people of Louisiana the first intimation ^they had that they had once 
more become the subjects of France. This was the occasion of great 
rejoicing among the inhabitants, who were Frenchmen in their origin, 
babitSy manners, and customs. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being in- 
formed of the retrocession, immediately dispatciied instructions to 
Robert Livingston, the American Minister at Paris, to make known 
to Napoleon that the occupancy of New Orleans, by his government, 
would not only endanger the friendly relations existing between the 
two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make commcm 
cause with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy ; as the 
possession of the city by France would give her command of the 
Mississippi, which was the only outlet for the produce of the West- 
ern States, and give her also control ot the Gulf of Mexico, so neces- 
sary to the protection of American commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so 
fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy of New Orleans, by 
France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the two 
nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he 
urged Mr. -Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, but to negotiate for the purchase of the city and the 
surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the 
United States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full 
power to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all 
emergencies, and prompt in the cabinet, as well as in the field, Na- 
poleon came to the conclusion that, as he could not well defend his 
occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on the best terms 
possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he sum- 
moned two of his Ministers, and addressed them follows : — 

** I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish 
to repair the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 
1763. I have scarcely recovered it before I run the risk of losing- it : 
but if I am obliged to give it up, it shall hereafter cost more to those 
who force me to part with it, than to those to whom I shall 
yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern pos- 
sessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am 
determined that they shall not have the Mississippi. Althongli 
Louisiana is but a trifle compared to their vast possessions in other 
parts of the globe, yet, judging from the vexation they have mani- 
fested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am certain that 


their first object will be to 'gain possession of it. They will proba- 
bly commence the war in that quarter. They have "twenty vessels in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily getting 
worse since the death of LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might 
be easily made, and I have not a moment to lose in getting out of 
their reach. I am not sure but that they have already begun an at- 
tack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance with their 
habits ; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the 
United States. Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not 
yet possess it ; and if I wait but a shoit time my enemies may leave 
me nothing but an empty title to grant to the Republic I wish to con- 
ciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I believe that in the 
hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political and 
even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain 
it. Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but 
the other opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed 
by them, before the conference was ended. The next day. Napoleon 
sent for the Minister who had agreed with him, and said to him : — 

** The season for deliberation is over. I have determined to re- 
nounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, but the 
whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louis- 
iana, I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with 
Spain was to recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am 
convinced it would be folly to persist in trying to keep it. I commis- 
sion you, therefore, to negotiate this affair with the envoys of the 
United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but go this 
very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that 
I need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to com- 
mence it by levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain 
have incurred great expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for 
which her trade has never indemnified them. Large sums have been 
advanced to different companies, which have never been returned to 
the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory 
to the United States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged to 
pai-t with it, I shall be moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I 
must have fifty millions of francs, and I will not consent to take less^ 


I would rather make some desperate 'effort to preserve this fine 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mi^Monroe reached Paris 
on the 12th of April, 1803, and the two representatives of the United 
States, after holding a private interview, announced that they were 
ready to treat for the entire territory. On the 30th of April, the 
treaty was signed, and on the 21st of October, of the same year. Con- 
gress ratified the treaty. The United States were to pay $11,250,000, 
and her citizens were to be compensated for some illegal captures, 
to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of 
$15,000,000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of 
France and Spain should be admitted into all the ^orts ot Louisiana 
free of duty for twelve years. Bonaparte stipulated in favor of 
Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, incorporated into 
the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and 
the clause giving to them these benefits was drawn up by Bonaparte, 
who presented it to the plenipotentiaries with these words : — 

** Make it known to the people of Louisiana, that we regret to part 
with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages they could 
desire ; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any Euro- 
pean government as they will when they become independent. But 
while they enjoy the privileges of liberty let them remember that they 

are French, and preserve for their mother country that affection which 
a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the 
treaty. Mr. Livingston said : — 

<« I consider that from this day the United States takes rank with 
the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the 
power of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when 
he said : '* By this cession of territory I have secured the power of the 
United States, and given to England a maritime rival, who, at some 
future time, will humble her pride." 

These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the 
British met with a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of 
which the great Corsican had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when 
it was purchased by the United States, no change had been made by 


the French authorities in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower 
Louisiana, and during this period the Spanish laws remained in full 
force, as the laws of the entire province ; a fact which is of interest to 
those who would understand the legal history and some of the present 
laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who 
were jointly commissioned to take possession of the territory for the 
United States, arrived in the city of New Orleans at the head of the 
American forces. Laussat, who had taken possession but twenty days 
previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up his command, and the 
star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of France. The 
agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the 
United States service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on 
the 9th of March, 1804, by Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish 
commandant, and on the following day he transferred it to the United 
States. The authority of the United States in Missouri dates from 
this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley became identified. They were troubled no more with uncer- 
tainties in regai*d to free navigation. The great river, along whose 
banks they had planted their towns and villages, now afforded them 
a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Under the pro- 
tecting ffigis of a government, republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the 
diversified climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility, beauty of scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every 
incentive to push on their enterprises and build up the land wherein 
their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had 
been secured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to 
come, but its grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources 
and the important relations it would sustain to the nation and the 
world were never dreamed of by even Mr. Jefferson and his adroit and 
accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress which 
would mark the history of the ** Great West." The adventurous 
pioneer, who fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, 
or threaded the dark labyrinths of its lonely forests, little thought that 
a mighty tide of physical and intellectual strength, would so rapidly 


flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build up and enrich the domain 
which he had conquered. 

Tear after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until 
at length the mountains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks 
and the cavernsy resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

** I beheld the westward marches 
Of the onknown crowded nations. * 

All the land was foU of people, 
Restless, straggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking raany tongnes, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes ; 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rashed their great canoes of thnnder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act passed in April of the same year, 
divided Louisiana into two parts, the «* Territory of Orleans," and 
the** District of Louisiana," known as **Upper Louisiana.'* This 
district included all that portion of the old province, north of ** Hope 
Encampment," on the Lower Mississippi, and embraced the present 
State of Missouri, and all the western region of country to the Pacific 
Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north latitude not 
claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was 
placed within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of 
Indiana, and its government put in motion by Gen. William H. Har- 
rison, then governor of Indiana. In this he was assisted by Judges 
Griffin, Vanderburg and Davis, who established in St. Louis what were 
called Courts of Common Pleas. The District of Louisiana was regu- 
larly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by Congress, March 3, 
1805, and President Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson, Gov- 
ernor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the ter- 
ritory was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs 
and John B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded 
by Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of 
his having made the expedition up the Missouri with Clark. Governor 
Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President Madison appointed 
Gen. Benjamin Howard of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his place. 
Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and 
Clark's expedition, was appointed Governor in 1810, to succeed Gen. 


Howard, and remained in office until the admission of the State into 
the Union, in 1821. 

The portions of Missouri which were settled, for the purposes of 
local government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau 
was the first, and embraced the territory between Tywappity Bottom 
and Apple Creek. Ste. Genevieve, the second, embraced the terri- 
tory from Apple Creek to the Meramec River. St. Louis, the third, 
embraced the territory between the M6rameo and Missouri Rivers. 
St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between the 
Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these dis- 
tricts at that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of 
the district of Louisiana, when ceded to the United States was 10«120» 



Kame — Extent — Sarface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popula- 
tion by Coanties. 


The name Missouri is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies 


Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is sep- 
arated for about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines 
River), and on the east by the Mississippi River, which divides it from 
Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, and on the west by the Indian Ter« 
ritory, and the States of Kansas and Nebraska. The State lies (with 
the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis and the 
Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36°), between 36° 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from 

The extreme width of the State east and west, is about 348 miles ; 
its width on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast cor- 
ner along the Iowa line, to its intersection with the Des Moines 



Biver, is about 210 miles ; its width on its southern boundary is abouk 
288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the State north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It 
is about 450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast 
corner, and from the noilheast corner to the southwest comer, it is 
about 230 miles. These limits embrace an area of 65,350 square 
miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as large as England, and the 
States of Vermont and New Hampshire. 


North of the Missouri, the State is level or undulating, while the 
portion south of that river (the larger portion of the State) exhibits a 
greater variety of surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive 
marsh, reaching beyond the State into Arkansas. The remainder of 
this portion between the Mississippi and Osage Rivers is rolling, and 
gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, forming the out- 
skirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast ex- 
panse of prairie laud which stretches away towards the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The ridges forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and 
southwest direction, separating the waters that flow northeast into the 
Missouri from those that flow southeast into the Mississippi River. 


No State in the Union enjoys better facilities for navigation than 
Missouri. By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along 
her entire eastern boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with 
the most northern territory and State in the Union ; with the whole 
valley of the Ohio ; with many of the Atlantic States, and with the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 
The snow-sweUed Neva, with an Empire's weight 
On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm; 
Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued, 
Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 
To hide its terror in a sea of gloom ; 
The castled, Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow, 
The fount of fable and the source of song ; 
The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 
The loving sky seems wedded with the wave; 
The yeUow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils, 


A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms; 

The Thames that bears the riches of the world ; 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass. 

Oar Mississippi rolling proudly on, 

Wonld sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky 
Mountains, and receive in return the products which will come in the 
course of time, by its multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for about 
250 miles, following its windings, and then flows through the State, a 
little south of east, to its junction with the Mississippi. The Mis- 
souri River receives a number of tributaries within the limits of the 
State, the princijial of which are the Nodaway, Platte, Grand and 
Chariton from the uorth, and the Blue, Sniabar, Lamine, Osage and 
Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi within the State, are the Salt River, noith, and the Meramec 
River south of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain 
the southeastern part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The 
Osage is navigable for steamboats for more than 175 miles. There 
are a vast number of smaller streams, such as creeks, branches and 
rivers, which water the Statis in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of 
ancient Lebano'n, nor more precious in their utility were the almug- 
trees of Ophir, than the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms 
are covered with a luxuriant growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cotton- 
wood, linn, white and black walnut, and in fact, all the varieties found 
in the Atlantic and Ei^stern States. In the more barren districts may 
be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense growth of 
pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate, — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and 
salubrious. Like that of Noith America, it is changeable, and sub- 
iect to sudden and sometimes extreme changes of heat and cold ; but 
it is decidedly milder, taking the whole year through, than that of the 
same latitudes east of the mountains. While the summers are not 
more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on and 
near the Atlantic coast, the winters ai*e shorter, and very much milder,. 


except during the month of February, which has many days of pleas- 
ant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it 
north and northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the 
water courses, abound with the thickest and most luxurious belts of 
timber, while the "rolling^' prairies occupy the higher portions of 
the country, the descent generally to the forests or bottom lands being 
over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, exhibit a grace- 
fully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal sur- 
face and the interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or 
two instances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the 
spring and summer they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and 
gaily bedecked with flowers of various forms and hues, making a 
most fascinating panorama of ever-changing color and loyeliness. To 
fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they must be 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capa- 
bilities, but the most fertile portions of the State are the river bot- 
toms, which are a rich alluvium, mixed in many cases with sand, the 
producing qualities of which are not excelled by the prolific valley of 
the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but 
much of it is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts 
there are rich valleys, and about the sources of the White, Eleven 
Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, the soil, though unproductive, 
furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a 
system of drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 








ADdrain • . 












Cape Girardeau 














DaUa« .... 











Harrison .... 






Iron ...... 



















































18,074 I 



















































6,35 T 































Polk . 



Pula-Hkl , 





















St. Cliarles 



St. Clair 





, 13,822 

8te. Genfvleve 



; 10,309 

8t. LouiB' 


















Stone . 


























> St. LoDi* tilt7 ud OouDt; upantad In UT7> FopalMlon tor ISTII not given. 









Colored » 








€lassiflcatloii of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — SUnrian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Zinc — Building Stone — Ifeurble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Powet. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. 
G. C. Swallow, belong to the following divisions : I. Quatenary ; 
11. Tertiary ; III. Cretaceous ; IV. Carboniferous ; V. Devonian ; 
VI. Silurian ; VII. Azoic. 

*' The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most 
valuable to man: valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 
feet thick ; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick ; Bluff, 200 feet thick ; and 
Drift, 155 feet thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute 
the Alluvium, and includes the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegeta- 
ble mould, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Mis- 
souri, of more than four millions acres of land, which are not sur- 
passed for fertility by any region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are 
washed by the two great rivers which course our eastern and western 
boundaries, and while it is only about half as extensive as the Allu- 
vial, it is equally as rich and productive." 

*« The Bluff formation," says Prof. Swallow, <* rests upon the 
ridges and river bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest 
valleys, the formation capping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from 
Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi from Dubuque 

^ Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 


to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum beneath the 
soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Missis- 
sippi counties on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River 
from the Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet 
thick. At St. Joseph it is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, 
in St. George's quarry, and the Big Mound, it is about 50 feet ; 
while its greatest observed thickness in Marion county was only 30 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation^ 
having, as Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to wit : 
♦'Altered Drift, which are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the 
banks of the Missouri, in the northwestern portion of the State. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel 
and boulder, and water- worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which 
pebbles are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some locali- 
ties in northern Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe* 
clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sand- 
stone, and sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, 
reaching from Commerce, Scott County, to Stoddard, and south to 
the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretacequs formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is com- 
posed of variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish- 
brown impure sandstone, fine white clay mingled with spotted flinty 
purple, red and blue clays, all being in the aggregate, 158 feet in 
thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and nothing by which 
their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or 
coal-measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. 
The coal-measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones^ 
'limestones, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds 
of iron, embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The 
varieties of coal found in the State are the common bituminous and 
cannel coals, and they exist in quantities inexhaustible. The fact 
that these coal-measures are full of fossils, which are always confined 

1 _.-• ^^ 


to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point them out, and the 
coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color^ 
and are quarried in many different parts of the State, bcKng exten- 
sively utilized for building and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archi- 
medes Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Mid- 
dle Archimedes, 50 feet; St. Louis Limestone, 250 feet; Ottlitic 
Limestone, 25 feet; Lower Archimedes Limestone, 350 feet; and 
Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These limestones generally contain 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard 
and durable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and 
is found skirting the eastern coal measures from the mouth of the 
Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. 
It is found in Clatk, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing 
rocks of Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of 
Carboniferous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and 
white. In these strata are found the remains of corals and mollus^ks. 
This formation extends from Marion county to Greene county. The 
Devonian system contains: Chemung Group, Hamilton Group, 
Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline 
and Ste. Genevieve counties. 

/ The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 
feet; Vermicular sandstone and shales, 75 feet; Lithographic lime- 
stone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, 
and when first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building pur- 
poses but makes an excellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish 
brown, and perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-tex- 
tured limestone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. 
It is called **pot metal," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, 
rinsrins: sound. It has but few fossils. 


The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 
170 feet of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, 
thick-bedded and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri pre- 
sents such variable and widely different lithological characters as the 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : 
Lower Helderberg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girar- 
deau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray, and reddish cherty 
and argillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The Upper part of this group consists of red, 
yellow and ash-colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated 
with bands and nodules of chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi River near Cape 
Grirardeau, is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth 
• Victures in layers from two to six inches in thickness, with argilla- 
. us partings. These strata contains great many fossils. 

1 he Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to wit : Hud- 
1 . iliver Group, 220 feet ; Trenton limestone, 360 feet ; Black River 
urn .; i'ird's Eye limestone, 175 feet; first Magnesian limestone, 200 
f*?e^ ; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 feet; second Magnesian limestone, 
2i»() rVot; second sandstone, 115 feet; third Magnesian limestone, 
3- ' ; third sandstone, 60 feet ; fourth Magnesian limestone, 350 


ri;dson River Group : — There are three formations which Prof. 
t:' . *llow refers to in this group. These formations are found in the 
*A\xS above and below Louisiana ; on the Grassy a few miles north- 
west of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Gene- 
vieve Counties. 

Trenton limestone : The upper part of this formation is made up 
of thick beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, varie- 
gated with irregular cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of 
Salt River, near Glencoe, St. Louis County, and are seventy-five feet 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton 



The first Miignesian limestone cap the picturesque bluffs of the Osage 
in Benton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the State. In a 
bluff about two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thick- 
ness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish brown, sometimes 
becomes a pure white, fine-grained, soft sandstone as on Cedar Creek, 
in Washington and* Franklin Counties. 

The third Magnesiun limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque 
bluffs of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryce's Spring. 

The third sandstone is white and has a fonnation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesiun limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious 
and other slates which contain no remains of organic life. 


Goal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State 
in the Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of 
the past — long before the existence of man — Nature, by a wise process, 
made a bountiful provision for the time, when in the order of things, 
it should be necessary for civilized man to take possession of these 
broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack of forests, she quietly 
stored awav beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures 
for the U'^e of man. 

Geological surveys have developed the fact that the coal deposits in 
the State are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best 
bituminous coal. A large portion of the State, has been ascer- 
tained to be one continuous coal field, stretching from the mouth 
of the Des Moines River through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, 
Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, 
Benton, Henrv, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton and 
Jnsper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of 
this line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Mont- 
gomery, Warren, St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford and 
Lincoln, and during the past few years, all along the lines of all the 
railroads in North Missouri, and along the western end of the Missouri 
Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between Kansas City and Sioux 


City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds of mines in different 
localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the southwestern 
boundary of the State alone, embraces more than 26,000 square miles 
of regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the 
average be one foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the 
developments already made, in the different portions of the State, will 
give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal to the State, its influence in 
domestic life, in navigation, commerce and 9iani|factures, is beyond 
the imagination of man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the pos- 
session of her developed and undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a 
motive power, which in its influences for good, in the civilization of 
man, is more potent than the gold of California. 

Iron, — Promineht among the minerals, which increase the power 
and prosperity of a nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inex- 
haustible quantity, and like hei' coal fields, it has been developed in 
many portions of the State, and* of the best and purest quality. It is 
found in great abundance in the counties of Cooper, St. Clair, Greene, 
Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, 
Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, Scott, Dent 
and others. The greatest deposit of iron is found in the Iron Moun- 
tain, which is two hundred feet hiirh, and covers an area of five hun- 
dred acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to con- 
tain from 65 to 69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent of 
metallic iron. The ore of Pilot Knob contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at 
Russell Mountain. This ore has, in its nude state, a variety of colors^ 
from the red, dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gi'ay. The 
red ores are found in twenty-one or more counties of the State, and 
are of great commercial value. The brown hematite iron ores extend 
over a greater range of country than all the others combined, embrac- 
ing about one hundred counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Mis- 
souri by the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the State at 
two or three points on the Mississippi. At this time more than five 
hundred mines are opened, and many of them are being successfully 
worked. These deposits of lead cover an area, so far as developed, 
of morp than seven thousand square miles. Mines have been opened 


in JeSeraou, Washington, St. Francois, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Rey- 
nolds, Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Colo, Cape Girardeau, Cam- 
den, Morgan, and mauy other coiMities. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in 
Missouri. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison and Franklin 
Counties have been known for years, and some of these have been 
successfully worked and are now yielding good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Ben- 
ton, Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds 
and Wright Counties, 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines 4n the southwestern 
part of the State, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a 
market has been furnished for this ore, which will be converted into 
valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble, — There is no scarcity of good building 
stone in Missouri. Limestone, sandstone and granite exist in all 
shades of buff, blue, red and brown, and are of great beauty as build- 
ing material. 

There are many marble beds in the State, some of which furnish 
very beautiful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper^ 
St. Louis, and other counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3rd 
Magnesian limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, 
silico-magnesian limestone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blos- 
som, and clouded by deep flesh-colored shades. In ornamental archi^ 
tecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Oypsum and Lime, — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have 
been discovered in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white 
crystalline variety on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kan- 
sas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists also in several other 
localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures 
to fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure car- 
bonate of pure lime. 

Clays and Paints, — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State 
suitable for making bricks. Potters' clay and fire-clay are worked in 
many localities. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which 
possess the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yel- 
low and red ochres are found in considerable quantities on the Missouri 


River. Some of these paints have been thoroughly tested and found 
fire-proof and durable. 


No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water 
than Missouri. Out of the bottoms, there is scarcely a section of 
land but has one or more perennial springs of good water. Even 
where there are no springs, good water can be obtained by digging 
from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are abundant in the central 
part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard, 
and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper and 
Howard Counties at an early day. f 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The 
Chouteau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the 
Elk Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis CcJunty 
tiave acquired considerable reputation as salubrious waters, and have 
become popular places of resort. Many other counties have good 
sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet Springs on the Black- 
water, and the Chalybeate spring in the University camp'us are, perhaps, 
the most popular of the kind in the State. There are, however, other 
spnngs impregnated with some of the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, 
Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called 
hibricatinff oil is the more common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are 
particularly abundant on the waters of the Meramec, Gasconade, 
Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. 
Besides these, there are hundreds of springs suflSciently large to drive 
mills and factories, iind the day is not far distant when these crystal 
fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to their 
dashing music. 




Title to MiRsouri Lands — Right of Discovery —Title of France and Spain — Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First SetUe- 
ment — Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated— 
Potosl — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County — 
Perry — Mississippi- Lontre Island — « Boone's Lick**— Cote Sans Desseln — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri was, of course, primarily vested in 
flie original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery 
by the whites. But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few 
rights that civilized nations considered themselves bound to respect ; 
80, therefore^ when they found this country in the possession of such 
a people they claimed it in the name of the King of France, by the 
rig/a of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until 1763. 

Prior to the j^ear 17fi3, the entire continent of North America was 
divided between France, England, Spain and Russia. France held all 
that portion that now constitutes our national domain west of the 
Mississippi River, except Texas, and the territory which we have 
obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast region, while under the 
jurisdiction of France, was known as the '* Province of Louisiana," 
and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
"Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the con- 
tinent, and Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the 
Mississippi River, while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions 
northward, having obtained that territory by conquest, in the war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced 
within the limits of Missouri, remi^ined as a part of the possession of 
Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October 1, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the 
United States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the 
liquidation of certain claims, held by citizens of the United States 
against France, which amounted to the further sum of $3,750,000, 
makin*^ a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen that France has 
twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory embracing 


Missouri, "but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our Govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, 
authorizing the President to take possession of the newly acquired 
territory, and provided for it a temporary government, and another 
act, approved March 26, 1804, authorized the division of the ** Louis- 
iana Purchase,'*, as it was then called, into two separate territories. 
All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called 
the ** Territory of Orleans," and that north of the said parallel was 
known as the ** District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as ** Indian Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the 
** District of Louisiana" was organized as the ** Territory of Louis- 
iana," with a territorial government of its own, which went into 
operation July 4th of the same year, and it so remained till 1812. In 
this year the ** Territory of Orleans " became the State of Louisiana, 
and the ** Territory of Louisiana" was organized as the ** Territory 
of Missouri." 

This change took place. under an act of Congress, approved June 4, 
1812. In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as ** Arkan- 
sas Territory," and on August 10, 1821, the State of Missouri was 
admitted, being a part of the former ** Territory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the ** Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian 
Territory, and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, 
Buchanan, Holt, Nodaway and. Platte, was made by treaty with the 
Indians, and added to the State. It will be seen, then, that the soil 
of Missouri belonged : — 

1. To France, with other territory. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded, with other territory from Spain, 
back to France. 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded, with other territory, by France to 
the United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by 
Congress for the newly acquired territory. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the ** District of Louisiana" 
and placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the ** Territory of 
Louisiana," then organized with a separate territorial government. 



8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the " Ter- 
ritory of Missouri." 

9. August lOy 1821, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

10. In 1836, the ** Platte Purchase" was made, adding more ter- 
ritory to the State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly 
the policy of the Government to recognize. Before the Government 
of the United States could vest clear title to the soil in the grantee it 
was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by purchase. This was 
done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians at different times. 


The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now 
embraced in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at 
what precise period the first settlements were made. It is, however, 
generally agreed that they were made at Ste. Genevieve and New 
Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of the settlements in the autumn of 
1735. These towns were settled by the French from Kaskaskia and 
St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest, on the 15th of 
February, 1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the 
members of the company of Laclede Liguest, Antonio Maxant & Co., 
to whom a royal charter had been granted, confirming the privilege 
of an exclusive trade with the Indians of Missouri as far north as St. 
Peter's River. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town 
site of St. Louis. After the village had been laid off he named it St. 
Louis in honor of Louis XV., of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other 
towns on the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely in. 
creased by many of the Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their 
peltry trade from the same towns to St. Louis. It was incorporated 
as a town on the ninth day of November, 1809, by the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of the district of St. Louis ; the town trustees being 
AuiTuste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. 
€arr and William Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 
1822. The selection of the town site on which St. Louis stands was 
highly judicious, the spot not only being healthful and having the ad- 


vantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but surrounded by a 
beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and 
is to-day the great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, the 
Mississippi and their tributaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it is 
destined to be the greatest inland city of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 
1765, by Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the 
mine near the present town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was 
Moses Austin, of Virginia, who, in 1795, received by grant from the 
Spanish government a league of land, now known as the "Austin Sur- 
vey." The grant was made on condition that Mr. Austin would es- 
tablish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a palatial 
residence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little villaire, 
which was for many years known as " Durham Hall." At this i)oint 
the first shot-tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made 
in Northern Missouri was made near St. Charles, in St. Charles 
County, in 1769/ The name given to it, and which it retained till 
1784, was Les Petites Cotes, signifying, Little Hills. The town site 
was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, surnamed LeChasseur, who 
built the first fort in the town and established there a military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the 
old French village of Portage des Sioux, was located on the Missis- 
sippi, just below the mouth oi the Illinois River, and at about the 
same time a Kickapoo village was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. 
The present town site of New Madrid, in New Madrid county, was 
settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being occupied by Del- 
aware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St, Fran- 
cois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following 
year, a settlement was made in the same county, just below the pres- 
ent town of Farmington, by the Rev. William Murphy, a Bnptist min- 
ister from East Tennessee. In 1796, settlements were made in Perry 
county by emigrants from Kentucky and Pennsylvania ; the latter lo- 
<5atins: in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the former o^enerallv 
settling in the '* Barrens,*' and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, Illinois, was 
settled August 6, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant 


from the oonnnandant under the Spanish Goremment. Norfolk and 
Charleston, in the same coantv, were settled respectively in 1800 and 
1801. Warren oonntr was settled in 1801. Loutre Island, below 
the present town of Hermann, in the Missouri River, was settled by a 
few American ^milies in 1807. This tittle company of pioneers suf- 
fered sjeatW frowa the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieviu«r 
and blood-thirstv Indians, and many incidents of a thrillinsr character 
coald be related of trials and struggles, hnd we the time and spnee. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sous of the great huuter and 
pioneer, in company with three others, went from St. Louis to 
*< Boone's Lick," in Howard county, where they manufactured salt 
and formed the nucleus of a small settlement. 

Cote Sans Dessein^ now called Bakersville, on the Missouri Kivor, 
in Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little 
town was considered at that time, as the *• Far West** of the new 
world. During the war of 1812, at this place many hard-fought 
battles occurred between the whites and Indians, wherein woman's 
fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defence of the settle-* 

In 1810, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty 
fiunilies immigrated to Howard county, and settled on the Missouri 
Elver in Cooper's Bottom near the present town of Fnuiklin, and 
opposite Arrow Kock. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of 
Missouri, covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usualU' along 
the banks of the two great streams, whose navigation affonled them 
transportation for their marketable commodities, and communication 
with the civilized portion of the country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did 
by the river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by 
whom they were for manv years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the 
territory, have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improve- 
ments of their descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared 
and died, are seen the comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and 
thrifty city. Churches and school houses greet the eye on every 
hand; milroads diverge in every direction, and, indeed, all the appli- 
ances of a higher civilization are profusely strewn over the smiling 
surface of the State. 


I Caltare'8 hand 

Has scattered verdore o'er the land; 
And smiles and fragrance role serene. 
Where barren ¥rild nsorped the scene* 


The first marriage that took place Jn Missouri was April 20, 1766, 
in St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic) was erected in 1775, at St. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. 
Louis. \ 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis (Missouri Gazette) y in 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus 
E^ston, post-master. 

The first Protestant church erected at Ste. Genevieve, in 1806 — 

The first bank established (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 1811, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, 
Capt. Jacob Reid ; landed at St. Louis 1817. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 1817, St. 

The first college built (St. Louis College), in 1817. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as 
Franklin was the Independence, in May, 1819 ; Capt. Nelson, mas- 

The first coui-t house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 

HI6TOBr OF UI880UBI. 87 



Organization 1812 — Council— House of Representatives— William Clark first Terri- 
torial Governor— Edward Hempstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants— First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory — Vote of Territory — Ruf us Easton — Absent Members — Third Assem- 
bly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a 
Governor and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Coun- 
cil, and House of Representatives exercised the Legislative power of 
thp Territory, the Governor's vetoing power being absolute. 

lie Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose ten- 
ure of office lasted five years. Eighteeti citizens were nominated by 
the House of Representatives to the President of the United States, 
from whom he selected, with the approval of the Senate, nine Couur 
cillor8,to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consi^d of members chosen every 
two years by the people, the basis of representation being one mem- 
ber for every five hundred white males'. The first House of Repre* 
sentatives consisted of thirteen members, and, by Act of Congress, the 
whole number of Representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and 
Inferior Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court 
having three judges, whose term of office continued four years, hav- 
ing original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, October 1st, 1812, required by Congress, 
reorganizing the districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, 
Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into five counties, and fixed the 
second Monday in November following, for the election of a delegate 
to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of Represen- 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first 
Territorial Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Matthew 
Lyon were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 


Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Dele- 
gate to Congress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a 
second, and was instrumental in having Congress to pass the act of 
June 13, 1812, which he introduced, confirming the title to lands 
which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish grants. The 
same act confirmed to the people '* for the support of schools," the 
title to village lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were hold 
and enjoyed by them, at the time of the session in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its 
session in the house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on the 7th of 
December, 1812. The names of the members of the House were : — 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, 
and Richard Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve. — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 
. New Madrid. — John Shraderand Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the 
oath of office. William C. Carr was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen per- 
sons from whom .the President of the United States, with the Senate, 
was to select nine for the Council. From this number the President 
chose the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. • 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, 
was announced by Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor of 
the Territory, by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first 
Monday in July following, as the time for the meeting of the Legis- 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by 
William Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the 
Acting-Governor's proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were 
never officially published. Consequently but little is known in refer- 
ence to the workings of the first Territorial Legislature in Missouri. 



From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette^ of 
that day ; a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found 
that laws were passed regulating and establishing weights and meas- 
ures; creating the office of Sheriff; providing the manuer for taking 
the census ; permanently fixing the seats of Justices, and an act to 
compensate its own members. At this session, laws were also passed 
defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer ; establishing Courts of Common Pleas ; incorporating the 
Bank of St. Louis ; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county 
into the county of Washington. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, Decem- 
ber 6, 1813. George Bullet of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker 
elect, and Andrew Scott, clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. 
Since the adjournment of the former Legislature, several vacancies 
had occurred, and new members had been elected to fill their places. 
Among these was Israel McCready, from the county of Washington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. 
No journal of the council was officially published, but the proceedings 
of the house are found in the Gazette. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were 
passed, having reference to the temporal as well as the moral and 
spiritual welfare of the people. Laws were enacted for the suppres- 
sion of vice and immorality on the Sabbath day ; for the improve- 
ment of public roads and highways ; creating the offices of auditor, 
treasurer and connty surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girar- 
deau, Washington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature ad- 
journed on the 19th of January, 1814, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States 
census in 1810, was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 
1814 gave the Territory a population of 25,000. This enumeration 
shows the county of St. Louis contained the greatest number of in- 
habitants, and the new county of Arkansas the least — the latter hav- 
ing 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Bufus Easton, Samuel 
Hammond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Kiddick. Bufus 
Easton and Samuel Hammond had been candidates at the preceding 
election. In all the counties, excepting Arkansas, the votes aggre- 
gated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton received 965, Mr. Ham- 


mond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had withdrawn 
previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 1814 showing a large increase in the population of 
the Territory, an appointment was made increasing the number of 
Representatives in the Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The 
General Assembly began its session in St. Louis, December 5, 1814. 
There were present on the first day twenty Representatives. James 
Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen 
clerk. The President of the Council was Willitim Neeley, of Cape 
Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, 
and Seth Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, 
were dead. The county of Lawrence was organized at this session, 
from the western part of New Madrid county, and the coiporate 
powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 1815 the Territorial Legisla- 
ture again began its session. Only a partial report of its proceedings 
are given in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized 
from St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of 
the State lying noith of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge 
between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. (For precise bounda- 
ries, see Chapter I. of the History of Boone County.) 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its ses- 
sion in December, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many 
important acts were passed. It was then that the *' Bank of Mis- 
souri " was chartered and wentinto operation. In the fall of 1817 the 
** Bank of St. Louis" and the **Bank of Missouri" were issuins: 
bills. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, chartering 
the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for 
superintending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also 
passed to encourage the *' killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in December, 1818, and, 
among other things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jeffer- 
son, Franklin, Wayne, Lincoln, Madison, Montgomery, and three 
couuties in the Southern part of Arkansas. In 1819 the Territory of 
Arkansas was formed into a separate government of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, 
anxious that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities 
of a sovereign State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the 
Territory, the population had rapidly increased, many counties had 


been established, its commerce had grown into importance, its agri- 
cultural and mineral resources were being developed, and believing 
that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh impetus 
to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legis- 
lature of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the 
pass:ige of an act authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a State 


Application of Missouri to be admitted into tlie Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — " Missouri Compromise " — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitotion presented to Congress — Farther Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted. 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for 
her admission into the Union, eomnjenced the real agitation of the 
slavery question in the United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discus- 
sions, but everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Ke- 
public the '* Missouri Question" was the all-absorbing theme. The 
political skies thi*eateued, 

<* In forked flashes, a commanding tempest,*' 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through 
such a crisis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to 
the ad^iission of Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which 
distracted the public counsels of the nation for more than forty years 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. 
** Lower Louisiana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the 
door of the Union eight years previously, and was admitted as stipu- 
lated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges and immunities of a 
State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same treaty, 
Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges 
and immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the ** Mis- 
souri Compromise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent 


measures that had up to that day engaged the attention of our 
National Legislature, we shall enter somewhat into its details, being 
connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

Februaiy 15th^ 1819. — After the House had resolved itself into a 
Ccjmmittee of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Mis- 
souri into the Union, and after the question of her admission had been 
discussed for some time, Mr. Tallm^dge, of New York, moved to 
amend the bill, by adding to it the following proviso : — 

^^And Provided^ That the further introduction of slavery or involun- 
tary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crime, 
wiiereofthe party shall have been duly convicted, and that all chil- 
dren boin within the said State, after the admission thereof into the 
Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry 
discussions which lasted nearly three years, finally culminating in the 
Missouri Compromise. All phases of the slavery question were pre- 
sented, not in its moral and social aspects, but as a great constitu- 
ti(mal question, affecting Missouri and the admission of future States. 
The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was adopted — 79 to 67, and 
so reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate hec 
had the privilege of participating in the debates which followed. On 
the 16th day of February the proviso was taken up and discussed. 
After several speeches had been made, among them one by Mr. Scott 
and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the amendment, 
or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the word ** convicted," was adopted — 
87 to 76. The remaining part was then voted upon, and also 
adopted, by 82 to 78. By a vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to 
be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the 
same to the Senate on the 19th of Februarv, when that bodv voted 
first upon a motion to strike out of the proviso all after the word 
** convicted," which was carried by a vote of 32 to 7. It then voted 
to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed — 22 to 16, 
thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the 
bill was again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede 
ftom its position. The bill was lost and Congress adjourned. This 


was most unfortunate for the country, v The people having already 
beeo wrought up to fevor heat over the agitation of the question in 
the National Councils, now became intensely excited. The press 
added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long. interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of 
Congress. The body indicated by its vote upon the ** Missouri Ques- 
tion,'* that the two great sections of the country were politically 
divided upon the subject of slavery. The restrictive clause, which it 
was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of her admissioUi 
would in all probability, be one of the conditions of the admission of 
the TeiTitory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a st:ite of great 
doubt and uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took 
place on the 6th of December, 1819. The memorial of the Legisla- 
live Council and House of Representatives of the Missouri Territory, 
praying for admission into the Union, was presented to the Senate 
by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. It was referred to the Judiciary 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the 
Senate, the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 
19th of February, when the bill from the Senate for the admission of 
Maine was considered. The bill for the admission of Maine included 
the ** Missouri Question," by an amendment which read as follows : 

**And be it further enacted, That in all that territory ceded by 
France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies 
uorth of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude (except- 
ing such part thereof as is) included within the limits of the State, 
contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Provided^ 
always^ That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or 
service is lawfully claimed, in any State or Territory of the United 
States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the 
'* Missouri Compromise,'* modified afterward by striking out the 
words, ** excepthig only such part thereof y 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of 
March the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, 
aud by a vote of 134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and 


the bill being passed by the two Houses, constituted section 8, of 
"An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri Territory to form a 
Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and 
to prohibit slavery in certjiin territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fif- 
teen organized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State 
were authorized to hold an election on the first Monday, and two suc- 
ceeding days thereafter in May, 1820, to select representatives to a 
State convention. This convention met in St. Louis on the 12th of 
June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors on the 
19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Wm. G- 
Pettis, Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention^ 
men of ability and statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which 
they framed amply testifies. Their names and the counties repre- 
sented by them are as follows : — 

Cape Girardeau. —Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. 
Thomas, Alexander Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper. — Robert P. Clark, Robert Wulhice, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duff Green, John Ray, Jonathan 
S. Findley, Benj. H. Reeves. ^ 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcom Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Babcr. 

Ste, Genevieve. — John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. 

St. Louis. — David Bailon, Edward Bates, Ale>cander McNair, 
Wm. Rector, John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, 
Th(mias F. Riddick. 

Washington. — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 
sixth of the same mo ith Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, pre- 
sented to the House the Constitution as framed by the convention. 


The same was referred to a select committee, who made thereon a 
fuvorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, was resisted, because it was 
claimed that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the 
Legii!^lature to pass laws preventing free negroes and muhittoes from 
settling in the State. The report of the committee to whom waa 
referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied by a preamble 
and resolutions, oflFered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in 
the Senate. The question was referred to a select committee, who,, 
on the 2yth of November, reported in favor of admitting the State. 
The debate, which followed, continued for two weeks, and finally Mr. 
Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the resolution as fol- 
lows : — 

** Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 

to give the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of 

Missouri, if any such there be, which contravenes that clause in the 

Constitution of the United States, which declares that the citizens of 
each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of 

citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and 
proviso were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the 
coraraittee agreed to report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendnicnt, as reported from the 

committee of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution 

afterward passed the Senate, but was again rejected in the House. 

Then it was that that great statesman and pure patriot, Henry Clay» 

of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come when angry discussions 

should cease, 

** With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem*d 
A pUlar of state ; deep on his front engravet ' 

DeUberation sat and public care ; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
Majestic" ♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a. 
committee consisting of twenty-three persons (a number equal to the 
number of States then composing the Union), be appointed to act in 
conjunction with a committee of the Senate to consider and report 
whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 


The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay 
made its chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act 
with the committee of twenty-three, and on the 26th of February the 
following report was made by that committee : — 

*' Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Con^jress assembled : That Missouri shall 
be admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the original 
States, in all respects whatever, upon the fundamental condition that 
the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section of the third article of 
the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Congress, shall 
never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of 
either of the States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoy- 
ment of any of the privileges and immunities to which such citizen is 
entitled, under the Constitution of the United States ; provided. That 
the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public Act, shall declare 
the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, and 
shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the 
fourth Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the sai^ act ; 
upon the receipt whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall an- 
nounce the fact; whereupon, and without any further proceeding on 
the part of Congress, the admission of the said State into the Union 
shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a ))rief debate, was adopted in the House, and 
passed the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June 
following, a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the 
conditions of admission, as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. 
August 10th, 1821, President Monroe announced by proclamation tho 
admission of Missouri into the Union to be complete. 




first Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in 
Congress — Supreme Court Judges — Counties Or^nized — Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Official Record of Territorial and State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 

1820, the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the 

third Monday in September of that year, and an. election was ordered 
to be held on the 28th of August for the election of a Governor and 
other State officers, Senators and Representatives to the General 
Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a 
State, but in anticipation of that event, and according to the provi- 
sions of the constitution, the election was held, and the General As- 
sembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and 
Alexander McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair re- 
ceived 6,576 votes, Clark 2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There 
were three candidates for Lieutenant-Governor, to wit : William H. 
Ashley, Natiianiel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley received 3,907 
votes. Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. 
John Scott who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to 
both Congresses without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1820, and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. 
Genevieve, speaker, and John McArthur clerk; William H. Ashley, 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of the Senate ; Silas Bent, President, 
fro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook, and John R. Jones were appointed 
Supreme Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State ; Peter Didier, 
State Treasurer; Edward Bates, Attorney-General, and William 
Christie, Auditor of Public Accounts. 



David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General 
Assembly to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, 
Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Perry, Ralls, Ray and Saline 
were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of 
the different Legishitures which followed ; the elections for Govern- 
ors and other State officers ; the elections for Congressmen and United 
States Senators, but for want of space we can only present in a con- 
densed form the official record of the Territorial and State officers. 



Frederick Bates, Secretary and William Clark • • 

Acting-Governor .... 1812-18 




Alexander McNair 1820-24 

Frederick Bates 1824-25 

Abraham J. Williams, vice 

Bates 1825 

John Miller, vice Bates . . . 1826-28 

John Miller 1828-82 

Daniel Dunklin, (1832-86) re- 
signed; appointed Surveyor 
General of the U. S. Lilbum 

W. Boggs, vice Dunklin . . 1886 

Lilbum W. Boggs 1886-40 

Thomas Reynolds (died 1844), . 1840-44 
H. M. Marmaduke vice Rey- 
nolds — John 0. Edwards . 1844-48 
Austin A. King . . . • 1848-52 

Sterling Price 1862-56 

Trusten Polk (resigned) . . . 1866-67 

Hancock Jackson, vice Polk . 1857 

Robert M. Stewart, vice Polk . 1867-60 
C F. Jackson (1860), office va- 
cated by ordinance; Hamil- 
ton R Gamble, vice Jackson ; 
Gov. Gamble died 1864. 

Willard P. Hall, vice Gamble . 1864 

Thomas C. Fletcher .... 1864-68 

Joseph W. McClurg .... 1868-70 

B. Grata Brown 1870-72 

Silas Woodson 1872-74 

Charles H. Hardin 1874-76 

John 8. Phelps 1876-80 

Thomas T. Crittenden (now 

Governor) 1880 


William H. Ashley 
Benjamin H. Reeves 
Daniel Dunklin . 
Lilbum W. Boggs 
Franklin Cannon 
M. M. Marmaduke 
James Young . 
Thomus L Rice. 
Wilson Br »wn . 
Hancock Jnrk!>on 
Thomas C. Reynolds 
Willard P. Hall 
G^eo^ge Smith . 
Edwin O. Stanard 
Joseph J, Gravt»Ily. 
Charles P. Johnson 
Norman J. Coleman 
Henry C. Brockmeyer 
Robert A. Campbell (present 

Secretariea of State, 

Joshua Barton 

William G. Pettis 

Hamilton R Gamble . • • . 

Spencer Pettis 

P. H. McBride 

John C. Edwards (term expired 
1886, reappointed 1887, re- 
signed 1887) 

Peter G. Glover 

James L. Minor 








F. H. Mirtin ••••••• 

Epbnim B. EwiDg • • .. 
John M. Richardson .... 

BenJNmin F. Blaney (re-elected 

I860, for four years) . . . . 

MordecMi Oliver 

Fnocii Rodman (re-elected 18G8 

for two years) 

K^neM F. Weigel, (re-elected 

IS72, for two years) . . . . 

Kicfaiel £• McGrath (present 


State l^eaaurera. 


Nathaniel Simonds .... 
Junes Earickson . . -. • • 
John Walker 

Abrabam McCIellan .... 

Peter G. Glover 

A. W. Morrison 

George O. Bingham .... 

William Bishop 

William Q. Dallmeyer . . . 

Samuel HaTS 

Harvey W. Salmon . • • • 

Joeepb W. Mercer 

Elijah Gntcs 

Phillip E. Chappell (present in- 

A ttomey- Generals. 

Edward Bates 

RufuA Eastnn 

Robt. W. Wells 

William B. Napton .... 

a M- Bay 

R F. Stringfellow 

William A. Bobards .... 
Jamps B. Gardenhire .... 
Ephmim W. Ewing .... 

Jnrw^ P. Knott 

Aikinan Welch 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 

Robert F. Wingate 

Homce P. Johnson 

A. J. Baker 

Henry Clay Ewing 

John A. Hockaday 

Jackson L. Smith 

D. H. Mclntire (present in- 
cambent) . •••... 









1850-') 1 









AudUfiTS of Public AeeounU. 

William Christie 1820-21 

William V. Kector .... 1821-28 

EliasBarcroft 1823-38 

Henry Shurlds 1833-«6 

Peter G. Glover 1885-37 

Hiram H. Baber 1837-45 

William Monroe 1845 

J. R McDermon 1845-48 

George W. Miller 1848-49 

Wilson Brown 1849-52 

William H. Bufflngton . . . 1862-60 

William S. Moseley .... 1860-64 

Alonzo Thompson 1864-68 

Daniel M. Dmper 1868-72 

George B. Clark 1872-74 

Thomas Holladay . . . , . 187 -80 
John "Walker (present incum- 
bent) 1880 

Judges of Supreme Court, 

Matthias McGirk 1822-41 

John D. Cooke 1822-23 

John K. Jones 1822-24 

Rufus Pettibone 1823-25 

Geo. Tompkins 1824-45 

Robert Wash 1825-37 

John C. Edwards 1837-89 

Wm. Scott, (appointed 1841 till 
meeting of General Assem- 
bly in place of McGirk, re- 
signed; reiippointod . . . 1843 

P. H. Mc Bride 1845 

Wm. B. Napton 1849-52 

John F. Ryland 1849-61 

John H. Birch 1849-51 

Wm. Scott, John F. Ryland, 
and Hamilton R. Gamble 
(elected by the people, for six 

years) 1851 

Gamble (resigned) 1854 

Abiel Leonard elected to fill va- 
cancy of Gamble. 
Wm. B. Napton (vacated by 

failure to 61c ohiIi). 
Wm. Scott and John C. Rich- 
ardson (resigned, elected Au- 
gust, for six years) .... 1857 
E. B. Ewing, (to fill Richard- 
son's resignation) .... 1859 
Barton Bates (appointed) . . 1862 
W. V. N. Bay (appointed) . . 1862 


or STATE aov«Ri(Mnrr 


Barton BaUi 


W. T. N. Ba; (elscted) . . . 


John D. S. Drjdun (electod) . 


David Wagner (appointed) . 


Wallace L. Lovelace (appoint- 

Hathaoiel Holmes (appointed) 


Thorn,,.. .r.C-Fagg («pp^inted) 


JameB Baker (appointed) . . 


David Wagner (eleeied) . . . 


Philemon BHm 


Warren Currier 


"Washinttlon Adams (appointed 

to fill Carrier's place, who k- 



Bphnum B. Ewing [elected) . 


Thoma* A. Sherwood (elected) 


place of Ewlng. Jeoeased) , 


in place of Adama, resigned) 


Warwick Houijh (elected) . 


William B. Napton (elected) . 


John W.Henry 


Bobert D. Kay lucceeded Wm. 

B. Napton in 


Elijah K Norton (appoinl«d in 

Ik;,;), aleclpd 


T. A. Sherwood (re-elected) 


Vnited Slalet Sdnaton 

T. H. Benton 


D. Barton 


Alei. Buckner ...... 




D. B. Atchiton 


H. S. Oeyer 


James S. Oreen 


Waldo P. Johnson 


Robert Wilson 


B. Gratz Brown (for unexpired 

term of Johnson) . . . . 


J B. ilondereon 


Chttrli^sD. Drake 


Carl Schurz 


D. F. Jewett (in place of Drake. 



F. P. Blair 





plredtanDofBogy) . . . 


~D. H. Armstrong appointed tat 

unB»pired term of Bogy. 
F M.Cockrell (re-elected 18B1) ! 

Georgt' G. Vest ■ 

Sepreientativa (o C 

John Scott 


Ed. Batea 


Spencer PelUs 


William, H. Ashley 


John Bull 


Albert G. Harriwn 


John Miller 


for two years) 


John C. Edwards 


Jamea M. Hughea 


Jamoa H. Relt^ 


James B. Bowlin 


GuslBvus M. Bower .... 


Sterling Price 


William McDaniel 


Leonard H. Sims 


John S. Phelps 


1856, resigned) 


Willard P. Hall 


William V. N. Bay ... . 


John F. Darby 


Uilchriit Porter 


John G.Miller 


Alfted W.Lamb 


Thomas 1£. Ui'nloi. 


Mordecai Oliver 


Jamea J. Lindley 


rtjir.iucl CriniHiTa 


Thomas P. Akers (to fill unex- 

pired term of J. G. Uiller, 


Frandi P. Blair, Jr. (re-elected 

I860, resigned) 


Tliu.nns L. Anderson .... 


JniTiesOraig . . . . 


Samuel H. Woodsou .... 


John B. Clark, 8r. 


J lik'hard Barrett 


John W. Noel 


James 8. Rollins 


Elijah H. Norton 


John W. Raid 


William A. Hall 


Thomas L. Price (in place of 

Beid, expelled) 



HiDry T. Blow 

BemproniuB T. Boyd, [elected in 
lSe2, ud again in 1868, for 

JoMph W. HcGIuig .... 

Anitin A. King 

BtDJBinin F. Loan ..... 

Mn G. Scolt (inplscoof Noel, 

John HoRSQ 

Thomu P. Kosl 

John R. Keboe 

ftobert T, Vim Horn . . . 
John F BetiJBTnin ..... 
Q«o^^ Vf. AnderaoQ .... 

. Willuun A. Pile 

C. A. Stwoomb 

Jowph J. Gravellj 

June* R. UcCormack . , . 
Job a H. Stover (in place of 

JT'-Clur;;. resigned). . 
SriatuaWplI^ .... 

G. A. Fit. kleii burg. . . 

SuDuel S. Burdett 

Jo«l F. Asper 

D»Tid P. Dyer 

HuTiaon B. Havens .... 

SttAC a. Parker 

Jamea O. Blair 

Andrew King 

Edwin O. Stanard 

William H. Stone 

R.heri A- iTaU-htT (elecUd) . 

Richard B. Bland 

Thomai T. Crittenden . . . 

Ira B. HyUe 

John a. Clark, Jr. 

JohnM. Glover 





























.... 1872 

cottiiTfM — wn 

Adair _January29, 1841 

Aadrew _,.. January 29, 1841 

Alchiimn January 14, 1845 

Audrain Derember 17, 1836 

BwTV Januarys, 1836 

Barton December 12, 1836 

B«l"< .January 29, 1 

Benton January 8, 1835 

Bollinger March 1, I 

Boone November IG, 1820 

Buchanan February 10, 1 


Aylett H. Buckner 1872 

Edward a Kerr 1874-78 

Charlet H. Morgan .... 1874 

John F. Philips 1874 

B. J. Franklin 1874 

David Rea 1874 

RsEin A. De Bolt 1874 

Antliony Ittner 1S78 

NBtli:u,ieI Colo 187fi 

Robert A. Hatcher ..... 1876-78 

R. P. Bland 1876-78 

A. H. Buckner 1876-78 

J. B. CInrk. Jr 1876-78 

T. T. Critli-ndeo 1876-78 

B. J. Franklin 1876-78 

John M. mover 1876-78 

RchBTt A. Hiiicher 1878-78 

Cli«. H. -Morgan 1876-78 

L.S. MHcHlr 1876-78 ' 

H. M. Pollarf 1876-78 

David Rea 1876-78 

8. L. Sawvar 1878-8I>- 

N. Ford '. : 1878-82 

G. F. Rtithwel! 1878-83 

John B. Clnrfc. Jr. 1878-82 

W. H. Hatch 1878-82 

A. H. Buckner 1878-82 

U. L. Clardy ..;.... 1878-82 

R. G. Froit 1878-82 

L. H. DHvii 1878-82 

R. P. BInnd 1878-82 

J. R. WndJell 1878-80 

T. Allon lPSO-82 

R. Hi-zcltiTic 18B0-82 

T. M. Rice 1880-82 

RT. Van Horn 1880-82 

Nicholas Ford IWSO-SS 

J. G. Burrows 1880-82 



Caldwell .DBcember2a, 

Callaway. .November 25, 

Camden.... Jnnunry 29, 

Cape (iirnrdcnu October 1, 

Carroll January 8. 

Carter Usrch 10, 

Cass Supteniber 14, 

Cedar February 14, 

Chariton November 16, 

GtirLstlan March 8. 

Clark.- — December 16, 


COVirnn, WHE 

Batler. Stbrvarj 27, 

Oinj. ..— January 2, 

Olinton,. ... ...JiuiuarylS, 

Cola... ... Noveinber 16, 

Oooper December 17, 

Or»wford. Jntiunry 28, 

Bade. ...Jaii unry 29, 

Dallaa ...December 10, 

Daviess ..December 29. 

DeEalb. .Pebniary 26, 

DwA. ...FebruBrj- 10, 

IhUfgua. Octuber 19, 

Ta KHa... „ Jebrunry 14, 

TranUla.. Jiecaiober 11, 

QsscoDBdB. November 26, 

Gentry February 12, 

Greene... January 2, 

-Grurdv ..JanUnrvZ, 

HarrLB^n. ....FplTunry H. 

fieiiry December 13, 

Hickory Jebrqaiy 14, 

Holt... Februsrj- 15, 

Howard January 2S, 

Howell ...Uurth 2, 

Iron _Februki7 17, 

Jaclnon - December 16, 

Jwper ...Jnnuury 

Jefferipn ..December 8, 

JohntoD -December 18, 

Bjioi.. February 14, 

Laclede... .February 24, 

Lafayelle... November 16, 

Lavf^nee,. J'ebruarv 26, 

Lewis... .. ..JaniinVy 2. 

Lincoln December] 4, 

linn Jnnuary 7, 

LivingtttiD. ...~ January 6, 

McDonald.. March 8, 

Uacon .. .January 3, 

Madison.. ...December 14, 

iMaricB. .March 2, 



Nevi Madrid 





Mercer February 14. 

Miller February 6, 

Hi<u,i-"ippi ~. February 14, 

Uonileuu February 14, 

...January 6, 1881 

December 14, 1818 
.January 5, 1888 
October 1, 1813 
-December 81,1888 
.Februniy 14, 1846 
Fvbrunry 14, ]e45 
.January 29, 1841 

Ozark January 29, 1841 

Pemiscot. February 19, 1861 

.NovemWr 16, 1820 

.January 86, 1888 

^November 18, JSW 

...December 14, 1818 




Plitle December 81, 1838 

Polk March 13, 1886 

Pulaski December 16, 1818 

Putnam .February 28, 1846 

Italia... .NnvBuiWie, 1820 

ICandolph.... ..January22, 1829 

Bay .November 16, 18BI) 

Keynolds .February 26, I84fi 

Kpley - January 6, 1888 

St. Charles.... ...October 1, 1812 

St Clair, .Jaiiuarj'29, 1841 

St. FraneoiB December 19, 1821 

Stc. GeDOvievo October 1,1812 

St. Louia October 1, 1812 

8«lin8 - November 25. 1820 

Schuyler February 14. 1846 

9coUand January 29, 1841 

geoU, December 28, 1821 

Shannon January 29, 1841 

Shelby January 2, 1886 

Stoddaitl Jauuary 2, 188S 

Sloriu. ..Fcbruarj-lO, I86I 

Sullivan ....February 16, 18)8 

Taney January 16, 1887 

Texns... February 14, 1886 

Vernon ...February 17, 1861 

"Wiirren January 6, 1888 

"Washington August 21, I81S 

Wayne... December 11, 1B18 

Webster. March 8, 1866 

Worth February 8, 1861 

Wright. .Januaiy 29, 1841 




Fort Samter fired apon — Call for 75,000 men — Gov. Jackson refuses to fnmlsh a 
roan — U. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Froclamatloif of Gov. Jackson — 
General Order No. 7 — Le<!is1ature convenes — Camp Jackson organized — Sterling 
Price appointed Major-General — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Frost — 
Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gen. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jack- 
son boms the bridges behind him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair 
takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — 
State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes command — Proclamation of 
LieQt.-Gov. Reynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. Jackson — Death 
of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgls — Proclamation of McCulloch and Gamble — 
Martiallaw declared — Second proclamation of Jeff . Thompson — President modi- 
fies Fremont's order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hun- 
ter's Order of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to 
Newspapers — Halleck succeeds Hunter — Halleck's Order 81 — Similar order by 
Halleck — Boone County Standard confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon 
and Palmyra — Gen.Ewing's Order No. 11 — Gen. Rosecrans takes command — Mas- 
sacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen. Dodge succeeds Gen. Rose- 
crans — Ltlst of Battles. 

" Lastly stood war — 

With visage grim, stem looks, and blackly hued, 


Ah I why win kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren? Why delight 
In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued a proclamation calling, for 75,000 men, from the 
the militia of the several States, to suppress combinations in the South- 
ern States therein named. Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of 
War sent a telegram to all the governors of the States, excepting 
those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting them to detail a cer- 
tain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's quota 
being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram. Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To the Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of WaVy WasJitngtoriy Z>. C. : 
Sib: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for 


four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There 
can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a 
part of the President's army to make war upon the people of the 
seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal,. unconsti- 
tutional, and can not be complied with. Not one man will the State of 
Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Crovernor of Mi&souH. 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of 
Governor Jackson. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take 
into consideration the momentous issues which were presented, and 
the attitude to be assumed by the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued 
the following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Orders No. 7.) 

I. To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organ- 
ization and discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military 
districts in this State, having four or more legally organized compa- 
nies therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles of each other, will 
assemble their respective commands at some place to he by them sever- 
ally designated, on the 3rd day of May, and to go into an encampment 
for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of companies 
not organized into battalions will report the strength of their compa- 
nies immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quarter- 
masters of Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all 
necessary tents and camp equipage, to enable the commanding officers 
thereof to carry the foregoing orders into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion,, 
and one company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and sol- 
diers belonging to the First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, 
and report to Gen. D. M. Frost for duty. The remaining companies 
of said battalion will be disbanded for the purpose of assisting in the 
organization of companies upon that frontier. The details in the exe- 


<jiition of the foreffoino: are iDtriisted to Lieutenant-Colonel John S. 
BoweD, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several com- 
panies in the District will be reported at once to these Headquarters, 
and District Inspectors will furnish all information which may be ser- 
Ticeable in ascertaining the condition of the State forces. 
By order of the Governor. 

Warwick Hough, 
Adjutant-General of Missouri. 

Maj2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra session. Many 
acts were passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to 
purchase or lease David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the mttn- 
nfacture of arms and munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to 
appoint one Major-General ; to authorize the Governor, when, in his 
opinion, the security and welfare of the State required it, to take pos- 
session of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; to provide for 
the oivanization, government, and support of the military forces; to 
borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State 
to repel invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. 
An act was also passed creating a ** Military Fund," to consist of all 
the money then in the treasury or that might thereafter b^ received 
from the one-tenth of one per cent, on the hundred* dollars, levied by 
act of November, 1857, to complete certain railroads ; also the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the assessed 
value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and 
the proceeds of the two-mill tax, which had been theretofore appro- 
priated for educational purposes. 
May 3, 1861. *' Camp Jackson " was organized. 
May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State 

May 10, 1861. General Frost, commanding *' Camp Jackson," ad- 
dressed General iJ. Lyon, as follows : — 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, May 10, 1861. 
Capt. N. Lyon, Commanding U. S, Troops in and about St, Louis 

Sir: I am constantly in receipt of information that you contem- 
plate an attack upon my camp, whilst 1 understand that you are im- 
pressed with the idea that an attack upon the Arsenal and United 
States troops is intended on the part of the Militia of Missouri. I am 


greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens 
of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their duties, 
devolving upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instruct- 
ing the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, 
have been disposed to doubt the correctness of the information I have 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any 
truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So 
far as regards any hostility being intended toward the United States, 
or its property or representatives by any portion of my command, or, 
as far as I can learn (and I think T am fully informed), of any other 
part of the State forces, I can positively say that the idea has never 
been entertained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of 
the Arsenal, I proffered to Major Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my 
command, and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect 
the United States in the full possession of all her property. Upon 
General Harney taking command of this department, I made the same 
proffer of services to him, and authorized his Adjutant-General, Capt. 
Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been done to the 
War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through 
orders of my constitutional commander. 

1 trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by 
fully understanding each other, to keep far from our borders the mis- 
fortunes which so unhappily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my 
Chief of Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth 
in the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant. 

Brioadier-Gbneral D. M. Frost, 
Commanding Camp Jackson^ M. V. M. 

May 10, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson: 

Sir: Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the 
Government of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have 


openly avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have 

been plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its 

anthority. You are openly in communication with the so-called 

Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States, 

and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy and 

under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is 

known to he the property of the United States. These extraordinary 

preparations plainly indicate none other than the well-known purpose 

of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and 

whose communication to the Legislature has just been responded to 

bj that body in the most unparalleled legislation, having in direct 

view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 


In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in 
obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent 
necessities of State policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed 
upon me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, 
and I do hereby demand of you an immediate surrender of your com- 
mand, with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering 
under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing 
myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before 
doing so vnW be allowed for your compliance therewith. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. Lyon, 
Captain Second Infantry^ Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all 
released excepting Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe 
to the parole. 

May 12, 1861. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Missouri, saying " he would carefully abstain 
from the exercise of any unnecessary powers," and only use "the 
military force stationed in this district in the last resort to preserve 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1861. General Harney held a conference with General 
Sterlinsr Price, of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June 11, 1861. A second conference was held between the National 
and Suite authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 



June 11, 1861. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, 
buniing the railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling 
into active service 50,000 militia, «*to repel invasion, protect life, 
property," etc. 

June \hs 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capi- 
tal, Gov. Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th 
of June for Boonville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces 
of Gen. Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people 
of Missouri. 

July 5, 1861, Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigel 
and Gov. Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared the offices of 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the 
Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 31, 1861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds issued 
a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 1, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's 
fiu'ces and General Sains. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New 

August 5, 1861. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861 Battle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces 
under General Lyou and General McCulloch. In this engagement 
•General Lyon was killed. General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 

August 12, 1861. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon letl 

August 20, 1861. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling 
for 32,000 men for six months to protect the property and lives of the 
citizens of the State. 

August 30, 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and 


declared that the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an 
.active part with the enemies of the Government should be free. 


September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation 

in response to Fremont's proclamation. 
September 7, 1861. Battle at Drywood Creek. 
September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. 

Fremont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation 

of property and liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Lexing- 
ton on Colonel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surren- 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

October 28, 1861. Passage by Governor Jackson's Legislature, 
at Neosho, of an ordinance of secession. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belmont. ^ 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, 
who took command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in 
St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 
50,000 men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assess- 
ment upon certain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and cloth- 
ing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the 
country adjacent, and coveriug all the lines 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Gen- 
erals Curtis and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the 
following order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the .Provost Marshal, 
General Departmknt of Missouri, 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. 
(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of 
newspapers in the State of Missouri (St. Louis City papers excepted), 
furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each 
iswue, for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render 
the newspaper liable to suppression. 


Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of 
this order, and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar» 
Provost Marshal Greneral. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which 
forbade, among other things, the disphiy of Secession flags in the 
hands of women or on carriages, in the vicinity of the military prison 
in McDowell's College, the carriages to be confiscated and the offend- 
ing women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to 
Order No. 18, to railroad companies and to the professors and direct- 
ors of the State University at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the 
institution to be used '* to teach treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military 
commission, which sat in Columbiji, March following, and tried Ed- 
mund J. Ellis, of Columbia, editor and proprietor of " The Boone 
County Standard^^'* for the publication of information for the benefit 
of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United States Gov- 
ernment. Ellis was found oruiltv, was banished durinor the war from 
Missouri, and* his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 
General Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under 
Colonel Joseph C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major 
John Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. * 

AuiTust 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August 11, 1862. Battle at Independence. * 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at 
Macon, by order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyi-a, 
by order of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863. Battle at Springfield between the forces of Gen- 
eral Marmaduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 


August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, 
Arkansas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated 
Order No. 11, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : — 

Headquarters District of the Border, 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863 


(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates Counties, 
Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except 
those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's 
Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part 
of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west 
of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby 
ordered to remove from their present peaces of residence within fifteen 
days from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfac- 
tion of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their 
present place of residence, will receive from him certificates stating 
the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it 
can be shown. All who receive such certificate will be permitted to 
remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the 
State. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers com- 
manding companies and detachments serving in the counties named, 
will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the 
district from which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach 
of military stations, after the 9th day of September next, will be 
taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officer there, and 
report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, 
:>pecifyiug the names of all loyal owners and the amount of such 
produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district 
after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations), 
will be destroyed. 

Tliird. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these 
headquarters, will at once be vigorously executed by officers com« 
mandiug in the parts of the district, and at the stations not subject to 
the operations of paragi-aph First of this Order — and especially in 
the towns of Independence. Westport and Kansas City. 



Fourth. — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all 
who have borue arms against the Government in the district since 
August 20, 1863. 

By order of Brigadier-General Ewing : > 

H. Hannahs, Adjutant. 

October 13. Battle of Marshall. 

January, 1864. General Kosecrans takes command of the Depart- 

September, 1864. Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Mo- 
reau River. 

October 5, 1864. 

October 8, 1864. 

October 20, 1864. 

Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's 

Battle at Glasgow. 
Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

September 27, 1864. Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill An- 

October 27, 1864. Captain Bill Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Rosecrans relieved and General 
Dodge appointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after 
December, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they 
occurred without comment or entering into details. Many of the 
minor incidents and skirmishes of the war have been omitted because 
of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of 
all the battles fought in Missouri during the Civil War. It will be 
found, however, that the list given below, which has been arranged for 
convenience, contiiins the prominent battles and skirmishes which took 
place within the Slate : — 

Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Ran, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1861. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Dry wood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 

Bine Mills Landing, September 17, 1861. 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 26, 1861. 
Shanghai, October 18, 1861. 
Lebanon, October 18, 1861. 
Linn Creek, October 16, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, October 15, 1861. 
Fredericktown, October 21, 1861. 
SprlngHeld, October 25, 1861. 
Belmont, November 7, 1861. 
Fiketon, November 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, November 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, November 11, 1861. 



Mt. Zion Church, December 28, 1861. 
Sflrer Creek, Janaary 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, Febniary 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 18G2. 
Neosho, April 22, 18G2. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 80, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierce's Mill, June —, 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
KirksTllle, August 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, August 8, 1863. 
Tellow Creek, August 13, 1862. 
Independence, August 11, 1862. 

Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, September 18, 1862. 
Springfield, January 8, 1868. 
Cape Girardeau, AprU 29, 1863. 
Marshall, October 18, 1803. 
Pilot Knob, September—, 1804. 
Harrison, September — , 1804. 
Moreau River, October 7, 18<>4. 
Prince's Ford, October 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, October 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, October 20, 1864. 
Albany, October 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, September 28, 1864. 
Centralhi, September 27, 1864. 



Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the fourteenth day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took 
place between the regular forces of the United States, and a part of 
the Sacs, Foxes, and Winnebago Indians, commanded by Bhick 
Hawk and Keokuk, near Dixon's Ferry in Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages 
would invade the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard 
Gentrv to raise one thousand volunteers for the defence of the fron- 
tier. Five companies were at once raised in Boone county, and in 
Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ralls^ 
Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John 
Jamison of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman of Boone 
county, were mustered into service in elnly for thirty days, and put 
under command of Major Thomas W. Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort 
Pike on the 15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not 
crossed the Mississippi into Missouri, General Gentry returned to 
Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of Major Conyers. Thirty days 
having expired, the command under Major Conyers was relieved by two 



Other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, nf Boone, and Patrick 
Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by 
Col. Austin A. Bang, who conducted the two companies under Major 
Conyers home. Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where 
he remained till September following, at which time the Indian troub- 
les, so far as Missouri was concerned, having all subsided, the frontier 
forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally 
defeated and captured in 1833. 


In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the chosen 
prophet and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with 
many followers to Jackson county, Missouri, where they located and 
entered several thousand acres of land. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskirts of 
civilization at that time — was to more securely establish his church, 
and the more effectively to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets 
and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located 
their <*Ziou,'* and gave it the name of ** The New Jerusalem.** 
They published here the Evening Star^ and made themselves gener- 
ally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who were then in a minority, by their 
denunciatory ai-ticles through their paper, their clannishness and their 
polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be 
inspired only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles 
threw the press and type into the Missouri River, tarred and feathered 
one of their bishops, and otherwise gave the Mormons and their lead- 
ers to understand that they must conduct themselves in an entirely 
different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became fu- 
riously incensed, and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Mat- 
ters continued in an uncertain condition until the 31st of October, 
1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near Westport, in which two 
Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of October following the Mormons were overpowered, 
and compelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county 
with their families by January 1st on the condition that the owner 
would be paid for his printing press. 



Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in 
Clay, Carroll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell 
county a town site, which they called '« Far West," and where they 
entered more land tor their future homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting 
themselves in the East and in different portions of Europe, converts 
had constantly flocked to their standard, and ** Far West," and other 
Mormon settlements, rapidly prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection of a magnificent temple, but 
never finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they 
became bolder in their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

DurinsT the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town 
of De Witt, on the Missouri River, having purchased the land from 
an Illinois merchant. De Witt was in Carroll county, and a good 
point from which to forward goods and immigrants to their town ^- 
Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, 
the Gentiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of 
the prominent citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at 
this meeting, but at a subsequeilt meeting, which was held a few days 
afterward, a committee of citizens was appointed to notify Col. Hin- 
kle (one of the Mormon leaders at De Witt), what they intended to 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indig- 
nant, and threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest 
him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would 
attempt to force them from De Witt, Mormon recruits flocked to the 
town from every direction, and pitched their tents in and around the 
town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this en- 
campment, to take place on the 2l8t day of September, 1838, and, 
accordingly, one hundred and fifty men bivouacked near the town on 
th;it day. A conflict ensued, but nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some log houses, 
where they could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had 
in the meantime returned to their camp to await reinforcements. ' 
Troops from Saline, Ray and other counties came to their assist- 
ance, and increased their number to five hundred men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier- General ; Ebenczer Price, 


Colonel ; Singleton Vaughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarshel Wootls^ 
Major. After some days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an 
assault, but before the attack was commenced Judge James Earickson 
and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens of Howard county, asked 
permission of General Jackson to let them try and adjust the difficul- 
ties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the 
Mormons, that if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed be- 
longing to the citizens, and load their wagons during the night and be 
ready to move by ten o'clock next morning, and make no further 
attempt to settle in Carroll county, the citizens would purchase at 
firsjt cost their lots in De Witt and one or two adjoining tracts of 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first i-efused all atteir^its 
to settle the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposi- 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, 
loaded up their wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county* 
Whether the terms of the agreement were ever carried out, on the- 
part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the 
result of their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at 
an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so 
great that Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Major- 
General David R. Atchison to call the militia of his division to enforce 
the laws. He called out a part of the first brigade of the Missouri 
State Militia, under command of Gen. A. W. Doniphan, who pro- 
ceeded to the seat of war. Gen. John B. Clark, of Howard. County, 
was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about 1,000 men, and were led by 
G. W. Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, 
where one Mormon was killed. The principal fight took place at 
Haughn's Mills, where eighteen Mormons were killed and the balance 
captured, some of them being killed after ^they had surrendered. 
Only one militiaman wjis wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of 
Far West to Gen. Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders 
for trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their 


fcmilies, leave the State. Indictments were found against a number 
of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, 
killed at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hii-um. 


In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service 
in Florida against the Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation 
had made conimon cause under Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone county by .Colonel 
Richard Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel ; John W. Price, of 
Howard county, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Harrison H. Hughes, also of 
Howard, Major. Four companies of the second regiment were raised 
and attached to the first. Two of these companies were composed of 
Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat 
of war, stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they were 
mustered into sei-vice. 

AiTiving at Jackson barracks. New Orleans, they were from thence 
transported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. 
Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles inland by the route traveled. Having reached the Kissemmee 
river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in which Col. 
Gentry was killed. The Missoinians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leav- 
ing many of their dead and wounded on the field. There being no 
further service required of the Missourians, they returned to their 
homes in 1838. 


Soon after Mexico declared war, a<rainst the United States, on the 
8th and 9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Pulma were fought. Great excitement prevailed throughout the 
country. In none of her sister States, however, did the fires of 
patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not waiting for the 
call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legion " hastened to the field of 
conflict. The " Legion " was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. 
During the month of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri,, 


called for volunteers to join the "Army of the West," an expedition 
to Sante Fe — under command of General Stephen W. Kearney. 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvousyfor the volunteers. 
By the 18th of June, the full complement of companies to compose 
the first regiment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Sa- 
line, Franklin, Cole, Howard and Callawav counties. Of this regi- 
ment, A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Wm. Gilpin, Major. The battalion of light artillery 
from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. jClark as field oflicer ; battalions of 
infantry, from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains 
Murphy and W. Z. Augney respectively, and the «* Laclede Rsmgers," 
from St. Louis, by Captain Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, 
from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling 
Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one mounted regiment, 
one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion of Mormon in- 
iantry to reinforce the *<Army of the West." Mr. Price was made 
Colonel, and D. D. Mitchell Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for 
one thousand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised 
at once. John 'Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen Colonel, but 
before the regiment marched the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, com- 
manded by Captain Wm. T. Lafland. Conspicuous among the en- 
gagements in which the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico 
were the battles of Bracito, Sacramento, Cafiada, El Embudo, Taos 
and Santa Cruz de Rosalos. The forces from Missouri were mustered 
out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history of the Mexi- 
can war, for 

<<A thoasand glorioas actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels and immortal fame. 




Missouri as an Agricaltural State— The Different Crops— Live Stock — Horses — 
Males — Milch Cows — Oxen and other Cattle— Sheep — Hogs— Comparisons — 
Missoiuri adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broora-Com and other Products — 
Fniits — Berries— Grapes- Railroads- First Neigh of the «• Iron Horse " In Mis- 
souri — Names of Railroads- Manufactures — Great Bridge at 8t. Louis. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the 
first in supplying his necessities. It favors and strengthens popula- 
tion ; it creates and maintains manufactures ; gives employment to 
navigation and furnishes materials to commerce. It animates every 
species of industry, and opens to nations the safest channels / of 
wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. 
Among all the occupations and professions. of life, there is none more 
honorable, none more independent, and none more conducive to health 
and happiness. 

** In ancient times the sacred plow employed 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared your insect tribes 
4re but the beings of a summer's day. 

Have held the scale of empire, rulod the storm 

Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 

Disdaining little delicacies, seized 

The plow and greatly independent lived.*' 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in 
the Union. It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps 
ail abundant harvest. The soil, in many portions of the State, has 
an open, flexible structure, quickly absorbs the most excessive rains, 
and retains moisture with great tenacity. This being the case, it is 
not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered with sweet, 
luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not sur- 
passed by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy 
iu growing and fattening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giv- 
iog nntriment as it was when cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the an- 
telope, and the deer, and costs the herdsman nothing. 


No State or territory has a more complete and rapid system of nat- 
ural drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than 
Missouri. Both man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand 
perennial fountains, which gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, 
and wend their way through verdant valleys and along smiling prai- 
ries, varying in size, as they onward flow, from the diminutive brooklet 
to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, 
soil and scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in 
the sweat of his brow. Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri 
offers superior inducements to the farmer, and bids him enter her 
broad domain and avail himself of her varied resources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop 
in Missouri for 1878 : — 

Indian Corn 98,062,000 bushels. 

Wheat 20,196.000 

Rye 782,000 

Oats ^ 19,584.000 

Buckwheat 46.400 

Potatoes :.....„ 6,416,000 

Tobacco 28,023.000 pounds. 

Hay 1,620.000 ton*. 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn ; wheat, 1,83^,000 ; rye^ 
48,800; oats, 640,000 ; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; to- 
bacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,- 
224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; oats, $3,325,120; buck- 
wheat, $24,128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,150; hay^ 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69 ; average yield of corn 
per acre, 26 bushels ; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The fol- 
lowing table shows the number of horses, mules, and milch cows in 
the different States for 1879 : — 




New HAinpshire « 



Rhode Island. 



New Jerney 


Delaware. ...., 


Viiginia. ^ 

North Carolina. 

South Carolina. 




Mn^ittippL , 





West Virginia. 

Kentucky. «. 

Ohio ^ _ 



Illinois. , 



luwa. , 





Oregon.^. ^. 

Nevada, Colorado, and Territories. 

















































































It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is the Jifth State 
in the number of horses ; Jifth in number of milch cows, and the 
leading State in number of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, 
which produces the next largest number. Of* oxen and other cattle, 
Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which was more than any other 
State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,00. In 1879 Mis- 
souri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep was 1,296,400. 
The number of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as 
follows : — 























Missouri ^....•.... 

WiBcnnflin .. 

211 82" 



IllinoU „ 

ICflntuclcv .. ... 

Iowa. , 

From the above it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more 
hogs than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third 
in the average weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost s*:ock- 
raising State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of 
corn and oats upon which the stock is largely dependent, the climate 
is well adapted to their growth and health. Water is not only inex- 
haustible, but everywhere convenient. The ranges of stock are 
boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent pasturage 
of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern 
portions of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, 
New Madrid, Lawrence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure 
but profitable. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive 
well, and all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abun- 
dance and are found in the markets during all seasons of the year. 
Fruits of every variety, including the apple, pear, poach, cherries, 
apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with great success, as are also, 
the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and blackberry. 

The grape has not been produced with that success that was at first 
anticipated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a 
million gallons. Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason 
why they should not be as surely and profitably grown in a similar 
climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly in many of the counties 
north and east of the Missouri River. 


Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the ** iron horse *' was heard 
for the first time, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming 
presaged the dawn of a brighter and grander era in the history of the 


State. Her fertile prairies, and more prolific valleys would soon be 
of easy access to the oncomiilg tide of immigration, and the ores and 
minerals of her hills and mountain's would be developed, and utilized 
in her manufacturing and industrial enterprises. 

Additional facilities- would be opened to the marts of trade and 
commerce ; transportation from the interior of the State would be se- 
cured : a fresh impetus would be given to the growth of her towns 
and cities, and new hoi>cs and inspirations would be impaired to all 
her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, be- 
tween four and five thousand miles of track have been laid ; addi- 
tional roads are now being constructed, and many others in contem- 
plation. The Suite is already well supplied with railroads which 
thread her surface in all directions, bringing her remotest districts 
into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of western 
railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock ag- 
gregating more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded 
debt of about the same amount. 

The lines of roads which are operated in the State are the follow- 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May 10th, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron 

Mountain & Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arknu- 
sas Branch ; The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Rjiilroad ; The Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad ; The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway ; St. 
Louis & San Francisco Rjiilway ; The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis 
Railroad ; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad : The Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Railroad ; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Blnfik. 
Railroad ; The Keokuk & Kansas City Railway Company ; The St. 
Louis, Salem & Little Rt)ck Railroad Company ; The Missouri & 
Western ; The St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railroad ; The St. 
Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
Railway ; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad ; The Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; The Burlington & Southwestern 


The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great man- 
ufacturing State. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which 
supply the furnace, the machine shop and the planing mill ; rich in 
the multitude and variety of her gigantic forests ; rich in her marble, 
stone and granite quarries ; rich in her mines of iron, coal, lead and 


ziuc ; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply tho force ; rich 
in water power and river navigation ; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their 
multiplied track-ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing: establish- 
ments, 1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 
80,000 hands. The capital employed is about $100,000,000, the 
material annually used and worked up, amounts to over $150,000,- 
000, and the value of the products put upon the markets $250,000,000, 
while the wages paid are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, 
Jackson, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Greene, Lafay- 
ette, Platte, Cape Girardeau, and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of 
the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, which is now about the second 
manufacturing city in the Union. Flouring mills produce annually 
about $38,194,000; carpentering $18,763,000 ; me;it-packing $16,- 
769,000 ; tobacco $12,496,000 ; iron and castings $12,000,000 ; liquors 
$11,245,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging 
and bags $6,914,000, and many other smaller industries in propor- 


Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and 
reflect great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we hi^ve space 
only, to mention the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total 
length of which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly 
$8,000,000. The bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to 
the Missouri shore, and has separate railroad tracks, roadways, and 
foot paths. In durability, architectural beauty and practical utility, 
there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that approximates 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the 
Hellespont ; of Crosar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, 
famous in ancient history, were built for military purposes, that over 
them might pass invading armies with their munitions of war, to de- 
stroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, and to slaughter the 
people. ' 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over 
it are coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and 
thence are passing the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowd- 


iDg legions of men, armed not with the weapons of war, but with the 
implements of peace and industry ; men who are skilled in all the arts 
of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining ; men who will hasten 
the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and wlien Missouri shall proudly fill 
tbe measure of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



Poblic School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Offi- 
cers of Public School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — 
Schools — Colleges — Institutions of Learning — Location -^ Libraries — Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals — No. of School Children — Amount expended — Value of 
Grounds and BuUdings — « The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided that ''one school or more 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day (1820) the framersof the 
constitution made provision for at least a primary education for the 
poorest and the humblest, taking it for granted that those who were 
able would avail themselves of educational advantages which were not 

The establishment of the public-school system, in its essential fea- 
tures, was not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Boggs, and since that period the system has slowly grown into 
favor, not only in Missouri, but throughout the United States. The 
idea of a free or public school for all classes was not at first a popular 
one, especially among those who had the means to patronize private 
institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public schools 
the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromis- 
ing their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that 
they were, to some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. 
Entertaining such prejudices, they naturally thought that the training 
received at public schools could not be otherwise than defective ; hence 
many years of probation passed before the popular mind was prepared 


to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring from these insti- 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the 
more earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legis- 
latures, and to the esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 
y We can hardly conceive of two grander or more potent pronaoters of 
civilization than the free school and free press. They would indeed 
seem to constitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the hap- 
piness and intellectual growth of the Republic, and all that was neces- 
sary to broaden, t9 liberalize and instruct. 

<<Tis education forms the common mind; 

For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill ; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill. 
Things to reform as right and justice wUl; 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union have in practical operation the public- 
school system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing 
materially in the manner and methods by which they are taught ; but 
none have a wiser, a more liberal and comprehensive machinery of 
instruction than Missouri. Her school laws, since 1839, have under- 
gone many changes, and always for the better, keeping pace with the 
most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienced edu- 
cators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopted, did her present admirable system of public instruction go 
into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African 
descent, and are a part of the organic law, not subject" to the caprices 
of unfriendly legislatures, or the whims of political parties. The Lin- 
coln Institute, located at Jefferson City, for the education of col- 
ored teachers, receives an annual appropriation from the General 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annua) 
income derived from the public school fund, w^hich is set apart by law, 
not less than twenty-five per cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of 
the interest and sinking fund, is annually applied to this purpose. 

The oflScers having in charge the public school interests are the State 
*' Board of Education,'* the State Superintendent, County Commission- 


ers, County Clerk and Treasurer, Board of Directors, City and Town 
School Board, and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed 
of the State Superintendent, the Governor, Secretary of State, and the 
Attorney-General, the executive officer of this Board being the State Su- 
perintendent, who is chosen by the people every four years. His duties 
are numerous. He renders decisions concerning the local Jipplication of 
school law ; keeps a record of the school funds and annually distributes 
the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county school officers ; 
delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational information ; 
grants certificates of higher qualifications, and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly 9f the condition of the schools. 

The County Commissioners are also elected by the people for two 
3'ears. Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks, and 
make reports. County clerks receive estimates from the local direct- 
ors and extend them upon the tax-books. In addition to this, they 
keep the general records of the county and township school funds, and 
return an annual report of the financial condition of the schools of 
their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gathered 
with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school 
funds belonging to the schools of the counties is the county treasurer, 
except in counties adopting the township organization, in which case 
the township trustee discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are 
governed by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annu- 
ally, on the second Saturday in September, and hold their office for 
three vears. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school dis- 
trict, at the annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not 
exceeding forty cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation, pro- 
vided such annual rates for school purposes may be increased in dis- 
tricts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not exceeding one 
dollar on the hundred dollars' valuation, and in other districts to an 
amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the one hundred dollars' val- 
uation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are tax-pay- 
ers, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in school dis- 
tricts, the rates of taxation thus limited may be increased when the 
rate of such increase and the puq^ose for which it is intended shall 
hav^ been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 


qualified voters of such school district voting at such election shall 
vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect 
to the choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of 
all important business, such as the erection of a school house or the 
extension of a term of school beyond the constitutional period, they 
simply execute the will of the people. The clerk of this board may 
be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the children and 
youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one ; records 
all business proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual 
meeting, to the County Clerk and County Commissioners. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or 
County Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certifi- 
cates are granted upon personal written examination in the common 
branches, together with the natural sciences and hio^her mathematics. 
The holder of such certificate may teach in any public school of the 
State without further examination. Certificates granted by County 
Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are 
susceptible of two grades, ditfering both as to length of time and attain- 
ments. Those issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by 
qualification alone. The township school fund arises from a grant of 
land by the General Government, consisting of section sixteen in each 
congressional township. The annual income of the township fund is ap- 
propriated to the various townships, according to their respective 
proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each dis- 
trict. The greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one 
percent; the tax permitted for school house building cannot exceed 
the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first 
io importance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone 
County. When the State was admitted into the Union, Congress 
granted to it one entire township of land (46,080 acres) for the sup- 
port of "A Seminary of Learning." The lands secured for this pur- 
pose are among the best and most valuable in the State. These 
lands were put into the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Mis- 
souri, where it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of 
1100,000. In 1839, by an act of the General Assembly, five commis- 



sioners were appointed to select a site for the State University, tl 
site to coutain at least fifty acres of land in a compact form, with 
two miles of the connty seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone» Call 
way or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named, and t 
county of Boone having subscribed the sum of $117,921, sol 
$18,000 more than any other county, the State University was locat 
in that county, and on the 4th of July, 1840, the corner-stone w 
laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,00 
The donations to the institutions connected therewith amount 
nearly $400,000. This University with its diflFerent department 
is open to both male and female, and both sexes enjoy alike i 
rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, which form 
part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction 
Teaching; Agricultural and Mechanical College; the School of Min 
and Metallurgy ; the College of Law ; the Medical College ; and tl 
Department of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departmen 
are contemplated and will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools ai 
institutions of the State, as reported by the Commissioner of Educati< 
in 1875: — 


Christian University CanU 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardei 

University of Missouri Columb 

Central College '. „.... Fayet 

Westminster College Fult< 

Lewis College Glasgo 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgo 

Lincoln College , ^...Greenwoc 

Hannibal College Hannib: 

Woodland College Independen< 

Thayer College Kiddi 

La Granite College » La Gran; 

William Jewell College Liberl 

Baptist College « ....^...Louisiai 

St Joseph College ^St. Joaep 

College of Christian Brothers St. Lou 

St Louis University St Lou 

Wjislnngton University St Lou 

Drury College Springflel 

Central Wesleyan College Warrento 


St Joseph Female Seminary St Josep 

Christian College , ^Columbi 


Stephww' Collpge Columbia. 

Howtrd College ^Payette. 

Lidependence Female College Independence. 

Oeotnl Female College .' Lexington, 

Cliy Seminary. i. : Liberty. 

loi^ide Female College Palmyra. 

Lindeowood College for Young Ladies St. Charles. 

Kirjr Inititute (Washington University). .« SL Louis. 

8t Loaifl Seminary ; St* Louis. 

Umilioe Academy St. Louis. 


Aretdia College Arcadia. 

8t yinoent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicotfae Academy Chillicothe. 

^nuid River College Edinbuigh. 

Mirion?iIle Collegiate Institute Marionville. 

Nmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St Paul's Cellege Palmyra. 

Vao Renaselaer Academy Rensselaer* 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

fltewartaville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 


ITwouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

9choolf of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Rolla. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 


SlViDcent's College (Theological Department) ^. Cape Girardeau. 

WestmiDster College (Theological School) Fulton. 

Vardemsn School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia Collie St. Louis. 


law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

law School of the Washington University St. Louis. 


Kedical College, University of Missouri ...Columbia 

College of Physicians and Surgeons.. St. Joseph. 

Kansas City Ck>llege of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph. 

8t Louis Medical College SL Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children St. Louis. 

31U*ouri Central College St Louis. 

St Louis College of Pharmacy St Louis. 





St. Vincent's College ...„ 

Southeaat Missouri State Normal School..... 

University of Missouri.. 

Athenian Society , 

Union Literary Society 

Law College 

Westminster College 

Lewis CoUe^ 

Mercantile Library 

Library Association 

Fruitland Normal Institute 

State Library. 

Fetterman's Circulating Library 

Law Library 

Whittemore's Circulating Library 

North Missouri State Normal School 

William Jewell College 

St Paul's College 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy 

St. Charles Catholic Library 

Carl Frielling's Library 

Law Library 

Public School Library 

Walworth & ColVs Circulating Library 

Academy of Science « 

Academy of Visitation 

College of the Christian Brothers %. 

Deutsche Institute , 

German Evangelical Lutheran, Concordia College. 

Law Library Association 

Missouri Medical College 

Mrs. Cuthbert's Seminary (Young Ladies) 

Odd Fellow's Library 

Public School Library 

St. Louis Medical College 

St. Louis Mercantile Library 

St. Louis Seminary 

St, Louis Turn Verein 

St. Louis University 

St. Louis University Society Libraries 

Ursuline Academy 

Washington University 

St Louis Law School 

Young Men's Sodality 

Library Association 

Public' School Library 

Drury College 


Cape Girardeau.. 
Cape Girardeau.. 





Fulton „ 





Jefferson City.... 

Kansas City. 

Kansas City 

Kansas City 





St. Charles... 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Joseph 

St Louis.. 



X^xJXa is • • ■••• • •• • • 

AJvU ■(?•*• •• •• • • • 

St Louis.. 

St Louis 

St Louis 

St. Louis... 

St Louis 

St Louis 

























IN 1880. 

Newspapers and Periodicals. 



State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb Fulton. 

St Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb St Louis^ 

Institution for the Education of the Blind ..St I^uia.. 

State Asylum for Insane Fulton. 

State Asylum for the Insane St Louis.. 



NotimI lo'titate Bolivar. 

Southeast MiMouri Stole Normal School Cape G\rardeau. 

KanmJ School (University of Missouri) ^ ....Columbia. 

FruitUnd Normallnstitute Jackson. 

lincoln Institute (for colored)....! ...Jefferson City. 

CitT Normal School ...- St Louis. 

MiMouri State Normal School Warrenaburg. 

IN 1880. 
Namber of school children 

IN 1878. 

Rtiraated Talue of school property $8,321,899 

Total receipts for public schools 4,207,617 

Total expenditures. 2,405,189 


Maleteachers 6.239; average monthly pay $36.86 

Female teachers 6,060; average monthly pay 28.09 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and 
seventy-one newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitiints 
are not only a reading and reflecting people, but that they appreciate 
"The Press/' and its wonderful influence as an educator. The poet 
has well said : — 

Bat mightieRt of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man*s noblest mission to advance, 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress — 
Mightiest of mighty Is the Press. 



Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded — Its history — 
Christian Church — Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History — United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Catholic Church — Its History. 

The first representatives df religious thought and training, who 
penetrated the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, 
La Salic, and others of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary 


labor among the Indians. A century afterward came the Protestants. 
At that early period 

" A church in every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads," 

constituted for a time their only house of worship, and yet to them 

" No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty.'* 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered 
along the shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and 
western boundaries of the State, and still a little later they were sown 
upon her hill-sides and broad prairies, where they have since bloomed 
and blossomed as the rose. 


The earliest anti-Catholic religious denomination, of which there is 
any record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through 
the efforts of Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. 
In 1816, the first association of Missouri Baptists was formed, which 
was composed of seven churches, all of which were located in the 
southeastern part of the Stjite. In 1817 a second association of 
churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name being 
afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834 a general con- 
vention of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard 
county, for the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which 
time was commenced what is now known as the '* General Association 
of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body is committed the State mission work, denominational 
education, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. 
The Baptist Church' has under its control a number of schools and 
colleges, the most important of which is William Jewell College, 
located at Liberty, Clay county. As shown by the annual report for 
1875, there were in Missouri, at that date, sixty-one associations, one 
thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty-four min- 
isterii and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 


The Coiigregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the 
State in 1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, 
and Rev. Daniel Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by 
the Massachusetts Congregational Home Missionary Society during 



that year, and in November, 1814, they preached the first regular 
Protestant seimons in St. Louis. Rev. Samuel Giddings, sent out 
under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 
Society, organized the. first Protestant church in the city, consisting 
often members, constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized 
by Mr. Giddings were all Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, 
when the ** First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. L<ouis "* 
was organized. The next chui*oh of this denomination was organized 
at Hannibal in 1859. Then followed a Welsh church in New Cambria 
in 1864, and after the close of the war, fifteen churches of the same 
order were formed in different parts of the State. In 1866, Pilgrim 
Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, 
to General Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis 
District Associations were formed, and following these were the Kan- 
sas City and Springfield District Associations. This denomination in 
1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 church members, and had 
also several schools and colleges and one monthly newspaper. 


The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Cal- 
laway, Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. 
The first church was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. 
Fife. The first State Sunday School Convention of the Christian 
Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Besides a number of private 
institutions, this denomination has three State Institutions, all of 
which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance of 
papils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, ** The Chris- 
tiaiij** which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The mem- 
bership of this church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in 
the State and is increising rapidly. It has more than five hundred 
oi-jjunized churches, the greater portion of which are north of the 
Missouri River. 


In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination 
west of the Mississippi, was organized in Pike County. This Pres- 
bytery included all the territory of Missouri, western Illinois and 
Arkansas and numbered only four ministers^ two of whom resided at 


that time in Missouri. Tliere are now in the State, twelve Presby- 
teries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty 
thousand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis.^ 
They have a number of High Schools and two monthly papers pub- 
lished at St. Louis. 


In 1806, Rev. John Travis^ a young Methodist minister, was sent 
out to the ** Western Conference,** which then embraced the Missis- 
sippi Valley, from Green County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. 
Travis organized a number of small churches. At the close of his 
conference year, he reported the result of his labors to the Western 
Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and showed 
an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had 
been formed, and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and 
members constantly increased, until 1812, when what was called the 
Western Conference was divided into the Ohio and Tennessee Confer- 
ences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee Conference. In 1816,. 
there was another division when the Missouri Annual Conference was 
formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, fif- 
teen travelling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the terri- 
tory of the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri 
Conference included only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling 
preachers, 177 local ministers and 13,992 church members. Between 
1840 and 1850, the church was divided by the organization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the membership of the 
M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten years 
the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 
274 church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church South, 
reported 443 church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomina- 
tion has under its control seveml schools and colleges and two weekly 


The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of its missionary 
eflTorts in the State as far back as 1814, but the first Presbyterian 
Church was not organized until 1816 at Bellevue settlement, eight 
miles from St. Louis. The next churches were formed in 1816 and 
1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Presbyterian Church 
was organized in St. Louis in 1817, by Kev. Salmon ^^dding. The 



first Presbytery was organized in 1817 by the Synod of Tennessee 
with four mini.sters and four churches. The first Presbyterian house 
of worship (which was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1819 
and completed in 1826. In 1820 a mission was formed among the 
Osage Indians. In 1831, the Presbytery was divided into three: 
Missouri, St. Louis, and St. Charles. These were erected with a 
Sjnod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-tbree churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In 
186*0 the rolls of the Old and New School Synod together showed 109 
ministers and 146 churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was di- 
vided on political questions springing out of the war — a part form- 
• ingthe Old School, or Independent Synod of Missouri, who are con- 
nected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the Old and New 
School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has steadily 
increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more 
than 220 churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its con- 
trol one or two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. 
That part of the original Synod which withdrew from the General 
Assembly remained an independent body until 1874 when it united 
with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The Synod in 1875 num- 
bered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has under 
its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The 
St. Louis Presbyterian^ a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of 
the Synod. 


The missionary enterprises of this church be^ran in the State in 
1819, when a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, 
an agent of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the 
city, who reported the condition of things so favorably that Rev. 
Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary and in 1825, he began 
his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed in 1830. In 
1836, there were five clergymen of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boonville, Fayette, St. Charles, 
Hannibal, and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in 
convention, a diocese was formed, a constitution, and canons adopted, 
and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, he being the Rev. Cicero S. 
Hawks. Through the elForts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was 
founded near St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of 


pecuniary troubles. In 1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 
the Orphans' Home, a charitable institution, was founded. In 1865, 
St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, there were in the city 
of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve clergymen. 
This deuomuation has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper* 


This denomination is made up of the members of the Associate and 
Associate Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two 
bodies united in 1858, taking the name of the United Presbyterian 
Church of Noith America. Its members were generally bitterly 
opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation was 
organized at Warrensburg, Johnson County, in 1867. It rapidly 
increased in numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred 


This church was formed in 1834, bv the Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. 
Louis. The churches are few in number throughout the State, the 
membership being probably less than 300, all told. It has a mission 
house and free school, for poor children, supported by donations. 



The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri shows 
that Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, 
in 1760, and in St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Menrin erected a 
small log church in St. Louis. In 1818, there were in tlie State four 
chapels, and for Upper Louisiana seven priests. A college and semi- 
nary were opened in Perry County about this period, for the 
education of the young, being the first college west of the Mississippi 
River. .In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now 
known as the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was 
appointed Bishop of St. Louis, and through his instrumentality the 
Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. Joseph and of the Visitation were 
founded, besides other benevolent and charitable institutions. In 
1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches were 
built in different portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created 
an arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Archbishop. 

In Kansas City there were five parish churches, a hospital, a con- 
vent and several parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of 
the State was erected into a separate diocese, with its seat at St.Joseph^ 


and Kiirht-Reverend John J. Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, 
in 1875, in the city of St. Louis, 34 churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 
8colle{res, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female protectorates. There were 
also 105 priests, 7 male and 13 female orders, and 20 conferences of 
St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, out- 
side of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, 
about 120 priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of 
St. Joseph there were, in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, 
1 college, 1 monastery, 5 convents and 14 parish schools : 

Namber of Snoday Schools inl878 . •*• • . « . • 2,067 

Nomber of Teachers in 1878 • , • . 18,010 

Kofflber of PupUs in 1878 . • • 189,578 


Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection 
with collegiate study, or in special theological courses, at: 

Central CoUege (M. E. South) ' « Fayette. 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) • Warrenton. 

Christian University (Chrlstlaft) Canton. 

Concordia College Seminary TEvangelical Lutheran) ... .St. Louis. 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Gla6;j:ow. 

St. Vincent College (Roman Catholic) Cape Girardeau. 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) . . . . • • Liberty. 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 



Koroinatton and election of Thomas T. Crittenden— Personal Mention — Marraaduke's 
candidacy — Stirring events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Fords — Pardon of the Gamblers. . 

It is the purpose in this chapter to outline the more important 
events of Governor Crittenden's unfinished administration, stating 
briefly the facts in the case, leaving comment and criticism entirely to 
the reader, the historian having no judgment to express or prejudice 
to vent. 

Thomas T. Crittenden, of Johnson county, received the Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor of Missouri at the convention at Jeffer- 


son City, July 22d, 1880. Democratic nomination for a State office in 
Missouri is always equivalent to election, and the entire State ticket 
was duly elected in November. Crittenden's competitors before the 
convention were Gen. John S. Marmaduke, of St. Louis, and John 
A. Hockaday, of Callaway county. Before the assembling of the 
convention many persons who favored Marmaduke, both, personally 
and politically, thought the nomination of an ex-Confederate might 
prejudice the prospects of the National Democracy, and therefore, as 
a matter of policy, supported Crittenden. 

His name, and the fame of his family in Kentucky — Thomas T. 
being a scion of the Crittendens of that State, caused the Democracy 
of Missouri to expect great things from their new Governor. This, 
together with the important events which followed his inauguration, 
caused some people to overrate him, while it prejudiced others against 
him. The measures advocated by the Governor in his inaugural 
address were such as, perhaps, the entire Democracy could endorse, 
especially that of refunding, at a low interest, all that part of the State 
debt that can be so refunded ; the adoption of measures to relieve the 
Supreme Court docket ; a compromise of the indebtedness of some of 
the counties, and his views concerning repudiation, which he con- 


By a series of legislative acts, beginning with the act approved 
February 22, 1851, and ending with that of Mju-ch 26, 1881, the 
Slate of Missouri aided with great liberality in the construction of a 
system of railroads in this State. 

Among the enterprises thus largely assisted was the Hannibal an^ 
St. Joseph Railroad, for the construction of which the bonds of the 
State, to the amount of $3,000,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per 
annum, payable semi-annually, were issued. One half of this amount 
was issued under the act of 1851, and the remainder under the act of 
1855. The bonds issued under the former act were to run twenty 
years, and those under the latter act were to run thirty years. Some 
of the bonds have since been funded and renewed. Coupons for the 
interest of the entire $3,000,000 were executed and made payable in 
New York. These acts contain numerous provisions inten(led to 
secure the State against loss and to require the railroad company to 
pay the interest and principal at maturity. It was made the duty of 
the railroad company to save and keep the State from all loss on 
account of said bonds and coupons. The Treasurer of the State was 


to be exonerated from any advance of money to meet either principal 
or interest. The State contracted with the railroad company for com- 
plete indemnity. She was required to assiirn her statutory mortgage 
lien only upon payment into the treasury of a sum of money equal to 
all indebtedness due or owing by said lioinpany to the State by reason 
of having issued her bonds and loaned them to the company. 

In June, 1881, the railroad, thrcmgh its attorney, Geo. W. Easley, 
Esq., paid to Phil. E. Chappell, State Treasurer, the sum of $3,000,- 
000, and asked for a receipt in full of all dues of the road to the 
State. The Treasurer refused to give such a receipt, but instead gave 
areoeipt for the sum *' on account." The debt was not yet due, but 
the authorities of the road sought to discharge their obligation pre- 
maturely, in order to save interest and other expenses. The railroad 
company then demanded its bonds of the State, which demand the 
State refused. The company then demanded that the $3,000,000 be 
paid back, and this demand was also refused. 

The railroad company then brought suit in the United States Court 

for an equitable adjustment of the matters in controversy. The $3, 

000,000 had been deposited by the State in one of the banks* and was 

drawing interest only at the rate of one-fourth of one per cent. It 

was demanded that this sum should be so invested that a larger rate 

of interest might be obtained, which sum of interest should be allowed 

to the company as a credit in case any sum should be found due from 

it to the State. Justice Miller, of the United States Supreme Court, 

who heard the case upon preliminary injunction in the spring of 1882, 

decided that the unpaid and unmatured coupons constituted a liability 

of the State and a debt owing, though not due, and until these were 

provided for the State was not bound to assign her lien upon the road. 

Another question which was mooted, but not decided, was this: 

That, if any, what account is the State to render for the use of the 

13,000,000 paid into the treasury by the complainants on the 20th of 

Jane? Can she hold that large sum of money, refusing to make any 

account of it, and still insist upon full payment by the railroad 

company of all outstanding coupons? 

Upon this subject Mr. Justice Miller, in the course of his opinion, 
said: ** I am of the opinion that the State, having accepted or got this 
money into her possession, is under a moral obligation (and I do not 
pretend to commit anybody as to how far its legal obligation goes) to 
80 use that money as, so far as possible, to protect the parties who 
have paid it against the loss of the interest which it might accumulate. 


and which would go to extinguish the interest ou the Staters obliga-^ 

March 26, 1881, the Legislature, in response to a special message, of 
Gov. Crittenden, dated February 25, 1881, in which ho informed 
the Legislature of the purpose of the Hannibal and St. Joseph com- 
pany to discharge the full amount of what it claims is its present 
indebtedness as to the State, and advised that provision be made 
for the ** profitable disposal" of the sum when paid, passed an act,, 
the second section of which provided. 

♦* Sec. 2. Whenever there is sufficient money in the sinkiug fund to- 
redeem or purchase one or more of the bonds of the State of Missouri,, 
such sum is hereby appropriated for such purpose, and the Fund 
Commissioners shall immediately call in for payment a like amount 
of the option bonds of the State, known as the ** 5-20 bonds,"^ 
provided, that if there are no option bonds which can be called in for 
payment, they may invest such money in the purchase of any of the 
bonds of the State, or bonds of the United States, the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph railroad bonds exceptedv" 

On the Ist of January, 1882, the regular semi-annual payment of 
interest on the railroad bonds became due, but the road refused to 
pay, claiming that it had already discharged the principal, and of 
course was not liable for the interest. Thereupon, according to the 
provisions of the aiding act of 1855, Gov. Crittenden advertised the 
road for sale in default of the payment of interest. The company 
then brought suit before U. S. Circuit Judge McCmry at Keokuk,. 
Iowa, to enjoin the State from selling the road, and for such other 
and further relief as the court might see fit and proper to grant. 
August 8, 1882, Judge McCrary delivered his opinion and judgment,. 

as follows : 

^^ First. That the payment by complainants into the treasury of the 
State of the sum of $3,000,000 on the 26th of June, 1881, did not 
satisfy the claim of the State in full, nor entitle complainants to aa 
assignment of the State's statutory mortgage. 

^^ Second. That the State was bound to invest the principal sum 
of $3,000,000 so paid by the complainants without unnecessary delay 
in the securities named in the act of March 26, 1881, or some of 
them, and so as to save to the State as large a sum as possible,, 
which sum so saved would have constituted as between the State and 
complainants a credit pro tarUo upon the unmatured coupons now in 



'•Third. That the rights and equity of the parties are to be deter- 
mined upon the foregoing principles, and the State must stand 
chained with what would have been realized if the act of March, 
1881, bad been complied with. It only remains to consider what th© 
rights of the parties are upon the principles here stated. 

"In order to save the State from loss on account of the default of 
the railroad company, a further sum must be paid. In order to deter- 
mine what that further sum is an accounting must be had. The ques- 
tion to be settled by the accounting is, how much would the State 
have lost if the provisions of the act of March, 1881, had been 
complied with? ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ j think a perfectly fair basis of settle- 
ment would be to hold the State liable for whatever could have been 
Mved by the prompt execution of said act by taking up such 5-20 
option bonds of the State as were subject to call when the money was 
paid to the State, and investing the remainder of the fund in the 
bonds of the United States at the market rates. 

" Upon this basis a calculation can be made and the exact sum still to 
be paid by the complainant in order to fully indemnify and protect the 
State can be ascertained. For the purpose of stating an account 
upon this basis and of determining the sum to be paid by the com- 
plainants to the State, the cause will be referred to John K. Cravens, 
one of the masters of this court. In determining the time when the 
inrestment should have been made under the act of March, 1881, the 
master will allow a reasonable period for the time of the receipt of the 
said sum of $3,000,000 by the Treasurer of the State — that is to say, 
such time as would have been required for that puri)ose had the offi- 
cers charged with the duty of making said investment used reason- 
able diligence in its discharge. 

•• The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad is advertised for sale for the 
amount of the instalment of interest due January 1, 1882, which 
instalment amounts to less than the sum which the company must pay 
in order to discharge its liabilities to the State upon the theory of this 
opinion. The order will, therefore, be that an injunction be granted 
to enjoin the sale of the road upon the payment of the said instal- 
ment of interest due January 1, 1882, and if such payment is made 
the master will take it into account in making the computation above 


The occurrence during the present Governor's administration which 
did most to place his name in everybody's mouth, and even to herald 


it abroad, causing the European press to teem with leaders announcing 
the fact to the continental world, was the •* reraoval" of the famous 
Missouri brigand, Jesse W. James. The career of the James boys,- 
and the banditti of whom they were the acknowledged leaders, is too 
well-known and too fully set forth in works of a more sensational 
character, to deserve further detail in these pages ; and the •* removal " 
of Jesse will be dealt with only in its relation to the Govenior. 

It had been long conceded that neither of the Jameses would ever be 
taken alive. That experiment had been frequently and vainly tried, 
to the sorrow of good citizens of this and other States. It seems to 
have been one of the purposes of Gov. Crittenden to break up this 
band at any cost, by cutting off its leaders. Soon after the Winston 
train robbery, on July 15, 1881, the railroads combined in empower- 
ing the Governor, by placing the money at his disposal, to offer heavy 
rewards for the capture of the two James brothers. This was ac- 
cordingly done by proclamation, and, naturally, many persons were 
on the lookout to secure the large rewards. Gov. Crittenden worked 
quietly, but determinedly, after offering the rewards, and by some 
means learned of the availability of the two Ford boys, yctimg men 
from Ray county, who had been- tutored as juvenile robbers by the 
skillful Jesse. An understandinor was had, when the Fords declared 
they could find Jesse — that they were to **turn him in." Robert 
Ford and brother seem to have been thoroughly in the confidence of 
James, who then (startling as it was to the entire State) resided in 
the city of St. Joseph, with his wife and two children 1 The Fords 
went there, and when the robber's back was turned, Robert shot him 
dead in the back of the head! The Fords told their story to the 
authorities of the city, who at once arrested them on a charge of mur- 
der, and they, when arraigned, plead guilty to the charge. Promptly, 
however, came a full, free and unconditional pardon from Gov. Crit- 
tenden, and the Fords were released. In regard to the Governor's 
course in ridding the State of this notorious outlaw, people were 
divided in sentiment, some placing him in the category with the Ford 
boys and bitterly condemning his action, while others — the majority' 
of law-abiding people, indeed, — though <^eprecating the harsh meas- 
ures which James' course had rendered necessary, still upheld the 
Oovernor for the part he played. As it was, the '* Terror of Mis- 
souri " was effectually and finally ** removed," and people were glad 
that he was dead, Robert Ford, the pupil of the dead Jesse, had 



been selected, and of all was the most fit tool to use in the extermina- 
tuNi of his preceptor in crime. 

Tbe killing of James would never have made Crittenden many ene- 
mies among the better class of citizens of this State ; but, when it 


The case was different. Under the new law making gaminghouse- 
keying a felony, several St. Louis gamblers, with Robert C. Pate at 
tiieirhead, were convicted and sentenced to prison. The Governor, 
ooehto the surprise of the more rigid moral element of the State, 
ioon granted the gamblers a pardon. This was followed by other 
psrdons to similar offenders, which began to render the Governor quite 
unpopular which one element of citizens, and to call forth from some 
of them the most bitter denunciations. The worst feature of the case, 
perhaps, is the lack of explanation, or the setting forth of sufficient 
retsons, as is customary in issuing pardons. This, at least, is the bur- 
dnn of complaint with the faction that opposes him. However, it 
mosl be borne in mind that his term of office, at this writing, is but 
balf expired, and that a full record can not, therefore, be given. Like 
dlmere men. Gov. Crittenden has his good and his bad, is liked by 
some and disliked by others. The purpose of history is to set forth 
the facts and leave others to sit in judgment; this the historian has 
tried faithfully to do, leaving all comments to those who may see fit to 
niake them. 




Her First Settlement — Arrival of the First Steamboat — Removal of the Capital to 
Jefferson City — When Incorporated — Population by Decades — First Lighted hf 
Gas — Death of one of her Founders, Pierre Chouteau — Cemeteries — Financial 
Crash — Bondholders and Coupon-clippers — Value of Real and Personal Property- 
Manufactures — Criticism. 

I£ was nearly a century and a quarter ago that St. Louis's first 
an'ival proclaimed the site of the future metropolis of the Mississippi 
Valley. In 1762 M. Pierre Laclede Liguest and his two companions, 
Auguste and Pierre Chouteau, landed upon the site which was des- 
tined to become a great city. They were the avant-couriers and 
principal members of a company which had certain privileges secured 
to them by the Governor of the Territory of Louisiana, which then 
included the whole of Missouri, that of trading with the Indians, and 
. which was known as the Louisiana Fur Company, with the privilege 
further granted of establishing such posts as their business might 
demand west of the Mississippi and on the Missouri rivers. They 
had been on a prospecting tour and knew something of the country, 
and on February 15, 1774, Laclede with the above named companions, 
took possession of the ground which is now the city of St. Louis. 
They established a trading post, took formal possession of the coun- 
try, and called their post St. Louis. In 1768 Captain Rios took 
possession of the post as a part of Spanish territory ceded to it by 
France by the treaty of Paris, and it remained under the control of suc- 
cessive Spanish Governors until March 10, 1804. The Spanish govern- 
ment, by the treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800, retroceded the territory 
to France, and, by purchase, France ceded the whole country to tho 



United States, April 30, 1803, In October of the same year Congress passec 
an act approviag the purchase, and anthoriziug the President to take posse- 
sion of tlie country or 'rerritory of Louisiana. Thia was done February 15, 

1801, when Captain Amos Stoddard, of the United States army, and the ^;en1 
■ of the United States, received from Don Carlos Debault Delassus, a surrender ol 
the post of St. Louis and the Territory of Upper Louisiana. On the 10th ol 


March the keys to the government house and the archives and public 

property were turned over or delivered to the representative of the 

United States, the Spanish flag was lowered, the stars, and stripes 

throwQ to the breeze, accompanied with the roar of artillery and 

music, and theti-ansfer was complete. In 1805 St. Louis had its first 

post-office established, and the place was incorporated as a town in 

1809. It did not grow very fast, but was the recognized headquarters 

for the territory of the west and northwest. The French, from Indiana 

and other points had settled there, and the town was decidedly French in 

its character and population. The Missouri Fur Company', which had 

its headquarters there, was organized in 1808, of which Pierre Chou- 

tetii was the head. His associates were Manuel Lisa, Wm. Clark, 

Sylvester Labadie, and others, and such familiar names as the Astors, 

Bent, Sublette, Cabanne, General Ashly and Robert Campbell were 

prominently identified with the town and its progress. The first 

ptpor was issued July 2, 1808. 

In 1812 the Territory of Louisiana, or that part north, was changed 
ud named the Territory of Missouri, and was given Territorial rights, 
witik a representation on the floor of Congress. St. Louis was the 
leat of the Territorial government until 1820, and the first legislnture 
aet in that town, and part of its proceedings was the removal of the 
leat of the government to St. Charles, where it remained until located 
at JeflTerson City in 182(5. In 1822 St. Louis began to take on more 
style, and was incorporated as a city December 9th of that year. 
There had been a bank established in 1817, and quite a large number 
of bosiuess houses wore built and occupied, and a number of loan 
offices chartered. When St. Louis l)ecame an American city her 
population was 925; this was in 1804. When the Territory was 
named Missouri, and she was the seat of government in 1812, 
her pbpulation had reached 2,000. William Deckers laid the first 
pavement in 1818. A ferry boat had been started in 1804. The 
first steamboat arrived in 1817. It was a low-pressure steamboat, 
built at Pittsbursrh, and named the General Pike, It arrived Anjrust 
2d, and was greeted by the entire p()i)nlation, who gazed upon her 
with wonder and astonishment. The Indians were a badly scared 
crowd, and could not be induced to come near it. The first steamboat 
stemmed the tide of the Missouri in May, 1819, and the same year 
the fii-st steamboat from New Orleans put in an appearance at St. 
Louis. It was twenty-seven days en route. 



In 1820 the popalation had reached 4,928, and when inoorporatea ic 
1822 WHS believed to number abont 5,000, not much immigration having 

como ill. The houndjtry lines of the city when she received her cliiirtcr wer« 
defined as follows: The line commencing at the middle of Mill Creekj 


just below the gas works, thence west to Seventh Street, and up 
Seventh Street to a point due west of «* Roy's Tower," thence to the 
river. The city plat embraced 385 acres of ground. 

The first church was built in 1824, and was of the Presbyterian 
<leDomination. The second was an Episcopal Church, erected in 1825. 
Anew court-house was built in 1827, and also a market-house. These 
old-time landmarks have long since disappeared, and no mark is left 
to tell the tale of their being. The spot or location iz recorded, but 
what that availeth is not of comprehension to the generation of to-day. 


The first brick house is said to have been erected in 1814. The 
first mayor of the city was Wm. C. Lane. The St. Louis University 
was founded in 1829 ; the Catholic Cathedral was completed in 1832 
and consecrated by Bishop [j^osetti. 

In 1833 the population of St. Louis was about six thousand, and 
the taxable property, real and personal, aggregated $2,745,000. St. 
Louis, like all other cities, felt the blighting effects of the financial 
msh of 1837, still her progress was not wholly checked. Her vitality 
waA great, and her resources spread over the territory, in many cases, 
out of the reach of the troubles of the times. Her fur trade was 
immeose, and the crash had little to do with that, so that while she 
felt *he depression in her financial circles, her commercial prosperity 
was in no wise checked. There is very little more in the history of 
St. L 'uis to record than the noting of her general prosperity and 
^eady onward progress for the next decade. 

Hei population in 1840 hud risen to 16,469, and in 1844, 34,140. 
Tho population had more than doubled in four years. Fine buildings 
had arioen in place of the old fur warehouses of the early French 
settlers. Stately residences appeared in the suburbs ; and in all that 
gave promise of a great and influential city, she had advanced and 
was advancing rapidly. The Mercantile Library was founded in 1848, 
and gas had been introduced the year previous, the city being first 
lighted on the night of November 4, 1847. In the great cholera year, 
1849, the disease assumed an epidemic form, and of that dread scourge 
the people had a fearful experience. The progress of St. Louis had 
been handsomely commemorated on the eighty-third anniversary of 
its founding, the date being February 15, 1847. Among the living, 
and the only survivor of the memorable trio who first landed and 
located the city, was the venerable Pierre Chouteau, who, with his 


brother, had accompanied Laclede Liguest, to locate a trading-post 
for the fur company of which they were members. He was a promi- 
nent figure in the celebration, and thour^h at an advanced age, he was 
in the enjoyment of his full faculties, and was keenly alive to the won- 
derful progress of the city in the eighty-three years of its life. In 
1849, the epidepiic year, all that was mortal of Pierre Chouteau was 
consigned to its last resting-place, and with him all living memory 
ceased of the first settlement and of the rise and progress of the city. 
From that date history could record but written facts, the oral record 
had ceased to exist. His elder brother, Auguste Chouteau, had pre- 


ceded him to themvstic bevoml, haviiig departed thit) lil'o in Februar; , 



The city limits had been greatly extended in 18-11, embracing an 
area of two thousand six hundred and thirty acres, instead of the three 
hundred and eighty-five acres in December, 1822. This showed the 
wonderful growth of the city, which, even then, was contracted, and 
its suburbs were fast filling up. 

The Institution for the Blind was incorporated in 1851, and thepoj>- 
ulation had increased to 94,000 in 1852. 



St. Louis took pride in her '* cities of the dead," for she has sev- 
eral cemeteries, with wooded dales and sylvan retreats, well suited as 
the last resting-place of those whose remains are deposited in the 
"Silent City." We will speak here of only two, because of the care 
taken of them, their size, and their rich and diversified surroundings, 
which give them a lonely, yet pleasant, look to all who visit them. 
The Bellefontaine was purchased by an association of gentlemen who 
secured an act of incorporation in 1849, and at once commenced the 
improvement of the ground. In 1850-the first sale of lots took place. 
The cemetery comprises two hundred and twenty acres of land. The 
Calvary Cemetery has 320 acres, of which 100 are laid out and im- 
proved. This resting-place of the dead was purchased in 1852, by 
the Archbishop of the Diocese ot St. Louis, and like the first above 
mentioned, is a lovely and secluded spot, well suited for the purpose 


In 1«64 trie terrible accident, known as the Gasconade Bridge dis- 
aster, occurrcil, when many prominent citizens of St. Louis lost their 


In 1857 the financial crash had a greater effect upon St. Louis than 
the one of 1837. Her merchants had been prosperous and extended 
their line of credits, and the rapidly growing city had brought many 
new and venturesome people, who, believing in its future, had em- 
barked in business enterprises which required a few more years of 
steady rise and progress to place them on a stable foundation. These, 
of course, went down in the general crash, but the stream was only 
temporarily dammed, and the debris was soon cleared away. The 
flood-tide had set toward the west, and the greater the crash the 
greater swelled the tide of immigration toward the setting sun. 

The era of a healthy, and it would seem, permanent prosperity, 
again dawned upon the metropolis of the Mississippi Valley in 1861, 
and this time not even the civil war, which then began to cast its bale- 
ful shadow over the Union, checked its onward career, and at the 
opening of this terrible drama St. Louis claimed a population of 187,- 
000 souls. The war added to its financial and commercial prosperity, 
for it became the entrepot of supplies for the army of the southwest, 
And the headquarters of army operations. The valuation of real es- 


tateaiid personal property, which had only been a little rising two and a half 
millions of dollars in 1833, was now, in 1860, $73,765,670. 

What the war added was more in the line of its financial and commercial 
development than in the spreading of its area or the building up of its waste 
places, but when war'6 fierce alarm had ceased the tide began to flow west- 
ward, and with it came the building mania, for hpmes and houses had to be 
provided for the rush of new-comers. 

Chicago, which liad nearly monopolized the railroads as an objective point, 
eeemed now to have secured all that would pay, and St. Louis became the 
focus of all eyes. Kansas, Colorado and the Southwest began to loom up in 
its agricultural and mineral resources ; the vast quantities of land which had 
been voted by venal congressmen to great railroad corporations were now 
throwa upon the market, and Kansas became a leading State for the attrac- 


tion of the emigrant. In this more railroads were necessary, and the great 
crossing of the Mississippi was at St. Louis. Then the bridging of that 
great river commenced, Capt. Eads having made known his plans for this 
importantwork soon after the close of the war. The jubilee was not enjoyed, 
however, until 1874, wlien, uu July 4th, the bridge was completed and opeoed 
to the railway companies. This was another era which marked a rapid prog- 
ress in the future city of the valley. Sixteen separate and distinct lines of 
railway centered at St. Louis with completion of the bridge, and from those 
lines and the river traffic, St. Louis was evidently sure of her future. 


It was only when a couceatration of wealth took a new departure that the 


glorious future which appeared so near became so far. The energy 
and enterprise of the people had, in a large measure, previous to 
the war, been used toward building up the city, and embarking in 
manufactures, etc., but soon after the war that wealth was turned into 
government bonds and the energy and enterprise were concentrated 
by these rich holders in cutting coupons off of these same bonds every 
three months, and with few exceptions they are still at the exhaustive 
work. Whatever of advanced progress has been given to St. Louis 
the past ten years, outside of her Aliens, Stannards, and perhaps a 
score of others, has been by the new arrivals. It was, in '69 or '70, 
that her local papers were prospecting on the enervating influence that 
a hundred first-class funerals would have on the material prosperity 
of the " Future Great." The light and airy business of coupon-clip- 
ping had become epidemic, and millions of dollars which ought to 
have been invested in manufacturing and other enterprises, were sunk 
in the maelstrom of governrhent bonds, and, so far as the material 
advancement of the city was concerned, might as well have been bur- 
ied in the ocean. Still St. Louis improved, for new arrivals of the 
pro|;res8ive order, seeing an opening, would drop in, and those who 
mild not clip coupons for a business worked on as their limited capi- 
W wonid permit. And so it was found that in 1870 real estate had 
reached $119,080,800, while personal property was $147,969,660. 
In 1875 the value of real estate had advanced $12,000,000, reaching 
the gross sum of $131,141,000, and personal property $166,999,660, 
again of nearly $20,000,000 in five years. The valuation January 1> 
1879, was, of real estate, $140,976,540, and personal property, $172,- 
829,980, or a total valuation of real and personal property of $313,- 
806,520, "with a population of about 340,000. Great advancement 
had taken place in blocks of magnificent buildings, in the increase of 
her wholesale trade, in the area of her city limits, in the enlargement 
of her working population, so that the coupon-clippers who had stood 
at the front in 1870 now held a rear position, and were rather looked 
down upon as drones of society, wrapped in self and the vanity of self- 
importance, and of little use to the progress or to the detriment of the 
great city. Railroads run to every point of the compass. Her tunnel 
and the union depot had become a fixed fact, macadamized roads led 
to all parts of the country, miles upon miles of streets were paved 
and sidewalks laid with substantial brick or stone, street cars to every 
part of the city, and the river-front flashing with traffic, which, in 
point of development, has exceeded the most sanguine expectation 



HISTORY 5F 8T. LOL'I8. 97 

•of those who had believed in its future, while the oxpi'essious of 
those who had built their faith on the railroads depriving a free 
water-course of the wealth of her oifering has been simply one of 


looDe respect St. Louis has exhibited comuiendable sense in having 
aecDred a number of parks, breathing-places for her industrial popu- 
lation and pleasant drives for her wealthy citizens. There are no less 
than seventeen of these beautiful places, many of them small, but so 
scattered about the city as to be convenient to all her citizens. Her 
great park, which is called "Forest Park," has 1,372 acrot*, and the 
<iij has expended in purchases, laying out and beautifying the grounds, 
nearly one million of dollars. Carondelet Park has an area of 183.17 
acres; O'Fallon Park has an area of 158.32 acres, and Tower Grove 
Flark 270 acres^ These are the largest ; the others represent but a 
muH number of acres each. Of the smaller ones, Lafayette Park 
Indi with tweuty-six acres, while the smallest, Jackson Place, has less 
4ltii two acres. 


' ttera were 1,318 brick and 3()9 frame buildings put up in 1878, at 
(t?0p|tof $3,000,000. A very fine custom-house is approaching com- 
^|||WID» They had, January 1, 1879, twenty-nine banks'in St. Louis, 
§moi which were national banks. The coml>ined capital ot* all was 
4I9^406,019. This shows a healthy progress, but one of not more 
ordinary in the line of building improvements. It should have 
ten millions to show that advanced progress becoming a city 
ntSA claims it is destined to become the central sun of the great 
HlMuaippi Valley. 

Ttt 1878 there were 2,291 arrivals of steamboats, and 2,348 depart- 
OQB. The commerce of the river was some half a million of dollars. 
The new barge lines and the wheat movement down the Mississippi for 
the year 1881, including her other river traffic, will undoubtedly double 
the bosiness of 1878. The figures are not in, but the first half year 
has made a wonderful increase. Iler commerce is steadily improving. 
There is not an article of domestic produce but has rapidly advanced 
in the amount received the past few years. The cereals and stock, 
cattle, sheep, and hogs, also the roots and vegetables, have rapidly 
grown in quantity. St. Louis is the greatest mule market in the 

In its public buildings, the United States custom-house stands first — 



8 magfiWe building' of white granite, occiipyiDg a whole square, and 
irhea finished will have cot<t $6,000,000. The busineas in the custom 
department will exceed two million dollars the first yearof its opening. 
The Chamber of Commerce is another magnificent structure just com- 
pleted at a cost of $1,800,000. The county court-house, which also 
takes & square of ground, and is built in the shape of a Greek cross, 
with a fine dome, cost $2,000,000. The county building known as the 
'* Four Courts," and the city prison, is a beautiful three-story-and-a— 
half basement structure, which cost $1,250,000. The Polytechnic 
Institute cost $800,000, and the magnificent Southern Hotel, finished* 

and occupied Miiy, 1881, cost $1 2.^0,000 for building and furni- 

There arc publiu buildings of lesser note, many private structures of 
magnificent proportions, with a wealth of beautiful surroundings ; the- 
aters, hotels, etc., all that go to make up a great city ; school-houses 
of iini])le proportions ; churches beautiful in architectural design of 
Grecian, Doric, and Gothic, many of them being very costly in their 
build. One hundred and seventy-one churches are foujid withiu her 
limits, and the denominations cover all that claim the Protestant or 


Catholic feith. The Cathedral on Walnut Street is the oldest church 
edifice, but not the most costly, in the city. 

The public school library was founded in 1872, and numbers 36,000 
Tolome8. The Mercantile Library has 42,090 volumes, and contains 
not only many valuable literary works, but many choice works of art. 


In this line St. Louis is fast reaching a commanding situation. So 
long as railroads commanded the freighting facilities of the city, and 
the great highway to the sea which Providence had placed at her door 
was ignored for man's more expensive route by rail, St. Louis remained 
but an infant in manufacturing enterprises — »and these had succumbed 
in many instances to the power of monopolies, or to the tariff of freight 
which took off all the profits, and her more eastern competitors were 
the gainers. But in the last two years Nature's great highway to the 
sea has begun to be utilized, and St. Louis has all at once opened her 
eyes to the fact that she has a free railway of water to the sea, the 
equal of twenty railroads by land, and it only needs the cars (the 
barges) to revolutionize the carrying trade of the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri valleys. The track is free to all. He who can build the cars 
can have the track readv at all times for use. The Father of Waters 
lies at her door; a mountain of iron is but a few miles away ; coal, 
iilso, lies nearly at her gates ; and while she has slept the sleep of years, 
these vast opportunities might have made her, ere this, the equal of 
any manufacturing city on the globe. She will become such, for no 
other city can show such vast resources or such rapid and cheap facil- 
ities for distribution. Even the coupon-clippers are waking up, and 
believe there are higher and nobler aims for man than the lavish expen- 
diture of wealth in indolence and selfish pleasure. The surplus wealth 
of St, Louis, if invested in manufacturing enterprises, would make her 
the wonder of the continent. She may realize this some day; when 
she does, she will wonder at the stupidity and lolly that has controlled 
her for so many years. Foundries, machine-shops, rolling-mills, cot- 
ton and woolen factories, car-shops, these and a thousand other indus- 
tries are but waiting for the magic touch of an enterprising people to 
give them life. 

The year 1882 opens auspiciously for a new life. St. Louis now 
begins to consider the question of progress from a more enlightened 
standpoint, and with a look of intelligent action. It may take a little 
time yet to drive sleep from her eyelids and sloth from her limbs, but 

iiiyroirv OF ST. Loris. 101 

it looks now more than ever as llioiifrli !>Ih* would accomplish this and 
vrak« up to the full fruition ot* her irrcat oi)portunities — in fact, to 
bermauifest destiny. Missouri ought to he prouil of St. Louis, but 
tbitcanuot be while sloth lies at the portals of her ^ates and the dry- 
rot.of old fogyisni guides her present course. 

TIm breweiy business of St. Louis is one of her leading depart- 
aenfa of trade. She has the largest establishment in the world for 
hittfingbeer, a building two hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. 
The nuuiufuetnre of wine is another important business which has 
ttsumed immense proportions. Distilling, rectifying and wholesale 
deaKngin liquors is anotlu^r branch that adds a large revenue to the 
iuable wealth of the citv. There is nothin<j: in the manufacturers' 
fine bat what could sustain a healthy growth in St. Louis, if even plain 
buioess sense is at command. Her future may be said to be all before 
her, for her manufacturing interests are yet in their infancy. She can 
beeome the manufacturing centre of the continent. The centre or 
nociviDg point for the greatest amount of cereals any city can han- 
dle, and the stock centre also of the country, St. Louis may, with the 
oi^rtuuities within her grasp, well be called the ** Future Great." 


Bnt the name ^^ Future Great " is used at this time by her rivals in 

toneS'Of derision. That she should have ignored so many years the 

great and bountiful resources nature has so lavishly bestowed upon 

her, aye I it would seem, even spurned them through an ignorance as 

dense as it is wonderful, is very strange, and has brought a stigma of 

disgrace upon the character of her people. This action on her part 

has not escaped the notice of men of wealth, of towering ambition, of 

nerve force and of unlimited energy, and to-day one of the railway 

kings of the country, eJay Gould, of New York, has grasped the 

sceptre of her commercial life and rules with a grasp of steel, and 

through his iron roadways run the commercial life-blood which flows 

through the aiteries of her business life. That this neglect of her 

great opportunities should have placed it in the power of one man to 

become the arbiter of her fate is as humiliating as it has proved costly. 

Millions have poured into the collers of Jay Gould, who, seeing this 

vast wealth of resources lying idle or nncared for, had the nerve to 

seize and the far-seeing judgment and enterprise to add them to his 

own personal gains. The worhl can admire the bold eneriry of the 

man, and the genius that can grasp and guide the commercial desti* 


nles of aa Empire, but it is none the less a blot upon the &ir name, 
capital and enterprise of a great city, and should mantle the cheek of 
every St. Louisian with shame. The writer feels all that he has here 
written, but his pride as a Missourian cannot blind him to the faults of 
her people 

St. Louis is an old city and there has been much written of her 
extraordinary progress, and yet whatever that progress is, has been 
caused far more by her people being compelled to take advantage of 

the opportunities within their reach than making such by their own 
enei-gy and enterprise. If she has grown in population and in wealth, 
it is because she could not help herself. After forty years of life, as 
late as 1813, the currency of St. Louis was slill confined to peltries, 
trinkets, maple sugar, honey, beeswax, venison, hams, etc., in fact, 
, all bai-ter and trade, and yet those who have compiled her local history 

H18TOHY OF 8T. LOUIS. 103 

talk vildly of her destiny and prophesy wonders for her m the near 
future. It is best to look at St. Louis as she is to-day. It is to be 
hoped that her future growth may not take pattern after her past, and 
tbut the new men who have taken her commercial future into their 
keeping will still exhibit that towering genius for the development of 
St. Louis that has characterized them in their eastern home. 

The future of St. Louis would seem to be one of a rapidly growing 
city, not only in population, but in commercial and financial strength, 
as though founded upon a rock. This is the present outlook. While 
thej^enius of Gould and his associates has secured millions of dollars 
bj their business ventures, there are other millions still left to build 
Dp and add to her prosperity and greatness if rightly managed. 

The tremendous energy of Gould has astoi^shed the sleepy St. 
Louisians as much as if they had been treading upon live coals, and 
in waking up they have discovered that their sleep and indolence have 
cost them several millions. Gould, Keene, Dillon, Sage and their 
associates do not work for nothing, and the people who claim the 
*• Future Great'* as their abiding i)lace should lose no time in taking 
a firm hold of the present and guiding her toward the great destiny 
which awaits her, with the winning cards in their own hands. The 
New Yorkers have shown them a will and a wav, and now let them 
pi-actice the lesson it has cost them so much to Icnru. 

It has been over a ccnturv since St. Louis took a start into life, and 
it is quite that since the ring of the pioneer's axe and the sharp crack 
of his rifle reverberated through her streets. The slow progress of 
pioneer life has departed and modern civilization, with the light of 
genius for its guide, is rapidly proirressing and recording history for 
future generations. When in 1817 the first steamboat landed at St. 
Louis, the possibilities of what the future might l)o began to dawn 
wpoM the minds of her people, and that year may be well proclaimed 
^ the dividing line between the old and the new era of St. Louis's 
destiny. From that day she looked forward', not backward, and while 
up to that time she seemed to have lived in the past, it was the future 
More her that then riveted her attention. She kept up a lively step 
to the music of progress for several years, and the Father of Waters 
and the mighty Missouri with their fleets of water-craft attested her 
enierprise, and she grew apace. But in a few years she a^-ain fell 
asleep, and slept until the snort of the iron horse awoke her rudely 
from slumber. She had grown even while she slept, because the great 
water-way which passed her door had become the pathway of a mighty 

H.IdTORY.OF 6T. hOVlB. 106 

business. Bat this grand highway to the sea which had nourished 
her while she slept was at ouco forgotten or relegated to the rear, and 
her awakened energies were given to the prancing steed whose breath 
was fire, that made the e^irth tremble at his strength, and whose speed 
was like the wings of the >vind. The railroad fever had taken posses- 
sion of the Queen City of the Valley. She grew apacq and for years 
she has reveled in the new love, and the grand old Father of Waters 
which had nurtured her into life was forgotten. But she has again 
awakened from her quiet dreams, and the iron horse which had lulled 
her to repose was found while bringing millions to her door to have 
taken millions more away. And in this year of 1882 she opens her 
eyes to her true destiny, and the grand Old Father of Waters, which 
she had striven to drive from her, was once more recognized as the 
very foundation or bed-rock of her commercial life, the power that 
was to keep in check the absorption of her wealth, from the monopo- 
Hzing influence and insatiable maw of the railway kings. /She now 
proudly points to the grand old river, and the fleets of barges borne 
upon its bosom filled with the wealth of an empire, and calls on her 
aster, Chicago, to look at this glorious sight. The ♦* Garden City" 
has abeady snuflfed the battle from afar, and is ready to struggle for 
a commercial supremacy in which there are literally millions, for 
nature has done the work, and St. Louis will win. The **City by 
the Lake" is deserving, and had she the opportunities which have 
lain so long dormant in possession of her rival, would have been to- 
day the wonder of the world. But it is the rugged path that brings 
out man's energy and endurance, not the smooth road. So it is with 
cities. And so the majestic Mississippi flows on, bearing u[)on its 
waters the riches of the valley, and pouring into the lap of the Queen 
City upon its banks millions upon millions of wealth. If the spirit 
»f 1882 shall continue, then St. Louis will soon become the pride of 
the State. In realitv she will be the " Future Great*' of the Ameri- 
^an Continent. She that stands on the })ank of this great inland sea, 
the commerce of an empire flowing at her feet, her sails in every 
clime and country, she is indeed to become a great city, the arbiter of 
the commercial world and the Queen City whose wealth, commanding 
influence, culture and refinement will attest the greatness of her peo- 
ple and command the homnge of the world. Such is to be the 
"Future Great" citv, St. Louis. 

106 HI8TOBY OF 8T. LOUI8. 


Debt of St. Louis, January 1, 1881, $22,507,000; rate of taxatioa 
on the $100, $1.75. 

The receipts of all kinds of grain, 51,958,177 bushels. - 

Twenty-four flouring-mills manufactured 2,077,625 barrels of flour 
in 1880. 

The receipts of cotton for 1880 were 496,570 bales. 

There were 12,846,169 pounds of tobacco manufactured into plug, 
fine-cut and smoking tobacco. 

There were 330,935,973 feet of lumber received in 1880. 

St. Louis received for the year 1880, 41,892,356 bushels of coal. 

Seven elevators have a total capacity of 5,650,000 bushels, and 
three more are being erected and one other enlarged. 

The aggregate of bank clearing for 1880 amounted to $1,422,- 

The post-office distributed in 1880, 43,731,844 pieces, weighing 
4,250,000 pounds. 

Post-office orders issued numbered 53,337, and represented $879,« 

The value of school property is $2,851,133. 

The steel bridge cost $13,000,000, and tunnel $1,500,000. 



The homestead exemption law of the State of Missouri has been one 
of the most enlightened laws passed for the benefit of the people. In 
the last session of the general assembly of the State, the spring of 
1880-81, there was a material change in the law, and it is given here 
in full. Thus every head of a family can be secure in a home of 
moderate value, if he will not waive his right to it. There are printed 
notes now drawn up in which there is a clause printed waiving the 
right of holding such property under that law. When a man signs 
such a note, his home stands in the same light as his other property. 
These notes should never be signed unless by or with the consent of 
the wife as well as the husband. The law reads, as amended, as fol- 
lows, and is in full force at this time : 

Section 1. Section twenty-six hundred and eighty-nine (2689) of 
the Revised Statutes of Missouri, is hereby amended by striking out, 
**or incorporated towns and villages having a less population," and 
inserting in lieu thereof, ** having a popuhition of ten thousand or 
less," in twelfth line, and by inserting immediately after '* dollars," 
fifteenth line, the words ''and in cities and incorporated towns and 
villages having a population less than ten thousand, such homesteads 
shall not include more than five acres of ground or exceed the total 
value of $1,500," so that said section as amended shall read as fol- 
lows : 

Sec. 2689. The homestead of every housekeeper or head of a 
family, consisting of a dwelling-house and appurtenances, and the 
land in connection therewith, not exceeding the amount and value 
herein limited, which is or shall be used by such housekeeper, or head 
-of a family as such homestead shall, together with the rents, issues 



and products thereof, be exempt from attachment and execution 
except as herbin provided ; such homestead in the country shall 
include more than one hundred and sixty acres of land, or exceed th^^ 
total value of fifteen hundred dollars ; and in cities having a popula-*^ 
tion of forty thousand or more, such homestead shall not include 
more than eighteen square rods of ground, or exceed the total value 
of three thousand dollars ; and in cities having a population of ten 
thousand and less than forty thousand, such homestead shall not in- 
clude more than thirty square rods of ground, or exceed the total value 
of fifteen hundred dollars ; and in cities and incorporated towns and 
villages having a population less than ten thousand, such homestead 
shall not include more than five acres of gpound, or exceed the total 
value of fifteen hundred dollars ; and any married woman may file her 
claim to the tract or lot of land occupied by her and her husband, or by 
her, if abandoned by her husband, as a homestead ; said claim shall 
set forth the tract or lot claimed, that she is the wife of the person in 
whose name the said tract or lot appears of record, and said claim 

shall be acknowledged by her before some officer authorized to take 


proof or acknowledgments of instruments of writing, affecting real 
estiite, and be filed in the recorder's office, and it shall be the duty of 
the recorder to receive and record the same. After the filing of such 
claims, duly acknowledged, the husband shall be debarred from, and 
incapable of selling, mortgaging or alienating the homestead in any 
manner whatever, and every such sale, mortgage or alienation is hereby 
declared null and void ; and the filing of any such claims, as aforesaid, 
with the recorder, shall impart notice to all persons of the contents 
thereof, and all subsequent purchasers and mortgagers shall be 
deemed, in law and equity, to purchase with notice ; Provided ^ how^ 
every that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent 
the husband and wife from jointly conveying, mortgaging, alienating 
or in any other manner disposing of such homestead, or any part 

Approved, March 26, 1881. 


Ax Act to exempt the husband from the payment of the debts of he wife, contracted 
before marrlaj»e. 

Secttion 1. The property owned by a man before his marria^e^ 
and that which he may acquire after his marriage by purchase, descent^ 
gift, grant, devise, or any other manner whatsoever, and the profits 



thereof, except such as may be acquired from the wife, shall be 
exempt from all debts aud Jiabilities contracted or incurred by his wife 
before their marriage. 

Sec. 2. All acts aud parts of acts iuconsistent with this act are 
hereby repealed. 

Approved, March 25, 1881. 


The law passed by the General Assembly on the rights and privi- 
leges of married women is full and complete, is composed of fourteen 
sections, and too long to be embodied in this work. The law can be 
found in the *« Revised Statutes of Missouri, volume 1, 1876." It is 
chapter 51, aud found on pages 557 to 561. 


It may not be known to all that a law was passed by the General 
Assembly (1880-1881), that ** every person having a hedge fence,' 
over five years old, upon the line of any public road or highway in 
this State, is hereby required to cut down the same, to the height of 
not more than five feet nor less than four feet, every two years : Pro^ 
wiW, that hedge fences inclosing orchards, house-yards and stock- 
ywds, shall be exempt from the provisions of this act." 

The overseer of roads is to serve the notice and the owner has 
thirty days to commence, and if he fail to do it the overseer shall 
Iwveitdone, and the owner must pay all expenses of the same. It 
can be collected of him by law, same as revenue for road purposes. 

The law passed and took effect March 16, 1881. 


Section 1. The voters of any school-district in this State may 

change the location of a school-house site when the same, for any 

cause, may be deemed necessary and notice of such contemplated 

change shall have been given by the directors at least twenty days 

prior thereto by posting at least three written notices in three of the 

most public places in the district where such school-house site shall 

be located ; Provided^ that in every case a majority of the voters of 

said district shall only be necessary to remove a site nearer the center 

«f a school district, but in all cases to remove a site further from the 

center of a school district it shall require two-thirds of the legal 

voters of such school district. 


Sec. 2. All acts and parts of acts in conflict with this act are^ 
hereby repealed. ' 

Approved March 24, 1881. 


The legislature of 1880-81 passed a marriage license act which 
makes it necessary for persons before marriage to secure a license. 
No person authorized to perform the marriage ceremony can legally 
do 80 without first seeing the license, and a marriage performed with- 
out a license is not legal and a penalty is attached. The intent of 
the law is to have an official record which shall stand in the courts 
and settle any dispute either of marriage or property which may 
hereafter arise. The law reads: 

Section 1. Previous to any marriage in this Stat« a license Jbr 
that purpose shall be obtained. 

The recorder of the county issues the license and the parties must 
be, the male 21 years and the female 18 years of age. If j'ounger, 
the parents or guardian must give consent. 

purchasing books by subscription. 

The business of publishing books by subscription^ having so often 
been brought into disrepute by agents making representations and 
declarations not authorized by the publisher^ in order to prevent that 
as much as possible, and that there may be more general knowledge 
of the relation such agents bear to their principal, and the law gov- 
ernin"- such cases, the following statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, 
by which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work 
described ; the consideration is that the publisher shall publish the 
book named ^ and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay 
the price named. The nature and character of the work are described 
by the prospectus and sample shown. These should be carefully 
examined before subscribing^ as they are the basis and consideration 
of the promise to pay, and not the too often exaggerated statements 
of the agenty who is merely employed to solicit subscriptions ^ for which 
he is usually paid a commission for each subscriber, and has no 
authority to change or alter the conditions upon which the subscrip- 
tions are authorized to be made by the publisher. Should the agent 
assume to agree to make the subscription conditional, or modify or 
change the agreement of the publisher ^ as set out by the prospectus 

I^W8 OF mSBOURI. lit 

tod sample, in order to bind the principal^ the subscriber should see 
thut such couditioD or changes are stated over or in connection with 
ki$ tignature^ so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, 
or any other business, should remember that the law as written is^ 
that they can not be altered^ varied^ or rescinded verbally ^ but if 
done at att^ must be done in winting. It is therefore important that 
all pemns contemplating subscribing should distinctly understand that 
all talk before or after the subscription is made is not admissible as 
tvidence^ and is no part of the contract, 

Perswis employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business 
in a prescribed mode and have no authority to do it any other way 
to the pcejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal 
in any other manner. They can not collect money, or agree that 
payment be made in anything else but money. They can not extend 
the time of payment beyond the time of delivery nor bind their pHn- 
cipal kv the payrnent of expenses incurred in their business. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if 
persons, before signing their names to any subscription book, or any 
written instrument, would examine carefully what it is; and if they 
cannot read themselves call on some one disinterested who can. 



1, James Johnson, of the town of Muncio, county of Delaware, and 
State of Indiana, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing 
health, but of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this ta 
l» my last will and testament, in manner as follows, to-wit: 

First — I give, devise and bequeath to my son, James Horace John- 
son, $1,000 in bank stock, of the First National Bank of Boston, and 
the farm owned by myself, in the township of Washington, Shelby 
county, Missouri, and consisting of eighty acres of land with all the 
houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging, to have 
and to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 
Second — I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters^ 


Ida Louisa Johnson and Annie May Johnson, each $1,T)60 in c 
each one a quarter section of hind owned hy myself in the t 
of Jasi>er, Henry county, Illinois, and recorded in my nam< 
record of said county, where said land is located ; the north 1 
to <!o to Ida Louisa, mv eldest daughter. 

Third — I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Thomas 
Johnson, ten shares of niilroad stock in the Mississippi & Ol 
mad, and my lot, with the residence thereon, in Dayton, Oh 
all the improvements and appurtenances thereunto belonging 
Siiid real estate is recorded in mv name in the countv where i; 

l^ourth — I give to my wife Samuella Richardson Johnson 
household furniture, goods, chattels and personal property a1 
home not hitherto disponed of. including fo.O.H) of bank stocl 
Men'hants' National B:ink of Toledo. Ohio, fifteen shares in t 
sissippi A Ohio Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, po 
and iHMiotit of the home farm so Ions as she mav H|-e, in lieu o 
to which she is entitled by law, Siiid farm being my preset 
of resideuiv. 

Firf^t — It is also mv will and desire that at the death of n 
Samuclla Richardson Ji.huson, or at any time when she may 
to relinojuish her life iiuerest :n the a-'s?ve mentioned homest< 
satv.o may ri\ert to my arK^ve r.anuvl oLildren, or to the lawf 
of cuvh. 

A'\ : Z. •>''•; — I nom'nate ar.«l ar^^vm as exev^utors of this, 
w:"l ar.'l te>:amo:;t. ir.v wirV, S:imue!la Richanisoa Johnson, ; 
ei'-:es: s-.^:^. J:i!r.os H'^r.i'.-c Joh:.s/»::. 

I fur:her direct tha: my deb:s ar.d necessary funeral expens* 
be psid frv^m moneys now on de}v^>:: in the Savings Bank of ] 
O":.:.^- i-c rvs:'.:;:e -f snch m-^noy t»^ revorr to my wife, Samuel 
ard>on J. hiison. for her u>e fK-rwor. 

Ir. wi:::css whor^-*:*. I. J:i:v.i:s J. :.::?on. to this, my last i 
tes::=.!v •::.:. h^vo hor.:::::o se: rjy h:*::.! .-ind sedl. this founh 


S -: • : s-.i ^:c.*:.rid * v Jsr.-.-Js .1 :■:;>-.!: as ar.d for his lasi i 
xes-.Ar:-. ■..:, ::: the vrt--:::T.v . : u-, wl..-. :=.: b s r\--q::est aiid in h 
e::::e r.-.i :r. :hc vrvs^r.-.^e cf edwh c:":.t:r. have subscribed oui 
Ler^--:: as wl:ues<KS iheri ?:'. 

Thomas Dvoan. Dsvton. Ohio. 

RoJHESTEi Mv.'IJvade. Ciac2Diiaii« < 



Whereas, I, James Johnson, did, on the fourth day of December, 
1876, make my last will and testament, I do now, by this writing, add 
lliis codicil to my said will, to be taken as a part thereof. y 

Whereas, By the dispensation of Providence, my daughter Ida 
Louisa has deceased, October 10th, 1877 ; and 

Whereas, A son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
John Wesley Johnson, I give and bequeath to him my gold watch, and 
iD right, interest and title in lands, bank stock and chattels bequeathed 
to my deceased daughter, Ida Louisa, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 10th 

day of January, 1878. 

Jamks Johxsox. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, James 
Johnson, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testa- 
ment, and we, at his request and in his presence, and in the presence 
rf each other, have subscribed our names as witnessess thereto, at the 
^ hereof. 

Thos. Dugan, Dayton, Ohio. 

Charles Jackson, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


This article of agreement, made and entered into on this 

^J^i A. D. 188-, by and between '-, of the county of 

■, and State of Missouri, of the first part, and , of the 

county of , and State of Missouri, of the second part, wit- 

Desseth that the said party of the first part has this day leased unto 
^eparty of the second part the following described premises, to-wit: 

^Here insert description.'] 

ror the term of from and after the day of A. D. 

^^^ at the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows, 


\^Here insert terms.'] 

And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due or unpaid, or 
"default be made in any of the covenants herein contained, it shall 
then be lawful for the said party of the first part to re-enter the said 
pi%mi868, or to distrain for such rent ; or he may recover possession 


thereof by action of forcible entry and detainer, or he may use all or 
any of the remedies to effect such possession. 

And the party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the 
first part the rent as above stated, except when said premises are unten^ 
antable by reason of fire, or from any other cause than the careless- 
ness of the party of the second part, or persons family, or in 

employ, or by superior force or inevitable necessity. And the said 
party of the second part covenants and agrees that — — will use the 

said premises as a , and for no other purpose whatsoever ; and 

that especially will not use said premises, or permit the same U> 

be used, for any unlawful business or purposes whatsoever ; that 

will not sell, assign, underlet, or relinquish said premises without the 

written consent of the lessor, under a penalty of a forfeiture of all 

rights under this lease, at the election of the party of the first part ; 

and that use all due care and diligence in guarding said property, 

with the buildings, gates, fences, trees, vines, shrubbery, etc., from 

damages by fire and the depredation by animals ; that will keep 

buildings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now are, or may 
at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, .inev- 
itable necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the careless- 
ness of the lessor, or persons of family, or in employ, 

excepted ; and that upon the expiration of this lease, or upon a breach 

by said lessee of any of the said covenants herein contained, . 

will, without further notice of any kind, quit and surrender the 
occupancy and possession of said premises in as good condition as 
reas'>nable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, damages 
by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, alone 

In witness whereof, the said parties have subscribed their names on 
the date first-above written. 

Signed in presence of ' . 


Know all men by these presents : That , of county, 

and State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid 

by , of county, and State of , do hereby sell and 

convey unto the said the following described premises, situated 

in the county of , and State of , to- wit : 

[^Here iiisert description.'] 






ind do hereby covenant with the said that lawfully seized 

of said premises, that they are free from incumbrance^ that have 

goody right and lawful authority to sell and convey the same ; and 

do hereby covenant to warrant and defend the same against the law- 
fid claims of all persons whomsoever. To be void upon the condition 

that the said shall pay the full amount of principal and interest 

•tthe time therein specified, of certain promissory notes, for the 

ram of dollars, 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent* 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent* 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — ^per cent* 

And the said mortgagor agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied 
upon the above described premises. It is also agreed by the mort- 
gagor that if it becomes necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a rea- 
sonable amount shall be allowed as an attorney's fee for foreclosing. 
And the . hereby relinquishes all her right of do\^ or and home- 
stead in and to the above described premises. 

Signed the day of , A, D. IS—. 


Know ALL men by these presents : That , of county ^ 

and State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid 

by , of — =- county, and State of , do hereby sell and con- 
vey unto the said the following described personal property, 

now in the possession of , in the county of , State of , 


[Jjfei'C insert description,"] 

and do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free 
from any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by 
grantor in said property being the right of redemption herein provided* 
This conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall 
pay to aaid grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and 

interest at the time therein specified, of certain promissory notes 

of even date herewith, for the sum of dollars. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — ^per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — ^per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any 
time any part or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said 


grantor may proceed by sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself 
the unpaid balance of said notes, whether due or not, the grantor to 
pay all necessary expenses of such foreclosure, including $ attor- 
ney's fees, and whatever remains, after paying off said notes and ex- 
penses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of , 18 — . 


Know all men by these presents : That , of county, 

State of , in consideration of dollars, to in hand 

paid by -; , of county, and State of , the receipt 

whereof do hereby acknowledge, have bargained, sold and quit- 
claimed, and by these presents do bargain, sell and quitclaim unto the 

said , and to heirs and assigns forever, all I'ight, 

title and interest, estate, claim and demand, both in law and in 
■equity, and as well in possession as in expoctiincy, of, in and to the 
following described premises, to-wit: 

[^Here insert description, "l 

With all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18 — . 

Signed in presence of 

warranty deed. 

Know all men by these presents : That , of county, 

and State of , in con^^ideration of the sum of dollars in 

hand paid by , of county, and State of , do hereby sell 

and convey unto the sj^id , and to heirs and assigns, the 

following described premises, situated in the county of ^ State 

of Missouri, to-wit : 

\^Here insert description.'^ 

And do hereby covenant with the said that a 

lawfully seized in fee simple of said premises, that they are free from 

incumbrance ; that ha — good right and lawful authority to sell 

the same, and do hereby covenant to warrant and defend said 


ind do hereby coYenant with the said that lawfully seized 

of said premises, that they are free from incumbrance^ that have 

good, right and lawful authority to sell and convey the same ; and 

do hereby covenant to warrant and defend the same against the law- 
fid claims of all persons whomsoever. To be void upon the condition 

that the said shall pay the full amount of principal and interest 

at the time therein specified, of certain promissory notes, for the 

8Qm of dollars, 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent* 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent* 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — ^per cent* 

And the said mortgagor agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied 
iipon the above described premises. It is also agreed by the mort- 
gagor that if it becomes necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a rea- 
sonable amount shall be allowed as an attorney's fee for foreclosing. 
And the . hereby relinquishes all her right of do\^ or and home- 
stead in and to the above described premises. 

Sgned the day of , A, D. 18—. 


Know ALL men by these presents : That , of county ^ 

Mid State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid 

"J , of — =- county, and State of , do hereby sell and oon- 

▼ej unto the said the following described personal property, 

now in the possession of , in the county of , State of > 


[^Here insert description. '\ 

Md do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free 
from any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by 
pantor in said property being the right of redemption herein provided. 
Thia conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall 
ptytosaid grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and 

interest at the time therein specified, of certain promissory notes 

of even date herewith, for the sum of dollars, 

One note for % — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — ^per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for % — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — ^per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any 
time any part or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said 


If it is to be paid iu trade it should be so expressed after the word 


Seceipts should state when received and for what ; thus : 

$100. " St. Louis, January 1, 1878. 

Received of J. W. Hardin one hundred dollars, for services in the 
harvest field, to date, in full. 


Received of J. W. Hardin fifty dollars, for one week's work of sell 

and team, in hauling stone, in full. 

R. W. Fields. 

If only part is paid it should read, **on account," instead of ** in 


It should state each article and price, as follows : — * 

St. Loms, Mo., Januaiy 1, 1878. 
J. W;. Shattuck, 

Bought of J. D. Adams. 

To 5 Yards Jeans, at • . . .50 $2 8C 

«( 20 << Brown Domestic •• .08 •••••• . I OC 

Beceived payment, $4 IC 

J. D. Adams. 


How to find the gross and net weight of a hog, is by the rule that a 
hog's net weight is one-fifth less than his gross weight. For instance, 
a hog weighing 400 pounds gross, would, when dressed, weigh 320. 

A good rule to find the capacity of a granary or a wagon-bed ie 
multiply by (short method) the number of cubic feet by 6308, and 
point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct answer in 
bushels and tenths of bushels. 

To find the contents of a corn-crib multiply the number of cubic 
feet by 64 (short method) or by 4 J ordinary method, and point ofl 
one decimal — the result will be the answer in bushels. This rule 
applies when it is first cribbed and before the corn shrinks. 

For the contents of a cistern or tank, multiply the square of the 
mean diameter by the depth (all in feet) and this product by 5681 
(short method) and point off one decimal place — the result will be 
the contents in barrels of 31^ gallons each. 

To measure boards multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in 



inches), divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents m 
sqnare feet. 

NoTK.— This is* the correct measurement for every inch of thickness. 

The same in substance is the rule for scantling, joists, planks, sills, 
etc. Multiply the width, thickness and length together (the width 
and thickness in inches and the length in feet) and divide the product 
by 12— the result will be square feet. 

To find the number of brick required in a building, multiply the 
number of cubic feet by 22^. The number of cubic feet is found by 
multiplying the length, height and thickne8s*(in feet) together. 

A congressional township is thirty-six sections, each a square mile. 

A section of land is 640 acres. 

A quarter section, 160 acres, is a half a mile square. 

Eighty acres is half a mile long and one-quarter of a mile wide. 

Forty acres is a quarter of a mile square. 

The sections of a congressional township are all nunlbered from one 
to thirty-six, commencing at the northeast corner of the township. 

One hundred and ninety-six pounds is one barrel of flour.' 

Two hundred pounds is one barrel of pork. 

Fifty-six pounds is called a firkin of butter. 

A cord of wood is four feet wide, four feet high, and eight feet long. 


The lawful weight of the following articles is the following number of 
pounds per bushel, and so understood when no special contract is made : 

Apples, peaches and quinces . . 48 

Cherries, grapes, currants or gooseber- 
ries 40 

Strawberries, raspberries or blackber- 
ries .32 

08ageH)range seed . . • -32 

MUletseed 45 

Clover seed ^^ 

Flu seed 5^' 

Sorghum seed ^0 

*nniothy8eed 45 

Hemp seed . . . . • -44 

firoom-com seed . . • .30 

Bine-grass seed . . • .14 

Hungarian grass seed . . * .45 

Sweet potatoes 46 

Castor beans 40 

I^ed apples 24 

There is a fine and penalty attached for giving false weights. 

Dried peaches 38 

Rye 56 

Salt 50 

Sand 180 

Lime 80 

Beans 60 

Bran 20 

Oats 88 

Wheat 60 

Barley 48 

Buckwheat ...... 52 

Corn-meal 48 

Stone coal 80 

Com, in the ear 70 

Potatoes 60 

Onions 57 

Shelled com 56 



There have been so many violations of the game law that its publica- 
tion is one of interest. Many persons violate this law through ignor- 
ance, and others wilfully. The penalty is here given for all such acts. 
Every good citizen and lover of hunting is interested in preventing 
the law from being trampled upon, and those wilfully breaking it should 
be forced to pay the penalty. A synopsis of the law is as follows : 

It is unlawful to kill, catch or have in possession any deer betweea 
January 15th and September 1st. 

Wild turkey between March 1st and September 15th. 

Prairie chickens between February 1st and August 15th. 

Quail or pheasant between February 1st and October 15th. 

Woodcock between January 10th and July 1st. 

Turtle doves, meadow larks and plover between February 1st and" 
August 1st. 

Wild sQug birds or insectiverous birds cannot be killed at any time. 

It is unlawful to net or trap any quail, prairie chicken, or any of the 
birds named above. 

It is unlawful to have in possession or purchase or sell any of the 
game or animals named above when the killing is prohibited. 

It is unlawful to have in possession or to sell any of the game birds 
named that do not show shot marks, it being prima facie evidence 
that they have been trapped or netted contrary to law. 

It is unlawful for any railroad, express company, or other carrier, 
to receive for transportation any of the birds or game mentioned, 
when the killing of the same is prohibited. 

Every person who shall violate any of the above named laws shall 
be guilty of misdemeanor and punished by a fine not exceeding $20 for 
each bird or animal killed, netted, trapped or found in his possession. 

Any violators of tliese laws can be prosecuted before any police 
justice, recorder, or justice of the peace, or other court having juris- 
diction to try cases of misdemeanor. 

One-half of any fines collected will be paid to the informer and the 
balance to the school fund of the county. It is the duty of all con- 
stables, marshals, market-masters and police ofl[icers, to arrest all 
persons violating any of the game laws, and take them before the 
courts having jurisdiction to hear and try complaints. 

California quail cannot be killed before October, 1883. 

Messina quail cannot be killed before January 1st, 1886. 

Hawks, owls, eagles and crows can be killed at any time, and the^ 
destruction of these birds and their nests is recommended. 

























Amon. . . . 

40 411 




Atkin:>u . . . 






C-lilbtniH. . . 







Colondo . . . 







CniKKClicut . . 







hhota . . . 






illDi«wtof Ck>luin! 




i?iC^ ; 











EW .... 





Ufcii. . . . 






1 r>]i>u . . . 
iWi . . . . 







UKUH>. . . . 






niUntakv. . . 











« Niiog . . . . 






MM'-vd. . - 






Illl«Wbu«.i.» . 






aWichig.,,. . . 






aicidD^ow . . 






tlli.«.ip^i . . 






m»-^\ . . 






fc: : ; 

















346, !W4 




»N«j„J, . . 

l,130,H8.t' 1.0»l.e5> 




IIS«M«il-o. . 

11H.43I1 107.1S8 




KS«,V„rk . . 

5,0-l:i.Hl(l 5.017.142 




>3>orttiCuroliiiH . 

1,400.0(7 yii7,-Ji;7 



WOhio .... 

3,l»8.230 3,118.344 




KOregon. . . . 

174,764 HW.087 




WP^ZlVHni.. . 

4,2«2.T8'i, 4,197,106 




>Iia.del.l»<»l . 

27.i.62« 2fi9,M4 



fflSwrth Carol. ,.« . 

995,622 8'.n,2^» 




l,51J,*i;i 1,139,120 




«T«M . 

1,5!I2.674| 1,197,493 




*'i;iih .... 

14;J,'J0.1 142,3S1 





B22.2Wi, 8Bt.213 
1,512,8061 880,739 

681, 9P6 


«viS : : 



«W,.hi„p.„ . . 

75,120 07,849 




«W«tVir«,..i:, . 

618.443| 692.433 




«W1««,„i„ , . 

1,315.4801 1.809,622 




I'Wjumin- . . 

20,789' 19.480 




1 Tolfll Oniwd SlutM .... 

-.0.152,866 43.402.408 






T-W population -W.O'; percent. | Chinese populn 


.. 67.07 

per cent 


lepopulaUon 28.82 

" 1 '"Tu^l 

on (civiliz 







The inhabitants of Alaska and the Indian Territory (both unorgan- 
ized as yet) are not included in the above total. The census of 
Alaska in 1880 showed: White, 392; Creoles (issue of intermarriage 
between the whites and natives), 1,683; Aleuts, 1,960; Innuits, 
17,488; Indians, 8,665; total, 30,178. 

The Indian Territory is estimated to contain 60,000 to 75,000 in- 

The Indians included in the census in each State and Territory are 
those reckoned as civilized, or outside of tribal organizations. Indians 
not taxed are by law excluded from the census. Estimates of their 
numbers vary widely — from 800,000 to 350,000 (the latter as esti- 
mated in the census of 1870). 

In the Chinese -column (for want of space elsewhere) have been 
reckoned a very few Japanese, East Indians and Sandwich Islanders, 
not exceeding 250 in all. 

1850 9,201 

1865 ..18,874 

1860 ~ UJ0,636 

IS66 85,086 

There were in the whole world, J&nuary 1, 1881, 192,962 miles of railway. 


In 1866, there were 37,380 miles of telegraph line in the United 
States, and 76,685 miles of wire ; in 1870, 54,109 miles of line and 
112,191 miles of wire ; in 1875, 72,833 miles of line and 179,496 
miles of wire;, in 1880, 85,645 miles of line and 233,534 miles of 

There were 29,216,509 telegraph messages sent in the year 1880. 


1870 52,914 

1876 74,«74 

1880 .84,716 










1866 « 










No rec'd. 































1862 „ 



1876 « 





1866 ^.... 







Tie crop for 1880 ifl given by States, aa fotlows : 





606, 7U 















'-^'' {SSS::::::::::;::::::::::::::::::::;::- 
























Ww Virginia.- 

mjiMiZ"!. .;;";: .■." ". 










K«i»u....:'z:vv;::v:::;: :::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::: ::::;:;:: 













Ibod. Wand _ 










George Waebiogton. 

John Adams 

Thomas Jeiferson... 
*Thomas Jefferson. . 

Aaron Barr 

John Adams 

Thttmas Jefferson... 

C C. Pinckney 

James Madison 

C. C. Pinckney 

James Madison 

DeWitt Clinton 

James Monroe 

Rufas King 

James Monroe 
















*John Qaincy Adams Federal. 

loo^ J Andrew Jackson iDemocrat. 

lOM < y^ H Crawford 'Democrat. 

.Henry Clay |Whig. 

( Andrew Jacknon | Democrat. 

1828 i John Q. Adams Federal. 

I f Andrew Jackson Democrat. 

I I Henry^Clay 









Anti -Mason. 



William Wirt 

'Martin Van Ruren 

Wm. H. Harrison ei a<....|Whig. 

Wm. H. Harrison Whig. 

Martin Van Baren , Democrat. 

\ James K. Polk 'Democrat. 

, J Henry Clay IWhig. 

I (Zachary Taylor Whig. 

1848 < Lewis Cass | Democrat. 

I i Martin Van Buren Democrat. 

( Franklin Pierce Democrat. 

} Winfleld Scott e< at Whig. 

James Buchanan .Democrat. 

John C. Fremont iRepublican 

Abraham Linool u i Republican 

J. C. Breckenridge et al..' Democrat. 
Abraham Lincoln 'Republican 




George B. McCIellan 

Ulysses s. Grant 

Horatio Seymour.... 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Horace Greeley 

SR. B. Hayes 
Bamuel J. Tilden 
Peter Cooper et nl... 
S James A. Garfield... 
W. 8. Hancock 
James B. Weaver. . . . 















So . 
1-1 .a a> 


t" o 

11 « 

S O 

1 Elect'l vote 

in opposi'n. 















Electoral Vote 1886.t 



All. Alabama*"* 

71 Arkansas 

60 California 

73 Colorado 

73 Connecticut 

65 Delaware 

148 Florida 

28 Georgia 




89 Kansas «... 

180 Kentucky 

84 Louisiana. ....... 

... Maine...'. , 





S7, Mississippi 

178! Missouri 


239 Nevada 

49 New Hampshire. 

11 New Jersey 

7 New York 

179 North Carolina. . 

131 Ohio 

234 Oregon 

60^ Pennsylvania. . . . 
170 'Rhode Island — 
lOSjSouth Carolina.. 

163 Tennessee 




42' West Virginia... 

174i Wisconsin 


130i Total 










































* Elected by House of Representatives. 

t Election November 2, 1880. 

Washington, Februai*y 22, 1732. 
J. Adani8, October 30, 1735. 
Jefferson. April 2, 1742. 
Madison, March 16, 1751. 
Monroe, April 28, 1758. 
J. Q. Adams, June 11, 1767. 
Jackson, March 16, 1767. 


Van Buren, December 5, 1782. 
Harrison, February 9, 1773. 
TyUr, March 29, 1790. 
Polk, November 2, 1796. 
Taylor, November 24, 1784. 
Fillmore, January 7, 1800. 
Pierce, November 23, 1804. 

Buchanan, April 28, 1791. 
Lincoln, February 12, 1809. 
Johnson, December 29, 1806. 
Grant, April 29, 1822. 
Hayes. October 4, 1822. 
Garfield, November 19, 1831. 
Chester A. Arthur, Oct. 6, 1880.. 




By Col. Win. F. Switzler, author of the " The History of Missouri." 


Introdaction — Boone originally a part of Howard — Boundaries of Howard as first 
Defined in 1816 — An empire — Boone now larger than some of the States of 
Europe — Its History rich in Incident and Interest — The Boone's Lick Country — 
Early Stockade Forts— First White Settlement in Boone at "ThralPs Prairie " — 
"The old St. Charles Trail " — Progress of Settlement — Names of the First Set- 
tlers — First Churches — The First Newspaper and First Steamboat at Franklin — 
Poblic Dinner, Speeches and Toasts — The Second Steamboat, and a Description 
of it — Prices of ProYisions — Mail Facilities — Immigration — Smithton and Co- 
lumbia — July A 1619, celebrated in Smithton — Proceedings and Toasts. 


At first view, and without thought or examination, it may be af- 
firmed by some that Boone county has no history which is worthy of 
the name, or at least which assumes such proportions and importance 
as to merit publication in an enduring form. It is not improbable 
that a hasty judgment would conclude that at best this history con- 
sists of few events of special interest, and that none of them have 
influenced the policy, development or destiny of the State. 

Closer and more thorough examination, however, will disclose the 
fact that Boone county has nobly and courageously borne its part in 
advancing the progress, civilization and culture of our time, and the 
common prosperity and glory of the commonwealth of Missouri. 

Originally its territory constituted a part of the county of Howard, 
which, as organized in 1816, was an empire in superficial area. The 
act of the General Assembly, approved January 13, 1816 (see Terri- 



torial Laws, p. 460), organizing. Howard county out of the territories, 
of St. Louis and St. Charles, fixed its boundaries substantially as 
follows : Beginning at the mouth of the Osage river, which is about 
ten miles below the present Cty of Jefferson and opposite the village 
of Barkersville in Callaway county, the boundary pursued the cir- 
cuitous course of said stream ** to the Osage boundary line,'* meaning' 
thereby the eastern boundary of the Osage Indian territory, or to the 
northeast corner of Vernon county, where the Osage river, two miles 
east of the present town of Schell City, runs near said corner; 
thence north (along the western line of St. Clair, Henry, Johnson^ 
and Lafayette), to the Missouri river, striking that stream west of and 
very near Napoleon ; thence up said river to the mouth of the Kansas 
river, (now Kansas City,) ** thence with the Indian boundary line, 
(as described in a proclamation of the (Joverhor [Wm. Clark] issued 
the ninth day of March, 1815,) northwardly along the eastern bound- 
ary of the «* Platte Purchase" one hundred and forty miles, or to a 
point about 36 miles north and within the present county of Adams,. 
Iowa, near the town of Coming in said county, on the Burlington and 
Missouri River railroad, ** thence eastward with the said line to thef 
main dividing ridge of high ground, to the main fork of the river Cedar 
[which is the line between Boone and Callaway counties in Missouri] , 
thence down said river to the Missouri, thence down the river Missouri 
and in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the mouth of the 
great Osage river, the place of beginning.'* 

Although these boundaries cannot be definitely traced on the map, 
it is nevertheless clearly seen that Howard county, as originally organ- 
ized in 1816,^ more than five years before the State was admitted 
into the Union, embraced not only the present territory of the county 
of Boone, but in addition a vast area north and south of the Missouri 
river, and including the present counties of Cole, north part of Miller, 
Morgan, north parts of Benton and St*. Plair, Henry, Johnson, Lafay- 
ette, Pettis, Cooper, Moniteau, Saline, Clay, Clinton, DeKalb, Gen- 
try, Worth, Harrison, Daviess, Caldwell, Ray, Carroll, Livingston, 
Grundy, Mercer, Putnam, Sullivan, Linn, Chariton, Randolph^ 
Macon, Adair, and probably parts of Shelby, Monroe and Audrain. 
And in addition the following counties in Iowa : parts of Taylor and 

* The county was reduced to its present Umits by an act of the Legislature approved 
February 16, 1825. See Revised Statutes, 1825. Vol. I, page 233. 


Adams ; Union, Ringgold, Clarke, Decatur and Wayne, and probably 
parts of Lucas, Monroe and Appanoose. 

A vast empire to constitute a single county, embracing at least five 
of the present counties of Iowa and probably parts of as many more, 
and in addition more than thirty of the present counties of Missouri, 
eight and parts of three others south of the river, and twenty-three 
and parts of several others north of it, this large expanse of territory, 
covering about fourteen million acres of land and presenting a super- 
ficial area of 21,875 square miles. An area larger than ancient 
Greece, and as large as Saxony and Switzerland combined, and larger 
than the States of Vermont, Massachusetts, Delaware and Rhode 

In one respect, therefore, it might truthfully be said that as the 
present territory of Boone for, five years and more constituted a part 
of this extensive empire, its history is properly the history of Boone 
county, and that this volume should embrace the entire county of 
Howard for that period. 

But such is not the scope and character of the history which fol- 
lows, the simple object being to record in chronological order the 
: more important events which transpired within the present limits of 
Boone county from the earliest white settlement in 1815 to the pres- 
ent time, a period of sixty-seven years. 

In superficial area — 674 square miles or 431,000 acres — Boone 
county is larger than some of the states of Europe and the islands 
of the ocean, which stricken from the roll of empire or blotted from 
the annals of nations would so mar the history of the eastern hem- 
isphere as to leave it measurably without a history. 

It is also about half as large as one of the States of the American 
Union, and one-third the area of several others ; and in the sphdre 
in which it has moved, and to the extent of its opportunities and 
capacity, and the comparatively short period which has elapsed since 
its first settlement, will favorably compare in its achievements and 
prowess with some geographical divisions of our own and foreign 
lands, larger even in size and much older in years, whose history is 
canonized in poetry and song. 

Located in the central part of the State, and settled nearly seventy 
years ago by a hardy and progressive rac^ of pioneers, who then laid 
the foundations of its present prosperity, wealth and culture, it will 
be found that its history is an inexhaustible store-bouse of *' moving 
incidents by flood and field," of events grave and gay, of steady ad- 


vancement in agriculture, education and a Christian civilization, and 
in all the arts of peace. 

What is here claimed for it receives ample verification in its improved 
farms and farm machinery, its farm-houses and barns, its churches and 
schools, its newspapers and periodicals, its improved stock and thor- 
oughfares, the prowess of its soldiers in war and the eloquence and 
achievements of its statesmen and orators in council, the culture and 
beauty of its women, the qualifications and success of its scholars and 
teachers, the earnestness and ability of its clergymen, the learning 
and character of its lawyers, the genius of its authors, poets and novel- 
ists, and the general thrift, hospitality, and public spirit of its people. 

In a word : No county in the State, St. Louis city and county ex- 
cepted, has contributed more vitality to the agencies which are solving 
for the State the problems of prosperity, wealth, and* culture, or in a 
larger measure influenced the councils or shaped the policy of the com- 
monwealth, than **01d Boone." 

Such a county and such a people have a history, and one which, if 
faithfully and accurately written, will disclose a wealth of incident, 
adventure and interest not excelled by any in the Great West. 

The county comprises a part of that large area of inland territory • 
which, in the earlier times, received the name of '* The Boone's Lick 
Country," and which embraced '* the nine upper counties on the Mis- 
souri River, Clay, Ray, Chariton, Howard, Boone, Cole, Cooper, Sa- 
line, and Lillard,"* the name of the latter being changed to La- 
fayette, February 16, 1825, a circumstance which was no doubt in- 
spired by Lafayette's visit to St. Louis during that year. 

Howard County was the largest, most populous, and at that period 
the most important of the counties belonging to *« The Boone's Lick 
Country," and contained a small salt spring in Cooper's Bottom, now 
in Boone's Lick Township, in that county, and nearly opposite Aitow 
Rock, from which the name was derived.* 

It is quite a prevalent error that Boon's Lick, or the salt spring 
above mentioned, was first occupied and utilized as a manufactory 6{ 
salt by Daniel Boone, the old Kentucky pioneer. There is no evidence 
known to us that Daniel Boone ever owned or operated or saw the 
spring, or ever was in Howard County. Two of his sons, however, — 

1 See Franklin (Mo.) Intelligencer of November 26, 1822. 

s See Franklin (Mo.) Intelligencer of January 7, 1828. The spring or ** lick " is abont 
two miles northeast of the ferry landing opposite Arrow Rock, and is on land now 
(1882) owned by Wm. N. Marshall. 



Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, — during the summer of 1807, and in 
company with three other men, left the Fern me Osage Creek settle- 
ment, in St. Charles County, where the elder Boone then lived, and 
came up to Howard County with a few kettles to manufacture salt at 
thissprinof, and, because of this fact, it was called ** Boone's Lick." 

Up to the close of the last war with Great Britain, which is known 
in|)opular parlance and denominated in the laws of Congress as **the 
War of 1812," nearly if not all the inhabitants of Howard county 
were confined to three small stockade forts — Cooper's, Hempstead's 
and Kincjiid's * — and therefore the present territory of Boone was 
substnntiully without population, unless the hostile tribes of Indians — 
Sac« and Foxes, Kickapoos and Pottawatamies — which abounded in 
this part of the then territory, are accounted as such. 

It is tme, that as early as 1812-13, before the tide of flagrant war 
reached the interior of the territory, a few of the small hive of 
emigrant Kentuckians that settled in'Cooper's bottom ventured to the 
rich lands on the east side of the Moniteau, at "Thrall's Prairie," as 
it was afterwards called ; and no doubt they were inspired to make 
the venture by the protection afforded by Head's Foil, a small stock- 
ade defence named in honor of Capt. William Head. 

It was situated in a curve of the Moniteau, and on the east side of 
it in Howard county, about two njiles north of Rocheport, a. mile and 
a half south of where the old St. Charles road crossed the Moniteau, 
and about a half mile west of the Boone line and the same distance 
^t of the creek. It was located at a sprinor of never-failing water, 
^hkb is on land now owned bv Mr. John L. Jones. 


The history of Boone County, not unlike the history of the largest 
empires on the globe, may be said to be funnel-shaped. Starting from 

' Cooper*s Fort was two mUes southwest of Boone's Lick; Klncald's, nine miles 

south .vest of Cooper's and about one mile north of the present railroad bridge at 

Booiwrille; and Fort Hempstead, about one and a half miles north of Kincaid's. All 

'fere built in 1S12. (CampbelPs Gazetteer, p. 246.) Tlie spot on which Cooper's Fort was 

located is now (1882) about one and a half miles from the ferry landing: opposite Arrow 

Bock, and the land is owned by John A. Fisher. Capt. Sarshell Cooper, after whom 

the fort was named, was killed in it on the ni<>;ht of April 14, 1814, i)y Indians, and 

buried near by, the precise place of interment being now unknown, and in a corn or 

wheat field. Mr. Eusebius Hubbard, who now (1882) resides on the two-mile prairie, 

ten miles southeast of Columbia, and who came to Howard couuty from Madison 

coQoty, Ky., in 1810, aided in buildin;. Fort Hempstead. 



a single point of time (1815) and from a single locality (Thrall'^ 
PrairiOi), its contour diverges and widens as the years roll on until it 
embraces the population, growth and achievements of nearly three- 
quarters of a century. 

In the beginning a paragraph, a line, a word would record all ii 
had of history. After the elapse of seventy years, so rapid has beer 
the succession and so countless the number of its events, so transform 
ing the forces of its being, and so progressive and civilizing the natun 
of its achievements in art, in education, in religion, and in all th< 
varied industries which characterize the civilization of our age, thai 
an octavo volume is too small to perpetuate its annals. 

The first settlement, or more properly the first cabin erected anc 
patch of corn planted, were the work in 1812-13, of John and Wil 
liam Berry, Wm. Baxter and Reuben Gentry, in the neighborhood, i 
not on a part, of what is now known as ** the Model Farm," formerly 
constituting the large and rich e^ate of the late Hon. John W. Har 
ris, and in earlier times called ''Thrall's Prairie."^ In the sam^ 
neighborhood, soon after, settled James Barnes, Robert and Mitche 
Payne, John Denham, David McQuitty and Robert Barclay, with thei: 
families. Little progress, however, was made in the settlement of th< 
country, now embraced by the boundary lines of Boone County, unti 
after the subsidence of the war with Great Britain, and until after th< 
treaty of 1815 by which the Indians relinquished all claim to anj 
portion of the territory north of the Missouri River. In fact, it maj 
be affirmed as substitntially true that, anterior to this time, there wai 
not a white settlement worthy of the name within the present limit 
of the county. 

Speedily succeeding the declaration of peace and the ratification o 
this treaty of relinquishment of Indian title the tide of immigratioi 
set in as a flood, and Robert Hinkson (not Hinckston), after whom th< 
creek on which Columbia is located was called ; William Callaham, fo: 
whom "Callaham's Fork," of the Perche, is named; Wm. Graham 
Reuben and Henry Cave, and perhaps some others, all from Madisoi 
County, Ky., settled along the old Boone's Lick trail, or old St. Charlei 
Road, leading from St. Louis to Franklin — a '* trail" which was firs 
traversed in 1808-10 by Lieutenant-Colonol Ben. Cooper, and othe 

1 "Thrall's Prairie,*' or **tbe Model Farm,'' is twelve miles northwest of Colum 
bia and four north of Rocheport, and Is now in part the property of Warren A. Sn^itb 



immigrants of that name, while en route from Madison County, Ky., 
m St. Charles County and Loutre Island settlement to the neighbor- 
hood of ** Boone's Lick," in Howard County. 

In 1869-70, Mr. E. W. Stephens, as assistant editor of the Columbia 
Stattsman, of which paper Col. W. F. Switzler was editor and pro- 
prietor, prepared for and published in that journal, a series of inter- 
esting historical sketches of Boone County, in which it is claimed that 
"Calhihara, Graham and Hinkson stopped along the Boone's Lick 
trail and erected cabins, as taverns, for the accommodation of movers 
and travellers ;" that Callaham ** was a noted hunter and Indian fighter, 
and can be justly designated as the first white man who ever settled in 
Boone County. Nearly the same time, however, John Graham built 
a cabin near the present site of Rocky Fork church (seven miles north- 
west of Columbia), and he was followed by Robert Hinkson, who lived 
near the source of the stream that bears his name." 

The years 1816, 1817 and 1818 — the latter the year of the first land 
sales at Franklin, — witnessed a great influx of population into the 
"Boone*s Lick country," and into the territory now composing the 
county of Boone. 


In 1816, Augustus Thrall and others settled in what was soon there- 
after known as ** Thrall's Prairie." The Stephens - /S'^a^e^man 
sketches say that ** in 1816 settlement in Boone County began in 
cjirnest. In the spring of that year a number of the inhabitants of 
Head's Fort, located ivear Rochepoil, settled on what was afterwards 
known as Thrall's Prairie, situated four miles north of the present site 
ofRocheport. They settled upon '* Madrid locations." "Madrid 
l<KJatioiis" were tracts of land which were gcranted bv the government 
to Settlers who had sufl^ered losses by the earthquakes in the county 
ofxVew Madrid, in the vears 1811 and 1812. Most of the land of that 
section was entered by Taylor Berry, of Franklin." ^ 

'*This settlement was made by Anderson Woods, in company with 
the following persons : Robert Barclay, John Barnes, William Pipes, 
Absalom Hicks, John Stephenson, Jefferson Fulcher, a family of Bar- 
tons, Jesse Richardson and several others. 

* Mr. Berry was a gentlemen of wealth and a large land speculator. On August 31, 
1824, he fought a duel on Wolf Island, In the Mississippi River, with Judge Abiel 
I/eonard, formerly of Fayette, at ten paces, with pistols. Berry fell at the flrst lire, 
mortally wounded, but lingered until September 22, same year, and died at New 
Madrid. During the war of 1812 he served in the Pay Department of the Northwestern 
army, at Detroit. 


** The settlement grew with great rapidity, and soon comprised some 
among the best citizens of that time — men who have left their impress 
upon the history and development of our county. Among them we 
note the following : Augustus Thrall, Oliver Parker, Anderson Woods, 
first Jndge of the County Court, Dr. J. B. Wilcox, Clayton Heme, 
Tyre Harris, Overton Harris, Sampson, William and Stephen Wilhite, 
Henry Lightfoot, James Ketchum, William Boone, William Goslin, 
John Slack, Wilford Stephens, Jonathan Barton, James Cochran, 
Reuben Hatton, Charles Laughlin, and a number whose names we 
have not space to give. 

** In 1819, Oliver Parker had a store there and kept a post-office, 
which wjis for some time known as ' Lexington.' 

*' In the spring of 1817, the next settlement was begun, in Perche 
Bottom, in the southwestern portion of the county, by John Hickam, 
Anthony Head, Peter and Robert Austin, John McMickel, Jacob Mag- 
gard, Silas Riggs and Abraham N. Foley. 

** In 1817, immigration to the county was very large, and in every 
section large settlements sprung up with amazing rapidity, and 
steadily increased during the years 1818, 1819 and 1820. It is, of 
course, impossible to ascertain with exactitude the date of the immi- 
gration or primitive abodes of these early settlers, but it is due to those 
hardy and worthy pioneers, who first reclaimed our county from a 
wilderness, that their names should be preserved as far as possible, 
in a [)ermanent history of our county. 

** On Southern Two-mile Prairie were Overton Harris, Peter Bass, 
Peter Ellis, Tyre Martin, Lawrence Bass, Mason Moss, D. M. Hick- 
man, Wilson Hunt, John Broughton, Benjamin White, David Doyle, 
Samuel Crockett, Philip and Benjamin Barns, Daniel Vincent, Lewis 
Woolfolk, William Shields, Wni. Simms, Noah Sapp, Ed. Bass, 
Abraham Barns, John Jamison, Robert and Cyrus Jones, Richard 
Lawrence, Durrett Hubbard, Francis Lipscomb, J. P. Lynes, John 
Yates, Ambrose C. Estes, Stephen Chapman, Richard and James 
Barns, Elias Simms, Mosias Jones, John M. Smith, Michael Hersh, 
Daniel Hubbard, James Harris. On the Two-mile Prairie north of 
the St. Charles road, were Samuel, Elijah and Sampson Wright, Elias 
Newman, Isaac Geyhert, Charles Helm, James Chandler, Wm. Ed- 
wards, Elijah Stephens, Thomas Peyton Stephens, Samuel Riggs, 
Absalom RentVo, Nicholas McCubbin, Wm. Wright, Wm. Timber- 
lake, James and Hugh Crockett, Benjamin Estill, Rev. Mr. Kirk- 
patrick (a Methodist preacher), Asa Stone, Thomas D. Grant, Roger 


N. Todd, Levi McGuire, Lazarus Wilcox, Thomas C. Maupin, Nicholas 
S. Eavaiiaugh, John Read and James Barns. 

lu the vicinity of Claysville lived William Ramsay, Jesse Byrant, 
Mark Cunningham. 

From the neighborhood of Rocheport to Thrall's Prairie were lo- 
cated John Grey, Gaven Head, Joseph Head, John Berry, David and 
Andrew McQuitty, Samuel Beattie, Robert Daly, John Copher, Sol- 
omon and Zachariah Barnett, Win. Baxter, James Boggs, David 
and James Pipes, John Copeland, David Kincaid, Wm. Lientz, John 
G.Philips, Michael Woods, J. R. Abernathy, Robert D. Walkup, and 
Tyre Harris. 

East and southeast -of Rocheport, more generally known as '* Ter- 
rapin Neck," lived Granville Bledsoe, Daniel Lewis, James Lewis, 
Wm. Lewis, Pattison Y. Russell, Jesse Lewis, Wm. Burch, John 
Graves, Ichabod C. Hensley, Thomas Williams, and Richard Fulk- 

In the vicinity of the present site of Midway, lived John Hen- 
derson, Jonathan Freeman, Benjamin Mothershead, Charles Laugh- 
lin, W. T. Hatton, Geo. Crump, Wm. and James Y. Jones, John 

A few miles north of Columbia, resided Caleb Fenton, Riley 
Slocum, Hiram Phillips, David C. Westerfield, Jacob Hoover, John 
Slack, John T. Evans, Zachariah Jackson, John Harrison. Still far- 
ther north, near where now stands Red Top meeting-house, were 
James Hicks, Wm. L. Wayne, and Zaddock Riggs. 

Northeast of Columbia, seven or eight miles, dwelt Robert Hinkson, 

Bibb, Thomas and John Kennon, Dennis Callaham, James W. 

Fowler, Samuel Johnson, Robert Houston, and Joseph Persinger. 

**On Perche Creek, in the northwestern section of the county, where 
the old road, or * Boone's Lick Trace,' crossed the Perche, there stood 
the old town of Perche, lonor since obliterated. Some of its inhabi- 
tants were George and Isham Sexton, James C. Babbitt, James Ryan, 
Adam E. Rowland, Peter Stivers, Nicholas Gentry, and Enoch 

** Near where Rockyfork meeting-house now stands lived John Gra- 
ham, Aquilla and Amos Barnes. 

Where Hallsville now stands lived J(^hn Roberts and other families 
of the same name, Peter and Joseph Fountain, Andrew J. Hendrick, 
and John and Joshua Davis, and Smith Turner. 

Near where Rockbridge Mills now are were Thomas S. Tuttle, the 


original settler of that place ; Peter Creason, Nathan Glasgow, Elias 
Elston, and John H. Lynch. 

Within the neighborhood of Providence lived first Ira P. Nash, for 
whom Nashville was named ; then John and Robert Peters and Gilpin 
S. Tuttle. 

A few miles northwest of Columbia were John Witt, James Turley, 
James Mayo, and a family of Barnetts. 

Around the present site of Columbia were Richard Gentry, Lewis 
Collins, John Vanhorn, J. M. Kelly, Peter Wright, Dr. D P. Wilcox, 
Samuel Wheeler, A. B. Lane, Thomas Dooley, James Lipscomb, David 
Jackson, Henry, Richard and Reuben Cave, David Todd, Warren 
Woodson, Thos. W. Conyers, Charles Burns, Wallace Estill, Minor 
Neal, William Ridgeway, Peter Kerney, Kemp M. Goodloe, John 
Cave, Daniel King, James Laughlin, Elijah and Abraham N. Foley, 
John J. Foster, Adam C. Reyburn, and Willis Boyse. 

" The first church organized in the Boone's Lick country was Mount 
Pleasant, in 1815, seven miles north of old Franklin. 

'*The first church organized in Boone County wasxjalled ' Bethel,' 
and was situated in a northwestern section of the county, eight miles 
north of Rocheport. It was organized June 28, 1817 ; the i)ersons 
forming it were Anderson Woods, Betsey Woods, David McQuitty, 
John Turner, and James Harris. William Thorp was its first pastor. 
The next church formed was Little Bonne Femme, in December, 1819, 
by David Doyle, Anderson Woods, Elizabeth Woods, James Harris, 
Polly Harris, Mourning Harris, Elizabeth Kennon, John Maupin, 
Elias Elston, Matthew Haley, Jane Tuttle, Lazarus Wilcox, Lucy Wil- 
cox, James Wiseman, Thomas S. Tuttle, and Nancy Tuttle. David 
Doyle was the first pastor, and continued in that position for ten years, 
when he l)ecame pastor of Salem Church, and so continued for thirty 
years, thus spending forty years in the ministry in our county, for 
which, it is said, he never received a dime of remuneration." 



Although Franklin is not, and never was, in Boone county, there 
were two events which occurred there, the first in April and the 
second in May, 1819, of sufficient importance in the history of *'the 
Boone's Lick Country," of wliich this county was a part, to justify iu 
this place more than a passing notice. Both of these events had an 
important bearing upon the development and destiny of interior Mis- 


souri, and of the whole State ; and a detailed account of them in an 
enduring form is justified by their prominence and significance. 


On the 23d of April, 1819, Nathaniel Patten and Benjamin HoUiday 
commenced the publication of the Missouri Intelligencer in Franklin, 
then a flourishing town on the Missouri river and opposite Boonville. 
The size of the sheet was 18 by 24 inches, and it was printed on what 
is known among printers as the Ramage press, a wooden contrivance 
with cas<-iron bed, joints and platen, and which at this day is a great 
curiosity. About twenty-five years ago Col. Wm. F. Switzler pre- 
sented this press to the Mercantile Library Association of St. Louis, 
the Missouri Historical Society then not being in existence, where it 
can be seen. 

Recently we came in possession of full and complete tiles, substan- 
tially bound, of the Missouri Intelligencer from its initial number, 
April' 23, 1819, to its last issue (in Columbia), December 5, 1835, 
embracing a period of over sixteen years, to which we are indebted 
for much valuable historical matter relating to this county, and 
which will be found in its proper place in this book. 

Many changes occurred in the publishers or owners of the Intelli- 
gencer, the details of which we have taken the trouble to collect from 
its files, and to record as follows : — 

April 23, 1819, to June 10, 1820, Nathaniel Patten and Benjamin 
Holliday, publishers. (Mrs. E. W. McClannahan, near Columbia, is 
a daughter of Mr. Holliday.^) 

June 10, 1820, Mr. Patten retired as publisher, leaving Mr. Holli- 
day in charge, or owner, who continued till July 23, 1821, when John 
Pajne, a lawyer, became editor. He was a native of Culpepper 
county, Va., and died in Franklin, September 15, 1821, aged 24 

Septeml>er 4, 1821, Mr. Payne retired and Holliday again assumed 
control . 

August 5, 1822, to April 17, 1824, Nathaniel Patten and John T. 
Cleaveland are publishers. Mr. Cleaveland died some years ago at an 
advanced age in Austin, Texas. 
April 17, 1824, Mr. Cleaveland retired, leaving Mr. Patten as sole 

' Mr. HoUiday was born in Spottsylvania C. H., Va., June 8, 1780; came to Frank- 
lin, Mo., iu February, 1819, and died near Boonsboro, Howard County, Mo., April 1, 


publisher, which position he continued to hold until the sale of the 
paper by him to Mr. Fred. A. Hamilton, December 12, 1835. 

Last issue of the Intelligencer in Franklin, June 16, 1826. 

First issue of the Intelligencer in Fayette, June 29, 1826. 

July 5, 1827, John Wilson, then a young lawyer in Fayette, is 
announced as editor, which position he held till July 25, 1828. Mr. 
Wilson died in San Francisco, Cal., February 2, 1877, aged 87 years. 

In August, 1827, James H. Birch commenced the publication in 
Fayette of the Western Monitor, 

April 9, 1830, last issue of the Intelligencer in Fayette. • 

May 4, 1830, first issue of the Intelligencer in Columbia. 

December 5, 1835, last issue of the Intelligencer in Columbia. 

December 12, 1835, first issue of the Patriot in Columbia. 

December 23, 1842, last issue of the Patriot, and January 6, 1843, 
first issue of its successor, the Statesman, which has been regularly 
continued to this day under the same management. 

August 1, 1881, after twelve years' experience as business maiKiger, 
Irwin Switzler, eldest son of W. F. Switzler, became proprietor of 
the Statesman, the latter continuing as editor-in-chief. 

Near the close of the year 1835 it became known that Mr. Patten, 
owing to failing health, intended to dispose of the Intelligencer ofiice, 
and as the Presidential and State elections of the following year were 
approaching, the possession of the paper became an object of interest 
to some of the politicians and people. Whig and Democratic, about 
Columbia. Both parties wanted it; and the Democrats, under the 
leadership of Austin A. King, then a lawyer resident here and in 1848 
elected Governor of the State, Dr. Wni. H. Duncan, still an honored 
citizen of Columbia, Dr. Alexander M. Robinson and others made 
some efforts to secure the oflSce. While negotiations to this end were 
pending, Robert S. Barr, Oliver Parker, Wm. Cornelius, Warren 
Woodson, Moses U. Payne, A. W. Turner, Joseph B. Howard, John 
B. Gordon, Sinclair Kirtley, David and Roger N. Todd, Dr. Wm. 
Jewell, James S. Rollins, Thomas Miller and perhaps other W^higs, 
entered into a written agreement to raise the money to purchase the 
press and materials, and they did it with the understanding that 
Frederick A. Hamilton, a practical printer, should take charge of the 
publication, and Rollins and Miller, then two young lawyers 
of Columbia, the editorial conduct of the paper, the name of 
which, December 12, 1835, was changed to Patriot, Hamilton was 
was announced as publisher, and Rollins and Miller as editors. Maj. 


Rollins selected frpra Shakspeare the motto of the Patriot^ " Be just 
and fear not ; let all the ends thou aimest at be thy country's," which 
it bore until it was supplanted by the Statesman in 1843, and which 
has ever since floated at the masthead of the Statesman. 

Of the parties named in this connection all are dead except Duncan, 
Rollins and Payne. 

Rollins and Miller finally became owners of the oflSce and continued 
to edit the paper until the close of the Presidential election of 1840, 
when Rollins sold his interest to Wm. T. B. Sanford, a printer, and 
retired, leaving Col. Miller sole editor. 

In July, 1841, the present editor of the Statesman became editor 
of the Pfl^n'o^, Col. Thomas Miller having retired, but still retaining 
a half ownership, with the hope of recuperating his health by a trip 
across the plains to Santa Fe. Dying en route of pulmonary con- 
sumption, September 15, 1841, at '« Round Mound," two hundred 
miles this side of his destination, where he was interred on the tree- 
less plain, aged 31 years, more than three months elapsed before 
news of his death reached Columbia. February 19, 1842, Wm. T. B. 
Sanford, surviving partner of the firm of Miller & Sanford, sold Col. 
Miller's interest to John B. and Younger J. Williams, the new pro- 
prietors, Sanford, Williams & Co., assuming control March 1, 1842. 
On the 19th of August, 1842, Dr. A. J. McKelway (now a citizen 
of Marion county) purchased Mr. Sanford's interest, became 
editor — Wm. F. Switzler retiring, — and in conjunction with the 
Wilijanis brothers, published the Patriot till December 16, 1842, 
when Wm. F. Switzler purchased McKelvvay's half interest and he 
retired. At the same time John B. Williams sold his interest to his 
brother, Younger J., who, as an equal partner with Wm. F. Switzler, 
on January 1, 1843, changed the name of the paper to Missouri 
Staie^man^ under which name, with Wm. F. Switzler as editor, it has 
erer since been issued, now nearly forty years. 

Mr. Sanford, some years afterward, went to Los Angelos, California, 
and just before the war was lost on the Sacramento River in a burning 

Younger J. Williams died February 19, 1843, and his interest was 
resold to his brother John B., who, in January, 1845, sold out to Wm. 
F. Switzler, who then became sole editor and proprietor. John B. 
Williams died in Fulton, Mo., April 6, 1882, aged sixty years, as 
editor and proprietor of the Telegraph. 


Mr. Patten was a very reputable citizen, small in stature, and quits 
deaf. He and his wife set the type for his paper and edited it, she 
therefore being the first female compositor west of the Mississippi 
River.^ The Patriot was tirst published in a little hewed log house 
on the northeast corner of the lot on which Mr. B. Loeb now lives, 
and afterwards in a small frame (destroyed by fire Oct., 1874), which 
then stood on Broadway, near the old brick public school building. 
Several of the printers' stands, made of walnut lumber, which were 
used in the Intelligencer office in 1819, and in the offices of all its suc- 
cessors, are now in daily use in the office of the Statesman. 

Nathaniel Patten, Jr., a son of the proprietor of the old InteUi- 
gencevj now resides at South Fork, Rio Grande County, Colorado, and 
from him we have recently received bound files in good order of that 
paper from April 23, 1819, to December 5, 1835, a period of more 
than sixteen years. 


The second notable event in 1819 was the arrival at Franklin, on 
May 28, of the steamer Independence, Capt. John Nelson-^ the first 
which ever attempted the navigation of the Missouri River. 

Col. Elias Rector and others, of St. Louis, had chartered her at 
Louisville, Ky., to go up the Missouri as high as the town of Chariton, 
now a deserted town two miles above Glasgow, near the mouth of the 
Chariton River. She left St. Louis May 15, 1819, and arrived at 
Franklin, Howard County, on May 28, occasioning the wildest excite- 
ment and the greatest joy among the people. 

* Mrs. Patten, formerly Miss Elvira A. Williams, was born near Charleston, Va., 
July 4, 1807, and died in St. Joseph, Mo. (then being Mrs. Overall), on January 24, 
1878, aged 71 years. In 1823, at Old Chariton, Howard County, she first married Dr. 
John Holman. He dying on Monday, November 27, 182G, and Mr. Patten's wife, Mrs. 
Matilda Patten, dying on Friday, December 27, 1829, on Sunday, February 27, 1831, 
%t the residence of Mrs. II. T. Peerce, in Columbia, Rev. W. P. Cochran officiating, 
they were married. The fruit of this marriage was Nathaniel Patten, Jr., who now 
resides in South Fork, Rio Grande County, Colo. After the death of Mr. Patten, she 
married Maj. Wilson Lee Overall, of St. Charles (Aug. 1(5, 1840), by whom she had 
three children, namely, Mrs. John F. Williams, St. Louis (wife of the Insurance Com- 
missioner), John H. Overall, of St. Louis, a well known lawyer, and son-in-law of Hon. 
J. S. Rollins, and Mrs. L. E. Carter, of St. Joseph, at whose house she died, as above 
stated. Maj. Overall died in St. Charles of paralysis, December 24, 1850. Mr. Patten 
died in St. Charles in 1837, and at the time of his death was proprietor of the Clarion 


The following were some of the passengers on the Independence : 
Col. Elias Rector, Stephen Rector, Capt. Desha, J. C. Mitchell, Dr. 
Stewart, J. Wanton, and Maj. J. D. Wilcox. 

Immediately after its arrival at Franklin, a public dinner was given 
the passengers and officers of the boat. A public meeting was then 
held, of which Asa Morgan was elected President,; and Dr. N. Hutch- 
inson Vice-President. We copy from the Franklin (Mo.) Intelli- 
gencer, issued on the day of the boat's arrival, an account of the 
event : — 

[From the Franklin InteUigencer, May 28, 1819.] 


With DO ordinary sensations of pride and pleasare, we announce the arrival this 
moniog, at this place, of the elegant steamboat ** Independence,'' Captain Nelson, in 
seren gailiDg days (but thirteen from the time of her departure) from St. Louis, with 
ptsseogers and a cargo of flour, whiskey, sugar, iron, castmgs, etc., being the first 
steamboat that ever attempted ascending the Missouri. She was joyfully met by the 
iobabitants of Franklin, and saluted by the firing of cannon, which was returned by 
tbe " Independence.'* 

The ^nd desideratum, the important fact, is now ascertained that steamboats can 
safely navigate the Missouri River. 

A respectable gentleman, a passenger in the Independence, who has for a number of 
jeara navigated the great Western waters, informs us that it is his opinion, with a little 
precaatlon in keeping clear of sand-bars, the Missouri may be navigated with as much 
facility as the Mississippi or Ohio. 

Missoarians may hail this era from which to date the growing importance of this sec- 
tion of the country, when they view with what facility (by the aid of steam) boats may 
»8cend the turbulent waters of the Missouri, to bring to this part of the country the 
articles requisite to its supply, and return laden with the various products of this fertile 
region. At no distant period may we see the industrious cultivator making his way as 
biglias the Yellowstone, and offering to the enterprising merchant and trader a sur- 
plus worthy of the fertile banks of the Missouri, yielding wealth to industry and 

[From the Franklin Intelligencer, June 4, 1819.] 


On Friday last, the 28th ult., the citizens of Franklin, with the most lively emotions 
of pleasure, witnessed the arrival of this beautiful boat, owned and commanded by 
Captain Nelson, of Louisville. Her approach to the landing was greeted by a Federal 
salate, accompanied with the acclamations of an admiring crowd, who had assembled 
on the bank of the river for the purpose of viewing this novel and interesting sight. 
We may truly regard this event as highly important, not only to the commercial but 
agricultural interests of our country. The practicability of steamboat navigation 
being now clearly demonstrated by experiment, we shall be brought nearer to the At- 
lantic, West India, and European markets, and the abundant resources of our exten- 
sive and fertile region will be quickly developed. This Interesting section of country, 
so highly favored by nature, will at no distant period, with the aid of science and enter- 
prise, assume a dignified station amongst the great agricultural States of the West. 
The enterprise of Capt. Nelson cannot be too highly appreciated by the citizens of 


Missouri. He is the first individaal who has attempted the navigation of the Miasonri 
by steam power, a river that has hitherto borne the character of being very difficnlt 
and eminently dangerous in its navigation ^ but we are happy to state, that his pro- 
gress thus far has not been impeded by any accident. Among the passengers were Col. 
Ellas Rector, Mr. Stephen Rector, Capt. Desha, J. C. Mitchell, Esq., Dr. Stewart, Mr. 
J. Wanton, Maj. J. D. Wilcox. 


The day after the arrival of the Independence, Capt. Nelson and the passengers par- 
took of a dinner, given by the citizens of Franklin, in honor of the occasion. 

After the cloth was removed, Capt. Asa Morgan was called to the chair, and Dr. N. 
Hutchinson acted as vice-president, when the following toasts were drank: 

1st. The Missouri Biver, — Its last wave will roll the abundant tribute of our region 
to the Mexican Gulf, in reference to the auspices of this day. 

2d. TJie Memory of Robert Fulton. — One of the most distinguished artists of his 
age. The Missouri River now bears upon her bosom the first effect of his genius for 
steam navigation. 

8d. The Memory of Franklin^ the Philosopher and Statesman. — In anticipation of 
his country's greatness, he never imagined that a boat at this time, would be propelled 
by steam so far westward, to a town bearing his name on the Missouri. 

4th. Capt. Nelson. — The proprietor of the steamboat Independence. The imagin- 
ary dangers of the Missouri vanished before his enterprising genius. 

5th. Louisville y Franklin and Chariton. — They become neighbors by steam navi- 

Cth. The Republican Oovemment of the United States. — By facilitating the inter- 
course between distant points. Its benign Infiuence may be diffused over the continent 
of North America. 

7th. The Policy resulting In the expedition to the Yellowstone. 

8th. South America. — May an early day witness the navigation of the Amazon and 
La Plata by steam power, under the auspices of an Independent government. 

9th. Internal Improvement. — The New York Canal, an imperishable monument of 
the patriotism and genius of Its projector. 

10th. The Missouri Territory. — Desirous to be numbered with the States on Consti- 
tutional principles, but determined never to submit to Congressional usurpation. 

11th. James Monroe. — President of the United States. 

12th. The Purchase of the Floridas. — A hard bargain. 

13th. The American Fair. 


By Col. Ellas Rector — The memory of my departed friend. Gen. Benjamin Howard; 
he was a man of worth. 

By Gen. Duff Green— The Union — It Is dear to us; but liberty Is dearer. 

By Capt. Nelson — I will ever bear In grateful remembrance the liberality and hos- 
pitality of the citizens of Franklin. 

By Dr. James H. Benson — The Territory of Missouri — May she emerge from her 
present degraded situation. 

By J. C. Mitchell, Esq. — Gen. T. A. Smith — The Clnclnnatus of Missouri. 

By Maj. Thompson Douglass — The Citizens of Franklin — Characterized by hos- 
pitality and generosity. 

By Stephen Rector, Esq. — May the Mlssourlans defend their rights, if necessary, 
even at the expense of blood, against the unprecedented restriction which was 
attempted to be imposed on them by the Congress of the United States. 


By L.W. Boggs, Esq. — Maj.-G«n. Andrew Jackson. 

By John W. Scudder, Esq. — Oar Guests — The passengers who ascended the M!s- 
soari in the Independence ; they have the honor to be the first to witness the success- 
ful eiperiment of steam navigation on our noble river. 

By Benjamin Holliday — The 28th of May, 1819 — Franklin will long remember it, 
and the Independence and her commander will be immortalized in history. 

By Dr. Dawson — The Next Congress — May they be men consistent in their con- 
8traction of the Constitution; and when they admit new States into the Union, 
be actaated less by a spirit of compromise than the just rights of the people. 

By Augustus Storrs, Esq. — The Memory of Capt. Lawrence, late of the Navy — By 
the coodnct of such men may our national character be formed. 

By N. Patten, Jr. — The Missouri Territory — lt« future prosperity and greatness 
eaoDOt be checked by the caprice of a few men in Congress, while it possesses a soil of 
inexhaustible fertility, abuudant resources, and a body of intelligent, enterprising, 
independent freemen. 

By Maj. J. D. Wilcox — The Citizens of Mirtsonri — May they never become a mem- 
ber of the Union under the restriction relative to slaverv. 

ByMr.L. W. Jordan — The Towns on the Missouri River — May they flourish in 
commerce, and, like those on the Ohio and Mississippi, witness the daily arrival or de- 
parture of some steamboat, ascending or descending this majestic stream. 

By Mr. J. B. Howard — Robert Fulton — May his name and the effects of his genius 
be truumitted to the latest posterity. 

By Dr. J. J. Lowry — (After the President had retired) — The President of the day. 

By Maj. R. Gentry — (After the Vice-Pretident had retired) — The Vice-President 
of the day. 

Not one of the persons mentioned above is alive to-day. 

[From the St. Louis Enquirer, June 0, 1819.1 

"The passage of the steamboat Independence , Capt. Nelson, up the Missouri to 
FraDklin and Chariton, is an era in the history of that noble river, and has called forth 
the most lively feelings of joy and triumph all over the country. By referring to the 
head of ' Steamboat Intelligence,* it will be seen that the banks of the river were 
visited by crowds of citizens to witness this great event, and to testify their joy and 


In 1818 the Government of the United States projected the cele- 
brated Yellowstone Expedition, the objects of which were to ascertain 
whether the Missouri River was navigable by steamboats, and to estab- 
lish a line of forts from its month to the Yellowstone. The expedi- 
tion st-irted from Plattsburg, New York, in 1818, under command of 
Colonel Henrv Atkinson. General Nathan Raiinev, a well known 
cilizen of St Louis, who not long airo died in that city, was an attache 
of this expedition. Also Captain Wm. D. Hul)bell, now (1882) aciti- 
zeii of Columbia. It arrived at Pittsburg in the spring of 1819, where 
Colonel Stephen H. Long, of the Topographical Engineers of the U. 
S. Army, had constructed the " Western Engineer,*' a small steam- 


boat, to be used by him and his scientific corps in pioneering the 
expedition to the mouth of the Yellowstone. 

This vessel reached St. Louis June 9, 1819, and, proceeding on its 
voyage, arrived at Franklin July 13, same year. The following gen- 
tlemen were on board : Major S. H Long, commander ; Maj. Thomas 
Biddle (who was killejJ, Aug. 27, 1831, in a duel with Spencer Pettis, 
on Bloody Island, and after whom Biddle Street, St. Louis, was 
named); Lieuts. Graham and Swift, Maj. Benj. O'Fallon, Indian 
agent ; Mr. Daugherty, assistant agent and interpreter ; Dr. Wm. 
Baldwin, botanist ;^ Tliomas Say, zoologist ; Mr. Jessup, geologist; 
Mr. Seymour, landscape painter; and Mr. Peale, assistant naturalist. 

On Monday, July 19, the vessel proceeded on its voyage up the 
Missouri, and reached Council Bluffs on the 17th of September, where 
it stopped for the winter. 

Owing to the peculiar construction of the *' Western Engineer," as 
well as to the fact that a water craft of any kind, and especially one 
propelled by steam, was a novel spectacle, its progress up the river 
excited the greatest wonder among the Indians, many of whom flocked 
to the river banks to see it, while others fled in fear to the forests or 
prairies, thinking it an evil spirit, a very devil with serpent's head 
and breath of fire and steam. 

The St. Louis Enquirer of June 16, 1819, contains this description 
of it : 


The bow of the vessel exhibits the form of a huge serpent, black and scaly, rising 
out of the water from under the boat, his head as high as the deck, darted forward, his 
mouth open, vomiting smoke, and apparently carrying the boat on his back. From 
under the boat, at its stem, issues a stream of foaming water, dashing violently along 
All the machinery is hid. Three small brass field pieces, mounted on wheel carriages, 
stand on the deck; the boat is ascending the rapid stream at the rate of three miles an 
hour. Neither wind nor human hands are seen to help her; and to the eye of igno- 
rance the illusion is complete, that a monster of the deep carries her on his back, smok- 
ing with fatigue, and lashing the waves with violent exertion. 


[Franklin (Mo.) Intelligencer, April I, 1820.1 

Provisions of almost every kind are cheap and plentiful, but labor and boarding are 

high; wheat is one dollar per bushel, corn thirty-three and one-third cents, beef 

and pork at five dollars per cwt., and boarding from three dollars and fifty cents to six 

dollars per week. 

> Owing to illness Dr. Baldwin abandoned the expedition at Franklin, and died 
tiiere Sept. 1, 1819. 



In this era of telegraphic and railroad facilities, whereby important 
intelligence is transmitted by lightning and by daily and semi-daily 
mails, we can scarcely conceive of a period, within thp personal recol- 
lection of many of the old pioneers who survive among us, during 
which the prospect of a stage line once or twice or three times a week 
would be hailed with delight. But read the following from the Frank- 
lin /ntetftjrencer, of April 23, 1819: 

It U contemplated, we understand, shortly to commence running a stage from St. 
Louis to FrankHn. Such an undertaking would, no doubt, liberally remunerate the 
enterprisiog and meritorious individuals engaged, and be of immense benefit to the 
public, who would, doubtless, prefer this to any other mode of travelling. A stage 
bis been ranning from St. Louis to St. Charles, three times a week, for several months 
past. Another from the town of Illinois [now East St. Louis, opposite St. Louis] 
to Edwardsvllle : — a line from Edwardsvilie to Vincennes, we understand is in con- 
templation. It will then only remain to have it continued from Vincennes to Louis- 
Tille. When these lines shall have gone into operation, a direct communication by 
sta^ will then be opened from the Atlantic States to Boone*s Lick, on the Missouri. 

Benj. Stephens, who is yet alive and a resident of Boone county, 
northwest of Columbia, was one of the firm of Wetzel, McClelland 
A Stephens, who had the contract for bringing the mail from St. 
Charles to Fayette, and in 1834 drove the fii*st Troy coach ever in 


Xotwithstan<ling the unusual sickness that prevailed, and the many 
deaths which occurred in 1819, the immigration to '* the Boone's 
Lick Countrv " was verv 2:reat, as will he seen bv the followintj ex- 
tract from the Franklin Intelligencer of Nov. 19, 1819 : 


The immigration to tliis Territory, and particularly to this county, during the pres- 
ent season almost exceeds belief. Those who have arrived in this quarter are princi- 
pally from Kentucky, Tennessee, etc. Immense numbers of wagons, carriages, carts, 
etc., with families, have for some time past been daily arriving. During the mouth 
o\ October it is stated that no less tlian 271 wagons and four-wheeled carriages and 55 
two-wheeled carriages and carts passed near St. Charles, bound principally for Boon's 
Lick. It is calculated that the number of persons accompanying these wagons, etc., 
could not be less than three thousand (3,000). It is stated in the St. Louis Enquirer^ 
of the 10th inst., that about twenty wagons, etc., per week had passed through St. 
Charles for the last nine or ten weeks, with wealthy and respectable emigrants 
from various States whose united numbers are supposed to amount to 12,000. The 
county of Howard, already respectable in numbers, will soon possess a vast popula- 
tion; and no section of our country presents a fairer prospect to the emigrant. 



Very naturally the increase of population within the present limits 
of Boone county, during the years 1816, 1817, and 1818 was followed 
by the questions of an organized county, separate from Howard, and 
the location of a county seat. The site of the new village of ica> 
ington at Thrall's Prairie was in every respect except one, a very 
eligible location, and that one was, it was not near the geographical 
centre of the proposed county, the western and eastern boundaries of 
which nature seemed to have fixed at the Moniteau and Cedar creeks. 
About midway, therefore, between these streams, and about the same 
distance from the Missouri river as from either, was generally regarded 
as the proper, because the most convenient location, and just to the 
extremes, for the county seat. 

Believing the organization of a new county was simply a question 
of time, and most probably a short time, certain observant and enter- 
prising citizens were not slow to adopt measures to found a town 
which they hoped in the early future would become the seat of justice 
of the new county. 

In pursuance of this object a company was formed to purchase, at 
the first government land sales held in the State at Franklin, Novem- 
ber 18th, 1818, certain rich and eligible lands, in the midst of a fertile 
agricultural district, possessing advantages of healthfulness, water, 
and timber, on which to project a town. It was called '* The Smith- 
ton Company " and the town they started *' Smithton," in honor of 
Col. Thomas A. Smith, Register of the United States Land Office at 

(E. W. Stephens*8 Sketches in the Statesman.) 

*' The rate paid per acre for land was from $4 to $6. The land was 
divided into lots of eleven and forty acres, and thus apportioned to the 
different purchasers as each might elect. 


'*They were thirty-five in number, as follows: Richard Love, Lil- 
burn W. Boggs, Robert Snell, Wnlhice Estill, Gerard Robinson, 
Angus L. Longhorn, Richard Gentry, Thomas Story, John Wil- 
liams, Wm. Byars, John Thornton, David Gordon, Rol)ert S. Barr, 
Anderson Woods, David Todd, Wm. Grayson, Wm. S. Hatch, Alfred 
R. Head, Mason Moss, James H. Beiniett, Absnlom McDaniel, Wm. 
Licntz, Rol)ert and John G. Heath, James H. Benson, Win. M. 
Adams, Joshua Newbrough, Thomas Duley, James S. Conway, Peter 


Bass, Lewis N. Jourdan, Taylor Berry, Nicholas S. Burckhart, Henry 
Cave, and Tarlton Turner. 

** The company conveyed to five of their number as trustees, viz : 
Thomas Duley, Gerard Robinson, David Todd, Richard Gentry, and 
Taylor Berry, the portions of the tract situated on the south half of 
sections 1, 2, and 11, township 48, on which to lay out a town, and 
during the winter of 1818-19 it was done.- The site occupied the 
elevated ground some half mile west of the present court-house in 
Columbia, and now owned and occupied as a residence, grounds, and 
pasture by Jefferson Garth. 

•Although during the spring of 1819 there was a sale of lots in 
Stnithton, and quite a large number of purchases made, there were no 
houses built until the fall of that year, except a small log cabin. Who 
built this cabin we have not been able to learn. The trustees them- 
selves made no movement for the improvement of the town until, in 
pursuance of the following advertisement, they contracted for the 
erection of a ** double hewed-log house : " — 

[Franklin (Mo.) Intelligencer, July 23, 1819.] 


The Trustees of Smithton wish immediatelj to contract for building a double 

hewed-log house, shingled roof and stone chimneys, one story and a half high, in that 

town. Timber aod stone are very convenient. 

They will also contract for digging and walling a well. The improvements to be 

finished by the first of November next, when payment will be made. Apply to the 

subscribers. Taylor Bkrry, 

Richard Gentry, 

David Todd, 

July 23, 1819. 

Stephens'.s Sketches for the Statesman: "The double hewed-log 
house, with several other smaller ones, was let in the fall and built. 
The occupants of this house were the family of Gen. Richard Gentry 
(the father of Thomas B. Gentry and Mrs. Boyle Gordon, who are 
now residents of Columbia and the last of a family of thirteen). Gen. 
Gentry kept there a house of entertainment, till his removal to 
Columbia a vear afterwards. There also resided in Smithton two 
lawyers, Anthony B. Wayne and Samuel Wheeler; a physician, Dr. 
Daniel P. Wilcox ; ^ a grocery merchant, Peter Kearney, and several 

» Dr. Wilcox died in Boone County February 10, 1831, being a member of the Legls- 
atnre at the time. 



laboring men, among whom were Charles Burns, Benj. Mothershead^ 

and Butterworth." 

The difficulty of obtaining water by digging wells — for, at that 
period, nobody thought of cisterns, either in the ground or above it — 
soon developed wide-spread dissatisfaction with the town location,, 
and consequent propositions to move it to the east side of Flat Branch ,^ 
a small tributary of the Hinkson, and which ran along the east side of 
the beautiful plateau on which Smithton was situated. It was urged 
that in the lower lands, in the valley of this branch, water could be 
had ; and finally, unable to resist the force of the arguments for re- 
moval, and conformably to the almost invariable custom of the early 
pioneers of the West, Smithton was transferred to the coveted site oa 
a water course. 


Although, for the reasons mentioned, the infant town of Smithton 
was in a state of decadence, its early desertion to the eastern side of 
Flat Branch being a fixed fact, the patriotic ardor of its citizens 
suffered no abatement, for on the Fourth of July, 1820, under the 
genial shade of the stately sugar trees which there abounded, they 
assembled to celebrate the day. The Franklin IntelUgencery of July 
29, records in what manner it was done : — 


The Fourth of July, 1820, was celebrated at Smithton by a large and respectable 
number of the citizens of the eastern part of Howard County. About 2 o'clock the 
company sat down to an excellent dinner, provided for the occasion. After the cloth 
was removed Col. John Williams was chosen president, and Capt. Overton Harris,, 
vice-president, when the following toasts were drank, with great glee and hilarity : — 

1. The day we, celebrate — the birthday of our liberties — may posterity cherish its- 

2. The United^States of America. 

3. The American Navy. 

4. The memory ofJGen. George Washington. 

5. Thomas Jefferson. His administration — a perfect model of republicanism. 

6. James Madison — the Patriot and Statesman. 

7. James Monroe^— President of the United Stutes. 

8. Henry Clay — the profound Statesman, zealous republican, and distinguished 
advocate of the rights of man — his loss in the councils of the nation will be severely 
felt by the citizens of.. Missouri. 

9. The Missouri Convention — may they give us a sound Constitution. 


By Thomas Dudley, Esq. — The Hon. David Todd — The enlightened judge and 
accomplished politician, may the citizens of Howard County ever appreciate his worth. 


By Mr. John Williams —Gen. Thomas A. Smith — as a soldier, brave and resolute; 
as a citizeD, highly esteemed. 

Bj Mr. Harrison — Major J. S. Findley — one of our representatives In the conven- 
tion—the flDished gentleman. 

By Joseph Hickam, Esq. — May Smithton be our seat of justice and Col. Williams 
our represeDtatlve. [Judge Hlckam (not Hlckum) Is still living, and resides one 
mile west of Columbia.] 

By Reuben Cave, Esq. — May. the Constitution of the State of Missouri be formed 
to the satisfaction of its citizens. 

By John Williams, Esq. — Col. James Johnson — the first to Introduce the power of 
steam on the ** turbulent Missouri.*' 

By John Williams, Esq. — Col. Richard M. Johnson and the heroes who fought and 
bled ID the Battle of the Thames. 

By Mr. Reuben Cave — Col. Daniel Boon, the pioneer of the West — may his last 
days be his happiest, and may his posterity prosper. 

By Minor Neale, Esq. — May the Constitution of Missouri be a bright link In the 
golden chain of our Union. 

By Daniel Neale, Esq. — The fair, who have left the places of their nativity — may 
they prosper and shine with additional lustre In Missouri. 

With the exception of Judge Joseph W. Hickam every imin whosa 
name is mentioned in the above is dead. 


[From Stephens's Sketch.] 

"One among the first towns projected within the present limits of 
Boone County was laid out in 1819, just below the present site of Prov- 
idence, on a tract of hind owned by Ira P. Nash, an eccentric genius 
who lived in that vicinity for many years, from whom it was named 

*'In 1820 Nashville contained a tobacco warehouse, kept by James 

Harris and Abraham J. Williams ; a post-office, and seyeral other 

Imiltlings. It at that time promised to be one of the largest shippinor 

points on the Missouri, and grew to be a place of some enterprise, 

when the treacherous river swept it away." 

In the Franklin Intelligencer of December 17, 1819, appeared the 
following publication relative to this town : — 




THE above TOWN is laid off on a Spanish jrrant confirmed by the United States. 
The title to said property is indisputable, and situated on the North bank of the" Mis- 
souri river, near the mouth of Little Bonne Femrae creek, about thirty miles below the 
town of Franklin, and about the same distance above Cote San Dessein. 

NASHVILLE is the nearest and most convenient point on tlie river to which the ex 
tensive and numerous settlement in the Two Mile Prairie and the surrounding country 
can have access. It promises to enjoy a large proportion of the trade of the river; 
and from the convenience of Its situation, it will furnish many facilities to the trans- 


portatlon of the vast quantities of sarplas produce of an extensive and salubrious soil. 
The landing at this town is at all seasons of the year superior to most other places, 
and certainly Inferior to none on the Missouri. The proprietors have concluded to give 
the public at large an opportunity of enjoying the profits arising from the Increase of 
town property, by offering at 



At Franklin, on Saturday, the first of January, 1820. 

The remainder of the Lots in the town of Nashville will be offered at public sale on 
the 15th day of January, 1820, at Nashville. 

A credit of six, twelve, and eighteen months will be given to purchasers, by their 
executing notes for the payment of the purchase money. 

Proprietors and agents for the other proprietors.. 
December 17, 1819. 



Election returns, from 1820 to 1830 — Boone County organized out of the territory of 
Howard — Law defining the limits of Boone County — County named after Daniel 
Boone — Biographical sketch of Daniel Boone — Location of the county seat — 
Smithton — First Circuit Court at Smithton — Names of officers, jurors and attor- 
neys — First County Court — Smithton moved lo Columbia — Public notice of the 
change given by the trustees — Columbia made the County Seat — Sale of lots In 
Columbia 7- First residences, stores, hotel, etc. — First Circuit and County Courts 
at Columbia — Organization of Townships — First Sheriff, Assessor and Coroner — 
First post-office — First Justice of the Peace, deed, mortgage and marriages — 
County finances in 1821 — The grasshopper pest — First horse and water mills — 
** The hull of a Court House " — A financial contrast — Towns of Perche and Roche- 
port — The shooting match — Indian troubles on the Chariton — The Santa Fe trade. 


ELECTION, 1822. 


*John Scott 503 J. B. C. Lucas 6 

Alex. Stewart 49 — 

Total 558 


James W. Moss 244 Mason Moss 67 

♦Peter Wright 28H *D. C. Westerfield ,..288 

Ellas Eiston 277 Tijos. Tiiompson ^ 22S 

John Slack 246 



Spedal election for Repreientative in 1822, caused by resignation of Elias Elston : 
*Jag.W.Mo8S 257 John Slack 118 



SLBCTION, 1824. 

* Those thus marked were elected. 













John Scott 










■ • • 



Geom F. Strotber 


Robert Wash 




Frederick Bates 







Wm,H. Ashley 




LimtenarU-Govemor — 
Benj. H. Reeves 






• • « 


• • « 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


• •• 

« ■ • 

• • • 




Nathaniel Cook 


James Evans • 




RtpresaUatives — 










*D. C. Westerfield ' 







John Slack 


Tyre Harris 


Overton Harris 

Kicbard Gentry 


Special election for Representetive, November 4th, 1824, caused by death of D. C. 

^omas W. Conjers 
Tyre Harris . . . 
Jamea W. Moss . 




• • • 





• « « 

• • • 




• • • 





At this election James Barns was re-elected Sheriff of the county. 


December 8th, 1825, special election to fill vacancy caused by death of Gov. Bates. 

































Wm. C. Carr 








• • • 


« • • 




• • • 





David Todd 


•John Miller 


Rnfna Easton 




After the death of Gov. Frederick Bates, August 4, 1825, the duties 
of Governor devolved upon Lieutenant-Governor Benj. H. Reeves, but 
he being absent from the State, in Santa Fe, Abraham J. Williams, 
of Boone,^ President pro tern, of the Senate, became Governor until an 
election was held, and he discharged its functions from August till 
December, 1825. 

KLECTION, 1826. 


♦John Scott . 
Edward Bates 


Senators — 
A. J. Williams 


Repreaentativea in Legislature — 

*Tyre Harris 

David M. Hickman .... 

Thos. W. Conyers 

Wm. Barnes 

*Wm. Jewell 


*flarrison Jamison .... 

Samuel Beattie 

James T. Moss . .... 

Ichabod C. Hensley .* . . . 





Peter Wriffht I 83 

♦Richard Gentry 

Asa Stone 





















































By this it will be seen that John Scott received in the county one 
majority for Congress, and that Richard Gentry was elected Senator, 
Dr. William Jewell and Tyre Harris Representatives, and Harrison 
Jamison Sheriff. 

» Mr. Williams, being born with only one leg, always used crutches; was never mar- 
ried, and was a raerchant of Columbia, his storehouse being the same now occupied as 
a residence by Dr. James McNutt. Some years before his death he bought and im- 
proved a farm — now known as the Payne or Jennings farm, six miles south of Colum- 
bia, on the Providence road. lie died on this farm, December 30, 1839, aged 68 years, 
and was buried in the old grave-yard in Columbia, where his tomb of box shape is yet 
to be seen. 







' 3 












Limteiuml- Governor — 
Stmael Ferry . ... 

Pelii Scott ..',.. 
Alex. Stewart . ' . . . 
<^Duiiel Dunklin .... 

' 24 

Alax. Buckner 

' ' ' 'l '". 


Edir»rd Bnte* . , 

. ' 23:! 







BnrtitMtalivtt in LegUtalure — i 

•Sinclair Kirtley 257 

♦William S. Burch 302 

Willi«m Jewell , 166 

JeweT. Wooa 


I, — Fopulation of Boone County.. 


Missouri was not finally iidmitted into the Union us u State until 
August 10, 1821, at which time the event w:is accomplished by a 
proclamation from Prasidout Moiiine. Boone, with its present limits, 
buving been erected into a county November lU, 1820, some nine 
months before the admission of the State, was for that peiiod a terri- 
torial county. 

It will be interesting to note the preliminary steps which were taken 
to carve out of the immense territory of Howard the new county of 
Boone, and for this purpose we avail ourselves of the recital made of 
them by Mr. Stephens's historical sketch, published in the Stales- 
man: _ 

"The Territorial Legislature assembled in St. Louis on September 
18th, 1820, and proceeded to organize by the election of James Cald- 
well, of Ste. Genevieve, Speaker, and John McArlhur, Clerk of the 
House. It consisted of forty-one members. 



** It was during the session of this Legislature that Boone County 
was organized. 

''On Tuesday, October 20th, 1820, Andrew S. McGirk presented 
several petitions, and a letter from the citizens of Howard, praying 
for the establishment of a new county. This was the first movement 
toward the reorganization of the County of Boone. The petitions- 
were referred to a special committee, who, a few weeks afterward, 
made a favorable report, which was adopted by both Houses, and 
finally approved on November 16th, 1820. The act vesting Boone 
with all the privileges and immunities of a distinct county, went into- 
eflfect January 1st, 1821, but it was not until February that the first 
court was held, and it was as late as June before the Sheriff, Assessor, 
and other officials received their commissions from the Governor. 
The act organizing Boon© County thus prescribes Its limits, which, 
with but very slight variation, are the same at this time : — 

Beginning at the southeast comer of and running with the eastwardly line of How- 
ard County, to where it intersects the line between townships fifty and fifty-one, thence 
eastwardly to the dividing ridge between the waters of the Cedar Creek and Salt River 
to the Montgomery line ; thence southwardly with said line to where It strikes said 
Cedar Creek ; thence down said creek in the middle of the main channel thereof, to- 
where the range line between eleven and twelve crosses the creek the second time ; 
thence with said line to the middle of the channel of the Missouri River; thence up 
the Missouri River in the middle of the main channel thereof to the place of begin- 

" Who conceived the title of ' Boone ' is unknown, but certain it is 
that the name was given in honor of the fiimous Kentucky pioneer, 
Daniel Boone, and it is probable that its selection was mostly influ- 
enced by the event of the hitter's death at Charrette Village, on the 
Missouri, a few miles above St. Charles, just two weeks previous 
(September 26, 1820,) to the presentation of the petitions by Mr. 

** The news of his death was being spread throughout the country, 
and at the time Boone County was formed, the members of the Leg- 
islature were wearing badges of mourning in respect to his memory. 
Under such cii'cumstances it is but a natural supposition that there 
should have been a prevalent sentiment to establish some lasting 
monument in honor of a man whose career had been so illustrious and 
whose name had been so closely linked with the early fortunes of 
Kentucky and Missouri. 

' See Rev. Stat., 1825, vol. 1, page 238. 


*• Hence, :is a befitting tribute of appreciation, a county was named 
in his honor." 


It is certainly not inappropriate, but quite the contrary that, as thi* 
county was called in honor of Daniel Boone, and for this reason will 
forever remain a perpetual memory of his life, a short biographical 
sketch of him should accompany its history. 

In regard to his birth, name and death, controversies have arisen 
among historians and biographers. It is, perhaps, not a remarkable 
circumstance that doubts and differences exist in reo:ard to the time of 
Daniel Boone's birth, and as to the orthography of his name, but that 
there should be any contrariety of statement touching so recent an 
event as his death, is a little singular. 

1. His Birth: He was born in Exeter township, Bucks county,. 
Pa!, according to Bogant, February 11, 1735; Hartley, same date; 
Peck, February, 1735 ; the family iPecord in the handwriting of his 
Uncle James, July 14, 1732; Flint (who wrote in 1840), 1746; 
Bogart (who wrote in 1881), August 22, 1734 ; Switzler (who wrote 
in 1877), adopts, in his ''History of Missouri," the date of James 
Boone's family record — July 14, 1732. 

2. Hi^ Name: Was it Boone or Boon? Many of his descendants^ 
who, fifty years and more ago, lived in Missouri, for examples, 
William, ifampton L., Nestor and William C. Boon, and some of them 
who yet reside in the State, among whom is AVilliam C. Boon, of 
Jefferson City, omit the final '* e." In consequence of this fact, per- 
haps, the early records of this county, as well as our first county seal, 
spelled it " Boon." And *' Boon's Lick,'* as applied to the extensive 
resion in Central Missouri known bv that name, and in the name of 
the first newspaper ever published west of the Missouri river, at 
Franklin, in 1819, the ** Missouri Intelligencer and Boon's Lick 
Advertiser^'' it is spelled without the *• e." Nevertheless, the act of 
the Legislature organizing Boone county, November 16, 1820 ; the 
Franklin, Mo., Intelligencer of 1819, and Lewis C. Beck's Gazetteer 
of Missouri, 1823, when speaking of the coxmty add the final "e." 
Yet there is higher authority than either of these for the ** e," viz. : 
Daniel Boone himself, for he thus spelled his name. We have before 
us now, through the courtesy of Col. Thomas E. Tutt, of St. Louis, a 
lithographic copy of a letter from Boone addressed to Col. William 
Christian, of Kentucky, — called " Cristen " in the letter — dated 


August 23, 1785, jind concluding, '* you 'will oblyge your omble 
sarvent," to which he signs his name as '* Daniel Boone." The 
original letter is now in the possession of Thomas W. Bullet, of 
Louisville, Ky., who is a grandson of Col. Christian. In the museum 
of the Louisville, Ky., Public Library there is a genuine autograph 
letter of Boone dated '* Grate Conhoway eluly the 30th 1789," and 
addressed to **Col. Hartt & Rochester," which is subscribed as fol- 
lows : *' I am Sir With Respect your very omble Sarvent Daniel Boone." 
{See letter of Prof. P. A. Towne in the Courter- Journal, 1876.) In 
a letter of J. E. Paton, Circuit Clerk of Bourbon county, Ky., 
written at Paris, Ky., December 20, 1876, to the Cincinnati Enquirer^ 
he says there are in his office a number of the genuine signatures of 
Boone with the final '* c." In Collins' ** History of Kentucky," Vol. 
II., page 61, there is a fac simile of a letter from Boone, which, in 
1846, was in possession of Joseph B. Boyd, of Maysville, and ad- 
dressed to ** Judge John Cobren, Sant Lewis," dated October 6, 
1809, that concludes, " I am Deer Sir 3'oures Daniel Boone." 

These authorities settle the question beyond cavil. 

3. His Life: His father. Squire Boone, came from England, and 
took up his residence in a frontier settlement in Pennsylvania, where 
Daniel received the merest rudiments of education, but became thor- 
oughly familiar with the arts and hardships of pioneer life. When he 
was 18 years old the family moved to the banks of the river Yadkin, 
in North Carolina, where he married Rebecca Bryan, and passed some 
years as a farmer. He made several hunting excursions into ihe 
wilderness, and finally, in 1769, set out with five others to explore the 
border region of Kentucky. They halted on Red river, a branch of 
the Kentucky, where they hunted for several months. In December, 
1769, Boone and a companion named Stewart were captured by the 
Indians, but escaped, and Boone was soon after joined by his brother. 
They were captured again, and Stewart was killed; but Boone 
escaped, and his brother going shortly after to North Carolina, he was 
left alone for several weeks in the wilderness, with only his rifle for 
means of support. 

He was rejoined by his brother, and they continued their explora- 
tions till March, 1771, when they returned home with the spoils which 
they had collected. In 1773 he sold his farm and set out with his 
family and two brothers, and five other families, to make his home in 
Kentucky. They were intercepted by Indians and forced to retre^^t to 
Clinch river, near the border of Virginia, where they remained for 


some time, Boone in the meanwhile conducting a party of surveyors 
into Kentucky for Patrick Henrj', the Governor of Virginia. He was 
afterward appointed, with the commission of a captain, to command 
three garrisons on the Ohio, to keep back the hostile Indians, and in 
1775 was employed to lay out lands in Kentucky for the Pennsylvania 
-Company. He erected a stockade fort on the Kentucky river, which 
he called Boonsborough, which is now in Madison county, and 
removed his family to the new settlement, where he was again em- 
ployed in command of a force to repel the Indians. 

In 1778 he went to Blue Licks to obtain salt for the settlement, and 
was captured and taken to Detroit. His knowledge of the Indian 
character enabled him to gain favor with his captors, and he was 
adopted into one of their families. Discovering a plan laid by the 
British for an Indian attack upon Boonsborough, he contrived to escape, 
and set out for the Kentucky settlement, which he reached in less than 
five days. His family, supposing that he was dead, had returned to 
North Carolina ; but he at once put the garrison in order and success- 
fully repelled the attack, which was soon made. He was court-mar- 
tialed for surrendering his party at the Licks, and for endeavoring to 
make a treaty with the Indians before the attack on the fort ; but, 
conducting his own defence, he was acquitted and promoted to the 
rank of major. 

In 1780 he brought his family l)ack to Boonsborough, and contin- 
ued to live there till 1792. At that time Kentuckv was admitted into 
the Union as a State, and much litigation arose about the titles of settlers 
to their lands. Boone, losing all his possessions for want of a clear 
title, retired in 1795 in disgust into the wilderness of Missouri, settling 
on the Femme Osage Creek, in St. Charles County. This region was 
then under the dominion of Spain, and he was appointed commander 
of the Femme Osage district, and received a large tract of land 
for his services, which he also lost subsequently because he failed 
to make his title good. His claim to another tract of land was con- 
firmed by Congress in 1812, in consideration of his eminent public 

The latter years of his life he spent in Missouri, with his son, Na- 
than Boone, near Marthasville, where he died September 26, 1820, 
aged eighty-six. The only original portrait of Boone in existence 
was painted by Mr. Chester Harding in 1820, and now hangs in the 
State-house at Frankfort, Kentucky. His remains were interred by 
the side of his wife's, who died March 18, 1813, near the villao-e 


named, where they continued to repose until August, 1845, wUen they 
were removed for interment in the public cemetery at Frunkfort. 

The consent of the surviving relations of the deceased having been 
obtained, a commission was appointed under whose superintendence 
the removal was effected ; and the 13th of September, 1845, was fixed 
upon as the time when the ashes of the venerable dead would be com- 
mitted with fitting ceremonies to the place of their final repose. It 
was a day which will be long remembered in the history of Franklin 
County, Kentucky. The deep feeling excited by the occasion waa 
evinced by the assembling of an immense concourse of citizens from 
all parts of the State ; and the ceremonies were most imposing and 
impressive. A procession extending more than a mile in length 
accompanied the coffin to the grave. The hearse, decorated with 
evergreens and flowers, and drawn by four white horses, was placed in 
its assigned position in the line, accompanied, as pall-bearers, by the 
following distinguished pioneers, viz. : Col. Richard M. Johnson, of 
Scott; Gen. James Taylor, of Campbell; Capt. James Ward, of Ma- 
son ; Gen. Robert B. McAfee and Peter Jordan, of Mercer ; Walter 
Bullock, Esq., of Fayette; Capt. Thomas Joyes, of Louisville; Mr. 
London Sneed, of Franklin ; Col. eTohn Johnson, of the State of Ohio ;: 
Maj. E. E. Williams, of Kenton, and Col. AVilliam Boone, of Shelby. 
The procession was accompanied by several military companies and 
the members of the Masonic Fraternity and the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, in rich regalia. Arrived at the grave, the company was 
brought to«:ether in a beautiful hollow near the «:rove, ascendino: from 
the centre on every side. Here the funeral services were performed. 
The hymn was given out by Rev. Mr. Godell, of the Baptist Church ;* 
prayer by Bishop Soule, of tiie Methodist Episcopal Church ; oration 
by the Hon. John J. Crittenden ; clo?*ing prayer by the Rev. J, J. bul- 
lock, of the Presbyterian Church, and benediction by the Eld. P. S. 
Fall, of the Christian Church. The coffins were then lowered into 
the graves. The spot where the graves are situated is as beautiful as 
nature and art combined can make it. It is designed to erect a mon- 
ument on the place. 

4. His Death: Timothy Flint, in his biography (1840), states 
that it occurred '* in the year 1818, and in the eighty-fourth year of 
his age;" Hartley, on September 26, 1820, in his feighty-sixth year; 
Bogart, the same ; Switzler, the same, except that his age was eighty- 
eight ; and Chester Harding, who painted from life the celebrated por- 
trait of him in June, 1820, and who fixes his age at ninety, also fixes- 


his death as occurring in 1820. (See Harding's ** Egotist igraphy," 
for a copy of which we are indebted to his son, Gen. James Harding, 
one of the Board of Railroad Commissioners for Missouri.) 

We have, however, recently met with higher authority than either 
of the above writeVs, and one that conclusively settles the date of his 
death. In the Franklin (Mo.) Intelligencer oi Oct. 14, 1820, there 
is copied from the St. Louis Enquirer an obituary notice of Daniel 
Boone, the first paragraph of which is as follows : 

Died. — On the 26th ult. [Sep.] at Charette Village [which was on Femrae Osage 
Creek, in St. Charles County, Mo.], in the ninetieth year of his age, the celebrated 
Col. DANIEL BOONE, discoverer and first settler of the State of Kentucky. 

This disposes of the question conclusively. 

He died at the residence of his son, Maj. Nathan Boone, which wasv 
an old-style two-story house, the first of the kind! erected west of the 
Missouri river, and it is yet standing. A good wood cut of it can be 
found in '* Switzler's History of Missouri," page 180. 

The obituary in the Enquirer *a\Qo says that on the 28th September, 
Mr. £mmons. Senator from Saint Charles County, communicated the 
intelligence of his death to the Legislature, then in session in St. 
Charles, and that " both branches of that body, through respect to 
hi& memory, adjourned for the day, and passed a resolution to wear 
crape on the left arm for twenty days.'' 

One of his sous, Jesse B. Boone, was at the time a member of the 
Legislature from the county of Montgomery. 


The act having been passed November 16, 1820, to organize Boone 
County,, the Statesman sketches by Mr. Stephens say that ''John 
Gray, Jefferson Fulcher, Absalom Hicks, Lawrence Bass and David 
Jackson, were appointed by the Legislature commissioners to select 
and establish a permanent county seat. They were empowered to re- 
ceive donations of not less than fifty, or more than two hundred acres 
of land, upon which to fix this seat of justice ; and, in the event of 
no donations being made, they were authorized to purchase land, for 
which not more than ten dollars per acre were to be paid. 

'*Upon the reception of this land, deeds were to be taken by said 
commissioners, which were to be submitted to the Circuit Court, upon 
whose approval the commissioners were to proceed to advertise the 
lots for sale, in some newspaper printed in the State. 


" In January, 1821, the commissioners entered upon the discharge 
of their duties, and in the fall of that year fixed the seat of justice 
at Columbia ; and henceforth the identity of Boone was recognized 
and permanently preserved. 

The ground on which Columbia now stands was purchased at the 
government land sales, on November 18th, 1818, by an association of 
citizens of Missouri and other States, organized in Franklin, and 
styled the " Smith ton Company." The prospect of an early forma- 
tion of a new county was quite evident, and the situation of this land 
seeming favorable, it was purchased for the purpose of securing upon 
it the seat of justice. 

*' Smithton, however, stood for over eighteen months, and it was two 
years from the location of the first building there when the change of 
the county seat was made to Columbia. 


*' During its existence the county was organized (November, 1820)» 
and by an act of the Legishitnre, the temporary county seat was there 
located. There, on April 2d, 1821, the first Circuit Court (David 
Todd, judge ^) of Boone Count}', was held. In consequence of its 
historic interest, it is deemed fitting to note the following incidents 
durinir the session of the Court: — 

On the day of its meeting, the following ofticers appeared and pre- 
sented their commissions : David Todd, Judge ; Hamilton R. Gamble, 
Circuit Attorney; Roger N. Todd, Clerk; Overton Harris, Sheriff. 
The following is the first entry on the records of the court: 

State of Mo., Boon[e] County. 
Be it remembered, that upon the 2d day of April, in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand eight hundred and twenty-one, bein<? the first Monday in said month, at the towtt 
of Smithton, in said county of Boone (the same being the time and place appointed 
for holding the temporary courts for said county, by two several acts of the Legislature 
of said State, one approved November 25, 1820, entitled **An act establishing judicial 
districts and circuits, and prescribing tiie times and places of holding courts;*' the 
other approved November 16th, 1820, entitled "An act defining the limits of Howard 
county, and laying off new counties within tiie limits of said county as heretofore 
defined "J personally appeared David Todd, esquire, and produced a commission from 
the Governor of said State ^ as the Judge of the Circuit Court of said county, and as 
being duly qualified thereto, which was read, and is in the following words, to-wit: 

1 David Todd was born in Lexington, Ky., March 20, 1780, and died in Columbia^ 
Mo., June 9, 1851). 

* Then Alex. McNalr. 


SijfnedatSt. Loals, Dec. 5, 1820, attested by Groveruor's private'seal, ** there being 
no seal of State yet provided,'^ and by Joshua Barton, Sec^y of Stated 

And the said Judge caused due proclamation to be made and took his seat and con* 
stitQted & court for the circuit of said county of Boone. 

Hamilton R. Gamble produced his commission as Circuit Attorney. 

Tbe following persons were admitted to practice as attorneys : — 

John F. Ryland, Cyrus Edwards, 

John C. Mitchell, Chas. French, 

John Payne, Wni. J. Redd, 

Hamilton R. Gamble, John T. McKinney, 

Dabney Carr, Rob't A. Ewing, 

Andrew S. McGiric. 


"The following grand jury was empanelled: 

Peter Bass, Foreman, Mosias Jones, Peter Ellis, James Ready,. 
Hugh Patten, Thomas G. Jones, Wm. Barry, Joshua Alexander, 
JohuOgan, John Kennon, Richard Cave, Sen., Joseph Lynes, Har- 
risou Jamison, Riley Slocum, Hiram P. Philips, John Anderson, 
John Shick, Smith Turner, George Sexton, Benjamin Mothershead, 
Minor Neale, John Henderson, and Tyre Harris." 

Havino^ received their charge, the jury went out of court, and aftcM- 
some time returned and presented an indictment against Wm. Ramsey 
and Hiram Bryant for assault and battei-y (a true l>ill), and havin<r 
nothing further to present, were discharged. Ramsey and Bryant 
were indicted for assault and hatterv. R. was convicted at next 
termand fined $20. Case v. B. nol.pvos'd at December term. Fii'st 
civil suit disposed of was Obadiah Babbitt v. Amos Barnes. Appeal 
from Justice John Shick's court. Judscmcnt set aside. Criminal 
cases at first were all for assault and battery. 

''A petit jui'y was also empanelled and was composed of the foU 

lowincr : 

"John T. Evans,^ John T. Foster, Michael Woods, Jesse Richard- 
son, Daniel King, John Jamison, Thomas Kennon, John Beriy, Jesse 
Davis, Joseph W. Hickam, Robert Jones and Adam C. Reyburn. 

" This court held two days, and was employed chiefly in appointing 

overseers for roads and issuing licenses. In the absence of a proper 

building, their proceedings were conducted under an arbor of sugar 

trees, constructed for the purpose and provided with accommodations, 

and here within this shady grove, surrounded by the luxuriance and 

beauty of nature's freshness, did justice have an honored birth-place 

UDon the soil of Boone countv ! 


** On August 6th, 1821, was held another Circuit Court, at Smith- 
ton, with same officers and the following grand jury : — 

** William Lientz, Foreman ; Daniel Toalson, Lewis Collins, William 
Ridgeway, Henry Cave, Sen., Peter Creason, James Hicks, Robert 
Barclay, Stephen Wilhite, Aquilla Barns, David McQuitty, James 
Lamme, John W. Fowler, Nathaniel Teagus, William Boyse, Richard 
Lanum, and James Harris. 



" The first regular session of the County Court of Boone was held at 
rSmithton on February 23d, 1821, two months before the sitting of 
the Circuit Q)urt. The judges present were ; Auderson Woods and 
Lazarus Wilcox. Its only work at this session was to appoint Warren 
AVoodson, clerk ^ro tem.^ and Michael Woods, County Assessor. 

'*At its next meeting on May 21st, its third judge, Peter Wright, ap- 
peared and began his duties. A good deal of business was transacted 
at this session, and amongst other things were the division of the 
county into judicial townships, and the appointment of Peter Wright, 
County Surveyor, and of Overton Harris, County Collector. Regu- 
lar sessions of the same Court met at Smithton on August 20th, and 
November 14th, after which the change was made to Columbia. 



"The failure to obtain water on the site of Smithton soon induced 
the proprietors to abandon the project of a town at that place, and it 
was determined to lay out a town on the same plan on the present site 
of Columbia, and to transfer the titles of land in Smithton to lots of 
similar size and value in Columbia ; should it be the option of holders 
of these titles to have the transfer made." 


The following publication was made in the Intelligencer^ at Franklin 
(May 21, 1821), notifying those persons of the change: — 


The trustees of this town iaforra those interested, that the permanent seat of justice 
of Boon County has been located upon the lands belonging to the company, lately 
called ** Smithton Company," at which place a town, upon the same plan as the orig- 
inal one, has been laid out, and is caUed Columbia. 

In justice to the purchasers of lots in Smithton, the trustees will reserve a lot 
corresponding in number, to be conveyed to them on application, if made. on or before 
the first Monday in August next, and will renew their note or notes now held by the 


trustees: ind this renewal will be on a credit of one year for one-half the amount yet 
owing the trustees — the other to be considered as due. These proposals are consid- 
ered rery liberal, as the whole amount is now due, and for a lot in the old town, which 
is soppoeed will be abandoned. If the purchaser does not apply, and cancel the old 
^mtnct by the time fixed, it will be presumed the purchaser intends retaining and 
ptjingforhis lot in Smithton; and the trustees will, after that time, feel authorized to 
dispose of the number now reserved for those persons in Columbia. 

Attention will be given immediately on the subject at Judge Todd*s office, in Frank- 
lin, by Mr. Rees, who will be prepared to receive the old notes and execute title bonds. 
It \» distinctly understood that this is considered a new purchase by each individual, 
md if in any other point of view, the purchaser will retain his lot in Smithton. 

The town of Columbia is located upon a fine site, and in a neighborhood of the best 
lands in the State, which is improving with great rapidity by respectable and wealthy 
dtixens, and offers every inducement to mechanics of every kind to settle immediately, 
as it is expected the county buildings will be contracted for in a few months. 

The proprietors oi this company are notified that a meeting, by themselves or their 
legallj empowered attorney in fact, is requested on the first Monday in August next, 
atColambla, on business of the utmost importance. 

Bj order of the Trustees. 

May 21, 1821. 

**The abundance of water and its central location, and public senti- 
ment, fixed Columbia as the most feasible point for the seat of justice for 
the neH county. Accordingly a donation of fifty acres of land, two 
public squares, $2,000 in money, and two wells of water, from the 
trustees of the town, was accepted by the Commissioners appointed 
by the Legislature to locate the county seat, who, on August 6, 1821, 
submitted the following report to the Circuit Court, then in session in 
Smithton, which was adopted : — 

We, the undersigned, Lawrence Bass, John Gray, David Jackson, Absalom Ilicks, 
ud Jefferson Fulcher, Commissioners, appointed by an act of the Legislature of 
Hissonri erecting the said County of Boone to tlx upon and locate the permanent seat 
ofjostice in said county, did, on the third, fourth, fifth and sixth days of AprU, in the 
jcir eighteen hundred and twenty-one, proceed to the discharge of the duties required 
ot OS by the said act, and have fixed upon as the permanent seat of justice of said 
coontT, the southeast quarter of section twelve, in range thirteen and township forty- 
«iglit, which was owned by Thos. Duley, Gerard Robinson, Taylor Berry, Richard 
Oeotrjr and David Todd, trustees and proprietors for certain Individuals, whose names 
^ particularly described in a deed of trust, of record in the office of Howard County, 
b; Anderson Woods and others, and have accepted of a majority of the said trustees 
tbeir propositions of a donation of fifty acres of land and two public squares of 
iroQQd, whereon to erect suitable and necessary buildings for county and town pur- 
poses; alao, a farther donation to the County Court of ten acres of land for the 
erection of bridges over the Moniteau, Roche Perce, Hinkson and Cedar Creeks, on the 
direct route from Franklin to St. Charles, through the county seat; also, ten acres 
conditional if the State University be established therein, and have also received their 
propositlont for a donation of two thousand dollars in cash notes, and the procuring 
of two wells of nerer falling- water; and we shall proceed forthwith to cause town 



lots U» be laid out, and the necessary conveyances for said land, and shall receive the 
said donation of cash notes upon individuals, all of which we will in a further report 
of oui^ proceedings refer to and explain. 

Lawrence Bass, [Seal.] 

David Jackson, [Seal.] 

John Gray, [Seal.] 

Absalom Hicks, [Seal.] 

Jefferson Fulcher. [Seal.] 
Smithton, Boone CouNxy, Mo., April 7, 1821. 

'* Smithton never contained over twenty inhabitants, and its houses, 
with the exception of the double hewed one before referred to as be- 
longing to Gen. Gentry, were log cabins of the rudest structure and 
of only the poorest conveniences. They were all hauled to Columbia 
when the seat of justice was removed. Not a vestige of them remains. 
Columbia was laid out early in the spring of 1821. The surveyor wa? 
Peter Wright, a man who deserves not only the honor but the grat- 
itude of our people for the systematic and elaborate manner in whicl 
he did his work, and especially for the judgment and taste he displayed 
in the construction of Broadway, even now admitted to be the most 
beautiful street in Missouri. He was assisted by Charles Burns, Petei 
Kearny and Butters worth. 

" The first sale of lots in Columbia occurred on Monday, May 28, 
1821. The publication of the County Commissioners, giving notice 
of the sale, appeared in the Intelligencer of April 14, 1821, as 
follows : — 


The commissioners of Boon County have located the permanent seat of justice ii 
said county, near the centre, upon the lands adjoining Smithton, and have laid off th< 
above town. This town site is located in a neighborhood of first rate lands, and inter 
sected by the most public roads in the State leading to St. Louis, and from the Uppei 
Missouri to the expected seat of Government,' and in every respect is calculated U 
meet the expectation of the public and its friends. 

The commissioners propose to sell lots therein on the third Monday in May, belnj 
County Court day; and on the first Monday in August, being Circuit Court day, at th« 
town of Smithton, and will adjourn to the town site, on which days they expect Um 

sales will be entirely closed. 


April 14,1821. 


*' The first house in Columbia was a log cabin, built by Thomas Duly, 


in 1820. It stood on the southeast comer of Broadway and Fifth 
Street. It was afterwards weather-boarded and enlarged. 

"The first store-house was built by A. J. Williams, on the southwest 
corner of Broadway and Fifth Street, afterwards the residence of Dr. 
William Provines, and now the residence of Alfred Brown, a colored 

"The first hotel was kept by Gen. Gentry, on Broadway, in 1821. 

"The first brick house was built by Charles Hardin, in 1821. The 
first business establishment was a grocery, kept by Peter Kearny, on 
the northeast comer of Fifth Street and Broadway. The first court 
in Columbia was held in a log cabin, about fifty yards east of the 
present jail, where it met for a year, when it was removed to a work- 
shop belonging to Judge John Vanhom, situated on the ground where 
now stands the residence of Rev. Isaac Jones. (The large two-stoiy 
brick stores of Conley, Searcy & Co. now occupy the lot.) There it 
remained until the completion of the old court-house, in 1824. Tho 
first jail stood a few yards northwest of the present court-house, audi 
the keeper was John M. Kelly. 

" In 1821 Columbia did not attain a greater growth than fifteen or 
twenty houses, all of which were mud-daubed log buildings of the 
smaller size, and but one-story high. They were situated in a 
"clearing" id the midst of stumps and brush, while all around 
stretched a dense and trackless wilderness. 

"Although the County Commissioners reported the removal of the 
seat of justice to Columbia in the spring of 1821, the actual transfer 
could not be made without the ratification of the Legislature, which 
did not assemble until the fall of that year. Courts were therefore 
held at Smithton until November 15th, when the Legislature made the 

niiST ciRCurr court at Columbia. 

"Accordingly the first court was held at Columbia, on December 7tb, 
1821. The following is the grand jury that was on that day empan- 
nelled : 

** Mason Moss, Foreman ; Jesse Perkins, James Barns, Alfred Head,, 
fiichard Fulkerson, John Harrisoh, J. C. McKay, William T. Hatton, 
Andrew Hendricks, Greorge Crump, Charles Hughes, William Barns, 
John Yates, John McKenzie, Joseph W. Hickam, Jesse B. Dale, Michael 
Woods, Thomas Williams, Caleb Fenton, John G. Philips, Zachariah 


**Al80 the following petit jury: John Witt, Pattison Y. Russell, 
William Russell, Kemp M. Goodloe, John T. Evans, Nathan Glas- 
gow, John Ogan, John Graves, James Turley, Jesse Lewis, JohnKen- 
non, and James Denny. This court held two days. 


" The first County Court met in Columbia on February 18th, 1822. 
Four regular sessions of this court were held in Smithton during 1821, 
during which the county was laid off into judicial townships, and Con- 
stables were appointed for each, as follows : 

"Columbia Township — Nichohis S. Kavanaugh ; Cedar Town- 
ship — Thomas S. Tuttle ; Missouri Township — Ichabod C. Hensley ; 
Rockyfork Township — Amos Marney ; Perche Township — Samuel 

'*The first Justices of the Peace were appointed in 1821 by Gov- 
ernor McNair, as follows ; 

"Columbia Township — Richard Cave; Cedar Township — James 
Cunningham; Missouri Township — John Gray; Rockyfork Town- 
ship — James R. Abernathy ; ^ Perche Township — John Henderson.' 

"Bourbon Township had not then been made. 

" The law requuiring the appointments of District Assessors was then 
in force, and the following were the first appointed (1822) : 

"Columbia Township — Minor Neal ; Cedar — Lawrence Bass; 
Missouri — Jesse B. Dale ; Rockyfork — William L. Wayne ; Perche — 
Michael Woods ; Assessor for county — Ichabod C. Hensle3^ 

"Overton Harris was the first Sheriff of Boone County, having been 
appointed by the Governor. He held the position until the first 
election for State and county officers, on August 5th, 1822, when 
James Barnes was elected Sheriff, and Mr. Harris received the 
appointment of Assessor. The late Hiram Philips was appointed first 
Coroner of Boone in 1821. 

[His son, Judge Richard Philips, of Audniin County, has furnished 
us his original commission issued July 20th, 1821, by Governor Alex- 
ander McNair, and it strongly contrasts with the beautifully printed 
and highly embellished commissions of the present day. It is all in the 
bold elegant penmanship of Wm. G. Pettus, then Secretary of State, 

* Mr. Aberuathy was afterwards a lawyer, prosecuting attorney, and editor of the 
Mercury in Paris, Mo., where he now lives at an advanced age. 

Old settlers state that Mr. Henderson lived in Missouri Township at the time. 


tod the State then having no seal one is made with a wafer over which 
is a Btar-ehaped piece of white paper cut with a pair of scissors. The 
commissiou is as follows : — W. F. Switzlbr.] 

Alexandbr McNair, Oovernor of thf State of Missouri, 


Koow je that reposing 8|>eclal trust and confidence in the integrity and abilities of 

Hbim Philips of the County of Boone I do him appoint Coroner of the said County 

ol Boone in the State of Missouri and do authorize and empower him to discharge the 

duties of said Office according to law. To Have and to Hold the said Office with all 

die riglits, powers, privileges and emoluments unto the same appertaining unto him 

tkenkl Hiram PhUips until the next general election and until his successor be duly 

Rifled onless sooner removed according to law. 

Ifl TtoUmony whereof I have hereunto affixed my private seal (there being no seal of 

State yet provided). Given under my hand at St. Charles this 20th day of 

[l^.] July A. D. One thousand eight hundred and twentv one and of the Inde* 

pendence of the United States the forty-sixt i. 

Bj the Governor. 

William G. Pettus, Secretary of State. 

EwjM Philips, Copmlssion Coroner. 
Filed August 7th, 1S21 . 

R. N. TODD, Clk. 

Stati of Missouri, 'i ^. .. ^ . . . ^ , « ., 

^ „_^ ,„ > 88. C rcuit Court August Term 1821. 

CouKTY OF Boone. / ** 

This day personally appeared In open Court the within named Hiram Philips, Esquire, 

lod took the oath to support the Constitution of the United States and of this State 

ud faithfully, diligently and impartially to discharge the duties of Coroner for the 

CoQotTof Boone to the best of his skill and abilities. Given under my hand this 7th 

dtyof August 1821 with my private seal, there being no seal of State yet provided. 

[L.8.] ROGER N. TODD, Clk. 

State of Missouri. Boone Circuit to wit: 

Tbis commission of Hiram Philips Coroner was produced before me clerk of said 
Ooan and having been qualified in open Court the same with certificate of qualiflca- 
tl<m8 Is admitted to record In my office and is duly recorded in Book A page 39 this 7th 
day of August 1821. Given under my hand with my private seal there being no seal of 
o(8ce yet provided. 

[L.ft.] ROGER N. TODD, Clerk. 

"One Rmong the first acts of the Court of July, 1821, was to fix 
tie county tax, at five per cent of the State Tax. 

"This was the rule in Boone county until 1830. 

"The first license to keep tavern was granted to Wilford Stephens, 
of Columbia, on August 20, 1821. The first license to retail mer- 
chandise was granted to Peter Bass on June 1, 1821, and the next 
to Oliver Parker, on June 9, 1821. 


'' In 1821, the first year of its existence, the size and wealth of Col- 
umbia were very diminutive. The town consisted of a few cabins on 
'*Flat Branch," while none but Gentry's Hotel stood as far east aa 
Court House Street. In 1 822 a spirited rivalry sprang up between 
General Gentry and Dr. Wm. Jewell, as to whether the central part 
of the town should be where it now is or at the intersection of Broad- 
way and Fifth Street. Gentry, however, triumphed and during the 
next year, 1822, several houses were built on what is now Eightii 
or Court House Street. The primary design of the founders of Colum- 
bia was that the ground on which now stands the court-house, Baptist 
Church, and jail siiould be a public square, and the sui*vey was so made. 

'* In 1822, dry goods stores were kept in Columbia by Peter Bass, 
Abraham J. Williams, and Robert Snell ; groceries by Thomas Dulj 
and John Graham, and taverns by Richard Gentry, Wilford Stephens, 
and Sam'l Wall. Other inhabitants were David Jackson, William 
Davis, Kemp M. Goodloe, Roger N. Todd, Abel Foley, Charles Har- 
din, and Dr. Daniel P. Wilcox. 

*' The post-office was established in Columbia in 1821, with Charles 
Hardin, father of the present (1876) governor of Missouri, Charles 
H. Hardin, as postmaster. 

[Charles Hardin was a tanner, and lived and kept the post-office, on 
Flat Branch, in the southwestern part of town, and on the same lot 
on which his old brick residence, the first brick house- erected in Col- 
umbia, yet stands. His tan-yard was in the valley of the branch, 
near his residence. Mr. Hardin married a sister of the late Dr. Wm. 
Jewell, and died in Columbia, on August 20, 1830. — W. F. S.] 

'* The first jail was built by George Sexton, in 1822, and was kept 
by John M. Kelly, who died in Columbia, January 24, 1874. Thre< 
of his daughters, who are estimable Christian ladies. Misses Marj 
Jane, Roxanna and Catherine Kelly, survive him, and are still resi- 
dents of the town, living in a frame house opposite the Christiai: 


*' Overton Harris, father of Hon. John W. Harris, Judge James and 
Mr. William A. Harris, was the first sherift* of Bocme County. He w« 
appointed by the County Court, in May, 1821, and commissioned bj 
the Governor the July following. He gave a bond of $5,000 to th< 
court, with Tyre Harris, Nicholas S. Kavanaugh and Samuel Beattie, 
as securities, and in July gave one of $1,000 to the Governor, witt 
Michael and Anderson Woods, securities. He held the position til: 



the first election for State and county officers, on August 5th, 1822, 
when James Barnes,^ still a resident of the county, was elected 
sheriff, and Mr. Harris received the appointment of assessor." 


The first deed of record in the county was dated Dec. 12, 1820, from 
Taylor Berry and wife to John Walkup, for 160 acres of land, for 
$950, and is as follows : 


Tf into whom these presents shaU come, Greeting: 

Know ye, that I, Taylor Berry and Fanny W. Berry, my wife, of the county of 
Howtrd and State of Missouri, for and in consideration of the sum of 99M, tp me in 
bud paid by John Walkup, of the county aforesaid, the receipt whereof I do hereby 
acknowledge, have granted, bargained, sold, transferred and assigned, and do by these 
presents grant, bargain, sell, transfer and assign to the said John Walkup, his heirs or 
aasigni forever, a certain tract or parcel of land, containing one hundred and sixty 
acrei, be the same more or less, lying and being in the said county of Howard, or more 
properly now Boon County, It being the southwest quarter of section No. ten, town- 
sUp forty-alne, north, and range No. fourteen, west of the 5th principal meridian line, 
it being the same quarter which was Improved by Michael Woods, which said quarter 
eection is a part of a location made by me by virtue of a New Madrid claim, In the 
name of Francis Hudson, Senr., — To have and to hold to him the said John Walkup, 
bit bein or assigns forever, free from the claim or claims of all persons whatsoever. 

In testimony whereof, etc. 

Dec. 12, 1S20. 


Witnesses: Wm. Grubbs, Wm. Carson. 

Acknowledged before Gray Bynum, Clerk C. C, Howard Co. 

"The first mortgage was given on February 18th, 1821, by Benjamin 
F.White, to Robert Dale, and secured a debt of $67.26V4. The 
property mortgaged was '* a tract of land, known as the southeast 
quarter of the second section, in township forty-eight, range four- 
teen, with all the appurtenances thereto belonging and appertaining, 
and one sorrel horse, one bay mare, one red yearling heifer, and 
tiro sows and pigs." 

**The first letters of administration were granted on May 21st, 

1821, to James Turley, on the estate of Daniel Turley, deceased, 

Nathaniel Fagan and John McKinzie being securities in a bond of 

12,500. The deed from the trustees of the ''Smithton Company" 

donating ground to the county commissioners as the seat of justice, 

WHS recorded on April 28th, 1821." 

' Mr. Barnes died at his residence, in Randolph County, Mo., , 187—. 



1. This is to certify that Isaac Black and Sarah Maupin was married by the under- 
signed on the 14th day of July 1820 given under my hand and seal this tenth day of 
August, 1820. TYRE MARTIN, J. P. 

Recorded June 20, 1821. 

2. December 21, 1820. Married by me Robert Dale, a baptist minister of the gospel^ 

in Boone county. State of Missouri, Robt. D. Walkup and Anna W. Cochran. 

Recorded May 22, 1821. 

3. Daniel Lewis and Mary Pain [Payne] Feb. 18, 1821. By Tyre Martin, J. P. 

4. Thomas Kennan and Mary Cave, March 10, 1821. Tyre Martin, J. P. 

5. James Renn and Rebecca Whitley, March 18, 1821. John Henderson, J. P. 

6. John Gray and Nancy Ross, March 22, 1821. John Henderson, J. P. 

7. Joseph Glenn and Sally Graham, Apr. 5, 1821. John Henderson, J. P. 

8. John Anderson and Lovee Fenton, (''both of the county of Boone**) Apr. 28, 
1821. Absalom Hicks, J. P. 


It will be seen by the following tabular statements, made and pub- 
lished Nov. 13, 1821, by Overton Harris, coUectot, that the finances 
of Boone county the year after its organization were exceedingly 
small; the reading of which, in contrast with the present financial 
condition of the county, will be very interesting : — 


Which have been received, and which ought to have been received for Licenses in 

Boone County, since the 15th day of May, 1821. 

$ cts 

Peter Bass, (Merchandise) 150O 

Oliver Parker, do ... - 16 00 

Robert Snell, do 15 00 

Richard Gentry, (Wines and Spirituous Liquors) 20 00 

Thos. Donley, do do do do 6 00 

John Grayum, do do do do 6 00 

ToUl ^77 00 

Overton Harris, 
Collector Boone Coanty. 
Nov. 13th, 1821. 


The following jidvertisement made by Overton Harris, collector^ 
same day and date as above, exhibits the names of certain tax payer* 
*' who have absconded, or, become insolvent subsequently to the date 
of their assessment and prior to the date when the tax ought to have 
been collected and the amount of taxes due by them respectively." 

None of the amounts reach the sum of $10, a large majority of 



them are under $1, and cue of them, the taxes of Louis (Lewis)' 
Teters, both State and county, only twelve cents. It will be seen that 
the tuxes are stated with scrupulous exactness, even to a cent and* 
fractions of a cent, and that it is, for this and other reasons, a very 
rare and racy official paper : — 


Of iIlsDcb persons from whom taxes are due for State and coanty purposes in Boone 
coQDtj, for the year 1S21, and who have absconded, or become Insolvent, subsequent- 
to th« date of their assessment and prior to the date when the tax ought, according to 
the provisions of Uie statute in this case made, to have been coUected, and the amount 
of taxes doe by them respectively, to- wit: 

Delinquents' Names. 

BeojuDin Bordyne 

KUm Boles 

Jtmcs Beatty, (dead) 

Obadiih Babbett 

Adtm 8. Bamett . 


Hlian Bryant 

Mio Christian 

DinleJ Cramp 

Aboer Davis 

Anthony J. Davis 

Thomas Ellison 

Mo Finney 

Birtley Gentry, (dead) 


Jonathan Gray 

George Homts 

Heoiy James 

ftinds Lipscomb 


Aithlbald McNeal 

Walter McKay 


StDQel Nutting 


WUHam Piper 

Jesie Samuels 

John Thompson 

Lewis Teters 

William D. Young 

(Carles Vanauster 

•^oho Blackburn, (dead) 


Willis A. Ethel 


William Timberlake 

Amoant of Taxes 



$1 00 

$ 50 

1 00 


1 57i 


2 OS 

1 04 

1 02 


1 12^ 







1 15 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


9 65 

4 47 





1 00 




1 20 


1 00* 


1 00 


1 15 




1 00 


1 06 


1 00 


8 02} 

1 51 

1 60 




1 27 


1 00 








1 13 


1 05 


Nov. 18, 1821. 

Overton Harris, 
Collector Boone Coanty. 


The entire amount of the delinquent taxes thus blazoned in the 
Franklin Litelliffencer sunounts only to $64.26V4, and the merchants' 
license for six months to $45.00, and the saloon license for the same 
period to $32.00. 


No doubt the younger readers of this History, although they may 
recall the myriads of grasshoppers which, a few years ago, desolated 
the farms and forests and the prairies and fields of Kansas and 
Nebraska, as well as portions of our own State, do not know that the 
pioneers of the commonwealth, and during the very year of its admits 
tance into the Federal Union, made the acquaintance of this destruc- 
tive scourge. But the following extract of a letter from Fort Osage, 
June 15, 1821, to the St. Louis Register^ will show that grasshoppers 
in countless numbers visited Missouri then, as they have several times 
since, *' literally eating up the whole country." 

[Extract from the Letter.] 

<< Immense swarms of grasshoppers are overrunning this whole country, and lit- 
terally eating it up. Our gardens are nearly all destroyed, and we have no reason to 
hope that anything will be saved of them without some Providential interference. I 
<^an see no escape from all the distressing consequences of a general and utter failure 
of our grain crops. This plague seems to be evidently progressing south-eastwardly, 
so that you may count upon a similar visitation next fall. Those who can secure two 
years' supply of grain from the present crops, ought to do so by all means. You had 
better prepare for the coming evil — practice economy in feeding away com, &c. Save 
plenty of forage in order to save grain." 

An article by E. W. Stephens, in the Missouri JStatesmany of October 
S, 1869, says : — 

''After the permanent establishment of the seat of justice, the 
installment of the county officers, and the assumption of all the 
privileges and functions of a distinct county, Boone grew amazingly 
in wealth and population, and scarcely a year had elapsed before she 
was recognized as one of the first counties of Missouri — a position 
she has never since ceased to sustain. The emigration was largest 
during the year 1822. A w^'iter of that period asserts that *the 
settlers of those twelve months were more numerous and possessed of 
more wealth than those of all upper Missouri besides.' " 


'' Before 1820 there was but one grist mill within the limits of 


Boone county. It belonged to John Copeland, and 8t6od near Moni- 
teau creek, several miles north of Rocheport. During 1821 another 
■one was built by Durrett Hubbard, about eight miles southeast of 
Columbia, near the present residence of Judge James Harris. In 
1822 the first carding machine was built near the present southern 
suburbs of Columbia by David Jackson, by whom it was run for sev- 
•eral years. During 1822 the great influx of emigrants occasioned the 
coDStruction of a considerable number of factories and mills, and by 
Febraary 4, 1823, there were in the county three manufacturing water 
mills, ten horse mills and three water saw mills." 


*^The rapid increase of the county had, by 1824, become such as to 
awaken enterprise and stai*t the pulses of trade in eveiy avenue of 
labor. The forests began to ring with the axe of the woodsman, and 
the wilderness fast became the scene of active industry and enlight- 
ened culture. The fertile soil was made to yield an abundant increase, 
which found a ready demand and sold at exorbitant prices to the new 
comers. These inhabitants were active, energetic and progressive, 
and with resoluteness applied themselves to the development and 
civilization of the country. Log cabins were supplanted by neat 
frame dwellings, and over the hovels of poverty rose mansions of com- 
fort and plenty. The haunts of barbarism became the abodes of 
learning, and the mists of ignorance vanished before the light of intel- 
ligence. In three years Columbia had grown from a few wretched 
huts to an emporium of refinement, enterprise and trade. Scholars, 
lawyers, divines, capitalists, and men of every rank and condition in 
their pilgrimage to a Western home, attracted by the richness and 
beauty of the country, cast their fortunes with the frontier village and 
applied their tastes and energies to its adornment and progress. 
Columbia was now confirmed beyond cavil as the established county 
seat, and the large population, as well as the business before the 
courts, made it necessary that there should be a temple of justice." 


The first court house erected in Boone county foi* the accommoda- 
tion of the Circuit and County Courts was called in the advertisement 
of the Commissioners **the hull of a court-house," and those who 
Aided in the administrationof justice within its walls, either as judges, 


jurors or other officers, or who, as citizens or spectators, listened witb 
rapture to the foreusic eloquence of our early lawyers, will agree that 
i£ was a <<hull" in fact as well as in name. 

It was a brick structure erected by Minor Neal, and stood until sup- 
planted in 1848 by the present court-house, where the Baptist Church 
now stands. The following, copied from the Intelligencer of May 
Ist, 1824, is the advertisement of the Commissioners for bids to 
erect the hull : — 


THE Commissioners of Boon County will, on the first day of the next term of the 
Circuit Court of said county, at the town of Columbia, on the 

Second Monday in June next^ 



The BUILDING of the 

HULL of a 


Forty feet square, and two stories high, to be covered with good shingles. 
Payment — part cash, and the balance cash notes. 
They wUl also sell, at the same time and place, about 

40 LOTS 

in said town, at six and twelve months* credit. 
Particulars made known on the day of the letting of the house and sale of lots. 

John Gray, 
' Lawrence Bass, 
Jefferson Fulcher, 
Absalom Hicks, 
David Ja(^kson, 
Commissioners of Boon County^ 

May 1, 1824. 38-7 w 

"The building was afterwards let to Judge John Vanhorn, thei> 
a resident of Boone, and Isaiah Parks, and built by them during the 
year 1824. It stood just west of the present court-house, where is 
now the Baptist Church. It was a brick building of hip roof, two 
stories high, with a court room on the ground floor, and grand and 
petit jury rooms above stairs, the building being fifty feet long by 
forty wide. Courts were held there until the completion of the pres- 
ent court-house in 1848. 


In February, 1823, the population of Columbia was 130. See 
IrUeUigencer of Feb. 4, 1823. 


Nothing, perhaps, will so clearly or in so interesting a manner dis- 
close the progress made in the county as a comparison of its receipts 
aud expenditures in 1824 with its receipts and expenditures in 1881, 
nearly sixty years afterwards — the receipts during the first year being 
only $855.75, and the last year $121,794.22 ; expenditures in 1824 only 
$743, or $112.75 less than the receipts, while in 1881 the receipts were 
$121,794.22, and the expenditures $53,381.01. 

The following tabular statements — the first from the Franklin 
Intelligencer of January 1, 1825, and the last frohi the records of our 
County Court — will exhibit these facts in interesting and suggestive 
contrast : — 

[From the FrankliD Intelligencer, January 1, 1826.] 


Of the Receipts and Expenditures of Boone County during the Year 1824. 


Of the Collector, it being the net amount of the county levy for the said year, the 

Bum of. $734 71 

Of Constables, on fines assessed by Justices of the Peace 81 67 

Of the Sheriff, on fines assessed by the Circuit Court 89 86 

ToUl receipte $855 75 


To "William Lientz, as a Justice of the County Court 28 00 

*' Lawrence Baas, as a Justice of the County Court 82 00 

** Silas Riggs, as a Justice of the County Court 26 00 

" James Bams, Sheriff. 169 54 

" Harrison Jamison, Deputy Sheriff. 26 00 

«* Roger N. Todd, Clerk of the Circuit Court 72 49 

" John T. Foster, for furnishing a seal press, three chairs for the Court, and for 

other services ^ 13 68 

" Richard Gentry, for furnishing a room for the Circuit Court at February term... 2 00 

'* Gabriel Davis, for services rendered the county , 2 00 

" Hiram Wilbum, for services rendered the countv 8 00 

*' Joshua Gillum, for services rendered the 'county 4 00 

** Samuel Wickersham, for services rendered the county 1 41 

^* Hugh Silvers, for services rendered the county 8 00 



To Richard Kiggs, for services rendered the county » 6 60^ 

" Warren Woodson, Clerk of the County Court, for furnishing stationery for his 
office, making out county tax-lists, performing the duties of County Treasurer 

for said year, and for other services rendered the county 89 14 

Appropriation made said Woodson for furnishing record books, seal of office, 

seal for branding measures, and half-bushel measure 71 75 

Tyre Harris, Esq., for services rendered the county 2 00 

Adam C. Rayburn, keeper of stray pound, and for services rendered the county... 6 60" 

'* Samuel Jamison, for the rent of a house to hold courts in 88 00^ 

David Jackson, as County Commissioner 10 00 

•* Jefferson Fulcher, as County Commissioner 10 00 

** John Gray, as County Commissioner 10 00 

** Robert Hinkson, for services as overseer of road in 1822 2 00 

" Bazzel Brown, for bearing poll-book to Columbia 1 40" 

" Roger N. Todd, for acting as clerk to a sale of lots in the town of Columbia 11 00 

" Johiel Parks, for acting as clerk to a sale of lots in the town of Columbia ... 8 00 

John Henderson, Esq., for services rendered the county 2 50 

Peter Kerney, Constable, for services rendered the county 11 50" 

Adam C. Rayburn, for services rendered the county... 8 76 

Harrison Jamison, for services rendered the county 10 87 

Sampson Wright, collector for certain advertisements 4 00" 

Appropriations made to Wm. Lientz for furnishing one-gallon, half-gallon, 

quart, pint, and half-pint standard measures.... 10 00 

Henry Cave, Sr., as commissioner to view a road in 1822 5 00* 

R. N. Todd, for making repairs to a house for the use of the courts 26 75 

Moses Batterton, his semi-annual allowance- for keeping Alfred Batterton, a per- 
son of unsound mind 10 00 

Total amount of expenditures $743 00* 

State of Missouri, 1 
County of Boojte, Set. j 

As Clerk of the County Court in and for said county, I certify that the above and forego- 
ing statement contains a correct account of the receipts and expenditures of said county dur- 
ing the year 1824. "" 
Given under my hand, with the seal of said Court affixed, at Columbia, this 15th day ot 
December, 1824. n 




County revenue ^26,243 93 

County interest 25,543 90* 

Valid indebtedness 12,032 81 

State tax 26,825 47 

Public School tax 28,228 84 

Railroad tax — Rocky Fork Township 1,575 75 

RailroadUx — Perche Township 1,343 52^ 

Total receipts ^121,794 22: 







BoDds redeemed #7,000 OO 

iDterest on bonds redeemed 106 20 

CoopoDs on bonds Redeemed 21,898 00^ 

jQdges' salary 865 60 

Coantj Clerk's salary ^ 2,896 21 

Sheriffs fees . . . 227 84 

ProsecQting Attorney's salary 750 00* 

Circait Clerk and criminal costs 1,405 84 

Treuarer 650 00 

Assessor 688 80 

Sarreyor / 276 50^ 

School Commissioner 41 75 

Road Overseers 1,400 25 

CooDty Physician . . . 146 00- 

Coonty Poor-honse expense 8,485 09 

FHoper support and coffins 889 72 

Bridge expense 6,806 92 

State Lunatic Asylum expense 1,889 18 

Stationery and books 782 70 

Poblic printing "... 276 60 

Repairs and farnitare public buildings 521 52 

Foel poblic buildings 171 60 

Inquest fees 189 05 

Jail expense 908 17 

Repairs pablic roads 100 00 

Insaraoce public buildings 26 6& 

Rebate on taxes 48 91 

Miscellaneous . . • 43 05 

Total ^52,381 ai 


**Coliimbia did not secure the seat of justice of Boone County wholly 
without effort. There was at least one other point that contested her 
claims stoutly and with strong prospects of success. This was near 
the intersection of the old ''Boonslick Trace,'' or St. Charles Road, 

and Perche Creek, and close by the farm now owned by 

A town was there laid out in 1820, and called *' Persia.'' Who chose 

the locality or promulgated the idea of proposing it for the county 

seat, is unknown. Some of the persons who lived in and near this 

toirn, were Moses Batterton, Jonathan Barton (cousin of Hon. David 

Barton), William Callaham, James Davis, Reuben and Eppa Elliott, 

Isaac Freeman, Benjamin Ferguson, James Fenton, William Goslin,. 

Nicholas Gentry, Tyre Harris, Joseph M. Little, James and John 

Payne, William and Barnett Rowland, William Ryan, Peter Stivers^ 

' Properly speUed Perch e. 


John Skinner, George and Ishara Sexton, John Slack, Enoch Taylor, O. 
Babett, J. Tefft and Elisha Stanley. 

*' In 1820 many reasons seemed to indicate that Persia would grow 
to be a thriving and populous town, but it obtained its maximum at 
fifteen or twenty houses, and after the location of the county seat at 
Columbia, gradually declined, till it sank from existence, and is now 
almost wrapt in oblivion. 

** The advertisement of a sale of lots in '* Persia," which we copy 

from the Franklin Intelligencer of April 1, 1820, will be interesting 

reading : — 



Situated on the Rocher Perce Creek, on the main road leading from Franklin to St. 
Charles, about 28 miles from Franklin, and generally supposed to be in the centre ol 
the contemplated county, in a rich and fertile tract of country, rapidly populating with 
wealthy and respectable citizens. The local advantages of this place are not sur- 
passed, perhaps, by any f^^r a town in the territory — there being a number of never- 
failing springs ; and the Rocher Perce contains a sufficient quantity of water to keep 
mills of any description in operation at any season of the year. Two of the proprie- 
tors will commence building a Saw and Grist Mill immediately, near the town, and a 
Bridge across the Creek. There will also be erected a Brewery, Distillery, Carding 
Machine, & Fulling Mill, which will certainly aid very much in facilitating the improve- 
ment of the town, as purchasers will be able to obtain materials for building cheapei 
than th«y can obtain them at any other place in the territory. The subscribers hope 
this will be an inducement to purchase and improve their lots at once. 

The proprietors of this town do not wish to exhibit it on paper, for purposes of 
speculation, as is too frequently the case, but wish purchasers to improve their lots 
and realize their value. 

50 LOTS 

will be given to Merchants, Mechanics, and persons wishing to Improve in the above 
town, on stipulated terms, viz. : A lot out of each block, or in proportion to the num- 
ber of blocks in said town. On each corner lot a building, frame, brick or stone, not 
less than two stories high, and eighteen by twenty-live feet, which is to be enclosed 
by the 20th Sept. next. If of brick or stone, the body to be up by the 4th July next; 
if a frame, t!ie frame to be erected by that time — and on each middle lot a comfort- 
able dwelling-house, not less than 18 feet square, of any kind of materials, to be 
finished by the 4th of July next. 

The Lots in the above town will be offered at PUBLIC SALE, on the premises, on 
the FOURTH OF JULY next — and at Franklin on the 10th. 

Terms of payment — one-tenth in three months from the day of sale, and the remain- 
der at the expiration of three years. 

ff^ A plot of the town may be seen at the town, and at the store of Stanley and 

Ludlow and the Printing Office, Franklin. 




N. PATTEN, Jr., 

Agents for the above Town, 

April I, 1820. 


The** saw and grist mill" spokeu of in the above was afterwards 
built and owned by Elisha Stanley. 


E. W. Stephens, Assistant Editor of the Statesman^ November 19, 
1869: "The ground on which the town of Rocheport stands was 
originally obtained under a New Madrid certificate (the nature of 
which has been heretofore explained) by David Gray. It comprised 
a tract of 191.40 acres. It was afterwards sold by Gray to William 
Kincheloe, who had possession of it but a brief period, when it was 
purchased by John Gray. The latter had resided upon the land prior 
to the date of purchase, and in 1821 obtained a license to run a ferry 
across the river at that point. About the same time a warehouse was 
established there, which was kept by Robert Hood. The locality was 
designated '* The mouth of the Moniteau." 

**0u March 2, 1825, one-third of this tract was sold by John Gray to 
Abraham Barnes, and one-third to Lemon Parker and John Ward, for 
$2,000. These persons immediately laid out a town there. The 
sur^'eyof the plat was made by our aged and much esteemed fellow 
citizen, William Shields.^ Arrangements having been perfected for a 
sale of lots, the following publication was made to that effect in the 
Intelligencer of September 2, 1825 : — 



This town is situated on the Missouri River, at about an equal distauce from Franlclin 
aod ColQinbia, at the mouth of the Grand Moniteau. Its site is not equalled by any 
on the Missouri from its mouth to Fort Osage. Its harbor is very superior, having 
^Jetrly half-a-mile of deep still water in front of the town, occasioned by bluff of rocks 
*bore, projecting into the river, which renders it perfectly secure for boats during the 
brwiking up of ice. The tract is well watered, having several large springs of fine 
Mft water. As It respects the advantages of this puint for business, to those who 
iitv-e resided any time in Boon's Lick country nothing need be said, its superiority 
^ing generally acknowledged ; but for the information of emigrants, who feel disposed 
to settle in or near a town of some promise, it may be proper to make a few remarks. 
The business of this section of country necessarily includes in some degree the expor- 
tation of its surplus produce; and, as emigration ceases, and cultivation -and improve- 
nients are extended, it will then constitute a considerable portion of our commerce. 
For a business of this kind, its situation is peculiarly favorable, having in its rear the 
itigest connected body of good country in the State, and its settlements, though good 
U present, are rapidly progressing, and of a wealthy and enterprising class. Its com- 
munication with the back country is easy and free from those difficulties which 

' Mr. Shields died in Columbia on September 7, 1870, aged 83 years. 


generally exist with towns situated on the Missouri, viz., bad roads. In almost every^" 
direction, from this point, good roads arc and may be had with but little labor. The^ 
traveller from St. Louis to Columbia, Boonville, Lexington, Liberty, or Fort Osage^ 
will no doubt shortly adopt the route by Kocheport, there crossing the Missouri, by 
which he will save in distance ten or twelve miles, have a much better road, and avoid 
several creeks and extensive bottoms, which, in a wet time, much impede his progress 
on the old route. 

A good warehouse and ferry are already established at Rocheport, both of which are 
at present well supported. 

Tlie title to the town tract is indisputable, the proprietors being in possession of the- 
patent from the United States. 


will be offered for sale on the premises, on the seventeenth day of Nov ember next — and 
as it Is the desire of the proprietors rather to promote improvement than to realize 
cash from the amount of sales, no lots will be sold except subject to certain improve- 
ments, to be made within eighteen months from purchase, say at least a log house 
eighteen by twenty feet on each lot. To merchants or mechanics, who wish to become 
settlers and make extensive improvements, donations of lots will be made. A bond 
will be given to purchasers to make a warrantee, and so soon as the purchase -money 
shall be paid. ^ 

Six and twelve months will be given on sales. 

September 2, 1825. 

"Judge John Vanhorn was the agent for the proprietors of the 
town in the sale of lots. The one-third part of this tract owned by 
John Gray after his sale of the two-thirds to Barns, Ward and Parker, 
was sold by him to Joshua Newbrough, on September 6, 1828, for 
$700, from whom it was purchased on December 15, 1832, by William 
Gaw and Lemon Parker for $1,300. 

" The adaptiveness of Rocheport as a shipping point, and the rich 
country surrounding it, attracted immediate notice from emigrants. 
Very soon storehouses were established by Caleb Harris, John G. 

Philips, Brewster, and others, a tavern by Thomas Hudson, and 

several private dwelling houses. Rocheport soon promised to be one 
of the largest towns on the Missouri, and to rival, if not surpass, 
Columbia in trade and population. Indeed, it was only the central 
position, capital, and indomitable energy of the latter that subsequently 
prevented it." 


Our pioneer civilization was characterized by athletic and other 
sports. Some of them were more or less rude, but all of them com- 
paratively innocent and calculated to develop the traits of character 
held in esteem by the people. Wrestling, foot-racing, fishing, hunt- 


ing, ball and marble-playing, and shooting at targets may bo men- 
tioned as among the recreations of the period. 

Some of these have not passed away with our pioneer civilization, 
bnt have come down to the more advanced conditions of refinement 
and culture which characterize our times. Others, however, have 
gone into disuse and are unknown to the younger portion of this gen- 
eration. Among these is the shooting match, which was a very popu- 
lar recreation with the early settlers of the West, and very frequently 
called them together on Saturday afternoon as a befitting and pleasant 
termination of the labors and business of the week. It was popularly 
called "shooting for beef," and is well described in the following 
article from the Franklin Intelligencer^ Sept. 2, 1825 : — 

For the Intelligencer.] 


Among the sports which the Western freemen engage in during their hours of relaxa^ 
tloD, the shooting match holds the first place. In a republic where regular soldiers 
are held in sach indifferent estimation that they abandon the hope of uniform good 
treatment, it is important that every citizen prepare himself for the high destiny of 
self-defence. To establish the truth of this position, we have only to refer to the for- 
tunes of Generals Lafavette and Wilkinson — both officers of the Revolution — the 
former a foreigner, the latter a native citizen. Their services have been as nearly 
eqoalas it is possible to conceive. Each staked his all for our country. The former 
was an adventurer, the latter a patriot. The Urst comes to our shores to receive our 
embraces and our bounty, and deservedly, too, while the last is doomed to exile — to 
seek an humble grave in a foreign land, after enjoying the stranger's donation for a 
brief period. I will mention no more instances of neglect, although they occur to me 
by hundreds, less I am deemed Ill-natured, but solace myself with the belief that there 
will never be found men enough in this republic to increase our army establishment, 
who will so far disgrace themselves as to become the mercenaries of a government 
that will look with indifference on them when age or infirmities shall have unfitted 
them for asef ulness. It is with proud satisfaction then, that we turn to the indepen- 
dent jreomen, whose pastime fits them to defend their native soil without hope of 
reward, or fear of degradation. Though Missourians inhabit a remote section of the 
l^nlon, they claim to hold those unerring rifles that will, when our country shall un- 
^>plly need them, be truly aimed " in the front of the battle." 

Besides field sports in a new country where game is abundant, shooting matches on 
almost every Saturday evening, tend to perfect our riflemen in the use of their hair- 
splitting weapons. Many of these guns are so unpromising in appearance that one of 
them might be mistaken for a crowbar tied to a hand-spike ; but when in the hands of 
a marksman, its value is ascertained. At our shooting match for beef, a steer is divided 
into five parts, and the hide and tallow is termed the fifth quarter. This last is the 
mo^t vslaable, and it is for the fifth quarter that the most skilful marksmen contend. 
The shots are generally so thickly planted about the centre of the target as to require 
great sera tiny in determining the conquerors — the "fifth quarter winner," "second 


choice," etc. When this is known, great exultation is not unusual, but the winner 
sometimes betray a little vanity in bestowing encomiums on their rifles ; and there ar 
few who are not polite enough to attribute their success to the excellence of thei 
arras. / 

If the gunsmith be present, he is not a little flattered by his acknowledgment o 
his skill. Many of the most distinguished guns acquire names of most fearful import 
by which they are known in sporting circles, and small bets are sometimes made oi 
"Black Snake," "Cross Bunter." " Hair Splitter," " Blood Letter," and "Panthe 
Cooler." In short, there are very few of our rifles that would not put to shame th 
arrow that sent a messenger "to Philip's eye." I am likewise disposed to believ* 
that if "Natty Bumpo** himself were to attend one of our shooting matches "fo 
beef," he might stake his last ninepence to no purpose. MOSS BUCKET. 


It can hardly be imagined at this day that, as late as the summer ol 
1829, eiirht years from the admission of the State into the Union, anc 
thirteen years after the organization of Howard County, seriouf 
troubles occurred with hostile Indians so near the centre of civilization 
as on the waters of Chariton, in the county of Randolph. Never- 
theless, it is historically true that in June, 1829 a roving band oi 
lowas, Sioux and Winnebago Indians made an attack on a settlement 
in the region mentioned, killing three white citizens — John Myers, 
James Winn and Powell Owensby, and wounding several others. The 
news of these depredations set the country ablaze, and in a short time 
armed volunteers from Howard, Boone and Callaw\ay counties, num- 
berinir in the ajr2:re<riite more than a thousand men, concentrated at 
the point of danger. Those from Howard County were under the 
command of Col. Major Horner, the father of our fellow-citizen 
John P. Horner. All descriptions of citizens in each of the counties 
mentioned flew to arms with alacrity, amongst others, in Howard 
County, Col. Benj. H. Reeves, late Lieutenant-Governor, and father 
of Mrs. Abiel Leonard ; Gen. I. P. Owens, Abiel Leonard, John B. 
Clark, Samuel Moore, Sinclair Kirtley — the last four lawyers — and 
Drs. William Jewell and Alexander M. Robinson, of Columbia. About 
two hundred volunteers went from Boone County, under the leader- 
ship of Rev. James Suggett, who had hitherto been engaged iu the 
Indian wars of the country, and Capt. Overton Harris. 

The company from Callaway was commanded by Capt. Allen. On 
the arrival of these forces at the headwaters of the Chariton, where 
the enoaorement had occurred, it was found that some ten or twelve 
Indians had been killed ; that Myers and Owensby had been killed 


scalped, aud that nothing remained of Winn except his 
hands and feet, he having been burned by the Indians. They 
were decently interred, and the volunteers formed an encamp- 
ment to await the arrival of other companies and instructions from 
Gov. John Miller in regard to ulterior movements. To expedite the 
receipt of these instructions Robert W. Wells, Attorney-General of 
the State, who had accompanied the force from Fayette, was deputed 
togo to Jefferson City to see the Governor. Before his return, how- 
ever, Mr. Reed, of Howard County, arrived as an express from the 
Governor with instructions that all the men, except one hundred, 
should return to their homes. Whereupon the companies jfrom 
Boone and Callaway reluctantly departed. These instructions were 
given because two hundred United States troops, on board the steamer 
Crusader, were en route to Franklin, thence to the scene of trouble. 
Gen. Henry Leavenworth,* for greater expedition, left St. Louis in 
the stage, arrived at Fayette in due time, and departed at once for 

This martial array proved a regular fiasco, for no Indians were 
discovered, and no apprehension of further trouble being enter- 
tained, their swords were turned into pruning hooks and their 
spears into ploughshares, and the troops, regular and volunteer, 


From about 1820 to 1835 the Santa Fe trade was a great interest in 
theBoonsliek country, and in its prosecution a large amount of capital 
and canivans of armed traders were employed. Franklin was the 
commercial centre and starting point of this trade. Dry goods and 
notions were transported in wagons drawn by teams of horses or 
mules to Santa Fe, and there exchanged for specie, Spanish mules, 
buffalo robes, etc. These expeditions were attended by many 
hardships and privations and dangers from hostile Indians. To 
be prepared against the latter, the companies of traders were, in 
fact, companies of armed soldiers, prepared to protect the caravans. 

* Gen. Leavenworth was born in New Haven, Connecticut, December 10, 1783, and 
died near the False Wachita, July 21, 1834. His remains were interred in the grave- 
jard at Delhi, N. Y., where there is a marble monument, twelve feet high, erected to 
his memory. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, was named in honor of him. 


Many and bloody were the encounters which they experienced, 
and some of the most enterprising and well-known citizens of this 
region of the State lost their lives by the Indian rifle, tomahawk or 

The following article will give some idea of this trade, and cannot 
fail to interest all of our readers : — 


[From the Fayette InteUigencer, May 2, 1828.] 

The town of Franklin, as also our own village, presents to the eye of the beholder 
a busy, bustling and commercial scene, in buying, selling and packing goods, practis- 
ing mules, &c., &c., all preparatory to the starting of the great spring caravan to Santa 
Fe. A great number of our fellow-citizens are getting ready to start, and will be off 
in the course of a week, on a trading expedition. We have not the means of knowing 
how many persons will start in the first company, but think it probable the number 
will exceed 150, principally from this and the adjoining counties. They generally pur- 
chase their outfits from the merchants here at from 20 to 30 per cent, advance on the 
Philadelphia prices, and calculate on making 40 to 100 per cent, upon their purchases. 
They will generally return In the fall. We suppose the amount which will be taken 
from this part of the country this spring will not, perhaps, fall much short of $100,000 
at the Invoice prices. 

We wish them a safe and profitable trip, a speedy return to their families and homes 
In health, and that they may long live to enjoy the profits of their long and fatiguing 
journey of nearly 1,000 miles through prairies, inhabited only by savages and wild 


HISTORY FROM 1830 TO 1840. 

Election returns from 1830 to 1840 — Fourth of July celebration In Columbia In 1831 — 
First Hanging? in Boone County — Samuel Samuel, alias Samuel Earls, hung for 
murder, December 13, 1831 — The Black Hawk war — Boone County's participation 
In it — Court Martial for the trial of Gen. Benjamin Means — Washington Irving 
visits Columbia — Population of Boone County In 1832 — Pioneer Theatre — Finan- 
cial statement of Columbia, 1833 — Stars, Stars, Stars — A Meteoric Phenomenon — 
First paper mill west of the Mississippi — Bingham, " the Missouri artist" — First 
Agricultural Fair In Missouri — Trial of Conway for the murder of Israel B. Grant — 
The Florida war — Boone County's Soldiers In It — Capt. John Ellis' Company — 
Battle of 0-kee-cho-bee and Death of Col. Gentry — The Mormon War, 1880. 



ELKCTION, 1880. 

* Those thus marked were elected. 













♦William Jewell ^ 

Ricbftrd Gentry ~ . 










EepnmiaivBea in Legislature. 
*John B. Gordon 




1 400 




















•Dnniel P. Wilcox 

*Win.S. Burch 

♦Tjrre Harris 


JeiseT. Wood 


*P«ter Wright 


Hutchens Bamett 



*fhom$M C. Maupin 

Peter Kernev 


■John Stemmons 


James Lauirhlin 


StfflMoo W rifirht. 





William Jewell was elected State Senator ; John B. Gordon, Daniel 
P. Wilcox and William S. Burch, Representatives, and Thomas C. 
Maupiii, SheriflF. 

ELKCTIOir, 1831. 


David Barton 

*8pencer Pettis 

On November 7, 1831, there was a special election 
for Representative to Congress to fill vacancy 
occMioned bv death of Spencer Petti?. 

Robert W. Wells 

♦William H. Ashley 

































ELECTION, 1832. 

Stnaton — 

*John BuU^ 

Daniel Dunklin. 
Stephen Dorris.. 
John T. Smith.. 















' 2 









ELECTION, 1882 — Continued, 

Lieutenant-Governor — 

'■lAmea McGlellnnd 







Lilburn W. Boci's •.•• 




1 1 

Representative in Congress — 

Wm. H. Ashley. 
Robert W. "Wells. 
James H. Birch... 
















Jtepreseniatives in Legislature 

♦John B. Gordon 

♦Oliver Parker 

*TyTe Harris 

Richard Gentry 

Jesse T. Wood* 

Henry Cave 
































ELECTION, 1838. 

Representatives in Congress — 
♦John Bull 



















G^eonre Shannon 


James H. Birch 


George F. Strother 


G^orere C. Sibley 





...•.•.• -~w 

ELECTION, 1834. 

Senators — 

William Jewell 

♦Alex. M. Robinson 











Representatives in Legislature — 

♦John B. Gordon , 

♦Sinclair Kirtley 

♦Thomas C. Maupin 

Tyre Hiirris 

John Henderson 

Jesse B. Dale 

Lawrence Bass 

♦Austin A. King 












































♦Wm. a Ashley.... 
James H. Birch .... 
GeoT^ge F. Strother. 
Alberto. HATTison. 


AUGUST 8, 1836. 
























AUGUST 8, 1886. 


♦James tt Birch 686 

Albert G. Harrison 607 

Geofjre P. Strother 12 


Samuel 0. Owens. 
John Miller 


I M ...^21866 


♦William H. Ashley 827iLilbuni W. Boggs 


. 444 


♦James Jones 749IF. Ooncannon 486 

ToUl ..1,188 


♦John B. Gordon 774 

♦Thomas C. Maupin 818 

Austin A. King 663 

William S.Barcli 129 

♦Michael Woods 729 

*Arch W.Turner 784 

Thomas D. Grant 637 

Ben. F. Robinson 393 

NOTS&IBER 7, 1836. 

Special election of Representative in Legislature caused by the death of Michael Woods* 
*Austin A. King 630lWilliam Jewell 647 

ToUI ^ 1477 

AUGUST 8, 1838. 


*BeTerlv Allen 944 John Wilson 938 

JohnMiller. 510 

Alberto. Harrison 513 

ToUl 2,'.H)5 


*Thomas C. Maupin 950 

William H. Duncan 519 

*Arch. W. Tumor 931 

John Slack 492 



»David M. Hickman 9^7 

^John B. Gordon 792 

Tyre Harris 829 

Lawrence Bass 530 

^James S. Rollins 1,008 

♦Alex. Pereinger 867 

George B. Wflcox 674 

NOVEMBER 6, 1839. 

Special election for Representative in Congress occasioned by the death of Albert G. 

♦Thornton Grimsly 391IJohn Jamison 228 

Total 6U 

1830. —Population of Boone County 8,859 


[Intelligencer, July 9, 1831.] 

A large number of the citizens of Columbia and its vicinity assem- 
bled on the 4th inst., at Capt. David Gordon's spring, for the pur- 
pose of celebrating the fifty-sixth anniversary of our independence. 
An oration was delivered by Calvin L. Perry, Esq., after which the 
company sat down to a dinner provided for the occasion. At the 
conclusion of the repast, owing to the inclemency of the weather, the 
company adjourned to the court-house. The Rev. John Greenlagh 
was appointed president of the day ; Doctor A. M. Robinson, vice- 
president and A. A. King and William Cornelius, secretaries. The 
following toasts were then drank : — 

1. The day %ve celebrate, — Pre-eminent in story! The destroyers 
of nations are astonished at the magnanimity of the deed ! This 
glorious epoch will ever stand as a memorial of a nation's enfran- 
chisement, and the resplendent talents and virtues of a land of 

2. The Declaration of Independence. — No instrument ever delin- 
eated the rights of man more clearly. Whilst virtue prevails, it will 
stand as a memento of the purity and magnaminity of the patriots 
and heroes who formed and maintained it. 

3. The Signers of the Declaration of Independence, — The apostles 
of liberty ; willing to become martyrs in its cause. 

4. George Washington, 

5. The Departed Heroes and Sages of the Revolution, — Conse- 


crated iu the aflTections of the American people by the estimable 
hpcj bequeathed them, of liberty founded on reason, and secured 
bv written Constitutions. 

6. Thomas Jefferson, — The patriotic statesman and virtuous 
sage— the fruits of his labors are not only the inheritance of the 
American people, but of all nations. 

7. Benjamin Franklin. — Philosophy justly chiinis him .is her dis- 
ciple and ornament. The present and future generations will revere 
his virtues. 

8. Oeneinl Lafayette. — Tyrants be mute ! envy hold thy peace 1 
his glory cannot be sullied ! continents claim him as their defender, 
indlilierty as its invincible champion. 

9. The President of the United States of America. 

10. TTie Ex-Presidents of the United States. — Long, arduously 
and successfully have you devoted your services in behalf of your 
country and the great principles of civil and religious liberty. It is an 
animating reflection that the influence of your example will extend to 
Tour successors. 

11. The Constitution of the United States. — The grand depository 
of American happiness: To 'watch and guard with an untiring and 
patriotic vigilance, is the first of duties ; but in construing its pro- 
visions let us be governed by a spirit of justice and candor. 

12. Unioti of the States. — The fruits of the toils, wisdom and 
blood of the patriots and sages of the Revolution cement it ; he who 
rejects this inheritance, barters his richest birthright for a mess of 

13. Education. — As knowledge is justly conceived to be the basis 
of public happiness, the promotion of science and literature is conse- 
quently the surest guarantee of a free, eflicient and equal government. 

14. The Supreme Court of the United States. — The splendid 
talents and legal acquirements of this tribunal afford just grounds for 
attional pride. The security which it gives and the ocinal justice 
vhich it administers, entitles it to the confidence of the American 

15. Political Parties. — Whilst man is admitted to be fallible, 
union of opinion on all subjects cannot be expected. But as the union 
of our government constitutes us one people, our interests are insep- 
arable. It is, therefore, wise and prudent to reject all personal and 
<^tional animosities in our political views and measures. 


16. Agricultural Commerce and Manufactures. -^ These are the- 
great resources on which are founded the power, energy and prospei*— 

^ity of nations. 

1 7 . The American Navy. — The independence and commercial pros- 
perity of the nation essentially depend on its organization being 
ample.. The patriotic spirit of our seamen will vindicate the honor 
and rights of our country and its flag from insult and aggression. 

18. Poland. — Ill-fated nation I Your heroism, your invincible 
love of liberty, entitle you to success. The most devout wishes of 
every patriotic philanthropist under heaven are with you. 

19. The South American Republics. — We deem the constitutional 
principle^ and^^representative government, as essential to the inde- 
pendence and prosperity of a nation. We cherish the pleasing hope 
that this'^will be the reward of your toils and dangers. 

20. Greece. — The Ottoman no longer tramples on the grave of 

21. Christopher Columbus, — 

** The first who dared to brave 
The unknown wonders of the western wave." 

Ever held in grateful remembrance by the American people. 

22. John Ada^ns. — His revolutionary services will ever entitle- 
him to the gratitude of the American people. 

23. IVie State of Missouri. — Blessed with all the resources neces- 
sary to her prosperity. 

24. IVie American Fair. — Their bosoms are the pure sanctuaries 
of honor, fidelity and truth. The far-famed Caucasus can exhibit 
nothing [more lovelyjto the eye of taste, and the character of the 
Romanfand Grecian matron is not more perfect and desirable. 

25. The Orator of the Day. — [Mr. Perry rose and returned his 
thanks for the honor done, and offered as a toast]. 

The Citizens of Boone County. — Alike distinguished for their 
patriotism^and their hospitality. 


By the Vice-President. — The Constitution of the United States^ 
The atlas of the Federal Union, patriots formed and patriots will 
maintain it. 

By A. A. King. — The heroes and sages of the Revolution. While 
we drink of the cup of liberty and eat of the bread of independence^ 


ibe recollection of their glorious achievements shall furnish the most 

gmteful part of the repast. 

By William Cornelius. — Lafayette, Kosciusko, Steuben, Pulaski, 
and DeKalb — ^ Americans will forever admire their disinterested love of 

lil)erty, and feel grateful for their efficient services. 

By R, y. 7odd. — The Union : May it never be severed by politi- 
cal discord. 

By Peter Kemey. — Daniel O'Connell, the Irish orator: May he 
be as successful in putting down kings and princes, as he is powerful 
iu defending the rights of the Irish people. 

By James 8. Rollins. — The American Constitution : The most 
stupendous and glorious edifice of liberty that has ever bee^i created 
«poa the foundation of human integrity in any age or couptry. 

By R. S. Barr. — Domestic Manufacturers, like an infant, re- 
quires nursing : a nation giving the proper protection secures in time 
all articles necessary to her comfort at a cheaper rate than she can 
obtain them from foreigners, and thereby renders herself independent. 

By W. K. Van ArsdalL — Domestic Manufacturers should be en- 
couraged but not to the aggrandizement of one section of the Union 
and to the destruction of another. 

By E, Robert. — Henry Clay, the luminary of the world : May the 
splendor of his genius never cease to emit its radiance while the wheels 
of time are moved bv the force of rationality. • 

By James T. Tllton. — The County of Boone : her standing in the 
State is a.s America to the nations of the world. 

By Dr. James M. Moss. — Bank of the United States : As a me- 
dium of exchange, relative value, and general usefulness to all classes 
and all callings, this institution is unparalleled ; the question therefore 
to abolish it, is one involving the highest national interest and requir- 
ing the most solemn deliberation. 

By J, C. Boggs. — The Constitution formed by the statesmen of 
76 — better than we can do — let it stand. 

By Dr. James H. Bennett. — Henry Clay : May March 1833 make 
him President of this nation, not of a party. 

By J. Osborne. — Gen. Andrew Jackson — the soldier of the 
Bevolution,^ the victorious commander in the late war — he is now de- 
servedly enjoying the highest honors in the gift of a free people. 

' Wishing our readers enUghtened on the subject, we shaU take it as a favor if Mr. 
0., will please to recapitulate the exploits or services of General Jackson during the 
^'Bevolation." — Editor. 


By M. Neale. — Rotation in offices, the advice of our President: 
May it be strictly adhered to. 

By C. L. Perry,— The 4th of March, 1801, and the 4th of 
March, 1829 : " then were the winters of our discontent made orlorious 
summer's morn." 

By W, II, Van ArsdalL — Internal improvements in the interior of 
the States — they are the only legitimate authority to conduct thein. 

By Wm, Cornelius, — Henry Chiy, the Union, Internal Improve- 
ment, Domestic Manufacturers, the United States Bank, and real 

By J. M, Thurston, — The State of Missouri : her soil fertile, her 
climate salubrious, and her people prosperous and happy. 

By a Chiest, — The Ladies: In war our arms their protection — in 
peace their arms our refuge. 

The festivities of the dav were concluded bv a ball at Mr. McClel- 
lan's Hotel. 


The first mau hung in Boone County for murder, was Samuel 
Samuels, whose true name was Samuel Earls, and it occurred on- 
the 13th day of December, 1831. The place of execution was a 
small field or clearing north of the present grounds of Christian 
College and south of Trices' Nursery, and east of the Columbia and 
Blackfoot turnpike, and at a spot about one hundred yards northejist 
of the James M. Long house, now occupied by George E. Allgier as 
a residence. 

The murder occurred in New London, Ralls County, early on Sun- 
day morning, December (>, 1829. Tlie citizen murdered was Charles 
B. Rouse, and the case was called in the Boone Circuit Court, June 
term, 1830, by a change of venue. David Todd, judge ; Roger N. 
Todd, clerk; Thos C. Maupin, sheriff. It was continued from time 
to time until the June term of 1831, when it was tried before the 
following jury : — 

Henry Anderson, RoHy Asbury, Anthony Ousley, John Austin, John Hopper, John 
Henderson, James li. Woods, James Kirtley, Wm. McClain, Asa Stone, Wra. Nichols, 
John Faulkner. 

After a full hearing of the case the prisoner was convicted and sen- 
tenced, June 13, 1831, to be hung on Friday, July 8, next ensuing, 
on which day, in the language of a newspaper of the time, ** an im- 


mense collection of people of all sexes and all colors" assembled to 
witness the execution*. On that morning, however, a respite from the^ 
Governor, John Miller, reached the sheriff*, postponing the execution 
until December 13th, 1831, in order that the Supreme Court might 
have an opportunity to decide certain points of law appealed to them. 
(See 3d Mo. Reports (Houck), page 42.) 

He WAS hung on the day named, and, under the escort of a small 
armed guard, was tsiken to the place of execution in a cart drawn by 
ayokeof oxen. The sheriff (Maupin) then lived on a farm on the 
Two-Mile Prairie, east of town, and the cart and oxen belonged to 
him. His negro man, Adam, drove them to Columbia that morning, 
and to the gallows. The hanging was according to the old style, a 
strangulation, for the culprit stood in the cart body, the cart at a 
signal being driven from under him. He protested his innocence to 
the last. 

The evidence on the trial showed that for about a year previous to 
the naurder of Rouse there had existed a bitter feud between Rouse 
ani his friends and a number of other persons residing in and nc^'ir 
New London. This feud finally culminated in the unfortunate killing 
by Rouse of a young man by the name of Purdam, who had attaclied 
himself to and took an active part with the party opposed to Rouse. 
For this homicide Rouse was indicted, tried and acquitted. This re- 
sult inflamed to a greater degree the virulence of the friends of 
Purdam, which, reacting upon the opposing faction, increased the 
rancor and violence of both. 

Itwas during this condition of affairs that Samuel Samuel, alias 
Earls, appeared upon the scene. lie came to New London from 
St. Louis, a stranger, apparently without money or friends. He 
did not know, nor does it appear from the testimony that he had 
ever spoken to Rouse, and the belief prevailed among the friends of 
Rouse that some one or more of the opposing faction had picked him 
op in St. Louis, brought him to New London, and hired him to 
commit the murder. At all events, apparently without motive, ex- 
cept as stated, and wholly without provocation, early on the morn- 
ing of the homicide, he secreted himself in an old warehouse in the 
rear of Boardman's store, and tlrrougli a hole, seemingly made for 
the purpose, shot Rouse with a rifle, while he was standing in tfie 
porch of Caldwell's tavern. The ball entered the deceased just be- 
low the left nipple, and passing entirely through the body, wounded 
a man by the name of Saunders, who was standing near Rouse* 


After receiving the shot Rouse never spoke, and died in a fe 

After the murder, Samuel, alias Earls, fled and concealed himse 
in a cave in the Salt River hills, in Ralls County. A woman wh 
daily carried food to him was tracked in tlie snow, and thus b( 
trayed his hiding place, and he was arrested, tried, convicted an 
executed, as above stated. Earls was about sixty years of age, au 
was defended on the trial by Thomas L. Anderson, of Palmyra, he 
by John B. Gordon, Austin A. King, Wm. K. Van Arsdall an 
Benjamin F. Robinson, of Columbia. Mr. Anderson is a distil 
guished citizen of Palmyra, yet living. Mr. Gordon was the fath 
of Boyle, Wellington and Carey H. Gordon, of Columbia, M< 
Mr. King was subsequently Governor and a member of Congres 
Mr. Robinson is the father of the present prosecuting attorney < 
Boone County, J. De W. Robinson. 

The prisoner was prosecuted by the attorney-general of the Stat( 
Robert W. Wells, of Jefferson City. 

All of the jury, and all others connected with the trial, are deac 
except Mr. Maupin, the sheriff, who now lives in Ysleta, El Pa« 
County, Texas, at the advanced age of eighty-five ; Mr. Anderson, < 
Palmyra, Mo., and Mr. B. F. Robinson, who resides near Dallas, Texa; 

Earls was buried under the gallows, and no doubt his remains n 
pose on the spot to this day. 

Wm. E. Wright, our present county surveyor, then a small boj 
was present on July 8, to witness the execution, and, with other 
was sadly disappointed and in no very amiable mood, because it di 
not occur. He did not attend when it did take place ; but Robe 
L. Todd, now cashier of the Exchange National Bank of Columbij 
then a little boy, witnessed it, and for the purpose of doing so, roc 
to the grounds on a horse and behind John R. Bedford, who stoc 
him up before him on the horse's neck, and held him that he raigl 
see the hanging. Maj. N. W. Wilson was one of the guard. 


«* Switzler's History of Missouri" says the Black Hawk War o 
cyrred during the year 1832 — called *' The Black Hawk War" b< 
cause the Indians engaged in it were led by a brave, often called 
chief y by the name of Black Hawk.^ He cannot rank in intelligenc 

1 ** Ma-ka-tai-rae-she-kia-klah," or Black* Hawk. 


or heroism with Pontiac or Tecumseh^ for he showed no special intel- 
lectual power ; was simplj a desperate savage^ and fought onlj for 

In 1832 several tribes on the northwestern frontier who had 
made common cause with the British in 1812, became restless and 
appeared bent on hostilities. These tribes were the Sacs, Foxes 
and Wlnnebagoes. After the peace of 1815 they maintained their 
intercourse with the British in Canada, the consequence of which was, 
the inflaence over them by the United States was greatly weakened. 
In fact, in 1816, Black Hawk, having gathered around him a small 
band of disaffected spirits, refused to attend the negotiations of that 
year, went to Canada, proclaimed himself a British subject, and re- 
eeired presents from that quaiter. 

They were, therefore, in no state of mind to recognize the obliga- 
tions of the treaties of 1815, 1822 and 1825, or properly to appre- 
ciate the efforts of the United States to maintain peaceable relations 
with them. Moreover the Sacs and Foxes possessed no original right, 
even in contemplation of Indian ideas of justice, to any portion of 
the Rock River country or any other portion of Illinois. They were 
aimply intruders on the country of the Santeaus and lowas. 

Nevertheless, blinded by prejudice and fired by a spirit of revenge 
for imaginary wrongs, the Sacs and Foxes chiimed the right to occupy 
a part of the country on Rock River, although by a treaty made 
"with the chiefs, warriors and head men of the Sac and Fox tribes " 
at Fort Armstrong [Rock Island], on September 3d, 1822, the coun- 
try for j\ valuable consideration was transferred to the United States, 
and had been settled by its citizens. 

Frequent collisions with the inhabitants were the consequence. 
In 1831 these aggressions were so serious, and preparations for open 
hostilities so threatening, that a considerable force of Elinois militia 
were called into the field. This formidable array alarmed the 
savages into an agreement to retire to their own lands west of the 

It was not long, however, before a party of the same Indians com- 
mitted a flagrant outrage, almost under the guns of Fort Crawford, 
upon a band of friendly Meuomonie Indians encamped in the village 
of Prairie du Chien. Twenty-five of these Indians were wantonly 
murdered and many others wounded. 

Fearing that the Sacs and Foxes would renew their attacks upon 
the settlements on our frontier, and determined that the murderers of 


the Menomonies should be sui^rendered, or captured, for puiiishment» 
on the 7th of March, 1832, Brigadier-General Atkinson was ordered 
to ascend the Mississippi, with a large detachment of the regular 
troops at Jefferson Barracks, to chastise the Indians, who, under 
Black Hawk and the Prophet, had violated their treaty with the 
United States by removing east of the Mississippi and invading 
with fire and scalping-knife the unprotected frontier settlements of 

To the demand for the surrender of the murderers of the Meno- 
monies no attention was paid ; on the contrary, the murderers and 
their adherents under Black Hawk re-crossed the Mississippi, and in 
hostile array established themselves on Rock River. This was in 
May, 1832. 

A bloody engagement near Dixon's Ferry on the 14th of the month 
rendered peace hopeless. Keokuk was the legitimate chief of the 
tribe, but, although he controlled a majority, the temptations of war 
and plunder were too strong for those who followed the track of 
Black Hawk. 

The proximity of these hostilities to the Missouri frontier caused 
Governor John Miller to adopt precautionary measures to avert the 
calamities of an invasion, which seemed imminent. Therefore, in 
May, 1832, he ordered Major-General Richard Gentry, of Columbia^ 
Missouri (of whom James S. Rollins, Calel> S. Stone and Calvin L. 
Perry were aids-de-camp), to raise, without delay, one thousand vol- 
unteers for the defence of the frontiers of the State, to be in readiness 
to start at a moment's warning. 

Accordingly, on the 29th of May, 1832, orders were issued by Gen- 
eral Gentry to Brigadier-Generals Benjamin Means, commanding the 
seventh, Jonathan Riggs, eighth, and Jesse T. Wood, ninth brigade^ 
third division, to raise the required quota, the first named four and 
each of the last three hundred men, each man *« to keep in readiness 
a horse, with the necessary equipment, and a rifle, in <?ood order, with 
an ample supply of ammunition," etc. : — 


Columbia, Jane 25, 1S32. 
In a general order directed to me by the executive of the State of Missouri, under 
date of May 25, 1832, wherein I am required to raise and organize one thousand 
mounted volunteers, for the defence of the northern frontier, from the Third Division' 
of militia, under my command, and to organize them into regiments of five hundred 


I hare, In puranance of said order, made, by lot, the following organization, viz.: 
Tbe Are oompanles of volimteers raised in the connty of Boone, the two companies 
xiiMd in the county of Callaway, and the two companies in the county of Montgomery 
ahaU compose the First Begiment; the two companies raised in the county of Marion^ 
remiiniDg company in the county of Balls, the remaining company in the county of 
Pike, tlie company from the county of Monroe, the two companies from the county of 
Lincoln, tnd the two companies from the county of St. Charles, shall compose tht 
Second Begiment. The companies comprising the First Begiment have been organ- 
lied by lot, in the following manner, to wit : 

Tlw company commanded by Patrick Ewing, of CalUway, Is the first. 

Tlie company commanded by Thomas D. Grant, of Boone, the second. 

Tlw company commanded by Parker Dudley, of Montgomery, the third. 

Tlie company commanded by David M. Hickman, of Boone, the fourth. 

The company commanded by John Jamison, of Callaway, the fifth. 

The company commanded by Thomas Orlfflth, of Montgomery, the sixth. 

Tbe company commanded by Sinclair Klrtley, of Boone, the seventh. 

Tbe company commanded by Elijah P. Dale, of Boone, the eighth. 

Tbe company commanded by Michael Woods, of Boone, the ninth. 

jMiihecompmiieB composing the Second Begiment in the following manner ^ to tdt: 

Tbe company commanded by William Carson, of Marlon, Is the first. 

The company commanded by David Wlelock, of Marlon, the second. 

The company commanded by Thomas Barby, of Monroe, the fourth. 

The company commanded by John Balls, of Balls, the fifth. 

The compaiiy commanded by John Plttman, of St. Charles, the sixth. 

The company commanded by John S. Besser, of Lincoln, the seventh. 

The company commanded by , of Lincoln, the eighth. 

The company commanded by Felix Scott, of St. Charles, the ninth. 

I^The captains commanding companies will cause elections to be held In their 
respectiye companies on the following days, to wit : Those belonging to the First Begi- 
ment on the 4th, and those belonging to the Second Begiment on 12th of July next, for 
the purpose of electing a Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel and Major to each regiment, at 
tttch places as the several officers commanding companies may designate — and make 
Rtnrn to me of the whole number of votes given to each candidate for the several^ 
offlcci, without delay. RICHARD GENTRY, 

Maj. Gen. comm'g 3d Division Missouri Militia. 

Seven companies were at once raised in Boone County, and others 
inCallaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Kails, 
Clay,^ and Monroe. 

The Columbia Intelligence^'' of June 16, 1832, says: **In Gen. 
Jesse T. Wood's brigade, composed of the counties of Boone and 
Callaway, on which a requisition was made for 300 volunteers, such. 

' Sereral companies were ordered out In Clay ; marched northward to the Iowa line*,. 

ttdtbence into the Grand River country. They were absent about four weeks. It Is 

Bot known to tbe writer who commanded them. Two companies were raised in Ralls 

--one, commanded by Captain Richard Matsoa, was in active service ; the other^ Johik 

tiQs in command, was held in reserve, but was never ordered into service. 


was the enthusiasm and promptitude of our citizens that on Thursday 
last 400 offered their services, being 100 more than was required. 
They were immediately organized into seven companies, and held 
themselves in readiness to march on receipt of orders." 

Two companies of mounted volunteers, under the command of Capt. 
David M. Hickman, of Boone, and Capt. John Jamison, of Callaway, 
detailed by order of Governor Miller, to relieve the two companies 
on duty on the frontier, after camping one or two days in the vicinity 
of Columbia, took up the line of March on Monday, July 9, 1832, for 
their point of destination, and equipped for thirty days of duty. The 
whole under command of Major Thomas Conyers, with orders to 
march to the mouth of the Des Moines, and to range from thence to 
the headwaters of Salt River and on towards the main Chariton. 
This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry in person, at once 
took up the line of march for the northern frontier ; arrived at Pal- 
myra July 10th, and at Fort Pike five days afterwards. This foit 
was built by Captain Richard Mace, of the Ralls County *' Volunteer 
Rangers," and was situated ten miles from the mouth of the Des 
Moines, in what is now Clark county. 

Officers of First Regiment : Austin A. King, Colonel ; Jesse B. 
Dale, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Thomas W. Conyers, Major. 

Finding '' the wars and rumors of wars " much exaggerated, and 
that no hostile Indians had crossed into Missouri, General Gentry 
ordered work to be discontinued on Fort Matson, sixty-five miles 
from Fort Pike and within eight miles of the Chariton, and left for 
Columbia, where he arrived on the 19th of July. Major Conyers' 
detachment was left at Fort Pike (to quote General Gentry's re- 
port to the Governor), with *« something like 40 barrels of flour, 
2 hogsheads of bacon, 4 barrels of whiskey and 100 bushels of 


On Thursday, August 2, 1832, the company of volunteers under 
command of Capt. Sinclair Kirtley left Columbia for Fort Pike, to 
relieve the company under Capt. Hickman, whose tour of duty would 
expire in a few days. Being thus relieved, Capt. Hickman's company 
reached Columbia on Tuesday, August 14th. Colonel Austin A. 
I K!ing marched the detachment to Fort Pike and conducted those who 

were relieved to their homes. Major Conyers was retained in com- 
mand of the fort. 

The Indian war having terminated, all the troops stationed on the 
frontier were withdrawn, by order of the Governor, and accordingly 


returned to their homes. Captain Kirtley's company reached Colum- 
bia on Saturday, September 22, and were disbanded. 

But it did not thus, or at this time, end in Illinois. For nearly a' 
year afterwards it was continued at various points in the territory 
now occupied by the States of Iowa and Illinois, till the decisive battle 
on the Mississippi, near the mouth of Bad-Ax Eiver, August 2d, 1833, 
when the troops under Generals Atkinson, Dodge, Henry, Posey and 
Alexander overtook and defeated Black Hawk with great slaughter, 
entirely broke his power and ended the war. While the battle waxed 
warm Black Hawk stole oflf up the river, but on the 27th of August, 
1833, he was captured by two Winnebagoes and delivered to the 
United States officers at Prairie du Chien. He was well treated and 
carried in triumph through a great part of the United States, after 
which he was permitted to return to his people. 

Black Hawk died at the village of his tribe on the Des Moines 
River, in Davis county, Iowa, October 3d, 1838, aged about 70 years. 
The only mound over the grave was some puncheons, split out and set 
over his grave and then sodded over with blue grass, making a ridge 
about four feet high. A flag-staff, some twenty feet high, was planted 
at his head, on which was a silk flag, which hung there until the wind 
wore it out. He was buried in a suit of military clothes, made to 
order and given to him when in Washington City by Gen. Jackson^ 
with hat, sword, gold epaulets, etc. Enclosing all was a strong circu- 
lar picket fence, twelve feet high. His body remained here until 
July, 1839, when it was carried off by a certain Dr. Turner, then 
living at Lexington, Van Buren County, Iowa. It is said the bones 
were carried to Alton, Illinois, to be mounted with wire. Black 
Hawk's sons, when they heard of this desecration of their father's 
grave, were very indignant and complained of it to Governor Lucas, 
of Iowa Territory, and his excellency caused the bones to be brought 
back to Burlington in the fall of 1839 or the spring of 1840. When 
the sons came to take possession of them, it seems that finding them 
safely stored ** in a good dry place," they left them there. The bones 
were subsequently placed in the collection of the Burlington Geolog- 
ical and Historical Society, and it is certain that they perished in the fire 
which destroyed the building and all the Society's collections in 1855* 


On Thursday, December 6, 1832, a court martial assembled in 
Columbia for the trial of Brig .-Gen. Benjamin Means, of the 7th 


Brigade, 7th Division Missouri Militia, on sundry charges and specific 
cations preferred against him. The following officers composed th^ 
court : — 

Brig.-Oen. Jesse T. Wood, 9th Brigade, President. 

Brig.-Gen. Jonathan Riggs, 8th Brigade. 

Col. Thomas D. Grant, SIst Regiment. 

Col. William Talbot, 15th Regiment. 

Lieat.-Col. Jesse B. Dale, 26th Regiment. 

Lient.-Col. Jesse Bamett, Slst Regiment. 

Maj. John Barclay, SIst Regiment. 

Lieut.-Col. James Culberson, I8th Regiment. 

Maj. Abel M. Conner, 18th Regiment. 

Maj. Henry Watts, 11th Regiment. 

Maj. Addison McPheeters, 20th Regiment. 

Maj. Thomas W. Conyers, Inspector of 9th Brigade. 

Maj. Overton Harris, Quartermaster of 8d Division. 

Austin A. King, Judge Advocate. 

James Jackson, Provost Marshal. 

The trial originated in alleged misconduct of Gen. Means during 
the Black Hawk war, and was for the examination of the following 
charges: 1. Disobedience of order. 2. Unofficerlike conduct. 3. 
Dnofficerlike and ungentleraanly conduct. 4. Mutiny. 5. Mutinous 
conduct. We are not informed as to the specifications ; but after a 
long and laborious investigation, which closed on December 19, the 
court found him not guilty, which finding was approved by Maj .-Gen* 
Richard Gentry, Caleb S. Stone, Aid-de-ramp, and he was honorably 


Washington Irving arrived in Columbia on Wednesday, September 
19, 1832, and remained until the next day, when he resumed his jour- 
ney for the Osage country. The Intelligencer says : ** He expressed 
the greatest surprise and admiration of what he had already seen of 
Missouri, having previously formed somewhat diflferent views of the 
country. In his manners, Mr. Irving is unostentatious, affable and 
gentlemanly. He will, no doubt, acquire a valuable fund of materials 
in his progress, for interesting works or sketches, which, ere long, we 
may have the gratification of perusing." 


The population of Boone county in 1832 was as follows : Whites, 
6,221 ; slaves, 2,248. Total, 8,469. Voters, 1,476. 



Primitive and frugal as were the habits of life of the Boone county 
pioneers, it is in evidence that they quite early gave attention to edu- 
cation and were not unmindful of the attractions of the drama. 
Almost simultaneously with the establishment of good school houses 
(whether the one had any influence upon the introduction of the other 
we shall not argue), came the theater. No doubt the first theatre and 
histriooic corps which challenged public patronage in Columbia, 
were unpretentous and almost wholly destitute of the aids and appli- 
ances and attractive scenery and gorgeously painted drop curtains of 
later days. It was, nevertheless, a theater, and developed the amateur 
native talent of the times. The pioneer theater of Columbia made its 
debut on the night of Christmas day, 1832, in the play << Pizarro ; or, 
the Death of Bolla," concluding with the laughable farce of <*My 
Uncle." Complimented and encouraged, no doubt, by the patronage 
and plaudits of an appreciative public, the amateur troupe were 
eneoaraged to strut the stage again, and, therefore, on Monday even- 
ing, February 25, 1833, Mr. E. Scott's benefit was given by the rendi- 
tion of the much admired comedy of ^< She Stoops to Conquer ; or, the 
Mistakes of a Night," concluding with the laughable farce of *< The 
Boarding House." Tickets, 50 cents; children and servants half- 

On October 21, 1833, a semi-weekly line of mail stages between 
St. Louis via St. Charles, Fulton, Columbia, and Fayette was let. 

[From the Missoarl Intelligencer ol AprU 20, 1838.] 


Of iU monies received and paid out by the Board of Trastees of the town ol 


Total tmoant received from all sources within the year ending this day . f 805 S2 
Totii amount paid ont within the same period 805 70 

BaUace in the treasury . X2 


Bilance hi the treasury on the first day of Soptember, 1882 . . $141 60 

Amoant received since that period UO 82 

$282 82 
ioKKint paid for digging and walling the public cistern on Broadway 998 00 

6 75 

4 69 

50 00 


2 00 

40 00 

8 00 

17 15 

$282 20 


Amount paid for conducting the water, for timbers, and for other 

work and materials towards completing the same . . . . 56 61 

Amonnt paid in discharge of a note executed by a former Board of 

Trustees . . . . ... 

Amount paid for walling one of the public wells . . . . 

Amonnt paid in part consideration for the public fountain on Eighth 

Street • 

Amount paid for publishing an advertisement In the Missouri 


Amount paid for flagging, curbing, and boxing four of the public 

lYeiis ••.••.•••..•• 
Amount paid for a large trough which is to be connected with the 

public fountain and reservoir on Eighth Street .... 
Amount paid the collector (his commission for collecting) 

Balance in treasury • , . . • 12 

Columbia, April 1, 1888. 


Between three and four o'clock on Wednesday morning, November 
13, 1833, there occurred in Boone County and throughout the whole 
country a meteoric phenomenon, the splendor of which nevei: passed 
from the memory of those who witnessed it. It was called, in pop- 
ular language, a falling of the stars.. In the firmament above, and all 
around the horizon, thicker than the stars themselves, — which were 
on that morning uncommonly bright and beautiful, — were beheld 
innumerable balls of fire of a whitish, pallid color, rushing down and 
across the sky, drawing after them long, luminous traces which clothed 
the whole heavens in awful majesty, and gave to the air and earth a 
pale and death-like appearance. An inconceivable number of meteors 
or falling stars shot across and downward from the heavens, as though 
the whole framework of the blue and cloudless arch above had been 
shaken. These small and luminous bodies had the appearance of fly- 
ing or floating with great rapidity in every direction, occasioning the 
greatest wonder among the beholders, mingled with fear and conster- 
nation. Some described them as the slow and sparse descent of large 
flakes of snow, and that each flake — some smaller, some larger in 
size, from accidental aggregation or otherwise — take fire in their 
passage, and, fusing like a bombshell before bursting, leave a long 
train of lurid light, and that thousands of these, or as many as were 
within the range of vision, continued to descend and scatter and be- 
come extinct before they reached the earth. It was a radiating rain 


of fire, Id meteoric partioles of the greatest brilliancy. In some parts 
of the country the shower of meteors continued until near sunrise^ 
when, it is supposed, they ** paled their ineffectual fires '' only before 
the greater brilliancy of the sun. 

Ton heaven, through its glorious spheresi 

Is fuU of fiery eyes, 
And the mysterious meteor bears 

Its lightning thro' the skies. 

'Tisnlghtl 'tismoonlessnightl butstiU 
The earth is bright as day ; { 

AQd you can see, on yonder hill, 
The Autumn of foliage play. 

Nature I mysterious are Thy ways, 

Crom firmament to fiower. 
The fragrant leaf, the meteor's rays, 

Proclaim a Godhead's power. 


As early as 1823 the subject of a paper mill in Missouri engaged the 
sttentioQ of sonie of its citizens, and in the Franklin Intelligencer of 
April 8, of that year, there is an editorial calling attention to the 
importiaDce of the enterprise. It was not, however, until 1834, more 
than ten years after the first agitation of the subject, that a paper mill 
was established in the State. In 1833 David S. Lamme, John W. 
Reiser & Co. established a steam flouring mill at what is now known as 
'*Bockbridge Mills," called by that name because there is at the place 
ft natural bridge, six miles southwest of Columbia. In January, 1834, 
this firm gave public notice that they were making arrangements for 
the manufacture of paper, their intention being to establish at that 
place a paper mill, and that they would pay for good clean linen and 
cotton rags three cents per pound, and for woollen ten, and jeans rags 
one cent per pound. The paper mill was owned by David S. and 
William Lamme, John W. Reiser and Thos. J. Cox. Near the close 
of 1834 the mill commenced the manufacture of printing paper, and 
the Intelligencer of the last week of that year was issued on paper 
DMuie by this mill. The machinery was entirely new •* and the whole ^ 
establishment on an extensive scale." The St. Louis Republican^ in 
the fiiU of 1835, was printed on paper manufactured by the Boone 
County mill, and the proprietors of the Republican annmmced that 
"the paper will compare advantageously with, if, indeed, it be not 
raperior to, any manufactured west of the mountains." 


Nevertheless, the enterprise was not remunerative and the paper 
mill had but a temporary existence. 



Among the earliest achievements by George C. Bingham as a portrait 
painter were accomplished in Columbia, where, in 1835, he opened his 
studio and painted the portraits of a number of citizens. Many of 
these specimens of art are yet extant in the county, and among them 
a portrait of the late Judge David Todd, which, a few years since, was 
presented to the State University by G. W. Samuel, of St. Joseph, 
and which now hangs in the chapel of the institution. 


It is not generally known, perhaps not known at all to a single 
citizen of Boone County, or of the State, that agricultural fairs in 
Missouri had their origin in this county. This important and valuable 
agency in the improvement of the cattle, horses, mules, hogs and sheep 
of this State was a coinage of the brain of Boone County fanners ; 
and in October, 1835, in a very plain and unpretentious manner the 
enterprise was inaugurated. 

The Agricultural Society owned no grounds, had erected no amphi- 
theater or prepared a ring for the exhibition of stock ; and neither 
the exhibitors, judges nor spectiitors had the tedium of the occasion 
relieved by a band of music. The place of exhibition was then a 
woodland, or pasture, in the eastern suburbs of the town, and a short 
distance northeast of Samuels's pork-house and near the present res- 
idences of Rev. H. B. Watson and Mrs. Emma Anderson. 

Those were the primitive days of the county, and the methods of 
the people were primitive ; and doubtless it will be added by those 
who read the following award of premiums, that the stock was prim- 
itive. Although the officers of the Fair — Abraham J. Williams, 
President, and A. W. Turner, Secretary — very innocently felicitated 
themselves on the conviction that '* the stock exhibited would bear a 
.comparison with any of our older sister States," we suspect that the 
hogs, sheep, cattle, mules and horses then exhibited would present 
rather a sorry spectacle if brought in competition with the stock of 
this day. No doubt the hogs, although they may have been fatted for 
the fair, were of the ** hazel-splitter" variety, with sharp backs, long 
legs, snouts and tails. The cattle, mules and horses, and perhaps 


dieep, were doubtless more respeotable, but none of them are 
ported as of illustrious lineage, with long pedigrees in the American 
Herd Book. 

The officers of the society, in making an official announcement of 
the premiums awarded, deemed it a matter worthy of special mention 
us *< a novelty in our country," that there was on exhibition ** a suck- 
ing colt, broke to all the domestic uses of man, dressed off with the 
gkj attire of a stallion, and plated and trained as the courser." 
These officers, it is worthy of special record, prophetically said, •* the 
hall of improvement is rolling through our country," No doubt the 
ball then and there started gave impulse to the improvement of all 
kinds of stock which through the succeeding years, from that period 
to the present, has influenced our farmers to place Boone County, in 
the character of its stock, in the front rank of the counties of the 

[From the Ck>liimbla InteHlgeDcer of October 24. 1885.] 


At a stock fair of the Boone County Agricultural Society, held at 
Colombia on the sixteenth and seventeenth days of October, 1835, the 
following stock were exhibited for premiums of a silver cup, worth 



[William Stone, Alfred Basye and William Provines, judges.] 
Samuel Kennan — one sow pig, and one black sow. The black sow 
took the certificate. David M. Hickman — one boar and one sow. 
The sow took the certificate. 


[Tbeodorick Jenkins, A. W. Bollins and Stephen Bedford, judges.] 
William Stone — one ewe, Merino, and one ram. Merino. D. M. 
Hickman — one ram. Merino, ' premium. William Johnston — one 
f^, Merino, certificate. 


[Lowden Snell, Mason Moss and Philip Barnes, judges.] A. W« 
Bollins — one sucking jack, premium. A. W. Rollins — one jennet, 
("Jimmy Crow,'*) premium. Jesse Turner — one yearling jack, 
<^rti6cate. D. M. Hickman — one yearling jack, premium. D, M» 


Hickman — one two year-old jack, premium. D. M. Hickman — one 
aged jack (Washington), premium. A. W. Turner — one jack 
(Tecumseh), certificate. William Johnston — one jack. 


[Darid Gordon, William Johnston and Lowden Snell, judges.} 
Edward Young — one white, sucking calf, and one pided calf; Patten 
stock, certificate. Thomas Jenkins — one black and white calf, by 
his bull Tom Jones. A. W. Rollins — one red calf (Teeswater), by 
his bull Durock; dam Lady San Martin, premium. Eli £. Bass — 
one pided calf. Thomas Jenkins — one milch cow ; Patten stock* 
Edward Young — one milch cow; Patten stock, certificate. A. W. 
Bollins — one cow. Lady San Martin; Durham, Teeswater and Miller 
stock, premium. William Stone — one year old bull; Durham and 
Patten stock, premium. Thomas Jenkins — one year old heifer, by 
Oscar, dam by San Martin, certificate. A. W. Rollins — two year old 
heifer, by Durock ; dam common stock of Missouri. D. M. Hick- 
man — one two year old bull ; scrub stock, certificate. E. E. Bass — 
one two year old cow ; Shoii; Horn stock, premium. Thomas Jen- 
kins — bull, Tom Jones, by a short-horned bull; dam by San Martin,, 
premium. A. W. Rollins — bull, Durock; a full-blooded, short- 
horned and Teeswater bull ; dam Sportsman, certificate. D. M. 
Hickman — bullock, certificate. Christopher Morrow — one bullock^ 


[William Maupin, A. W. Rollins and William Stone, judges.] 
Philip Barnes one sucking mule, four feet seven and a half inches- 
high, premium. D. M, Hickman — one sucking mule, by Washing- 
ton, premium.' D. M. Hickman — one two year old mule, premium* 
D. M. Hickman — mule, certificate. E. E. Bass — mule, premium. 


[J. J. Cotton, Sinclair Kirtley and T. C. Maupin, judges.] John 
Lampton — one sucking horse colt by Potomac ; dam by Prince Richard,, 
premium. Benj. Barns — one sorrel horse colt, by Black Whip; dam 
by Diomede. James Sims — one black mare colt, by Black Whip;, 
dam by Lamplighter, certificate. Thomas W. Conyers — one bay 
mare colt, by Sir Charles ; dam by Sumpter. Edward Young — one 
brood mare, by Comet; dam by Buzzard. John Lampton — brood 


country. The ball of improvement is rolling through our country,. 

and it is the duty of every farmer to add his force to give it impetus. 

The society is open for any citizen in the State at five dollars per 


Abraham J. Williams, President. 

A. W. Turner, Secretary. 
October 21, 1835. 

trial and conviction of conway, a neoro man, for the murder 

of israel b. grant. 

After dark on the night of December 29, 1835, when returning to 
his home in Callaway county from Fulton, on horseback, Israel B» 
Grant, a leading and much esteemed citizen of that county, was by a 
blow from behind a tree in the road knocked from his horse, stabbed 
with a pocket knife and killed, and his body dragged into the woods 
and a log rolled on it. The murder excited the greatest commotion 
and no effort was left unemployed to bring the guilty parties to 

Suspicion soon fastened upon several slaves in the neighborhood, 
among them Conway, a negro man belonging to Francis K. Cowherd^ 
and Jake belonging to Mr. Grant, upon whose clothes blood was 
found and in his pocket $25. Conway and Jake were indicted for 
murder at the February, 1836, term of the Callaway Circuit Court 
and arraigned for trial. Jake turned State's evidence. OfiBcers of the 
court: David Todd, Judge; Johii Coats, Sheriff; James Baskett, 
Clerk. Sinclair Kirtley, of Columbia, appeared as counsel for Con- 
way, and the State was represented by R. W. Wells, Attorney- 
General. Owing to the excitement in Callaway, Conway took a 
change of venue to Boone county, and Judge Todd convened a special 
term of the court for his trial at Columbia, February 29, 1836. Mr. 
Wells, the Attorney-General, being absent, Austin A. King and Wm. 
H. Russell were assigned by the court to prosecute. The following 
jury tried the case : James Hopper, foreman ; Jesse Whitesides, 
Henry L. Douglass, Greenbury Jacobs, Daniel Lyons, Edward Jar- 
man, Adam C. Reyburn, Levi Bennett, John Caruthers, Wm. Y. 
Hitt, Merritt Stephenson, Samuel Morrow. James S. Rollins was 
the principal counsel for the defence, and, although a young man, de- 
livered an argument of great eloquence and ability and one which is 
yet remembered for its remarkable power and beauty. The trial 


lasted for several days and the jury finding a verdict of guilty, Con- 
way was sentenced to be hung at Fulton, on April 8, 1836, and on 
that day he was hung — protesting his innocence to the last — by Mr. 
Coatji, the sheriff. Jake was afterwards tried, convicted and hung. 
Many people now believe Conway was innocent. 


"Switzler's History of Missouri " says : ** The Florida or Seminole 
war grew out of the opposition of the Seminole Indians to their 
removal from Florida west of the Mississippi River. This attempt 
was first made in 1835, but the Seminoles were unwilling to relinquish 
their lauds, and rallying under the leadership of their great chief, 
Osceola, organized a determined resistance to the efforts of the Gen- 
eral Government. ^ In May, 1836, the Creeks joined the Seminoles and 
the war spread into Georgia. The Creeks were soon conquered and 
sent beyond the Mississippi. The Seminoles continued the war, and 
asoftea as defeated in the open field would take refuge in the swamps 
and everglades, where it was difficult for the United States soldiers 
to follow thenu In October, 1837, Osceola was captured by General 
Jessup, and sent a prisoner to Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, where 
he died of a fever. Nevertheless, the war continued for several years, 
and Missourians took part in it. 

Sometime in the fall of 1837, and during the administration of 
Go?emor Boggs, the President of the United States, Mr. Van Buren, 
asked Colonel Benton, one of our Senators in Congress, whether 
Missourians could be induced to travel so far as the swamps of Florida 
and assist in chastising the Seminole Indians. Colonel Benton an* 
Bwered: "The Missourians will go wherever their services are 
needed," and went immediately to Joel R. Poinsett, then Secretary 
of War, and urged him to issue an order for raising volunteers in 
Missouri for that purpose. The Secretary being assured of a favora- 
ble response, issued a requisition on Governor Boggs, for two regi- 
ments of mounted volunteers. The following is a copy (made from 
the original) of the letter of the Secretary of War to Colonel Richard 
Gentry, of Columbia : — 

War Department, September 8th, 1837. 

Sir: — Yoa are hereby informed that a regiment of six hundred volunteers from the 

State of Missouri wlU be accepted by this Department, for service in Florida, during 

the next campaign against the Seminoles, provided they can be raised by you in season 

to reach Tampa Bay by the middle of October, or the 1st of November, at latest » 


General AtkinKon has been Instracted to dispatch an officer of the army to master 
these troops into the service, and to render soch other aid as may be necessary to ex- 
pedite their movements towards Florida. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

J. R. Poinsett. 
Colonel Gentry, Columbia, Boone County, Missouri. 

The first regiment was raised chiefly in Boone and neighboring 
counties by Colonel Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel, John 
W. Price, of Howard, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Harrison H. Hughes, 

also of Howard, Major; Parks, of Riy, Quartermaster, and 

William McDaniel, of Marion, ('oramissary. The regiment was 
composed of the following companies : — 

From Boone County : Captains John Elh's and Thomas D. Grant; 
Callaway, Captain William H. Russell ; Howard, Captain Congreve 
Jackson; Chariton, Cap£ain James Flore ; Ray, Captain John Sconce ; 
Jackson, Captain Jas. Chiles ; Marion, Captain John Curd. 

Four companies of the second regiment were also raised and 
attached to the first. Two of these companies were composed of 
Deleware and Osage Indians. 


The following is a partial list of the officers and privates of Capt. 
Ellis' company. We have made every eflbrt, but without success, to 
get the names of all of them : — 

John Ellis, Captain ; Clifton R. Harris, First Lieutenant; William 
Gordon, Second Lieutenant ; Richard Snell, First Sergeant; John M. 
Harris, Second Sergeant; Samuel Davis, Third Sergeant: Alfred 
Keene, Fourth Sergeant ; James Jones, First Corporal ; John Hopper, 
Second Corporal ; Lewis Jones, Third Corporal ; Archibald Johnston, 
Fourth Corporal. Privates : William Little, Calvin Little, John 
Green, John R. Basnett, John H. Hopper, James E. Hopper, James 
C. Hopper, Newton Wilcox, Charles Stephens, John Holland, Mont. 
TrimV)le, John McGinnis, Jeptha Haydon, Joseph Hickam, John 
Nealy, Robert Carter, D. W. Holt, Thos. Nichols, O. P. Jones, John 
Roberts, William Smith, David Grindstaff, Thomas Jefferson^. Fred- 
erick Bittle, Joseph Anthony, William Martin, Guinn, William 

H. Belcher, John Senoir, James K. McDaniel, Alexander Hickam, 
John Tilford, Hunt. 

On October G, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the 
field of danger and duty, but before taking their departure were pre- 
sented by the ladies of Columbia with a beautiful regimental flag, the 


presentation address being made by Miss Lucy Ann Wales, a very 
cultivated and accomplished lady, at that time preceptress of Columbia 
Female Academy. The flag was borne by the regiment throughout the 
campaign in Florida, and floated at its head in battle, and after its re- 
turn to Missouri Was delivered to the widow of Colonel Gentry, Octo- 
ber 26, 1842, by Captain William Heniy Russell, and it is now in the 
possession of Thomas B. Gentry, of Columbia. 

After the regiment left Columbia, they marched by land to Jeffer- 
son Barracks, below St. Louis, where they were detained for several 
days and were addressed by Hon. Thomas H. Benton. They were 
there mustered into service by General Henry Atkinson, the comman- 
der of this department. They were taken by boats from there to 
Jackson Barracks, New Orleans, from which point they were trans- 
ported in brisrs across the gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. 

Mr. Elihu H. Shepard, in his •* Early History of St. Louis and Mis- 
souri," says that on the voyage they were overtaken by a violent storm 
and several of the vessels stranded. Many horses were lo^t, but no 
lives, and they disembarked on the 15th of November at the place of 
destination. On the Ist of December they received orders from Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, then commanding in Florida, to march to Okee- 
cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five miles inland by the route 
travelled, in the vicinity of which the whole force of the Seminoles 
was said to have collected » under their four most redoubtable leaders, 
Sam Jones, Tiger Tail, Alligator and Mycanopee, prepared for 

Having reached the Kissemmee River, seventy miles distant, the 
cavalry scouts captured several Indians who were guarding grazing 
stock, by which the Colonel learned the Indians were near at hand ; 
•and immediately crossing the river, he formed the Missouri volunteers 
in front and advanced, supporting them at a proper distance by the 
regular army on either flank. 

The Indians appeared to have noticed all the surroundings of the 
place, and commenced the attack at the point afl!brding them the best 
position for prolonging a battle, and continued it with a pertinacity 
they seldom exhibit. 

Colonel Gentry fought on foot, as did all his command, and had re- 
puked the Indians after several hours of severe fifichtin^:. He was 
gradually pushing them across a swamp, and had nearly reached the 
t'lysoil, when a bullet pierced his abdomen, inflicting a fatal wound. 
He knew its extent, yet he stood erect an hour afterwards, arid 


cheered his men to victory ; until at last being compelled to yield, 
he was borne from the fight and expired the same night. 

The fall of their leader did not relax the exertions of the Missou- 
rians. They made good all their Senator had said of them, and 
continued to fight several hours longer, until the Indians were en- 
tirely vanquished. The loss in killed and wounded was one hundred 
and thirty-eight, most of whom were Missourians. 

There being no further service required of the Missourians, thej 
were returned to their homes early in 1838, and the name and fame oj 
Colonel Gentry placed where it will never perish. His remains, a^ 
well as those of Captain VanSwearingen and Lieutenants Brooke anc 
Center, 6th Regular United States Infantry, were afterwards broughl 
to Jefferson Barracks and buried. The County of Gentry, organized 
February 12th, 1841, was named in honor of his memory.^ 

The oflicial report to the War Department by General Zachary Tay- 
lor, U. S. A., in regard to the battle of Okeechobee, occasioned mud 
excitement and adverse criticism in Missouri, because it was claimed 
that he not only did great injustice to the Missouri Volunteers undei 
Colonel Gentry, but that on one occasion he treated Colonel Gentrj 
himself with a degree of insulting hardship and violence wholly uji- 
merited by that gallant officer. Therefore, during the session of th< 

^ The following is a copy of a letter written from Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson 

U. S. Army, to Mrs. Ann Gentry, widow of Colonel Gentry, in regard to the receipt am 

interment of his remains : 

St. Louis, 7th May, 1S89. 

Mv Dear Madam: — I have the satisfaction to inform you that I have received thi 
remains of the late Major-General Gentry, your lamented huslTand, from Florida, min 
gled in the same box with the remains of Captain VanSwearingen and Lieutenanti 
Brooke and Center, 6th Regiment U. S. Infantry. The whole will be this day takei 
from the box and placed in a suitable coffin and carried to the Episcopal Church, where 
at half-past two o'clock, the funeral service will be peformed by the reverend clergy 
after which all appropriate military honors will take place by the military and civi 
authorities of the city. The remains will then be taken to Jefferson Barracks, when 
they will be deposited for final interment as soon as the Gth Regiment returns to tha 
post. It is intended to inter all the remains in the same grave, over which a mono 
ment, with suitable inscriptions, will be erected. 

I hope this disposition of the remains of Major-General Gentry will be agreeable U 
you and your family. It would now be difficult, if not impossible, to designate th< 
remains of either individual ; therefore, should you wish to have the General's bones 
it would be impossible, I think, to select them. 

With the kindest regards, madam, I am, most respectfully. 

Your most obedient servant, 

H. ATKINSON, Brigadier-General U. S. Army. 
Mrs. Gentry, relict of the late Major-General Gentry, Columbia, Mo. 



L^slature of 1838-9, a special committee was appointed, David R. 
Atchison, chairman, to investigate the facts and make report of them 
\o the General Assembly. This committee cansed about twenty of 
the officers of the Missouri Volunteers, who had served in the Florida 
campaign, to be examined before them, among whom were individuals 
who were engaged during the battle in every part of the line, and oth- 
ers who were posted at the baggage on the opposite side of the 

After the examination of these witnesses, Mr. Atchison made a 
report, in which it was maintained that General Taylor's report did 
the Missouri troops great injustice; among other reasons because it 
ehai]ged that the Missouri Volunteers mostly broke and fell back to 
the baggage, and that the repeated effoils of his Aids could not rally 

Mr. Atchison's report states, in substance, that the battle commenced 
between nine and ten o'clock a. m., December 25th, 1837; that the 
ITissoiiri Volunteers first attacked the enemy, led the charge, and bore 
the brunt of the battle along the whole line ; that they had to march 
through a deep, miry swamp for about half a mile in order to approach 
the Indians, who were concealed in the edge of the hummock ready to 
receive them, on ground which they had chosen and prepared for that 
purpose ; that the Indians were protected by the heavy timber and 
thick aoderbrush, while the Volunteers, mostly unsupported by the 
Begiflars, were exposed in open line, uncovered, in the swamp, stand- 
ing up to their knees in mud and water, when they received the first 
deadly fire of the enemy. Nevertheless, they fought bravely till the 
heat of the battle was over, and it was principally by their fire that 
the Indians were first dispersed. Although a large number of the 
Volunteers were killed or wounded by a concealed enemy, they hero- 
ically stood their ground or pressed forward to the attack, until the 
hummock was taken and the victory gained. None of the witnesses 
examined knew of any attempt on the part of General Taylor's staff 
tQ rally the Volunteers, or of any necessity for such attempt ; and the 
f^i is established that after the heat of the battle was over, a consid- 
erable portion of the Volunteers, instead of being dispatched in pur- 
suit of the retreating enemy, were, by order of the Regular officers, 
detailed to make a causeway across the swamp, upon which to carry 
out the dead and wounded. To the committee, it was manifest that 
General Taylor entertained strong prejudice against the Volunteers^ 
Aod a most contemptuous opinion of that description of troops, and 


they reported it probable that, owing to this prejudice, he could no^ 
do justice to the Volunteers from Missouri. Also, that "Colonel 
Gentry fell at the head of his troops, in a manner worthy of the com- 
mander of Volunteers, and the conduct of the Volunteer officers and 
soldiers generally was such as ought to have elicited praise and com- 
mendation, instead of censure and reproach.'* 

The committee concluded their report by recommending the adop- 
tion of the following joint resolutions : 

1st. Besolvedf by the Senate and House of Bepresentatives, that the conduct of the 
Missouri Volunteers and spies, in the Florida campaign, was such as only could be 
expected from good soldiers and brave men. 

2d. Besolvedf that so much of Colonel Z. Taylor's renprt of the battle of Okeechobee, 
which charges that the Missouri Volunteers and spies mostly broke and fell back to the 
baggage, and that the repeated efforts of his staff could not raUy them, is proved to be 
unfounded, not to say intentionally falser and, that so much of said report which states 
that the Regular troops were joined by Captain Gilliam and Lieutenant Blakey wltha 
lew men, but not until they had suffered severely, is Incorrect in this, — that GllUam 
and Blakey were in advance of the Regular troops during the most of the fight and nevti 
in the rear. 

3d. Besolvedf that so much of said report which states that the Missouri Volonteera 
and spies behaved themselves as well or better than troops of that description nsaallji 
do, is not so much a compliment to them as a slander upon citizen soldiers generally, 

4th. Besolved, that Colonel Taylor in his report of the battle of Okeechobee, has done 
manifest injustice to the Missouri Volunteers and spies, and that said report was not 
founded upon facts as they occurred. 

5th. Besolvedy that a commanding officer who has wantonly misrepresented the con- 
duct of men who gallantly sustained him In battle, is unworthy a commission in the 
Army of the United States. 

6th. Besolvedf that the Governor of the State be required to lay before the President 
of the United States, the evidence reported to this House, In relation to the conduct oi 
the Missouri Volunteers and spies in the Florida campaign, and Colonel Z. Taylor'a 
report of the battle of the Okeechobee, and that he solicit on the part of this State a 
court of inquiry Into the conduct of the Missouri Volunteers and spies, and the truth oi 
said report. 

7th. Besolved, that the Governor of the State be required t») lay before the President 
of the United States, a statement of facts relative to the treatment of the spies under 
Colonel Morgan and Captain Sconce : 1st. As It regards the fact of the organization of 
said command Into a spy battalion, under the order of Colonel Taylor. 2d. His subse- 
quent acknowledgment and recognition of said corps. 3d. The performance of arduous 
duty by the officers of said battalion under the requisition of Colonel Taylor. 4th. 
Their subsequent discharge as privates and the pay that they received as such. 5th. 
The necessity of adopting some course to obtain redress. 

The resolutions passed both houses of the Legislature unanimously, 
and there the matter rested, no court of inquiry having been called by 
the President of the United States to investigate the truth of Colonel 
Taylor's report. 



The smoke of the Florida war had scarcely receded from view 
before an insurrection within the borders of our own State incited the 
martial spirit of our people, and they flew to arms to punish and drive 
from the State the Mormons, under their Prophet, Joe Smith. 

After their expulsion, in 1834, from Jackson County, they flocked 
in large numbers into counties north of the Missouri River, but chiefly 
into the new county of Caldwell, where John Whitmer and a few others 
had selected a site for a new town and lands for a new home for the 
Saints. The town was called **Far West," and Joe Smith and his 
chief pfficers located there, and assured their followers that it would 
soon become one of the mighty cities of the world. 

The old town site is now in the midst of a corn-field, which consti- 
totes part of a tract of land belonging to Col. Calvin F. Burns, of 
St. Joseph, and is situated about eight miles southwest of Hamilton 
and about the same distance southeast of Cameron. About half a 
mile west of the town is the burying-ground of the Mormons. It is 
DOW included within the limits of a farm owned by Mr. Peter L. Boul-* 
ton, a brother of Judge Jesse A. Boulton, of Boone County. Here 
are some two or three hundred graves, all more or less obliterated, 
with scarcely an occasional rude headstone to mark the presence of a 
once sacredly-guarded, but long-forsaken and forgotten village of the 

But perhaps the most interesting relic of the times of which we 
write is the former residence of Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, 
and founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. It 
is a rude, old-fashioned, one-story frame building, with two rooms, 
situated about a quarter ot a mile southwest of the temple site, which 
was in the middle of the town. An unusually large and clumsy stone 
chimney at the north end of the building is its distinguishing charac- 
teristic. Otherwise the structure is an exceedingly ordinary and com- 
mon-place building, suggestive of anything rather than the residence 
of the founder of a mighty sect whose wonderful rise and progress 
constitute an era in the history of Missouri. 

Under the influence of their missionaries, who were canvassing all 

tte Eastern States and many parts of Europe, the young city of Far 

fl^est promised much. Converts settled all over the county, and 

specially along the streams and belts of timber. Farm houses sprang 

tip as if by magic, and the wilderness was in a few months transformed 


into an industrious and promising community. Their settlements eic- 
tended into Livingston, Daviess and Clinton Counties, biit Far West 
their only town, was their commercial centre, and became their county 
seat. In 1837, the Mormons began work on what was intended to he 
one of the most magnificent temples in the United States. 

The town was laid out in blocks 396 feet square, and the streets 
were on a grand scale. The four principal avenues were each 132 feet 
wide, and all the others 82| feet wide. These diverged at right angles 
from a public square in the centre, designed as the site of a grand 
temple, which, however, was never built. In 1837, the cellar undei 
the prospective temple was dug. The excavation, 120 by 80 feet in 
area, and 4 or 5 feet deep, was accomplished in about one-half of a 
day, more than 500 men being employed in the work, with no othei 
means of removing the earth than hand-barrows. It is generally 
believed that on the 4th of July following, which was duly observed 
as a national holiday, the corner-stone of the temple was laid. This, 
however, is a mistake. 

The prosperity of the Mormon settlement had drawn thither manj 
good and industrious men, and also many desperadoes and thieves, 
who soon obtained full sway in their councils. They boldly declared 
-that ''the Lord had given the earth and the fulness thereof to Hi« 
people," and that they were " His people," and consequently had the 
right to take whatsoever they pleased from the Gentiles. In pursu- 
ance of this declaration, bands of the more lawless of them strolled 
about the country, taking what they pleased. As they largely out- 
numbered the Gentiles, and as the county ofiBcers were mostly Mor- 
mons,, they were enabled to act with impunity, until their lawlesi 
-course excited the indignation of the other settlers, who, not being 
able to obUiin justice in a lawful manner, also resorted to mob vio 
lence and retaliation in kind, until many a dark and bloody deed waa 
perpetrated on both sides. 

In 1838 the discord became so great, and the clamor for the expul- 
sion of the Mormons from the State so imperative, that Governoi 
Boggs issued a proclamation, ordering Major-General David E. 
Atchison to call out the militia of his division to put down the insur- 
gents and enforce the laws. He called out a part of the 1st brigade 
of the Missouri State Militia, under command of General Alexandei 
W. Doniphan, who proceeded at once to the seat of war. The militia 
were placed under the command of General John B. Clark of Howard 
County. The Mormon forces numbering about 1,000 men, were led 


by 6. W. Hinkle. The first skirmish took place at Crooked River, 
in the Southwestern part of the county, where David Patten — ** Cap- 
tain Fear-not," as he called himself — the leader of the Danite Band 
or United Brothers of Gideon, was killed. But the principal engage- 
ment was fought at Haughn's Mills, five miles south of the present site 
of Breckenridge. The Mormons of the eastern portion of the county 
had concentrated there and intrenched themselves in the mill and in 
the blacksmith shop, where the militia numbering about 125 men, at- 
tacked and captured them. One militiaman was wounded and 18 of 
the Mormons killed, — some of them after their surrender, — and 
their bodies were thrown into a neighboring well on a farm owned at 
that time by Haughn. This land is now the property of James C. 
McCrary, Esq., of Kingston, to whom it was sold for a St. Louis 
pirty, by Nathan Cope, Esq., of Kingston. It was about fifteen 
and a half miles east of Far West. This bloody and sepuichral 
well was filled up by Charles Ross, Esq., now a resident of Kings- 
ton, who arrived on the spot just ten days after the titigic occur- 

Two reoriments of volunteers were raised in Boone for the Mormon 
War, but strange to record, both of them were destined to ** snuff the 
battle from afar." The first was commanded by Col. Thomas D. 
Grant; Lieut.-Col-*Joel Hern;Maj. Stewart B. Hatton. Captains: 

John Ellis, James Brown, Colvin. This regiment was ordered to 

"the seat of war." 

Afterwards another regiment was raised with John Ellis as Colonel, 
Joel Hern, Lieut.-Colonel, and Stewart B. Hatton, Major. 

When the militia under Gen. Chirk appeared at Far West, Octo- 
ber. 1838, where the principal Mormon forces were gathered, Joe 
Smith surrendered, agreeing to Gen. Doniphan's conditions, viz. : 
That they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent 
leaders for trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their 
families, leave the State. 

The leaders were taken before a court of inquiry at Richmond, 
Judge Austin A. King presiding. He remanded them to Daviess 
County to await the action of the grand jury on a charge of treason 
against the State, and murder. The Daviess County jail being poor, 
tbej were confined at Liberty. Indictments for various offences, — 
treason, murder, robbery, receiving stolen goods, arson, resisting 
legal process, etc., — were found against Joe Smith, Hiram Smith- 
(Joe Smith's brother), Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, G. W. 

:J16 history of BOONE COUNTY. 

Hinkle, Caleb Baldwin, Parley P. Pratt,i Luman Gibbs, Maurice P. 
Phelps, King FoUett, Wm. Osborn, Arthur Morrison, Elias Higbee, J. 
Worthington, W. Voorhees, Jacob Gates and others. Sidney Rigdon 
was released on a writ of habeas corpus. The others requested a 
change of venue and Judge King sent their cases to Boone County. 
On their way to Columbia, under a military guard, Joe Smith es- 
caped, by bribing the guard, as was generally believed. 

During the progress of a Fourth of July celebration in Columbia, in 
1839, which was attended by most of the citizens, P. P. Pratt knocked 
down John M, Kelly, the jailor, when he opened the door to serve 
them with dinner, and in company with Morris Phelps and King Fol- 
lety escaped. Luman Gibbs chose to remain, although he, too, might 
easily have gone with the rest. FoUet was re-captured, and together 
with Gibbs, was afterwards tried before David Todd, circuit judge, 
and acquitted. Hon. J. S. Rollins, of Boone, and Gen. A. W. Doni- 
phan, of Clay, defended them. The indictments were dismissed 
against all the others, by Circuit Attorney James M. Gordon, at the 
August term of the court, 1840. 

Joe Smith and his brother Hiram, were shot and killed by a mob 
at the Carthage, Illinois, jail, in which they were confined on a charge 
of treason, on June 27, 1844. 

Orson Hyde died at Salt Lake City in December, 1878. 

Orson Pmtt, one of the first members of the Mormon church, and 
the oldest "Apostle," died in Salt Lake, October 3, 1881, aged 
seventy years. He was the best educated theologian among the 

Gov. Lilburn W. Boargs, durinor whose administration the Mormon 
war occurred, died on his farm in Napa Valley, California, of dropsy 
of the heart, on March 14, 1860, in the sixty-third year of his age. 

1 Pratt was an Elder and a man of education. In 1856 he met a tragic death near 
Fort Gibson, for fuU account of which see << Switzler's History of Missouri," page 250. 




Boone Femme Academy — Started in 1829 — First School for Young Ladies established 
in Colombia by Mrs. Peerce, in 1830 — School Books then in Use — Prof. Guernsey's 
EngliBh and Classical Academy — Bear Creek Academy, by J. Coleman Boggs — 
Colombia College, the seed from which grew the State University — Colambia Fe- 
male Academy — Opened in 1884, under Miss Lucy Ann Wales, and closed in 1856. 



One of the most distinguished and reputable institutions of learning 
in early times in Central Missouri was Bonne Femme Academy. It 
was situated in a very prosperous and fertile agricultural region, about 
six miles south of Columbia, on the north bank of the Bonne Femme 
Creek, from which the Academy derived its name. It was an academy 
for males, and was first opened for the reception of students on the 
third Monday of May, 1829, with Warren Woodson as teacher, among 
whose pupils was Capt. Silas Bent, now a distinguished citizen of St. 

Oq 25th of April, of that year, the trustees, namely : Mason Moss, 
Filliam Shields, Robert S. Barr, Anderson McPheters and Sinclair 
Kirtley, gave notice in the Fayette Inlelligencer — for Columbia then 
had no newspaper — that they wished to employ an instructor to take 
charge of the institution, on the day above named, "competent to 
teach reading, writing, arithmetick, grammar, geography, the mathe- 
maticks, and some of the more ordinary branches of belle lettres." The 
school house they described as " a very commodious brick building, 
with two rooms of twenty-two feet square, situated in a healthy, 
highly moral and Very respected neighborhood ; possessing, perhaps, 
tsmany advantages for such an institution, and offering as many in* 
dacements to boarders from a distance, as any in the country. 
Terms of tuition per year, to consist of two sessions of five and a-half 
months each: $8 for reading, writing and arithmetick; $12 for 
gi^mmar, geography, mathematicks, &c., and $18 for the Latin 

The trustees secured the services of Rev. Robert S. Thomas as 
principal instructor, and to the course of studies was added rhetoric, 
logic, composition, declamation, natural and moral philosophy, chem* 



istry, astronomy and Greek. The trustees announced in an adverti 
ment that boarding could be had in respectable families near t 
academy for $25 per session of five and a half months, *' washin 
fuel, and candles included," that is, about $1,133/4 per week. Amoi 
the pupils of Mr. Thomas Avere Gen. Bela M. Hughes, now a disti 
guished lawyer and politician of Denver, Col., and Mrs. James 
Rollins and Mrs. George C. Pratt, of Columbia. 

Mr. Thomas retiring from the charge of the control, the truste 
placed it in charge of Prof. Edward Summerfield, an accomplish 
scholar and apparently a cultured gentleman, but before the end 
the collegiate year a cloud obscured his fair name and he left 1 
Texas. He was supposed to be an impostor, whose real name w 
William Pinkney Hill. 

He was succeeded by Prof. Joseph Bowers, of Paris, Mo. 

The trustees, William Shields, David M. (lickman, Theodori 
Jenkins and John H. Field annnounced that the October sessio 
1837, would open in charge of Prof. Oliver Cunningham, a graduate 
Western University, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and that they expect 
soon to receive a large and well selected library, donated by the la 
Lucian L. Wilson, formerly of Kentucky. 

By an act of the Legislature approved December 27, 1838, the colle 
was incorporated, with Wm. Shields, Overton Harris, Theodori 
Jenkins, John H. Field, John Jacobs, Gilpin S. Tuttle and Waller ! 
Woolfolk as trustees, with power to perpetuate their own body, 
purchase lands for its use, and to confer the usual literary degree 

The fall session for 1839 was opened with Prof. Cunningham st 
in charge. Trustees : William Shields, Gilpin S. Tuttle, Overt< 
Harris, Th. Jenkins, J. H. Field, D. M. Hickman, W. L. Wo( 
folk, and Thos. C. Maupin. 

The session for the next year, commencing the first Tuesday 
November, 1840, opened with Prof. Cunningham,* with the additi< 
of Prof. John Roche, of Transylvania University, filling the chair 
Greek, Latin and French. Austin Bradford succeeds W. L. Woolfo 
on the Board of Trustees. 

Diivid S. Lamme appears as oqe of the trustees in the fall sessio 
for 1841, which was opened under Profs. Roche and Cunningham. 

Disagreements arising between Profs. Roche and Cunningham ai 
a portion of the trustees, on account of Prof. Roche's intempera 
habits. Prof. Roche withdrew from the institution, and resolved 
establish an independent school on the Two-mile Prairie, in the neig 


borhood of Capt. Peter Wright and William Robards, to be called the 
«< Classical Institute." This enterprise did not succeed. 

Prof. George C. Pratt, who is now (1882) one of the Railroad 
Commissioners of the State, was elected to fill the chair in Bonne 
Ferame College made vacant by the retirement of Prof. Roche, and 
<;ontiDued to occupy it until 1843, when he resigned to accept the 
chair of Ancient Languages in the State University. Mr. Lynn had 
charge of the preparatory department. 

During the period Profs. Cunningham, Roche and Pratt were in- 
structors in the college there were, among other pupils, the following: 
Eld. Winthrop H. Hopson, now a distinguished minister of the 
Christian Church; John T. Hughes, author of *« Doniphan's Expedi- 
tion/' and who was killed at the battle at Independence, August 11, 
1862; Frank Hughes, his brother ; Dr. Abner Gore, of Paris ; Joseph 
S.Hughes, of Richmond; George Parker, of St. Louis; the late 
Prof. Wm. C. Shields and Miss Mary Barr Jenkins, now the wife of 
«x-6ov. C. H. Hardin. 

In the Columbia Patriot of October 16, 1841, ** Visitor" gives an 
4u:€0UDt of the examination and exhibition at the college, from which 
we make this extract : — 

Hr. Wm. H. Bobinson read a poem on American Independence of a very creditable 
^ncter, and one that showed that by practice he can write excellent poetry, for the 
luulTe yein is there. Mr. John T. Hughes spoke a Latin address that gave out much 
of the Ciceronian tone, and did great credit to the writer. 

The beautiful Seine flows not with more majestic fulness and ease by the refined 
<»pitalof the French than Telemachus, Charles XII. and Barbaroux*^ History of the 
United States were read by Miss Laura Shields, Mr. James White, of Fayette, Mr. 
John ChappeU and Mr. Jno. T. Hughes. 

The Greek language, which unfortunately is not rendered as prominent in most of 
our Western colleges as its intrinsic merits deserve, was on this occasion splendidly 
rostalned by Mr. J. J. Harvey, of Saline, and Miss Mary B. Jenkins. Mr. Harvey read 
portions of the Greek Reader selected by a young gentleman, a student of the Univer- 
sity of Missouri, and analyzed the same in a masterly manner. 

Miss Jenkins read parts of the Greek Testament, named at haphazard by a gentle- 
nan in the audience, and went through the labyrinth of the Greek verb, not as by the 
^<1 of a borrowed clue, but as if nature had formed her another Ariadne. I was also 
forcibly struck with the extraordinary ease, the lucid diction, and the inimitable taste 
^ith which Miss Jenkins read Cicero. 

Most of the compositions of the young gentlemen had to be omitted for want of 
tine. Among those read, that of Mr. Franklin Hughes stood prominent in all the 
<|Dallties of fine writing. In truth, there are few men of any age, perhaps, in the Union 
oan do more justice with the pen to any subject he handles than this young gentle- 

I cannot close these hasty remarks without referring to the young ladies' composi- 


tlons. Those of Misses C. Jenkins, M. F. Harris and M. J. Tattle were, considering 
the age of the writers, uncommonly fine. 

Miss Laara Shlelds's, '*0n Imagination" was a piece of exquisite poetry in prose, 
dressed in << Orient pearls" not **at random flung," bat worked by some superior 
power into a brilliant and dazzling specimen of intellectual mosaic. 

Miss Mary B. Jenkins's, << On the Evidences of the Christian Religion " was, as usual 
with her, incomparable in reasoning, taste and style. To compliment any of her pro- 
ductions looks like "gliding refined gold, or painting the lily." 


Columbia now boasts, and for many years has been proud, of two 
large colleges for young ladies, the buildings and appliances of either of 
which no doubt cost more money than every school house in Boone 
county was worth at the time of the establishment, in the fall of 
1830, of the first school for young ladies in Columbia. Mrs. H. T. 
Peerce established the first female school in the county of Boone, and 
in an advertisement she issued, March 5, 1831, gave notice of a re- 
opening of her school, about the 20th of that month, in which she pro- 
posed to teach '' Spelling, Reading, Writing, English Grammar, and 
Geography, together with plain and ornamental needle wqrk, paint- 
ing water colors, body colors, and oil.'* Where was located this 
humble beginning of the magnificent results which others among us 
have since achieved in this direction, we do not know; most probably 
in one of the rooms of her own residence, which yet stands, a two- 
story log house, weather boarded, facing north, on the lot occupied by 
Mr. Loeb's residence. 


Torrey's Primer, ToiTcy's Pleasing Companion for Little Girls and 
Boys. Torrey's Moral Instructor and Guide to Virtue. Smiley's 
Geography, Smiley's Arithmetic, Smiley's United States Speaker* 
Grimshaw's History of the United States. 


Among the early educational institutions of Columbia was one with 
the above name, established in 1832 by Lyman Guernsey, A. M. : 
Superintendent, W. M. Kern, assistant. Mr. Guernsey was a man of 
education and a Christian gentleman, who was highly^esteemed by all 
who knew him. Nevertheless his academy was not a permanent insti- 
tution. What became of him we are not informed. 




In 1834 J. Coleman Boggs, brother of Lilburn W. Boggs, estab- 
lished at Bear Creek Churchy one mile north of Columbia, a school, 
which he called ** Bear Creek Academy," and in which were taught 
the visual English branches and book-keeping and surveying. Among 
his scholars in grammar and geography were Alouzo Richardson, 
Cornelius and Samuel Maupin, John B. and Youngei* J. Williams. 
Trastees of the Academy, Alex. Persinger, Biley Slocum, Andrew 
Spencer, William Bowland, Wm. Maupin, and Jacob Hover. 



It can be demonstrated as a historical truth that the seed which 
finally produced the State University, was planted in Columbia by a 
public meeting at the Court House, held on Tuesday evening, August 
9,1831, "for the purpose of adopting a plan for the purchasing of a site 
for a seminary in the town of Columbia, and for the purpose of adopt- 
ing some measures to have the same improved, by building an academy 
thereon." Robert S. Barr was chairman, and Austin A. King sec- 
retary of this meeting, which appointed Robert S. Barr, Oliver Parker 
and James B. Nichols, a committee to jdrafb a plan and select a 
site for said building, and to ascertain the probable cost thereof; and 
to make report to an adjourned meeting to be held on the 19th of 
August. John B. Gordon, Esq., was announced to speak at the meet- 
ing oa the subject of education. 

What this meeting did, if held, we have no means of knowing, for 
in those days there were not, as now, newspaper editors and reporters 
on every corner with note-books in hand ready to catch the shadow 
of everything before the substance flies. The proceedings were not 
published, but a communication in the Intelligencer of August 27, an- 
nounces, ** with feelings of sincere gratulations and conscious pride," 
"the liberality manifested by our citizens toward this noble object; " 
also the large portion of the sum required to erect the building for 
"The College" had been subscribed and that the balance would be 
obtained in a few days. Forecasting the future with the truth of pro- 
phesy this correspondent maintained that "this institution will be 
productive of more and greater direct, positive advantages to the 
town and county generally than any other public institution that could 
be established here with the same amount of money and labor. In 


a pecuniary point of view, it will be advantageous by enhancing the 
value of other property and by affording to parents all the facilities 
for giving their children as good an education at home as can be 
obtained by sending them abroad, and at a cost greatly diminished." 

Continuing he says: "In reference to the collateral, remote and 
contingent beneficial consequences that may result from this institu- 
tion to this county, this State, the United States, and to the world at 
large, in this and throughout all future ages, I have but little to say. 
The character and degree of influence that may be exercised by it on 
human society can not be calculated or easily conjectured." 

Those who will take the trouble to note the progress of events and 
to mark the consequences which have resulted to the people of this 
county from the establishment of this institution of learning will be 
curious to know the name of '*A Friend to Education" who thus 
early in the history of our institutions of learning gave evidence of 
such truly prophetic philosophy. 

In a subsequent number of the Intelligencer (Sept. 10, 1831 )> 
•' Philomathise" presented, among others, the pecuniary advan- 
tages of " The College " to the people of Boone county, and for the 
first time reminded them of the fact that the day was not distant 
when subject of the establishment of ''a State college" (as he calls it) 
would be agitating the Legislature ; and that he had every reason to 
believe it would be located in that village, centrally located, *' where 
the solicitude and anxietv has been manifested in the cause of litera- 
ture." He also exhorted our people to use " every honorable exer- 
tion to fix the location of the State College in Columbia, which would 
not only add to our peace and pleasure at home, but to our dignity 
and respectability abroad." '« Philomathiee " is another prophet. 

To show that the pecuniary advantages of the location or establish- 
ment of a literary institution in Columbia would be immense, he main- 
tains that it would be safe to say «« there are in Boone County thirty 
parents who will give at least one son each a liberal education," which 
it would take five years to acquire. Estimating that each student 
would spend, for tuition, board, etc., three hundred dollars, makee 
the aggregate of the thirty-nine thousand per year. This sum, he 
maintains, would be saved yearly by the college at home. He also 
maintains that such an institution would be patronized by at least 
seventy young men from a distance, who would annually expend in 
our midst three hundred dollars each, or twenty-one thousand dollars 
in the aggregate. 


Sach arguments evidently had their influence upon the public mind^ 
for on the 17th March, 1832, a building committee, composed of War- 
ren Woodson, James H. Bennett, Oliver Parker, James B. Nichols 
and Sinclair Kirtlej, gave notice to mechanics that separate written 
propositions to do the stone, brick, and carpenter's work of the col- 
lege building, to be erected at this place, would be received until the 
24th of that month. 

The erection of the building was let pursuant to this notice — to 
whom we are not informed — and completed as speedily as possible. 
It was of brick, sixty feet front, twenty-six feet deep, two stories high, 
and divided into suitable rooms for a college. It occupied a most 
beautiful and elevated site in the southwestern suburbs of the town, 
and is the same building now occupied as a residence by Rev. R. F. Babb. 

Columbia College was chartered by the General Assembly 

, 1833, and the following gentlemen named in the act as trus- 
tees thereof: Roberts. Barr, A. W. Rollins, Richard Gentry, Warren 
Woodson, Thos. W. Conyers, Wm. P. Cochran, James W. Moss, Wm. 
Corneliu8,01iver Parker,David S. Lamme, John B.Gordon,David Todd, 
and Sinclair Kirtley , who held their first meeting in Capt. Sam^uel Wall's 
tavern, on the first Monday of May, 1833. At this meeting Dr. Anthony 
W. Rollins was elected President of the Board, and committees were 
appointed to receive reports in relation to the college building, and to 
secure a deed of conveyance to the property. There being a want of 
funds necessary to pay off a small deficit that had accrued to finish the 
building, the President announced that one thousand dollars would 
effect this object, *' and place the present beautiful edifice in a situa- 
tion for the reception of professors and the accommodation of from 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred pupils." With a view of rais- 
ing this deficit, a public meeting was called at the court-house on the 
fourth Monday in June, and John B. Gordon and Sinclair Kertley 
were requested to address the meeting. 

The grounds were bought and paid for and the building completed, 
Md on the first Monday in November, 1834, the first regular session 
of the institution was opened, under the immediate superintendence 
of Thomas Miller, a graduate of Indiana College, and who had recently 
tad chaise of the Preparatory Department in Transylvania University. 
The collegiate year consisted of two sessions of five months each. 
Tuition, $15.00 per session, contingencies included. Applications to 
be made to Dr. Wm. Jewell, Sinclair Kirtley and Wm. Cornelius. 
Dr. Jas. W. Moss, who had been elected chairman of the Board of 


Trustees in the place of Dr. A. W. Rollius resigned, makes the above 
announcements in the Columbia Intelligencer of October, 18, 1834. 

On November 10, 1834, Prof. Miller was publicly installed, witi^li 
appropriate and imposing ceremonies. The Intelligencer gives tb^s 
account of it : — 

At an early hoar many citizens assembled at the Court House, and were form^^i 
into a procession, under the command of Capt. D. M. Hickman, who had been prer'^- 
ously appointed marshal of the day. They then proceeded to the Presbyterian ChurcE:** 
where the ceremony of inauguration toolc place. It is seldom we have witnessed ^^ 
more interesting procession. Its brilliancy was especially heightened by the uniforc:*=^ 
and lovely appearance of the young ladies from the Female Academy, whose presene'^ 
dispelled the gloom which an inclement day was calculated to inspire, and excited ^^ 
deeper and more lively interest in the exercises of the day. The Throne of Grace wa^P 
addressed by Rev. F. R. Gray. The keys of the college were then presented to Mr^ 
Miller by Dr. Moss, chairman of the Board of Trustees, with a few very dlgnifiedi. 
and appropriate remarks upon the nature and importance of the charge devolving 
upon him, which was followed by a luminous and well-written address from Prof- 
Miller, in vindication of a thorough college education. The correctness of the po— 
sitions assumed were not the most impressive parts of the address. It was presented 
in a fervid and animated style of composition — diction the most happy, and abounded 
throughout in the choicest classical allusions and the finest illustrutions. We are 
disinclined, however, to anticipate the public on this subject, as it will be presented 
to them shortly in pamphlet form. 

Upon the whole, we were delighted with the manner in which everything was 
conducted, and we think it augurs bright prospects, not only for Columbia and 
Boone County, but for the State. 

Copies of this address in pamphlet form are still extant, and but - 
for the want of space copious extracts would be here made from it. 
It is scholarly and ornate in language, beautiful in style, and well cal- 
culated to awaken popular enthusiasm on the subject of education. 


The first session of Columbia College opened auspiciously, as an- 
nounced, and continued successfully to the end of the term. On 
April 8, 1835, the public examination of students commenced, closing 
on the next day with exercises in declamation and composition. " Lit- 
erary persons, teachers of academies and schools, parents and guardi- 
ans, and the friends of education generally," were invited to attend. 
By invitation of the Board of Trustees, B. F. Robinson and W. 
Jenkins delivered addresses on the occasion, copies of which were 
requested for publication, and in the Intelligencer of April 18 the ad- 
dress of the former appears. 

The first session of the institution proved so successful, not only in 
the character of the instruction imparted, but in the number of stu- 
dents, that the Board of Trustees were encouraged to call Rev. John 


BeDuie, A. M., to a professorship^ so that by the joint labors of two 
each scholars as Miller and Rennie the highest expectations of the 
public might be realized. Mr. Rennie having signified his acceptance, 
it was announced the second res:ular session of the institution would 
open on the first Monday in November, 1835 — James W. Moss, Chair- 
man, aijd Oliver Parker, Treasurer of the Board. 

On Tuesday, November 24, 1835, Mr. Rennie was duly installed, 
and delivered an address on the occasion, pamphlet copies of which 
are yet extant. The Intelligencer ^ commenting on the address, says 
it received the highest commendation. 'VHis arrangement was excel- 
lent, his style pure and elegant, his diction chaste and beautiful, his 
thoughts upon the subject of education profound ; and, in short, the 
whole address was well calculated to instruct and captivate his hear- 
ers, and every way worthy as emanating from the head and heart of a 
liberal and enlightened Christian." 

Mr. Samuel Hart was announced as principal of the preparatory 

With the faculty of instruction thus organized the college success- 
folly progi*essed for a few years, until failing health and a desire to 
engage in the practice of law with Major J. S. Rollins, induced the 
resignation of Prof. Miller, which was afterwards followed by the 
resignation of Prof. Rennie. In 1838, the Board of Trustees — Rev. 
Luther H. Van Doren, President ; James S. Rollins, Secretary ; Robert 
S. Barr, Treasurer; Eld. Thos. M. Allen, Warren Woodson, William 
Cornelius, David S. Lamme, John B. Gordon and Thomas Miller — 
elected the following gentlemen to constitute the faculty of the col- 
lege: Rev. Luther H. Van Doren, A. M., President; Rev. Robert S. 
Thomas, professor of languages ; Mr. David Dunlap, professor of 
mathematics ; Rev. E. P. Noel, teacher in the preparatory depart- 
ment, and the college was reopened for the reception of students on 
Monday, June 18, 1838. 

Columbia College, of course, had no endowment, and therefore re- 
lied wholly upon public patronage for its support. This fact, supple- 
mented by another far more inimical to its continued, permanent 
existence, namely, that it was at this period in a transition state, with 
almost a positive certainty of being supplanted by the State Univer- 
sity, caused it to go out of existence. While it was in operation, 
however, it performed its duty nobly and laid the foundations for the 
education, culture and refinement which have so long distinguished our 



The early friends of education and liberal culture in Columbia were 
not satisfied with the establishment of Columbia College, designed 
exclusively for the education of their sons, but cotemporaneouslj 
with their noble and self-sacrificing eflbrts to found this institution 
were measures to organize an Academy of a high order for those 
times, for the education of their daughters. 

Accordingly, on the 24th of August, 1833, a citizens' meeting waf 
held in the Court House to take the subject into consideration, where- 
upon Gen. Richard Gentry was called to the chair, and Robert S. 
Thomas was made secretary. After suggestions by various gentle- 
men and warm commendation of the purposes of the meeting, resolu- 
tions were adopted with great unanimity, approving •' a system ol 
instruction calculated to bestow on the female sex a liberal education; 
that we will patronize a Female Academy located in Columbia, upon a 
plan commensurate with the wants of our population, and we recom- 
mend to our fellow-citizens a cordial union and support with us." 

To eflfect this object it was resolved that William Jewell, William 
Provines, William S. Burch, James Richardson, Joseph B. Howard, 
Stephen R. Bedford, William Shields, James H. Bennett, Samuel 
Wall, Roger N. Todd, Austin A. King, Moses U. Payne and Minoi 
Neal be requested to associate together and constitute a •* Board ol 
Trustees of the Columbia Female Academy, and that they contract 
for the purchase, lease or rent of property ; the employment ol 
teachers and the purchase of all necessary apparatus for the Academj 
within the means placed under their control, and that they make laws 
for the government of the Academy, its tutors and students, and ex- 
ercise every needful power until an act of incorporation can be 
obtained by law." The Trustees were also requested by the meeting 
to secure the services of Miss Lucy Ann Wales as preceptoress of the 

The Academy was opened without delay in the Presbyterian 
Church, a new brick building which was erected in 1833,^ and at once 
commended itself to the liberal patronage of the public. 

The second session of six months opened on the first Monday in 
May, 1834, Joseph B. Howard*, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, 
announcing that the number of pupils would be limited to twenty-five. 

1 This church was erected on the north side of Walnut Street, between Fifth and 
Sixth, and north of the present Episcopal Church on Broadway. 

• .* % 


*<aD(ithat a young lady can sicquire as thorough an education here as 
at any academy west of the mountains." Terms of tuition, ten dol- 
lars per session. In 1836 means were raised by private subscrip- 
tion for the erection of an academy building and for the purchase of 
an eligible site. After due consideration the Trustees, on Febiniary 
26,1837, purchased of Wm. Cornelius, for $175, a lot, (No. 100) on 
thesoath side of Cherry Street, on the corner of Tenth (immediately 
west and opposite the present residence of Dr. G. W. Riggins) on 
which they erected a one-story brick, about forty feet front, twenty- 
five feet deep, in which the academy was conducted for a number of 
years with marked success, under Miss Wales. N. W. Wilson and 
Thomas Selby were the building committee to superintend the work. 
She resigned her position in 1840, and, returning to New York 
ciij, was married to Mr. John S. Thayer» and now resides at Chatta. 
nooga, Tennessee. She was succeeded by Miss Lavinia Moore, of 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, and John D. Ferryman, after which the 
academy was conducted in the order named by Eleazer Root, Tyre C» 
Harris (who died at Lexington, Missouri, October 9, 1854,) Oliver 
Cunningham and J. L. Sloan. Baptist (now Stephens) College being 
established in 1856, and taking the place of Columbia Female Academy^ 
the academy passed out of existence and the building and grounds 
were publicly sold June 20, 1865, by Moss Prewitt, Commissioner, 
under special act of the Legislature, approved February 15, 1865, to 
Dr. S. B. Victor, for $1,415, who now owns the property and rents 
it as a residence. 

During the presidency of Mr. Harris, who died in 1854, large addi* 
tion^ consisting of a second story and an ell, were made to the build- 
ing—the needed funds, about $1,800, being raised by private 
subscription, After the sale of the property to Dr. Victor the 
sum of $1,415, which was paid for it, was distributed pro rata 
Among those who contributed means for the erection of the additions. 

The academy was chartered by the Legislature, February 3, 1837,aud 
its course of study was very liberal considering the times and circum- 
stances under which it was conducted. It embraced reading, writing, 
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, geography, history, English grammar, 
^tiiny, outlines of geology, chemistcy, natural history, natural phiL 
osophy, astronomy, logic, rhetoric, intellectual and moral philosophy, 
drawing, painting, music, ornamental needlework and frequent exer- 
cises in composition. 

During the existence of the academy, the following ladies of educa- 


tion and approved competency were assistant teachers : Miss Eliza 
Ann Gentry, Miss Catherine Lynch (now Mrs. Catherine Clapp), 
Mrs. Amanda B. Woodson, Mrs. Thos. P. Giles, and Mrs. Margaret 
^Phillips, the latter as teacher of music. 


As a sample of the public literary exercises of the academy we give 
the following programme. It is copied from an article communicated 
by *' W. F. S.*' to the Columbia Patriot, of April 3, 1841 : 

The stndents have learned principles as weU as facts, studied the philosopht 
of the sciences more than the language of authors, — and withal have enabled 
themselves to bring their knowledge Into practical operation. Below wUl be found 
the names of those who have read compositions, and the subjects upon which they 
were written. 

Miss Frances A. Provlnes. — The Passions. 

Miss DavldellaTodd. — Perception of the Beautiful. 

Miss Arethusa J. Hardin. — Happiness the Result of Integrity. 

Miss Caroline F. Todd. — Our Institutions. 

Miss Julia Price. — Habits of Observation. 

Miss Mary Harrison. — Home. 

Miss Mary Ewlng. — Gratitude. 

Miss Ann Vanhom. — No man can Learn all Things. 
, Miss Mary C. Beattie. — Love of Gold. 

Miss Lucretia Caswell. — The Grave. 

Miss Mary Neale — How Blessings Brighten as They take Their Flight. 

Miss Mary Gentry and Miss Sallie Goode. — Letters passed between a Swede who 
liad previously visited France, and a French Refugee In England during the Revolution. 

Miss Eliza Seeley. — Patience Removes Mountains.] 

Miss Elizabeth S. Broadwell. — Spring. 

Miss Elizabeth V. Provlnes. — Pleasure of Meeting Long Absent Friends. 

Miss Susan Howard. — Wind. 

Miss Mary E. Barr. — Address to the Ocean. 

Miss Fannie Law. — The Schoolroom. 

Miss Susan Kuykendall. — Night. 

Miss Mary Prewitt. — Stability of Character. 

Miss Martha M. Goode. — Eloquence of Nature. 

Dialogue. —Ui^s D. E. Todd, World of Mind; Miss C. F. Todd, World of Matter; 
Miss A. J. Hardin, Laws which Govern Them. 

Dialogue. — Miss M. Harrison, Greece; Miss J. Price, Egypt; Miss M. Ewlng, 
Chinese Empire ; Miss A. Vanhorn, America. 

Dialogue. — Miss Fannie Law, Frost; Miss M. M. Goode, Fire; Miss S. Howard, 

The delivery of an appropriate and well-written address by Rev. J. L. Yantls, 
•closed the exercises of the evening. 

It is impossible to describe or estimate the beneficent and elevating 
influences of this early institution of learning on the women of Colum- 


biaand Boone County, and through them on the people at lar^e. It 
did much not only to educate in science and art and in the accom- 
plishments of cultivated society, the young ladies who attended it, 
but in elevating and strengthening the moral tone of the people, and 
in preparing them for the higher achievements in educational enter- 
prises which have since that period so distinguished our county. 

But for Bonne Femme and Columbia Colleges we probably never 
would have had the State University and Agricultural College, and 
but for Columbia Female Academy, Stephens and Christian Colleges 
would have been above the ambition and beyond the grasp of our 



¥rom 1818 to its Dedication, Jaly 4, 1843 — Acts of Congress of 1818, 1820 and 1827 in 
regard to the Seminary Lands — Provisions of the State Constitution — Donation 
of ten acres by the Commissioners to locate the town of Columbia in 1821 for a Uni- 
versity site — Beneficent Influence of Columbia CoUege and Columbia Female Acad- 
emy— Bev. E. P. Lovejoy*s observations on Columbia in 1884 — Legislation by the 
General Assembly from 1828 to 1843 — Austin A. King's resolutions in the Legisla- 
ture) November 21, 1836 — List of Seminary lands selected and where situated — The 
I<egi8latare of 1838-39 provides for the location of the University in Cole, Cooper, 
Saline, Howard, Boone, or Callaway counties — Commissioners Appointed — The 
contest in Boone and other counties to secure the location — Law of Congress of 
1831 aothorizing the sale of the Seminary lands — In 1838 the Auditor makes report 
of their sale — A Combination in Jackson County prevents their sale at their value — 
The first Board of Curators — Boone County subscription — Complete list of sub- 
scribers — Boone County secures the University, June 24, 1839 — The first meeting 
0' the first Board of Curators, October?, 1889— The site of the University edifice 
selected— Contracts made for its erection, and the corner-stone laid July, 4, 1840 -r 
The Ceremonies— Bev. John C. Young, D. D. elected president October 28, 1839— Dr. 
Young, declining, John H. Lathrop was elected October 29, 1840— His letter of ac- 
ceptance—He delivers a public address in the Union Church, and enters on the 
duties of his office March 1, 1841, In Columbia College Building. 


The following comprises a full and complete list of the names of all 
the curators from the first board in 1839, to the last in 1882, and the 
yw of their appointment. Some of them have been reappointed a 
number of times and have had loug years of service, but this list only 
•hows the year in which they were first appointed : — * 


1839. — Thomas M. Allen, Ell E. Bass, M. M. Marmaduke^ Gabriel 
Tutt, John T. A. Henderson, Wm. Scott, George C. Hart, John J. 
Lowry, Robert W. Wells, Rowland Hughes, Irvin O. Hockaday, 
Thomas West, Wm. Lieutz, Priestly H. McBride. 

1840. — Thomas D. Grant, William Shields, Dr. George Penn, 
Warren Woodson, Anthony W. Rollins, Dr. Wm. H. Duncan. 

1841. — R. S. Thomas, Dr. Gustavus M. Bower, James W. Mor- 
row, John Slack, George W. Huston, B. B. Brown, Caleb S. Stone, 

1842.— John Ellis. 

1843. — William A. Robards, Joseph Carpenter, Wm. G. Minor. 

1844. — Peter Wright. 

1845. — Alexander Persinger, Moss Prewitt, John H. Lathrop, ea 

1846. — Gov. John C. Edwards, F. K. Martin, Secretary of State; 
P. G. Glover, Treasurer; J. R. McDearman, Auditor, ex officio \ 
Alexander H. Robinson, Allen B. Orear. 

1847. — James L. Matthews, James S. Rollins. 

1849.— Addison M. Lewis, F. R. Palmer, Dr. T. R. H. Smith, H. 
C Dunn, Dr. W. J. McElhaney, J. A. Brown, Alton Long, Robert 
Brown, C. J. Hughes, John Corby, W. D. McCracken, James A. 
Clark, James Ellison, William Claude Jones. 

1850. — Lewis W. Robinson. 

1851. — Henry Fulbright, Daniel Patten, James L. Minor, Henrj 
F. Garey, Nelson C. Orear. 

1853. — George W. Hough, Dr. Joseph Chew, W. G. Eliot, John 
B. Clark, Sr., of Howard, R. G. Roberts, Henry Slack. 

1854. — C. A. Hayden. 

1856. — George L. Pollard, Dr. Henry W. Cross, Major Homer, 
Charles P. Bullock, Wm. C. Price, Charles L. Rogers, Calvin F, 
Burns, Wm. E. Brady. 

1857. —Peter S. Wilkes, George H. Hall, Wm. A. Seay. 

1858. — Michael Bright, Wm. B. Starke, Samuel A. Richardson. 
John A. Snell, John D. S. Dryden. 

1859. — John W. Harris, A. S. Walker, James T. Campbell, Hiram 

1860. — Ira DivoU, Wm. H. Allen, A. W. Flournoy, P. R. Smith, 
Robert A. Hatcher, I. W. Boulware, Willard P. Hall, F. M. Cockrell, 
J. D. Hill, Robert L. Todd, J. W. Tucker, J. H. Halley, A. W. 
Doniphan, Joseph J. Brady, David H. Hickman, Samuel Treat, who 
resigning, Hugh Campbell was appointed in his place, but declined to 


qualify, not having resided in the State two years as required by 

1862. — Dr. M. R. Arnold, James H. Birch, Odon Guitar, P. B. 
Locke, Mordecai Oliver, Sample Orr, Francis T. Russell, Thomas B. 
Bead, George O. Yeiser, John F, Philips, W. S. Mosely, 

1863. — W. A. Gibson, Ferd. Overstolz, Wm. Carter, James H. 
Moss, John B. Clark, Sr., of Dade county. 

1864. — S. M, Breckenridge, Rev. Henry A. Nelson, Elijah Perry, 
Bernard Poepping, A. A. Matthews, James McWilliams, John B, 
Weaver, Rev. George W. Longan, Thompson J. Kelly, Dr. Franklin 
Cooley, Lemuel Dunn, Leonidas M.' Lawson, Bennett Pike, Dr. 
George L. Hewitt, Alexander McMurtree, James H. Robinson, 
IGchael M. Robinson, Hiram Philips. 

1865. — Enos Clark, John W. Sutherland, Francis Kellerman, 
James Lindsay, E. F. Esteb, Gustave Bruiere, Charles E. Leonard, 
John P. Clark, Edward L. King, Rev. L. M. Vernon. T. A. Sher- 
wood, Rev. D. A. McReady, Alex. F. Denny. 

1866. — Joseph D. Keebeaugh, James Love. 

1867. — John W. Matthias, J. M. Woods, Andrew J. Shepard, 
James H. Baker, George R. Smith, Theo. S. Case, A. J. Barr, Phile- 
mon Bliss, Benjamin Northcott, Eugene Williams, Paul Hubbard, 
A.J. Conant, James M. Martine. 

1868. — Edward Wyman, W. C. Mattison, G. A. Moser, C. P. 

1869. — Orville S. Read, Wm. H. McLane, Wm. W. Orrick, James 
H. Kerr, James S. Rollins. 

1870. — Henry T. Mudd, George W. Kinney, James Moore, George 
Husmann, Barnabas Smith. 

1871. — J. W. Barrett, Norman J. Colraan, Dr. Wm. S. Dyer, 
Wm. T. Essex, Rev. John D. Vincil, J. F. Wielandy, Samuel G. 
Williams, John E. Worth, W. F. Switzler. 

1872. — Henfy Smith. 

1873. — Alex. M. Dockery, John F. Bush, Jerry C. Cravens, C. P. 
Jones, Joshua LaDue, Walter T. Lenoir, Wm. Starke, Edwin W. 

1874. — H. Clay Ewing, Squire Turner, Martin L. Clardy, George 
M. Jones. 

1875. — John S. Clarkson, John Hinton, Dr. William Glenn, Dr. 
Samuel H. Headlee, John E. Hutton, John A. Flood, Robert F. 
Lakenan, Luther T. Collier. 



1876 — John A. Hockaday, A. W. Lamb. 

1877 — Dr. H. H. Middelcamp, John D. Perry. 

1878 — Joseph K. Rogers, Wm. H. Lackland. 

1879 — Charles C. Bland, John Walker. 

1880 — A. M. Millard. 

1882 — John R. Estill, James E. Lincoln. 


Winiam Scott, deceased . 
Thomas M. AUen, deceased 
John Slack, deceased . . 
Warren Woodson, deceased 
Caleb S. Stone, deceased . 
F. R, Palmer, deceased . 
Caleb S. Stone, deceased . 
P. H. McBride, deceased . 

Wm. H. Allen 

Thomas M. Allen, deceased 

Moss Pre wit t, deceased 

James S. Rollins, LL. D., still in office. 


The University of the State of Missouri, called in the acts of Con- 
gi-ess of February 17, 1818, March 6, 1820, January 24, 1827, and 
March 2, 1827, a «' Seminary of Learning," possesses a legislative or 
legal history which is not only in itself very interesting, but quite 
essential to a proper understanding of its relations to the Federal and 
State governments, and of the obligations imposed upon the General 
Assembly of Missouri to foster and encourage it. It therefore has a 
history which antedates its location and establishment in the town of 

It is quite well known and generally understood that the University 
was founded by a grant of public land made by the United States, in 
the act of Congress of March 6, 1820, to authorize the people of Mis- 
souri Territory to form a Constitution and State Government. The 
sixth section of said act offered to the convention of the Territory of 
Missouri, for its free acceptance or rejection, five distinct propositions, 
which, if accepted by the convention, shall be obligatory upon the 
United States. Among these was the following : — 

Fifth, That thirty-six sections, or one entire township, which shaH be designated by 
the President of the United States, together with the other lands heretofore reserved 
for that purpose, shall be reserved for the use of a Seminary of learning, and vested in 
the Legislature of said State, to be appropriated solely to the use of such Seminary by 
the said Legislature. 



This enactment^ made by Congress before the admission of Missouri 
into the Union, was in accordance with the policy of the General Gov- 
ernment to aid the States in the work of education by liberal grants 
of the public domain. 

This policy was not only adopted in aid of the higher' education^ 
so-called, but also — and by the act of Congress providing for the ad- 
mission of Missouri into the Union —for the maintenance of township 
free public schools. . 

Id the private consideration as well as public discussions of this act, 
A complicatioD often presented itself, originating in the fact that the 
act of Congress of March 6, 1820, donated to Missoiiri only thirty-six 
sectioQs, or one entire township, whereas the State received, for the 
Iwc of a '* Seminary of Learning," seventy-two sections, or two entire 
townships. Whence originated this discrepancy, and by what act of 
Congress, if any, the problem was solved, is not generally known. 
Nor did our public men and legislators seem to understand, with any 
distinctness, the phrase, '< together with the other lands heretofore 
resenrcd for that purpose." What these lands were, what their 
amount in acres, where situated, and by what act of Congress reserved^ 
seems to have had no distinct or satisfactory solution in the public 

Believing it to be our duty thoroughly to explore the field of diffi- 
culty, and, if possible, clearly to trace the legislative history of 
the grant, we entered into correspondence, through the courtesy of 
Hon. F. M. Cockrell, U. S. Senator from Missouri, with the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office at Washington. This corre- 
spondence disclosed the fact, theretofore unknown to the writer, that 
our Seminary lands, although donated to the State for the purpose 
mentioned in the act of March 6, 1820, were not selected and con- 
firmed to the State by that act, but by an act of Congress approved 
January 24, 1827,. as follows (see Chap. V., Second Session Nineteenth 
Congress; see fourth vol. Stats. U. S. at Large, page 200) : 

ACT OF JANUARY 24, 1827. 

"An Act concerning the selection of certain lands, heretofore granted by compact, to the 

State of Missouri, for seminaries of learning. 
"^U enacted f etc.y 

"That it shall be the duty of the President of the United States, as soon as may be,. 
tocaoge to be selected, from any of the public lands of the United States in Missouri, 
^ sale of which is authorized by law, and in quantities not less than a section, accord- 
^ to the divisional lines of the public surveys, the several townships of land hereto- 
fore secured by compact to the State of Missouri, for the purposes of a seminary or 


seminaries of learning in that State, and to cause one descriptive list of such selec 
to be filed with the Governor of ^Missouri, in the office of the Secretary of that i 
•and another like list to be filed in the General Land Office of the United States 
iiie lands so selected shall, immediately thereupon, vest in the State of Missour 
cording to, and in satisfaction of, the above mentioned compact with the U 

"Approved January 24th, 1827." 

The terms of this act, to wit : " The several townships of land I 
tofore secured by compact to the State of Missouri, for the purpo 
a seminary or seminaries of learning in that State," seemed fai 
to complicate the difficulty, and therefore farther correspondence 
the General Land Office became necessary. / 

Availing ourself again of the courtesy of Senator Cockrell, we 
pounded, through him, to the Commissioner of the General I 
Office certain questions, the purpose of which was to elicit an ei 
nation of the difficulty we encountered in understanding not onlj 
act of March 6, 1820, but that of January 24, 1827. This cc 
spondence brought to view another new and important fact, nes 
least to us, and certainly one which has not attained any promine 
or even recognition in the public discussions of this subject in '. 
souri, namely, that three years anterior to the admission of Misfi 
into the Union, and by the third section of the act of Congres 
February 17, 1818, two townships were directed to be located 
reseiTed for the support of a seminary of learning in this State, 
that one of these townships was authorized to be located on the wf 
of the Missouri, and the other on the waters of the Arkansas Ri 
Also, that by an act passed March 2, 1827, a transfer of one town 
was made from the waters of the Arkansas to the I'erritorv of Ar 
sas, leaving one township reserved for the Missouri Territory, w 
added to the one township granted by the act of March 6, 1820, n 
the two townships donated to this State, which the President, bj; 
act of January 24, 1827, was directed to select for the use 
seminary of learning in the State of Missouri. For a clearer un 
standing of the subject, we append the letter of the Commissionc 
the General Land Office, dated July 15, 1882, as follows: — 


Department of the Interior, 

General Land Office, 

Washington, D. C, July 16, 1882, 
-ETon. F, M. Cockrell, U, 8. Senate : 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 13th inc 

transmitting a letter from Wm. F. Swltzler, dated at Columbia, Mo., July 10, ISI 



vkkh, ifter referring to the Act of Biarch 6, 1820, and January 24, 1827, granting lands 
littoSMt «f Missouri, he asks the following questions, viz. : 

lit. "Bowdlft^MB fpia two townships, and only two, when neither of the above cited 
act! provide for two In terms? ** 

Sd. " Wiiat are * the other lands heretofore received for that pvrpose T** 

Ii reply, I would state, that under the provision of the third section of the Act of 
CoDgriff, approved February 17, 1818, entitled, " An Act making provision for the 
eitibllshmentof additional land offices in the Territory of Missouri,** two townships were 
direeted tobe located and reserved for the support of a neminary of learning, provided 
thttooe of said townships shall be located on the waters of the Missouri and the other 
01 fbt waters of the Ariomsas. 

9y the fifth subdivision of the sixth section of the Act of March 6, 1820, one entire 
towukip, together with the other lands heretofore reserved for that purpose, was 
menred for the use of a seminary of learning. 

Bjthe Act of March 2, 1827, entitled "An act concerning a seminary of learning In 
tke Territory of Arkansas," authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to set apart two 
towmliips for the use and support of a seminary of learning, it Is provided tliat 
OM of said townships so set apart shall be <Mn lieu of an entire township of land 
dirwted to be located on the waters of the Arkansas River, in said Territory, for the 
Me of a seminary of learning therein, by an act of Congress entitled, < An act making 
IRortskHi for the establishment of additional land offices In the Territory of Missouri,' *' 
approred February the seventeenth, one thousand eight hundred and eighteen. 

It will be seen from the above cited act, that one of the townships reserved for 
makuxj purposes in the Territory of Missouri, and to be located on the waters of the 
Ail^iiias, was transferred to the Territory of Arkansas, leaving one township reserved 
for the former Territory, which, together with the additional township granted by the 
Act of Htrch 6, 1820, made two townships which the President of the United States 
wu directed to cause to be selected, under the Act of January 24, 1827, for the pur- 
poieof i seminary or seminaries of learning In the State of Missouri. 

The letter of Mr. Swltzler is herewith returned. 

Very respectfully, 



The policy of the General Government to aid the States in the 
work of education also found expression in the land grants made by 
the act of Congress of July 2, 1862, to the different States for the 
purpose of founding therein colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts. 

The liberal school policy of the General Government, by land 
gnioU, was established by the ordinance of 1787, in the following 
language, to wit : — 

^ for extending the fundamental principles of clvU and religious liberty, which 
form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions are erected, etc., 

^iit hereby enacted and declared, by the authority (foresaid, (1. e., of the United States 
in Congress assembled), that the following articles shall be considered as articles of 
^<^Pict between the original States and the people In the said Territory (northwest 
^ the river Ohio), and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit: 


Article 3. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good govenunent 
and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever b% 

Ill the act of Congress of 1812, organizing the Territory of Missouri, 
this article of the ordinance of 1787 was carried across the Mississippi,, 
and somewhat amplified, as the following extract from that act shows} 

Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be encouraged and 
provided for from the public lands of the United States In said Territory, In such man- 
ner as Congress may deem expedient. 

When the State of Missouri was organized out of this Territory^ 
Congress deemed it expedient, as above stated, to devote two town* 
ships of land to a << seminary of learning or university," and one 
thirty-sixth of the entire public domain, together with saline and 
swamp lands, to *< township (now district) schools." 

The higher education was thus identified with the lower, as coordi* 
nate and constituent parts of the public school work of Missouri, upon 
the original organization ot the State. 

It is the traditional and established policy of this State, however 
imperfectly realized hitherto, to support the University as the crowa 
and glory of the public school system. This is an indisputable fact; 
not by inference, but by the following explicit utterances, in the first 
and second sections of the sixth article of the first Constitution of the 
State, adopted in St. Louis, July 19, 1820, viz : 

Schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged In this State. * ^ 
One school or more shall be established In each township. The General Assembly 
shall take measures for the improvement of such lands, etc., to support ** a univer- 
sity for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences^ and It shall be the duty of 
the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means * * * for ik» 
improvement and permanent security of the funds and endowments of such Institutions. 

It is thus seen that the '* Seminary of Learning" of the acts of 
Congress of 1818, 1820 and 1827 is the «' University " of the first 
Constitution of the State, formed under the authoritv of the first act 

Substantially the same idea as presented in the Constitution of 
1820, is embodied in the State Constitution of 1865, as follows : — 

4. The General Assembly shall also establish and maintain a State university, with 
departments for Instructions In teaching In agriculture, and In natural science, as toon 
as the public school fund will permit. 

The eleventh article of the Constitution of 1875 is still more liberal 
in its terms, and in more than one section reco<rnizes the oblisration of 



the General Assembly to maintain the State University and to regard 

its endowment, and the proceeds of the sales of the seminary lands, 

legally inviolable. 
From the earliest history of Boone County and of its county seat, 

even while preliminary steps were taken in the spring of 1821 to 
establish the town of Columbia, the location of the State University 
in said town was entertained as a desimble consummation, and found 
expression in the report made to the Circuit Court by Lawrence Bass,' 
John Gray, David Jackson, Absalom Hicks and Jefferson Fulcher, 
commissioners appointed by an act of the Legislature to locate the 
permanent seat of justice in said county. (For this report in full see 
pp. 161-2.) Quick to comprehend intelligently the provisions made in 
the CDabling and other acts of Congress, as well as the provision 
in the Constitution adopted the year previous to the passage of the 
enabling act, the commissioners, among other donations of land for 
public purposes, made by the trustees of the Smithton Company, on 
the condition of the location of the county seat on the present site of 
Columbia was ** ten acres conditional if the State University be estab- 
lished therein,^' said ten acre lot being just across the road, and 
south of the present residence of Jefferson (Jarth — the same now 
occupied and owned by Mrs. Stephen Bedford, and embracing per- 
haps the northern portion of the new cemetery. 

From this period to the final accomplishment of the purpose in the 
location of the University at Columbia in 1839, the thoughtful and 
leading citizens of Boone County pursued their object with unfaltering 
steps. As we have already seen this is evidenced by the establish- 
ment of Columbia College, an enterprise which was largely inspired 
by the hope of making it the rallying point in the struggle and an in- 
ducement to locate the Uiyversity or " State College " in Columbia. 
That this was one of the ulterior purposes to be accomplished 
through this agency is plainly disclosed by the preliminary steps 
as well as the more advanced measures and counsels connected 
with the college. The sequel demonstrated the far-seeing wisdom 
of the prudent and self-sacrificing men who originated and accom- 
plished the establishment of this institution. Without Columbia 
College and the education which it afforded not only its pupils 
proper, but the public mind of the county, the State University 
would never have been located in Columbia. That college, and the 

Died In Boone County, April 27, 1856, aged seventy-six years. 


Columbia Female Academy, which was its handmaid in the cause o 
liberal education and liberal public thought, inspired the leading 
minds of the county with the darling purpose when the final struggle 
came, to outstrip all of her sister counties in the race of liberality anc 
thus secure the inestimable boon of the State University. WitI 
Columbia College and the lessons of culture and public spirit witl 
which it leavened the popular mind, the University was a possibli 
achievement. Without them it was impossible. 

What Columbia and the county of Boone were in 1834 may Iw 
plainly seen by the testimony of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy^ tb 
editor of the St. Louis Observer ^ a disinterested witness, who, durio] 
the summer of that year travelled through the central counties, anc 
for a short time stopped in Columbia. Mr. Lovejoy's sketch bears testi 
mony to the interest which was then felt in the question by our peo 
pie as well as to the feeling of general rivalry thus early existin, 
between Boone and Howard on the subject of the University. 

The following is his sketch : — 

Columbia is the coanty seat of Boone County, and is a pretty, thriving vUlage 
about 700 inhabitants. It has nine stores, two taverns, four grog-shops, and but oi 
meeting-house. Thus you see Bacchus has four temples — and I know not hpw ma 
domestic altars — and God but one, in Columbia. The meeting-house belongs to t 
Presbyterians, is of brick, but is not finished. The Baptists and Unitarians are abo 
to commence building another in union. An odd mixture this, and one which can pi 
duce no good. The Presbyterian Church consists of about eighty members. Tl 
church was principally gathered under the ministrations of brother Cochran, wh<o 
still affectionately remembered by them. Brother Gray succeeds him, both in lab< 
and In the confidence and esteem of the people. In Columbia they have erectec 
brick college, sixty feet by twenty-six, two stories high, and having six apartmen 
In this a male academy is taught — Mr. Uobert S. Thomas, Principal, and Mr. S. Ha 
Assistant. There is also a female academy taught In this place by Miss Lucy A 
Wales, assisted, at present, by a daughter of Gen. Gentry. This lady had acqulrei 
high reputation as a teacher In Callaway, and she fully maintains It here. 

In the two departments are 120 or 130 scholars. Besides these, there is anoti 
female school, taught by one of the ladles, who came on last fall as a missionary 
the Indians, but whose health failed her, and she was left at this place. I underato* 
also, that still another was expected to be opened In a week or two. 

On the subject of the State University, there Is much conversation and considera 
rivalry of feeling in the two counties of Boone and Howard. And In reference to t 
subject, they are bringing out some of their strongest men In the two counties for 
next Legislature, as It Is supposed that that body will act definitely on the stibjc 
Between the rival claims of the two counties I shall not undertake to decide ; bn 
can say what I most fully believe, that but little benefit will be derived to either, oi 
the State, from all the funds appropriated for a State University. And this opinio; 

1 Mr. Lovejoy was shot and killed by a mob at Alton, 111., on November 7, 1837. 


freeljeipreMed to some of the prominent men in both the counties. I have no idea 
that loj Legislature that we are lilcely soon to have will establish a University on any 
prfsdples that will insure, or even permit, its prosperity. They will yoke it to the 
eirof State, and then it will be pulled forward, or pushed- backward, according as 
this or that political party shall prevail. And in the turmoil and confusion attending 
lodi i state of things learning and science will be frightened from its halls. Be 
tnored that the muses will never endure the presence of a political stump-speech 
nker. Besides, our good legislators will be especially careful to exclude all secta- 
liiiism from the University; and I doubt not they will contrive to make tliatterm 
enbrtce every tenet of Cliristlauity. Such, at least, are my fears; and I shall be 
igreeibly disappointed, indeed, if they are not realized. The history of the Virginia. 
Unlfenity might, but will not, be read for instruction on this subject. 

It is worthy of Dote« in this connection, that the fears of Mr. Love* 
joy, that in the exclusion of sectarianism from the University Chris- 
tiaoity itself would be excluded, were groundless. 


On January 23, 1829, (see Session Acts 1828-9), an act was ap- 
pro?ed which provided for the prosecution, fine, and imprisonment of 
trespassers on the seminary lands. 

By an act approved December 31, 1830,^ provision was made for 
the sale of the seminary lands. It was made the duty of the Gov- 
enior of the State, or his successor in office for the time being, after 
gWiog six months previous notice thereof, in the several newspapers 
published in this State, to cause the lands granted to the State for 
seminaiy purposes, to be offered at public sale to the highest bidder ; 
upon this condition, however, that the same shall not be sold for a less 
price than two dollars per acre, and the^sales of the said lands shall be 
conducted in every other respect, under the same regulations as the 
public lands of the United States. 

Bjr the same act John B. Swearengen was made register and Sam- 
uel C. Owens receiver for the purpose of superintending the lands in 
the United States Western district ; James Jamison, register, and Henry 
L»ne, receiver , in the Salt river district, and William Garner, register, 
and Robert F. Brown, receiver, in the Cape Girardeau district, each 
of whom was required to give bond . 

The sales of land in the Western district, were held in Indepen- 
dence, commencing on the first Monday in December, 1831 ;. in the 
Salt river district in Palmyra on the second Monday in November, 

See Session Acts 1S30-1, p. 86. 


1831 ; and in the Cape Girardean district in Benton, Scott county, o 
the first Monday in November of the same year. 

On Januaiy 17, 1831,^ an act was approved which provided fc 
annexing to the town of Independence, laying off into lots, and mak 
ing sale of eighty acres of seminary lands adjoining said towE 
Said sale commencing on the first Monday in December, 1832, open! 
to the highest bidder, under the superintendence of a commissionc 
appointed by the Governor, said act providing that no lot of one acr 
or less should be sold for less than $10, nor any lot of more than on 
acre for less than $5 per acre. 


January 29, 1833,^ an act was approved reviving the act to pre 
vide for the sale of the seminary lands, approved December 3* 
1830, and it authorized public sales of the lands at Independeno 
Palmyra, and Benton in the months October, November and Decembe 
1833. Abraham McClellan was appointed commissioner of the sal 
at Independence, Henry Wilcox at Palmyra, and John Moore at Be 
ton. All lands not thus sold at public sale were thereafter subject 
private entry or purchase. 

The commissioner of the Western district was directed at the ck 
of the public sales to offer to the highest bidder the town lots remai 
ing unsold in the annexed portion of the town of Independent 
pursuant to the act approved January 17, 1831. 

On the 17th March, 1835,* an act of the Legislature was approv 
to take effect the first day of May thereafter, providing for the sa 
at private entry, of the seminary lands, in the same manner, at t 
same price, and under the same regulations as the United Sta' 
lands were then disposed of, at private sales. 

By the terms of the act, John Moore, of Scott county, for the Ca 
•Girardeau land district; Henry Wilcox of the Salt River district a 
Smallwood Nolan of Jackson county for the Western district w( 
made commissioners to superintend the sale of these lauds, each gi 
ing bonds of not less than $5,000. Moneys received by them fr( 
said sales to be paid into the State treasury every twelve months, t 

1 See Session Acts 1830-1, p. 91. 
» See Session Acts 1832-3, p. 116. 
3 See Revised Statutes 1835, p. 57(>. 


treasurer to keep the same << as a distinct fund for the purposes for 
which said lands were accepted " by the State. 

During the session of the eighth Legislature, which convened in Jef- 
ferson City November 17, 1834 — John Jamison, of Callaway, Speaker 
of the House ; James B. Bowlin, of St. Louis, Chief Clerk, and Joseph 
W.Hickam, of Boone (who is still alive and a citizen of Boone), En 
grossing Clerk — the question of the location of the University received 
much attention. The Intelligencer y of December 6, 1834, says : ** We 
tfe much gratified to learn from Jefferson that Columbia stands high 
mih the Legislature as the most suitable location for the State Col- 
lege/' Nevertheless, owing to the rivalries which existed between 
Yarious counties, a majority in neither house was able to agree upon 
a location, and the Legislature adjourned without making one. 


/ The first session of the ninth General Assembly met November 21, 
1836 — John Jamison again Speaker of the House ; Thomas C. Burch, 
Chief Clerk ; Richard B. Jackson, Doorkeeper, and Joseph W . Hick- 
am, of Boone, Engrossing Clerk, without opposition. Again the 
Uoiversity was one of the topics for discussion, and with increased 

On November 25th, Austin A. King, one of the members from 
Boone, introduced the following resolutions in regard to the semin- 
Wy fund : — 

[From the House Journal, November 25, 1886, page 59.] 

1. Besolved, That the proceeds of the seminary fund ought to be appropriated to 
''eartngap a>semiDary of learning in this State, in conformity with the compact with 
tht United States and the Constitution of this State. 

2. Besolvedf That such an institution as is contemplated by the compact and by the 
State Constitution, where the young men of the State could receive a competent 
Vacation to qualify them for teachers of common schools, would aid and promote a 
iOQDd system of common school education. 

3. R^^olvedf Under the compact and Constitution of the State, the present youth 
of the country are justly entitled to participate in the benefits of the seminary fund, 
ttd that the proceeds thereof ought to be vested in some productive stock yielding an 
interest for the building up and endowing said institution at as early a day as practi- 

4. Retolved, therefore^ That the foregoing proposition be referred to the Committee 
ofiEdncation, and that said committee be authorized to report by bill or otherwise. 

Adam B. Chambers, of Pike, afterwards well known in Missouri 


as one of the proprietors and chief editors of the St. Louis Repulh- 
licauj moved to lay the resolutions on. the table, which motion was 
rejected, and the resolutions were passed. 

During the same session of the Legislature, and on January 5, 1837, 
Mr. Abraiiam Hunter, of Scott (page 249) introduced a resolution, 
which passed, requesting the Governor to inform the House ** if any, 
and what number of acres of seminary land is due this State from 
the United States, showing the quantity of acres selected and re- 
served for seminary purposes, and the quantity yet to be selected." 
On January 16, 1837, the Governor (Lilburn W. Boggs) responded 
(page 302) that there had been selected and reserved 45,411^ 
acres, and that there remained to be selected 618^^1^ acres to com- 
plete the quantity of 72 sections of land acquired by this State from 
the United States for a seminary of learning. 


On January 24, 1837 (page 343), Mr. Chambers, from the Commit- 
tee on Education, reported a bill to incorporate the University, which 
was read and ordered to a second reading. Mr. Chambers, from the 
same committee, also reported that they had considered the petitions 
of the President and Directors of *' Howard College," Fayette, and 
that from the provisions of the above bill, providing for the erection 
of a State University, it would be inexpedient to act on said petition. 
Report concurred in and committee discharged from further consid- 
eration of the subject. 

Three days afterward (page 375), on motion of Mr. Redman, of 
Howard, the bill to incorporate the State University was recommitted 
to the Committee on Education, without instructions. This is the 
last that was heard of it during the session, which closed Feb- 
ruary 6th. 

The last session of the General Assembly having failed'to locate the 
State University, the subject again came up during the Tenth Session^ 
which met in Jefferson City on November 19th, 1838 : Lilburn W. 
Boggs, Governor; Franklin Cannon, Lieutenant-Governor and Presi* 
dent of the Senate ; James L. Minor, Secretary ; William Woods^ 
doorkeeper ; Thomas H. Harvey, Speaker of the House ; Micajah V. 
Harrison, Clerk; Joseph W. Hickam, of Boone, Engrossing Clerk, 
Senators from Boone — Thomas C. Maupin and A. W. Turner. Rep- 



reseotatires — David M. Hickman, James S. KoUins, Alexander 
Persinger, Tyre Harris and John B. Gordon. 

The subject of the Stiito University occupied a prominent place in 
the deliberations of this session. Among the proceedings of interest 
itmsT be mentioned that on December 7th, 1838, David R. Atchison^ 
of Clay county (afterwards United States Senator), offered a resolu* 
tiooin the House that '^it is expedient to locate a State Seminary 
ttthis session." John Miller, of Cooper, moved to amend by placing 
the prefix *« in " before the word ** expedient," whereupon a debate 
ensued, which was not concluded till the next day. Benjamin Youn^^ 
of Callaway, offered the following amendment : << That such Seminary 
be located at such place, and under such circumstances, as will admit 
of tlie introduction of the manual labor system," which was rejected. 
What became of Mr. Miller's amendment the journal does not show^ 
The original resolution passed — ayes, 62; nays, 29, the members 
from Boone voting aye. (See pages 90 and 91.) On motion of Mr* 
AtchisoD, the bill to establish a State University, introduced by John 
P. Morris, of Howard, together with the resolutions on the same sub- 
ject, be referred to the Committee on Education (Benjamin Emmons« 
of St. Charles, chairman), with instructions to report a bill organizing- 
and endowing a State University. (Page 93.) 

On January 10th, 1839, Mr. Emmons reported from the committee 
a bill entitled ** An act to Select a site for the State University,"* 
which, on his motion, was referred to the Committee of the Whole 
House. (Page 201.) After several sittings of the committee, on 
February 2, 1839, Jesse B. Thompson, of Clinton, chairman, reported 
the bill back to the House, with sundry amendments. On Monday, 
February 4, 1839, on motion of James Jackson, of Audrain, the 
House took up the report of the committee of the whole, where- 
upon, among other proceedings, A. M. Elston, of Cole, moved to 
strike out Section 5, and insert in lieu thereof the following (page 

Sic. 5. The Commissioners, in selecting a site on which to locate the State Unil- 
Tcnltj, shall examine the public grounds in the neighborhood of Jefferson City and 

' This bin was drafted and introduced by J. S. Rollins, of Boone, and Col. Wm. F. 
Switxler has in his possession the original bill in Mr. Rollins' handwriting, and 
slso i copy in his handwriting of that admirable and eloquent speech made by him In 
Itrorof the passage of the biU, the first set speech ever made by him in a legislative 
body. There being no reporters at that early day of the legislative proceedings, this 
ipeech was never printed. 


estimate the ralae of the most saltable site thereon, containing fortgr acres, whidi, 
gether with such sum as may be subscribed by the people of Cole coonty, shall be 
considered in connection with the interest of the State generally in snch location. 

Which was decided in the Degative, after which Henry S. Greyer, of 
St. Louis, moved to amend by inserting after section 15, four addi- 
tional sections, 16, 17, 18 and 19, which was agreed to; and these 
sections appear in the bill as finally passed. 

Among the commissioners named in the first section of the bill was 
the name of John Thornton, a citizen of Clay, which Mr. Morris, of 
Howard, moved to strike out. Agreed to. Jesse Morin, of Clay, 
moved to fill the blank thus created with the name of Peter H. 
Burnett, of Clay ; Mr. Young, of Callaway, with the name of Andrew 
Kobinson, and Mr. Chiles, of Jackson, with the name of Samuel 
White, of Jackson. Burnett's name was adopted. Joshua W. 
Bedman, of Howard, moved as an amendment that which appears as 
the twenty-second section of the law, and it was agreed to; after 
which the bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time the 
next day. The first item of business noted in the journal of the next 
morning (Tuesday, February 5, 1839), is that James S.. Bollins, <rf 
Boone, from the Committee on Engrossed Bills, reported the bill truly 

On the following day the bill was taken up in the House and read a 
third time, when Mr. Rollins moved to amend, by way of a rider, an 
additional section, section 24 of the law, which was adopted. The 
question then recurring on the passage of the bill, Mr. Morin called 
for the ayes and nays, which were ordered, and the bill passed as 
follows (page 385) : — 

Aye8 — Messrs. R. £. Acock, of Polk; Charles H. Ashby, of Livingston, David B. 
Atchison, of Clay ; William Biggs, of Pike ; Joseph Bogy, of St. Francois ; George F. 
Bollinger, of Cape Girardeau; James W. Booth, of Pike; F. Bradshaw, of Stoddard; 
William Brown, of Franklin; Wilson Brown, of Scott; John A. Bart, of CaUawaj; 
George Barckhardt, of Randolph ; J. D. Caldwell, of Ralls; William Carson, of Marion; 
Charles Carstarphen, of Ralls; Thomas Caulk, of St. Louis; F. R. Chiles, of Franklin; 
Merriwefher Lewis Clark, of St. Louis; John D. Coalter, of St. Charles; John CorrUl, 
of Caldwell; Richard D. Cowan, of Wayne; Isaac Curd, of Callaway; John H. Cord, 

of Marion; Emerson, of ; Benjamin Emmons, of St. Charles; John B. 

Fisher, of Morgan; Simeon Frost, of Crawford; James W. Fulkerson, of Johnaan; 
Rufus FuUerton, of Warren; Henry S. Geyer, of St. Louis; Jonathan Gore, of Monroe; 

S. Hall, of Cooper; John W. Hancock, of ; Tyre Harris, of Boone; David M. 

Hickman, of Boone ; B. F. Hickox, of Cooper; Holliman, of ; George W. 

Huston, of Lincoln; James Jackson, of Audrain; Thomas JarreU, of St. Louis; Myres 
F. Jones, of Washington ; M. Kelley, of Pike ; Ellas Kincheloe, of Shelby; F. Manning, 
of Washington; Llttlebury Mason, of Barry; Charles McLean, of Randolph; John 


MDler, of Cooper; Thomas Hinnts, of Carroll; Joseph Montgomery, of Bollinger; 
Bobeit Montgomeiyy of Palaski; C. R. Morehead, of Ray; George R. Netherton, of 
HewMidrld; William N. Penn, of Monroe; Alexander Persinger, of Boone; John 
Fblk, of Madison ; Wilson Primm, of St. Louis ; William Richie, of Marlon ; J. Russell, 
of Oipe Glrardean; John Sapplngton, of St. Louis; Jonathan Smith, of Jefferson; 
Tbooas Watson, of Charlton ; Isaac Williams, of Cape Glrardean ; James Williams, o£ 
YanBoren, (now Henry) ; Benjamin Young, of Callaway; James Young, of Lafayette, 
aid Mr. Speaker (Harvey, of Saline) — 67. 

Nats — Messrs. Charles Canole, of Howard; Chesley Cannefax, of Greene; J. A. 
OirkiOf Llnn^ A. M. Elston, of Cole; James Enloe, of Cole; John D. Harrison, of 
QiMoude; Thos. Jackson, of Howard; Wm. R. Kemp, of Pettis; Jesse Morln, of 
Otj; J. B. Morris, of Howard; J. W. Redman, of Howard; Jesse B. Thompson, of 
CDntoD, and Edward WUks, of Miller — 11. 

Absent, Sick — Messrs Hudspeth, of Washington ; Samuel D. South, of Clark, and 
JoiuMOD Bright, of Macon — 8. 

Absent— William M. Bowerlng, of Lafayette; J. A. Chiles, of Jackson; John B. 

Gordon, of Boone; Holman, of ; Bernard Pratt, of St. Louis; AJddlson 

Bme, of Clark, and George B. Woodson, of Rives (now Cass) — 7. 


Owing to. some singular mistake or omission by the Chief Clerk or 
other person, the following members are not reported as voting either 
aye or nay, or as being either sick or absent: James S. Rollins, of 
Booue ; James M. Hughes, of Clay ; Thomas Jeffries, of Jackson ; 
BeDJ. Hunt, of Jefferson ; M. M. Maugbs, of Montgomery ; Joab W. 
Borgee, of Perry, and Alfred Deatherage, of Ripley — 7, The Clerk 
of the House unquestionably committed an error in omitting to record 
in the Journal the votes of the last named members. 

The bill, having thus passed the, House (February 6), was on the 
next day reported to the Senate, where Abraham Hunter, of Scott^ 
mo?ed to strike out the words ** Cooper, Howard and Callaway,** 
.which was rejected. (See page 306.) J. T. V. Thompson, of Clay, 
moved to strike out ** Callaway," which was also rejected. Mr. Thomp- 
son thea moved to amend the bill as follows : 

Iicfa and trerj coanty named in this act shaU pay, or bind themselves to pay, said 
Mtation, before they are allowed to bid, the sum of $1,000, for the privilege granted 

John Miller, of Cooper, offered to amend as follows : 

The commissioners appointed by this act shall when considering the location of the 
Atte University, take Into consideration the probable increased value of the public 
P'oper^ at the seat of Government, and also how far they consider the faith of the 
B^f hj impUcation or otherwise, is pledged for its location at the seat of Govem- 

Which was rejected on the first reading. 


Wm. Monroe, of Morgan, offered to amend the bill by way of rider 

The said commissioners shall not locate said institution at any point, but shall mak 
a report to the next General Assembly setting forth the different proposals, wit 
their opinion of the advantages and disadvantages likely to redound to the interest c 
the State in acceptance of the different propositions. 

Which was rejected as follows : — 

Ayes. — Messrs. Daniel Ashby, of Chariton; Wm. M. Campbell, of St. Charles 

John Conger, of ; J. F. Danforth, of ; John F. Darby, of St. LoqIb 

Francis Deguire, of ; Joshua Gentry, of ; Cornelius Gilliam, of Platte 

Thomas J. Gorham, of Randolph; Glasscock, of ; Thornton Grimsle7,c 

St. Louis; Frederick Hyatt, of St. Louis; David Jones, of Cooper; James Jones, c 
Pike; Thomas C. Maupin, of Boone; Wm. McDaniel, of Marion; Jessie H. McDvali 

of Washington ; Josiah Morin, of ; Smallwood V. Nolan, of Jackson ; Georg 

Penn, of Saline ; Peter R. Pratt, of Ste. Genevieve ; Charles R. Scott, of Howard 

David Sterlgere, of ; A. W. Turner, of Boone ; J. T^ V. Thompson, of Claj 

Henry Watts, of ; — 26. 

Nays. — Messrs. Johnson H. Alford, of ; Abraham Bird,* of 

Abraham Hunter, of Scott; George W. Miller, of Cole; William Monro, of Morgu 
Joseph Montgomery, of , and Owen Rawlins, of Howard —7. 

Mr. Penn offered to amend, by way of rider, add Saline after Ca 
lawav in second section, which was read three several times. Tl 
question. Shall the bill, together with the rider, pass? was decide 
affirmatively, as follows : — 

Ayes — Messrs. .Wm. M. Campbell, of St. Charles; John F. Darby, of St. Loni 

J. F. Danforth, of ; Francis Deguire, of ; Joshua Gentry, of Marion; C( 

nelius Gilliam, of Platte; Glasscock, of ; Thomas J. Gorham, of Randolp 

Thornton Grimsley, of St. Louis; Frederick Hyatt, of St. Louis; David Jones, 
Cooper; James Jones, of Pike; Thomas C. Maupin, of Boone; Wm. McDaniel, 

Marion; Jesse H. Mcllvain, of Washington; Josiah Morin, of ; Smallwood 

Nolan, of Jackson; George Penn, of Saline; Peter R. Pratt, of ; A. W. Tumi 

of Boone; J. T. V. Thompson, of Clay, and Henry Watts, of . Total— 22. 

Nays — Messrs. Johnson H. Alford, of ; Abraham Byrd, of ; John Congi 

of ; Abraham Hunter, of Scott; G. W. Miller, of Cole; Wm. Monroe, of Morga 

Joseph Montgomery, of ; Owens Rawlins, of Howard; Charles P. Scott, 

Howard, and David Sterlgere, of . Total — 11. 

So the bill from the House passed the Senate with a single amen< 
ment, namely, adding Saline after Callaway, and went to the Hou! 
for its concurrence, where it was taken up immediately and concurn 
in. (See page 396.) 


(See session acts 1838, pp. 184, 185, 186, 187.) 


On January 11, 1839, Mr. Geyer, of 8t. Louis, from the House 

Committee on Eklucation, to whom was referred the subject of a State 

Uoivenity and for the government of colleges and academies, reported 

a bill to provide for the care and management of the seminary fund, 

and for the organization of the State University, definition of its 

potrers, etc. (see page 210), which was referred to the Committee of 

the Whole, and which, after due consideration and debate, was passed — 

ajes, 44; nays, 31. (See page 397.) This bill was taken up in the 

Senate on February 9, and passed without calling the ayes and nays 

(seepage 327), and can be found in the session acts of 1838, page 174. 

This act, drafted by Henry S. Geyer, of St. Louis, a distinguished 

lawyer and afterwards United States Senator, was very elaborate, 

oonsiatiug of five articles, and provided for colleges and academies in 

different parts of the State, to be connected with the State University, 

aodto be under the visitorial power of its curators. 

This idea of a State University, with branches and subordinate in- 
stitutions scattered over the State, was a favorite one with many 
distinguished men in the earlier history of the country, and was placed 
upon the statute book of several of the States ; but the plan was found 
oimbrons, and too unwieldy to be carried into practice, and was aban- 
doned wherever projected. 


The eighth section of '* an act to create the office of surveyor of 
public lands for the State of Louisiana," passed by Congress and ap- 
proYed March 3, 1831, authorizes the Legislature of Missouri to sell 
the seminary lands ** and to invest the money arising from the sale 
thereof in some productive fund, the proceeds of which shall be for- 
ever applied by the Legislature of said State, solely to the use of 
such seminary, and for no other use or purpose whatsoever," as 
follows : — 

Sic. 6. And be U further enacted^ That the Legislature of the State of Missouri be, 
SBd is hereby authorized to sell and convey in fee simple all or any part of the lands 
^tofore reserved and appropriated by Congress for the use of the Seminary of learning 
b Hid State, and to invest the money arising from the sale thereof in some produc- 
ttre fuDd, the proceeds of which shall be forever applied by the Legislature of said 
State, solely to the use of such Seminary, and for no other use or purpose whatso- 




During the session of the Legislature of 1838-39, the Senate passed 
a resolution calling on Hiram H. Baber, Auditor, for a tabular 
statement showing the number of acres of seminary lands sold at 
the several land districts in each year, since the commencement of 
the sales of said lands, and also the number of acres remaining 
unsold in each district, to which on December 20, 1838, he replied 
as follows : — 

(See Senate Journal, page 135.) 


Namber of acres selected for the Western District, 84,252.14. Amount sold in 
Western District : — 













Total number of acres sold..... 

** unsold 




Number of acres selected for the Salt River District, 2,922.78. Amount sold in Salt 
River District : — 





From December, 1888, to Jan- 
uarv. 1887 



Total number acres sold ^ 


" " " unsold 


Number of acres selected for the Cape Girardeau District, 8,876.80. Amount sold in 
Cape Girardeau District : — 













Total number acres sold..., 
" " unsold. 




Thus making the whole number of acres selected in the three dis- 
tricts 45,421.67, of which 39»484.51 had been sold, leaving unsold 

About 25,000 acres of these lands, more than half of the whole 

number, were located in Jackson County, and were among the most 

fertile and valuable lands in the State. Previous to the land sales at 

which they were offered combinations among the settlers were made, 

Dotonly to prevent non-residents or speculators from purchasing them,. 

but to prevent them from bringing anything above the Government 

price; and these combinations, by threats and by force, effected their 

object, and in doing so deprived the seminary fund of at least $50,000* 

The lands were, at the time of the sales, worth, and would have brought, 

$5, $8 and $10 per acre, and are now worth at least $20, but the com» 

binatioDS threatened with violence any man who would bid more than 

the Government price for them. A gentleman from Virginia by the 

name of West attended the sales with a large sum of money to invest 

mthe lands, learning which, the home land ring forcibly put him in 

jail or other place of confinement, threatening his life if he bid at the 

Biles, but informing him that if he desired a few pieces of land and 

would give them their numbers, and none of the settlers wanted thero^ 

they would bid them in for him. Mr. West sought redress of John 

F. Byland, Judge of the Circuit Court, and he was disposed to grant 

it to the extent of his authority, but the land mob threatened to 

confine him with West if he attempted to do anything in the 

premises. The combination thus overawed all outside bidders 

and the civil authorities, and procured titles to the richest land 

in the State at thousands and tens of thousands of dollars less 
than their value. 


We are indebted to the courtesy of Hon. N. C. McFarlaud, Com* 
nissioner of the General Land Office, June 15, 1882, and the kind 
offices of Hon. F, M. Cockerell, United States Senator from Mis- 
souri, for the following list of lands selected by the commissioners 
appointed by the Governor of the State of Missouri for the purpose 
of selecting seventy-two sections, under the act of Congress of the 
Mth of January, 1827, entitled ** An Act concerning the selection of 
^rtain lands heretofore granted by compact to the State of Missouri 


for seminaries of learning," which eaid selection is made a 
quest of the Honorable the Secretary of the Treasury of tb 
States : — 

Duariptionot Tncta. 








~ 4 



■ 32 





























































Mi ol. 

All of. 



All of 

All of. 



Eut half and n. w. quulei 
All of. 






All of. 




All of. 

All of. 

All of. 

All of. 

All ot 

All ot , 

All of , 

Allot , 

All of. , 

AU of. , 

AH ot : , 


All of 

Allot , 

All ot , 



K.W. fractional quarter^ 


8. B. fractiona] quarter... 

8. W. quarter of:. 

N. W. quarter of. 

All ot...... 












































6 W. 








•• .' 


14 E. 1 












New Madrid. 

New Madrid. 

New Madrid. 











Total number of acres 45,299.15 

NoTB.— By reference to the above it will bc^^een that by selecting ft*actional sections 
(iQoiiung other lands selected, however), the quantity selected exceeds the aggregate of 
NT«Dtf-two fiill sections by about seventy-five acres. If this excess shall be deemed mate- 
rial, it ii wished that it may be taken off the west half of the northwest quarter of section 
16^ township 61, range 6 (Lewis county). 



CiTT or JxfTXRSON, March 25, 1828. / 

I, John Miller, Gk>vemor of the State of Missouri, do hereby certify that the above list 
ii comet, representing the several tracts of land selected under the above recited act of 
^Vmgrw and according to the request of the honorable the Secretary of the Treasury of 
tlM United States of the 21st August 1827. This is a full report of the lands selected, in- 
cluding those comprehendecT in the report of the 28th January, 1828, then made to the 
bononble the Secretary of the Treasury. JOHN MILLER. 

To the Hon. Richard Rush, Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. 

The selections above reported are approved, with the exception of section 1, township 


Approved, with the excepUon of section 1, township 29, range 14. 

TuAsuar Dspabtmbbtt, June 6, 1828. 


Among other things, the bill provided that the number of cura- 
^fs should be fifteen, who should be chosen by joint vote of 
^e Senate and House of Representatives, and should hold their 


offices for two years, and until their successors were duly electa 
and qualified. 

On Saturday, February 9, 1839, Mr. Coalter, of St. Charles, inti: 
duced a concurrent resolution in the House, providing that the tii 
Houses will meet in the hall of the House on Monday next ensuia 
at 2 o'clock p. M., for the purpose of electing a superintendent 
public schools and fifteen curators of the University, which passe 
(See page 430.) The Senate concurring, the two Houses met pu 
suant to the resolution, and after the election of Peter G. Glover, 
Cole County, superintendent of common schools, proceeded to tl 
election of curators. 

Mr. Young, of Lafayette, (page 443) nominated Messrs. T. M. Alh 
and EliE. Bass, of Boone County, I. O. Hockaday and John A. He 
derson, of Callaway, John J. Lowry and Roland Hughes, of Howai 
County ; Thomas A. Smith and M. M. Marmaduke, of Saline ; Georj 
C. Hart and Gabriel Tutt, of Cooper ; Wm. Scott and R. W. Well 
of Cole County ; Josiah Spaulding, of St. Louis ; Thomas Allen, 
Ray ; David Weir, of St. Clair County, for the office of curators of tl 
State University. 

Mr. Penn, of the Senate, moved to strike out the name of Rolai 
Hughes and insert in lieu thereof that of Abiel Leonard, which w: 
rejected, and there being no other nominees, they were selected \ 
yeas and nays — yeas 91, nays 1 — Mr. Redman of Howard. 


The question of the location of the University being remitted 1 
the act of the General Assembly, heretofore quoted, to the people 
the several counties named in said act, the subject at once awakenc 
the liveliest interest in several of them — notably in Boone, Callawi 
and Howard. A most remarkable contest ensued to secure the pro 
fered boon by newspaper articles, public meetings and public speeche 
and the importunities and personal solicitations of numerous canvassii 
committees, the liberality and county pride of the people were stirri 
to their profoundest depths. 

The history of no new or sparsely settled State in the Union affbn 
a parallel to the general enthusiasm and public spirit which we; 
awakened on the subject of education during this contest. 

In Boone County, which then had a population of less than 14,0(X 
and doubtless the same remark is true of the other counties where s 
earnest effort was made to secure the location, all business for tl 


time was measurably suspended. Canvassing committees made per- 
sonal visits, in many instances oft-repeated, to every citizen, taking 
sabscriptibns of money ranging in amounts from one dollar to three 
thousand dollars. 

And it is also worthy of special mention, as a remarkable instance 
of liberality in a new State, that one of the two three thousand 
dollar subscriptions, which were the largest given, was made by 
£dward Camplin, a man who could neither read nor write. The 
Goonty of Boone, in addition to the action of individual citizens above 
referred to, was thoroughly canvassed by a number of the best speakers 
and most ardent friends of education residing in the county. The 
Hon. Jas. S. Rollins, being the author of the bill providing for the 
location of the institution, and the most eloquent and earnest cham- 
pion for its passage by the General Assembly, led the way, and with 
the powerful aid of the Hon. John B. Gordon, one of the strongest 
speakers in the State ; Sinclair Kirtley, Esq., a prominent member of 
the bar of Columbia ; Warren Woodson, Clerk of the County Court ; 
James M. Gordon, a young attorney of the Columbia bar ; William 
CorDeiius,^a good speaker and prominent merchant of Columbia, and 
others equally zealous, attended and addressed a great number of 
meeting held in every part of the county, from the Gmnd Prairie on 
the north (then almost wholly unsettled), to the Missouri River and 
to the mouth of Cedar Creek on the south and east, appealing to the 
people by every possible argument that could influence them to do all 
in their power, and not permit the opportunity to escape of securing, 
the great prize of the location of a university in their midst. No 
such important question was ever before or has since been presented 
to the voters of the county. Here was an institution intended to last 
forever, and if properly maintained, as provided for in the Constitution 
bj the General Assembly of the State, its influence and teachings 
upon the social, mofal and intellectual culture and elevation of the 
people and their posterity, not only of the county, but of the entire 
State, will last as long as the Government itself. With an apprecia- 
tive people this was a prize worth contending for. Under the bill 
above referred to the contest was to be short, sharp and decisive. It 
vas most ably conducted, and the inhabitants of the county, although 
then sparse and generally in moderate circumstances, responded to 
the appeals made to them in the most liberal and enlightened manner. 
■ftey set an example for their posterity worthy of imitation through- 
out all the ages that are to follow. 





In this contest there were a number of noted instances of effort and 
liberality worthy of mention. Dr. Anthony Wayne Rollins, having- 
no property interest at the county seat, residing on his farm in 
the extreme western part of the county, midway between Columbia 
and Ffiyette, on the Howard County line, took charge of the entire 
cooQtywest of the Perche Creek, to the mouth of the Moniteau, em- 
bracing Missouri and Perche Townships. He was the largest sub- 
scriber in that district for the location of the university in Boone 
County, and by his assiduity, energy and vigilance, he obtained, with 
the aid of others, a large subscription from that part of the county, and 
lon^ afterwards evinced great interest in the cause of popular and 
higher education, by making liberal provision out of his not large 
estate, for the benefit of meritorious and indigent youths, male and 
female, who might have the desire as well as the talent, energy and 
ambition to obtain a college education. 

The contest closed by the people of Boone County voluntarily sub- 
scribing in money and in lands the large sum of* $117,900, for the 
location of the institution, which was a gift to the people of the State» 
and to their honor let it be said and forever remembered, that not one 
doUar of this sum was ever repudiated, but the whole collected and 
appropriated for the benefit of the Public School Fund of the State as 
provided in the Constitution of the State. 


The following is a copy, alphabetically arranged, of all subscriptions 
made in Boone County above $100 to secure the location of the Uni- 
versity, the publishers being compelled, for lack of space, to omit the 
complete list : — 

We, the ondersigned, whose names are hereto subscrlbedi agree and bind ourselves 
topajto the State of Missouri the sum opposite our names; one-half In one and the 
^>>laDce lo two years from the first day of June, 1839, for the use and benefit of the State 
UnirereUy, provided that It is located In Boone County. 


Anderson, H. A $100 00 

Allen, Thomas M ^ 600 00 

Arnold, T. T 200 00 

Arnold James 100 00 

Armstrong, Abner £ 100 00 

Arnold, M. R. 260 00 




Bass, Eli E $8,000 00 

Bonnett, J. H 1,500 00 

Bradford, Austin 400 00 

Berry, Benjamin 100 00 

Beasly, James 100 00 

Branham, B. 600 OO 



•BrjKn, Littleton $860 00 

BraTiham, C.C - - 100 00 

Beuttie.Mary. ~ 100 00 

BonduTBnl, C«leb 100 00 

B«ttertoD. John 100 00 

BuclilBj, ThoTOM ~ 20000 

BMnw. JftHies. 100 00 

Biker, John H 100 00 

B&mei, Benjamin. 10000 

B»rr, Robert S. ..- 1,07700 

Bui. Liiivrence,.. ■■— 800 00 

B«ker. UoMa.... 10000 

Banu, Philip.... 100 00 

Brown, JoBoph 160 00 

Brown, James R. '-iOOOO 

BUck. Reuben D 200 00 

Bry«n,J.H.4Co 1,000 00 


CuTti*. Fielding. - 100 00 

Carnplin, Edward — 3.000 00 

Conwnj Francis P 100 00 

Crumbsugh, Henrj 200 00 

Curtis. NeUoti. 800 00 

Cromwell, RithBrd 200 00 

€otton,JohnJ 20000 

ChHudler, Jaraea 100 00 

■Cowan, Andrew - 1» M 

■Crockett, Samuel 100 00 

ClMk, Bichard.. 100 00 

Cunningham, Jflinea L 100 00 

Cave, WilliBm S. 150 00 

Cunningham, John 200 00 

Cochran, Robert. 100 00 

Cochran, William - 100 00 

Copelftnd.John,8r. 10000 

Curtis, Nelion 350 00 

Carter. Nelson 800 00 

Comeliufc Milton - 100 00 

Comeliua. William 1,000 00 

Conley, Benjamin - 200 00 

Cftve,E.H lOOOO 


Daniel, Turner R 200 00 

Davis, John 200 00 

Dunn, Jaa IWOO 

:l>ala. Jesse. 160 00 

roiiglai.,"W 100 00 

Davenport, Abralmm 125 00 

Donnally, JW 10000 

Duncan, William a 850 00 

. $81 

Eatei, BerkUf. 

Bates, Joseph - 21 

Ellii, John - 1< 

Evane. SUphen U H 

Ea»iy, Edward » 


Penton, Caleb H 

Ferguson, Jsrtftt 21 

Finley, Filander I( 

Ferguson, John. - 2' 

Fowler, Joseph... ._. 1( 

Field, John H. ." M 


Gordon, Qeorge W 20 

Uordon, DbtIcI,,. Ml 

Gordon, Jnmei SI 16 

GenUy, R, H.. 26 

Guitar, John. 1,00 

George, William N 16 

Gentry, 0. P _ 26 

Grant. Thomas D - 30 

Glenn. Aleiander - 10 

Qriffy, EdwardB... W 

Gmhsm, R. M... .... 10 

Grout, Runie!,.. 16 

Qosline, William 10 

Gordon, John B 30 


Hickman. D. N - 20 

Eapden, Richard 10< 

Henderson, John 101 

Hill. John T. aw 

Haden, J. H 101 

IIick=.YmmeE - 60( 

Hickman, William T 10( 

Harris. James. - 101 

Hockaday.P B... 20C 

Hopper James lOt 

Hickman. Joseph W- IOC 

Howard, Joseph B 1,760 

Uuilon, William B 160 

Hitrrif. John W, - 100 

Hamilton, F. A 800 

Harris, Caleb K. 400 

Hitt. William Y 800 

Uiokmrin, R IOC 

Hannah, Andrew IGC 

Henry. J. T 20( 

Hannah, Samuel 16( 


Hudnx, SamiMl 

ffictam, <:flor(,'o L_... 
Euiue, Ue«rge. 


Hirdln, Hunok 

...._ 100 00 

100 00 

100 00 


Hudth, SMOUd 

Jolu»o^ Klijrf, 

JoblHlOD, NoKh S. 


200 00 

100 00 


J««1U. Bojta 


IMaj, Sincltur. 



100 00 

....p 150 00 

SojkwtWI, J«cob 



100 00 

K^DDU, Samuel. 

100 00 
100 00 

^Men H. . 

100 0(1 

Ki-kbriJe, .lo.julhttn 

500 00 


_ 15000 

Wir.WilliKt. B 

Wplon, Julin... 

Wpton, JoihuB... 

lJ«nli,Monl. P..._ 

I'Mir, W.R 


100 00 

..._ 10000 

.. _ 10000 

200 00 

125 00 

- 100 00 


l-mplon. Williim 

...;.. 8W00 

Win«,D.8i,L.P.L.,4D.S.L. 2.000 00 

ll«WiMn,J»m«»L 100 00 

Win, John. _ 2SOO0 

"tClintock, Jobn 150 00 

"ilUr, ThomM _ 200 00 

"•"P^WillUm «000 



Maupin, T. C _ 200 00 

HcBaine, Turner 100 00 

Msrnej', Amui 60000 

Marrell, Simuel 200 00 

McAfee, R. L _ 200 00 


Northcutl, Oeoige _ 600 00 

NelBon, J.L „ IBO 00 

NBlion,J.O 10000 

N.)rU.n, JoshUH _ 10000 

Northcutt, IJeojurain F 260 00 

Nichols, Robert _ 100 00 

Northcutl, T H _ 100 00 

NelM>n,JohnT i 100 00 

Nelson, Robert. 10000 

Northcutl, Joiepb „ 10000 

Northcutl, WiUlam, Sr 800 00 

Nichols, Imdi _ 60000 

Northcutt, Bli 160 00 


0'Ra«r,B. 15000 

O'Baar, Jeremiah - 100 00 

Oibum, Jobn „ 800 00 


Purks, Levi _ 20000 

Payne, N..ah 100 00 

Piirk. Allen. 100 00 

Piirker, Olivtr 2,200 00 

I'aofl, John _ 100 00 

Purker, John. 800 00 

Palmer, Jas 100 00 

Powers, Tbos. E „ 200 00 

Payne. Moses U 1,250 00 

I'rather, Thomfts 200 00 

ParainKSr, Alexander 200 00 

Parks. Price R. 100 00 

Phillips niruin - 60000 

Puckman, Jalin B— lot 806, in 

Prewitt, Mo« 1,600 00 

Pnivines, WilUnm JOO 00 

Peebels, A. L 16000 

Peebels, Carey — lot No. 10 in 


Rollins, James 8 2,000 00 

Richanjson, James 600 00 

Rollio*. Anthony W _ 1,600 00 

Rogers, Frank _ 80000 




Beady, Henry H 500 00 

Robnett,W. C 400 00 

Ridgway, Williinn 100 00 

Robnett, Pleasant 800 00 

Rowland, William 250 00 

Riggs, Zadock 100 00 

Riggs, Silas 100 00 

Roberto, William M .' 100 00 

Rogers, Washington 100 00 

Rogers, James 100 00 

Robinson, S. S 100 00 

Rollins, Robert liodes 160 00 


Searcy. Lemuel B 100 00 

Shields, W^illiam — 40 acres of 

Stone, Madison D 100 00 

Samuel, G. W 10000 

Stone.William W 100 00 

Stone, Nathan 100 00 

Snell, Richard D 200 00 

Sprinkle, Charles 200 00 

Smith, Henry 200 00 

Sutton, Seneca 100 00 

Spence; Andrtw 200 00 

Slack, John 160 00 

Smith, William 100 00 

Stone, Caleb 8 400 00 

Stone, Caleb, Sr 100 00 

Selby, Thomas 400 00 

Sanford. W. T. B 10000 


Turner, A. W 1.500 00 

Todd, David 800 00 

Toalson, William 100 00 

Tuttle, John 600 00* 

Tuttle, Gilpin S 200 00 

Turner, James 100 00 

Turner, J. B 100 00 

Turner, Thomas 100 00 


Turner, Jesse 85 

Tamer, James 10 

Turner, Benjamin 10 

Thomas, R. 8 60 

Truilt,W. S 60 

Todd, R.N. — 6 lots and « 20 

^riggt Joseph 20 

Todd, W. B 10 

Turner, Enoch 20 


Van Doren, Luther H. V 26< 

Vallandingham, James 10 

Vandyke, Milton 60i 

Vanhorn, John 25' 

Vallandingham, Mathenas — lot 

68 in Columbia and... 10< 

Vivian, J. G KX 


Woodson, Warren 1,26< 

Wilson, James C 16< 

Winn, John 10< 

Wade, Pierce ^ 10( 

Wilson, .T. W 80( 

Wil8on,N.W 50( 

Woods, J. H 60( 

Wilson, Mrs. C. U 26( 

West, William 10( 

Ware, John 15( 

West, James M 10( 

Wall, Samuel 60( 

Wilcox, Geo. H 10( 

Wilcox, Edwin R IOC 

Wilcox, Joseph 10( 

Waters, Joseph 10( 

Woods, Joseph D 10( 

Wilhite, Stephen 10( 

Woolfolk, John „ 10( 

Wilcox, Lucy 80( 

Wingo, Thomas 10( 

The amount hid hy Boone County, land and money, was $117, 
Callaway, $1)6,000; Howard, $94,000; Cooper, $40,000; Cole, 
000. Saline County did not enter the contest. 


The law provided, as we have seen, that the five commissi^ 
should meet in the City of Jeflferson on the first Monday of June, ! 



and thereafter at such times as they might appoint at the county 

seat of each county mentioned , to receive conveyances of land and 

subscriptions of money, to be void if the University was not located 

at the county seat of the county in which they were made. After 

visiting all the county seats and receiving bids the commissioners were 

to return to the seat of government and open the bids; '*and the 

place presenting most advantages to be derived to said University^ 

keeping in view the amount subscribed, and' locality and general .^ 

advanbiges, shall be entitled to its location." 

It was also provided that each county was privileged to appoint an 
agent to represent it at the seat of government at the final meeting ot, 
the commissioners whose duty it was to open the bids and make the 
location. The Boone County Court honored James S. Rollins with 
the appointment, and most faithfully, most successfully, did he dis- 
charge its high responsibilities.^ 

On the 24th of June, 1839, the commissioners, having made the 
drcuitof all the contending counties, examined their proffered sites 
and received their bids, met in Jefferson City, opened the bids, and 
awarded the great prize of the location to Columbia, in the county of 
Boone. The following is a copy of the award : — 

The Commissioners appointed by law to select a site for the State University liare 
agreed onaniroonsly in the choice of Boone Connty for its location. 

GiTen onder our hands at the City of Jefferson, this twenty-fourth day of June, in 
tbe year 1839. 


It is an incident worthy of notice that the Commissioners appointed 
to select the site for the State University, before entering upon their 
duties as such, met at Jefferson City, the seat of government, and, 

* Extract from the journal of County Court, p. 601: "Tuesday, May 28, 1839. 
P^Dt. Overton Harris, Hiram Phillips, Mathew R.Arnold, Judges; Warren Wood- 
son, Clerk; John M. Kelly, Deputy Sheriff. Ordered by the Court that Jas. S. Rollins 
l^ ind is hereby appointed a Commissioner on the part of this county to meet with the 
Commisf loners appointed to locate the State University, at the seat of government, at 
mch time as said Commissioners shall appoint, for the purpose of being present at 
tbe opening and comparing of the bids made by the different counties authorized to 
bid for said University; and In the event of said Rollins being prevented from attend- 
bf and acting as said Commissioner that Sinclair Kirtley be appointed to act in his 
>t(id, ind that a certificate of such appointment be presented. 



after taking the oath required by law, visited the counties entitled t 
bid in the following order, and received their sealed subscriptions, t 
wit: Cole, Cooper, Saline, Howard, Boone and Callaway. Whili 
the Commissioners were visiting Howard County, it was deemed prt 
dent that some one from this county should go to Fayette an 
ascertain, as far as he could, what progress the Commissioners wei 
making in securing subscriptions. The Hon. Jas. S. Rollins wa 
selected forthis mission, and in a short time after arriving at Fayett 
he learned from Col. Joe Davis, a member of the bar, that the citizen 
had bought and tendered to the Commissioners a handsome farr 
belonging to Gov. Thos. Reynolds, and which was situated in imme 
diate proximity to Howard College, containing 200 acres. Thi 
valuable farm was purchased conditionally upon the location of th 
University at Fayette, for the low sum of $30 per acre, making $6,00C 
but which the Commissioners valued, in receiving it as part of the bi 
of Howard County, at $80 per acre, making a difference of $10,00 
between the amount agreed to be paid for it by the citizens and th 
amount at which the Commissioners received it as a part of the bid ( 
that county, and thus adding $10,000 to the bid of Howard Count] 
Mr. Rollins, on his return to Columbia in advance of the Commii 
sioners, advised the proper committee here of the above state ( 
facts ; this committee being composed of such men as Robt. S. Bar 
Wm. Cornelius, Oliver Parker, Sinclair Kirtley, Warren Woodsoi 
and others, when they determined promptly to pursue a siraih 
policy, and purchase a farm equally as large and contiguous to tl 
proposed site of the University here. Such a tract of land wj 
diflScult to be had, when an appeal was made to Mr. J. S. Rollins 1 
sell to them his farm, upon which he was then living and where 1 
now resides, who finally agreed to dispose of one-half of his fam 
amounting to 220 acres, including the beautiful grounds owned \ 
present by the Boone County Agricultural and Mechanical Assoc! 
tion, and also the handsome grounds on which was subsequent 
erected the Hudson mansion, running as far east and southeast as 1 
include the present residence of the Hon. Boyle Gordon, being tl 
southwest fractional quarter of section 18, township 48, range 12, ac 
which he consented to sell at whatever sum the committee migl 
place upon it. The committee fixed the price at $25 per acre, coi 
ditioned upon the location of the University in the County of Boon< 
and which for the 220 acres amounted to the sum of $5,500. 

The Commissioners, after arriving in Columbia, and examining tb 


land above described, valued it at $75 per acre, and thus added $11,- 
000 to the subscription of Boone County, being the difference agreed 
to be paid to Mr. Rolling, to-wit, the sum of $5,500, and the value 
placed upon it by the Commissioners, to wit, $16,500, and thus fairly 
in iact making his voluntary subscription $13,000, including the $2,000 
which he had already subscribed and which he subsequently paid in 

The organization of the State [Jniversity, and the erection of the 
main edifice followed close upon this act of location. It is still a mat- 
ter of some importance, to notice that, in pursuance of the purpose of 
the land grant of 1820, the location of the University was accomplished 
bj the authority of the State, in the most formal, open and public 
manner, after a free and extensive competition. 


Was held at the site selected for the University on Monday, October 
7) 1839. Present : Thomas M. Allen, Eli E. Bass, M. M. Marmaduke, 
Gabriel Tutt, John T. A. Henderson and William Scott, who sever- 
ally took the oath of office. There being no quorum the board ad- 
jonmed from day to day until Thursday, October 10, when George 
C. Hart appeared, making a quorum, whereupon the board, assembled 
on the site selected for the building, proceeded to organize by the 
electioQ of William Scott, President; Thomas M. Allen, Vice-Presi- 
dent aud William Cornelius, Secretary. 

On motion of Mr. Marmaduke, the president appointed a committee 
of five to obtain from architects suitable plans for the principal edifice 
ofthe University, and ascertain from competent persons the probable 
cost of the building if erected according to such plan, and report to 
the next meeting. Committee: George C. Hart, T. M. Allen, J. T 
A.Henderson, Dr. John J. Lowry and Robert W. Wells, to which 
the president (William Scott) was added. On motion of Mr. Hen- 
derson, the secretary was instructed to take charge of Columbia Col- 
lege building, which, together with the grounds, had been donated to 
the State in consideration of the location of tho University at Colum- 
bia, and ofthe University grounds, until a president shall be elected. 
Adjourned to meet on Monday, October 28, 1839, in the Columbia 
Female Academy, then a one-story brick building, now owned by Dr. 
S. B. Victor, and situated west of the residence of Dr. G. W. Rig- 
gins on Tenth Street. There was no quorum at this meeting, but a 
quorum appearing next day, namely, Thomas M. Allen, Eli E. Bass, 


John J. Lowry, Roland Hughes, Irvin O. Hockaday, George C. Ha 
P. H. McBride, Thomas West and William Lientz, the board p: 
ceeded to the University grounds and examined them. Returning 
the academy the board proceeded to an examination of the plans a 
estimates for the University edifice, whereupon A. S. Hills and ^ 
liam M. Winters submitted plans, the first of which (Hill's) \ 
adopted, and $75,000 appropriated for the erection and completion 
the building — the building committee of three members T. M. All 
E. E. Bass and William Lientz was appointed to receive bids for 1 
completion of the building according to the plan and specificatic 

On motion of Mr. Lowry the presidential term was fixed at 
years, and his salary at $3,000 per annum. 

Mr. Lowry submitted the following resolution : — 

Besolvedf That the principal edifice of the University be erected on the emine; 
south of Columbia, opposite Tenth street. 

Which was rejected by the following vote : — 

Yeas — Messrs. Hart, Hockaday, Lowry and McBride — 4. 

Nays — Messrs. Bass, Hughes, Lientz, West and the Vice President (Allen) ~ 5. 

Mr. Hughes submitted the following resolution : — 

Besolvedf That the principal edifice of the University of the State of Missouri 
erected at or near the centre of the four eleven-acre lots, and fronting Seve 

Which was rejected by the following vote : — 

Yeas — Bass, Hockaday and Hughes — 3. 

Nays — Hart, Lientz, Lowry, McBride and West — 6. 

Mr. West submitted the following resolution : — 

Resolved, That the principal edifice of the University be erected upon the emlac 
fronting the south end of Eighth street, and as near as practicable to the line runi 
east and west through the four eleven-acre lots . 

Which was adopted by a unanimous vote. 

At a special meeting of the Board, March 31, 1840, the repor 
the building committee was made and adopted. Present: T. 
Allen, M. M. Marmaduke, E. E. Bass, Wm. Lientz, Thos. D. Gn 
Wm. Shields, George Penn and Warren Woodson. The report* 
braced a copy of the advertisement for sealed proposals which t 
had extensively published in the newspapers of this and oj 
States east and south, and also that .the lowest bidders in 
Judson Clement, Phineas Kenuon, George D. Foote and Eliott 
Cunningham, who proposed to complete the building according 


the plan of A. Stephen Hills for $74,494, with James M. Seelj, 
Jacob Hodgens, Henry Caswell and Robert Dunlap as sureties ; and 
that they had employed Mr. Hills as architect to superintend £he 
erection of the building. 

At the meeting on the next day, April 1» 1840, Dr. Anthony W. 
SoUins took his seat in the Board for the first time. Wm. Scott 
having resigned his membership, Thos. M. Allen was elected Presi- 
dent, M. M. Marmaduke Vice President, and Warren Woodson 
Treasurer of the Board, the latter of whom was required to give a 
bond of $2,000, which he gave. 

At a special meeting, July 3, 1840, Dr. Wm. H. Duncan took his 
seat in the Board for the first time. 


The building committee made a report of the arrangements for 
laying the corner stone of, the edifice, which was adopted, as follows : — 

Tbej bare] fixed on the 4th day of July, Instant, as the time of laying the corner- 
ftone of the principal edifice and requested James L. Minor and Uriel Wright, Esqrs., 
ADd Be?. John L. Tantis to deliver addresses appropriate to the occasion, and 
Also Mr. Tantis to officiate as chaplain. Mr. Minor has accepted the invitation 
ud will be with as at the celebration, but Messrs. Wright and Tantis have refused to 
comply with the call made upon them, and we have supplied the place of chaplain, ten- 
<fered Mr. Tantis, by the appointment of Rev. Robert L. McAfee. 

Toar committee further report tliat they have given a general invitation through 
the medium of the Columbia Patrioty and requested i other public journals friendly to 
tbe institution and the cause of education to insert the same in their prints, to the 
^Ternor and olflcers of State, and to the citizens of this and adjoining counties, to 
l^ooor Q8 with their presence on tliat occasion. 

Yonr committee have also agreed upon malciug the following deposits under the 
wrner-stone, viz. : — 
U. S. coins — 5, 10, 25 and 50-cent pieces. 

A manuscript copy of the cliarter of the University, authenticated by the signatures 
of the Governor and Secretary and the great seal of the State. 
The names of all the Curators of the University now in office. 
AIlBt of the donors to the institution and the amount subscribed by each. 
The following sentences, written in the English, French, Latin and Qreek languages : 
"This is to commemorate the laying of the corner-stone of the principal edifice of the 
Uoirerslty of the State of Missouri, on this 4th day of July, In the year of our Lord 
<NM thousand eight hundred and forty ; In the sixty-fifth year of the independence of the 
Ignited States of North America and fourth of the administration of Martin Van Buren, 
^Ident, and Richard M. Johnson, Vice President, of said United States. 

"The twentieth year of the State of Missouri, and fourth of the administration of 

^bum W. Boggs, Governor, and Franklin Cannon, Lieutenant-Governor of said State. 

"Names of the present executive officers of the State: James L. Minor, Secretary 

<tf StAte; 8. BC&nafleld Bay, Attorney General; Hiram H. Baber. Auditor of Public 

AocoQQtSy and James McClelland, State Treasurer." 



Ist. Governor and oflScers of State, and marshal of the day. 

2d. Board of Curators and Secretary and Trustees of Columbia College. 

3d. Chaplain and orators of the day. , 

4th. Principal undertakers of the University, preceded by the architect. 

6th. Clergy. 

6th. Female teachers and young ladles under their charge. 

7th. Male professors and teachers and their students. 

8th. Ladles from abroad, town and country. 

9th. Invited guests and strangers. 
10th. Citizens of the town and county. 

All of which Is respectfully submitted to the Board. 

(Signed) ' T. M. ALLEN, 



Hon. David Todd presided. 

Prof. John Roche was invited to read the Declaration of Independ- 
ence on the occasion of the laying of the corner-stone, and the thanks 
of the Board were tendered him for preparing in Greek, Latin, French 
and English suitable inscriptions to be deposited in the corner-stone. 
One thousand copies of the address of James L. Minor were ordered 
to be published in pamphlet form. 


Meeting of the Curators^ July 3^ 1840. — On motion of Mr. Hart 
the resolution of October 28, 1839, fixing the president's salary at three 
thousand dollars per annum was rescinded, and on motion of Mr. West 
it was fixed at $2,500,^ he furnishing his own house. 

Recommendations of various distinguished gentlemen residing in 
different States were then read, whereupon Dr. Duncan nominated 
Rev. John C. Young, D. D., of Centre College, Kentucky, who was 
unanimously elected, and Dr. A. W. Rollins, Dr. Wm. H. Duncan 
and Warren Woodson were appointed to notify him of his election. 

Meeting of the Curators, October 29, 1840. — Dr. J. C. Young 
having declined the presidency of the University, on motion of Dr. 
W. H. Duncan, John H. Lathrop, of Clinton, New York, was unani- 
mously elected president. Committee to inform him of his election: 
T. M. Allen, Warren Woodson and W. H. Duncan. 

Meeting Febi*uai-y i, 1841 —Present, T. M. Allen, John Slack, E. 
E. Bass, W. H. Duncan, Warren Woodson, T. D. Grant and R. S. 
Thomas. T. M. Allen re-elected president of the Board ; John Slack, 


vice-president; W. H. Duncan, treasurer (bond $20,000), and R. S. 
Thomas, secretary, vice Wm. Cornelius, resigned. 


The president submits the following communication from John H. 


Hamilton College, N. Y., November 16, 1840. 
Gextlexen: The maU of Saturday, the 14th, brought to my hands your favor of the 
29tli Qlt., SDQOuncing my election to the Presidency of Missouri University. After the 
correspondence I have had with Prof. W. W. Hudson, of the substance of which you 
are doobtless aware, it would be affectation in me to ask time to make up my mind oi^ 
tbe question presented to me in your note. 
I accept, gentlemen, the place offered me by the Board of Curators, whom you rep- 
resent, with a mind open to the greatness of the trust I thereby assume, and with the 
fall determination to pursue with zeal, fidelity, and the ability which God has given me,. 
tbe high and valuable end for the accomplishment of which the appointment has been 

J notice the ample provision which has been made for the support of the office, as- 
well as tbe limitation of the same to the term of six 3 ears. These conditions meet 
with my entire approbation. 

It is my purpose to resign my post here on the first day of December, and if it be 
tbe pleasure of your board, I will regard my connection with the University as com- 
mencing on that day. 

M7 arrival at Columbia must not be looked for earlier than the I2th or 18th of Janu- 
aiy, which, I trust, will be before the adjournment of the Legislature, whom I shall be 
pleased to see while in session, agreeably to your suggestion. 1 fully appreciate the 
importance of enlisting the leading minds in the State in the cause of the University 
ud tbe cause of education generally. 

fie pleased, gentlemen, to accept for yourselves, and to convey to the body you rep- 
RKnt,m7 ^ery grateful acknowledgment for the unexpected honor they have conferred 

With an unhesitating reliance on the co-operation and indulgent support of the 
cuators, collectively and individually, I look with assured hope to the accomplishment 
of their just VFishes. 
Itm, gentlemen, with very great consideration and respect, your obedient servant,. 

JOHN H. lathrop. 
Troxas M. Allen, Esq., 

Wm. H. Duncan, Esq., 

Warrin Woodson, Esq., 


Meeting^ March 7, 1841, — President Lathrop having reached 

Colambia on the day of , 1841, on motion of Dr. Duncan, 

* committee — Duncan and Woodson — were appointed to wait upon 
Wm and request him to deliver an address at one o'clock that 
^*y iii the Union Church, which request he complied with by the 
delivery of a most scholarly and finished address, which made a pro- 
found impression on all who heard it. 


The buildins: in which this address was delivered, was a small bri< 
Structure on the east side of Eighth street, between Broadway ac 
Walnut, and was among the first church buildings in Columbia, 
was called Union Church because it was erected under the joii 
auspices of the Baptist and Methodist denominations.^ A few yeai 
after the delivery of President Lathrop's address, these denofniai 
tions, becoming more numerous, sold their interest in the buildln, 
and erected larger places of worship. The gentlemen who bough 
the old Union Church, fitted it up for theatrical performances, U 
which purpose it was devoted until 1856, when it became the propert} 
of Col. W. F. Switzler, who, purchasing the Guitar mansion adjaoent, 
tore down the front of the church and converted the east half ol 
it into a kitchen and servant's room. It, and the residence adjdniogi 
are now owned bv Jefferson Garth. 

On March 20, 1841, W. H. Duncan, John Slack and R. S.Thomafl, 
Building Committee of the Board of Curators, received proposals ffi 
the erection of ** a family house," on University ground, meaninj 
thereby a residence for the President and his family. This buitdiD( 
was destroyed by fire in November, 1865. 

The first report made by Dr. Duncan, as treasurer of the Board 
was at a meeting held at his office, on November 29, 1841, and : 
showed — receipts, $21,301.85 ; disbursements, $21,?81.85, leaving! 
his hands a balance of $20. How strangely these small sums contrai 
with the much larger ones at later periods in the history of the inst 

Even at this early time the subject of dormitories for the accomm 
•dation of students was in the mind of the Board, for at the meetii 
of November 29, 1841, the president's report was taken up, and 
compliance with a suggestion therein, the Building Committee was i 
tructed to take into consideration the propriety of so changing tl 
plan of the principal edifice as that dormitories may be secured in tl 
upper stories. The plan, however, was deemed impracticable, ai 
therefore was not adopted ; but the idea was not abandoned, for 
other reports of the president and in subsequent proceedings of tl 
Board, the subject of providing cheap accommodations and chei 
boarding for students was frequently discussed. 

President Lathrop entered upon the duties of his office on March 

» Dr. Wm. Jewell, a Baptist, and Rev. Moses U. Payne, a Methodist, contributed near 
all the means to erect the building. 


1841; and, in -accordance with his views, the curators deemed it ex- 
pedient that courses of instruction should be opened in the old Colum- 
bia College building, in order to the preparation of students for the 
regular University classes, when the new edifice should be completed 
and a Faculty of Arts fully organized. In accordance with this view, 
courses of instruction were opened on Wednesday, April 14, 1841, in 
the College building, with John H. Lathrop as president, and Wm. 
W. Hudson, Greorge Hadley and Wm. Van Doran, professors. In a 
report made to the Board by President Lathrop, September 30, 1842, 
he informed them that the whole number of students to whom instruc- 
tion had been rendered up to that time was seventy-four. Of this 
number, two — Robert Levi and Robert Barr Todd, the former now 
eashier of the Exchange National Bank of Columbia and secretary of 
the Board of Curators ; the latter, one of the judges of the Supreme 
Court of Louisiana — had been prepared for the Senior Class ; four 
for the Junior, eight for the Sophomore and eighteen for the 
Freshnoan Class. 


The first examination of the classes of the Collegiate and Primary 
Departments of the University occurred in the chapel of Columbia 
College, during the last week in April, 1842, concluding with a public 
exhibition in the old Christian Church. The three days devoted to 
the examinations were characterized by the Patriot at the time as 
"auspicious days," and that none ** brighter ever dawned upon the 
literary destinies of old Boone." The following is a copy of the pro- 
gramme of the public exhibition, which possesses peculiar interest, 
among other reasons because it is the first University oratorical exer- 
cise in the history of the institution : — 

Orations. — Isaac McCoy, Aspects of the Material Unlyerse; Lather T. Collier, 
literature of the West; William White, Reputation; Thomas C. Ready, Early Years 
<>' Washington; Alonzo Richardson, Political Morality; William H. Robinson, Ameri- 
go R«volatlon : Thomas J. Hardin, Patriotism ; Odon Guitar, Fame — an incentive to 
Virtue; Absalom Hicks, Mental Progress. 

Okputation. — WiUiam H. Allen and John C. Scott, Was the Confinement of Bona- 
P^ite in St. Helena justifiable? 

OraUofiM, — Thomas M.Richardson, Instability of Greatness; John Wilson, Moral 
^ower; Richard E. Turner, State of the Union; Lewis Dameron, Biography. 

JHspuUUion. — James H. Parker and William W. Todd, Comparative Merits of 
^olQmbus and Washington. 

Orations. — James H. Moss, History; Robert B. Todd, Diversities of Taste and 
^Qtiment; Stephen Bedford, Political Education of American Youth. 


Eulogy, — Robert A. Grant, Lafayette. 

Orations, — William P. Thomas, Mental Power; Robert L. Todd, Literary Renoirv* 

Colloquy, — Sleep (anonymous actors), James H. Moss and Robert B. Todd. 

The report made by the board of curators to Hon. James L. MiuoP» 
Secretary of State, among many other things, stated that the contribta- 
tions of the citizens of Boone to the State of Missouri in consideratias^ 
of the location of the University at Columbia amounted to $82,300 ii 
cash and $36,000 in lands. Also that the proceeds arising from th^ 
sale of seminary lands is a trust held and administered by the Stat^^ 
for the benefit of the University, that in the conversion of this trusC^ 
into money a policy was pursued by the State extremely liberal to th^^ 
settler, and that the lands were sold at minimum prices, and in th^ 
aggregate at a rate very greatly below their real value. The proceeds 
of these sales amounted to a fraction less than $78,000. This sum 
was invested by the State in stock of the Bank of the State of Misr- 
souri, and, as ordered by law, it there remained until the investment 
by dividends reached $100,000. The dividends in 1838 amounted ta 
$4,302.38; 1839, $9,945.40; 1840, $6,051.53; -hi 1841, nothing; in 
1842, $3,421.91. 

These four dividends, added to principal, amounted to $101,662.30, 
or 1,662.30 over and above the maximum of $100,000 and therefore a 
sum available for the use of the University. 

As the University relied solely for support on the tuition paid by 
students and the sinall and precarious dividends of- the bank, the 
Board of Curators experienced great difficulty in continuing the insti- 
tution. Fully understanding the embarrassments which on every 
hand confronted the board, and deeply sympathizing with them in the 
troubles by which they were environed, on January 28, 1843, President 
Lathrop, in a spirit of self-sacrifice and commendable liberality, volun- 
tarily proposed that, from and after the first of July ensuing, the 
emoluments of the President of the University be only $1,250, 
together with the use of the President's house, and $5 per scholar per 
annum, which proposition, on motion of Dr. Duncan, was unanimously 


On the twenty-fourth of February, 1843,* an act was approved 
amendatory of certain provisions of the act of February 11, 1839. 

1 See Session Acts 1843, p. 148. 


Under this amendatory act so much of the last named law as provided 
for colleges and academies in different pails of the State, under the 
Tisitorial power of the curators, was repealed, and the power was con- 
ferred OB the Board of Curators to appoint the necessary professors 
and tutors of the University, and to fix their compensation. No one 
of the professors or tutors was allowed to exercise the functions of a 
bishop, priest, clergyman or teacher of any religious persuasion, 
denomination, society or sect, whatsoever, during his continuance in 

The act also provided that the compensation of the president, pro- 
fessors and tutors shall be fixed annually, and any of them may be 
remoyed at the pleasure of the curators. Also, that so much of the 
act as requires a curator to be thirty years of age was repealed, and 
that each curator shall be not less than twenty-five years of age. 

The curators were authorized to sell all the lands conveyed to the 
State for the benefit of the University, with the exception of twenty 
acres for a university site, on such terms as the curators shall deem 
b^ for the interest of the institution, and to convey the same to pur- 
chasers by deed under their common seal. 

The proceeds of the sale of said lands to be applied to the payment 
of the debts contracted by the curators ; and if there should be any 
surplus remaining after the payment of said debts, the same to be 
applied in the manner deemed best for the benefit of said University. 
An act was also approved February 28, 1843, i providing for semi- 
annual meetings of the Board of Curators in April and October, fixing 
the number to constitute a quorum, and making it the duty of the 
Auditor of Public Accounts to report to each meeting the increase of 
the seminary fund. 

' See Session Acts 184B, p. 149. 




IJniyersity building dedicated July 4, 1843 — Organization of the Institution— Ec 
lishroent of the several professorships — Medical Department established in 
Louis — Act of 1848-49— President's salary fixed — Resignation of President Lat' 

— Election of James Shannon as his successor in September 1849 — Resole 
of the Curators in regard to President Lathrop — Discussion and excitement ovei 
McCracken amendment — Public dinner to President Lathrop — President Shai 

— Tribute to him by the students of Bacon College — Prof. Hudson made Presi 
ad interim — Inauguration of President Shannon, July 4, 1850 — Portrait of F 
ident Lathrop — Proceedings of the Curators in regard to it — Affray between 1 
R. A. Grant and Student George P. Clarkson — Proposals to erect for the Presi 
a family house — President Shannon declines a re-election and Prof. W. W. Ha 
was elected President for six years — Death of President Hudson — Dr. A. T. 1 
Boe elected President, and he declines — The University reconstructed, with ] 
Matthews as Chairman of the Faculty. 


At a meeting of the Board of Curators, held on May 15, 1843, 
in accordance with a suggestion of President Lathrop, arrangem< 
were made for the formal dedication of the University building to 
purposes for which it had been erected, and according to the follow 
programme : — 

1. A procession from the court-house to the Chapel of the University. 

2. Music. 

3. Prayer by Rev. T. M. Allen. 

4. Music. 

5. Address to the President by Wm. G. Minor, of Jefferson City, Missouri, and 
delivery of the key of the building by him, in the name of the Board. 

6. Address by President Lathrop. 

7. Music. 

8. Benediction. 

The following account of the dedicatory ceremonies is from 
Columbia Statesman of July 5, 1843 : — 


The 4th of July, 1843, will long be remembered by the citizens of Boone CouDty, 
the immense concourse of visitors and strangers who assembled here on that df 
perform a high and patriotic duty. The occasion was the dedication of the Unlve; 
of the State to its appropriate uses. ♦ * ♦ 

Singularly auspicious to the occasion, the morning was ushered in by as bright f 
as ever shed radiance from a cloudless sky. * * * 



Early in tbe day, and up to the hour of ten, every road leading to our town poured 

la a continuil accession of human beings — thus attesting that the people of the county,. 

uexampled heretofore in the liberality of their donations to the .University, were now 

eqnallj maniiicent in a feeling of Interest for its contemplated dedication to the cause 
of Mind. 

About half past nine the doors of the edifice were thrown open for the admission of 
tbe ladies, and in a short time the beautiful and capacious gallery which girts the semi- 
drealar wall of the Chapel was filled for the first time, and that to overflowing, with 
tbe"beaotjand fashion" of the land. 

At ten o'clock, under the control and direction of the Grand Marshal of the day,. 
Nathaniel W. Wilson, Esq., a procession was formed in front of the court-liouse, 
whieb, composed of the Boards of Instruction and Curators, students of the University 
and District School, and of strangers and citizens generally, marched majestically to 
the strains of a band of music, and reached the University building about the hour of 

The exercises of the day were opened by a solemn and impressive invocation to the 
Throne of Grace by Elder T. M. Allen. Whereupon, William G. Minor, Esq., on be- 
half of the Board of Curators, delivered the key of the University to the President — 
accompanying the duty with a short, eloquent and appropriate address. Mr. Minor 
haTing concluded, the President of the University, John H.Lathrop, arose and enchained 
the attention of the vast auditory for upwards of an hour, in the delivery of a most 
aUe and eloquent inaugural. 

The addrejis of the President was concluded abou( half-past one o'clock, and the 
aadieoce, altera benediction by Elder T. M. Allen, dispersed. 


At the raeetiDg of the Board, May 16, 1843, the committee appointed 
to consider that portion of President Lathrop's communication which 
related to the complete organization of the University, namely, War- 
ren Woodson, W. H. Duncan, Joseph Carpenter and John Slack, 
reported that five professorships were essential to give the institution a. 
respectable standing, and that therefore they recommend the estab* 
lishment of the following chairs : — 

Ist. Of Ethics, History, Civil Polity and Political Economy. 

2d. Metaphysics, Logic, Rhetoric and English Literature. 

M. Ancient and Modern Languages and Literature. 

4th. lilathematics, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. 

5th. Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, Botany, Natural History and Physiology. 

At a meeting held on September 6, 1843, Robert S. Thomas was 
elected to chair second; George C. Pratt, to chair third; W. W. 
Hudson, to chair fourth, and Edward H. Leffingwell, to chair fifth — 
the president filling the first chair. 

At a special meeting of the Board held January 21, 1845, it was 
ordered that their annual report to the Secretary of State, of October, 
1844, be recorded. This report was due in October, 1843, but waa 


not made, for the reason that a quorum sufficient to transact bi 
ness at an annual meeting could not be had. This is a very long s 
interesting paper, and is to be found on the 137th and subsequ* 
pages of the Board's Journal. We make these extracts from it : — 

The curators have the satisfaction now to state that the commodloas and splei 
edifice — the erection of which was committed to their charge — has been complei 
and which for permanency, symmetry, style and finish wiU compare well with any bo 
ing of the same cost in the United States. It has been upwards of four years si 
the foundation, including the basement story, was laid, and two years since the wl 
weight of the superstructure has rested thereon; yet there is no appearance of theh 
defect in the walls or foundation. 

The salary of the president is now fixed, and has been since the 1st day of Ji 
1843, at $1,250, with $100 additional for the hire of a servant to keep the house 
^rder, etc., and one-sixth of the accruing tuition fees. Prior to the above date t 
salary was $2,500 per annum without perquisites. 

The salary of each professor, at $500 and one-sixth part of said fees. The rem) 
ing one-sixth the Board has been under the necessity of appropriating to the fitting 
of certain rooms In the University building. So hard has the Board been pressei 
carry on the Institution, that they have been forced to take from the faculty a port 
of the tuition fees, which Is at present their only support. The tuition fees, at 
per year, or $10 per session, amounting in all to something like $1,800 per ano 
thus far. 

Among the items reported as disbursed or paid is the followir 
$70,281.08 paid contractors for building University edifice. Amoi 
stipulated to be paid contractors for original contract, $74,4' 
Amount allowed them for extra work on account of the enlargem< 
of the building, the substitution of copper instead of zinc for roofii 
finish of octagon and space within the same, etc., $4,600. Balai 
due contractors, without interest, $8,812.12. 


Session of the Legislature, 1846-7 : From an act directing 
Register of Lands to procure from the Commissioner of the Gen< 
Land Office copies of documents relating to the seminary lands i 
file the same in his office ; also making it his duty to make out a C( 
plete list of said lands, specifying range, township and county, ma 
ing such as had been sold, the time when sold, to whom, w 
remaining unsold, and to file a copy of said paper with the Secret 
of the Board of Curators. See Session Acts of 1846-7, pp. 131 

Two acts passed during the same session in regard to bank d 
dends — requiring the Bank of Missouri to report the amount 


dividends accruing on stock held in tioist for the University to the 
Treasurer of the Board of Curators, and to pay over to him or place 
to his credit the same. See Session Acts 1846-7, pp. 136-7. 


At a meeting of the Board January 26, 1846, President Lathrop, at 
that time being under the law ex-officio a member of the Board, 
offered an ordinance to establish the medical department of the Uni- 
yersity, the faculty of which was authorized to hold their sessions and 
deliver their course of instruction in the city of St. Louis. A vote 
being taken on the first clause, which established the medical faculty 
and nameef the professors thereof, it resulted : — 

Yeas— T. M. AUen, W. H. Duncan, T. B. Grant, J. H. Lathrop, Moss Prewltt, 
Akx. Peninger, John Slack and Warren Woodson — 8. 
Nats— Joseph Carpenter and W. A. Robards — 2. 
Excused from voting— £U £. Bass and Caleb S. Stone. 

The vote on the sixth clause, which authorized the medical faculty 
to hold their sessions and deliver their courses of instruction hi St. 
Louis, was as follows : — 

Teas- Allen, Bass, Duncan, Grant', Lathrop, Prewitt, Pcrsinger, Slack, Stone and* 
Woodson — 10. 
Nats- Carpenter and Bobards — 2. 

After the adoption of an additional clause to the effect that this 
connection with tlij St. Louis Medical College is made upon the ex- 
press condition that it may at any time be dissolved by a vote of the 
Board at an annual meeting, the Board elected the following professors 
of the medical department : — 

Joseph N. McDowell, M. D., professor of Anatomy and Surgery. 

Thomas Barbour, M. D., Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children. 

J. B. Jolinson, M. D., Pathology and Chemical Medicine. 

Edward H. LefHngwell, M. D., Chemistry and Pharmacy. 

Blchard F. Barrett, M. D., Materia Medica and Physiology. 

John S. Moore, M. D., Theory and Practice of Medicine. 

The president of the University was made ex-officio president of the 
medical faculty, and the professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy in the 
faculty of medicine ex^fficio professor of Chemistry, Natural History, 
€tc., in the Faculty of Arts. The preparatory department in the Uni- 
versity was instituted, and the tutor's salary fixed at $250, in addition 
to a contingent sum equal to one twelfth of the tuition fees. 

The committee on lands was instructed to sell the old College 


building and grounds for $1,500, and 80 acres of land on Percl 

Creek for $50. This land now belongs to . The CoUe| 

and grounds attached (about seven acres), were sold to Robe 
S. Thomas for the sum mentioned on a' credit of 6, 12, and 3 

Two nominations were made for tutor in the preparatory depar 
ment, viz. : Robert L. Todd, and Thomas H. Bradford ; vote : Tod< 
5 ; Bradford, 4. Todd declared elected. Mr. Todd declining to a4 
cept, at a meeting held April 27, 1846, Robert A. Grant was electc 

Meeting July 29, 1846. — John C. Edwards, Governor of the Stab 
took his seat as a Curator. The degree of Bachelor of Ai*ts wi 
granted to Wm. Henry Allen, Thompson Burnhara, John Seo 
Clarkson, Luther Todd Collier, Lewis Taylor Dameron and Jot 
Henley Moore, and the president was empowered to confer the san 
by diploma at commencement on the 30th inst. 


Meeting of September 21, 1846. — John H. Lathrop re-elects 
president of the University. 

Meeting of Feh-uary 24, 1847* — James S. Rollins appeared ^ 
a member of the Board for the first time. Salary of the tutor in tl 
preparatory department fixed at $300, and one-twelfth of the tuitic 
fees, the honorarv de«rree of Doctor of Medicine wis conferred on Wdc 
H. Duncan, M. D., of Columbia, Missouri. 

Meeting July 28, 1847. — The honorary degree of Doctor c 
Medicine conferred on Wm. Jewell, M. D., of Columbia, and th 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws on Thomas Hart Benton. 


For an act increasing the number of Curators to eighteen — on 
from each judicial circuit and four from the county of Boone — fixin; 
their terms of office, times of meeting, and compensation, said com 
pensation to be paid out of the seminary fund ; prescribing the man 
ner of filling vacancies, and the number necessary to constitute 
quorum, etc., see Session Acts of 1848-9, pp. 129-30. 

For an act providing for a Normal Professorship in the University 
prescribing the duties of county courts in the selection of student 
for free education in the same, etc., see same acts, pp. 130-1. 


For ni act autborizing the curators to appropriate the remainder of 
the snbseription fund to the improvement of walks leading to and from 
theUniTersity, outside of the campus ; also authorizing the Curators to 
aodit and allow any debt justly due by the trustees of Columbia CoV- 
lege at the time of the location of the University, and to pay the 
«uDeoat of any money belonging to the subscription fund, or which may 
be collected from it, provided said debts do not amount to more than 
1300; also an act requiring the State Auditor to certify to the treas- 
urer of the Curators the balance of the subscription fund, uncollected, 
ai|d authorizing the Board to employ some person to collect the same, 
see same acts, pp. 131-2, 



Meeting January 29^ 1849.— Dv. Abrani Litton, of St. Louis, 
elected to the vacant chair of Physical Science at a salary of $600 
per annum and $2.50 per session on each student. On motion of 
Mr. Rollins a committee of three — Rollins, Lathrop, and Robards — 
was appointed to call the attention of the General Assembly to the 
necessity and propriety of making an appropiation out of the com- 
mon school fund of the State for the purpose of establishing a profes- 
sorship in the University to be devoted to the theory and practice of 

President Lathrop having been called to the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin at a salary of $2,000 per annum, and it being 
<leemed probable he would resign, Thomas D. Grant offered a resolu- 
tion, as an inducement for him to continue his connection with our 
University that his salary be fixed at $1,650, per annum (it was then 
<>nly $1,250) with use of the president's house and grounds, and $2.50 
per session on each student over 80 ; also $100, as heretofore, for 
servants' hire and that the present term of service of the President be 
extended four years after the expiration of the term for which he was 
last elected. Passed unanimously, and a committee — T. M. Allen, 
J« L. Mathews, and Moss Prewitt — were appointed to request his 
Acceptance of the above proposal. 


Meeting May 14^ 1849. — A communication was received from 
President Lathrop stating that it was his intention to send in his 
J'^ignation at the next July meeting of the board, to take effect at a 


day he will then designate ; and that he gave this early notice in ord< 
that in the interval snch measures may be adopted for filling tl 
vacancy as may be judged expedient ; whereupon a committee wi 
appointed to obtain and report to the Board at its next meetic 
such information as in their opinion may aid the board in making 
proper selection of a successor. Committee: Eli E. Bass, Addisc 
M. Lewis, William D. McCracken, Robert Brown and Turner R. E 

On motion of Mr. Brown it was resolved, after much discussion an 
various amendments that, after the first Monday of April, 1850, th 
president's permanent salary shall be $2,000 per annum with tb 
use of the president's house and grounds, and $2.50 per sessic 
on each scholar above eighty, with $100 for servants' hire as hen 

Meeting of September ,?, 1849 — Present — C. S. Stone, presider 
of the board; J. L. Matthews, W. H. Duncan, F. R. Palmer, W. I 
McCracken, William Claude Jones, Alton Long, H. C. Dunn, A. I^ 
Lewis and T. R. H. Smith. President Lathrop tendered his resigns 
tion to take effect September 22d. In his report to the board, afte 
giving a detailed account of the condition and wants of the institutioi 
President Lathrop concludes as follows : — 

During my flrst term of office, in coasideration of the depressed condition of tl 
finances of the institution, I remitted a considerable portion of my salary for a series 
years. The sum total of these benefactions ranges between $2,500 and $3,000. Th 
sum which is now in the treasury, has been abstracted from the patrimony of my ch 
dren. It \sjust to them, that this fund should be set apart, and appropriated to sod 
valuable university interest, which shall stand as a perpetual memorial of their father 
bounty. Should the board agree with me in the principle of this suggestion, the 
will be no difficulty in ascertaining the amount of the fund, nor in settling on sor 
valuable interest, to which it may be appropriated. 


On the next day the board proceeded to the election of a presiden 
Mr. Lewis nominated James Shannon, president ot Bacon Collegi 
Kentucky, and Mr. Jones nominated Dr. Hiram P. Goodrich, of S 
Louis. The vote stood : Shannon, 9 ; Goodrich, 1 ; whereupon M 
Shannon was declared duly elected. Professor Hudson was ai 
thorized to act as President until the President-elect entered upc 
his office. 

The next day Mr. Long asked permission to change his vote froi 
Mr. Shannon to Dr. Goodrich, which was granted. 

[ I 



The following resolution was introduced by Wm. Claude Jones : — 

Raolud, That we have the highest confidence in the learning, talents, integrity and 
upright mortl character of President John H. Lathrop, and while we deeply regret the lose 
^fhii9iduabU$erviee$ to our State Unioereity, we cordially recommend him to the confi- 
daoee of that community wherever his lot may be cast 

W. D*. McCracken offered the following amendment to the above 

rwolution : — 

Afflend by striking out all after word "and'* in the third line down to the word "we" in 
the fourth line ; that is, the words printed in italics. 

The vote being first taken upon the amendment, the ayes and noes 
were called, and stood as follows : — 

Am— Stone, Duncan, McCracken, Palmer, Lewis and Smith — 6. 
KoB— Matthews, Long and Jones — 8. 

Thus the amendment passed. 

^The vote then came up upon the resolution as amended, and the 
ayes and noes being called, were as follows : — 

Atb— Matthews, Long, McOracken, Palmer, Jones and Smith — 6. 
Non— Stone, Duncan and Lewis — 8. 

Which was adopted. 

The following is the resolution as amended : — 

Buolvtd, That we have the highest confidence in the learning, talents, integrity and 
spright moral character of President John H. Lathrop, and we cordial^ recommend him 
to the confidence of that community wherever his lot may be cast. 

C. S. Stone asked permission to have his protest to the foregoing 
resolution spread upon the journal. The Board, after hearing it read, 
granted the request. The following is . 

THE protest: 

C. 8. Stone protests against the foregoing resolution. He believes Mr. Lathrop to be a 
P>od scholar and a man calculated to do good. He does not entertain the highest confidence 
in the learning, talents, integrity and upright moral character of John H. Lathrop, there 
Ming other men for whom he entertains higher confidence in all these particulars. 

W. C. Jones introduced the following resolution, which passed : — 

^ff^ed. That a select committee of three be appointed to take into consideration so 
niQch of the communication of President J. H. Lathrop to the present Board as relates to 
^amount of funds which he claims to have donated to the University, anti that said com- 
ooHtee report at the next meeting of the Board of Curators. 

^mmittee — Duncan, Matthews and Smith. 

278 msTORY OP boone county. 


The resignation of President Lathrop, as many of his friends believe 
it to have been partly inspired by political influences adverse to h 
administration, caused the deepest solicitude among many of the ol< 
est and most steadfast friends of the University. Public and privai 
discussions of the causes which it was believed, in part, brought aboi 
his retirement from the institution, together with the proceedings 
the Board of Curators, especially its raising the President's salai 
immediately after his resignation, and the adoption of the McCracki 
amendment, produced the greatest excitement and widespread dissa 
isfaction in the community. Angry discussions followed in the new 
papers, embracing the wide range of all the topics having any relati< 
to the subject. We have not room in this volume either to reprodu 
the sharp and disagreeable issues which were made and discussed, 
the discussions themselves ; suffice it to say that the proceedings 
the Board caused the friends of President Lathrop, very largely wit 
out distinction of party, and wholly withoutMistinction of sect, tote 
der him the compliment of a public dinner ou oaturday, Septemb 
29, 1849, previous to his departure for Wisconsin, which he s 

At a public meeting held in the court-house on Friday evening, Se 
tember 14 — Warren Woodson, Chairman, Jesse Kennard, Secretary 
a Committee jftf Arrangements, consisting of thirty-two citizens, wi 
Dr. Wm. Jewell as Chairman, was appointed, to see that the dint 
was furnished on September 29, and arrange the programme. T 
meeting also appointed a committee of twenty on resolutions, as f 
lows : 

James S. Rollins, Chairman ; Thomas M. Allen, Dr. J. F. Buster, Lemuel Noble, R( 
L. Todd, Philip Crow, Alex. Douglass, John Slack, Thomas Wingo, Ishmael Vanborn, Sj 
uel A. Young, F. Wm. Haokman, Roll In Lyman, Dr. A. H. Robinson, Wm. F. Switz 
Dr. J. C. Page, Thomas C. Maupin, Robert Lemon, D. M. Hickman, and Wm. S. Mosley. 


The Committee of Arrangements made and published the folic 
ing : — 

1. Maj. John Slack, President, and Messrs. John H. Field and Dr. Wm. McClure, ^ 

2. Music by the Band. 

8. Address, at 11 o'clock a. m., by Robert L. Todd, Esq., on behalf of the Alumni of 



i Mwic by tk^ Band. 

6. Address by President Lathrop. 
& Masicby the Band. 

7. BMoltttions read* and an address on behalf of the citizens, byHi^. J. S. Rollins. 
ft, Vote on the resolutions by the citizens. 

ft. Miuie by the Band. 

10. DiDoer at 2 o*clock, Saturday, September 29th. President Lathrop, speakers and 
e4Bcen, tofrether with the ladies, occupying the first table. 

II Chief Marshal of the day, David M. Hickman. 

Ai ample provision will be made for all who may attend, the Committee of Arrange- 
■lemts hereby cordially invite not only the ladies and gentlemen of our county, but the citi- 
sens of the whole SUte. W. JEWELL, 

Chairman of Committee of Arrangements. 

The dinner was served in magnificentstyle, pursuant to programme, 

Thomas Selby, Superintendent, and in a sugar-tree grove adjoining 

and north of the residence of Hon. J. S. Rollins. Notwithstanding 

the Inclemency of the day, occasioned by repeated showers of rain, 

between two and three thousand people, male and female, assembled 

to do honor to their distinguished guest. 

The Columbia Statesmark, of October 5, 1849, thus notices the 
dinner, addresses, resolutions, etc. : — 

Hi j. John Sleek, assisted by John H. Field, Esq., and Dr. W. McClure, Vice Presidents, 
pmided on the occesion — Wm. F. Switzler acting as Secretary. The assembly being 
ieitedatthe stand and called to order, the programme of exercises was announced — after 
whicii Robt L. Todd, Esq., on behalf of the Alumni of the University, delivered a very 
chtste and beautiful address, full of pleasant memories of the past, high esteem for the 
honored head of his alma mater, and fervent wishes for his usefulness and prosperity in the 
Mw field to which he is called. 

After masic by the band came the cardinal point of interest, the speech of President 
Lathrop. And what shall we, what can we, say of such a speech without doing it injustice? 
In elegance of diction, scope, and power of thought, and caustic rebuke, we never expect to 
hear its lilie again. Feeling that those who are ** clothed with a little brief authority," had 
attempted an everlasting libel upon his fame — had, in voting the **McGracken proviso.*' 
^ne great violence to his reputation — he proved himself equal to the crisis, and by a sar- 
casm that scathed and blasted like the sirocco canied everything before him. His speech 
vai frequently interrupted by rapturous applause, while smiles of approval and evidences 
of regard marked the "sea of upturned faces *' before him. It was perfectly evident during 
the delivery of his speech, and before the vote was taken, that the people, believing it a 
high moral duty to protect the reputation of literary men, were prepared to "repudiate, 
Qoodemn, and reverse, with one voice and with emphasis," the judgment of the Board of 
Curators, and nobly did they do it ! 

President Lathrop having concluded, the Secretary reported from the committee 
N^Noted at a previous meeting the following resolutions: — 

!• Resolved, That the resolution introduced at the meeting of the Board of Curators on 
the 5th inst by W. C. Jones, Esq., and which was mutilated by a majority of said Board by 
*triking out a material part of it, be adopted by this meeting without alteration, amend- 
nisnt or erasure, in the exact words it was originally introduced, as follows: *^ Resolved, 
That we have the highest confidence in the learning, talents, integrity and upright moral 


character of President John H. Lathrop, and while we deeply regret the loss of his valu 
services to our State University, we cordially recommend him to the confidence of that ( 
munity wherever his lot may be cast," 

2. Resolved^ That this community, en masses without distinction of party, sect, or oo 
tion, having had ample means of forming a correct judgment of President Lathrop 
scholar, officer, and citizen, cannot consent^ either directly or indirectly, to indorse the 
ceedings of a majority of the Board of Curators on the 5tb inst, in striking from the al 
resolution the expression of regret at the loss of his valuable services to our S 
University, but on the contrary we hereby repudiate, condemn, and reverse, with one v 
and with emphasis, this proceeding of a majority of said board, as an act of injustic 
President Lathrop, believing it calculated, where the facts are unknown, to injure the cl 
acter and standing of a highly meritorious gentleman and eminent scholar. 

After the reading of the resolutions, and another air by the band. Judge Woodson 
livered an address expressive of the views and feelings of the citizens, and in favor of 
resolutions. This address embraced much of the written and unwritten history of 
University, from its organization to this time, and was a powerful vindication of Presii 
Lathrop's administration. It brought out facts new and old, and placed men and thing 
their proper light before ^the public. To a few men it was perfectly overwhelming, fc 
traced their inconsistencies, measures of mischief in the Legislature and elsewhere, 
their petty personal prejudices with a master hand. This address, too, was received i 
repeated demonstrations of applause. 

Next in the order of exercises was read an admirable letter from Elder Thomas M. Al 
This letter was greeted with marks of satisfaction and approval by the audience, 
breathed a spirit highly creditable to its honored and much esteemed author, and expre 
in felicitous style and language not only our own sentiments but the sentiments of 
community in regard both to President Lathrop and his successor. As for ourself 
indorse every word of il. 

The vote upon the resolutions being about to be taken. Dr. T. R. H. Smith, one of 
curators who had voted for the "McCracken proviso," asked if the resolutions were del 
blc. It was then moved and carried by acclamation that leave be granted any one to s| 
who wished to do so. Dr. Smith then took the stand and made a brief explanation, per» 
to himself, in regard to his vote as a curator, protesting that his motives were pure in i 
he had done; after which Wm. F. Switzler made a few remarks upon the resolutions th 
selves, contending for their adoption. The President then stated the question and put 
vote, and there arose from the vast concourse almost one unanimous aye ! but three to 
persons voting in the negative — just enough to save President I^athrop from the Scrip 
malediction : " Cursed are ye when all men speak well of you.'* 

Dinner was then announced, and the assembly retired in perfect order to the sumpti 
tables. By universal concession, the dinner was the most magnificent affair of the kind * 
witnessed in this part of the country. 

After dinner the crowd reassembled at the stand, and listened with high satisfaction t 
speech from Col. Samuel A. Young. It was one of the Coloners happiest efforts, and ca 
forth repeated rounds of applause. 

The newly elected President, James Shannon, reached Columbia, 
determine whether he would accept or decline the office, on Mondi 
October 8, 1849, and President Lathrop and family left for Madisi 
Wisconsin, on the following day. 


On June 12, 1850, the students of Bacon College, Harrodsbui 


Ky., met in Newton Hall, W. J. Miles, Chairman, and D. R. A. C 
Hundley, Secretary, and passed the following resolutions : — 

L Resolved^ That we deeply regret to part with our talented and highly esteemed Presi- 
^ot, whose genUemanly demeanor and Christian conduct, whose unflinching adherence to 
jut principles and fearless advocacy of truth have endeared him to us all, and gained for 
him in extended, lasting and enviable reputation. 

2. Ruolved, That the citizens of Kentucky, and especially the friends and students of 
Bmoo College, have lost in him a successful teacher, a clear, faithful and uncompromising 
«q)ODnder of the Word of Life, and one of the brightest and purest ornaments of the age in 
ffaieh he lives. 

$. Resolved, That we most heartily congratulate the students of Missouri University on 
tbeielection of such a man to preside over their institution, in whom they will ever find a 
fiuthftil instructor and a feeling friend. 

i Raolved, That he carries with him our most ardent pra3'er8 for his future success and 

Curators* Meeting j November 5, 1849 ; — A letter from James Shan- 
non, dated Paris, Mo., October 23, 1849, was presented and spread 
npon the record, accepting the presidency on certain conditions. His 
appointment was for six years. He desired it during good behavior, 
md that there should be no objection to his ''continuing as hereto- 
fore to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ." Continuing, he 
«iid: **Kthe Curators deem it advisable to change the tenure of 
office so as to make it during good behavior, they may regard this as 
my acceptance o^ the presidency." 

Mr. Long introduced the following : — 

1. Ruolved, That the Secretary of this Board he required to inform President Shan- 
non thst be is requested to enter upon his duties as President of the University of the 
6tate of Missouri, suhject to the restrictions of the Laws of the State regulating said 

2. Ruolved, That the resolution passed at the September meeting of the Board of 
Ronton, fixing the term of office of President at six years, be, and the same is hereby re- 

Dr. Smith moved to amend the first resolution by striking out all 
«fter the word " resolved," and inserting the following : — 

That the tenure of office of the President of the University of Missouri be during good 

Mr. Lonor moved to amend the amendment as follows : — 

Strike oat all after the word '* during," and insert *Hhe pleasure of the Board." 

The vote being taken the amendment to the amendment was rejected, 
^ follows : — 

Atks— Corby, Matthews and Long — 8. 

^ATs — Stone, Lewis, McElhaney, Duncan, Smith, Brown and Dunn — 7. 


Mr. Long then introduced another amendment to the amendm< 
as follows : — 

Strike out aU after the word **be," and insert *' the same as that of the Profetaon o 

Vote the same as before : lost^ whereupon the question being u 
Dr. Smith's amendment, it was adopted, asfollows: — 

Ayes — Stone, Lewis, McElhaney, Duncan, Smith, Brown and Dunn — 7. 
Nays — Corby, Mattliews and Long — 3. 

The second resolution offered by Mr. Long was then withdni 
Mr. Corby introduced the following: 


Resolved, That in the election of President Shannon to the office of President ol 
Univ^rsitv of the State of Missouri, the Board of Curators hereby neither affirm nor deni 
right of President Shannon to exercise his functions as a clergyman during his continu 
in said office, subjecting the same to the operation of the laws governing said Universit 

Dr. McElhany moved to lay the resolution on the table. Carriei 
Messrs. Corby and Long voting against the motion and the babi 
for it. 

The Board having complied with all his conditions. President SI 
non was therefore President of the University. 

An important resolution was adopted (on motitm of Dr. Smil 
concerning the education of poor young men in the State, substanti 
as follows : — 

Resolved, That indigent young men in the State of Missouri, possessing good n 
character and respectnble talents, and not under fourteen years of age, be permitted to a 
the University of Missouri by paying the contingent fee of one dollar a year, and the T 
urer of the Board is authorized to furnish certificates to all who may present satisfa 
evidence from the Curator or Curators, approved by the Judge of the Circuit Court o 
or their Judicial Circuit, from whence recommendations must come as to the worthine 
the applicants desirous to avail themselves of the benefits of this ordinance. 

Meeting March 18, 1850, — George C. Pratt tendered his resi* 
tion as Professor of Languages and the thanks of the board v 
tendered him for the able, faithful and successful manner in whicl 
had discharged his duty. The president ad interim. Prof. W. 
Hudson, — President Shannon not having entered upon his du 
until the beginning of the next session, — was requested to make s 
division of the duties of the Professor of Languages among the faci 
and tutors as may be least onerous to any individual member until 
chair could be permanently filled. Dr. T. R. H. Smith, expecting 
be absent from the State, resigned the secretaryship of the board. 


D. P. Henderson was elected Secretary^© tern. C. S. Stone- 
resigned the presidency of the board, and at the July session Elder 
F. R. P&Imer was elected in his place. George H. Matthews, of 
Bacon College, of Harrodsburg, Ky., notified the board of his accept- 
ance of the chair of Ancient Languages at a salary of $1,000 per 
annum, with the perquisite of $5 per student over 80. 


[From th« Columbia Statesman, July 6, IS^.] 

Ib addition to the ordinary exercises of the occasion, the interesting ceremony of the 
iMOgontion of President Shannon took place. The assembly in attendance was immense^ 
A TeiyUi^ge number of strangers honored the day by their presence. The following is the- 


Prayer, n 
Salutatory Address in Latin, by Charles B. Allen. 
Oration on the Progress of Science, by^ James D. Head. 


OratioQ on International Copyright, by William S. Hyde. 

Oration on Difference of Opinion, by Henry Slack. 

Oration on Fanaticism, Political and Religious, by Calvin F. Bumes. 

Master Oration, by Thomas B. Read. 


Degrees Conferred. 

Valedictory Address, by Lawson G. Drury. 

M usic. 

Address on Behalf of Curators, by Rev. Addison M. Lewis. 

Inaugural Address, by President James Shannon. 

Wertf^ret the lateness of the hour at which the exercises closed yesterday evening pre- 
clodei the possibility of comments upon the address of President Shannon. SufSce it to 
iiy it breathed the right spirit, enforced in the main the right doctrine, and was well 

The inaugural address of President Shannon, together with the one^ 
felivered by Rev. Mr. Lewis, was requested for publication and 3,000 
copies ordered to be printed. 

On motion of James Ellison, it was resolved that it would conduce 
to the interest of the University for the president to visit the various 
sections of the State and lecture on the subject of education, and that 
he be requested to do so. 

After an ineffectual effort to secure the attendance of a quorum at 
the December meeting, the Board adjourned to meet in Jefferson City 
on January 8, 1851. 



The following communication from the ladies of Columbia aad 

vicinity was read to the Board ; — 

Saturday, December 21, 1850. 

7b the Board of Curators of the University of the State of Missouri, 

Gentlemen: Mr. George C. Bingham, Missouri's gifted artist, prior to the departure (X 
President Lathrop to Wisconsin, painted a most excellent and accurate portrait of that gear 
tlemen and kindly presented it to the ladies of Columbia. 

Associated as is the name of Dr. Lathrop with the University, as its first President 
indebted as this community feels to him for having laid broad and deep the foundation ol 
that institution, and identified as is his name with the cause of education in Missouri, wi 
deem it most appropriate that his portrait should find a permanent and conspicuous plioi 
within the walls of the University. 

We, the undersigned, therefore, a committee 'appointed on behalf of the ladies of thii 
place, respectfully request that it be hung in the Chapel immediately on the left of the Pren- 
-dent's desk, not only for its excell<^nce and preservation as a work of art, but that the youni 
men here educated may^study his character, imitate his example, and thereby elevate mi 
enlighten their minds. 

A. B. Woodson, Camilla Price, Mary Jane Switzler, Hannah Hardin, E. A. Bast, G. A 
Lynch, S. A. Daniels, E. E. Branham, S. C. Powers, E. B. Selby, D. E. Todd, M. Gentry 
M. Guitar, M. A. Wilson, E. V. Provines, C. E. Child, L. A Matthews, P. W. Royall, M. B 
Hollins, C. F. Todd, M. L. Parker, 8. F. Prewitt, E. Richardson, M. A. Garth, M. Cltrkioi 

M. Phillips, President 

F. A. Field, Secretary. 

W. H. Duncan introduced the following preamble and resol' 
tions : — 

Whereas, Ex-President John H. Lathrop, after his resignation of the Presidency of 1 
University, and upon the eve of his departure, as we are informed, did, in a public addr 
to the citizens of Boone County, indulge in a tirade of abuse and vituperation against t\% 
the Curators, for giving a conscientious vote, by impugning their motives, and denounce 
them in most unmeasured terms; and whereas, in his valedictory address upon leaving t 
University, he made the most ungenerous reflections upon the Board of Curators and i 
Legislature of the State, therefore. 

Resolved. That the thanks of the Board of Curators be presented to the ladies of Cola 
bia, and that the portrait executed by Mr. Bingham be received and suspended in I 
rotunda of the University, that being the apartment originally designed for the reception 
works connected with the fine arts. 

Resolved, That in adopting the above resolution, the Board is actuated solely by motii 
of respect for the ladies of Columbia, and for the distinguished artist of Missouri; that t 
portrait is received precisely as any other fine specimen of the art of painting would be ) 
-ceived, without any reference whatever to the nature of the subject delineated on the ci 


Resolved, That be appointed » committee to receive the painting, and to locate 

agreeably to the first of these resolutions. 

These resolutions were laid over until the next day, when M 
Long, of St. Louis, introduced one providing that the portrait be n 
<;eived and disposed of, as the ladies request, and that a committee b 



appointed to carry out that request ; whereupon Dr. Duncan reintro- 
duced his whereas and resolutions as a substitute for Mr. Long's. 
Dr. Smith then offered the following as an amendment to the substi- 
tute of Dr. Duncan : 

Amend by striking out aU after the word " Whereas " ia the substitute, and insert the 


"Kx-President Lathrop, after his resignation of the Presidency of the University, and 
upon the ere of his departure, did, in a public address to the citizens of Boone County, in- 
dolge in a tirade of abuse and vituperation against six of the Curators for giving a con- 
KJentioaf vote, by impugning their motives and denouncing them in most unmeasured 

"¥ni6rms,iQ his valedictory address upon leaving the University, he made the most 
ODgenerons reflections upon the Board of Curators and the Legislature of the State ; 

*Rmloed, That» if we were governed by the dictates of human nature, we would un- 

I beiitstlngly reject the application to give his portrait a place in the University, but being 

[ diipeied to act upon the Christian principle of overcoming evil with good, and in token of 

nipect for the distinguished artist who executed the painting, and the ladies of Columbia 

fbohiTe so politely made the request, it is hereby granted. 

**Rttoi9ed, That a committee of three be appointed to receive the portrait and carry out 
I tlie object of the foregoing resolution. 

I Mr. Long moved that the substitute and amendment be rejected, 
and upon this motion the ayes and noes were called, and stood a& 

follows : — 

km— Matthews and Long — 2. 

Nois — HcElhaney, Ellison, Duncan, Robinson and Smith — 5. 

James Ellison offered the following amendment to the amendment : 

Amend preamble by inserting after the word " Whereas," in the first line, the words, 
"ti ire credibly informed," and strike out all that portion relating to his valedictory address. 

Upon this amendment the ayes and noes were called, and were as 

follows : — 

Atis— EUison, Duncan, McElhaney and Smith — 4. 
Nou —Matthews, Long and Robinson — 8. 

The question was then taken upon the amendment as amended, 
wdupon this the ayes and noes were called and stood as follows : — 

Ates— McElhaney, Ellison, Duncan, Rol^inson and Smith — 5. 
Nays — Matthews and Long — 2. 

Passed, whereupon Mr. Ellison introduced the following resolu- 
tion : — 

^x^Xwiy That the letter of the ladies of Columbia be entered upon the Journal as 
^ pAper laid before the Board by its President, and that the preamble and resolutions of 
•coeptsDcebe entered ;immediately under it. 


Which was adopted. 

The presentation of the portrait of President Lathrop, togetb 
with the letter which accompanied it from the ladies, and the acti( 
of the Bosird of Curators thereon, were topics of the liveliest intere 
in the community, and their discussion was attended by no little il 
feeling and excitement. Indeed, this discussion finally assumed sui 
proportions and character as to seek the newspapers as the mediu 
of its utterance. . 

Meeting of April 14^ 1851. — Present — J. L. Matthews, Addis( 
M. Lewis, Alton Long, W. D. McCracken, Henry FuUbright, Dani 
Patten, W. H. Duncan, T. R. H. Smith, James L. Minor, N. ( 
Orear and Henry F. Garey. 

On the 4th of March preceding the date of this meeting an ui 
fortunate personal street encounter occurred in Columbia betwe< 
Robert A. Grant, one of the tutors in the University, and George! 
Chirkson, a student, in which Clarkson was mortally wounded by 
pistol shot, dying nine days thereafter. 

There were several resolutions offered on the subject and conside 
able debate, the Board finally concluding that it would be best f 
the institution, under the circumstances, for them to declare the off 
of tutor vacant, which they did. 

Meeting August ll, 1851, — Resignation of Prof. Leffingwell, of 1 
chair of chemistry and natural history received and accept 
Bolivar S. Head elected tutor of mathematics and Dr. Abram I 
ton, of St. Louis, professor of chemi^itry. 

Meeting March 31^ 1852. — Present — Duncan, Lewis, Matthe' 
McCracken, Minor, Stone and Garey. George C. Swallow ^ 
elected professor of chemistry and natural history and Wm. C. Shie 
adjunct professor oT ancient hmguages. 

Measures adopted for the reconstruction of the President's *' fan: 
house," or for building a new one. ? 

Meml)ers of the Board who, from inability or (fisincli nation 
attend the meeting, requested to resign. 

At the meeting of July 1, 1852, Sterling Price, Jr., was electe* 

At the meeting, June 30, 1853, R. S. Thomas, professor of Engl 
literature, and G. C. Swallow, professor of chemistry, geoloj 
etc,, tendered their resignations — the former to assume the dut 
of President of Wm. Jewell College, the latter to enter upon the g 
loo:ical survev of the State. 


At the October meeting, 1853, after nine ballots, John Locke, Jr., 
<ef Cincinnati, was elected professor of natural science, and J. J. 
Jacob, of Bomney, Virginia (since Governor of West Virginia), pro- 
fcMorof Einglish literature. 

Od June 30, 1854, Sterling Price was made adjunct professor of 
English liteniture. A communication was received from John W. 
Henry, superintendent of common schools (now one of the judges of 
\he Supreme Court) calling attention to the law in regard to the 
e8tablidhment in the University of a professorship to be devoted to 
the theory and practice of teaching, to be called the normal pro- 

On July 4, 1855, W. H. Duncan resigned the Treasurership of the 
Board, and Walter T. Lenoir was elected to fill the vacancy. 


The Legislature, by an act approved December 4, 1855, having de- 
clared vacant, on July 4, 1856, all the offices held by the President, 
professors, and tutors, James Shannon was unanimously re-elected to 
that position for six years, terminating on 4th of July, 1862, an honor 
which he declined to accept. Resolutions highly complimentary to 
President Shannon were passed, and the honorary degree of LL.D. 
<H)nferred upon him.' 


Calvin F. Burns moved to declare Prof. W. W. Hudson President 
for six years, when N. C. Orear moved that he Ije President p?'o tern. 
for oue session, commencing October 1. The motion of Mr. Burns 
3nd the amendment were laid on the table, 6 to 5, after which Mr. 
Hudson was unanimously elected President; G.' H. Matthews, Pro- 
fessor of Ancient Languages ; John J. tJacob, Professor of English 
Xiterature ; Wm. C. Shields, Associate Professor of Latin ; Bolivar 
-S. Head, Professor of Mathematics, and Sterling Price, Normal Pro- 
fessor and Instructor in Greek ; John Locke, Jr., Professor of Chem- 
istry, Geology, Mineralogy, Physiology, and Anatomy. A Primary 

' President Shannon was called to the Presidency of Christian University, Canton, Mo., 
"^bich he accepted, and administered the trust very ably and satisfactorily for several years. 
He wag bom in Monughan County, Ireland, April 23, 1799, and died in Canton, Mo., Peb- 
^^^25, 1869. His remains were interred in the Columbia Cemetery, and a beautiful mon- 
^«nt iparfci the place of their repose. 


Department iu the llDiversity was established, and the resident 
tors, on nomination of the Faculty of Arts, empowered to app 
teachers and fix their salaries. 

The Board deemed it improper to elect Professors in the Med 
Department, situated in St. Louis, which was equivalent to a diss 
tion between the University and that department. 

At the July meeting, 1857, President Hudson reported to the Be 
that the Faculty had, at the beginning of the last session, appoir 
Wm. Alexander, Teacher of Drawing, and Carlo De Haro, Teache 
Modern Languages. Mr. Alexander accepted, but ** Mr. De Haro 
turned a petulant rejection, partly because he was not honored \ 
the title of Professor, and partly because he considered the salary c 
temptible." The position was then tendered Ignace Hainer, of lo 
a Hungarian exile, who accepted it. Jasper J. Searcy, Principal, 
Wm. A. Buckner, Assistant, had had charge of the Primary Dep 
ment. On motion of GeoiVe H. Hall, the Secretary was instru( 
to notify Prof. Locke, in writing, to appear before the Board on 
last Tuesday of September, to answer charges of willful neglecl 
duty. Prof. Locke failing to appear at this meeting, the Curai 
proceeded to examine the testimony in relation to the charges, fo 
them true, and removed him from office. 

At the August meeting, 1858, George C. Swallow was elected I 
fessor of Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, etc., for four years fi 
July 1, 1858, which he accepted, retaining, however, his position in 
Geological survey of the State. 


Meeting July 1, 1859. — The death of President Hudson, wl 
occurred June 14, 1859, was announced, and a committee — C. 
Stone, Jno. W. Harris, Michael Bright and P. H. McBride — ^ 
appointed to correspond, with a view of tilling the vacancy. P 
Matthews was elected President of the University ^ro tern, 


Meeting August 22, 1859, — On motion of Mr. Stone, Albert 1 
lor Bledsoe, LL. D., Professor of Mathematics in the Universit 
Virt^inia, was elected President for six vears from July 4, 1859. 1 
ary $3,000 per annum, with use of President's house and groui 
and $5 per scholar on all who may enter each year over the numbe 


eighty, beneficiaries excepted. Prof. Swallow was requested to de- 
liver during the next session, a course of lectures on ** Scientific Ag- 

Prof. Bledsoe declining to accept the presidency, a meeting 
of the Board was held on October 10, 1859. Present — McBride, 
Horner, Snell, Blacklege, Pollard, Brady, Stark, Cross, Orear, Har- 
ris, Stone and Seay — 12. After voting down a proposition made by 
Mr. Seay to proceed immediately to the election of a President, the 
Board resolved to take up and consider a memorial from the Faculty, 
in which they proposed to reconstruct the University on a new plan, 
each of the professors pledging hitnself to vacate his position in the 
institution, in order that the curatory might be entirely free to fill the 
wious chairs under said plan. Among its leading features were the 
following : — 

The studies to be divided into appropriate departments, each of 
which shall' be independent of the others. Each professor to report 
to the Curators and be responsible to them alone. That instead of 
having a president, the Curators shall annually appoint some member 
of the faculty as its chairman, no one of whom shall be eligible two 
years in succession. 

Seven departments were established: 1. Latin Language and 
Literature. 2. Greek Language and Literature. 3. English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 4. Moral Philosophy and Political Science. 
5. Mathematics. 6. Astronomy and Natural Philosophy. 7. Nat- 
oral Sciences and Scientific Agriculture. Also ''Special Courses in 
Study," each school independent of and separate from the other : 
1. School of Scientific Agi'iculture and Mechanics. 2. School of 
Civil En«:ineerinor. 3. Normal School. In each of these instruction 
to be given by professors of the *' Departments." 

This substantially was the system which prevailed in the University 
<^f Virginia. After much discussion, in which it was maintained by 
the opponents of the new plan that it violated the organic law of the 
institution, it was adopted, 6 to 5, as follows : — 

Ayes— McBride, Harris, Horner, Snell, Cross, Blacklege — 6. 
Nays — PoUard, Seay, Orear, Brady and Stone — 5. 
Absent — Stark, who was sick in his room at the hotel. 

The salary of each professor was fixed at $1,500 per annum, and the 
Chairman of the Faculty, in addition, the use of the President's houne 
^»<1 grounds. 

Mr. Stone entered his protest on the Journal against the plan. 


• • « 



M • 


After the adoption of the plan the Curators proceeded to fill t 
seven depaitments by the election of the following professors, Polh 
and Stone voting against each of them : — 

1. William C. Shields. 2. George H. Matthews. 3. Sterli 
Price, Jr. 4. John J. Jacob. 5. Bolivar S. Head. 6. To be fill 
by the resident Curators. 7. George C.fSwallow. Prof. Matthe 
was elected Chairman of the Faculty. 

Meeting March 15 ^ 1860. — Dr. Duncan nominated William 
Allen for President of the board, who was elected, and Gen. Donipii 
nominated R. L. Todd for Secretary, who was also elected. < 
motion of Mr. Hickman it was resolved that the University should 
reorganized with a faculty of five regular professors: 1. Engl 
Language and Literature. 2. Mathematics. 3. Natural Sciences a 
Natural Philosophy. 4. Latin and Greek Languages. 5. Moral a 
Intellectual Philosophy and Political Science, one of whom shall 
elected by the board President of the University. Also that th 
shall be a Primary Department. Also that a committee — Min 
Duncan and Todd — be appointed to correspond with the view 
filling the professorships, and report to the next meeting. Adop 
unanimously, thus upsetting the plan of organization adopted at 
October meeting. 

Meeting May 15^ 1860. — It was resolved that Prof. Matth< 
shall be ex-officio President of the University, at a salary of $2,5 
with use of President's house, etc., and that the salary of the p 
fessors be $2,000 per annum. Term of oflSce, four years, exc 
principal of Primary Department, whose term shall be one ye; 
salary, $1,000. 

George H. Matthews was elected Professor of Ancient Languaj 
and Liternture ; A. G. Wilkinson, of Washington City, Assist 
Professor and Instructor in German and French ; salary, $1,1' 
John H. Lathrop w^as elected Professor of English Language f 
Literature ; Edward T. Fristoe, Professor of Mathematics s 
Astronomy; Abram Lytton, Professor of Natural Sciences a 
Natural Philosophy ; and Jasper J. Searcy, Principal of the Primi 



LEGE — Concluded. 

Beetion of PrMident Minor — Military oath prescribed by Maj. Oen. Halleck — TheUni- 
teifity doted — The University re-opened, with Dr. Lathrop as President of the Faculty 
Jqm, 1865i, the University reorganized by the election of Dr. Lathrop as President — 
The SUte Agricultural GoUen^ — First movement in the Board to secure its location — 
Dftitb of President Lathrop — Election of Daniel Read as President — The Stephens' 
Midal— Constitution of 1865 on Education — A new departure in regard to the Univer- 
Bty— $10,000 to rebuild the President's house and one and three-quarters per cent of 
the SUte revenae, after deducting twenty-flve per cent for Public Schools, appropriated 
to the University — The first Dollar ever Appropriated to it — Act of March 11, 1867 — 
Liw Department established — Inauguration of President Read — Erection of Club 
Boirding House — Agricultural College located — A long struggle ended — Citizens' 
mestiDg^ Action of the County Court — Proceedings of the Commissioners — Land 
Commi^ioner and Land Appraisers appointed — Photographic likeness of the friends of 
th« Agricultural Collie hung in the Library — The School of Mines located — Laying 
th« eomer-stone of the Scientific Building — Portrait of Dr. Rollins — Honors to James 
Si Bollins— Portrait of Edward Bates— Presentation of portrait of Dr. Rollins — Re- 
jection of President Read — Phelps County bonds declared illegal —Portrait of Prof. G. 
EHitthews — Election and inauguration of S. S. Laws as President — Professors' chairs 
netted— Death of President Read — Death of Prof. George C. Bingham — Re-election 
of President Laws — '* The Laws Observatory and Telescope " — " The McAnally prize 
for English " — Sale of Agricultural College lands — The Rollins bell — The chair occupied 
by Prof. Swallow declared vacant — J. W. Sanborn elected to fill it — Endorsement of 
Praiident Laws. 


Meeting July 2^ 1860. — Benj. B. Minor, ofRichmond,Va., was elec- 
ted Pre<»ident, to be installed October 2, 1860, and J.W. Tucker, of the 
^mmissioners, requested to deliver an address on behalf of the cura- 
tors. J. G. Norwood was elected Professor of Natural Sciences and 
Natural Philosophy. 

Meeting October 5, 1860. — The thanks of the Board were tendered 
J.W.Tucker and President Minor for their addresses, copies re- 
quested for publication, and 10,000 ordered to be printed. 


Meeting March 19 y 1862. — Major General Halleck, Commander of 
the Department of the Missouri, having issued an order, February 3,. 
1862, that the president, professors, curators, and other officers of 


the University take the oath of allegiance prescribed by the Sixi 
Article of the State Ordinance of October 16, 1861, and file thesan 
in the office of the Provost Marshal Generd, in St. Louis, within i 
days, in default of which they will be considered as having resignc 
their respective offices. On motion of Mr. Russell, the officers name 
be requested to state in writing by two o'clock that day whether the 
have or have not taken said oath. General Halleck's order also pre 
vided that " this institution having been endowed by the govert 
ment of the United States, its funds should not be used to teac 
treason or to instruct traitors." And that if any one of the persor 
named, failing to take said oath, ** shall thereafter attempt to obtai 
pay, or perform the functions of such office, he will be tried and pui 
ished for military offence." Responses were received from Presidei 
Minor and from Professors Lathrop, Matthews and Norwood, thattb< 
had taken the oath. Dr. W. T. Lenoir, Treasurer, refused to take 
submitted a statement of his accounts, and tendered his resignatic 
Thomas B. Gentry was elected Treasurer in his stead. 

Average daily attendance of students only about forty. 

Prof. Fristoe having abandoned his post for the purpose of joiai 
Price's army, his chair was declared vacant. 


A resolution was passed declaring the offices of president, proi 
sors and tutor vacant from that day, and that the treasurer refund 
the pupils the proportion of tuition fees paid by them for the uim 
pired part of the term, thus closing the institution on account of 1 
prevalence of civil war, and the military occupancy of the^buildii 
and grounds. 

A warrant for $1,200 to Prof. Lathrop was issued in liquidation 
an equitable claim in his favor, for parts of salary voluntarily I'emiti 
by him in 1843. 

A communication was received from President Minor, protest! 
jagainst the discontinuance of his office, which was laid on the tab 


Meeting November 12 ^ 1862. — The offices of professor of Engl i 
language and literature (John H. Lathrop), and of ancient langua^ 
and literature (George H. Matthews), were revived and continued ^ 
the session to be opened November 24, 1862 ; Dr. Lathrop to 


chairman of the faculty. The troops requested to vacate the east 
wing of the building. A paper, in the nature of a protest, received 
from ex-President Minor, which was returned to him without com* 

Meeting Februa^^ 17 y 1863. — The Commissioners — Jno. H. Lath* 
rop, B. McAlister and Henry Keen — appointed by the resident cura- 
tors to assess damages to University buildings and grounds, by reason 
of military occupancy, reported the same (with items in detail) at 

Meeting August 11^ 1863. — University reorganized for the session 
of 1863-4, by the election of Dr. Lathrop chairman of the faculty 
and professor of mental and moral science, G.H. Matthews, professor 
of ancient languages and literature ; Dr. Norwood, professor of 
natural sciences and natural philosophy, and J. N. C. Karnes and H, 
N. Ess, tutors. Dr. Lathrop, in addition to salaiy, to have use of 
President's house and grounds. 

Meeting June 28, 1864. — Thos. M. Allen elected president of the 
Board. Professors Lathrop, Matthews and Norwood were requested 
to continue in the positions then held by them for the next year, 
^hich they agreed to do. 


Meeting June 27 ^ 1865. — Moss Prewitt elected President of the 
loard. The civil war being at an end, and the white-winged messen.- 
gerof peace having again returned to bless our country, the Univer- 
sity was reorganized by the election of Jno. H. Lathrop President 
and of G. H. Matthews, J. G. Noiwood and Carr W.Pritchett profes- 
sors (the latter of mathematics) for one year. In addition, a normal 
department, on motion of Mr. Russell, was created. Among other 
important business transacted a resolution, offered by Mr. Bruere, of 
St. Charles, was passed, requiring the Executive Committee to memo- 
rialize Congress to repay to the University the damages occasioned 
by the occupation of Federal troops ; and one, offered by Mr. Russell, 
appointing a committee — Messrs. Clark, Sutherland, Kellerman 
and Hewitt — to guard the funds of the University in the Lescis- 
lature, and procure indemnity for any loss that may occur. The 
Legislature was also requested to remove the restriction, which pro- 
Whits, virtually, ministers of the gospel from holding office in the 




Meeting July 26 j 1865. — To Mr. L. M. Lawson, a graduate of tl 
University and for some years pasta well-known and successful bank 
in New York City, belongs the honor of making the first movemei 
in the Board of Curators to secure, at Columbia, the location of tl 
Agricultural College. At the July meeting, 1865, he offered the fo 
lowing preamble and resolution, which was supported by him in a 
able speech, and which we regard of sufficient importance to requii 
its insertion at length : — 

Whxbkas, The Congress of the United States having made a large grant of lands to ea 
of the States, with a view to establish and endow Agricultural Colleges therein; t 
whereas, the State of Missouri having the entire control of the State University, located 
Columbia — the endowment of which has been derived exclusively from the bounty of 
United States Government and the people of Boone County — with library, philosophi 
chemical and astronomical apparatus, geological cabinet, etc., thus presenting very sir 
considerations — in view of economy, and an early success of the enterprise — why the j 
posed agricultural college should be connected with the University ; be it therefore 

Resolved, That a committee of five members of this Board be appointed to consider 
subject, and in behalf of the Board to memorialize the General Assembly, at its next va 
ing, in favor of connecting the proposed Agricultural College with the State University. 

This resolution was adopted nem. couy and Messrs. Lawson, Clu 
Esteb, Robinson and Russell were appointed the committee to men 
rialize the General Assembly on the subject. 

Meeting December 13^ 1865, — During the recess of the Boa 
Thos. Yeatman, New Haven, Conn., a gentleman eminently qualif 
for the position, very generously tendered his services to the Exe« 
tive Committee to discharge the duties of Professor of English Lj 
guage and Literature, for the current year, without compensatic 
but afterwards and unexpectedly, circumstances rendered it impossi 
for him to do so. 

The Executive Committee reported that on October 11, 1865, tl 
appointed Joseph Ficklin Professot* of Mathematics at a salary 
1800 per annum, and $5 on each paying student. Also, that John 
Cowgill had been appointed tutor. The President's house havi 
been destroyed by fire November 27, 1865, the two-story frame bui 
ing in the northwest corner of the campus, now known as '* i 
English building," was fitted up as a residence for President Latbi 
and familv. 

The Legislature was requested, by resolution, to appropriate $1 
000 to rebuild the President's home, and among other reasons gi^ 
in favor of the proposition, the singular fact is mentioned that up 




• /• • . fiid Missouri /^ /;>••• ;■//. 

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!«v i)v Moss Pi. will, i^'\ -itiout -tttii-.j 

:;!. -.i >••!.. wti wllOSr motion lloil. Jri-. S. 

7^ •-:.>; 


t time the State had never, directly or indirectly, contributed from 

{treasury a single dollar for the institution. 

On motion of Mr. Lindsay a copy of the address delivered in the 

lapel by Enqs Clark, by invitation of the faculty, was requested for 

blication in the Missouri Statesman and Missouri Democrat, 

Meeting June 27, 1866. — Oren Root, Jr., of New York, was 

wted Professor of English Languages and Literature. 

Mr. Lawson introduced a resolution, which passed, looking to the 

pointment of a military professor, under the act of Congress of 

Ij2, 1862. 


Meeting August 29, 1866. — In view of the death of President La- 
»p, who died August 6, 1866, the session of the Board was opened 
h prayer by Rev. Henry A. Nelson, D. D., on whose motion a com- 
tee (Nelson, Perry and James H. Robinson) was appointed to 
ort a suitable minute touching his death. They submitted the fol- 
ing, which was adopted : — 

tie Board of Curators of the University of the State of Missouri, being convened In 
ial session in consequence of the recent death of President Lathrop, desipe to put on 
rd our profound sense of personal bereavement and of public loss in that afflictive dis- 
istion of Divine Providence. We would accept it in humble submission to the will of 
, whose infallible wisdom and perfect righteousness we devoutly acknowledge. Yet, we 
it aa a calamity of no ordinary magnitude. Having been the first President of this Uni- 
ity; having labored for its establishment and advancement with extraordinary diligence, 
;nce and self-denial; having adhered to it in days of adversity and darkness; having 
ned it with his elegant scholarship, enriched it with his rare wisdom and large experi- 
t and loved it with paternal affection, his sudden death calls its guardians and its pupils 
alumni to mourning only less than his afflicted family. To thei%we tender the assur- 
er our heartfelt sympathy, of our sincere disposition to do all in our power to mitigate 
calamity, and of the very high honor in which we will ever hold the memory of him 
1 they have lost and whom we so esteem as a man and an educator ; that we can 
ely wish for more than that another such as he may be found to succeed him. 

''liich was adopted, and a copy thereof ordered to be furnished to 
fiimily of Dr. Lathrop, and also for publication. 
n motion of Mr. Robinson : — 

i*olved. That some badge of mournmg, as a token of respect for Dr. Lathrop's mem- 
>e put in the lecture>rooms of the University until the close of the next commencement 

>a Friday, August 3, 1866, a citizens' meeting was held in the 
rt-house in Columbia, on the occasion of the death of President 
lirop, which was called to order by Moss Prewitt, President of the 
rd of Curators of the University, on whose motion Hon. Jas. S. 


Rollins was called to the chair. After explanation of the purposes i 
the meeting, the honorable chairman proceeded to a brief and feeliu 
review of the life and character of the illustrious deceased, whic 
found a warm response in the hearts of all present. On motion of « 
F. Baker, James L. Stephens was elected secretary, whereupon C!o 
W. F. Switzler offered resolutions, accompanying their presentatio 
with remarks befitting the solemn occasion, in which proper testimon 
was borne to his blameless life, distinguished usefulness, and nob 
example, and to his eminent learning and faithful labors in the emu 
of education. The resolutions were unanimously adopted, after whic 
the chairman appointed the following pall-bearers : Moss Prewit 
Prof. Joseph Ficklin, N. W. Wilson, Warren Woodson, Dr. Paul Hu 
bard, James H. Waugh, and William F. Switzler — J. S. Rollins al 
appointed by the meeting. 

The following gentlemen were appointed a committee to make st 
able arrangements for the funeral, namely : Joseph B. Douglass, 
T. Russell, and J. Scott Payne. 

Since the hist meeting the Executive Committee employed as tui 
D. W. B. Kurtz. 

On motion of Mr. Sutherland, as a further testimonial in honor 
President Lathrop, it was resolved to adopt measures to establish a 
endow a Lathrop Professorship of Mental and Moral Science. Coi 
mittee : Sutherland, Allen, and Denny. 


Daniel Read, LL. D., of Madison, Wisconsin, was elected Pre 
dent for four yiears, at a salary of $2,500 per annum, with the usi 

Profc C. H. Crowell, of Alton, Illinois, was elected Principal of 1 
Preparatory Department. 

Maj. Gen. Hancock, Commander of the Department of the W 
souri, having detailed a board of officers of the army to assess 1 
damage done to the University buildings and grounds by militi 
occupancy during the war, the secretary was requested to ask k 
to furnish the Board a copy of the order. 

On motion of Mr. Russell, a committee of five was appointed 
prepare and present to the General Assembly a memorial advocati 
the location of the Agricultural and Mechanical College in connect 
with the University. Committee: Russell, Clark, of St. Lou 
Robinson, Todd and Love. 




Meeting April P, 1867. -^ A letter received from James L. Stephens, 
donating |500, the annual interest on which is to be expended in a 
gold medal, to be awarded to the stndent in the Senior (ylass who 
shall excel in oratory, which was accepted with thanks. Also, $25 
from Prof. Swallow, as a prize to the graduate who stands the best 
in the department ot natural sciences. Accepted with thanks. 

James H. Waugh elected treasurer of the board. 

A committee of two — Enos Clark and R. L.Todd — were ap- 
pointed, in connection with President Read, to prepare a plan for a 
Normal School. 

coNSTrrtJTiON OF 1865 — act op march 11, 1867 — a new depart- 

The Constitution of 1865 contained the first organic definition of 
what the public school fund shall consist, and after doing so proceeds to 
declare that it ** shall be securely invested and sacredly preserved " as 
suchfuud, and that the annual income thereof, ** together with so much 
of the ordinary revenue of the State as may be necessary, shall be 
fiuthfuUy appropriated for establishing atid maintaining the free 
schools 'atid the University in this article provided for, and for no 
other uses or purposes whatsoever." 

These provisions not only clearly defined the sources of the public 
school fund and made the University a part of the educational system 
of the State, but it placed that institution on a new financial foun- 
dation, to wit : a sharer with the public schools of the annual income 
of the fund, together with so much of the ordinary revenue of the 
State as may be necessary to maintain it. 

In obedience, therefore, to the liberal University policy here en- 
joined on the General Assembly, that body, by the act of March 11, 
1867, not only appropriated ten thousand dollars to rebuild the Pres- 
ident's house, but also, in the second section of the same act, pro- 
vided that : 

There is also set aside and appropriated, annually, for the support of the State University 
ofMuBoun, out of the revenue of the State, after first deducting therefrom the one-fourth of 
^ revenue for the Public School Fund, one and three-quarter per cent of such balance ot 
^ State revenue ; and this is declared to belong to the University, and shall be paid to the 
Tretsarer of the Board of Curators, as provided for by law, for the payment of other funds 
of the University. 

The University was located in 1839, twenty-eight years previous 
to the passage of this act, and it is historically true that not withstand- 


ing the donation to the State by Boone County of nearly one hundred 
and twenty thousand dollars, with which the edifice was erected sljh 
partially equipped for the purposes of its establishment, the party ii 
power, although constantly asked to do so, had never appropriated i 
dollar to maintain it, the act above mentioned being the first iii oui 
history which recognized the constitutional obligation to maintain it. 
This act was the turning point in the policy of the Stat« towards 
the University, and secured to the institution, annually, without a bi- 
ennial scramble in the Legislature, an ever-increasing sum forife 
support, the amount of which depended on the amount of the revenue 
of the State. 

The act remained in force, apparently as the settled policy of th 
State, until the adoption of the Constitution of 1875, when unfortui 
ately, and without good reason, as many maintain, the Supreme Cou 
of the State decided that the Constitution repealed this and all simil 
acts, and that henceforth appropriations for the support of the Ui 
versity and all others must be made by each Legislature. 

Meeting of Curators , April 9, 1879, continued: — On motioa 
Mr. Russell, the nearest district school in Columbia was attached 
nnd made a part of the institution, as a model school, and the Exec 
tive Committee, with the School Trustees, were requested to arraD| 
the details and set the school in operation, in the frame building i 
the northwest corner of the Campus. 


On motion of Mr. Lawson, a Law Department was established ii 
the University, and a committee of three was appointed, in connec 
tion with President Read, to arrange the details. Committee : Lai« 
son, Clark and Russell. 

Motion that E. P. Lampkin be appointed Principal of the Prepari 
tory Department at a salary of $1,400. Referred to the Committe 
on Normal School. 

Mr. Crowell was notified that his services would not be needed i 
the Preparatory Department after the close of the present session. 


The following notice of the ceremonies is copied from the Columbi 
JStatesman, of June 28, 1867 : — 

'' The occasion of the formal inauguration of Daniel Read, LL. D. 


tis President of the Univei'sity of Missouri, was of rare interest in 
Columbia. The exercises occurred at 10 o'clock on Wednesday be- 
fore a large audience composed of the Board of Curators, Faculty 
tni students of the University, strangers, visitors and citizens. 
[ About ten o'clock a procession was formed at the court house under 
the direction of Col. J. R. Shields, marshal of the day, and headed 
by the Mexico Cornet Bund, marched to the University. 

"L. M.Vernon, Esq., of Greene County, one of the Curators, pre- 
sided. After a most solemn and appropriate invocation of the Throne 
of Grace by the venerable Elder Thomas M. AUdn, the Hon. Philemon 
Bliss, of St. Joseph, was introduced, who, on behalf of the Board of 
Curators and in their name, introduced Dr. Read as ' President-elect 
of the University, and proceeded to deliver a short, able and appro- 
priate address which was heartily applauded at its close. 

"After the close of Judge Bliss' introductoiy speech. Dr. Read re- 
sponded in an inaugural address of about one hour's duration. The 
-address of Dr. Read eminently befitted the great occasion — was - 
earnest and practical, lucid in its enunciation of the true policy of the 
State, and in every respect very able. In short, this inaugural of the 
new President of the University, so replete with practical wisdom, so 
earnest and full of hope, delighted the friends of the institution, and 
eannot fail most favorably to influence the public mind in its behalf." 
Meeting June 25 j 1867, — John C. Conley presented $25 as a 
prize to the graduate who shall excel in oratory at commencement, 
June 27, 1867. Received with thanks. On motion of Mr. Bliss a 
College of Agricultural and Natural Science was established, with 
Norton S. Townshend, of Ohio, principal, on condition that the 
Legislature sanction the act and make the needed appropriation 

On motion of Mr. Baker a Normal College in the University was 
established, and on motion of Mr. Matthias, W. F. Phelps, of Minne- 
sota, was elected professor at a salary of $2,500 per annum. 

On motion of Mr. Baker it was resolved that the President of the 
University is hereby respectfully instructed to interdict from the 
public orations and essays of students of the University any compli- 
mentary allusion to men who have been instrutnental in seeking the 
destruction of our government, or the advancing of any ideas indi- 
cating a spirit alien to the unity of our country. [Mr. Baker was 
Provost Marshal General of Missouri during the latter part of the 


On motion of Mr. Russell, Nathaniel Holmes, one of the Judges ( 
the Supreme Court of Missouri, was elected Professor of Law j 
a salary of $1,000. 

Meeting December 23 y 1867. — The appointment by the Executiv 
Committee of Prof. E. L. Ripley, of Michigan, as Principal of th 
Normal Department, and of Mrs. Caroline E. Ripley as Principal c 
the Model School, and of Mis^Mary Brice Read — the latter a daugl 
ter of President Read — as Assistant in the Model School, wei 

By invitation, Hon. J. S. Rollins and Prof. G. C. Swallow, ad 
dressed the board on the subject of the location of the Agriciiltiin 
College \\\ connection with the University ; whereupon, on motion ( 
Mr. Russell, a comniittee — Russell, Case and Todd — were appoiutec 
in conjunction with Rollins and Swallow, to prepare and submit t 
the Legislature a bill locating said College in Columbia. Presidei 
Read was added to the committee. 

The chair of Ancient Languages and Literature (Matthews) wi 
declared vacant after the present collegiate year. 

Mr. Case offered the following, and it was unanimously adopted : - 

Reaolved, That in vacating the chair of Ancient Languages and Literature, to long a 
ably filled by Prof. George H. Matthews, the Board has been actuated strictly and solely 
convictions of duty to the University, believing that its interests will be thereby a 
vanced. That we regret exceedingly that Prof. Matthews' health is such as to have i 
paired his usefulness and render it imperative on us not longer to continue him in his cha 
and that we extend to him assurances of our high appreciation of his long, arduous a 
faithful services, recognizing him always as identified with the success and future grov 
and prosperity of the University. 

Mr. Nelson moved that the question of filling the chair of Ancic 
Languages and Literature be referred to a committee, to whom t 
testimonials of applicants shall be addressed, and whose report sh 
be made to the next meeting of the Board, which was adopted, a 
the following committee appointed : J. H. Baker, Booneville ; A. 
Conant, St. Louis ; Philemon Bliss, St. Joseph ; R. L. To( 

Meeting April 2, 1868, — Ex-President Minor presented a bill 
$5,694.45 against the University for arrears of salary and interc 
which was rejected. The Board, after various motions and mi 
discussion, proceeded to the election of a Professor of And 
Languages and Literature, with the following result : Rev. L. 
Vernon, 7 ; Rev. JohnM. Packer, 7. The Vice President, T. M. All 
acting as chairman — Moss Prewitt being absent — voted, to wh 




Mr. Baker entered his oral protest. There being a tie there was no 

On motion of Mr. Sutherland, the Librarian was instructed to sell 
as iraste paper the surplus addresses delivered in 1860 by ex-Presi- 
dent Minor and J. W. Tucker. 
D. W. B. Kurtz was declared Assistant Professor in the Normal 
I Department, at a salary of $1,000. Rev. Leroy M. Vernon, of 
Springfield, Mo., was elected Professor of Latin Language and 
Literature, and Kev. John M. Packer of Greek Language and Lit- 

The Executive Committee were authorized to make arransrenient 
for the cheap boarding of students by supplying them with rooms 
at a low rate of rent, if they can be had, or by building suitable 

Mr. Baker was authorized to correspond with the Secretary of War 
relative to the appointment of Gen. R. W. Johnson to the chair of 
Military Science in the University. ^ 

Meeting December 28 ^ 1868. — L. M. Vernon declined the pro- 
fessorship of Latin Language and Literature. 

The Executive Committee, having since the June meeting purchased 
ground and erected club boarding-houses thereon for the use of stu- 
dents, the Board approved their action. 

Maj. Gen. Johnson was designated by the Secretary of War as 
Professor of Military Science and assumed his duties at the beginning 
of the current session, and a uniform for the military cadets was 

The chair of Latin Language and Literature being vacant, the 
Greek professor was instructed to take charge of the instruction in 
Latin until otherwise ordered. 

Meeting in Jeffei'son Cityy January 27 ^ 1869, — President Read, 
in the hall of the House, at 7 o'clock p. m., addressed the Board and 
a large audience, chiefly on the subject of locating the Agricultural 
College at Columbia. Additional boarding cottages authorized to be 

Meeting June 29 y 1869, — J. S. Rollins elected President of the 
Boiird, and has occupied that position continuously to the present 
time — 1882. Gen. Johnson retired from the Professorship of Mili- 
itary Science, and resolutions highly complimentary to him were 
passed by the Board. 
Daniel Read re-elected President of the University for four years. 



After a four years' struggle in the Legislature against the unreason- 
able and inveterate prejudices of many of the party in power against 
the county of Boone, against a remarkable lack of information on the 
subject and a desire to fritter away the fund by appropriating to 
other objects, the Agricultural College, by an act approved February 
24, 1870, was finally located at Columbia, in connection with the 
State University. The contest was long and doubtful, and often 
characterized by great bitterness anji much partisan feeling, and it is 
but justice to say that but for the persistent efibrts, ability, tact and 
prudence of James S. Rollins, Senator from Boone district, aided and 
assisted by the watchful care and ceaseless energy and adroitness in 
debate of F. T. Russell, a member of the House from Boone -^ 
assisted by the able efibrts of Dr. Read, the President of the Uni- 
versity — the College never would have been located in Boone County 
Dr. Read, by learned and able discourses, aroused the Legislature t 
the importance of the College and the necessity of its connection wit! 
the University, and to him no small share of credit is due for th 
final triumph. 

The members from Boone, and especially Rollins and Russell, wer 
constant, in season and out of season, often discouraged by implacabi 
opposition and temporary defeats, but with an eye single to the oli 
ject in view, they finally achieved a Legislative victory, which fo 
Boone County, for the college itself, and for the State, is the greater 
in the history of their public careers. 

The opposition came from within and from without, from leadin 
men on the floor of both Houses, and from difiTerent parts of th 
State, who came to the capital to circumvent their efforts by plausibl 
schemes to divert the proceeds of the sales of the lands to objects nc 
contemplated by the Act of Congress, by giving a portion of it t 
Lincoln Institute, by providing that colored students should be adniitte 
both to the College and to the University, by threats to move th 
University from Columbia, and by numberless other amendments, to 
numerous to be stated here, to cripple or to defeat the propositioi 
The last one of the most formidable was to establish a Minins: Scho( 
in Southeast Missouri, in the mineral district, and to appropriate t 
it annually one-fourth of the proceeds of the sales of the lands ; sai 
school to be located by the curators in the county which shall donat 
to the State, for building and other purposes, not less than |20,000 i 


cash, nor less than twenty acres in land, on which to erect buildings^ 
mi lots of mineral landi in such quantity and kind as may be deemed 
necessary for said school for practical and experimental mining. Con* 
yinced that the College could not be located at all, and especially in 
connection with the State University, without this concession, the 
members from Boone and other true friends of the College, in a spirit 
of compromise, agreed to it, and the act was finally passed. 

The location, however, was not unconditional, for so great a benefit 
was not to be conferred upon the peo|)le of Boone County without 
their paying something for it. Therefore, the act provided that, by 
the second Monday of May next ensuing, in consideration of the per- 
manent location of the College in connection with the State University, 
thev wei'e to donate not less than $30,000 in cash, to be used in erect- 
ingsuch buildings and making such improvements as may be needed 
for the College, and in addition, to donate for a model or experimental 
farm not less than 640 acres of land, located convenient to the 
University grounds. And Boone County promptly complied with the 

considerations. ^ 

citizens' meeting. 

On Saturday evening, February 2(5, 1870, a public meeting was 
held in the University chapel, to take suitable action on the attainment 
of the great victoiy. 

On motion of A. J. Harbison, Gen. Odon Guitar was made Presi- 
dent of the meeting, and on motion of J. H. Waugh, C. P. Anderson 
and Lewis M. Switzler were made Secretaries. Gen. Guitar explained 
the ohjects of the meeting. He said that the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College was a great boon offered to us by the Legislature. 
We have now the opportunity of making our county a great educa- 
tional centre. The University has passed through a severe struggle, 
hut a ghu'ious success for it and for us all is now within our grasp. 
We have cherished this institution in times of peace and war, and 
though at times it has had scarcely a sufficient competency to sustain 
itself, it has nevertheless kept on, and will now emerge from all 
embarrassments as one of the first institutions of the country. 

('<>1. Russell moved that a committee of seven be appointed to draft 
and report resolutions for adoption by the meeting; carried, and the 
chair appointed the following on the committee: R. L. Todd, R. H. 
Smith, A. J. Harbison, David Gordon, J. L. Stephens, Jeff. Garth 
and James I. Hickman. 

The committee retired, and Maj. J. S. Rollins, being called for. 


appeared, and was greeted with applause, and delivered just such a 
speech as under the circumstances was eminently befitting him and 
the occasion. 


On Wednesday, March 16, 1870, a special session of the Boone 
County Court was held to take into consideration the location of the 
Agricultural College. All the judges were present — James Arnold, 
James Harris and John W. Hall. Although the day was unusually 
inclement, on account of the intense cold and a drifting snow, quite a 
respectable number of citizens were present. The court was addressed 
in favor of the requisite appropriations by Col. Switzler (who had 
just returned from Washington) and by Gen. Guitar. A meeting ol 
the citizens was then organized, of which W. F. Switzler was choser 
chairman and H. N. Cook secretary, to appoint a committee of citi- 
zens to act in conjunction with members of the Board of Curators it 
the selection of a farm site. The meeting was addressed by Jaraei 
L. Stephens in regard to the importance of the College to our county 
and urging prompt and liberal action on the part of the court. H< 
moved that Henry Keene, John Machir and Joel H. Haden b< 
appointed the committee on the part of the citizens. Motion carried 
On motion Boyle Gordon and James L. Stephens were added to th 
committee. ^ 

On Monday, March 21, the County C^urt, all the judges bein 
present, had another meeting, and heard the suggestions of all citi 
zens who chose to address them in reference to the selection and pui 
chase of the agricultural farm. 

R. L. Todd, one of the local Board of Curators, and J. L. Stc 
phens,from the committee of citizens appointed at the meeting onth 
16th, submitted to the court a number of facts in regard to lands an 
their probable cost, which might be selected for the farm. Thes 
embraced quite a numl)er of combinations or plats of ground, eac 
containing six hundred and forty acres, and their estimated cost, vary 
ing from"$()2,000 to $108,000. 

As, under the law, the local Board of Curators, R. L. Todd, J. S 
Rollins, Paul Hubbard, T. M. Allen and F. T. Russell, are authorize 
to receive subscriptions and purchase the lands, the court, after heai 
ing the subject fully discussed, deemed it wisest to make no furtbe 
order until this board, which has a legal existence under the act, re 
ports to the court the lands they prefer and the lowest sum at whici 
they can be purchased. 


The court then adjourned to meet at its regular session on Monday, 
ipril 4th, on which day the further consideration of the subject was 
postponed until Monday, April 11, when Maj. Rollins, on behalf of 
the Curators, presented to the court a report embodying several cora- 
binatioiis of lands. Mr. J. L. Stephens presented one combination, 
embodying chiefly the Garth farm. 

The court then unanimously made an appropriation of $30,000 to 
purchase the agricultural farm, leaving the selection of the land to 
the local Board of Curators. This appropriation, added to the one of 
$50,000 made by the court on the 16th ult., makes $80,000 appro- 
priated by the court. Adding the $10,000 appropriated by the cor- 
poration of Columbia, makes the total amount $90,000. The bonds 
are one-twenty years bonds and bear ten per cent interest, payable 
semi-annually. It was understood the owners of any land that may 
be purchased were to be paid in bonds for their land. 

The local Board of Curators made two reports to the court, pre- 
senting in all eight combinations of land of 640 acres each, and the 
prices at which they could be purchased. The court finally made a 
selection of the tract or combination, which the Commissioners ac- 
cepted, and thus closed the long contest. 


On Tuesday, May 3, 1870, a majority of the State Commissioners, 
namely, Edward Wyman, of St. Louis ; Philemon Bliss, of St. Joseph ; 
J. W. Matthias, of Springfield, and R. L. Todd and Paul Hubbard, of 
Columbia, met in Columbia to discharge the duties assigned them by 
law in regard to the acceptance or rejection of the lands offered by 
Boone County for a model or experimental farm for the Agricultural 

The lands offered, six hundred and forty acres, consist of twelve 
acres bought of Prof. G. C. Swallow, twenty acres of Mr. T. J. Mc- 
Clellan, about one hundred and eighty-three acres of the Hudson 
tract, west of Hinkston Creek, and including the fine residence 
thereon, and the remainder, about four hundred and twenty-four 
acres of Major Rollins, all of which lies east of the Providence road, 
excluding about thirty acres around his residence, and including the 
vineyard and garden on the Hinkston. 

The lands and titles were minutely examined, and unanimously and 

Without hesitation accepted, thus finally consummating the work and 


struggle of years, and permanently locating the Agricultural andM 
chanical College in the county of Boone. 

Neither Mr. H. B. Johnson, the Attorney General, nor Mr. T. - 
Parker, Superintendent of Public Instruction, were present, bo 
being absent from Jefferson City when the notice of the meeting 
the Commissioners reached there. 

But the Agricultural College is located, finally and forever, ai 
the fact goes into history. 

Meeting of the Curators on May 5, 1870, — On motion of Mr. Ru 
sell, a committee of five was appointed — Conant, Northcott, Russel 
Read and Orrick — to locate the School of Mines, as provided in tl 
act of the Legislature. The President, Mr. Rollins, was added to tl 

Judge Jas. Harris, of Boone County, and Dr. L. D. Morse, of Kir: 
wood, were elected by the Board to inspect and appraise the Agricu 
tural College Uinds, note the character of soil, amount of stone ai 
timber on it, etc., and see if the full amount of land to which tl 
State is entitled under the act of Congress has been selected, and 
report. Pay, $6 per day. 

A committee, consisting of Edw. Wyman, Dr. Reed, J. W. Ma 
thias, F. T. Russell and R. L. Todd, was appointed to revise tl 
various courses o£ study in the University, and the rules and regul 
tions connected therewith, so as to adapt the same to the courses 
agricultural and mechanical education. 


J. W. Sutherland was elected Land Commissioner, and resigned t 
place as member of the Board. • 

The following resolution was adopted : — 

Resolved^ That with a view to the entire and complete reorganization of the Univen^ 
and its proper connection and adjustment with the Agricultural Department, the seats of 
instructors and professors, other than the President, are held and declared vacant from s 
after the close of the session of the University in June, 1871. 


On motion of Mr. Russell, a committee of three (consisting 
Messrs. Northcott, Wyman and Todd) was appointed to arrange ^ 
Mr. A. J. Conant, the St. Louis artist, for the painting of a porti 
of President Read, the same to be suspended in a suitable place in 
chapel of the University. 




A communication from James S. Rollins and F. T. Russell was read 
to the Board, tendering, on behalf of the citizens of Columbia, pho- 
tographic portraits of those members of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives of the General Assembly of the State of Missouri who 
voted for the bill providing for the organization of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College and its connection with the University of the 
State established h^'e ; and also a photographic likeness of His Ex- 
cellency, Gov. McClurg, who approved the bill, and of Lieut. Gov. 
Stanard, and a few other gentlemen, who aided in the passage of the 

These i>ortraits are properly framed, were accepted by the Board, 
aad DOW grace the walls of the library. 

JMeeting September 2y 1870. — The thanks of the Board were voted 
to Hon. M. E. Fuller, of Madison, Wisconsin, for Ward's celebrated 
reaper and mower, and to Messrs. Stewart & Needham, of St. Louis, 
for the Climax reaper and mower, both of which were generously 
donated by those liberal-hearted gentlemen to the Agricultural De- 
partment of the University. 

Prof. E*. A. Haiffht's resiornatioii as Assistant Professor in the Nor- 
naul Department, to take effect August 5th, was accepted, he having 
been elected to superintend a school in Alton, Illinois. 

The offices of business agent for the University, and of farm su- 
perintendent, were created, the selection of officers to fill them being 
left to the Executive Committee. Dr. Paul Hubbard was elected 
business manager, and O. A. A. Gardner, farm superintendent. On 
motion of Mr. Conant, the Board resolved to build a Scientific Hall, 
at a cost not to exceed $20,000, the details of the work — plan- 
ning, locating, contracting, etc. — to be left to the Executive Com- 
mittee. ^ 

The Chair of Agriculture was established, and Prof. George C. 
Swallow, of Columbia, was elected to fill it. 

A farm committee, consisting of Hon. H. T. Mudd, Hon. J. S. 
Rollins, and Dr. P. Hubbard, was appointed to take charge of every- 
thing pertaining to the Agricultural Farm. 

Meeting December 20^ 1870. — President Eead, from the committee 
appointed by the Board of Curators on the reorganization of the 
University, and the adaptation and harmonizing of its various course* 
of studies, so as to meet the requirements of the act of Congress,. 





A GommaDication from James S. Rollins and F. T. Russell was read 
to the Board, tendering, on behalf of the citizens of Columbia, pho- 
tographic portraits of those members of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives of the Grenenil Assembly of the State of Missouri who 
Yoted for the bill providing for the organization of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College and its connection with the University of the 
State established h^e ; and also a photographic likeness of His Ex- 
cellency, Gov. McClurg, who approved the bill, and of Lieut. Gov. 
Stanard, and a few other gentlemen, who aided in the passage of the 

These i>ortrait8 are properly framed, were accepted by the Board, 
and now grace the walls of the library. 

Meeting September 5, 1870. — The thanks of the Board were voted 
to Hon. M. E. Fuller, of Madison, Wisconsin, for Ward's celebrated 
reaper aad mower, and to Messrs. Stewart & Needham, of St. Louis, 
for the Climax reaper and mower, both of which were generously 
donated by those liberal-hearted gentlemen to the Agricultural De- 
partment of the University. 

Prof. E*. A. Haio:ht's resignation as Assistant Professor in the Nor- 
mal Department, to take effect August 5th, was accepted, he having 
been elected to superintend a school in Alton, Illinois. 

The offices of business agent for the University, and of farm su- 
perintendent, were created, the selection of officers to fill them being 
left to the Executive Committee. Dr. Paul Htibbard was elected 
business manager, and O. A. A. Gardner, farm superintendent. On 
niotion of Mr. Conant, the Board resolved to build a Scientific Hall, 
*t a cost not to exceed $20,000, the details of the work — plan- 
Jiing, locating, contracting, etc. — to be left to the Executive Com- 
mittee. ^ 

The Chair of Agriculture was established, and Prof. George C. 
Swallow, of Columbia, was elected to fill it. 

A farm committee, consisting of Hon. H. T. Mudd, Hon. J. S. 
RolliDs, and Dr. P. Hubbard, was appointed to take charge of every- 
thing pertaining to the Agi'icultural Farm. 

Meeting December 20^ 1870. — President Eead, from the committee 
appointed by the Board of Curators on the reorganization of the 
University, and the adaptation and harmonizing of its various courses 
^f studies, so as to meet the requirements of the act of Congress^ 


**The long line which deployed from the point of departure on Wal- 
nut Street, the gorgeous regalia of the Knights and members of the 
Chapter and Royal Arch, and the brilliant banners which glittered in 
the sunlight, added to the inspiring music of the band, and the 
great crowds which thronged the sidewalks, made up a magnificent 


•'Arriving at the site of the new Scientific Building, the grand and 
impressive ceremony of laying the corner stone was entered upon it 
the presence of an auditory numbering from three to five thousand 
The Knights Templar sei-ved as vanguard and as escort for Governo 
B. Gratz Brown and the officers of the Grand Lodge of Missouri 
Surrounding the northeast corner of the building, M. W. Thomas E 
Garrett, of St. Louis, called to order and said that before enterin; 
upon any great work, it was our duty to invoke the aid and approva 
of the Deity, whereupon Rev. E. S. Dulin, G. C, and President o 
Stephens College, ofiered a prayer. Following this, under the direc 
tion of M. W. Thos. E. Garrett, assisted by R. W. D. G. M. Johi 
D. Vincil, R. W. S. G. W. Oren Root, Jr., of Carrollton, R. W. J 
G. W. John R. Walker of Bates, and James A. Adams, principal archi 
tect, the solemn and impressive ceremonies of laying the corner ston 
were entered upon and completed. Mr. John Campbell, superintec 
dent of the work on the foundation, plied the mortar and assiste 
the principal architect in adjusting the corner stone to its plac< 
Dr. Paul Hubbard, one of the Curators of the University, d< 
posited the copper box, hermetically sealed, in the place provide 
for it. 

*'The contents of the box were as follows : — 



" Report of the Committee on the Reorganization and Enlargement of the State Univerait; 
presented to the Board of Curators, at their meeting December 20, 1S70; catalogue of tl 
State University for 1870-71 ; programme of annual commencement, 1871 ; copy of pr 
gramme Fifth Case prize declamation ; copy of programme Stephens Prize Medal ; repo 
of Curators to the Twenty-Fifth General Assembly, 1869. 


** D&\] J Republican^ June 27, 1871; Daily Democrat, diiio ; Dafly 7Vme«, ditto; Dai 
Sun, ditto; Daily Wesiliche Post, ditto; Daily Ameigcr des Westena, ditto; Daily DUpatc 
June 26 ; Journal of Education for June ; Western Educational Review for June ; PeopU 
Journal for June; Ladies^ Magazine for June; Home Journal for June 24th; Colman 
Rural World for June 24 ; Medical and Surgical Journal for March ; Illustrated Joum* 
of Agriculture; Western Celt; Western Watchman, June 24 ; Christian Advocate, Jui 


21; Ceniral BaptUt^ June 22: Old School Presbyterian, June 28; Central CTirUtian Adco- 
teU: hda; Pbtt Office Bulletin for May; The Future Great City of the World, by R. U. 
Renk; St Loaii BkMee, June 25. 



'^MifsoaTi Staieeman, June 28; Columbia Herald^ June 22; Sturgeon Leader, June 24; 
Boeheport Enierprieey June 28 ; Centralia Guard, June 24 ; Univeraity Mieeourian for June. 



"Nttional Flag, contributed by Lewis M. Switzler; copy of check of Boone County Na- 
tioDil Btnk of Columbia; two 25 and two 10 cents U. S. currency and two nickels contrib- 
atadbjR. B. Price; copy of check of Exchange National Bank of Columbia; $1 note of 
iti circQlstion ; 50 cents U. S. currency ; 25-cent gold piece ; 25 cents in silver, contributed 
bjJ.E Waugh; 1 bottle Cohosh and tar, 1 box 888 pills, 1 bottle stimulating cream and 1 
boztuteless worm powders, contributed by J. S. Dorsey ; names of the Building Commit- 
tee ind of the builders and architect. 

"The corner stone being in its place, the proper officers of the Grand 
Lodge respectively applied the square, level and plumb, and reported 
the workmen had done their duty well. Then followed the cere- 
mony, which we sincerely wish the vast concourse could have heard 
ind witnessed, of applying the elements of consecration ; the corn 
as an emblem of plenty, the wine as an emblem of joy and gladness, 
the oil as an emblem of peace. 

"After the grand honors of the order and a short and most befitting 
address by Most Worshipful Garrett, an adjournment was had to the 
portico of the University to hear the 


"This was preceded by a brief historical reference by President Read, 
to the occasion of laying the corner stone of the University, July 4, 
1840, and to the address made by Gen. James L. Minor, then and 
now an honored citizen -of Jefferson City. 

" Gov. Brown's speech was short. He briefly reviewed the growth 
and progress of the University, his consistent and unfaltering friend- 
ship for it, and the high hopes he entertained of its rapid develop- 
ment and great destiny. He maintained that all the interests and 
agencies of humanity had ** new departures," and that education it- 
self formed no exception to the rule. Progress was the watchword 
of the world, and the world was becoming more practical. So was 
education. Hitherto science had not kept pace with the practical 
economy of the times and the wants of practical men. It had at- 
tempted too much to theorize and theologize for the world. It is 
now happily having a new departure in the recognition of the true 


philosophy of life and of its own mission. The Governor commented 
upon the great responsibility resting upon the people of Boone county 
growing out of the location in their midst of the State institutions of 
learning and two great female colleges. Here, he said, you in large 
measure train the men and matrons of the State, the bloom of after- 
time, and great is your responsibility. After testifying his confidence 
that our people would bravely meet and fully discharge this responsi- 
bility, he concluded amid the applause of the great concourse." 

The contract for the erection of the scientific building was made 
with McAlister, Adams & Co., of Columbia, at $45,507.25, and thei 
completed the building in 1872. 

Meeting June 27, 1871.— John H. Ovenill was employed to col 
leot a claim against the State for one and three-fourths per cent o 
seventy-five per cent of the revenue heretofore returned as delinquent 
but afterwards collected. 

Professors Norwood, Packer, Ficklin, Swallow and Ripley were re 
elected into the respective positions now held by them, at a salary a 
$2,000 per annum. Prof. Kurtz was elected Assistant Professor o 
the Preparatory Department ; Mrs. Ripley Assistant Professor in th 
Normal School, and Miss Mary Read Principal of the Model School 
The Executive Committee, consisting of the resident members of th 
Board, was authorized to fill the chair of English Literature. 

John H. Overall was elected Professor of the Law Department ( 
the University at a salary of $2,000, and arrangements were made t 
secure distinguished legal gentlemen to deliver lectures in this depar 


Meeting December 12, 1871. — Mr. Essex, from the Committee c 
Agricultural Lands, made a report in writing in regard to their con^ 
tion, value, etc. These lands are located chiefly in the counties < 
Newton, Crawford, Texas, Cedar, Phelps, Ripley and Butler, mac 
of them very valuable for their pine timber and for their iron an 
lead deposits. Many of the tracts were marked on the plats as '* r< 
served" from sale or lease on account of their mineral indication 
especially a tract in Phelps known as the *' Lenox '* tract. The fine 
spring in Southwest Missouri is on one tract in Newton, near the vi 
lage of Richville. 

A resolution was passed requesting C. P. Will|ams, Director of U; 
School of Mines, and Mr. Pumpelly, State Geologist, to examine ti 
lands presumed to be more than ordinarily valuable because of the 


mineral deposits and report to the Committee on Lands. Also, that 
none of these lands shall be sold or leased unless so ordered by the 
Board of Curators. 


The secretary read the following communication from Hon. J. S. 

Bollius: — 

University Edifice, December 14, 1871. 

TotkeH<m. Elijah Perry, Vice' President of the Board of Curators of the State University » 

DurSik: I ask, through you, the privilege of presenting to the Curators of the Univer- 
dtj.u) oil portrait of my venerable father, the late Dr. Anthony Wayne Rollins, to be per- 
BuaenUy placed in the University building. 

He wu a Curator of the institution from 1840 to 1842 — was one of its earliest benefactors, 
alwtjs its zealous and faithful friend, as well as the friend of common school education. 

Feeling himself all the inconveniences in early life, resulting from poverty, he made some 
proriiioQ in aid of the education of youth similarly situated, who might desire to obtain a 
oollege education. 

This portrait is a most faithful and accurate likeness of my father. It was painted by 
George C. Bingham, Esq., the distinguished ** Missouri artist," and who for many years was 
hia warm personal friend. 

Truiting that the gentlemen of the Board will regard this as not an inappropriate contri- 
botioD to the University as a work of art, no less than evincing a laudable desire on my part 
to keep fresh in the memory of the living the services in the cause of education and the 
p«nonal virtues of the <« faithful dead,'' 

I remain, with very high regard, your obedient servant, 

•Tamxs B. Rollins. 

Whereupon, Mr. Switzler offered the following resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted : — 

SmUed, That the portrait this day presented to the University by the Hon. James S. 
Bollini, President of the Board, of his father, Anthony Wayne Rollins, deceased, who was 
formerly a member of this Board, and during his life the steady fViend and patron of the 
inttitotion, is accepted, and that the thanks of the Board are hereby tendered to the donor 
&rthii tppropriate and handsome gift. 

^Ivcd, That the letter of Major Rollins accompanyinc: this donation, be placed by the 
••cretary on his records, and that the portrait, for the present, be suspended in some suitable 
place in the Library Hall. 

The introduction of these resolutions was followed by remarks touch- 
ing the life and character of Dr. Rollins, by Messrs. Switzler and 
^nant, Mr. Conant concluding by offering the following resolution, 
which was adopted : — 

^Ived, That Mr. Switzler be requested to prepare for publication a sketch of the life 
of Dr. A. W. Rollins, and that it be placed on the records of the Board. 

Which was done. 

Meeting May <9, 1872. — John W. Harris, of Boone, offered a gold 


medal worth $50 to any member of the senior class who would pre- 
sent the best essay on the best breeds of cows for dairy purposes. 
This premium to be perpetual and awarded every year, to be called 
^'The Harris Gold Medal." Liberal premiums were also offered by 
Prof. Swallow and Mr. Geo. F. Barr, of Quincy, III., to studeuts ia 
the agricultural department. 

The Executive Committee of the School of Mines, at RoUa, were 
authorized to lease in the public school building the necessary rooms 
for said school. 

• Maj. J. W. McMurray, professor of military tactics, recommeiidec 
a uniform for the cadets, which was adopted. 

On nomination of Maj. Rollins, Mr. Boyle Gordon, of this place 
was unanimously elected (in addition to Mr. Jno. H. Overall) a la^ 
professor in the University. 

On Wednesday night, May 8, 1872, in the chapel of the Stafc 
University, and before a large and brilliant audience and the Board a 
Curators, an exhibition of the junior class took place. During th 
retirement of the committee to consider of the award of prizes, th 
large auditory were relieved and much interested in a proceeding no 
on the programme, namely, the public presentation to Hon. James S 
Rollins of the thanks of the faculty and students of the University fo 
his great services to that institution. President Read, on behalf c 
the faculty and Henry W. Ewing, on behalf of the students, each i 
very appropriate remarks, read the resolutions which had been passec 
lifter which Maj. Rollins was called for and responded to the hig 
compliments paid him, in most felicitous and appropriate terms, hi 
address frequently eliciting the rapturous plaudits of the large auditorj 

On the next day. May 9, 1872, the Board of Curators being i 
session. Prof. Edward Wyman, of St. Louis, offered a resolution an 
preamble, in which he lauded the labors of Maj. Rollins for what h 
had done on behalf of the University, and applied to him the soiibr 
quel of '* Pater Universitatis Missouriensis^^ — a most deservin 
appellation, the honors of which all are ready to accord him. 

Prof. Wyman accompanied the presentation of this testimonial b 
a few remarks, in which he embodied a brief recital of the great an 
long-continued services of Maj. Rollins in behalf of the commo 
schools of the State and of the University. 

Resuming his seat, the preamble and resolutions were seconded b 
Rev. John D. Vincil and Col. W. F. Switzler, the latter of whoi 
briefly addressed the Board in review of the self-sacrificing and ui 


iligging labors of Maj. Rollins, embracing a period of more than 
thirty jean, to aid in achieving for the State a high destiny. 

The resolutioivs passed unanimously. 

Meeting June 26 j 1872. — Mr. John H. Overall, owing to ill health 
and a contemplated tour to the mountains, tendered his resignation of 
Law Professor, which was accepted. Boyle Oordon also resigned. 

Mr. Charles Daschel, of Jeflferson City, presented to the University 
a miniature steam engine, manufactured by himself, and a very neat 
aod perfect machine, in good working order, on the condition that a 
teD-dollar prize be annually oflfered for excellence in physics, which 
was accepted, and the thanks of the Board was tendered the donor 
aod the prize denominated the <* Daschel Prize." 

Prof. Kurtz, having accepted the principalship of the Montgomery 
Oitj High School, tendered his resignation of assistant in the College 
of Normal Instruction. 

The Board went into executive session, for the purpose of electing 
teachers and professors, to hold their offices for one year, dating from 
J0I7 1, 1872, and until otherwise ordered by the Board. The election 
was conducted by ballot. 

The foHowing were unanimously elected on the first ballot : Jos. G. 
Norwood, M. D., Professor of Natural Science and Natural Philoso- 
phy; Jos. Ficklin, A. M., Professor of Mathematics, Mechanical 
Philosophy and Astronomy; G. C. Swallow, A. M., M. D., Professor 
of Agriculture, Geology and Botany; E. L. Ripley, Principal of the 
College of Normal Instruction ; Mrs. C. A. Ripley, Assistant in 
Department of Normal and Preparatory Instruction ; J. W. Abert, 
Professor of Applied Mathematics and Civil Engineering in School of 
Hines and Metallurgy at RoUa. 

On motion of Mr. Matthias it was resolved : That the chair of 
Ancient Languages and Literature be divided as follows : 1st. Pro- 
fessor of Greek Language and Literature; 2d. Professor of Latin 
Language and Literature ; and that the said professors shall have full 
<!ontrol of, and be responsible for, the instruction in the respective lan- 
guages in all departments of the University. The salaries of said 
Professors was fixed at $2,000 per year, each. The salary of Mrs. 
C* A. Ripley was fixed at $1,250 per annum. 

The Board adjourned, to meet at RoUa on the Fourth Tuesday in 

A full length portrait of the late Edward Bates, of St. Louis, was 
presented to the board by James B. Eads and Charles Gibson. 


Meeting of the Board at Rolla j. August 27 y 1872. — The following 
professors were chosen to the vacant professorships in the University : 
Paul Schweitzer, Ph. D., of Columbia College School of Mines, N. 
Y., to the chair of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. 

Edward H. Twining, late of the University of Minnesota, to the 
chair of Latin. 

James K. Hosmer, a Harvard graduate, now a professor in Antiocl 
College, Ohio, a well-known writer and accomplished litterateur^ t 
the chair of English Literature and Rhetoric. 

John M. 'Leonard, Ph. D., of Carlisle, Pa., an experience 
teacher, who has just returned from a residence of seven years in Cor 
tinental universities, to the chair of Greek. 

The Board also elected Judge Philemon Bliss, of St. Joseph, of tt 
Supreme Court, and the Hon. Boyle Gordon, of Columbia, as pw 
fessors in the Law Deparment, which is to open on the first Monday < 
October, Judge Bliss to act as Dean of the Law Faculty. 

Meeting December 10 ^ 1872. — Messrs. Vincil, Hubbard and Tod 
made a report in regard to the proposed Medical Deparment, in whic 
they em!)odied the valuable suggestion and liberal proposition of Dn 
A. W. McAlester and T. Allen Arnold, and strongly recommendin 
the inauguration of that department at the opening of the no 
semester, which was agreed to, with a full corps of instructors, i 
follows : — 

Professor of Anatomy and Surgery and Materia Medica, A. W. McAlester, M. D. 

Professor of Obstetrics, Diseases of Women and Children, and Pratice, Thomas All 
Arnold, M. D. 

Professor of Chemistry, Medical Jurisprudence and Institutes of Medicine, J. G. Nc 
wood, M. D. 

Professor of Botany, Comparative Anatomy and Comparative Physiology, George 
Swallow. M. D. 

Professor of Pharmacy and Toxicology, Paul Schweitzer, M. D. 

The Executive Committee were authorized to expend a sum not e; 
ceeding $5,000, in the erection of club houses, and Switzler ai 
Hubbard were appointed a committee to caiTy out the order. Und 
this order the two frame club houses were erected on the street lea< 
ing to the Fair Grounds. 

Meeting June 24^ 1873. — An account for $400, in favor of Gen. ( 
Guitar, was presented, for legal services in the case of ex-Presidei 
Minor, who had brought suit against the University for arrears 

The sum of $1,000 was appropriated to the Medical Departmen 


to be expended under the direction of Dr. A. W. McAlester, who was 
then in Europe. 

Scott RsLjes was elected Assistant Professor in the Agricultural 

The chair of Modern Languages was established, and Miss Mary 
B. Read, who was then in Europe, was elected teacher of Modem 
Languages, at a salary of $1,200 per year, to commence when she en- 
ters upon the duties of the position. 

R. B. Price was elected Treasurer of the Board. Vote : R. B. 
Price, 10; J. H. Waugh, 9. 


A communication was presented from R. B. Price, J. T. McBaine, 
J. W. Harris, John Machir, W. F. Switzler, James L. Stephens, 
James Harris, J. K. Rogers Joel H. Hayden, David Ouitar and J. Th. 
Fjfer, committee, tendering the Board a life-sized portrait of Hon* 
J. S. Rollins, by Geo. C. Bingham, to be placed in some proper 
place in the building. 

On motion of Mr. Conant, of St. Louis, the communication -was 
referred to a special committee, who was charged with the duty of 
preparing suitable resolutions. Committee : A. J. Condnt, of St. 
Louis, J. F. Weilandy, of Jeflferson City, and J. W. Barrett, of 

At two o'clock a large number of citizens and strangers, among 
them many ladies, met the Board in the Library Hall, where the 
formal presentation took place. 

The Board being called to order by the vice-president, Judge Perry, 
the communication of the citizens' committee and the resolutions of 
the Board were read by Mr. Todd, the secretary. The St. Louis 
-Omocra^'« report says : '* Col. Switzler then made formal presentation 
of the elegant portrait of Major Rollins, and in an eloquent and feel- 
ing manner referred to the faithful, earnest and efficient services of 
Major Rollins for thirty-five years past in the cause of the University 
and of popular education. This necessarily caused reference to the 
history of the University, the struggles and trials attending its loca- 
tion, erection and organization, and the sacrifices, labors and contri- 
hutious of those who aided in founding tliis institution. 

**In responding on behalf of the Board, Mr. Conant referred to the 
distinguished services of Maj. Rollins, to the extended influence which 
his hibors would have on the thousands who go from this institution 


into the various walks of life throughout our land ;• who, in the intel 
ligent discharge of the duties of citizenship, should through all timi 
continue the movements of the wisdom in design and the success at 
tending the efforts of Major Rollins and his co-laborers, in their effort 
to promote the cause of general education. 

'* Major Rollins, being called, responded eloquently, acknowledgin 
a very high sense of the honor conferred on him in the kind partialit 
of those friends who had inaugurated this presentation, and the favoi 
able mention made of his efforts in the cause of education, on th 
occasion. In a somewhat extended address, he referred to the educ 
tional institutions of the land — public, private, and denominational - 
and in most eloquent terms pleaded that closer union, warm symp 
thy, and friendly co-operation should exist between them, and that : 
should have the generous support and aid of the State and of the pe 
pie ev^y where." 

These proceedings and the addresses delivered were aflerwan 
published in pamphlet form. 


On motion of Col. Switzler, it was resolved that the Secretary 
the Board be instructed to prepare and record in alphabetical order, 
an appendix to the journal of the Board, the names of the citizens 
Boone County who, in 1839, subscribed sums of money and oth 
property to secure the location of the State University at Columbi 
together with the amounts thus subscribed. 

Meeting December 9, 1873: — Mr. Rollins reported from the E 
ecutive Committee that the claims of O. Guitar and B. and W. G( 
don, for legal services, had been adjusted and paid. 

The subject of the election of a successor to President Read, who 
term of office expired June 30, 1874, was postponed till the next 8< 
sion, which was held at RoUa on Tuesday, March 31, 1874. 

Meeting at Rolla^ March 31^ 1874. — President Read was re-elect 
President of the University for one year from the 30th of Jun 
1874 — 15 to 5, as follows : — 

Teas — J. W. Barrett, J. C. Cravens, A. J. Conant, W. T. Essex, John W. Harris, 
Hubbard, W. T. Lenoir, Josh LaDue, Henry T. Mudd, Elijah Perry, Henry Smith, W. 
Switzler, Edward Wymiin, Samuel G. Williams, J.W.Wielandy — 15 

Nats — A. M. Dockery, H. Clay Ewing, C. P. Jones, E. W. Stephens, Squire Turner.— 

A committee was appointed, consisting of Wyman, Rollins ai 
Jones, to open correspondence with the view of securing a prop 


person to succeed Dr. Read, after the termination of his office on 
Jane 30, 1875. ' 

Meeting June 23 ^ 1874. — Prof. J. K. Hosmer t Adered his resigna- 
tion of the chair of English and history, wherenpon S. S. Hamill, 
then professor of elocution and English literature in the State Normal 
Sehool, at Kirksville, was elected his successor. 

The Hudson Mansion was set apart as a Woman's College Home and 
tlie Executive Committee instructed to make the needed repairs and 
r^nt the property to such party as will carry out the purpose. 

2\Ieeting December <9, 1874, — Mr. LaDue presented the testimonials 

of Rev. W. M. Leftwich, D. D., of St. Louis, a candidate for the 

I^rcsidency of the University, which were referred to the special com- 

ittee — Wyman, Rollins and Jones. Mr. Switzler, from the special 

mmittee on repairs of the Hudson Mansion and the preparation and 

ftirnishing the ladies' parlor of the University, made a report as to 

'^'tat had been done and the cost of the same. 


The status of the School of Mines, under the decision of the Supreme 
Court, deciding the $75,000 of Phelps County bonds to be illegal and 
Void, was largely discussed and a variety of opinions given as to the 
best means of advancing the prosperity of that department of the 
University. The prevailing opinion of the lawyers on the Board 
seemed to be that the adverse decision of the Supreme Court did not 
unsettle the location of the school at Rolla, some of them maintaining 
that its location at that place had received repeated Legislative recog- 
nition, and that the Board of Curators or the State had recourse 
against the County of Phelps for the $75,000 which the county had 
promised to pay, but which it never has paid. 

Mr. Ewing offered a resolution instructing the committee appointed 
at the last meeting of the Board to confer with the public school 
authorities at Rolla, and if it can be done on acceptable terms, to pur- 
chase the school building for the School of Mines ; that the treasurer 
deliver to said committee such number of the State bonds under the 
act of March 29, 1872, as may be necessary to make the first pay- 
ment. Resolution passed. 


Mr. Rollins, from the committee appointed at the Rolla session to 


seek and ascertain by correspondence and otherwise, a suitable per 
son to fill the office of President, to succeed the present incumbent ii 
June, 1875, repdtted that they had, with this view, attended last 
August, at Detroit, a session of the National Association for the pro- 
motion of science and held extensive correspondence with the educ^- 
tors of the country, but had been unable to find a person more suitable 
for the position than Dr, Read; therefore, they recommended his re- 
election from July 1, 1875, to July 4, 1876. 

Mr. Smith moved that the President's salary, after July, 1875, be 
fixed at $3,000 per annum, with the use of the President's Mansion 
and grounds thereto belonging free of charge. Mr. Conant moved to 
amend by making the salary $3,600, which was seconded by Mr. Cole- 
man. Mr. LaDue moved to amend the amendment by making i 
$4,000, which was lost. Mr. Conant's amendment was passed. 

On motion of Mr. Wielandy the Board proceeded to elect, by ba 
lot, a President for one year, ending July 4, 1876. Mr. SwitzU 
nominated Dr. Daniel Read and Mr. Turner the Rev. W. M. Lef 
wich, D. D., of St. Louis. Ballot — Read, 12; Leftwich, 7. O 
motion of Mr. Conant, the election was declared unanimous. 

While this election was pending on Wednesday night — the BoaJ 

at the time holding its session in Library Hall — a shower of ston< 

was precipitated with a crash through one of the windows near whic 

the members of the Board were seated. Therefore Mr. Switzler iiitr* 
duced a resolution requesting the trustees and marshal of Columl^ 

and the Faculty of the University to take such steps as they may dee 

best to discover, arrest, and bring to trial and punishment the peri>" 

trators of the outrage. Passed. 

Meeting April 13, 1875. — The Board proceeded to divide ther": 
selves into three classes, as required by act March 23, 1875, with tl 
following result : — 

To go out of office April 1, 1877 — Cravens, Hutton, Headlee, aw 

To go out April 1, 1879 — Colman, Ewing, Flood, and Glenn. 

To go out April 1, 1881 — Clarkson, Collier, Hinton, LaDue a-i 

Mr. Rollins was re-elected President, Mr. Todd, Secretary, a- 
Mr. Price, Treasurer of the Board. 

On motion of Mr. Hinton, a committee was appointed to memo 
ize the Constitutional Convention, which was to meet in Jefferson 
May 5, with the view of securing such provisions in the amended 0<: 


stitotion as will place the institution on a more permanent basis, and 
require for it suitable support ; that this committee appear in person 
before the proper committee of the convention, in aid of the interests 
of the University as a part of the educational policy of the State* 
Committee: Colman, LaDue and Rollins. 

Oil motion of Mr. Colman, a committee of three were appointed — 
the President of the Board, Mr. Rollins, to be one of them — to cor- 
respond with the view of securing a President for the University to 
succeed Dr. Read. Committee: Rollins, Colman, and Lakenan. 

Mr. Glenn offered a resolution ratifying the purchase, at $35,000, 
of the Rolla school building, which had been made by a committee un- 
der the authority of the Board. 

Dr. W. T. Maupin's proposition to rent the Hudson mansion for 
fi?e years, for a female infirmary, and the lunds attached, was de- 

Mr. LaDue, from the committee on the purchase of the Rolla school 
bnildiDg, introduced the following resolution : — 

huduA^ Thftt the Executive Committee of the Rolla School of Mines be, and it is hereby 
lotborized to make the first payment of $6,000, by delivering five hundred of the Missouri 
nx per cent bonds now in the hands of A. Dumuth, Treasurer, on the purchase of the pub- 
lie ichool building at Rolla; and the President of the Board be, and is hereby authorized to 
Bain, execute, and deliver the necessary notes and trust-deeds on said buildings, and landt 
OBDoected therewith, to the Board of Education of the city of Rolla, to secure the remaining 
psjments fur said building. 

After considerable discussion, the resolution was adopted : — 

Atsb — Colman, Clarkson, Collier, Glenn, Headlee, Hinton, Lakenan and LaDue — 8. 
^ATs —Flood, Button, and Rollins— 8. 

Meeting June 22 ^ 1873. — A Professorship of Geology was estab- 
'ished ill the School of Mines. 


^r. Rogers, on behalf of alumni of the University, presented the 
"**^ard with an oil portrait of the late Prof. George H. Matthews, by 
''^iss Forbes, a member of the faculty of Christian College, which 
^^ accepted in appropriate remarks by Mr. Rollins, the President. 

Meeting October 27 ^ 1875, — The resignation of Miss Mary B. Read, 
^^cher of German and French, was tendered, to take effect on De- 
^^mber 14 next. Prof. B. S. Newland, of Paris, Mo., was chosen to 
^*l out the remainder of the collegiate year. 



The names of quite a number of eminent educators and scholars wer 
before the board, who, after mature deliberation, unanimously concurre 
in electing, for four years from July 4, 1876, Dr. S. S. Laws, of Nei 
York City, and for many years before the war President of Westmin 
ister College, at Fulton, Missouri. 

The executive committee were instructed to adopt the necessar 
measures to have the University, Agricultural College and School c 
Mines properly presented at the Centennial. Some important step 
had alread}'^ been taken in this direction. Prof. Ripley, who seeme 
alive to the importance of the work, had already nearly completed 
large and most beautiful pictorial painting in oil of the Universit 
buildings and grounds, presented in five ovals on a canvas some si 
by twelve feet in size — one oval, the central, representing the niai 
edifice and campus, and scientific building ; one the Normal Scho< 
building; President's house; one the Hudson Mansion, and one tl 
new club houses. This is a beautiful work of art, in a neat gi 


Meeting June 30, 1876. — Samuel S. Hamill, A. M., Professor 
English History and Elocution, tendered his resignation, ^hich w 
accepted, and resolutions passed bearing testimony to his ability ai 

A letter was received from Dr. Laws, which was spread upon t 
journal, accepting the Presidency upon certain reservations and ca 
ditions, to which the Board assented. 

The Statesman of July 7, 1876, gave a full account of the iuaug 
ration of President Laws, and did space allow, the article would 
quoted entire. The inauguration took place on Wednesday, July 
1876, and notwithstanding the inclement weather, the Univer*: 
chapel was filled by a large and brilliant audience. 

Dr. Daniel Read, the retiring President, spoke appropriately 
about fifty minutes, after the opening religious exercises, and ^ 
followed in a short address by Prof. Ficklin, on the part of the facul 
•expressing a kind farewell to the retiring and a warm welcome to 
incoming President. Mr. R. L. Todd, on part of the alumni, 
lowed in a twenty-five minutes' address, paying a merited tribute 
Dr. Lathrop, and reciting a summary of Dr. Read's admiuistrati 


Speeches were made by a number of other gentlemen, including Gov. 

HardiD, Norman J. Colman and Major Rollins, the latter of whom 
gave a brief histoiy of the University, closing by tendering a hearty 
welcome to Dr. Laws. The exercises of the occasion were closed by 
the inaugural address of the new President, who fully and wisely set 
forth his views concerning the government and conduct of the Uni- 

TheBuDceton Brass Band furnished excellent music for the occasion. 

Meeting at Jefferson City^ July 18 y 1876, — B. S. Newland was 
elected to the chair of Modern Languages for one year from July 1, 

1876. The salary of William S. Pratt, Assistant Professor, increased 
to $800 per annum. A. R. Runyan elected business agent. 

Meeting December 12 ^ 1876. — Mr. Collier, from the Nominating 

Committee, reported that since the last meeting W. H. Cole had been 

chosen Professor of English and History until June 30, 1877. Also, 

that Alexander Meyrowitz had been chosen as Professor of the 

Hebrew Language and Shemitic Literature, both of which the board 

A communication was received from Miss M. Lou Gillette, Assistant 

in the Normal Department, tendering her resignation on account of 


; At a meeting of the Board held in Jefferson City, January 19, 

1877, S. M. Tracy was appointed Assistant Professor of Agricul- 
ture, at a salary of $1,000 a year, with the use of the McClellan 

Meeting June 5, 1877. — A School of Art was established, of 
Hich George C. Bingham, of Kansas City, was elected professor. 

Charles P. Williams, Director of the School of Mines of Rolla, 
^udered his resignation. 



The chairs occupied by Edward H. Twining, Professor of Latin 
Language and Literature ; B. S. Newland, Professor of Greek and 
French ; William H. Cole, Professor of English History and Elocu- 
tion; William S. Pratt and Lizzie K. Bedford, Instructors in Prepara- 
tory studies ; also the place of Proctor, were declared vacant. 

Meeting June 4, 1878. — Letters were presented from M. M. 
Wisher, accepting the Professorship of Latin ; from Thomas J. CowTy, 
Accepting the Professorship of Civil Engineering, and from D. R. 
McAnally, Jr., accepting the Professorship of En«:lish. 


Prof. Waite was elected Director of the School of Mines, vice 
Williams, resigned. 

Meeting August 13^ 1878. — A quorum not being in attendance, 
those present were not legally competent to consider and decide sev- 
eral questions which were properly before the board The resignation 
of E. L. Ripley, Professor of Pedagogics and Dean of the Normal 
Faculty, to take effect on October 1, was tendered and accepted, 
Prof. Ripley 'having been elected President of Shelbina College. The 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Prof. Ripley was filled by 
the election of Miss Grace C. Bibb, of St. Louis, who, for a number 
of years, had had charge of the Normal Department of the St. Louis 
public schools, and who is a lady of large and successful experience 
and acknowledged scholarship and qualifications. 

The resignation of Dr. T. A. Arnold, Professor of Anatomy and c 
the Principles and Practice of Medicine in the Medical Faculty of tl 
University, was tendered and accepted. 

Dr. John H. Duncan was chosen to fill the chairs of Physiolog 
Materia Medica and the Principles and Pnactice of Medicine. 

Dr. Woodson Moss was elected Professor of Anatomy and Demcp 

Drs. Duncan and Moss had hitherto occupied positions in the Mec 
cal Faculty, and, therefore, were well-known. 

Meeting December 10^ 1878, — Mrs. J. P. Fuller was elected 
the chair of Modern Languages, as Assistant in the English branche 

Prof. Meyrowilz resigned the Professorship of Hebrew and Ancie 
History. The chair of Greek and Comparative Philology, occupi« 
by Dr. Leonard, was declared to be vacant after June 30, 1879. 

James Shannon Black well, of Ghent, Ky., was elected Professor - 
Shemitic Langnages and Ancient History, and Assistant Professqjy 
Latin and Greek, and A. F. Fleet, of Lexington, Mo., was electe 
Professor of Greek and Comparative Philology. 


The sudden death of ex-President Daniel Read, in Keokuk, low? 
October 3, 1878, was announced, and Mr. Cravens oflTered and th 
Board nnanimously passed resolutions very appropriate to the occi 
sion, copies of which were ordered to !)c sent to his dauffhters. Befil 
ting tril)ntes to his memory were also passed by the Faculty an 

students of the University, and ordered to be published. A citizens 
mectin<]j was likewise held in Garth Hall on the evening: of October 5 



1878, which was presided over by Hon. J. S. Rollins, James W. 
Bipley acting as Secretary, to which a committee of nine — R. L. 
Todd, John Hinton, F. T. Russell, Wm. F. Switzler, J. K. Rogers, 
E. B.Price, John S. Clarkson, R. T. Prewitt and S. C. Douglass — 
reported through Mr. Todd, chairman, a very appropriate notice of 
his death and public services, in which there was presented a beauti- 
1 fully written resume of his long and successful labors in the cause of 
education. Col. Switzler, in a brief speech, moved its adoption, 
which motion unanimously prevailed. Maj. Rollins also, in a short 
address, gave a brief sketch of the life and services of the deceased 
in the cause of education, and particularly in connection with the 
State University of Missouri. He alluded feelingly to his personal 
relutioas with, and strong friendship for. Dr. Read, and closed with a 
few reminiscences showing the faithful devotion of the deceased to 
the interests of the University. 

The proceedings of this meeting, together with the speech of Maj. 
EoHliis, were afterwards published in pamphlet form. 

Meeting June 5, 1879.-^ J. W. Sutherland, Agricultural Lands 
Commissioner, has resigned, and the officers of the Board of Curators 
will elect his successor. 

Mrs. J. P. Fuller', Professor of French and German, has also re- 
signed and her duties will be discharged by members of the present 

It was ordered that the title of S. M. Tracy shall be Professor of 
Eutomology and Economic Botany and Superintendent of Gardens, 
and that the title of George Hussmann shall be Professor and Super- 
i'ntendent of Pomology and Forestry. 

Meeting January 13^ 1880, — At 9 o'clock a. m. on Wednesday, 
» meeting of the Curators, Faculty, students and visitors was held in 
the chapel for the purpose of hearing the inaugural addresses of A. 
F. Fleet, Professor of Greek and Comparative Philology, and ot 
Jiraes S. Blackwell, Professor of Hebrew and of Shemitic Literature. 

On Wednesday morning a large audience again assembled in the 
<5ha|)el to hear the inaugural addresses of Conrad Diehl, Professor of 
Alt, and of Frank P. Blair, Professor of Militaiy Science. The ad- 
dress of Prof. Blair was well delivered and received with marked ap- 
plause. His subject was the Military und War Powers of the United 
States Government, which he treated under three heads : 1. The in- 
ception and conduct of war. 2. The land and naval forces. 3. The 
^tate Militia. Short addresses were then made bv John Walker, of 


Howard, one of the Curators, and Cols. E. C. More and W. 

Following this was the deeply interesting ceremony of present 
the portrait of Judge David Todd, for many years an eminent citi 
of Columbia, and distinguished jurist of Missouri — the port 
being the first painted by the late George C. Bingham, more than fi 
years ago. It was a present to the Uiiiversity from Mr. George 
Samuel, of St. Joseph. Also short addresses by Maj. Rollins 
Dr. Laws. 

The thanks of the Board, on motion of Mr. Dockery, were tend* 
to President Laws for his munificent donation of $500, by meau 
which the Curators were enabled, in exchange for the old telesc< 
to possess the very superior and well known telescope of the Shi 
Graded School, of Shelbjrville, Kentucky. 


George C. Bingham, Professor of Art, having died in Kansas ' 
on July 8, 1879, Mr. Rollins presented resolutions, which were pas 
bearing testimony to his eminence and usefulness as a citizen, an 
his extraordinary genius in the world of art. 

Meeting May 31 y 1880. — Chair of Emeritus Professor of Phj 
was created, and Joseph G. Norwood was made Emeritus Professc 
Physics and of Medical Jurisprudence and Dean of the Medical ' 
lege, at a salary of $1,000 per annum. The recommendation 
Professors B. F. Thomas and Thomas W. Tobin for the chai 
Physics were referred to the Executive Committee, who elected 


The term for which President Laws was elected expiring on i 
4, 1880, he was unanimousty re-elected President of the Univen 
no term of office being specified. A communication was rece 
from Prof. Ficklin touching the new telescope and observatory 
sented by President Laws, in which he recommended that it be ca 
'* The Laws Observatory ;" that an annual prize, consisting of a j 
medal, and designated '*The Laws Astronomical Medal," be es 
lished for excellence in higher astronomy, and that the portrait of 
Laws be painted and hung in the Observatory. All of which 
ordered by the Board, the medal to contain a device of the Obse 
tory, and the inscription, ** The heavens declare the glory of Go 


328 HISTORY or boonb county. 

I>ell, the sound of which has become familiar to the ears of hundreds of students i 
friends of the University, and grates harshly on the ears of all ; and 

Whebsas, Hon. J. S. Rollins, the President of this board, aliye now, as he has been 
Dearly a half a century, to the best interests of the University, has generously preseo 
to it a large new bell, beautiful in tone and appearance, and bearing appropriate 
flcriptions, therefore be it 

lUaolved, that we gratefully accept the gift, as one much needed and very valuable, i 
hereby tender the public-spirited donor the thanks of the board, hoping he may I 
live to realize that it will in truth 

' Ring out the old, ring in the new. 
Ring out the false, ring in the true.' 

The bell was manufactured by the celebrated Maneely Bell Co 
pany, of Troy, N. Y., will weigh 2,000 pounds, cost about $800, t 
bears the following inscriptions : — 

1882. Presented by Hon. James S. Rollins, LL. D., President of the Board of C 
tors of the University of the State of Missouri. 

Ring out the old, ring in the new. 
Ring out the false, ring in the true. 
Nunc oceasio eat et tempua. 

The salary of B. F. Thomas, Professor of Physics, was fixec 
♦2,000 a year. 

Meeting June 12 y 1882. — Present: J. S. Rollins, of Boone ; J 
Cravens of Greene ; Jas. Lincoln, of Clay ; J. R. Estill, of Howu 
W. H. Lackland, of St. Louis, and J. S. Clarkson and W. F. Swit2 
of Boone. Absent : A. M. Millard and Charles C. Bland, of Re 

During most of the time the board was in executive session 
therefore results and not the reasons for them are known to 
public. It is known, however, that unfortunate misunderstand 
had arisen between President Laws and Professor Swallow, and 
in reference to some of the phases of them, most of the profes 
of the various departments of the institution, including the Pi 
dent and Professor Swallow, were requested to come before the b< 
and make oral statements, such of the professors as were necessf 
absent leaving statements in writing. 

Those who made verbal statements before the Board were the 
lowing : President Laws, Professors Swallow, Fleet, Tracy, McAns 
Ficklin, Schweitzer and Lowry. Also, the Treasurer, R. B. Pi 
The Professors who were absent and left written statements i 
Fisher, Black well and Thomas. Also the Medical Faculty. 

Among other matters of public interest, the chair occupied by ( 
C. Swallow, Professor of Agriculture and Natural-History and E 


of the Agricultural Faculty, was declared vacant after the 31st inst., 
and the Executive Committee was authorized temporarily to fill the 

The salary of Conrad Diehl, Professor of Art, was raised to $2,000 
per anuum. 

Boyle Gordon, Professor of the Law Faculty, tendered his resigna- 
tion, which was accepted with regret, whereupon C. G. Tiedeman, 
hitherto Professor of Law, was made Professor at a salary of $1,200. 

The $500 note of Hon. James L. Stephens, given to the Board of 
Curators several years ago, the interest on which was annually appro- 
priated to pay for the " Stephens' Medal" in oratory, was surrendered 
to him on his depositing with the Treasurer a $500 Boone county six 
percent, bond. No. 338. 

The Treasurer of the Board, R. B. Price, gave a new bond, with 
approved securities, in the sum of $350,000. 

The claim of J. W. Sutherland, of St. Louis, ex-Agricultural Land 
Commissioner for five per cent commission on the sale of more than 
two hundred thousand acres of land to C. H. Nettleton, was rejected. 


On motion of Mr. Switzler, the following resolution was adopted : — 

Saolved^ That the Secretary he required to prepare a hook so arranged as to contain the 
luimeiof all the Curators of the University, showing the date of expiration of their corn- 
Bunions; that he he required to note therein the failure to attend of any memhers of the 
B<Mrd any annual, semi-annual or regular called meeting of the Board ; and to certify to the 
^▼•rnor the (kct of such failure to attend ; and to notify the members so failing to attend 
'Uiat luch &ilure has been certified to the Governor. 

iUtohed^ That it is the sense of this Board that any fact which will prevent the vacating 
<^t his office, by such failure to attend, must be stated to the Governor. 


On motion of Mr. Lincoln, of Clay, the following preamble and 
resolutions were adopted : 

^BiRiAB, A large uumber of witnesses have been examined by the Board of Curators, 
vteloding many members of the Faculty connected with the State University, touching the 
Vttnsgoment and prosperity of the institution during the last seventeen years, and especially 
^«r the management of Dr. Laws during the last six years ; and 

*^BKRixB, All of said testimony is to the effect that Dr. Laws is well qualified and pecu- 
"*^^J fitted to preside as President over the State University, and to establish the fact that 
*^u institution was never in so prosperous a condition as during the last six years; and 

Wrxre^^ Sgfd evidence further shows that President Laws has not only given his time 
^ ttlentg, but largely of his own private means, for the advancement of said institution dur- 
^ bii oonoecUon therewith; therefore, be it 



Resolved^ 1, That in the opinion of the Board the continued prosperity of the State 
University demands the continued services of Dr. Laws as its President, and we earnestly 
and unanimously request that he will not sever his connection with it. 

2. That we would deem his resignation a calamity to the institution and to the best 
interests of the State. 

PROF, swallow's successor. 

On July 14, 1882, the Executive Committee — Clarkson and Switz 
zer; Rollins sick and absent — of the Curators of the University, t( 
whom the duty was assigned of filling the vacancy, elected J. W 
Sanborn, of the New Hampshire College of Agriculture, Dean of th 
Agricultural College of Missouri, to fill the place formerly occupie 
by Prof. Geo. C. Swallow. 



Rocheport Whig Convention — Columbia Institute — A.gricultural Pair of 1841 — A pli 
"Mr." made a plain "Col." — A man in a well — Death of two Bonne Femme Colk 
students — Law cards — Fourth of July celebration, 1842 — Stibb's Academy, Rocheport 
Great religious revival — "New Cash Store" — ^Two citizens accidentally killed — T 
murder of Hiram Beasley and the execution of Henry and America — Henry's confession 
Improvement of Broadway, Columbia — It is a monument to Dr. Jewell — Militia m 
ters — The great freshet of 1844 — Providence founded — Presidential election of 1844 
Liquor prohibition foreshadowed — Colonization societies — Boone County taxes in 184( 
Missouri annual conference — The new Court House — The Mexican war — A flag p 
sented to the ** Boone Guards*' — A public dinner tendered the Mexican volunteers 
their return — The State Lunatic Asylum — The Globe newspaper established — Beligic 
revivals — Sons of Temperance celebration — General Taylor elected and Columbia ii 
blaze — Columbia Female Collegiate Institute — The big sleet — California gold fevei 
Names of the emigrants. 

* Those thas marked were elected. 

AUGUST 8TH, 1840. 

Edw. M. Samael, 
(Whig) 1,042 

•John Miller, 
(Democrat) 667 

George C. Sibley, 
(Whig) 1,042 

♦John C.Bdwards, 
( De mocrat) .... 567 


John B. Clark. . ..1,038 | *ThoB. Reynolds, 595 

Total , 1,653 


Joseph Bogy.... 1,038 | *M. M. Marmadake, 
Total 1 


*D. M. Hickman, 1,006 
*Ja8. S. Kollins.. 995 
Jos. W\ Hickam, 425 
John M. Roberto, 382 

•George Knox 1 

•Alex. Persinger.. 
•Tyre Harris 



ELECTION RETT7RN8 — Continued. 

Special election for Senator, to All vacancy 
caused by resignation of Tliomas C. Man- 

•Sinclair Kirtley. .971 1 Joseph Perainger, 5ii 

Total 1,615 

NOVEMBER 9TH, 1840. 

Special election for Senator to All vacancy 
caused by resignation of Archibald W. Tur- 

*Hiram Philips... 546 John M. McGhee, 82 

Alex.M. Robinson, 307 

Total 885 

AUGUST 4TH, 1842. 

•Tyre Harris 938 | Joseph Persinger, 743 

Tot^ 1,676 


^ • • — Richard M. May, 843 
♦Wm. Rowland... 1,102 

•WUliam Smith... 956 
•Mat*w R. Arnold. 845 
Wm. A. Robards. . 734 

AUGUST 5TH, 1844. 

•Leonard H. Sims, 853 
John Thornton... 828 
•Sterling Price.... 511 
•James u. Relf e . . 510 

Thos. B. Hudson, 845 

Augustus Joneis.. 828 

•Jas. B. Bowling.. 518 

•John S. Phelps... 412 

•John Jamison.... 439 

KstUf Boone 829 


•John C. Edwards, 572 1 Charles H. Allen, 1,080 
Total 1,602 


•John C. Young 550 | Wm. B. Almond. . 955 

Total 1,506 


•Wm. Jewell 956 

Charles Gordon, eci 
James Schooling 170 


•Thos. C. Maupin, 840 I W.T.Hickman.. 521 

John W. YeldeU.. 466 | 

Total 1,827 

•George Knox. ...1,061 
•Sinclair KirUey . .1,029 
George S. Waters, 732 

AUGUST 9th, 1845. 


•David Hickman... .842 |*John F. Stone. ... 881 
John M. Robinson.. 676 | 

AUGUST 12TH, 1846. 

•John G. Miller. . .1,126 | James S. Green . . 706 
ToUl 1,828 


•James S. Rollins, 1,115 | Fayette F. Kirby, 5U3 
Total -. 1,708 


•Wm. F. Switzler, 1,082 | J. L. Matthews. . 691 

ToUl '. 1.72S 

•T. C. Maupin 1,546 | No opposition. 

AUGUST lOTH, 1847. 

•Robert L. Todd. . 1,568 | No opposition. 


•Warren Woodson, 922 | James Arnold. . . 76» 

Total 1,691 

AUGUST 14TH, 1848. 

Robert Wilson 1,221 | •Jas. S. Green. . . 787 

Total 2,00a 


James S. Rollins.. . .1,257 | •Austin A. King, 791 

Total 2,047 


Littleberry Hen- |*Thos. L. Price.. 778 

dricks 1,250 | 

Total 2,028 


•Wm.F. SwiUler.. 1,143 | Wm. A. Robards 830 
Total 1,97S 


•Wm. T. Hickman 986 I Garland Harris.. 818 

Milton Sexton 206 | 

Total 2,009 

1840 — Population of the County 13,561 


** Switzler's History of Missouri " says : '* The Presidential canvass 
of 1840, Martin Van Buren, of New York, being the Democratic, and 
William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, the Whig candidate, excited unex- 
ampled interest and enthusiasm in every State in the Union. In the 
closely contested States the people seemed to abandon all business, 
and devote their entire time and energies to the pending election. 


Mass conventions of unprecedented members were held, in some in- 
stances remaining in session for several days, which were addressed 
by distinguished speakers whose object seemed to be to influence the 
popular enthusiasm and carry the election by music, banners, proces- 
sions and stump oratory. Some of the Whig out-door meetings in 
the Ohio Valley numbered a hundred thousand and were addressed 
by General Harrison in person. At these monster assemblages min- 
iature log cabins and veritable coons and hard cider were displayed 
and campaign songs sung, exciting the wildest enthusiasm ; so tha 
that the contest took the name of the ' Log Cabin, Coon Skin aiK 
Hard Cider Campaign.' 

'* To counteract the influence of the meetings and the party par: 
phernalia employed by the Whigs to captivate the masses, the friea^ 
of Mr. Van Bnren held their conventions also, and, invoking the nan 
and influence of ' Old Hickory,' who ardently supported him for t' 
presidency, adopted hickory boughs and the chicken-cock as th€ 
party emblems, the former gracefully waving and the latter detiantl 
<5rowinor everywhere. 

*' The Whigs and Democrats of Missouri caught the prevailing e 
thusiasm, and conducted the canvass with unusual spirit. Mass co. 
ventions, accompanied by the splendid pageantry of procession 
brilliant banners and martial music, to say nothing of political discu 
sions unexcelled in fervid eloquence, abounded everywhere. Tl 
State was wild with excitement, and many and interesting and graph 
are the scenes which our older citizens are able to recall of the can 
paign of 1840. 

"The most memorable, because the largest and most elaborate 
prepared convention of the contest in Missouri, was the Whig Co 
vention, held at Rocheport, in Boone County, in June of that yea 
Its place of meeting was on the hill east of the town, in a dense gro' 
of sugar trees, where three speakers' stands were erected, and whe 
for three days and nights the friends of ' Tippecanoe and Tyler, toe 
held hifich carnival and bid defiance to the absent hosts of Van Bun 
and Johnson. During its session the assembled thousands we 
addressed by Chilton Allen, of Kentucky, Fletcher Webster (a son 
Daniel Webster), Gen. A. W. Doniphan, James H. Birch, Abi 
Leonard, James S. Rollins, Col. John O'Fallon, James Winsto 
George C. Bingham and others." 

The weather was most propitious for an out-door assemblage, and tl 
number present was variously estimated from six to ten thousand. Coi 



jsidering the utter lack of railroads or other more modern methods of 
^communication and travel,, and that the total population of the State 
^^as less than 400,000 and the entire Whig vote less than 23,000, the 
Hocheport convention was a " monster meeti'ng," the tire and enthusi- 
asm and incidents of which will never be forgotten by those who 
aBLttended it. 

Three steamboats full of delegates came from St. Louis, bearing 
field pieces and banners and flags and bands of music, nnd exciting the 
-wildest enthusiasm at every landing. The flag-steamer of the fleet 
43isplayed a large bust portrait of Gen. Harrison, (**01d Tip."), the 
sight of which, when the boat touched the shore at Rocheport, moved 
t;he assembled thousands with uncontrollable enthusiasm, that found 
expression in shouts of rapture. 

Barring the display of martial uniforms and of fire-arms, the plan- 
tation and hills, on which the convention was held, had the appear- 
ance of a military encampment, for tents and covered wagons were to 
be seen in large numbers, for the Whig uprising for '* Tippecanoe and 
Tyler, too," continued three days and nights. 

Among the exciting incidents of the occasion, it may be mentioned 
that one of the delegations, which came overland from a neighboring 
county, numbered several hundred persons on horseback, and nniking 
the welkin ring as they marched, displayed at the head of the column 
a banner on which was painted a bust portrait of Thomas H. Benton, 
United States Senator from Missouri, from the folds of whose cravat 
protruded the corner of a ten dollar bank note, the caricature intend- 
ing to symbolize an alleged indiscretion of young Benton when a 
student at Chapel Hill College, North Carolina. The sight of this 
banner was a red flagJLo the few Democrats who happened to be pres- 
ent, exciting them furiously, and causing them to denounce the cari- 
cature, in which many of the older and more conservative Whigs 
joined, as an unworthy exhibition of party malignity. 

Among the Democrats present was Judge Robbins, of Illinois, a 
gentleman of prominence and a speaker. By some means it became 
noised about the encampment, producing no little excitement, that 
Robbins was an Abolilionist^ an epithet which signified at that time 
in Central Missouri the sum of all villainies. Indeed, it subjected a 
man who wore it to the humiliation of open insult, if not to the perils 
of personal violence. 

Hearing that his name was associated with this charge, and observ- 
ing that it was creating something of a sensation in the crowd, 


Judge Robbins finally asked and obtained leave to occupy the mj 
stand for a few minutes in a personal explanation. He met t 
charge defiantly and denied its truth in to to. 

Nevertheless, the Democrats, as usual, carried the State, ele< 
ing Thomas Reynolds, Governor, over John B. Clark, and Van Bur 
over the Harrison electors, by about 7,500 majority. John Mill 
and John C. Edwards were also elected to Congress over E. ] 
Samuel and George C. Sibley. 


During the winter of 1841 there was organized in Columbia 
Lyceum and DebatingClub of the above title, which held its meetit 
in the Union Church. Its exercises were largely attended, and a 
sisted of debatcis and lectures. Its active members were : Mill 
Cornelius, John F. St<me, Dr. T. R. H. Smith, Wm*. A. Robar 
Dr. W. B. Lenoir, Lewis W. Robinson, Milton S. Matthews, Jc 
R. Bedford, F. T. Russell, Wm. T. B. Sangford, Chas. H. Hard 
Dr. A. J. McKelway, Wm. F. Switzler and others. Among thequ 
tions discussed were: "Is Phrenology true?/'' ** Does conscien 
more than law, restrain man from crime? " *' Does the geographi 
situation or the institutions of a country have the greater influence 
the formation of national character?" *« Is conscience innate 
*' Should usur}'^ laws be abolished? " *' Is novel-reading beneficial! 

Among the lectures delivered were the following : A Geological I 
course by President J. H. Lathrop ; The Unfading Beauty of Knowlec 
Contrasted with the Mutability of Human Grandness and Greatness, 
John F. Stone; Eulogy on Gen. Harrison, by Wm. F. Switzler; 
Lecture, by Prof. Wm. Van Doran ; " The Knowledge which should 
Possessed by Practicing Physicians of the present day," by Dr. T. 
H. Smith; A Lecture, by Prof. John Roche ; *' The Superiority 
Moral and Intellectual Power to Arbitrary Sway," by John R. R 
ford ; Lecture, by Dr. W. B. Lenoir ; Lecture, by Dr. J. C. Pag 
Lecture, by Dr. A. J. McKelway. 

Lectures were also delivered, during the existence of the Institu 
by the following: R. L Todd, Thos. P. Giles, William T. Dav 
y. A. Young, G. C. Pratt, Prof. Leffingwell, James Winston, Jam 
B. Thomas, Rev. Z. N. Roberts, and others. 

This institute continued its sessions during the fall and winter I 
several years, and contributed its part to the literary enjoyments 
Columbia and vicinity. 




In a previous chapter we gave an account of the initial exhibition of 
the society under whose auspices another Fair was held in Columbia 
OD October 4 and 5, 1841. Our farmer readers and stock raisers will 
be interested in the premiums offered, especially if they will contrast 
die meagre list with the premiums of our present Agricultural Fair. 
The total amount of premiums is only $110, whereas our present 
Agricultural Fair Association offers a number of premiums which sin- 
gly equal and some of them treble that amount. 


[Columbia Patriot, August 21, 1841.] 

The Boone County Agricultural Fair will take place in Columbia on the 4th and 6th 
dijiof October next, at which time premiums worth the following sums will be awarded to 
Am following description of stock and agricultural products, riz, : — 

Beitboar pig under 6 months' old . 
Bat low pig under 6 months' old . 
B«it low pig over 6 and under 12 


ButbosroTer 12 months 

But low oTer 12 months 

Beitroeking bull calf . 

Beit lacking heifer calf . 

B«tt one year old bull . 

Bnt one year old heifer . 

But two year old bull and upwards 

^twoyear old cow and upwards 


Birt ewe 

^t 100 lbs. tobacco 

$5 00 



10 00 

10 00 


6 00 

6 00 

6 00 


10 00 

6 00 

5 00 

10 00 

Best sucking horse colt . . 
Best sucking mare colt . . 
Best one year old horse colt 
Best one year old mare oolt 
Best saddle horse . . 
Best sucking Jack oolt 
Best sucking jennet colt 
Best yoftr old jack . . 
Best year old jennet . 
Best two year old jack . 
Best two year old jennet 
Best sucking mule colt 
Best yearling mule . . 
Best two year old mule 

6 00 
5 00 
5 00 

5 00 
10 00 

6 00 
6 00 

10 00 
10 00 
10 00 
10 00 

5 00 

6 00 
10 00 

BEST SADDLS $10 00. 

^A cattle, sheep and tobacco, to be exhibited on the first day. All entries must be 
""•de on the eyening previous to the day of exhibition. 
The following gentlemen were chosen judges : — 


o. Bently, of Howard ; St G^o. Tucker, Callaway ; Ashby Snell, Monroe ; Jas. Hutchi- 
*^^ Cooper; Jno. H. Field, Boone. 


Gerard Robinson, Howard ; Wm. Grant, Callaway ; Jas. 8. Hutchison, Cooper ; Thomas 
^ ^len, Boone. 


'^m. Stone, D. Gordon, 8r., Wm. Johnson. 


L C. Scott, of Boone ; C. Carter, of Callaway ; Samuel Murrell, Theo. Dozier. 



Jas. Palmer, of Boone ; Theo. Fletcher, of Boone ; K. Overton, Callaway ; Benj. W&tti 
of Howard ; Ashby Snell, of Monroe. 


Hugh Withers, of Monroe; Maj. McKenney, of Callaway; Harrison Elliott, of Howard; 
N. Leonard, of Cooper ; Wm. Maupin, of Boone. 


George Burroughs, of Howard; Smith Walker, of Cooper; Thos. West, of Call&wiy; 
Peter Ellis, of Boone ; Philip Barnes, of Boone. 
August 21, 1841. 


In anticipation of the completion of the University edifice, and the 
opening and permanent organization of the institution, Columbia in 
1841 felt the momentum of improvement and prosperity. Although 
the census, as taken by the town marshal, showed its population to be 
only 770, '* near one thousand " was claimed for it by the FatrM* 
That paper says : — 

Independent of the State University and the dwelling of the president of that insUUi 
tion, since August, 1840, the following buildings have been built, or are now building, vis. 
John T. Nelson, one frame dwelling; Wm. Lee, one frame dwelling; Tho. E. Tower, on 
large imitation stone; W. A. Kobards, one frame lawoflBce; Parker & Barr, three brie 
store-rooms ; A. L. Peebles, one brick store-room ; Wm. Cornelius, one brick store-rooo 
H. Keene, one brick store-room; J. M. Johnson, one brick store-room; M. and J. Matthew 


one brick carriage shop; M. and L. Matthews, one brick dwelling; G. W. Samuel, one b*^ 
dwelling; J. McClintock, one brick dwelling; Wm. Cornelius, one large brick dwelling ; 
Crumbaugh, one frame dwelling; Mrs. N. Collins, one frame dwelling; Thos. Selby, ^ 
brick dwelling; R 8. Barr, one brick dwelling; W. Woodson, one brick dwelling; D. IC* 
ingway, one brick dwelling; G. D. Foote, one brick dwelling; N. W. Wilson, one b* 
dwelling; O. Parker, one brick dwelling; P. Kenyon, one stone dwelling; J. Hart, one fr^ 
house; J. Trigg, one frame house; one large brick church ; W. B. Huston, imitation tto^ 
J. Richardson, imitation stone; E. Camplin, frame for carding machine. 

Making in all twenty brick, eight frame, one stone, and three imitation stone hou^ 
total, thirty-two. We have eight dry goods stores, one book and two drug stores, tl^ 
blacksmith shops, one chair factory, three cabinet makers, two wagon and one coach ma^ 
two tinners, one hatter, three saddlers, and three tailor shops. 


W. F. Switzler, the edttor of the Statesman^ assumed the editor 
charge of the Columbia Patriot on July 31, 1841, age 22. He v^ 
then a plain " Mr.," but did not long remain unpromoted, for in H 
vember following, in a singular and very innocent manner, he was ma. 
a colonel by a correspondent, " Rockbridge," who was none otta 
than Prof. John Roche, of Bonne Femme College.^ Writing a she: 

^ Prof. Roche died in Lexington, Ky., October 28, 1849. 


nmonicatiou for the Patriot^ N(>yember 20^ 1841, he addressed it to 
Colonel *' Switzler, and concluded it as follows : — 

'. S.— You must not be offended with the title of OoUmel, There was your predecessor, 
Miller; there is Col, Birch, of Howard; there is Gunn, of Jefferson, a Gen* I by name,* 
•t by nature; and there is the Rev. Major of the Paris CentinelflwithlH. C. Now, sir, if 
modesty will not admit the above named title, we, the people of Boone, will not think 
ditoriil chair filled with adequate dignity. I therefore dub thee : 

Colonel thou art, and Colonel thou shalt be. 
Throughout all time, and through eternity. 

m since the issue of the paper which contained the above, the 
)rof the Statesman has been called ** Colonel." 


] Monday, September 6, 1841, a very singular and distressing ac- 
it occurred in Columbia, the memory of which still lingers in the 
Is of our older inhabiUints. The one story brick house which 
forms the ell of the fine residence of Robert L. Todd was built 
occupied as a residence by G. D. Foote, one of the contractors 
B University. While the building was in progress he duga well 
9 yard about 50 feet deep and had it walled, but of very indifiFei^ 
ad unsuitable stone. It had been walled for some time, and it 

observed that the wall at the bottom had become out of place, 
ither-in-law, Steffhen St. John expressed the intention — from 
I Mr. Foote attempted to dissuade him — of going down into the 
o examine more closelv the nature of the breach. About one 
k, however, Mr. St. John, after letting a candle down into the 
Q a bucket descended himself, leaving Mr. Prouty at the top of 
ell to render uny assistance he might desire. Mr. St. John hud 
y reached the point he wished to examine before the rock at the 
n began to give way and fall into the water. Observing this, 
empted to escape by climbing the rope to the top, but was una- 
do so for the wall above him commenced caving in, and in a 
nt closed over and formed an arch above him. The news 
e singular accident spread through the town and a large 
3r of people collected at the top of the well. It being 
ained by calling him that St. John was still alive, the work 
loving the dirt and the rock was soon commenced and prose- 
with speed and energy. As the workingmen descended they 
with distinctness the groans of the ill-fated man. After reniov- 
»out 40 feet of earth and stone — a labor of abont nineteen 



hours' duration and extending throughout the whole of the night — th 
rock that covered the gray head of the old man was removed and hi 
almost lifeless body exhumed from its resting place to the top. B 
was occupying a sitting position in the well, his right foot higher thai 
his head and both hands above his head hold of the rope. Withthi 
exception of the fracture of one of his shoulders not a bone in his bod] 
was broken. His body was recovered about 7 o'clock Tuesday morn 
ing, but he died at 3 o'clock that day, aged 56 years. 


John A. Chappell, a well-known student of Bonne Femme College 
son of the late John Chappell, who resided in Pallaway county, on th( 
Missouri River, opposite Jefferson City, and a brother of Mrs. Dr 
Wm. B. Lenoir died at the residence of Wm. Shields, near the college 
January 24, 1842. Resolutions of respect and condolence were passef 
by the students of Bonne Femme College and of Columbia College 
John T. and J. F. Hughes, Robert L. Todd, W. M. Irvine, Thos.M 
Richardson, Robert A. Grant and James H. Moss participating in tb 
meeting. On February 3, 1842, Jacqueline J. L. Harvey, son < 
Maj. Thos. Harvey, of Saline, and a student of Bonne Femme Collej 
also died at the residence of Wm. Shields. 


The Patriot^ of February 26, 1842, contains the first law card of 
T. Russell, whose office was in a frame building which then stood 
the lot now occupied by the Statesman printing office. In the Patf^ 
of March 5, 1842, Wm. F. Switzler tenders his professional servi 
as a lawyer to the citizens of Boone and adjoining counties. Otf 
on Guitar Street, tlie two-story little brick occupied by Maj. Roll 
as a law office, and adjoining the Patriot office. 

The Patriot y of April 1(), 1842, contains a notice signed by W^ 
Jewell, the president of the Columl)ia Temperance Society, and W 
Van Doran, Recording Secretary, that Wm. F. Switzler would deli 
a temperance address, in the Union Church, on May 2. 

Oliver Parker, who first settled as a merchant at Thrall's Prai ' 
and who was one of the pionee's of the county, died in Columbiim. 
Fri<lay evening, May 20, 1842. 


The Fourth of July, 1842, was appropriately celebrated inColumt^ 


A threatened shower of rain caused the people who hud assembled 
for the purpose to adjourn from the grove to the Christian Church, 
where the Declaration of Independence was read by John R. Bedford 
and an oration was delivered by Wm. A. Robards. Judge David 
Todd, President; Wm, Johnson and John Slack, Vice Presidents; 
Wm. F. Switzler and Wm. Lampton, Secretaries ; John Vanhorn and 
iavid M. Hickman, Marshals ; F. A. Hamilton, George Foote, Elliott 
P. Cunuinghara, Wm. T. Hickman, Lewis Colver, W. W. Wilson, 
Armstrong Beattie, John Corbitt and John Hall Lynch, Managers. 
All of the persons named are dead except W. F. Switzler, E. P. 
Cunningham (who lives near Mexico, Missouri), William T. Hick- 
man, N. W. Wilson and John Corbitt, the latter now residing in 
Pennsylvania. Amono^ the volunteer toasts offered were the fol- 
lowing : — 

ByP.IL Parka: The blind man on the way side — may he anoint his eyes with Clay and 
nceive his sight. 

By W,B, Lenoir: A porcupine saddle, long stirrups, and a hard trotting horse, for John 

By ILL. Todd: Our State University — our pride and boast — palsied be the band or 
tongue that would do or say anything to produce jealousy or dissension among the good 
people of this land in relation to its usefulness. An editor somewhere in Jackson County 
has Attempted this thing — maybe have the gout in his toes and chilblains in his fingen 
when he may attempt another such essay. 

By Warren Woodaon : Geo^t^e D. Foote, Elliott P. Cunningham and Phineas Kenyon, 
coDtracton for building the principal edifice of the University of the State of Missouri, 
wfaoM fidelity, skill and untiring efforts in the discharge of their undertakings are only 
•quailed by the liberality of the citizens of Boone in their donations to said object. 

By W, Slade : The orator of the day — may his talents and his worth be duly appre* 

ByJ.R, Bedford: John Tyler; a political shuffler — what he loses in dancing he makes 
up in turning around. 

By James H, Moss: May the utility of their country ever be the mainspring in directing 
tke actions of American citizens. 

ByJ.S.Hollina: The Constitution of the United States — the richest boon i bequeathed 
^J the patriots of '76 to their posterity — let us cherish and maintain its principles with the 
■•Die patriotic devotion which actuated our forefathers in its adoption. 

By A Quest : The University — may its enemies, and particularly the editor at Inde> 
P^denee, live on parched corn and darn his own socks. 

By John B. RoyaU : Our town of Columbia — may the gallantry of her sons only be sur- 
P**8ed by the virtue and excellence of her daughters. 

^y i)r. W, H. Duncan : The Constitution of the United States — adopted by the most 
celebrated wisdom, sagacity and patriotism, its perpetuity should be regarded as the future 
°*Ppine88 and prosperity of the Union. 

^Q.W. Samuel: The Whig party, routed in 1840 by the death of their leader, never 
diBcourage^^ but already armed for the campaign of '44; may they never again confide to a. 
^''•cherous miscreant the power to betray the citadel of their strength. 



Mr. J. T. Stibbs and Mrs. Mary Stibbs announce that the first sessioi 
of the second year of ** Stibbs Academy," Rocheport, will commeno 
on the fourth Monday in May, 1842. Among the patrons of the acad 
emy are mentioned the following : Dr. G. B. Wilcox, John Stem 
mons, James Howlett and Lemuel Noble. The Examining Com- 
mittee was composed of George B. Forbis and Col. John Cooper 
According to the advertisement, **good board and lodging can 
be had in the immediate vicinity of the school rooms at $1.50 pei 

In the fall of 1842 the experiment of an agricultural fair was at- 
tempted in Rocheport. John Cooper, president, George Knox, secre- 
tary. On the 4th and 5th of November a fair was held and about 
$150 in premiums were awarded. 


One of the most notable religious revivals in the history of Boom 
County commenced in the Presbyterian Church in Columbia 
during the first week in January, 1843. The late Rev. Isaac Jon€ 
was at that time pastor of the church, and was assisted in the conda< 
of religious exercises by the Rev. Robert L. McAfee, of Boon 
and Rev. Messrs. W. W. Robinson and David Coulter, of Callawfl 
The revival meetings continued almost daily and nightly for ^bc 
two months, and nearly a hundred persons united with the Presbjr 
rian Church. About the same number united with the other churcl 
of the town, and about fifty with the Methodist Church in Rochepc 
The Presbyterian meetings were held in the old brick church on V/" 
nut Street, which for much of the time, owing to the absence of si^ 
walks and the prevalence of deep mud, could only be reached 
horseback. Soon after this revival the members of the Presbyteri 
Church, having received large accessions to their number and fintf 
cial ability, resolved on building a new meeting house, which V 
completed in the fall of 1846, by the erection of the church edifice 
Broadway, now occupied by that denomination ; and which in 1878 ^ 
enlarged by the addition of a lecture room. 

On Sunday, February 19, 1843, Younger J. Williams, one of t: 
proprietors of the Statesman^ died at the residence of the late Caj 
John B. Roy all. 




Daring the month of April, 1843, one of the most notable busi- 
nm ereots of the period occurred by the opening in Columbia of 
the "New Cash Store," by James L. Stephens. A cash store, by 
which was meant that no books were kept and cash on the counter 
was paid for eveiything purchased, was unknown in Central Missouri. 
As the tendency was downward in the prices of groceries and dry 
goods it wsis an auspicious time to establish such an enterprise as 
Mr. Stephens proposed; and therefore the opening of his ** New 
Cash Store," accompanied by liberal advertising of both dry goods 
and groceries, at prices considerably lower than those then prevailing, 
caused a sensation in business circles and an unusual rush of custom- 
ers to Mr. Stephens' counters. He came in on the tide of successful 
experiment, permanently established himself as a merchant, and se- 
cured great thrift and prosperity. 


On Saturday, March 26, 1843, Mason Jefferson, a young man and 
a citizen of this county was accidentally killed, near the village of 
Xashville, then situated on the Missouri river. Jefferson and a friend 
^rere trying the speed of their horses in a race along the road, during 
'W'hich Jefferson's horse ran on one side of a tree while Jefferson, lean- 
^^ toward the other side came in contact with the tree and was in- 
stantly killed, his skull being fractured. On Tuesday morning, April 
14, 1843, Eaney LaForce, a citizen of the county was accidentally 
slot and killed by PhelixCallaham. They were hunting wild turkeys 
"together eight or ten miles northeast of Columbia; and having sepa- 
*^ted in the chase of a flock, Callaham, thinking he saw game in a 
"tlicket before him, discharged his rifle at them. Unfortunately, La 
^orce was upon the other side of the thicket immediately in the direc- 
tion of Callaham' s aim. At the discharge of the gun La Force fell 
^nd died in a few minutes — the ball having entered his chest. La 
"Force was a man of family. 

The amount of moneys paid by the State in 1843, to Boone County 
for common school purposes was only $933.60. In 1882 the sura paid 
^ast . 


About sundown on Monday, March 20, 1843, Hiram Beasley, an 
^Id resident of the county, was murdered by his negroes on his farm. 


Bituated about four miles north of Providence, on the Providence a 
Columbia road. On the next day five of the negroes, Henry, a 
America, his wife ; Simon, David and Mary were aiTested, brought 
Columbia and tried before Warren Woodson, J. P., and committed 
jail for further trial. They were subsequently indicted by the gra 
jury and at the May term tried. Simon and David were found gui 
of murder in the second degree, punished by thirty-nine lashes a 
banished from the State. Mary was acquitted. Henry and Anier 
on their own confession were convicted and sentenced to be hung 
Judge Leland on Saturday, June 10th. 

On the evening of the murder Mr. Beasley and his negroes were 
a clearing about three quarters of a mile from his house, and it ^ 
at this place the murder was committed, the material facts of whi 
are disclosed in Henry's confession, which follows. The followi 
are the names of the jurors who tried the case : Charles Wren, W 
liam Jones, Levi Parks, John Pitts, John Rice, John Y. Philii 
Isaac Jacobs, Lewis Roberts, James Mayo, George W. Scott, Jo 
Roberts, James B. Tucker; Roger N. Todd, clerk ; John D. Lelar 
judge ; James M. Gordon, prosecuting attorney ; Frederick A. Hai 
ilton, sheriff; John M. Kelley, jailer. 

About two o'clock on Saturday, June 10th, Henry and Ameri 
were publicly executed on the gallows in the northwestern suburbs 
Columbia, at a place then without the corporate limits of the to^ 
but now embraced by them. The frame residence known as t 
Carlyle House, but now owned by C. B. Wells, and the house in wh 
Eld. Thomas M. Allen died, is situated near the spot where the ^ 
lows was erected. Although the day was extremely inclement, it b 
fng rained during most of the morning, nearly two thousand pers 
assembled to witness the execution. The condemned man and wor 
were attended at the gallows by Rev. Mr. McMurtry, of the Met 
dist Church, who, previous to the execution, engaged in solemn re 
ious exercises. The gallows was an old-fashion gibbet, construe 
of two posts set firmly in the ground, with a strong beam connect 
them at the top. To this beam the ropes were tied, a hangman's no 
being attached to the lower ends. The culprits were driven ii 
common wagon from the jail, each sitting on a cofiiu, and at the 
pointed time, a noose being about the neck of each, the wagon ^ 
driven from under them, and they were launched by strangulat 
into eternity. 


What was done ^ith the remains of Henry we know not ; but a 
dispute arising among the physicians, several of whom examined 
America before the execution, as to whether she was enciente^ most of 
them affirming she was not, a post mortem examination was made by 
Dr. Wm. B. Lenoir, the disclosures of which seriously confounded 
some of the doctors, by revealing the fact that she was pretty far gone 
in pregnancy. Dr. Lenoir's oiBce, in which the examination and dis- 
section were made, was situated in the rear, or north end, of the brick 
building, on the corner of Broadway and Court House Street, now 
(1882) occupied by Loeb & Cook, as a family grocery store, the 
rear of the building being at that time divided from the front by a 
[Murtition. The front was then occupied as a drug store by Joshua W. 


henry's contession. 

Heniy made two confessions, one to Sheriff Hamilton, who wrote it 
down a few days before the execution, and which was read to the mul- 
titude on that day ; the other, and a much longer one, under the gal- 
lows. The following is the confession made to Sheriff Hamilton : — 

Knowing thftt I have in m few days to appear in the presence of my God, I feel it to he 
07 inditpeniahle daty to give a correct history of the unfortunate transaction for which I 
m eoodemned to he hung. 

Sometime in the winter of 1842, David and myself, for the purpose of keeping from 

biiog whipped, ran off, and during that time Dave insisted on my joining him to kill maa- 

ttt; that matter was pressed on me by David and Simon from that time until the day of his 

U). Sometime previous to his death, Simon beat up a large quantity of glass for the 

porpoM of poisoning him, hut having laid it on the fence, it was found by master. David 

■od Simon informed me that they had been determined for years to take his life. The day 

ef Blaster's death, when they were putting in the hominy block, I was not present; but 

inHhuntingaringoff of the bolster; when I returned I found Simon some short distance 

from the wagon ; he spoke to me and said that Dave had killed master and that he had 

•track him ; Dave, Simon and America all acknowledged to me that they had struck him ; 

ttid sfter I came up, Mary took the axe and struck him two licks on the head. Dave burnt 

thslesves; we then started for the house; when I got to the house, I found Simon, Dave, 

America and Mary. After night, Simon and myself removed the body to where it was 

feiuid. Dave had taken the horse and put him in the upper stable, which was the old 

tobioco bouse. I threw the body at the forks' of the ruad, Simon carrying his cap and 

steadying him on the horse by holding his feet; and eased him off the horse. David would 

never tell me who shot off the pistol ; but said he knew who it was. Three or four nights 

before he was killed, Mary and David laid a plot to kill him. Master went to the stable, 

*Qd David and Simon went for the purpose of killing him, but they could not find him. I 

■^▼entruck a single blow. David stated to me since his trial, that he and Simon have de- 

^mined ever since they have been in this State to take his life. The keys were throwa 

into the the flre by Mary. 


Previous to the improvement of Broadway, Columbia, in 1843, 


it was a very irregular and unsightly thoroughfare, and often im- 
passable on account of its deep mud. There were no sidewalks of 
brick or of stone, and very few of plank, and in muddy weather 
pedestrians had difficulty in passing from one building to another, and 
greater difficulty in crossing Broadway, or an intersecting street. 
The writer hereof during times of protracted rain has seeu 
wagons loaded with fire wood and country produce completely stalled 
in the mud of Broadway, especially in that portion of the street em- 
braced in the depression which then existed between Eighth and Ninth 
Streets, and in front of the Exchange National Bank and Gilman & 
Dorsey's drug store. After the opening of the University in 1843 it 
was determined by a few enterprising citizens, who caught much of 
the inspiration from Dr. Wm. Jewell, chairman of the town trustees, 
that they would remedy these evils by the establishment of foot ways 
or sidewalks on each side of Broadway from Water Street, on Flat 
Branch, to Eleventh Street, then the eastern limit of the village. 
Also by the greater and more costly work of grading, macadamizing 
and guttering Broadway for the distance mentioned. 

This enterprise, on account of its cost and the alleged high taxe 
which would be necessary to complete it, produced the wildest excit< 
ment among a portion of the people, resulting, in some instances, i 
estrangement of personal friendships and almost violence. But D 
Jewell, and those who sustained him, had put their hands to the plo^ 
and were determined to carry the improvements to their consumm: 
tion. And they did it, and Broadway to-day, one of the wides 
best improved and most beautiful streets in any of our inland towns, 
a monument to the enterprise, sagacity and intrepidity of Dr. Williai 


The militia musters of the olden time, consisting of battalion an 
regimental parades at stated times and places in each county of tl 
State, were occasions of great interest, and were anticipated and pn 
pared for by people of all conditions, classes and colors. The 
brought together four times during each summer and fall the entii 
male population, to meet each other in social converse, to witness th 
splendid pageantry of peaceful war ; to note the evolutions of gail 
caparisoned horses and their plumed and uniformed riders ; to gaa 
with patriotic pride upon the long and straggling lines of citizen so] 
diery attired in home-spun and armed with walking canes, umbrella 
and corn-stalks ; to pass judgment upon the merits of braying jack 


^^' M isses and the stump oratory of political candidates who were often on 
^*f eibibition in close proximity to each- other ; to eat ginger cakes and 
drink 8weet cider, and destroy watermelons by the score ; and late in 
the afternoon to form part of a wide and excited ring, which circled, 
halloed, clieering and swearing, around neighborhood bullies who, on 
all SQch occasions, settled their personal differences with <* fist and 

Many and oft have been the times during the period about which 
we write, and notably during the celebrated presidential canvass of 
1844, our citizens came together at the battalion musters at Charles 
wl Sprinkle's, at Wm. Marney's, at Edward Young's and at Stephen 
b| Wilhite's, at each of which, mounted on some prancing steed whose 
" neck was clothed with thunder," was to be seen the tall form of 
^•1 .Brigadier Gen. Stewart B. Hatton, with red sash and golden epaulets 
r-1 and burnished sword gleaming in the sunlight. James Crockett, 
vi Jesse Barnett and John W. Hall were amons: the colonels com- 




No event, perhaps, in the history of Boone County is more marked 
than the June freshet in the Missouri River in 1844. At no time be 
ioTe or since was the river ever so full. Completely without its 
l^^nka the low lands along the whole course of the river were over 
flcDwed. The town of Rocheport, in Boone County, suffered very 
seriously. The store and warehouse of Peebles & Keizers, near the 
l>«nk, were inundated, the lower floors being covered with several feet 
of water. Water six feet deep was upon the floor of the dining room 
of Northcutt's Hotel, and above the counters in all the business 
l^ouses fronting the river — those of J. K. Wright & Co., Meyers & 
Butler, Howlett & Bourne, etc. 

The steamboat •* Wapello" went as far into town as the market 
l^ouse, with which it collided, demolishing the house. All the mer- 
cliants in the place removed their goods to more elevated positions on 
Central Street. 

The town of Nashville — Providence was then unknown — was 
completely inundated and also the immense bottoms adjacent. 
Every inhabitant of Nashville had to desert it. The water was eight 
feet deep in the streets. Rice G. Woods & Co. and John Parker & 
Sons, merchants, in order to save their goods, shipped them onsteam- 
'^ats, the latter to St. Louis, the former to Teter's landing, up the 


river. Lamme's warehouse was swept away, and Camplin's t 
factory, which stood on the river bank, caved into the river. 

Great destruction of property and personal distress, and pc 
life and limb were occasioned in the Missouri bottom. A nun 
families were rendered destitute, and relief was afforded th 
wagon loads of provisions which more fortunate citizens contr 

On Tuesday night, June 18, about 9 o'clock, four citizens 
lumbia, William Lampton, Cornelius Maupin, Lewis T. Damer 
John W. Collier, left that place for Nashville for the purpose of 
Woods & Co. to prepare their goods for shipment on a steamei 
der to save them. North of the town there was a slough, a 
low lands adjacent, which, without their knowledge and conti 
their expectations, were underwater. Arriving about 3 o'clocl 
morning at the edge of the water, and about one mile from t 
lage, and not for a moment suspecting the water was too dee 
thus encountered, they rode into it on their horses, one of the 
ii lantern leading the way. They soon discovered their dang 
in the pitchy darkness of the night became confused, lost the 
and resolved to tie their horses, abandon them, and climb tr€ 
remain till morning. Fortunately, the beleagured quarto read 
saplings not far distant, and two ascended each of them ; anc 
amid the bowlings of the night and the terrible roar of the re 
less flood, they remained perched till morning. By this ti 
waters had so risen that their horses could not stand ; therefo 
terrained to make another effort to escape the great and singul 
ils which threatened them and to reach the town, they descends 
the limbs on which they had stood the whole night, mountc 
horses and headed their course for dry land, about one th 
yards distant. After accomplishing three-fourths of the wa; 
horses gave out, and a watery grave seemed to be the fate 
Two of the men succeeded in reaching trees, the third a large 
log, but the fourth, Mr. Collier, benumbed by the vapors o 
and flood, and overcome by the dangers through which th 
passed, and which seemed still to block their way to safety, 
self-control, and was drowned. 

About 6 o'clock that morning, the three who remained, giii 
alarm by loud cries of distress, were relieved by Dr. Will 
Lenoir, Harry Acton and other citizens, who made their way 1 
on a hastily constructed raft of planks and logs. 

Mr. Collier's body was recovered the next day. 


The town of Nashville having been completely submerged and 
^ept away by the freshet, it was at once resolved to establish a new 
town as a place of business for the country round about and as a ship- 
ping and receiving point for Columbia ; and, therefore, before the 
flood had fairly subsided, the commissioners of Providence — William 
Shields, John H. Field and Robert S. Barr — advertised a sale of lots 
at a point immediately above the Nashville bottom, on a permanent 
Tock bluff, and a sale of lots was made on July 13. 


Boone claimed to be the banner Whig county of the State, and, 
heing settled largely by Kentuckians, felt a lively interest in the suc- 
cess of Kentucky's great statesman and orator, Henry Clay. All 
through the canvass the enthusiasm was almost unbounded, and Whig 
speakers, home and foreign, addressed the people at various times and 
places — among whom may be mentioned Abiel Leonard, of Howard ; 
Louis V. Bogy, of St. Louis ; John B. Duncan and William H. 
Bassell, of Callaway ; James S. Rollins, Sinclair Kirtley, Dr. William 
Jewell, A. W. Turner, F. t*. Russell and W. F. Switzler, of Boone. 
Clay clubs — some of them with 'coons and banners — were organized 
in eyery township, many of which were regaled by campaign songs, 
rendered by glee clubs. On Tuesday night, October 8, in the pres- 
ence of a large crowd, and near the Statesman office, a tall ash flag 
pole was raised, from the top of which floated the American flag, on 
iriiich occasion Col. William H. Russell and John B. Duncan, of 
Callaway, addressed the people. But this pole did not long bear 
aloft its flag and streamers, for, on the night of November 20, decisive 
returns being received from New York, rendering Mr. Clay's defeat 
onquestionable, some disappointed and disgusted Whigs laid the axe 
toils base and with their hopes it fell to the ground. 

Nor were the Democrats, friends pf James K. Polk, either idle or 
lacking enthusiasm*during the campaign. C. F. Jackson, of Howard ; 
John Jameson and Thomas Ancell, of Callaway, and William A. 
Bobards, of Boone, met the Whig orators in debate, and added inter- 
nal and excitement to the exercises of the political rostrum. 

Mr. Clay's majority in the county was 588. 


In the winter of 1845 a temperance society was organized in Colum- 


bia, with the following officers ; W. F. Switzler, president ; James H, 
Woods, first vice-president ; M. S.Matthews, second vice-president ;Dr. 
A. J. McKelway, corresponding secretary, and Lewis T. Dameron^ 
recording secretary ; whose constitution embraced the princi- 
ples of prohibition, as follows : *• That we desire the General Assem- 
bly so to change the present license laws as to permit the qualified 
voters in every township in the State to decide at the polls how many, 
if any, grocery and dram-shop licenses shall be granted within their 
respective townships." 


Early in May, 1845, Rev. R. S. Finley, agent of the Missouri Col- 
onization Society, visited Columbia and Rocheport and addressed large 
meetings of the people in behalf of African colonization. On May 
17th a society was organized in Columbia, a constitution adopted, and 
the following officers elected : President, Dr. Wm. Jewell ; vice-pres- 
idents, T. M. Allen, Isaac Jones, Thos. H. Ford, Walter Prescott, 
Fielding Wilhite, Warren Woodson, A. Persinger, Eli E. Bass, Dr. 
A. H. Robinson ; secretary, Wm. F. Switzler ; treasurer, Sinclair Kirt- 
ley ; managers. Dr. T. R. H. Smith, Moss Prewitt, Jas. S. Rollins, 
John H. Lathrop, Robt. S. Thomas, Jesse A. Boulton, Dr. H. M. 
Clarkson, Caleb S. Stone, A.*W. Turner, W. W. Hudson, Johfi F. 
Stone, Milton^S. Matthews. 

W. F. Switzler was instructed to write and publish an address i^ 
behalf of colonization, and Sinclair Kirtley was invited to delive*^ • 
speech to the society at its meeting on July 4, 1845. On Sunday 
July 5, 1846, this society held its annual meeting in the Christ 
Church in Columbia, Dr. Jewell presiding. Very interesting addrej 
were made by Dr. T. R. H. Smith, Eld. Samuel S. Church, and 
S. A. Young. Eld. Thos. M. Allen was elected president for the 
suing year. 

In September, 1847, the following officers were elected : Presidei 
Dr. Wm. Jewell ; vice-presidents, T. M. Allen, Isaac Jones, R. 
Thomas, R. L. McAfee, William Wilhite, Z. N. Robeils, and A. 
Macey ; secretary, W. F. Switzler ; treasurer, M. S. Matthew^ 
managers. Dr. T. R. H. Smith, Moss Prewitt, J. S. Rollins, J. 
Lathrop, Nelson Carter, Dr. H. M. Clarkson, D. M. Hickman, W. 
Hudson, G. C. Pratt, J. B. Howard, Dr. Wm. Provines, and N. 
Wilson. . / 

A society was also organized in Rocheport, May 16, 1845. 


£Qt, Moses IT. Payne; vice president, George Knox; secre- 
ujy Bev. David Coulter ; treasurer, George W. Outcalt ; mana- 
gers, Dr. A. H. Robertson, Rev. Walter Prescott, — Caldwell, P. 
[>ow, George Beeman, — Howlett, and B. McAlister. Although these 
Bocieties had a regular organization and existed for two or three years, 
nothing special was accomplished for African colonization. 


The entire taxable wealth of the county, in 1845, was $1,943,162 ; 
whole number of carriages and buggies only 48; money at interest 
0DI7 $119,460 ; total State taxes only $3,699.53. 


One of the most interesting and important sessions of the Confer- 
ence of the Missouri Methodist Episcopal Church ever held in the State 
convened in the Union Churcii, in Columbia, on October 1, 1845 — 
Bishop Soule presiding — and continued in session eleven days. The 
great question of separation was before the Conference and excited 
the profouudest interest. Those who participated in the discussion 
Mid denied the propriety of adhering to the Church South were the 
following ministers : Jas. M. Jameson, Wilson S. McMurray, Nathan- 
el Westerman and Thomas W. Chandler. Those who took the oppo- 
site view were Andrew Monroe, Thomas Ashley, Wm. Patten, Wes- 
ej Browning, Joseph Boyle and Jesse Green. The Conference, by a 
ote of 86 to 14, adhered to the Church South. Total number of 
members of the Methodist Church in Missouri, 26,061, of which there 
ere 23,532 whites and 2,529 colored. During the third week in 
ctober, 1845, Elder Alexander Campbell, of Bethany, Virginia, 
tended a State meeting of the Christian Church, in Columbia, and 
slivered several sermons to large audiences. On Sunday, October 
>, 80 great was the concourse present that the meeting was held in a 
•ove east of town, very near the spot on which the residence of 
i-ines L. Stephens now stands, where Mr. Campbell addressed 
5veral thousand people in a very able and scholarly discourse. 


On the 2d Monday in December, 1845, the Boone County Court, 
insisting of Judges Alexander Persinger, James W. Daly, and 
■^iJpiu S. Tuttle, resolved on building a new court house, and made 


an order appropriating $10,000 for that purpose and appointed Dr» 
Wm. Jewell superintendent of the work. 

The work was entered upon in due time and the house completed 
and delivered November 22, 1847, by the following contractors; 
Larkin Richardson, undertaker of the stone work; Henry Keene, of 
the brick work ; B. McAlester, of the carpenter's work, and Bolly 
Asberry, of the plastering. The entire cost of the building was 
$17,165, and was at the time regarded as the best, largest and moat 
magnificentcourt-house in Central Missouri. Since that time, however, 
it has been far eclipsed by the court houses of almost every other 
county in this part of the State. 

Above the front door there is a plate inserted in the wall on 
which are these words: (W. M. Winter, architect ;^) '^L. Richardson, 
H. Keene, and B. McAlester, builders; Wm. Jewell, superintend- 
ent."* Below this plate on the stone lintel of the front door is the 
following inscription : '* Oh Justice ! when expelled from other hab- 
itations make this thy dwelling place ! " 


*' Switzler's History of Missouri " says that the annexation of Texas 
was the alleged cause of the declaration of war by Mexico against the 
United States in April, 1846 ; but the more immediate cause of it was 
the occupation by the American army of the disputed territory lying 
between the rivers Nueces and Rio Grande. 

The declaration of war by Mexico was soon followed by a counter- 
declaration by the American Congress, that *' a state of war exists be- 
tween Mexico and the United States." Soon after this couatBt- 
declaration, the Mexicans cro:ssed the Rio Grande in strong forces, 
headed by their famous Generals Arista and Ampudia, and on da« 
8th and 9th of May, at Palo Alto and Resaca de Palma, were to^ 
and repulsed with great slaughter by General Taylor, of the «• Ax^*^ 
of Occupation." This fact created great excitement in St. Louis ^^ 
the surrounding country. Volunteers flocked to the standard of ^ 
United States, and the *' St. Louis Le«:ion," a militarv oro:aniza€>^' 
under command of Colonel A. R. Easton, quickly prepared for * 
field of action. 

About the middle of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Misso 
called for volunteers to join the •*Army of the West " — an expedi^ 

^ The words in parenthesiB originally appeared, but were erased by order of Dr. 


Santa Fe — under command of General Stephen W. Kearney ► 
2oTfB of mounted volunteers were speedily organized, and early in 
lone began to arrive at Fort Leavenworth, the appointed rendezvous. 
By the 18th of the month, the full complement of companies to com- 
pose the first regiment having arrived from the counties of Jackson, 
Lafnyette, Clay, Saline, Franklin, Cole, Howard, and Callaway, an 
election was held, which resulted in the choice of Alexander W. Doni- 
phan, Colonel ; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant-Colonel ; and William Gil- 
pin, Major. 

Hulf-a-dozen men, among whom were Odon Guitar and John M. 
Robards, were from Boone county in the Callaway county company of 
Doniphan's regiment. They enlisted on three hours* notice as the 
compiiny was marching through Columbia to Fort Leavenworth. 

Early in the summer of 1846, Hon. Sterling Price, a member of 
Congress from Missouri, resigned, and was designated by President 
Polk to command another regiment of volunteers from Missouri, to 
reinforce the •*Army of the West." This force consisted of a full 
mounted regiment and one mounted extra battalion and one extra 
battalion of Mormon infantry. The complement of men was soon 
raised, consisting of companies from the counties of Boone, Benton, 
Carroll, Chariton, Linn, Livingston, Monroe, Randolph, Ste. Gene- 
vieve and St. Louis ; and about the first of August rendezvoused at 
Fort Leavenworth. 

With this force Colonel Price took up the line of march for Santa 
Pe, over the same route pursued by Kearney and Doniphan, and on 
September 28th, three days after Gen. Kearney's departure for Cali- 
'ornia, arrived in very feeble health. 

In May, 1846, John Ellis, Major-General of the 12th Division, 
lissouri Militia, received orders dated May 14, requesting him to 
aifte without delay in the counties of Boone and Callaway, 100 volun- 
eers of infantry or riflemen for the reinforcement of the "Army of 
Occupation" in Texas. On Monday, May 25, four battalions of 
lilitia, by order of Gen. Ellis paraded in Columbia for the pnrpose of 
esponding to the requisition of the Governor for fifty volunteers from 
his county to repair forthwith to the seat of war in Texas. More 
han the number required (58 men) soon marched into line, with 
aearts animated by the love of country, and ready to hasten to the 
field of battle, whence the blood of their countrymen cried out from 
the ground. As soon as the company was formed, an election of 
officers was held. The following is the roll of officers and privates : 



OapUin — Wm. Robards, 8r. Fourth Sergeant— Jdo. W. GMer. 

Fint Lieutenant — Alex. L. Robinson. First Corporal — J. P. Fleming, 

Second Lieutenant— Elijah A. Willis. Second Corporal —J. B. Phillipa. 

Orderly Sexgeant— Jno. M. Robards. Third Corporal— J. B. Ridgway. 

Second Sergeant— Wm. E. Wright Fourth Corporal —Joseph Turner. 

Third Sergeant— Arthur Callaham. 
Privates— John Atha, J. W. Boggs, David Boothe, Carr Boothe, Edward Booths, DM 
Bishop, Archibald Brooks, Larkin Bennett, Alex. Casaday, David Coover, Felix Gsllshu^ 
Joel Farthing, Henry M. Henry, Levi Heme, Wm. T. Hancock, Enoch Hulin, Ambnii 
Hulin, George W. Johnston, Squire Hart, Charles Hart, Granville Homsinger, J. Si 
Houston, Clark Kenuon, Thomas J. Kitchen, Joshua Lampton, Lafayette Lewi% SooA 
Hurdock, Levil Merry, James F. Mills, Isaac B. Munday, Wm. O'Counor, Geoigt Oliiw^ 
Eldridge Payne, James R. Pigg, John Simpson, Wm. Smith, R. Stone, Robert Seott, W. 
W. Schooling, Joseph Turner, James Turner, Jos. Vinson, Francis M. Well8» Wm. WiUriH 
J. M. Wright, Bamett Williams. 

The election of officers being over, the company marched from tlie 
grove to Selby's Hotel and partook of a sumptuous dinner, gi?oi 
them by the citizens. 

Whilst the militia were on parade Capt. John Hinton, of Boche- 
port, now Probate Judge of Boone county, made a speech, in whiob 
he announced his intention to organize, in this county, one hundred 
mounted volunteers, in anticipation of the requisition of the Oovemor 
for 1,000 troops from the State to protect the Santa Fe traders. 
Numbers — exactly how many we do not know — gallantly responded 
to the call of Capt. Hinton. 

It was announced that Gen. John Ellis (as captain) and Col. James 
Crocket (as lieutenant) would lead one hundred men to the plains, if 
their services be needed, as flying artillery. The whole number was 
soon made up. Some twenty-five were also added to a uniform volun- 
teer company, organized in the summer of 1844, under Capt. Joseph 
Persinger, who held themselves in readiness to march to the plains for 
the protection of the traders to Santa Fe. 

Capt. William Robards' company, raised for the purpose of marcli- 
ing to the seat of war in Texas, never received marching orders, aod 
therefore were never in active service. 


In July, 1846, Samuel H. McMillan, of Columbia, raised a comp^^^? 
of mounted volunteers to join Col. Sterling Price's regiment, to r^**** 
force the "Arnjy of the West." The number of troops ordered fr"<^^ 
Boone County for this service was seventy-four, but eighty-three w^^ 
raised, some of them volunteering from Boone and some from ol 


• The following is a complete roster of the ofBcers and 
of Capt. McMillan's company : — 

In — Samuel H. McMiUaiL Third Sergeant — James B. McDaniel. 

Ueutenant — Wm. B. BoyalL Fourth Sergeant — James A. Turner. 

1 lieutenant— Bobt. B. Todd. First Corporal— Sherrod Faddis. 

Lieutenant — Geo. B. Lackland. Second Corporal — E. Hurdock. 

teiigeant — F. B. Webb, of St Louis. Third Corporal -—John Leopard. 
1 Seigeant — Samuel H. Teeter. Fourth Corporal — Bobt T. Slate. 

(from Boone County) — Thos.K. McCutchen, David Bishop, G. W. Casteel, 
TaiiU, John W. Carter, Thos. G. Duncan, H. P. Dunham, Enoch Dooley, Milton 
avid Ford, Michael Fallon, William A. Gentry, C. Houston, J. C. Houston, Gran- 
inger, Squire T. Hart, Tyre G. Harris, Geo. W. Johnson, F. M. Wells, Tyre H. 
. W. Nichi^ L. M. Nash, B. T. Orear, Itichard Philips, Q. Peacher, Jas. B. Beed, 
Qsey, Badford Stone, John Speaks, James Wry, John M. Hickman ; fh>m Howard 
ilton Arnold, Matthew Arnold, M. M. Basey, James Campbell, Bich. Fristoe, La- 
ad* B. A. Layton, Samuel Shacklett; from Buchanan County, John Browning, 
ircb, M. D., Wm. Ducoing, Henry Evers, E. S. Gale, M. D., M. Ward, T. D. 
Bobt. Hewete, Asa Bupe,B. Wiley; A*om Platte County, S. Blount, H. Fender, 
r. S. Harris, G. W. Harris, W. A. Shackleford ; from Callaway County, Elijah 
. D. Burgess; from Fort Leavenworth, Henry Bodie; from Saline, Bobert Carson; 
on, T. H. Coats, W. C. Coats, G. W. Howser, T. H. Jeffries; from Jackson, A. C. 
Tom Johnson, William H. Mars ; A*om Atchison, A. P. Bouse, J. Bouse ; from 
iigh ; from Lafkyette, T. C. White. 

onday, July 20, 1846, this company took up the line of march 
t Leavenworth, and encamped for the night on the Perche, 
BS west of town. Previous to their leaving they were formed 
mounted, in front of the residence of Moss Prewitt — now the 
5e of Dr. G. W. Riggins — in the presence of a large con- 
)f citizens of both sexes, for the purpose of receiving a flag 
e ladies of Columbia. This flag was a splendid silken streamer, 
the stars and stripes; on one side in large letters ''Boone 
" and stars representing the States of the Union; on the 
I American eagle with arrows and an olive branch in its talons, 
rteen stars, typical of the thirteen original States, together 
5 mottoes : '* Onward " — *« We conquer but to save." The 
odies who made the flag surrounded Col. Samuel A. Young, 
their behalf, presented it in a speech. Robert B. Todd, Sec- 
utenant, accepted the flag in a speech. Mr. Todd is now one 
fudges of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, and a son of the 
Ige David Todd. 

ig the stay of the company at Santa Fe, the following privates 
oone died : Sam. Teters, William Curtis and John C. Huston, 
las W. Sampson, who had been elected Second Lieutenant of 
ohn Hinton's company, whose services were not needed, and 


which therefore was never mustered, followed Capt. McMillan's com- 
• pany to Fort Jjeavenworth, where he entered the quartermaster's 
department, under Col. Ogden, and remained in it till the close of the 
war, being discharged in New Orleans. 

On July 22, 1847, a public dinner was tendered the 
Mexican war volunteers from Boone and Howard, in Roche- 
port — President, George Knox ; Vice-President, Philip Crow ; Secre- 
tary, James A. Hill. Colonel Samuel A. Young, of Columbia, was 
the orator of the day, to whose speech appropriate responses were 
made by Jno. Hinton, of Rocheport, and J. S. Fleming, of Columbia. 
The citizens of Columbia being a little tardy in demonstrations of re- 
spect for the gallant services of the Boone County volunteers in the 
Mexican war, some of them held a meeting, the published proceedings^ 
of which were very ironical, as foIli>ws : 

[From the Columbia sUt/esman of August 13, 1847.] 


Wai held by the returned volunteers of Boone Count}' on Saturday, the 7th instant, when, 
on motion, Lieut. R. B. Todd was called to the chair, and Odon Guitar appointed secretary. 
The chairman, being called on» briefly stated the object of the meeting, after which the fol- 
lowing resolutions were offered and unanimously adopted : — 

1. Rtaolvedy That we, the volunteers of Boone County, tender to our friends tJid fellow- 
eitizena of Columbia and its vicinity our grateful acknowledgments for the kind reception 
and generous welcome with which we have been met on our return home; the remembrance 
of the toils and hardships which we have undergone, of the difficulties and dangers which 
we have encountered, are lost and forgotten, and we reap in the grateful affections ofouffel" 
low-citizens an ample reward for all. 

2. Resolved^ Therefore, That we make a public manifestation of our gratitude by giving 
a public supper at Trumpler's Saloon on Thursday evening, the 19th instant; and as it 
would be almost impossible to give every one a private invitation, we resort to this public 
method, and would therefore respectfully solicit the attendance of our friends and fellow- 
citizens of Columbia and its vicinity, and especially the presence of the ladies. 

Suitable and appropriate toasts will be prepared for the occasion. 

Published by order of the Committee of Arrangements. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

ROBERT B. TODD, Chairman. 
Odon Guitar, Secretary. 

The biting sarcasm of these proceedings qnickened the public appre- 
ciation of the gallant services of the **Boone Volunteers" in the '*Army 
of the West," but as Capt. McMillan and a large number of his sol- 
diers did not return until September 22 (after an absence of about 
fourteen months), nothing was done to testify the general gratitude 
and appreciation of the people. Three days after their return, how- 
ever (September 25), a public meeting was held in the court-house in 
Columbia — S. A. Young, chairman ; M. G. Singleton, secretary — at 



irkich measures were adopted to tender the volunteers a public dinner 
in a beautiful groye west of the University, on Saturday, October 9* 
On that day and in this form, a hearty, thrice-hearty welcome was 
tendered the ** Boone Volunteers," who had encountered the perils of 
war aiid endured the privations of camp and march. Escorted to the 
groands by Gen. Joseph Persinger's troop of horse (these and the 
procession being under the orders of the marshal of the day, David 
M.Hickman), the volunteers took position in front of the speaker's 
stand, and were addressed by Dr. John R. Atkinson. James P. Flem- 
ing, who did gallant services at Bracito and Sacramento, re- 

W. B. Royall, second lieutenant, has been in the United States army 
ever since, and is now lieutenant-colonel of the Third Cavalry, U. S. 
A. (See subsequent pages of this history.) v 


In February, 1847, the Legislature passed an act providing for the 
location of an asylum for the insane in one of the following central 
connties : Boone, Callaway, Cole, Moniteau, Cooper, Saline, Chariton 
and Howard. The following gentlemen were elected commissioners : 
Junes M. Hughes, of Clay ; J. W. McElhiuey, of St. Charles ; Robert 
E. Acock, of Polk, whose duty it was to meet on the first Monday 
in April ensuing^ and proceed to the several counties to which 
the location was confined, examine their advantages and receive 
their donations, and then locate the institution. Boone and Calla* 
way were the only counties which manifested any especial solicitude 
on tha subject. Cole proposing only a donation of 100 acres of land 
•nd Cooper only $900 in cash. The commission met at Booneville 

on Tuesday, 14, 1847, and decided to locate the asylum 

*i Fulton, Callaway county having subsidized the largest sum in 
<Qoney and land. Callaway's subscription: Cash, $11,494; laud, 
^OO acres ($3,000); total, $14,494. Boone's subscription: Cash^ 

This was a sore defeat to the people of Boone County — to them 
*nd their posterity an irretrievable loss. It was a great victory for 
^he people of Callaway, and one which in every respect is priceless^ 
Boone, for the lack of less than $5,000, lost a State institution whose 
financial advantages, added to those accruing from the University, 
^ould have been worth millions. But the people of Boone County at 
^ht time this struggle was made had not fairly recovered from the 


burden of the $117,000 subscribed a few years before to secure the 
University. Hence their failure to secure the Lunatic Asylam. 


On the 22d April, 1847, the first number of the Columbia Olobe^ ^ 
William A. Verbryke, publisher; Thomas P. Giles, editor — w» 
issued in Columbia. This was the first Democratic^ newspaper pub- 
lished in Boone County. 


In December, 1847, Rev. Dr. Nathan H. Hall, of Lexington, Ey., 
commenced a series of revival meetings in the Presbyterian Church in 
Columbia, and soon after a series of meetings were commenced in the 
Cliristian Church by Elders T. M. Allen and Marcus Wills, of Boone 
County, and Elder Henry Thomas, of Monroe. Both continued with 
great interest for several weeks. 


On Wednesday, August 23, 1848, the Sons of Temperance of Co- 
lumbia, joined by numerous representatives from neighboring countiest 
had a grand celebration and Bible presentation in Columbia. At thre* 
o'clock p. M., a procession was formed under the superintendence ol 
M. S. Matthews and William C. Shields, marshals of the day. Tb« 
members of the Masonic fraternity participated in the ceremonies oi 
the occasion, turned out in large numbers, and, attired in the regal: 
of their order were assigned the front rank in the procession. A^ 
though Rockwell's circus was performing at the same hour, the chap^^^ 
of the University where the banner presentation occurred was filled ti-^-^ 
its utmost capacity, there being present the largest assembly ev^^^ 
congregated in the building. W. F. Switzler, Worthy Patriarch a»fc^i 
F. Nutt, Worthy Associate, presiding. Prayer by Rev. Mr. Roberta"i^8, 
of Methodist Church, after which Mrs. Margaret Prewitt and Francs^-i* 
A. Provines were introduced, who, on behalf of the young ladies -^^' 
Columbia, and in beautiful and appropriate addresses, presented an eL '^- 
gant banner (painted by Col. S. A. Young) to the Boone Divisic^:^* 
William Bentley responded. 

Mrs. Ann Eliza Bryan was then introduced, who, in the name 4>f 
the married ladies of Columbia, and in an address commendable ^or 
the richness and beauty of its language and chasteness of its sent!- 


mento, presented the division the chart of life here and hereafter, 
God's best gift to man — the Bible. 

Mr. George C. Pratt receiving the Bible on behalf of the order re- 

These ceremonies over, Mr. John F. Williams (now insurance com- 
missioner) proceeded to address the assembled concourse in exposition' 
aod defence of the nature and objects of the Sons of Temperance. 

The benediction was then pronounced by Rev. Mr. Hart, of the 
Presbyterian Church, and the exercises closed. 


On Monday night, August 28, 1848, the residence of Lewis Hume, 
near Providence, was entered, and a small hair trunk containing $500 
or t600, principally in gold and silver, was stolen. Mr. Hume and 
&miljwere in the house at the time and, hearing the noise made by 
the robber as he left the room, Mr. Hume made pursuit but with. 
no success. 


On Monday night, November 20, 1848 the Whigs of Columbia cele- 
brated the election of Geneial Taylor to the Presidency by a general 
mumination, displays of torches and transparencies and a monster 
meeting at the Court House, which was addressed by S. A. Young, J. 
S. Rollins and W. F. Switzler. 


In November and December, 1849, new and remarkable interest 
sprang up in Columbia on the subject of establishing a Collegiate In- 
^itote in that place for the education of young ladies. It originated 
'o a proposition made by Samuel Hatch and H. H. White, of Har- 
^sburg, Ky., to remove to Columbia, and, on certain conditions, to 
^ke charge of a Female College of the highest grade. Dr. Hatch 
^as present and attended all the meetings held on the subject, which 
^ere numerous, and by intercourse with our people and explanations 
>f bis designs, excited great interest on the subject. Several public 
Qieetiugs were had, whose deliberations were participated in by Dr. 
W'm. Jewell, Warren Woodson, Moss Prewitt, Jas. S. Rollins, R. L. 
Todd, James B. Boyce, Eld. T. M. Allen, S. A. Young, Eld. D. P. 
Henderson, R. S. Thomas, R. C. Branham, Dr. T. R. H. Smith, W. 


W. Hudson, A. W. Turner, Eld. S. S. Church, A. O. Forshey, 
F. Switzler and others. 

The several meetings resulted in the report of two plans from i 
lect commyttee, widely different from each other, these differe 
finally resulting in an adjournment sine die of the last meeting, 
an apparent abandonment of the whole scheme. It was not, I 
ever, fruitless of results, for, out of the deliberations and discussi 
Christian Female College and Stephens (Baptist) Female Col 
were evolved. 


In December, 1848, a sleet occurred which had no parallel ii 
history of the country. Trees, even of the largest class, were all 
literally stripped of branches, rendering the roads in many pi 
impassable. Trees without number were borne to the ground 
broken off by the insupportable mass of ice upon them. Shade 
ornamental trees were greatly damaged and many orchards 


The discovery of gold in California in 1849 greatly excited the 
pie all over the West, and of course the people of Boone co 
caught the infection. Early in the spring of that year, but la 
numbers of them during 1850, abandoned their homes and businei 
some of them, alas ! never to return — for the gold fields of the 
Eldorado. During the month of April the emigrants from 
County took up the line of march in wagons and on horseback 
their toilsome journey to the Pacific. So far as we have been ab 
learn, the following are their names : — 

Francis T. Russell, R. E. Lusk, Dan'l Grosse, Jerre Orear, 
W. B. Lenoir, M. Boyle, Thos. A. Russell, David Guitar, Wn 
Russell, John Chadwick, Wm. B. Royall, T. A. Garth, Samuel 
non, A. N. Wilhite, Madison D. Stone, Eli PuUiam, Lawrence I 
ford. Rev. Francis Hart, John W. Carter, M. P. Wills, Jr., G 
Nichols, James M. Wilcox, W. J. Hitt, Nathaniel Torbitt, \^ 

Tuttle, Elliott, A. E. West, Arch. Goin, W. H. Stone, Sa 

R. Tuttle, Thos. A. Sims, Hugh T. Plant, Jas. B. Furnish, Jame 
Wright, David R. Doyle, Dr. John B. Isbell, G. L. Russell, Joh 
Willis, Moss P. Foffe, Thomas Orear, John Scott, Chas. R. Tho 

Harris, Samuel D. Lamme, Andrew Trumbaugh, Ben, 

Orear, Lemuel Noble, Thos. J. O'Neal, Wm. Bentley, John 


Bryau, T. W. Sampson, Jamea P. Fleming, George Winn, E. A. 

Wills, D:ivid Crockett, -Bedmond, Wm. Y.,Hitt, Marion Lowry, 

lliDj. B. Hitt, Ataos Murncy, Sr., Amos Marney, Jr., James Pollard, 

Msrtiu OlJham, Willmm Gmu, Edwin Curd, Taylor, Joseph 

Doyle, Wm. Spiora, Jumes Wiseman, Jr., Wm. Whitley, Joshua Mar- 
tini Elijah Stephens, Price P. Taffe, Campbell St. John, Geo. W. 

Stolt, Larkin Richardson, Han-el, William Broaddua, John 

Slemnions, James Tnruer, H. Wheeler, Powhatan Woodson, Samuel 
Bejitley, Marcus Pollard, James Hill, Julius Dunn, James Winn, 
Miriou RichiirdsoQ, Dr. Wm. Schooling, Jeptha Buker, Thomas Oald- 
tell, R. E. Scott, Willriim Moade, Thomas Turner, Johnson Osboru, 
Aleisader Black, Barney Woods, Mr. Huyden, Henry Stemmons, M. 
Stemmons, J. Steiumoiis, Jr., John S. Wilhite, Wm. F. Wilhite, 
Lewis H. Harl, Willis March, Andrew N. Wilhite, G. F. Wilhite, Jas. 
F. Wilhite, JiLs. A. McQuitty, S. S. Eliott,William Wilhite ( son of Joel 
Wilhite), Smith Wilhite, Mr. Grant, T. Baker, Wm. Dunn, J. J. Winn, 
H, Rulen, Mr. McGhee, Harrison Booth, Edward Booth, David 
Booth, Elijah Booth, Jr., Mr. Timbeilake, Wm. Gaw, Milton Ogen, 
Gi«en Hays, James Lowry, Jr., Mr. Parsons (of Bocheport), Garland 

Huris, Jonathan Bartou, Sr., Jonathan Barton, Jr., John Barton, 

JoehuR Barton, Robert Barton, Fleming Hatten, Henry H. Wilker- 

«w,J<ihn Corlew, Wm Corlew, Bartlett Gentry. 
Doubtless there were many others, but vre have not been able to ob- 

tun their names. 




FROM 1850 TO 1860. 

California Gold Fever, Continued — Hickman's Perry across the North Platte *— list of CaJi* 
fomia Emigrants — An untimely Snow — Explosion iff J. L. Stephen^' Store — Flank Road 
from Columbia to Providence ^-Exports of Rocheport in 1861 — Fat Bullocks — Monrcw 
and Boone Counties Contesting — North Missouri Bailroad — The Subscription of BooiM 
County — What a Mistake Cosi Callaway and Howard — Daring Attempt at Rape —Negro 
Hung by a Mob -^ One Student of the University Kills another — The Drought of 18M — 
Selby's new Hotel — Monster Kansas Meeting — Premonitions of the coming Storm — B. 
K. Klampus Yietus — Thespian Hall Columbia — New County Jail — Daily Mail to Jeffatw 
son City — Boone County Troops for Kansas — Trial, Conviction and Execution of Joha 
Chapman for Murder — R. C. Branham Lost in Galveston Bay — Joe Robinson, aNsgr» 
Man, Executed for the Murder of James T. Points — Drunken Riot in Rocheport-— (^ti» 
zens' Meeting — Soldiers of the War of 1812 in Boone — County Clerk's Safe Blown 
Open — Largest Taxpayers in 1858 and 1881 — Columbia Library Association — Priossof 
Negroes Hired and Sold in 1869 — Town Clock. 

* Those thus marked were elected. 

AUGUST 10th, 1850. 

•John 6. MiUer.. 919 I John Miller. 106 

James S. Green. 686 | 


*Sam'lA.Tonng. 719 | Jas. M. Gordon... 827 
Total 1,546 


•Absalom Hicks 900 
*S. B. Hatton.... 894 
N.W.McCleUand 361 

*L. W. Robinson 906 
A. O. Forshey... 884 
L.D. Tipton.... 116 


•J. B. Douglass.. 791 I James Arnold. . . 460 
Caleb Fenton. .. . 34S | 

Total 1,698 

AUGUST 2d. 1852. 

Jas. Winston.. ..1,145 | ^Sterling Price.. 694 
Total 1,841 


Andrew King... 1,139 | * Wilson Brown.. 688 
Total A 1,821 


•Jno. G. Miller. .1,154 | Jas. S. Green 706 

Total 1,860 


•Jas. M.Gordon.1,118 
•Stephen Wil- 

liite 978 

Dr. McGleUand.. 687 

*D. H. Hickman.1,079 
L.W Kobinson.. 880 
S. U . Uatton. ... 671 


•J. B. Donglas8..1,64S | 

AUGUST 9TH, 1854. 

•GUchrist For- I Tnlly R. Oomiek 917 

ter 1,217 [ 

Total 2iu4 


•Jas. S. RoUins..l,175 |«Odon Guitar l,ltt 

P. H.McBride.. 984 |A. O. Forshey.... 931 


John M. Samnel. 621 I Greo. L. Hickam. 611 
•Jeremiah Qrear 666 | ZadooRiggs 875 

Total 2,1» 

AUGUST 4TH, 1856. 

*T. L. Ander8on.l,220 | B. F. Richmond.. 90T 
Total .*. 2,217 


RobtC. Ewing.. 1,198 I rrrasten Polk.... 982 
ThoB. Benton.... 85 




Wm. Newland.. .1^13 {•Hancock Jackson 985 

John W.Kelly.. 42 | 

Total M» 



SLSOTiOK RETURNS — Continued, 


JiK>.¥.HeDi7».l,180 | *L. W. ItobinsoD.1,028 

TWd '. 2.918 


•WiBJ.8witxler.l^57 i M. B. DoiiglM8..1,196 
LB. Searcy 1.064 | Geo. W. liiller...l,089 


V e r e m i a h I Stephen Petty. ..1.016 
Qmr 1,S14 I 

Tbtal «.W3 

AUGUST 5TH, 1868. 

rr. L. Ander80ii.l.8S6 | J. B. Henderson 481 
Total 1,887 


*Odon Gnitar.... 1.265 I ^James Harris.. 1,288 
A. G. Newman...l,288 | Jas. B. Shields.. 1,085 


*J. M. Samuel... 1,665 ( James W. Byan...860 
Total 2^ 

1850— Population of Boone County 14,979. 

Increased and remarkabU interest was felt during the spring of 
1850 in the Galifornia gold mines, and the emigration to that country 
from Boone and other counties in Missouri was one of the marvel- 
lous events of the period. Nothing else was thought or talked of, 
tnd all classes and conditions of the people were excited by hopes of 
obtaining sudden riches in the newly discovered mines. Thousands 
and tens of thousands of the people of Missouri, and at least a half- 
thousand from Boone County, crossed the plains, with the expectation 
of reaping, with little trouble and little labor, a rich harvest on the 
golden shores of the Pacific. 

The large emigration developed a new enterprise, namely, the es- 
tablishment of a ferry across the North Platte River. For this pur- 
pose David H. Hickman & Co., of this county, with teams, wagons 
and laborers, went to the North Platte, 730 miles from St. Joseph ; 
&nd at large expense, built ferry boats, capable of transporting across 
that stream the immense caravans whose point of destination was the 
gold mines of California. It was pecuniarily a hazardous undertaking, 
hut Hickman & Co. made more money out of it than three-fourths 
of the emigrants realized from the gold mines. They crossed several 
hundred teams each day, at $7.50 per team. 


The following list, alpabetically arranged, embraces the names, as 
^*f as known to us, of all the Boone County emigrants to California 
*^ 1850. No doubt there were others whose names we were unable 
to obtain : — 

^— H. C. Anderson, James Austin, Dr. John M. Angel, John Armstrong, Cain Acton, 
••Daai Atkinson, Henry Asherry. 


B. — Sam'l W. Berry, Mac Brink, Wm. T. Berry, Thos. Barns, Benj. Bams, Hubbub 
Barns, George Bradford, Jas. J. Boyce, Stephen Bedford, Jr., W. G. Bugg, Dr. JameiE 
Bennett, Geo. Bright, K. E. Bondurant, Wm. H. Booker, Jesse Bugg, Franklin Bamett 
John M. Black, Madison Bradley, Dr. J. L. Buster, Lee Burruss, Nimrod Bishop, Johi 
Barkwell, Dr. John Baley, Robt Baley, Wm. Breyman, Jos. G. Berry, John Bysfield, Wm 
Beazley, Jefferson Bentley, Elijah Brink, Lawrence Bass, Albert Bamett, John Booth 
Peter Booth, Carr Booth, James Benedict, Greenbery Baker, L. G. Berry, R. C. F. Boyoe 
Wm. B. Bast, Elijah Byers, George Boon, Abram Barns, Jacob T. Bruner, Robert Bar 
nett, James Bell, William Brown. 

C. — T. H. Cox, Montgomery Cowden, Richard Carter, W. A. Carter, Mac Culbert, Johi 
Carlisle, Wm. Clarkson, John Clarkson, James T. and Sanford Connerly, Thomas Oild 
well. Nelson Carter, John Corbitt, Ogel, Charles and Wm. Campbell, Merit Cave, Dudley 

and Franklin Clark, . Wm. Carpenter, Thomas Chandler, Chapman, A. J. ChtlliU 

Milton Crews, Clatweller, Sam'l and James Caldwell, Dr. W. F. Cartmill, H. B. C 

Oowden, Coons, W. H. Crosswhite, Elza Coats, Nath. Cromwell, Jas. Crosswhite. 

D. — John Dickinson, Dooley, Alex. Duncan, Martin Duncan, J. M. Donegbec 

James M. Downey, Sindney Dunham, M. Durnhill, Henry Douglass, S. M. Duley. 

£. — James Eastin, Green Edwards, Moss Easley, Wm. Evans, A. Evans, Tboi 
Evans, John Ewing, George Elliot. 

F. — James Fulkerson, Andrew Fenton, W. H. Fawcett, Thos. Farthing, John Fortoe 
Wary Fortner, Charles Finley, Columbus Finley, Sherrad Faddis, Wiley Ferguson, Josep 

G. — James Grant, John M. Gordon, Wm. J. Gordon, Henry Gutewood, Odon Quits 
Reuben Gosling, Robert Galloway, James and Sidney Gentry, Joseph Graves, W. H. Gs 
rett, David Gordon (son of G. W. Gordon), James Gibson. 

H. — Thomas, David, William and James Hulen, B. B. Hunter, Levi Hem, S. Hai 
Cicero Houston, John Hall, Geo. Hersh, Dr. Thos. J. Hardin, Robt. Hamilton, Staunti 
Hume, L. B. Hunt, Durret Hubbard, John Hubbard, Wm. Hickam, John Hadden, Jam 
Hern, Harrison Hawkins, J. Harvey Hill, Birch Hunt, Hensley Hudson, John Harris, Jol 
and Sidney Hopper, Thos. Hancock, Rice and Madison Hem, Geo. Hickam, Willii 
Holmes, M. N. Heaston, G^o. Hubbard, Ambrose Hulen, Harney Haun, R. Hudson, 

Hatten, Wm. Hughes, James Hesser, Harris, Joseph Harris, T. B. Hulen, W. Hunt< 

John and Hiram Hickam, Sam'l and James Hunter, Clifton Hensley, Ben Hill, Rob< 
Hubbard, James Hardy, James E. Hicks. 

J. — Thomas Jackson, Slocum Jackson, James, Thomas and Harrison Jones, Greenbei 
Johnson, Jas. E. Johnson. Thos. Jefferson, Isaac Johnson, F. M. Johnson. 

K. — W. D. Kelso, Geo. W. Kimbrough, Sr., Geo. W. Kimbrough, Jr., Robt. Ki 
brough, John Kimbrough, John W. Kimbrough, Alex, and Thomas Keene, Charles Kii 
Henry Kite, Ric'd Keene, Isaac Kuykendall, George N. King. 

L. — Claiborn F. Laforce, Rich'd H. Lawson, John Lampton, Joshua (Cap.) Lamptc 
Rich'd Leonard, Ambrose Lythe, Jacob and Geo. Langston, Wm. Laforce, James Lai 
ston, James and Franklin Lowry, Perry Lynes, Slater Lenoir, M. J. Lamme, James Litt 
Benj. Lane, R. Lowry, John H. Lynch, Kirtley Lynch, Sam'l Leopard, Jesse Lanham. 

M. — Isaac B. Monday, William Miller, Cornelius Maupin, Job Marsh, Orvil McCread 

Ed. McCutchen, B. McAlester, Jas. McClintock, McMickle, Joseph McDaniel, Job 

Robert and Tyre Martin, Nathan Martin, Jr., James Melloway, Wallace Maxwell, — 

McGowen, Sam'l H. McMillin, Maupin, Wm. Mead, Ab. Marsh, David McQuitty, S 

David McQuitty, Sr., David McBride, Wm. Monroe, Moses, Wm. and Geo. Maupin, X 
Masterson, W. K. McPherson, Geo. D. Mourning, Thos. M. Maupin, John C. Msup 
M. W. Maupin. 

N. — B. F.Nichols, Lemuel Northcutt, Elvin J. Nichols, Amos Nichols, Geo. Nel« 
John Northcutt, Elman Nash, Wm. Norris, Dr. J. M. Nye. 

O. — B. F. Drear, Wm. Orear, J. Belt Drear, Robt. Drear. 


P.— Toiu^; A. Parcell, Hiram Philips, Jr., Auguttine Philips, James Pigg, Thos. Pra- 
tt0r,Tlios.Puken Thomas 0. Philips, Thos. Palmer, John G. and Robt. R. Provines, 
JMiW, Paricer, Henry Parsons, Bloomfield Philips, Dr. W. J. Philips, Mitchel Palliam, 
Wbl Polliam, James B. Peninger, Stephen Pettis, Quincy Pitcher, 0. G. Payne, Dr. James H. 
Pnker, Oeo. 0. Pratt, Thomas and Jas. E. Palmer, Preston Philips, A. J. Pipes, Anderson 
Piyoe, John Pace, Burden Palmer, Jesse D. Patton, Richard Paine, James Pendleton. 

&-Slcanah G. Reed, Redderford, Redderford, John P. Roy all, Grace Ridg- 

ny, Dr. Alonso Itichaidson, James Richardson, Jr., David Richardson, Wesley Rice, John 
ind Tbos. Rochfoid, F. T. Russell, John M. Robards, Thos. Roleson, Thos. Roberts, Finley 
Roberti, John Reed, James Ryan, Wm. Ryan. W. Riley, John Ridgway, Elijah Rogers, 
WnLReybum, James, Zadoc and John Riggs, Sam'l Rowland, Thos. Rowland, W.W. Row- 
lud, G. W. Roland, Ewing Rowland, W. F. Roberts, Gharles T. Reed, Wm. Riggs, Robt. 
Rodej. Thot. Rollins, T. J. Roberts, A. W. Rutherford, J. D. Rutherford, Jackson L. 

8.— Alex., Wharton and Rice Schooler, J. G. Sprinkle, Galeb S. Stone, Frank. Stivers, 

Job Slocumb, Robt. G. Slocumb, Shackleford, Z. Spiers, James and Gharles Starke, 

John sod James Smith, Alfred Slack, Philip J. Self, Brown Searcy, Sam'l B., K M., W. R. 
ind J. A. Spence, James Smith, John and J. H. Stephens, W Smith, W. South, Newman 
Bottls, Yamer Skinner, Thos. and Rice Short,, Franklin Seymour, Jas. H. Shock, Gharles, 
J*nm sad John Sinclair, James Skeene, Hezekiah Speaks, John Senate, Elias and Robert 
^OMllejr, George Smith, from the country, Dempsey Sapington, Stephen S. Strow, 
Wllford Stephens, William Stephens. 

T.— Jas. B. Tucker, Jet, Thos. and Ben. Turner, Sam'l Tuttle, R, a and John Thral- 

Wd, Gab. Turner, Tucker, Thos. S. and Wm. Tuttle, Dr. E. G. Taylor, Abram N. 

IWiier, Ric'h Tuck, Moxdecai Turner, J. R. Tiffee, Jesse and James Turner, Enoch and 
Siha Tipton, Wm. True, James M. True, Joseph Turner. 

v.— Wm. H. Victor, J. D. Yanhom, John Vanlandingham, James D. Vance. 

W.— Harvey Wright, A.B. Weldon, James Wainscott, John Wamock, William H. 
^riRht, Wm. E. Wilson, U. H. Wilkerson, Geo. S. Waters, J. W. Wright, Allen White, 
Vm]Bj Wright, W. P. Wright. Joseph Wright, Wm. White, John Wade, John J. Weir, 
wnei Wilcoxon, Hern Williams, Peter J. and Aler. Wright, R. P. Waters, William 
^elU, Sampson and James M. Wilhite, William and James Wirt, W. W. Wigham, 
»orge Woodson, Joseph and Wm. Waters, Harris Wilkerson, Wm. Wiley, L. Withers, 
''alter W. Wilson, Wm. Williams, John E. Willis, Thomas West, William Williams, 
•m Williams, John William, Moses Wilhite. 


Several of these emigrants died en route, and a large number after 
^eir arrival in California. We note the following, which, of course^ 
^ very incomplete : 

Prsnklin Wilhite, son of Rev. Fielding Wilhite, at Angel's Greek, Cal., December 24, 
^»; Charles Starke, September 6, 1860; William Starke. October 80, 1860; John Hudson 
^«n:ls7, August 28, 1860; John W. Nichols, Samuel R. Tuttle; Dr. James H. Bennett, at 
^ngtown, Cal., October 8, 1850, aged 68; Thomas Cox, October 8, 1850; Madison 
i-cQowan; Haydon Lanter, washed overboard in a storm at sea on his return; Joseph 
1*^ John T. Mitchel, October 80, 1850; James D. Wood, of cholera, at Fleet River 
^1^7, July 2, 1850; at Court House Rock, 85 miles east of Fort Laramie, of cholera, Mrs. 
^ J. Lamme, daughter of Thomas C. Maupin; Dr. J. M. Nye, Owen Hern, Dr. Jewell 
^''liih, Alexander Wright, William W. Rowland, Thomas B. Ridgway, Joseph Turner, 
'^'wlaiid McKinzie, Rev. John M. Black, James P. Wilcoxson, Richard Paine, D. C. 


The Columbia Statesman had a correspondent with the emigrant 
train, Mr. William R. Rothwell, afterwards a distinguished Baptist 
minister, and now (1882) President of William Jewell College at 
Liberty, Mo. 


The spring of 1850 was unusually inclement and backward, greatly 
to the regret of the California emigrants. There was a heavy fall of 
snow in Boone County on Sunday, April 14, which remained on the 
ground till the next day, when it vanished. 


About 11 o'clock A. M., on Saturday, October 5, 1850, the people 
of Columbia and surrounding country were shocked by a terrifi< 
explosion, no one for a time knowing the cause of it or its exac 
locality. Soon, however, it was ascertained that Mr. J. L. Stephens 
large new brick store-room was in ruins ; that the catastrophe wai 
occasioned by the explosion of gunpowder, and that one person wai 
certainly killed and many others seriously injured. 

The store was a heap of ruins, and it was some time before it coulc 
be ascertained with certainty who were among the killed and injured 
The accident occurred in this way: Mr. Stephens was in receipt of s 
large stock of goods, which were laying about the floor in boxes un- 
opened. They had reached him during the past few days. Twc 
kegs of powder composed a part of the stock. These were received 
the night previous, and were placed in the lobby near the counter 
and some ten feet from the front door. On the morning of the ^ataa 
trophe, one of the kegs was discovered to be in bad order — that i» 
it was seen even through the sacking that powder had leaked from thi 
sides or bottom on to the floor. Yet the quantity was small, but* 
prevent accident the sound keg was placed by one of the clerks c 
top of the unsound one — the intention being very soon to remo" 
both to a shed back ot the store where the powder of the establis- 
ment was kept. Mr. Josiah M. Short came in the store smoking 
cigar, and while standing near the two kegs fire dropped from t^ 
cigar (as is supposed), on the loose powder on the floor, the qiixJ 
tity not being larger than a gun load, and instantly the house wa^ 

The store-room was a very long and large one, two stories hi^ 
Two-thirds of the building (the front part of it) was instantly li't:^ 
ally torn to fragments I 


Josiah M. Short, a young man 25 years of age and residing in the 
northern part of the county, was instantly killed, and is the only per- 
son who was killed outright. His clothes were literally burnt from 
his body — not an article remaining upon him except one shoe and 
sock and a part of his cravat. Even one of the soles of the shoe on 
his foot was blown off. It was wFth diflSculty he was identified, so 
awfully was his body disfigured. 

Ben. T. White and wife were injured, seriously — the former, dan- 
gerously, and died the same evening. He was completely covered 
with the rubbish, his head resting on the sill of the front door. Mrs. 
Susan Duncan, wife of Dr. W. H. Duncan, was also badly burnt, and 
struck in the head by some missile. James Crews, a young man from 
the country, was considerably burnt. He happened to be passing the 
door of the store at the time of the accident. Mrs. Short, mother of 
the young man killed, was also hurt — not badly. Miss Ada Mc- 
Bride, daughter of Judge P. H, McBride ; Miss Catharine Lynch 
(now Mrs. Catharine Clapp), daughter of John H. Lynch, of Colum- 
bia; Wm. Mosely ; J. L. Stephens, owner of the store, and his two 
clerks, Thos. Stephens and Geo. Morrfs ; James Howard ; St. Clair 
and Perry West, sons of Bransford West, and a little son of John C. 
Davenport, were likewise injured, most of them slightly. The escape 
of Ml*. Stephens was miraculous. He was standing behind the coun 
ter, near which the kegs exploded, and about ten feet from them. 
At the point where he stood the ceiling and floor above, with the 
broken roof of the building, fell with a tremendous crash and rested 
upon the counter, but for the strong framework of which he would 
have been instantly crushed. Yet he escaped with no material per- 
sonal injury. 

Eliza, a negro woman of Mr. J. L. Matthews, was very badly burnt 
and died a few days afterwards. 

The upper back room of the store was occupied by the Masons and 
Sous of Temperance. Most of their furniture was taken out without 
serious damage. The two other rooms above stairs were occupied by 
Mr. George Smith as a daguerrean gallery. All his apparatus and 
furniture were a total loss. Fortunately no person was in either of 
the upper rooms at the time of the explosion . 

The building was on the same lot now (1882) occupied as a dry 
goods store, on the corner of Broadway and University Streets. 



During 1851 and several succeeding years the plank road mania 
prevailed in Missouri, and also in Boone County. Remarkable as it 
may appear at this day the proposition was seriously entertained of 
building a plank road from Glasgow via Columbia to St. Louis, and 
on April 21st, a convention was held in Danville, Mont<romery 
County, composed of delegates from St. Charles, Warren, Montgom- 
ery, Callaway and Boone — Howard not represented — to promote 
this object, A. O. Forshey, R. S. Burr and Warren Woodson repre- 
senting- Boone County. The proceedings of this convention, which 
provided among other things for the opening of books at various 
points for the subscription of stock, filled nearly two columns of the 
Statesman. Fortunately for the people, as we can now see, but did 
not then, the project was a failure, but the people of Boone County^ 
failing to secure a plank road to St. Louis, determined to build one 
of their own from Columbia to Providence, on the Missouri River ; and 
for this purpose, June 6, 1853, organized a plank road company 
with John Parker as president; J. B. Douglass, secretary, and D. B. 
Cunningham, J. S. Rollins, Moss Prewitt, R. C. Branham, R. L* 
McAfee, N. W. Wilson and James McConathy, directors. Commit- 
tees were also appointed to solicit subscriptions for the work, and on 
Saturday, May 13, 1854, at a meeting of the directors held in Columbia, 
the road was definitely located and the president authorized to receive 
bids for its construction. 

On June 6, 1854, John Parker wan re-elected president, James Mc- 
Conathy vice-president, and R. L. Todd secretary, with the following 
directors : John Harker, D. B. Cunningham, James McConathy, J. T. 
M. Johnston, John F. Burnam, J. S. Rollins, Moss Prewitt, R. C. 
Branham and J. B. Douglass. 

On Saturday, July 15, 1854, the contract for building the road was 
let to Jacob Barcus and Samuel Leonard, of Louisiana, Mo., they 
taking $2,000 stock and giving bond to complete the work in twelve 
months for $30,000 ; and they completed it accordingly. In a few 
years the road was a ruin, and now not a plank of it remains. 

In August, 1853, Prof. G. C. Pratt completed a survey of several 
routes proposed. 


Before the completion of the railroad to Columbia in 1867, and 
during the hey-day of freight and passenger transportation by the 


Missouri River, Rocheport was a very important business place, and 
was the shipping point for a large district of country. This is shown 
by its ejcports in 1851, as follows f 670 hogsheads of tobacco ; 8 boxes 
of manufactured tobacco ; 189 bales of hemp ; 39 coils of rope ; 21,- 
423 bushels of wheat; 377 bushels of oats; 1,465 bushels of corn; 
408 bushels of rye; 192 casks of bacon ; 127 kegs of lard ; 42 bar- 
rels of lard ; 77 tierces of lard ; l,125.pound8 of feathers ; 176 bush- 
els of flax seed; 71 hides; 17 barrels of butter; 19 kegs of butter; 
1,146 bushels of dried apples ; 457 barrels of green apples ; 117 bush- 
of dried peaches. 


During the summer of 1853, great and unusual interest was ex- 
cited among the cattle-breeders of Central Missouri by a contest for 
two silver pitchers, worth $50 each, at the Boone County Fair in 
September, between Major Thomas Barker, of Monroe, and Major 
Theodoric Jenkins, of Boone, the premiums to be awarded to the lot 
of bullocks, three in number, which would command the largest sum 
of money in the aggregate, either alive or slaughtered, in the city of 
St. Louis. No similar contest before or since excited such universal 
interest, or was contemplated l)y the citizens of the two counties 
named with such solicitude. It required several months of card* 
writing in newspapers between the contestants to settle the prelimin- 
aries, but they were finally settled as stated. The exhibition occurred 
on the Boone County Fair Grounds while the Fair was in progress^ 
September 30, 1853. 

Maj. Barker, of Monroe, exhibited on his part his celebrated black 
steer, a red belonging to Mr. For man, and a deep red belonging to 
Mr. McCann. Mr. Jenkins exhibited his unapproached and unap- 
proachable white steer, a red belonging to A. W. Turner, and another 
belonjring to W. C. Robinett. 

Lewis Chandler, of St. Louis, failing to attend, Henry Larrimore, 
of Callaway, was selected in his place as one of the judges, in con- 
'iection with John Harrison, of Callaway, and David Hutchinson, of 

All the bullocks exhibited were remarkably fine — large, fat and 
*^autiful. Six larger, better beef cattle (it was often affirmed by 
those competent to judge) could not be found in the State. 

After a thorough examination of each bullock in the presence of 
*^e assembled concourse of spectators, the judges awarded the palm 


of victory to Old Boone^ whereupon exultant shouts went up from a 
thousand throats, and hundreds of hats from hundreds of heads. 

The aggregate measurement aroifnd the girth of the two lots, ac- 
cording to the figures of the judges, was remarkably close, the varia- 
tion being only half an inch, as follows; Jenkins' three, twenty-five 
feet four inches ; Barker's three, twenty-five feet three and a half 

After the award was pronounced, it was proposed that the cattle be 
driven to town and weighed, which was done, the weights being as 
follows : — 

Barker^ s — The Forman steer, deep red, 2,540 pounds; the Mc- 
Oann steer, red, 2,500 pounds ; the Barker steer, black, 2,480 pounds. 
Aggregate, 7,520 pounds. 

Jenkins* — The Jenkins steer, white, 2,800 pounds; the Turner 
steer, red, 2,420 pounds ; the Robinett steer, red, 2,400. Aggre- 
gate, 7,620 pounds — being one hundred pounds in favor of Boone. 


The projection in 1853, of the North Missouri Railroad, from St. 
Louis to Macon City (then called Hudson City), in Macon County, 
was a notable event in the history of the State. The question of its 
location through the intermediate country was one of great interest 
to the people along the several proposed routes, for it was a question 
whether they would, or would not, obtain a railroad, and thus enjoy 
long-needed communication by rail with St. Louis and other impor- 
tant markets North and South. It was, of course, a question in 
which the people of Boone County had and felt the liveliest concern, 
iis was evidenced by the proceedings of numerous public meetings 
iind by newspaper articles. 

It finally became evident, that in order to divert the line of the road 
from both the middle and eastern routes to one which would pass 
through Boone County, a subscription by the county of at least $100,- 
000 stock was a condition precedent. Therefore, at the Ma}- term of 
the County Court of that j^ear, an order was made for an election at 
the various precincts in the county on Monday, June 13, 1853, to 
test the sense of the tax-payers of the county, as to the proposed sub- 
scription of $100,000 to the capital stock of said road, provided it 
passed through the county, said tax-payers also to express themselves 
by their ballots, whether such subscription should be paid by the issue 
of county bonds or by taxation. The canvass pro and con was very 



I, and brought our speakers to the rostrum and our writers to 
wspapers. The people were addressed at various places in 
fthe subscription, and of bonds, by J. S. Bollins, Odon Guitar 
. F. Switzler — one speech being made in Columbia on the 
de by President Shannon. Speeches were also made in Cedar 
ip against the subscription by Austin Bradford, James Cun- 
n and James M. Wright. Mr. Bradford also opposed it in 
lus articles over his own name in the Statesman. The election 
i as follows : — 


For Subs'!!. 

Against Snb. 

For Bonds. 

For Tax. 




















oand .... 





5 • • gr . • • 









• . . » . • • 





le number of votes cast, 1,872 ; majority for the subscription, 
lajority for bonds, 806. 
vote secured Boone County the railroad. 

e routes were surveyed: The route on which the road is 
, the middle route which passed about six miles southwest of 
md the eastern route, which crossed Salt River east of Florida 
ow the Three Forks. 

a fuller understanding of the subject it should be mentioned, 
evious to the order of the Boone Countv Coui-t for an election, 
ird of directors had located the road on the Paris route, which 
d from the present line at Benton City northwestwardly, and 
lorth of Mexico and south of Paris, to Goose Pond, near Clar- 
n the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Major Rollins was at 
le a director of the road, and protested against this location, 
erward, by the most persistent efforts, secured a reconsidera- 
It was then ordered by the board that if the counties, towns 
:izens of Callaway, Boone, Howard, Randolph, Macon, Adair 
huyler, by corporate and individual subscriptions, would raise 
00 to the capital stock, the road would be located through 
counties to Hudson or Macon City, and thence north to the 
ine. It was proposed that each of the three counties fiivst 



niimed, subscribe $100,000, and an effort was made to induce tbes 
to do SO. Boone was the only one of the three which respondec 

Major Rollins having secured a reconsideration, of the vote locating 
the road on the Paris route, and a conditional location of it through 
the seven counties mentioned, his own (Boone) being one of them, 
took a very active interest in securing the $500,000 subscription asked 
for by the directors. In addition to an active agency in securing 
$100,000 from Boone county, and about $20,000 from private citi- 
zens, he visited Rjindolph, Adair, Schuyler, Callaway and Howard, 
and by public speeches, to very small audiences in the two last, sought 
favoral)ly to impress the oflScials and people of those counties with the 
proposition. In the three first named, success was achieved, and bj 
the time of the meeting of the board, he and others who had beei 
engaged in raising the amount required, reported an aggregate sub 
scription of about $485,000, and the road was thereupon located oi 
the present route. There was almost universal apathy, if not direc 
opposition on the subject, in Callaway and Howard Counties, many c 
the leading influential citizens of both, strange to say, positivel 
antagonizing it. 

The County Court of Callaway did order an election, and the sa 
scription was voted down by almost five hundred majcu'ity. 

There was such indifference and opposition in Howard County, th 
an election even was not ordered, and of course no subscription w: 

Nevertheless, by an increased subscription in Montgomery, the $120 
000 in Boone, and the corporate and private subscriptions in Randolpl 
Macon, Adair and Schuyler, the directors were induced to divert tl 
road from the Paris route, and locate it through Boone County, ontl 
present line. Parties in Boone, however, resisted the payment of tl 
sum voted, on the ground that the location just inside of the nortl 
ern limits of the county, and not through its center, by or n© 
Columbia, was not in compliance with the conditions on which tl 
subscription was made. 

These parties sought in the Circuit Court, Hon. Wm. A. Hal 
Judge, to enjoin the County Court from issuing the bonds ; but Jud^ 
Hall decided that the location was a substantial compliance with tl 
law, and the bonds were issued. 

But for the refusal of the Counties of Callaway and Howard ' 
make the subscriptions asked of them, the North Missouri Railroa 


would have diverged from the present route, west, at New Florence, 
across the Loiitre, and through the center of Callaway, Boone and 
Howard. But the people of Callaway and Howard refused to aid in 
building a railroad through their counties, and thus not only lost the 
rond themselves, but prevented the people of Boone from getting it 
on the route they desired. 

Years ago, but too late to recover the advantages which they failed 
to appreciate and refused to embrace, Callaway and Howard plainly 
saw the great mistake they had made — a mistake which cost each 
of them, by subscriptions to railroads running from north to south 
instead of from east to west, not one hundred thousand dollars, but 
nearly three-quarters of a million. 

Although Boone County obtained the railroad, which was worth to 
her all she paid for it, and was the owner of $100,000 of its capital 
stock, the stock never paid any dividends ; and in the mutations 
mcident to Western railroad property, resulting in changes of owner- 
ship, the stock finally depreciated in value to a nominal sum, and the 
Bocae County Court, July 5, 1869, sold her interest in the road to 
Wm. M. McPherson, of St. Louis, for $8,000. 


Near dark on Friday, August 12, 1853, a daring attempt was 

niaide by Hiram, a young negro man belonging to the late Major 

Edward Young, who then resided about ten miles south of 

Colambia, on the Jefferson City road, to violate the person of 

ACiss Nancy Hubbard, aged fifteen years, a daughter of Mr. 

Eusebius Hubbard, of Cedar Township. The young lady, in company 

^«vith a married sister, Mrs. Mary Jacobs, and her little daughter 

-A^mauda, were returning from the burial of Mr. Harrison Jacobs. 

The path they travelled led by a heavy thicket and through a pair of 

l^ars, the latter being some three hundred yards from the residence of 

Joseph Armstrong. Reaching the bars, the young lady dismounted 

a^nd let them down. Her companions passing through, she proceeded 

t^c) put them up. At this moment a negro man, entirely naked, sud- 

Gently emerged from the thicket, and seizing her, made a desperate 

a^ttempt to violate her person. A most determined struggle ensued 

for some ten minutes, during which the young lady, notwithstanding- 

»he was severely bruised and frightened, made successful resistance to 

the hellish designs of the naked monster. The cries of murder and 

the desperation of the struggle so frightened the horse rode by the 


married sister and her little girl that they were thrown — the married 
sister being disabled by the fall. The little girl ran to the house ol 
Mr. Armstrong, and he came with all speed to the scene of danger. 
The negro, hearing his approach, fled to the thicket. A number ol 
negroes were arrested on suspicion and discharged, and finally cir- 
cumstances pointing to Hiram, he was informally brought befon 
Justices John Ellis and Walter C. Maupin, tried and discharged 
Strong convictions of his guilt being still entertained by the people 
on Tuesday night following a warrant was issued for his arrest b; 
Justice Thomas Porter, of Columbia, and he was arrested and lodge* 
in jail. 

On Saturday, August 20, he was brought to trial in the upper rooi 
of the court house before David Gordon, a Justice of the Peace, an 
F. T. Russell, Recorder of Columbia. 

Maj. J. S. Rollins and Col. S. A. Young appeared as counsel at tl 
instance of the negro's owner to see that a fair and full trial wj 
given, and Odon Guitar, Esq., appeared for the prosecution. A vei 
large concourse of citizens were in attendance, a portion of who 
were much excited by the daring atrocity of the crime, and a fir 
conviction of the negro's guilt. This portion of the people were fi 
summary vengeance, without waiting for the issue of the tris 
Nevertheless, the trial progressed without interruption until abo 
three o'clock, when, seemingly no longer able to resist their feeling 
a portion of the crowd outside rushed into the court house, and, ov€ 
coming the importunities and efforts of the court, sheriff*, couns( 
etc., put a rope around the prisoner's neck, and forced him into t! 
street. The rope was once cut, however, by Maj. Rollins, but it w 
again placed around the negro's neck. With an excited populace 
his heels, he was hurried down Court-house Street to Broadway, ai 
down Broadway to the bridge over Flat Branch, at the western e 
tremity of town, and thence to a wood northwest of the court houfi 
Here an attempt was made to hang him ; some desiring to burn bu 
an attempt which in all probability would have proved successful, b 
for the protestations of many citizens and the accidental breaking 
the rope. Major Rollins and Col. Switzler protested against the pr 
needing, and by addresses to those concerned, backed by the peace 
ble importunities and co-operation of Mr. E. C. Davis, of the Sentim 
and many other citizens, assuaged in some measure the exciteniei 
prevailing, and induced those having the prisoner in charge to tal 
him back to jail and allow him the privilege of a legal trial. Wit 


DO little difficulty and delay be was finally returned to jail — and, what 
is remarkable, notwitlistauding the intense excitement of the occasion, 
DO one wag hurt. 

On Sftbbatb the prisoner made a full confession of his guilt, thus 
removing all doubts on that subject ; at the same time bringing to 
light the names of two other negro men of his neighborhood who had 
made threats, that, some time in the future and upon some white 
female or other, they would commit a similar outrage. In every 
point of view, then, as aU now concede, even those must importunate 
for sammary punishment, the counsels which remanded the prisoner 
to jail and prevented the hanging on Saturday, were most wise and 
salutary, and all appeared gratified at the result. 

Monday was another day of excitement, and the people were out in 

lar^ numbers. There being no longer a reasonable doubt of the 

prisoner's guilt, a portion of those present were unwilling to await 

1^1 conviction and punishment by the Circuit Court — contending 

that the punishment of the law was not adequate to the crime, and 

therefore they were for immediately forcing the locks of the prison 

and taking the negro and burning or hanging him. At the instance 

of the father of the young lady upon whose person the outrage had 

been attempted. Col. S. A. Young and Odon Guitar, Esq., stated to 

those determined upon summary punishment^ that it was not his 

desire the negro should be burned, but hanged. Mr. Guitar earnestly 

exhorted them, if it was their determination to hang him, to go about 

it coolly and do it decently and in order. That concert of action 

might characterize the movements of those participating in the affair, 

* meeting was held in the street, in front of the court house. Eli E. 

^Ba«s, Esq., one of our most respectable and influential citizens, was 

cliosen chairman of the meeting. He put the question whether the 

^©gro should be burned, and not more than half a dozen, if that nnm- 

^r, voted in favor of burning. Mr. Bass then put the question, 

**All who are in favor of hanging him will say aye," and most, if not 

**l^ of those participating said aye, A large number of the citizens 

pJ^sent did not approve and took no part in the proceedings. Hang- 

'*ig being thus decided upon, a committee was appointed to procure a 

^ope, a cart on which to convey the negro to the place of execution, 

^nd a coffin in which to bury him. It was also made the duty of this 

^^ommittee to force the prison doors, take the negro out, and hang 

^im •• decently and in order." Mr. Geo. N. King was appointed 

^l^&irman of the committee, with power to appomt nine committee. 


men to co-operate with him. The following are the names of the 
committee as furnished us by'Mr. King, viz. : Geo. N. King, Henry 
Wilkinson, John Ballinger, Wra. Breakey, Wm. B. Cato, John Robi- 
uett, John Hume, Wm. Hubbard, A. R. Vest and R. P. Waters. 

About 12 o'clock they proceeded to the jail, and under the protest 
of the sheriff, forced the door, took the negro out, and, followed by a 
large number of persons, quietly proceeded to a grove northwest of 
town, and there the negro was hung^and buried. This grove is now 
the pasture of Mrs. Dr. Arnold, and is immediately west of R. H. 
Clinkscales' . Miss Nancy Hubbard afterwards married James Lane 
and they now reside in Bates County, Mo. 


About 11 o'clock, A. M., on Monday, December 19, 1853, in a pei 
sonal altercation at the foot of the stairway, in the east wing of tl 
State University, between Benjamin F. Handy, of Harrodsburg, Ky 
and W. W. Thornton, of Shelby ville. 111., students, the former wt 
shot by the latter, with a revolver, and almost instantly killed. Tt 
circumstances were these< — 

About two months previously, one evening after tea, these youn 
men were engaged in Thornton's room in a game of whistjfor anms< 
ment, during which Mr. Thornton charged Mr. Handy with unfa 
play. Angry words followed, resulting finally in Mr. Thornton ordei 
ing Mr. Handy from his room, and he went. On Sabbath morninc 
about two weeks after this (the parties in the meantime having n 
intercourse with each other), Mr. Thornton deemed himself grossl 
insulted by Mr. Handy at the breakfast table, for they both boarde 
at the same house. 

Growing out of this supposed insult was a personal rencontre o 
the next day, Monday. The facts on this point were about these :- 

Rev. Mr. Henshall, of Lexington, Ky., had been preaching in tl 
Christian Church in Columbia, and on Saturday evening the youn 

men had attended. Mrs. H , the ladv of the house with whoi 

they boarded, engaging in the conversation at the breakfast table tl 
next morning in regard to the preaching, asked Mr. Thornton how h 
was pleased with the sermon. He replied substantially that Mi 
Henshall was an easy, graceful speaker, but that his discourses lacke 
point — that he (T.) could not sometimes tell the point he was aimin 
to establish. Mr. Handy then remarked substantially, to a studei 
sitting by his side at the table, but in a tone loud enough to be heai 


bj all, that Mrv Henshall was a minister of reputation ; that he 
accompanied Alexander Campbell during his tour in £urope, and that 
any man of common sense could see the points in his preaching. 
This, Mr. Thornton regarded as a fling at him, and an insult to be 

So, therefore, next morning (Monday) he made an assault upon 
Mr. Handy, beating him with his fists quite severely, and making him 
apol(^ze, etc.. Handy offering no resistance. The matter coming 
before the Faculty of the University, Mr. Thornton was suspended 
for three weeks and had eighty subtracted from his credit marks. 
Nothing was done with Handy. 

Some three weeks before the shooting Mr. Handy bought a large 

bowie-knife at a store in town, declaring at the time that he intended 

to cane Thornton for whipping him, and that if he resisted* he would 

aee his heart's blood with that knife. The fact that Handy was armed 

coming to Thornton's ears, he asked a mutual friend, as a personal 

favor, to go to Handy and advise him in his (the friend's) own name, 

not to make an attack on him ; that he did not wish any difficulty 

with him ; but that if Handy did attack him he would certainly kill 

him. The request was complied with. Handy denied buying the 

knife for any such pui*pose, and pledged his honor that he meditated 

Qo attack upon Thornton, and desired that he be so informed. All 

privy to the matter now very reasonably supposed the affair at an 


But on Monday, December 20, as the students were coming out of 
Prof. Locke's room (which was on the lower floor) and departing 
from the University, Mr. Handy preceded Thornton and waited near 
tie hall door, a door with two shutters, one of which, however, was 
'imened. As Thornton approached this door, being about three feet 
i^m it. Handy made an assault upon him with a heavy cane, striking 
^m on the head several times. Thornton , according to some, got out of 
be door, and according to others was fastened between the students. 
^t all events, Handy was on the inside, with his left hand on the door, 
^x^ssing it against Thornton, and with his cane in his right attempting 
^ strike him ; Thornton the while pushing against the door to get in. 
succeeding, at least partially, the combatants grappled each other, 
•nd Thornton instantly shot Handy in the left breast with a pistol, 
fusing almost immediate death. The body being afterwards exam- 
Ued, a loaded pistol and large bowie-knife were found on Mr. Handy's 


Mr. Thornton voluntarily surrendered himself to Justices David 
Gordon and Henry H. Ready, and was tried and acquitted. Jame» 
M. Gordon appeared for the defense. No attorney appeared for the 


The old or first cemetery of the town becoming wholly inadequate 
to the demands upon it, in 1854 the General Assembly chai'tered an 
association, with the usual powers of such companies, and the follow- 
ing directors, who were clothed with authority to perpetuate their 
number: Jefferson Garth, J. S. Rollins, Moss Prewitt, J. R. Boyce, 
R. C. Branham, H. H. Ready, and W. F. Switzler. This board or* 
ganized by the election of the following officers : R. C. Branham, pres- 
ident; J. R. Boyce, secretary, and W. F. Switzler, treasurer. 

This association is still in existence, and since its organization has 
purchased two large additions of grounds adjoining the old cemetery* 
and have expended, over and above the cost of the grounds, every dol- 
lar received from the sale of lots, in fencing and improving the cem- 
etery. Among the improvements is the opening and macadamizing o 
a new avenue from Broadway to the grounds, the old entrance haviimj 
been on the east, instead of north of them. 

The ground was laid off into lots of appropriate size, sixteen \m, 
thirty-two feet, and others sixteen feet square, and the first sale o^ 
curred on Saturday, November 20, 1858. 



A drought unprecedented in the history of the county occurred in 
1854, no rain of any consequence falling between June 20 and Sep- 
tember 11. The streams, wells, and springs became dry; water foi 
stock was almost exhausted and difficult to find, and not more than 
half a crop of corn was raised. The grass in forests and pastures be- 
came dry enough to burn, and several disastrous conflagrations acci- 
dentally occurred in Boone County. Corn advanced to a price hitherto 
unknown — sixty cents per bushel. 

Missouri and Boone County were not alone in this calamity, for the 

drought prevailed all over the New England and most of the Western 


selby's new hotel. 

The large two-story frame building near the court-house, and now 
known as the •' Planters' House," was originally built by the late 


^^^§ Alexander Douglass, father of ShaiiDon C. Douglass, Esq., and Dr. 

Wm. H. Douglass, for a residence. Being eligibly located for a hotel, 
-^{ inlbj, 1855, the late'Thomas Selby purchased the property, and in 

November following occupied it as a hotel, and it has ever since been 

thus occupied. 



Thedbcussions in Congress and elsewhere, growing out of the territo* 
ml organizations of Kansas and Nebraska m 1852-7, excited the liveliest 
intereat throughout the whole country, North and South ; and the peo- 
ple of Boone County were not uninterested spectators of the passing 
Bcenes. Indeed, they were deeply moved and at times greatly excited 
bj tbe debates iu Congress, and by the struggles in the Territory of 
Kansas over the State constitutions adopted at Lecompton and To- 
peb — one free and the other slave. Very diverse views were enter- 
tUDed in Boone County touching some of the issues involved in the 
Saosas-Nebraska controvei*sy, which finally found expression in atan- 
Ip'ble form at a public meeting held at the old fair grounds, east of 
Columbia, on Saturday, June 2, 1855. The meeting was first organ- 
ized in the court-house, but that building was wholly inadequate to 
Acoommodate the vast multitude present. Hence the adjournment to 
the Fair Grounds. * 

At the court house, Odon Guitar called the meeting to order, and 
on his motion, James McConathy was called to the chair, and Dr. 
^V^. H. Lee and John C. McKinney were appointed secretaries. John 
H. Field then opened the ball by introducing a series of resolutions, 
^Thereupon Col. Young moved that a ^mmittee of three Whigs and 
tliree Democrats be elected by the meeting, to report resolutions. 
Several other motions were made in regard to a committee, and con- 
siderable discussion ensued, during which remarks weYe made by 
^laj. Bollins, Col. Young, Maj. Forshey, Mr. Field, Dr. Forshey and 
perhaps others. On motion of Joseph K. Northcutt, it was ordered 
that none be allowed to vote in the meeting except residents of the 
county who are twenty-one years of age. The committee of six on 
Insolations were 6nally elected, Jis follows: Whigs — W. F. Switz- 
l^T, James M. Gordon and Middleton G. Sinofleton. Democrats — 
-t^r. W. H. Lee, John Slack and Priestly H. McBride, during whose 
retirement the meeting took a recess. 

This committee did not agree, but agreed to make two reports. 
This fact being announced, a motion was made and carried that the 


meeting adjourn to the Fair Grounds, where the vast assembly could 
be accommodated ; whereupon the great throng, pell-mell, halter* 
skelter, repaired thither. 

Order, such as it was, being restored. Colonel Switzler, on behalf 
of that portion of the committee he represented, reported the fol- 
lowing : — 


Resolved 1. That domestic slavery, as it now exists i^ many of the States of the Union, 
is recognized and protected by the Constitution of the United States, and is left by that in- 
strument to be regulated alone by the municipal policy of the States in which it it ormiy 
be established. 

2. That the aggressive and fanatical spirit evidenced by the Abolitionists and Freenoilan 
of the North, wantonly to interfere with the institution both in the States and Territonei^ il 
calculated to disturb the friendly feeling which should exist between the people of ti^mf' 
eral States, light the torch of servile insurrection and war, and ultimately to dissolve tlM 

8. Non-intervention, therefore, on the part of Congress, with slavery both in Ststeiand 
Territories ; and non-interference by the people of the free States with slavery in the iltfl 
States, is not only in accordance with the Constitution, but the dictates of patriotism lal 
sound policy; and that those who would attempt to subvert these principles ought to bfis- 
garded as enemies of the Union, seeking to effect by incendiary agitation the destruction of 
our domestic peace and the palladium of our liberties. 

4. That Abolitionism and Freesoilism are monsters of iniquity, at war with the best intfl^ 
ests, and insulting to the sovereignty of the slave States ; and that the utterance, publicttion, 
or circulation of any statements, arguments or opinions in this State, tending to excite oof 
slaves to insurrection or rebellion, justly subjects the offender, under our law, to impriion- 
ment in the penitentiary, and to a forfeiture of the right to sit as a juror, to vote at our elec- 
tions, or to hold office. 

5. That the efforts of the Emigrant Aid Society of Massachusetts to Abolitionize the 
Territory of Kansas, by pouring within its limits and upon our western border, hireling 
Abolitionists and Freesoilers, going thence with no purpose permanently to settle, bat 
merely to vote at the elections of the Territory and return home, very deeply and justly SX" 
asperates the people of Missouri ; and we hereby pledge ourselves to aid by all honorable 
and legal means to defeat the efforts of those who would thus make a mockery of pabB< 
law, and disregard our peace. 

^. That the Kansas-Nebraska bill, based upon the principle of non-intervention, ^ 
guaranteeing to the people of the Territories the power to settle the question of slavery ^ 
themselves, meets with our approval ; and we regard any man who favors its repeal, or ^ 
of choice agitates the subject of slavery in Congress or elsewhere, as an enemy to our id^ 
tutions, and as forfeiting all claim to our support or confidence. 

7. That whilst we do not sanction acts of violence, whether perpetrated by citizens of '^ 
North or South, so long as the law affords protection and redress ; and whilst we reg^ 
Abolitionism, Nullification and Freesoilism alike dangerous to the peace and permane^ 
of this Union, we are ready to pledge " our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor" to i^ 
tect, at all hazards, by legal and honorable means, the institutions of the South against ^ 
croachment and invasion from without and sedition and treachery from within. 

8. That the recent decision of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, declaring the PugiCs^ 
Slave Law unconstitutional and of no binding force within the limits of thai State, and '^ 
passage of the Personal Liberty Bill, in defiance of the Governor's veto, by the Legblat^ 
of Massachusetts, whereby the Fugitive Slave Law h practically nullified within the lii 


4if thttOomiiKMiwealtby are alarming evidences of faDaticism, nullification and treason, cal- 
«ilitod to foment discord among the people of the States, and alUmately to dissolve the 

& Thst the reftisal of the Abolitionists and Freesoilers to execute the laws of Oongress» 
«onititiitionany made ; their attempts to remove officers for executing those laws ; their 
•etiof ouUifleatioo and avowal of "higher law" doctrines, are outrages at which the South 
■aj ind does justly cemplain, and their continuance is wholly incompatible with the spirit 
sf ths Union ; and if the Union is to be preserved, it becomes the conservative, law-abiding 
pMple of the North to disavow and repudiate these incendiary, ruthless attacks upon the 
liviof the land and the guarantees of the Constitution. 

IOl That we regard the Union as the Palladium of our Liberties, and all acts tending to 
vnkMi the confidence of the people in its stability, to abate their appreciation of its price- 
iMfsliie and patriotic love for its integrity ~ all acts designed to exasperate one section of 
the Union against another, thereby tending to' its dissolution, we regard as the basest treason, 
■iiithig the execration of every true lover of his country. 

11 That if it be true, as it has been repeatedly charged, that Governor Reeder is an 
nmj to the institutions of the South — that he has sought and is still seeking to Aboli* 
tiooiu the Territory of Kansas, and that he gave the Emigrant Aid Society notice of the 
noi&t election previous to notifying the people of said Territory, his^appointment to the 
oiei he holds and the fulure of President Pierce to remove him therefit>m, meets with our 
BBqaslifled condemnation. 

11 That the charge of Abolitionism and Freesoilism against loyal citizens of Missouri, 
■ids without evidence and often egainst evidence, is not only well calculated to give Aboli- 
tioskm undue respectability, but also to disturb our peace and foment insurrection and 
inmhordination among our slaves, and therefore merits the severest condemnation of all 
|Md dtixena. 

The resolutions being read, Col. Switzler proceeded briefly to refer 
to their character. He maintained that they were national, conserva- 
tive, loyal to the South and to the Federal Union — clear and decided 
in the assertion of the Constitutional rights of the slave States and 
the duty of the people ; justly severe in the condemnation of the 
heresies of Abolitionism, Freesoilism and Nullification ; in short, 
that they covered the whole ground, and laid down a platform on 
^hich every Missourian, who was true to his State and his country, 
^uld stand. 

Dr. Lee, with the concurrence of two other members of the com-, 
aittee, reported the following 


WBBKXAa, It is induhitahle that God wiUs the existence and happiness of the whole hu- 
^•B fiunily ; that the capacities of the races, respectively, and of the successive generations 
^ those races, are adapted to the several spheres they are designed to fill ; that their ezist- 
'^ sad happiness cannot he secured without the protection of rights, and redress of 
''^OBgi; tnd that this protection and redress cannot be secured in any degree commensu- 
^te with our necessities without social organization, which organization must necessarily 
^ Adspted to the moral and intellectual condition of those for whom it is intended ; 

^nolvedy 1. That human government exists in accordance with the will of God (and by 
"^ ooment of the governed, if they are morally and intellectually qualified for self-govern* 


ment), for the protection of the rights and the redress of the wrongs of its subjects, deriving^ 
all its just powers from its necessity for, and its adaptation to, the accomplishment of these 

2. That to resist government in the accomplishment of its lawful objects, and the exer- 
cise of its just rights, or to subvert its authority when directed to these ends, is highly crim- 
inal, and destructive of the best interests of society and the human family. 

8. That when any government, from whatever cause, is incapable of protecting the rights- 
and redressing the wrongs of its subjects, it is their inalienable right, both as individuals and 
as communities, and it is their duty, to take protection and redress into their own hands 
and to provide all necessary guards for their future security. 

4. That in accordance with these principles, all communities, whether savage or civilised, 
admit the right of necessary self-defence, and the consequent right of abating, by extras 
legal means, such nuisances as are intolerable, and cannot be abated by the regular opera- 
tions of laws. 

6. That the fanatical and persevering efforts of Abolitionists, and Abolition societies, to* 
render our slave property insecure, and to excite the evil passions of those slaves to insula 
ordination, has a direet tendency to incite them to a servile war, with all its attendant 
horrors; and is such an invasion of our rights that we feel justified in pledging our lives, 
our fortunes, and our sacred honor to each other, to the State and to our sister slave States, 
that we will abate i^, to the utmost extent of our ability — peaceably if we can, forcibly 
if we must 

6. That the repeated invasion of the constitutional rights of the slave States has a direct 
tendency to dissolve the Union, and if persisted in, must inevitably lead to this deplorable 
result, as the only refuge from impending evils of the most appalling and intolerable char- 
acter ; and we therefore pledge ourselves, irrespective of all previous party ties, to abjure 
all minor issues, and unite as one man in waging a deadly war on Abolitionism, and resist- 
ing all its vile efforts, whether made by force or fraud, to trample our constitutional rights- 
under its unhallowed feet. 

7. That we appeal to the intelligence, patriotism and loyalty of the free States, to arrest 
the torrent of Abolition fanaticism that is sweeping over them in open violation of our con- 
stitutional rights, exposing the Union of these States to imminent peril, and if not speedily ai^ 
rested, to certain annihilation. 

8. That the whole State is identified in interest and sympathy with the citizens on our 
western border; and we will co-operate with them in all proper measures to prevent the 
foul demon of Abolitionism from planting a colony of negro thieves on our frontiwr, to har- 
ass our citizens and steal their property, it matters not whether that colony be imported 
from European poor-houses and prisons, or fh)m the pestilential hot-beds of New England 

9. That we regard the emissaries of Abolitionism whether open or disguised, as our vilest 

•enemies — conspirators against the peace and permanency of our Union, and as such we feel 

bound to give them no countenance nor encouragement whatever ; but on the contrary, as it 

is our duty in self-defence, we will use all lawful and proper means to expose them to a just 

retribution, and a lawful and well-merited infamy. 

10. That as we believe the Missouri Compromise to have been at variance!with the spirit 
and objects of the Federal compact, in which are conferred all the powers of the General 
Government, we most heartily approve of the repeal of that odious measure, and as cordi- 
ally indorse the Kansas-Nebraska bill, believing its principles to be correct We, therefore, 
have seen with feelings of indignation and abhorrence the efforts made by citizens of the free 
States to deprive slave-holders of the rights which the Kansas bill was designed to restore; 
and while we deprecate the necessity, we cannot too highly appreciate the patriotism of 
those Missourians who so freely gave their time and money for the purpose, in the recent 
election in Kansas, of neutralizing said Abolition efforts, and preventing the fraud attempted 
by the importation of hireling voters into that Territory. 


1. Thai the other oountiee in the State be requested to bold meetings and express their 
sMots on the subject, so that whatever hopes may be entertained by the Abolitionists of 
iogsDT adTantage from division among us, may be dispelled — and that the people of 
State, irrespectiTe of all party considerations, may present an unbroken fh>nt of opposi- 
te the foul deaigns of the Abolitionists. 

2. That we view with indignation the efforts made in Congress as well as in the North- 
States, to repeal or render inoperative the Fugitive Slave Law, and that we will not sub- 

I That delegates be appointed to represent this meeting in the convention to be 

in Boonville ; and that the chairman make the appointment 

'he two sets of resolutions being thus before the assembly, the 
opened anew amid considerable excitement and disorder. Dr. 
said he had no objections to the first resolntionsy but preferred 
)wn as they went a little further. Col. Young moved that both 
be adopted en rmisse. Maj. Rollins called for a division of the 
(tion, remarking that while Col. Switzler's seemed generally 
ptable, there were several of Dr. Lee's which were very obnox- 
, and he could not vote for them. Some insisted that the vote 
aken on each resolution separately ; others that each set be pre- 
ed by itself. During the presentation and discussion of these 
kindred motions *' noise and confusion" bore sway, with much 
tement. Deliberation was impossible ; discussion out of the ques- 
. All was turmoil and disorder. Bad blood was stirred, and yet 
oassing scenes were far more farcical than tragical. Here, there 
everywhere, on the ground, on the seats, in the stand, men were 
ing — calling upon the president, whacking the air by violent 
ores, making suggestions, trying to speak — and the president 
and anon made an effort to put questions to the meeting. One 
;Ieman (Maj. Geo. S. Waters), moved that the proceedings be 
lished in none of the papers ! The Major realized his wish. No 
3r ever will publish, foi no stenographer could report, a full 
unt of what was done and said at the Kansas meeting. There 
3 never witnessed more disorder and excitement at a ground swell 
city. An attempt was made to divide the assembly to the right 
left, according to their choice between the two sets of resolutions, 
this failed. 

inally, at the request of gentlemen on both sides of the question, 
with the concurrence of the presiding oflScer, A. W. Turner (who 
erred Dr. Lee's), temporarily occupied the chair and succeeded 
Bstoring comparative order. His was a new voice, and a clear one, 
the uproar subsided. He said that there seemed to be no objection 
he resolutions of Switzler, and therefore he would put the vote upon 


them en masse. He did so, and they passed by a large raajority. 
After announcing that they had been adopted, Mr. Turner said that 
inasmuch as many had strong objections to some of the resolutions of 
Dr. Lee, he would take the vote of the meeting as to whether they should 
be voted on separately or en masse. The vote was put, and Mr. 
Turner announced he could not decide. At this point, uproar and 
confusion again resumed the mastery. Something was heard, for the 
first time by the chairman and many others, about an appeal of Dr. 
Lee from the decision in regard to the vote on Switzler's resolutions. 
Swelling above the tumult were the loud demands of Sterling Price, 
Jr., one of the adjunct professors in the University, for a vote on Dr. 
Ijee' 8 appeal/ Maj. Rollins and others denied that an appeal had been 
taken. Amidst the uproar that prevailed, the vociferous cry of " Mr. 
President/'' was heard from a distant point of the amphitheatre, 
and a gentleman in that direction was seen apparently seeking to nlr 
tract the attention of the chairman by violent motions with his white 
beaver. It was President Shannon, of the State University. He op- 
posed Switzler's resolutions, and denounced the sixth of the series as 
containing " lurking treason to the South." Maj. Rollins promptly 
denied the allegation, and demanded that the '•treason" be shown, 
but it was not. 

The friends of Dr. Lee's resolution then withdrew from the resjulat 
meeting, and at a point outside of the amphitheatre called Col. Younj 
to preside, and passed his resolutions unanimously. 

At the conclusion of the regular meeting, Mr. Guitar and Maj.Rol 
lins, in response to calls made upon them, addressed the assembly i 
soul-stirring and eloquent denunciations of Abolitionism, Freesoilist 
and Nullification, exhorting the people to law and order, to unyicl 
ing defence of their rights, and to adherence to our glorious Una* 
at all hazards and to the last extremity. 


In November, 1854, a Harko (lodge) of this order was organic 
in Columbia, with about forty members. It claims to have originate 
with Confucius, the great Chinese philosopher, and was introduced id 
the United States by the Chinese in California. The following are t^ 
oflicers of Columbia Harko : — 

Tho8. A. Russell, Most Worthy Grund Gyrescutus ; J. S. Doreey, Right Worthy Go»^ 
path-e; Wm. H. Provines, Le-ang Ther-ma-path-e-ho; J. M. Bates, Senior Ho-ta-tote 9 
A. Garth, .Junior Ho-ta-tote; E. T. Withers, Yang-se-to-ag ; W. Crow, Din-af-ea-e-ang 5 
H. Field, Lin-to-ag ; L. E. Wright, Lo-to-ag. 



In February, 1856, some of the citizens of Columbia formed an as- 
socMtion for the purpose of cultivating the drama. Dr. Wm. H. Lee, 
who now resides at Mexico, Mo., was elected president; Odon Guitar, 
fice-presideiit ; J. F. Baker, treasurer; Jas. Thompson (foreman of 
the Statesman printing office), secretary; S. A. Young, stage di- 
rector, and £. F. Rogers, chairman of the finance committee. The 
ftsflociation purchased the old Union Church, and proceeded without 
delay to fit it up with a stage and seats for a Town and Thespian 
Bill. On Saturday night, June 28, 1856, the company gave their 
Grst entertainment before a crowded house, rendering the popular 
lirces, "Limerick Boy" and ** Irish Tutor," and a few evenings 
ifter, " Fortune's Frolic." Later in the season the troupe performed 
the popular comedy, " His Last Legs," and the farce, ••Kill or Cure," 
tnd won many laurels. Encouraged by the success they had achieved,. 
the company finally assumed the responsibility of presenting such plays 
IS the **Lady of Lyons." Pecuniarily, the enterprise was not a 
MCC6S8, and the building, together with the paraphernalia of the 
stage, were sold to W. F. Switzler, who, owning the adjacent build- 
ings, tore down the front part of the hall and converted the rear 
into a kitchen and servants' rooms. 


In August, 1856, the contract for the erection of a new stone jail 
was let to B. McAlester at $11,000, who sub-let the stone work to 
Charles Cameron. It is the same jail the county now has, and coniiists 
^f a prison proper with hall and four cells, together with a two-story 
rame residence, for the jailer, adjoining the prison. The jail is also 
wo stories high, walls two feet thick resting on a foundation five feet 
n thickness and which covers the whole area of the building. Roof 
•Iso of stone, no wood being used in the construction of the building 
3fcepta second roof of shingles covering the one of stone. 


On Monday, August 24, 1856, Moore & Walker, mail contractors, 
^nnmenced running a daily line of four-horse mail coaches between 
olumbia and Jeflerson City via Ashland and Claysville. This was 
^e fipHt direct mail of any kind ever estal)lished between the State 
*pital and the State University. 



The question of the admission of Kansas into the Union, with or 
without a constitution recognizing slavery, was a subject which greatlj 
excited the people of Missouri and of Boone County. At all periods 
of our history, a question of great delicacy and fraught with elements 
of popular upheavals with tendencies to frenzy and passion, the desire 
to plant the institution of slavery in Kansas assumed, in Boone Couuty, 
very alarming proportions. And yet the people were divided in 
regard to it, one part of them maintaining that if Kansas were ad* 
mitted into the Union as a free State it would jeopardize the institution 
of slavery in Missouri, and that this fact, together with the efforts 
then being made bv the emisrrant aid societies of New Ens:land to 
organize the State with a free constitution, justified contravailing 
-efforts to accomplish its admission on a pro-slavery basis. The other 
party maintained that the people of Missouri could not legally or 
rightfully mterfere in the matter, and that any effort on their part by 
participation as voters in the elections of Kansas, or by force of arms 
to coerce that State into the Union with a pro-slavery constitution, 
was revolutionary and calculated to foment civil war. 

Nevertheless, some of the more active and ultra-slavery prop- 
agandists met in Columbia, in August, 1856, for the purpose of 
•enlisting and organizing a military company ** to aid the pro-slavery 
party in Kansas Territory in resisting the assaults of the Abolition- 
ists." S. A. Young was elected Captain ; S. B. Hatton, First Lieu- 
tenant; George W. Miller, Second Lieutenant; Irvin H. Field, 
Ensign, and John J. Howe, Orderly Sergeant. Col. Young resigned 
the captaincy, and the duties of that position (we suppose) devolve^i 
at least temporarily, upon Lieutenant Hatton. At all events, o^ 
Wednesday, August 27, the company, consisting of some forty meiB- 
bers, took up the line of march ** for the seat of war." 

The contending factions in Kansas having precipitated upon tb*^ 
Territory actual hostilities, by a battle at Osawattamie between tM^ 
pro-slavery forces, under Gen. J. W. Reid, and the Abolitionists un^®' 
old John Brown, the excitement in Boone County reached fever h^^^' 
and on Monday, September 8, a Kansas meeting was held ^^ 
Columbia — John Slack, president, and J. W. Hickara, secretarjr — ' 
to which Dr. W. H. Lee reported from a committee that the Coaoty 
Court be called upon to appropriate $5,000 for the purpose of arnciin^ 
and equipping one hundred volunteers to go to Kansas, which ^was 


idopted. A committee was appointed to wait upon the court, but the 
ippropriatioD was never made. Nevertheless, on the next day after 
the meetiDg, the citizens contributing about $200 to aid in defraying 
their expenses, about twenty persons started for Kansas, among them 
Lewis W. Bobinson and Samuel A. Young. Previous to their leaving, 
IkDwe?er, these persons met and, on motidn of L. W. Robinson, it was 
iwolved that they went to Kansas, ** not as volunteer soldiers, but as 
citizens, free to act as our judgment and circumstances may dictate 
after we shall have arrived in the Territory ; that we will not do 
toTtbing in violation of the laws of Kansas, the laws and Constitu- 
tion of th» United States, or that is not right." 

What was done in Kansas, either by the volunteers or citizens of 
Boone, cannot now be learned. It is known, however, that peace was 
in a few days restored, and that by the 20th of September, Oen'l 
Hatton, Col. Young, Mr. Robinson and most of the Boone company, 
returned home. 


About ten o'clock, a. m., on Friday, June 29, 1855, John Chap- 
man, who then resided on the county road, between Hallsville and 
Centralia, committed one of the most unprovoked and cowardly mur- 
ders known to the criminal annals of the county. John C. Denham, 
whom he murdered, lived not far distant. He was a poor and inofien- 
nve man, with a wife and children. On the day of his murder he was 
plowing in his field, unconscious of danger. Chapman, in order to 
execute his diabolical purpose, had secreted himself with a loaded 
rifle near the fence. As Denham drove his horse near, and when in 
twelve paces of him. Chapman fired from ambush, lodging a large ball 
inDenham's head. He fell lifeless in the fresh made furrow, and the 
murderer retired to his home. 

Very soon after the crime, suspicion rested upon Chapman, and he 
fl^ to Ohio, whither he was pursued, but not caught. A year or 
QQore afterwards he secretly returned to this county, was discovered, ap- 
prehended, and lodged in jail. In 1857 he obtained a change of venue to 
Howard County, and on Friday, April 17, was taken from our county jail 
'n charge of James H. Waugh, deputy sheriff, to Fayette, where he 
'^as incarcerated to await his trial. From one cause and another, the 
^rial did not occur until the June term, 1858, of the Howard Circuit 
Court, W. A. Hall, Judge. The prosecution was conducted with 
^narked ability and power by John F. Williams, Circuit Attorney, and 



Robert T. Prewitt, of Fayette. The defence, with a zeal and eloquenee 
unsurpassed in criminal trials in the West, by J. S. Rollins and Odott 
Guitar, of Columbia, Jerre P. Lancaster, of Ralls, and Andrew J. 
Herndon, of Howard. 

The evidence was entirely circumstantial, but so clear and convio^ 
ing, that notwithstanding the ability and eloquence of his attornejii 
the jury rendered a verdict of guilty, and Judge Hall sentenced tbe 
prisoner to be hung at Fayette, on Friday, July 16, 1858. Ou tbe 
. way to the gallows, he was accompanied by Revs. Noah Flood and 
Tyson Dines, a relative, and the sheriff, Boyd McCrary. Upon emerging 
from the jail, he looked calm, and took his seat in the wagon with com* 
posure. On the way to the gallows he conversed with his relative, in 
low, but earnest tones; arrived there, he bade him good-bye, and 
mounted the scaffold with a steady step. Upon being asked if he \ 
desired to make any remarks, he arose and spoke, in substance, as 
follows : — 

I feel it a duty to say a few last words. I bear no malice towards any human being. I 
have found it hard to forgive my enemies, but thank God, He has enabled me to do iU Uj 
poor voice cannot tell the suffering my enemies have caused me, but all is forgiven. Ibtfi 
a soul to be saved or lost, but thank God I have a hope, a bright hope, that all is wdL 
I never felt it till last night ; I then forgave all, and trust that I was forgiven. I came to tfaii 
State alone, and settled in Boone County; God knows I ought not to have an enemy in 
Boone. All has been said and done by one or two enemies. Chapman had done this and 
Chapman had done that, and false reports had been spread abroad, while everything fsvwir 
ble had been suppressed. False reports, black as night, persecutions beyond mortal concep- 
tion, have been heaped upon me. I stand before you and speak in view of judgment; do 
use, dear friends, to dissemble now. I have been in jail sixteen months, and suffered mucb, 
but God has spoken peace to my soul. My life was threatened by bitter enemies, andtbey 
are about to get it, for no cause. Hundreds of you have heard and believed false reports 
and you only have the voice of a poor old man against them. I leave these false reports tnd 
enemies all behind. I thank God the reports were false, and forgive my enemies. I hsTSi 
dear little son, who is near to my heart, but I have not been permitted to see him, althoagh 
I understiuid he was within four miles of town. I hope my son will be raised up inlmtli 
and honesty, and be a useful man, and that I shall hereafLer meet him in Heaven, where I 
trust in God I am going. I was snatched away from my wife and poor little child, and hste 
not been permitted to see them ; this was the work of my enemies, but I forgive themilli 
and hope to meet them in Heaven. I am a poor old man, about to die on false reports, tnd 
this ought to be a warning to all men. Did I think I would ever come to this? I settled 
among men who have sworn my life away — who snatched me from my wife and poor little 
son ; they swore to have my life, and they are about to succeed, but only my poor voice uji 
this. This world is a world of wickedness and trouble, and it is about time for God to mike 
a change. 

He commenced in a firm, low tone of voice, but when he came to 
speak of his child, evinced considerable emotion, and continued in a 
rapid, disconnected manner. 


After he had spoken. Rev. Dines offered a feeling and appropriate 
f«yer. kneeling with the prisoner, who gave frequent audible re- 
ponses. Mr. Dines then asked him if he had anything further to 
ty, or desired anything said. He replied in the negative, and to 
hrther remarks expressed entire confidence in God and resignation to 

Mr. Flood asked if he still declared himself innocent? He 
nqwndedy **Yes." He also inquired if he felt prepared for his 
&te? He replied he did; that God was all-powerful; he trusted 
in Him ; had forgiven his enemies, and hoped to meet them all in 

All having retired from the scaffold, except the sheriff, he announced 
to the prisoner that the time had arrived and he must execute the law. 
The prisoner shook hands with him, and desired to meet him in 
Heaven. After the ropes were adjusted and the cap pulled over his 
Bu», he said, **Lord he with me in this last trialy^* and was launched 
into eternity. 

Throughout the entire scene he evinced no visible agitation, except 
irheD he referred to his son. He was either innocent, or one of the 
QHMt desperately wicked men that ever lived or died. He informed 
bis spiritual advisers that he experienced a change in his feelings the 
Bight before his execution — that he then forgave his enemies and felt 
that God had forgiven him. To them he protested his innocence, first 
and last, in the most positive and solemn manner. 

Chapman was from Ohio — came to this State some five or six years 
Wore his death — was about 45 years old, and left a wife and one 


In May, 1857, R. C. Branham, an old citizen, and for many years 
^prominent merchant in Columbia, and Dr. M. R. Arnold, of Boone 
'Onnty, made a trip to Texas for the purpose of looking at the coun- 
ty— both being passengers on the steamship ** Louisiana," Capt. 
heppard. The vessel took fire about 1 o'clock on the morning of May 
1,1857, in Galveston Bay, and when about eight miles from the city, 
^ll the passengers were asleep when the fire broke out, but some of 
^em awaking lowered the larboard life-boat and jumped into it, cap* 
'sing the boat and drowning six or eight persons, among whom was 
Ir. Branham. 

Those who were in another life-boat, among whom was Dr. Arnold^ 
rere more fortunate and escaped, and arriving at Galveston about 


sunrise, gave the first intelligence of the catastrophe. Mr. Branham'i 
body was never recovered. 



About 7 o'clock on Saturday morning, September 26, 1857, Ji 
T. Points, living about twelve miles north of Columbia, and near 
Zion meeting house, was murdered by a negi*o man, Joe, al 
eighteen years old, belonging to Mr. Wm. Robinson. Mr. Pot 
had Joe in his employ for the year, and on Friday had sent him Mi 
the woods to make rails. Returning that evening, he told Hr.Ei 
he had made a certain number. Next morning (Saturday) he 
to the woods with the negro, and found that he had told him a 
hood as to the number, whereupon Mr. P. expressed his determii* 
ation to chastise him. Nothing of the kind, however, was attemptii 
at the time, and nothing more said about it. Mr. P. proceeded tl: 
assist the negro in splitting a large log at which he was at work.; 
After a time he became fatigued and sat down to rest. WM 
in this position the negro, picking his opportunity, struck Mr. P.| 
on the head with the poll of the axe, knocking him down. In a 
fihort time he gave evidences of returning consciousness, whereupoft < 
the murderer gave him a second blow with the axe, killing him ou(f> 
right. He then placed the body upon Mr. P.'s saddle-horse, sad 
took it a half mile distant into the woods and threw it under some 
brush to conceal it. After this he returned to his work. 

Mr. P. not returning at night, his family became uneasy, and sonte 
of the neighbors, suspecting foul play, at once arrested Joe, who next 
morning confessed the crime and told where he had secreted the body. 
The murderer was at once committed to the county jail. A spedil 
term of the Circuit Court was held on Saturday, August 2, Judge 
Hall presiding, a grand jury being empanelled, an indictment was 
found against him for murder in the first degree, and the prisoner 
was arraigned for trial. Odon Guitar and Lewis W. Robinson were 
assigned him as counsel, who advised him as to his rights and respon- 
fiibilities under the law. Having no defence to make, he plead gnil^ 
to the indictment, and was sentenced to be hung on Friday, Novem- 
ber 13th ; after which he was remanded to prison to await his execu- 
tion, which occurred about a mile west of the court house, on the 
Rocheport road, and between the present residences of Mrs. Comeliu* 
Maupin and Mr. Jacob W. Strawn. Jerry Orear was sheriff. 



Oq Saturday, March 6, 1858, two young men, citizens of Howard 
bounty, by the name of Joysen Patton and William Thomas,. 
Dime to Bocheport early in the day, and as soon . as prac- 
Bnble got drunk, and commenced yelling and screaming like 
itfils, and making use of very obscene and indecent language, 
ntil about four or five o'clock, when they mounted their horses and 
commenced riding up and down the streets in a most furious and 
daSant manner. One of them, Col. Patton, drew a Colt's revolver,; 
•ad rode his horse upon the pavement, which was densely crowded, 
vith men and children, and put spurs to him and tried to ride over, 
ffeiy person on the sidewalk, and had his pistol presented at the 
oowd as he passed, threatening to kill any person who would attempt 
Id arrest him in his lawless career. At this juncture of the game,. 
Qficer Thornton made his appearance with a posse of citizens, and. 
called upon the rioters to surrender themselves to the authorities of 
tlietowB, which request they spurned, and bid defiance to the officer 
and his assistants, and threatened to kill any man who would dare 
temeh them. The officer, determined on executing the law, rushed. 
apon the rioters and ordered them to stop, saying that they should 
Bot be punished except by due process of law, at which time Patton 
wheeled his horse, facing the officer and about one hundred people, 
ind deliberately fired two shots into the crowd, one of which struck. 
J. L. Lewis' coat in the left breast, but did him no injury. Mr. Thorn- 
ton then drew a revolver and discharged one shot at the rioters without 
eflbct, whereupon Patton fired his third shot, the volley passing over 
the heads of the crowd and striking a family residence. The depre- 
dators then turned and fled, and several gentlemen with the officer 
pursued them several miles from town, and would doubtless have ar- 
rested them, but one of the pursuers was unfortunately kicked by a 
horse, and was thought to have been seriously injured, but was not. 
These disorderly proceedings aroused the latent indignation and 
temperance sentiments of the people to such an extent that they met 
in the town hall on Tuesday, March 9th, when, on motion of Hugh L. 
Forsythe, Dr. Qeorge B. Wilcox was called to the chair, and fVank 
D. Evans appointed secretary. 

On motion of James B. Watson, a committee of five was appointed> 
to wait upon those who were engaged in the liquor traffic at Roche- 
port, and request them to give up their stock of liquors, to be re-* 


turned to St. Louis, and that the committee be empowered, on bel 
of the citizens, to purchase said liquors, which motion was ud 
imously adopted. On motion, the meeting adjourned to meet atei 


The meeting met pursuant to adjournment. 

On motion, T. F. Clayton was called to the chair and F. D. Evi 
appointed secretary. 

The chair made a report that the committee to whom was delegai 
the power to purchase the liquors in the town, had so far perfom 
their duty as to take possession of eight hundred dollars' worth, wh 
they had purchased from the venders, subject to a reshipment to 
Louis, which report, on motion, was adopted. 

On motion of Martin Staley, a committee of three was appoin 
to draft and report resolutions expressive of the sentiments of 
meeting. Whereupon the Chair appointed R. S. Robinson, Dr. 
Patton and Martin Staley. 

The committee reported the following preamble and resolutions 

Whxbkas, In view of the untold miseries which have been inflicted upon the ho 
fkmily by the liquor traffic, and our determination to wage a war of extermination ag 
Baid traffic in our midst — 

Jleaolvedf 1. That we heartily indorse the action of the committee appointed bj 
meeting of this morning, in taking charge of the liquors in this town. 

2. That having purchased all of the stock of liquors now on hand, we are detem 
that no more liquor shall be landed at this place to be sold in any shape or form what 

8. That a committee of sixty-eight be appointed, whose duty it shall be to carry in 
feet the object of the second resolution. 

T. F. Olattom, a 

F. D. Eyanb, See'y. 

Which preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

Committee of Vigilance, appointed by the Chair : G. B. Wilcox 
Hulett, Dr. A. Patton, T. F. Clayton, Jno. Glazier, Thos. Chape 
Thos. Waller, Col. J. Corbett, Jno. A. Evans, J. B. Jones, McWc 
Bo. G. Lyle, Wm. Gellaspie, Frank Bentley, Dr. Jno. Wilcox 
Bentley, Peter Ross, H. W. Crow, R. S. Miller, L. Burroughs, 
W. Morgan, J. R. Clayton, Ro. Wood, Jas. Tindall, H. Tumy, . 

A. Hill, Jno. Funk, J. W. Davis, B. F. Dimmitt, Jno. S. Lewis 

B. Potts, Jas. B. Watson, Jas. H. Chandler, H. G. Hopper, ( 
Hatton, Geo. Raulins, S. Conrad, Jno. S. Clayton, Jno. Evans, 
Jas. Thornton, Geo. Watts, Jno. Smith, Geo. R. Wilson, Jno 
Adair, Allen Bysfield, Jno. A. Wallace, S. M. Bradley, Geo. 
Freeman, W. Crump, O. T. Stevens, David Bailey, Jos. Bui^ 


brtm Staley, Job. Conrad, W. T. Evans, Jno. W. Roberts, E. In- 
aan, Jno. Q. Orr, Jas. Bradley, Ed. Miller, H. L. Forsythe, J. H. 
Chimbers, W. H. Bailey, J. J. Lampkins, John Shanks, Jas. C. Orr, 
V. D. Evans. 


lu November, 1857, the following soldiers of the war of 1812, all of 
whom were then residents of Boone county, and all of whom, with- 
oat exception, are now dead, petitioned Congress to pass a law grant- 
ing the soldiers of that war pensions for life. The age and place of 
Dati?ity of each are given with their names : — 

Dirid Todd, bom in Kentucky ; aged 71 yean and 6 months ; health good. 

Korbone B. Spottswood, born in Yiiginia; aged 67 years and 2 months; health indif- 

HinmPhinip«,bom in Anifpnia; aged 66 years and 6 months; general debility. 

John Davenport, bom in Virginia; aged 64 years and 6 months; partly deaf; wounded at 
tks battle of RiTer Raisin. 

Berkley Estea, bom in Vii^nia; aged 60 years. 

John Bamea, bom in Kentucky ; aged 64 years and 8 months ; partly deaf. 

Abnham Davenport, bom in Virginia ; aged 77 years ; general debility. 

Ojnt Lnsk, bom in Kentucky ; aged 61 years and 8 months ; health good. 

JsoMi King, bom in Kentucky; aged 62 years ; very indifTerent health. 

Gsbriel Paiker, l>ora in Maryland ; aged 66 years ; health good. 

Hmrj Berry, bom in Kentucky ; aged 60 years; health first-rate. 

John Green, bom in Kentucky ; aged 67 years; ^n feeble health. 

JimesOreen, bom in Kentucky; aged 71 years; weakness. 

Iiaic Williams, bom in Pennsylvania ; aged 66 years and 7 months ; health not very good* 

Thompson Hardin, bom in Virginia; aged 72 years; health indifferent. 

William Sims, bom in Kei^tucky ; aged 67 years ; health feeble. 

BoDJamin Brookshire, born in North Carolina; aged 61 years; health feeble. 

John Weller, bom in Virginia; aged 67 years; health good. 

Simuel B. Todd, born in Kentucky ; aged 64| years ; health tolerable (wounded in battle). 

Hogb Kelvin, bom in Kentucky ; aged 73 years ; health feeble. 

Lemuel B. Searcy, born in Kentucky ; aged 63 years ; health but common. 

Allen Coats, bom in North Carolina ; aged 87 years ; very stout, but deaf. (In Dudley's 

Heetwood flemdon, born in Virginia ; a^^ 64 years ; health tolerable. 
OomelinsVanausdale, bora in Virginia; aged 65 years; health feeble. 
John Camthera, born in Virginia ; aged 64 years ; nearly blind. 
John Birclay, born in Kentucky ; aged 66 years ; sorely afflicted, 
^raenbury Jacoba, bom in Virginia ; aged 78 years ; health good. 
Jti&esThomaa,bominVii*ginia; aged 66 years and 6 months; badly afflicted. 
^]ah Stephens, bora in North Carolina ; aged 73 years ; health tolerably good. 


On Tuesday night, July 13, 1858, the iron safe in the county 
«'«rk*8 office in Columbia was blown open with gunpowder, and up- 
wards of $400 belonging to Judge Woodson, County Clerk, stolen 



therefrom. The thieves broke the fastenings off the shutters 
front window and thus effected an entrance to the office. The 
iron safe was then rolled from its place near the wall, turne 
front upwards and after powder was introduced through tl 
hole the two doors were blown off their hinges. The first or c 
door was thick and heavy ; yet it was blown against the ceiling 
roof tearing off the plastering on a spot the size of the door, 
of the papers were injured or taken. No clue to the thieves wa 


The following is a list of twenty-two of the largest taz-paj 
Boone county for the years 1858 and 1881, respectively. F( 
list of 1881 we are indebted to the Columbia Herald: — 

FOR 185S. 

1. EU E. Bass 

2. James S. RoUins 
8. Austin Bradford 
4. George R. Jacobs 
6. Moss Prewitt . 

6. M. G. Singleton 

7. Jefferson Garth 

8. Fielding Curtis . 

9. F. B. Fullenwider 

10. Wm. C. Robinett 

11. James M. Gordon 

12. Newman B. Starke 
18. Capt. Wm. Smith 

14. H. M. Clarkson. 

15. James Harris 

16. John C. McKinney 

17. Dr. Wm. McClure 

18. William Cochran 

19. John Machir 

20. Archibald W. Turner 

21. John W. Rollins 

22. John H. Field . 

$852 95 
870 19 
867 11 
809 86 
294 19 
278 52 
273 16 
272 38 
218 48 
205 08 
199 70 
199 51 
193 89 
192 93 
190 94 
180 52 
185 90 
185 11 
160 72 
159 57 
149 90 

Aggregate taxes of the 22, $5,662 21 

FOR 1881. 

1. James 8. Rollins $1,2; 

2. James T. McBain 1,1* 

8. R. B. Price . » 

4. John C. Conley . 7! 

5. Jefferson Garth . 7 

6. Joel H. Haden . . . 7 

7. George A. Bradford . . 6 
%, R. T. Prewitt*s estate . 6 

9. James Harris' estate . 6 

10. N. T. MitcheU, Sr. . .4 

11. J. K. Rogers .4 

12. O. Guitar ... 4 
18. SUas W. Warreu . i 

14. J. H. Waugh .4 

15. John Machir . ^ 

16. E. C. More, . ^ 

17. John 8. Clarkson . i 

18. Daniel May^r 

19. S. £. Lenoir 

20. W. W. Tucker . 

21. J. S. Moss 
22 B.P. Ritchie 

Aggregate taxes of the 22, $18, 


On November 29, 1858, a meeting was held in Columbia to 
ize a library association, of whicli Warren Woodson acted as 
dent, and Dr. Fayette Clapp secretary. W. F. Switzler, Gee 
Swallow and Robert L. Todd were appointed a committee to i 
constitution, which they reported to a subsequent meeting and 


idopted. The association was permanently organized December 20 » 
1858, by the election of the following ofBcers : — 

Ftesident, Warren Woodson; Secretary, Robert L. Todd; Treasurer, R. B. Price; 
Ubnrlui, Thomas T. Gentry; Executive Committee, Jonathan Kirkbride, Moss 
Flpewitttnd W. F. Switzler; Library Committee, J. J. Jacob, X. X. Backner and 
Jofeph K. Rogers. 

The association established a circulating library, purchased a large 
number of books , and for several years held a prosperous career, but 
in time its members failed to hold meetings, and the books were 
finally deposited in the University library, where they now are. 



It will be interesting as a matter of history, especially to the 
younger readers of this volume, to record the prices at which slaves 
were publicly hired for one year and sold for life, in Columbia, on 
January I, 1859, Wm. Lampton, auctioneer, as follows : — 


lUeo, aged about 12 years . . . $50 00 | Harrison, aged about 8 years . . f 1 00 


Harriet, 16 years to AprU 1st, 1859 f 8 00 I Nancy 12 years, to April 1st, 1859 . f 2 25 
Hau]r,i4 years, to April Ist, 1859 . 22 00 | 


KOlyanddiUd f 90 00 | Cliarlotte $46 00 


Kirk, aged 13 years. ..... $56 00 

Nat, aged 11 years 20 00 

James, aged 24 years .... $201 00 

Slijah, aged 16 years 156 00 

Oreen,agedl5 years * . . . . 151 00 


HaiyandchUd $55 00 | Peter $202 00 


Estate Rev. Dr. Hall, Alex, to J. 
F. Bumham $336 

J. S. ClarlE8on*s Mary, 28 years, to 

H.B.Cowden $1,110 

WUUt,UiJ, H. Waugli 310 


Iliiaand ch^d, to T. C. Parker . . $1,140 
John, 10 years old, to Robert Lemon . 610 

Jack, 9 years old 660 

^Jy, 7 yean old, to W. D. True . . 467 
^^^rtha, 7 years, to J. M. Samael . . 220 

J. F. Bumham's Dave, 9 years, to 
J. Maddez $450 

A. Sablett*s Mary, to H. R. C. Cow- 
den 1,000 


The inauguration of the enterprise which resulted in the purchase 
^f a town clock for Columbia, and which now can be seen in the 



cupola of the Court House, is largely due to James L. Stephen 
He made the suggestion and contributed a large amount of the meat 
in July, 1859, and before the end of that year the clock was in pos 
tion, paid for and performing its office. 



Presidential and Congressional Election of 1860 — Contest between Rollins and Hendem 
^r Congress — *' Minch or Munch," which ? — A Laughable Anecdote — The election 
Mr. Lincoln — Boone County Southern Rights Meeting, in 1861 — Union Meeting 
Boone, in 1861 — Capture of Camp Jackson — First Federal Troops in Boone — Swc 
ney's Raid on Rollins' Farm — ^Attempt to Assassinate Col. Switzler — Gen. Prentiss Vii 
Columbia — Cols. Glover and Birge's troops in Columbia — Fight at Mount Zion Chui 
— Federal and Confederate Accounts — " Merrill's Horse " — Arrest of Citizens Ot 
of Loyalty — Union Military Display — A Federal Soldier Disgraced — Arrival of C 
Odon Guitar in Columbia — ^Military Suppression of the Columbia 5tofuton2 Newspape: 
Columbia Trustees Ousted— Flag Presented to ** Merrill's Horse "—Death of Id€ 
Theo. Brooks — Col. Guitar at Jefferson City — Roster of his Staff and Officers — Jul] 
1862, in Columbia — Pursuit of Porter — Fight at Moore's Mill — Battle at Kirksvilk 
Fight at Compton's Ferry and Yellow Creek — Rebel Guerrillas visit Columbia i 
Release the Prisoners from Jail — They go to the Statesman Printing Office to Destro} 
but are Dissuaded from Their Purpose — Col. Switzler Appointed Military Secretary 
Arkansas — Burning of Mount Zion Church — Flag Presentations — Gen. Guitar's H< 
quarters at Columbia — Sword Presented to Him — 61st Regiment Enrolled MisA 
Militia — Col. Joseph B. Douglass. 

* Those thus marked were elected. 

AUGUST 6th, 1860. 


Sample Orr 1,522 

Hancock Jackson 68 

*C. F. Jackson 1,066 

Total 2,656 


T. J. C. Fagg 1,501 

M. M. Parsons 60 

«T. C. Reynolds 1*086 

Total 2,637 


*James S. Rollins 1, 

J. B. Henderson I 

Total... 2, 


*C. H. Hardin 1, 

J. L. Stephens 1> 

Total -2. 



XLiOTioir RSTURVB — Continued, 

MPiBirrATrviBB nr LsoisLATinuB. 

•Joha W. Hwrit. 1,488 

John P. Horner. ^....1,282 

*J.E Gordon 1,287 

J. W. Roberto... 1,026 

*Joho )L Samuel (no opposition).. 2,698 

iLicnoir roB prkbidkht, voy. 1860. 

Stephen A, Douglas (Denioorat).» 678 

JohnBeU (Union) l,67l 

John Gl Breckinridge (Democrat)... .... 662 

Ahnhim Lincoln (Republican) 12 

FSBBUARY 2lsT, 1861. 


•Bi 1. Bsss. «. .1,866 

*Joieph Flood. 1,964 

P.EMoBride ^ 897 

*WiiTtn Woodson 1,764 

f.P.a Triplett 384 

itfenonF. Jones... 848 

NOVEMBER 4tb, 1862. 

♦J. 8. Rollins 1,024 

Arnold Krekel * 8 

Rollins' minority in the District. 6,426 


♦.i. M. Gk>rdon 976 

T)iomas Ansel 11 


♦Dr. W. B. Todd 616 

♦ \Vm. Slade 608 

F. T.Russell 644 

J. G. Shelnutt 64 


*James H. Waugh 694 

James R. Harris 897 


*David Gk>rden (no opposition)...... 989 


♦Moss Prewitt (no opposition) 986 

I860.— Population of Boone County 19,486. 

Nothing of very staitling public interest occurred in Boone County 

during the year 1860. The most notable event of the year in the 

<^iiDty, and in the nation as well, was the Presidential election — in 

some respects the most remarkable in the history of the Bepublic, 

And will long live in our public annals with the freshness of a new 

«V€nt. It was immediately preceded by the most important proceed- 

iiigsin Congress and among the people which, up to that period, had 

occurred since the adoption of the Constitution. ** Switzler's His- 

^ly of Missouri" says that ** among these may be mentioned, as of 

Uie greatest significance, the renewal of unexampled violence of 

the slavery agitation, the repeal of the Missouri compromise of 

-^820, the Kansas-Nebraska controversy, the passage of the per- 

^^n»l liberty bills by several of the Northwestern States, the John 

^^own raid at Harper's Ferry, in Virginia, and the belligerent and 

^Bunion utterances of various distinguished and trusted leaders of 

*iie South. 

••While the popular excitement occasioned by these events was at its 
■height, the Presidential canvass of 1860 was opened. In the number 
^f the parties to it, and the character of the gentlemen composing the 


tickets presented for the support of the American people, the canvas 
was a faithful reflex of popular sentiment, for while it is true tb 
slavery question was the chief issue in the struggle, it assumed a mul 
tiplicity of forms, and separated the people of the United States int 
four grand divisions, each represented by its national convention an* 
nominees for President and Vice President. It was, therefore, 
quadrangular contest; and could not fail, on account of the inflanr 
mable nature of the questions discussed and the highly respectabi 
character of the tickets presented, to excite the profoundest interes 
in every State in the Union." 

In Missouri, so far as the State ticket was concerned, the conte 
was quadrangular, for the Republican, or Lincoln party, presents 
J. B. Gardenhire as a candidate for Governor, — the vote for pre 
ident in the State being: Douglas, 58,801; Bell, 58,372; Brec 
enridge, 31,317; Lincoln, 17,027. Whole number of votes ca 
158,579 ; the Douglas electors carrying the State over the Bell 
only 429 votes. More than half the votes given to Mr. LiQC4 
(9,945) were cast for him in St. Louis. He received only twelve vo 
in Boone County, one in Columbia, three in Ashland and eight 

For Governor, each of the parties (Lincoln excepted) had can 
dates: Sample Orr, Bell-Everett or Union; C. F. Jackson, Doug 
Democrat, and Hancock Jackson, Breckenridge Democrat, who. 
was understood, represented the more ultra pro-slavery wing of 
Democratic party. Orr's majority over C. F. Jackson, 456. 

Boone County felt an unusual interest in the State and CongE 
sional canvasses, because two of her distinguished citizens were can 
dates — Odon Guitar for attorney-general, against J. Proctor Kii 
(D.) and James S. Rollins for Congress, against John B. Henden 
(Douglas Democrat). Both Guitar and Rollins were candidates 
the Bell-Everett, or Union ticket. Guitar's majority in Boone, 31 
Rollins', 452 ; in the district, 253. 

The Bell-Everett national ticket was nominated at Baltimore, s 
the platform adopted. It was comprised in a single sentence : — 

ThK OOKSTITUTION of the country, THB union of the 8TATB8 AND THS XNFOl 

Col. Switzler was a delegate from Missouri to the conventii 
and it was on his motion that Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, \ 
made the candidate for Vice-President. 


Greftt enthusiasm was excited in Boone Connty and in the State in 
the Presidential 9 Gubernatorial and Congressional candidacy — one 
of the national political ditties of the campaign used by the Bell-Er- 
erott Union party, being the following : — 

Friends of the Union, from each mountain and vallej. 

New let your glad Toices responsively swell ; 
From hamlet and cot, let Freemen now rally, 

And list to the notes of the National Bill. 
Our glorious Eagle spreads his wings now asunder, 

Which Democrats strive to fetter and chain ; 
But the peal of our Bell, in tones of loud thunder, / 

Shall teach them that all their corrupiioii is rain. 
" The Constitution — The Union — the Bnforoement of Laws." 

No Congressional canvass in the State ever attracted more interest, 
was characterized by more iBxcitement or conducted with more ability 
than the canvass between Kollins and Henderson. Both of them 
were leaders of acknowledged statesmanship and eloquence, tact and 
courage, and large concourses of enthusiastic and admiring friends 
flocked to their appointments, and made the welkin ring with their 
applause. The anti-slavery agitation was rapibly reaching a climax, 
and the institution of slavery — its history, its constitutional guaran- 
tees, its influence upon the destiny of Missouri, and the measures and 
parties most likely to secure it against interference, were topics of 
QDiversal and angry debate. Very naturally, therefore, one of the 
questions at issue between Rollins and Henderson was', as the district 
in the aggregate wa3 largely pro-slavery, which was the more worthy 
of being trusted in the national councils by a constituency largely in- 
terested in the stability of the *' peculiar institution." Each charged 
the other with being unsound on the question, with having Freesoil, 
if not Abolition, sympathies, and therefore unworthy of support. 
But there were two counties in the district, St. Charles and Warren, 
in which there was a large German or Freesoil element. Republican 
in sentiment, whose support was essential to the success of one or the 
other of the candidates. 

Therefore the effort of both candidates seemed to be to conciliate 
^^^ receive this independent or Freesoil vote, residing mainly in 
'barren and St. Charles counties. But it was extremely dangerous, 
*® both of them well knew, for either of them to go too far in the 
^^fk of conciliation, lest they might be seriously prejudiced in the 
^^lids of the voters in other parts of the district, which were known 
^ be generally and violently pro-slavery in their views. 


Both of tho candidates were known to be liberal in their views on 
the slavery question, and yet at that critical period of its discusslna 
it required a good deal of adroit munsijrement and skilful eloquence 
to Bteer clear of the breakers which presented themselves on the ua 

of party politics, lest in iittempting to avoid shipwreck on the Scyl'* 
of Freesoilism on the one hand they did not go to the bottom on tb* 
Charybdis of Pro-slaveryisni on the other. 
They had an appuintmcnt to speak in the village of Martbasville io 


Wiirren county, and as good luck to Rollins would have it, Henderson 

wdsUw ill to be present ; but Frederick Muench, the leader of the Ger- 
man FreesoilerSy was, and he and his friends gave a very attentive 
hearing to the eloquent address of the Major. After its close Mr. 
Muench politely waited on the Major, and they discussed not only a 
bottle of German-made wine together, but the political situation of 
the district. Mr. Muench frankly complimented him on his speech 
ftiidtold him he thought the Germans could safely intrust the princi- 
ple^^ advocated by them to his hands, and therefore would use his in- 
Duence with them to support him, all of which was ** flannel" to the 
Major's anxious and patriotic heart. 

This was the first meeting between Rollins and Muench, but pre- 
cisely what passed will pehaps never be known, as Mr. Muench is 
lead and the Major may have forgotten. Beyond doubt, however, it 
i^as this meeting and Henderson's absence from the speaking that de- 
eded the contest in favor of Rollins, whose majority in the district 
'a« only 254. ' 

But we are now about to touch ** the funny bone " of the subject. 

few days after the meeting and while he was yet under the influence 
' Rollins' liberal views on the slavery question and his finely turned 
^riods, Mr. Muench, without Rollins knowing anything of his 
tentions to do so, wrote a letter to a German Freesoil paper 
Hannibal in which he expressed a preference for Rollins over 
enderson, saying he believed the Germans might safely support him, 
at he had met him and found him a ^ery interesting and persuasive 
^ntlemun, etc. 

The letter to the Hannibal paper was translated into English, and 
»r Henderson's benefit re-published in the St. Louis Republican^ 
liich advocated his election ; and on the morning of their joint dis- 
Jssion at Sturgeon, reached there a short time before the hour of 
peaking. Rollins did not know it had appeared in print, but Hen- 
erson got hold of a paper containing it, and in his opening address 
ladea terrific onslaught on Rollins for having been bargaining with 
^e German Freesoilers of Warren and St. Charles to vote for him 
^ the ground of his Freesoil principles. 

Rollins promptly jumped to his feet and defiantly denied it. Hen- 
crsoii responded — ** I will prove it on him ; I charge that one Mr. 
Hnch, a German, has written a letter urging the Germans to vote 
>r him, and after he had an interview with Minch." Rollins denied 


he knew any such man as Minch ; thereupon Heuderaon read the 
letter somewhat to Rollins' embarrassment. Portions of the crowd 
hurrahed for Henderson, but Rollins rose with much equanimity, real 
or assumed, and said defiantly — '* Read the name of the author.'' 
Henderson did it, ''Frederick Minch." "Spell it," said Rollins, 
and Henderson spelled it — " M-^u-e-n-c-h." Rollins — " The naooe 
is Muencli not Minch; you can't cheat the people; you can't play 
such tricks on me with impunity ; you have changed his name ! " 

About this time Henderson's hour expired when Rollins took the 
stand and said : '.« Fellow-citizens, you see the advantage Henderson 
is taking of you and of me ; I denied I had ever heard of such a man 
as Minch ^ and he changed his name to Minch to entrap me into 
that denial. It was Munch not Minch; I know him; he is a 
gentleman and a patriot and a man of sense, which I fear Henderson 
is not." 

All the Whigs were satisfied and shouted for Rollins, and Mr. James 
Palmer (since deceased), one of the largest men in the county aiidan 
ardent Henry Clay Whig mounted the stand and shouted, •' Rollins is 
vindicated triumphantly. Henderson changed the name of the 
writer of the letter and thus attempted to mislead our gallant leader, 
Rollins. No man who will do such a thins: is entitled to the votea 
of Whigs or Democrats, and I now move that we all vote fot 
Rollins." And he put the vote and there arose in response athuik' 
dering aye, and Palmer (without putting the other side) declared i 
carried unanimously, and in the midst of the excitement and uproli 
moved that the crowd adjourn to the nearest saloon and take a drink 
which they did, leaving Henderson discomfited and crestfallen, ana 
Rollins trium]3hant and cock of the walk. 

And all because Henderson said Minch instead of Munch. 


The election of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency spread the wilder 
excitement throughout all the slaveholding States, and fanned to i 
flame the smouldering fires of disunion and civil war. Very soon aftei 
it was announced, the State of South Carolina seceded from the Union 
and thus placed herself in the vanguard of those States which soonee 
or later madly leaped into the vortex of revolution and anarchy. Thr 
event greatly excited and deeply moved, not only the people of Boone 


County, but of the entire State, for it was quite natural that a large 
fll&Yeholding county like Boone, in the interior of the only border 
sUveholding State west of the Mississippi River, should give evidence 
of much concern in regard to evei*y movement calculated to shake the 
foandations of the Federal Union or the stability of the institution of 

Near the closing scenes of the year 1860, the people of the county 
inticipated the future with kindred emotions of hope and despair, 
fearing that the Union was in imminent peril, and that the torch of 
dfil war might very soon blaze in skies hitherto cloudless and serene. 
And the sequel proved that their forebodings of evil were not ground- 
leds. The secession of South Carolina on December 20, followed 
dnring January by the secession of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama and 
Georgia, were events of dire portent and well calculated to disturb 
the foundations on which reposed the public peace and security. 

1861. — Chronologically, we are now approaching in this history the 
tbyes of that bloody and fratricidal civil war' into which our country 
WB8 plunged ; and we realize that in attempting to record the exciting 
ind rapidly occurring events of the period we tread ** between burning 
plowshares," and are liable from various causes to unjust criticism 
and misapprehension. Neveitheless, it will be our purpose to record 
impartially the events of the war, and not to manufacture them ; to 
do justice to its participants on both sides, to record facts as we find 
tbem, and to record them as a historian and not as a commentator. 
No opinion or prejudices of our own shall distort or color them, but 
it will be our purpose in collating the stirring events of this period 
to accomplish it with perfect fairness and im])artiality. 

The firing upon the Federal garrison at Fort Sumter by Gen. Beau- 
regard, on April 11, 1861, was an event the sound of which rang 
through the country like a fire-bell in the night. It came with the 
speed of lightning on the wires to Boone County, followed very soon 
*fter by a call on Missouri by the President for four regiments of men 
for immediate service, the refusal of Gov. Jackson to furnish them, 
the organization in Columbia, on Wednesday, April 24, 1861, of the 
** Columbia Home Guards," a volunteer company for the protection 
•nd defence of Columbia. OflScers — Prof. E. T. Fristoe, Captain ; 
Prof. J. J. Searcy, First Lieutenant ; Richard H. Carter, Second Lieu- 
tenant; James H. Waugh, Third Lieutenant; Wm. H. Tillery, First 
Orderly Sergeant; W. H. Noilhcutt, Second Orderly Sergeant; 



Joseph B. Douglass, Third Orderly Sergeant ; John M. Samuel, 


Something of the temper and sentiments of a portion of the people 
may be gathered from the proceedings of a '' Southern Rights Meet- 
ing" held in the Court House on Saturday, April 20, 1861. While 
it was in session three different flags floated in Columbia : the Stan 
and Stripes, the Border State flag, and the flag of the Confederate 
States. The following are the proceedings of the meeting: — 


Pursuant to previous notice, a large and enthusiastic meeting of the 
citizens of Boone County was held at the Court House in Columbiaon 
Saturday, the 20th of April. On motion. Dr. C. Q. Chandler was 
temporarily called to the chair, whereupon S. Turner moved that a 
committee of five be appointed to report back a permanent organiza- 
tion for the meeting. The chair appointed Messrs. S. Turner, Samuel 
Kennon, Wm. H. Duncan and Arthur P. Clarkson, who retired foi 
the purpose named. During the absence of the committee, Capt. F. 
F. C. Triplett, by the request of the chair, explained the object ol 
the meeting in a clear, forcible and satisfactory manner, the substance 
of which is set forth in the resolutions annexed. The committee oi 
permanent organization reported as follows : — 

Chairman: Judge P. H. McBride. Vice Presidents: Dr. C. Q. Chandler, David Powel 
James Ryan, Col. E. E. Bass, Isaac Williams, Judge Alexander Persinger, Allen B. Orel 
Secretaries : C. Maupin, F. K. Lynch, Dr. Alex. Spence, 

The report of the committee, on motion of Capt. Triplett, wj 
adopted, and the persons named repaired to their respective station 
On motion of Col. John W. Rollins, a committee of two from ea< 
civil township was appointed to prepare and report resolutions e 
pressive of the views and sentiments of the meeting. Just as tl 
committee retired, a number of gentlemen, bearing aloft the flag 
the Confederate States, with fifteen stars emblazoned thereon, edg< 
their way into the crowded court room and were greeted with thr^ 
cheers for Jeff. Davis and the Southern Confederacy. S Turner w: 
called upon to address the meeting, which he did, alluding briefly i 
the causes of our National troubles, and reviewing in au eloquent an 


patriotic manner the many insults and injuries which have been 
heaped upon the South by the fanatics of the North ; appealing to 
his coantrymen to rise in their majesty and vindicate Southern honor^ 
concluding amid great applause and cheers for << Old Virginia," and 
the addition of another star to the Confederate States. Calls for 
"Dixie'* by the band, etc. The committee on resolutions then 
made the following report : — 

Whibias, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by a warlike policy to- 
iiidithe Confederate States of America, in sending an armed fleet io the port of Oharles- 
toQtnd in notifying the authorities of South Carolina that he '* would provision and rein- 
force" Fort Sumter peaceably if allowed, but forcibly if necessary, thereby provoking an 
itUck by the Confederate troops on Fort Sumter, and involving us, regardless of the 
liihM, prayers and entreaties of every patriot throughout the length and breadth of our 
proiperoQs and happy country, in all the horrors and devastation of a civil and servile 
ynt; tnd 

Whirbas, He has withdrawn the Federal troops from our frontier posts, and placed 
tiiun io a position for active service against our brethren, leaving our frontier citizens in a 
defo&oeless condition and exposed to the ravages of the merciless savage ; and, 

Whibsas, He is actively engaged in fitting out and sending to the Southern coasts armed 
TMiei^ladened with provisions and munitions of war, with orders sealed to all but himself 
tad his counsellors and other minions of destruction ; and in divers other demonstrations of a 
nriika character. In the movements of both land and naval forces, exciting just apprehen- 
lioQi m the minds of the people of South, that he intends an invasion of their soil and the sub. 
Jngition of them Into obedience to the Federal laws. A.nd in open defiance to the warning 
voice and solenm admonitions of the border slave States, to stay his hand and avoid the 
dMddmg of blood, while they were engaged in a noble, patriotic and self'-sacriflcing strug* 
gletu adjust our National difSculties, preserve our once glorious Union, and save our gov- 
Muneot and our people from the inevitable ruin and devastation that must necessarily fol- 
low in the train of a civil war, he has called on the Governors of the several States for 
Nrenty-five thousand men to accomplish his diabolical work of destruction, turning loose 
apen gg the dogs of war, thirsting for blood and carnage, and thus blasting forever all hopes 
of I reconciliation between the belligerent sections of our country; he has forced upon the 
border slave States the alternative of taking their position in the fearful struggle, either 
with the fanatical Abolition and negro- worshipping States of the North, in the subjugation 
of their brethren of the South, with whom they are identified by the strongest and most in- 
diiioluble bonds of interest, honor, institutions and blood, or of uniting their destinies with 
their liiter Southern States and resisting to the death the tide of Northern fanaticism and 
iggreision which threatens to overwhelm and annihilate the dearest rights and liberties of a 
^ tod independent people. Be it, therefore, 

Betohed, 1. That we unhesitatingly link our destinies, our interest, our honor, our fate 
ttd oar all, for weal or for woe, with our Southern brethren ; and we will, as an unholy, 
^ust and unnatural war is forced upon us, unsheathe the civil sword in defence of our 
^gbtg and hold it up (reeking with fraternal blood) to the gaze of the civilized world, as a 
^thful witness of the justice of our cause. 

2. That the secession of a State, or the withdrawal of the powers delegated by it to the 
^•denl Government, is but a peaceable, sovereign, inherent and inalienable right of a free 
People (from whom all good governments derive their just powers), to change, throw off, or 
"▼olntionize their government when it becomes oppressive or dangerous to their rights, 
liWtiet or institutions. 

^ That the committee appointed by the State Convention for the purpose of calling that 



body together when the state of the country demanded it, are earnestly reqaested to conToi 
said body at as early an hour as is practicable, that it take such action as will place Mil 
aouri in her proper position with her sister States of the South who have been compellsc 
by the fanaticism of the North and by Federal aggression to resume the exercise of tki 
powers delegated by them to the Federal Government. 

4. That the Governor of the State of Missouri be and is hereby requested t« take speedily 
such steps as are requisite to put our State in a defensive posture, and to place her on awv 

5. That we regard with scorn and contempt the demand made by Abraham Lincoln oi 
the Governor of Missouri for troops to aid in carrying out his unholy and iniquitous cruiade 
for the subjugation of our Southern brothers, under the specious and insidious pretext of 
enforcing the laws of the Federal Gt)vernment and preserving the Union and the Conititih 
tion, which has been by him and his party grossly insulted, violated and trampled uodv 
their unhallowed feet. And we mottt cordially 'indorse the prompt, manly and patriotic n> 
tponse of Governor Jackson to his presumptuous demand. 

6. That the course of John B. Henderson, and the opinions avowed by him inthelati 
session of the Missouri convention, are inconsistent with our honor, interest and feeling 
and that we request him not to assume to act as our delegate in any convention or coD8alts> 
tion of the border slave States. 

7. That we totally disapprove of the votes given by the convention refusing to pledgi 
Missouri against Federal coercion and in favor of seceding with the other border sUft 

8. That the people of the several counties throughout the State be requested to meet m 
convention, and that they recommend that the State Convention be convened at as early in 
hour as practicable, and to instruct their delegates to vote for the immediate withdrawtl of 
Missouri from the Federal compact 

9. That a committee of three be appointed to correspond with our delegates, and instruct 
them to vote for the immediate withdrawal of Missouri from the Federal Government, toi 
to propose memorials to the voters of our district, to be signed by them, requesting the im- 
mediate resignation of such as may refuse to comply. 

10. That the adjournment of the convention to December, after it had by its votes dete^ 
mined to do nothing under any circumstances to change the Federal relations of the State, 
was apparently designed to prevent the people from selecting delegates of different sentl* 
Bient to meet and alter the condition of things, and was, therefore, anti-republican in spiii^ 
and design. 

11. That in view of the perilous condition of public affairs and the inauguration of civil an 
probably servile war, we deem it prudent and proper to take such steps as will crush oi 
and suppress discontent and insurrections among slaves and free negroes, and to prevei 
them from being tampered with or instigated to disobedient and rebellious acts by any d 
signing white men who may be regarded as enemies to our peace, security and happinoc 
It is therefore recommended that meetings be held as soon as convenient in each civil to^^ 
ship in the county to consider the premises and adopt such measures as may be deemed batf 

12. That all who concur in the above resolutions are cordially invited to a participati'^ 
in this meeting and a co-operation with us in the promotion of all its objects, regardless 
past party divisions or prejudices. 

And upon motion of Col. John W. Rollins, were unanimousl 
adopted. As each resolution was read, loud and deafening applaud 
ensued. The whole batch of resolutions was voted for not on! 
unanimously, but with a vim never before witnessed here. Col. Ro 
lins, responding to a call, delivered a brief but eloquent speech, A^ 



daring his entire devotion to the South — that their destiny was one 

for weal or for woe, glory or shame ; that he would apply the torch 

to his own home — that he would see the verdant fields of the Soutlf 

barut black and crisp — that he would go farther : that he would lay 

the koife to his last child rather than purchase their security by a 

i cowardly and shameful submission to Black Republican rule I The 

Colooel was loudly and rapturously applauded. 

The venerable vice-president, Judge Persinger, for twenty-four years 
Judge of the County Court, was vociferously called for. In response, 
the Judge referred to his past political associations.* He said that he 
WM formerly a Whig, afterwards acted with the American party, and 
Btilllatera member of the Union party; that he had taken strong 
UnioD ground during the contest for delegates to the late State Con- 
ventiou, actuated as he was by the delusive hope that proper compro- 
mises would be made, the Union reconstructed, and quiet restored ; 
that this hope gradually gave way as LincoIn*s acts, one by one, were 
mide known, until now no hope was left — that one course only was 
left for Missouri; that her interest, honor, sympathy and destiny was 
with the South. He was repeatedly interrupted by loud applause 
and ** Go on, old man, we want to hear from you." 

Col. Eli £. Bass (delegate to the State Convention), one of the 
TJce-presidents of the meeting, was called for and took the stand. 
CoK Bass said : — <* Fellow-citizens : I am glad you have given me an 
opportunity here to-day, since there seems to be great dissatisfaction 
among you at the course pursued by me as your delegate to the State 
Convention, of explaining my vote upon the amendment offered by 
Mr. Bast, of Montgomery, to the third resolution of the majority 
report of the Committee on Federal Relations." Col. Bass stated that 
he voted nay under a misapprehension of the import of the amend- 
ment ; that a day or two before the vote was taken he had seen a pro- 
posed amendment of Mr. Bast, which the latter said he intended to 
introduce, and which at the time of voting he understood to be under 
consideration ; that he (Col. Bass) was then and would still be under 
similar circumstances opposed to that amendment which differed 
wholly in its effect from the one finally presented by Mr. Bast, of 
Montgomery ; that he was astonished afterwards to see his vote re- 
corded against the Bast amendment ; that he cordially indorsed said 
amendment. The Colonel further stated that he approved of the pro- 
ceedings and objects of the meeting — when, on motion of S. Turner, 
^ol, Bass was exonerated by the meeting from any reflection or cen- 



sure on account of the said vote, after which, at the suggestion of the 
chair, three cheers were given for Governors Jackson and Magoffin, 
^n motion, the meeting adjourned. 

A similar meeting expressing similar sentiments, was held in Roche- 
port, on April 19, of which Dr. C. I. Chandler ac^ed as president, 
and B. F. Diraitt, as secretary. A committee composed of Dr. John 
Wilcox, Dr. A. Patton, H. Wheeler, F. F. Kirby and John Shindler 
reported the resolutions, and a request was made that G. G. Vest and 
Lewis W. Robinson address them at their earliest convenience. 
During the absence of the committee on resolutions, ** a call was made 
for Col. John Hinton, who responded in an able, eloquent and pat- 
riotic speech, in defence of the rights and liberty of the South, and 
was frequently cheered and applauded with great enthusiasm." F. F. 
Kirby was appointed to solicit names of members of a '*Home 

Having copied the proceedings of a «* Southern Rights meeting," 
held by a portion of the citizens of Boone, during the early stages of 
our civil war, it is but fair that those on the other side be also heard, 
and for this purpose we copy from the Statesman of May 10, 1861, 
the proceedings of a 


Pursuant to public notice, one among the largest meetings ever held 
in the county convened in the Court House on Monday, May 6, 1861, 
to express opinions in regard to the then present crisis. At 1 o'clock 
the meeting was called to order by Col. Switzler, on whose nomination 
Mr. James McConathy, Sr., was elected president. On taking the 
chair the president requested Col. Switzler to explain the objects of 
the meetings which he proceeded to do in a speech of considerable 
length; whereupon, on motion of Elder T. M, Allen, Dr. M. R. 
Arnold was elected secretary. 

F. T. Russell, Esq., moved that a committee of seven be appointed 
to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting, and the 
chair appointed the following : F. T. Russell, Ishmael Vanhorn, David 
Gordon, Henry Keene, John W. Hall, Joel Palmer, Maj. James 
Brown . 

On the retirement of the committee, on motion of Col. Switzler, 
Judge Cuilis Field, Jr., of Richmond, Ky., who was present in the 
audience, was requested to address the meeting. As, in his opinion, 
the crisis demanded that each State should decide for itself its own 



duty, and as he was a citizen of Kentucky he did not deem it proper 
to take up the time of the meeting with any remarks of his own, and, 
therefore, begged to be excused. 

Maj. Rollins was then loudly called for, and responded in a speech 
of an hour and a half, at the conclusion of which the committee, 
through Mr. Russell, their chairman, reported the following preamble 
and resolutions : — 

Whebsas, Civil war has been inaugurated in the United States, brought about by the 
extreme men of the North and the extreme men of the South ; and whereas the State of 
Missouri occupies a position central between the two extremes, and has hitherto earnestly 
opposed all hostile demonstrations on the part of either; therefore, 

Resolved, 1. That the true policy of Missouri, at present, is to maintain an independent 
position within the Union — holding her soil and institutions sacred against invasion or hos- 
tile interference from any quarter whatever. 

2. That we approve and indorse the reply of the Governor of the State of Missouri to the 
Secretary of War, in refusing to furnish troops for the purpose of coercing our Southern 

8. That patriotism and policy, and the preservation of the pul^ic peace, alike require 
on the part of the Federal Administration a prompt and immediate recognition of the 
Southern Confederacy, as a government defactOt and forming an alliance, offensive and de- 
fensive, with it, for mutual protection. 

4. That in our opinion Secession is a remedy for no evil, real or imaginary, but an ag- 
gravation and complication of existing difficulties; but if we are reduced to the necessity of 
engaging in the present war and strife, that then we will stand by and co-operate with the 

5. That, to the end that Missouri may be fblly prepared for any contingency, we would 
have her citizens arm themselves thoroughly, at the earliest practicable moment, by regular 
action of the State. 

6. That as we hear that the Border State Convention will be held at Frankfort, Ken- 
tucky, on the 27th inst, we