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Full text of "History of Caio, Carmarthenshire"

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"^^ISL^.l.So 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FROM THE FUND GIVEN 

IN MEMORY OF 

GEORGE SILSBEE HALE 

AND 

ELLEN SEVER HALE 



V 



All Rights Resekved.] 



HISTORY 



OF 



^ OJLIO, ^ 



CARMARTHENSHIRE, 



BY 



(Author ** History of Llansawel.^^ ) 



ILLUSTRATED. 





'^^ 


i_ 


Ww 


ii 





Rhod Nyddu. 



SWANSEA: 

PRINTED BY B. TRERISE, PRINCE OF WALES ROAD. 
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



1904, 



3;v756?. ).5o 




MAP OF THE PARISH. 

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey Map with the sanction of the " Controller 

of H.M. Stationery Office. "J^The above numbers show the Quarter Sheets sold by 

them at one shilling each. Scale of above Map— Two miles lo one inch. 



"Nid da lie gtlUr gwell." 



PREFACE 



....'* What is writ is writ, 
Would if were worthier.'* 



In compiling this attempt at a history of the largest parish in the 
county and Wales, the Writer desired to put on record many interest" 
ing facts, which record might prove useful in the future. 

Assistance has been derived from the valuable pages of the 
ArchsBologia Cambrensis, Williams* English Essays, &c., &c. Con- 
siderable trouble and time have been taken in preparing the book, in 
order to make it as interesting as possible to general readers. 

No reader of the book will be more cognisant of its imperfections 
than the Writer. He trusts that his efforts will be received with for- 
bearance, the work having been compiled during the intervals of 
business. It may fall short of what it ** might ** and '* ought *' to be. 
But it would have been more imperfect had it not been for the 
valuable help received from several friends, viz. : — Mr. H. E. H. James, 
Welsh Librarian ; Mr. W. D. Lewis, Swansea ; Rev. D. Cunllo 
Da vies, *' Emlynydd,** and several others. 

2, Rose Hii^l, 

IVhit-Mondayy 1904, 



' Duw a phob daioni.^* 



" Cared Poh Uh ei Oynheitr*/." 



PENTREF CAIO. 



[EN bentref enwog Caio 

[ Yn nghesail clyd Mallan, 

Ethwng erchwyn de y Frena 

As aswy 'Rannell Ian ; 
Gwnai berio g^wyntoedd gogledd 

A'r dwyrain cas eu cur, 
A gwledda dywydd cras-boeth 

At lanau'th nentydd pur. 

Hen *♦ Drefgoch y Deheubarth '* ♦ 

Ti heri*n wych dy ran, 
Os nad yw*th feinu'n gochion, 

Maent heddyw*n feini can ; 
Glanweithdra dwfa argraffol 

Fodola drwy y lie, 
O wersyll ** Captain Conwil *' f 

Hyd derfyn Llether-dre. 

Aruthrol faint dy glochdy 

Wna 8vnu*r Saeson sych, 
Pan yn dy ffeiriau Ilawnion 

Yn marcio cefn yr ych ; 
Masnacbdai gorlawn gedwir 

A gwesdai nad oes gwell, 
Er llanw bwlch yr angen 

A noddi'r teithiwr pell. 

Adnoddau cysur cysson 

Geir ynot yn cyd-gwrdd, 
Gwir addysg iach elfenol 

Yn *8goldy gwych y bwrdd, 
Ac yn V tonau geirwon, 

Er gianio'n ddiogel draw, 
Y fam a*r ferch eglwysi 

Gyd hwyliant law-yn-llaw, 

Emltnydd. 



♦ Name of the town in ancient History. 

t Cae Capten — Field to the South- West of the village (believed 
to be the site of Conwil's encampment.) 



^Mawdd eynneu dan or hen aeltoyd,^* 




■?'~^ 



History of 
+ Caio. + 



S"~3 



c 



•'A 10, or Conwjl-Caio, is a small village, but tho parish is tha 
largest but one in the county of Carmarthenshire ; it is situated 
rii^ht in the north-west of the county. It is bounded by the 
paiishes of Cilycwm and Llanwrda on the east ; on the west by Llan- 
sawel, Pencarreg- and Llanycrwyson the north by Cellan, Llanfaircly- 
dogan and Llandewi-brefi, the three being in Cardiganshire ; on the 
south by Llansadwm and Talley. It is one of the cleanest and neatest 
of the >'illage8 in the county. It lies to the west of the turnpike road 
that leads from Llanwrda and Llandovery to the collegiate town of 
Lampeter, in Cardiganshire, and is 8 miles from Llanwrda and 7J 
miles from Lampeter. The easiest way to get to Caio is by the mail 
cart, which leaves Llanwrda every morning for Pumpsaint, which is 
about I J miles from the >'illage of Caio. The parish includes the 
townships or hamlets of Maestroyddin, Cwmtwrch, Cwmcothy and 
Lower. The area is 26,120 acres of land, and 67 acres of water. 
Fifty years ago the rateajble value was £7,769 Is. Od., now 
£9,525 *0s. Od., which shows an increase of about £1,816 rateable 
value in 50 years. It, is the eastern division of the county (Parlin- 
^nentary), in the hundred of Caio, the petty sessional division of 
lilandovery, the union of Llandovery, the rural deanery of Llan- 
gadook, the archdeaconry of Carmarthen, and the diocese of St. 
David's. The area of the hundred of Caio in 1881 was 88,831 acres, 
and population 7,107. Though far removed from railways and other 
conveniences of modem civilization, it deserves to be better known i% 
tho world at large on account of its historical interest, its natural 
])eauty, its mountains and fine rocks on the north, frequented by 
])uzzar(is, ravens, badgers and foxes, and whi«h afford pastures only 
for sheep and ponies ; its beautiful valleys of the Twrch and the 
( 'othi on the south, where the goldfinch, the bullfinch, the swallows, 
tho greenfinch, and the rare kingfisher haunt every year, and there 
rear their young. On the north the country is bare and bleak, on th« 
south beautifully wooded, and altogether affords as great a variety 
of scenery as it is possible on so small a scale. The rivers Twrch and 
Cothi are noted for trout, sewin and salmon ; the tributary Annell is 
also noted for its trout. The soil varies much, and the land is chiefly 
under pasture. Agricultural operations are not very successful, the 



quantity of corn being insufficient for home consumption. This is 
largely due to the poverty of the soil. The chief crops are wheat, 
harley, oats and hay. However, there is some excellent pasture-land 
in the valleys. Dairy-farming is perhaps the most important opera- 
tion of the farmer ; sheep farming is also fairly successful. Butter 
forms an article of export to Glamorganshire. Poultry-farming does 
not have the attention that it deserves ; cheese is made for home con- 
sumption. The parish is studded with large oak trees, with many 
plantations of fur and larch. About the year 1833 the poor were 
maintained bv an average annual expenditure of £578 128. Od. ; at 
the present time £337 lOs. Od. ; in 1901 £342 3s. 6d. The popula- 
tion about 1833 WM 1,971; in 1871, 2,002; 1881, 1,979; in 1891, 
1,803 ; last census (1901), 1,594. The number of inhabited houses in 
1881 was 423; in 1891, 394. The area, according to 1S81 census 
returns is given as 41,785 acres. 

Here one notices a change in the population, the young leaving 
the quiet rural country districts for the active towns. Yet, in spite of 
the many changes effected in the present century, the inhabitants of 
this parish cherish a most ardent attachment to the land of their 
birth, and still cling with wonderful tenacity to the language of their 
remote ancestors. It is the language selected by the persons who 
wioh to reach theliearts of their fellows ; it is the language used by 
the people in their times of trouble and of triumph. As yet, it is far 
from dead, and the inhabitants are determined that the language of a 
noble race shall never perish. The Parish Council i)assed a resolution 
in 1896 that the minutes of all the parish meetings in future are to be 
recorded in Welsh, and this is done. There are eight Nonconformist 
Chapels in the parish — Bethel and Salem, Baptists; Crugybar and 
Bwlch-yfen, Independents ; Caio, Cwrtycadno, Pumpsaint and Saron, 
Calvinistic Methodists, where every word of the services are con- 
ducted in Welfch. The services in the Parish Church are mostly 
Welsh. All the Chapels and Church have Sunday Schools, besides 
the classes held in the various farm houses. 

For many years there were no police officers in the parish, 
but the parish vestry from time to time nominated and appointed 
80 many of the farmers as fit and qualifiedmen to act as constables 
■without fee or reward. In 1867, at a vestry meeting, we find 
the following were nominated for the ensuing year :— Lower 
Hamlet, Thomas Thomas, Pantglas ; Maestroyddin Hamlet, Morgan 
Jones. Havodmaidd ; Cwmtwrch Hamlet, Morgan Jones, Tynypullau, 
and Cwmcothy Hamlet, William Davies, Llwyndyrieud. At the 
same meeting John Johnes, of Dolaucothy, was appointed Church- 
warden by the Vicar, and James Jones, Maesglas, Churchwarden for 
the parishioners. At the back of Caio Church and village stretches a 
vast mountain region that extends in tossed and rearing waves of 
moorland and crag for miles to the north ; and, indeed, Mynydd 
Mallaen is but the southern extremity of that chain which extends 
from Montgomeryshire and Merioneth, and of which Plinlimon is one 
of the finest heads. The elevated and barren waste is traver&ed here 
and there by streams — the Cothi, the Camddwr, the Doethiu — but 
these are through restricted and uninhabited ni vines. Mynydd 
Mallaen, the southernmost projection of this range, is a huge bulk 



united to the main mountain system by a slight connecting ridgo, 
between the gorge of the Gothi and a tributary of the Towy. North 
of • this extends the territory of Caio over barren wilderness, only fit 
for sheep and ponies to graze on. In this parish there is a farm 
which bears the name "Llundain-fechan *' — Small London. The 
little stream passing through the farm yard is also known as tho 
Thames. This name was probably givtn to the place in ridicule 
about the beginning of last century, long before the advent of rail- 
ways, when it was the custom co drive all cattle purchased in South 
Wales for the English markets on foot all the way — but the catklo 
were shod before proceeding far — not only to the Midlands, but also 
to Kent and the Eastern Counties. This place is said to have been 
one of the firet halting places on the way from South Cardiganshire, 
where the cattle grazed, and the men rested for the night as best they 
could, the swell cattle dealer or boss being sometimes accommodated 
with a bed, but mostly on the big settle in the kitchen, and his hench- 
men in the straw or hay in the out-buildings, which, even to this day, 
is called Petticot Lane. Probably the cattle dealer would not always 
rest here, but go on to arrange for having the cattle shod. During 
the year 1849 pestilence of cholera swept thousands away in a few 
weeks, in almost every parish in South Wales, and by the Divine blessings 
which attended the awful visitation, many in this parish were brought 
to think of their ways. The chapels were overcrowded ; hundreds 
joined the various churches, some remained faithful members to the 
end ; others relapsed to their former ways after the storm had passed. 

The Name Caio. — Regarding the name of Caio we shall not 
assume any dictatorial position, but merely record what we find. The 
proper name of the parish is Oynwyl-Gaio or Conwil-Gaio. First we 
find the name given as Gaer-Gaio, then as Kenwell-Gayo, Cynwyl- 
Gafco ; then as Cynwil-Gaio, Counwellgaio, Comvile Gayo, and 
Oonwil-Criio or Caeo. In Bishop Baldwin's "Tour through Wales" 
(1188), it is Gaoi. Place names ending in o. eo and io, are always 
suggestive of a Roman origin, and the name Caio or Caeu is of 
Roman derivation. Llywarch Hen, in one of his poems, describes a 
wing of Cadwallon*s army storming the walls of the town of Caeo. 
*' Several places in Cnrmarthenshire and its vicinity appear from their 
names to have been anciently productive of gold, such as y Gelli Aur, 
or the Golden Grove, Melin yr Aur, or the Golden Mill, Troed yr Aur, 
or the foot of the Golden Hills, and several others. Cynwyl Gaio is 
represented a^ having been a Roman station for many years, and ^e 
Roman troops, while posted there, were employed, it has been 
imagined, in extracting gold from the mines discovered in the adjacent 
hills. The name implies (from cyn fiirstand gwyl-gwylia, to watch or 
be ^'igilant) that it was the post occupied by the advance guard of the 
Britons, was stationed at Cynwyl Elfed, the advance post of Elfed, a 
place situated a few miles to the southward of Caio." (Williasns* 
Essays). That Cynwyl Elfed was considered by the Britons as an 
important station, may be demonstrated from the fragjients i 
oxtant of the words of Llywarch Hen: — 

" The trees have put on the gay covering of summer 
Let the wrath of slaughter hasten quickly, led by fate 
Let us be guided onward to the plains of Elfed." 



8 



Several bricks have been dug up in the vicinity of Caio, with tho 
initialH of Roman names inscribed on them, and tradition asserts tjiat 
the number of Roman brick edifices, as to bear the denomination of 
** Y Dref Goch ya Neheubarth," or the Red Town in South Wales. 
In Bishop Baldwin's "Tour in Wales," Vol. 2, 37, we find, " In th« 
reigpn of King Henry I., Gruffyah, son of Rhys ap Theodor, held 
under the King one comot, namely, the fourth part of the cantred of 
Gaoo, in the Cantref Mawr, which, in title and dignity, was esteemed 
by the southern part of Wales called Deheuburth." (This Cantref, 
which now bears the name Caeo, is placed according to the ancient 
divisions of Wales, in the Cantref Bychan, and not in the Cantref 
Mawr. "A village between Lampeter, in Cardiganshire, aud Llan- 
dovery, in Carmarthenshire, still bears the name of Cynwil Caeo, and 
from the picturesque situation, and remains of its min'3s, which were 
probably worked by the Romans, deserves the notice of the curious 
traveller.*') The Red Town of the South was built of thin red bricks, 
and the ploughshare has been known to turn up some specimens of burnt 
clay that would seem to confirm the theory. The parish is known as 
Cynwyl Caio. The name on the Ordnance Ma]) is ('onwil-Caio, for 
short it goes as Caio also Cayo ; the English name is '* Cainstown.** 
From an old map published in 1610, of " Caermarthen, both Shire 
and Towne," the village of Caio is described as *' Conwelg^io,*' and 
the district as "Cayo Hundred." Now it is spelt Caio and Cayo, and 
the parish as Conwilgaio. 

In Pope Nicholas IV. 
(12*8-1291) "Taxatis 
Ecclesiastica," we find 
of Cynwil Gaio: — 
"Meneven's Dioc." 
Taxacis Archidiaconatus 
de Kermerdyn, Decan- 
atus de Strattewy, Eccl* 
id do Kenwcll C'ayo cu 
Capella, £i;i 6s. 8d. 

In the charter of 
»'Tallev Abbey," A.D. 
1331, we find that "The 
church of Saint Cynwil, 
with the chapels of 

Llansadwrn and Llanwrda, and Pistillsawyl and Llanypumsant, and 
others to the same (church) belonging, kv.. At Cynwil is the parish 
church of Cynwil Gaio, and it shows that this church was appro- 
priated to the Abbey. The vicarage of Cynwil-Gaio is now in the 
patronage of the Crown, now called Pumpsaint, and was anciently 
a chapel of ease to Cynwil-Gaio ; but there are now no remain* 
of any such. 

Confirmation Charter.— in King Edward III.'s reign 
(1327-1377), gifts of lands, &c., becpieathod to Talley Abbey, we find 
amongst others that ♦♦ the parcel of land at Crugybar, Cynwil, 
Cilmaren, and the parcel of land with the meadow between the two 
jitreams below Cynwil Church, and above the same church betwooR 




Caio Cm u(h. 



9 

two streams. Llanddewicrwys, Cilmaren, is the name of a grange now 
forming part of the manor of Talley. This grange is situate in the 
parish of Cynwil Gaio, and from the description given of its 
"boundaries in an old presentment (1 9th April, 1633), it formerly com- 
prised several farms that have now become freehold ; which is, indeed, 
the case to a very large extent in all the granges of the manor ; but it 
now only comprises in the lands Maes Twynog, Pencilmaren and 
CSaeau'r Abad, the last-named forming part of the farm of Maesglas. 

Llanddewicrwys. — Llanycrwys, the parish adjoining Caio, 
north-west. In the said presentment is given the following descrip- 
tion of the extent and boundaries of the grange of Llanycrwys. 
** Item : They say that the said grange of Llawnycrwys doth extend 
to the lordship of KtMlan. and the said lordship of Caio, and the 
forest of Penneint, and the uiuiis, bounds and circuit thereof, are as 
followeth ; and they do begin .-it a place there called Abernant Rhyd 
yr Odyn, on a river called T\vn-.h, and from thence along the said 
brook called Nantrhydyrodyn, backwards, until a ford upon the same, 
called Rhydyrodyn, and froic tlience following the meres and bounds 
between that tenement called Talyr Esceir, or a tenement there called 
Tyr y weyn, unto the next usual way there, called Y Fordd Vawr, 
and from thence along the same way still until a place called Aber yr 
Pant Gweyn, along the meres and laounds set between Tir Lleethry 
Jevan Phellippo, and Tir Rhose-y-Bedw, unto a brook called 
Gorddogwy, and from thence along the said biook, backwards, unto 
Y Lan Las, kc, &c., and back at a place called Pwll y Badell, over 
the river Twrch, and along the said river unto Abernant yr Odyn." 

In Rees's ''Welsh Saints," we find a list of churches and 
chapels. The names at the head of each group are those of parent 
churches, or such as are not known to have been cha])els, and the 
names printed in italic the same is extinct or in ruins. The name of 
the patron saint is placed after that of the edifice : — Cynwyl Gaio, 
Cynwyl ; Llansawel, Sawyl ; Llansadwrn, Sadwrn ; Pttinpsainty 
Celpnin, Ceitho, Gwyn Gwynno and Gwynooro ; Maesllan-wi'thwl^ 
Gwrthwl; Henllan or Bryneglwys ; Cwit-y-Cadno. 

Cynwyl, a brother of Deiniol, appears also to have lived under 
the protection of St. David, and has been deemed the founder of 
Cynwyl Gaio. Another trace of this family may be found in the 
name of Llansawel, a chapel subordinate to Cynwyl Gaio, which is 
dedicated to Sawyl, the uncle of Deiniol. The churches of Cynwyl 
Elfed, (Carmarthenshire, and Aberporth, Cardiganshire, have likewise 
been attributed to Cynwyl. And according to Ecton, he is the patron 
saint of Penrhos, a chapel under Abererch, Carnarvonshire. He 
assisted in the establishment of the monastry of Bangor Iscoed, and 
his wade or saints' day is April 30th. (Rees's "Welsh Saints.") 

In 1850, Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart., states that: — Cayo (St. 
Cynwyl) Church is rather a large rough church, consisting of 
two equal aisles and a west tower. The whole is very coarse, of 
Welsh character, and extremely solid, and what there is of architec- 
tural style is late and poor Third Perpendicular. The arcade dividing 
tho aisles has four very rude pointed arches, with square piers of solid 
walls, having neither mouldings nor imposts. The eastern window is 



10 



pointed, of throe lights, and poor Third Perpendicular tracery ; the 
others square-headed, of two and three lights, some labelled, and 
some not. The roof is coved, and in a very bad order, admitting the 
weather. The tower is extremely strong and solid ; its arch to the 
nave is partly walled. The tower is embattled, without strings of 
division, and the masonry at the base spreads outwards. The belfry 
windows double, each obtuseheaded, but on the north single. At the 
north-east is a square turret, the west door plain, and over it is a 
square-headed two-light window. The south door is labelled. The 
font is a small basin set in a recess on the south wall within the 
tower ; a singular arrangement. The interior is out of repair ; the 
tower vaulted within. " Arch. Cambrensis. 

The church was restored during the time the Rev. H. Jones 
Da^'is was Yicar, and was re-opened on the 14th April, 1858 ; and in 
1891, when the Rev. Charles Chidlow, M.A., was Vicar, at a cost of 
£1,760. There are 300 sittings. It is believed to have been built 
between the 13th and 15th century. 

Church Plate. — The old paten and chalice are small, but of 
solid silver, and dates from 1613. The chalice has these words 
inscribed: "This is the Com union Cupp of the parish of Conwil- 
gayo, 1613." 

There are several (inscribed) monuments in the church and one 
in the porch. 

Holy Water. — inserted in the wall on the right side of the 
entrance, in the porch, is the stoup or benitier for holding the holy 
water, in which the worshippers dipped their lingers and cross- 
marked their foreheads before entering the chiuvh. An old saying is 
that there was a well or spring which kept this always well sujDplied 
with water. 

Vicars. — lam under great obligation to T. W. Barker, Esq., of 
the Diocesan registry, Carmarthen, for the following copy of his list 
of the Incumbents of Conwil Gaio : — 

Date of 
Institution. 

1401 

1487. Feb. 26 

1488, Jan. 
1517, Jan. 
1554, Aug. 29 

1560, June 

1726, May 7 
1762, June 22 
1784, Sept. 14 
1820, June 2 



Namk. 
David Glyne 
David ap Jenu (r) . . 
John ap Liu 
Morgan David 

David Morgan 
David, Abbot, Tallev 
David Liu 
Hugh Morgan 
Thomas Jilorgan 
William Price 
liowis Evans 
Leyson Lewis 
Klie/er Williams 
William Morgan 



How Vacant. 
On death of David (Jiyno 

On death of John ap Liu 

(Llewellyn r) 
On resignation of M. David 
On death of blaster ^Morgan 

On resignation of H. Morgan 

On (loath of William Price 
i)n death of Lewis I^vans 
On death of Leyson Lewis 
On death of Eliezer Williams 



11 

Date op • 

Institution. Name. How Vacant. 

1838, July 2 . . David Prytherch . . On death of last incumbent 
1846, Aug. 6 . . George Howell . . On death of David Prytherch 
1851, June 25 . . Henrj^ Jones Davis. . On cession of George Howell 

to Llangattock, Brecon 
1873, Dec. 9 . . Charles Chidlow . . On death of iHy. Jones Davis 
1898, Jan. i4 .. Henry Lloyd .. On cession of Charles Chidlow 

to Llawhaden, Pern. 



Ppe^i^topie Kemain?. 



OgrOfaU. — The Ogofau mines are in this parish, on the Dolau 
Cothi Estate, on the banks of the Cothi. A remarkable monument of 
the enterprise and perseverance of a former race. The appearance of 
the valley, at the entrance of the Ogofau, is extremely singular, and 
seems greatly to favour the hypothesis that these hills did contain a 
goM mine, and that the Romans were employe I in pursuing it. It is 
a deep ravine of an irregular form and of unequal breadth, with the 
fragments of a huge rock standing nearly in the centre, resembling 
the ruins of a battered tower. That the Romans were long employed 
here in their researches after the richer metals, may be inferred from 
circumstances. The mai'ks of their tools have been observed in 
various places on the rocks, and Roman characters have been dis- 
covered, which are supposed to have been intended for the initials of 
the names of that renowned people. A design seems to have been 
formed, at some remote period, of excavating the whole mountain, 
,and, to a considerable extent, the project seems to have been carried 
into execution. Long passages have been dug, huge pillars framed, 
and spacious chambers scooped in the rocks. The rivulet that now 
murmurs through the mines is supposed to have been formerly diverted 
into it by the miners. Sir Josei)h Banks jind several other persons 
critically examined the mines, and were of opinion that it must have 
been a gold mine in days of yore. Sir R. Murchison states: "The 
rock of Ogofau is a quartzose grit and sandstone, with very slight 



12 

appearance of slaty clearage, and in parts exhibiting the rippled sur- 
faces of bedding. The strike is from N.E. to S.W., and the beds dip 
for the most part N.W., as seen in the chief building stone quarries 
of Clochty. Numerous veins of white crystallised quartz containing 
abundantly crystallised iron pyrites, traverse the beds both at right 
angles and obliquely to the strike." (Silurian System, p 368). 

Mr. Smyth, M.A., states: — ** The majority of the workings, 
extending to a considerable depth for some acres over the side of the 
hill, are open to the day, or worked as usual in the early days of 
mining, like a quarry, and the rock through which the lodes run, a 
portion of the lower Silurian rocks, is in many cases exposed, and 
exhibits beds much contorted and broken, though having a general 
tendency to dip northward. Here and there a sort of cave has been 
opened on some of the quartz veins, and in some cases has been 
pushed on as a gallery, of the dimensions of the i)resent day, viz. : — 
li or 7 feet high, and 5 or 6 feet wide, and among these, two of the 
most remarkable are kept clear by Mr. Johnes. and, being easily 
accessible, allow of close examination. Subsequently follows a parallel 
between the Gogovau and the extraordinary hill called Ostate, at 
Verespatal, in Transylvannia, within the confines of Dacia Uterior, 
where the grand arches and roomy tunnels, wrought in hard sand- 
stone and porphyry, by that enter])rising people, the Ivomans, throw 
into the shade the puny works of their followers, and prove that the 
art of extracting gold from quartz, even when invisible to the njiked 
eye, was then understood. Mr. Smyth discovered, however, a speci- 
men of free gold in the quartz of one of the lodes, and thus cor- 
roborated the evidence which tended to prove that the mines were 
worked for gold. (Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain and of the Museum of Economic Geology, I., page 480). 

The specimen of gold from Ogofau, in ^luseum of Practical 
Geology, is labelled with the initials of Sir Henry l)e la Beeche. 
Those who examine the quartz will observe two remarkable indi(;ations 
of its being auriferous, 1st as to colour, it has often "the stain of 
rusty brown, from the protoxide of iron " indicative of gold ; 2nd, 
as to structure, many specimens have "the drury cavities and elon- 
gated openings," together with the small rounded grains which denote 
the presence of the precious metal when concentrated from th(^ sur- 
rounding mass. 

(AkemiJin's Index, p 59). Mr. Thomas Parker made an inspec- 
tion of Ogofau mines on a Sunday in 1833, and he says : — " Lead, I 
incline to think, was the substance Fought after, but from the un- 
connected irregularity of the works, one i)art having scarce any refer- 
ence to another, it must be considered as a bunching mine, which in 
some degree accounts for the wideness of the excavations, and that, so 
soon as one bunch or mass of ore was cleared away they broke the 
ground in all directions in pursuit of another, finding no string or 
metallic leader, as in more regular mines, to guide their course." 

From Bishop Baldwin's "Tour through Wales." In the year 
1188 (mclxxxviii) he passed through Caoi (Caio) "where there were 
some extensive mines, and probably worked by the Ixomans ; but 
their history seems little known." 




13 

Puinpsa.illt Stone. — At the Ogofau lies a stone of uncommon 
magnitude, 3 feet 6 inches high, 2 feet 1 inch wide, the surface of 
which appears excavated in five different 
places at regular distances. The cavities 
are of no great depth, and are nearly of a 
circular form. The stone is shaped like a 
hasalt column, to which is attached the 
curious legend of The l^'ive Sleepers — 
Gwyn, Gwynno, Gwynnoro, Celynin and 
Ceitho. Five juvenile saints, so runs the 
fable, on their pilgrimage to the shrine of 
»St. David, emaciated with hunger and 
exhausted with fatigue, here reclined them- 
selves to rest, and reposed their weary heads 
on this pillow. Their eyes were soon 
closed by the ]»o\verful hand (»f sleep, and 
they were no longer able to resist, by the 
force of prayer, the artifices of their 
foes. A great storm arose, thes torrents 
of rain were soon congealed into enormous hailstones, which, by the 
force of wind, were driven with so much violence on the heads of the 
weary pilgrims as to affix them to their pillows, and the vestiges they 
left are still discemable. In an enchanting spot, embosomed in a 
romantic vale, on the opposite banks of the river Gothic, a church was 
erected to the memory of the memory of the sleeping pilgrims, called 
Llan Pum Saint, or the Church of the Five Saints, but the sacred 
building hRS been suffered to fall in ruins, and no trace of it now 
remains. Some seem to sky that on the abandonment of the Ogofau 
mines this Ktone may have been erected as a memorial, like Gonwyl's 
Cross to Cynwyl. Others state that the hollows on its sides may have 
been to receive lifters with heavy iron heads for pounding. Hence 
perhaps, the legend from the five cavities in the stone one might infer 
the exist9nce of five sleepers. The five saints Ceitho, Gwyn, Gwynno, 
Gwynnoro and Celynin, are said to have been born at one birth, and 
to have all led a religious life, the sons of C-ynyr Varodrwch ab 
Gwron ab Cunt^dda, who lived at Cynwyl Gaio. They flourished in 
the 6th century, and Ceitho founded the church of Llangeitho, Car 
diganshire, where he is commemorated on the oth of August. The 
caverns in the legend were the Ogofau, and the stone is regarded by 
Mr. H. Henry Knight as having been a sort of mortar for crushing 
the ore. The hollows on its sides may have been to receive the lifters 
with heavy iron heads for pounding. The water-course which 
worked the machinery at the Ogofau gold mines would carry the 
pounded ore into troughs through gratings below. The pass or spout 
leading the rough ore into the knocking or stamping mill was sup- 
ported by two oblique rafters or boards called in carpentry "sleepers." 
Hence, perhaps, the legend. From the five cavities in the stone we 
may infer the existence of five sleepers. The appropriation of the 
stone and the adaptation of the legend would not be a very difficult 
process, On the abandonment of the mines, and the subsequent 
ignorance of their proper use, it may have been erected as a pointed 
memoi-ial of the five saints. Lewis Glyn Cothi, gives their names in 



14 

the following stanzas, which have a further interest as throwing light 
on the popular legends of the locality : - - 

Mair o'r VjTiachlawg Vanawg* a vyn 

Groesi holl Gaio, a'i bro a'i bryn ; 

Dewi o Llan y Crwysf vlodewyn Caio, 

Ei rhoi hi iso val glan rhosyn. 

SawylJ a ChjTiwyll§ gwench ucho hyd 
A'i Pumpsaint hefyd, rhag cryd neu gryn;| ; 

Ceitho'n cloi yno Chynyn dros Gaio, 
Hefyd G^^^laro, Gwynio, a Gwj-n. 

The Five Saints. — Part of the Ogofau is a height, hardly a 
mountain, that has been scooped out like a volcanic crater by the 
Romans during their occupation, something like an amphitheatre of 
rock. In this hollow or hasin it is said that the five saints, the sons of 
Cynyr of the family of Cunedda, had retired in a thunderstorm for 
shelter. They had penetrated into the mine and had lost their way, 
and taking a stone for a bolster had laid their heads on it and fallen 
asleep. And there they would remain in peaceful slumber till the 
return of King Arthur, or till a truly apostolic prelate should occupy 
the throne of 8t. David. An inquisitive woman nam 3d Gwen, who 
sought to spy on the saintly brothers in their long sleep, was punished 
by losing her way in the passages of the mine. She, likewise, 
remained in an undying condition, but was suffered to emerge in storm 
and rain, and in the night, when her vaporous form might be seen 
about the old Ogofau, and her sobs and moans wtjre heard and 
frightened many. Here stands a rock known as Gwen's Belfry. 

It has been reported more than once that the Ogofau Ghost has 
been seen and heard, dressed all in white, and moving about amongst 
the mines ; but we never hear of her putting in an appearance there 
now as of yore. Another legend is that one of these saints appears to 
have a s])ecial commemoration, but under a female appelative in 
"Ffynon" and " Clochdy Gwenno," the latter an isolated rock stand- 
ing up in the midst of the great gold excavations, and marking their 
depth in that particular place. The well had, in the good old times, 
a high reputation for healing virtues, and that " on an unfortunate day, 
Gweno was induced to explore the recesses of the cavern beyond a 
frowning rock, which had always been the prescribed limit to the 
progress of the bathers. She passed beneath it and was no more seen. 
She had been seized by some superhuman power, as a warning to 
others not to invade those mysterous 'penetralia,' and still on stormy 
nights, when the moon is full, the spirit of Gweno is seen to hover 
over the crag like a wreath of mist." 

Althougli the actual position of Ffynon Gwenno has been lost 
sight of, there are local features which give the legend a special 
significance. A little below the rock is a bubbling strejim, which 
comes through one of the Roman levels, suddenly disappenrs into the 

*Talley Abbey, to which Caio was appropriate. fLlanycrwys 
Church, dedicated to St. David, another appropriation. iSawyl- 
Llansawel, another, and still held with Caio. § The patron saint of 
Caio, hence Cynwil Gaio. || Ague and palsy were diseases h(a-e de- 
picted. 



15 

ground and is entirely lost sight of, so that one can well understand 
the imagery of its spirit being wafted up in the mist to a lovely rook 
which, from one particular spot on the opposite side of the dingle, 
may be seen to bear the unmistakeable likeness of a human face." 

" Dos di cyn y bore, 
Oddi yma i Ynysborde, 
D'wed di wrth Gwenwgan 
Pan farw Gwenllian.*' 

At the Ogofau is a well of remarkably cold water issuing from a 
rock, and considered formerly as infallibly efficacious in rheumatic 
complaints. 

Stone Age. — '* On the hill at Craig Twrch it is supposed the 
Romans had their station. In 1879 this station was carefully 
examined. It is within a few yards of the road fi-om Llandovery and 
Caio to Llanio (Loventum). In form it is an oblong, 36 yards in 
length by 28 yards in breadth ; and its four entrances are still plainly 
visible, though the enclosing bank is being gradually tilled away. 
On the slope of Esgair Fraith on the northern face of Craig Twrch, 
marked on the Ordnance Map as "PwU-baw," but locally known as 
**Pillbo,*' outlines are visible of the escarpment of which forms a 
natural terrace of defence. This embankment would appear to have 
been made in connection with the remarkable series of stone circles 
which are here. It may have been intended either to dam up the 
water for the service of the population that once occupied them, or to 
supply a means of escape in case of a sudden raid by the enemy. 
Possibly, too, the skilled eye of a Phene might detect in its outline an 
indication of early serpent worship. 

Esgair Fraith, which is a spur, or rather a shoulder, of Craig 
Twrch, rises from a swamp, and commands a magnificent sweep of the 
county of Cardigan, stretching from the Prescelly Hill, in Pembroke- 
shire along Aberayron and Llanrhvstyd ranges to l*linlimmoii on the 
N.E. 

The opposite side of the mountain being a steep precipice, and 
the ridge not well adapted for occupation, this (the N.W.) is bright, 
sunny, and commanding a very Paradise of the wild and free. Here 
the face of the slope is covered with stones arranged with unmistak- 
able method, and although quantities lie about in utter confusion, yet 
the larger stones remain in position forming the outlines of circles, 
polypous, and squares. Along the top of the hill two parallel plat- 
forms appear to run ; and these are covered with the debris of huts, 
and in one or two places the remains apparently of cromlech*. 

Further on a curious outcrop of the native rock — a section of red 
sandstone — rises up in fissured and furrowed walls 10 to lo feet high, 
and has received the appropriate name C'errig Cestyll (Castle Stones). 
This would be the last and almost impregnable standpoint of the 
defenders, protected as it is on almost all sides by such natural 
barriers as precipices, morasses, and rocky tenaces. At the base of 
the rock lie the scattered remains of a cairn. Cairns are very 
numerous upon the hill, and fu-ther west are si'veral conspicuous 
monoliths, such as the Hirfaen and the Byrfaen. The highest and 



16 

most important of the cairns is that named ** Y Garn Fawr,'* a great 
■ stone mound raised on the highest point of Craig Twrch. The base 
of the cairn appears to have measured 30 feet in diameter or, including 
the dyke, a diametwr of 52 feet. At the base of the slope, on the 
western side of Cerrig Cestyll, is a group of no less than five cairns, 
of which only the bases now remain. 

Carreg y Bwgi (Goblin's Stone) is further t > the west, and close 
to the line of the Roman road. It is surrounded by a ditch, within 
which lies the large stone, from which it takes its name. This now 
lies nearly flat, but once stood erect, or was only the large capstone of 
a cromlech, of which the supporters have been lemoved, it is im- 
possible to say which. The tradition which attributes all kinds of 
supernatural vengeance upon the rash disturbers of this goblin's 
precincts has the merit of tlie additional confirmation of its accuracy, 
whioh can be rendered in this inst mce by the unfortunate explorers, 
who carried on their work through a pitiless drenching storm. (In 
1879). 

The bairn cidled Garn Fawr, to the north-west of Brynarau, is a 
large stone platform of about 50 feet diameter, with a raised cairn in 
the centre, in which it is possible the cist may be found undisturbed, 
although the surrounding portion has been carted away. A smaller 
one of 25 feet diameter, a little to the south, has been ahnost entirely 
carried away, and near it is an eliptic circle about 45 feet by 36 feet at 
the greatest length and breadth, formed of a stone rampart 6 feet in 
width. There is a very interesting feature of another kind on the 
hill of Brynglas between the ravines of Cwm Pysgottwr Fach and 
Cwm Pysgottwr Fawr. The hill rises in a portion of its line to a 
conical form, and here the corona is curiously rigid, and looks as if a 
furrow had been drawn at right angles across the apex, and then down 
on each side of it other furrows made broad at the middle, and 
gradually narrowing as they came near the central one, until at last 
they seem to join each other, and be carried continuously around the 
hill-top in an enlarging circle. It is inferred that the remains of 
Brv'nglas belong to a very earlier period, and we are led to ask whether 
they may not have been the work of the builders of the adjacent 
cairns, and of the occupants of the hut dwellings on Craig Twrch. 
The entire absence of metal, and, indeed, of any implements what- 
ever, removes them at once back beyond the range cf history, and can 
only be assigned to the "Stone Age." We see, indeed, that they 
occupied the hill-tops and the mountain plateaux, and they must have 
subsisted chiefly on hunting the wild animals that roamed the thick 
forests and the tangled brushwood. They lived in communities, and 
marked out the outline of their hutB with upright stones, within which 
they built their wigwams, formed of the leafy branches of the trees 
that grew so plentifully in that age of almost universal forest. They 
buried their (lead in stone cists, and are thc-refore, presumably, to bo 
assigned to the Brachy family. These cists are, in some instances at 
least, surrounded with a wjill, and always covered over with either a 
cairn of stones or a mound of earth. To the same people we may 
attribute the great monoliths, or "melni hirion," of which so many 
are found upon the Craig Twrch range, and some ol which, like 
Carreg y Bwgi, are enclosed by a ditch." (Arch. Cam. Vol. X)." 



17 




Pwll Dffern.— "ThePit of Hell," or " the bottomless pool in 
the Cothi River." Several miles above the Ogofau, and Ixyond 
Cwrt-y-Cadno, are this 
time seen the remains 
of a mole, constructed 
to confine the stream, 
and to divert its coui'se. 
The number and in- 
equality of the hills, 
the cataracts rushing 
from them during 
violent showers, must 
often have been the 
means of pro\-ing the 
strength of the dyke. 
The water of the river 
falls over a great 
height, and seethes and 
foams after descending 

in the basin of the i-ock beneath. It is one of the finest sights in 
Wales, and is certainly situated in one of the mcst romantic spots. 
Some marks of it still appeas, and serve to give some ide i of the 
violence with which the current, thus opposed in its course, rushed 
over its banks. The pool formed by the waterfall, below the dam, and 
the duskv appearance of the stream denominated by the peasants 
«' Pwll Uffem "—the Pit of Hell. 

A celebrated antiquary and natural, who lately visited this 
country to investigate these remains of Roman industry, attempted to 
cross the stream a little above the mole, and ha^'ing no other 
expedient, mounted on the back of one of his guides. The poor 
fellow, after tottering a few steps under his load, fell with him in the 
middle of the river. 'Ihey were both saved by a peasant who 
accompanied them, and were conveyed to the opposite bank without 
any further accident. The country people, with their usual vivacity 
and love of the ridiculous, diverted themselves with this accident, and 
represented it as a concerted plan between the guide and his com- 
panion, that the learned traveller should be thrown into the stream by 
one of them, and rescued from danger by the o+her, concluding, no 
doubt, that they would be able to obtain from his fears the reward 
which they could not expect from his liberality ; or recover salvage, as 
thoy expressed it, and divide the spoil. As some of them are so far 
favoured with the gifts of poetry as to be able, on an emergency, to 
produce an impromptu, several pennillion and engljTiion, or Welsh 
epigrams, were composed on the occasion. In some of them the in- 
genious antiquary was compared to a milch cow withholding her milk, 
in order to obtain which it becomes neceesary to moisten the udder. 
One of these effusions, as it may serve to show the humour of some of 
our countrj'men, shall be inserted here — 

Wyr ; dyma frodyr hyfrydion, gwalchod 
Yn gwlychu marchogion ; 
Rhoi gwr main o Lundain Ion, 
O rhyf edd ; yn yr afon ; 



18 

Godrwyr yw y gwyr heb gil, oo pwyllo 

Os pallu wna'r armel, 

Gwlych y deth, y gwalch uchel, 

O llaith ddwrn ; a'r Uaeth a ddel. 

^Which has been thus translated : 

What blundoi-ing guides, how ill they tread, 
To roll in mud so clear a head, 
To plunge, — who starts not at the sight, 
In streams like these, so great a knight : 
Strange guides, for verse as strange a theme, 
To guide a stranger to a stream, 
Thus on their backs a man to bear 
Into the flood, then drop him there ; 
Who dropp'd him had their views no (Joubt, 
As well as those who helped him out ; 
Dr^'-shod he hardly praj's the swain, 
But dipp'd he pays as well again. 
Thus by sly milk-maids we are told. 
That dry teats oft the milk withhold ; 
But if you wet them, well you know, 
The silver stream profusely flow. 

Another — 

A great man once, agreed his guide. 

Across a rapid stream to ride ; 

But as the fee he paid was small, 

Admit the flood he let him fall ! 

*' You get in cheaply," quoth the tou*, 

" What will you give to get you out." 

Melln-y-Milwyr.— Soldiers' Mill.— On the banks of the new- 
formed canal, mills and other useful engines were erected, which kept 
in motion by the agency of the water originally drawn from the river 
(Cothi at Pwll Uffem). The remains of one of them, called Melin 
Milwyr, is still shown by the peasants in that neighbourhood. From 
the supposed etymology of the na.ne, they contend that a thousand men 
were in those times engaged to assist at the Mill, and contribute to the 
mechanical part of the operation, a contruction which, though not 
justified by the real import of the word, manifests their vast idea of the 
ancient magnificence of the works, and of the extensive scale on which 
they are considered. — (Williams' English Wouks). 

The traces of an aqu^'duct are observed near this spot. The river 
was raised with immense labour, and brought over the highest hills 
for many miles, and poured over the excamated mountain, where they 
•dug for ore, in order to wash away the dross in the manner described 
by Pliny. It is hardly creditable that the Cothi, could be thus raised 
and carried so prodigious a distance over steep precipices, but the 
vestiges of the work are still visible. 



19 

Penlanwen. — Within the circuit of the working;8 of Ogofau. on 
a bank called Penlanwen stands a conspicuous mound, but whether 
military or sepulchral is uncertain. From its position, however, 
standing as it does just above the line of the Roman Road, and com- 
manding a view not only some distance along its course, Sut also into 
several converging valleys, it would serve admirably as an out-look 
station, and for giving timely notice of danger to the soldiers quartered 
in the valley, and those working in the mines. As ;i portion of one 
side has slipped down into a large open working, it is manifest that it 
is of earlier c(»n8truction than that portion, at least of the mines, and 
from its circular form it is concluded that it is British rather than 
Roman. 

Maes-Neuadd, on the out-skirts of the village of Caio, implies 
by its name that it has marked the situation of something greater than 
a quiet country homestead. A Roman town had its towers and turreted 
walls, and it alho had its wall or place, where the chief official lived. 
Can this "neuadd" not be some vestige of a Roman Governor*' 
palace 'r It would be surrounded by open space, and this fact would 
explain the " Maes." 

Crugiau'r LadiS. — On the mountain above the village of 

Caio, two peculiar heaps of stone 

known as Crugiau'r Ladis. Two 

ladies from London were exiled 

from their homes, and lived in this 

district. The change of town life 

to country was so great, that they 

set to work and gathered heaps of 

stone together to build a Babel 

heavenward, from the top of which 

they could see London from the 

land of exile, so runs thi legend. 

The heaps are very large, and probably mark the resting place of some 

illustrious dead. 

Roman Villa.— in a field near Dolau Cothi is the site of what 
beems to have been a Roman Villa. Traces of two rooms only have 
yet been uncovered. Beneath the floor of one are the remains of a 
subterraneous passage. At present only the foundation wall of two 
rooms, with a small portion of mosaic pavement are visible. Some hot- 
air pipes, bricks, samian ware, glass, bones, oyster shells, &c., were 
removed from here to Dolau (othi. 

Hen Llan. — On the road to Llanddewi-Breti, at a place called 
Hen Llan in this parish, is a Roman causeway called by the inhabitants 
8arn Helen, the usual appellation in the principality for Roman roads 
in honour of Helena, the mother of the Emperor Constantino the Great, 
whom they represent as a native of Wales. At Bwleh-Genau Sam is 
" The opening to the Sarn." 

In Bishop Baldwin's tour through Wales we find, ** After leaving 
Llanycrwys Church, which they left a little to the right, keeping, I 
think, as nearly as possible on the track of the old road, which we 




20 



afterwards distinguished in two places near the little river Twrch in 
the valley, and where the natives knew it by the old name of Sarn 
Helen. From this place we passed by Caoi." Little was known 
further of the progress of the causeway towards Llandovery. 

The Sarn Helen is a paved Roman British road. In this parish 
there is a place called Samau. 

Interesting Antiquities at Dolau Cothy.— * A stone Celt 

and some spindle whorls, a saxon arrow-head found in the swamps near 
Rhyd-y-saeson, a hammer found under 40 feet of debris in the Ogofau, 
supposed to be Roman, 
with a fragment of its 
wooden handle impreg- 
nated with iron, an 
unbaked vessel in the 
shttpe of a saucer, found 
near Pumpsaint Gate, 
perhaps a firing pot for 
washing gold-dust. A 
gold chain-fibula found in 
Cae-Garreg Aur. under 
the wood in Penlan Dolau, 
also a small object of gold, 
shaped like a wheel, and 
probably pait of a buckle, 
found in the same field in 
which the chain was turned 
up by a plough. 

Roman intaglio, an 
onyx seal, cemented to a 

rough stone to fix in for cutting, and in an unfinished state, supposed 
to represent '*Meleager," fixed in cement for the purpose of engraving, 
was found in the upper surface of a course, common pebble dug out 
of a gravel pit for road material near Pumpsaint, on the probable site 
of the forementioned road, near the spot where was discovered a atone, 
apparently a lineal measure, inscribed P.C.X.X'V. 

A double handled sword found in the river Cothi near Rhyd-odin. 

A pendant relic from Talley Abbey, oval in form, and about 4 
inches in its greatest length, consisting of a Maltese Cross carved in 
ivory ha^ing in its centre a small medallion of the crucifixion, and 
contained within a case of silver and glass. It was brought from Talley 
Abbey at the time of its dissolution, 1772, together with the altar- 
piece of the Church. Ornaments made after early British examples 
from gold, found in the Ogofau during workings in 1870. Hot-air 
pipes with peculiar perforations, a stone palette with colour still 
adhering to it, bricks, samian ware, glass, bones, oyster shells, and a 
(dnerary urn containing burnt bones, some of these were removed from 
the remains of the supposed " Roman Villa.*' Numerous coins found 
at Cayo in 1726, are said to have been chiefly those of Gallienus, 
Salonina and the Thirty Tyrants. 

A beautiful torques was ploughed up in a common field, the 
extremity of which was adorned with a curious figure of a serpent of 
the same metal." 



r 


m 




•^w 


-<fe^ 


- 


w 


1^ 


1 


* 


L 


^^ 



21 

Stones. — Several interesting inscribed stones are deposited at 
Dolaucothy, which formerly stood at Pant-y-Polion. The most im- 
portant of these stones is the gravestone of Faulinus. In its present 
condition the inscription on this stone is not so perfect as it was in 
Bishop Gibson's time, when the whole was legible as follows : — 

SERVAT VR FIDJEl 
PATRIEQ SEMPER 
AMATOR HIC PAVLIN 
VS lACIT CVLTOR PIENTI 
SIMVS ^QVI 

It will be seen that the inscription is entirely in Roman capital 
^etters, about three inches high, with a tendency to the character 
termed rustic by palaeographers, which is especialiy visible in the 
letter F in the top line. Arch. Cam., 1856: — " A maintainer of the 
faith, and ever a lover of his country, here Paulinus lies, a most pious 
observer of justice." 

Another stone which originally stood at Pant-y-Polion is now at 
Dolaucothy. It is a portion of a Roman-British gravestone, and, like 
the preceding stone, has suffered mutilation since it was examined and 
drawn as it appeared in Gough's Camden II. p. 505. It is there 
given as follows : — 

TALORI 

ADVENTI 

MAQVERGI 

FILIVS 

The letters are more debased in their characters than those of the 
Paulinus inscription. Westwood Arch. Cam. 1856. 

Another stone represents a fragment of a Roman stone inscribed — 
P (Passus) CXXXV 
in good Roman capitals, nearly two inches in height. Arch. Cam. 
1856. 

CaiO Stone is found in the churchyard of Cjmfil Cayo, Car- 
marthenshire, forming the entrance of the west doorway of the 
tower. It is a slab of industrial sehist, and portions have scaled off, 

defacing the most interesting por- ^*-— -^O^^ ;^i, ^ , ^ . 

tions of the inscription. It will be fJlx^NI^ttBt^' 
seen ou referring to the figures of T /|yffSJf^<^' < - ij. 
the Dolaucothy stones that it bears L^i;.* -,. .^1^<^. I'iftn*^ .-, 
a striking similarity to the stone of f^' V**^^^ ' ^^ "^^ ^^ ^ 

Talorus. The name in the top line ^m^.J^lt'-J " jl^ /s-^.-^-*- — 

appears to have commenced with a 

long tailed letter, most probable P or R followed (perhaps with the 

intervention of another letter) by an E, the next curious-shaped 




22 

letter reeembling at first sight an F, but which I rather consider to be 
a G of a very debased form, as it disagrees with the F at the beginning 
of the second line, and that short middle cross bar is very indistinct, 
and may be accidental. The second line is to be read 

FILIVS NV . . . . INTII 

Arch. Cam. 1856, J. 0. Westwood. 

This stone is built in the wall outside on the west side, but at the 
present time there is no doorway to the tower from the churchyard. 
When the Cambrian Archaeological Association visited Caio in 1855, 
the above stone seems to have been in the cill of the west doorway, 
which the Association recommended "should be restored to an erect 
position. It might be fixed against the internal face of the wall of 
the tower." The date of this stone is supposed to be about the 4th 
century. 



kanS. J^olcLing?. 



A Cayo Rental of the time of James I. (1606-1625). 

(Exchequer, Queen's Remembrancer, Ministers' Accounts, 
II., Jas. I. 686, T. G. 7203). 

A Rentall renewed there the xxviij-th daie of 

Apriell, anno regina domini nostri Jacobi, Dei 

CoNiTATis )GrHtia Angliae, Scolial, Francia^ et Hiberniao 

Caumautjien. \ Regis, fidei defensoris &c., videtuct Angliae, 

f Fraunice, et Hibernia' undecimo, et Scotial xlvj-o, 

I by the Oathes of the June. 

PHINCIPALLITAS SOUTH WALLAE. 

Cayo. — William Morgan ap Rudd 3, for one messuage or 
tcni'm(;iite, commonly called Tir y Briwnant, nowe in his 
o\vn(! uccupHcion«- . . . . . . . . vs 

Davi W'il iam, for oue tenemente of landos called Tir Maes 

\loy Issa, nowe in his owne occupacione . . . . xvjd 

Id' n» l)avid, for one parcell of landes, called Gwem yr 

11 lone, now also m his owne occupacione . . • • jd 

♦Ruiii 3 John James for his demeane lanc'es commonly called 

Tir Llandre Griffith . . . . . . . . ijs 

♦Rtidd 3 wo juesume is an old contracted way of writing "Rddderch.*' 



23 

Idem Rudd 3, for one tenemente, called Tir Aberbanw Goed, 

nowe in his owne occupacione . . . . . . xxd 

Rowland Jones, gent., for two tenements, called Tiroedd 
Garos and Keven Garros, nowe in the tenure of Morgan 
Rudd 3 . . . . . . . . . . ijs. viijd 

Lewis ap Richard, for one tenemente called Tir Maes Llan- 

wthwl ubi inhabitat . . . . . . . . xixd 

Morgan William, David Morgan, for one tenemente and for 
one parcell called Tir-y-Cwm Bach Issel and Tir-y- 
Lleithige, nunc in tenura G*ll*im Thomas . . . . iijs. jd 

James ap Rees ap William, gent. , for one tenemente called 

Tir Maes Llanwthwl, nunc in tenura Thomas Bowen . . xvjd 

Tre Conwillgaio, J as. William Be van, vjd ; Rees ap Rydd 3, 
vjd ; Thomas David ap Rees, vjd ; James Richard, vjd ; 
Rees Morganes, vjd. Summa Totalis . . . . ijs. vjd 

Item, touchinge the arian senser, amountinge to ijs. vjd., we 
finde that they be due, to be paid, uppon the inhabitants of the town- 
shipp of Conwillgaio, whose names are nexte above written, which 
muste not decay, for, if ther be but one howse lefte within the same 
townshipp. that bowse is to be charged, and muste paie, the whole. 

The above are a few items taken from a document in the Public 
Record Office by Mr. E. G. Atkinson. Land and house rent were 
cheap in those days. The last items in Tre- Conwillgaio we presume 
were dwelling houses let at sixpence a year. 



Terrier or Rent RolL— Of Peterwell, MiUfield (Maesyfelin), 
etc., estates in the several counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and 
Pembroke. From which we quote the following: — 



Refert^nce to 
Parish of Cayo. 

Farm. 



farms and the names of tenants in 1810, in the 



Dreslwynhelyg 

Garthlwyd 

Gwarallt . . 

Ochor Rhosgoch . . 

Pilbach . . 

Rhosgoch 

Part of Rhosgoch . . 

Maestroyddynfach . . 

Maesytentyr 

Aberbinewydd Mill . 

Glantwrch 

Brynblaenhelog . . 

Berllandowyll 

Maestroyddynfawr \ 

Rhydlydan I 

Bwlchcef n Sarth . . 



Tenant. 

Griff. Thomas 
John Davies 
William John 
David Evan 
David Richards 
William David 
David Thomas 
DaWd Thomas 

Daniel Thomas 

David William 

Da\'id Lloyd 

Thomas Williams 

Evan John 

Thos. Morgan 
Lewis Rees 



Acreage. 

A. R. p. 

151 

198 3 8 

72 

46 1 30 

4 1 8 

148 3 



159 
25 



3 

25 3 17 
32 
58 1 33 
2 8 



94 
136 
157 




3 4 



Rent. 
£ 8. d. 
28 
48 
21 
13 13 

2 5 
12 7 
27 12 
65 
18 18 
21 
21 
30 
27 10 



112 10 
100 



24 

AH the above farms have been sold, and are now owned by 
several landowners. In 1901 the acreage in some cases have altered, 
and the rents in each case is different. 





A. 


R. P. 


£ s. 


d. 


Dreslwynhelyg . . 


160 





50 





Garthlwyd 


178 





.. 62 





Gwarallt 


62 





.. 24 





Ochor lihosgoch . . 


20 





.. 14 





Pilbach 


4 





5 10 





Rhosgoch 


144 


1 


60 





Maestroyddynfach 


146 





.. 130 





Maesjiienty'r 


25 





.. 20 





Abeiinewyd Mill 


36 


2 


.. 48 10 





Glantwrch 


47 


1 30 


41 15 





Brynblaeuhalog . . 


42 


3 


.. 36 





Berllandowyll . . 


93 


3 


34 





Rhydlydan 


217 





55 





BwlchcefnSarth.. 


130 


1 


52 






Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouth- 
shire. — This Commission met at Llansawel, in April, 1894, all the 
Commissioners being present. Lord Carrington, G.C.M.G., Chair- 
man, presided at the first court, and Lord Kenyon at the second court. 
The secretarj'^ to the Commissioners wjis Mr. D. Lleufer Thomas. 
There was a good attendance of the public. Mr. Timothy Piigh, of 
Penlan Pumpsaint, selected by the Conwil Cayo farmers, gave evidence, 
and said : Rents are generally assessed by valuation. Witness gave 
examples of increased rents on 30 farms from 1853 to 1894, which 
showed an increase of £339. or ovev 40 per cent. A wood called Allt 
Goch was enclosed about 50 years ago ; the poor and others were 
allowed to go there to cut wood, but notice was given in Cwrtvcadno 
that no one should in future go to cut wood in the Allt Goch. Build- 
ings have improved, but many are exceptionally bad. The food is 
better than it was, but many of the small farmers live meanly. The 
bread is made of wheat grown on the farm, bara clatsh, cheese made 
of skim milk. For dinner broth, \Wth turnips or potatoes, sometimes 
plain broth cawl dtvr. For supper the broth is warmed which was 
left after dinner. Thomas Williams, Ffynonlas, said the acreage of 
the parish was 22,212; gross rental, £10,374; rateable value, 
£9,525 lis. 6d. ; twenty years ago gross rental, £9,596 ; thirtv years 
ago, £8,466 14s. 2d.; forty years ago, £7,709 Is. Od. William 
Morgan, Rhydlydan, gave a list of 25 farms, the rents of which had 
been increased 40 per cent, between 1860 and 1894. Mr. J. M. 
Davies, of Froodvale, gave rebutting evidence, especially as regards 
Mr. T. Pugh's statements. For a fuller account of all the evidence 
see "Minutes of evidence taken before the Roval Commission on Land 
in Wales." Vol. IIL 

Landowners. — The principal landowners of the i)arish are Sir 
James H. Williams-Drummond, Bart., Lieut. -General Sir James 
Hills-Johnes, G.C.B., V.C, Lieut.-Col. Methuen, J. M. Davies, 
Esq., J. P., of Froodvale; C. Froodvale Davies, Esq., J.P. : Meurio 
Lloyd, Esq., J.P., Capt. G. W. D. B. Lloyd, Brunant. 



25 

Manor. — The manor of Caio is vested in the Crown. The lord- 
ship or manor of Caio, Chief Rent is due 29th September to his 
Majesty, King Edward VI I . , as Lord of the Manor. Thomas Lloyd, 
of Lampeter, Deputy Steward ; David Davies, Cadwg^n, Collector for 
Caio. 



EcLueation. 



Welsh Charity Schools. — They were originally projected by 
the Rev. Griffith Jones, Rector of Llanddowror, and were afterwards 
successfully conducted by him, and by that eminently pious and 
munificent lady, Madame Bevan, of Laughame. The system was 
signally adapted to the taste and to the wants of the Welsh people. 
Into these truly Christian schools were admitted adults, even in- 
dividuals of 60 or 70 years of age. The scholars were taught to read 
the sacred volume and religious books of high reputation, and the 
principles of the Christian religion, the Church catechism being used 
as a text book. 

At Mr. Jones' death there were 3,000 of these schools, and there 
were 156,239 scholars. "In 1740 these schools visited Cayo and we 
find a record of the school held at * Garth Cayo, Carmarthenshire, 
June, 1741.' The Rev. E. Jones, curate of Cayo, inspected these 
schools, and saw the due attendance of the scholars. He heartily 
thanks the benefactors for their good and pious intentions. In 1750 
the Rev. Leyson Lewis, the curate cf Cayo, wrote to the Rev. Griffith 
Jones testifying with great thankfulness his approbation of the 
Welsh schools land the matters thereof in their several parishes, in 
manv of which a longer continuance of the school is desired.'* 
—Wels^h Piety, 1761. 

From the report of the Commissioners on the state of education in 
Wales published in 1847 we find the following : — 

The Commissioner in his reports states — "I traversed the greater 
portion of the northern part of each (district) and remark equally the 
bad state of the roads, the general wretchedness of the cottages, and 
the small extent to which (indeed scarcely at all) English is under- 
stood. ' ' 

Cayo. — At the time of my visit (22nd October, 1846) the only 
school in this large parish, available for the poor, was the miserable-, 
dame school at Pont-ar-Twrch. Since that time I have been informed • 
that two schools are established, viz., one at the village of Pumpsaint; 



26 

opened on the 25th November, 1846 ; the other at Cayo village. These 
two localities are separated by a considerable range of hills and a road 
quite bad enough in winter to prevent children at the one from attend- 
ing a school at the other ; so that the two schools are fully needed. 
The schoolroom at Pumpsaint was a rude, inconvenient place, in in- 
different repair at that time. At Cayo village they have got a school 
committee and subscriptions to the amount of £30 promised, at which 
salary a master has been engaged for twelve nioaths commencing on 
the 8th March, 1847. This committeii was formed at the investigation 
of the^party who have promoted the Normal School at Brecon. The 
anxiety of the people to procure education for their children seemed 
extreme. Their idea was that upon my representation Government 
"Would send and set up a school among them, and all with whom I con- 
versed importuned me to have it done directly. I unfortunately twiee 
failed meeting the Rev. George Enoch, curate of this parish and Uan- 
sawel ; once on the 22nd October when I called, and again on the 1st 
of November at Llansawel where I had written him to meet me but he 
^was otherwise engaged. 

Pont-ar-Twrch, or (Pexybont) Dame School. — I visited this 
school on 23rd October. It is held in a wretched hovel, containing 
only a single room, with doors and windows dilapidated, and a floor of 
the bare earth, all broken into holes. The woman seemed almost in a 
dying state, often spoke of how little while she had to live, of the cold 
and damp of her house ; and seemed to have neither hope nor spirit 
left in her. She had come there from London six years before. Three 
of her ten scholars could iust read. According to her own statement 
her school brought her a little more than 2/6 per week. The rent of 
her hovel was 27/- per annum. She was previous to keeping the school 
a wife to a Publican in London, her age about 54 years. 

Pumpsaint School opened in November, 1645, in a rude and in-- 
convenient place. The schoolmaster was a young man 20 years of age, 
a ** Drover** who drove cattle to England during the summer. 

The report givies a copy of a characteristic letter received by the 
Commissioner from a Sunday School teacher in tlie upper or purely 
Welsh part of the parish which I reproduce in full : — 

** Sir, — The number of the Simday School Scholars are able to 
read as you particular mention in your letter is as follows : — 

106 

70 

28 

9 

1 

I am very please to take little trouble to answer your letter about 
the Sunday Schools, in hope that your Searching about the Daily and 
Sunday Schools, will come to good consequence to the Welch Nation. 

Our Creator made many of them a People of Strong Abilities, and 
a possessors of various talents, but because their ignorance Spend their 
time in poverty to get their living in Slavery as a pig with hi© snout in 
the ground they got no advantage to make use of their abilities in 



27 



defect of learning and knowledge. But some of the young people are 
under good education, the Children of the Noblemen and Gentlemen 
farmers but the greater part of them are in Towns ; and in the 
countrys one here and one there. The major part of the Welchmen, 
not knoweth in what quarter of the world they life ? this thing I think 
is very true. In the time ago riseth up some Excellent people in 
Philosophy and Theology among the welch Nation as one* of the 
welsh Poet says about one of them, called The Reverend Mr. Rowlands, 
Llangaetho : — 

Talentau ddeg fe roddwyd iddo 

Fe'i marchnattodd hwy yn iawn 

Ac o'r deg fe'r gwnaeth hwy'n gannoedd 

Cyn maihludo'i haul crydnhawn.f 

I hope that you'll not be angry with me, because I have on my 
mind to desire on you, Sir to give me a little presant, that is, the Map 
of the land of Canaan. Sir, Please to excuse my vulgar english 
writing because I have not much practice in english tongue, but in 
the language of my mother I can write more Grammatical. 
1 am Your Unworthy Servant, 

John Johnes, Esq., J.P., Dolaucothi : David Davies, Esq., Frood- 
vale ; Dr. Davies, Froodvale Academy ; John Davies, Pumpsaint ; and 
Thomas Pugh, Publican, gave evidence before the Commissioner. 

Froodvale Academy.— This school was established in 1834, 
and in a short time became much sought after. The school originated 
in the circumstance that the 
Rev. Dr. William Davies having 
engaged to instruct the family of 
David Da\ne8, Esq., of Frood- 
vale, took the opportunity after 
the usual plan in such cases in 
Wales, to set up a school. For 
this purpose Mr. Davies raised a 
small building on his land, which 
(to use his own words) would 
have done for a cottage if the 
school had failed. The Com- 
missioner in 1846 states that this is not a school for the labouring 
classes. It enjoys an extensive reputation in the upper part of Car- 
marthenshire. It is a detatched and lonely building on a hill side 
along which a bridle road passes from Llansawel to Pumpsaint. The 
benches and desks are arranged like pews in a church leaving the aisle 
however not in the centre, but down one side. A cupboard, the fire- 
place and the masters' desk occupy the little remaining space. Dr. 




* Rev. William Williams, Pantycelyn. 

t Ten talents were given him 
And he traded with them well. 

And out of the ten they made them hundreds [literally) 
Ere his sun set at eve. 



28 

Davies had very flattering testimonials from the Rev. J. Pye Smith, 
D.D., Ll.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c., Homerton College ; Rev. D. 
Da>'id8on, M.A. ; Rev. Joseph Hutton, Ll.D., London; Rev. Thomas 
Rees, Ll.D., F.S.A , Brighton; Alfred Day, Ll.D., Bristol; Rev. W. 
Smith, Ll.D , Ph.D., Highbury College, London. The entire range 
of instruction proposed to be given comprised evtry pail of a good 
classical (including Hebrew) mathematical and geneml education. 
The terms ranged from 15s. to 428. per quarter. The scholars con- 
sisted in part of young men preparing for the Ministry or for the 
Universities of London, Glasgow, &c., but chiefly of farmers' sons who 
came for an odd quarter or two to complete their education There 
were 34 pupils on the books. Dr. Da vies infoi*med me that he remem- 
bered the time when there was not a builder nearer than Llandovery 
who knew how to measure a wall. The school had also partaken of a 
normal character. If a schoolmaster had been able to spare a little 
money he has not unfniquently resorted to Dr. Davies for a few months 
or weeks during the summer to prt»pare for the instruction which he in- 
tended giving in the next winter. In 1849 there were 34 pupils on 
the books. 

Dr. Davi("H paid periodical visits to the Palace at Abergwilly, and 
was held in high esteem by the late Bishop Thirlwall. 

The school was closed about 185.'). Ainong the st\id(mts who 
received their early education here may be m(!nti(med the following: — ■ 
The late Rev. Octavius Davies, M.A., Vicar of Tregaron; late Rev. 
Evan Lewis, Velindre. father of Professor Lewis, M. A., Aberystwyth ; 
late Evan Davies, M.A., Ll.D., Swansea, iimlcr whose ma.^tership the 
first Normal School was established jit l^rccon, and afterwards at 
Swansea; late livw W. Roberts, B.A., Vice-Principal of Brecon 
(yoUege ; late Professor W. Morgjin, Carmarthen, father of l^loyd 
Morgan, M.P. for the Western division of ('arniarthcjnshire ; InUt Rev. 
H. (iliver, Capel Isaac, of Pontypridd; lati; Rev. J. Kilsby Jones, of 
Llanwrtyd Wells; late Rev. Edward J ones. Rector of Neath; late 
Rev. Thomas James, M.A,, IJanelly ; late Rev. Thomas Rees, D.D., 
Author of the "History of Nonconformity in Wales"; late Rev. 
John Thomas', D.D., of Liverpool ; late Rev. ,1. 1). .Jones, Reactor of 
LlanfihanKcl: late D. liong Pric<\ Talli;v House; .lolin Morgan 
Davies, Ek(i., J. P., D.L, High Sheriff for the County in 11)02. Rev. 
Thos. Davies, Vicarage. Llangan ; Rev. Evan .Jones. H.D., R(H'tor of 
Newpoit, Peni. ; Dr. Win. Davies, Bays Hill, Llandilo : and others. 
In the Brython of 1860 there ai)])Hare(l very interesting articles under 
the nom-ilc-phtmc of '* Ie\ian (Twenog" (the Kev. Kvan .Jones, Rtudor 
of Newport) " Adgoflon am Athrofa Fl'iw<l Fal." He is the author 
of sev<'ral i)ul)lieations. 'J'he lat<> Rev. .John Thomas, D.D., of 
Liveii)»)ol, also wiote interesting artich^s on the Academy at Fr.xxlvale 
in sonuj niaga/ines. The scluxd building at the i)rcHent day is used as 
a dwelling-house, and is known as Athrofa. 

School Board. — After passing of i\\v Kdueatiim Act, 1S70, the 
inhabitants were anxious to establish a School Hoard for the parish. 
John JohncN, Ks(|,, of Dolaueothi, attended several Vestry MeetingH 
and fully exjjlaineil thi' Act. At a Vestry Meeting held at Puini).saint 
in December, 1870, when Johii .Johnes presided, he explained the form 
of Memorial sent from the Lords of the Privv ('ouncil on Echu-alion 



29 

and the answers were explained. A year afterwards on the 14th of 
December, 1871, the Hoard was foiined with five members. The first 
five members were : — John Jones, Esq., J. P., Dolaucothi (Chairman) ; 
Rev. Evan Jones, Crugybar ; Rev. H. Jones Davis, Caio Vicarage ; 
Rev. J. D. Evans, Salem ; and David Da vies, Esq., of Tycerrig. 

The last Members of the School Board, who were elected in 
October, 1901. were: — Lieut. General Sir James Hills Johnes, V.C., 
Chairman ; Thomas Evans, Abemaint, Vice -Chairman ; W. D. Rees, 
Ty Cerrig ; John Evans, Gwarhos ; B. M. Williams, Glan Twrch. 
There are five Schools under the Board for the year ending September, 
1901, average attendance 230. Annual grant for 1901--£255 Os. 4d., 
with a small Population Grant of £80, and Fee Grant of £115 28. 6d., 
with £269 Ss. Id. from the Rates, Total £719 10s. Ud. Cost to 
educate each child in average attendance (82) Caio School, £2 lis. Ifd. ; 
(46) Crugvbar, £3 Os. 3d. ; (24) Cwmcothi, £4 Os. lOjd. ; (41) 
Farmars, £3 13s. 7id. ; (37) Blaentwrch, £3 6s. 3jd. Mr. James 
Morgan, Draper, Caio, Clerk of the Board. 

County Council School under the Education Act of 1902. First 
Membei-s of the present Educational Conmiittee known as group one 
of the Llandovery Union : — Lieut. General Sir James Hills Johnes, 
V.C., Chairman; D. E. Davies, Geliy, Vice-ChHirman ; John Evans, 
Gwarhos; B M. Williams, Glan Twrch: W. D. Rees, Ty Cerrig: 
Thos. Evans, Abemaint ; Thos. Davies, Shop, Crugybar ; 1). R. 
Williams, Brolhyn ; Isaac Williams, Landre ; Abel Abel, brynmawr ; 
Jas. Harries, Drover's Arms ; and T. A. Jones, LIwjti. James 
Morgan, Clerk. 

From 1740 to 1805, the parish enjoved the benefit of the Welsh 
Charity School (Ysgol Rad), 1S05 to 1871 the benefit of the "Old 
Parish School " (Ysgol y Plwj-f ) together with a few small schools 
kept on the teachers' own account. 

In 1832 we find a Commercial Academy in Caio kept by George 
Cowings Birds ; we cannot trace whether he was any relation to S. J. 
Bird who kept a School at Llansawel in 183o. Further, in 1833 a 
Parochial School in which 40 to 50 chiMren were taught, in a neat 
cottage in the Churchyard, which was liberally supported by subscrip- 
tion ; no trac<' of the cottage now remains, as the spot where it stood 
is now part of the Churchyard. 

1840— 18o7. Day School at Cwmtwrch. Very little history of 
this school is availabh?, but out of the many who began their educa- 
tion here the following were amongst some : — Air. George Grifliths, 
Abersychan (died 188.)) ; Rev. D. Thomas, Congrea:ational Minister, 
Llanybri ; Rev. Thomas Williams, fonnerly Vicar of Kilvey : 
Late Rev. R, G. Levi. «)f Cardiff. This school was discontinued when 
the British School at Crugybar was established. 

1834 — 185'). The well known Frjodvah; Academv kept by Rev. 
Wm. Davies, Ph.D. 

1867—1873. A British School at Crugybar. 

At Pumpsaint at one time the Rev. Thomas Lewis, B.A., of Bala- 
Bangor, kept a School when a young man. 



30 

Since 1871 the benefit of the Board School. 

Such is a short resume of the historj' of education in the parish, 
which is not so fully as we should like. 

Sunday Schools. — The first Sunday School established in this 
parish was probably at Cayo by the Methodists, besides the Sunday 
Schools held at the \ arious farm houses in the district. The earliest 
record I have been able to find is that the Methodists established a 
Sunday School at Cwrtycadno in 1806 ; probably Cayo was 
established before this, in 1846. Cayo had 60 scholars. The 
Crugybar Sunday School was established in 1807, and in 1846 had 
100 scholars. The Baptists established a Sunday School at Salem in 
1830 and had 60 scholars. The Methodists established a Sunday 
School at Pumpsaint in a room in 1835, with 44 scholars in 1846. 
Next comes the Baptist Sunday School at Bethel, established in 1836, 
with 80 scholars in 1846. And the Methodists established another 
School at Saron in 1842, with 20 scholars in 1846. In all these Schools 
the scholars were taught their letters and to read various portions of 
the Bible. Most of the scholars attended the various places of worship 
as well. At the Calvinistic Methodist Churches Charles of Bala's 
Catechism was taught. *' Rhodd Mam " was another subject taught in 
their schools. 



Fv>ee: C^upc^e;?. 



Bwlch-y-rhiW Baptist Chapel.— This Chapel has been 
built on the side of a wild mountainous track of country in the midst 
of an unpeopled district, the building is almost on the boundary line 
of the parish of Caio and Cilycwm ; it is in the parish of Cilycwm. 
Bwlchyrhiw Farm, which is the nearest dwelling is in Caio parish. 
This building is a wonder in the mind of many a passing stranger, as 
to whence it could derive its congregation, for long distances in every 
direction there appears to be no human habitations, only here and 
there in the deep dingle, on either side of the hills some lone farm 
house or small cot. It is a scene of the wildest magnificence, as one 
passes along the poor road, he sees nothing but a sea of mountains on 
either side ; looking to the North one sees the mountains Twm Shon 
Catti (the Welsh Rob Roy) used to roam. About 5 miles from here, you 
will find to this day, his cave, from whence the bold and humorous 
outlaw was wont to spring forth, to spread terror and rapine over the 
whole region. Up to this place the worshippers at one time, fled to 
worship secretly, out of the persecutor's reach, here they met for 
many years. First they say they met together amongst the rocks. 
Judging from the position of the chapel, it appears to have been the 



31 

first chapel built in the northern part of the county. Soon after the 
Five Mile Act was passed in 1665, this chapel was built. The first 
Baptist Chapel was built in 1649 at Ilston, and the first Association 
held in Carmaithen in 1650 and 1651. Bwlch-y-rhiw Chapel was 
built before Crugybar Independent Chapel. During these years 
Walter Cradog, Vassassor Powell, Stephen Hughes and others, were 
preaching up and down the country. At this place people from long 
distances met together secretly to worship, and it is said that the In- 
dependent Church of Crugybar joined at Bwlchyrhiw in worshipping 
secretly until about 1688 when the Independents left and started wor- 
shipping at Crugybar. The chapel building here is small, plain and 
well built, and is, we believe, the oldest building is existence to-day in 
Wales. This Church was under the care of Aberduar and Coedseision 
Baptist Churches until 1817, when they joined and were under the care 
of the sister Church of Bethel. After Salem Church was built, Bwlch- 
yrhiw and Zion Baptist Church, Rhandirmwyn, joined and kept a 
Pastor between them thus to a certain extent breaking the connection 
between the young cause this side of Bwlchyihiw. In 1867 the 
number of membt;rs in both these Churches was 138, when the Rev. 
E. Davies was pastor. In 1874 the members is given as 135 with 109 
scholars, with Rev. N. Davies as pastor settled here in 1874. The Rev. 
R. R. Thomas settled here in 1898 as pastor, and the number of 
members at Bwlchyi-hiw alone for 1901 is given as 96, with 40 
scholars, 4 baptized during the year. 

This church was under the care of the following : — 

Rev. Timothy Thomas. 

Rev. Zacharias Thomas. 1768—1816. 

Rev. Thomas Thomas was pastor here in 1818. 

Rev. E. Davies. 1866. 

Rev. N. Davies. 1874. 

Rev. R. R. ITiomas. 1898—1902. 

In the Churchyard the remains of the Rev. Zecharias Thomas, of 
Llwyn, in the parish of Llancrwys were buried. 

"A Preacher of the Gospel nearly 60 years, pastor of the Baptist 
Church at Aberduar, Pencoed, ^Sethel, and Bwlchyrhiw, from the 
time of the death of his brother, the Rev. Timothy Thomas, of Maes, 
in the year 1768. He was pre-eminently distinguished for his 
exemplary conduct, his Theological acquirements, and piety and zeal 
for the extension of the Evangelical Truth. He died on the 16th 
January, 1816, in his 89th year of his age." 

The Church at Bwlch-y-rhiw is very dear to our memories, for 
here we find our Great Grandmother (the mother of Thomas Price 
Baily, Vicar) was a faithful and helpful member for forty years. 
" Bwlch-y-rhiw " was her home for public worship. Margaret Price, 
of Ty Llwyd, was well-known in her day, as a good Christian, kind 
to young preachers, and always respected the ministry. Ty Llwyd, a 
home noted for its hospitality, and became the welcome sheltered 
resting place of the preachers of the Gospel ; here many a one found 
welcome, refreshing food and encouraging words when on their preach- 
ing tours. She died in 1818, thus she must have joined the Church at 



32 

Bwlch-y-rhiw in 1778. John Jones, of Caio, composed eighteen 
verses to her memory, and in order to preserve them, we give them a 
place here, 

MARWNAD, NEXT GOFFADWRIAETH 

AM Y DIWRDDAtt 

MARGARET PRICE, 

O'r Ty Llwyd, yn Mhlwyf Cayo, 

Yr hon a vmadawodd a'r byd hwn (ar dydd Llun), y 29ain o Mehefin, 
1818, yn 60 oed, 

Wedi treulio 40 mlynedd yn ffyddlawn i Grist. 



Gan John Jones, o Gayo. 



Y ddwy adnod ganlynol a orchymynodd hi i Mr. Thomas Thomas, 
Gweinidog Bwlch-y-rhiw, i bregethu oddi arnynt >ti ei chladdedig- 
aeth: — "Ei had a'u gwasanaetha ef : cyfrifer ef i'r Arglwydd yn y 
genhedlaeth, — Deuant ac adroddant ei gyfiawnder ef i'r bobl a enir, 
mae efe a wnaeth hyn. " — Salm xxii^ 30-31- 



RHYFEDDOL fel mae angau y leni'n tori lawr, 
O ! am gjiel grym duwioldeb i wynebu'r frawdle fawr ; 
'Dyw'n arbed dim o'r ieueni»:ctyd, er teced fyddo'u gran, 
Lie caffo fe gommisiwn fe aitt" a'i waith ymlan. 

! na chai ni y ffafr tra b'om ar dir y byw, 

1 lefain am drugaredd a llwyddo gyda Duw : 
Fe ddaw dydd y cyfri', a hynny cyn bo hir, 
Gwae ni erioed ein geni os byddwn heb y gwir. 

'Does ncmawr o ddiwrnod, a dywedyd i chwi'Ti by', 
Nad yw y newydd marw yn d'od i'lu clustiaii i ; 
Yn awr yw'r-amser goreii i yinot'yn am ei hedd, 
Mae llawcr o'm cyni'dogiori }'n myn'd i byrth y bedd. 

I Ty-Llwyd, y'mhhvyf Cayo, daelh angau, brenin braw, 
'Roedd yno d'wysen aeddfed, hi ga'dd ei symyd draw ; 
Y nawfed dydd ar hugain o Fehetin yn yr haf, 
Prydnhawn dydd Lhin rwy'n meddwl fod yno gwm'ni braf ; 

Yn d'od i hoi i adre o'r byd lie 'r oedd hi'n byw, 
I gauu Haleluia y'mhala.s hardd ei Duw ; 
Hi ganodd, hi weddiodd, do lawer yn y byd, 
Darllen a myt'vrio oedd t'wya' yn ei bryd. 

Fe ddarfu gwaith gw(»ddio a darllen nawr yn Ian, 

Tra parhao trag'wyddoldeb ni dderfydd byth mo'i ehan ; 

Pan byddai arni ohd, neu dratt'erlh yn y byd, 

Hi ddywedodd wrthyf fy h\inan, 'rwy'n colio lawer pryd : 



33 

** Yr adnod hon a'r adnod, a redodd yn fy nghof, 
Aeth pob rhyw ofid heibio nes oeddwn wrth fy modd ; '* 
Ni welir mwy o honi ond hynny Y*inhwlch-y-rhiw, 
Ac hefyd Y' ngwmpedol ar goedd yn moli Duw. 

Ma'i He hi yn yr eglwys yn ddigon gwag y nawr, 
Ac hefyd yn ei theulu, mae yno alar mawr : 
Os dywedaf fi fy meddwl heb nemawr iawn o ble. 
Does neb ond Duw ei hunan yn abl llanw ei He. 

TJn drefnus yn ei theulu, gainiaidd iawn oedd hi, 
Os d'oi cardotyn heibio gwrandawai ar ei gri ; 
Oofynau iddo'n is^el yn aeddfwyn ac yn fwyn, 
Am iddo ddweud ei angen, tosturiai wrth ei gw}Ti. 

Ac hefyd yn yr eglwys os gwir a glywais i, 
Doedd neb yn fwy parodol i gyfranu nag oedd hi, 
Cynnal gweinidogion pan byident ar eu taith, 
Yr Arghvydd Dduw Jehofa ofalo am ei waith. 

Pan doi dieithriaid heibio o'r dwyrain ac o'r de, 

Doedd un dyn jti }t ardal fwy pared i ro'i lie ; 

Llawer o bregethwyr a fyddai'n taflu'r rhwj'd, 

Fe ddal'wyd rhai rwy'n nieddwl dan gionglwyd y Ty-llwyd. 

Er bod ei henaid heddyw yn canu y'ngwlad yr hedd, 
Ei chorph yn mj-nwent Cayo yn gorwedd yn y bedd ; 
Gobeithio bydd 'r efengyl yno t'el o'r blaen, 

Dduw rho nerlh i'r achau i fyn'd a'r gwaith y'mlaen. 

Er ei bod hi yma yn Ihvyddianus yn y byd, 

Y Bibl oedd hi'n ddarllen a'r Bibl oedd ei bryd ; 
Dywedodd hyn yn oleu }ti wyneb angau du, 
Ca'dd yno fwy o drysor iia feddai'n daear ni. 

Gorchymynai i Mr. Thomas, gweinidog Bwlch-y-rhiw, 
Bregethu yn ei hangiadd am wir gyfiawnder Duw ; 
A rhyfedd oedd y cyniorth a'r nerlh a gofodd e', 

1 floeddio yngwydd y dyrfa am wir drugaredd ne'. 

Y ddwyfed Salm ar hugain mae r geiriau h}Ti ar lawr, 
Ag yn yr adnodau ola o'r sanctaidd Feibl mawr ; 

Ac wedi nodi allan cyii iddi fyn'd i'r glynn, 

Bod hi wrth ei bodd yn 'madael, mae'r Arglwydd a ^\Tiaeth hyn. 

Chwoch o blant sydd yma yn ddigon trwm ei gwedd, 
Waith bod eu mham anwyla' yn gorwedd yn y bedd ; 
Pan bydddai hi'n eeryddu nid oedd hi byth yn sur, 
Ond dvvun'd uu bai yn g'ruaidd ar uugiuu ar ei grudu. 

Dywedyd roedd hi'r perygl o aros oddifas, 
Am dd'od at Grist i achnb tra paro dyddiau'r gras ; 
Wei dyma li'n terfynu, Duw fyddo ar eich rhan, 
A chotiwch ch\\4 bod amser am gyngor da eich mam. 




34 

Ca'dd Meistr Price yn sydyn i fjTied ar ei h61, 
Mhen trydiau a phythefnos gwnaeth angeu amo ei ol ; 
Rwj'*n meddwl bod nhwy heddyw yn canu yn ddiboen, 
Does tafod all fynegi gogoniant gwraig yr Oen. 

Cpugybap Independent Chureh— it is almost impossible 

to give an exact date as to 
when the Independent cause 
started here. From the Statis- 
tics of Nonconformist Con- 
gregations and their voting 
power collected by Dr. John 
Evans in 1715/ it appears 
that there was a Congregation 
of Presbyterians at Crugybar. 

Under Carmarthenshire we 
find:— 

Llanedi, Crugybar, j Swln Hughes, j ^**^"^«"^« ^^^^^ 
Crugymaen | p^Wd Jones. j ^^^' ^0. 

For Presbyterians in this extract we must understand "Indepen- 
dents," for there is no record that a Presbyterian Congregation 
existed previous to the Calvinistic Methodists at Cayo. In 1675, 
Henry Maurice sent to E(tward Terril, of Bristol, *♦ a Catalogue of all 
Churches in Wales " published in the *' Broadmead Records " ; under 
Carmarthenshire it states '• There is also another Church, consisting of 
Baptists for the most part, but for free communion, who met at Llan- 
vairybryn, near Llandovery. They were called at first by the ministry 
of Jenkin Jones. Maurice states that the Churches consisted mostly 
of Independents in judgment and partly of Baptists." We also learn 
that John Harries, of Capel Isaac, was pastor ; the churches at Crug- 
ybar and Crofftycyff, which were under the care of the same minister, 
were increasing every year, 1724-1746. Probably the cause com- 
menced when Walter Ci-adock (1610-1659), Vavasor Powell (1617-1670), 
Stephen Hugho> (1622-1688), Rees »^rytherch (1579-1642), of Llan- 
vairybryn, were preaching up and down the country. The cause here 
probably originated out of Bwlchyrhiw, where the Independents and 
Baptists woi-shipped together until they separated, when the Indepen- 
dents settled at Crugybar and the Baptists remained at Bwlchj-rhiw. 
It is also recorded that Pencadair and Llanwrtyd hold Joint Meetings, 
and that these were probably held at Crugybar, being about half way. 
From a letter which appeared in the Glasgow Weekly History No. 48, 
about the year 1743, the name of the writer is not given, but must 
have been Edmund Jones, of Pontypool, an Independent Minister, 
he states ; In Caimarthenshire there are near a score of our Noncon- 
forming Congregations and two Ana-baptists, some of which are 
large. Besides, they have many other lecture places spread almost 
everywhere! I he first Meeting-house, chapel or lecture place, was 
probably built here about 16b8. The young cause at Crugybar 
received help from Sir Nicholas Williams, Bart., Edwinsford, who was 
the Member of Parliament for the county in three Parliaments (died 



35 

1745), and the following Ministers helped the cause here ; — Christmas 
Samuel, Pantteg (1674-1794) ; James Lewis, Pencadair (1674-1747) ; 
John Powell ; Lewis Richards, Trelech ; William Davies, Capel Isaac ; 
and others. In 1763 the chapel was rebuilt and enlarged. In 1760 it 
appears about fourteen n« embers of this church left and started the 
Society of the Calvinistic Methodists at Cayo amongst them was 
"William Lloyd, Henllan. There was a noted old religious character 
at Crugybar named '* Nancy Jones," in all probability she was a good 
soul and entertained most of the preachers, for she was known to most 
of them and her name was known through Wales as " Nani Crugybar." 
Daniel Hairy, of Esgarowen, PencaiTeg, came to preach to a house in 
the district, and that in 1790 a cause was established at Esgairdawe. 
Daniel Hairy was a member of the Church at Crugybar, also a deacon. 
In 1837 the present Chapel was built and enlarged, this being the 
fourth Chapel erected here. Then in 1870 the Chapel was renovated. 
A branch cause was established at Bwlchyffin in 1864, where Sunday 
Services are held. In 1859 it seems 107 new members were added 
to the Chuich at Crugybar. 1 he following is an uncomplete list of 
Pastors here : - 

1755. Isaac Price, of Llanwrtyd, served here for 48 yeai-s. 

1803. Thomvs Price, died 1805. 

1805. Daniel Jones, Ahergorlech, till 1833. 

1826-29. 1). Jones, Gwynfi. 

1837. Evan Jones, when he retired in 1877. 

1877. David B. Richards, present pastor. 

Crugybar Church has been a living and active Church during the 
best part of her existt^nce, and has not only been successful in building 
up, but has sent forth workers to the vineyard. 

The following ccmimcnced preaching in Crugybar Church :— 

Hev. Griffith Hughes, Groeswen. 

Rev. Daniel Ev.-ins, Khiadowy. 

Rev. Thomas Davies, Pentraeth. 

Rev. Daniel Williams (who joined the Baptist) Bangor then 

went to America wheie he died. 
Re\. Morgan WiUianis, B.A. (son of Rev. D. Williams, 

TroeiirhiwdnlMr, Jvapunda, Australia. 
R. \. Kbenezer Grillitlis, son of Rev. D. Griffiths, Madagasgar. 
\W\. Evan Jone^<, (ilamorganshire. 
l.'f\ . J< hn C. Davies, Mumbles. 

Rev. Thcmias I.cwis, B.A., Cardiff (Professor Bala, Bangor). 
\U\ . .lohn Kich:ii<l Davies, Carmarthen College. 
h'e\. 'Ihomas Williams, Pontardulais, joined the Church of 

England and 1m c^mie the Vicar of Kilvey, Swansea. 
\U\. .1 Lloyd Williams, B.A., Tenby, 
Rev Kvan J. Wiilinus. Southport. 
Rev. David W. A'aughan, M.A., Kentishtown. 
K« V. 11. Kynon Lewis, Hryncethin, Glam. 
Rev. S. Lloyd Davies, B.A., Rhyddings, Swansea. 

Bwlehyffln.— A lUanch of this Church was erected in 1864. 



36 




Bethel Baptist Chapel.- -Prolmhly the cause at Bethel started 
from BwUfhyrhiw which is soino disttmce away, and as the persecution 
of Nonconformists was grathially 
dying out to a certain extent. 
The Baptists built a C-hapel here 
in 1741. The cause flourished 
here far bettor than at the out of 
the way corner at Bwlchyrhiw. 
In 1836 a new Chapel was built 
here together with a large grave- 
yard on land leased for 999 years. 
Size of the Chapel 32 feet by 24 
feet with a galleiy. It wjis 
opened in September, 1836, when 

the Kev. Thomas Thomas, pastor, preached th(^ first sermon, Exodus 
23-24. This Church was served by pastois of Aborduar, ^'iz., The Rev. 
Timothy Thomas (who died 176S), and his brother th(i Rev. Zachaiias 
Thomas (who died 1816.) In 1817 this Church ceased to be under the 
pnstorage of Aberduar, but Bethel and Bwlchyrhiw wore served by 
one pastor for many years. Sometime afterwaids Bc^thel and Salem 
were under the same psistor. This is how it is served at the present 
time. This Chapel is situated in a very jileasant hpot, on high ground 
by the narrow road side heading from th(» Farmers to Cwrtycadno, 
about two miles from Fanners. From the gravo-yaid there is a very- 
pleasant view of the country for many miles. In 1901 there were 122 
members belonging to this Church. They have a Sunday School 
which is held in a Schoolroom besides the Schools held in the various 
Farm-houses in the district. The preM.'ut pastor is the Kev. J. B. 
Thomas, since 1891. 

Calvinistie Methodists.— It is nlmosl im])o88ible to give an 
exact date when the Methodist fathers started tht" cause at Caio, but 
no doubt religious societies for 
deepening spiritual life were 
held privately at about the same 
time as at Llansawel. The tirst 
^Moderator ft)r the County was 
Daniel Rowlinds, Llangeitho. 
Overseers : John Hich.'j,rds, 
James Williams. William John 
and David Williams. These 
overseers were recpiinMl to fum- 
nish a periodical report. In the 
first report of James Williams, 
we find that about 1713, he 
reports that Cayo Soci(;1y had T);') members. Meetings were held in 
Privjite Farm-houses or out in the o])en, when Daniel Rowlands and 
Williams, rantycelyn, ])reache(l. iMany memhrrs from here tramped 
to Llangeitho <m (Jomniunion Sundays, nearly 30 miles. Amongst 
those who did go to Llangeitho were Sion I)avid Harris, William 
Harris (Indei)endent of Crugybar), Khydderch Sion IIuw, Nant-yr- 
hogfaen, and Rhys Daniel, Tir-allcn. In 1743 the Hev. Jno. Hughe 




Caio Chapkl. 



37 

in his History of the Methodists states that there were 44 members in 
Cayo, and two exhorters, John Thomas and a Richard Jones. Twenty- 
four out of the 44 were in Christ, and the others under the law. It 
also states that God*s work was going on easy. 

In 1744 it was agreed by most of the Methodists to depart from 
the Church of England, excepting Mr. Howell Harris, who opposed 
their design with aU his might. A letter signed by five of the 
(Glamorganshire exhorters, among whom was Mr. Wm. Edwards, the 
celebrated arel-itsct. was sent to the Association, held at Cayo, in April, 
1745, in which the destitute state of the societies, for want of ordained 
ministers to administer the ordinances to them, is urged as a reason 
why the Clergy should ordain some of the preach era. We are not 
informo^ how this letter was received b^ the Association, but not 
long after these five with others were ordained, not by the Methodist 
Clergy, but by the deacons ^f their own churches. 

On the 28th of October, 1745, a meeting was held at Cayo, when 
the Revs. Daniel Rowlands, Wm. Williams, Howell Harris and Jenkiu 
Morgan (a dissenting minister), James Williams and WUliam John 
(Overseers), Thomas Jones (Steward), John Thomas, and John Da vies 
were present. 

It was agreed at this meeting (1) To urge the people to read the 
Scriptures; (2) That Friday next, Ist November, all should pray 
on behalf of the enemies of religion ; (3) That the brethren should 
send for 50 copies of the *' Weekly History.*' 

In 1760, 14 members of the Crugybar Independent Church left, 
and cast in their lot with the Methodists here. 

When the Rev. Wm, Lloyd, Henllan, joii.ed the Society here 
there were only 18 members, but very soon after they increased to 200. 
He was the first preacher nursed in this Church. 

It seems that about 1805 the Rev. E. Williams, the Vicar, dis- 
covered to his sorrow, that the established Church lost much of her 
popularity, and that a violent spirit of opposition was gaining ground, 
especially amongst the Calvinistic Methodists. They were considered 
as part and parcel of the Established Church for many years after their 
first dissent from it. He saw the deficiencies of himself and his 
brother clerg}Tnen. He perceived that with the ignorance and out- 
rageous rant in the Methodists, there was often mixed up a rude 
intellectual strength, and do doubt a freshness of thought ; that the 
preachers of the day were gleaning a species of knowledge, by aid of 
which they gave a peculiar character of interest to their addresses, and 
that they were thoroughly aequainted with the style of language, the 
tone of sentiment, and the kind of argument by which Chiistian 
truths were best conveyed to the htart of the people. Before his death 
he saw the great change which took place in 1811, when the Methodists 
left the Church, and were publicly ordained at the Association meet- 
ings held at Llandilo 'hat year. 

The Methodist Chapel was built in the year 1777, rebuilt aud 
probably enlarged in 1837. The present minister here is Rev. D. J. 
Howells. 



38 



The following Calvinistic ministers were born in this parish : — 
Rev. W. E. Prylherch, of Swansea (born at Llwyn Owen), Rev. 
Chas. Williams, of Tynewydd, Ogmore (bom at Peiitre Daviis), Kov. 
Evan Williams, of Llanddausant (t)orn at Cwrt y Cadno), Rev. Daniel 
Jones, America (born al (Snty 
Cadno) . 

Thr((uu:h tlie Li-fuo • sily of 
thi! Doian-cotlii Family llu-ic is 
now a burial «»Ti»iiii(i ad j lifiini;- 
the chapel. 




Pumpsaint Chapel — 

Piimi)saint riiajjel. 1 iii 1 in l^;."), 
is a Iti-inch of llie iiidlle i Clinicli 
of C'aio. and under ihe caic (d' 
the same pastor. 

Salem Baptist Chapel.— This chupel was built in 1829, re- 
built and enlarged in 1S71. The cause here started IVom Bethel, 
while H(!lhel sturt(,-.l ti-.-iu that nieiiiorahle and mouidaiiious secludf^l 
spot RMdchyrhiw. T;i.- l)uiiding (-(.st helw.cn I'tJOO and CTOO, on 
land leas(Hl for 999 y< ars witli 
grave yard. The nuuilur of 
members about this datr^ \\as 112. 
The first pastor, wt- bfliev.-, was 
the Rev. Thoma- '! ]i,.in:-s. ef 
Hethel, who did -n d w.. ',.. ].,.,.•. 
Then the Kev.' .l..:.ii Divi.s. 
lilandilo (]at«' Ahtr.iyr^Mi , wis 
pastor here for some \.ais. In 
186G Bethel and Saleui wer.- 
without a pastor, and the nuniln r 
of members given at this (hite is 
326. In 1867 the Rev. J. 1). 
Evans became pastor of this church. In 1S74 the uuiuher of mmnlxu-s 
is returned as 301, with 100 scholais. In 1S91 the i^e.-eiit pa>t.or. 
Rev J. E. Thomas, settled here, also as jjHstor of Bethel. The num- 
ber of members for 1901 is given as -Salem 10(^. Beth.el 12 "J ; total, 
228. 




:ma11 village on 

V b' auf'ful oak 



CWPt-y-CadnO (The Fox's Tourt;.— This is a 
th(! banks <d' th" Coti i. prettily situated. >urr(i'in(le.; l 
and l)ir<h ]»'aiii.iti(Uis. •< iue two 
mil.'S ahf.vr lli( ( )--':!!i. -.vl !e it 
is s:.id once st ...] ;■ . •,!■'. :;. ; i;t 
no vi'stiL'c roii; ins ''11:1 -•- ir- «■ ii 
siiruiisi that a Kin ■ ]\ ■' ,. .c 

an old y< w t;tr. m ' . . idc 
as one ;ip]ir..iH'' ' ^ ; ' • • i .' ■.■j-<\ 
The ( 'alviiii>;ir ..;• ; h .<!>;> ; ave 
a very ])retly litt •• <"iii)rl and 
graveyard h':e, huih in l'^99, 
and opened iu 1890, juevious to 
which meetings were hehl in a 
schoolroom. Tnere are alao a few farm houses studded here and there 




»9 

U]> ami down the valley. From the villajc^e one can see Pantcoy, the 
bl)0(lc ot^ t}io notorious " Dr. Harris " (<iyn hysbyn). One has to pass 
throuuh this village on the way to Pwll Uffern, Cothi, and 

Bwlflivriiiw. 



C^apitie?. 



Endowed ChaPities of the Parish.— The Charity Com- 
missi, lui, 'W .M.ircliaiit Willismis, Esq., held an inquiry at the Board 
S(h<-ol, Clio, 21st Miiy, 1S97. I here were present Lieut. -General Sir 
James llilis-.lohnts, ii.C.B., V.C. , the Vicar, Messrs. Thos. Thomas 
(i-hairnnn of the Parish Council), David Edwards and William 
Morgan ([>arish councillors), James Morgan (Clerk to the School 
Board;, Ki'cs Davies (Clerk to the Parish Council), Myles Jones, Llan- 
sawol, and several other parishioners. 

Morgan Price gave by will, dated in 1686, a rent-charge of 
£1 to thf poor of this pai'ish. The annuity issues out of a farm called 
Ji\vl(h <lil\ven in this parish belonging to Miss Sarah and Miss 
Charlotte Jones, of Llandovery. It is paid to the parish officers of 
Cynwyll (^aio, and by them distributed about Christmas, amongst 
poor parishioners selected by the vestry or parish officers, in shares 
varying from 6d. to 2s. 6d., according to their necessities. No 
difficulty is ever experienced in obtaining the annual sum when appli- 
cation is made for it. Bwlch Gilwen farm is now part of Dolau-c^thi 
Estjite, it having been purchased by the late Judge Johnes in the year 
18G:]. 

MaPy Griffiths* Charity.— The income of this charity is 
divided among the Calvinistic Methodist Churches of Caio, Talley, 
Llansavvel, Llanfynydd and Llangeitho, in proportion to the number 
of enrolled members in each church. This number varies from year 
to year, and consequently the sum apportioned by the trustees of the 
chanty to each church varies likewise from year to year. The sum 
allotted to the. Caio (mother) Church last year was £9 Os. 6d. The 
number of recipients is not fixtid ; one year it may be 40, and another 
year it may be only 30. The grants range between 6s. and 28. The 
recipients are chosen, in the fii-st instance, by the officers of the church 
at a meeting specially convened for the purpose. The names are sub- 
sequently submitted for the approval of the church at an ordinary 
church meeting. The money is received in the month of July, and 
the distribution takes place at the annual harvest thanksgiving service 
in August. There are four Calvinistic Methodist Churches in the 
parish, but the poor of only the Mother Church, which was founded in 
the year 1777, derive any benefit from Mary Griffiths' Charity. Mr. 
James Morgan, the Secretary of the Church, produced a statement o£ 
Accounts. 



40 

Mrs. Lloyd Harris' Charity.— By her will, dated 6th De- 
cember, 1862, she bequeathed two annuities or yearly sums of £3 each, 
to pay and apply at Christmas yearly for the benefit of the poor of the 
pariwsh of Cil-y-Cwm and Caio, etc., etc., I direct my said executors to 
secure by an investment of an adequate simi of money out of my 
personal estate. George Watkin Rice, Esq., and David Thomas, 
Surgeon, were her executors. The executors invest«*d the sum of 
£633 68. 8d. in 3 percent, consuls, which was transferred in June, 1891, 
into the name of the Ofiicial Trustees of Charitable Funds, it haWng 
become at that date converted by the National Debt Conversion Act, 
1888, into 'Jj per cen^ new consuls. Out of this sum j6 1 05 lis. 2d. 
was appropriated to the poor of the parish of Caio ; this yields an 
annual interest of £2 188. Od., and is payable at Christmas in each 
year. In August, 1893, Dr. DaWd Thomas made an application to 
the Charity Commissioners for remoWng him from being a trustee and 
appointing the Vicar and Churchwardens of each parish in his place. 
The Vicar of Caio produced the accounts for the la t five years, and th« 
recipients, 55 in all. These are selected by a committee of the 
residents of each diA-ision or district of the jwrish, .viz. : the Caio 
village district, the Pumpsaint di trict and the Crugybar district. 
This annual sum of £2 ISs. 6d. is largely auarmented each year by 
substantial donations from members of Ihe Dolau-cothi family and 
others, and the whole amount is laid out in the purchase of coal for 
distribution among the poor of the parish. A m »ney grant is made 
only to the few persons who live in very inaccessible parts of the 
parish . 

Caio Village School.— By deed poll, dated 27th July, 1867, 
enrolled in Chancery 27th August, 1867, John Johnes, of Dolau- 
cothi, Esq., under the authority of the School Sites Acts, freely and 
voluntarily granted and conveyed to the Rev. Henry Jones Davis, the 
said John Johnes and James Jones, of Maes Glas. churchwardens, 
Da^'id Evans, of Maes Noyadd, farmer, ^largaret Evans, of Maes-y- 
ddyntyr, spinster, Jemima Davied, of Tni'r Dre, widow, and Daniel 
Evans, of Gwar-y-gorof, farmer, overseers of the parish, a piece of 
land part of a field called Llethr-y-Dre, situate in or near the village 
of Caio, to hold the same for the purpose of the said Acts, and upon 
trust, to pennit the said premises to be used as a day school (and a 
Sunday School under the control of the Vicar) , for the education of 
(children and adults or children only, of the labouring, manufacturing, 
and other poorer classes in the parish, and for no other purpose. That 
the school should be open to Government inspection and managed by a 
committee of seven persons, subscribers of 16m. a year. That the 
Bible should be daily read in the school, and that no children should 
be required to learn any catechism or other religious formulary, or to 
attend any Simday School or place of worship. By an indenture 
dated 31st May, 1873, the piece of land gi-anted by the deed of 27th 
July, 1867, together with the buildings erected thereon, and all 
furniture and fixtures were conveyed to the School Board of the parish 
of Conwil Gaio. 

Crug-y-Bar British School.— By indenture dated 14th 
May, 1867, and made between the Rev. Evan Jones, Bryntelych, of 



41 

the one part, and William Williamj, of Pantyflynpn, farmer, and nine 
other persons (therein called trustees), the said Evan Jones in con- 
sideration of rents, etc., leased unto the tru'itees a piece of land of 16 
perches, then part of a field called Dobfach, p'lrt of Borthvn Farm, 
for a term of 99 years, at an annual payment of 6s. from 29th 
September 1866. The school should be open to Government inspec- 
tion, and conducted upon the principles of the British and Foreign 
Society, and managed by a committee of ten persons, being annunl 
subscribers of 10s. a year. By an indenture dated 31st May, 1873, 
the said piece of land leased by the deed of 14th May, 1867, together 
with the building-, furniture and fixtures w. re conveyed to the School 
Board of Conwil Gaio for the unexpired portion of the term of 99 
years, subject to the annual payment of 58. 



Intepe^tiag Men o^ i?)e Frp'\^^, Pa;gt aa3. 
Ppe;gent. 



"The three things notable in a Cyairo— genius, generosity and 
myrth."— *' Keltic Cockadoodledooism," by Eakl of Pembrokr. 

From the dawn of recorded history the men of Caio parich have 
occupied a prominent position in the life of the nation. They are 
wjirm- hearted, chivalrous, open-handed, and very hospitable. They 
are persevering, essentially catholic in spirit, charitable in temper, and 
above all, are a religious people — a pious, God-fearing race of deep 
religious conviction. Their stem Calvinism, and their strict 
scripturalism, were the outcome of a deeply religious spirit. 

Lewis, Glyn Cothi, the sweet singer of the 15th century, Roger 
Williams, the founder of Rhode Island and the champion of religious 
and ciril liberty, David Jcmes, the Welsh hymn writer, William 
Lloyd, Richard Da vies and William Prytherch, the Calvinistic 
pioneers, the renowned Dr. Harris, of Cwrtycadno, *' Y Dyn Hysbj's," 
r. W. Rhys Davids, the Oriental writer and scholar, the first 
Baptist miss onary sent out to work amongst the millions in China, 
Timothy Richard, Ll.D., and at present the home of the "Hero of 
Delhi" and his accomplished wife, Lieut. -General Sir James Hills- 
Johnes, Lady Johnes and Mrs. Johnes, besides the other characters of 
humbler callings. In this chapter we give a short sketch of the men 
of the parish, past and present, in order to preserve their work and 
characteristics for future generations. 



4^ 




1. l:.v..I. I). Kv;,ii>. 2. y\\: l);ivi(l Davics ," ( U.ni Cunllo";. 
Hfv. Tiiiiniiiy ki--]iar.i^, i.l.d. 1. Lt.-dl. Sir .laiiu's llills-.Iohiics. v.c, (i.f.li. 
5. Kcv. William Prythoich. 6. liev. Evan Jones, 7. lii)ger AVillioms. 



43 

Lewis Glyn Cothi — sometimes called Lewis-y-Glyn, or Llew- 
elvn Glyn Cothi — was a celebrated bard who flourished in the reigns of 
Henry VI., Edward IV., Edward V., Richard III. and Henry VII. 
(1450-1486). He lived for some time at a farm called Pwlltinbyd, in 
this parish. He served as an officer under Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, 
to whom he dedicated several of his poems. During the civil war he 
took refuge at C'hester. Her^i he married a widow, and int^^nded to 
make his home there, but the day folic wing his marnage the people 
took from him n\i his hou.^ohold furniture, and drove him out of the 
city. Thereupon he wrote Jscverrtl poems addressed to^8ome of the 
Welsh leaders, urging them to revenge his injury. IJeinalt of the 
Tower accordingly made a raid upon Chester. Lewis removed to 
Flint, thence to Llwydiarth, near Llanerchymedd, Anglesea. About 
1485 he appears to nave returned to Carmarthenshire, where he soon 
died. Hh is said to have been buried at Abergwilly. In ISJH the 
Cymmrodorion Society published two volumes of his poems (about 
150) selected on account of their historical and genealogical informa- 
tion. It is perhaps the best source of information in existence about 
the part played by the Welsh in the Wars of the Roses. A great 
number of his poems are still unpublished ; many of them are in the 
^lyvyrian collection in the Addit MSS. of the British Museum, and 
Hengwrt MSS. in the Peniarth collection. 

In the "Cymru," vol. I. (115). three prcN-iously unpublished 
poems are found. Lewis was a popular poet as well as a herald-bard. 
'* Lewis Glyn Cothi was a native of Carmarthenshire. He was 
jirohiblyof th»< family of Bolau Cothi, or perhaps that of Khydodin, 
aiil ttiok his bardic name from the liver on whose banks he was born, 
and in whose green valleys and n«eadows he had spent most of his 
youthful days. He was a celebrated bard, and became an officer 
liiuler Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, in who e praise he composed many 
I)oems ; and when that nobleman retired to France, to avoid tho 
vengeance of Edward IV., Lewis of Glyn Cothi deemed it necessary 
to live in obscurity, and to retire to some place where he was not 
known ; he therefore changed his dress, and came to Chester, where he 
for a season resided. In the course of time, however, the place of his 
lesidence was discovered, and application was made to the Mayor and 
officers of the city for his apprehension ; all his property was seized 
and confiscated, but he himself, with difficulty, made his escape. H« 
found a place of security at Tower, near Mold, in Flintshire, the 
residence of Reynold, alias Reinallt ab Griffith ab Blethin, who became 
his protector. Several attempts were, however, made to apprehend 
])oth him and his brave defender, all of which proved unsuccessful ; 
and in the meantime Lewis' muse was not idle, for here he composed 
SMveral satires, and many a caustic philippic on the Mayor of Chester 
. lid his party."— Cambrian Quarterly, Vol. III., p. 501. 



44 

I GYNWYL GAIO. 

By Lewis Glyn Cothi, 

The bard is lavish in his praises of Cynwyl Caio. The enter- 
tainments at a festival there, in his estimation, were nothing inferior 
to those at York. He urges every lover of song to resort thither. 
He alludes to the liberal hospitality of Thomas Lloyd, and to the 
immense wealth of David Vaughan. He rpeaks of Thomas Lloyd 
as a beautiful composer of love songs, and as possessing an amiable 
disposition as well as a truly patriotic spirit. 

Goreu im lie ger ein llaw, 
I leyg y w Cynwyl Gaiaw ; 
Mia gawn ym o Gynwyl, 
Mwy nog o lore, yn min g^yl ; 
Awn i Gynwyl wen ganwaith, 
Ac yno aed a g&n iaith ; 
Ni ddeuai hwn ei ddau hyd 

Gynwyl Gaio enyd ; 
A*r ha'jla* oil ati rhoi'i lyn 
Hir o dudwedd Rhyd Odyn ; 
Dyn yw heb, hyd yn Nhiber* 
Domas Llwyd dim us a Uert. 

Mab Morgan yn mhob mawrgost, 
Mwy nog un y myn ei gost ; 
Ban Davydd Fychan yw fo 
Ben cy waeth meibion Caio ; 
Bid rhyw Philip Trahaem 
Bena' o'r byd ban to bam 
A chaned faled J i ferch, 
A chyrhaedded awch Rhydderch. 
Glyn Aeron, Rhyd Odyn dir, 
Oedd ei adail a'i ddeheudir. 
Digrifion doethion fu'r do 
Aedd a aned oddi yno. 

A gair mwyn a geir am wys, 
Tomas fal Tim sy felys. 
Gwna ei hun, gan ei hanerch, 
Gan* mil o ganeuau merch ; 
A phob pennill Ebrillaidd 

1 fedw grym, hefyd a'i gwraidd. 
Nid dewr un, er maint ei ras, 
Nid da ym onid Tomas ; 
Mae'n dda mon a weddiwyd, 
Mae sy well ym Tomas Llwyd ; 
Arafa' oil yw ar fil, 

Nes ei ofyn, yn sifil ; 

• ♦'Hyd yn Nhiber," as far as the River Tiber, t "Ller," tares 
of com. X "Faled/* a ballad, a song. 



45 

Ef yw un, pan of j-ner, 

A ol'yn barn a fo'n ber ; 

A gwna hawl, ac enui hon ; 

Wedi'r hawl fo dyr holion ; 

As bam, neu wys, a bair neb, 

Parotaf y pair ateb ; 

As aliwns a gwnsela 

I f wrw eni tir o fraint da ; 

Ar Domas rhaid yw ymwan, 

A'i bwrw hwynthwy obry'n y tan ; 

dyd ei lawnfryd a'i law, 

Domas Llwyd am ais Llydaw. 

Roger Williams (1606-1683), the earliest legislator, true 
champion for a full and absolute liberty of conscience in matters of 
religion ; the founder of Rhode Island ; the voluminous writer ; was 
bom in 1606 at Maestroiddyn-fawr, in the hamlet of Maestroiddyn in 
this parish, the son of William Williams, who was the owner of the 
said farm. The first authentic fact respecting him is found in a note 
appended by Mrs. Sadleir, the daughter of Sir Edward Coke, to one of 
Williams' letters addressed to herself : — ** This Roger Williams, when 
he was a youth, would in a short-hand, take sermons and speeches in 
the Star Chamber, and present them to my dear father. He, seeing 
so hopeful a youth, took such liking to him that he sent him to 
Sutton's Hospital.'* (MS. letter of Roger Williams to Mrs. Sadleirs 
in the library of Trinity CoUege, Cambridge) . The second authentic 
fact is — the records of Sutton's Hospital, now the Charter House, 
which furnish no other particulars than the following : — *' That Roger 
Williams was elected a scholar of that institution June 2nd, 1621 ; and 
that he obtained an Exhibition July 9th, 1624." The third record, 
copied from archives of the University of Oxford, show when he 
entered Jesus College: — **Rodericus Williams filius Gulielmi 
Williams, de Conwilgaio, Pleb. an. nat. 18, entered at Jesus College, 
April 30th, 1624." 

Jesus College was founded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth (in 
1571) to extend the benefits of learning to the natives of Wales, and 
has always been a favourite resort of students from Wales. Probably 
his father, William Williams, knew John Williams, D.D., a native of 
the adjoining parish (Llansawel), who was the Principal of Jesus 
CoUege from 1602-1613, and Griffith Powell of Prysg Melyn, Llan- 
sawel, who was Principal 1613-1620. This may to some extent 
account for his being a member of Jesus College. He was well versed 
in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and several of the modem languages. 
The ministry of the Gospel was his chosen pursuit; he had been 
admitted to Orders in the Church of England in Lincolnshire. The 
intolerable oppressions of Laud, and the arrogant demands of absolute 
submi£,sion to the ceremonies of the English Church, forced him to 
seek religious liberty amidst the wilds of America. On the 5th 
of February, 1631, the "Lyon," a ship from Bristol, sailed into 
Boston Harbour. Among the passengers was Roger Williams, "a 
young minister, godly and zealous, having precious gifts, accompanied 



46 

by his wife Mary, a lady of a kindred spirit, and who lived to share 
with him the vicissitudes of life for half jbl century. 

On 12th April, 1631, Mr. Williams settled as a teacher at the 
Salem Church, Boston. His settlement here was short, and before 
the close of the summer he went to Plymouth, as assistant to Rev. 
Ralph Smith, Pastor of the Puritans, who were organised as a Church 
before they left Hollaad in the ** Mayflower,*' in 1620. In August, 
1633, Mr. Williams returned to Salem, Boston, as an assistant to the 
Rev. Mr. Skelton, whose health was now declining. On the death of 
Mr. Skelton in 1634, Mr. Williams succeeded him. In November, 
1636, Mr. Williams was banished from Boston for advocating the 
great doctrine which has immortalized his name — **That the Civil 
Power has no jurisdiction over the conscience." In January, 1636, 
he was forced to leave his wife and young children, and to depart in 
secrecy and haste, in order to escape the warrant which would have 
compelled him to return to England. He journeyed through the 
wilderness to Narragansett Bay, and proceeded to Seekonk, and began 
a settlement there, and founded the town of Pro^'idence, Rhode 
Island. He visited England in 1643 and 1651 in reference to the 
colony. In 1654 he was chosen President of the Colony of Providence. 
He died in May, 1683, in the 78th year of his age, and was buried on 
his own land, a short distance from the place where, 47 years before, 
he set his foot in the wilderness. He published several volumes, viz., 
**Mr. Cotton's Letter, lately printed, Examined and Answered by 
Roger Williams, of Providence, in New England," London, 1644; 
Anonymous pamphlet, ** Queries of highest considerations proposed to 
Mrs. Thomas Goodwin, presented to the High Court of Parliament," 
London, 1644. His celebrated book was " The Blondy Tenant of 
Persecution for Cause of Conscience ; discussed in a Conference 
between Truth and Peace," London, 1644. This book excited admira- 
tion in the writings of Jeremy Taylor, Milton, Ix)cke and Furneau. 
** Experiments of Spiritual Life and Health and their Preservatives," 
liondon, 1652 and *'The Hireling Ministry.'* In 1652 he published 
another edition of ** The Blondy Tenant," of 374 pages, quarto vol., 
in the appendix of which is an address ** To the clergy of the four 
great paities professing the name of Christ Jesus in England, Scot- 
land and Ireland, viz.: The Popish, Prelatical, Presbyterian and 
Independents." His powers of mind were strong and original, and 
his moral qualities were of the highest order. Inflexible intregity, 
undaunted courage, and prompt decision marked all his conduct. In 
his pecuniary transactions he was filled with disinterestedness. Every 
man, of whatever clime or colour or condition, he regarded as a 
brother. 

The name of the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams, son 
of Maestroyddinfawr Cayo, will last for ever for his noble and great 
doctrine — "Every man entire liberty of conscience," In 1851 some 
of his descendants in America paid a visit to Caio to inspect his birth- 
place, and to find out such of his collateral relatives as were livinsr, of 
whom one family occupied Ynysau, near Pumpsaint, on the Dolau 
Cothi estate. Roger Williams has been for 200 years in front of the 
most advanced Nonconformists, and he was the first to secure 



47 

religious liberty by Act of Parliament. He had the eye of an eagle, 
and he mastered, while only a young man, the great and many-sided 
subject, " Religious and Civil Liberty." 

Dafydd Jones (Daxid Jones, 1711-1777), the Welsh hymn 
writer was the son of Daniel Jones, of Cwmgogerddan, a farm in the 
lower part of this parish. He was bom here in 1711. He was 
known as Dafydd Jones o Gaio, or as he was locally known ** Dafydd 
Jones o'r Hafod.** His parents were enabled to give him a good 
education, and he went on increasing his stock of knowledge untU his 
death. He married one Anne Jones, of Aberaeron, near Llangeithio, 
who died in 1748, leaving to his care two daughters. After having 
been a widower about 12 years he married Miss Price, of Ffynonda- 
folog, Llanwrda. This marriage, it is said, turned out to be an un- 
happy one. About the year 1763 he removed to Hafod, his wife's 
home, and remained there until his death, July 30th, 1777. Besides 
being engaged in husbandry, he used to buy cattle and horses in 
"Welsh fairs to sell them in England. When returning home from one 
of these journeys one Sunday morning, he heard singing in 
Troedrhiwdalar Chapel, near Llan^^Ttyd, and turning to listen he 
waited to hear the sermon preached. The preacher was the Rev. 
Isaac Price, and his discourse was blessed for the eternal welfare of 
his soul. After returning home he at once joined the Independent 
Church at Crugybar, which then assembled (before the chapel was 
built) in the cottage of an old woman called Mari Dafydd, and his 
union with them was the means of reWving and adding much fervid- 
ness to the good cause in the district. He consecrated his awen and 
his life on the shrine of religion and godliness. The Methodists in 
those days called the Independents ** Dissenters sychion" (dry 
Dissenters), but David Jones showed he was not so — 

Mi fum jTi hir dan gwmwl, 

Yn ffaelu canmol Duw, 
Roedd pechod a'i euogrwydd 

0*m mewn fel colyn byw ; 
Fe dynwyd hwnw ymaith, 

Yng nghyd a'i bwys a'i boen 
Mi ganaf yn dragywydd 

Ail rinwedd gwaed yr Oen. 

It is said be wrote at the request of the Independent ministers a 
large number of Welsh hymns, which rank in popularity second only 
to the productions of the greatest of Welsh hymn writers, Rev. Wm. 
Williams, of Pantycelyn, the Methodist preacher. Like the hymns 
of Williams, Jones's works do not bear the impress of sectarian 
theology, and are in common use throughout Wales at the present 
time. Always joyful in tone, they move easily and are clear in 
thought and expression. His translation of the Psalms of Isaac 
Watte, D.D., published in London, 1753, ensured for himself fame 
which will live as long as the Welsh language. A second edition was 
published at Llandovery in 1766, and a third edition published at 
Carmarthen in 1817. In 1754 he published the first part of his own 
hymns, followed by two others, under the title, "Difyrwch j 



48 

Pererinion o Fawl i'r Oen," ** Caniadau Dewisol," published in 1771, 
and ''Can Ddewisol," published in 1779. It appears he was a man of 
strong intellect, keen perception, and of a lively spirit. He died in 
his 68th year, and was laid to rest in Crugybar Churchyard in 1777. 

Rev. Joshua Thomas (Baptist Historian), was born at Tyhen, 
in this parish, on the 22nd February, 1719, and was the eldest son of 
Morgan Thomas. When 20 years of age he was apprenticed to a 
mercer at Hereford. In May, 1740 he was baptized by immersion, 
and admitted to the communion of the church at Leominster. In 
1743 he returned to Cayo, and remained two years with his parents, 
when he commenced preaching. In 1746 he married and settled in 
business at Hay. He joined Maesyberllan Baptist Church. In 1754 
he accepted an invitation to settle at his mother church at Leominster 
as their pastor, where he opened a day school, which was successful. 
His long and useful life came to a close on the 25th August, 1797, in 
the 79th year of his age. His affection for Wales continued ardent 
and strong to the last. He took great interest in the history of 
religion in the land of his fathers. His history of the Baptist 
Churches in Wales, " Hanes y Bedyddwyr mhlith y Cymrv," was 
published in 1778, and is the best work published on the history of 
Nonconformity in Wales. His industrious pen furnished valuable 
other articles. He left one son in the Baptist ministry, the late Rev. 
Timothy Thomas of Islington, Pastor of Devonshire Square Church, 
Islington, London. 

Rev. Timothy Thomas was born at Tyhen, in this parish 
in 1720. In the 20th year of his age he was called to the ministry by 
the Church which met at Aberduar, and various other places in Car- 
marthenshire and Cardiganshire, and was ordained in 1743. He was 
an eminent minister of the Baptists, and a diligent and acceptable 
preacher. He not only served his own chur(^hes over a vast hilly 
country, but visited other congregations. He was a diligent and 
successful writer in Welsh. The ablest and most generally known of 
his writings was " Wisg wen Ddysglear," i.e. " The White Shining 
Robe." It consists of valuable essays on the fall of man, justifica- 
tion and sanctification. He died in the prime of life on the 12th of 
November, 1768. Two of his sons became useful ministers — Rev. 
Thomas Thomas, Peckham, and Timothy Thomas, of Aberduar, who 
baptized one of the greatest of Welsh preachers and evangelists, viz., 
Christmas Evans, in 1788 in the River Duar. 

Rev. William Lloyd was the son of David Lloyd, Blaen- 
clawdd Caio, and was born in 1741. When about 18 years of age he 
heard the Rev. Peter Williams, of Carmarthen preach. His preach- 
ing made a deep impression upon him. Soon after he joined the 
Independents at Crugybar, but he did not remain long with them, 
and he joined the few friends of Methodists at Caio. He was one of 
the most popular and useful preachers with the INIethodists. He 
experienced gieat kindness from the Rev. Daniel Rowlands, of Llan- 
geitho, and had great cause to be tliankful to him for his private 
advice, as well as public ministry. He attended Rowlands' ministry 
on the monthly sacrament Sundays, though nearly thirty miles 



49 

distant. He was one of the other race of preachers that came forth 
out of the school of Howell Harris, W. Williams, Peter Williams, 
Daniel Rowlands and H. Davies, and latterly Jones, of Langan, and 
Charles of Bala, and had some share of their spirit and some part of 
their mantle. He started preaching when about 22 years of age, at 
Caio. At the opening of a new chapel at Talley, in 1806, when 68 
years of age, he preached together with Mr. Jones, Llangan, to an 
enormous congregation. He married the daughter of Mr. John 
Jones, Black Lion, Llansawel, and lived at Henllan Farm the rest of 
his life. The last Sunday ho was alive he preached at Llanddeusant 
and Llansadwrn. He died ou the 17th of April, 1808, 67 years old, 
and was buried at Caio Churchyard. When he joined the church at 
Caio there w^ere only 18 membei-s in the Society, but before his death 
there were 200 members. 

He laboured here for nearly 45 years, and the blessing of Grod 
followed his work. Four years before his death the Rev. William 
Prytherch was born in the same parish, and followed in his footsteps 
to carry on the work of the Lord. 

David Lloyd, the son of the Rev. William Lloyd, lived at 
Henllan, after his father. In Januarj-, 1830, David Lloyd's wife, 
Hannah, died. She was a good woman. The Rev. J. Kilsby Jones 
stated at the time — " That her conversation was an ornament to her 
profession, a glory to God, and an example to her religious sisters and 
to all who love the simplicity of the Gospel." The Rev. R. Jones, 
of Ffaldybrenin (Kilsby Jones' father) preached at the house 
(Henllan), and the Rev. John Davies, Caio, officiated at the 
Methodist Chapel on the day of her funeral. She was buried in the 
Parish Churchyard. 

Rev. Richard Davies was bom at Bedw-gleision in this 
parish in 1770. When about 20 years of age he joined the Methodist 
Chiu-ch at Cayo. About six years afterwards he commenced preach- 
ing, with the approval and help of the Rev. William Lloyd, Henllan. 
He continued preaching in all the country districts for nearly 20 
years. In 1815 he was ordained fully as a minister with the 
Methodists. He lived the greater part of his life at Llansadwrn. He 
was a man of prayer and faith. After labouring for over 50 years in 
the Lord's Vineyard, he died in the year 1847, when 77 years old. 
At the annual meeting of Anglesey Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, 
held at Amlwch in 1833, when nearly 20,000 persons were present, we 
find that the Rev. John Edwards, of Berth^Ti Gron, Flintshire, and 
the Rev. Richard Davies, of Cayo, Carmarthenshire, preached in a 
large field where the meeting was held on the first day. On the fol- 
lowing day at the two o'clock meeting we find that the Revs. Daniel 
Jones, of Llanllechryd, and Richard Davies, of Cayo, preached. It 
was no doubt the custom then, as at the present day, that good 
preachers only, as a rule, preach at Association mestings. 

Rev. Eliezer Williams, M.A., Vicar of this parish 1784- 

1820, the son of the Rev. Peter William?, Carmarthen (author of the 
"Welsh Commentary on the Bible") was born at Llanefeilog in 



50 

1764. He received his early education in the Free G-rammar School, 
Carmarthen. In 1773 he entered Jesus College, Oxford. In August, 
1777, he was ordained at AhergwiUy to the curacy of Trelech. b'rom 
here he went te Tets worth, Oxford. Shortly aftei-^'ards he became 
Master of Wallingford Grammar School. In 1780 he entered as 
chai)lain in H.M.S. ** Cambridge. " After a few years on sea he 
relinquished his chaplaincy and became tutor to Lord Galloway's 
family. In 1784 he was presented to the living of Caio and Llan- 
sawel. In 1792 he entered upon the duties of evening Lecturer at 
All Hallows, Lombard Street, London, as well as Chaplain and 
Private Secretary to ^Mr. Blankeney. He resided in London till 1799, 
when he removed to Chapwell, Essex, as Curate and Chaplain of 
Tilburj' Fort. In 1805 he accepted the li^dng of liampeter. Although 
Vicar of Caio since 1784, he did not reside there or within a hundred 
miles of it for 21 years afterwards, when he came to Lampeter in 
1805. Here he opened a Grammar School, which the Bishop licensed. 
This school rose to great eminence, and this circumstance was mainly 
instrumental in the foundation of the well-known St. David's College 
in 1823. The establishment of this college has undoubtedly marked 
the beginning of a new era in the history of Wales. Mr. Williams 
looked forward vdth pleasure to the erection of the college, which he 
was never destined to see, for on the 20th January, 1820, he died, 
aged 60, and was buried at Lampeter. In the Pai-ish Church there i8 
a tablet placed to his memoiy, Ho took an active interest in the first 
Welsh Newspaper published in 1813, price Sixpence, " SerenGomer," 
patronized by the Independents and Baptists. In February, 1814, his 
paper on "Welsh Orthography," appeared therein. He was a great 
writer to various Magazines, and also a Bard of no mean order. His 
Englith Works with a memoir of his life, was published by his son, 
Rev. St. George Armstrong Williams, M.A., in 1840. 

The Rev. William Davies, M.A., Ph.D., Master of Froodvale 
Academy, was a native of Llanycrwys, the adjoining parish. He 

received his early education from the well-known Da vies, Castell 

Hywel, where he spent some years. From there he went to the 
Presbyterian College, Carmarthen. Then he spent about 3 years as a 
Missionary'. In 1835, he came to Froodvale, to instruct the family of 
David Davies, Esq. Here he estahlished the well-known, and never 
forgotten Academy, " Athrofa Ffrwd Fal. During his abode here, he 
was pastor of Parc-y-Rhos Independent Chapel, about ten miles distant 
from Froodvale, and about two miles from Lampeter. Hero he prt-ached 
once a month, other Sundays he preached in various other Chapels in 
the district. After he left Froodvale about 1855, Mr. Jones, of 
Derlwyn, erected a school for him, between C'armarthen and Lampeter 
(about 6 miles from Carmarthen), which was kno\\Ti as "Derlwyn 
UoUege." He did not remain here long. Soon after, he was made 
Professor of Hebrew in the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen. Here 
he was the head of the very College in which ho had once been a 
student. He died on the 10th December, 1859. 

John Davies, Garthlwyd, the great grandfather of Professor 
Rhys Davids, the eminent authority on Hinduism, was an inhabitant 
of this parish. John Davies, or as he was familiarly known, Jao 



51 

Garthlwyd, had a large family, and gave two of his sons the best 
training Wales afforded at the time. The younger son, Samuel, was 
for many years minister in Rotterdam. He died there, and was buried 
among the people to whom he had spent his life in ministering. The 
other son, William, was a minister in a Congregational Church, 
Swansea. His career, though brief, was a brilliant one. He died, 
leaving a widow and one son, the son being the Rev. T. W. Da^des, 
of Colchester, ex -chairman of the Congregational Union of England 
and Wales. 

John Davies, of Garthlwyd, was buried at Fald-y-Brenin, in 1841. 

David Davies (Glan Cunllo), was bom on the 17th April, 1838, at 
Pant, in the Parish of Llangunllo, Cardiganshire. His parents were 
Abraham and Ann Davies. He was the eldest of seven children. He 
gained his first education at Bwlch-y-groes, and Llandyssil Schools. 
Before he was 20 years of age, he was a village Schoolmaster. He 
kept school at Cayo for some years. In 1863, he went to Llansawel, as 
Master of the Parish School, where he spent two happy years. In 
1865, he went to Llangadock, where he was taken ill, and died on the 
17th November, 1867, comparatively a young man, and was buried in 
the Parish Churchyard. When at Cayo, he man-ied Mary, the 
daughter of William Williams, Garth. Four chidren were born ; three 
are still living. Miss M. Davies (Pontypridd), Mr. W. Davies (London), 
and Rev. D. Cunllo Davies (CM. Dowlais). He came out very early 
on the Eisteddfodic Platform, and from recitations advanced to the 
dignity of writer of englynion and essays. He was a great writer to 
several Welsh Magazines, and wrote a weekly letter to the " Byd 
Cymreig.*' He was a Bard of no mean order, and the articles he wrote 
are too numerous to mention. 

Rev. Evan Jones, of Crugybar, was bom in April, 1804, at a place 
known as the ** College," on the banks of the Teify, near Llanybyther, 
His parents were, John and Elizabeth Jones, who in 1811, removed to 
Tywilim Farm, near the main road leading from Lampeter to 
Pumpsaint. They were members of the Esgerdawe Independent 
Church. When nineteen years of age, Evan comn^.enced to preach. 
His early education was given him by Daniel Abel, who kept a school 
at Esgerdawe. From here he went to the well-known " Neuaddlwyd" 
School, kept by the Revs. D. Maurice and Dr. Phillips, where he spent 
four years. In March, 1824, he obtained from J. Jordan, Esq., J. P., 
the necessary certificate to preach, according to an Act made in the 
52nd year of King George III. In 1829, he was ordained pastor ^.f 
Brychgoed, Devynock, Breconshire. In the following year, he married 
the widow of James Davies, of Ynysau-isaf. In 1835, he removed to 
Crugybar, In 1837, he undertook the oversight of the Church at 
Abergorlech. In 1841, he buried his first wife, and three children. 
Five years afterwards, he married Jane Phillips, at Llandovery, widow 
of John Phillips, Cattle Dealer, the daughter of the Rev. D. Rees, 
Methodist Minister, Llanrystyd. Soon after, he removed to Bryntelych, 
near Froodvale. His mother died in May 1847, aged 80 years ; his 
father died August, 1853, and both are buried in Ffaldybrenin Church- 
yard. The Church at Crugybar, was rebuilt for the fourth time, and 
was opened for public worship in 1837. In 1869, he undertook the 



52 

oversight of the Church at Shiloh, Llansawel. In 1868, he removed 
to the Borthyn Farm, where his second wife died, in 1873, aged 64 
years. He spent over 48 years in the ministry, and over 42 years as 
pastor of the Church at Crugybar. In March, 1878, he died, and was 
buried at Crugybar. He was then 74 years old. The Revs. J. Ossian 
Davies (London), T. Johns (Llanelly), J. B. Jones, B.A. (Brecon), 
Professor Lewis (Bala), T. Davies (Llanelly). Thomas (Bryn, Llanelly), 
and others, officiated at his funeral, which was very largely attended. 

Rev. J, D. Evans, minister of Salem and Bethel Baptist Churches 
in this parish, was born at Aberystwyth, in 1822. He was baptised in 
Cnrdigan, by the Kev. David Rees, in 1S39. He commenced preaching 
at Liverpool, in the church of which the Kev. Daniel Jones was 
minister. In 1852, he was ordained at Solva. In 1855, he went to 
Elm Baptist Church, Pendarren. About 1860, he was minister of 
Ebenezer, Llangyfin. In 1868, he became minister of Salem and 
Bethel Churches. He was well known in the district as "Evans 
Cayo." A powerful and popular preacher respected and admired by 
all who knew him. He visited America twice. He died on Sunday, 
the 10th July, 1892, at the residence of Rev. J. Gomer Lewis, D.D., 
Swansea, whose guest he was at the time. He seemed apparently in 
good health ; attended the morning service in Capel Gomer, with the 
Rev. Dr. Lewis ; after dinner he was taken ill, and died about 2.30 
p.m. The news of his sudden death created a profound sensation 
among his nmmerous friends. He was buried in Bethesda Baptist 
Churchyard, Swansea, the following Wednesday. He was a bachelor, 
and had retired from the ministry after nearly 40 years work. 

Rev. William Prytherch, was bom at Tan-yr-hoel, near 
Pumpsaint, on the 25th April, 1804. His father, Thomas William 
Prytherch (also a native of Cayo), was a Tailor. In 1803, he married 
Miss Jones, who was in service at Dolaucothy, with John Johnes, Esq. 
His father died when he was 12 months old ; and the Dolaucathy 
family persuaded Mrs. Pr}i;herch to put the child out to be nursed, 
and return to to their service at Dolaucothy. She did so, and spent 
there about 20 years. William Prytherch was taken care of by Evan 
Jones, Pistillgwyn bach. He attended the best school in the district 
at the time, until he was 14 years of age, when he was apprenticed to 
Daniel Rees, Tailor, Caio. Here he attended the Sunday School. He 
joined the Methodist Church at Caio, when the Rev. Watcyn Edwards, 
of Deiynog, was preaching there. Soon after this, he and his mother 
took the Dolaucothi Mill, Pumpsaint, so that they might have a home 
of their own ; but Mrs. Johnes would not let her leave their service ; 
80 young William went himself. Here he began life in earnest, 
reading, and praying every morning after breakfast, and attending the 
prayer meelings at Yynysau Farm. Two years after, his mother left 
Dolaucothi, and went to live at the Mill ; she was then getting on in 
years, and could not read, but young WiUiam took her in hand, and 
taught her. Many hours they spent together in going through the 
Bible. When he was about 21 years old, he commenced preaching. 
Rev. Da\'id Evans, of Conwil Elfed, was present, and heard his first 
sermon. He married Joyce Evans, daughter of Thomas Evans, Farmer, 
Penarth, and went to live at Bwllfa, Caio, whore their first child, Mary, 



53 

was born. Then he went to Llwyn Owen, Cilycwm, where they had 
five children. Here he was fully ordained as a Minister, in 1834. 
When living at Bettws, he lost his wife through '* Cholera," after 23 
years of married life. Seven years afterwards, he married Mrs. Jones, 
Llandilo yr Ynys Farm, Nantgaredig. Two sons were bom, Henry 
Owen and Samuel E., one a Land Surveyor, and the other a minister 
with the Methodists. In 1878. he removed to Ferryside, where he 
maiTied his second wife. The last place he preached at was Aberdulais, 
near Neath, on 4th March, 1888. He died on the 20th November, 
1888, and was buried at Llansaint. Two of his sons are ministers 
with the Calvinistic Methodists, the Rev. William E. Prytherch, who 
is the respected pastor of Trinity Church, Park Street Swansea ; and 
the Rev. Samuel E. Prytherch, of Ferryside. It is true Wm. Prytherch 
repeated the same sermon many times ; but so did Whitfield ; so did 
Wesley ; and so have most preachers done. It did not interfere with 
the unction on the part of the minister, and as to the people, they liked 
to hear an old favourite again, or a sermon about which they had heard 
much from their friends away. He was a self-made man; no 
systematic tuition could he ever have received. His intercourse was, 
probably, mostly with men, and minds inferior to his own. He had to 
fight his own doubts, and gather strength in the wrestling and the 
conflict. The foundation of the good man's character was laid in 
honest simplicity, and real and perfect sincerity. He is a connecting link 
between Wm. Lloyd (Henlan), Richard Davies (Cayo), ministers of 
the 18th century, and those of the 19th century. Rev. W. Prytherch 
was one of the oldest Nonconformist Ministers in the principality at 
the time of his death ; having lived 85 years, 64 of which he had been 
spent in the ministry. He had been a very prominent figure in the 
Calvinistic Methodist Connection. He was much beloved, and his 
popularity was due as much to his personal qualities, as to his ability 
in the pulpit. 

David Edwards, better known as Dio Pen Poenyn, of Cwmcothi, 
was a pauper, a tall man, over six feet in height, clad in moleskin 
trousers, that just reached the tops of his clogs, an old overcoat with 
immense pockets, with an old battered silk hat. With a long stick 
clutched at the middle, one could not forget the odd figure he cut. He 
acted as agent for many. Honesty was one of his cardinal virtues. 
Farmers sent him to the bankers to Lampeter, Llandovery, and 
Llandilo, and they knew they could trust Dio. On many an occasion, 
he carried fifty sovereigns to the bank, and though he would have to 
walk ten miles, he would do so for sixpence. He was of a respectable 
family, and noble blood ran in his veins. 

Twm Sweep, was another of the old characters, but was of a 
religious turn oi mind, and was a great man at prayer. It is astonish- 
ing how this untutored soul became so lost in the ecstasies of prayer. 
He is gone, and no stone marks his resting place ; but the parish lost 
a good sweep, and the country a familiar figure. 

BillO Nano, was of a more theological mind. His religion, unlike 
that of Thomas the recluse, was of a social kind. He was regular in 
his attendandes at all the church meetings 



54 

Dio'r Enwyn, was a mild fellow, had very peculiar ways, and was 
the terror of the children. He earned his nickname *• Dio'r Enwyn," 
through his fondness for buttermilk. He used to act as messenger and 
carrier to different places for the country folks. 

Roger Penderyn, was another of these old characters. The 
children were more afi-aid of Roger than Dio. Older boys liked to 
tease him. 

John Harries, Pantcoy, Cwrtycadno, better known as "Doctor 
Harries," Cwrtycadno. According to a gravestone in Caio Churchyard. 
Ho was the son of Hemy Jones, Pantcoy, who died August 6th, 1805, 
aged 66 years. This gravestone also records that his son, John 
Harries (Pantcoy), Surgeon, died May 11th, 1839, aged 54 years. He 
left no will, but letters of Administration of his Effects was taken out 
in 1841, at Carmarthen Probrate Office. He was an Astrologer, and 
a Wizard, and these qualifications he made great use of in dispensing 
medicine to a large practice. He was very popular in his day. The 
sick and sorrowful came to enquire of his oracles from all parts of Wales, 
and from the testimony of the oldest people in the district, he was 
eminently successful in his cures. Lunatics were brought to him from 
parts of Pembrokeshire and Radnorshire, and he had a wonderful 
power over them. The course of treatment would include what he 
would term the water treatment, the herbs treatment, and the bleeding 
treatment. One of his chief methods was, he would take the afflicted 
to the brink of the river, and fire an old Flint revolver ; this would 
frighten his patient to such a degree, that ho would fall into the pool. 
He assumed the power of charming away pain, and was so successful, 
that peoi)le believed thoroughly that he was in league with the evil 
one. His fame had spread abroad, and Dr. Harries was a very familiar 
name through the length and breadth of the land. Patients went to 
him from all parts, some would tramp, and others on horseback over 40 
miles to see the " Doctor." The following is a copy of one of his 
Printed bills : — 

182.. 

Pant- teg. 

Mr 

To John Harries. 

To ^ledicine and Medical attendance as per account rendered £ ; ; 

Sir, 

Unless the above amount is paid to me, on or before the 



day of next, adverse means will be resorted to, for the 

recover}'. 

Your Humble Servant, 



Hundreds of tales are told of him, and are believed zealously to the- 
present day. Often have we heard an old character named Nanny 



55 

(who really believed Doctor Harries could tell events, &c), sing a song 
about the Doctor. 

Awn yn alarus 

At Doctor Harries 

Am ei fod yn hysbys, 

I 'mofyn hanes hon ; 

Dywedai ei fod yn gorwedd 

Gerllaw maes ^t on ; 

Mae ceu-bren mawr o wenjTi 

Yn tyfu bwys y He, 

A nant yn rhedeg heibio 

Lle'i Uaddwyd ganddo ef. 

It originated from the fact or rumour that a young girl in the 
district was lost, and could not be found high or low ; so the friends at 
last went to Cwrtycadno and consulted Doctor Harries. He informed 
them that she had been murdered by her sweetheart, and that he had 
hid the body, Her body was hid in the earth, under the shades of a 
tree, in the hollow of which they would find a Bee's nest. The tree 
stood alone near a brook. The searching party at last came across the 
spot indicated by Harries, and here they found the body buried. Tho 
young man was found, and confessed the crime. The authorities of the 
law became aware of these facts. Harries was brought before the 
Magistrates at Llandovery, when Lloyd, Glansevin, and Gwyn, Glan- 
bran, sat on the Bench. Harries was charged with knowing and 
abetting of murder, otherwise he could not have known she was 
murdered, and where she was buried. He was however discharged. He 
told the Magistrates that if they would tell him the hour they were 
bom, he could tell them the hour they would cease to exist. 

Another tale relates to a married woman who lost her wedding 
ring. So one day she walked 15 miles up to Cwrtycadno to see tho 
Doctor, in order to consult him as to the missing ring. As soon as she 
went into the house, the Doctor told her she was a married woman, and 
that she had come to see him respecting a wedding ring lost. He then 
told her that the ring was with some relation of hers, and that the ring 
would be returned in the course of a few days. She went home 
satisfied. The ring was taken away by her son, who returned it a few 
days afterwards. When he returned it to her, he said he could now 
die in peace, as he had returned her the ring. Two days afterwards 
the son died. 

Another tale is, that the Docter always said that he would not die 
a natural death, as his planet showed him this distinctly. So that after 
dinner on the day his planet became due to be fulfilled, in order as he 
said to cross his planet, he went to bed, so that no harm should befall 
him. However, he was awakened from his slumberings, by someone 
crying that the house was on fire. This soon roused him, down he came 
to assist to put out the fire. He went up a ladder, which leaned against 
the roof, in order to throw water on, when the ladder slipped, and 
down he went and was killed. So after all he failed to cross his planet. 
Another tale is, that the bearers who carried his body to the Churchyard 
at Caio, on the day of his burial, when nearing the Church, felt the 



56 

weight of the bier with the body get very light in weight, and that 
the reason was, that the Evil One then took j)Ossession of his body, 
having previously taken possession of his soul at the time of his death. 

It is certain that the Doctor was an educated man. His library 
consisted of many volumes, Greek, Latin, French, and books with 
hieroglyphics and tables some tied with string, others clasped with 
brass. One book in particular, was chained and padlocked. This was 
the book people were most afraid of, and talked about most. 

Henry Harries, son of the above, born at Pantcoy, was a 
surgeon, who practised the black arts, and was quite as successful as 
his well-known father. When a student, at Mr. George Cowings 
Birds' Commercial Academy, Caio, his father, John Hanies, presented 
him with a book, the work of Alexander Pope (published 1777), on the 
fly leaf of which are found the following words in his father's hand- 
writing : — " 1832, Henry Harries's, presented by his father, John. 
Harries, Pantcoy, when a student at Mr. G. 0. Birds' Commercial 
Academy, Caio,- June 30th." 

Henry Harries had a pale face, very dark hair, hanging down in 
ringlets over his narrow shoulders ; grey eyes, and a very high, 
narrow forehead. He was a kind hearted fellow. His health was very 
delicate, owing to a weak chest. He was a good Latin and English 
scholar. Young Henry was apprenticed to the celebrated *' Raphael,'* 
the astrologer, of London, where he remained for several years. His 
sister was also clever in the " art." John his brother also dabbled ^n 
it, but never shone. In 1843, Henry Harries had a Bidding, as was 
the custom. The following is a copy of the Bidding letter : — 

Carmarthenshire, March 6th, 1843 

Having lately entered the matrimonial state, we are encouraged by 
our friends to make a Bidding, on Thursday and Friday, the 23rd and 
24th days of March instant, at our house, called Aberdare, in the 
Parish of Caio; when, and where the favour of your good and agree- 
able company is humbly solicited. W hatever donation you may be 
pleased to bestow on us then, will be thankfully received, warmly 
acknowledged, and most cheerfully repaid whenever called upon en a 
similar occasion. 

By Your most Obedient and Humble Servants, 

HENRY HARRIES. 
HANNAH HARRIES. 

Here follows the names of both parents and relations whose 
** pwyths " were to be repaid to the above pair. Henry was a believer 
in advertising, so he distributed a card of which the following is a 
copy :— 

" Nati\dties Calculated." 

In which are given the general transactions of the Native thi'ough 
life, -viz : — Description (without seeing the person) , temper, disposition, 
fortunate, or unfortunate in their general pursuits : honour, riches, 



57 

journeys, and voyages, (success thereip, and what places best to travel 
to, or reside in) ; friends, and enemies, trade, or profession best to 
follow ; whether fortunate in speculations, viz : — Lottery, dealing in 
Foreign Markets, &c., &c., &c. Of marriage, if to marry, — The 
description, temper, and disposition of the person, from whence, rich 
or poor, happy or unhappy in marriage, &c., &c. Of Children, whether 
fortunate or not, &c., &c., deduced from the influence of the Sun and 
Moon, with the Planetary Orbs at the time of birth. Also, judgment 
and general issue in sickness and diseases, &c. 

By Henry Harries. 

All letters addressed to him, or his father, Mr. John Harries, 
Cwrtycadno, must be post paid, or will not be received. 

By the above one has a full description what Henry Harries was 
prepared to tell you, if you consulted him ; and hundreds went to him, 
some probably out of curiosity, others fully believed he could foretell 
events. A person told us quite recently, that she fully believed he 
could foretell things, for she went to see him, walked ten miles, when 
a young young woman. He told her before she had time to tell her 
errand, that she had a birth mark on her chest, and many moie 
particulars about her than she wanted to know. She was quite satisfied 
with her visit, and what he said has come true. A man named Thomas, 
a wheelwright at Garddlas, Llansawel, in the depth of winter, lost his 
wife one night. The neighbours searched high and low for her, but 
failed to find her, so the late Mr. E. Davies, of Penbaily (died in 1896), 
went up to see the Doctor at Cwrtycadno, in order that he might tell 
him as to wh'^re the lost woman might he found. The whole village 
were waiting for Mr. Davies' return. When he returned, he gave the 
description given him by the " Doctor'' as to where the body of the 
woman might be found, So about half a dozen went straight up to 
Baileytew Bank, and there in a bog, in the same position as described 
by Harries, she was found cold and stiff, having been dead several days. 
Two stones were placed there as a mark, where her body was found, 
they are there to this day. There are many other tales about the 
wonders this man did during his life ; those given will be no doubt 
pufficient. He died young, and was buried at Caio Churchyard. A 
gravestone marks the spot where his body lies. Mr. David Owen 
(Brutus), Llandovery, in his works ** Bautusiana," published in 1840, 
condemns Mr. Henry Harries for his fortune-telling, in a very able 
manner. 

•* The first day of winter, 

Severe is the weather, 

Unlike the first summer. 

None but God can foresee what is to come." 

Druidical ** Warrior Song." 

Witchcraft. — The savage is, however, almost universally a 
believer in witchcraft. The old people in this parish had the most 
curious fancies about pictures, and a very general dislike to have their 
photographs taken. Doctor Harries knew this well, and no doubt he 
was able to play on their ignorance and superstition, slight traces of 
which remain in this parish, even to this day. 



58 

The Rev. Timothy Richard, of China, like many other 
devoted Missionaries, is a native of Wales, ha^ang been bom in this 
parish, near Faldybrenin, in October, 1846. In early life, at the age 
of 13, he publicly professed his love for the Saviour. His baptism took 
place in the open river (Twrch), in May, 1859, by the Rev. John Davies, 
late of Aberayron, now of Llandilo, who was the pastor of Salem 
Baptist Church at the time. He was the first baptised that day, out of 
62. Until he left home for school, he rendered such help as his youthful 
years would permit, on his father's farm. At 18, he took charge of an 
endowed school at Cynwil Elfed. Two years later, he entered the 
Baptifet College, Haverfordwest. He commenced preaching in May, 
1864. He desired to be a Missionary. This desire strengthened with 
his student life, and in 1869 the Baj^tist Missionary Society accepted 
his offer of ser^dce. He was one of the first two missionaries sent out 
by the Society to China. The headquarters were at Chefoo, one of the 
Treaty ports in Shanting. Four months after the young Missionary's 
arrival, he heard of the terrible massacre in Tiestsin ; a few later his 
colleague, Mr. Laughton died, and he was left alone. After studying 
the language for some 18 months, Mr. Richard made his first journey 
into the interior, in company with Mr. Lilley. Before their return 
they had succeeded in distributing thousands of pamphlets and books. 
From Chefoo in 1874, he settled in Tsing-Chu-Fu, a central city of 
30,000 inhabitants, the only foreigner resident in the place. In 1876-9, 
terrible famines occurred in Northern China. Mr. Richard, and Mr. 
Jones, who arrived at the close of the former year, unselfishly and 
imremittingl y laboured to relicA'e the perishing victi ms. ' ' Li Timotai, ' * 
Mr. Richard's Chinese name, wrote the British Consul to Lord Salisbury 
in his official report." " Li Timotai is known far and wide among all 
classes of natives ; standing out so conspicuously, that he must be regard- 
ed as the chief of the distributors. By his great tact and power of organi- 
sation he has been a powerful agent in bringing the relief to a successful 
termination." It is said no less than 20 millions of people died. Of 
the £50,000 raised for relief, no less than two-thirds passed through 
the hands of Missionaries. In time, Mr. Richard moved to Tai-Yuen- 
Fu, the capital of the pro^'ince of Shamsi. Much time was spent in 
literary pursuits, and in winning his way into cordial relations with the 
chief rulers. He was frequently requested to deliver lectures in their 
presence. At the great examinations, where thousands of students 
gathered to compete for degrees, he, with his brethren, distributed 
Christian literature amongst them. Mr. Richard was a constant con- 
tributor to **The Chinese Record." An article he wrote, entitled, 
**How one man may preach to a million," came under the notice of 
Dr. Murdoch, the Secretary of the Christian Literature of India, who 
at once felt that the author of such an article was exactly the man to 
occupy the position in China. Since 1891, Mr. Richard undertook the 
secretarial duties of the society for the diffusion of Christian and 
General Knowledge among the Chinese. The works he has himself 
composed, translated, or edited are overwhelmingly numerous. One 
of the mose important of his translations is that of Mackenzie's 
** History of Christian Civilisation of the Nineteenth Century," 
consisting of 8 volumes. During a sojourn in the city of Tientsin, 
Mr. Richard edited a Chinese daily newspaper. When Mr. Richard 
was in Peking, a son of the Japanese Minister (Shioda) , and one of 



59 

the Secretaries of Legation (Amano), were converted to Christianity, 
and were baptised by Mr. Kichard. In 1897, after 28 years' absence, he 
visited the home land. Mr Richard married Miss Mary Martin, who 
was bom in Edinburgh, who went out to China in 1876, by the United 
Presbyterian Mission. She has encouraged and aided him in his 
work ; she, too, has herself lead in moA'ements to bless the women and 
children of China. The welfare of China burdens their hearts. Mr. 
Bichard profoundly believes in the many high qualities of the Chinese 
race. He loses no opportunity to show how helpful to such reform are 
the principles and precepts of the Christian faith. We hope both may 
long be spared to spend and be spent for China. In a recent issue of 
the "British Weekly," the following appeared: — The worst mas- 
sacres of Europeans, which took place during the Boxer outbreak of 
1900, occurred in the city af Tai-Yneu, in the province of Shansi ; 
many missionary' societies concerned having* refused to claim money 
compensation. The Chinese Government has volimtary set aside ha& 
a million taels to find a University in Tai-Yuen, and the Rev. Timothy 
Richard having been asked to administer the fund, and take entire 
responsibility for the devolopment of the University during ten years. 

A well deserved honour has lately been conferred on the Rev. 
Timothy Richard. The degree of l)octor of Letters of Brown 
University, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A., has been conferred on 
him, in recognition of the signal service he has rendered to the cause 
of progress. It is a curious fact that the foimder of the state of 
Rhode Island, Mr. Roger Williams and Mr. Richard, are both from this 
parish. *' The Contemporary Review" for January, 1903, contains 
an interesting article by Rev. Timothy Richard, on **The New 
Education in China. 



DolaUCOthi means ** Meadows on the banks of the Cothi," 
others state that Dolaucothy means, Dolau — Meadows ; Coeth (coethi), 
vehement (rushing) ar- 
dent, brisk, pure-gwy- 
water. •* Meadows of 
the pure rushing 
stream." In 1644, 
Howell Gwynne, 
Glanbrane, High 

Sheriff of the County 
of Brecon, spelt it — 
* Dole-Koythey *; then 
in 1727, it is spelt 
Dolecothy. It is now 
at times spelt Dolau- 
c o t h y , but the 

family always spell it Dolaucothy. Dolaucothy is a pleasant 
mansion finely situated on the banks of the river Cothi, from which it 
takes its name. It is near Pumpsaint, and is just at the beginning of 
the beautiful valley of Cwm Cothi. It is now the covntrv'^ residence 
of Lieut. General Sir James Hills- Johnes, V.C, G.C.B. ; Lady Hills- 
Johnes, and Mrs. Johnes. Dolaucothy is famed amongst antiquarians, 
as being the place where many interesting relics of the past are kept. 




60 

In 1855, the Cambrian Archaeoligical Association visited Dolaucothy 
and the surrounding district. The Earl of Cawdor proposed a vote of 
thanks to John Johnes, Esq., for the great kindness with which he 
pointed out to the members of the association, and others, the various 
remarkable relics of antiquity at, and around Dalaucothy and Gogofau ; 
and for the munificent hospitality with which he welcomed the very 
numerous party which had visited that morning. 

Pedigree of Johnes, of Dolaucothy.— This ancient family 

descended in a direct male line from Cumbro — British hero Urien 
JReged, Avho is stated to have been 5th in descent from Coel Godeborg, 
Monarch of Britain. Urieti JRheged, a celebrated warrior who lived 
in the latter part of the 5th century. He found refuge in Wales, 
where he undertook to expel the Gwyndelians, or Irish Scots, who had 
for some time established themselves in many parts of South Wales. 
In reward for his services, which were successful in expelling the 
invadei-s, he obtained the sovereignty of the district of Rheged, between 
the rivers Tawe and Towy. IJrien Rheged was the patron- of the 
Bards, Llywarch Hen and Talicsin, and his heroic deeds have been 
celebrated by them in some of the noblest efi:'usions of the Welsh muse. 
Urien was prince of Reged, now Dumbartonshire ; Goden, now Cadyow, 
or the middle ward of Lanarkshire ; and the district of Lennox, now 
in Dumbartonshire, in the lifetime of Arthur who was slain in the 
battle of Camlan, 537, where also his opponent, linen's nephew, 
Medrant ap Llew, perished. Urien eventually, with his sons and 
followers, migrated to South Wales, he became Lord of Kidwelly, 
Carnownllwn, Iskennin, &c., and by his wife, Margaret la Faye, 
daughter of Gwrleis, Prince of Cornwall, and uterine sister of King 
Arthur was ancestor of 

Sir Elydyr DdU, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre temp Richard I, 
whose grandson, GryfEydd ap Nicholas, ap Philip, ap Sir Elydyr Ddu, 
was a great patron of the bardic literature of his day and country, as 
have ever been his successors ; and by his first wife, Mably, daughter 
of Maredudd ap Henry Dwn, or Donn of Kidwelly, had with other 
children an heir 

Thomas ap GryfTydd, who by his first wife, Elinor (or Elizabeth, 
according to the Dale Castle M,S.) daughter and heir Sir John Griffith, 
of Llansadwrn and Abemarlais, had with others. Sir Rhys ap Thomas, 
K.G., ancestor of Rice of Newton or Dynevor, now Lord Dynevor ; 
and by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Francis or James, 
second son of Philip Duke of Burgundy, by dispensation from the 
Pope of Rome, his first wife being alive. Killed in a duel, and buried 
at Bardsey Island. 

John ap Thomas, of Abermarlais, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Vaughan, of Bredwardine, by Elinor, daughter 
of Robert, Lord Whitney, and had a son, 

Sir Thomas Johnes, Knight of Abermarlais and Haroldston, in 
Pembrokeshire. First Knigkt of the Shire for that County, and 
Sheriff of Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire in 1541-1544 respectively. 



61 

He married Mary, daughter and heir of Hon. Sir James Berkeley, 
second son of Maurice, 8th Lord Berkeley, and widow of Sir Thomas 
Perrott, of Harold^ton, and by her had four sons and three daughters, 

Sir Henry, from whom Johnes, of Abermarlais, Bart., 
Richard, of Cwmgwilly, extinct in the male line, 

Samuel, 

James, of whom presently 

James Johnes, of Llanbadamvawr, the 4th son, Sheriff of Car- 
diganshire, 1686 ; married Annie, daughter and heir of John Thomas 
Harry, Cryngae and Dolaucothy, and widow of James Lewis, of 
Llanbadarnva>;vT. He left a daughter and son, 

Thomas Johnes, of Llanbadamvawr and Dolaucothy, Sheriff of 
Cardiganshire, 1618, whose 1st wife Elizabeth, daughter of Watkin 
Thomas, of Ll^ynjn-ewarth, d.s.p., but by his 2nd wife, Mary, daughter 
of James Lewis David, of Abemantfychan (she married secondly, whose 
2nd wife she was). Eowland Pugh, of Mathafam, he was father of a 
eon and heir, 

James Johnes, of Dolaucothy, Sheriff of Carmarthenshire, 1667, 
and Cardigan, 1670, who married first, Mary, daughter of the said 
Rowland Pugh, of Mathafam, by his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Richard Pryse, of Gogerddan ; and secondly, her first cousin. 
Mary, daughter of Sir John Pryse, of Gogerddan. By his first wife, 
he was father of 

Thomas Johnes, of Dolaucothy, Sheriff of Cardigan, 1673, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas Lloyd, of Llanfair- 
clydogen, by whom he had a third son and two daughters, 

I. Thomas, of Llanfairclydogen, Sheriff of Cardiganshire, 1705; 
married Anne, daughter of David Lloyd, of Crynfryn, and had two 
daughters, and a son, 

Thomas Johnes, M.P. for Cardiganshire, 1713 to 1722. He 
married first, Jane, daughter and heir of William Herbert, of 
Hafodychtryd ; and secondly, Blanche, daughter of David Van, 
of Llanwem, but dying S.P., 1733, left his estate to his cousin, 
Thomas Johnes, of Dolaucothy. 

II. James Johnes. of Dolaucothy, married Cornelia, daughter of 
William Lloyd, of Llanllwr, whose son, Thomas, inherited his cousin's 

estates, 

Thomas Johnes, of Dolaucothy and Penybont ; married 1719, 
Mary Anne, daughter and co-heir of Jeremiah Powell, of Cwmell, 
Radnorshire, and had four daughters. Died 1749. 

I. Thomas Johnes, of Llanfairclydogen, and Croft Castle, Hereford- 
shire, M.P. for Radnorshire ; married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of 
Richard Knight, of Croft, and had two daughters. Died 1780. 

I. Thomas Johnes, of Hafodychtryd, M.P. 1774, and Lord 
Lieutenant for Cardiganshire. He married, first, Mary Burgh, of 
Monmouthshii-e ; and second, his cousin, Jane, daughter of John 



62 

Johnes, of Dolaucothy, but D.S.P., 13th April, 1816, aged 67. 
His only daughter, Maria Anne, having predeeeased him (unm.) 

II. Samuel Johnes, of Henley Hall, Salop, in Holy Orders, 
fellow of All Souls, and Rector of Welwj^n, Hertfordshire. He 
took the surname Knight, and his only child, Louisa Elizabeth 
Anne, married Sir John Villiers Shelly, Bart. 

II. John Johnes (the second son), of Dolaucothy, married Jane, 
daughter of Hector Rees, of Kilymaen-Uwyd, and had four daughters, 
a son and heir (died 1781), 

John Johnes, bom 1768, who married in 1797, Elizabeth, daughter 
and heir of John Bowen, of Maesllanwrthwl, and had issue (he died 
12th Sept., 1815), 

1. John his heir was bom 6th February, 1800. 

2. Elizabeth, married VVilliam BonviUe, of Bryntowy, and had issue, 

3. Jane, married Capt. James Beck, H.E.I.C.S., and had issue, 

4. Mary Ann, married Jeremiah Walter Lloyd, of Pentratho, and 

had issue, 

5. Charlotte, died, unmanied, 1136. 

6. Catherine, died an infant. 

John Johnes, Esq., Dolaucothy, J. P., and D.L., Barrister-at- 
Law, Recorder of Carmarthen. Chairman of the Quarter Sessions of 
the County. Born February 6th, 1800. Married October, 8th, 1822, 
Elizabeth, only daughter of the Kev. John Edwardes, of Gileston 
Manor, Glamorganshire (a younger branch of the family of Edwardes, 
of Rhyd-y-gors, Carmarthenshire), she died 25th June, 1848. John 
Johnes died August 19th, 1876, had two daughters, 

1. Charlotte Anne Maria, married Charles Ca}sar Cookman, Esq., 
eldest son of Edward Rogers Cookman, Esq., Monart House, County 
of Wexford ; he died June 4th, 1859, S.P. She resumed the name of 
Johnes under her father's will, in 1876. 

2. Elizabeth, married in 1882, to Lt. Gen. Sir James Hills, Y.C., G. 
C.B., second son of James Hills, of Neechindipure, Bengal, India, and 
assumed by Royal licence on September 7th, 1883, the additional 
sui'name and arms of Johnes. 

The above pedigrees are entered and officially recorded in the 
Royal College of Arms in the year 1599 (1-9.37), in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; also they are given by ** Burke," and " Nicholas." The 
Johnes' pedigree was officially recorded in the Royal College of Arms, 
from the 16th century up to 1883, when Sir James Hills took the name 
and Arms of Johnes, in accordance with the will (dated 17th October, 
1870), of the late John Johnes, Esq., of Dolaucothy. 

Whatever was the amount of loyalty displayed, or the sacrifices 
endured by the Carmarthenshire families in supporting the cause of 
King Charles I, only one of them seems to have received the honour of 
Knighthood from Chtrles II. The Johnes of Dolaucothy, who fought 



63 

for his king at St. Fagan's, does not appear to have had any reward, 
heyond that of consciousness of having done his duty towards his 
sovereign. 

Arms.— Quarterly, 1st and 4th JOHNES, arg. ; a chevron 
between three Ravens, sa, a border enquailed, qu, bezantee, in the 
centre chief point a cross -crosslet of the third for difference, 2 and 3 
HILLS, aig. : a cross couped between four escutcheons, az, each 
charged with a crescent of the field, on a chief embattled of the second 
two swords in saltire p.p.r., hilts and pomels or. 

Crest. Johnes on two halberts saltire-wise, qu, headed or, a raven 
sa, charged on the breast with a cross -crosslet gold for difference ; 
HILLS : * 2. a horse courant arg. guttee de sang, holding in the 
mouth the other part of the spear, also proper. 

Mottoes : Johnes Deus pasut corvos. 
,, HiUs In Coelo confidomup. 

God feedeth the Eavens, 
In Heaven I trust. 



John Johnes, M.A., of Dolaucothy. — Bom at Dolaucothy, on 
the 6th February, 1800. Mr. Johnes received his early education at 
Lampeter and Carmarthen Grammar Schools ; and subsequently spent 
a few years under the private tuition of the Rev. Israel Lewis, in 
Somersetshire. At seventeen, he went to the University of Oxford, 
where he became a member of Brasenose College, and graduated B.A. 
in 1826, and M.A. in 1829. Before taking his degree, he married, in 
1822, Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. John Edwardes, of Gileston 
Manor, Glamorganshire, called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1831. 
He practised on the South Wales Circuit until the passing of the Tithe 
Commutation Act, when he was appointed one of the Assistant Com- 
missioners under the Act. Subsequently, he was placed on the 
Admiralty, Copyhold, Enclosure, and Lunacy Commissions, though it 
is believed that his appointment to a County Court Judgeship prevented 
his acting on the first two of these Commissions. He was appointed 
Judge of the County Court for this district, in 1847, which office he 
discharged until 1861. He was a magistrate for the counties of 
Carmarthen, Pembroke, Cardigan, and Glamorgan. On the retirement 
of Mr. Pugh in 1853, he was appointed Chairman of the Quarter 
Sessions for the coxmty, a position which he filled with the highest 
honour until 1872. He was Recorder of the borough of Carmarthen 
from 1851 tal872, and Deputy Lieutenant of the county of Carmarthen. 
In 1857, he was appointed Proxincial Grand Master (in Masonry) for 
the Western DiWsion of South Wales. He was first Chairman of the 
County Roads Board, which was established after the South Wales 
Roads' Act, 1844 ; Chairman of the Petty Sessions for the division of 

* 1. On a mount Vert, in front of the shaft of a broken tilting 
spear erect p.p.r. 



64 

the hundred of Caio ; first Chairman of the Caio School Board. No 
one -would suspect that the calm and impassible judge, who sat unmoved 
through intricate cases, was naturally quick tempered, and as sensitive 
as his brother Celts, but he subdued the impetuosity of his nature, and 
never lost his temper on the bench. As might be expected, too, he had 
the courage of his convictions. Whatever others might think, he stood 
firmly to the opinions he had formed. 

As judge, chairman, and magistrate, he was best known, but when 
he took part in a political or literary meeting, the unrestrained fervour 
of his nature found expression in language at once beautiful and 
forcible. The slow and studied words of the judicial bench were 
exchanged for fluent and impassioned utterance, glowing with pathos 
and humour. This was particularly the case when he spoke in Welsh, 
his native tongue, a language of which he was justly proud. He was 
an earnest politician, and more than once was named as a fitting Whig, 
candidate for the county and boroughs, though he never offered himself 
for a seat in Parliament. He was zealous in diffusing education, 
especially elementary education among the poor. He had no distrust 
in the policv of educating the poor, and threw himself with energj'- 
into various schemes for that i)urposo. Obeying the same impulse, he 
sui)portod the Eisteddfod as a means of education, and always seemed 
pleased to take part in its meetings. . At the same time, he was 
interested in the Eisteddfod as an ancient institution of the country, 
which still fosters native talent, and preserves the Welsh language. 
He was an enthusiastic Welshman, greatly interested in literature. 
The manner of his private life, especially after his retirement from 
public duties, were for the most part devoted to the (closer study of 
those branches of knowledge, and S(!ience, and art, which had always 
a charm for him. He was sunoundod by evert hing which bespoke a 
philosophic and a cultured mind. Living as he did close by the site of 
an old Roman Station, ho diligently collected all the ancient remains 
found there, and was chiefly instruni(?ntal in finally deciding the 
manner in Avhich the Ogofau, or ancient British and Roman Caves in 
the hill side, had been Avorked. Some of the most valuable of the 
Roman gold ornaments from Dolaucothy, are now in the British 
Museum ; and he was always pleased to show to antiquaries the larger 
collection of these remains which he had retaincMl in his own hands. 
Agriculture also in all it's branches had fur him a wide interact, 
especially in so far as it bore u])()n the soil and climate of his own 
neighlmurhood ; and every effort to improve it, and to render the land 
more productive, found in him a warm supporter. 

His life was (me of continued quiet usefulncf.s after he had 
withdrawn from his public duties, and he carried with him into his 
retirement, the resi)ect and esteem of all who knew him. No man was 
ever more deservedly honoured. 

Rebecca. — During the great Rebecca Movement in South Wales, 
he published a pamphlet, 8 pp., "An Address to the inhabitants of 
Conwil Gaio and the adjacent Parishes, 1843," in which he appeals to 
th(?m to prevent by all their influence and ptjrsuasion anv attempt to 
redress such opposed grievances by force. ' ' The ostensible cause of 
the riotous proceedings which have taken place in the County, seems to 



65 

have been the exaction of toll at the various gates placed on the turn- 
pike roads. I am fully aware that there is an apparent hardship in 
calling on those who pay turnpike tolls to aid in the repair of the 
turnpike roads. I entrust you, as you would wish to preserve un- 
sullied the character of our common country for honesty and justice, 
not to be induced by any persuasion, or threat to join the illegal 
meetings of those misguided men.*' 

The Rebecca Movement in the adjoining parish (Llansawel) was 
in full swing at this time when several gates were destroyed. It wa& 
a wrong movement towards a right end which soon came about 
afterwards. 

Assassination. — if Mr. Johnes had died a natural death in 
ripe old age, the Principality with which he had been closely connected 
during the whole of his life would have mourned with very deep 
sorrow the departure of one of its moot prominent and valued public 
men. But the horrible circumstances under which he met with hi& 
death on Saturday, the 19th August, by the hands of a cowardly 
murderer (a native of Ireland) in his own household, are altogether so 
distressing, and so dreadful, that the entire district has not for 
centuries been so painfully moved. After finding a home at Dolau- 
cothy for seventeen years, Henry Tremble in consequence of the 
refusal to put him into occupation of a public- house, deliberately 
assassinated Mr. Johnes, and attempted to murder Mrs. Cookman his 
daughter. Miss Johnes escaped a similar fate through her absence 
from home. The feelings of the country may be best depicted by the 
affecting incident which took place at the Wrexham (National) 
Eisteddfod on the 22nd of August, under the presidency of the Bishop 
of St. Asaph, in consequence of the announcement of the Rev. Canon 
Griffiths, of Neath, of the sudden and appalling death of the beloved 
and revered Johnes, of Dolaucothy, when the Bishop and the whole 
assembly of 8,000 people stood up and simultaneously uncovered in 
solemn silence, a scene never to be forgotten in the annals of Wales. 

On the 26th August his remains were interred in the family vault 
at Caio Church, when the Revs. Canon Phillips, subsequently Dean 
of St. David's, and Charles Chidlow, Vicar, officiated. Most of the 
principal families were represented either personally or otherwise. 
The Caio Friendly Society and an enormous number of the general 
public from far and near attended to show their respect to the deceased 
and the family at Dolaucothy. The chief mourners were Miss Johnes, 
(Mrs. Cookman who was dangerously wounded and her recovery 
doubtful at the time, could not attend) , Lady Llanover, Mr. Walter 
Lloyd, Rev. Mr. Edwardes, Mr. W. Cookman, IVIr. Herbert Lloyd, 
and IVL:. William Bonville. The remains were borne from the Church 
to the family vault, situate at the N.E. of the church-yard. At the 
entrance to the vault Miss Jones placed tenderly and gently upon the 
coffin letters wreathed into imperishable immortelles : — ** Mewn Cof 
Anwyl.'* The large assemblage left the churchyard knowing and 
feeling that a good man had gone from their midst — whose life 
had been a daily blessing, and whose death had culminated in a great 
and a heart-breaking sorrow. 



66 

The following elegy was composed by ** (^arl Morgan wg '* on the 
words "Mewn Cof Anwyl " (In Loving Memory), respectfully in- 
scribed to Ikliss Johnes : — 

** Mewn cof anwyl " 

So sings tho lorn and lonely nightingale, 
Sighing in sombre thicket all day long, 
Weaving its throbbing heartstrings into song 

For absent mate, with sorrowing una vail, 

And ever>' warble seems to say — "Alone ! " 
While every pause brings musical reply : 
Sad Philomel ! each sweet responsive sigh 

Is but the dreamy echo of its oi^ti. 

" Mewn cof anwyl " 

So sings the west wind through the darkling eve, 
In spirit wanderings up and down the wold, 
Each mournful son-ows at its heart untold, 

Sighing in secret — as the angels giievo, 

** Bring back my love ! " solss the bereaved wind ; 
And sleeping flow'rets waken at the sound. 
Shedding their dewy tears upon the ground : 

** She seeks," they whisper, " who shall never find ! ** 

'* MewTi cof anwyl " 
So sings all night the never-resting sea ; 

And stars look down with tender, lo\'ing eyes ; 

The air is filled with saddening memories 
Of what was once— but ne'er again may be. 
"Here lie the lost ! " the ocean seems to moan ; 

" I yearn to clasp them to my throbbing heart 

In fond embrace ; The lost, myself a part ; 
So near — so near — and yet I mourn alone ! ** 

"Mewn cof anwyl" 

As roses, crusht and dead, in silence leaA'e 
Their precious heritage of perfume rare. 
So the good name our dear departed bear 

Reflects in cheering light on those who grieve ; 

And memory, brooding o'er the love thus left. 
In tender fancy crowns the dream with tears, 
Till, as the hue that on bright rain appears. 

Peace comes to comfort lonely hetirts bereft. 



One of the most interesting books with special reference to the 
inhabitants of Caio is the " Letters of Connop Thirlwall, Bishop of 
St. David's," edited by Rev. A. P. Stanley, D.D., Dean of West- 
minster, and dedicated 

" To the beloved memory of a widely Honoured, Deeply 
Lamented Father to a most Dear Sister, 

These Letters 
written by their friend so much for their interest as for Hers to whom 
they were addressed, are dedicated in the Bonds of Affection which, 
imited and unites them all." 



67 

The Letters published were selected from a correspondence of ten 
years, 1864-1874, with Lady Hills- Johnes and Bishop Thirlwall. 
They disclose the kindly, ja:enial heart of the Bishop, they show the 
tender regard for the sufferings of those with whom he was brought 
into contact, they are full of the keen appreciation which he felt for 
all the varying beauty of the natural seasons, and the immense 
range of his acquaintance with the lighter as well as the graver forms 
of literature ; the enthusiastic delight which he, as well as Lady Hills- 
Johnes, Mrs. Johnes and the late John Johnes took in the language 
and traditions of the Welsh diocese and country. Connop Thirlwall, 
scholar, historian, theologian. Bishop of St. David's for 34 years, 
died 27th July, 1875, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Lieut. General Sir James Hills-Johnes, V.C., G.C.B., 

of DolaUCOthy. — Sir James was bom in India on the 20th August, 
1833. He is the second son of Mr. Jan'es Hills, of Neechindipur, 
Bengal, Lidla, who descended in the female line from the Kers, of 
Littledean. Nen thorn, and Cesford. Sir James's father was the son of 
Mr. Archibald Hills (his wife being Elizabeth Scott) and married on 
6th June, 1831, Charlotte Mary, daughter of Dr. John Angelo Sa^i, 
of Moisgunge, India, and maternal grand- daughter of General 
Corderau, commanding the French forces at Pondicherry. 

Sir James began his school life as a boy imder Archdeacon 
Williams, th3 Head of Edinburgh Academy, and afterwards Head- 
master of the Llandovery College, of which Sir James is treasurer and 
one of the trustees, and he cherish'es affectionate recollections of his 
first tutor. Young Hills, as he was then known, then went to the • 
Military College at Edinburgh, the Edinburgh ITniversity College, 
and subsequently to Addiscombe. 

Lord Roberts and he were youths together, a life-long friendship 
beginning when they were cadets t t Addiscombe. Lord Roberts 
joined the Bengal Artillery in 1851, and Sir James, who is just 11 
months Lord Roberts' junior, joined the same corps in 1853, so that 
nearly half a century ago these frier ds were subalterns in the same 
corps in India. Both experienced thf dangers and perils of the Indian 
Mutiny. Both were present at the f iege of Delhi ; both took part in 
the operations at the relief of L' /cknow ; both were dangerously 
wounded at the siege of Delhi ; b( th made speedy recoveries ; and 
both, before the Mutiny ended, recr ved the Victoria Cross. A decade 
later both took part in the Abyssinian campaign. They served to- 
gether in the Kabul and other campaigns, and both, in 1881, received 
the thanks of both Houses of Parliam int. 

Particulars of the Gallant Conduct of Lieut. James Hills, R.A., 
at the Siege of Delhi, on the ^ih July, 1857, written by Colonel 
Mallerson, C.S.L, the Histo rian of the Indian Mutiny. 

** Early on the morning of th*- 9th July, the rebels had resolved to 
make a grand attack on the English camp. Some information as to 
their intention had reached General Reed, but hjB and his staff were 
ignorant as to the point the rebels would select for their assault. The 
morning dawntd wet and foggy ; a dense mist clouded the atmosphere, 
and it rained heavily. But, at 10 o'clock, the officers stationed on an 



68 

elevated piece of ground, called the Mound, to the right rear of the 
British Camp, discerned their approach. There the English had ready 
for action a hattery of three heavy guns, with the usual Infantry 
picquet. They had posted likewise in front of the Mound a Cavalry 
picquet, and with it two horse -artillery guns of Tombs' Troop, Bengal 
Horse Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant James Hills. The extreme 
point in advance was occupied by a detachment of Loyal Native 
Cavalry, under the command of a native officer. The rebel advance 
consisted of the Eighth Irregular Cavalry, which had mutinied a 
month before at Bareli, and the uniform of which was precisely similar 
to that of the Loyal Native Cavalry reginent spoken of. The effect 
of this similarity of uniform was that the rebels, taken for Loyal 
Troops, were allowed to pass unchallenged. This error led to the 
events about to be recorded. The European Cavalry picquet of 
twenty-seven men, posted just in front of the Mound, on discovering 
very suddenly that the new arrivals were enemies, and, in the absence 
of their officer, who had ^one back to the Mound to get further in- 
formation, was seized with a panic, turned, and fled. Not so the 
gunners commanded by James Hills. The moment that officer recog- 
nised the danger he brought his guns into action. But, before he had 
time to open fire, the rebel cavalry was upon him. But Hills, cool 
and self-possessed, promptlj' delivered a counter-stroke. With the 
deliberate calculation, so invaluable in war and granted to so few, he 
recognised, on the instant that, for the safety of the English camp, the 
one thing was to gain time. He dashed, therefore, at the rebels, 
cutting right and left with his sword, and checked their advance. In 
the scrimmage the horse Hills was riding was knocked over, and, 
whilst he was on the ground, the rebel cavalry, in their endeavour to 
push forward galloped over him. On recovering his feet Hills picked 
up his sword, which had been knocked out of his hand by the collision, 
and engaged three of the rebel troopers who had been left behind by 
their comrades — two of them mounted, the third on foot. He cut 
down the two mounted men, and engaged in deadly combat with their 
companion. For a moment the contest seemed doubtful. Hills had 
been shaken by his fall, and was encumbered by his cloak. Twice did 
his pistol miss fire. He made a cut at his opponent's shoulder, but the 
blow did not take effect, and the trooper, seizing his opportunity, 
snatched the sword from the hand of the tired Scotchman. Hills then 
dashed at his enemy, grappled him so as to render it impossible for 
him to use his weapon, smote him again and again with his clenched 
fist in the face, but was eventually tripped up by his opponent, who 
was in the act of cutting at him as he was on the ground, when 
Tombs, who was running up from his tent, seeing the danger, took 
aim at the trooper from a distance of thirty paces, and shot him dead. 
But n"t even then was the danger over for gallant Hills. It required 
the sacrifice of a fourth tiooper to ensure the safety of the two 
Englishmen. This was accomplished at a cost to Hills of a sword- 
cut which clave his skull to the brain. 

For the coolness and gallantry which first checked the rebels and 
thus saved the English camp, James Hills received the Victoria Cross. 
None of the recipients of that reward for valour ever deserved it more 
than he. Daring, cool, resolute, collected, possessing a brain which 



69 

was never clearer than in the turmoil of battle, James Hills was the 
type of a real soldier. The wound which Hills received on the 9th of 
July, 1857, though severe, was fortunately not mortal. He lived to 
render distinguished service to his countrj^ in Abyssinia and in 
Afghanistan." 

The following is a summary of Lieut. General Sir James Hills- 
Johnes' services : — 

1. Received Commission as 2nd Lieutenant Bengal Artillery, 11th 
June, 1853. 

2. Served throughout the Indian Mutiny, 1857-58, as Subaltern, 
Bengal Horse Artillery, 2nd Troop, 1st Brigade Tombs' Troop; present 
at the action of the Hindun River, Badlee-Ka- Serai, Nujjefglwr, seige 
and storming of Delhi, 1857 ; capture of Lucknow, 1858 ; taking of 
Bareilly, action of Allygunge and Mohandee, 1858 ; severely and 
dangerously wounded, 9th July, 1857 ; favourably mentioned in 
despatches ; awarded Victoria Cross and Brevet-Majoralty ; medal and 
two clasps. 

3. Promoted Lieutenant, 8th Sept, 1857 ; Captain, 24th November, 
1862 ; Brevet-Major, 19th January, 1864. 

4. Served as Aide-de-Camp to Viceroy of India (Lord Canning), 
from Sept., 1859, till March, 1862, and Assistant Resident Nepal, from 
April, 1862, till March, 1863. 

5. As Captain, rejoined Horse ArtiUerj', April, 1863, B.A.R.H. 
A. (Major Bunnings's). 

6. Appointed Brigade ^lajor, Royal Artillery, Northern Division, 
Bengal, Sept., 1864, till October, 1869 ; held appointment five years 
with a break, whilst serving in Abysinnia. 

7. Commanded 8-inch Mortar Battery throughout Abyssinian 
Campaign, 1867-1868; present at Capture of Magdala ; faA^ourably 
mentioned in despatches, and awarded Brevet Lieutenant -Colonelcy, 
15th August, 1868 ; Medal. 

8. Appointed Commandant Peshawar Mountain Battery, October, 
1869, and whilst quartered at Kobat commanded the JJistrict and 
Garrison, from February, 1870, till April, 1871. 

9. Served in Command of the Peshawar Mountain Battery 
throughout the Lushai Campaign, 1871-72 ; favourably mentioned in 
despaches ; awarded C.B. Medal and Clasp. 

10. Appointed to the Command of C. Battery, F. Brigade, Royal 
Horse Artillery, Ist August, 1872. 

11. Appointed Officiating Assistant Adjutant-General Lahore 
Di^^sion, Bengal, July, 1875, and brought on the permanent estab- 
lishment, 19th January, 1875, to August, 1879 ; on the Pith October, 
1878, joined the Kandahar Field Forse as Assistant Adjutant- General. 

12. Promoted Brevet -Colonel, 14th February, 1876. 

13. Served as Assistant Adjutant-General, Kandahar Field Force, 
throughout first period of Afgan War, 1878-80 ; favourably mentioned 



70 

in Lieutenant-General Sir Donald Stewart's despatches, 24th June, 
1879, and 22nd July, 1879. 

14. Vacated appointment on promotion to Major-General, 
August, 1879. 

15. Joined Lieutenant-General Sir F. S. Roberts' Column in the 
Kurrum Vallpy, September, 1876, and accompanied it to Kabul ; 
present at the Battle of Charasiab and occupation of the City of 
Kabul ; held no po>ition in the force during these operations, . but 
assisted the Commissariat Department to obtain supplies : for such 
service was favourably mentioned by Sir F. S. Roberts, in his first 
Kabul despach, 20th November, 1879, London Gazette, 16th January, 
1880. 

16. Appointed ^Military Governor, City of Kabul, 13th October, 
1879, holding appointment till its abolition, 17th January, 1880, with 
a break of ten days whilst the troops were confined in the Shei-pur 
Cantonment, 14th to 23rd December, 1879, during which time com- 
manded a section of line of defence ; received the thanks of the 
Viceroy, and favourably mentioned in despatchef . 

17. From 18th January till 15th Mav, 1880, was out of official 
employment, but his services were utilized in committee duties, 
assessing compensation for losses sustained by Sirdars, <fec., at the 
hands of the Ghazees, in assistine: the Commisariat Department to 
obtain supplies, and in obtaining information for the Commander of 
the Forces. 

18. On 16th May, 1880, appointed and assumed command of the 
3rd Division Northern Afghanistan Field Force ; remained in com- 
mand till dissolution of the Division on its return to Peshawar, 
September, 1880 ; directed the operations of the Cavalry action at 
Padkoa Shama Logar Valley, 1st July, 1880 ; favourably mentioned in 
despatches; awarded K.C.B., and received vote of thanks of Houses 
of Parliament, 5th May, 1881. Medal and Clasp. Received Good 
Service Pension, 15th December, 1881. Promoted Lieutenant- 
General 26th January, 1886. Retired on Special Pension, 1888. 
Appointed Honorarj-'-Colonel Carmarthen Artillery, Western Division, 
Royal Artillery, IS'U. Awarded Grand Cross of the Bath, 1893. 

In the affairs of the parish and county, is a Justice of the Peace. 
D.L. for the County he takes an interest ; is an Honorary Colonel 
in the Carmarthen Artillery Militia ; a member of the Coimty Council ; 
Hon. Treasurer of the University of Wales ; Hon. Treasurer and 
Trustee of Llandover}' T'ollege ; Chairman of tho Caio School Board ; 
an Eisteddfodwr ; a real Country gentleman, one that is filled with the 
aspirations of the Welsh. He is held in high esteem by one and all. 
When Sir James returned from South Africa in September, 1900, the 
inhabitants of the surroundim: district gave him a right roval welcome 
home, and presented him with an illuminated address, in front of the 
mansion, which was read by the Vicar (Rev. Henry Lloyd), when Sir 
James replied in graceful terms,. a day which will be long remembered 
by the hundreds who were present. 



71 

Brunant. — Bnwnant, literally, "Broken Brook.'* During the 
reign of James I, the place was known and spelt Briw-nant, William 
Morgan ap Rhudderch occupied one mesuage or tenement, commonly 
called Tir-y-Briwnant, for which he paid five shillings a year. Brunant 
is the seat of the Lloyds, is a neat mansion, occupying a pleasant 
position higher up the Vale than Dolaucothy, on the side of the road 
leading to Cwrt-y-cadno, 'L'he Lloyds have resided here for generations. 
The present mansion was re-built hj the Rev. John Lloyd, in the 18th 
century. 

The family of Lloyd, of Brunant, is derived from the great house 
of Castell Howel, in Cardiganshire, which had its origin in the famous 
chieftain Cadifor ab Dinawel. 

Richard Lloyd, the second son of Evan Lloyd, of All-yr-odin, 
succeeded about the 17th century to his mother's property in Caio. She 
was the sole heiress of Richard Lewis, Esq., a large land proprietor in 
the parish, and originally they were settled at Brynbran. The Brunant 
estate gradually increased, and became very much more extensive than 
at present ; large portions of it having latterly been distributed among 
the children of \ariou8 generations. 

Georgre Lloyd, Esq., grandfather of the present representative, 
was a J. P. and D.L. for the county, and was High Sheriff for the 
county in 1817. 

Captain George David William Bowen Lloyd, of the 

Royal Welsh Fusiliers, the present owner is the only son of Charles 
Lloyd, Esq., and his mother is the daughter of the Rev. W. W. 
Webb -Bowen, of Camrose, a distinguished Pembrokeshire family. He 
was educated at Cambridge, Peterhouse College, and Sandhurst, and 
joined the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in 1887. In 1891, he mamed Lilian 
Emilie, daughter of D. C. Lloyd Owen, M.D., of Birmingham, and 
has issue, George David Owen IJoyd, and Seisyllt Hugh Lloyd. His 
younger sister, E. G. E., is married to D. T. M. Jones, Esq., of 
Nantyrhagfan, Llandovery, the son of the late Thomas Jones, Esq., 
Solicitor, Llandovery. The elder sister, Alice, is married to Colonel 
James Fonweett, R A.M.C. 

Arms. — The arms of the family are those of Cadifor, viz. : — Sable, 
three scaling ladders, and between the two uppermost a spear head 
argent, its point imbrued proper ; on a chief gules, a tower triple- 
towered argtnt. Captain Lloyd impales in right of his wife, the 
daughter of D. C. Lloyd Owen, M.D., the arms of Seisyllt, Lord of 
Merioneth, viz. — Argent, a lion passant sable between three fleurs-de- 
lis gules. 

When Captain Lloyd returned from active service in South Africa 
with his regiment, the tenants and neighbours of Brunant, gave him 
an appropriate welcome home. When he arrived at the old home of 
his forefathers, hundreds gathered at Brunant, and a beautiful address 
was presented to him, which was read by Mr. Williams, Bryngwyn. 
Afterwards, all adjourned to an adjoining field, where sports were held, 
and at 7 p.m., a grand display of fireworks took place. Mr. T. C. 
Price (** Alawydd Myrddin,") sang a ^ong which he had composed for 



72 

the event. Amongst these present, were his aged and respected mother. 
Mrs. Lloyd Owen, IMr. and Mrs. D. T. M. Jones, Mrs. Fawcett, 
Colonel Methuen, Mr. and Mrs. Meurik Lloyd, and Rev. H. Lloyd, 
Vicar of Caio, besides others. The Lloyds', of Brunant, like most of 
the countiy families of this county, fought for King Charles I, at the 
battle of bt. Fagans. 

Captain Lloyd has served and fought for Queen Victoria, and King 
Edward VII, and his country in the great war in South Africa. 




FrOOdvale is situated on the banks of the Cothy, in the Parish 
of Caio, and derives its name, like most places, from its postion. 
Passing through the grounds of 
the eld residence, the home of the 
family for over 200 years, is a 
stream of water, w^ich is said in 
old days to have worked a Com 
Mill lower down the valley, hence 
the stream represents the Ffrwd, 
and the Com Mill the felin fal, 
ffrwd y felin (the stream of the 
Com Mill). Ffrwd y fal— Frood- 
vale. It was here that Mr. 
Davies' great grandfather (David 

John Davies) commenced the practice of Lanil Agent and Valuer* 
which was continued by his grandfather (Benjamin Da\'ies), and his 
late father (Da\dd Davies). The present residence was built in 1867-8, 
by John Morgan Davies, and is beautifully situated further up the 
valley. The Froodvale family are held in high esteem, and greatly 
beloved by all in the parish and district. They take an interest in 
every charitable and philanthrophic institution in the district, and look 
after the welfare of the poor. 

Benjamin, the second son of David John Davies and his wife, 
Elinor, was bom in 1758 ; married in 1777, Elinor, daughter of Thomas 
Beynon, of Bryndafydd, and had issue, 

David, bom, 1753 ; married, 1827, Margaret, caughter of John 
Morgan, of Tanlan, and had issue, 

1. Benjamin, M'.D., F.R.C.S., bora 1828 ; married Jane, daughter of 
Pierce Evans of Aberystwyth, died 1895, without issue. 

2. Anne, married Thomas Davies, Bryntowy, and had issue three sons 
and three daughters, 

A. Hanbury, B.A., Oxon, Barrister-at-Law, South Wales Circuit, 
and Sydney, New South Wales ; married Augusta, daughter of 
— Stolte, and has issue one son and two daughters. 

B. David, M.A., Canton, Rector of Canton. 

C. Mar^ret, deceased. 

D. Agnes, married T. St. Clair Davidson, D.S.O., Major Lei. 
Keg., has issue two sons and two daughters. 



73 

E. Edith. 

F. Thomas LleweUyn, M.R.C.S., and R.C.P. 

3. Eleanor, deceased. 

4. Margaret. 

5. John Morgan, [see below]. 

6. David, Solicitor, deceased. 

7. William, F.R.C.S., of Bays HiU, Llandilo. 

8. Octavius, J. P., M.A. Cantab, Vicar of Tregaron ; married Victoria, 
daughter of Thos. Jones, Esq., Aberystwyth ; died 1887, without issue. 

9. Mary. 

John Morgan Davies, J.P.. D.L., High Sheriff of the county 
of Carmarthen in 1902-03, is the second son of the late David Davies. 
He received his early education at the well-known Froodvale Academy, 
under the tuition of Dr. Wm. Da\'ies, matriculated at the London 
University, entered the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, and 
afterwards the Royal School of Mines. In 1855, he joined his father 
in his practice as Land Agent and Valuer. On the death of his father, 
in 1864, he succeeded to the property, and has since continued in 
practice as Land Agent, &c. In 1861, he was appointed by Lord 
Palmerston agent for the Crown in the Counties of Carmarthen, 
Cardigan, and Radnor. He has acted extensively under the enclosure 
and Land Commissioners in the enclosure of waste lands, &c. He is 
Agent for many Estates, has an extensive practice in Valuations and 
Arbitrations, has taken an important part in the settlement of land 
questions on most of the Railways in the princ^'pality ; is on the list of 
Umpires under the Board of Trade, and under the Board of Agriculture. 
In 1868, he was elected Fellow of the Surveyors' Institution, and 
Chairman of the Committee of the Institution for South Wales and 
Monmouthshire, on its establishment in 1890. He was a Lieutenant 
in the 4th Company of the Carmarthenshire Rifle Volunteei-s, whose 
head quarters were at Llansawel. In 1870, when the School Board 
was formed at Llansawel, he was one of the first members elected. He 
was for mamy years Churchwarden for the Parish of Llansawel, and 
Chairman of the Highway Board for the District, and has been 
Chairman of the Llansawel Parish Council since its formation in 1894. 
In 1894, he gave important evidence before the Royal Commission, 
appointed to enquire into the Land Tenure in Wales. In 1865, he 
married Jane Elizabeth; eldest daughter of Robert Jones, of Bron 
Hendre, Carnarvonshire, and Ynysfaig, Merionethshire; they had issue, 

1. Helen Elizabeth, married in 1890, at Llansawel Parish Church, 
to George, the third son of Edward Behrens, The Oaks, Fellowfield, 
issue two sons and two daughters. 

2. Cypil Froodvale, J.P., born 1868 ; educated at Rugby, and the 
Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, and in 1893, entered his 
father's oflice, as surveyor, &c. In 1895, he was elected Fellow of the 
Institution of Surveyors. In 1902, he married Hilda, eldest daughter 
of Lloyd Price, of Bryncothi. In 1898, he was elected a member of 
the Llansawel School Board, and has been Chairman ever since. In 



74 

1898, he was elected one of the first members of the District Council 
for Caio Parish. He is Agent for several Estates, and is now in 
practice as a Land Agent and Valuer at Carmarthen. 

3. Ottley Wilding, bom 1870; educated at Rugby; married in 1897, 
Margaret, daughter of John Evans, Ysceiog, Breconshire, has issue a 
son. 

4. Oswgn St. Leger, bom 1873 ; educated at Rugby. 

5. Alice Mabel. 

The High Sheriff and Mrs. Da\'ie9 were present at the Coronation 
of their jMajesties King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, in 
Westminster Abbey, 1902. Mr. Da vies shortly afterwards, received 
from His Majesty the King, a medal " to be worn in remembrance of 
their Majesties' Coronation," bearing the likeness of the King and 
Queen on one side, and the date of the coronation on the other. 

Arms. — Per Chevron Azure and Argent two Stags heads caboshed in 
Chief and an Owl in base, all counterchanged. 

Crest. — On a wreath of the Colours upon th© Scalp of a Stag between 

the attires Argent an Owl Azure. 
Motto — " /'tt/e seJ cut Vide.^^ 



James Morgan, of the Kings Head, is now far advanced in age, 
but has a wide reputation for curing cancer, and at times there are half 
a dozen persons staying at ('aio at the same time, undergoing his 
treatment. Many cases have been treated successfully by him. He is 
a brother to the late William Morgan, Albert ]\Iount. 



CrugybaP.— " The tump of contention," or, " The tump of the 
summit." "Heap of confusion," or, "The barrow of anger and 
resentment." Crug — heap ; bar — affliction, fury, wrath. English 
name — Wmthy. Crugybar is supposed to be the place where the 
Romans interred some of their garrison, slain during the insurrection 
of the Britons under Boadicea. It is related by Tacitus (Book 12, 
cap. 31-32), that when Ostorius commanded in Britain, he advanced 
within no inconsiderable distance of the channel that separates Great 
Britain li om Irehmd, and that he was for some time stationed among 
the Silures or inhabitants of South Wales. This district was in a very 
disturbed state during the Roman occupation from its close proximity 
to the gold mines at Ogofau. The well known hymn- tune '* Crugybar " 
is called after this place. Close here is Maesllanwrthwl, " Field of the 
Church of Gwrthwi " ; a great battle was fought between the Romans 
and the Ancient Britons, and a Roman General was interred here. 
Under the threshold of the door, were found the neglected fragments 
of a stone with an inscription which is given at length in Camden. 

This stone is at Dolau Cothi. There are several tumulus in this 
neighbourhood particularly near a bridge called Pont Rhyd Renus, i.e., 
the bridge on Renus's Ford. Gwrthol probably means " Gwyrthiol," 
or " miraculous." This *' Maes " may have belonged to the capel of 
" Teilo " belonging to Talley Abbey which was situated on Brondeil's 
Farm adjoining, but there are no structural remains visible. 

Some traces of the battle is found on a monument of a Roman 
General, who was buried here, so we learn from Tacitus annals (book 14, 



cap. 37). It was somewhere in this vicinity that Poenius Posthumous 
who had dit^gi'nced himself by his iiTesolutions and misconduct, was so 
mortified by his success, and so chagrined at the contempt in which ho 
was held by the legion, whose military lustre he had sullied, that he 
added to his other imprudent deeds, the most unjustifiable of all actions, 
that of laying violent hands on himself. A monument to his memory 
was found on the side of the road leading from Llandovery to Trecastle. 
The stone lay for years at a wayside Inn. This stone is now probably 
in the walls of Dynevor Park, Llandilo. Mr. Rhys Davies, ot Brecon, 
writes that it was taken from Trecastle Hill, where it was found near 
a public house called the Heath and Cock. It was removed from here 
by a Mr. Latham, supervisor of excise in 1767. The only letters 
which are legible now are — /mp and Cassianno. Gough gives the 
inscription as — " Imperatoti Nostto Marco Gassiano Latino Postuvio 
Pio Felict Aug.'' — Akch. Cam. 

Pumpsaint,— or Llanpumsaint, Five Saints (see page 13) ; 
English name — Brotherston. Here the Twrch joins the Cothi, where 
delightful fishing may be had for Trout, Sewin and Salmon. In an 
old map published in 1610, Pumpsaint is marked out with a Chapel 
and descnbed as " Capel Llanpymsent. " 

Coronation Hall, erected in commemoration of the Coronation of 
King Edward VII, at the expense of Mrs. Johnes, of Dolaucothy, 
opened 1903. 

Sulphureous Springs. — XTp above Brunant on the way to 
Cwrtycadiio, on the estate of Dolaucothi on the Cefen Garos Farm, are 
two sulphureous springs, which are supposed to be superior to the 
wells in the counties of Breconshire, but they are scarcely known, 
and remjiin in a very neglected state, although they are resorted to by 
invalids of the district during the summer months. Mr. Rasp, the 
mineralogist, from an experiment made upon one them, found the water 
was impregnated with a greater quantity of sulphur than any spring 
that he had visited. 

Chalybeate Spring. — Near Pumpsaint is a chalybeate spring 
of great celebrity in the neighbourhood for the many extraordinary 
cures which it is reported to have effected. 

Eisteddfods. — Almost every parish in Wales has had an 
Eisteddfod at one time or another. On the 1 1th day of August, 1858, 
a very successful Eisteddfod was held at the Ogafau, when the much 
respected squire of Dolaucothi, John Johnes, Esq., J. P., presided, and 
the Rev. H. Jones Davis, the Vicar of Caio as Vice-Chairman. The 
Eisteddfod was held in a large Tent. The attendant harpers struck up 
an inspiriting Welsh melody when the President took the chair ; the 
Rev. Evan Jones, Crugybar, read an address to the President, the 
Bards followed with their " Englynion." Adjudicators :— Rev. E. 
Owen Phillips, M.A., Llandovery, Rev. T. Davies, Llandilo, D. 
Davies, Esq., Bryneithyn, John Roberts, Esq. (leuan GAvillt), editor 
of the Amserau, leuan IVyllt, and LUiu Llwyfo. Prize of £5 5s. Od. 
for essay on " Yr Ogofau a Avon Cothi," Mr. John Morgan, S. John's 



76 

Wood College, London ; a special second prize of £2 2s. Od. to Mr. 
W. Da vies (GwilymTeilo), Llandilo ; Prize £2 for poem on '' DyfPryn 
yr Annell a Pentref Caio,'* Mr. Wm. Da>de8 (Gwilym Teilo), Llandilo, 
invested by Mrs. Cookman, Moncert House ; Harp Competition, prize 
£5, *'Y Bardd yn ei awen," Thomas Gryffydd, Llanover Harper ; 
second prize £2, Alaw Morlais, MerthjT ; Recitation under 20 years 
of age, " Yr Hen lane a*r Pen Teulu," prize divided between Wm. 
Morgan and David Da vies, Cayo, &c., &c. 

In August, 1896, another very successful Eisteddfod took place at 
the Ogofau, when Lieut-General Sir James Hills-Jones, V.C, G.C.B., 
presided. The object of this Eisteddfod was to raise a sum of money 
for Educational purposes. When the statement of accounts were dis- 
cussed, a balance of £102. 5s. 8d. was in hand. It was then decided 
to offer six scholarships (thi'ee to boys and three to girls) of four 
guineas each, tenable for two years to children attending the elementary 
schools in Caio and Llanycrwys parishes, all the candidates to sit at 
the Intermediate Scholarship Examinations, and the three highest on 
the list, provided they obtain half the maximum number of marks, be 
awarded the scholarships. A Committee of trustees was appointed to 
carry out thes cheme. 

Caio Parish Council.— Iliis Council was formed in 1894 under 
the Local Government Act, 1894. The following were the first mem- 
bers of the Council: — Chairman, William Morgan, Rhydbydan ; Vice- 
Chairman, Timo<^hy Pugh, Penlan ; Abel Abel, Bryn Mawr ; David 
Davies, Maestwynog ; Isaac Davies, Old Royal Oak ; John Da^aes, 
Tyllwyd ; David Edwards, Groesfach ; John Evans, Erwan ; WilHam 
Jones, Esgairddare ; William Harries, Brondilo; Lewis Lewis, Tyny- 
waun ; Thomas Lewis, Brynteg ; Rees Thomas, Gwargorof ; Thomas 
Thomas, Gwargorof ; Thomas Williams, Ynysau ; Clerk, Rees Davies, 
Cadwgan ; Treasurer, The National Provincial Bank, Llandovery ; 
the Council consists of fifteen members. 

The present members are : — Abel Abel, Brynmawr : Isaac Davies, 
Old Royal Oak ; John Davies, Tyllwjd ; David Edwards, Groesfach ; 
Thomas Evans, Cwmyrin ; Hugh Hughes, LlwjTicliriaid ; Daniel 
Jones, Ddyfadfa ; John Jones, Dolaucothy Mill ; Lewis Lewis, Bryn- 
villa; David Lloyd, Glanyrwyth; James Morgan, Manchester House; 
Thomas Thomas, Penarth ; David R. Williams, Borthyn ; Isaac 
Williams, Llandre ; and Wm. Davies, Cwmenion. The Council hold 
their Meeting at the Dolaucothi Arms, Pumpsaint. 

Public Hearse. — The Parish Council have now a public 
Hearse for the use of the Parich. It is kept in a coach-house near 
Salem Baptist Chapel, Bont TwTch, just beyond Pumpsaint. 

Public Houses. — There are eight Public Houses in this Parish, 
the Dolaucothy Arms, Pumpsaint ; Sexton's Arms, Brunant Arms, and 
King's Head Inn, Caio ; Royal Oak Inn, Drover's Arms, Farmer's, and 
Half- Way House. 

Friendly Societies.-- -The Branwen Benefit Friendly Society 
is held at the Sexton's Arras, Caio. The present Trustees are— Lieut, 
vreneral Sir James Hills-Johns, V.C, G.C.B., Dolaucothy; Rev. H. 
Lloyd, Vicarage, Caio ; and Mr. Evan Davies, Maesllanwrthwl ; 



77 

Treasurer, Mr. James Lewis James, Sexton's Arms ; Secretary, Mr. 
Rees Davies, Cadwgan, Crugybar. Value of the Society in December, 
1900 was £925 Os. Gd. ; number of Members, 83. The Mutual Benefit 
Friendly Society, held at the Royal Oak Inn. Secretary, Mr. Isaac 
Da\'ies, old Royal Oak, Pumpsaint. 

The Parish History.— The only history of this parish pub- 
lished were the two prize essays, which were successful at the Eistedd- 
fod in 1858. First— " Detholion o'r Cyfansoddiadau Buddugol yn 
Eisteddfod Conwil Gaio," printed at Carmarthen, 1859. Second— 
" Caio a'i Hj-nafiaellian gan Gwilym Teilo," printed at Carnarvon 
1862. Both out of print. 

County Council.— The County Council Act, 1888. The first 
Council was elected in 1889. For the Caio District the following is 
the return ; — 

1889 — Lieut. General Sir James Hills-Johnes, Dolaucothy. 
Lewis Davies, J. P., Gelly. — Elected. 

1802, March— Lieut. Gen. Sir J. Hills-Johnes.— Elected, 263 votes. 
Rev. Thomas Thomas, Tabor, Llanwrda. — 153 votes. 

1895, March — Lieut. Gen. Sir J. Hills-Johnes. — Elected, 226 votes. 
J. F. Jones, Troedybryn . . . . 191 votes. 

1898, March — Lieut. Gen. Sir James Hills-Johnes . . 201 votes. 
J. F. Jones, Troedybryn.— Elected . . 217 votes. 

1901 — J. F. Jones, Troedybryn. — Unopposed. 

District Council Election, 1898.— 

Cyril F. Davies, Esq., J. P., Froodvale . . 273 votes. 

D. Price, Penybank .. .. 212 votes. 

D. Davies, Frongoch . . • ' . . 200 votes. 

Thos. Evans, Abernant . . . . 165 votes. 

D. R. Williams, Brothyn. Non-elected.. 76 votes. 

Present Members — John Evans, Velinfach ; Wm. Evans, Blaen- 
Caio ; Dl. Davies, Frongoch ; and Thos. Evans. 

Fairs.— May 30th, August 2l8t, and October 6th. Formerly 
Caio fairs were amongst the largest in Wales, the fail's were arranged 
to suit dealers on their way to England. Smiths met the dealers to shoe 
the cattle. The old mountain road from Llandysul to Llansawel is 
still called " Ffordd Loegr.'* Emlynydd refers to Caio fairs in his 
verses to " Pentref Caio." 

Tragfedy. — The assassination of John Johnes, Esq., M.A., of 
Dolaucothy, on the 19th August, 1876, by Henry Tremble, caused the 
deepest sorrow and excitement throughout the country. At the 
inquest, Mr. Chas. Lloyd, of Brunant, was foreman, the Rev. J. A. 
Williams, Caio (now Vicar of Llangathen), Dr. Evan Jenkins, 
(Llansawel), Arthur Sturdy, footman, and Jane Jenkins, housemaid 
gave evidence. Mr. Johnes suffered the most intense agony for several 
honrd, and hid finally died from his wouads. Mrs. Cookmin, though 
fearfully wounded, recovered. The jury returned a verdict of wilful 



78 

murder. At the inquest on the body of Henry Tremble (aged 36) ^ 
who ended his own life at Caio, Mr. William Morgan, of Albert Moiuit, 
P.O. P. f Morgan (Llansawel), and Mrs. Tremble gave evidence; 
the juryjretumed a verdict oifelo de se. 

Burial.— 'In accordance with the Coroner's warrant, the* body of 
Henry Tremble was buried in solemn silence about eleven, on Moh lay 
night, 21st August. Although there had been a large fair in the 
village that day, and a considerable number of people were about, 
everything was done in good order. 

A Strange Oeeurenee.— Hemy Tremble, as has been stated, 
was d»ily buried at dead of night in the Caio Churchyard. It was 
believed by many' that the bodies of the murdered man and of his 
murderer could not rest peacefully, even in death, within the same 
burial ground, so arrangements were made to exhume Tremble's body, 
and to convey it elsewhere for burial. The place chosen was Llandulas, 
Breconshire, and thither it was coDveyed during the night. The 
inquisitive grave-digger had to be content with knowing that it was 
the body of a foreigner, — " Dyn o wlad bell," and was handed a letter 
which he took to be the customary certificate, but on its being opened 
all it proved to be was blank paper. This aroused suspicion, and in 
about thi-ee months the people of Llandulas learned that the ' * foreigner ' * 
came from Caio ; they determined he should retuin there, they planned 
a night descent, but lost their way, and arrived with the dawn at Caio 
Churchyard, so they hurriedly left the coffin on the pathway leading 
through the Churchyard, placing a sheet of paper (kept in place by 
four stones), containing the reasons for their action, upon the lid. 
They then journeyed homewards, throwing out the straw which had 
covered the coffin in the " gambo " into the ditch near Aberbowlan, 
where it remained for years a *' Bwgan" to frighten timid persons and 
children. 

The coffin was found in the morning, and the officials had it 
buried near its previous resting place. These repeated burials show 
better than anything the attitude of the inhabitants towards a murderer. 

Wills.— John Williams, de Dolecothy, died April 29th, 1729. 
His will bears date 15th March, 1727, was proved in 1729 in Carmar- 
then Probate Court by his Executor, " Ni Williams" (his brother 
Sir Nicholas Williams, Bart., of Edwinsford.) Item. — '' I give devise, 
and bequeath unto my servant maid, Elizabeth Williams, spinster, 

daughter of Thomas Williams, of Pencarreg, Mercer, £100 1 do 

hereby further ratify, allow, and confirm the yearly annuity of Twenty 
Pounds yearly by me, granted to the said Elizabeth Williams, on her 
continuing unmarried, and in case she marry the baid annuity and 
rent-charge to cease, and determine as by the said deed it appears.' 

Codicil endorsed on the said will, dated 7th May, 1728. — " 1 doe 
give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Williams, spinster, my servant, the 
use for the term of her natural life and no longer, goods, plate, 
furniture, &c., to be used and enjoyed by the said Elizabeth Williams, 
spinster, the daughter of the said Thomas Williams, Pencarreg, Mercer, 
my present servant for her life only." 



79 

Elizabeth WilUaiM, strfktetef, Doletjothy.— "Her will was {HM¥ed 
in the Cartiarthteii PtdtW-le Officii in 1735, datd bf #itl l8th FefeiAi^, 
1734. ExecutHx, Elizabfeth Johtts (my cousin, Thomas Jtttihs* eldest 
daughter), . ^ . . .ahd mr f\irther will is that I may he privately bilfi^tl 
by nig^t with toffch lights, within the chancel of Oottwil Qhfo parish 
church (if I haptttttt tb dJe at polecothy), and nobody sent fdt Id iny 
burying, but such as shAll b6 then present, and neighbours thAt xti^ i6 
risit me." 



EBBATA. 

Pnge 1, line 3, read Easi instead of West. 

Vage 1, line 8, do. do. 

Page 18, line 28, read Mftk instead of sky. 

Page 18, line 42, read excavaUd mBtnA of ex<jamated. 

Page 46, line 28, read Bhtidy Temnt initead of 
Blondy Tenant. 

Page 46, line 34, do. do do 

Page 70, line 36, read, In the aflain of tlie pariah 
and county, he takes an interest, is a Joitioa of the 
Peace, D.L. for the County, &c. 




PllI^TEb l^Y M. tilltlblBi^., I^IU^CR OF \\'ALK8 ttOAb, SWAlTSfeA. 



001TTBia"TS- 



TitlePage 

Pentref Caio by Emlynydd 

Map of the Parish 

Preface . . 

Caio or Con wil- Caio — Intro 
duction 

The name Caio 

Confirmation Charter . . 

Llaiiddewicrwys — Cynwyl 

Church Plate— Holy Water- 
Vicars 

Prehistoric Remains. — 

Ogof au 

Pumpsaint Stone 

The Five Saints 

Stone Age, Graig Twrch- 

Esgair Fraith 
Carreg y Bwgi — Garn I'awr 
Pwll Uffem 
Melin-y-Milw)T 
Penlanwen — Maes Neuadd — 

Crugiau'r Ladis — Roman 

Villa— Hen Llan . . 
Interesting Antiquities at 

Dolau Cothy 
Caio Stone 

Land Holding. — 
A Cayo Rental 
Terrier or Rent Roll, 1810 
Royal Commission on Land in 
Wales and Monmouth- 
shire — Landowners 

Education. — 
Welsh Charity Schools — Cayo 
Pont-ar-Twrch — Pumpsaint. . 
Froodvale Academy . . 
School Board . . 
Sunday Schools 

Free Churches. — 
Bwlch-y-rhiw Baptist Chapel 
Margaret Price, Ty Llwyd . . 
Crugybar Independent Church 

Bwlchyffin 

Bethel Baptist Chapel — Cal- 

vinistic Methodists 
Pumpsaint Chapel — Salem Bap- 
tist Chapel— Cwrt-y-Cadno 



faoe 

1 



19 



38 



page 
Charities. — 
Morgan Price — Mary Grifl&ths 
Mrs. Lloyd Harris — Caio 

Village School— Crugybar 

British School 
Interesting Men. — 
Lewis Glyn Cothi 
Roger Williams 
Dafydd Jones . . 
Rev. Joshua Thomas — Rev. 

Timothy Thomas — Rev. 

William Lloyd . . 
David Lloyd — Rev. Richard 

Davies* — Rev. Eliezer 

Williams, M.A. . . 
Rev.Wm. Davies, M.A ,Ph.D. 

— John Davies, Garthlwyd 
Dd. Davies — Rev. Evan" Jones 
Rev. J. D. Evans — Rev. Wm. 

Prytherch 
Dd. Edwards — Twm Sweep — 

Billo Nano 
Dio'r Enwyn — Roger Pen- 

deryn — John Harries 
Henry Harris . . 

Witchcraft 

Rev. Timothy Richard 

Dolaucothi 

John Johnes, M.A. 

Rebecca . . 

Assassination . . 

Poem, **Mewn cof anwvl" — 

Bishop ThirlwalL. ' .. 
Lieut. General Sir James Hills- 

Johnes, V.C, G.C.B. .. 
Brunant Family 
Froodvale Family 
James Morg«in — Crugybar . . 
Pumpsaint — Sulphureous and 

Chalybeate Springs — Eis- 
teddfods . . 
Caio Parish Council — Public 

Hearse — Public Houses - 

Friendly Societies 
The Parish History — County- 
Council — District Council 

— Fairs — Tragedy 
Burial — A Strange Occurence — 

Wills 



39 



40 

41 
45 

47 



48 



49 

60 
51 

62 

53 

54 
56 
57 
68 
59 
63 
64 
65 

66 

67 
71 
72 

74 



76 



77 



78 



Illustrations: — Map, Caio Church, Pumpsaint Stone, Pwll Uffem, 
Crugiau*r Ladis, Stones at Dolaucothy, Caio Stone, Kroodvale Academy*, 
Crugybar Chapel*, Bethel*. Caio Chapel*, Puinpsaint*, Salem », Cwrt-y- 
Cadno*, J. D. Evans, David Davies, Timothy Richard, Sir James HiUa- 
Johnes, Wm. Prytherch, Evan Jones and Roger Williams, Dolaucothy, 
Froodvale*. 

Illustrations marked thus • wen photographed by the Author. 



J c< ^4 u^u k:Do 4 1^