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Revised History of Westchester County 




linn 1)ork : 
F. ROP] 


Tarrytown is far famed as the place where Major Andre, adjutant 
general of the British army, was captured by Paulding and his associates 
upon the 23rd of September, 1780. The circumstances which led to 
the arrest of the spy were as follows : 

Major John Andre had been long negotiating with the American gen- 
eral. Arnold, to put the British general, Clinton, in possession of West 
Point. "This post," says Major General Greene, (who, it must be remem- 
bered, was president of the court that tried Andre,) " is a beautiful little 
place lying on the west bank of the Hudson, a little below where it 
break the chain of mountains called the highlands. Its form 

is nearly circular, in half of its circumference defended by a precipice of 
great height, rising abruptly from the river, and on the other by a chain 
<>f rugged, inaccessible mountains. It is accessible by one pass only 
from the river, and that is narrow and easily defended; whileonthe land 
side it can be approached only at two {joints — by roadsthat wind through 
the mountains anil enter it at the river bank on the north and south. 
Great importance hail always been attached to this post by the Ameri- 
cans, and great labor and expense bestowed upon fortifying it. It has 
been well called the " < ribraltar of America." The North river had long 
been the great vein that supplied life to the American army, and had 
the enemy obtained possession of this post, besides the actual loss in 
men an 1 stores, the American army would have been cut off from their 
principal resources in the ensuing winter, or been obliged to fall back 
above the Highlands, and leave all the country below open to conquest, 
while the communication between the eastern and western States would 
have been . interrupted if not wholly excluded. Arnold there- 

fore well knew the bearing of this post upon all the operations of the 
American army; and afterwards avowed his confident expectation, that 
had the enemy got possession of it, the contest must have ceased, and 
Amen, a been subdued. 

The British general, Clinton, also appears to have appreciated the 
value of tlii - post, ami it is probable that the purchase of it had been 
arranged, with Arnold some months prior to the detection of the plot. 
It was when Washington marched to Kings-bridge, with a view to the 
attemj ■■ York, and when he had mustered under him every man 

who could carry a musket, that he placed Arnold in command of a corps 
of invalids at West Point 

The der-in-chief had offered him a command suitable to his 

rank and reputation in the army ; but he made the unhealed state of his 


wounds, and some other causes, the pretext for declining it — as the 
negotiations for the surrender of West Point had already commenced. 
Soon after the relinquishment of the enterprise against New York, a 
meeting was concerted to take place between the American commander- 
in-chief and the French military and naval commanders. Hartford, on 
the Connecticut river, was the place assigned for their meeting; the 
object was to consult on their future joint operations. Upon the depar- 
ture of Washington for this meeting, Greene was placed in command of 
the main army. This was on the 17th of September, 1780. On the 
eighteenth, Admiral Rodney arrived in New York with such an over- 
whelming reinforcement to the British navy as must have set the con- 
sultations at Hartford all at nought. From that time Greene's communica- 
tions to the President of Congress are full of the hurried preparations 
going on at New York for some important enterprise ; little did he, or 
any other person suspect to what point that enterprise was directed. 

It appears that General Greene had established a regular communi- 
cation for obtaining intelligence from the city by spies ; and his corres- 
pondents in that place were at loss whether the expedition was intended 
for Rhode Island or Virginia. To one or other of these places the 
enemy had been careful to throw out hints, or exhibit appearances, that 
the expedition was directed. 

Yet Green was not deceived; for in a letter on the 21st (just two days 
before the discovery of the plot) to General Washington, he writes, 

' Colonel communicated the last intelligence we have from 

New York ; since that, I have not been able to obtain the least inform- 
ation of what is going on there. Though we have people in from three 
different quarters, none of them returning, makes me suspect some 
secret expedition is in contemplation, the success of which depends alto- 
gether upon its being kept a secret." 

The British commander had now become sensible that no time was 
to be lost ; as, most probably, on the return of Washington from Hart- 
ford, he would assume the command in person at West Point, or confide 
it to Greene. The present, therefore, was the most favorable time that 
would ever present itself. a 

Andre" was, accordingly, dispatched in the Vulture, sloop of war, to 
hold a personal conference with General Arnold. The Vulture ascended 
the Hudson river on the 20th, as far as Teller's Point, and came to 
anchor at the mouth of the Haverstraw bay. Here Andre eagerly awaited 
some opportunity to acquaint Arnold with his arrival. An occasion for 
so doing presented itself the next day. A white flag was displayed at 
a See Barnum's Spy Unmasked. 


Teller's Point by some of the country people, which, being interpreted 
as they wished, the captain of the Vulture sent off a boat with a flag, 
which was fired upon as soon as it approached the shore. This gave 
Andre the opportunity he desired, as it was a proper subject for a re- 
monstrance tt> the commanding officer; and a flag with a letter was 
accordingly dispatched. The letter was dated on the 21st Sept.; it was 
in the handwriting of Andre, signed by the captain of the vessel, and 
countersigned "John Anderson." (Andre's assumed name.) This flag 
was s t to \ erplank's Point. Arnold arrived just as the boat returned 
to the Vulture. The letter was handed to him, and, of course, fully 
understood; thereupon he hastened to prepare Smith for a visit to the 
enemy's vessel on the approaching night. Crossing from Yerplank's 
to Stony Point he made all the requisite arrangements respecting the 

■ .- th would want, and then proceeded to his quarters to re- 
move the difficulty which had occurred respecting boatmen. The guard 
ived orders not to stop Smith, and he also possessed the 
counte- ;ign f< ir the next night, which was the word " Congress." In the 
morning Smith brought his tenant — Samuel Colquhoun, to a conference 
with Arnold, who requested him to accompany his landlord on a visit 

: to the Vulture" The man at first refused, but at last con- 
sented to go with his brother. Joseph Colquhoun, and Smith. They 
were dire< n d by Arnold to muffle the oars; and, thus prepared, 
midn . boat arrived at the Vulture. The noise made by the 

A and the sailors in their hailing the boat, was heard be- 

a hoy sent up with orders that the man should be shown into 

. supposing him to be Arnold. Smith descended, and found 
his old acquaintance, Beverly Robinson. A letter from Arnold was 
presented to the Colonel, in which lie said, '-This will be delivered to 
- ith, who will conduct you to a place of safety. Neither 
Mi. Smith nor any other person shall be made a< | with your 

-als ; if they (which 1 doubt not) are of such a nature that I can 
y take notice of them, 1 shall do it with pleasure. I take it for 
granted, Colonel Robinson will not propose anything that is not for the 
interest of the United States, as well as of himself." Smith had like- 
wise two papers by Arnold, which he showed to Robinson; one, 
a permission to pass and repass with a boat to Dobb's Ferry, the other 
a permission to J i Smith, Mr. John Anderson and two servants, to 
pass and repass the guards near King's Ferry at all times. By these 
papers Colonel Robinson understood that Arnold expected Andre to 
come on shore. Smith was left with the captain of the vessel for about 
a quarter of an hour, when Robinson returned with a person whom he 


introduced as Mr. Anderson. He excused himself from going ashore, 
but this person would go in his stead, and was competent to the trans- 
action of the business. Andre, although in his uniform, was so com- 
pletely enveloped in a blue great-coat, that Smith (if we believe his as- 
sertions) did not suspect his real name or character. 

Smith and Andre descended into the boat, where the Colquhouns 
awaited them. They were landed at the foot of a mountain called the 
Long Clove, on the western margin of the river, about six miles 
below Stony Point. The Vulture lay between the place and Teller's 
Point. Here Arnold was in attendance on horseback, with another 
horse brought by a servant cf Smith's. It was perfectly dark, and 
Smith, knowing the spot designated by Arnold, groped his way up the 
bank, and found the commander of West Point concealed among the 
trees and bushes.* 

Smith was sent back for his companion ; and, having introduced him, 
was requested to retire to the boat, where he remained ill at ease and 
watchful, while the Colquhouns, conscience-free, slept soundly through 
the remainder of the night. The conference appeared unnecessarily 
long to Mr. Smith, and he retraced his way to give notice of the ap- 
proach of morning, and the necessity of departing before daylight ap- 

The conspirators had exhausted the night, and their business was not 
yet completed. It was agreed that the boat should be dismissed and 
sent up the river. Andre consented to mount a led horse brought to 
the Clove with Arnold, and to accompany him to Smith's house, there 
to remain through the day, and to return to the sloop of war next night. 
It was still dark, and, as Andre asserts, the voice of the sentinel de- 
manding the countersign, was the first indication to the adjutant-general 
that he was within the American lines. About the break of day, the 
conspirators arrived at Smith's house. He had proceeded with the 
boat to Crown Island, in Haverstraw creek, and, dismissing the Colqu- 
houns, joined Arnold. To the alarm of the group, a cannonade was 
very soon heard ; and, from the window, Andre beheld that the Vulture 
was in peril from the guns, and saw her obliged to weigh anchor and 
stand down the river. In an upper apartment in Smith's house, the spy 
and the traitor viewed this unexpected incident, and Sir Henry Clinton's 
adjutant general, no doubt, felt for a time, that the net prepared for 
others was closing around him. It is to be supposed that the com- 
mander of West Point reassured him, and, after breakfast, Smith left 

a Smith's words arc. " hid among the firs.' 


him to finish "the plot of treachery" between them; it was understood 
that Arnold was to receive a stipulated sum. The day fixed upon, 
Andre was to return to New York, and the British troops (already em- 
barked under the pretence of an expedition to Chesapeake) were to 
be ready to ascend the river. Arnold was to weaken the post of West 
Point by such a disposition of the garrison as would yield it an easy 
prey to the troops brought against it. 

Every preliminary was settled, and the spy furnished with all the 
papers explanatory of the condition of the post, and the manner in 
which its fori e was to be rendered unavailable, and its garrison betrayed 
to death or captivity. Andre required to be put in safety on board the 
Vulture; to this Arnold assented, and, although a different route was 
proposed, yet Andre supposed he was to be sent on board the attending 
sloop of war. Before Arnold left Smith's house, he urged him to go 
with Andre on board the Vulture as soon as it was dark; but. as if to 
provide for obstacles, he sent two passes for Smith ; the one a permis- 
sion* to go " with a boat, three hands and a flag, to Dobb's Ferrv, on 
public business, and return immediately ; " the other, to pass the guards 
to the White Plains, and return. To this was added a third, as follows: 

"Head Quarters, Robinson's Bouse, 
Sept. 22d, 1780. 
" P( nnii Mr. John Anderson to pass the guards to the White Plains, or below, 
if he chooses : he being i m public business by my direction. 

'' B. Arnold, M, '<■ n." 

A miserable day was passed by the spy in solitude, and, when 
evening came. Smith positively refused to go on board the Vulture; 
neither had he engaged any person to row the boat. The reason he 
gave was an attack of ague, but this did not prevent him, as will be 
seen, from accompanying Andre on horse-back in his nocturnal journey, 
or from crossing the river with him. Thus Andre was compelled to 
take the route Smith chose, which was to cross the river, and proceed in 
the direction of White Plains. The uniform coat of the adjutant gen- 
eral was left at Smith's house ; and with a coat of Smith's, covered by a 
dark great-coat, with "a wide cape, and buttoned close to the neck," 
Andre was equipped for the journey. Accordingly, in the morning, he 
and Smith proceeded to King's Perry. 

On the way. Smith endeavored to draw his companion into conver- 
sation, but without success. He was reserved and thoughtful. On the 
contrary. Smith accosted several of his acquaintances on the road ; and 
even stopped at a sutler's tent, and joined in discussing a bowl of punch. 


while Andre walked his horse slowly to the ferry alone, and there waited 
Smith's arrival. 

As they passed through the works at Verplanck's Point, Smith rode 
up to Colonel Livingston's tent, while Andre, and a servant who attend- 
ed him, (a negro of Smith's,) rode on. To the Colonel's inquiries, Smith 
said he was going up the country, and took charge of letters for General 
Arnold and Governor Clinton. He excused himself from stopping, as a 
gentleman waited for him whose business was urgent. He then over- 
took his charge, and they proceeded until between eight and nine at 
night, when they were hailed by the sentinel of a patrolling party. 
This was near Crompond, and about eight miles from Verplanck's Point. 
The sentinel ordered them to stop, and Smith dismounted, gave the 
bridle of his horse to his servant, walked forward, and inquired who com- 
manded the party. He was answered, "' Captain Boyd,' who, overhear- 
ing the conversation, immediately appeared. The captain was unusually 
inquisitive, and demanded of him who he was, where he belonged, and 
what was his business. Smith answered these questions promptly, add- 
ing that he had a pass from General Arnold, and desired not to be de- 
tained. The captain was not yet satisfied, but inquired how far he 
meant to go that night; to which he replied, as far as Major Strang's or 
Colonel Drake's ; but this only increased the embarrassment, for the 
captain informed him that Major Strang was not at home, and Colonel 
I )rake had removed to another part of the country. 

Captain Boyd then said that he must see the passport ; and, it being 
dark, they went to a house at a small distance to procure a light. 
Andre began to be a little alarmed, and advanced with reluctance 
towards the house, till he was encouraged by Smith, who assured him 
that Arnold's pass would certainly protect them. 

And so it proved; for the pass was expressed in positive terms, and 
there was no room to doubt its genuineness or its authority. 

The captain was afterwards more bland in his manner, but the ardor 
of his curiosity was not diminished. He took Smith aside, and begged 
to be informed of this important business which earned him down so 
near the enemy's lines, and induced him and his companion to travel so 
tous a road in the night. As an apology for this inquiry, he mani- 
fested a good deal of concern for their safety ; telling him that the cow- 
boys had recently been out, and were believed then to be far up the 
country — and he advised him by all means not to proceed till morning. 
Smith prevaricated as well as he could, saying to Captain Boyd, that 
he and his fellow-traveler, whom he called Mr. Anderson, were em- 
ployed by General Arnold to procure intelligence; that they expected to 


meet a person near White Plains for that purpose, and that it was 
necessary for them to go forward as expeditiously as possible. 

Upon this statement Captain Boyd seemed more anxious than ever; 
ified the perils to which they would be exposed by traveling in the 
I recommended anew that they should turn back to one An- 
dreas Miller's, who lived but a little way off, and at whose house they 
might lodge. Smith's courage was somewhat damped by these repre- 
sentations, and he went and told the tale to Andre, counselled with him 
as to the steps they ought to take. Jt is possible, also, that he had fears 
of exciting suspicion, if he hesitated in resisting the Captain's zeal ex- 
pressed so earnestly in their behalf. Andre, as it may well be imagined, 
not being very easy in his present situation, was for going on at all 
events. When Smith found his fears unheeded and his eloquence un- 
availing, he 1 in the aid of Captain Boyd, and inquired of him 
1 was the safest road to White Plains. Boyd considered both roads 
perilous, but believed the one through North Castle the least so; for the 
lower party, or cow-boys, infested the Tarrytown road, and had lately 
dime mischief in that quarter. He used various arguments to dissuade 
them from going farther that night, to which Smith listened with open 
: and he resolved, against the will of Andre, to trespass on the hos- 
pitality of Andreas Miller. 

They met with a welcome reception ; but coming at a late hour to an 
humble dwelling, their accommodations were narrow and the two trav- 
elers were ol liged i in the same bed. 

According to Smith's account, it was a weary and restless night to 

his companion. The burden on his thoughts was not of a kind to lull 

them to repose ; and the place of his retreat so near the watchful Cap- 

Boyd and his guard, was hardly such as would impress upon him a 

convi. ; security. 

At the fust dawn of light In 1 >m his troubled slumber, 

wakened the servant, and ordered the horses to lie prepared for an early 

I 1 ving solicited their host in vain to receive a compensation for the 
civilities he had rendered, they mounted and took the road leading to 
Pine's which crosses the Croton River on the way to North 

I 1 < ^untenant e of Andre brightened, when he was fairly be- 

yond the reach of the patrolling party; and, as he thought, he left behind 
him the principal difficulties in his route. His cheerfulness revived, and 
iversed, in the most animated and agreeable strain, upon a great 

«i Spai Vrnold, 214, i 


variety of topics. Smith professes to have been astonished at the sud- 
den and extraordinary change winch appeared in him, from a gloomy 
taciturnity to an exuberant flow of spirits, pleasantry and gay discourse. 
He talked upon poetry, the arts, and literature; lamented the war, and 
hoped for a speedy peace."* As they passed Major Strang's house, two 
miles below Yorktown church, they were observed by its inmates, who 
supposed them to be Continental officers. "In this manner they passed 
along without being accosted by any person, till they came within two 
miles and a half of Pine's Bridge. At this place Smith had determined 
to end his journey in the direction of White Plains. The Cow-boys, 
whom he seemed anxious to avoid, had recently been above the bridge, 
and the territory below was considered their appropriate domain. The 
travellers partook of a frugal breakfast together, at the house of a good 
Dutch woman, who had been plundered by three marauders, but who was 
yet enabled to set before them a repast of hasty pudding and milk. & 
This being dispatched, Smith divided his small stock of paper money 
with Andre, took a final leave, and, with his servant, hastened back to 
Peekskill, and the same evening to Fishkill, where he had left his family 
four days before, at the house of his brother-in-law. On his way, he 
took the road leading to Robinson's house, where he called on General 
Arnold, and dined. He gave an account of Andre's progress, and men- 
tioned the place where he had left him, with which Arnold appeared well 
pleased. It is to be understood, however, that Smith had not, at this 
time, as he always affirmed, any knowledge of Andre's true character, 
and that he supposed his name to be John Anderson. 

The Cow-boys were a set of people, mostly, if not wholly, refugees, 
belonging to the British side, and engaged in plundering cattle near the 
fines, and driving them to New York. The name indicates their voca- 
tion. There was another description of banditti, called Skinners, who 
lived, for the most part, within the American lines, and professed attach- 
ment to the American cause; but, in reality, they were more unprinci- 
pled, perfidious and inhuman than the Cow-boys themselves; for these 
latter exhibited some symptoms of fellow feeling for their friends, — 
whereas, the Skinners committed their depredations equally upon friends 
and foes. 

By a law of the State of New York, every person refusing to take an 
oath of fidelity to the State was considered as forfeiting his property. 
The large territory between the American and British lines, extending 

a Ibid. 217. 

b This was not a Dutchwoman, as the historian supposes ; but Mrs. Sarah Underbill, wife 
of Isaac Underbill, of Yorktown, whose grandson, Edward Borough Underhill, still owns the 
house.— Editor. 



nearly thirty miles from north to south, and embracing Westchester 
county, was populous and highly cultivated. A person living within 
that space, who took the oath of fidelity, was sure to be plundered by 
the Cow-boys; and if he did not take it, the Skinners would come down 
upon him, call him a tory, and seize his property as confiscated by the 
State. Thus the execution of the laws was assumed by robbers, and 
the innocent and guilty were involved in a common ruin. 

••It is true the civil authority endeavored to guard against these out- 
. so far as ii could, by legislative enactments and executive procla- 
mations; but, from the nature of the case, this formidable conspiracy 
fits and claims of humanity could be crushed only by a 
military arm. The detachments of Continental troops and militia, 
stationed near the lines, did something to lessen the evil, yet they were 
not adequate to its suppression, and frequently this force was so feeble 
as not to afford any barrier to the inroads of the banditti. 

" The Skinners and Cow-boys often leagued together. The former 
would sell their plunder to the latter, taking in exchange contraband 
articles brought from New York. It was not uncommon for the farce 
of a skirmish to be acted near the American lines, in which the Skin- 
ners never failed to come off victorious; and then they would go boldly 
to the interior with their booty, pretending it had been captured from 
the enemy while attempting to smuggle it across the lines. 

■■ S 11 h wis the social condition of that part of the country through 
whic h Andre was now to pass alone, for nearly thirty miles, before he 
could be perfe< tly secure from danger; for, although every step dimin- 
ished the chances of untoward accidents, yet there was no absolute 
safety till he was beyond the limits of this ill-fated neutral ground. " a 

" But Andre had the American general's pass to produce to the one, 

and his true character to protect him from the other. Still he could 

not but feel that his situation was one of peril. The remarks he had 

heard from the captain of the patrol on the preceding night, seems to 

have induced the adjutant-general to take the Tarrytown road, as the 

one most frequented by the Cow-boys; for it was understood by Smith 

that he would proceed toward White Plains. Upon what apparently 

chance circumstances the fate of individuals, and armies, and States, ap- 

to l! Had this bearer of ruin to thousands proceeded on the 

at first intended, he probably would have accomplished the treason 

in safety to himself; but a t'vw words uttered at random by the American 

. to Smith, respecting the danger of the road nearest the Hudson, 

tea' life ' 


determined the spy to turn that way, as most frequented by his friends, 
— and by that heaven-directed turn, impending ruin was averted, and 
the lives of thousands saved." From Pine's Bridge, the adjutant-gen- 
eral of the British army followed the Crum Pond road, which passed the 
house of Mr. Staats Hammond. The son of this gentleman, David 
Hammond, of North Castle was living in, (1847,) at an advanced age. 
He related, that on the day Andre was taken, he was standing at the 
door of his father's residence, upon the Crum Pond road, when he ob- 
served a person approaching on horseback, leisurely walking his horse. 
As he rode up, he observed the stranger to be closely enveloped in a 
light blue swan's down cloak, with high military boots, and a low-crowned 
and broad brimmed hat on his head. The animal he bestrode was a 
beautiful bay, bitted with a handsome double snaffle bridle; the mane 
particularly about the head, being thickly matted with burs. The stran- 
ger immediately asked for a drink of water. It deserves to be noticed, 
in connection with this incident, that Mr. Hammond's father — who was 
lying, at the time, badly wounded on the floor — caught a glimpse of the 
stranger, whom he pronounced to be a spy, from the fact of his being 
enveloped in the manner described. 

David Hammond, having procured a drinking vessel, accompanied by 
his sister, led the way to the adjoining well. Here the girl drew the 
water, which was offered to the stranger, who requested David to hold 
the bridle whilst he drank. After satisfying his thirst, he turned toward 
Mrs. Hammond, and asked the distance to Tarrytown; she replied, 
"Four miles." "I did not think it was so far," said he. 

At Chappequa, in the vicinity of Underbill's tavern, the spy encoun- 
tered several Quakers. From them he again inquired the road, at the 
same time asking whether any troops were out below, &c. 

At the foot of the Chappequa roads the adjutant-general selected that 
which leads to the river. Following this, he came out in the Albany 
post road, near the village of Sparta. He had now securely passed 
about eleven miles of the neutral ground, and approached within a few 
hundred yards of the Hudson without interruption, and probably felt 
himself beyond the reach of detection. 

A little north of Tarrytown, the road crosses a small brook, (now 
called the Andre brook. ) A few rods from this spot a period was put to 
the journey of the spy and the progress of the treason. 

On this fated morning some of the inhabitants of Westchester had by 
agreement taken their arms, and proceeded to the neighborhood of this 
brook and bridge, to prevent cattle from being driven down towards 
New York, and to seize as a loyal prize any such cows or oxen as might 



be destined for his majesty's troops by their friends. This patriotic band 
of seven had volunteered of their own account to go upon this expedition 
the day previous, Sept. 22d, 1780. John Yerks, (who was still living in 
the town of Mount Pleasant, in 1847, aged eighty-eight,) says that he pro- 
posed this excursion to John Paulding, both of them being at that time 
stationed in North Salem. The latter at first objected; but, upon further 
consideration, volunteered his services, provided they could induce a 
sufficient number to accompany them. This, Yerks assured him, could 
be easily accomplished, and ottered to procure the men; while Paulding 
should obtain the necessary permit from the commanding officer. Yerks 
had in the meantime enlisted three volunteers, viz.: Isaac See, James 
Romer and Abraham Williams. Paulding soon after returned with the 
permit, accompanied by his friend, Isaac Van Wart. The party now 
consisting of six, took the direct road for Cross river. Here they were 
joined by David Williams from Bedford. From Cross river they pro- 
ceeded to IMeasantville. formerly Clark's Corner, where they halted for 
the night. from a lady by the name of Mrs. Powell, (who had recently 
arrived at this place from Morrisania,) the volunteers ascertained that 
the British horse from bong Island, New Jersey and New York had ad- 
vanced from the Island into the neighborhood of Boar hill, Yonkers. 

Whilst Andre slept at ('rum Pond, our volunteers turned into a hay 
barrack, then standing a few yards from the present Methodist church.) 

:Vlllt\ ill''. 

Up by times the next morning, the party followed the windings of the 
- '' 1 to the house of Capt. Jacob Romer, where they obtained 

breakfast and a basket well provided for their dinner. From this place 
they marched to the hill immediately above Tarrytown. Here it was 
agreed that three of the number, viz. : Paulding. Van "Wart and David 
Williams, should go below, whilst the remaining four should watch the 
road above, with the full understanding, (according to Yerks.) that what- 
ever might be taken should be equally divided among the whole band. 

The upper party were stationed two hundred yards east on the hill 
wer party, the latter being concealed in the bushes near the 

V Smith's trial, (which was by a court martial, and commenced the 
day after Andre's examination, Paulding and Williams gave the follow- 
ing testimony. Paulding said, "myself, Isaac Wan Wart and David 
Williams, were lying by the side of the road about half a mile above 
Tarrytown, and about fifteen miles above King's Bridge, on Saturday 
morning between nine and ten o'clock, on the 23d of September. We had 
tain there about one hour and a half, as near as I can recollect, and saw 


several persons we were acquainted with, whom we let pass. Present] 
one of the young men who were with me, said, ' There comes a gentl< 
man-like looking man who appears to be well dressed and has boots 01 
and whom you had better step out and stop, if you don't know hin 
(The party must have observed Andre rising the hill out of Sleepy Ho 
low; when first observed, he was walking his horse.) On that, I got u 
and presented my firelock at the breast of the person and told him t 
stand, and then I asked him which way he was going? 'Gentlemen 
said he, ' I hope you belong to our party.' I asked him what part)-. H 
said 'the lower party.' Upon that, I told him I did. Then he said, ' 
am a British officer out of the country on particular business, and I hop 
you will not detain me a minute ; ' and to show that he was a Britis 
officer he pulled out his watch, upon which I told him to dismoun 
He then said, ' My God ! I must do anything to get along,' and seeme 
to make a kind of laugh of it, and pulled out General Arnold's pas; 
which was to John Anderson to pass all the guards to White Plains an 
below; upon that he dismounted. Said he, 'Gentlemen, you had be< 
let me go, or you will bring yourselves into troubb; for your stoppin 
me will detain the General's business, and said he was going t 
Dobb's Ferry to meet a person there, and get intelligence for Genere 

" Upon that I told him I hoped he would not be offended, that w 
did not mean to take any thing from him. And I told him there wer 
many bad people who were going along the road, and I did not kno\ 
but perhaps he might be one." Mr. Paulding said further that he askei 
the unknown gentleman his name, and he answered, " John Anderson. 
That on seeing General Arnold's pass he should have let him go, if hi 
had not previously said he was a British officer ; (there was yet anothe 
circumstance which tended greatly to increase their suspicions, viz : tha 
his pass was for White Plains and not the Tarrytown road;) and tha 
when he pulled out his watch, he understood it as a confirmation of tha 
assertion, and not as offering it to him. 

Mr. Williams confirmed the above statement with these particulars 
" We took him into the bushes, and ordered him to pull off his clothes 
which he did ; but, on searching him narrowly, we could not find an] 
sort of writings. We told him to pull off his boots, which he seemec 
indifferent about ; but we got one boot off, and searched in that boot 
and could find nothing. But we found there were some papers in the 
bottom of his stocking next to his foot, on which we made him pull hi; 
stockings off, and found three papers wrapped up. Mr Paulding lookec 
at the contents, and said he was a spy. We then made him pull off his 



other boot, and there >ve found three more papers at the bottom of his 
foot within his stocking." 

The following letters and documents were found in the stockings of 
Major Andre : — 

[From the originals in tlie po ■ I kman, (o) of Flatbuah, Long Island.] 

a Col. Beeckman i- the p ands m and lineal dec :udanl oi Governor George Clinton. 

X 1. Pass. 


Pass from General Arnold, dated Septemi ■■ 20, 1730, to Joshua Smith and Mr 
John Anderson, to pass the guards al t^iug's Ferry. 

Head Quarters, Robinson's House, 
September 20, 1780. 
Permission is given to Joshua Smith, Esquire, a gentleman, Mr. John Ander- 
son, who is with him, and his two servants, to pass and repass the guards near 
King's Ferry at all times. 

tied, 1 B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

No. 2. 
[Endorsed, | Sept. 22, 1780. 

Pass tojoshua Smith to pass the WTiite Plains. 

Head Quarters, Robinson's House, 
September 22, L780. 
Joshua Smith. Esq., has permission to pass the Guards to the White Plains, 
■ 1 return, being on public business, by my direction. 

3 ned,) B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

No. 3. 
tter endorsi ■ I 

" Thomas Smith, Esq., Baverstraw." 

Robinson's House, Sept. 2o£A, 1780. 
1 1 : Brother : —I am here a prisoner, and am therefore unable to attend in 
person. 1 would lie to you if you would deliver to Captain Cairns, of's D .1 Britisn Uniform Coat, which you will find in one of the 

drawers in the room above stairs. I would be happy to see you. Remember me 
to your family. I am. affectionately, yours, 

(Signed,) Joshua II. Smith. 

ias Smith. Esq. 

N 1. 4. 
[End. •: Mflho. 

II irul 1 word not intelligible.] 
Elijah Hunter. 

Mr . 1 Jo in, B. R r. 

Mr. .1. Stewart, to the care of •!■ ishua Smith Esq., to be lefl at Head Q'rs. 
: . 


No. 5. 

Gen'l Arnold's permission to Joshua Smith. 

21 Sep. 1780. 
to Dobb's Ferry, 

&c. &c. 
Head Quarters. Robinson's House, 
Sept. 21, 1780. 
Permission is granted to Joshua Smith, Esq., to go to Dobb's Ferry with 
three Men and a Boy in a Boat with a Flag to carry some Letters of a private 
Nature for Gentlemen in New York and to Return immediately. 

(Signed,) B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

N. B. — He has permission to go at such hours and times as the tide and his 
business suits. 

No. 6. 
[Endorsed,] Sept. 22, 1780. 

Pass to Joshua Smith to pass Dobb's Ferry. 

Head Quarters, Robinson House, 
Sept. 22, 1780. 
Joshua Smith, Esq. has permission to pass with a Boat and three hands and a 
flag to Dobb's Ferry on Public business and to return immediately. 

(Signed,) B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

No. 7. 
[Endorsed,] Arnold to John Anderson— Pass. 

22d Sept. 1780. 
Head Quarters, Robinson's House, 
St ft. 22, 1780. 
Permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the Guards to the White Plains, or below, 
if He Choses, He being on Public Business by my Direction. 

B. Arnold, M. Gen'l. 

[In Arnold's hand-writing.] 
"Gustavus to John Anderson." 

The following document is one of the highest importance to the 

British, inasmuch as "in case of alarm" it made the British — who would 

have caused the alarm — fully acquainted with the disposition of all the 

American forces in that vicinity, and thus enable them to conduct an 

attack to the best advantage. It is, of course, in the traitor's own 

hand-writing : — 

No. 9. 

Artillery Orders, Sept. 5th, 1780. 

W'st Point, Sept. 5, 1780. 
Artillery Orders. 

The following disposition of the corps is to take place in Case of an alarm. 

Capt. Daunills with his comp'y at Fort Putnam, and to Detach an Officer 
with 12 men to Wyllys's Redoubt, a non Commissioned Officer, with 3 men to 
Webb's Redoubt, and the like number to Redoubt No. 4. 


('apt. Thomas and Company to repair to Fort Arnold. 

( lapt. Simmons and Company to remain at the North and South Redoubts, at 
the East Bide ol the River, until further orders. 

Lieut. Barber, with 20 men of Capt. Jackson's Company will repair to Con- 
stitution Island; the remainder of the Company with Lieut. Mason's will repair 
to Arnold. 

. Lieut. George and Lieut. Blake with 20 men of Capt. Treadwell's Com- 
pany, will repair to Redoubl No. 1 and 2, the remainder of the Company will he 
sent t" Fori Arnold. 

Late Jones's Company with Lieut. Fisk to repair to the South Battery. 

The Cham Battery Sherburn's Redoubt, and the Brass Field pieces will be 
manned from Fori Arnold as Occasion may require. 

The Commissary and Conductor of Military stores will in turn wait upon the 
Commanding < ifficer of Artillery for < >rders. 

The Artificers in the Garrison, (agreeable t.> former Orders,) will repair to 
Fort Arnold, and their receive further Orders from the Comnnmd'g Officer of 
Artillery. . I. Bauman Major Comm't Artillery. 

No. Id. 
[Endorsed, I [In the Traitor's own hand. J 

Estimate ol the Forces a( West Point, and its dependencies, 
Sept. L780. 
Estimate of the Forces at W'st Poinl and its dependencies, Sept. 13th, 1780 
A Brigade of Massachusetts Malitia and two Regiments of Rank and 
file New Hampshire Inclusion of 166 Batteaux Men at Verplanks 
and Stoney Points, 992 

On command and Extra Service al Fish Kills. New Windsor. &c. &c, 
who may be called in occationally, 852 

lecticut Militia under the Com'd of Colonel Wells 
on the lines near N ( ' istle, 488 

A Detachment nf N Vork Levies on the lines, 115 

Militia 2447 

Colonel Lamb's Regiment 167 

Colonel Livington at Verplank and Stony Pts *0 

Contim nt ■ 247 
Colonel Sheldon's Dragoons on the lines about one-half mounted 142 

Batteaux Men and Artificers 250 

No. 11. Total 3086 

[ In Arnold's hand J 

Estimate of Men to Man the Worksat West Point, &c. 
Sep'r 1780. 
Estimate of the Number of men Nea Man 'he Works at West Point 

and in the Vicinity. 
[•' ii Arnold 620 

Putnam 450 

Wyllys 140 

Webb 140 



Redoubt No. 1 
ditto 2 

ditto 3 

ditto 4 

ditto 5 

ditto 6 

ditto 7 

North Redoubt 
South Redoubt 


rota] 2438 
Villepance, Engineer. . 

N. B. The Artillery Men are not Included in the above Estimate. 

■<-- -2 

^ 3 l|li|*;i 5 > 

5 ~ c c q c 

I m: 

a. J 

t~* ■ • to ' 

g Garrison Carnages 
M Garrison Carriages 
''' Travelling do. 

S Stocked - 

Garnson Carriages 
( ;;■ i ison t arriages 
diti • 
ing ditto 
Ga mso a Cai 
Travelling ditt o 
Travelling ditto 

^ ^ t^ w m o 4- w 

; aches. 





1 : s 



c 3 

£1 «MM*.'c-.|^ 

"' ti t- 
















•> l 5 

"The virulence and malice of Arnold's treachery are no where more 
manifest and detestable than in the following document. See how the 
arch fiend expo ts — the ease with v 

could be set on I of oach — the i landing 

heights and rising grounds, &c. The whole, too, an < led ex- 

pressly for the British; and yet endorsed as if it had been a memoran- 
dum for his own private use. and for General Washington: 

No. 12. 
: [n the traitor's own bam 
1 Endorsed,] 

Remarks on works at Wt. Point, a copy to be transmitted to His Excell'y Gen- 
ii Washingti 
5 L780. 

buill of Dry Fas I, is in a ruinous condition, in- 

to take Fire from Shi 
Putnam, stone, wan repairs, the wall on the East side broke 

down, and rebuilding From the Foundation at the West and S have 

in many places. The East side 
! : and Provisi ra Ma jazine in the Fort, and slig! 

piece of ground 500 yards Wesl between the Fort 
' o. •! or 1; eky 1 [ill. — 

Webb Buill of Fascines and Wood, a slight Work very dry and liable to 
the approaches are very easy, without defences 111 aba- 

\V\ 11) s bu ■ : . ii Earth 

Earth 9 f< I tomb Prod 

I. On tli I thick, the Wt. North and 

caunoa in the works, a rs, no 

ditch o ' No Bom I 

i ' i. l. No B imb Pr 

od Work 3 

l anon, 
t 10 .mmI four o 

ide faced with ■ feet high and four thick. No 

P f, l\\ lers, a slight Al mraanding piece of ground 

The .' I buill of si i • bigh, abovi 

Jarth, Very Dry, no ditch, a Bomb Proof, tbree Bal 

; ■ ■ (und 500 j So, the 

appro. i- 7or to within 20 yards. -The Work easily fired with Fag- 

ilip'ii in Pitch, i! 
South Redoubl much the same as the North a Conn round 

51 io \ 

■• fhi following document explains itself: — 


No. 13. 
[In Arnold's hand-writing. ] 

Copy of a Council of War, held Sept. 6th, 1780. 

At a Council of War, held in Camp Bergen County Sept. 6th, 1780. 

Present — the Commander-in-Chief. 

The Commander-in-Chief states to the Council, that since he had the honor 
of laying before the General Officers, at Morristown, the 6th of June last, a gen- 
eral view of our circumstances, several important events have occurred which 
have materially changed the prospeets of the Campaign. 

That the success expected from France, instead of coming out in one body and 
producing a Naval Superiority in these Seas, has been divided into two Divisions, 
the first of which only consisting of seven ships of the line, one forty-four and 
three smaller Frigates, with five thousand land Forces, had arrived at Rhode 

That a reinforcement of six ships of the line from England having reinforced 
the Enemy, had made their Naval Force in these seas amount to Nine Sail of the 
Line, Two Fifties, two forty-fours, and a number of smaller Frigates, a Force 
completely superior to that of our Allies, and which has in consequence held 
them Blocked up in the harbor of Rhode Island till the 29th ult., at which 
Period the British Fleet disappeared, and no advice of them has since been re- 

That accounts received by the Alliance Frigate, which left France in July, an- 
nounce the Second Division to be Confined in Brest with several other Shipa by 
a British Fleet of thirty-two Sail of the line, and a Fleet of the Allies, of Thirty- 
six, or thirty-eight Ships of the line ready to put to sea from Cadiz to relieve 
the Port of Brest. 

That most of the States in their answers to the requisitions made of them, give 
the strongest assurances of doing every thing in their power to furnish the men 
and supplies required for the expected Co-operation. The effect of which, how- 
ever, has been far short of our expectations, for not much above one-third of 
the Levies demanded for the Continental Battallions, nor above the same pro- 
portion of Militia have been assembled, and the Supplies have been so inade- 
quate that there was a necessity for dismissing all the Militia, whose immediate 
services could be dispensed with to lessen our Consumption, notwithstanding 
which the Troops now in the Field are severely suffering for want of Provision. 

That the army at this Post and in the vicinity in operating Force consists of 
10,400 Continental Troops and about 400 Militia, besides which is a Regiment of 
Continental Troops of about 500 at Rhode Islsnd left there for the assistance of 
our Allies, against any attempt of the Enemy that way, and two Connecticut 
Stale Regiments amounting to 800 at North Castle. 

That the Times for Service for which the Levies are Engaged will expire the 
first of January which, if not replaced, allowing for the usual Casualties, will re- 
duce the Continental Army to less than 6000 men. 

That since the state of the Council above referred to, the Enemy have brought 
a detachment of about 8000 men from Charles Town to New York, which makes 
the present operating Force; in this Quarter between Ten and Eleven Thousand 


That the Enemies Force no"w in the Southern States has not been lately ascer- 
tained by any distinct accounts, but the General supposes it cannot lie less than 

7,000 (of which about "J. are al Savannah) in this estimate the Diminution b\ 

the Casualties of the Climate, is supposed to be equal to the increase of Force 
derived from the Disaffected. 

That added to the loss of Charles Town and its Garrison accounts of a recent 
misfortune are just arrived from Major General Gates, giving advice of a gen- 
eral action 'which happened on the 16th of August near Campde.i, in which the 
army under his Command met with a total defeat, and in all probability the 
whole of the Continental Troops, and a considerable part of the Militia would be 
cut olT. 

The State of Virginia has been sometime exerting itself to raise a Body of 
8,000 Troops to serve till the end of December, 1781, but how far it has succeed- 
ed is not known. 

Thai Maryland had resolved to raise 2,000 Men of which a sufficient number 
to compose One Battallion was to have come to this army. The remainder to 
recruit the Maryland line but in consequence of the late advices, an order lias 
been sent to march the whole Southward. 

That the Enemies Force in Canada, Halifax, St. Augustine, and at Penobscot, 
remains much the same as stated in the preceding Council. 

That there is still reason to believe the Court of France will prosecute its 
Original intention of giving effectual succor to this Country, as soon as circum- 
Btances will permit ; and it is hoped the second Division will certainly arrive in 
the course of the fall. 

That a Fleet greatly superior to that of the Enemy in the West Indies, and a 
dableland Force had sailed sometime since from Martinique to make a 
Combined attack upon the Island of .Jamaica, that there is a possibility of a re- 
inforcement from this quarter also, to the Fleet of our Ally at Rhode Island. 

The Commander-in-Chief having thus given the Council a full view of our 
present situation and future prospects, requests the Opinion of each member, in 
writing, what plan it will be advisable to pursue, to what objects ( >ur Attention 
ought to be directed in the course of this fall and winter, taking into considera- 
tion the alternative of having a Naval Superiority, whether any offensive opera- 
1 m be immediately undertaken and against what Point, what ought to be 
our immediate preparations and dispositions, particularly whether we can afford 
any reinforcements from this army to the Southern States, and 
to what amount the General requests to be favored with these opinions by the 
10th instant at farthest. 

"This concludes the famous " Afidrh Papers." A more remarkable 
set of documents no man surely ever set toot on before. The papers 
themselves look yellow, are much crumpled and worn, and bear evident 

marks of age." a 


pon this, we made him dress himself and I asked him what he 
would give us to let him go. He said he would give us any sum of 

Y'irk IIct.l 


money. I asked him whither he would give us his horse, saddle, bridle, 
watch and one hundred guineas. He said 'Yes,' and told us he would 
direct them to any place, even if it was that very spot, so that we could 
get them. I asked him whether he would not give us more. He said 
he would give us any quantity of Dry Goods, or any sum of money, and 
bring it to any place that we might pitch upon, so that we might get it. 
Mr. Paulding answered, ' No, if you would give us two thousand guineas 
you should not stir one step.' I then asked the person who had called 
himself John Anderson, if he would not get away if it lay in his power. 
He answered, 'Yes, I would.' .1 told him, I did not intend he should 
While taking him along, we asked him a few questions; and we stopped 
under a shade. He begged us not to ask him questions and said 
when he came to any commander, he would reveal all. He was dressed 
in a blue over-coat and a tight body coat that was a kind of claret color, 
though a rather deeper red than claret. The button holes were laced 
with gold tinsel, and the buttons drawn over with the same kind c f lace. 
He had on a round hat and nankeen waistcoat and breeches, with a 
flannel waistcoat and drawers, boots and thread stockings. Acco 
to John Yerks, the lower party were observed coming up the hill, 
Paulding 05 leading the horse, upon which Andre was mounted. As 
they halted, Paulding exclaimed, "we have got a prisoner," and immedi- 
ately ordered Andre to dismount. He then asked him for his watch, 
at the same time warning him not to make any attempt to escape ; for if 
he did he was a dead man. After a short interval, Paulding (who ap- 
pears to have been the master spirit upon this occasion,) ordered him to 
remount. They then led him off in the direction of North Castle, the 
nearest military post, where Lieut. Col. Jameson was stationed with a 
detachment of Sheldon's dragoons. The roads being carefully avoided, 
the party went with all speed across the fields, each taking their turns 
at the bridle, some marching on either side, the remainder bringing up 
the rear. During their progress to North Castle, the prisoner never spoke 
unless some question was asked; and then said but little in reply. On 
their route the party stopped for a short time at Jacob Romers, 6 (in the 

a Paulding had effected his escape, only three days previous, from the New YorkSugar 
House, in the dress of a German yager. General Van Cortlandt states that Paulding wore 
this dress on the day of the capture, which tended to decieve Andre, and [i d him to exclaim, 
in answer to their reply, " Thank God, 1 am once more among friends." 

b Mr. .1. s. Lee, of Beekman Town, relates the following anecdote : " When they captured 
\.udre, tin j brought him up the old Bedford road (now changed) till they came to a spring of 
water near the earth-works thai were casl up to defend the river at the foot ol Kaackeout, a 
very high hill, having a commanding view; thence they took the fields across to the old 
White Plains' road (mar where the county house now stands) to a small tavern kepi by Isaac 
Reed and his wife Polly, (now known as the Landrine House) ; her^ they called for some- 
thing !<> eat; but Aunt Polly's curiosity was excited at the sight of the stranger, and she 
asked, ' Who have yon there? ' 'None of your business,' they replied, 'Gel us something to 

eat, in a hurry.' She flew around, and soon prepared some eggsandbi a, and then again 

repeated her question, ' Who have you there?' They replied, 'O, never mind now.' Soon 

THE TOWN ■ : ' NBURGH. 319 

where th ors, took break - 

fast. The pai eir march, and within a short time 

[1 livered up their prisoner to j 
son, with all the papers that had been taken from his st< 1 The 

nfined here in 
barn- dls concen I spy will be fou 

the ' tive towns. 6 

:livery of their prisi e seven patriots returned to 

little imagining the impi 

. 1 ( General Was 
commended the captors to < ' the following \ 

im that bi 

[n < November, 3, 1780. 

Whekeas, Coc ived information that John Paulding, Davl I 

c van Wart, tim s ilunteer militia men of the 

. did, on ill ptember 1 1 ' ihn Andre, 

adjutu aeral of tb n from the American li 

' hem for his 

sdaiuing to try for the gold, secured 

and c 11 to the commanding officer of the district, wh< rehy the danger- 

spiracy of Benedict Arnold was brought to lights the in- 

,<- United States rescued from in 


I 1 
I »avi 1 Willian I In tes- 

tinion red, that each of tin anuually oui of the 

1 hundred dollars in specie, or an equivalent in current moi 

g life, and that the board of war procun b of (hem i 

; for an hour : ' 

led, ■ We >i.i\ il .1" ntion il I 


him u fei d of 

hour won:': ■ expired, 

1 She 

bonnet and waving it around her n id, c ong: ' Hurrah I hu 

. i 'Hurrah! L'ln ■ taken a 

- dismounted; and rhe two - hands, 

ition of a neighboring 1 
asked whal 

ir 3 miles awa.v al the lime, on theirjo 

. ■ 

.'. ith the fol- 
low 1: 

• i;li. 

< I show n, ' 
- one warrior-diw er, Wayne, 
catch the 

Ica'B og. ! ■ noli . 228, 


silver medalon — one side of which shall be a shield with this inscription, " Fi- 
delity" and on the other, the following motto, "Vincit amor patrice" and for- 
ward them to the Commander-in-Chief, who is requested to present the same, 
with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of Congress for their fidelity and 
the eminent service they have rendered their country. 

The State also gave each a farm. 

The Westchester County Bank, at Peekskill, has commemorated this 
important event on its bills, by a beautiful vignette picture representing 
the arrest of the spy. He is in the act of supplicating his captors to let 
him escape, the discovered papers are in the hands of one of them, and 
the stern eyes of the others evince the determination to listen to no sug- 
gestions but those of patriotism. The form and features of Andre are ad- 
mirably depicted, and a miniature hangs in his bosom exquisitely finished. 
This was a likeness of Miss Honora Sneyd, to whom he was devotedly 
attached. a The picture had been painted by himself from the living 
features of the object of his affections. In 1775, he was taken prisoner 
by General Montgomery, at St. Johns, Canada; a few months after- 
wards, in a letter to a friend, he observes, " I have been taken prisoner 
by the Americans, and striped of every thing except the picture of Hon- 
ora, which I concealed in my mouth. Preserving that, I think myself 
fortunate."** To this touching incident Anna Seward refers in her poem 
upon Andre. 

' ' Shade of my love 
'Tis free ! These lips shall resolute enclose 
The precious soother of my ceaseless woes. " 

The above vignette suggested the following stanzas : 

' ' Before their country's foe they stand, 

Each with a stern and searching eye ; 
Grasped with a firm and honest hand, 

The hostile records open lie ; 
They read, and as each noble brow 

Wears the quiet shadow of resolve, 
The true and just exhibit now, 

The secret which they dared to solve. 

Away with gold ! It has no power 

To turn the true heart from its quest ; 
The ordeal of this solemn hour 

Gives firmness to the patriot's breast ; 
And as the tempter's art is tried, 

a This lady died of consumption only a few months before Andre suffered at Tappan. She 
had married another gentleman four years after her engagement to Andre', which had been 
dissolved by parental affection.— [See Letters about the Hudson, published by Freeman & 
Hunt, 1837 

u See Sparks' Life of Arnold, p. 171. 


Hi- finds each Buplical ion vain ; 
Tin- weary prisoner turns aside, 
To hide his laboring bosom's pain. 

Tumultuous thoughts upon his mind, 

In quick succession wildly crowd, 
As urged by the resistless wind, 

Spreads o'er the sky the tempest's cloud. 
Why bends his sad and languid glance 

WTiere, near his heart, thai picture lies, 
Affecti* m's fond inheritance, 

With sunny smile and loving ryes ! 

Alas ! Upon that face no more 

Tin- eager gaze of nope can turn, 
The dream of early love is o'er. 

Ami ne'er again its tires will hum ; 
A shade is gathering <>'• r each tress, 

A gloom is lingering on the brow. 
And all its budding loveliness 

Is stained with tears of anguish now. 

Brave, yet devoted ! < Mi thy head 

The bolt, by others forged, shall fall: 
And history on thy name shall sled 

Of fate, the %\ ormw ood ami the gall : 
Yet wert thou noble— and thy soul 

The battle and the storm \\ ithstood, 
Till bending to a stem control, 

'Twas by a traitor's lure subdued. 

Peace to thy shade, ill-fated one! 

Though in the abbey's lengthened aisle. 
Scarce lit by the day's meridian sun. 

Thy marble bust may sadly smile, 
Yet is there darkness on thy name, 

Though gentle pity mourns for thee, 
While patriots bless the holy flame, 

Which kept thy raptor's spirit free. 

— [Westchester and Putnam Republican. 

A remarkable incident is said to have befallen the celebrated white- 
wood tree near which the spy was captured. It was struck by lightning 
em the same day that the intelligence of General Arnold's death arrived 
at Tarrytown. This tree was a fine specimen of the ancient forest, be- 
ing twenty six feet in circumference, and its stem forty-one feet in length. 
At the present day not a vestige remains of "Major Andre's Tree," as 
it was familiarly called. It is thus beautifully described by the author 
oi the Sketch book ; "This tree towered like a giant above all the other 


trees of the neighborhood, and formed a kind of landmark. Its limbs 
were knarled and fantastic, large enough to form trunks for ordinary trees, 
twisting down almost to the earth, and rising again into the air. It was 
connected with the tragical story of the unfortunate Andre, who had 
been made a prisoner ha.rd by, and was universally known by the name of 
' Major Andre's Tree ' The common people regarded it with a mixture 
of respect and superstition, partly out of sympathy for the fate of its ill- 
starred namesake, and partly from tales of strange sights, and doleful 
lamentations told concerning it." It was while passing beneath this 
whitewood tree that Ichabod Crane, in his midnight career toward 
Sleepy Hollow, "suddenly heard a groan, his teeth chattered, and his 
knees smote against the saddle. It was but the rubbing of one huge 
branch upon another, as they were swayed about by the breeze. He 
: d the tree in safety, but new perils lay before him. About two 
hundred yards from the tree, a small brook crossed the road, and 
ran into a marshy and thickly wooded glen, known by the name of 
"Wiley's Swamp." A few rough logs laid side by side, served for a 
bridge over this stream. On that side of the road where the brook en- 
tered the wood, a group of oaks and chestnuts, matted thick with wild 
grape vines, threw a cavernous gloom over it. To pass this bridge was 
the severest trial. It was at this identical spot that the unfortunate An- 
dre was captured ; and under the covert of these chestnuts and vines 
were the sturdy yeomen concealed, who surprised him. This has ever 
since been considered a haunted stream, and fearful are the feelings of 
the schoolboy who has to pass it alone after dark."" 

"According to Debrett, Burke, and other genealogical authorities, 
John Andre was descended from a French refugee family settled in England 
at Southampton in the County of Hants," 6 " His mother whose name 
was Mary Louise Andre Girardot, though of French parentage, was 
born at London. His father, a native of Geneva, was born in Switzer- 
land ; but it would seem that a very considerable portion of his life must 
have been passed at London, where he carried on an extensive business in 
the Levant Trade, and where also, in 1780, several of his brothers had 
their abode. Of these Dr. Andree, of Halton Gardens, was apparently the 
only one who preserved what is said to have been an earlier method of 
spelling the family name. Notwithstanding the establishment of a part 
of the Andre family in England its connections upon the continent would 
appear to have been the most numerous and the most permanent." 

a See Sk- ten Book, Beauties <>f Irving. &c, &c, 

b The Anns of Andre or Andree, are Ar., two mullets, in chief az. and a galley, her oars 
in action, m base sa. Crest, a millnnd :i/.. 
.■ 1. iic oi Major Andre by Winthrop Sargent, , 


ing these was the Swedish Minister, Monsieur Andre, uncle to 
; another ted Johann Andre, author of 

1 was horn at Offenbach in i74i,andwho 
in 1 799.' 

as yet opportunity is wanting to verify the supposition, there 

n t-> believe tl . , tion existed between the 

family of Maj ! the one e St. Andre of 

■ ter of w n ely to be pai r 

even in tl f Gil. Bias. j on came over to England from 

■ and, probably, towards the 

By his own account, his origin was 

1 table, and even distinguished ; and in his later days he 

■rt that by right hewas ed of a title." 6 Major John 

Andre was born either in London or Southampton, A. D. 1751. He 

I in school at Hackney, under a Mr. Newcombe ; whence 

; .; r ■ ■ rs to ( Geneva to 

tion. Id of many things thai in those 

rw.] which, 
e are to be found rather in < n the rule. 

: ] pean languages — French, German, Italian, &c, are 

:ssed by him in singular perfection; vhile in 
and dancing, he parti< : . When 

ments was I a always 

tres of the 
only with a taste for p >etry, bi t with a 
d to his person which, thouj 
tive and graceful, we need nol wonder thai his at- 
to win the favor of all with whom he came in 
Al the university of Geneva he was remarked for a dil 
nd for an active and inquirinj I; and in special wa 

y in the schools of mathematics and of 
militan drawings. To his skill in this last branch, his subseqi 

the arm_\" was in In 171 

it sixteen teen years of age, he enl count- 

father. v - • d I the death of h whichoccu 

led the Manor house) in April, [769, m 
in the nature of his avocations, 
nib/was left by the Id r Andre can only be gathered from 
t that in 178 . besides Iris widow, there still remained a sei 

ri :it. 


scm, William Lewis, who was eight years behind his brother : and three 
daughters, Louisa Catherine, Mary Hannah and Anne. The last is 
said to have been distinguished for a poetical talent." Of these sisters, 
Louisa Catherine was born 1754, and Mary Hannah about 1752, accord- 
ing to the inscriptions in the church yard at Bath-Hampton, where they 
are buried ; the last of these two dates going far to fix that of Major 
Andre's birth as of 1751. 

In 1780, also, there were yet living at London, two brothers of the 
elder Andre: Mr. David Andre, of New Broad street, and Mr. John 
Lewis Andre, of Warnford Court, Throgmorton street, who were known 
to the community as respectable Turkey merchants, and who doubtless 
still carried on at the old place, the business in which their brother had 
prospered well, but which their nephews had declined. 6 

In 1769, while at the head of his mother's house at Buxton, Mat- 
lock, he first became acquainted with Miss Seward. It is almost cer- 
tain that he formed with another lady a friendship that left its coloring 
on the whole of his future life.' 2 This was Miss Honora Sneyd, daughter 
of Edward, the younger son of Ralph Sneyd, Esq., of Bishton, in Staf- 
fordshire. This lady in 1773, married Richard Lovell Edgeworth. 
Upon finding that his attentions to Miss Sneyd were unavailing, Mr. An- 
dre quitted his profession and entered the British Army in America. 
His first commission was dated March 4th, 177 1. 

The regiment which Andre joined was the Seventh Foot, or Royal 
English Fusiliers; one of the oldest corps in the line, and dating its 
formation in the year 1685. The rank of ensign does not exist in a 
fusilier regiment, the grade being supplied by a second lieutenant; it was 
in this latter capacity that he seems to have first served. In April, 1773, 
the regiment had been embarked for Canada, where it performed garri- 
son duty at Quebec for several months, until it was sent to Montreal, 
and variously posted in Lower Canada Before leaving England to 
join it, however, it is asserted that Andre paid a final visit of farewell to 
Miss Seward and to the scenes of his former happiness. During his 
stay, we are told, Miss Seward had made arrangements to take him to 
see and be introduced to her friends, Cunningham and Newton — both 
gentlemen of a poetical turn. e 

Whilst these two gentlemen were awaiting the arrival of their guests, 

a Ditto. 

b Life of Major Andre* by Winthrop Sargent 

o l.itt' «I Jiajor Aniire »y w uiuirop Etargeni. 

c Ditto. Anna Seward, the eulogist of .Major Andre, was born at Lyam, in Derbyshire in 
1747. The Bishops Palace at Lichfield, in which her father— who was a Canon of the Cathe- 
dral there— was the headquarters of the literary world of that region, and of the better classes 
ot society generally. 

.e1 v g« 
d Life ot Andre, by Sargent. 
e Life of Major Andre by Winthrop Sargent 


of whose intentions they had been apprised, Mr. Cunningham mentioned 
to v wton that, on the preceding night, he had a very extraordinary 
dream, which he could not get out of his head. He had fancied him- 
self in a forest; the place was strange to him; ant!, whilst looking about, 
he perceived a horseman approaching at great speed, who had scarcely 
rea< hed the spot where the dreamer stood, when three men rushed out 
of the thicket, and, seizing the bridle, hurried him away, after closely 
searching his person. The countenance of the stranger being very in- 

ng, the sympathy felt by the sleeper for his apparent misfortune 
awoke him; but he presently fell asleep again, and dreamt that he was 
standing near a great city, amongst thousands of people, and that he 
saw the same person he had seen seized in the wood, brought out and 

tided to a gallows. When Andre and Miss Seward arrived, he was 

i -struck to perceive that his new acquaintance' was the antitype of 
man in the dream. 

I a the 3d November. 1775. he was taken prisoner with the garrison 
by the Americans under General Montgomery at St. John's in Canada. 
Towards the close of the year 1776 most of the prisoners made by 
either side in Canada were exchanged and Andre thus obtained his 
freedom by their means, through whom he had lost it. The skeleton of 
the Seventh was transferred from that Province to New York; recruits 
and new clothing were sent out from England; and in the end of Decem- 
ber, the regiment, including the men lately discharged from Pennsylvania. 
marched into town with tolerably full ranks. Andre did not, however. 

remain in it ; on the 18th January, 1777. he received a captaincy 
in the Twenty-sixth, which had been so augmented that each company 
consisted of sixty-four men. exclusive of commissioned officers, but a 
• ippointment was 1 is legitimate sphere, and there was for the time 
none such vacant. He therefore remained on line duty. His regiment 
was fortunately not 1 ■ I ose that Tryon led in April, 1777. to Dan- 
bury; otherwise he might have met Benedict Arnold, face to face and 
shared in the questi ories of what Clinton honestly confesses to 

•• a second Lexington." In the beginning of the summer he 
was lunii d np to Majoi • ! il Grey. In Grey's retirement 

'•.with the provincial rank of Major, was appointed aide to Sir 
the son of Admii G< e Clinton, once Governor of 

York, who was second son of the ninth earl of Lincoln. Andre's 
conspicuous merit and aimable character had soon made him the most 
important person of Clinton's staff, and won the admiration of all who 



had business with the General. He would promptly inform them whether 
or not he could engage in their affairs, if he declined, his reasons were 
always polite and satisfactory; if he consented, the applicant was sure of 
an answer from Sir Henry within twenty-four hours. Clinton's con- 
fidence was evidenced in the spring of 1 779 by his appointment of Andre, 
with Colonel West Hyde of the Guards, as commissioner to negotiate 
with the Americans an exchange of prisoners." The following extract is 
from the Pennsylvania Packet, 1 780-1 781 : "Major Andre had ye 
address to insinuate himself so much unto ye favour of his commander- 
in-chief that he was said to have gained an absolute ascendency over 
this officer. The consequence was that he disposed of all his offices and 
favours and drove out from Sir Henry's family all his former favourites, &c. 
Letter from a Carolina Exile. When Major Stephen Kemble, the brother- 
in-law of ( J-eneral Gage resigned the adjutant-major-generalcy, it was forth- 
with bestowei 1 upon Andre, and thenceforth all 1 1 te business at headquarters 
of the Department passed through his hands. It was thus at the beginning 
of the Fall in 1779, tnat ne commenced the virtual discharge of the Adju- 
tant-generalcy in which he continued till his death." It was in March 
or April, 1779, that General Arnold, commanding at Philadelphia, had, 
under the feigned name of Gustavus, begun a secret correspondence 
with Clinton; who committed the matter to the hands of Andre The 
latter wrote over the signature of John Anderson; and was replied to as 
"Mr. John Anderson, merchant, to the care of James Osbom, to be left 
at the Rev. Mr. Odell's, New York." Though at the outset the Eng- 
lish had no clue to their correspondent's identity, the character . 
ue of his information soon led them to suspect it; and it is suppi >cd by 
some th l1 ter to Mr. Arnold was written with the view of mak- 

ing ( lear to her husband the character of its author, and to invite a re- 
turn of coi . This may possibly have been the c my 
investigations show that the lady had not any suspicion of the dealings 
between the parties, or was ever intrusted by either side m ' the least 
knowledge of what was going on. Equally false, in my ' t, is 
the charge that she tempted her husband to treason. Her puril and 
elevation of 1 haracter, have not less weight in the • of this 
rsion, than the testimony of all chiefly concerned in tl : discovery 
and punishment of the crime. "After the 'fall of Char] 1 1780, 
we are told that there was an opinion current in the American line that 
Andre had been present within its lin as - ; spy." It 
is but just to add., that, if this story of Andre's having been a spy at 
Charleston, received credence in respectable quarters, it was afterwards 

a Lifeof Major Andre by Winthrop Sargi at. 


questioned by gentlemen of equal character in our service." "The se- 
cret correspondence with Arnold begun in 1779, had, at an early stage. 
been intrusted by Clinton to Andri 's exclu nent. 

information received was valuable and often highly important, 
nor was it long questionable from what quarter it came [n an elabo- 
ruised hand Arnold wrote over the signature of Gustavus, — a 
pseudonym perhaps sug| the romantic story of Gustavus Vasa, 

in whose love of military glory,, undaunted boldness, and successful re- 
volt against the unwonted lords df his native land, he might pet 

'. his own character found a counterpart. On the other part, the 
fictitious name of Anderson was but a transparent play upon Andre's 
own. The accuracy and nature of the ii, • soon gave Clinton 

rn to know with certainty Us author; and once satisfied in his 
mind that this was no other than Arnold, he took his cue from cir- 
cumstances, and delayed the final consummation until a period when the 
1 a correspondent so valuable would be compensated by weightier 
"than the individual defection of an officer of rank. Thus he con- 
. to receive the most moraen msofour affairs; and it 

may possibly have been that throu ns a knowledge was ac- 

quired of the o . tl it led to the fall of Charleston.'' 

"On ' 1 I, 1780, Arnold was ap] 1 the command of West 

Point and its dependent forthwith concerted that his 

iuld be fully d< ad* anl 

the 1 

The moment was a truly favorable one, the English were wean, of 

strife, and really anxious for peace with America on al- 

.c Independency. On the other 

war. V. ri< iu - letters n< >w 1 1 ; 

ed. ( >n Sept. r 9th, 

•1 Williams of 1 House < m the 

iff as a parting compli- 

t to A idre. How brilliant soever the company, how cheerful the 

. its memory must ; I : to b< »th 


rads in lif . four 5 dship 

d with hi . and trie darling of 

. the youthful hero of the hour, had d om a gibbet. 

It v. liar interest that when at this banquet the 

u i-ii those now The deUvery 

v was guilty; 
ited death. 


song came to his turn, Andre gave the favorite military chanson at- 
tributed to Wolfe, who sung it on the eve of the battle where he died : 

" Why, soldiers, why 
Should we be melancholy, boys ? 
Why, soldiers, why, 
Whose business 'tis to die ! 
For should next campaign 
Send us to Him who made us, boys, 
We're free from pain : 
But should we remaifl, 
A bottle and kind land-lady 
Makes all well again."" 

The circumstances relative to Major Andre's arrest has already been 

"On Friday the 29th September, 17S0, just one week since he had 
started from Smith's house for New York, Andre was brought before a 
Board of Enquiry convened by General Washington. It was assembled 
in an old Dutch church in Tappan, now pulled down, and consisted of 
the following officers : Major-Generals, Greene, Sterling, St. Claire, La 
Fayette, Howe and Steuben; Brigadiers, Parsons, Clinton, Knox, 
Glover, Patterson, Hand, Huntington and Starke. Greene was presi- 
dent, and John Lawrence the judge-advogate-general. Before this court 
Andre made the following statement : 


"On the 20th of December I left New York to get on board the Vulture, in 
order (as I thought) to meet General Arnold there iu the night. No boat, how- 
ever, came off, and I waited on board until the night of the 21st. During the 
day, a flag of truce was sent from the Vulture to complain of the violation of a 
military rule in the instance of a boat having been decoyed on shore by a flag, 
and fired upon. The letter was addressed to General Arnold, signed by 
Captain Sutherland, but written in my hand, and countersigned ' J. Anderson,, 
secretary.' Its intent was to indicate my presence on board the Vulture. In 

the night, of the 21st, a boat with Mr. and two hands came on board, in 

order to fetch Mr. Anderson on shore ; and, if too late to bring me back, to 
lodge me until the next night in a place of safety. I went into the boat, landed, 

and spoke with Arnold. I got on horseback with him to proceed to 

house; and, on the way, passed a guard I did not expect to see ; having Sir 
Henry Clinton's directions not to go within an enemy's post, or to quit my own 
dress. In the morning A. quitted me, having himself made me put the papers 
I bore between my stockings and feet. Whilst he did it, he expressed a wish 
that, in ease of any accident befalling me, they should be destroyed ; which, I 
said, of course would Iks the case, as when I went into the boat I should have 

a Life of Major Andre by Wintlirop Sargent. 



them tied aboul me with a string and a stone. Before we parted, some mention 

had been made of my crossing the river, and going by another nunc; but, I ob~ 

mucb agaii I was settled that in the way ! came I was 

to n turn. 

"Mr m, persisted in his determination of carr 

me by tin- other route; and, al the decline of the sun, I sel oul on horse-back, 
I King's Ferryai > Crompond, where a party of militia stopped us 

ami advised we should remain. In the morning I came with as far as 

within two ] md a half of Pine's Bridge, where he said he must pari with 

■ infested the road thenceforth. [ was now near thirty miles 

from Kingsbridgc, and left to the chance of passing that space undiscovere I 
gol to ! of Tarry! >wn, which was far beyond the points de- 

scribed as dangerous, when I was taken by three volunteers, who, nol satisfied 
with my pass, rifled me, and, finding papers, made me a prisoner. 

"I have omitted mentioning that, when I found myself within an enemy's post, 
1 chan fed 1113 di 

The pro published by Congress, being rather a manifesto 

than a report of a trial, make no mention of this statement. It j 

•■ hat is doubtless designed for an abstract of i ; s contents and 
of his oral replies to interrogations. The italics are from the pamphlet: 

"Thai he came ashore from the Vuttun sloop-of-war in the night of the '21st 
September inst. somewhere under the Baverstraw mountain. That the boat he 
came on shore in. carried no flag ; and that he had on a surtout coat 
bis regimentals, and that he wore his surtout coat when he was taken. That he 
. Arnold on the shore, and had an interview with him there. He also 
said thai when he left the Vultun sloop-of-war, it was understood that he was 
at: but it was then doubted: and. if iie could not return, he 
was pi tlwre, in a place of safety, until the next night, 

when he was to return in the same manner he came on shore ; and when the 
licitous to sret back, and made enquiries during the 
course of the da}', how he should return ; when he was informed he couli 
return that way, and must take the route h< did afterwards. He also said that 
ice he had i'\' his being within anj of our out posts was, b ing chal- 
: by the sentry, which was the first night he was on shore. Heal 
ning of the 22d S pt ember inst., he passed King's F< 

'■ rptank 1 s Points, in tlu dress In is at preset ! I which, 

od which dress he procured aft r he lauded from 

the Vult and when he was within our posts, and that he was proceeding to 

York, but was taken on his way at Tarrytown, as he lias mentioned in his 

I September inst. about nine o'clock iu the morning." 

The six papers from Arnold being produced, he acknowledged they 
9 1 in his boots; the pass to John Anderson was also owned 

and the fact that he had assumed that name. Anderson's letter to Shel- 
don, of September 7th, (Anti. 12) was also read. He avowed 
himself its author; but though it went to prove his intention not to en- 


ter our lines, he observed that it could not affect the present case, as he 
wrote it in New York under Clinton's orders: 

"The Board having interrogated Major Andre about his conception of his com- 
ing on shore under the sanction of a flag he said that it was impossible for Mm 
to suppose he came on shore under that sanction ; and added, that if lie came on 
shore under that sanction, he certainly might have returned under it. 

" Major Andre having acknowledged the preceding facts, and being asked 
whether he had anything to say respecting them, answered, He left them to ope- 
rate with the Board." , 

It was probably in connection with this point of a flag that Greene 
asked the question: — "When you came on shore from the Vulture, 
Major Andre, and met General Arnold, did you consider yourself acting 
ing as a private individual, or as a British officer ? " "I wore my uni- 
form," was the reply, and undoubtedly esteemed myself to be what in- 
deed I was, a British officer." It will be recollected that it was not as 
an officer he was acting and clad when he was arrested. 

His personal examination being now concluded the prisoner was re- 
manded into custody. 

"The Board having considered the letter from His Excellency General Wash- 
ington, respecting Major Andre, Adjutant-General to the British army, the con- 
fession, of Major Andre and the paper produced to them, Retort to His Excel- 
lency the Commander-in-Chief, the following fact which appear to them concern- 
ing Major Andre. 

"First, That he came on shore from the Vulture, sloop-of-war, in the /tight of 
the 21st September inst. on an interview with General Arnold, in a private and 
see ret, manner. 

Secondly, That he changed his dress within our lines, and undt r a feigned name, 
and in a disguised Jiabit, passed our works at Stony and Verplanck's Points the 
evening of the 22nd September inst. and was taken the morning of the '23rd Sep- 
tember inst. at Tarrytown in adisguised habit, being then on his way to New 
York, and, wJien taken, he had in his possession several papers, which con- 
tained intelligence for the enemy. 

"The Brard having maturely considered these facts. Do also Report to J lis 
Excellency General Washington, that Major Andre; Adjutant-General to the 
British army ought to be considered as a spy from the enemy ; and that, agree- 
able to the law and usage of nations, it is their opinion, he ought tj suffer death." 

"Intelligence of the finding of the court and of his fate were com- 
municated to Andre through two officers from Greene, one of whom was 
his aide, Major Burnet. The sentence was listened to with a composure 
that his informants vainly strove to emulate. The prisoner had steeled 
himself to encounter death: "I avow no guilt," he said, "but I am 
resigned to my fate." Yet he shrunk from the idea of the haltr -. " 

a T have this anecdote from Mr. Spark's, who received if from I. a Fayette himself. 


it was his lot to die," he said, " there was still a choice in the mode 
which would make a material difference to his feelings, and he would 
be happy, if possible, to be indulged with a professional death; and he 
seems to have at once verbally petitioned, probably through Hamilton, 
that Washington would consent to his being shot probably anticipating 
fusal to his request he retain ome time a tranquility of spirit 

appr< 1 en to cheerfulness. 

On the morning of the daj originallj fixed tor his death Andre- in. 
moving appeal for a change of its mode. 


T irr \\. 1- r ( ►CTOBEK, 1 r80. 

Sir: above the terror of death by the consi of a life devoted 

to honorable pursuits and stained with no action that can give me nun use. I 
trust that the request I make to your excellency at this serious period, and which 
■1 my last moments, will oot be rejected. 
Sympathy towards a soldier will surely induce your excellency and a military 
tribunal to adapt the mode of my death to the feelings of a man ol honor. Let 
me hope, Sir, that if aught in my < haracter impresses you with esteem toward 
inc. if aught in my misfortunes marks me the victim of policy and not of resent- 
ment, [ shall experience the operation of those feelings in your heart by being 
informed that lam not to die on the gibbet ; 1 have the honor to be your ex- 
icy's most obedient and most humble servant, 

John Audke, Adj.-Oen. to tin British Army, 

'•This was probably the second and last letter written by Andre to 

m ; the latter being unable to grant the request was unwilling 

.utter by a refusal, therefore did not reply. 

f farewell to his mother and his 1 riends were written, 

and tl ■ ' in. ui's calmness was still evinced in the exercise of his 

pen. On this same evening hesketi hed from memory, as a memento for a 

friend in New York, the striking view of the North River that had pre- 

1 him as he looked from the window of Smith's house. ;\\\t\ 

ol the Vulture as she rode at anchor beyond his 

reach. Traditional s to this occasion the composition of some 

last verses, that were long cherished on the lips of the common people. 

i of Tuesday, October the 2d, 1780, found him with Iris 

all performed and not afraid t< 1 'lie. 

The prisoner's board was supplied from Washington's own table; on 

this day his breakfast was sent him as usual, from the I quarters. 

1 then pr< to shave and dress 

fully arrayed in the habits of his rank and 

ol >ash and spurs, sword and yorget. The 

toilet 1 I, he laid his hat on the table and cheerfully said to the 


guard officers deputed to lead him forth, " I am ready at any moment, 
gentlemen, to wait on you." Though his face was of deadly paleness, 
its features were tranquil and calm; his beauty shone with an unnatural 
distinctness that awed the hearts of the vulgar, and his manners and air 
were as easy as though he was going to a ball-room rather than the 

The spot fixed for the closing scene was in an open field belonging to 
the owner of the house where he was detained, and on an eminence that 
commands an extended view. It was within a mile, and in open sight 
of Washington's quarters. Here the lofty gibbet was erected, and the 
shallow grave of three or four feet depth was digged. The office of hang- 
man, always an odious employment, was perhaps on this occasion more 
than usually so. None of our soldiers undertook it. One Strickland, a 
tory of Ramapo Valley, was in our hands at the time. His threatened 
fate may have been hard; his years were not many; and by the price of 
freedom he procured to take on himself the necessary but revolting char- 
acter. Under an elaborate disguise, he probably hoped to go through 
the scene if not unnoticed, at least unknown. 

Besides the officers that were always in the chamber, six sentinels 
kept watch by night and by day, over every aperture of the building; 
if hope of escape ever rose in Andre's breast it could not have developed 
into even the vaguest expectation. To the idea of suicide as a means of 
avoiding his doom, he never descended. The noon of this day was ap- 
pointed for the execution, and at half an hour before, the cortege set 
forth. Andre walked arm in arm between two subalterns; each, it is 
said, with a drawn sword in the opposite hand. A captain's command 
of thirty or forty men, marched immediately about these, while an outer 
guard of five hundred infantry, environed the whole and formed a hol- 
low square around the gibbet, within which no one save the officers on 
duty, and the Provost- Marshal's men, were suffered to enter. An im- 
mense multitude was, however, assembled on all sides to witness the spec- 
tacle ; and every house along the way was thronged with eager gazers, that 
only of Washington's excepted. Here the shutters were drawn and no 
man was visible but the two sentries who paced to an fro before the 
door. Neither the chief himself, nor his staff, were present with the 
troops; a circumstance which was declared by our people, and assent- 
ed to by Andre, as evincing a laudable decorum. But almost every 
field-officer in our army, led by Greene, headed the procession on horse- 
back, and a number followed the prisoner on foot; while the outer 
guard, stretching in single file on either side, in front and rear, prevented 
the concourse from crowding in. In addition to all those who came in 

nil I mux OF GREENBURGH. 33$ 

on the count / side, it is unlikely that many of the army who could con- 
trive to be present missed the sight. Every eye was fixed on the pris- 

and every face wore such an aspect of melancholy and gloom, 
that the ira i< c<\ on some of our officers was not only affect- 

in- but awful. 

ping pace with the melancholy notes of the dead march the pro- 
cession marched along ; no member of it apparently less troubled than 
he whose conduct was its cause and ■« ath was its object."' In 

the beautiful Orientalism of Sir William Jones, "he dying only smiled, 
while all around him grieved." His heart told him that a life 

in the pursuit of glory would not leave his name to be enrolled 
amoi g those of 1 uiltymany: and his face bespoke the 

serenity of an approving and undismayed conscience. from time to 
time, as he caught the eye of an acquaintance — and especially to officers 
of the Court of Enquiry— he tendered the customary civilities of 1 
nition, and received their acknowledgements with composure and grace. 
[fseems that up to this moment he was persuaded that he was not to 
be shot to death; and the inner guard in attendance 
he took to be the firing party detailed for the occasion. Not until the 

- turned suddenly, at a right angle with the course they had hither- 
I, and the gallows rose high before him, was he undeceived. 
In the very moment of wheeling with his escort, his c\ e rested on the 
ill-omened I Ik- recoiled and paused. " Why this emotion, sir?" 

asked Smith, who held one of his aims. " I am reconciled to my fate," 
said A rig his fist and convulsively moving his arms; "but 

not to the mode of it." " It is unavoidable, sir." was the reply. He 
beckoned Tallmadge, and inquired anxiously if he was not to be shot: 

■ I then die in this manner?" being told that it was so ordered, 
•• How hard is my fate !" he cried ; "but it will soon be over." 

\ 1 ending the hill side, the prisoner was brought to the gibbet, while 
the outer guard secured the ceremony from interruption. During the 
brief preparations, his manner was nervous and restless- uneasily rolling 
a pebble to and fro beneath the ball of his foot, and the gland of his 
throat sinking and swelling as though he choked with emotion. His 
nl who had followed him to this point now burst forthwith loud 
weeping and lamentations, and Andre for a little turned aside and 
privately conversed with him. lb- shook hands with Tallmadge. who 
withdrew. \ ' ige wagon was driven beneath the cross-tree into which 

njamln Abbott, a drum-major, who i»'at the dead march on this occasion, died at 

Besancon who followed LaFayette hither from 
who died ;tt V\areaw,New fork, in ibablythe last surviving spec- 


he leaped lightly, but with visible loathing ; and throwing lis hat aside, 
removed his stock, opened his shirt-collar, and snatching the rope from 
the clumsy hangman, himself adjusted it about his neck. He could not 
conceal his disgust at these features of his fate; but it was expressed in 
manner rather than in language. Then he bound his handkerchief over 
his eyes. 

The order of execution was loudly and impressively read by our Ad- 
jutant-General Scammel, who at its conclusion, informed Andre he 
might now speak, if he had anything to say. Lifting the bandage for a 
moment from his eyes, he bowed courteously to Greene and the attend- 
ing officers, and said with firmness and dignity: — 

"All I request of you, gentlemen, is that you will bear witness to the 
world that 1 die like a brave man." His last words murmured in an un- 
dertone were, — "It will be but a momentary pang." 

Every thing seemed now ready, when the commanding officer on duty 
suddenly cried out, — "His arms must be tied!" 

The hangman, with a piece of cord, laid hold of him to perform this 
order; but recoiling from his touch, Andre vehemently struck away the 
man's hand, and drew another handkerchief from his pocket with which 
his elbows were loosely pinioned behind his back. The signal was given ; 
the wagon rolled swiftly away, and almost in the same instant he ceased 
to live. The height of the gibbet, the length of the cord, and the sud- 
den shock as lie was jerked from the coffin-lid on which he stood, pro- 
duced immediate death. 

From an eye witness, we have the following account of Andre's execu- 

•• During the whole transaction, he appeared as little daunted as Mr. 
John Rogers is said to have done when he was about to be burnt at the 
stake; but his countenance was rather pale. He remained hanging, I 
should think, from twenty to thirty minutes; and during that time, the 
chambers of death were never stiller than the multitude by which he was 
surrounded. Orders were given to cut the rope and take him down, 
without letting him fall. This was done, and his body carefully laid on 
the ground. Shortly after, the guard was withdrawn, and spectators 
were permitted to come forward and view the corpse; but the crowd 
was so great that it was some time before I could get an opportunity. 
When I was able to do this, his coat, vest and breeches, were taken off, 
and his body was laid in the coffin, covered by some under-clothes. 
The top of the coffm was not put on. 1 viewed the corpse more care- 
fully than I had ever done any human being before. His head was 
very much on one side, in consequence of the manner in which the hal- 
ter drew upon his neck. His face appeared to be greatly swolen, and 
very black, much resembling a high degcee of mortification. It was, in- 


deed, a shockin to behold. There were at this time standing at 

the foot of the coffin, two young men. of uncommon short stature; 1 
should think not more than four feet high. Their dress was the mosl 
gaudy that I ever beheld. One of them had the clothes, just taken 
from Andre, hanging on his arm. I i • ular pains to learn who 

the\ were, and was informed that they were his servants sent up Mom 
New York to take his clothes; but what other business I did nol learn. 
1 now tinned to take a view of the executioner, who was still stand- 
ing by one of the posts of the gallows. I walked nigh enough to him to 
have laid my hand upon his shoulder, and looked him directly in the 
face. He appeared to he about twenty-five years of age, his heard of 
two or three v. eeks grow th, and his whole face covered with what ap] 
to me to he blacking taken from the outside of a greasy pot. A more 
frightful lookini I never beheld; his whole countenance bespoke 

him to he a in instrument tor the business he had been doing. Wishing 
whole business, I remained upon the spot until 
scarce twenty persons were left; but the coffin wis still besid< 
which had previously been dug. I now returned to my tent, with my 
mind deeply imbued with the shocking scene I had been called to wit 

! r\ authenl int that we have, shows how much our o 

regretted the n - death, and how amply they fulfilled 

a. •• 'I "he tears of thousands," says Thacher, "fell on 

timing his sympathy. 
■a. it is recorded, (apparently 
on the testimony of La - La Fayette. Certainly the marquis 

I ; regret with which the fate of such a noble 

and magnaninn ter inspired him. It was believed in the army 

that \\ ml revolted at the d that he arcel] 

lie subscribed the fatal warrant An Am 
officei ent, and who I the news to Burgoyne'sl 

detained at W 1 that our General shed tears on the 

exe< I would fain have changed its mode. 

iw and indignation of Andre's friends gave occasion to many 

< - . where his family connections ex- 

: ; i ted"as a singular favor," after 

ould be hung, the body might be sent 

But Washington refused. Clinton then sent again, that since- 

: under the gallows, it might be taken 

to be interred with the military 
I ' ' young man. This, Washing- 

ton d. 

ifficiently exposed by Sir Henry's own statement 
that lie knew n Adjutant's being hanged till the arrival of ! 


with his master's baggage, told him all was over. When the burial at 
the gibbet's foot was about to be made, the man had demanded Andre's 
uniform, which was accordingly removed and given him. The corpse 
was then laid in the earth, and no monument but the usual cairn such as 
rose over the spot where Gustavus fell at Lutzen "for liberty of con- 
science," marked the solitary grave. The surrounding field was cultiva- 
ted, but the plough still shunned the place; for it was customary in this 
region for the laborers in the tillage to spare the soil that covered a sol- 
dier; and as early as 1778, the fields of Long Island were noticed to be 
checkered over with patches of wild growth that showed where men lay 
who were slain in the battle there. 

With generous sensibility, Colonel William S. Smith of our army, em- 
braced the opportunity, of purchasing the watch that the captors had 
taken. It was sold for their benefit, thirty guineas. He bought it; 
and mindful of the tender affection with which Andre had been heard to 
speak of his mother and sisters in England, sent it in to Robertson to 
be transmitted to these ladies. The unfortunate man's will testifies with 
what regard his whole domestic circle was held. It was sworn to before 
Carey Ludlow, Surrogate of New York, and admitted to probate Octo- 
ber 1 2th, 1780. 


''The following is my last will and testament, and I appoint as executors there- 
to Mary Louisa Andre, my mother; David Andre, my uncle; Andrew Girardot, 
my uncle: John Lewis Andre, my uncle: to each of the above executors I 
give fifty pounds. I give to Mary Hannah Andre, my sister, seven hundred 
pounds. T give to Louisa Catherine Andre, my sister, seven hundred pounds, 
I give to William Lewis Andre, my brother, seven hundred pounds. But the 
condition on which I give the above mentioned sums, to my afore said brother 
and sisters, are that each of them shall pay to Mary Louisa Andre, my mother, 
the sum of ten pounds yearly, during her life. I give to Walter Ewer, Jr., of 
Dyer's Court, Aldermanbury, one hundred pounds. I give to John Ewer, Jr., of 
Lincoln's Inn, one hundred pounds. 1 desire a ring, value fifty pounds, to be 
given to my friend, Peter Boissier, of the 11th Dragoons. I desire that Walter 
Ewer, Jr., of Dyers Court, Aldermanbury, have the inspection of my papers, let- 
ters and manuscripts; I mean that he have the first inspection of them, with liberty 
to destroy or detain whatever he thinks proper, and I desire my watch to be giv- 
en him. And I lastly give and bequeath to my brother John Lewis An Ire, the 
residue of all my effects whatsoever. AVit ness my hand and seal, Staten island, 
in the Province of New York, North America, 7th June, 1777. 

Captain in the 26th Regiment of Foot. 

N. B. — The currency alluded to in my will is sterling money of Great Britain. 
I desire nothing more than my wearing apparel to be sold at auction." 


' It may well be supposed that the news of the execution was received 

a York in sorrow and anger. Joshua Smith says: — "No lan- 

ribe the mingled sensations of sorrow, grief, sympathy 

1 the whole garrison; a silenl I pread 

the general countenance; the whole army, and citizens of the first dis- 

, went into n ' rd also mentions the sigi 

grief the t played in their apparel; and in November a London 

nsures Clinton for not employing the heated animosity of his 
men to strike an avengi; I roops at New York on hear- 

ation raised su< h an outcry for vengence, and to be led to 
the attack of Washington's camp, that the nder-in-Chief could 

/ keep them within the 1 I of discipline ; and many letters men- 
tion,, that as Sir H ld army at least equal to Washington's, he 
ought to have indul< -for the determined spirit with which they 
were actuated, won' I them invincible against any superior- 
i in this account the military « .. "he has given another con- 
vincing proof that he is a General who does not know when to act. Af- 
ter this, few rebel pi tak< n. The universal cry of the sol- 
New York is, 'Remember Andre!'" 
But if Clinton would not expose his men to the doubtful enter-prise, 
5 not unmindful either of the fame or the last wishes of his friend. 
By public orders, his memory was released front any imputation that 
might arise from the manner of his death : 

Head-Quarters A< w _)'»/*/■, > 
"'. 1780. > 

••The Commander-in-Chief does, with infinite regret, inform tin' army of the 
death >>f the Aujutant-General, Major Andre. 

" The unfortunate fate of this officer calls upon the Commander-in-Chief to 
I - opinion that heevi r considered Major Andre as a gentleman — as well 
the line of bis military profession, of the highesl integrity ami honor, and 
incapable of any base action or unworthy conduct. 

death is very severely fell by the Commander-in-Chief, as it as- 
suredly will be by the army ; and must prove a real loss to his country, and to 
i M ■ . '> service." 

I [ow far the army felt their loss may he gathered from Simcoe's orders 
; own n iment (the Queens Rangers) by the officers and men of 

: Andre was personally known. lie commanded them to wear, tor 
•are. Mack and white feathers as mourning for a soldier "whose 

superior integrity and uncommon ability did honor to his country and 

human nature, &c." a 



It is to the pervading interest that attached itself to Andre's story, and 
the romantic character of his career, that the origin of the ghost-stories 
about him may be attributed. There is yet another connected with 1 im: 

" Miss H. B., was on a visit to Miss Andre, and being very intimate 
with the latter, shared her bed. One night she was awakened by the 
violent sobs of her companion, and upon entreating to know the cause, 
she said : ' I have seen my dear brother, and he has been taken prisoner.' 
It is scarcely necessary to inform the reader that Major Andre was then 
with the British army during the heat of the American war. Miss B., 
soothed her friend, and both fell asleep, when Miss Andre once more 
started up, exclaiming, ' They are trying him as a spy;' and she described 
the nature of the court, the proceedings of the judge and prisoner, with 
the greatest minuteness. Once more the poor sister's terrors were 
calmed by her friend's tender representations, but a third time she awoke 
screaming that they were hanging him as a spy on a tree and his regi- 
mentals, with many other circumstances ! There was no more sleep for 
the friend ; they got up, and entered each in her own pocket-book the 
particulars stated by the terror-stricken sister, with the dates ; both 
agreed to keep the soruce of their own presentiment and fear from the 
poor mother, fondly hoping they were built en the fabric of a vision. 
But, alas ! as soon as news, in those days, could cross the Atlantic, the 
fatal tidings came; and to the deep awe, as well as sad grief of the young 
ladies, every circumstance was exactly imparted to them as had been 
shadowed forth in the fond sister's sleeping fancy, and had happened on 
the very day preceding the night of her dream. The writer thinks this 
anecdote has not been related by Miss Seward, Dr. Darwin, or the Edge- 
worths, father and daughter, who have all given to the public many intre- 
esting events in the brilliant but brief career of Majoy Andre." 

It is creditable to the British Government that in consideration of the 
magnitude of Andre's attempted service, and the disastrous fate with 
which his efforts were crowned, nothing was wanting to testify either its 
care for his fame or its respect for his wishes. On the 13th November, 
Captain St. George, Clinton's aide, delivered that General's despatches 
of the 1 2th October, to Lord George Germain: 

"The unexpected and melancholy turn which my negotiations with General 
Arnold took with respect to my Adjutant-General, has filled my mind with the 
deepest concern. He was an active, intelligent and useful officer, and a young 
gentleman of the most promising hones. Therefore, as he has unfortunately fal- 
len a sacrifice to his great zeal for the King's service, I judged it right to consent 
to his wish, intimated to me in his letter of the 29th Sept. , of which I have the 
honor to enclose your lordship a copy, that his company which he purchased 
should be sold for the benefit of his mother and sisters. But I trust, my lord, that 
your lordship will think Major Andre's misfortune still calls for some further 
support to his family ; and I beg leave to make it my humble request that you 
will have the goodness to recommend them in the strongest manner to the King, 
for some beneficial and distinguishing mark of His Majesty's favor. " a 

a MSS. Sir TT. Clinton to Lord G. Germain, (Separate,) New York, 12th Oct. 1T80, S. P. O. 



What was asked, was granted The King is said to have instantly 
ordered a thousand guineas from the privy purse, to be sent to Mrs. An- 
div. and au annual pension of ^300 to lie settled on her for life, with 
to her children or the survivor of them; and after knighthood 
was pi 24th of March, 1781, in memory of his brother's 

services, the dignity of a baronetcy of Great Britain, was conferred upon 

■wis Andre, of the 26th Foot, and his heirs, male, for 

V. stately < 1 ' tminster Abbey also preserved the remem- 

id death of Major Andr6. To this Arnold was once 

1 his wife, and to peruse with her the inscriptions that re- 

'-t important scenes in his own 1 

irs later, the pomp and ceremony with which the remains of 

the bi nery were publicly brought fromCanada to New York 

called n of the British Consul at that city to the fact, that 

the dn t of another who too had borne the Kin/ on, and 

first triumph, still filled 

an tin in a foreign Ian 1. He communicated with the Duke 

1 mder of die force, and it was decided to remove Vndre's 

lip- Rev. Mr. Demarat, who owned the ground, 

isul's proposals. " His intention had be- 

writer, and ••sonic human brute — some 

iit to purchase or rent the field of Mr. 1 >emarat, 

xtorting money for permission to ] relics. 

>od man and true, r ie base proposal, and every 

. in his power." On Friday, August 10. 1821, at eleven a. m., 

tile v. I not without fear that it would be in vain ; for 

:nd that years before, the grave was despoiled. 

• the spade struck the coffin-lid, a erfect 

1 . V cd but the 

f the once beautiful hair, together with the le 

that had 1 ; • ■ queue, and which was sent by Mr. Buchanan, 

An attentive crowd of both sexes, some 

: the 1 vent ii mi, was pr< 

the inter. v. gener- 

ally evinced the mo tful tenderness for the memory of the unfor- 

nd many of the children wept. A {rw idlers, edui 

lamation, began to murmur 

n chnrch-yard, near Bath, has this inscription : " k 
Bath : Obit. 
died Marc 

■ ■• ; m of the same name, who was a 

.: , diedal Dean's Leaze, Hants, 11th Nov., 1802, when 



that the memory of General Washington was insulted by any respect 
shown to the remains of Andre ; but the offer of a treat lured them to 
the tavern, where they soon became too drunk to guard the character of 
Washington. It was a beautiful day, and these disturbing spirits being 
removed, the impressive ceremony proceeded in solemn silence. "* 

If this anecdote is true, these ruffling swaggerers were all who did not 
cheerfully encourage the proceedings. Ladies sent garlands to decorate 
the bier; even the old woman who kept the turnpike-gate, threw it open 
free to all that went and came on this errand; and six young women of 
New York, united in a poetical address that accompanied the myrtle 
tree they sent with the body to England. 

The bones were carefully uplifted, and placed in a costly sarcophagus 
of mahogany, richly decorated with gold, and hung with black and crim- 
son velvet; and so borne to New York, to be placed on board the 
Phaeton frigate which — by a happy significancy, so far as her name was 
concerned — -had been selected for their transportation to England. Two 
cedars that grew hard by, and a peach tree — bestowed by some kind 
woman's hand, to mark the grave, (the roots of which had pierced the 
coffin and twined themselves in a fibrous network about the dead man's 
skull,) were also taken up. The latter was replanted in the King's gar- 
dens, behind Carlton House. 

In gratitude for what was done, the Duke of York caused a gold 
mounted snuff-box of the wood of one of the cedars that grew at the 
grave, to be sent to Mr. Demarat; to whom the Misses Andre also pre- 
sented a silver goblet, and to Mr. Buchanan a silver standish. 

A withered tree, a heap of stones, mark the spot where the plough 
never enters, and whence Andre's remains were removed. The sarco- 
phagus came safely across the sea ; and forty-one years and more, after 
they had been laid by the Hudson, its contents were re-interred in a 
very private manner, hard by the monument in Westminster Abbey. 
The Dean of Westminster superintended the religious offices, while 
Major-General Sir Herbert Taylor appeared for the Duke of York, and 
Mr. Locker, Secretary to Greenwich Hospital, for the sisters of the de- 

In the south aisle of the Abbey, wherein sleeps so much of the great- 
ness and the glory of England, stands Andre's monument. It is of stat- 
uary marble, carved by Van Gelder. It presents a sarcophagus on a 
moulded panelled base and plinth; the panel of which is thus inscribed: 

a So repeats Mrs;. Childs, (letters from New York,) who brought to the scene a solemn con- 
viction that Andre's death was a '■ cool, deliberate murder," and whose account of what she 
saw and heard, is tinctured with tins feeling. 



red to the memory of Major Andre, who, raised by his merit, at an early 
period of life, to the rank of Adjutant I British forces in A 

and, employed in an important but hazardous enterprise, fell a to his 

zeal for his King and Country, on the 2d of October, 1780, aged twenty-nine, 
onivei teemed by the army in which he served, andlamented 

His gracious Sovereign, King George til., has caused this 
monument to be <r< ■ 

the plinth, these words are added: — 

•• The remains of Major John Andre were, on the 10th of Augusl 1821, removed 

from Tappan by James Buchanan, Esq., His Majesty's counsel ut New York, 

under instructions from his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and witb the 

if the Dean and Chapter, finally deposited in mtiguous to 

this monument, 2( N >v< mber, 1821." 

The ■ inds seven and a halffei n relief against the 

wall, beneath the north window of the south aisle. The projecting fig- 
igus represent a group in which Washington an 
former in the a< t of receiving from I 
ter, whicli is variously s iify that in which tl 

t, and more reasonably the demand of C l1 >n for 

lia with a very ' 1 lion reposes on the top of 

1 ' the whole, the work is not a triumph of the sculp- 

John Andre's capture is marked by a handsome 

ner stone of which was laid on the 4th of July, ^53, 

]] Iton, son of the Hon. Alexander Hamilton, who 

enty, belonged to the military family o1 G . VV; ihing- 

oneofh > remained in the army during the Rev- 

olmi " 1 to the staff of the Commander-in-Chief, 

and ; and confidence. 


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