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1 ■ r 









MANNXR8, 4kC., *0» 


Gent. Barvejat^texienl of North Carolina. 


Printed for W. Taylor at the Ship, and F. Baker at the 

Black Boy, m Pater^Noster Bow» 1714. 








In offering to the public a re-publication of 
Lawson's History of North Carolina, the under- 
signed will briefly state the reasons that led to 
the undertaking. But two copies of the original 
edition (one in the State Libraigr, presented by 
President Madison, and one at the University,) 
are now to be found within the State; and possi- 
'. bly, a century hence, or in less time, they will 
^ have been destroyed. Hence the necessity of a re- 
'.^ print — and the undersigned flatter themselves 
' v^ that they will receive the thanks of posterity at 
"^ least, if by their instrumentality, the pages of 
Lawson shall be perpetuated in all their original- 
ity and sprightliness. Subsequent historians have 
copied more or less from our author — ^thus endors- 
ing his claim to be considered a faithful chroni- 
cler of his time, and showing the importance of 
preserving entire whatever tends to elucidate the 
history of our good old State — ^the pride and boast 
of us all. Influenced by these considerations, 
and prompted by the solicitations of many friends. 


the subscribers undertook the re-publication, and 

they trust that they have done no mean service in 

thus I'escuing from " the wreck of matter *' sncli 

interesting pages in the annals of their country's 


0. H. PERRY & CO. 

Bdeighy March 28, 1860. 


'Tis a great misfortune that most of our travel- 
lers, who go to this vast continent in America, 
are persons of the meaner sort, and generally, of 
a very slender education ; who being hired by the 
merchants to trade amongst the Indians, in which 
voyages they often spend several years, are yet, 
at their return, incapable of giving any reasona- 
ble account of what they met withal in those re- 
mote parts ; though the country abounds with cu- 
riosities worthy a nice observation. 

In this point,. I think the French outstrip us. 

First: by their numerous clergy, their mission- 
aries being obedient to their superiors m the high- 
est degree, and that obedience being one great 
article of their voW; and strictly observed amongst 
all their orders. 

Secondly : They always send abroad some of 
their gentlemen in company of the missionaries, 
who,, upon their arrival, are ordered out into the 
wilderness, to make discoveries, and to acquaint 
themselves with the savages of America ; and are 
obliged to keep a strict journal of all the passages 
they meet withal, in order to present the same not 
only to th«ir gover'nors and fathers, but likewise 


to tlicir friends and relations in France ; which is 
industriously spread about that kingdom, to their 
advantage. For their monarch being a very good 
judge of men's deserts, does not often let money 
or interest make men of parts give place to others 
of less worth. 

This breeds an honorable emulation amongst 
them, to outdo one another, even in fatigues and 
dangers; whereby they gain a good correspon- 
dence with the Indians, and acquaint themselves 
with their speech and customs ; and so make con- 
siderable discoveries in a short time. Witness 
their journals trom Canada to the Mississippi, and 
its several branches, where they have effected 
great matters in a few years. 

Having spent most of my time, during my eight 
years abode in Carolina, in travelling, I not only 
surveyed the sea-coast, and those parts which are 
already inhabited by the christians, but likewise 
viewed a spacious tract of land lying betwixt the 
inhabitants and the ledges of mountains, from 
whence our noblest rivei's have their rise, running 
towards the ocean, where they watier as pleasant a 
country as any in Europe ; the discovery of which 
being never yet made public. I have in the fol- 
lowing sheets, given yon a faithful account there- 
of; wherein I have laid down everything with im- 
partiality, and truth, which is indeed, the duty of 
every author, and preferable to a smooth style, ac- 
companied with falsities and hyperboles. Great 
part of this pleasant and healthful country is in- 


habited by none but savages, who covet a chris- 
tian neighborhood, for the advantage of trade, 
and enjoy all the comforts of life, free from care 
and want. 

But not to amuse my readers any longer with 
the encomium of Carolina, I refer them to my 
journal, and other more particular description of 
that country and its inhabitants, which they will 
find ajfter the natural history thereof, in which I 
have been very exact, and for method's sake ar- 
ranged each species under its distinct and proper 



William Lord Craven, Palatine ; 
The most noble, Henry Duke of Beaufort ; 
The right Honorable John Lord Carteret ; 
The Honorable Maurice Ashley, Esq.; 
Sir John Colleton, Baronet, 
John Danson, Esq ; 
And the rest of the true and absolute 
Lords Proprietors 
of the 
Province of Carolina in America. 
My Lords, As debts of gratitude ought most 
punctually to be paid, so, where the debtor is in- 
capable of payment, acknowledgments ought, at 
least to be made, I cannot, in the leasts pretend to 
retaliate your lordships fitvors to me, but must far- 
ther intrude on that goodness of which I have al- 
ready had so good experience, by laying these 
sheets at your lordships' feet, where they beg pro- 
tection, as having nothing to recommend them 
but truth--a gift which every author may be mas- 
ter of, if he will. 

I here present your lordships with a description 
of your own country, for the most part, in her 
natural dress, and therefore less vitiated with 


fraud and luxury. A country, whose inhabitants 
may enjoy a life of the greatest ease and satisfac- 
tion, and pass away their hours in solid content- 

Those charms of liberty and right, the darlings 
of an English nature, which your lordships grant 
and maintain, make you appear noble patrons in 
the eyes of all men, and we a happy people in a 
foreign country ; which nothing less than ingrati- 
tude and baseness can make us disown. 

As heaven has been liberal in its gifts, so are 
your lordships favorable promoters of whatever 
may make us an easy people, which, I hope, your 
lordships will continue to us and our posterity ; 
that we and they may always acknowledge such 
favors, by banishing from among us every principle 
which renders men factious and unjust; which is 
the hearty prayer of, 

My Lords, 

Your Lordships most obliged, 
Most humble and 

Most devoted servant, 




In the year 1700, when people flocked from all 
parts of the christian world, to see the solemnity 
of the grand jubilee at Rome, my intention at that 
time being to travel, I accidentally met with a 
gentleman, who had been abroad, and was very 
well acquainted with the ways of living in both 
Indies ; of whom having made inquiry concern- 
ing them, he assured me that Carolina was the 
best country I could go to ; and, that there then 
lay a ship in the Thames in which I might have 
my passage. I laid hold on this opportunity, and 
was not long on board, before we fell down the 
river and sailed to Cowes ; where, having taken 
in some passengers, we proceeded on our voyage, 
'till we sprung a leak, and were forced into the 
Islands of Scilly. Here we spent about ten days 
in refitting. Li which time we had a great deal 
of diversion'in fishing and shooting on those rocky 
islands. The inhabitants were very courteous 
and civil, especially the governor, to whose good 
company and favor, we were very much obliged. 
There is a town on one of these islands, where 
is good entertainment for those that happen to 
come in, though the land is but mean, and fleshy 
meat not plenty. They have good store of rabbits, 


quails and fish ; and you see at the poor peoples 
doors, great heaps of periwinkle shells, those 
fish being a great part of their food. On the first 
day of May, having a fair wind at east, we put to 
sea, and were on the ocean (without speaking to 
any vessel, except a Ketch, bound from New Eng- 
land to Barbadoes, laden with horses, fish, and 
provisions,) till the latter end of July, when the 
winds hung so much southerly, that we could 
not get to our port, but put into 8f»2dy-hook bay, 
and went up to New York, after a pinching voy- 
age, caused by our long passage. We found at 
the watering place, a French man-of-war, who had 
on board, men and necessaries to make a colony, 
and was intended for the Mississippi river, there 
to settle. 

The country of New York is very pleasant in 
summer, but in the winter very cold, as all tlie 
northern plantations are. Their chief commodities 
are provisions, bread, beer, lumber, and fish in 
abundance : all which are very good, and some 
skins and furs are hence exported. The city is 
governed by a mayor, (as in England,) is seated on 
an island, and lies very convenient for trade and 
defence, having a regular fort, and well mounted 
with guns. 

The buildings are generally of a smaller sort of 
flemish brick, and of the Dutch &shion, (except- 
ing some few houses.) They are all very firm and 
good work, and conveniently placed, as is like- 
wise the town, which gives a very pleasant pros- 


p6ct of the neighboring islands and rivers. A 
good part of the inhabitants are Dutch, in whose 
hands this colony once was. 

After a fortnight's stay here, we put out from 
Sandyhook, and in fourteen days after arrived at 
Charlestown, the metropolis of South Carolina, 
which is situated in 32.46 north latitude, and ad- 
mits of large ships to come over their bar up to 
the town, where is a very commodious harbor 
about five miles distant from the inlet, and stands 
on a point very convenient for trade, being seat- 
ed between two pleasant and navigable rivers. — 
The town has very regular and fair streets, in 
which are good buildings of brick and wood ; and 
since my coming thence, has had great additions 
of beautiftil large brick buildings, besides a strong 
fort and regular fortifications made to defend the 

The inhabit^jxts, by l^^iT" wise management and 
industry, have much improved the country, which 
is in as thriving circupistances at this time as any 
colony on the continent of English America, and 
is of more advantage to the crown of -Great Brit- 
ain, than any of the other more northerly plant- 
ations, (Virginia and Maryland excepted). This 
colony was at first planted by a genteel sort of 
people, that were well acquainted with trade, and 
had either money or parts, to make good use of 
the advantages that offered, as most of them have 
done, by raising themselves to great estates, and 
considerable places of trust, and posts of honor, 


ill this thriving settlement. Since the first plant- 
ers abundance of French and others have gone 
over and raised themselves to considerable for- 
tunes. They are very neat and exact in packing 
and shipping of their commodities ; which meth- 
od has got them so great a character abroad, that 
they generally come to a good market with their 
commodities ; when oftentimes the product of 
other plantations, are forced to be sold at lower 
prices. The^ have a considerable trade, both to 
Europe and to the West Indies, whereby they 
become rich, and are supplied with all things ne- 
cessaiy for trade and genteel living, which sever- 
al other places fall short of. Their cohabiting in 
a town has drawn to them ingenious people of 
most sciences, whereby they have tutors amongst 
them that educate their vQuth a-la-mode. 

Their roads, with greJfc* industry, are made ve- 
ry good and pleasant. K'ear the town is built a 
fair parsonage house, with necessary oflicers, and 
the minister has a very considerable allowance 
frorn his parish. There is likewise &. French 
church in town, of the Reformed religion, and 
several meeting houses for dissenting congrega- 
tions, who all enjoy at this day an entire liberty 
of their worship ; the constitution of this govern- 
ment allowing all parties of well-meaning chris- 
tians to enjoy a free toleration and possess the 
same privileges, so long as they appear to behave 
themselves peaceably and well. It being the 
lords proprietors intent that the inhabitants of 


Carolina should be as free from oppression as 
any in the universe, which doubtless they will, if 
their own differences amongst themselves do not 
occasion the contrary. 

They have a well disciplined militia; their 
horse are most gentlemen and well mounted, and 
the best in America, and may equalize any in 
other parts. Their officers, both infantry and 
cavalry, generally appear in scarlet mountings, 
and as rich as in most regiments belonging to the 
crown, which shows the richness and grandeur of 
this colony. They are a frontier, and prove such 
troublesome neighbors to the Spaniards, that they 
have once, laid their town of St. Augustine in 
ashes, and drove away their cattle, besides many 
encountei's and engagements, in which they have 
defeated them, too tedious to relate here. 

What the French got by their attempt against 
South Carolina, will hardly ever be ranked a- 
mongst their victories ; their admiral Mouville, 
being glad to leave the enterprise, and run away, 
after he had suffered all the loss and disgrace he 
was capable of receiving. 

They are absolute masters over the Indians, 
and carry so strict a hand over such as are within 
the circle of their trade, that none does the least 
injury to any of the English, but he is presently 
sent for and punished with death, or otherwise, 
according to the nature of the fault. Thej- have 
an entire friendship with the neighboring Indians 
of several nations, which are a very warlike peo- 


pie, ever faithful to the English, and have proved 
themselves brave and true on all occasions ; and 
are a great help and strength to this colony. The 
cheif of the savage nations have heretofore groan- 
ed under the Spanish yoke, and having experienc- 
ed their cruelty have become such mortal ene- 
mies to that people; that they never give a Span- 
iard quarter ; but generally, when they take any 
prisoners, (if the English be not near to prevent 
it) scalp them, that is, to take their hair and skin 
of their heads, which they often flee away while 
the wretch is alive. 

Notwithstanding the English have used all their 
endeavors, yet they could never bring them to 
leave this barbarity to the Spaniards, who as they 
alledge, use to .murder them and their relations, 
and make slaves of them to build their forts and 

This place is more plentiful in money than most, 
or indeed any of the plantations on the continent; 
besides, they build a considerable number of ves- 
sels of cedar, and other wood, with which they 
trade to Cuirassau and the West Indies ; from one 
they bring money, and from the other the produce 
of their islands, which yields a necessary supply of 
both to the colony. 

Their stocks of cattle are incredible, being from 
one to two thousand head in one man's possession. 
These feed in the Savannahs, and other grounds, 
and need no fodder in the winter. Their mutton 
and veal is good, and their pork is not inferior to 


any in America. As for pitch and tar, none of 
the plantations are comparable for aftording the 
vast quantities of Naval stores, as this place does. 
There have been, heretofore, some discoveries of 
rich mines in the mountainous part of this coun- 
try: but being remote from the .present settle- 
ment, and the inhabitants not well versed in or- 
dering minerals, they have been laid aside till a 
more fit opportunity happens. There are several 
noble rivers, and spacious tracts of rich land in 
their lordships dominions, lying to the southward, 
which are yet uninhabited, besides Port Royal, a 
rare harbour and inlet, having many inhabitants 
thereon, which their lordships have now made a 
port for trade. This will be a most advantageous 
settlement, lying so commodiously for ships com- 
ing from the Gulf, and the richness of the land, 
which is reported to be there. These more south- 
•erly parts will afford oranges, lemons, limes, and 
many other fruits, which the northerly plantations 
yield not. The merchants of Carolina are fair, 
frank traders. The gentlemen seated in the coun- 
try, are very courteous, live very noble in their 
houses, and . give very genteel entertainment 
to all strangers and others that come to visit 
them. And since the produce of South and Xorth 
Carolina is the same, unless silkj which this pla^jo 
produces great qantities of, and very good. North 
Carolina, having never made any trial thereof as 
yet, therefor*e I shall refer the natural produce 
of this country, to that part which treats of Noi'th 


Oarolina, whose prodnctions are iiiacli llie same. 
The christian inhabitants of hotli oolimies pret- 
ty equal, but the slaves of South Carolina are far 
more in number than those in the Xorth. I shall 
now proceed to relate my journey through the 
country from this settlement to the other, and 
then treat of the natural history of Carolina, with 
other remarkable circumstances which I have met 
with, during my eight years abodiB in that country. 





On December the 28th, 1700-, I began my voyage 
(for N'orth Carolina,) from Charlestown, being six 
Englishmen in company, with three Indian men 
and one woman, wife to our Indian guide, having 
five miles from the town to the breach, we went 
down in a large canoe, that we had provided for 
our voyage thither, having the tide of ebb along 
with us, which was so far spent by that time we 
got down, that we had not water enough for our 
craft to go over, although we drew but two feet, 
or tl\ere-abouts. This breach is a passage through 
a marsh lying to the northward of SuUivans island, 
the pilots having a look-out thereon, lying very 
commodious for mariners, (on that coast,) making 
a good land-mark in so level a country, this bar 
being difficult to hit, where an observation hath 
been wanting for a day or two ; north-east winds 
bringing great fogs, mists and rains, which, to- 
wards the cool months of October, Xovember, and 
until the latter end of March, often appear in these 

There are three pilots to attend and conduct 

20 lawson's history 

Bhips over the bar. The harbour where the ves- 
sels generally ride, is against the town on Coop- 
er's river; lying within a point which parts thai 
and Ashley river, they being land-locked almost 
on all sides. 

At four in the afternoon, (at half flood) we pass- 
ed with our canoe, over the breach, leaving SuUi- 
vans island on our starboard. The first place we 
designed for was Santee river, on which there is 
a colony of French protestants, allowed and en- 
couraged by the lords proprietors. At night w^e 
got to Beirs island, apoor spot of laud, being about 
ten miles round, where lived, (at that time) a Ber- 
mudian, being employed here with a boy, to look 
after a stock of cattle and hogs, by the owner of 
this island. One side of the roof of his house was 
thatched with palmetto leaves, the other open to 
the heavens, thousands of musketoes, and other 
troublesome insects, tormenting both man and 
beast inhabiting these islands. The palmetto trees, 
whose leaves growiaig only on the top of the tree, 
in the shape of a fan, and in a cluster like a cab- 
bage ; this tree in Carolina, when at its utmost 
growth, is about forty or fifty feet in heighth, and 
two feet through. It is worth mentioning, that 
the growth of the tree is not perceivable in the 
age of any man, the experiment having been 
often tried in Bermudas and elsewhere, which 
shows the slow growth of this vegetable, the wood 
of it being poms and stringy, like some canes ; 
the leaves thereof, the Bermudians make womcns* 


hats, bokeets, baskets, and pretty dressing boxes, 
a great deal being ^transported to Pensilvania, 
and other northern parts of America, (where they 
do not grow,) for the same manufacture. The 
people of Carolina make of the fans of this tree, 
brooms, very servicable to sweep their houses 

We took up our lodging this night with the Ber- 
mudian; our entertainment was very indiflerent, 
there being no fresh water to be had in the island. 
The next morning we set away through the 
marshes ; about noon we reached another island, 
called Dix's island, much like to the former, 
though larger. There lived an honest Scot who 
gave us the beat reception his dwelling afforded, 
being well provided of oat meal, and several oth- 
er effects he had found on that coast ; which goods 
belonged to that unfortunltte vessel, the Rising 
Sun, a Scotch man-of-war, lately arrived from the 
isthmus of Darien, and cast away near the bar of 
Ashley river, the September before, Capt. Gibson 
of Glasco then commanding her, who, with above 
an hundred men then on board her, were every 
soul drowned, in that terrible gust, which then 
happened; most of the corps being taken up, 
were carefully interred by Mr. Graham, their lieu- 
tenant, who happily was on shore during the 
tempest. After dinner we left our Scotch land- 
lord, and went, that night, to the north-east point 
of the island. It being dark ere we got there, our 
canoe struck on a sand near the breakers, and 


were in gi'eat danger of our lives, but (by GocVb 
blessing) got off safe to the shore, where we lay 
all night. In the morning we set forward on our 
intended voyage. About two o'clock we got to 
Bulls island, which is about thirty miles long, and 
hath a great number of both cattle and hogs ujpon 
it ; the cattle being very wild and the hogs very 
lean. These two last islands belong to one Col. 
Gary, an inhabitant of South Carolina. 

Although it were winter, yet we found such 
swarms of musketoes, and other troublesome in- 
sects, that we got but litttle rest that night. 

The next day we intended for a small island on 
the other side of Sewee bay, which, joining to 
these islands, shipping might come to victual or 
careen : but there being such a burden of those 
flie& that few or none, care to settle there ; so the 
stock thereon are run wild. "We were gotten about 
half way to Racoon island, when there sprung up 
a tart gale at N. W,, which put us in some danger 
of being cast away, the bay being rough, and there 
running great seas between the two islands, which 
are better than four leagues asunder, a strong 
current of a tide setting in and out, which made us 
turn tail to it, and got our canoe right before the 
wiud, and came safe into a creek that is joining to 
the north end of Bulls island. We sent our In- 
dians to hunt, who brought us two deers, which 
were very poor, and their maws full of large grubs. 
On the morrow we went and visited the eastern- 
most side of this island, it joining to the ocean, 


having very feir, sandy beeches, paved with innu- 
merable sorts of curious prettj^ shells; very plea- 
sant to the eye. Amongst the rest, we~ found the 
Spanish oyster shell, whence come the pearls. — 
They are very large, and of a different form from 
other oysters. Their color much resembles the 
Tortoise shell, when it is dressed. There was left 
by the tide, several strange species of a mucilagi- 
nous, slimy substance, though living, and very 
aptly moved at their first appearance ; yet, being 
left on the dry ^sand, by the beams of the sun, 
soon exhale and vanish. 

At our return to our quarters, the Indians had 
killed two more deer, two wild hogs, and three rac- 
coons, all very lean except the raccoons. We had 
great store of oysters, conks and clanns, a large 
sort of cockles. These parts being very well fur- 
nished with shell-fish, turtle of several sorts, but 
few or none of the green, with other sorts of salt 
water fish, and in the season good plenty of fowles, 
as curleus, 'gulls, gannets^ and pillicans, besides 
duck and mallard, geese, swan^Jeal, widgeon, &;c. 

Oh Thursday morning we left Bulls Island,, 
and went through the creeks, which lie betwixt 
the bay and the main land. At noon we went 
on shore, and got our dinner near a plantation, 
on a creek having the full prospect of Sewee bay. 
We sent up to the house, but found none at home 
but a negro, of whom our messenger purchased 
some small quantity of tobacco and rice. We 


came to a deserted Indian residence, called Aven- 
daughbough, where we rested that night. 

The next day we entered Santee river's mouth, 
where is fresh water, occasioned by the extraor- 
dinary current that comes down continually. — 
With hard rowing, we got two leagues up the 
river, lying all night in a swampy piece of ground, 
the weather being so cold all that time, we were 
almost frozen ere morning, leaving the impression 
of our bodies on the wet ground? We set forward 
very early in the morning to seek some better 
quarters. As we rowed up the river we found 
the land towards the mouth, and for about six- 
teen miles up it, scarce any thing but swamp po- 
cosin, aftbrding vast cypress trees, of which the 
French make canoes that will carry fifty or sixty 
barrels. After the tree is moulded and dug they 
saw them in two pieces, and so put a plank be- 
twixt and a small keel to preserve them from the 
oyster banks, which fSe innumerable in the creeks 
and bays between the French settlement and 
Charlestown. They carry two masts imd bermudas 
sails, which makes them very handy and fit for 
their purpose ; for although their river fetches its 
first rise from the mountains and continues a cur- 
rent some hundreds of miles ere it disgorges it- 
self, having no sound, bay or sand banks betwixt 
the mouth thereof and the ocean. Notwithstand- 
ing all this, with the vast stream it aftbrds at all 
seasons, and the repeated freshes it so often alarms 
the inhabitants with, by laying under water great 

Iawson's history 25 

part of their country, yet the mouth is barred af- 
foarding not above four or five feet water at 
the entrance. As we went up the river we heard 
a great noise as if two parties were engaged 
against each other, seeming exactly like small 
shot. When we approached nearer the place we 
found it to be some Sewee Indians firing the 
cane swamps, which drives out the game, then 
taking their particular stands, kill great quantities 
of both be^, deer, turkies, and what wild crea- 
tures the parts afford. These Sewees have been 
formerly.a large nation, though now very much 
decreased, since the English hath seated their 
land, and all other nations of Indians are observed 
to partake of the same fate, where the Europeans 
come,.the IndianB being a people veiy apt to catch 
any distemper they are afflicted withal. The small 
pox has destroyed many thousands of these natives 
who, no flooner than tiiey are attacked with the 
violent fevers and the burning which attends that 
distemper, fling themselves over-head in the water, 
in th^very extremity of the disease, which, shut- 
ting up the pores, hinders a kindly evacuation of 
the pestilential matter, and drives it back, by 
which means death most commonly ensues ; not 
but in other distempers which are epidemical, 
you may find among them practitioners that have 
extraordinary skill and success in removing those 
morbific qualities which afflict them, not often go- 
ing above one hundred yards fix)m their abode for 



their remedies, some of their chiefest physician^ 
commonly carrying their compliment of drugs 
continually about .them, which are roots, barks, 
berries, nuts, &c., that are strung upon a thread. 
So like a Pomander, the physician wears thetai 
about his neck. An Indian hath been often found 
to heal an Englishman of a malady for the value 
of a match-coat, which the ablest of our English 
pretenders in America, after repeated'applications, 
have deserted the patient as incurable ; God hav* 
ing furnished every country with specific remedies 
for their peculiar diseases. Rum, a liquor, now 
so much in use with them that they will part witii 
the dearest thing they have, to purchase it ; and 
when they have got a little in their heads, are 
the impatientest creatures living, till they havfe 
enough to make them quite drunk, and the most 
miserable spectacles when they are so, some falling 
into the fires, bum their legs or arms, contracting 
the sinews, and become cripples all their lifetime ; 
others from precipices break their bones and loints, 
with abundance of instances, yet none are so great 
to deter them from that accursed practice of drunk- 
enness, though sensible how many of them (are 
by it) hurryed into the other world before their 
time, as themselves oftentimes will confess. The 
Indians I was now speaking of, were not content 
with the common enemies that lesson and destroy 
their country-men, but invented an infallible strat- 
agem to purge their tribe, and reduce their multi- 
tude into far less numbers. Their contrivance 

lawson's history 27 

was thus, as a trader amongst them informed me : 
They seeing several ships coming in, to bring the 
English supplies from Old England, one chief part 
of their cargo being for a trade with the Indians, 
some of the craftiest of them had observed that 
the ships came always in at one place, which 
made |hem very confident that way was the exact 
road to England ; and seeing so many ships' come 
thence, they believed it could not be far thither, 
esteeming the English that were ;among them, no 
better than cheats, and thought, if they could car- 
ry the skins and filrs liiey got, themselves to Eiig^ 
land, which were inhabited with a better sort of 
people than those sent amongst them, that then 
they should purchase twenty times the value for 
every pelt they sold abroad, in consideration of what 
rates they sold for at home. The intened barter 
was exceeding well approved of, and after a gen- 
eral consultation of the ablest heads amongst them 
it was nemine contradieente agreed upon, immediate- 
ly to make an addition of their Aeet, by building 
more canoes, and those to be ^ the best sort 
and bigest size, as fit for their intended discovery. 
Some Indians were employed about making the 
canoes, others to hunting, every one to the post 
he was most fit for, all endeavors tending towards 
•an able fleet and cargo for Europe. The aflair 
was carried on with a great deal of secrecy and ex- 
pedition, so as in a small time they had gotten a na- 
vy, loading, provisions, and hands, ready to set sail 
leaving only the old, impotent and minors at home. 


'til their successful return. The wind presenting, 
the , set up their mat sails, and were scare out of 
sight, when there r9se a tempest, which it is sup- 
posed carryed on part ^{ these Indian merchants 
by way of the other world, whilst the others were 
taken up at sea, by an English ship, and sold for 
slaves to the islands. The remainder are better 
satisfied with their imbecilities in such an under- 
taking, nothing affi*onting them more than to re- 
hearse their voyage to England* 

There being a strong current in Santee river, 
caused us to make small way with our oars. With 
hard rowing we got that night to Mons. Eugee's 
house, .which stands about fifteen miles up the riv- 
er, being the first christian dwelling we met witb- 
al in that settlement, and were very courteously 
received by him and his wife. 

Many of the French follow a trade with the In- 
dians, living very conveniently for that interest. 
There is about seventy families seated on this riv- 
er, who live as decently and happily as any plan- 
ters in these southward parts of America. The 
French being a temperate industrious people, 
some of them bringing very little of effects, yet, by 
their endeavors and mutual assistance, amongst 
themselves (which is highly to be commended) 
have outstripped our English, who brought with 
them larger fortunes, though (as it seems) less en- 
deavor to manage their talent to the best advan- 
tage. Tis admirable to see what time and indus- 
try will (with God's blessing) effect. Carolina, 

lawson's history 29 

affording fiiany strange revolutions in the age of 
a man, daily instances presenting themselves to 
our view, of so many from despicable beginnings, 
which, in a short time, arrive to very splendid 
conditions. Here property hath a large scope, 
there being no strict laws to bind our privileges. 
A qust after game being as freely and perempto- 
rily enjoyed by the meanest planter, as he that is 
the highest in dignity, or wealthiest in the pro- 
vince. Deer and other game that are naturally 
wild, being not immured, or preserved withi?i 
boundaries, to satisfy the appetite of the rich alone. 
Apoor laborer that is master of his gun, &c.,hatha3 
good a have continued coarses of delica- 
cies crowded upon his table, as he that is master 
of a great purse. 

We lay all that night at Mons. Eugee's, and the 
next morning set out farther, to go the remainder 
of our voyage by land. At ten o'clock we passed 
over a narrow, deep swamp, having left the three 
Indian men and one woman, that had piloted the 
canoe from Ashley river, having hired a Sewee 
Indian, a tall lusty fellow, who carried a pack 
of our clothes of great weight; notwithstanding 
his burden, we had as much a do to keep pace 
with him. At noon we came up with several 
French plantations, meeting with several creeks 
by the way. The French were very officious in 
assisting with their small dories, to pass over these 
waters, (whom we met coming from their church) 
being all of them very clean and decent in their 


apparel; their houses and plantation^ suitable in 
neatness and contrivance. They are all of the 
same opinion with the church of Geneva, there be- 
ing no diiference amongst them concerning the 
punctilios of their christian faith ; which union hath 
propagated a happy and delightful concord in all 
other matters throughout the whole neighborhood, 
living amongst themselves as one tribe or kindred, 
every one making it his business to be assistant 
to the wants of his country-man, preserving his 
estate and reputation with l^e same exactness and 
concern as he does his own, all seeming to share 
in the misfortunes, and rejoice at the advance and 
rise of their brethren. 

Towards the afternoon we came to Mons. L' Jan- 
dro, where we got our dinner ; there coming some 
French ladies while we were there who were late- 
ly come from England, and Mons. L. Grand, 
a worty Norman, who hath been a great sufferer 
in his estate by the persecution in France, against 
those of the protestant religion : this gentleman 
very kindly invited us to make our stay with him 
all night, but we being intended farther that day 
took our leaves, returning acknowledgements of 
their favors. About four in the afternoon, we 
passed over a large cypress run in a small canoe ; 
the French doctor sent his negro to guide us over 
the head of a large swamp. So we got that night 
to Mons. Gallianos the elder, who lives in a very 
curious contrived house built of brick and stone, 
which is gotten near that place. Near here comes 

lawson's history 81 

in the road from CharleBtown and the rest of the 
English settlement, it being a very good way by 
land, and not above tMrty-six miles, although 
more than one hundred by water ; and I think 
the most difficult way I ever saw, occasioned by 
reason of the multitude of creeks lying along the 
main, keeping their courses through the marshes, 
turning and winding like a labyrinth, having the 
tide of ebb and flood twenty times in less than 
three leagues going* The next morning very 
early we ferried over a creek that runs near the 
house ; and after an hour's travel in the woods, 
we came to the river side, where we staid for 
the Indians who was our guide, and w&s gone 
round by water in a small canoe to meet us at 
that place we rested at. They came after a small 
time, and ferried us in that little vessel over Santee 
river, four miles and eighty-four miles in the 
woods, which the overflowing of the freshes, 
which then came down, had made a perfect sea 
of, there running an incredible current in the riv- 
er, which had cast our small craft and us away, 
had we not had this Sewee Indian with us ; who 
are excellent artists in managing these small ca- 
noes, Sajitee river at this time, (from the usual 
depth of water,) was risen perpendicular thirty-six 
feet, always making a breach from her banks 
about this season of the year. The general opin- 
ion of the cause thereof, is supposed to proceed 
from the overflowing of fresh water lakes that lie 
near the head of this river and others upon the 


same continent. But my opinion is, that these 
vast inundations proceed from the great and re- 
peated quantities of snow that falls upon the 
mountains, which lie at so great a distance from 
the sea, therefore they have no help of being dis- 
solved by those saline, piercing particles as other 
adjacent parts near the ocean receive, and the re- 
fore lies and increases to ^ vast bulk, until some 
mild southerly breeze coming on a sudden, con- 
tinues to unlock these frozen bodies, congealed 
by the north-west wind, dissipating them in li- 
quids, and coming down with impetuosity, fill 
those branches that feed these rivers and causes 
this strange deluge, which oft times lays under 
water the adjacent parts on both sides this cur- 
rent, for several miles distant from her bariks ; 
though the French and Indians affirmed to me, 
they never knew such an extraordinary flood there 

We all, by God's blessing and the endeavors 
of our Indian pilot, passed safe over the river, but 
was lost in the woods, which seemed like some 
great lake, except here and there a knowl of high 
land which appeared above water. 

We intended for Mons. Gallian's jun., but was 
lost, none of us knowing the way at that time, al- 
though the Indian was bom in that country, it 
having received so strange a metamorphasis. We 
were in several opinions concerning the right way, 
the Indian and myself suppossed the house to 
bear one way, the rest thought to the contrary ; 

lawson's history 33 

we differing, it was agreed on amongst us, that 
one-half should go with the Indian to find the 
house, and the other part to stay upon one of 
tliese dry spots, until some of them returned to 
us and informed us where it lay. 

Myself and two more were left behind, by rea- 
son the canoe would not carry us all. We had 
but one gun amongst us, one load of ammunition 
and no provision. Had our men in the canoe 
miscarried, we must, in all probability, there have 

In about six hours' time from our men's depar- 
ture, the Indian came back to us in the same ca- 
noe he went in being half drunk, which assured 
us they had found some place of refreshment. 
He took us three into the canoe telling us all was 
well : padling our vessel several miles through the 
woods, being often half fiill of water; but at 
length we got safe to the place we sought for, 
which proved to lie the same way the Indian and 
I guessed it did. 

When we got to the house, we found our com- 
rades in the same trim the Indian was in, an J. 
several of the French inhabitants with them, who 
treated us very courteously, wondering at our 
undertaking such a voyage, through a country in- 
habited by none but savages, and them of so dif- 
ferent nations and tongues. 

After we had refreshed ourselves, we parted 
from a very kind, loving and affable people, who 
wished us a safe and prosperous voyage. 



Hearing of a camp of Santee Indians not far off 
we set out intending to take up our quarters with 
them that night. There being a deep run of wa- 
ter in the way, one of our company being top 
heavy, and there being nothing but a small pole 
for a bridge, over a creek, fell into the water up 
to the chin ; myself laughing at the accident, and 
not taking good heed to my steps, came to the 
same misfortune. All our bedding was wet. The 
wind being at N. W. it froze very hard, which 
prepared such a night's loding for me, that I nev- 
er desire to have the like again ; the wet bedding 
and freezing air had so qualified our bodies, that 
in the morning when we awaked we were nigh 
frozen to death, until we had recruited ourselves 
before a large fire of the Indians. 

Tuesday morning we set towards the Congerees 
leaving the Indian guide Scipio, drunk amongst 
the Santee Indians. We went ten miles out of 
our way to head a great swamp, the freshes hav- 
ing filled them all with such quantities of water 
that the usual paths were rendered impassible. 
We met in our way with an Indian hut, where we 
were entertained with a fat boiled goose, venison, 
raccoon and ground nuts. We made but little 
stay : about noon we passed by several large Sa- 
vannahs', wherein is curious ranges for cattle, be- 
ing green all the year ; they were plentifully stor- 
ed with cranes, geese, &c., and the adjacent woods 
with great fiocks of turkeys. This day we trav- 
eled about thirty miles, and ♦lay all night at a 

lawson's history 35 

house which was built for the Indian trade, the 
master thereof we had parted with at the French 
town, who gave us leave to make use of his man- 
sion. Such houses are common in these parts, 
.and especially where there is Indian towns and 
plantations near at hand, which this place is well 
furnished withal. 

These Santee Indians are a well humored and 
affable people ; and living near the English, are 
become very tractable. They make themselves 
cribs after a very curious manner, wherein they 
secure their com from vermin, which ate more 
frequent in these warm "ulrmates than countries 
more distant from the sun. These pretty febrics 
are commonly supported with eight feet or posts 
about seven feet high from the ground, well daub- 
ed within and without upon laths, with loom or 
clay, which makes them tight and fit to keep out 
the smallest insect, there being a small door at 
the gable end, which is made of the same compo- 
sition, and to be removed at pleasure, being no 
bigger than that a slender man may creep in at, 
cementing the door up with the same earth when 
they take com out of the crib, and are going from 
home, always finding their granaries in the same 
posture thy left them — ^theft to each other being 
altogether impracticed, never receiving spoils but 
from foreigners. 

Hereabouts the ground is something higher 
than about Charlestown, there being found some 
quaries of brown, free stone, which I have seen 


made use of for building, and hath proved veiy 
durable and good. The earth here is mixed with 
white gravel, which is rare, there being nothing 
like a stone to be found of the natural produce, 
near to Ashley river. 

The next day about noon, we came to the side 
of a great swamp, where we were forced to strip 
ourselves to get over it, which, with much diffi- 
culty, we eflfected. Hereabouts the late gust of 
wind, which happened in September last, had 
tonat the large cypress trees and timbers up by 
the roots, they lying confusedly in their branches, 
did block up the way, making the passage very 

This night we got to one Scipio's hut, a famous 
hunter. There was no body at home, but we hav- 
ing in our company one that, had used to trade 
amongst them, we miEwie ourselves welcome to 
what his cabbin aftbrded, (which is a thing com- 
mon) the Indians allowing it practicable to the 
English traders to take out of their houses what 
they need in their absence, in lieu whereot they 
most commonly leave some small gratuity of to- 
bacco, paints, beads, &c. We found great store 
of Indian peas (a very good pulse) beans, oil, 
thinkapin nuts, com, barbacued peaches, and 
peach bread, which peaches being made into a 
quiddony, and so made up into loaves like barley 
cakes, these cut into thin slices, and dissolved in 
water, makes a very grateful acid, and extraordi- 
nary beneficial in fevers, as has often been tried, 


and approved on by our English practitioners. 
The wind being at N. W., with cold weather, 
made us make a large fire in the Indian's cabin ; 
being very intent upon our cookery, we set the 
dwelling on fire, and with much a do put it out, 
though with the loss of part of the roof. 

The next day we traveled on our way, and about 
noon came up with a settlement of Santee Indians, 
there being plantations lying scattering here and 
there, for a great' many miles. They came out to 
meet us, being acquainted with one of our com- 
pany, and made us very welcome with fat barba- 
cued venison, which the woman of the cabin took 
and tore in pieces with her teeth, so put it into a 
mortar, beating it to rags, afterwards stews it 
with water, and other ingredients, which makes a 
very savoury dish. 

At these cabins came to visit us the king of the 
Santee nation. He brought with him their chief 
doctor, or physician, who was warmly and neatly 
clad with a match cbat, made of turkies feathers, 
which makes a pretty show, seeming as if it was 
a garment of the deepest silk shag. This doctor 
had the misfortime to lose his nose by the pox, 
which disease the Indians often get by the Eng- 
lish traders that use amongst them ; not but the 
natives of America have for many ages (by their 
own confession) been afflicted with a distemper 
much like the lues venerea, which hath all the 
symptoms of the pox, being different in this only, 
for I never could learn, that this country distem- 


per, pr yawes, is begun or continued with gon- 
orrhoea, yet is attended with nocturnal pains in 
the limbs, and commonly makes such a progress 
as to vent pajt of the matter by bothes, and seve- 
ral ulcers in the body, and other parts, ofteiitimes 
death ensuing. I have known mercurial ungu- 
ents and remedies work a cure, following the 
same methods as in the pox, several white people, 
but chiefly the Criolos, losing their palates and 
noses by this devouring vulture. 

It is epidemical, visiting these parts ol America 
which is often occasioned through the immoderate 
drinking of rum, by those that commonly drink 
water at other times. Cold night's lodging, and 
bad open houses, and more chiefly, by often wet- 
ting the feet and eating such quantities of pork as 
they do, which is a gross food, and a great propa- 
gator of such juices as it often meets withal in hu- 
man bodies, once tainted with this malady, which 
may diflferently (in some respects) act its tragedy, 
the change being occasioned by the diflference of cli- 
mates and bodies as in Europe. We being well 
enough assured that the pox had its first rise 
. (known to us) in this new world, it being caught 
of the Indian women by the Spanish soldiers that 
followed Columbus in one of his expeditions to 
America, who after their arrival in old Spain, 
were hastened to the relief of ITaples, at that time 
besieged by the Trench. ^Provisions growing 
scarce, the useless people were turned out of the 
city, to lesson the mouths. Amongst these the 


Curtespriis were one part, who had frequently em- 
braced the Spaniards, being well fraught with 
riches by their new discovery. The leager ladies 
had no sooner lost their Spanish dons, but found 
themselves as well entertained by the French, 
whose camp they traded in, giving the monsieurs 
as large a share of the pocky spoils within their 
own lines, a|i the Spaniards had, who took the 
pains to bring it in their brasches as far as from 
America* The large supply of swine's flesh which 
that army was chiefly victualed withal, made it 
rage. The siege was raised. The French and 
Spaniards retreating to Flanders, which was a 
j^rade of all nations ; by which means this filthy 
distemper crowded itself into most nations of the 
known world. 

Now to return to our doctor, who, in the time 
of his affliction, withdrew himself (with one that 
labored under the same distemper) into the woods. 
These two perfected their cures by proper vegeta- 
bles, &c., of which they have plenty, and are well 
acquainted with their specific virtue. 

I have seen such admirable cures perfprmed by 
these savages, which would puzzle a great many 
graduate practitioners to trace their steps in heal- 
ing, with the same expedition, ease and success ; 
using no racking instruments in their chirurgy, 
nor nice rules of diet, and physic, to verify the 
saying, qui medice vivitj misere vivit. In wounds 
which penetrate deep and seem Mortal, they order 
a spare diet, with drinking fountain water; if 


they perceive a white matter* or pus to urise, they 
let th& patient more at large, and presently cure 

After these two had performed their cures at 
no easier rate than the expense of both their no- 
ses, coming again amongst their old acquaintance 
so disfigured, the Indians admired to see them 
metamorphosed after that manner, enquired of 
them where the^had been all that time, and what 
were become of their noses ? They made answer 
that they had been conversing with the" white 
man above, (iheaning God-Almighty,) how they 
were very kindly entertained by that great being ; 
he being much pleased with their ways, and had 
promised to make their capacities equal with 
the white people in making guns, amunition, &c., 
in retaliation of which they had given him their 
noses. The verity of which they yet hold, the 
Indians being an easy, credulous people, and most 
notoriously cheated by their priests and coigurers, 
both trades meeting ever in one person, and most 
commonly a spice of quackship added to the oth- 
er two ingredients, which renders that cunning 
knave the impostor, to be more relied upon; 
thence a fitter instrument to cheat these ignorant 
people ; the priest and conjurers being never ad- 
mitted to their practice, till years and the expe- 
rience of repeated services hath wrought their es- 
teem amongst the nations they belong to. 

The Santee King, who was in company with this 
no-nosed Dr., is the most absolute tidian ruler in 

lawson's history 41 

these parts, although he is head but of a small 
people, in respect to some other nations of Indians, 
that I have seen. He can put ^ny of his people to 
death that hath committed any fault which he 
judges worthy of so great a punishment. This 
authority is rarely found amongst these savages, 
for they act not (commonly) by a determinative 
voice in their laws towards any one that hath com- 
mitted murder, or such other great crime, but 
take this method ; him to whom the injury was 
done, or if dead, the nearest of his kindred, pros- 
ecutes by way of an actual revenge, being himself 
if opportunity serves his intent, both judge and 
executioner, performing so much mischief on the 
offender or his nearest relation, until such tune 
that he is fiiUy satisfied. Yet this revenge is not 
so infallible but it may be bought off with beads, 
tobacco, and such like commodities that are use- 
ful amongst them, though it were the most sable 
villainy that could be acted by mankind. 

Some that attend the king presented me with 
an odoriferous balsamic root, of a fragrant smell 
and taste, the name I know not. They chew it 
in the mouth, and by that simple application fieal 
desperate wounds both green and old. That 
small quantity I had was given inwardly to those 
troubled with the belly ache, which remedy failed 
not to give present help, the pain leaving the pa- 
tients soon after they had taken the root. 

Near to these cabins are several tombs made 
after the manner of these Indians; the largest 


and the chiefest of them was the sepulchre of the 
late Indian king of the Santees, a man of great 
power, not only amongst his own subjects, but 
dreaded by the neighboring nations for his great 
valor and conduct, having as large a prerogative 
in his way of ruling, as the present king I now 
spoke of. 

The manner of their interment is thus : A mole 
or pyramid of earth is raised, the mould thereof 
being worked very smooth and even, sometimes 
higher or lower, according to the dignity of the 
person whose monument it is, on the top thereof 
is an umbrella, made ridgeways, like the roof of an 
house, this is supported by nine stakes, or small 
posts, the grave being about six or eight feet in 
length and four feet in breadth ; about it is hung 
gourds, feathers, and other such like trophies, 
placed there by the dead man's relations, in re- 
spect to him in the grave. The other part of the 
funeral rites are thus : As soon as the party is 
dead, they lay the corps upon a piece of bark in 
the sun, seasoning or embalming it with a small 
root beaten to powder, which looks as red as ver- 
Aillion ; the same is mixed with bear's oil to beau- 
tify the hair, and preserve their heads from being 
lousy, it growing plentifully in these parts of 
America. After the carcass has laid a day or two in 
the sun, they remove and lay it upon crotches cut 
on purpose, for the support thereof from the earth, 
then they annoint it all over \^dth the foremen- 
tioned ingredients of the powder of this root and 


bear's oil. When it is so done, they cover it very 
exactly over with, bark of the pine, or cypress tree, 
to prevent any rain to fall upon it, sweeping the 
ground very clean all about it. Some of his 
nearest of kin brings all the temporal estate he 
was possessed of at his death, as guns, bows and 
arrows, beads, feathers, match coat, &c. This re- 
lation is the chief mourner, being clad in moss 
and a stick in his hand, keeping a mournful ditty 
for three or four days, his face being black with 
smoke of pitch, pine mingled with bear's oil. All 
the while he tells the dead man's relations, and 
the rest of the spectators, who that dead person 
was, and of the great feats performed in his life- 
time ; all what he speaks, tending to the praise 
of the defunct. As soon as the flesh grows mel- 
low and will cleave from the bone, they get it ofl:' 
and burn it, making all the bones very clean, 
then annoint them with the ingredients aforesaid, 
wrapping up the skull (very carefully) in a cloth 
artificially woven of possom's hair. (These In- 
dians make girdles, sashes, garters, &c., after the 
same manner.) The bones they carefully preserve 
in a wooden box, every year oiling and cleansing 
them. By these means preserve them for many 
ages, that you may see an Indian in possession of 
the bones of his grand-father, or some of his rela- 
tions of a larger antiquity. They have other sorts of 
toombs, as where an Indian is slain, in that very 
place they make a heap of stones, (or sticks where 
stones are not to be found) to this memorial, every 


Indian that passes by, adds a stone to augment 
the heap, in respect to the deceased hero. 

We had a very large swamp to pass over near 
the house, and would have hired our landlord to 
have been our guide, but he seemed unwilling, so 
we pressed him no farther about it. He was the 
tallest Indian I ever saw, being seven feet high, 
and a very straight complete' person, esteemed on 
by the king for his great art in hunting, always car- 
rying with him an artificial head to hunt withal. 
They are made of the head of a buck, the back part 
of the horns being scraped and hollow for the light- 
ness of carriage. The skin is left to the setting 
on of the shoulders, which is lined all round with 
small hoops, and flat sort of laths, to hold it open 
for the arms to go in. They have a way to pre- 
serve the 'eyes, as if living. The hunter puts on a 
match coat made of deer skin, with the hair on, 
and a piece of the white part of the deer skin that 
grows on the breast, which is fastened to the neck 
end of this stalking head, so hangs down. In these 
habiliments an Indian will go as near a deer as he 
pleases, the exact motions and behaviour of a deer 
being so well counterfeited by them, that several 
times it hath been known for two hunters to come 
up with a stalking head together, and unknown to 
each other, so that they have killed an Indian in- 
stead of a deer, which hath happened sometimes 
to be a brother or some dear friend; for which rea- 
son they allow not of that sort of practice where 
the nation is populous. 


Within half a mile of the house we passed over 
a prodigious wide and deep swamp, being forced 
to strip stark naked, and much a do to save our- 
selves from drowning in this fatigue. "We with 
much a do got through, going that day about five 
miles farther, and came to three more Indian cab- 
ins, called in the Indian tongue, Hickerau, by the 
English traders, the. black hous6, being pleasantiiy 
seated on a high bank, by a branch of Santee riv* 
er. One of our company that had traded amongst 
these Indians told us that one of the cabins was 
his father-in-law's ; he called him so by reason the 
old man had given him a young Indian girl, that 
was his daughter, to lie with him, make bread, 
and to be necessary in what she was capable to as- 
sist him in, during his abode amongst them^ 

When we came thither first there was no body 
at home, so the son made bold to search his fa- 
ther's granary for com and other provisions. He 
brought us some Indian maiz and peas, which are 
of reddish color, and eat well, yet color the liquor 
they are boiled in as if it were a lixivium of red 
tarter. After we had been about an hour in the 
house where was millions of fleas, the Indian cab- 
ins being often fuller of such vermin, than any 
dog kennel, tte old man came in to us, and 
scemad very glad to see his son-in-law. 

This Indian is a great conjuror, as appears by 
the sequel. The Seretee or Santee Indians were 
gone to war against the Hooks and Backbooks 
nations, living near the mouth of Winyan river- 


Those tliat were left at home, which are common- 
ly old people and children, had heard no news a 
long time of their men at arms. This man, at 
the entreaty of these people, (being held to be a 
great sorcerer amongst them,) went to know what 
posture their fighting men were in. His exorcism 
was carried on thus : He dressed himself in a clean 
white dressed deer skin, a great fire being made 
in the middle of the plantation, the Indians sit- 
ting all around it, the conjuror was blindfold- 
ed, then he surrounded the fire several times 
I think thrice— leaving the company he went into 
the woods, where he stayed about half an hour, 
l^tuming to them surrounded the fire as before ; 
leaving them, went the second time into the 
woods ; at which time there came a huge swarm 
of files, very large, they fiying about the fire sev- 
eral times, at last fell all into it, and were visibly 
consumed* Immediately after the Indian conju- 
ror made a huge lilleloo, and howling very fright- 
fully. Presently an Indian went and caught hold 
of him, leading him to the fire. The old wizzard 
was so feeble and weak, being not able to stand 
alone, and all over in a sweat, and as wet as if he 
had fallen into the river ; after some time he re- 
covered his strength, assuring them that their 
men wer near a river and could not pass over it 
till so many days, but would, in such a time, re- 
turn all in safety to ther nation — all which prov- 
ed true at the Indians' return, which was not long 


after. This, story the Englishman, his son-in-law, 
aflirmed to me. 

The old man staid with us about two hours, 
and told us we were welcome to stay there all 
night, and take what his cabin aflPbrded ; then 
leaving us, went into the woods to some hunting 
quarter not far off. 

The next morning early we pursiied our voy* 
age, finding the land to improve itself in pleas- 
antness and richness of soil. When we had gone 
about ten miles one of our company tired, being 
not able to travel any farther;* so we went for- 
ward, leaving the poor dejected traveler with tears 
in his eyes, to return to Charlestown, and travel 
back again over so much bad way, we having 
passed through the worst of our journey, the land 
here being high and dry, Jp'ery few swamps and 
-4hose dry and a little way through. We traveled 
about twenty miles, lying near a savanna that was 
overflown with water ; where we was very short 
of victuals, but finding the woods newly burnt, and 
on fire in many places, which ^ave u^ great hopes 
that Indians were not far off. 

Next morning, very early, we waded through the 
Savanna, the patji lying there J" and about ten o' 
clock came to a hunting quarter pf a great many 
Santees. They made us all welcome, showing a 
great deal of joy at our coming, giving us barbe- 
cued turkeys, bear's oil and venison. 

Here we hired Santee Jack, (a good hunter, and 
a well humored fellow) to be our pilot to the Con- 


geree Indians. We gave him a stroud water blew 
to mak^> his wife an Indian petticoat, who went 
with her husband. After two hours refreshment 
we went on, and got that day about twenty miles. 
We lay by a small, swift run of water, which 
was paved at the bottom with a sort of stone much 
like to tripoli, and so light that I fancied it would 
precipitate in no stream but where it naturally 
grew. The weather was very cold, the winds hold- 
ing northerly. We made ourselves as merry ad 
we could, having a good supper with the. scraps of 
venison we had given us by the Indians, having 
killed three teal and a possum, which medly, alto- 
gether, made a curious ragoo. 

This day all of us had a mind to have rested, 
but the Indian was much against it, alleging that 
the place we lay at was not good to hunt in, tell- 
ing us if we would go oh, by noon he would bring 
us to a more convenient place, so we moved for- 
wards, and about twelve o'clock came to the most 
amazing prospect I had seen since I had been in 
Carolina. We traveled by a swamp-side which 
swamp I believe to be no less than twenty miles 
over, the other side being as far as I coiild well 
discern, there appearing great ridges of mountains 
bearing from us N". N. W. One Alp with a top like 
a sugar loaf, advanced its head above all the rest 
very considerably. The day was very serene which 
gave us the advantage of seeing a long way ; these 
mountains were clothed all over with trees which 
seemed to us to be very large timbers. 

lawsok's history 49 

At the sight of this fair prospect we staid all 
night ; our Indian going about half an hour be- 
fore us, had provided three fat turkeys ere we got 
np to him. 

The swamp I now spoke of, is not a miry bog 
as others generally are, but you go down to it 
through a steep bank, at the foot of which begins 
this valley, where you may go dry for perhaps 
two hundred yards, then you meet with a email 
brook or run of water about two or three feet 
deep, lixen diy l«.d for such another space, bo ar.: 
other brook, thus continuing, the land in this po- 
coson, or valley, beiilg extraordinary rich, an<l 
the rune^ of water well stored with fowl. It is the 
head of one of the branches of Sante^ river ; but 
a farther discovery time would not permit ; only 
one thing is very remarkable, there growing all 
over this swamp a tall, lofty bay tree, but is not 
the same as in Englaiid, these being Ia their ver- 
dure all the winter long; which appears h^re, 
when you stand on the ridge, (where our path 
lay,) as if it were one pleasant, green field, and 
as even as a bowling green to the eye of the be- 
holder^ being hemmed in on one sid& with these 
ledges of vast high mountains. 

Viewing the land here, we found an extraordin- 
ary rich, black mould, and some of a copper color, 
both sorts very good, the land in some places is 
much burthened with iron stone, here being great 
store of it, seemingly very good. The eviling 
springs, which are many in these parts, issuing 



out of the rocks, which water we drank of, it col- 
oring the excrements of travelers, by its chalybe- 
ate quality, as black as a coal. 

When we were all asleep in the beginning of 
the night, we were awakened with the dismalist 
and most hideous noise that^ver pierced my ears. 
This sudden surprisal incapacitated us of guess- 
ing what this threatening noise might proceed 
from : but our Indian pilot, who knew these parts 
very well, acquainted us, that it was customary 
to hear such music along that swamp side, there 
being endless number of panthers, tigers, wolves 
and other beast of prey, which take this swamp 
for their abode im the day, coming in whole droves 
to hunt the deer in the night, making this fright- 
fiil ditty till day appears, then all is still as in oth- 
er places. 

The next day it proved h, small drisly rain, 
which is rare, there happening not the tenth part 
of foggy falling weather towards these mountains 
as visits those parts near the sea board. The In- 
dian killed fifteen turkeys this day, there coming 
out of the swamp, aBout sun rising, flocks of 
these towl, containing several hundred in a gang, 
who feed upon the acorns, it being most oak that 
grow in these woods. There are but very few pines 
in those quarters. 

Early the next morning, we set forward for the 
Congeree Indians — ^parting with that delicious 
prospect. By the way, our guide killed more tur- 
keys and two polecats, which he eat, esteeming 

lawson's history 51 

them before fat turkeys. Some of the turkeys 
which we eat whilst we staied there, I believe 
weighed' no less than forty pounds. 

The land we passsed over this day was most of 
it good, and the worst passable. At night we kill- 
ed a possum, being cloy'd with turkey, made a 
dish of that, which tasted much between young 
l^rk and veal ; their fet being as white as any I 
ever saw. 

Our Indian having this day killed good store of 
provisions with his gun, he always shot with a sin- 
gle ball, missing but two shoots in about forty ; 
they being curious artists in managing a gun to 
make it carry either ball or shot, true. "When 
they have bought a piece, and find it to shoot any 
Tfays crooked, they take the barrel out of the 
stock, cutting a notch in a tree) wherein they set 
it straight, sometimes shooting away above one 
hnndred -loads of ammunition, before they bring the 
gun to shoot according to their mind. We took 
up our quarters by a fish pond side ; the pits in 
Ihe woods that stand full of water naturally breed 
fish in them, in great quantities. We cooked our 
supper, but having neither bread or salt, our fat 
turkeys began to be loathsome to us, although we 
were never wanting of a good appetite, yet a con- 
tinuance of one "diet made us weary. 

The next morning Santee Jack told us we 
should reach the Indian settlement betimes that 
day. About noon we passed by several fair Sa- 
vannas, very rich and dry ; seeing great copses of 


many acres that bore nothing but bushes, about 
the bigness of box trees, which (in the season) af- 
ford great quantities of small, black berries, very 
pleasant fruit, and much like to our blues, or 
huckleberries, that grow on heaths in England. 

Hard by the Savannas we found the town, where 
we halted. There was not above one man left 
with the women, the rest being gone a hunting, 
for the feast. The women were very busily en- 
gaged in gaming. The name or grounds of it I 
could not learn, though I looked on above two 
hours. Their arithmetic was kept with a heap of 
Indian grain. When their play was ended, the 
king, or Caffetta's wife, invited us into her cabin. 
The Indian kings always entertaining travelers, 
either English or Indian ; taking it as a great af- 
front, if they pass by their cabins and take up 
their quarters at any other Indian's house. The 
queen set victuals before us, which good compli- 
ment they use generally as soon as you come un- 
der their roof. 

The town consists not of above a dozen houses, 
they having other straggling plantations up and. 
down the country, and are ^eated upon a small 
branch of Santee river* Their place hath curious 
dry marshes and Savannas adjoining to it, and 
would prove an exceeding thriving range for cat- 
tle, and hogs, provided the English^ were seated 
thereon. Besides, the land is good for plantations. 

These Indians are a small people, having lost 
much of their former numbers, by intestine broils, . 


"but mostly by the small pox, which hath often 
visited titiem, sweeping away whole towns, occa- 
sioned by the immoderate government of them- 
selves in their sickness, as I have mentioned be- 
fore, treating of the Sewees. Neither do I know 
any savages that have traded with the English but 
what have been great losers by this distemper. 

"We found here good stere of chinkapin nuts, 
*which they gather in winter great quantities of, 
-drying them, so keep these jauts in great baskets 
for their use. Likewise hicfcerie nuts, which they 
•beat betwixt two great stones, then sift them, so 
thicken their venison broth therewith, the small 
-shells precipitating to the bottom of the pot, 
^whilst the kernel, in form of flower, mixes it with 
the liquor, both these nuts made into meal makes 
;a curious soup, either with »clear water, or in any 
meat broth. 

From the natioii of Indians, until such times as 
you come to the Turkeiruros in iS'orth Carolina, 
jrou will see no long moss upon the trees, which 
^space of ground contains above five hundre<i miles. 
'This seeming miracle in nature is occasioned by 
iihe highness of the land, it being dry and health- 
fal ; for though this most bears a seed in a sort of 
3 small cod, yet it is generated in er near low 
.swampy grounds. 

The Congerees are kind and affable to the Eng- 
lish. The Queen being very kind, giving us what 
rarities her cabin aftbrded, as loblolly made with 
Indian corn, and dried peaches* These Congerees 


have abundance of storks and cranes in their sa- 
vannas. They take them before they can fly, and 
breed them as tame and familiar as a dunghill 
fowl. They had a tame crane at one of these 
cabins, that was scarcely less than six feet in 
heighth. His head being round, with a shining, nat- 
ural crimsoii hue, which they all have. These are 
a very comely sort of Indians, there being a strange 
difference in the proportions and beauty of these 
heathens. Although their tribes or nations bor- 
der one upon another, yet you may discern as 
great an alteration in their features and disposi- 
tions, as you can in their speech, which generally 
proves quite different from each other, though 
their nations be not above ten or twenty miles 
in distance. The women here being as handsome 
as most I have met withal, being several fine fin- 
gered brounettos amongst them. These lasses 
stick not upon hand long, for they marry when 
very young, as at twelve or fourteen years of age. 
The English traders are seldom without an Indian 
female for his bed fellow, alleging these reasons 
as sufficient to allow of such familiarty, first, they 
being remote from any white people, that it pre- 
serves their friendship with the heathens, they es- 
teeming a white man's child much above one of 
their getting, the Indian misses ever securing her 
white friend provisions whilst he stays amongst 
them ; and lastly, this correspondence makes them 
learn the Indian tongue much the sooner, they 
being of the Frenchman's opinion, how that an 

lawson's history 65 

Englidi wife teaches her hushand more English 
in one night than a school master can in a week- 

We saw at the Caffetta's cabin the strangest 
spectacle of antiquity I ever knew, it being an old 
Indian squah, that had I been to have guessed at 
her age, by her aspect, old Parr's head (the Welch 
Methusalem) was a face in swadling clouts to hers. 
Her skin hung in reaves like a bag of tripe. By 
a fair competition, one might have justly thought 
it would have contained three such carcasses as 
hers then was. She had one of her hands con- 
tracted by some accident in the fire, they sleeping 
always by it, and often fall into sad disasters, espe- 
cially in their drunken moods. I made the strict- 
est enquiry that was possible, and by what I could 
gather, she was considerably above one hundred 
years old, notvrithstanding she smoked tobacco 
and eat her victuals, to all appearances, as hearti- 
ly as one of eighteen. One of our company apoke 
some of their language, and having not quite for- 
goWl^ his former intrigues with the Indian lasses, 
would have been dealing with some of the young 
female fiy ; but they refused him, he having noth- 
ing that these girls esteemed. 

At night we were laid in the king's cabin, where 
the queen and the old squah piged with us. The 
former was very much disfigured with tetters, and 
very reserved, which disappointed our fellow- 
traveler in his intrigues. 

The women smoke much tobacco, (as most In- 
dians do.) They have pipes whose heads are cut 



out of stone, and will hold an ounce of tobacco, 
and some much lees. They have large wooden 
spoons, as big as small ladles, which they make 
little use of, lading the meat out of the bowles 
with their fingers. 

In the morning we rose before day, having hir- 
ed a guide over night to conduct us on our way ; 
but it was too soon for him to stir out, the Indi- 
ans never setting forward till the sun is an hour 
or two high and hath exhaled the dew from Hie 
earth. The queen got us a ^ood breakfast before 
we left her ; she had a young child, which was 
much afflicted with the cholic ; for which distem- 
per she infiised a root in water, which was held in 
a gourd ; this she took into her mouth and spurt- 
ed it into the infant's, which gave it ease. After 
we had eaten, we set out with our new guide, for 
the Wateree Indians. We went over a great deal 
of indifferent land this day. Ifere begins to ap- 
pear veiy good marble, which continues more and 
less for the space of five hundred miles. Vs lay 
all night by a ran of water, as we always do tf 
possible, for the ccmvenience of it. The water 
was very cold. "We went this day about thirty 
miles from the Congerees. 

In the morning we made no stay to get our 
breakfast, but hastened on our voyage, the land 
increasing in marble and richness of soil. At 
noon we halted, getting our dinner "upon a mar- 
ble stone, that rose itself half a foot above the 
surface of the earth, and might contain the com- 



lawson's history 57 

pass of a quarter an acre of laad, being very even, 
there growing npon it in some places a small red 
berry, like a salmon spawn, there boiling out of 
the main rock curious springs of as delicious wa- 
ter as ever I drank in any parts I ever traveled 

These parts likewise affords good free stone, fit 
for building, and of several sorts. The land here 
is pleasantly seated, with pretty little hills and 
valleys, the rising sun at once showing his glori- 
ous reflecting rays on a great many of these little 
mountains. We went this day about twenty 
jniles, our guide walking like a horse, 't^l wehad 
saddled him with a good heavy pack of some part 
of our clothes and bedding — ^by which means we 
kept pace with him. 

This night we lay by a run side, where I found 
a fine yellow earth, the same with BruxeFs sand, 
which goldsmiths use to cast withal, giving a good 
price in England and other parts ; here is like- 
wise the true blood stone and considerable quanti- 
ties of fuller's earth, which I took a proof of by 
scouring great spots out of woolen, and it proved 
very good. 

As we were on our road this morning our In- 
dian shot a tiger that crossed the way, he being a 
great distance from us, I believe he did him no 
harm^ because he sat on his breech afterwards, 
and looked upon us. I suppose he expected to 
have had a spaniel bitch that I had with me, for 
his breakfast, who ran towards him, but in the 



midway stopped her career, and came sneaking 
back to us with her tail betwixt her legs. 

We saw in the path a great many trees blown 
up by the roots, at the bottom thereof stuck great 
quantities of fine red bole : I belive nothing infe- 
rior to that of Venice or Lemma. We found 
some holes in the earth which were full of water 
as black as ink. I thought that tincture might 
proceed from some mineral, but had not time to 
make a farther discovery. About noon we passed 
over a pleasant stony brook, whose water was of 
a bluish cast, as it is for several hundreds of miles 
towards the heads of the rivers, I suppose occa- 
sioned by the vast quantities of marble lying in 
the bowels of the earth. The springs that feed 
these rivulets, lick up some portion of the stones 
in the brooks ; which dissolution gives this tinc- 
ture, as appears in all, or most of the rivers and 
brooks in this country, whose rapid streams are 
like those in Yorkshire and other northern coun- 
tries of England. The Indians talk of many sorts 
of fish which they afford^ but we had not time to 
discover their species. 

I saw here had been some Indian plantations 
formerly, there being several pleasant fields of 
cleared ground and excellent soil, now well * 
spread with fine bladed grass, and strawberry 

The mould here is excessive rich, and a coun- 
try very pleasing to the eye, had it the conven- 
ince of a navigable j-iver, as all new colonies, of 

Lawson*s history 59 

necessity require, it would make a delightful set- 

We went eight miles farther and came to the 
Wateree Chickanee Indians. The land holds 
good, there being not a spot of bad land to be 
seen in several days* going. 

The people of this nation are likely taU persons 
and great pilferers, slealing from us any thing 
they could lay their h^^nds on, though very res- 
pectful in giving us what - victuals we wanted. 
We lay in their cabins all night, being dark smo- 
ky holes as ever I saw any Indians dwell in. 
This nation is much more populous tiianthe Con- 
gerees and their neighbors, yet understand not 
one another's speech. They are very poor in 
English effects, several of them having no guns, 
making use of bows and arrows, being a lazy, idle 
people, a quality incident to most Indians, but 
none to that degree as these, as I ever met with- 

Their country is wholy free from swamps and 
quagmires, being high dry land, and consequently 
healthful, producing large com stalks, and fair 

Next morning we took off our beards with a 
razor, the indians looked on with a great deal of 
admiration. They told us they had never seen 
the like before, and that our knives cut far better 
than those that came amongst the Indians. They 
would fain have borrowed our razors as they had 
our knives, scissors and tobacco tongs the day be- 




fore, being as ingeniotiB at picking of pockets as 
any, I believe, the world affords — ^for they will 
steal with their feet. 

Yesterday, one of our company, not walking so 
fast as the rest, was left behind. He being out of 
sight before we missed him, and not coming up to 
us, though we staid a considerable time on the 
road for him, we stuck up sticks in the ground, 
and left other tokens to direct him which way 
we were gone ; but he came not to us that night, 
wliieh gave us occasion to fear some of the heath- 
en had killed him for his clothes, or the savage 
beasts had devoured him in the wilderness, he 
having nothing about him to strike fire withal. 
As we were debating which way we should send 
to know what was become of him, he overtook 
us, having a Waxsaw Indian for his guide. He 
told us he had missed the path and got to anoth- 
er nation of Indians but three miles off, who at 
that time held great feasting. They had enter- 
tained him very respectftiUy, and sent that Indi- 
an to invite us amongst them, wondering tliat we 
would not take up our quarters with them, but 
make our abode with such a poor sort of Indians, 
that were not capable of entertaining us accord- 
ing to our deserts. We received the messenger 
with a great many ceremonies acceptable to those 
sort of creatures. 

Bidding our Wateree king adieu, we set forth 
towfirds the Waxsaws, going along cleared ground 
all the way. Upon our arrival, we were led into 


a very large and lightsome cabin, the like I have 
not met withal. They laid ftirs and deer skins 
upon cane benches for us to sit or lie upon, bring- 
ing immediately, stewed peaches and green corn, 
that is preserved in their cabins before it is ripe, 
and sodden and boiled when they use it, which 
is a pretty sort of food, and a great increaser of 
the blood. 

These Indians are of an extraordinaiy stature, 
and called by their neighbors flat heads, which 
seems a very suitable name for them. Iti their 
infancy, their nurses lay thje back part of their 
children's heads on a bag of sand, (such as engra- 
vers use to rest their plates upon.) They use a 
roll which is placed upon the babies forehead, it 
being laid with its back on a flat board, and swad- 
dled hard down thereon, from one end of this en- 
gine to the other. This method makes the child's 
body and limbs as straight as an arrow, there be- 
ing some young Indians that are perhaps crooked- 
ly inclined, at their first coming into the world, 
who are made perfectly straight by this method. 
I never saw an Indian of mature age that was any 
ways crooked, except by accident, and that way 
seldom ; for they cure and prevent deformities of 
the limbs and body very exactly.' The instrument 
I spoke of before being a sort of a press, that is 
let out and in, more or less, according to the dis- 
cretion of the nurse, in which they make the 
child's head flat: it makes the eyes stand a prodi- 
gious way asunder, and the hair hang over the 

62 OF North Carolina. 

forehead like the eves of a house, which seems 
very frightful. They being asked the reason why 
they practiced this method, replied, the Indian's 
sight was much strengthened and'quicker thereby 
to discern the game in hunting at larger distance, 
andsonever missed of becoming experthunters, the 
perfection of which they all aim at, as we do to 
become experienced soldiers, learned school-men, 
or artists in mechanics. He that is a good hunter 
never misses of being a favorite amongst the 
women ; the prettiest girl being always bestowed 
upon the chiefest sportsman, and those of a gross- 
er mould upon the useless lubbers. Thus they 
have a graduation amongst them, as well as other 
nations. As for the solemnity of marriages amongst 
them, kept with so much ceremony as divers au- 
thors affirm, it never appeared amongst those 
many nations I have been withal, any otherwise 
than in the manner I have mentioned hereaf- 

The girls, at twelve or thirteen years of age, as 
soon as nature prompts them, freely bestow their 
maiden heads on some youth about the same age, 
continuing her favors on whom she most affects, 
changing her mate very often, few or none of 
them being constant to one, till a greater number 
of years has made her capable of managing do- 
mestic affairs, and she hath tried the vigor of most 
of the nation she belongs to. Multiplicity of gal- 
lants never being a stain to a female's reputation, 
or the least hinderance of her advancement ; but 


the more whorrish, the more honorable, and they 
of all most coveted hj those of the first rank to 
make wives of. The Flos Virginis, so much cov- 
eted by the Europeans, is never valued by these 

When a man and woman have gone through their 
degrees, (there being a certain graduation amongst 
them,) and are allowed to be house keepers, which 
is not till they arrive at such an age, and have pass- 
ed the ceremonies practiced by their nation, al- 
most all kingdoms differing in the progress there- 
of, then it is that the man makes his address to 
some one of these thoroughpaced girls or other, 
whom he likes best. When i?he is won the parents 
of both parties (with advice of the king) agree 
about the matter, making a promise of their daugh- 
ter to the man that requires her, it often happen- 
ing that they converse and travel together for sev- 
eral moons before the marriage is published open- 
ly. After this, at the least dislike, the man may 
turn her away, and take another ; or if she disap- 
proves of his company, a prke is set upon her, 
and if the man that seeks to get her, will pay the 
fine to her husband, she becomes free from him; 
likewise, some of their war captains, and great 
men, very often will retain three or four girls at a 
time for their own use, when at the same time 
he is so impotent and old, as to be incapable 
of making use of one of them, so that he seldom 
misses of wearing greater horns than the game he 
kills. The husband is never so enraged as to put 


his adulteress to death ; if she is canght in the 
fact, the rival becomes debtor to the comuted hus- 
band, in a certain quantity of trifles, valuable 
amongst them, which he pays as soon as discharg- 
ed, and then all animosity is laid aside betwixt 
the husband and his wife's gallant. The man 
proves often so goodhumored as to please his 
neighbor and gratify his wife's inclinations, by 
letting her out for a night or two, to the embraces 
of some other, which perhaps she has a greater lik- 
ing to, though this is not commonly practiced. 

They set apart the youngest and prettiest faces 
for trading girls ; these are remarkable by their 
hair, having a pa;ticular tonsure by which they are 
known and distinguished from those engaged to 
husbands. They are mercenary, and whoever 
makes use of them, first hires them, the greatest 
share of the gain going to the king's purse, who 
is the chief bawd, exercising his prerogative over 
all the stews of his nation, and his own cabin 
very often, being the chiefest brothel house. As 
they grow in years, the hot assaults of love grow 
cooler ; and then they commonly are so staid, as 
to engage themselves with more constancy to each 
other. I have seen several couples amongst them 
that have been so reserved, as to live together for 
many years, faithfal to each other, admitting none 
to their beds but such as they owned for their 
wife or husband, so continuing to their life's end. 

At our Waxsaw's landlord's cabin, was a wo- 
man employed in no other business than cookery, 

lawson's history 66 

it being a house of great resort. The fire was sur- 
rounded with roast meet, or barbecues, and the 
pots continually boiling full of meat, from mom- 
ing till night. This she-cook was the cleanliest 
I ever saw amongst the heathens of America, 
washing her hands before she undertook to do any 
cookery ; and repeating this unusal decency very 
often in a day. She made us as white bread as 
any English could have done, and was full as neat 
and expeditious in her affitirs. It happened to be 
one of thfeir great feasts when we were there. 
The first day that we ca^ne amongst them, arrived 
an ambassador from the king of Sapona, to treat 
with these Indians about some important affairs. 
He was painted with vermilion all over his face, 
having a very large cutlass stuck in his girdle, and 
a fusee in his hand. At night the revels began, 
where this foreign Indian was admitted. The 
king and war captain inviting us to see their mas- 
querade. This feast was held in commemoration 
of the plentiful harvest of corn they had reaped 
the summer before, with an united supplication 
for the like plentiful produce the year ensuing. 
These revels are carried on in a house made for 
that purpose, it being done round with white 
benches of fine canes, joining along the wall ; and 
a place for the door being left, which is so low 
that a man must stoop very much to enter there- 
in. This edifice resembles a large hay rick, its 
top being pyramidal, and much bigger than their 
Otter dwell^s, and at the buildinfwereof, eveiy 


one assists till it is finished. All their dwelling 
houses are covered with bark, but this differs 
very much ; for it is very artificially thatched with 
sedge and rushes. As soon as finished, they 
place some one of their chiefest men to dwell 
therein, charging him with the diligent preserva- 
tion thereof, as a prince commits the charge and 
government of a fort or castle, to some subject he 
thinks worthy of that trust. In these state houses 
is transacted all public and private business rela- 
ting to the affairs of the government, as the audi- 
ence of foreign ambassadors from other Indian ru- 
lers, consultation of waging and making war, pro- 
posals of their trade with neighboring Indians, or 
the English who happen to come amongst them. 
In this theatre, the most aged and wisest meet^ 
determining what to act, and what may be most 
convenient to omit. Old age being held in as 
great veneration amongst these heathens, as 
amongst any people you shall meet withal in any 
part of the world. 

Whensoever an aged man is speaking, none ev- 
er interrupts him, (the contrary practice the Eng- 
lish and other Europeans too much use,) the com- 
pany yielding a great deal of attention to his tale 
with a continued silence and an exact demeanor, 
durmg the oration. Indeed, the Indians are a 
people that never interrupt one another in their 
discourse ; no man so much as offering to open 
his mouth till the speaker has uttered his intent : 
When an Englishman comes amongst them, per- 

lawson's history 67 

haps eveiy one is acquainted with him, yet, first, 
the king bids him welcome, after him the war cap- 
tain, so on gradually from high to low ; not one 
of all these speaking to the white guest, till his su- 
perior has ended his salutation. Amongst wo- 
men, it seems impossible to find a scold : if they 
are provoked or affronted, by their husbands, or 
some other, they resent the indignity offered them 
in silent tears, or by refusing their meat. Would 
some of our European daughters of thunder set 
these Indians for a pattern, there might be more 
quiet families found amongst them, occasioned 
by that unruly member, the tongue. 

Festination proceeds from the devil, says a 
learned doctor, a passion the Indians seem 
wholly free from ; they determining no business 
of moment without a great deal of deliberation 
and weariness. None of their affairs appear to 
be attended with impetuosity or haste, being 
more content with the common accidents incident 
to human nature, (as losses, contrary winds, bad 
weather, and poverty,) than those of more civiliz- 
ed countries. 

Now, to return to our state house, whither we 
were invited by the grandees. As soon as we 
came into it, they placed our Englishmen near 
the king, it being my fortune to sit next him, 
having his great general or war captain on my 
other hand. The house is as dark as a dungeon, 
and as hot as one of the Dutch stoves in Holland. 
They had made a circular fire of split canes in 


the middle of the house, it was one man*^s employe 
ment to add more split reeds to the one end as it 
consumed at the other, there being* a small vacan-- 
cy left to supply it with fuel. They brought in 
great store of loblolly and other medleys, made 
of Indian grain, stewed peaches, bear venison, 
&c., every one bringing some offering to enlarge 
the banquet, according to his degree and quality. 
When all the viands were brought in, the first 
figure began with kicking out the dags,* which 
are seemingly wolves made tame with starving 
and beating, they being the worst dog masters in 
the world ; so that it is an infallible cure for sore^ 
eyes, ever to see an Indian's dog fat. They are- 
of a quite contrary disposition to horses. Some 
of their kings having gotten by great chance, a 
jade, stolen by some neighboring Indian, and 
transported farther into the country and sold, or 
bought sometimes of a christian that trades, 
amongst ihem. These creatures they continually 
cram and feed with maii, and what the horse will 
eat, till he is as fat as a hog — ^never making any 
farther use of him than to fetch a deer home,, 
that is killed somewhere near the Indian^s plant-^ 

After the dogs had fled the room, the company 
was summoned by beat of drum ; the music being 
made of a dressed deer's skin, tied hard upon an 
earthen porridge pot. Presently in came fine men 
dressed up with feathers, their faces being co\^er- 
ed with vizards made of gourds ; round their an- 

lawson's history 69 

tiles and kness were hung bells of several sorts ; 
having wooden falchions in their hands, (such as 
stage fencers commonly use) ; in this dress they 
dai^ed about an hour, showing many strange 
ge^glires, and brandishing their wooden weapons 
as if they were going to fight each other ; often- 
times walking veiyaimWy round the room, with- 
^t* making the least noise with their bells, a 
thing I much admired at ; again turning their ho- 
odies, arms and legs, into such frightful postures, 
that you would have guessed they had been quite 
raving made : at last, they cut two or three high 
-capers and left the room. In their stead came in 
^a parcel of women and girls, to the number of 
thirty odd, every one taking place according to 
her degree of stature — the tallest leading the 
•dance and the least of all being placed last; with 
»these they made a circular dance, like a ring rep- 
resenting the shape of the fire they danced about. 
JMany of these had great horse bells about their 
.legs and small hawk bells about their necks. — 
They had musicians, who were two old men, one 
of whom beat a drum, while the other rattled with 
*a gourd that had corn in it to make a noise with- 
.'al. To these instruments they both sung a mourn- 
.ful ditty ; the burthen of their song was, in re- 
>membrance of their former greatness, and num- 
bers of their nation, the famous exploits of their 
jrenowned ancestors, and all actions of moment 
that had, in former days, been performed by their 


At these festivals it is, that they give a tradi- 
tional relation of what hath passed amongst them, 
to the younger fiy, these verbal deliveries Being 
always published in their most public assemWies, 
serve instead of our traditional notes by the •ise 
of letters. Some Indians, that I have met withal, 
have given me a very curiotis description of^t^ 
great deluge, the immortality of the soul, withlT 
pithy account of the reward of goo'd and wicked 
deeds in the life to come ; having found amongst 
some of them, great observers of moral rules, 
and the law of nature ; indeed, a worthy founda- 
tion to build Christianity upon, were a true meth- 
od found out and practiced for the performance 

Their way of dancing is nothing but a sort of 
stamping motion, much like the treading upon 
founder's bellows. This female gang held their 
dance for above six hours, being all of them of a 
white lather, like a running horse, that has just 
come in from his race. My landlady was the ring- 
leader of the Amazons, who, when in her own 
house, behaved herself very discreetly, and weari- 
ly in her domestic affairs ; yet, custom had-so in- 
fatuated her, as to almost break her heart with 
dancing amongst such a confused rabble. During 
this dancing, the spectators do not neglect their 
business in working the loblolly-pots, and the oth- 
er meat that was brought thither ; more or less of 
them being continually eating, whilst the others 
were dancing- When the dancing was tended, eve- 


ty youtlat-that was so disposed, catched hold of the 
girl he liked best, and took her that night for his 
bed fellow, making as short courtship and expedi- 
tious weddings, as the foot guards used to do with 
the trulls in Salisbury colirt. 

Next we shall treat of the land hereabouts, 
which is a marl as red a^ blood, and will lather 
like soap. The town staiids on this land, which 
holds considerably farther in the country, and is, 
in my opinion, so durable that no labor of man ia 
one or two ages, could make it poor. I have for- 
merly seen the like in Leicestershire, bordering 
upon Rutland. Here are com stalks in their 
fields as thick as the small of a man's leg, and they 
are ordinarily to be seen. 

We lay with these Indians one night, there be- 
ing by my bedside one of the largest iron pots I 
had ever seen in America, which I much wondered 
at, because I thought there might be no navigable 
stream near that place. I asked them^ where they 
got that pot. They laughed at my demand and 
would give me no answer, which makes me guess 
it came from some wreck) aad that we were nearer 
the ocean or some great river than I thought. 

The next day, about noon, we accidentally met 
with a southward Indian amongstthose that used to 
trade backwards and forwards, and spoke a little 
English, whom we hired to go with us to the Esaw 
Indians, a very large nation, containing many 
'' thousand people. 



new bargain — ^walking barefoot in his penitentials, 
like some poor pilgrim to Loretto. 

After the Indians had laughed their sides sore 
at the figure Mr. Bridegroom made, with much 
ado, we mustered up another pair of shoes or mog- 
gisons, and set forward on our intended voyage, 
all the way lifting up their prayers for th^ n.6w 
married couple, whose wedding had made awa/ 
with that which should have purchased our food. 

Belying wholly on Providence, we marched on,' 
now and then paying our respects to the new married 
man. The land held^ich and gqpd ; in many places 
there were great quantities of marble. The water 
VJ9A still of wheyish color. About ten o'clock we 
waded through ariver about the bigness of Derwent, 
in Yorkshire, which I took to be one of the branch- 
es of Winjaw river. We saw several flocks of pi- 
geons, fieldfares and thruahes, much like those of 
Europe. The Indians of these parts use sweat- 
ing very much. If any pain seize their limbs or 
body, immediately they take reeds or .small wands 
and bend them umbrella fashion, covering them 
with skins and match coats ; they have a large fire 
not far off, wherein they heat stones, or where they 
are wanting, bark ; putting it into this stove, which 
casts an extraordinary heat, there is a pot of water 
in the bagnio, in which is put a bunch of an herb, 


bearing a silver tassel, not much unlike the aurea 
virga. With this vegetable they rub the head, 
temples and other parts, which is reckoned a pre^ 
server of the sight apd strengthener of the brain. 

lawson's aistoRt 75 

We went this day about twdre miles, one of our 
company being lame of his knee. We passed 
over an exceeding ridi tract of land, affording 
plenty of great free stones^marblerocks andabound- 
ing in many plesant and delightsome rivulets. 
At noon we stayed and refreshed ourselves at a 
cabin, where we met with one of their war ci^ 
tains, a man of great esteem among them. At 
his departure from the cabin, the man of the house 
scratched ihis war captain on the shoulder, which 
is looked upon as a very great compliment among 
ihem. The captain went two or three miles on 
our way with us, to direct us in our path. One of 
our company gave him a belt, which he took veiy 
kindly, bidding us call at his house, which was in 
our road, and stay till the lame traveler was well, 
ffnd speaking to the Indian to order his servant to 
make us welcome. Thus we parted, he being on his 
journey to the Congerees and Savannas, a famous, 
warlike, friendly nation of Indians, living to the 
south end of Ashley river. He had a man slave with 
him who was loaded with European goods, his 
wife and daughter being in company. He told 
us, at his departure, that James had sent knots to 
all the Indians theseabouts, for every town to 
send in ten skins, meaning Captain Moor, then 
Governor of South Carolina. The towns being 
very thick hereabouts, at night we took up our 
quarters at one of the chief men's houses, which 
was one of the theatres I spoke of before. There 
ran, hard by this town, a pleasant river, not very 


large, but, aa the Indians told Q8> well stored with 
fish. We being now among the powerful nation 
of EsawB, our landlord entertained us very cour- 
teously, showing us, that night, a pair of leather 
gloves which he had made ; and comparing them 
with ours, they proved to be very ingeniously done, 
considering it was the first trial. • 

In the morning, he desired to see the lame man's 
affected part, to the end he might do something 
which be believed would give him ease, after he 
had viewed it accordingly, he pulled out an instru*- 
ment, somewhat like a comb, which was made of 
a split reed, with fifteen teeth of rattlesnakes, set 
at much the same distance as in a large horn comb. 
With these he scratched the place where the lame* 
ness chiefly lay till the blood came, bathing it 
both before and after incision, with warm water 
spurted out of his mouth, this done, he ran in- 
to his plantation and got some sassafras root, 
which grows here in great plenty,driedit in the em- 
bers, scfaped off the outward rind, and having 
beat it betwixt two stones, applied it to the part 
afflicted, binding it up well. Thus in a day or 
two, the patient became sound. This day we 
passed through a great many towns and settle- 
ments that belong to the Sugeree Indians^ no bar- 
ren land being found amongst them, but great 
plenty of free stone and good timber. About three 
iu the afternoon we reached the Kadapau king's 
house, where we met with one John Stewart, a 
Scot, then an inhabitant of James river, in Vir- 

lawson's history 77 

giiiia, who had traded there fot many years, being 
alone, and hearing that the ^nnagers (Indians 
from Canada) were abroad in that country, he durst 
not venture homewards till be saw us, having 
heard that we were coming above twenty days 
before. It is very odd that news should fly so 
swiftly among these people. Mr. Stewart had 
left Virginia ever since the October* before, and 
had lost a day of the week, of which we-informed 
him. He had brought seven horses along with 
him, loaded with English goods for the Indians, 
arid having sold most of his cargo, told us if- we 
would stay two nights he would go along with us. 
Company being very acceptable, we accepted the 

JThe next day we. were preparing for our voyage 
and bak?d some bread to take along with us, our 
landlord was king of the' Kadapau Indians, and 
always kept two or three trading girls in his cabin. 
Offering one of these to some of our company, who 
refused his kindness, his m^esly flew into a vio- 
lent passion, to be thus slighted, telling the Eng- 
lishmen that they were good for nothing. Our old 
gamester, particularly, liung his ears at the propo- 
sal, having too lately been a loser by that sort of 
merchandise. It was observable that we did not 
see one partridge from the Water^es to this place, 
tiaough my spaniel bitch, which I had with me 
in this voyage, had put up a great many before. 
On Saturday morning we all s^t.outfor Sapona, 
killing in these creeks, several docks of a strange 


kind, having a red circle about thf^ir eyes, like 
BOTQB pigeons that I hav& seen, a top-not reach- 
ing from the crown of their heads almost to the 
middle of their backs, and abundance of feathers 
of pretty shades and colors, they proved ezcellent 
meat. Likewise here is good store of woodcocks, 
not so big as those in England, the feathers of the 
breast being of a carnation color, exceeding ours 
for delicacy of food. The marble here is of differ- 
ent colors, some ox other of th^ rocks represent^ 
ing most mixtures, but chiefly the white having 
black and blue veins in it, and some that are red. 
This day we met with seven heaps of stones, be- 
ing the monuments of seven Indians that were 
slain in that place by the Sinnagers or Troquois. 
Our Indian guide added a stone to each hen^. 
We took up our lodgings near a brook side, where 
the Virginia man's horses got away and went back 
to the Kadapaus. 

This day one of our company, with a Sapona 
Indian, who attended Stewart, went back for the 
hordes. In the mean time, we went to shoot pi- 
geons which were so numerous in these parts that 
you might see many millions in a flock; they 
sometimes split off the limbs of stout oaks and oth- 
er trees upon which they roost of nights. You 
may find several Indian towns of not above seven- 
teen houses, that have more than one hundred gal- 
lons of pigeon's oil or fat ; they using it with pulse 
or bread as we do butter, and making the ground 
as white as a sheet with their dung. The Indians 

lawson's history 79 

take a l%ht and go among them in the night and 
bring away some thousands, killing them with 
long poles, as they roost in th6 trees. At this 
time of the year,the flocks as they pass by, in great 
measure, obstruct the light of the day. 

On Monday we went twenty-five miles, travel- 
ing through a pleasant, dry country, and took up 
our lodgings by a Kill side that was one entire 
rock, out of which gushed out pleasant fountains 
of well tasted water. 

The next day, still passing along such land as 
we had done for many days before, which was 
hills and valleys, about ten o'clock we reached the 
top of one of these mountains, which yielded us a 
fine prospect of a very level country, holding so 
on ali sides fartiber than we could discern. When 
we came to travel through it, we found it very 
stiff and rich, being a sort of marl. This valley 
afibrded as large timber as any I ever met withal, 
especially of chesnut oaks, which render it an ex- 
Calient country for raising great herds of swine. 
Indeed, were it cultivated, we might have good 
hopes of as pleasant and fertile a valley, as any 
our English in America afS9Fd. At night we 
lay by a swift current, where we saw plenty of 
turkeys, but perched upon such lofty oaks that our 
guns would not kill them, though we shot very 
often, and our guns w^re very good. Some of our 
company shot several times at one turkey before 
he would fly away — the pieces being loaded with 
large goose shot. 


Next morniDg we got our breakfaBt, roasted 
acorns being one of the dishes. The Indians beat 
them into meal and thicken their venison broth 
with them, and oftentimes make a palatable soup. 
They are nsed instead of breads boiling them till 
the oil swims on the top of the water, which they 
preserve for use, eating the acorns with flesh meat. 
We traveled this day about ^enty-five miles over 
pleasant savanna ground, high and dry, having 
very few trees upon it, and those standing at 
a great distance. The land was very good and 
free from grubs or underwood. , A man near Sa* 
pona may more easily clear ten acres of ground, 
than in some places he can one; there being 
much loose stone upon the land, lying very con- 
venient for making of dry walls or any other sort 
of durable fence. The country abounds likewise 
with curious, bold creeks, navigable for small crafb, 
disgorging themselves into the main rivers that 
vent themselves into the ocean. These creeks 
are well stored with sundry sorts of fish and fowl, 
and are very convenient for the transportation of 
what commodities this place may produce. This 
night we had a great deal of rain with thunder 
and lightning. 

Next morning it proving delicate weather, 
three of us separated ours^ves from the horses 
and the rest of the company, and went directly 
for Sapona town. 

That day we passed through a delicious coun- 
try — ^none that I ever saw exceeds iU We saw 

lawson's history 81 

fine bladed grass six. feet high^ along the banks of 
these pleasant rivulets. We passed by the sepul- 
chres of several slain Indians. Coming that day 
about thirty miles, we reached the fertile and 
pleasant banks of Sapona river, whereon stands 
the Indian town and fort; nor could all Europe 
afford a pleasanter stream, were it inhabited by 
christians and cultivated by ingenious hands. 
These Indians live in a clear fietd about a mile 
square, which they would have sold me ; because 
I talked sometimes of coming into those parts to 
live. This most pleasant river may be something 
broader than the Thames at Kingston, keeping a 
continued pleasant warbliag noise, with its rever- 
berating on the bright marble rocks. It is beau- 
tified with a numerous train of swans and other 
sorts of water fowl, not common though extraor- 
dinary pleasing to the eye. 

The fiMTward spring welcomed us with her in- 
numerable train of small choristers which inhabit 
those fair banks ; the hills redoubling and adding 
sweetness to their melodious tunes by their shrill 

One side of the river is hemmed in with moun- 
tainy ground, the other side proving as rich a soil 
to the eye of a knowing person with us, as ahy 
this western world can aflford. 

We took. up our quarters at the king's cabin 
who was a^good friend to the English, and had 
lost one of his ^es, in their vmdication, being 
tipon his march towards the Appalatche moun- 



tains, amongst a nation of Indians in their way, 
there happened a difference while they were 
measuring of gnn powd^, and the powder by ac- 
cident taking fire, blew out one of this king's 
eyes and did a great deal more mischief upon the 
spot Yet this Sapona king stood firmly to the 
Englishman's interest, with whom he was in com- 
pany, still siding with him against the Indians. 
They were intended for the South sea, but were 
too much fatigued by the vast ridge of mountains, 
though they hit the right passage; it being no 
less than five day's journey through a ledge of 
rocky hills and sandy deserts. And which is yet 
worse, there is no water nor scarce a Inrd to be 
seen during your passage over these barren crags 
and valleys. 

The Sapona rwer proves to be the west branch 
of Cape Fear or Clarendon river, whose inlet with 
other advantages, makes it appear as noble a 
river to plant a colony in, as any I have met 

The Saponas had (about ten days before we 
came thither) taken five prisoners of the Sinnagers 
or Jennitos, a sort of people that range several 
thousands of miles, making all prey they lay their 
Ulmds on. These are feared by all the savage na* 
tions I ever was among, the westward Indians 
dreading their approach. They are all sorted in, 
and keep continual spies and outguaids for their 
better sectmt;^ . Those captives tbey did intend 
to burn, few prisoners of war escaping that pun- 

law6on's histobt 88 

ishment. The fire of pitoh pme being got ready, 
and a feast appointed, which is solemnly kept at 
the time of their acting this tragedy, tixe sufferer 
has his body stuck thick with lightwood Bplinters, 
which are lighted like so many candles, the tor- 
tiH*ed person dancing round a great fire tUl his 
strength fails, and disables him from mitking 
them any farther pastime. Most commonly, these 
Tiq^tch^s behave themselves, in the midst of their 
tortures with a great deal of bravery and resolu* 
tion, esteeming it satisfaction enough to be assured 
that the same fate will befall some of their tormen- 
tors,- whensoever they fall into the hands of their 
nation. More of this you will have in the other 
sheets. The Toteros, a neighboring nation, came 
down from tike westward mountains to the Sapo- 
na's^ desiring them to give tiiem those pris6ners 
into tiieir hands, to the intent they might send 
them back into tixeir own na/tion, being bound in 
gratitude to be serviceable to the Sinnagers, since 
not long3t#go, those northern Indians had taken 
some of the Totet^ prisoners and done them no 
harm, but treated them civilly whilst among them, 
sending them, with safety, back to their own peo- 
ple, and affirming that it would be the best meth- 
od to pveaerve peace on all sides. At tiiat time 
these Toteros, Baponas, and the £eyauwees, three 
small nations, were going to live together, by 
which tii^ tiiougbt tiiey should strengthen them- 
selves and become formidable to th^r enemies. 
The reason o^red by the Toteros being heard, 


the Bapona king, with the cojieent of hiB .conB8el<* 
lorSy delivered the Sinnagers up to the Toteroe to 
conduct them home. 

Friday moming the old king haying showed us 
two of his horses that were as fat as if they had 
belonged to the di^tch troopers^ left us and went 
to look after his beaver traps^ there being abun* 
dance of those amphibious animals in this river 
and the creeks adjoining. Taken with the pleas- 
antness of the placCy we walked along the river 
side, where we found a very delightful island 
made by the river and a branch ; there being sev* 
eral such plots of ground environed with this sil- 
ver stream, which are fit pastures for sheep, and 
free from any olBPensive vermin. IXor can any 
thing be desired by a contented mind as to a pleas- 
ant situation, but what may here be found ; every 
step presenting some new object, which still adds 
invitation to the trapyeler in these parts. Our In* 
dian k|ng and hi& wife entertained us very respect- 
fully. , > 

On Saturday the Indians brought in some swans 
and geese, which we had our share of. One of 
their doctors took me to his cabin and showed me 
a great quantity of medical drugs, the product of 
those parts; relating .their qualities as to the 
cipiunctories they worked bj^ and what great mala- 
dies he had healed by them. This^ evening came 
to us the horses with the remainder of our compa- 
ny, their Indian guide (who was a youth of this 

lawson's histobt 85 

nation) having killed in their way a verjr fitt doe, 
part of which they brought to us. 

Thifi'day the king sent out all his able hunters 
to kill game for a great feast that was to be kept 
at tii^ir departure from the town^ which they of- 
fered to sell me for a small matter. That piece 
of ground^ with a little trouble, would make an 
Englishman a most curious settlement, containing 
above a mile square of rich land. This evening 
came down some Toteros, tall, likely men, having 
great plenty of buffidoes, elks, and bears, with oth- 
er sort of deer amongst them, which strong food 
maked^ large, robust bodies. Enquiring of them 
if they never got any of the bezoar stone, and giv- 
ing them a description how it was found ; the In- 
dians told me, they had great plenty of it, and 
asked me what use I could make of it ? I answer- 
ed them that the white men used it in physic, and 
that I would buy some of them if they would get 
it against I came that way again. Thereupon, one 
of them pulled out a leather pouch whereiii was 
some of it in powder ; he was a notable hunter, 
and affirmed to me that.that powder blown into 
the eyes, strengthened th% sight and brain exceed- 
ingly, that being the most common use they made 
of it 

I bought, for two or three flints, a large peach 
loa^ made up with a pleasant sort of seed, and this 
did us a singtdar kindness in our journey.. Kear 
the town, within their cleared laud, are several 
bagnios, or sweating houses, made of stone, in 


shape like a large ovea. These they make much 
use of ; especially for any pains in the Joints, g0t 
by cold or traveling. At night, as we lay in oar 
beds, there arose the most violent TS. W. wind I 
ever knew. The firdt puff blew down £11 the pa- 
lifadoes that fortified the town ; and I thought it 
would have blown us all into the river, together 
with the houses. Our one-eyed king, who pre- 
tends much to the art of conjuration, ran out in 
the most violent hurry, and in the middle of the 
town, fell tx> his necromantic practice ; though I 
thought he would have been blown away or killed, 
before the devil and he could have exchanged half 
a dozen words : but in two minutes the wind was 
ceased, and it became as great a calm as ever I 
knew in my life. As I much admired at that sud- 
den alteration, the old man told me that the devil 
was very angry, and had done* thus because they 
had not put the Sinnagers to death. 

On Monday morning our whole comjtoiy, vrith 
the horses, set out from the Sa^na Indian town, 
after having seen, some of the locust, which is got- 
ten thereabouts, the same sort that bears honey. 
Going over several cisBeks, very convenient for 
water mills, about eight mile£r from the town we 
passed over a very pretty river, called Rocky river, 
a fit name^ having a ridge of high mountains run- 
ning from its banks to the eastward, and disgorg- 
ing itself into Ss^ona river, so that there is a inost 
pleasant and convenient fieck of land betwixt botii 
rivers, lying upon a point where many thousand 

lawson's history 87 

acres may be fenced in, without much cost or la- 
bor. You can scarce go a mile without meeting 
with one of these small, swift currents, here being 
no swamp to be found, but pleasant, dry roads all 
over the country. The way that we went this day 
was as full of stones as any which craven in the west 
of Yorkshire could ajfford ; and having nothing 
but moggisons on my feet, I was so laHied by this 
stony way that I thought I must have taken up 
some stay in those parts. We went this day not 
above fifteen or twenty irdles. After we had sup- 
ped and all lay down to sleep, there came a wolf 
close to the fireside where we lay. My spaniel 
soon discovered him, at 'which one of our comptmy 
fired a gun at the beast ^ but I believe there was 
a mistake in the loading of it, for it did him no 
harm. The wolf stayed till he had almost load- 
ed again, but the bitch making a great noise, 
at last left us and went aside. We had no sooner 
laid down, but he approached us again, yet was 
more shy, so that we could not g^t a shot at him. 
Next day we had fifteen miles farther to the 
Eeyauwees. The land is more mountainous, but 
extremely pleasant, and lua excellent place for the 
breeding sheep, goats^ and horses, or mules, if the 
Bnglish were once brought to the exp^ence of the 
osefiilness of those creatures. The valleys are here 
very rich. At noon we passed over slch another 
stony river, as that eigh* miles firom Sdpona. This 
is called Heighwaree, and affords as good blue 
stone £E>r mill stones as that from Cologn, good 


rags, some hones and large pebbles in great abun* 
dance, besides free, stone of several sorts ; all very 
useful. I knew one of these hones made use of 
by an acquaintance of mine, and it proved rather 
better than any from old Spain or elsewhere. The 
veins of marble are very large and curious on this 
river and the banks thereof. 

Five miles from ti lis river, to the N. W., stands 
the Eeyauwees town. They are fortified in with 
wooden puncheons, like Bapona^ being a people 
much of the same number. Nature has so forti- 
fied this town with mountains, that were it a seat 
of war, it might easily be made impregnable ; 
having large com fields joining to their cabins, 
and a savanna near the town at the foot of these 
mouutains, that is capable of keeping some hun* 
dred heads of cattle. And all this environed jDound' 
with very high mountains, so that no hard wind 
ever troubles these inhabitants. Those high cliffs 
have no grass growing on them, and very few trees, 
which are very short, and stand at a great distance 
one from another. The earth is of a red color 
and seems to me to be wholly designed by nature 
for the production of minerals, being of too hot a 
quality to suffer any verdure upon its surface. 
These Indians make use of lead ore to pai^t their 
faces withal, which they get in the neighboring 
mountains As for the refilling of metals, the 
Indians are wholly ignotantof it, being content 
with the realgar. But if it be n\y chance on.ce 
more to visit these hilly parts^ I shall make a Ion- 


ger stay amoogst tham : For were a good vein of 
leadJound ovit, and worked by an ingenious hand, 
it might be of no small advantage to the under* 
taker, there- being great con venienoe for smelting, 
either by bellows or reverberation, and the work- 
ing of these mines might discover some that are 
much richer. - 

At the top (^ one of these moufktains is a cave 
that one hundred men may sit very conveniently 
to dine in, whether natural or artificial I could not 
learn. There is a fine bole between this place and 
the 3aps. Thes^ valleys, thus hemmed in with 
mountains, would,, doubtless, prove a good place 
for propagating some sort of fruits, that our easter- 
ly winds commonly blast. The vine could not 
jniss of thriving well here ; but we of the northern 
climate are neither artists,^ nor curious in propa- 
gating that pleasant and profitable vegetable. 
Near the town is such -another jcurrent as Heigh wa- 

. We being six in company, divided ourselves 
into two parties ;* and it was my lot to be at the 
house of Keyauwees Jack, who is king of that 
people. Qe is a Congeree Indian, and ran away 
when he' was a boy. He got this government 
by marriage with the queen; the female issue 
carrying the heritage, for fear of imposters; 
the savages well knowing how much frailty pos- 
sesses the Indian women, betwixt the garters and 
the girdle. 


The next day, having Bome occasioD to write, 
the Indian king who saw me, believed that he 
could write as well as L Whereupon I wrote a 
word, and gave it to him to copy, which he did 
with more exactness than any European could 
have done that was illiterate. It was so well that 
he who could read mine, might have dbne the 
same by his. 'Afterwards he took great delight 
in making fish hooks of his own invention, which 
would have been u good piece for an antiquary to 
have puzzled his brains withal, in tracing out tiie 
characters of all the oriental tongues. He sent 
for several Indians to his cabin to look at his han- 
dy work, and both he and they thought I could 
read his writing as well as I could my own. I had 
a manual in my pocket that had king David's 
picture in it, in one of his private retirements. 
The Indian asked me who that figure represented. 
I told him it was the picture of a good king, that 
lived, according to the rules of morality, doing to 
all as he would be done by, ordering all his life 
to the service of the Creator of all things ; and 
being now above us all in heaven, with God Al- 
mighty, who had rewarded him with all the de- 
lightful pleasures imaginable in the other world, 
for his obedience to him in this. I concluded with 
telling them, that we received nothing here below, 
as food, raiment, &c., but what came from that 
Omnipotent being. They listened to my discourse 
with a profound silence, assuring me that they be- 
lieved what I said to be true. 

lawson's history 91 

No man living will ever be able to make these 
heathens sensible of the happiness of a future 
state, except he now and then mentions-some lively 
carnal representation, which may quicken their ap- 
prehensions and make them thirst after such a 
gainful exchange ; for, were the best lecture that 
ever was preached by man, given to an ignorant 
sort of pQople in a more learned style than their 
mean capacities are able to understand, the in* 
tent would prove ineffectuj^, and the hearers would 
be left in a greater labyrinth than their teacher 
found them in. But dispense the precepts of our 
£ebith according to the pupil's capacity, and there 
is nothing in our religion but what an indifferent 
reason is, in some measure, able to comprehend ; 
though a 'New England minister blames ther 
French Jesuits for this way of proceeding, as be- 
ing quite contrary to a true christian practice, and 
affirms it to be no ready or true method to estab- 
lish a lively representation of our christian belief 
amongst these infidels. 

All the Indians hereabouts carefully preserve 
the bon^s of the flesh they eat and burn them, as 
being of opinion that if they omitted that custom 
the game would leave their country, and they should 
not be able to maintain themselves by their hunt- 
ing. Most of these Indians wear mustaches or 
whiskers, which is rare; by reason the Indians 
are a people that commonly pull the hair of their 
faces and other parts, up by the roots and suffer 
none to grow. 


Here is plenty of cheshuts whieli are rarely 
found in Carolina, and never near the sda or salt 
water, though they are frequently in such places 
in Vii^nia. At the other house where our fel- 
'low travelers lay, they had provided a dish in great 
fashion amongst the Indians, which was two young 
tawnB taken out of the does' bellies, and boiled in 
the same slimy bags nature had place4 them in, 
and one of the country hares, stewed with the guts 
in her belly, and her skin with the hair on. This 
new fashioned cookery wrought abstinence in our 
fellow travelers, which I somewhat wondered at^ 
because one of them made nothing of eating alle- 
gators as heartily as if it had been pork and tur- 
nips. The Indiims dress most things after the 
woodcock fashion, never taking the guts out. At 
the house we lay at, there was very good enter- 
tainment of venison, turkies and bears ; and which 
is customary amongst the Indians. The Queen 
had a daughter by > former husband, who was the 
beautifulest Indian I ever saw, and had an air of 
majesty with her quite contrary to the general 
carriage of the Indians. She was very kmd to the 
English during our abode, as well as her father 
and mother. 

This morning most of our company having some 
inclination to go straight away for Virginia, when 
they left this place, land one more took our leaves 
of them, resolving (with God's leave) to see North 
Carolina, one of the Indians setting us in our way. 
The rest being indifferent which way they went, 


desired us, by all meAnSy to leave a letter for them 
at the Achonechy town. The Indian that put us 
in our path, had been a prisoner amongst the Sin- 
nagerSy but had outran them, although they had 
cut his toes and half his feet away, which is a prac- 
tice common amongst them. They first raise the 
skill, then cut away half the feet, and so wrap the 
skin over the stumps and mak6 a present cure of 
the wounds. This commonly disables them from 
making their escape, they being not so good trav- 
elers as before, and the impression of their half 
feet niaking it easy to trace them ; however, this 
fallow was got clear of them, but had little heart to 
go far from home, find carried always a case of pis- 
tols in his girdle^ besides a cutlass and a fiizee. 
Leaving the rest of our company at the Indian 
town, we traveled that day about twenty miles, in 
very cold frosty weather ; and passed over two 
pretty rivers, something bigger than Heighwaree, 
but not quite so* stony. We took these two rivers 
to make one of the northward branches of Cape 
Fair river, but afterwards found our mistake. 

The neict day we traveled over very good land, 
but full of freestone and maible, which pinched 
our feet severely. "VSTe took up our quarters in a 
sort of savanna ground that had very few trees in 
it The land was good and had several quarries 
of stone, but not loose as the others used to be. 

Kext morning we got our breakfast of parched 
corn, having nothing but that to subsist on for- 
above one hundred miles. All the pine-trees were 


vaniBhed, for we had Been none for two days. We 
passed through a delicate rich soil this daj ; no 
great hills, but pretty risings and levels, which 
made a beautifdl country. We likewise passed 
over three rivers this day, the first about the big* 
ness of Bocky river, the other not much differing 
in size. Then we made not the least question, 
but we had passed over the northwest branch of 
Cape Fair, traveling that day above thirty miles. 
We were much taken with the fertility and pleas- 
antness of the neck of land between these two 
branches, and no less pleased that we had passed 
the river which used to frighten passengers from 
fording it. At last determining to rest on the 
other side 6f a hill which we saw before us ; when 
we were an the top thereof there appeared to us 
such iemother delicious, rapid stream as' that of Sa- 
pona, having large stones, about the bigness of an 
ordinary house, lying up and down the river. As 
the wind blew very cold at N, W. and we were 
very weaiy and hungry, the swiftness of the cur- 
rent gave us some cause to fear ; but, at last, we 
concluded to venture ov^ that night Accordingly 
we stripped, and with great difficulty, (by God's 
assistance) got safe to the north side of the &mou8 
Hau river^ by some called Reatkin ; the Indians 
diffi^ring in the names of places according to tibeir 
several nations. It is'called Hau river from the Sis- 
sipahau Indians, who dwell upon this stream, 
which is one of the main branches of Cape Fair, 
there being rich land enough to contain some 

lawbon's history 95 

thousands of familieB ; for which reason I hope, iu 
a short time, it will he planted. This river is 
much such .another as Sapona, both seeming to 
ruft a vast way up the country. Here is plenty of 
good timber, and especially of a scaly barked oak ; 
and a«i there is stOQe enough in both rivers, and 
the land is extraordinary rich,, no man that will 
be content within the bounds of reason, can have 
any^ grounds to dislike it. And they that are other- 
wise are t]|e best neighbors when farthest off. 

As soon as it was day we ofit out tor the Acho- 
nechy town, it being, by estimation, twenty miles 
off,, which I beJieve is pretty exact. . We were got 
about half wliy, (meeting great gangs of tur- 
kies) when we saw at a distimee, ^irty loaded 
hories, coxping on the road, with four or five men, 
on other jades driving them. We charged our 
faeces and went up to them ; enquiriDg whenee 
they came from ? they told us from Virginia. The 
lei^ding man's name was Mass^, who was bom 
about Leeds in Yorkshire. He asked from whence 
we came ? We told him. Then he asked again, 
whether we wanted anything that he had ? telling 
us wa should be welcqme to it. We accepted 
of two wheaten biscuits, and a little ammunition. 
H^ advised us by all Hieans, to strike down the 
country for Roneack, aad not- think of Virginia, 
because of the Sinnagers, of whom they were 
afraid, though so well armed and numerous^ They 
persuaded us also to call upon one Enoe Will, as 
we. wept to Adshushee^, for that he would conduct 

96 01^ KORTtt CAROLINA. 

lis safe among the English, ^ving him the charac- 
ter of a very faithfal Indian, which we afterwards 
found true by experience. The Virginia men 
asking our opinion of the country we were then 
in. We told them it was a very pleasant one. 
Th^y were all of the same opinion, and affirm- 
ed, that they had never seen twenty miles of 
such extraordinary rich land lying all together like 
that betwixt Hau river and the Achonechy town. 

Having taken our leaves of each other, we set 
forward ; and the ceuntry through which we pass- 
ed, was so delightftil that it gave us a great deal 
of isatisfaetion. About 8 o'clock we reached the 
town, and the Indians presently brought us good 
fitt bear, and venison, which was very acceptable 
at that time. Their cabins were hung with a good 
sort of tapestry, as fat bear, and barbacued or 
dried venison ; no Indians having greater plenty of 
provisions than these. The savages do indeed, still 
possess the flower of Carolina, the English enjoying 
only the fag end of that fine country. We had not 
been in the town two hours when Enoe Will came 
into the king's cabin, which was our quarters. We 
asked him if he would conduct us to the English, 
and what he would have for his pains ; he answer- 
ed he would go along with us, and for what he 
was to have he left that to our discretion. 

The next morning we set out with Enoe Will 
towards Adshusheer, leaving the Virginia path, 
and striking more to the eastward for Bonoak. 
Several Indians were in out company belonging to 

lawson's history 

Will's nation, who are the Shoccories, mixed with 
the Enoe Indians, and those of the nation of Ad- 
shiisheer* Enoe Will is their chief man, and rnles 
as &r as the hanks of Beatkin. It was a sad, stony 
way to Adshusheer. We went over a small river 
by Achonechy, and in this fourteen miles, through 
several other streams which empty themselves in- 
to the branches of Cape Fair. The stony way 
made me quite lame, so that I was an hour or two 
behind the rest ; but honest Will would not leave 
me, but bid me welcome when we came to his 
house, ieasling us with hot bread and bear's oil, 
which is wholesome food tor travelers. There 
runs a pretty rivulet by this town. Near the plan- 
tation, I saw a prodigious overgrown pine tree, 
having not seen any of that sort of timber for 
above one hundred and twenty-five miles. They 
brought us two cocks and pulled their larger feath- 
ers off, never plucking the lesser, but singeing 
them off. I took one of these fowls in my hand 
to make it cleaner than the Indian had, pulling 
out his guts and liver, which I laid in a bason ; 
notwithstanding which he k^t such a struggling 
for a considerable time that I had much a do to 
hold him in my hands. The Indians laughed at 
me,^ and told m6 that Enoe Will had taken a cock 
of an Indian that was not at home, and the fowl 
was designed for another use. I conjectured that 
he was designed for an offering to their god, who, 
they say, hurts them, (which is the devil.) In this 
struggling he bled afresh) and there issued out of 


hlB body more blood than commonly isuoh oreq^- 
tures afford. ^Notwithstanding all this, we cooked 
him and eat him ; and if he was designed for him^ 
cheated tiie devil. The Indians keep many cocks^ 
but seldom above one hen, using, very often, such 
wicked sacrifices, as I mistrusted this fowl was 
designed for. Our guide and landlord, Enoe Will, 
was one of the best and most agreeable temper 
that ever I met with in an Indian, being always 
ready to serve the English, not out of gain, but 
real affection ; which makes him apprehensive oi 
being poisoned by some wicked Indians, and was 
therefore very earnest with me, to promise him to 
revenge his death, if it should so happen. He 
brought some of his chief men into his cabin, and 
two of them having a drum, and a ratUe, sung by 
us as we lay in bed, and struck up their music to 
serenade and welcome us to their town. And 
though at last, we fell asleep, yet they continued 
their concert till morning. These Indians are fortifi- 
ed in as tibe former, and are much addicted to a iq[>ort 
they call Chenco, which is carried on with a staff 
and a bowl made of stone, which they trundle up- 
on a smooth place like a bowling gre^ made for 
that purpose, as I have mentioned before. 

JSText morning we set out with our guide BXid 
several other Indians who intended to go to the 
English and buy rum. We designed for a nation 
about forty miles from Adshusheer, called the 
lower quarter : the first night we lay in a ri<di po* 


eoson, or low ground that was hard by a lereek^ 
and good dry land. 

The next day we went over several tracts of rich 
land, but mixed with pines and other indifferent 
eoil. In our way there stood a great stone about 
the sizeof alarg^ ovcul, andhoUow; this the Indians 
took great noti'oe o^ putting some tobacco into 
the concavity, and spitting after it. I asked them 
the reascm of their soloing, but they made me no 
answer. In the evening we passed over a pleas- 
ant rivulet, with a fine gravelly bottoacB, having 
come over such anothier tha^ morning. On the 
other side of this river we found tiie Indian town, 
which was a parcel of nasty, smoky^oles, much 
like the Waterrees; their town having a great 
•swamp running directly through the middle there- 
of. The land here begins to abate of its height, 
imd has some few swamps. Most of these Indians 
have but one eye ; but what mischance or quarrel 
iists bereaved them of the other I could not learn. 
They were not so free to us as most of the other 
Indians had been .; viclsaals being somewhat scarce 
among them. Howevtr^ we got enough to satis- 
fy oar :ap^tites. I saw, among these men, very 
long arrows, headed with pieces. of glass, which 
they had broken from bottles. They had shaped 
them neatly, like the head of a dart, but which 
way thfiy did it I can -t tell. IVe had Ju>t been at 
this town above an hour wheniwo of our 'compa- 
ny, that had houglR a mare Xff John Stewart, came 
up to us, havii\g received a letter by one of Will's 


Indians, who was very cautious^ and asked a great 
many questions to certify him of the person ere 
he would deliver the letter. They had left the 
trader and one that eame from Sonth Carolina 
with us, to go to Virginia, these two being resolv- 
ed to go to Carolina with us. 

This day fell much rain, so we ^id at the In- 
dian town. 

This morning we set out early, being four Eng- 
lishmen, besides several Indians. We went ten 
miles, and were then stopped by the freshes of 
Enoe river, which had caised it so high that we 
could not pass over till it was fallen. I enquired 
of my guid#where this river disgorged itself? He 
said it was Enoe river, and run into a place called 
Enoe bay, near his country, which he left when he 
was a boy ; by which I perceived hB was one of 
the Cores by birth^ this being a branch of Keus 

This day our fellow-traveler's mare ran away 
from him, wherefore, Will went back as fer as the 
lower quarter, and brought her back. 

The next day, early, came two Tuskeruro In- 
dians to the other side of the river, but could not get 
over. They talked much to us, but we understood 
them not. In the afternoon Will came with the 
mare, and had some discourse with them. They 
told him the English to whom he was going were 
very wicked people; and that they threatened 
the Indians for hunting nea^ their plantations. 
These two follows were going among the Shoe- 

lawson's history 101 

cores and Achonechy Indians to sell their wooden 
bowls and ladles for raw skins, which they make 
great advantage of, hating that any of these west- 
ward Indians should have any commerce with lite 
English which would prove a hinderance to their 
gains. Their stories deterred an old Indian and his 
son from going any farther ; but Will told us noth- 
ing they had said should frighten him, he believ- 
ing them to be a couple of hog stealers ; and that 
the English only sought restitution of their losses 
by them, and that this was the only ground for 
their report Will had a slave, a Sissipahau In- 
dian by nation,' who killed us several turkies and 
other game, on which we feasted* 

This river is near as large as Reatkin; the 
south side having curious tracts of good land, the 
banks high, and stone quarries. The Tuskeruros 
being come to us, we ventured over the river, 
which we found to be a strong current, and the 
water about breast high. However, we all got 
safe to the north shore, which is but poor, white, 
sandy land, and bears no timber but small, shrub- 
by oaks. We went about ten miles and sat 
down at the &II3 of a large creek, where lay 
mighty rocks, the water making a strange 
noise, as if a great many water mills were going at 
once. I take this to be the falls of I^eus creek, 
called by ^e Indians, Wee quo Whom. We 
lay here all night. My guide. Will, desiring to 
see the book that I had about me, I lent it him; 
and as he soon found 'the picture of kipg David, 


he aeked me several questions concendng the 
book and pictore, which I resolved faint and invi* 
ted him to become a christian. He made me a 
very diarp reply, assuring me that he loved the 
English extra(»^nar7 well, and did believe their 
ways to be very good for those that had already 
practiced them, and had been bronght up therein; 
but as for himself, he was too much in years to 
think of a change, esteeming it not proper for old 
people to admit of such an alteration. However, 
he told me, if I would take his son, Jack, who was 
then about fourteen years of age, and teach him 
to talk in that book, and make paper speak, which 
they call our way of writing, ho would wholly r^ 
sign him to my tuition ; telling me he was of opin- 
ion I was very well affected to the Indians. 

The next morning we set out early, and I per- 
ceived that these Indians were in some fear of en- 
emies ; for they had an old man with them who 
was very cnnning and circumspect, wheresoever 
he saw any marks of footing, or of any fire that 
had been made ; going out of his wbj very often 
to look for these marks.. We went, this day, 
above thirty miles, over a very level country, and 
most pine land, yet intermixed with some quanti- 
ties of marble ; a good range for cattie, tixough 
very indifferent for swine. We had now lost our 
rapid streams, and were come to slqw, dead wa- 
ters, of a brown color, proceeding from the swamps, 
much like the slnioes in Holland, where the Track- 
Scoots go along, hi theaftemooQ, we met two 


Tuskeruroa, who told us that there was a compa- 
ny of hunters not far off, and if we walked stoutly 
we might reach them that night. But "Will, and 
he that owned the mare, being gone before, and 
the old Indian tired, we rested that night in the 
woods, making a good, light fire, wood being veiy 
plentiful in these parts. 

Next day about ten o'clock, we struck out of 
the way by the advice of our old Indian. We 
had not gone past two miles ere we met with 
about five hundred Tuskeruros in one hunting 
quarter. They had made themselves streets of 
houses built with pine bark, not with r^mnd tops, 
as they commdnly use, but ridge &8hion, after 
the manner of most other Indians. We got 
nothing amongst them but corn, flesh being 
not plentiful, by reason of the great number of 
their people. For though they are expert hunt- 
ers, yet they are too populous for one range, which 
makes venison very scarce to what it is amongst 
other Indians, thaTare fewer; no savages Uving 
SO well for plenty as those near the sea. I saw 
amongst these a hump-backed Indian, which was 
&e only crooked one I ev^r met withal. About 
two o'clock we reached one of their towns, in 
which there was no body- left but an old wpxnaii 
or two, the rest being gone to their hunting quar- 
ters. We could find no provision at that place. 
We had a Tuskeruro that came in company with 
us from the lower quarter, who took us to his 
cabin and g{|.ve us what it afioxded~-which was 
corn meat. 


This day we passed through several swamps, 
and going not above a dozen miles came to a 
cabin, the master whereof used to trade amongst 
the English. He told us if we would stay two 
nights, he would conduct us safe to them, himself 
designing, at that time, to go and fetch some rum ; 
so we resolved to tarry for his company. During 
our stay, there happened to be a young woman- 
troubled with fits. The doctor who was sent for 
to assist her, laid her on her belly and made a 
small incision with rattle snake teeth; then 
laying his mouth to the place, he sucked out 
near a qtiiu*t of black conglutinated blood and 
serum. Our landlord gave us the tail of a be- 
ver, which was a choice food. There happen- 
ed also to be a burial of one of their dead, which 
ceremony is much the same with that of the San- 
tees, who make a great feast at the interment of 
their corpse. The small runs of water hereabout 
afford great plenty of crawfish, full as large as 
those in England, and nothing inferior in good- 

Saturday morning, our patron, with Enoe Will 
and his servant, set out with us for the English. 
In the afternoon we ferried over a river, in a ca- 
noe, called by the Indians Chattookau, which is 
the north-west branch of Neus river. We lay in 
the swamp, where some Indians invited us to go 
to their quarters, which some of our company ac- 
cepted, but got nothing extraordinary, except a 
dozen miles' march out of their way. Th« coun- 


try hefre is very thick of Indian towns and plant- 

"We were forced to march this day for want of 
provisions. About ten o'clock we met an Indi- 
an that had got a parcel of shad fish ready barba- 
cned. We bought twenty-four of them for a 
dressed doe skin, and so went on through many 
swamps, finding this day the long ragged moss on 
the trees, which we had not seen for above six 
hundred miles. In the afternoon we came upon the 
banks of Pampticough about twenty miles above 
the English plantations by water, though not so 
far by land. The Indian found a canoe which he 
had hidden, in which we all got over, and went 
about six miles ferther. We lay that night under 
two or three pieces of bark, at the foot of a large 
oak. There fell abundance of snow and rain in 
the night, with much thunder and lightning. 

Next day it cleared up, and it being about 
twelve miles to the English, about half way we 
passed over a deep creek, and came safe to Mr. 
Richard Smith's of Pampticough river, in North 
Carolina ; wherp, being well received by the in- 
habitants and pleased with the goodness of the 
country, we all resolved to continue. 






The province of Carolina is separated from Vir- 
ginia by a due west line, which begins at Curri- 
tuck Inlet, in 86** 80' of northern latitude, and 
extends indefinitely to the westward, and thence 
to the southward, as far as 29® ; which is a vast 
tract of sea-coast. But having already treated, 
as f&T as is necessary, concerning South Carolina, 
I shall confine myself in the ensuing sheets, to 
give my reader a description of that part of the 
country only, which lies betwixt Currituck and 
Oape Fair, and is almost 84*^ north — and tlds is 
commonly called North Carolina. 

This part of Carolina is &ced with a chain of 
fiand banks, which defends it from the violence 
and insults of the Atlanlic ocean ; by which bar- 
rier a vast sound is hemmed in, which fronts tihe 
mouths of the navigable and pleasant rivers of 
this fertile country, and into which they disg(»rge 
themselves. Through the same are inlets oi sev- 
eral depths of water. Some of their channels ad- 
mit only of sloops, brigantines, small barks and 


ketches ; and such are Currituck, Bonoak, and up 
the sound above Hatteras ; whilst others can re- 
ceive ships of burden, as Ocacock, Topsail Inlet, 
and Cape Fair, as appears by my chart 

The first discovery and settlement of this coun- 
try was by the procurement of Sir Walter Ba- 
leigh, in conjunction with some public spirited 
gentlemen of that age, under the protection of 
queen Elizabeth ; for which reason it was then 
named Virginia, being begun on that part called 
Bonoak Island, where the ruins of a fort are to be 
seen at this day, as well as some old English coins 
which have been lately found ; and a brass gun, 
a powder horn, and one small quarter-deck gun, 
made of iron staves, and hooped with the same 
metal ; which method of making guns might ve- 
ry probably be made use of in those days for the 
convenience of infant colonies. 

A farther confirmation of this we have from the 
Hatteras Indians, who either then lived on Bo- 
noack island or much frequented it. These tell 
us that several of their ancestors were white peo- 
ple and could talk in a book as we do ; the trulh 
of which is confirmed by^>gray eyes being found 
frequently amongst these IndiaAS and no others. 
They value themselves extremely for their affinity 
to the English, and are ready to do them all friend- 
ly ofiices. It is probable that this settlement mis- 
carried for want of timely supplies from England ; 
or through the treachery of the natives, for we may 
reasonably suppose that the English were forced 

lawson's history 109 


to coliabit with them for relief and conversation ; 
and that in process of time, they conformed them- 
selves to the manners of their Indian relations ; 
and thus we see how apt human nature is to de- 

I cannot forbear inserting here a pleasant story 
that passes for an uncontested truth amongst the 
inhabitants of this place ; which is, that the ship 
which brought the first colonies does often appear 
amongst them, under sail, in a gallant posture, 
which they call Sir Walter Raleigh's ship. And 
the Ixuth of this has been affirmed to me by men 
of the best credit in the country. 

A second settlement of this country was made 
about fifty years ago, in that part we now call Al- 
bemarl county, and chiefly in Chuwon precinct^ 
by several substantial planters from Virginia and 
other plantations ; who finding mild winters, and 
a fertile soil beyond expectation, producing every- 
thing that was planted to a prodigious increase ; 
their cattle, horses, sheep, and swine, breeding 
very fast, and pacing the winter without any as- 
sistance from the planter; so that everyi^ung 
seemed to come by nature, the husbandman liv- 
ing almost Void of care, and free from those fa- 
tigues which are absolutely requisite in winter 
countries, for providing fodder and other necessa^ 
ries ; these encouragements induced them to stand 
their ground, although but a handful of people, 
seated at great distances one^^rom another, and 
amidst a vast number of Indians of difierent na- 


tions, who were then in Carolina. Nevertheless, 
i say, the fame of this new discovered summer 
country spread through tiie neighboring colonies, 
and in a few years drew a considerable number of 
families thereto, who all found land enough to 
settle themselves in, (had they been many thous- 
ands more) and that which was very good and com* 
modiously seated both for profit and ^pleasure. 
And, indeed, most of the plantations ia Carolina 
naturally enjoy a noble proepeet of large and spa- 
cious rivers, pleasant savannas Mid fine meadows, 
with their green liveries interwoven with beautifhl 
flowers of most glorious colors, which the several 
seasons afbrd ; hedged in with pleasant groves of 
the ever famous tulip tree, the stately laurels and 
bays, equalizing the oak in bigness and growth, 
myrtles, jessamines, woodbines, honeysuckles, iind 
several other fragrant vines and evergreens, whose 
fM^piring branches shadow and interweave them- 
selves with the loftiest timbefs, yielding a pleas- 
ant prospect, shade and smell, proper habitations 
fbr the sweet singing birds, that melodiously en- 
tertain such as trovel through the woods of Caro- 

The Planters possessing all these blessings, and 
the produce of great quantities of wheat and Indian 
com, in which i^is cauntry is very fruitful, as like- 
wise in beef, pork, tallow, hides, deer skins, and 
furs ; for these commodities the new England men 
and Bermudian^isited Carolina in their baiks 
and sloops, and carried out what they made, bring- 

lawbon's hxsxobt 111 

ing them la exchange, rum, sugar, salt, molasses, 
and some wearing apparel, though the last at very 
extravagant prices. 

As the land is very fruitful, so are the planters 
kind and hospitable to all that come to visit them ; 
there being very few housekeepers but what 
live very nobly, and give away more provisions to 
coasters and guests who come to see them tihan 
they expend amongst their own families. 


The bar of Currituck being the nortitiemmost 
of this countiy, presents itself first to be treated of. 

It lies in 86^ 80^ and the course over is S. W. 
by W., having not above seven or eight feet on 
the bar, though a good ha2«bour when you are over 
where you nxay ride safe, and deep enough ; but 
this part of the sound is so full of shoals as not to 
suffer a>ny thing to trade through it that draws 
above three feet w/iter, which renders it very in- 
commodious. However, this affects but some 
part of the country, and may be easily remedied 
by carrying their produce, in small craft, down to 
tihe vessels which ride n«ar the inlet. 

Sonoak inlet has ten feet water, the course 
over the bar Is almost W., which lea<fa on through 
tiae best of the channel. This bar, as well as Cur- 
rituck, often shifts by Hie violence of the nortii. 
east storms, both lying exposed to those winds. 
KotAvithstandiHg which, a considera^ble trade 
might be carried on, provided there was -a ]nlot 


to bring them in ; for it lies convenient for a large 
part of this colony whose product would very ea- 
sily allow of that charge, latitude 85** 60'. 

The inlet of Hatteras lies to the westward of 
the Cape, round which is an excellent harbour* 
When the wind blows hard at N. or N, E., if you 
keep a small league from the Cape point, you will 
have three, four and five fathom, the outermost 
shoals lying about seven or eight leagues from 
shore. As you come into the inlet keep close to 
ihe south breakers, till you are over the bar, 
vhere you will have two fathom at low water. 
You may come to an anchor in two fathom and a 
half when you are over, then steer over close 
abroad the north shore, where is four fathom close 
to a point of ma«h ; then stir up ihe sound a long 
league, till you bring the north Cape of the inlet 
to bear S. S. E. half E., then steer W. K W., the 
east point of bluff land at Hatteras bearing E. JST. 
E. the southernmost large^ hammock towards 
Ocacock, bearing S. S. W. half S. then you are 
in the sound, over the bar of sand, whereon is 
but, six feet water ; then your course to Pampti- 
cough is almost west. It flows on these three bars 
S. E. by E. pne-fourth E. about eight o'clock, 
unless there is a hard gale of wind at K. E. which 
will make it flow two hours longer ; but as soon 
as the wind is down jthe tides will have their nat- 
ural course. A hard gale at ST. or N. W. will 
make the water ebb, sometimes twen^-four hours, 
but still the tide will ebb and flow though not seen 


by the taming thereof, bat may be seen by the 
rising of the water and falling of the same, lat-' 
itade 85° 20'. 

Ocacock is the best inlet and harboar yet in this 
conntry ; and has thirteen feet at low water npon 
the bar. There are two diannels, one is bat nar- 
row and lies close aboard the south Cape ; the oth- 
er in the middle, viz : between the middle ground 
and the south shore, and is above half a mile wide. 
The bar itself is but half a cable's length over, and 
then you are in seven or eight fathom water ; a 
good harbour. The course into the sound is N. 
K. W. at high water, and neap tides here is eigh- 
teen feet water ; it lies S. W. from Hatteras inlet, 
latitude 85° 8'. 

Topsail inlet is above two leagues to the west- 
ward of Cape Lookout. You have a fiair channel 
over the bar, and two fathom thereon, and a good 
harbour in five or six fathom to come to an anchor. 
Your course over this bar is almost N. W., lati- 
tude 84° 44'. 

As for the inlet and river of Cape Fair, I cannot 
give you a better information thereof, than has 
been already delivered by the gentlemen who 
were sent on purpose from Barbados, to make a 
discovery of that river, in the year 1663, which is 

From Tuesday, the 29th of September, to Fri- 
day the 2nd of October, we ranged along the shore 
from lat. 32° 20' to lat. 88° 11', but could discern 
no entrance for our ship, after we had parsed to 


the northward of 82® 40'. On Saturday, October 
8, a violent storm overtook us, the wind between 
north and east; which easterly winds and foul 
weather continued till Monday the 12th, by reason 
of which storms and foul weather, we were forced to 
get off to sea, to secure ourselves and ship, and 
were driven by the rapidity of a strong current to 
Cape Hatteras, in lat. 85° 80'. On Monday, the 
12th aforesaid, we came to an anchor in seven 
fathom at Cape Fair road, and took the miridian 
altitude of the sun, and were in latitude 38® 48'. 
The wind continuing still easterly and foul weath- 
er till Thursday, the 16th ; and on Friday the 16th, 
the wind being at K. W., we weighed and sailed 
up Cape Fair river some four or five leagues, and 
came to an anchor in six or fieven fathom, at which 
time several Indians came on board, and brought 
us great store of fresh fish, large mullets, young 
bass, shads, and several other sorts of very good, 
well tasted Ash. On Saturday, the 17th, we went 
down to the Cape, to see the English cattle, but 
could not find them, though we rounded the Cape. 
And having an Indian guide with us, here we 
rode till Oct. 24.. The wind being against us, we 
could not go up the river with our ship ; but went 
on shore and viewed the land of those quarters. 
On Saturday we weighed and sailed up the river, 
some four leagues, or thereabouts. Sunday the 
26th, we weighed again and rode up the river, 
it being calm, and got up some fourteen leagues 
from the harbour**, mouth, where we more^ our 


(hip. On Monday, Oct. the 26th, wa went down 
with the yawl to Necoes, an Indian plantation, 
and viewed the land there* On Tuesday, the 27th, 
we rowed up the main river with our long boat 
and twelve men, some ten leagues, or thereabouts. 
On Wednesday, ike 28th, we rowed up about eight 
or ten leagues more; Thursday the 29th, was 
fciil weather, with much rain and wind, which 
forced us to make huts and liu still. Friday the 
30th, we proceeded up the main river, seven or 
eight leaugues. Saturday the 31st, we got up 
three or four leagues more, and came to a tree that 
lay cross the river; but because our provisions 
were almost spent, we procoieded no farther, but 
returned downward before night, and on Monday 
the 2nd of Kovember, we came aboard our ship. 
Tuesday, the Srd, we lay still to refresh ourselves. 
On Wednesday, the 4th, we went Ave or six 
leagues up the river, to search a branch that run 
out of the main river towards the N, W., in which 
we went up five or six leagues ; but not liking the 
land, returned on board that night about midnight 
and called that place swampy branch. Thursday, 
November the 6th, we stayed aboard. On Friday, 
the 6th, we went up Green's river, the mouth of it 
being against the place at which rode our ship. 

On Saturdy tite 7th, we proceeded up the said * 
river, some fourteen or fifteen leagues in all, and 
found it ended in several small branches; the 
land, for the most part, being marshy and awamps, 
we returned towards our ship and got aboard it 


in tho night Sunday November the 8th, we lay 
still, and on Monday the 9thy went again np the 
main river, being wel^ stacked with provisions, 
and all things necessary, and proceeded upwards 
till Thursday noon, the 12th, at which time we 
came to a place, where were two islands in the 
middle of the river; and by reason of the 
crookedness of the river at that place, several 
trees lay cross both branches, which stopped 
the passage of each branch, so that we could pro* 
ceed no farther with our boat ; but went up the 
river side by land, some three or four miles, and 
found the river wider and wider. 8o we return- 
ed, leaving it as far as we could see, up a lonsr 
re^ch, running K E. we judging ou^elvee ne^ 
fifty leagues north from the river's mouth. 

In our return, we viewed the land on both sides 
the river, and found as good tract of dry, well 
wooded, pleasant and delightful ground as we 
have seen any where in the world, with abund* 
ance of long thick grass on it, the land being ve- 
ry level, with steep banks on both sides the river, 
and in some places very high, the woods stored 
every where, with great numbers of deer and tur- 
keys, we never going on shore, but we saw of 
each sort ; as also great store of partrides, cranes, 
and conies, in several places we likewise heard 
several wolves howling in the woods, and saw 
where they had torn a deer in pieces. Also in 
the river we saw great store of ducks, teal, wid- 
geon ; and in the woods great flocks of parrakee- 

lawsok's histokt ^ 117 

tos. The timber that the woods afford, for the most 
part, consists of oaks of four or five sorts, all dif- 
fering in leaves, but each bearing very good 
acorns. We measured many of the oaks in sev* 
eral places, which we found to be in bigness, 
some two, some three, an^ others almost four 
&thom in height, before you come to boughs or 
limbs ; forty, fifly, sixty feet and some more ; and 
those oaks very common in the upper parts of 
b9th rivers ; also a very tall large tree of great 
bigness, which some call cypress, the right name 
we know not, growing in swamps ; likewise wal- 
nut, birch, beech, maple, ash, bay, willow, alder, 
and holly ; and in the lowermost parts innuinera^ 
ble pin^, tall and good for boards or masts, grow- 
ing, for the most part, in barren and sandy, but 
in some places up the river, in good ground, be- 
ing mixed amongst oaks and other timbers. We 
saw mulberry trees, multitudes of grape vines, 
and some grapes which we ate of. We found a 
very large and good tract of land on the north- 
west side of the river, thin of timber, except here 
and there a very great oak, and full of grass, com- 
monly as high as a man'it middle, and in many pla- 
ces to his shouldera, where we saw many deer and 
turkies ; one deer having veiy large horns and 
great body, therefore called it stag park. It be- 
ing a very pleasant and delightful place, we 
traveled in it several miles, but we saw no end 

lis 09 170RT8 CAROLINA. 

So we retuimed to our boat, and proceeded down 
the river, and came to another place, gome twenty*- 
five leagues from the river's mouth, on the same 
aide, where we found a place, no less delightful than 
the former; and as far as we could judge both tracts 
came into one. This^ lower place we called rocky 
point, because we found many rocks i^d stones of 
several sizes upon the land, which is not common. 
We sent our boat down the river before us, ourselves 
traveling by land many miles. Indeed, we were s<> 
much taken with the pleasantness of the country, 
that we traveled into the woods too fa)* to recov^ 
our boat and company that night. The next day 
being Sunday, we got to otur boat ; and on Monday, 
the 16th of November, proceeded down to a place 
on the east side of the river, some twenty-three 
teagues from the harbour's mouth, which we call- 
ed turkey quarters, because we killed several tur- 
kies thereabouts ; we viewed the land there and 
found some tracts of goodground, and high, facing 
upon the river about one mile inward, but back- 
wards some two miles, all pine land, but good pas- 
ture ground. 

We returned to our boat and proceeded down 
iBome two or three leagues where we had fonnw- 
ly viewed, and found it a tract of as good land as 
any we have seen, and had as good timber on it. 
The banks on the river being high, therefore we 
called it highland point. Having viewed that we 
proceeded down the river, going on shore in sev- 
eral places on both sides, it being generally large 


tamrBheBj and many of them dry, that ikey may 
more fitly be called meadows. The wood land 
against them is, for the most part, pine, and in 
iBome places as barren as ever we saw land, but in 
other places good pasture ground. 

On Tuesday, November the 17th, we got aboard 
i>ur ship, ridihg against the mouth of Green's riv- 
^r, where our men were providing wood and fit- 
ting the ship for the sea. In the interium, we 
took a view of the eountfy on both sides of the 
river, there finding some good land, but more bad, 
and the best not eomparable to that above. FiA- 
day the 20th, was foul weather ; yet in the afber- 
lioon we weighed, -went dotva the river about two 
leagues aiud came to an anchor iogitinst the mouth 
of Hilton's. liver, and took a view of the land there 
OB both sides, which appeared to us much like 
that at Green's river. Monday the 23d, we went, 
witli our long boat well victualed and manned, 
up Hilton's rivfer; and when we came thi'ee 
leagues, or thereabouts, tip the sam^e, we found 
this and Green's river to come into one, and so 
continued for four or five leagues, which makes a 
great island betwixt them. We proceeded still 
np the river till they patted again, keeping up 
Hilton's river on the larboard side, and followed 
the said river five or six leagues farther, where 
we found another large branijh of Green's river to 
ccone into Hilton's, which ]!nakes another great 
island. On the star board -aide, going uj), we pro., 
ceeded still up the river some four leagues and re- 


turned, taking a view of the land on both sides, and 
then judged ourselves to be frona our ship some 18 
leagues W. and by N. One league below this 
place came four Indians in a canoe to us, and sold 
us several baskets of acorns, which we satisfied 
them for, and so left them ; but one of them fol- 
lowed us on the shore some two or three miles, till 
he came on the top of a high bank £eu3ing on the 
river ; and as we rowed underneath it, the fellow 
shot an arrow at us wbich very narrowly missed 
one of our men and stuck in the upper edge of 
the boat, but broke in pieces leaving the head be- 
hind. Hereupon we presently made to the shore 
and went all up the bank, (except four to guide 
the boat) to look for the Indian, but could not find 
him. At last we heard some sing, further in the 
woods, which we looked upon as a challenge to 
us to come and fight them. We went towards 
them with all speed ; but before we came in sight 
of them, heard two guns go off from our boat ; 
whereupon we retreated as &st as we could to se- 
cure our boat and men : when we came to them 
we found all weU, and demanded the reason of 
their firing the guns. They told us that an Indian 
came creeping along the bank, as they supposed, 
to shoot at them ; and therefore they shot at 
him at a great distMice, with small shot, but 
thonght tiiey did him no hurt, for they saw him 
run away. Presently after our return to the boat, 
and while we were thus talking, came two Indians 
to us with their bows and arrows, crying bpny. 


bonny. We took their bows and airow^from them, 
and gave them beads to their content. Then we 
led them by the hand to the boat, and showed 
them the arrow head ^stieking in her side, and 
related to them the whole passage^ whieh, when 
they understood, both of them showed a great con- 
cern, and signified to us, by sigms, that they knew 
nothing of it. So we let them go^ and marked a 
tree on the top of the bank; calling the place 
mount skerry. We looked up the river a« far as 
we could discern, and saw that it widened, and 
came running directly down the country. So we 
returned, viewing the land on both sides the river, 
and finding the banks steep in some places, but 
very high in others. The bank sides are g^eral- 
ly clay, and as sotiie of our company did affirm, 
some marl. The land and timber up this river is 
no way inferior to the best in the other, which we 
call the main river. So far as we could discern, 
this seemed as fair, if not fairer, than the former, 
and we think runs farther into the country because 
a strong current comes down, and a great deal 
more drift wood. But to return to the business 
of the land and timber. "We saw several plots of 
ground cleared by the Indians after their weak 
manner, compassed round with great timber trees, 
which they are no wise able to fell, and so keep 
the sun from corn fields very much ; yet neverthe- 
less, we saw as large com stalks, or larger, than 
we have seen anywhere else. So we proceeded 
down the river till we found the canoe. The In- 

122 lawbon's bistort 

dian was in^ who shot at us. In the morning we 
went on shore and eut the same in pieces. The In- 
dians perceiving us coming towards them ran away. 
Going to his hut we pulled it down, broke his pots, 
platters, ttnd spoons, tore the deer skins and mats in 
pieces, ^nd took away a basket of acorns ; and a& 
tewards proceeded down the riv^r two leagues, or 
thereabouts, and came to another place of Indians, 
bought acorns and some com of them, and went 
downward two leagues more. At last espying an 
Indiah peeping over a high bank, we held up a 
gun at him, and (falling to him skerry, presently 
several Indians came in sight of us, and made great 
signs of friendship, «aying bonny, bonny. Then 
running before us, they endeavored to persuade us 
to comex>n shore ; but we aifiiwered them with stern 
countenances, and called ont stoirry, taking up <mT 
guns, and tiireatening to shoot at them, but they 
still cried, bonny, bonny ; and when they saw they 
could not prevail nor persuade us to come on shore, 
two of them came off to us in a canoe, one paddKng 
with a great cane, the other with his hand. As 
soon as they overtook us, they laid hold of our 
boat, sweating and blowing, and told us, it was 
bonny on shore, and at last persuaded us to go on 
shore with them. As soon as we landed several 
Indians, to the number of near forty lusty men, 
came to us, all in a great sweat, and told us 
bonny. We showed them the arrow head in the 
boat-side, and a piece of the canoe we had cut in 
pieces ; whereupon, the chief man amongst thexn 


made a long speech, threw beads into our boat, 
which is a sign of great love and friendship, and 
gave us to understand, that when he heard of the af- 
front which we had received, it caused him to cry, 
and that he aifd his men were come to make peace 
with us, assuringufl, by signs, thatthey would tiethe 
arms and cut off the head of the fellow who had 
done us that wrong. And for a farther testimony 
of their love and good will towards us, they pre- 
sented UB with two very handsome, proper, young 
Indian women, the tallest that ever we saw in this 
country, which we supposed to be the king's daugh- 
ters, or persons of distinction amongst them. Those 
young women were so ready to come into our boat 
that one of them crowded in, and would hardly be 
persuaded to go out again. We presented the 
king with a hatdaet and several beads, and made 
presents of beads, al^ to tiie young women, the 
chief men, and the rest of the Indians, as far as 
our beads^ would go. They pronaised us, in four 
days, to come on board our ship, and so departed 
from us. When we left flie place, which was soon 
fitter, we called it mount bonny, because we 
had there concluded a firm peace. Proceeding 
down the river two or three leagues farther, we 
came to a place where were nine or ten canoes, 
all together. We went ashore there and found 
several Indians, but most of them were the same 
which had made peace with us before. We staid 
very little at that place, but went directly down 
the river, and came to our ship before day. Thurs- 


day the 26th of November the wind being at sotith, 
we could not go down to the river's mouth, but 
on Friday the 27th, wte weighed at the mouth of 
Hilton's river, and got down a league towards the 
harbour's mouth. On Sunday the 29th, we got 
down to Crane island, which is four leagues or 
thereabouts, above the entiance of the harbour's 
mouth. On Tuesday the Ist of December, we 
made a purchase of the river and land of Cape 
Fair, of Wat Coosa, and such other Indians as ap- 
peared to us to be the chief of those parts. They 
brought us store of fresh fish aboard, as mullet, 
shads, and other sorts very good. This river is 
all fresh water, fit to drink. Some eight leagues 
within the mouth the tide runs up about thirty- 
five leagues, but stops and rises a great deal far- 
ther up. It flows at the harbour's mouth, S. E; 
and N. "W. six feet at neap tides afipd eight feet at 
spring tides. The cha^nnel on the east side by the 
Cape shore, is the best, and lies close aboatd the 
cape land, being three fathoms at high water, in 
the shallowest place in the channel just at the en- 
trance ; but as soon as you are past that plaee^ 
half a cable's len'gth inward, youh«ve six or seven- 
fathoms, a fair turning channel intothe nveVy and 
so continuing five or six leagues upwards. Af- 
terwards the channel is more difficult, in some 
places six or seven fathoms, in others fbu!r or five; 
and in others but nine or ten feet, especially where 
the river is broad. When the river comes to part 
and grows narrow, there it is all channel from side 


to side in moet places ; though in some yon shall 
have five, six or seven fathoms, but generally two 
or three, sand and oaze. We viewed the Cape 
land and judged it to be little worth, the woods 
of it being shrubby and low and the land sandy 
and barren ; in some places grass and rushes, in 
others nothing but clear sand : a place fitter to 
starve cattle, in our judgment, than to keep them 
alive; yet the Indians, as we understand, keep 
the English cattle down there and suffer them not 
to go off of the said Gape, (as we suppose) because 
the country Indians shall have no part with them, 
and, therefore, 'tis likely they, have fallen out 
about them which shall have the greatest share. 
They brought on board our ship very good and 
fat beef several times, which they sold us at a very 
reasonable price ; also fat and very large swine, 
good and cheap, but they may thank their friends 
of U ew England who brought their hogs to so 
fair a market. Some of the Indians brought very 
good salt aboard us, and made signs, pointing to 
both sides of the river's mouth, that there was 
^reat store thereabouts. We saw up the river 
several good places for the sitting up of com or 
saw mills. In that time, as our business called 
us up and down the river and branches, we killed 
of wild fowl, four swans, ten geese, twenty-nine 
cranes, ten turkies, forty ducks and mallards, three 
dozen of parrakeeto's and six dozen of other 
small fowls, as curlues and plover, Ac. 
Whereas there was a writing left in a post at 


the point of Caipe Fair river, by those New Eng- 
land men, that left cattle with the Indians there, 
the contents whereof tended not only to the dis- 
paragement of the land about the said river, bat 
also to the great dkconragement of all snch as 
should hereafter come into those parts to settle. 
In answer to that scandalous writing, we, whose 
names are underwritte^ do affirm, that we have 
seen, facing both sides the river and branches of 
Cape Fair aforesaid, as good land, and as well 
timbered,. as any we have seen in any other part 
of the world, sufficient to accommodate thousands 
of our English nation, and lying commodiousiy 
by the said river's side. 

On Friday the 4th of December, the wind being 
fair, we put out to sea, bound for barbados ; and 
on the 6th of February 166f , came to an anchor 
in Carlisle bay ; it having pleased God, after sev- 
eral apparent dangers both by sea and land, to 
bring us all in safety to our long wished for and 
much desired port, to render an account of our 
discovery ; the verity of which we do assert 

Anthony Long. 

William Hilton. 

Pbtbe Fabian. 

Thus you have an account of the latitude, soil 
and advantages of Cape Fair, or Clarendon river, 
which was settled in the year 1661, or thereabouts, 
and had it not been for the irregular practices of 
some of that colony against the Indians, by send- 


ing away Bome of ibeir children (as I have been 
told) under pretence of instructing them in learn- 
ing saxd the principles of the christian religion, 
which so disgusted the Indian*, that, though they 
had then no guns, yet they never gave over till they 
had entirely rid themselves of the English, by 
their bows and arrows ; witii which they did not 
only take off themselves but also their stocks of 
cattle ; and this was. so much the more ruinous to 
them in that they could have no assistance from 
South Carolina, which was not then planted, and 
the other plantations w^re but in their infancy. 
Were it not for such ill practices, I say, it might, 
in all probability, have been at this day, the best 
settlement in their lordships' great province of 

The Sound of Albermarl, with the rivers and 
cre^B of that country, afford a very rich and du- 
rable soil. The land, in most places, lies indif- 
ferent low, (except in Chuwon and high up the 
rivers) but bears an incredible burden of timber ; 
the low grounds being covered with beech, and 
the high land yielding lofty oaks, walnut trees, 
and other useful timber. The country, in some 
plantations, has yearly produced Indian corn, or 
some other grain ever since this country was first 
seated, without the trouble of manuring or dress- 
ing ; and yet, to all appearance, it seems not to 
. be, in the least, impoverished, neither do the plan- 
ters ever miss of a good crop,^nless a very unnat- 
ural season visits them, which seldom happens; 

128 lawsok's history 

of thb corn of carolina. 

The wheat of this place is very good, seldom 
yielding less than thirty fold, provided the land is 
good where it is sown ; not but that there has 
been sixty-six increase for one measure sown in 
piny land, which we account the meanest sort. 
And I have been informed by people of credit, 
that wheat which was planted in a very rich piece 
of land, brought a hundred and odd pecks for one. 
If our planters, when they found such great in- 
crease, would be so curious as to make nice ob- 
servations of the soil and other remarkable acci- 
dents, they would soon be acquainted with the na- 
ture of the earth and climate and be better quali- 
fied to manage their agriculture to more certainty 
and greater advantage, whereby they might ar- 
rive to the crops and harvests of Babylon, and 
those other fruitful countries so much talked of. 
For I must confess I never saw one acre of land 
managed as it ought to be in Carolina since I 
knew it ; and were they as negligent in their hus- 
bandry in Europe as they are in Carolina, their 
land would produce nothing but weeds and straw. 

They have tried rye, and At thrives very well ; 
but having such plenty of maiz, they do not re- 
gard it, because it makes black bread, unless very 
curiously handled. 

Barley has been sowed in small quantities, and 
does better than can be expected ; because that 
grain requires the ground to be very well worked 
with repeated ploughings, which our general way 


of breaking the earth with hoes, can, by no means 
perform, thongh in many places we have a light, 
rich, deep, black mould, which is the particular 
soil in which barley best thrives. 

The naked oats thrive extraordinary well; and 
the other would prove a very bold grain ; but the 
plenty of other grains makes them not much cov- 

The Indian corn, or maiz, proves the most use- 
ful grain in the world ; and had it not been for the 
fruitfulness of this species, it would have proved 
very difficult to have settled some of the planta- 
tions in America. It is very nourishing, whether 
in bread, sodden, or otherwise ; and those poor 
christian servants in Virginia, Maryland, and the 
other northerly plantations that have been forced 
to live wholly upon it, do manifestly prove that it 
is the most nourishing grain fqr a man to subsist 
on, without any otiier victuals. And this assertion 
is made good by tbe negro slavQ3, who, in many 
places e£vt nothing but this Indian com and salt. 
Pigs and poultry fed with this grain, eat the sweet- 
est of all others. It refuses no ground, unless the 
barren sands, and when planted ii^good ground, 
will repay the planter, seven or eight hundred 
fold; besides. the stalks bruise4 and boiled, make 
very pleasant beer, being sweet like the sugar 

There are several sorts of rice, some bearded, 
others not, besides the red and the white , but the 
white rice is the best. Yet there is a sort of per- 



130 i^wson's history 

fumed rice in the Easf^Indies, which gives a cu- 
rious flavor in the dressing. And with this sort 
America is not yet acquainted ; neither can I learn 
that any of it has been brought over to Europe, 
the rice of Carolina being esteemed the best that 
comes to that quarter of the world. It is of great 
increase, yielding from eight hundred to a thou- 
sand fold, and thrives best in wild land that has 
never been broken up before. 

Buckwheat is of great increase in Carolina ; 
but we make no other use of it, than instead of 
maiz, to feed hogs and poultry ; and guinea com, 
which thrives well here, serves for the same use. 

Of the pulse kind, we have many sorts. The 
first is the btishel bean, which is a spontaneous 
product. They are so called, because they bring 
a bushel of beans for one that is planted. They 
are set in the spring, round arbors, or at the fiaet 
of poles, up which they will climb and cover the 
wattling, niaking a very pretty shade to sU under. 
They continue flowering, budding and ripening 
all the flrummer long, till the frost approaches, 
when they forbear their fruit and die. The stalks 
they grow on come fo the thickness^ of a man's 
thumb ; nnA the bean is white and mottled, with 
a purple figure on each side it, like an ear. They 
are very flat, and are eaten as the Windsor bean 
is, being an extraordinary well relished pulse, 
either by themselves or with meat. 

We have" the Indian rounceval, or miraculous 
peas, so called from their long pods, and great in- 

0? NOKm CAROLINA. 131 


crease. These are later peas, and require a pret- 
ty long summer to ripen in. They are very good; 
BXid so are the bonavis, calavancies, nanticokes, 
and abundance of other pulse, too tedious here to 
name, which we found the Indians possessed of, 
when first we settled in America, some of which 
sorts afford us two crops in one year ; as the bon- 
avis and colavancies, besides several others of that 

ISTow I am launched into a discourse «f the pulse, 
I must acquaint you thai the European bean 
planted here, will, in time, degenerate into a 
dwarfish sort, if not prevented by a yearly supply 
of foreign seed, and an extravagant rich soil ; yet 
these pigmy beans are the sweetest of that kind I 
ever met withal. 

As for all the sorts of English peas that we have 
yet made trial of, they thrive very well in Caroli- 
na. Psdrticularly the white and gray«rouncival, 
the common field peas, mot^ sickle peas, yield very 
well, and are of a good relirii. As for the other 
sorts, I have not seen any made trial of as yet, 
but question not their coming to great perfectk^n 
with us. 

The kidney beans were here before the English 
came^ b^g very plentiful in the Indian com 

The giarden roots that thrivei well in Carolina 
are, carrots, leeks, parsnips, tumeps, potatoes of 
several delicate sorts, ground artichokes, radish- 
es, horse radish, beet, both, sorts, onions, shallot, 
garlick, cives, and the wild onions. 


The sallads are, the lettice, curled, red cabbage 
and savoy. The spinage, round and prickly, fen- 
nel, Bweet and the common sort, samphire, in the 
marshes excellent, so is the dock, or wild rhu- 
barb, rocket, sorrell, French and English, cresses, 
of several sorts, purslain wild, and that of a larger 
size which grows in the gardens ; for this plant is 
neyer met withal in the Indian plantations, and 
is, therefore, supposed to proceed from cow dung, 
which beist they keep not. Parsley, two sorts, 
asparagus thrives to a miracle, without hot beds or 
dunging the land, white cabbage from European, 
or "New Engli^d seed, for the people are negli- 
gent and unskilful) and dont care tc provide seed 
of their own. The colly flower we have not yet 
had an opportunity to make trial of, nor has the 
artichoke ever appeared amongst us, tiiat I can 
learn. Coleworts, plain and curled, savoys ; besides 
the watermelons of several sorts, very good, which 
should have gone amongst the fruits. Of musk- 
mellons we have very large and good, and sev- 
eral* sorts, as the golden, green, guinea, and or- 
ange. Cucumbers, long, short and prickly, all these 
from the natural ground, and great increase, with- 
out any helps of dung or reflection ; pompions, yel- 
low and very large, burmillions, cadiaws, an ex- 
cellent fruit boiled ; squashes, simnals, horns and 
gourds, besides many other species of less value, 
too tedious to*name. 

Our pot herbs and others of use, which we al- 
ready possess, are, angeiioa, wild and tame, balm, 


bugloss, borage, bumett, clary, marigold, pot mar- 
joram,'aud other maijorams, summer and winter 
eavoy, columbines, tansey, wormwood, nep, mal- 
lows, several sorts, drage, red and white, lambs 
quarters, thyme, hyssop, of a very large growth, 
sweet bazzil, rose mary, lavender. The more 
physical are carduns, benedictos, the scurvy grass 
of America, I never here met any of the European 
sort ; tobacco of many sorts, dUl, carawa, cummin, 
anise, coriander, all sorts of plantain of England, 
and two sorts spontaneous, good vulneraries, ele- 
campane, comfrey, nettle, the seed from England, 
none native ; monks rhubarb, burdock, asarum, 
' wild in the woods, reckoned one of the snake 
roots; poppies in the garden, none wild yet 
discovered; wormseed, feverfew, rue, ground ivey, 
spontaneous but very wild and scarce, aurea virga, 
four sorts ol snake root> besides the common spe- 
cies, which are great antidotes against that ser- 
pent's bite, and are easily raised in the garden ; 
mint, Jamestown weed, so called fix)m Virginia, the 
seed it bears is very like that of an onion, it is ex- 
ceUent for ^^^^ and ««,ygu.g'inta.. 
lions, but taken inwardly brings on a sort of drunk- 
en madness. One of our marsh weeds, like a dock, 
has the same effect, and possesses the party with 
fear and watchings. The reed root, whose leaf is 
like spear mint, is good for thrushes and sore 
mouths, camomil, but it must be kept in the shade, 
otherwise it will not thrive ; housleek, first from 
England; vervin, night shade, several kinds; 

134 lawson's BISTO&Y 

harts tongue, yarrow abundance, mullein ilie same, 
both of the country ; sarsparilla, and abundance 
more I could name, yet not the hundredth part of 
what remains, a catalogue of which is a work of 
many years, and without any other subject, would 
swell to a large volume, -and requires the ability 
of a skillful botanist. Had not the ingenious Mr. 
Baaister (the greatest virtuoso we ever had on 
the continent) been unfortunately taken out of this 
world, he would have given the best account of 
the plants of America, of any that ever yet made 
such an attempt in these parts. Not but we are 
satisfied, the species of vegetable in Carolina are 
so numerous that it requires more than one man's 
age to bring the cliiefest part oH them into regular 
cLe, ; a,! country bjg « diftren. in i3a^ 
tion and soil, that what one place plentifully af- 
fords, another is absolutely a stranger to ; yet we 
generally observe ths^t the greatest variety is found 
in the low grounds, and savannas. 

The flower garden in Carolina ib as yet arrived 
but to a very poor and jejune perfeetion. We 
have only two sorts of roses, the dove July flowers, 
violets, prince feathers and tres colores, there has 
been nothing more cultivated in the flower gar- 
den, whidi at present occurs to my memory ; but 
as for the wild spontaneous powers of this coun- 
try, nature has been so liberal that I cannot name 
one tenth part of the valuable ones ; and since, to 
give specimens would only swell the volume, and 
give little satisfaction to ihis reader, I shall there- 


foi4 proceed to the present state of Carolina, and 
refer the shrubs and other vegetables of lar^r 
growth till hereafter, and then shall deliver them 
and the other species in their order. 


When we consider the latitude and convenient 
situation of Carolina, had we no farther confirma- 
tion thereof, our reason would inform us that such 
a place lay fairly to be a delicious country, being 
placed in that girdle of the world which affords 
wine, oil, fruit, grain and silk, with other rich 
commodities, besides a sweet air, moderate cli- 
mate and fertile soil ; these are the blessings, under 
Heaven's protection) that spin out the thread of 
life to its utmost extent, and crown our days with 
the sweets of health and plenty, which, when join- 
ed with content, renders the possessors the hap- 
piest race of men upon earth. 

The inhabitants of Carolina, through the rich- 
ness of the soil, lire an easy and pleasant life. 
The land being of several sorts of compost, some 
stiff, others light, some marl, others rich, black 
mould, here barren of pine, but affording pitch, 
tar and masts ; there vastly rich, especially on the 
freshes of the rivers, onfi part bearing great tim- 
bers others being savannas or natural meads, 
where no trees grow for several miles, adorned by 
nature with a pleasant verdure, and beautiftil flow- 
ers, frequent in no otiier places, yielding abun- 
dance of hei*bage for cattle, sheep, and horses. 

136 tiAWSOK'S HiSTOftT 

The country, in general, affords pleasant seats, 
the land, except in some few places, being dry 
and high banks, parcelled out into most conve- 
nient necks, by the creeks, easy to be fenced in 
for securing their stocks to more strict boundaries, 
whereby, with a small trouble of fencing, almost 
every man may enjoy, to himself, an entire plan* 
tation, or rather park. These, with Hie other 
benefits of plenty of fish, wild fowl, venison, and 
the other conveniences which this summer coun- 
try naturally furnishes, has induced a great many 
families to leave the more northerly plantations 
and sit down under one of the mildest govern* 
ments in the world ; in a country that, with mod- 
erate industry, will afibrd all the necessaries of 
life. We have yearly abundance of strangers 
come among us, who chiefly strive to go souther- 
ly to settle, because there is a vast tract of rich 
land betwixt the place we are seated in and Cape 
Fair, and upon that river, and more southerly 
which is inhabited by none but a few IndiaHs, who 
are at this time well affected to the English, and 
very desirous of their coming to live among 
them. The more southerly the milder winters, 
with the advantages of purchasing the lords 
land at the most easy-and moderate rate of any 
lands in America, nay, allowing all advantages 
thereto annexed, I may say the universe does 
not afibrd such another ; besides men have a great 
advantage of choosing good and commodious tracts 
of land at the first seating of a country or river, 


whereas th^Hatter settlers are forced to purchase 
smaller dividends of the old standers, and some- 
times at very considerable rates ; as now in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland where a thousand acres of 
good land cannot be bought under twenty shil- 
lings an acre, besides two shillings yearly acknowl- 
edgement for eveiy hundred acres ; which sum, 
be it more or less, will serve to put the merchant 
or planter here into a good posture of buildings, 
slaves, and other necessaries, when the purchase 
of his land comes to him on such easy terms and 
as our grain and pulse thrives wit3i us to admira- 
tion, no less do our stocks of cattle, horses, sheep 
and swine multiply. 

The beef of Carolina equalizes the best that our 
neighboring colonies afford ; the oxen are of a 
great size when they are suffered to live to a fit 
age. I have seen fat and good beef at all times 
of the year, but October and the cool months are 
the seasons we kill our beeves in, when we intend 
them for salting or exportati<m ; for then they are 
in their prime of flesh, all coming from grass, we 
never using any other food for our cattle. The 
heifers bring calves at eighteen or twenty months 
old, which makes 9uch a wotiderful increase, that 
many of our planters, from very mean beginnings, 
have raised themselves, and are now masters of 
hundreds of &t beeves and other cattle. 

The veal is very good and white, so is the milk 
very pleasant and rich, th^e being at present, 
considerable quantities of butter and cheese made 

138 lawson's history 

that is very good, not only Berving: our own rie- 
cegsities, but we send out a great deal among our 

The sheep thrive very well at present, having 
most commonly two lambs at one yeaning. As 
the country comes to be open, they prove sill bet- 
ter, change of pasture being agreeable to that 
useful creature. Mutton is generally exceeding 
fet and offi, good relish ; their wool is very fine 
and proves a good stiq)le. 

The horses are well shaped and swifib ; the best 
of them would sell for ten or twelve pounds in 
England. They prove excellent drudges and will 
travel incredible journeys. They are troubled 
with very few distempers, neither do the cloudy 
faced grey horses go blind here as in Europe. 
As for spavins, splints and ring bones, they are 
here never met withal, as I can leam. Were we 
to have our stallions and choice of mares from 
England, or any other of a good sort, and. careful 
to keep them on the highlands, we could not fail 
of a good breed ; but having been supplied with 
our first horses from the neighboring plantations, 
which were but mean, they do not as yet come up 
to the excellency of the English horses ; though we 
generally find that the colt exceeds in beauty and 
strength, its sire and dam. 

The pork exceeds any in Europe ; the great di- 
versity and goodness of the acorns and nuts which 
the woods afford, making that flesh of an excel- 
lent taste and produces great quantities ; so that 


Carolina, if not the chief, is not inferior in this 
one commodity to any colony in the hands of the 

As for ffoats. they have been found to thrive 
and incr^e well, bat being mischievous to or- 
chards and other trees, makes people decline keep- 
ing them. 

Onr produce for exportation to Europe and the 
islands in America, are beef, pork, tallow, hides, 
deer skins, furs, pitch, tar, wheat, indian com, 
peas, masts, staves, heading, boards and all sorts 
of timber and lumber for Madera and the West 
Indies, rosin, turpentine and several sorts of gums 
land tears, with some medicinal drugs, are here, 
produced ; besides rice and several other foreign 
grains, which thrive very well. Good bricks and 
tiles are made and several sorts of useful earths, 
as bole, fuller's earth, oaker and tobacco-pipe 
clay, in great plenty ; earths for the potter's trade 
and fine sand for the glass makers. In building 
with brick, we. make our lime of oyster shells, 
though we have great store of lime stone towards 
the heads of our rivers, where are stones of all 
sorts that are useful, besides vast quantities of ex- 
cellent marble. Iron stone we have plenty of, 
both in the low grounds and on the hills. Lead 
and copper has been found, so has antimony here- 
tofore; but no endeavors have been used to 
discover those subteraneous species; otherwise 
we might in all probability, find out the best of 
minerals, which are not wanting in Carolina. Hot 

140 lawson's histobt 

baths we have an accoont of from the Indians 
that frequent the hill country, where a great like- 
lihood appears of making saltpetre, because the 
earth in many phices, is strongly mixed with a 
nitrous salt, which is much coveted by the beasts, 
who come at some seasons in great droves and 
herds, and by their much licking of this earth, 
make great holes in . those banks, which some- 
times lie at the heads of great precipices, where 
their eagerness after this salt hastens their end by 
falling down the high banks, so that they are 
dashed in pieces. It must be confessed that the 
most noble and sweetest part of this country is 
not inhabited by any but the savages ; and a great 
deal of the richest part thereof, has no inhabitants 
but the beasts of the wilderness ; for, the Indians 
axe not inclinable to settle in the richest land, be- 
cause ihe timbers are too large for them to cut 
down, and too much burthened with wood for 
their laborers to make plantations of; besides, 
the healthfulness of those hills is apparent by the 
gigantic stature and grey heads so common a* 
mongst the savages that dwell near the mount- 
ains. The great Creator of all things having most 
wisely diffused his blessings, by parceling out the 
vintages of the world into such lots as his won- 
derfol foresight saw most proper, requisite and 
convenient for the habitations of his creatures. 
Towards the sea we have the conveniency of trade 
transportation and other helps the water affords ; 
but oftentimes those advantages are attended with 

Of I^ORlfi CAKOLtKA. 141 

indiferent land, a thick air, and other inconven" 
iences ; when backwards, near the mountains, 
you meet with the richest soil, a sweet, thin air, 
dry roads, pleasant small murmuring streams, and 
several beneficial productions and species, which 
are unknown in the European world. One part of 
this country affords what the other is wholly a 
stranger to. 

We have chalybeate waters of several tastes and 
different qualities, some purge, others work by 
the other enunctories. We have* amongst the in- 
habitants, a water that is inwardly, a great aper« 
give, and outwardly, cures ulcers, tetters and sores 
by washing therewith. 

There has been a coal mine lately found near 
the Mannakin town, above the falls of James riv- 
er in Virginia, which proves very good, and is 
used by the smiths for their forges ; and we need 
not doubt of the same' amongst us, towards the 
heads of our rivers ; but the plenty of wood, which 
is much the better fuel, makes us not inquisitive 
after coal mines. Most of the French, who lived at 
that town on James river, are removed to Trent 
river, in Iforth Carolina, where the rest were ex- 
pected daily to come to them when I came away, 
which was in August, 1708. They are much ta- 
ken with the pleasantness of that country, and in- 
deed are a very industrious people. At present, 
they make very good linen cloth and thread, and 
are very well versed in cultivating hemp and flax, 
of both which they raise very considerable quan- 


titles ; and design to try an essay of the grape for 
making of wine. 

As for those of our own country in Carolina, 
some of the men are very laborious and make 
great improvemente in their way, but I dare hard, 
ly give them that character in general. The easy 
way of living in that pientifdl country makes a 
great many planters very negligent, which, were 
they otherwise, that colony might now have been 
in a far better condition than it is, as to trade and 
other advantages, which an universal industry 
would have led them into. 

The women are the most industrious sex in that 
place, and, by their good housewifery, make a 
great deal of cloth of their own cotton, wool and 
flax ; some of them keeping their fiunilies, though 
large, very decently appareled, both with linens 
and woolens, so that they have no occasion to run 
into the merchants debt, or lay their money out 
on stores for clothing. 

The christian natives of Carolina are a straight, 
clean limbed people ; the children being seldom 
or never troubled with rickets, or those other dis- 
tempers that the Europeans are visited withal. 
'Tis next to a miracle to see pne of them deform- 
ed in body. The vicinity of the sun makes im- 
pression on the men who labour out of doors, or 
use the water. As for those women that do not 
expose themselves to the weather, they are often 
very fair, and generally as well featured as you 
shall see any where, and have very brisk, charm- 


ing eyes which sets them off to adyantage. They 
marry very young ; some at thirteen or fourteen ; 
aacUshe that stays till twenty is reckoned a stale 
nj^ld, which is a very indifierent character in that 
warm country. The women are very fruitful, 
most houses being full of little ones. It has been 
observed that women long married and without 
ehildren in other places, have removed to Caroli- 
na and become joyful mothers. They have very 
easy travail^ in their childbearingy in which they 
are so happy as seldom to miscarry. Both sexes 
are generally spare of body and not choleric, noir 
easily cae^down at disappointments and losses, 
seldom immoderately grieving at misfortunes, un- 
less for the loss of their nearest relations aaid 
Mends, which seems to make .a more than ordi* 
nopy impression upon tbem. Many of the women 
are very handy in canoes and will manage them 
with great dexterity and^skill, which they become 
accustomed to in tins watery country. They are 
ready to help their husbands in any servile work, 
as planting, when the season of tiie weather re- 
quires expedition ; pride seldom banishing good 
housewifery. The girls are not bred up to the 
wheel and sewing only, but the dairy and the af- 
fairs of the house they are very well acquainted 
withal ; so that you ^haU see them, whilst very 
young, manage their business with a great deal of 
conduct and alacrity. The children of both sexes 
are very dooile and learn any thing with a great 
deal of ease and method, and those that have the 

144 LAWsoN^s rnmoM 

advantages of education write very good hands, 
and prove good accountants, which is most cove- 
ted, and, indeed, most necessary in these parts. 
The young men are conunonly of a bashful, sob^r 
behaviour; few proving prodigals to consume 
what the industry of their parents has left them, 
but commonly improve it. 

The marrying so young, carries a double advan- 
tage with it ; and that is that the parents see their 
children provided for in marriage, and the young 
married people are taught by their parents how to 
get their living ; for their admonitions make great 
impressions on their children. I had heard (before 
I knew this new world) that the natives of Amer-' 
ica were a short lived people, which, by all the ob- 
servations I could ever make, proves quite contra- 
ry ; for those who are borp here, and in other col- 
onies, live to as great ages as any of the Europe- 
ans, the climate being free from consumptions, 
which distemper, fatal to England, they are stran- 
gers to. And as the country becomes more clear- 
ed of wood it still becomes more healthful to the 
inhabitants and less addicted to the ague, which 
is incident to most new comers into America from 
Europe, yet not mortal. A gentle emetic seldom 
misses of driving it away; but if it is not too trou- 
blesome, tis better to let the seasoning have its 
own course, in which case the party is commonly 
free from it ever after, and very healthful. 

And now, as to the other advantages the coun- 
try affords, we cannot guess at them at present, 


because, as I said before, the best part ot this conn 
try is not inhabited by the English, from whence 
probably will hereafter spring productions that 
this age does not dream of, and of much more ad- 
vantage to the inhabitants than any things we are 
yet acquainted withal ; and as for several produc- 
tions of other countries, much in the same lati- 
tude, we may expect with good management, they 
will become familiar to us, as wine, oil, fruit, silk^ 
and other profitable commodities, such as drugs, 
dyes, &c., and at present, the curious may have a 
large field to satisfy and divert themselves in, as 
collections of strange beasts, birds, insects, rep- 
tiles, shells, fishj3s, minerals, herbs, flowers, plants, 
shrubs, intricate roots, gums, tears, rosms, dyes, 
and stones, with several other that yield satisfac- 
tion and profit to those whose inclinations tend 
that way. And as for what may be hoped for, 
towards a happy life and being, by such as design 
to remove thither, I shall add this : that with pru- 
dent management, I can affirm, by experience, 
not by hearsay, that any person, with a small be- 
ginning, may live very comfortably, and not only 
provide for the necessaries of life, but likewise for 
those that are to succeed him. Provisions being 
very plentiftil, and of good variety to accommodate 
genteel housekeeping, and the neighboring In- 
dians are friendly, and in many cases serviceable 
to us in making us wares to catch fish in, for a 
small matter, which proves of great advantage to 
large families, because those engines take great 

a7 • . ' 

146 lawson's histoey 

quantities of many sorts of fish that are very good 
and nourishing. Some of them hunt and fowl 
for us at reasonable rates, the country being as 
plentifully provided with aH sorts of g&me as amy 
part of America ; the poorer sort of planters often 
get them to plant for them by hiring them for 
that season, or for so much work, which common- 
ly comes very reasonable. Moreover, it is remar- 
kable, that no place on the continent of America 
has seated an English colony so free from blood 
shed as Carolina, but all the others have been 
more damaged and disturbed by the Indians than 
they have ; which is worthy notice, when we con« 
sider how oddly it was first planted with inhabi- 

The fishing trad^e in Carolina might be carried 
on to great advantage, considering how many 
sorts of excellent fish our sound and rivers aflEbrd, 
which cure very well with salt, as has been expe- 
rienced by some small quantities, which have been 
sent abroad and yielded a good price. As for the^ 
whale fishing, it is no otherwise regarded thau by 
a few people who live on the sand banks ; and 
those only work on dead fish cast on shore, none- 
being struck on our coast, as they are to the north- 
ward ; althjough we have plenty of whales there. 
Great plenty is generally the ruin of industry.. 
ThiM our merchants are not many, nor have those? 
few there be applied themselves to the European, 
trade. The planter sits contented at home, whilst 
his oxen thrive and grow fat, and his stocks daily 


increase 2 the fatte^ porkets and ponltry are easily 
raised to his table, and his orchard affords him 
liquor, so that he eats and drinks away the cares 
of the world, and desires no greater happiness 
than that which he daily enjoys. Whereas, not 
only the European, but also the Indian trade, 
might be carried on to a great profit, because we 
lie as fairly for the body of Indians as any settle- 
ment in English America ; and for the small trade 
that has been carried on in that way, the dealers 
therein have throve as fast as any men, and the 
soonest raised themselves of any people I have 
known in Carolina. 

^ Lastly, as to the climate, it is very healthftil ; 
our summer is not so hot as in other places to the 
eastward in the same latitude ; neither are we ev- • 
er visited by earthquakes, as many places in It- 
aly and other summer countries are. Our north- 
erly winds, in summer, cool the air, and free us 
fipom pestilential fevers, which Spain, Barbary, 
and the neighboring countries in Europe, &c., 
are visited withal. Our sky is generally serene 
and clear, and the air very thin, in comparison of 
many parts of Europe, where consumptions and 
catarrhs reign amongst the inhabitants. The win- 
ter has several fits of sharp weather, especially 
when the wind is at N. W. which always clears 
the sky, though never so thick before. However, 
such weather is very agreeable to European bodies, 
ftud makes them healthy. The N. E. winds blow- 
ing in winter, bring with them thick weather, and, 

148 LAWS01^''S niSTORT 

ill the spring sometimes, blight the truits ; but 
they very seldom endure long, being blown away 
by westerly winds, and then all becomes fair and 
clear again. 

Onr spring in Carolina is very beautiful, and the 
most pleasant weather a country can enjoy. The 
fall is accompanied with cool mornings, which come 
in towards the latter end of August, and so con- 
tmue (most commonly) very moderate weather till 
about Christmas ; then winter comes on apace. 
Though these seasons arc very piercing, yet the 
cold is of no continuance. Perhaps you will have 
cold weather for three or four days at a time, then 
pleasant, warm weather follows such as you have 
in England, about the latter end pf April or be* 
ginning of May. In the year 1707, we had the se- 
verest winter in Carolina, tliat ever was known 
since the English came to settle there ; for our liv- 
ers, that were not above half a mile wide, and 
fresh water, were frozen over, and some of them, 
in the north part of this country, were passable 
for people to walk over. 

One great advantage of North Carolina is, that 
we are not a frontier, and near the enemy, which 
proves very chargeable and troublesome in time 
of war to those colonies that are so seated. An- 
other great advantage comes from its being near 
Virginia, where we come often to a good market, 
at the return of the guinea ships for negroes, and 
the remnant of their stores, which is veiy commo- 
dious for the Indian trade, besides in vrar time, we 


lie near at hand to go under their convoy, and to 
sell our provisions to the tobacco fleets; for the 
planting of tobacco generally in those colonies, 
prevents their being supplied with stores, suffi- 
cient for victualing their ships. 

As for the commodities which are necessary to 
carry over to this plantation for use and merchan- 
dise, and are, therefore, requisite for those to have 
along with thenl that intend td transport themselves 
thither ; they are guns, powder and shot, flints, lin^is 
of all sorts, but chiefly ordinary blues, osnaburgs, 
scotch and irish linen, and some fine ; men's and 
women's cloths, ready made up, some few broad 
cloths, kerseys, and druggets ; to which you must 
add Haberdasher's wares, hats, about five or six 
shillings a piece, and a few finer ; a few wiggs, 
not long and pretty thin of hair ; 5iin stuflfe for 
women; iron work, as nails, spades, axes, broad 
and narrow hoes, frows, wedges, and saws of all 
sorts, with other tools for carpenters, joiners, coop- 
erd', shoemakers, shave locks, &c., all which, and 
others which are necessary for the plantations, 
you may be informed of and buy at very reasona- 
ble rates, of Mr. James Gilbert, ironmonger in 
Mitre tavern yard, near Aldgate. You may also 
be used very kindly for your cuttlery ware, and 
other advantageous merchandises, and your cargoes 
well sorted by Capt. Sharp at the Blue gate in Can- 
non street, and for eartherti ware, window glass, 
grindstones, millstones,paper, ink, powder, saddles, 



bridles, and what other things you are minded to 
take with you for pleasure or ornament. 

And now I shall proceed to the rest of the vege- 
tables that are common in Carolina, in reference 
to the place Avhere I left off, which is the natural 
history of that country. 


The spontaneous sfirubs of this country are the 
lark heel tree ; three sorts of honeysuckle tree, 
the first of which grows in branches as our pie- 
mento tree does, that is, always in low, moist 
ground ; the other grows in clear, dry land, the 
flower more cut and lacerated ; the third, which 
is the most beautiful, and, I thinlc^ the most char- 
ming flower of its color I ever saw, grows betwixt 
two and three feet high, and for the most i)art, by 
the side of a swampy wood, or on the banks of 
our rivers, but never near the salt water. All 
the sorts are white; the last grows in a great 
bunch of these small honeysuckles set upon one 
chief stem, and is commonly the bigness of a largo 
turnep. Nothing can appear more beautiful than 
these bushes, when in their splendour, which is 
in April and May. The next is the honeysuckle 
of the forest ; it grows about a foot high, bearing 
its flowers on small pedestals, several of them 
standing on the main stock, which is the thick- 
ness of a wheat straw. We have also the wood 
bind, much the same as in England ; princes fea- 
ther, vciy large and beautiful in the garden ; tres 



colores, branched sun flower, double poppies, lu- 
pines of several pretty sorts. Spontaneorus and 
the--sensible plant is said to be near the mountains 
which I have not yet seen ; safflower, (and I be- 
lieve the saffron of England would thrive here if 
planted) the yellow jessamin is wild in our woods- 
of a pleasant smell. Evergreens are here plenti- 
fully found of a very quick growth and pleasant 
shade ; cypress or i^hite cedar, the pitch pine, the 
yellow pine, the white pine with long leavcj^, and 
the smaller almond pine, which last bears kernels 
in the apple, tasting much like an almond, and in 
some years there falls such plenty as to make the 
hogs fat. Horn beam, cedar,, two sorts, holly, 
two sorts, bay tree, two sorts, one the dwarf bay, 
about twelve feet high, the other the bigness of a 
middling pine tree, about two feet and half diame- 
ter ; laurel trees, in height, equalizing the lofty 
oaks, the berries and leaves of this tree dies a yel- 
low ; the bay berries yield a wax, which besides 
its use in chirurgery, makes candles, that in burn- 
ing, give a fragrant smell. The cedar berries are 
infused and made beer of by the Bermudians, they 
are carminative, and much of the quality of juni- 
per hemes ; yew or box I have never seen or heard 
of in this country. There are two sorts of myrtles, 
different in leaf and berry. The berry yields wax 
that makes candles, the most lasting and of the 
sweetest smell imaginable. Some mix half tallow 
with this wax, others use it without mixture ; and 
these arc lit for a lady's chamber, and incompara- 

152 ' LAWfiOH'S HISTORt 

ble to pass the line withal and other hot count^ridd^ 
because they will stand when others will melt, by 
the excessive heat, down in the binacles. Ever- 
green oak, two sorts; gallberry tree, bearing a 
black berry with which the women dye their cloths 
and yam black ; 'tis a pretty evergreen and very 
plentiful, growing always in low swampy grounds, 
and amongst ponds. "We have a prim or privet, 
which grows on the dry, barren, sandy hills by 
the sojmd side ; it bears a smaller sort than that in 
England, and grows into a round bush, very beau- 
tiful. Last of bushes, (except savine, which grows 
every where wild,) is the famous yaupon, of which 
I find two sorts, if not three. I shall speak first 
of the nature of this plant, and afterwards ac- 
count for the different sorts. This yaupon, 
called by the South Carolina Indians, casse- 
na, is a bush that grows chiefly on the sand banks 
and islands,^ bordering on the sea of Carolina; on 
this coast it is plentifully found, and in no other 
place that I know of. It grows the most like box 
of any vegetable that I know, being very like it 
in leaf, only dented exactly like tea, but the leaf 
somewhat fatter. I cannot say whether it bears 
any flower, but a berry it does, about the bigness 
of a grain of pepper, being first red, then brown. 
"When ripe, which is in December, some of these 
bushes grow to be twelve feet high, others are 
three or four. The wood thereof is brittle as myr- 
tle, and affords a light ash colored bark. There 
is sometimes found of it in swamps 'and rich low 


grounds, which has the same figured leaf, only it 
is larger, and of a deeper green. This may be 
occasioned by the richness that attends the low 
grounds thus situated. The third sort has the 
same kind of leaf, but never gro^ws a foot high, and 
is' found both in rich, low land^'tod orh the sand 
hills. 1 don't know that ever I found any seed or 
berries on the dwarfish sort, yet I find no differ- 
ence in taste, when infusion is made. Cattle and 
sheep delight in this plant very much, and so do 
the deer, all which crop it very short and browze 
thereon wheresoever they meet with it. I have 
traneplanted the sand bank and dwarfish yaupon, 
and find that the first year the shrubs stood at a 
stand, but the second year they throve as well as 
in their native soil. This plant is the In- 
dian tea^ used and approved by all the savages on 
the coast of Carolina, and fi'om them sent to the 
westward Indians and sold at a considerable price. 
All which they cure after the same way as they 
do for themselves, which is thus : they take this 
plant (not only the leaves but the smaller twigs 
along with them) and bruise it in a mortar till it 
becomes blackish, the leaf being wholly defaced, 
then they take it out, put it into one of their earth- 
ern pots which is over the fire till it smokes, 
stining it all the time till it is cured. Others take 
it, after it is bruised, and put it into a bowl to 
which they put live coals and cover them %vith the 
yaupon, till they have done smoking, often turn- 
ing them over. After all, they spread it upon 

154 lawson's history 

their mats and dry it iu the sun to keep it for use% 
The Spaniards in New Spain have this plant very 
jplentlfully on the coast of Florida, and hold it in 
great esteem. Sometimes they cure it as the In- 
dians do, or else beat it to a powder, so mix it as 
coffee ; yet before they drink it, they filter tte 
same. They prefer it above aU liquids to drink 
with physic, to carry the same safely and speedily 
through the passages for which it is admirable, as 
I myself have experimented. 

In the next place, I shall speak of the timber 
that Carolina affords, which is as follows : 

Chesnut oak is a very lofty tree, clear of boughs 
and limbs for fifty or sixty feet. They bear some- 
times four or five feet through, all clear timber ; 
and are the largest oaks we have, yielding the 
fairest plank. They grow chiefly in l(^w land, 
that is stiff and rich. I have seen of them so 
high, that a good gun could not reach a turkey, 
though loaded with swan shot. They are called 
chesnut, because of the largeness and sweetness of 
the acorns. 

White, scaly bark oak — This is used, as the for- 
mer, in building sloops and ships, though it bears 
a large acorn, yet it never grows to the bulk and 
height of the chesnut oak. It is so called, because 
of a scaly, broken, white bark, that covers this 
ftef , growing on dry land. 

We have red oak, sometimes, in good land, ve- 
ry large and lofty. Tis a porous wood, and used 
to rive into rails for fences. Tis not very durable, 


yet some use this, as well as the two former, for 
pipe and barrel staves. It makes good clap 

Spanish oak is free to rive, bears a whitish, 
smooth bark, and rives very well into clap boards. 
It is accounted durable, therefore some use to 
build vessels with^ it for the sea ; it proving well 
and durable. The^e all bear good mast for the 

Bastard Spanish is an oak betwixt the Spanish 
and red oak ; the chief use is for fencing and clap 
boards. It bears good acorns. 

The next is black oak, which is esteemed a du- 
rable wood under water ; but sometimes it is used 
in house work. It bears a good m^st for hogs. 

White iron or ring oak, is so called from the du^ 
lability and lasting quality of this wood. It chiefly 
grows on dry, lean land, and seldom fails of bear- 
ing a plentiful crop of acorns. This wood is found 
to be very durable, and is esteemed the best oak 
for ship work that we have in Carolina ; for though 
Mve oak be more lasting, yet it seldom allows 
planks of any considerable length. 

Turkey oak is so catted from a small acorn it 
bears, which the wild turkeys feed on. 

Live oak chiefly grows on dry sandy knolls. 
This is an evergreen and the most durable oak all 
America aflfords. The shortness of this wood*a 
bowl or trunk, makes it unfit for plank to build 
ships withal. There are some few trees that would 
allow a stock of twelve feet, but the firmness and 

166 lawbon's history 

great weiglit thereof^ frightens our sawyers from 

the fatigue that attends the cutting of this timber. 
A nail once driven therein, tis next to an impossi- 
bility to draw it out. The limbs thereof are so 
cured that they serve for excellent timbers, knees, 
&c., for vessels of any sort. The acorns thereof 
are as sweet as chesnuts, and the Indians draw ah 
oil from them, as sweet as that from the olive, 
though of an amber color. With these nuts or 
acorns, some have counterfeited the coca, whereof 
they have made chocolate, not to be distinguished 
by a good palate. Window frames, mallets, and 
pins for blocks, are made thereof to an excellent 
purpose. I knew two trees of this wood among 
the Indians, which were planted from the acorn, 
and grew in the freshes, and never saw anything 
more beautiful of that kind. They are of an in-, 
different, quick growth, of which there are two 
sorts. The acorns make very fine pork. 
. Willow oak is a sort of water oak. It grows in 
ponds and branches, and is useful for many things. 
It is so called from the leaf, which very much re- 
sembles a willow. 

The live oak grows in the fresh water ponds and 
swamps by the river sid^s, and in low ground over- 
flown with water; and. is a perennial gfeen. 

Of ash we have two sorts, agreeing nearly with 
the English in the grain. One of oui* sorts is tough 
like the English, but differs something in the leaf, 
and much more in the. bark. Neither of them 
bears keyp. The water asli is brittle. The bark 
IS food for the bevers. 


There are two sorts of elm ; the first grows on 
our high land and approaches our English ; the 
Indians take the bark of its root and beat it, whilst 
green^ to a pulp, and then dry it in the chimney, 
where it becomes of a reddish color. This they 
use as a sovereign remedy to heal a cut or green 
wound, of any thing that is not corrupted. It is 
of a very glutinous quality. The other elm grows 
in low ground) of whose bark the English and In- 
dianB make ropes ; fcrr as soon as the sap rises, it 
strips off with the greatest ease imaginable. It 
inins in Match, or thereabouts. 

The tulip tlree^ which are, by the planters, call- 
fed poplars, as nearest approaching that wood in 
grain grow to a prodigious bigness^ some of them 
having been found one and twenty feet in dircuni- 
ference. I have been informed of a tulip tree, 
that was ten feet diameter ; and another wherein 
a lusty man had his bed and household furniturtf, 
and lived in it till his labor g^t him a more fash- 
ionable mansion. He afterwards became a noted 
man in his country for wealth and conduct. One 
of these sorts bears a white tulip, the other a party 
colored, mottled one. The Wood mikes Very pret- 
ty wainscot shingles for houses, and planks for 
several uses. It is reckoned very lasiSiig, espe- 
cially, underground for mill Work. The buds, 
made into an ointment, cure scalds, inflamafions, 
and burns, I saw several bushels thereon. The 
cattle are apt to eat of these buds, which give a 
yery odd taste to the milk. Beech is here fre- 


158 lawson'^ histo^t 

quent, and very large. The grain seems exactly 
tiie same as that in Europe. We make little use 
thereof, save for fire wood. 'Tis not a durable 
timber. It affords a very sweet nut, yet the pork 
fed thereon (though sweet) is very oily, and ought 
to be hardened with Indian com, before it is kill- 
ed. Another sort called buck beech is here found. 
Horn beam grows in some places very plentifully, 
yet the plenty of other wood makes it unregarded. 

The virtues of sassafras are well known in Eu- 
rope. This wood sometimes grows to be above 
two feet over, and is very durable and lasting, 
used for« bowls, timbers, post for houses, and oth- 
er things that require standing in the ground. 
'Tis very light. It bears a white .flower, which is 
very cleansing to the blood, being eaten in the 
crpring with other sallating. The berry, when 
ripe, ipi black ; 'tis very oily, carminative and ex- 
tremely prevalent in clysters for the colic. The 
bark of the root is a specific to those afflicted with 
the gripes. The same in powder, and a lotion 
fnade thereof, is much used by the savages to mun- 
dify old ulcers, and for several other uses, being 
highly esteemed among them. 

Dogwood is plentiful on our light land, incli- 
ning to a rich soil. It flowers the first in the 
woods ; its white blossom making the forest very 
beautiful. It has a fine. grain, and serves for sev- 
eral uses within doors, but is not durable. The 
bark of this root infused, is held an infallible reme- 
dy against the worms. 


Laurel, before mentioned ; as to its bigness and 
use, I have seen planks sawn of this wood, but 'tis 
not found durable in the weather, yet pretty enough 
for many other uses. 

Bay and laurel generally delight in a low, 
swampy ground. I know no use they make of 
them but for firewood, excepting what I poke of 
before, amongst the evergreens. 

A famous evergreen I must now mention, which 
was forgotten amongst the rest. It is in leaf like 
a jessamine, but larger and of a harder nature. 
This grows up to a large vine, and twists itself 
round the trees it grows near, making a very fine 
shade. I never saw any thing of that nature out 
do it, and if it be cut away close to the ground 
it will presently spring up again, it being impossi- 
ble to destroy it when once it has got root. 'Tis 
an ornamental plant and worth the transplanting. 
Its seed is a black berry. 

The scarlet trumpet vine bears a glorious red 
flower like a bell or trumpet, and makes a shade 
inferior to none that I ever saw ; yet it leaves us 
when the winter comes and remains naked till the 
next spring. It bears a large cod that holds its 

The may cock bears a glorious flower, and ap- 
ple of an agreeable sweet, mixt with an acid taste. 
This is also a summer vine. 

The indico grows plentifiilly in our quarters. 

The bay tulip tree is a fine evergreen which 
grows fipequently here. 

160 lawson's history 


The sweetgum tree, so called because of the 
fragrant gum it yields in the springtime upon in- 
cision of the bark or wood. It cures the herpes 
and inflamations, being applied to the morphew 
and tetters. 'Tis an extraordinary balsam, and 
of great value to those who know how to use it. 
No wood has scarce a better grain ; whereof fine 
tables, drawer8,and other furniture might be made. 
Some of it is curiously curled. It bears a round 
bur, with a sort of prickle, which is the seed. 

Of the black gum, there grows with us two sorts, 
both fit for cart naves. The one bears a black, 
well tasted berry, which the- Indians mix with 
their pulse and soups, it giving them a pretty fla- 
vor, and scarlet color. The beafs crop these trees 
^for. the berries, which they mightily covet, yet, 
killed in that season, they eat very unsavory, 
which tfixxst be occasioned by this fruit, because at 
other times, when they^ feed on mast, bears flesh 
is a very well tasted food. The other gum bears 
a berry in shape like the other, though bitter and 
ill tasted. This tree^ (the Indians report) is never 
wounded by lightning. It has no certain grain, 
and it is almost impossible to split or rive it. 

The white gum, bearing a sort of long bunched 
flowers, is the most curled and knotted wood I ev- 
er saw, which would make curious furniture in 
case it was handled by a good workman. The 
red sort of cedar is an evergreen of which Caroli- 
na affords plenty. That on the salts grows gene- 
rally on the sand banks, and that in the freshes is 


found in the swawps. Of this wood tables, wains- 
cot and other necessaries are made, and esteemed 
for its sweet smell. It is as durable a wood as any 
we have, therefore much used in posts for houses 
and sills; likewise, to build sloops, boards, &c., by 
reason the worm will not touch it for several 
years. The vessels built thereof are very durable, 
Ld good swimmers. Of this cedar ship lod^ 
may be exported. It has been heretofore so plen- 
tiful in this settlement, that they have fenced in 
plantations with it, and the coffins of the dead are 
generally made thereof. 

White cedar, so called because it nearly ap- 
proaches the other cedar in smell, bark and leaf ; 
only this grows taller, being as straight as an ar- 
row. It is extraordinary light and free to rive. 
Tie good for yard, top masts, booms and bolt- 
sprits, being very tough. The best shingles for 
houses are made of this wood, it being no strain 
to the roof and never rots. Good pails and other 
vessels free from .leakage, are likewise made 
thereof. The bark of this and the red cedar, the 
Indians use to make their cabins of, which prove 
firm -and resist all weathers. 

Cypress is not an evergreen with us, and 14 
therefore called the bald cypress, because the 
leaves, during the winter season turn red, not re- 
covering their verdure till the spring. These 
trees are the largest for height and thickness, that 
we have in this part of the world ; some of them 
holding thirty-six feet in circumference. Upon 

162 lawson's history 

incision they yield a sweet smelling grain, though 
not in great quantities ; and the nuts which these 
trees bear plentifully, yield a most odoriferous 
balsam, that infallibly cures all new and green 
wounds which the inhabitants are well acquainted 
withal. Of these great trees the pereaugus and 
canes are scooped and made, which sort of ves- 
sels are chiefly to pass over the rivers, creeks, and 
bays, and to transport goods and lumber from one 
river to another. Some are so large as to carry 
thirty barrels, though of one entire piece of tim- 
ber. Others that are split down the bottom and 
a piece added thereto, will carry eighty or an hun- 
dred. Several have gone out of our inlets on the 
ocean to Virginia, laden with pork and other pro- 
duce of the country. Of these trees curious boats 
for pleasure may be made, and other necessary 
craft. Some years ago a foolish man in Albemarl 
and his son had got one of these canoes decked. 
She held, as I take it, sixteen barrels. He brought 
her to the collectors to be cleared for Barbados, 
but the officer took him for a man that had lost 
his senses, and argued the danger and impossibil- 
ty of performing such a voyage in a hollow tree, 
J)ut the fellow would hearken to no advice of that 
kind, till the gentleman told him if he did iiot 
value his own life, he valued his reputation and 
honesty, and so flatly refused clearing him ; upon 
which the canoe was sold, and, I think, remains in 
being still. This wood is very lasting, and free 
from the rot. A canoe of it will outlast four boats, 


Und seldom wants repair. They say that a cjhest 
made of this wood will suffer ho moth or vermin 
to abide therein. 

The locust for its enduring the weather, is cho* 
sen for all sorts of work that are exposed thereto. 
It bears a leaf nearest the liquorice plant. Tis a 
pretty tall tree. Of this the Indians make their 
choicest bows, it being very tough and flexible. 
We have little or none of this wood in Pampti- 

The honey tree bears as great a resemblance to 
the locust, as a shallot does to an onion. It is of 
that species but more prickly. They bear a cod, 
one side whereof contains the seed, the other the 
honey. They will bear in five years from the ker- 
nel. They were first brought by the Indian tra- 
ders and propagated by their seed, at the Apamat- 
icks in Virginia. Last year I planted the seed, 
and had them sprung up before I came from 
thence, which was in August. Of the honey, very 
good metheglin is made, there being orchards 
planted in Virginia for tha* intent. 

The sorrel, or sowr wood tree, is so called be- 
cause the leaves taste like sorrelL Some are about 
a foot or ten inches diameter. I am unaqquain-. 
ted with its virtues at present. 

Of pines, there are in Carolina, at least^ four 
sorts. The pitch pine, growing to a great bigness, 
most commonly has but a short leaf. Its wood 
(being replete with abundance of bitumen) is so 
durable, that it seems to suffer no decay, though 

164 lawbon's histobt 

expoaed to all weathers, for many ages ; and is 
t^sed ia several domestic and plantation nses. 
This tree aftbrds the four great necessaries, pitch, 
t^, rosin and turpentine ; which two last ^e ex- 
t^cted t>y tapping and the heat of the sun, th^ 
other two by the heat of the fire. 

The white and yellow pines are sawed into plimka 
for several uses. They make masts, yards, and a 
great many other necessaries therewith, tho pine 
being the most useful tree in the woods. 

The almond pine serves for masts very well. 
As for the dwarf pine, it is for show alone, being 
an evergreen, as tliey all are. 

Tha hickory is of the walnut kind, and bears a 
BUt as they do, of which there are found three 
sorts. The first is that which we call the common 
white hickory. It is not a durable wood ; for if 
cut down and exposed to the weather, it will be 
quite rotten, and spoiled in three years, as will 
likewise the beech of this country. Hickory 
nuts have very hard shells, but excellent, sweet 
kernels, with which, in a plentiful year, the old 
hogs, that can crack them, fettten themselves, and 
make excellent pork. These nuts are gotten in 
great quanties, by the savages, and laid up for 
stores, of which they make several dishes and ban- 
quets. One of these I cannot forbear mention- 
ing ; it is this : they take these nuts, and break 
them very small betwixt two stones, till the shells 
and kernels are indifierent sinall ; and this pow- 
der you a^re presented withal in their cabins, in 


little wooden dishes ; the kernel dissolves in your 
mouth, and the shell is spit out. This tastes as 
well aa any almond. Another dish is the soup which 
they make of these nuts, beaten, and put into ven- 
ison broth, which dissolves the nut and thickens, 
whilst the shell precipitates, and remains at the 
bottom. This broth tastes very rich. There is 
another sort, which we call red hickory, the heart 
thereof being very red, firm and durable ; of which 
walking sticks, mortars, pestUs, and several other 
fine turnery wares are made ; the third is called 
the flying barked hickory, from its brittle and sca- 
ly bark. It bears a nut with a bitter kernel, and 
a soft shell, like a french walnut. Of this wood 
cogs for mills are made, &c. The leaves smell 
very firagrant. The walnut tree of America is call- 
ed black walnut. I suppose that name was, at 
first, to distinguish it from the hickories, it having 
a blacker bark. This tree grows in good land, to 
a prodigious bigness. The wood is very firm and 
durable, of which tables and chests of drawers are 
made, and prove very well. Some of tiiis is very 
knotty, which would make the best returns for 
England, though the masters of vessels refuse it, 
not understanding its goodness. Tis a very good 
and durable wood, to bottom vessels for the sea 
withal ; and they say that it is never eaten by the 
worm. The nuts have a large kernel, which is 
very oily, except lai& by, a long time, to mellow. 
The shell is very thick, as all the native nuts of 
America are. "When it has its yellow outward 



coat on, it looks and smells much like a lemon. 
The maple, of which we have two sorts, is used 
to make trenchers, spinning-wheels, &c., withal. 

Chinkapin is a sort of chesnut, whose nuts are 
most commonly very plentiful, insomuch that the 
hogs get fat with them. They are rounder and 
smaller than a chesnut, but much sweeter. The 
wood is much of the nature of chesnut, having a 
leaf and grain almost like it. It is used to limber 
boats, shallops, &c., and makes anything that is 
to endure the weather. This and the hickory are 
very tough rods, used to whip horses withal ; yet 
their wood in substance is very brittle. This tree 
the vine much delights to twist about. Its good 
firewood but very sparkling, as well as sassafras. 

The birch grows all on the banks of our rivers, very 
high up. I never saw a tree on the salts. It dif- 
fers something in bark, from the European birch. 
Its buds in April are eaten by the parrakeetos, 
which resort from all parts at that season to feed 
thereon. Where this wood grows we are not yet 
seated; and as to the wine or other profits it 
would yield, we are, at present, strangers to. 

The willow here likewise differs both in bark 
and leaf. It is frequently found on the banks of 
fresh water, as the birch is. 

The sycamore in these parts grows in a low, 
swampy land, by river sides. Its bark is quite 
different from the English, and the most beautiful 
I ever saw, being mottled and clouded with sever- 
al colors, as white, blue, &c. It bears nq keys 


but a bar like the sweet gam. Its ases I am ig- 
norant of. 

I never saw any aspin bat io Rapahannoek riv- 
er, from whence I brought one, (that was presen- 
ted me there as a great present) but it died by 
the way. 

Of Holly we have two sorts ; one having a large 
leaf, the other a smaller. They grow very thick 
in our low woods. Many of them are very straight 
and two feet diameter. They make good trench- 
ers and other turnery ware. 

The red bud tree bears a purple lark heel, and 
is the best sallad of any flower I ever saw. It is 
ripe in April and May. They grow in trees gene- 
rally small, but some are a foot diameter. 

Pelletory grows on the sand banks and islands. 
It is used to cure the toothache by putting a piece 
of the bark in the mouth, which being very hot 
draws a rhume* from the mouth, and causes much 
spittle. The iidians use it to make their compo- 
sition, which they give to their young men and 
boys when they are husquenawed, of which you 
shall hear farther When I come to treat of the cus- 
toms, &c., of that people. 

Arrowwood growing on the banks, is used by 
the Indians for-arrows and gun sticks. It growd 
as straight as if plrfned, and, is of all sizes. 'Tis 
BB tough and pliable as the smallest canes. 

The chestnut tree of Carolina grows up towards 
the hilly part thereof, is a vfery large and durable 
woo<}, and fit for house frames, palisado's sills, and 

168 lawson's history 

many other uses. The nut is smaller than those 
fipom Portugal, but sweeter. 

This is no tree but called the oak vine, by reason 
it bears a sort of bur as the oak does, and gene^ 
rally runs up those trees. It is so porous that you 
suck liquors through a length of two feet. 

Prickly ash grows up like a pole, of which the 
Indians and English make poles to set their canoes 
along in shoal water. It is very light, and full of 
thorns or prickles, bearing besries in large clus- 
ters of a purple color, not much unlike the Alder. 
The root of this tree is cathartic and emetic, used 
in cachexiea. 

The poison vine is so called because it colors 
the hands of those who handle it. What the ef- 
fects of it may be, I cannot relate, neither do I 
believe that any has made an experiment thereof. 
The juice of this will stain linen never to wash 
out. It marks a blackish blue color, which is 
done only by breaking a bit of the vine ofi^ and 
writing what you please therewith. I have thought 
that the East India natives set their eolois by 
some aueh means, into their finest calicoes. It 
runs up any tree it meets withal, and clasps round 
about It. The leaves are like hemlock, and fall 
off in winter. 

Of canes and reeds we have many sorts. The 
hollow reed or cane, such as angling rods are made 
of and weavers use, we have great plenty of, 
though none to the northward of James river in 
Virginia. They always grow in branches and low 


ground j tlieir leaves endure the winter, in which 
season our cattle eat them greedily. We have 
them (towarda the heads of our rivers) so large 
that one joint will hold above a pint of liquor. 

The small bamboo is next, which is a certain 
vine, like the rest of these species, growing in low 
land. They seldom, with us, grow thicker than 
a man's littie finger, and are very tough. Their 
root is a roxmd ball which the Indians boil as we 
do garden roots^ and eat them. When these roots 
have been sometime out of the ground tljiey be- 
come hard and make good heads to the cahes, on 
which several pretty figures may be cut. There 
are several others of this kind, not thoroughly dis- 

That palmeto grows with us which we call the 
dwarfish sort, but the palmeto tree I have not yet 
met withal in North. Carolina, of which you have 
a description elsewhere. We. shall next treat of 
the spontaneous fruits of this country ; and then 
proceed to those that have been transplanted from 
Europe and g&ibt parteu 

Among the natural fruits, the vine first takes 
place,, of whieh I find six sorts, very well known. 
The first is the black bunch grapes which yield a 
crimson juice. These grow common and bear 
plentifully, they are of a good relish, though not 
^g^ y^t well knit in the dusters. They have a 
thickish skin and large stone, whieh makea them 
not yield much juice. There is another sort of 
black grapes like the former in all respects, save 


that their juice is of a light flesh color, inclining to 
a white. I once saw a spontaneous white bunch 
grape in Carolina ; but the cattle browzing on the 
sprouts thereof in the spring it died. Of those 
which we call fox grapes, we have four sorts ; two 
whereof are called summer grapes, because ripe 
in July ; the other two winter fruits, because not 
ripe till September or October. The summer fox 
grapes grow not in clusters or great bunches, but 
are about five or six in a bunch, about the bigness 
of a damson or larger. The black sort are fre- 
quent, the white not so commonly found. They 
alwayL grow in swamps and low, moist lands, run- 
ning sometimes very high and being shady, and 
therefore proper for arbours. They aftbrd the lar- 
gest leaf I ever saw to my remembrance, the back 
of which is of a white horse flesh color. This 
fruit always ripens in the shade. I have trans^ 
planted them into my orchard and find they thrive 
well, if manured. A neighbor of mine has done 
the same ; mine were by slips, his from the roots, 
which thrive to admiration, and bear fruit, though 
not so juicy, as the European grape, but of a glu- 
tinous nature. However it is pleasant enoifgh to 

The other winter fox grapes are mnch of the 
same bigness. These refuse no ground, swampy 
or dry, but grow plentifully on the sand hills along 
the sea coast and elsewherf , and are great bearers. 
I have seen near twelve bushels upon one vine' of 
the black sort. Some of these, when thoroughly 


ripe, have a very pretty vinous taste and eat very 
well, yet are glutinous. The white sort are clear 
and transparent, q,nd indifferent small stones. Be- 
ing removed by the slip or root, they thrive well 
in our gardens, and make pleasant shades. 

Persimmons is a tree that agrees with all lands and 
soils. Their fruit, when ripe, is nearest our med- 
lar ; if eaten before, draws your mouth up like a 
purse, being the greatest astringent I ever met 
withal, therefore very useful in some cases. The 
fruit if ripe, will presently cleanse a foul'wound 
that cause pain. The fruit is rotten, when ripe, 
and commonly contains four flat kernels, call- 
ed stones, which is the seed. 'Tis said the 
cortex peruvianus comes from a persimmon tree 
hat grotws in New Spain. I have tried the 
drying of this bark, to imitate it, which it does 
tolerably well, and agrees therewith. It is bind- , 
\ng enough to work the same effect. The tree 
in extraordinary land, comes sometimes to two 
feet diameter, though not often. There are two 
sorts of this fruit; one ripe in summer, the oth- 
er when the frost visits us. 

We have three sorts of mulberries, besides the 
different bigness of some trees' fruit. The first is 
the common red mulberry, whose fruit is the ear- 
liest we have (except the strawberries) and very 
sweet. These trees make a very fine shade to sit 
under in summer time. They are found wild in* 
great quantities, wherever the land is light and 
rich ; yet their fruit is much ^better when they 

172 lawson's history 

stand open^ They are used instead of raisina and 
currants, and make several pretty kirkshaws. 
They yidd a transparent crinion Uquor, which 
would make good wine ; but few people's incli- 
nationa in this country tend that way. The others 
are a smooth leaved mulberry, fit for the silk worm. 
One bears a white fruit, which is common ; the 
other bears a small black berry, very sweet. They 
would persuade me there, that the black mulberry 
with the silk worm smooth leaf, was a white mul- 
berry, and changed its fruit. The wood hereof is 
very durable, and where the Indians cannot get 
locust, they make use of this to make their bows. 

This tree grows extraordinary round and plea^ 
sant to the eye. 

The hickory, walnut, chinkapin, and chesnut, 
with their fruits, we have mentioned before. 

The hazle nut grows plentifully in some places 
of this country, especially towards the mountains ; 
but ours are not so good as the English nuts, hav- 
ing a much thicker shell (like all the fruits of 
America, that I have met withal) which in hard- 
ness exceeds those in Europe. / 

The cherries of the woods grow to be very large 
trees. One sort which is rarely found, is red, and 
not much unlike the cornel berry. But the com- 
mon cherry grows high and in bunches^ like Eng- 
lish currants, but much larger. They are of a bit- 
terish, sweet relish, and are equally valuable with 
our small black cherries for an infusion in spirits. 

Th^yyield acrimsonliquor andare great bearers. 


Our raaberries af e of a purple eolor, and agree* 
able relishy almoet like the English ; but I reckon 
them not quite go rich. When once planted, tia 
hard to root them out. They run wild all over 
the eountrjy and will bear the same year you 
transplant them, as I have found by experience. 

The htirts, buckle berries, or blues of this coun- 
try, are four sorts, which we are well acquainted 
withal ; but more specie's of this sort, and all oth- 
ers, time and enquiry must discover. The first 
sort is the same blue or bilberry, that grows plen- 
tifully in the Qorth of England, and in other pla- 
ces, commonly on your heaths, commons, and 
woods, where brakes or fern grows. 

The seoond sort grows on a small bush in our 
savannas and meads, and in the woods. They 
are larger than the common fruit, and have larger 

The third grows on the single stem of a stick 
that grows in low good land, and on the banks 
of rivers. They grow three or four feet high, and 
are very pleasant, like the first sort, but larger. 

The fourth sort grows upon trees, some ten and 
twelve feet high, and the thickness of a man's 
arm ; these are found in the runs and low grounds, 
and are very pleasant and bear wonderfully. The 
English sometimes dry them in the sun, and keep 
them to use in winter, instead of currants. The 
Indians get many bushels and dry them on mats, 
whereof they make plum bread, and many other 
eatables. They are good in tarts, or infused in 

174 lawson's histo&y 

In the same ground, commonly grows the pie- 
mento, or allspice tree, whose berries differ in 
shape from those in the West Indies, being taper 
or conick, yet not inferior to any of that sort. 
This tree grows much like the hurts, and is of the 
same bigness. I have known it transplanted to 
the high land, where it thrives. 

Our dew berries are very good, but the black 
berries are bitterish, and not so palatable, as in 

The sugar tree ought to have taken place before. 
It is found in no other parts of Carolina or Amer- 
ica, that I ever learned, but in places that are near 
the mountains. It is most like one sort of maple 
of any tree, and may be ranked amongst that 
kind. This tree, which I am told, is of very te- 
dious growth, is found verjr plentifully towards 
the heads of some of our rivers. The Indians tap 
it and make gourds to receive the liquor, which ope- 
ration is done at distinct and proper times, when it 
best yields it« juice, of which, when the Indians have 
gotten enough, they carry it home, and boil it to 
a just consistency of sugar, which grains of itself, 
and serves for the same uses, as other sugar does. 

The papau is not a large tree. I think I never 
saw one a foot through; but has the broadest leaf 
of any tree in the woods, and bears an apple about 
the bigness of a hens egg, yellow, soft, and as 
sweet as any thing can well be. They make rare 
puddings of this fruit. The apple contains a large 


The wild fig grows in Virginia, up in the moun- 
tains, as I am informed by a gentleman of my ac- 
quaintance, who is a person of credit, and a great 
traveler in America. I shall be glad to have an 
opportunity to make trial what improvement 
might be made of this wild fruit. 

The wild Plums of America are of several sorts. 
Those which I can give account of from my own 
knowledge, I will, and leave the others till a far- 
ther discovery. The most frequent is that which we 
call the common Indian Plum, of which there are 
two sorts, if not more. One of thme is ripe much 
sooner than the other, and differs in the bark ; one 
of the barks being very scaly, Uko our American 
Birch. These trees, when in blossom, smell as 
sweet as any jessamine, and look as white as a 
sheet, being something prickly. You may make 
it grow to what shape you please ; they are very 
ornamental about a house, and make a wonderful 
fine show at a distance, in the spring, because of 
their white livery. Their fruit is red, and very 
palatable to the sick. They are of a quick growth, 
and will bear from the stone in five years, on their 
stock. The English, large black plum thrives 
well, as does the cherry, being grafted thereon. 

The American damsons are both black and white 
and about the bigness of an European damson. 
They grow anywhere if planted from the stone or 
slip ; bear a white blossom, and are a good fruit. 
They are found on the sand banks ail along the 
coast of America. I have planted several in my 


orchard, that come from the stone, which thrive 
well amongst the rest of my trees, but they never 
grow to the bigness of the other trees now spoken 
of. These are plentiful bearers. 

There is a third sort of plum about the big- 
ness of the damsons. The tree is taller, seldom 
exceecQng ten inches in thickness. The plum 
seems to taste physically, yet I never found any 
operation it had, except to make their lips sore, 
that eat them. The wood is something porous, 
but exceeds any box, for a beautiful yellow. 

There is a v^ pretty, bushy tree, about seven 
or eight feet high^ very spreading, which bears a 
winter fruit, that is ripe in October. They call 
them currants, but they are nearer a hurt ; I have 
eaten very pretty tarts made thereof. They dry 
them instead of currants. This bush is very beau- 

The Bermudos currants grow in the woods on 
a bush, much Uke the European curraat. Some 
people eat them very much; but for my part, I 
can see nothing inviting in them, and reckon them 
a very indifferent fruit. 

We have another currant, which grows on the 
banks of rivers, or where only clay hath been 
thrown up. This fruit is red, and gone almost as 
soon as come. They are a pretty fruit whilst they 
last, and the tree (for tis not a bush) they grow 
upon, is a very pleasant vegetable. 

The hawthorn grows plentifully in some parts 
of this country. The hawa are quite different 
from those in England, being four times as big, 


and of a yeiy pleasant agreeable taste. We make 
no use of this plant, nor any other, for hedges, 
because timber is so plentiful at present. In my 
judgement, the honey locust would be the fittest 
for hedges ; because it is very apt to shoot forth 
many sprouts and succors from the roots, besides, 
it is of a quick growth, and very prickly. 

The black haw grows on a slender tree, abottt 
the height of a quince tree, or sometMng higher, 
and bears the black haw, which people eat, and 
the birds covet also. What virtues the fruit or 
wood is of, I cannot resolve you at present. 

Thus have I given an account of all the sponta- 
neous fruits of Cai*o]ina, that have come to my 
knowledge, excepting services, which I have seen 
in the Indians' hands and eat of them, but never 
saw how, nor where they grow. There may very 
well be expected«a great many more fruits, whidi 
are the natural product of this country, when we 
consider the frnitfiilnesB of the soil and climate, 
and account for the vast tract of land, (great part 
of which is not yet found out) according to the 
product of that which is already discovered, which, 
as I once hinted before^ is not yet arrived to our 
knowledge, we having very little or no correspon- 
dence amongst the mountainous parts of this pro- 
vince, and towards the ooimtry of Missiasippi, all 
which we have strange accounts of, and some vei^ 
large ones, with respect to the different and noble 
. fruits, and several other ornaments and blessings of 
nature which Missiasippi possesses ; more to be 


coveted, than any of those we enjoy, to the east- 
ward of the mountains. Yet when I came to dis- 
course some of the idolizers of that country, I 
found it to be rather novelty than truth and real- 
ity, that induced those persons to allow it such ex- 
cellencies above others. It may be a brave and 
fertUe country, as I believe it is ; but I cannot be 
persuaded that it can be near so advantageous 
as ours, which is much better situated for trade, 
being faced all along with the ocean, as the Eng- 
lish America is ; when the other is only a direct 
river, in the midst of a wild unknown land, great- 
est part of whose product must be fetched, or 
brought a great way, before it can come to a mar- 
ket, moreover, such great rivers commonly allow 
of more princes' territories than one, and thus 
nothing but war and contention accompanies the 
inhabitants thereof. # 

But not to trouble our readers with any more of 
this, we will proceed, in the next place, to show, 
what exotic fruits we have, that thrive well in 
Carolina, and what others it may reasonably be 
supposed would do there, were they brought 
thither and planted. In pursuance of which I 
will set down a catalogue of what fruits we have ; 
I mean species, for should I pretend to give a reg- 
ular niame to every one, it's neither possible lor 
me to do it, nor for any one to understand it when 
done, if we consider that the chiefest part of oup 
fruit came from the kernel, and some others from 


the succors, or sprouts of the tree. First, we will 
begiu with the apples, which are the 

Golden Russet, 

^^-^ { l:^r. 

Harvey Apple. I cannot tell, whether 

the same as in England. 
Winter Queening, 
Leather Coat, 
Long Stalk, 
Lady Finger. 

The Q-olden Russet thrives well. 

The Pearmains of both sots, are apt to speck 
and rot on the trees ; and the trees are damaged 
and cut off by the worm, iKrhich brefeds in the 
forks and other parts thereof; and often makes a 
eircumposition, by destroying the bark round the 
branches till it dies. 

Harvey apple — ^that which we call so, is esteem- 
ed v^ry good to make cider of. 

Winter Queening is a durable apple, and makes 
good cider. ^ 

Leather Coat — ^both apple and tree stand well. 

The Juniting is early ripe, and soon gone in 
these warm countries. 

180 LAWSOK*S ttlStORY 

Codliii — ^no better and fairer fruit in the world ; 
yet the tree suffers the same distemper as the 
Pearmains, or rather worse ; the trees always dy- 
ing before they come to their growth. 

The Redstreak thrives very well. 

Long Stalk is a large apple with a long stalk, 
and makes good summer cider. 

We beat the first of our Oodlin cider against 
reaping our wheat, which is from the tenth of June 
to the five and twentieth. 

Lady Finger, the long apple, the same as in 
England and full as good. We have innumera- 
ble sorts ; some called Rope apples, which are 
small apples, hanging like ropes of onions ; Flat- 
tings, Grigsons, Cheese-apples and a great number 
of names, given according to every one's discretion. 

The Warden Pear here proves a good eating 
pear, and is not so long ripening as in Eng- 

Katharine, eitcellent. 

Sugar Pear. 

And several others without nftme. The Bergft- 
mot we have not, nor either of the Bonne Chresti- 
ennes, though I hear they are all three in Virginia. 
Those sorts of pears which we have, are as well 
relished as ever I eat any where. But Ihat fruit 
is of very short continuance with us, for they are 
gone almost as soon as ripe. 

I am not a judge of the different sorts of quin- 
ces, which they call Brunswick, Portugal and 
Barbary ; but as to the fruit in general, I believe 


no place has fairer and better relish. They are 
very pleasant eaten raw. Of this fruit, they make 
a wine, or liquor, which they-call quince drink, and 
which I approve of beyond a*iy drink which that 
country aflbrds, though a great deal <3f cider and 
sonae perry is there made. The quince drink most 
commonly purges those that first drink it and 
cleanses the body very well. The arguments of the 
physicians, that they bind people is hereby contra- 
dicted, unless we allow the quinces to differ in the 
two countries. The least slip of this tree stuck in 
the ground, comes to bear in three years. 

All peaches with us are standing ; neither have 
we any wall truit in Carolina, for we have heat 
enough, and therefore do not require it» We have 
a great many sorts of thi^ fruit, which all thrive 
to admiration, peach trees coming to perfection, 
with us, as easily as the weeds. A peach falling 
to the ground brings a peach tree that shall bear 
in three years, or sometimes sooner. Eating peach- 
es in our orchards makes them come up so thick 
from the kernel, that we are forced to take a great 
deal of care to weed them out, etherise they 
make our land a wilderness of peach tress. They 
* generally bear 90 ftiU that they break great part 
of their limbs down. We have likewise very fair 
nectarines, especially the red, that clings to the 
stone ; the other yellow fruit, that leaves the stone. 
Of the last, I have a tre6^ that most years brings 
me fifteen or twenty bushels. I see no foreign 
fruit like this, for thriving in all sorts of land, and 


182 lawson's history 

bearing its fruit to admiration. I want to be sat- 
isfied about one sort of this fruit, which the In- 
dians claim as their own, and affirm they had 
it growing amongst them before any Europeans 
came to America. The fruit I will describe as ex- 
actly as I can. The tree grows very large, most 
commonly a& big as a handsome apple tree ; the 
flowers are of a redish, murrey color, the fruit is 
rather more downy than the yellow peach, and 
commonly very large and soft, being very full of 
juice. They part freely from the stone, and 
the stone is much thicker than all the other peach 
stones we have, which seems to me that it is a 
spontaneous fruit of America ; yet in those parts 
of America that we inhabit, I never could hear 
that any peach trees were ever found growing in 
the woods ; neither have the foreign Indians, that 
live remote from the English, any other sort. And 
those living amongst us have a hundred of this 
sort for one other. They are a hardy fruit, and 
are seldom damaged by the north-east blast, as 
others are. Of this sort we make vinegar ; where- 
fore we- call them vinegar peaches, and sometimes 
Indian peaches. 

This tree grows to a vast bigness, exceeding 
most apple trees. They bear well, though some- 
times an early spring comes on in February, and 
perhaps when the tre^ is ftiUy blown, the cloudy, 
north-east winds, which attend the end of that 
month, or the beginning of March, destroy most 
of the fruit. The bigest apricot tree I ever saw, 


as they told me, was grafted on a peach stock in 
the ground. I know of no other sort with us, 
than the common. We generally raise this fruit 
from the stone, which never fails to bring the same 
fruit. Likewise our peach stones effect the same, 
without so much as once missing to produce the 
same sort that the stone came from. 

Damson, damazeen, and a large, round black 
plum are all I have met withal in Carolina. They 
thrive well enough ; the last to admiration, and 
becomes a very large tree, if in stiff ground; oth- 
erwise they will not do well. 

Of figs we have two sorts. One is the low 
bush fig, which bears a large fruit. If the winter 
happens to have much frost, the tops thereof die, 
and in the spring sprout again, and bear two or 
three good crops. 

The tree fig is a lesser fig, though very sweet. 
The tree grows to a large body and shade, and 
generally brings a good burden ; especially if in 
light land ; this tree thrives no where better than 
on the sand banks by the sea. 

We have the common, red and black cherry, 
which bear well. I never saw any grafted in this 
country, the common excepted, which was grafted 
on an Indian plum stock, and bore well. This is 
a good way, because our common cherry trees are 
very apt to put scions all around the tree for a 
great distance, which must needs be prejudicial to 
the tree and fruit. Not only our cherries are apt 
to do so, but our apples and most other fruits 

184 laWson's history 

trees, which may chiefly be imputed to the negh- 
gence and unskillfulness of the gardner. Our 
cherries are ripe a month sooner than in Virginia. 

Gooseberries I have Been of the smaller sort, 
but find they do not do so well as in England, 
and to the northward. Want of dressing may be 
some reason for this. 

Currants, white, red, and black, thrive here, as 
well as any where. 

Rasberries, the red and white, I never saw any 
trial made of. But there is no doubt of their 
thriving to admiration, since those of the country 
do so well. 

The mulberries are spontaneous. We have no 
others than what I have already mentioned in the 
class of natural fruits of Carolina. 

Barberry red, with stones, and without stones, 
grow here. 

Strawberries, not foreign, but those of the coun- 
try, grow here in great plenty. Last April I 
planted a bed of two hundred feet in length, which 
bore the same year. 

Medlars we have none. 

All sorts of walnuts jfrom England, France and 
Maderas thrive well from the nut. 

No filberts, but hazle nuts ; the filbert nut plan- 
ted, becomes a good hazle nut, and no better. 

As for that noble vegetable, the vine, without 
doubt, it may (in this country) be improved, and 
brought to the same perfection, as it is, at this 
day, in the same latitude in Europe, since the 


chiefest part of this country is a deep, rich, black 
mould, whicli is up towards the freshes and heads 
of our rivers, being very rich and mixed with 
flint, pebbles, and other stones. And this sort of 
soil is approved of by all knowing gardners and 
vigneroons, as a proper earth, in which the grape 
chiefly delights ; and what seems to give farther 
confi.nnation hereof, is that the largest vines that 
were ever discovered to grow wild, are found in 
those parts, oftentimes in such plenty, and are so 
interwoven with one another, that tis impossible 
to pass through them. Moreover, in these freshes, 
towards the hills, the vines are above five times 
bigger than those generally with us, who are seat- 
ed, in the front parts of this country, adjoining to 
the salts. Of the wild vines, which are most of 
them great bearers, some wine has been made, 
which I drank of. It was very strong and well rel- 
ished, but what detains them all from offering at 
great quantities, they add, that this grape has a 
large stone, and a thick skin, and consequently 
yields but a small quantity of wine. Some essayi 
of this nature have been made by that honorable 
knight, sir Nathaniel Johnson, in South Carolina, 
who, as I am informed, has rejected all exotic 
vines, and makes his wine from the natural black 
grape of Carolina, by grafting it upon its own 
stock. What improvement this may arrive to I 
cannot tell ; but in other species, I own grafting 
lind imbudding yields speedy fruit, though I never 
foiind tl)iat it made them better. 


New planted colonies are generally attended 
with a force, and necessity of planting the known 
and approved* staple and product of the country, 
as well as all the provisions their families spend. 
Therefore we can entertain but small hopes of the 
improvement of the vine, till some skillful in dres- 
sing vines shall appear amongst us, and go about 
it, with a resolution, that ordering the vineyard 
shall be o«e half of their employment. If this be 
begun, and carried on, with that assiduity and re- 
solution which it requires, then we may reasonably 
hope to see this a wine country ; for then, when 
it becomes a general undertaking ; every one will 
be capable to add something to the common stock, 
of that which he has gained by his own e3q)erience. 
This way would soon make the burden light, and a 
great many shorter and exacter curiosities, and real 
truths would be found out in a short time. The 
trimming of vines, as they do in France, that is, 
to a stump, must either here be not followed, or 
we are not sensible of the exact time, when they 
ought to be thus pruned; for experience has 
taught us, that the European grape, suffered to run 
and expand itself at large, has been found to bear, 
as well in America as it does in Europe ; when at 
the same time, the same sort of vine trimmed to 
a stump, as before spoken of, has born a a poor crop 
for one year or two ; and by its spilling, after cut- 
ting, emaciated, and in three or four years died. 
This experiment, I believe has never failed ; fer 
I have trimmed the natural vine the French way, 


which has been attended at last, with the same 
fate. Wherefore, it seems most expedient, to 
leave the vines more branches here, than in Eu- 
rope, or let them run up trees, as some do, in 
liOmbardy, upon ehns. The mulberrfes and chin- 
kapin are toDgh, a&dtrimmea to whatyouplease, 
therefore fit supporters of the vines. Gelding and 
plucking away the leaves, to hasten the ripening 
of this fruit, may not be unnecessary, yet we see 
the natural wild grape generally ripens in the 
shade. Ifature in this, luid many others, may 
prove a sure guide. The twisting of the stems to 
make the grapes ripe together, loses no juice, and 
may be beneficial, if done in season. A very in- 
genious French gentlemen, and another from 
Switzerland, with whom I frequently converse, 
exclaim against that strict cutting of vines, the 
generally approved methed of Prance and Germa- 
ny, and say, that they were both out in their judg- 
ment, till of late, experience has thaught them 
otherwise. Moreover, the French in North Car- 
olina assure me, that if we should trim our apple 
and other fruit trees, as they do in Europe, we 
should spoil them. As for s^ples and plums, I 
have found by experience, what they affirm to be 
true. The French, from the Mannakin town or 
freshes of James river in Virginia, had, for the 
most part, removed themselves to Carolina, to live 
there, before I came away ; and the rest were fol- 
lowing, as their minister, (Monsieur Philip de 
Eixbourg) told me, who was at Bath town, >vhen 

188 lawson's history 

I was taking my leave of my friends. He assured 
me, that their intent was to propagate vines, as 
far as their present circumstances would permit ; 
provided they could get any slips of vines, that 
would do. At the ||ame time I had gotten some 
grape seed, which was of the Jesuits white grape 
from Madera. The seed came up very plentiful- 
ly, and, I hope, will not degenerate, which if it 
happens hot to do, the seed may prove the best 
way to raise a vineyard, as certainly it is most easy 
for transportation. Yet I reckon we should have 
our seed from a country, where the grape arrives 
to the utmost perfection of ripeness. These 
French refuges have had small encouragement in 
Virginia, because, at their first coming over, they 
took their measures of living, from Europe ; which 
was all wrong ; for the small quantities of ten, fif- 
teen, and twenty acres to a family did not hold 
out according to their way of reckoning, by reason 
they made very little or no fodder ; and the win- 
ter there being much harder than with us, their 
cattle foiled ; chiefly, because the English took up- 
and surveyed all the land round about them ; so 
that they were hemmed in on all hands from pro- 
viding more land for themselves or their children, 
all which is highly prejudicial in America, where 
the generality are bred up to planting. One of 
these French men being a fowling, shot a fowl in 
the river, upon which his dog went down the bank 
to bring it to his master ; but the bank was so 
high and steep that he could not get up again. 


Thereupon the French man went down to help 
his dog up, and breaking the mould away acci- 
dentally with his feet, he discovered a very rich 
coal mine. This adventure he gave an account of 
amongst the neighborhood, and presently one of 
the gentlemen of that part surveyed the land, and 
the poor French man got nothing by his discovery. 
The French are good neighbors amongst us, and 
give examples of industry, which is much wanted 
in this country. They make good flax, hemp, 
linen cloth and thread, which they exchange 
amongst the neighborhood for other commodities 
for which they have occasion. 

We have hitherto made no trial of foreign her- 
bage ; but doubtless it would thrive well, espe- 
cially sanfoin, and those grasses that endure heat 
and dry ground. As for our low lands, such as 
marshes, savannas and pocoson ground, which 
lies low, all of them naturally afford good land 
for pasturage. 

We will next treat of the beasts which you shall 
have an account o:^ as they have been discovered. 


190 lawson's history 

the beasts of carolina are the 

Buffelo, or wild beef. 




Wild cat. 






Musk rat. 




Water rat. 

Rabbet, two sorts. 



Fallow deer. 

Squirrel, four sorts. 


Lion and jackall on the lake. 

Rats, two sorts. 

Mice, two sorts. 

Moles. • 

Weasel, dormouse. 


The buflfelo" is a wild beast of America, which 
has a bunch ou his back as tibie cattle of St. Lau- 

01^ I^OEtH CAROLINA. 191 

t^nce &te said to have. He seldom appears 
amongst the English inhabitants, his chief haunt 
being in the land of Messiasippi, which is, for the 
most part, a plain country ; yet I have .known 
some killed on the hilly part of Cape Fair river, they 
passing the ledges of vast mountains £rom the 'said 
Messiafiippi, before they can' come near us. I 
have eaten of their meat> but do not think it so 
j^ood as our beef; yet the younger calves are cried 
up for excellent food, as very likely they may be* 
It is conjectured that these bufielos, mixt in 
breed with our tame cattle, would much better 
the breed for largeness and milk, which seems 
very probable. Of the wild buirsskin buff is made. 
The Indians cut the skins into quarters for the 
^e^ase of their transportation, and makes beds to 
lie on. They spin the hair into garters, girdles, 
sashes, aad the like, it being long, and curled, and 
often of a ckesnut or red color. These monsters 
are found to weigh ^as I am informed by a travel- 
er of credit) from one thousand six hundred to 
two thousaad four hundred weights 

The bears here are very common, though uot 
80 large as in Greenland, and the more northern 
countries of Russia. The flesh of this b^ast is 
very good and nourishing,, and not inferior to the 
best pork in taste* It stsuids. bc^twixt. beef, and 
pork, a^d the young cubs are a (Ush for the grea- 
test epicure living. I prefer their flesh before any 
beef, veal, pork or mutton, and they look as well 
as they eat, their fat being as white as snow and 

192 lawson's history 

the sweetest of any creatures in the world. If a 
man drink a quart thereof, melted, it never will 
rise in his stomach. We prefer it above all things 
to fry fish and other things in. Those that are 
strangers to it may judge otherwise, but I who 
have eaten a great deal of bear's flesh in my life time 
(since my being an inhabitant in America) do 
think it equalizes, if not excels any meat I ever 
eat in Europe. The bacon made thereof is extra- 
ordinary meat ; but it must be well saved, other- 
wise it will rust. This creature feeds upon all 
sorts of wild fruits. When herrings run, which 
is in March, the flesh of such of those bears as eat 
thereof, is naught all that season, and eats filthily. 
Neither is it good when he feeds on gum berries, 
as I intimated before. They are great devourers 
of acorns, and oftentimes meet the iwine in the 
woods, which they kill and eat, especially when 
they are hungry and can find no other food. Now 
and then they get into fidids of Indian com or 
maiz, where they make a &ad havock, spoiling ten 
times as much as they eat. The potatos of this 
country are so agreeable to them, that they never 
fail to sweep them all clean if they chance to come 
in their way. They are seemingly a very clumsy 
creature, yet are very nimble in running up trees 
and traversing every limb thereof. When they 
come down they run tail foremost. At catching 
of herrings, they are most expert fishers. They 
sit by the creek sides, (which are very narrow) 
where the fish run in, and there they take them 


up as fast as it is possible they can dip their paws 
into the water. There is one thing more to be 
considered of this creature, which is, that no man, 
either christian or Indian, has ever killed a she 
bear with young. 

It is supposed that the she bears, after concep- 
tion, hide themselves in some secret and undiscov- 
erable place till they bring forth their young, 
which, in all probability, cannot be long ; other- 
wise the Indians, who hunt the woods like dogs, 
would, at some time or other, have found them 
out. Bear hunting is a great sport in America, 
both with the English and Indians. Some years 
ago there were killed five hundred bears in two 
counties of Virgmia m one winter, and but two 
she bears amongst them all, which were not with 
young, as I told you of the rest. The English 
have a breed of dogs fit for this sport, about the 
size of farmers' curs^ and, by practice, come to 
know the scent of a bear, which as soon as they 
have found, they run him by the nose till they 
come up with him and then bark and snap at him 
till he txees, when the huntsman shoots him out 
of the trees, there being, for the most part, two or 
three with guns, lest the first should miss or not 
quite kill him. Though they are not naturally 
voracious, yet they are very fieree when wounded. 
The dogs often bring him to a bay when wounded, 
and then the huntsixuen make other shots, perhaps 
with the pistols that are stuck in their girdles. If 
a dog is apt to fsusten and run into a bear, he is 

194 LAW80N*S HiStOItt 

not good, for the best dog ia Europe is notliing 
in their paws ; but if ever they get him in their 
clutches, they blow his skin from his flesh like a 
bladder, and often kill him ; or if he recovers it 
he is never good for anything after. As the paws 
of this creature are held for the best bit about him, 
«o is the head esteemed the worst, and always 
thrown away, for wliat reason I know not. I be- 
lieve none ever made trial thereof, to know how 
it eats* The oil of the bear is very sovereign for 
strains, aches and old pains. The fine fur at the 
bottom of the belly is used for making hats, in 
some places the fur itself is fit for several uses, as 
for making muffs, facing caps, &c., but the black 
cub skin is preferable to. all sorts of that kind for 
mufiis. Its grain is like hog skin. 

The panther is of the cat kind, about the height 
of a very large grey hound of a reddish color, the 
same as a lion. He climbs trees with the greatest 
agility imaginable, is very strong limbed, catching 
a piece of meat from any creature he strikes at. 
His tail is exceeding long; his eyes look very 
fierce and lively, are large aad of a grayish color ; 
his prey is swine's flesh, deer, or anything he can 
take ; no creatm*e is so nice and clean as this in 
his food. When he has got his prey he fills his 
belly with the ilaughter and carefully lays up the 
remainder, covering it veiy neatly with leaves, 
which if anything touches, .he never eats any more 
of it. He purrs as cats do ; if taken when young 
is never to be reclaimed firom his wild nature* . He 

0^ iJORTfl CAROLINA, 195 

hollows like a man in the Woods when killed, 
which is by making him take a tree, as the least 
cur will presently do ; then the huntsmen shoot 
him ; if they do not kill him outright, he is a dan- 
gerous enemy when wounded, especially to the 
dogs that approach him. This beast is the grea- 
test enemy to the planter of any vermine in Car* 
olina. His flesh looks as well as any shambles 
meat whatsoever ; a great many people eat him 
as choice fpod, but I never tasted of a panther, so 
cannot commend the meat by my own experience* 
His skin is a warm f^overing for the Indians in 
winter, though not esteemed amongst the choice 
furs. This skin dressed, m,akes fine women's shoes 
or men's gloves. 

The mountain cat, so called, because he lives in 
the mountainous parts of America. He is a beast 
of prey, as the panther is, and nearest to him in 
bigness and nature. 

This cat is quite different from those in Europe ; 
being more nimble and fierce, and larger ; his tail 
does not exceed four inches. He makes a very 
odd sort of cry in the woods, in the night. He is 
spotted as the leopard is, tho' some of them are 
not, (which may happen, when their furs are out 
of season) he climbs a tree very dexterously, and 
prfsys as the panther does. He is a ^eat destroy- 
er of young swine. I knew an island, which was 
possessed by these vermine, unknown to the plan*- 
ter, who put thereon a considerable stock of swine ; 
but never took one back, for the wild cats destroy* 

196 lawson's history 

ed them all. He takes most of his prey by sur- 
prise, getting up the trees, which they pass by qt 
under, and thence, leaping directly upon them. 
Thus he takes deer (which he can . not catch by 
running) and fastens his teeth into their shoulders 
and sucks them. They run with him, till they 
faU down for want of strength, and become a prey 
to the enemy. Hares, birds, and all he meets, 
that he can conquor, he destroys. The fur is ap- 
proved to wear as a stomacher, for weak and cold 
stomachs. They are likewise used to line muffs 
and coats withal in cold climates. 

The wolf of Carolina, is the dog of the woods. 
The Indians had no other curs, before the chris- 
tians came amongst them. They are made do- 
mestic. When wild they are neither so large nor 
fierce as the European wolf. They are not man 
slayers, neither is any creature in Carolina unless 
wounded. They go in great droves in the night 
to hunt deer, which they do as well as the best 
pack of hounds. Nay, one of these will hunt 
down a deer. They are often so poor that they 
can hardly run. When ihey catch no prey, they 
go to a swamp and fiU their belly full of mud ; if 
afterwards they chance to get any thing of flesh, 
they will disgorge the mud and eat the other. 
When they hunt in the night that there is a great 
many together, they make the most hideous and 
frightful noise that ever was heard. The fur makes 
good muffs. The akin dressed to a parchment 


makes the best drum heads, and if tanned makes 
the best sort of shoes for the summer countries. 

Tigers are never met withal in the settlement, 
but are more to the westward, and are not numer- 
ous on this side the chain of mountains. I once 
saw one that was larger than a panther, and seem- 
ed to be a very bold creature. The Indians that 
hunt in those quarters, say they are seldom met 
withal. It seems to differ from the tiger of Asia 
and Africa. 

Polcats or skunks in America are different from 
those in Europe. They are thicker and of a great 
many colors, not all alike, but each differing from 
another in the particular color. They smell like 
a fox but ten times stronger. "When a dog en- 
counters them, they '^Is upon him, and he will 
not be sweet again in a fortnight or more. The 
Indians love to eat their flesh which has no man- 
ner of ill smell when the bladder is out. I know 
no use their furs are put to. They are easily 
brought up tame. 

There have been seen some otters from the 
westward of Carolina, which were of a white color, 
a little inclining to a yellow. They live on the 
same prey here as in Europe, and are the same in 
all other respects, so I shall insist no farther on 
that creature, their furs, if black, are valuable. 

Severs are very numerous in Carolina, there 
being abundance of their dams in all parts of the 
country where I have traveled. They are the 
moat industrious and greatest artificers (in build- 

198 lawson's history 

ing their dams and houses) of any four footed 
creatures in the world. Their food is chiefly the 
barks of trees and shrubs, viz: sassafras, ash, 
sweet gum and several others. If you take them, 
young they become very tame and domestic, but 
are very mischievous in spoiling orchards by brea- 
king the trees and blocking up your doors in the 
night with the sticks and wood they bring thither. 
If they eat anything that is salt it kills them. 
Their flesh is a sweet food, especially their tail, 
which is held very dainty. Their fore feet are 
open like a dog's ; their hind feet webbed like a 
water fowl's. The skins are good furs for several 
uses, which every one knows. The leather is very 
thick ; I have known shoes made thereof in Caro- 
lina, which lasted well. !]$|pakes the best hedgers 
mittens that can be used. 

Muskrats frequent fresh streams and no other, 
as the bever does. He has a cod of musk which 
is valuable, as is likewise his fur. 

The possum is found no where but in America. 
He is the wonder of all the land animals, being 
the size of a badger, and near that color. The 
male's pizzle is placed retrograde ; and in time of 
coition, they differ from all other animals, turning 
tail to tail as dog and bitch when tied. The fe- 
male doubtless breeds her young at her teats ; for 
I have seen them stick fast thereto when they have 
been no bigger than a small rasberry, and seem- 
ingly inanimate. She has a paunch, or false bel- 
ly, wherein she carries her young, after they are 


jBpom those teats, till they can shift for themselves. 
Their food is roots, poultry or wild fruits. They 
have no hair on their tails, but a sort of a scale or 
hard crust, as the bevers have. K a cat has nine 
lives, this creature surely Has nineteen ; for if you 
break every bone in their skin, and mash their 
skull, leaving them for dead, you may come an 
hour after, and they will be gone quite away, or 
perhaps you meet them creeping away. They are 
a very stupid creature, utterly neglecting their 
safety. They are most like rats of any thing. I 
have, for necessity .in the wilderness, eaten of them. 
Their flesh is very white, and well tasted ; but their 
ugly tails put me out of conceit with that fare. 
They climb trees as the raccoons do. Their fur 
is not esteemed nor used, save that the Indians 
spin it into girdles and garters. 

The raccoon is of a dark, grey color. If taken 
young, is easily made tame ; but is the drunkenest 
creature living, if he can get any liquor that is 
sweet and strong. They are rather more unlucky 
than a monkey. When wild, they are very subtle 
in catching their prey. Those that live in the salt 
water, feed much on oysters, which they love. 
They watch the oyster when it opens, and nimbly 
put in their paw and pluck out the fish. Some- 
times the oyster shuts and holds fast their paw 
till the tide comes in that they are drowned, 
though they swim very well. The way that this 
animal catches crabs, which he greatly admires, 
and which are plenty in Carolina, is worthy of re- 

200 lawson's history 

mark. When he intends to make a prey of these 
fishy he goes to a marsh, where, standing on the 
land, he lets his tail hang in the water. This the 
crab takes for a bait, and fastens his claws therein, 
which as soon as the raccoon perceives, he of a sud- 
den springs forward a considerable way, on the 
land, and brings the crab along with him. As 
soon as the fish finds himself out of his element, he 
presently lets go his holdj and then the raccoon 
encounters him, by getting him crosswise in his 
mouth, and devours him. There is a sort of small, 
land crab, which we call a fiddler, that runs into 
a hole when any thing pursues him. This crab 
the raccoon takes by putting his fore-foot in the 
hole and pulling him out. With a tame raccoon, 
this sport is very diverting. The chief of his other 
food is all sorts of wild fruits, green com, and 
such as' the bear delights in. This and the pos- 
sum are much of a bigness. The fur makes good 
hats and linings. The skin dresssed makes fine 
womens' shoes. 

The minx is an animal much like the English 
fiUimifcrt or polcat. He is long, slender and every 
way Mbaped like him. His haunts are chiefly in 
the marshes, by the sea side and salt waters, where 
he lives on fish, fowl, mice, and insects. They 
are bold thieves, and will steal anything from you 
in the night, when asleep, as I can tell by expe- 
rience; for one winter, by misfortune, I ran my 
vessel aground, and went often to the banks to 
kill wild fowl, which we did a great many. One 


night we had a mine to sleep on the banks (the 
weather being fair) #nd wrapt up the geese which 
we had killed and not eaten, very carefully, in the 
sail of a canoe, and folded it several doubles, and 
for their better security, laid them all night under 
my head. In the morning when I waked, a minx 
had eaten through every fold of the canoe sail, 
and through one of the geese, most part of which 
was gone. These are likewise found high up in 
the rivers, in whose sides they live, which is known 
by the abundance of fresh water muscle shells 
(such as you have in England) that lie at the 
mouth of their holes. This is an enemy to the 
tortois, whose holes in the sand, where they hide 
their eggs, the minx finds out, and scratches up 
and eats. The raccoons and crows do the same. 
The minx may be made domestic ; and were it 
not for his paying a visit now and then to the 
poultry, they are the greatest destroyers of rats 
and mice that are in the world. Their skins, if 
good of that kind, are valuable, provided they are 
killed in season. 

The water rat is found here the same as in En- 
gland. The water snakes are often found to have 
of these, rats in their bellies. 

That which the people of Carolina call a hare, 
is nothing but a hedge coney. They never bo- 
rough in the ground, but much frequent marshes 
and meadow land. They hide their young in 
some place secui^ from the discovery of the buck, 
as the European rabbets do, and are of the same 

202 lawson's history 

color ; but if you start one of them and pursue 
her, she takes into a hollow tfee, and there runs up 
as far as she can, in which case the hunter makes 
a fire, and smokes the tree, which brings her 
down, and smothers her. At one time of the year 
great bots or maggots breed betwixt the skin and 
the flesh of these creatures. They eat just as the 
English ones do ; but I never saw one of them 
fat. We fire the marshes and then kill abundance. 
The English or European Coneys are here found, 
tho' but in one place that I ever knew of, which 
was in Trent river, where they boroughed among 
the rocks. I cannot believe, these are natives of 
the country, any otherwise than that they might 
come from aboard some wreck ; the sea not being 
far off. I was told of several that were upon 
Bodies island by Ronoak, which came from that 
ship of bodies ; but I never saw any. However 
the banks are no proper abode of safety, because 
of the many minxes, in those quarters. I carried 
over some of the tame sort from England to South 
Carolina, which bred three times going over, we 
having a long passage. I turned them loose in a 
plantation, and the young ones, and some of the 
old ones bred great maggots in their testicles. 
At last the great gust in September 1700, brought 
a great deal of rain, and drowned them all in their 
holes. I intend to make a second trial of them 
in North Carolina, and doubt not but to secure 

m^...M.. --J*-- 


The elk is a monster of the venison sort. His 
skin is used alftiostin the same nature as the buf- 
felo's. Some take him for the red deer of Ameri- 
ca; but he is not: for, if brought and kept in 
company with one of that sort, of the contrary sex, 
he will never couple. His flesh is not so sweet as 
the lesser deers. His hanis exceed (in weight) all 
creatures which the new world affords. They 
will often resort and feed with the buffelo, delight- 
ing in the same range as they do. 

The stags of Carolina are lodged in the moun- 
tains. They are not so large as in Europe, but 
much larger than any fellow deer. They are al- 
ways fat, I believe, with some delicate herbage 
that grows on the hills, for we find all creatures 
that graze much fatter and better meat on the 
hills, than those in the valleys : I mean towards 
and near the sea. Some deer on these mountains 
afford the occidental bezoar, not coming from a 
goat, as some report. What sort of beast affords 
the oriental bezoar, I know not. The tallow of 
the harts make incomparable Candles. Their 
horns and hided are of the same value, as others of 
their kind. 

Fallow deer in Carolina are taller and longer 
legged than in Europe ; but neither run so fast 
nor are so well haunched. Their singles are much 
longer, and their horns stand forward as the oth- 
ers incline backward ; neither do they beam or 
bear their antlers as the English deer do. To- 
wards the salts they are not geAerally so fat and 

201 lawson's •history 

good meat as on the hills. I have known some 
killed on the salts in January that have had abun- 
dance of hots in their throat, which keep them 
very poor. As the summer approaches these bots 
come out and turn into the finest butterfly imagi- 
nable, being very large and having black, white 
and yelloK stripes. Deer skins are one of the best 
commodities Carolina affords to ship off for Eng- 
land, provided they be large. 

Of squirrels we have four sorts, the first is the 
fox squirrel, so called because of his large size, 
which is the bigness of a rabbet of two or three 
months old. His color ip commonly gray ; yet I 
kave seen several pied ones, and some reddish and 
black ; his chiefest haunts are in the piny land 
where the almond pine grows. There he provides 
his winter store ; they being a nut that never fails 
of bearing. He may be made tame, and is very 
good meat when killed. 

The next sort of squirrel is much of the nature 
of the English, only differing in color. Their food 
is nuts (of all sorts the country affords) and acorns. 
They eat well, and, like the bear, are never found 
with young. 

The flying squirrel. — ^This squirrel is gray, as well 
as the others. He is the least of the three. His 
food is much the same with the small gray squir- 
rel. He has not wings, as birds or bats have, there 
being a fine thin-skin covered with hair, as the 
rest of the parts are. This is from the fore feet to 
the hinder feet, which is extended and holds so 


jfttich ,aar^ w hnQ^^drsx ,^p^ fixun one tnep ,tQ ,iui*> 
other^ that .are greater disti^ices as^ndfir, .than 
.ol^er aqmrre^can rejftch by jumping or Bfjin^xig. 
^e is made Vfi^ tame, is an enemy to ^a cogriiL field, 
(as all pquirrelB are) and eate only tlxe germinating 
eye of that jgrain, whicji is veiy awiset. 

.Ground .sqairrelsare ao called because .thi^nev- 
far djelight in running up tr^s, and leaning &om 
tree to tree. They are.the smallest of iiUsgni^rrels* 
Their tail is neither so long not bushy, but J^at- 
tiah. They are of a reddish color and striped 
4own each side ^th black rows, which miakethem 
y^ry beautiful. "pDhey kept 4wae in » little 
Jbiox witfaijcotton. ?^ay and the flyiiig aquiirels 
§eldo^ stir put if Qpld ippieather, beong tendj^ ani- 

The fox df Carolina is gray but sm^eUs not jbib 
.the foxes in. Great JBritain and elsewhere. TKey 
have reddish hair about their ears, an^ are gene- 
rally very &t, yet I never ^aw any one eat them. 
When hunted, they n^Lke a sorry chas^, because 
.they run up trees when pursued. They are pever 
to be made familiar and tame as the xaccoon is. 
^heir jRurs, if i^ season, are used for mu^ wd oth- 
er ornaments. They live chiefly on birds ,and 
fowls and such small p;rey. 

I have been informed by the Indians that ,on 
,a lake of water towards the head of l^eus river, 
.there haunts a creature which £righteAS thezn .all 
from hunting thereabouts. They say lie is the 
color of a panther, but cannot run up trees ; and 


206 lawson's history 

that there abides with him a creature like an Eng- 
lishman's dog, which runs faster than he can, and 
gets his prey for him. They add that there is no 
other of that Mnd that ever they met withal ; and 
that they have no other way to avoid him but by 
running up a tree. The certainty of this I can 
not affirm by my own knowledge, yet they all agree 
in this story. As for lions, I never saw any in 
America, neither can I imagine how they should 
come there. 

Of rats we have two sorts ; the house rat as in 
Europe; and the marsh rat which differs very 
much from the other, being more hairy, and haa 
several other distinctions too long here to name. 

Mice are the same here as those in England, 
that belong to the house. There is one sort that 
poisons a cat as soon as she eats of them, which 
has sometimes happened. These mice resort not 
to houses. 

The dormouse is the same as in England, and 
so is the weasel, which is very scarce. 

The bat or rear mouse, the same as in England. 
The Indian children are much addicted to eat dirt, 
and so are some of the christians, but roast a bat 
on a skewer, then pull the skin off, and make the 
child that eats dirt eat the roasted rearmouse and 
he will never eat dirt again. This is h^ld as an 
infallible remedy. I have put this amongst the 
beasts as partaking of both natures, of the bird 
and mouse kind. 


Having mentioned all the sorts of terrestrial or 
land animals which Carolina affords and are yet 
known to ns, except the tame and domestic crea- 
tures, (of which I shall give an account hereafter 
when I come to treat of the ways and manners of 
agriculture in that province.) I shall now pro- 
ceed to the known insects of that place. ISot that 
I pretend to give an ample account of the whole 
tribe, which is too numerous and contains too 
great a diversity of species, many not yet discov- 
ered, and others that have slipt my memoiy at 
present, but those which I can remember, I here 
present my readers withal. 


Kattle snakes. 
Ground rattle snakes. 
Horn snakes. 
Water snakes, four sorts. 
Swamp snakes, three sorts. 
Red bellied land snakes. 
Ked backed snake. 
Black truncheon snake. 
Scorpion lizard. 
Green lizard. 
Frogs, many sorts. 
Long black snake. 
Eng snake. 
Green snake. 
Com snake. 


^pers, black and ^ray. 


Terebm, land and water. 

Brimstone snake. 

Egg or cludLen anako. 

Eel snake, or great loadi. 

Brown lizard. 

Botten wood worm, fcc. 

The aUegator is the same as the crocodile, and 
difiers only in name. They firequent the sides of 
rivers, in the banks of which they make their 
dwellings a great way under ground ; the hole or 
mouth of their dens lying commonly two feet un- 
der water, after which it rises till it be considera- 
bly above the surface thereof. Here it is that this 
amphibious monster dwells ^11 the winter, sleep- 
ing away his time till the spring appears, when 
he comes from his cave, and daily pwims up and 
down the streams. He always bceeds in some 
fresh stream or clear fountain of water, yet seeks 
his prey in the broad salt waters, that are brackish, 
not on the sea side, where I never met with any. 
He never devours men in Carolina, but uses all 
ways to avoid them, yet he kills swine and dogs, 
the former as they come to feed in the marshes, 
the others as they swim over the creeks and vira- 
ters. They are very mischievous to the wares 
made for taking fish, into which they come to 
prey on the fish that are caught in the ware, from 
whence they cannot readily extrid^te themselves, 


80 break ike ware m pieces^ being s veiy 
sttot^ creatures This animal, in thede parts^ 
80ineticb[eB exeeeds seventeen, feet long:. It is im- 
possible to Mil them with a gnn, unless yon; ehance 
to hit them about tiie eyes, which is a mtiefa sofi;er 
|>la6e tha&t i^ i!e8t of &eir impenetrable annor. 
They TOAt and tti:ake a hldeoitt noise against bad 
weather, and before they eome out of their den^ 
in: the sprmg. I was pretty mack frightened wi^ 
one of these once, which happened thus : I had 
btult a house about hatf a mile from an Indian 
town on the fork of Neus rivov where I dwelt by 
myself) excepting a young Indian fellow^ and a 
bull dogy that I had along with me. I had 
not then been so long a sojourner in Ameri- 
cay as to be thoroughly acquainted with this 
cr^sture. One of them had got his nest directly 
under my house/ which stood cm pretty high land 
and by a creek side, in whose banks his entering 
place was, his den reaching the ground directly 
on which my house stood* I was sitting alone 
by the fire-side, about nine o'clock at night, some- 
one in March, the il^dian fellow being gone to 
the town to see his relations, so that there was no 
body in the house but myself and my dog ; when, 
all of a sudden, this ill-favored neighbor of mine 
set up such a roaring, that he made the house 
shake about my ears, and so continued like a bit- 
tern, but a hundred times louder if possible, for 
four or five times. The dog stared as if he was 
frightened out of his senses ; nor indeed could I 

210 lawson's hibtort 

imagine what it was, having never heard one of 
them before. Immediately again I had another 
' lesson — and so a third. Being, at that time, 
amongst none but savages, I began to suspect they 
were working some piece of conjuration under 
my house, to get away my goods ; not but that at 
another time, I have as little faith in their, or any 
others, working miracles, by diabolical means, as 
any person living. At last» my man came in, to 
whom when I had told the stoiy, he laughed at 
me, and presently undeceived me, by telling me 
what it was that made that noise. 

These alligators lay eggs as the ducks do, only 
they are longer shaped, larger, and a thicker shell 
than they have. How long they are in hatching 
I cannot tell ; but as the Indians say, it is most 
part of the summer. They always lay by a spring 
side the young living in and about the same as soon 
as hatched Their eggs are laid in nests made in 
the marshes, and contain twenty or thirty eggs. 
Some of these creatures afford a great deal of 
musk. Their tail when cut off looks very fair 
and white, seemingly like the best of veal. Some 
people have eaten thereof, and say it is delicate 
meat when they happen not to be musky. Their 
flesh is accounted proper for such as are troubled 
with the lame distemper, (a sort of rheumatism,) 
so is the fet very prevailing to remove aches and 
pains, by unction. The teeth of this creature, 
when dead, are taken out to make chargers for 
guns, being of several sizes, fit for all loads. — 


They are wiiite and would make pretty sniiff box- 
es, if wrought by an artist. After the tail of the 
^ligator is separated from the body, it will move 
very freely for four days. ' 

The ratile snakes are found on all the main of 
America, that I ever had any account of; being 
80 called from the rattle at the end of their tails, 
which is a connection <rf jointed eoverign^ of an 
excrementitious matter, betwixt the sabstance of 
a nail and a horn, though each tegmen is very 
thin. Nature seems to have designed these on 
purpose to give warning of such an approaching 
danger, as the venomous bite of these snakes is. 
Some of them grow to a very great bigjaess, as 
six feet in length, their middle being the thick- 
ness of the small of a lusty man's leg. We have 
an account of much larger serpents of this kind ; 
but I never met them yet, although I nave seen 
and killed abundance in my* time. They are of 
an orange, tawney and blackish color on the 
back; difiering as all snakes do, in color on the 
belly ; being of an ash color inclining to lead. 
Th,e male is ea^ly distinguished from the female,^ 
by a black velvet spot on his head, and besides^ 
his head is smaller shaped and long. Their bite 
is venomous if not speedily r^nedied, especially 
if the wjound be in a vain, nerve, tendon or sinew, 
when it is very difficult to cure. The Indians are 
the best physicians for the bite of these and all 
other venomous creatures of this country. There 
fire four sorts of snake roots already discovered, 

2ii LAWdOSTs HlfiTOBT 

Which knowledge came fi^om thd Indians, -^lio 
have performed several gre&t cnr^. Tbd' rattld 
snakes afe' accoiinted the peac tol^I^st in Ihe world ;^ 
for they never attack any one 6r injtire tfr^to, t£Q* 
l6e» the/ $bre trod tipob or molested. The most 
danger of being bit hf ifhese snakes, is for those^ 
that linrvey land in Carolina ; y6t I n&vet heard 
of any stfrveyoi^ that was killed or hurt by th^m; 
I have myself gone over several of this soii^ aind 
others, yet it pleased God, I never came to toy 
harm. They have the power or art, I know not 
which to call i^ to charm sqnir:tols, h^res, part^ 
ridgeer, or aliy such thing, in sttch a manner fhisl 
they rtm directly into their months. This I have 
seen by a squirrel knd one of these rattle snakes ; 
smd 6^er snakes have, iii sdme measure, the same 
power. The r&ttle snakes have many small t^eth 
of whi6h I canndt pee they make any use, f« 
they swaHow every thing whole; but the teeth 
which poison ar6 only foUt — ^two tfa each side 6t 
fiieir ripper jaws. These are bent like a sickly 
and hadg loose as if by si joinft, towards the set- 
ting ott of these, there is in each tooth ic little 
hole, wherMir you majr just get in the} point of a 
small needle. And her6 it id thalt the poison 
comes out, which is as green as grass, and follows 
the wound made by the poitft 6f theit* teefli. — 
They are much more venomous in the months of 
Junfe and July, than they a*e inl March, April 6t 
September. The hottet the weather the more 
poisonous. Neither miLy we suppose, that they 


can renew their poison as oft as they will ; for we 
hare had a person bit by one of these who never 
rightly recovered it and very hardly escaped with 
life ; a second person bit in the same place by the 
same snake, and received no more harm than if 
bitten with a rat They cast their sMns every 
yem*, and commonly abide near the place where 
the old skin lies. These cast skins are used in 
physic, and the rattles are reckoned good to expe- 
dite the birth. The gall is made up into pills 
with clay, and kept for use ; being given in pesti- 
lential fevers and the small pox. It is accounted 
iB^ noble remedy^ known to few, and held as a 
great arcanum. This snake has two nostrils on 
each side oi his nose. Their venom, I have rea- 
son to believe, effi^^tii no harm, any otherwise 
than when darted into the Wound by the serpent's 

The ground rattle snake, wrong named, because 
it has nothing like rattlesv It resembles the rat- 
tle snake a little in color, but is darker, and never 
grows to any considerable bigness, not ex'ceeding 
a foot, or sixteen inches. He is reckoned amongst 
the worst of snakes ; and stays out the longest of 
any snake I know before he returns (in the fell of 
the leaf) to his hole. 

Of the horn snakes, I never saw but two thitt I 
remember. They are like the rattle snake in col- 
or, but rather lighter. They hiss exactly like a 
goose when anything approaches them. They 
strike at thieir emnny with their tail, and kill 


214 lawson's history 

whatsoever they wound with it, which is armed at 
the end with a horny substance, like a cock's spur. 
This is their weapon. I have heard it credibly re- 
ported, by those who said they were eye-witnesses 
that a small locust tree; about the thickness of a 
man's arm, being struck by one of these snakes at 
ten o'clock in the morning, then verdant and flour- 
ishing, at four in the afternoon was dead, and the 
leaves red and withered. Doubtless, be it how it 
will, they are very venomous. I think the Indiana 
do not pretend to cure their wounds. 

Of water snakes there are four sorts. The first 
is the horn snake's color, though less. The next 
is a veiy long snake, di^ring in color, and wUl 
make nothing to swim over a river a league wide. 
They hang upon birches and other trees by the 
water side. I had the fortune once to have one 
of them leap into my boat, as I was going up a 
narrow river ; the boat was full of mats, which I 
was glad to take out, to get rid of him. They are 
reckoned poisonous. A third is much of an Eng- 
lish adder's color, but always frequents the salts, 
and lies under the drift sea weed, where they are 
in abundance, and are accounted mischievous 
when they bite. The last is of a sooty, black col- 
or, and frequents ponds and ditches. What his 
qualities ^e I cannot tell. . 

Of the swamp snakes there are three sorts, 
which are very near akin- to the water snakes, 
and may be ranked amongst them. The belly of 
the first is of a canjotination or pink color ; his 


back a dirty brown ; they are large but have not 
much venom in them as ever I learnt. The next 
is a large iinake, of a brown, dirt color, and*always 
abides in the marshes. 

The last ia mottled and very poisonous. They 
dwell in swamp sides and ponds, and have prodi- 
gious wide mouths, and, though not long, arrive 
to the tbickness of the calf of a man's leg. 

Redbelly land snakes.-^Th.ese frequent the land 
^.Itogether, and are so called because of their red 
bellies, which incline to an orange color. . Some 
have been bitten with these sort of snakes, and 
not hurt, ts^hen others have sujttered very much by 
them. Whether there be two sorts of these Snakes 
which we make no difference of, I cannot at pres- 
ent determine. 

Eedback. — ^I never, saw but one of these, .which 
I stept over, and did not see him till he that 
brought the chain after me spied him. He has a 
red back a&the last has a red bdly« They are a long, 
dender snake, and v^ery rare to be met withal. I 
enquired of the Indian tbat was along with me, 
whether they were very venomous, who made an- 
swer that if he had bitten me, even the Indians 
could not have cured it. 

The black truncheon snake-^^This sort of snake 
might very well have been ranked with tiie water 
snakes. They lie under roots of trees, and on the 
banks of rivers. When anything disturbs them, 
they dart into the water (which is salt) like an ar- 
row out of a botr. They are thick, and the short- 

^t snake I evet fidbw. What gMid err harin thre ioi 
ill ihfexh^ I know ndt Sonie of th^de water snatea 
Will swaUdw a black lUlid dnake^ half aa idtig agaia 
as themselves. 

f * s 

The BCbrpioii lizard is no tnoi-e llki^ a ScOr|)i6n, 
than a Ue^ hog ; but th^ very commonly call 
Mm a scorpion. H^ is df Oif liaard kind, but 
much bigger ; His haxk 16 of a dark, eopper eolor ; 
his belly ah orange ; he is Very nimble in ranhing 
nj) trees, or oil the land, aiid is accotuited T^ry poi- 
sonoiis. He has the ino^ sets of teeth in hia 
iriottth aiid thl*6at that etrer I saw. 

Green lizards are veiy harmless and beantifbl, 
haying a little bladder tinder thcf throat, whieh 
they &1 with -tvind, tod OTacaate Hie same at plea- 
sure. They are of a most glorious green^ and 
very taihe. They resort to tiie walls of houseb in 
the summer seasdia, and stand gazing on a man, 
without any concern 6t fear. There are setreral 
other eolors oJf these lizards, but none so beautiAtl 
as the green ones Bt&. 

Of frogs wie have several sorts ; the most famous 
is the bull frog, so called, because he lowB escaetly 
like tkat beast, which makes strangerd wonder 
(when by the side of a marsh) What lA the mattei*, 
for they hear tiie frogs loW and can see no cattle ; 
hb is veiy large. I believe I have Sfeen one . with 
as ihueh meat on him as a pullet, if he had been 
dressed. The small green frogs get upon trees 
and make a noise. There are several other color- 
ed small frogs : but tiiie common land frog is likest 

Of KOSTH CABOinri. 217 

a teid; Only he Mpfii^ and is not poidonons. He 
is a great devonter of antd, and the snakes devonr 
hiM. These JBrdgs baked and beat to powder^ and 
taken with orrice root cures a tympany. 

The long, black snake freqnents the laiid alto- 
gether, and in the nimblest ereatute livings His 
bite has no mdre venom than a prick With a pin. 
He is liie best monser that can be ; for he leaves 
Hot onis of that vermine ialive where he comes. He 
also Mlk tile rattle siikke, wheresoever he meets 
him, by twisting his head abont the neck of the 
rattle snake and whippmg him to death with his 
tail. This whipster hfatrnts the diiries of careless 
housewives, and never misses to skim th& milk 
clear of the cream. He is an excellent egg mer* 
chant, for he does not suck the eggs, but swallows 
them whole, (as all snakes do.) He will often 
swallow all the eggs from under a hto that sits, 
and coil himself under the hen in the best, where 
sometimes the heusewife finds him. This shake, 
for all his agility, is so brittite that when he is pui"- 
biied, and gets his h^ad into the hole of a tree, if 
any body gets hold of the other end, he will twist 
and break himself <^ in the middle. One of these 
giiakes, WhOi^e neck is ho thicker than a wohiatit's 
Utile finger, will swallow a squirrel ; so much does 
that part stretch ih all these creatures. 

The king snake is the longest of all 61hers, and 
not common; no snake, they say, will meddle 
with them. I think they are not accounted very 
venomous. The Indians make girdles and sashes 
of their skins. 


Green snakes are very small, though pretty (if 
any beauty be allowed to snakes.) Every one 
makes himself very familiar with them, and puts 
them in their bosom, because there is no manner 
of harm in them. 

The corn snakes are but small ones ; they ^re of 
a brown color, mixed with tawny. There is no 
more hurt in this, than in the green snake. 

Of those we call vipers, there are two sorts* 
People call these vipers, because they spread a 
very flat head at any time when they are vexed. 
One of these is a grayish, like the Italian viper, the 
other black and short ; and is reckoned amongst 
the worst of snakes for venom. 

Tortois, vulgarly called turtle, I have ranked 
these among the insects because they lay eggs, 
and I did not know well where to put Ibem. 
Among us there are three sorts. The first is the 
green turtle, which is not common, but is 8ome-> 
times found on our coast. The next is the hawks 
bill, which is common. These two sorts are ex<- 
traordinary meat. The third is logger head, which 
kind scarce any one covets, except it be for the 
eggs, which of this and all other turtles are very 
good food. None of these sorts of creatures' eggs 
will ever admit the white to be harder than a jelly ; 
yet the yolk, with boiling, becomes as hard as any 
other egg. 

Of terebins there are divers sorts, all which, to 
be brief, we will comprehend under the distinc- 
tion of land and water terebins. The land terebin 


10 of several sizes, but generally round mouthed 
and not hawk billed, as some are. The Indians 
eat them. Most of them are good meat, except 
the very large ones, and they are good food too, 
provided they are not musky. They are an utter 
enemy to the rattle snake, for when the terebin 
meets him he catches hold of him a little below 
his neck and draws his head into his shell, which 
makes the snake beat his tail and twist about with 
all the strength and violence imaginable to get 
away ; but the terebin soon dispatches him and 
there leaves him. These they call in Europe the 
land tortois; their food is snails, tadpoles, or 
young frogs, mushrooms, and tiie dew and slime 
of the earth and ponds. 

Water terebins are small, containing about as 
much meat as a pullet, and are extraordinary food, 
especially in May and June. When they lay, 
their eggs are very good ; but they have so many 
enemies that find them out, that the hundredth 
part never comes to perfection. The sun and sand 
hatch them, which comes out the bigness of a 
small chesnut and seek their own living. 

We now come again to the snakes. The brim- 
stone is so called, I believe, because it is almost 
of a brimstone color. They might as well have 
called it a glass snake, for it is as brittle as a to- 
bacco pipe, so that if you give it the least touch 
of a small twig it immediately breaks into several 
pieces. Some affirm that if you let it remain 
where you broke it, it will come together again. 

220 lawson's hibtoet 

What harm there is in this brittle ware I can not 
tell, but I never knew any body hurt by them« 

The egg or chicken sni^e is so called becaoM 
it is frequent abont the hen yard and eats eggs 
and chickens, they are of a dnsky soot color, and 
will roll themselv^ round and stick eighteen or 
twenty feet high by the side of a smoothed bark 
pine, where there is no manner of hold, and there 
isun themselved, and sleep all the sunny part of 
the day; There is no' great matter of poison in 

The wood wbrms are of a copper shining color:, 
Hcarioe so thick as your little fing^ ; are often 
found in rotten trees. Thef are accounted veno- 
mous in case they bite, though I never knew any* 
tiling hurt by them. They never exceed four or 
five inehes in length. 

The reptiles, or smaller insects are too numer- 
ous to relate here, this country affording innu- 
merable quantiti^ thereof; as the flying stags, 
with horns, beetles^ butterflies, grasshoppers^ lo- 
cust, and several hundreds of uncouth shapes, 
which in the summer season are discovered here 
in Carolina, the description of which requires a 
lai^e volume, which is not my mtent at present, 
besides, what the mountainous part of this land 
inay hereafter lay open to our view,'time aad indw- 
tiry will discover, for we tliat have settled but a dmall 
share of this lai^ province, cannot imagine, but 
there will be a great number of discoveries made 
by tiSLOse tiiat shall come h^^eafter into the bads 

OF tO^TBl! CAROLDfif. 221 

part 6f fliis Uadj' fod make ^fiqtiirt^d thei^fti, 
whefej at least, v^e cbtosider that the westwai^ of 
Carolina is (faite different in Ifoil, ait, weathet^ 
^Wth of 'C'e^ta^bles, and Several ammafls too, 
wMch we at presfent are wholly strangers to, and 
t6' seek tof. As to a nght knowledge thereo!^ Z 
BSb% when an other age is come, the ingenioM 
then in feeing mtfy staitid tifpon the shoulders of 
those that went before them, adding their o^to ex- 
periments to what was delivered down to them by 
their predecessors, and then there will be some- 
iMttg towards a eoriiplete natural history, which, 
in these days, would be no eady undertaking to 
any author that writes truly and compendiously 
as he ought to do. It is steffieient, at present, to 
write an honest and fail* account of aily oi the set- 
tlements, in this new worM, withont wandering 
out of the path of truth, or bespattering any man's 
reputation anywise concerned in the government 
of the colony ; he that mixes inveotives with rela- 
tions of tlds nature rendering himself suspected 
of partiality in whatever he writes. For my part, 
I wish all well, and he that has received any se- 
vere dealings from the magistrate qir his superiors, 
had best examine himself well, if he Was not first 
in the &ult ; if so^ then he can justly blame none 
but himself for what has happened to him. 

Having thus gone through the insects, as in the 
table, except the eel-snake, (so called though very 
improperly, because he is nothing but a loach, 
that sucks, and cannot bite as the snipes do.) He 


is very large^ commonly sixteen inches or a foot 
and a half loDg ; having all the properties that oth- 
er loaches have, and dwells in pools and waters as 
they do. IfotwitUstanding, we have the same 
loach as vou have in bierness. This is all that at 
present I Bball mention, touching the insecte, and 
go on to give an account of the fowls and birds 
that are properly found in Carolina, which are 


Birds in America more beautiful than in Europe. 

Eagle bald. 
Eagle gray. 
Fishing hawk. 
Turkey buzzard, or vulture. 
Herring-tailed hawk. 

Sparrow hawk. 

Gr#en Plover. 
Plover gray or whistling. 

Woodpeckers, five sorts. 
Mockingbirds, two sorts. ' 







Hedge sparrow. 


Sparrows, two sorte. 





Blackbirds, two sorts. 

Bantings, two sorts. 







East India bat. 

Martins, two sorts. 

Diveling, or swift. 



The tomtit, or ox eye. 

Owls, two sorts. 

Scritch owl. 

Baltimore bird. 

Throstle, no singer. 


Reed sparrow. 

2124 hJL^fOTSl'B irrsTORT 

Weet bird. 
Rice bird. 
Cranes and storks. 
Snow birds. 
Yellow wings. 


Swans, elKlIed Trompeters. 

Swans, called Hoopers. 

Oeese, three sorts. 

Brant, gray. 

Brant, white. 

Sesrpies or pied Gurinesw 


Great Gray GuUs*^ 

Old Wives. 

Sea Cock. 

Curlues, three sorts. 



Loons, two sorts. 

Bitterns, three sotts. 

Hem, gray. 

Hem, white. 

Water Pheasant. 

Little Gray GulL 

Little Fisher or Dipper. 



Great Blaek-pi^kl Gull. # 


Blue J^etei9. 


]>li(^ fcllKfc j%ll isanmner. 
jD^c^ jded, build op ctirees. 
3>uc^ wJoiifitUng, At tSatpoi;!^.. 



Teftl, tjwQ jsforts. 



Btook Ij^W <3oQt. 

Turkey B, :wild. 

Bwft Fowl. 








WAtoP Witch, or W»re Coot 

226 lawson's history 

As the eagle is reckoned the king of birds, I 
have begun with him. The first I shall speak of, 
is the bald eagle ; so called, because his head to 
the middle of his neck and his tail, is as white as 
snow. These birds continually breed the year 
round ; for when the young eagles are just down- 
ed, with a sort of white woolly feathers, the hen 
eagle lays again, which eggs are hatched by the 
warmth of the young ones in the nest, so that the 
flight of one brood makes room for the next, that 
are but just hatched. They prey on any living 
thing they can catch. They are heavy of flight 
and cannot get their food by swiftness. To help 
which there is a fishhawk tiiat catches fishes and 
suffers the eagle to take them from her, although 
she is long winged and a swift flyer, and can make 
far better way in her flight than the dagle can. 
The bald eagle attends the gunners in winter, 
with all the obsequiousness imaginable, and when 
he shoots and kills any fowl, the eagle surely 
comes in for his bird ; and besides those that are 
wounded and escape the fowler, fall to the eagle's 
share. He is an excellent artist at stealing young 
pigs, which prey he carries alive to his nest, at 
which time the poor pig makes such a noise over 
head, that strangers that have heard them cry, and 
not seen the bird and his prey, have thought there 
were flying sows and pigs in that country. The 
eagles nest is made of twigs, sticks and rubbish. 
It is big enough to fill a handsome cai% body, and 
commonly so fiill of nasty bones and carcasses 


that it stinks most oflfensively. This eagle is not 
bald till he is one or two years old. 

The gray eagle is altogether the same sort of 
bird as the eagle in Europe ; therefore we shall 
treat no farther of him. 

The fishing hawk is the eagle's jackal, which 
most commonly (though not always) takes his 
prey for him. He is a large bird, being above 
two thirds as big as the eagle. He builds his nest 
as the eagles do ; that is in a dead cypress tree, 
either standing in or hard by the water. The 
eagle and this bird seldom sit on a living tree. 
He is of a gray pied color, and the most dexterous 
fowl in nature at catching of fish, which he wholly 
lives on, never eating any flesh. 

The turkey buzzard of Carolina is a small vul- 
ture which lives on dead carcasses. They are 
about the bigness of the fishing hawk, and have a 
nasty smell with them. They are of the kites 
color, and are reported to be an enemy to snakes 
by killing all they meet withal of that kind. 

The herring, or swallow-tailed hawk, is about 
the bi^ess of a Falcon, but a much longer bird. 
He is of a delicate aurora color ; the pinions of 
his wings, and end of his tail are black. He is a 
very beautiful fowl, and never appears abroad but 
in the summer. His prey is chiefly on snakes, 
and will kill the biggest we have with a great deal 
of dexterity and ease. 

Goshavrks are v^ry plentiful^in Carolina. Thej 
are not seemingly so large as those from Muscovy; 
but appear to be a very brisk bird. 

1^ &lcon is much 4ihe sam^ ^ in Eorope, .fmd 
promises to be a brave bird, though I never had 
any of them in my hand ; neither did I ever see 
any pf them in any other posture than on the wing, 
which always happened to be ^ a^ evening, B^d 
flying to the westward ; the]r«^ore, I b€)lieve thdy 
have tijheir abode and nest among the mouji^ttws, 
.where we m^y e;q)ect to fin^ them, a^4 several 
other species iksA we aj*e at present strangers to. 

The merlin is a small bijrd in Europe, bnt ninch 
emaljier h^re, yet he very J|;iimbly kills the smaller 
.^Qrts of birds, and sometin^es the partridge ; if 
jCaught a^live^ he would be p, great rarity, be<^^^ 
.gf his beauty ap^ smallness- 

The sparrow hawk in Carolina 13 uobiggerthju^ 
j^ fieldlare in jEngland. 3,e fli^s at the bi^ih and 
sometimes kills a sm,all bird, but his chiefes^ fpod 
is reptiles, ^ beetles, grass hoppei^, and such 
.sqxall things. He is exactly of the siune cplprKas 
the sparrow hawjs in England^ only h^ ablad^sh 
hoo^ by his ey^. 

Robbies are the same h^e s^ in ]S!ngl«,nd, and 
|kre not often met withal. 

The Bingtail is a short-winged h^wky I^reying 
on mice and such vermine in th6 marsh^fb ^s in 

B^yens, the same as in England, though i^ery 
iew. I have not seen above six in eight years' 

Crows are here less than in England. They 
aire. as good meat as a pigeon^ aQ4 U^Y^v feed on 

0)* SrOftl^H OAROUKA. 229 

any carricrn. They are great enemies to com fields, 
land cry and build almost like rooks. 

Black birds. — Of these we have two sorts, which 
are the worst vermin in America. They fly some- 
times in such -flocks that they destroy every thing ' 
before them. They (both sorts) build in hollow 
trees as starlings do. The flrst sort is near as big 
ad a dove, and is very white and delicate food. 
The other sort is very beautiful and about tha big- 
ness of the owsel. Part of their head next to the 
bill, and the pinions of their wings are of an orange 
and glorious crimson color. They are as good 
meat as the former, though very few here (wherfe 
large fowl are so plenty) ever trouble themselves 
to kill or dress them.. 

Of the bunting larks we have two sorts, though 
the heel of this bird is not so long as in Europe. 
The first of these often accompany the black birds, 
and sing as the bunting larks in England do, dif- 
fering very little* The first sort has an orange 
color on the tops of their wings, and are as good 
meat as tiiose in Europe. The other sort is some- 
thing less of a lighter color ; nothing diflbring 
thearein fSrom those in England as to feathers, big- 
ness, and meat. 

The pheasant of Carolina difters some small 
matter from the English pheasant, being not so 
big, and having some diflference in feather ; yet 
he is not anywise inferior in delicacy, but is as 
good meat or" rather finer. He haunts the back 
woods and is seldom found near the inhabitants. 



The woodcocks live and breed here, thotigii 
they are not in great plenty as I have seen them 
in some parts of England and other places. They 
want one third of the English woodcock in big- 
ness, but differ not in shape or feather, save that 
their breast is of a carnation color ; and they make 
a noise (when they are on the wing) like the bells 
about a hawk's legs. They are certainly a dainty 
meat as any in the world. Their abode is in all 
parts of this <;ountry, in low, boggy ground, 
springs, swamps, and pocosons. 

The snipes' here frequent the same places as 
they do in England, and differ nothing from them. 
They are the only wild bird that is nothing differ- 
ent frSra the species of Eurox>e, and keeps with us 
all the year. In some places there are a great 
many of these snipes. 

Our partridges in Carolina very often take upon 
trees, and have a sort of ^ whistle and call quite 
different from those in England. They are a very 
. beautiful bird, and great destroyers of the peas in 
plantations ; wherefore they set traps and catch 
many of them. They have the same feather as in 
Europe, only the cock wants the horse shoe, in 
lieu of which he has a fair half circle over each 
eye. These (as well as the woodcock) are less 
than the European bird, but far finer meat. They 
might be easily transported to any place, because 
they take to eating after caught. 

The moorhens are of the black game. I atn in- 
formed iix$kt the gray game haunts the hills. They 


never come into the settlement, but keep in the 
hilly parts. 

Jays are here common and very mischievous in 
devouring our fruit and spoiling more than they 
eat. They are abundantly more beautiful and 
finer feathered than those in Europe, and not above 
half so big« 

The lapwing or green plover are here very com- 
mon. They cry pretty much as the English plo- 
vers do, and differ not much in feather, but want 
a third of their bigness. 

The gray or whistling plover are very scarce 
amongst us. I never saw any but three times 
that fell and isuBttled on the ground. They differ 
very little from those in Europe, as far as I could 
diacem. I have seen several great flocks of them 
fly overhead ; therefore, believe they inhabit the 
valleys near the mountains. 

Our wild pigeons are like the wood queese or 
stock doves, only have a longer tail. They leave 
us in the sumc^er. This sort of pigeon (as I said 
before) is the most like our stock doves or wood 
pigeons that we have in England ; only these dif- 
fer in their tails which are very long, much like 
a parrakeeto's. You must understand that these 
birds do not breed amongst us, (who are settled 
at and near the mouths of the rivers, as I have in- 
timated to you before) but come-down (especially 
in hard winters) amongst the inhabitants in great 
flocks, as they were seen to do in the year 1707, 
which was the hardest winter that ever was known 

232 lawson's history 

since Carolina has been seated by the christians. 
And if that country had such hard weather, what 
must be expected of the severe winters in Penn- 
sylvania, New York, and New England, where 
winters are ten times (if possible) colder than with 
us. Although the flocks are, in such extremities, 
very numerous ; yet they are not to be mentioned 
in comparison with the great and infinite numbers 
of these fowl that are met withal about a hundred 
or a hundred and fifty miles to the westward of 
the places where we at present live ; and where 
these pigeons come down in quest of a small sort 
of acorns, which in those parts are plentifully 
found. They are the same we call turkey acorns^ 
because the wild turkies feed very much thereon ; 
and for the same reason those trees that bear them 
are called turkey oaks. I saw such prodigious 
flocks of these pigeons in January oT February, 
1701-2, (which were in the hilly country between 
the great nation of the Esaw Indians and the pleaa- 
ant stream of Sapona, which is the west branch 
of Clarendon or the Cape Fair river) that they 
had broke down the limbs of a great many large 
trees all over those woods whereon they chanced 
to sit and roost, especially the great pines, which 
are a more brittle wood than our sorts of oak are. 
These pigeons, about sunrise, when we were pre- 
paring to march on our journey, would fly by us 
in such vast flocks that they would be near a quar- 
ter of an hour before they were all passed by ; and 
as soon as that flock was gone another would 


come, and so successfhlly one after another for 
great part of the morning. It is observable that 
wherever these fowl come in such numbers, as I 
saw them then, they clear all before them, scarce 
leaving one acorn upon the ground, which would, 
doubtless, be a great prejudice to the planters that 
should seat there, because their swine would be 
thereby deprived of their mast. When I saw such 
flocks of the pigeons I now speak of, none of our 
company had any other sort of shot than that 
which is cast in moulds, and was so very large that 
we could not put above ten or a dozen of them 
into our largest pices ; wherefore we made but an 
indifferent hand of shooting them ; although we 
commonly killed a pigeon for every shot. They 
were very fat and as good pigeons as ever I eat. 
I enquired of the Indians that dwelled in those parts, 
where it was that those pigeons bred, and they 
pointed toward the vast ridge of mountains and 
said they bred there. Now, whether they make 
their nests in the holes in the rocks of those moun- 
tains or build in trees, I could not learn ; but they 
seem to me to be a wood pigeon that build in trees, 
because of their frequent sitting thereon, and their 
roosting on trees always at night, under which 
their dung commonly lies half a foot thick, and 
kills everything that grows where it falls. 

Turtle doves are here very plentiful ; they de- 
vour the peas ; for which reason people make 
traps and catch them. 

234 lawson's history 

The paitakeetos are of a green color, and or- 
ange colored half way their head. Of these and 
the alligators, there is none found to the north- 
ward of this province. They visit us first when 
mulberries are ripe, which fruit they love extreme- 
ly. They peck the apples to eat the kernels, so 
that the fruit rots and perishes. They are mis- 
chievous to orchards. They are often taken alive 
and will become familiar and tame in two days. 
They have their nests in hollow la^es, in low 
swampy ground. They devour the birch buds in 
April, and lie hidden when the weather is frosty 
and hard. 

The thrushes in America are the same as in 
England, and red under the wings. They never 
appear amongst us but in hard weather, and pres- 
ently leave us again. 

Of woodpeckers we have four sorts. The first 
is as big as a pigeon, being of a dark brown col- 
or, with a white cross on his back, his eyes cir- 
cled with white, and on his head stands a tuft of 
beautiful scarlet feathers. His cry is heard a 
long way, and he flies from one rotten tree to 
another to get grubs, which is the food he lives 

The second sort are of an olive color, striped 
with yellow. They eat worms as well as grubs, 
and are about the bigness of those in Europe. 

The third is the same bigness as the last — ^he is 
pied with black and white, has a crimson head, 
without a topping, and is a plague to the corn and 


fruit ; especially the apples. - He opens the cov- 
ering of the young com, so that the rain getB in 
and rots it. 

The fourth sort of these woodpeckers,' is a black 
and white speckled or mottled — ^the finest I ever 
saw. The cock has a red crown ; he is not near 
so big as the others ; his food is grubs, com, and 
other creeping insects. He is not very wild, but 
will let one come up to . him, then shifts on the 
other side the tree from your sight ; and so dodges 
you for a long time together. He is about the 
size of an English lark. 

The mocking bird is about as big as a thros- 
tle in England, but longer ; they are of a white 
and gray color, and are held to be the choristers 
of America, as indeed they are. They sing with 
the greatest diversity of notes that is possible for 
a bird to change to. They inay be bred up, and 
will sing with us tame in cages ; yet I never take 
any of their nests, although they build yearly in 
my firuit trees, because I have their company as 
much as if tame, as to the singing part. They 
often -sit upon our chimneys in summer, there be- 
ing then no fire in them, and sing the whole eve- 
ning and most part of the night. They are al- 
ways attending our dwellings, and feed upon mul- 
berries and other berries and fruits, especially 
the mechoacan berry, which grows here very plen- 

There is another sort called the ground mock- 
ing bird. She is the same bigness and of a cinna- 

286 i.awson'0 bibtoky 

mon color. This bird eitigB excellently well, but 
is not so common amongst us as the former. 

The cat bird, so named because it makes a noisa 
exactly like young cats. They have a blackish 
head and an ash colored body, and have no other 
note that I know of. They are no biger than a 
lark, yet will fight a crow or any other great 

* The cuckoo of Carolina may not properly be so 
called, because she never uses that cry ; yet she is 
of the same bigness and feather, and sucks the 
small birds' eggs, as the English cuckoo does. 

The blue bird is the exact bigness of a robin 
red-breast. The cock has the same colored breast 
as the robin has, ai^d Lis back all the other parts 
of him, p,re of as fine a blue, as can possibly be 
seen in any thing in the world. He has a cry and 
a whistle. They hide themselves all the winter. 

Bulfinches in- America dijSer something from 
those in Europe in their feathers, though not in 
their bigness. I never knew any one tame, 
therefore know not what they might be brought 

The nightingales are diflferent in plumes from 
those in Europe. They always frequent the low 
groves where they sing very prettily all night. 

Hedge sparrows are here, though few hedges. 
They diflfer scarce any thing in plume or bigness, 
only I never heard this whistle as the English one 
does, especially after rain. 



The wren is the same as in Europe, yet I never 
heard any note she has in Carolina. 
' Sparrows here differ in feather from the Eng- 
lish. We have several species of birds called spar- 
rows, one of them much resembling the bird call- 
ed a Corinthian sparrow. 

The lark with us resorts to the savannas, or 
natural meads, and green marshes. He is colored 
and heeled as the lark is, but his breast is of a 
glittering fair lemon color, and he is as big as a 
fieldfare, and "very fine food. 

The red birds, whose cock is all over of a rich 
scarlet feather, with a tufted crown on his head 
of the same color, are the bigness of a bunting 
lark, 'and very hardy, having a strong thick bill. 
They will sing very prettily, when taken old and 
put in a cage. They are good birds to turn a 
cage with bells ; or if taught as the bulfinch is, I 
believe would prove very docile. 

East India bats, or musqueto hawks, are the 
bigness of a cuckoo, and much of the same color. 
They are so called because the same sort is found 
in the East Indies. They appear only in the sum- 
mer; and live on flies, which they catch in thfe air, 
as gnats, musquetos, &c. 

Martins are here of two sorts. The first is the 
same as in England ; the other as big as a black 
bird. They have white throats and breasts, with 
black backs. The planters put gourds on stand- 
ing holes on purpose for these fowl to build in. 


238 lawson's history 

because they are a very war like bird, and beat the 
crows from the plantations. 

The swift, or diveling, the same as in England. 

Bwallows, the same as in England. 

The humming bird is the miracl e of all our winged 
animals. He is feathered as a bird, and gets his 
livingas the bees, by sucking the honey from each 
flower. In some of the larger sort of flowers, he 
will bury himself, by diving to suck the bottom of 
it, so that he is quite covered, and often times 
children catch them in those flowers, and keep them 
alive five or six days. They are of difllsrent colors, 
the cock diftering from the hen. The cock is of a 
green red aurora, and other colors mixed. He is 
much less than a wren, and very nimble. His 
nest is one of the greatest pieces of workmanship 
the whole tribe of winged animals can show, it 
commonly hanging on a single brier, most artifi- 
cially woven, a small hole being left to go in and 
out at. The eggs are the bigness of peas. 

The tomtit, or ox eyes, the same as in England. 

Of owls, we have two sorts. The smaller sort 
are like ours in England ; the other sort is as big 
as a*middling goose, and has a prodigious head. 
They make a fearful hollowing in the night time, 
like a man, whereby they often make strangers 
lose their way in the woods. 

Scritch owls much the same as in Europe. 

The baltimore bird, so called from the lord jBalti- 
more, proprietor of all Maiyland, in which province 
many of them are found. Jhey are the bigness 


of a linnet, with yellow wings, and beautiful in 
other colors.' 

Throstle, the same size and feather as in Eu- 
rope, bgffe I never could hear any of them sing. 

The weet, so called because he cries always be- 
fore rain ; he resembles nearest the firetail. 

Cranes use the savannas, low ground and frogs. 
They are above five feet high, when extended; 
are of a cream color, and have a crimson spot on 
the crown of their heads. Their quills are excel- 
lent for pens ; their flesh makes the best broth, 
yet is very hard to digest. Among them often 
frequent storks, which are here seen, and no where 
besides in America, that I have yet heard of. The 
cranes are easily bred up tame, and are excellent 
in a garden to destroy frogs, worms, and other 

The snow birds are most numerous in the north 


parts of America, where there are great snows. 
They visit us sometimes in Carolina, when the 
weather is harder tha^n ordinary. They are like 
the stones smach, or wheat ears, aoA are delicate 

These yellow wings are a very small bird, of a 

linnets color, but wings as yellow as gold. They 

frequent hign up in our rivers and creeks, and 

keep themselves in the thick bushes, very difl&cult 

. to be seen in the spring. They sing very pr^ily. 

^^ippowill, so named because it makes those 
words exactly. They are the bigness of a th¥ush, 
and call their note under a bush, on the ground, 


hard to be seen, tliongli you hear them n^ver so 
plain. They are more plentiful in Virginia thwi 
with us in Carolina ; for I never heard but one 
that was near the settlement, and ihs^t was Hard 
by an Indian town. 

Red sparrow. — This nearest resembles a spar- 
row, and is the most common bird we have, 
therefore we call them so. They are brown and 
red, cinnamon color, striped. 

Of the swans, we have two sorts ; the one we 
call trompeters, because of a sort of trompeting« 
noise they make. 

Swwis. — ^These are the largest sort we hav€t, 
which come in great flocks in the winter, and stay, 
commonly, in the fresh rivers till February, that 
the spring comes on, when they go to the lakes to 
breed. A cygnet, that is, a last years' swan, is ac- 
counted a delicate dish, as indeed it is. ' They are 
known by their head and feathers, which are not 
BO white as old ones. 

The sort of swaas called hoopers, are the least. 
They abide q^iqf e ip the fait water, and are equally 
valuable for food, with the former. It is observable 
that neither of these have a blade piece of homy 
flesh down the head and bill, as they have in Eng- 

Of geese, we have three sorts, differing frojn 
each other only in size. Ours are not the common 
geese that are in the fens in En^nd, but the oth- 
er sorts^ with black heads and necks. 


The gray brant or barnicle, is here very plenti- 
ful, as all other water fowl are, in the winter 
season. They are the same which they call barni- 
cles in Great Britain, and are a very good fowl, 
and eat well. 

There is also a white brant, very plentifdl in 
America. This bird is all over as white as snow, 
except the tips of his wings, and those are black. 
They eat the roots of ^edge and grass in the 
marshfis and savannas, which they tear up like 
hogs. The best way to kill these fowl is, to bum 
a piece of marsh, or savanna, and as soon as it is 
burnt, they will come in great flocks to get the 
roots, where you kill what you please of them. 
They are ^ good meat as the other, only their 
feathers are stubbed, and good for little. 

The sea pie, or gray curlue, is about the bigness 
of a very large pigeon, but longer. He has a long 
bill as other curlues have, which is the color of an 
English owsels, that is, yellow, as are his legs. 
He frequents the sand beaches on the seaside, and 
when killed, is inferior to no fiowl I ever eat of. 

■WilVwillet, is so called from his cry, which he 
very exactly calls, will willet, as he flies. His bill 
is like a curlues, or wood cock's, and has much 
such a body as the other, yet not so tall. He is 
good meat. 

The great gray gulls are good meat, and as large 
as a pullet. They lay large eggs, which are found 
in very great quantities on the islands in our 
sound, in the months of June and July. The 

242 lawson's history 

young squabs are very good victuals, and often 
prove a relief to travelers by water, that have 
spent their provisions. 

Old wives are a black and white pied gull, with 
extraordinary long wings, and a golden colored 
bill and feet. He makes a dismal noise as he 
flies, and ever and anon dips his bill in the salt 
water. I never knew him eaten. 

The sea cock is a gull that crows at- break of 
day, and in the morning, exactly like a dunghill 
cock, which ciy seems very pleasant in those un- 
inhabited places. He is never eaten. 

Of carlues there are three sorts, and vast num- 
bers of each. They have all long bills and differ 
neither in color nor shape, only in si^e. The lar- 
gest is as big as a good hen ; the smaller the big* 
ness of a smpe or something bigger. 

We have three sorts of bitterns in Carolina. 
The first is the same as in England ; the second 
of a deep brown with a great topping and yellow* 
ish white throat and breast, and is lesser than the 
former ; the last is no bigger than a woodcock 
and near the color of the second. 

We have the same herns as in England. 

White herns are here very plentiful. I have 
seen above thirty sit on one tree at a time. They 
are as white as milk and fly very slowly. 

The water pheasant (very improperly called so) 
are a water fowl of the duck kind, having a top- 
ping of pretty feathers, which sets them out. They 
are very good meat. 


The little gray gull is of a curious gray color, 
and abides near the sea. He is about the bigness 
of a whistling plover, and delicate food. 

We have the little dipper or fisher that catches 
fish so dexterously, the same as you have in the 
islai^ds of Scilly* 

We have of the same ducks and mallards with 
greeti heads, in great flocks. They are accounted 
the coarsest sort of our water fowl. 

The bl^ck duck is fhll as large as the other, and 
good meaK She stays with us all the summer 
and breeds. These are ma4e tame by some, and 
prove good domestics. 

We have toother duck that stays with us all the 
summer. She has a great topping, is pied and 
very beautiful. She builds her nest in a wood- 
peckers hole, very often sixty or seventy feet high. 

Whistling ducks. — Towards the mountains in 
the hilly country on the west toanch of Cape Fair 
inlet, we saw great flocks of pretty pied ducks that 
whistled as they flew, or as they 'fed. I did not 
kill any of them. 

Scarlet-eyed ducks. — ^We killed a curious sort 
of ducks in the country of the Esaw Indians, which 
were of many beautiM colors. Their eyes were 
red, having a red circle of flesh for their eyelids, 
and were very good to eat. 

The blue wings are less Uian a duck, but fine 
meat. These are the first fowls that appear to us 
in the fall of the leaf, coming then in great flocks. 

r 244 lawson's history 

as we enppose, from Canada, and the lakes that 
lie behind us. 

Widgeons, the same as in Europe, are here in 
great plenty. 

We have the same teal as in England, and an- 
other sort that frequents the fresh water, and are 
always nodding their heads. They are smaller 
than the common teal, and dainty meat. 

Shovellers (a sort of duck) are gray, with a black 
head. They are a very good fowl. 

These are called whistlers, from the whistling 
noise they make as they fly. 

Black flusterers — some -call these old wives. 
They are as black as ink. The cocks have white 
faces. They always remain in the midst of rivers, 
and feed upon drift grass, carmels or sea nettles. 
They are the fattest fowl I ever saw, and some- 
times so heavy with flesh that they cannot rise 
out of the water. They make an odd sort of noise 
when they fly. What meat they are I could nev- 
er learn. Some call these the great bald coot. 

The wild tarkies I should have spoken of when 
I treated of the land fowl. There are great flocks 
of these in Carolina. I have seen about Ave hun- 
dred in a flock ; some of them are very large. I 
never weighed any myself, but have been in- 
formed of one that weighed, near sixty pound 
. weight. I have seen half a turkey feed eight hun- 
' gry m^a two meals. Sometimes the wild breed 
with the tame ones, which they reckon makes 
them very hardy, as I believe it must. I see no 


manner of difference betwixt the wild torkies and 
the tame ones ; only the wild are ever of one color, 
viz : a dark gray or brown, and are excellent food. 
They feed on acorns, hnckleberrieB, and many oth- 
er sorts of berries th^t Carolina affords. The eggs 
taken from the nest and hatched under a hen will 
yet retsdn a wild nature, and commonly leave you 
and run wild at last, and will never be got into a 
house to roost but always perch on some high tree 
hard by the house, and separate themselves from 
the tame sort, although, at the same time, they 
tread and breed together. I have been informed 
that if you take these wild eggs when just on the 
point of being hatched, and dip them (for some 
small time) in a bawl of milk-warm water, it 
will take off their wild nature and make them as 
tame and domestic as the others. Some Indians 
have brought these wild breed, hatched at home, 
to be a decoy to bring others to roost near their 
cabins, which Hiey have shot. But to return to 
the water fowl. 

Fishermen are like a duck, but have a narrow 
bill, with setts of teeth. They live on very small 
fish which they catch as they swim -along. They 
taste fishy. The best way to order them, is, upon 
occasion, to pull out the oil box from the rump 
and then bury them five or six hours under ground. 
Then they 4)ecome tolerable. 

Of divers there are two sorts ; the one pied, the 
other gray; both good meat. 

Baft fowl includes all the sorts of small ducks 

246 lawson's histort 

and teal that go in rafts along the shore, and are 
of several sorts that we know no name for.. 

Bullnecks. — These are a whitish fowl about the 
bigness of a brant ; they come to us after Christ- 
mas in very great flocks, in all our rivers. They 
are a very good meat but hard to kill, because 
hard to come near. They will dive and endure a 
great deal of shot 

Bed heads, a lesser fowl than bull necks, are 
very sweet food, and plentiful in our rivers and 

Tropick birds are a white mew, with a forked 
tail. They are so called because they are plenti- 
fully met wi^al under the tropicks and thereabouts. 

The pellican of the wilderness cannot be the 
same as ours ; this being a water fowl with a great 
natural wen or pouch under his throat, in which 
he keeps his prey of fish, which is what he lives 
on. He is web-footed like a goose and shaped 
like a duck, but is a very large fowl, bigger than 
a goose. He is never eaten as food. They make 
tobacco pouches of his maw. 

Cormorants are very well known in some parts 
of England ; we have great flocks of them with, 
us, especially against the herrings run, which is iu 
March and April ; then they sit upon logs of dry 
wood in the water and catch the fish. 

The gannet is a large white fowl, having one 
part of his wings bladk^ he lives on fish as the 
pellican. His fat or grease is as yellow as saffi*on, 
and the best thing known to preserve fire arms 
from rust. - 


' Shearwaters are a longer fowl than a duck; 
some of them lie on the coast, whilst others range 
the seas all over. Sometimes they are met five 
hundred leagues from land. They live without 
drinking any firesh water. 

We have a great pied gull, black and white, 
which seems to have a black hood on his head ; 
these lay very fair eggs which are good ; as are 
the young ones in the season. 

Marsh hen, much the same as in Europe, only 
she makes another sort of noise and much thriller. 

Blue Peters. — ^The same as you call water hens 
in England, are, here very numerous, and not re- 
garded for eating. 

The sand birds are about the bigness of a lark, 
and frequent our "feand be^hes ; they are a dainty 
food, if you wiU bestow time ,:nd imimdtion to 
kill them. 

Runners. — ^These are called runners, because if 
you run after them they will run along the sands 
and not offer to get up ; so that you may often 
drive them together to shoot as you please. They 
are a pleasant small bird. 

Tutcocks. — A sort of snipe, but sucks not his 
food ; they are almost the same as in England. 

Swaddle bills are a sort of an ash colored duck 
which have an extraordinary broad bill, and are 
good meat ; they are not common as the others < 

Mew. — ^The same mew as in England, being a 
white, slender bird, with red feet. 

248 lawson'8 history 

ShelldrakeSy the same as in England. 

The bald, or white faces are a good fowl. They 
cannot dive and are easily shotten. 

Water witch, or ware coots, are a fowl with down 
and no feathers ; they dive incomparably, so that 
no fowler can hit them. They can neither fly nor 
go; but get into the fish wares and cannot fly 
over the roads, and so are taken. 

Thus have we given an account of what fowl 
has come to our knowledge, since our abode in 
Carolina, except some that, perhaps, have slipt 
our memory, and so are left out of our catalogue. 
Proceed we now to treat of the inhabitants of the 
watry element, which though we can as yet do 
but very imperfectly ; yet we are willing to oblige 
the curious with the best account that is in our 
power to present them withal. 



Whales, several sorts. 


Divel fish. 

Sword fish. 


Bottle noses. 


Sharks, two sorts. 

Dog fish. 

Spanish Mackajrel. 




Blue fish. 

Drum red. 

Drum fish, black. 

Angel fish. 

Bass or rock fishf 

Sheeps heads. 






Fat Backs. 

Guard white. 

Guard green. 

Scate or sting ray. 


Congar eels. . 

Lamprey Eels. 


'Stin fish. 

Toad fish. 

Sea tench. 

Trouts of the salt water* 







250 ' lawson's history 

fresh water fish are, 





Pearch, english. 

Pearch, white. 

Pearch, brown, or 

"Welchmen. " 

Pearch, flat, and 

Mottled, or Irishmen. 

Pearch, small and flat, with red spots 

called round robbins. 
Sucking fish. 
Cat fish. 
Old wives. .. 
Fountain fish. 
White fish. 


Large crabs, called stone crabs. 

Smaller flat crabs. 

Oysters, great and small. 





Man of noses. 
Perriwinkles, or wilks. 
Sea' snail horns. 
. Runners. 
Spanish, or pearl oysters. 
Tortois and terebin, accounted for 

among the insects. 
Finger fish. 


Craw fish. 

Whales are very numerous on the coast of North 
Carolina, from which they make oil, bone, &c., to 
the great advantage of those inhabiting the sand 
banks, along the ocean, where these whales come 
aahore, none being struck or killed with aharpoon 
in this place, as they are to the northward and 
elsewhere ; all those fish being found dead on the 
shore, most commonly by those that inhabited the 
banks and sea side, where they dwell for that in- 
tent^ and for the benefit of wrecks which some- 
times fall in upon that shore. 

Of these monsters there are four sorts ; the first, 
which is most choice and rich, is the sperma coeti 


. whale, from which the sperma coeti is taken. These 
are rich prizes; but I never heard but of one 
found on this coast, which was near Currituck in- 

The other sorts are of a prodigious bigness. Of 
these the bone and oil is made. The oil being the 
blubber, or oily flesh, or fat of that fish boiled. 
These differ not only in color, some being pied, 
others not, but very much in shape, one being called 
a bottle nosed whale, the other a shovel nose, 
which is as different as a salmon from a sturgeon. 
These fish seldom come ashore with their tongues 
in their heads, the Thrasher (which is the whales 
mortal enemy, wheresoever he meets him) eating 
that out of his head, as soon as he and the sword- 
fish have killed him, for when the whalecatchers 
(in other parts) kill any of these fish, they eat the 
tongue, and esteem it an excellent dish. 

There is another sort of these whales, or great 
fish, though not common. I never knew of above 
one of that sort, found on the coast of North Car- 
olina, and he was contrary, in shape, to all others 
ever found before him ; being sixty feet in length, 
and not above three or four feet diameter. Some 
Indians in America will go out to sea, and get 
upon a whale's back, and peg or plug up his spouts, 
and so kill him. . 

^ The Thrashers are large fish, and mortal en- 
emies to the whale, as I said before. They make 
good oil, but are seldom found. 


^ The divel fish lies at some of our inlets, and as 
near as I can describe him, is shaped like a scate, 
or stingray ; only he has on his head a pair of very 
thick strong horns, and is of a monstrous size, a3i'\i 
strength ; for this fish has been known to weigh a 
sloop's anchor, and run with the vessel a leagiro 
or two, and bring her back, against tide, to al- 
most the same place. Doubtless, they may afford 
good oil ; but I have no experience of any profits 
which arise from them. 

The sword fish is the other of the whales ene- 
mies, and joins with the thrasher to destroy that 
monster. After they have overcome him, they 
eat his tongue, as I said before, ,and the whale 
drives ashore. 

Orampois is a large fish, and by some accoun- 
ted a young whale ; but it is not so ; neither is 
it more than twenty-five or thirty feet long. They 
spout as the whale does, and when taken, yield 
good oil. 

Bottle noses are between the crampois and por- 
pois, and lie near the soundings. They are never 
seen to swim leisurely, as sometimes all other fish 
do, but are continually running after their prey in 
great shoals, like wild horses, leaping now and 
then above the water. The French esteem them 
good food, and eat them both fresh and salt. 

Porpoises are frequent all over the ocean and 
rivers that are salt ; nay, we have a fresh water 
lake in the great sound of North Carolina that has 
porpoises in it and several sorts of other unknown 


264 lawson's history 

fish, as the Indians say, that we are wholly stran- 
gers to. As to the porpois§s, they make good oil ; 
they prey upon other fish, as drums, yet never are 
known to take a bait so as to be caught with a hook. 

Sharks. — Of these there are two sorts ; one call- 
ed paracooda noses, the other shovel njoses ; they 
cannot take their prey before they turn themselves 
on their backs ; wherefore some negroes and oth- 
ers that can swim and dive well, go naked into 
the water with a knife in their hand, and fight the 
shark and very commonly kill him or wound him, 
BO that he turns tail . and runs away. Their livers 
make good oil to dress leather withal ; the bones 
found in their heads are said to hasten the birth 
and ease the stone by bringing it away. Their 
meat is eaten in scarce times ; but I never ccoild 
. away with it, though a great lover of fish. Their 
backbone is of one entire thickness. Of the bones 
or jointfl, I have known buttons made, which serve 
well enough in scarce times and remote places. 

The dog fish are a small sort of the shark kind, 
and j^ are caught with hook and line, fishing for 
drums. They say they are good meat ; but we 
have so many other sorts of delicate fish that I 
shall hardly ever make trial what they areT 

Spanish mackarel are, in color and shape, like 
the common mackarel, only much thicker. They 
are caught with hook and line at the inlets, and 
sometimes out a little way at sea. They are a 
very fine hard fish, and of good taste. They are 
about two feet long or better. 


Cavallies are taken in the same places. They 
are of a browninsh color, have exceeding small 
scales and a very thick skin ; they are as firm a 
fish as ever I saw ; therefore will keep sweet, in 
the- hot weather, two days when others will stink 
in half a day, unless salted. They ought to be 
scaled as soon as taken ; otherwise you must pull 
off the skin and scales when boiled, the skin be- 
ing the choicest of the fish. The meat which is 
white and large, is dressed with this fish. 

Bonetos are a very palatable fish, and near a 
yard long. They haunt the inlets and water near 
the ocean, and are killed with the harpoon and 

The blue fish is one of our best fishes, and al- 
ways very fat. They are as lo3g as a salmon, and in- 
deed, I think, full as good meat. These fish come 
in the fall of the year, generally after there has 
been one black frost, when there appear great 
shoals of them. The Hatteras Lidians and others 
run into the sands of tJie sea, and strike them, 
though some of these fish have caused sickness 
and violent burnings after eating of them, which 
is found to proceed from the gall that is broken 
in some of them and is hurtful. Sometimes many 
cart loads of these are thrown and left dry on the 
sea side, which comes by their eager pursuit of 
the small fish in which they run themselves ashore, 
and the tide leaving them, they cannot recover 
the water again. They are called blue fish, be- 
cause they are of that color and have a forked 
tail and are shaped like a dolphin. 

256 lawson's histoey 

The red drum is a large fish much bigger than 
the blue fish. The body of this is good firm meat, 
but the head is beyond all the fish I ever met with- 
al for an excellent dish. We have greater num- 
bers of these fish than of any other sort. People 
go down and catch as many barrels full as they 
please with hook and line, especially every young 
flood when they bite. These are salted up and 
transported to other colonies, that are bare of pro- 

Black drums are a thicker made fish than the 
red drum, being shaped like a fat pig ; they are a 
very good fish, but not so common with us as to 
the northward. 

The angel fish is shaped like an english bream. 
He is so called fromTlis golden color, which shines 
all about his head and belly. This is accounted 
a very good fish as are most in these parts. The 
Bermudians have the same sort of fish, and esteem 
them very much. 

Bass or rock is both in salt and fresh water ; 
when young he much resembles a grayling, but 
grows to the size of the large cod fish. They are 
a very good firm fish. Their heads are aouced, 
and make a noble dish, if large. 

Sheeps head has the general vogue of being the 
choicest fish in this place. Indeed, it is a very 
delicate fi^h and well relished ; yet I think there 
are several others full as good as the sheep head. 
He is much of the bigness of the Angel fish, and 
flat as he is ; they sometimes weigh two or three 


pound weight. This fish hath teeth like a sheep, 
and is therefore so called. 

Plaice ai^ here very large and plentiful, being 
the same as in England. 

Flounders should have gone amongst the fresh 
water fish, because they are caught there in great 

Soles are a fish we have but lately discovered : 
they are as good as in any other part. 

Mullets the same as in England, and great plen- 
ty in all places where the water is salt or brackish. 

Shads are a sweet fish, but very bony ; they are 
very plentiful at some seasons. 

Pat backs aro, a small fish like mullets, but the 
fattest cver^nown. They put nothing into the 
pan to fry these. They are excellent sweet food. 

The white guard fish is shaped almost like a pike, 
but slenderer ; his mouth has a long small bill set 
with teeth, in which he catches small fish ; his 
scales are knit together like armor. When they 
dress him they strip him, taking off scales and 
skin together. His meat is very white, and rath- 
er looks like flesh than fish. The English account 
them no good fish, but the Indians do. The gall 
of this fish is green, and a violent cathartic, if ta- 
ken inwardly. 

The green guard is shaped, in all respects, like 
the other, save that his scales are very small and 
fine. He is indifierent good meat ; his bones, 
when boiled or fried, remain as green as grass. 
The same sort of fish come before the mackarel in 


Scate or stingray, the same as in England, and 
very common ; but the great plenty of other fish 
makes these not regarded, for few or none eat 
them in Carolina, though they are almost at every 
one's door. 

Thombacks are the same as in England. They 
are not so common as the scate and whip rays. 

Congar eels always remain in the salt water ; 
they are much more known in the northward parts 
of America than with us. 

Lampreys are not common ; I never saw but 
one, which was large, and caught by the Indians 
in a ware. They would not eat him but gave him 
to me. 

Eels are no where in the world bAter, or more 
plentiful than in Carolina. 

Sunfish are flat and rounder than a bream, and 
are reckoned a fine tasted fish, and not without 
reason. Thev are much the size of aiisrel fish. 

Toad fish are nothing but a skin full of prickles, 
and a few bones ; they are as ugly as a toad, and 
preserved to look upon and good for nothing else. 

Sea tench. — They are taken by a bait near the 
inlet, or out at sea a little way. They are black- 
ish and exactly like a tench, except in the back 
fins, which have prickles like a pearch. They are 
as good if not better than any teuctl. 

Trouts of the salt water are exactly shaped like 
the trouts in Europe, having blackish, not red 
spots. They are in the salts and are not red with- 
in but white, yet a very good fish. They are so 


tender that if they are in or near fresh water, and 
a sudden frost cqme, they are benummed, and 
float on the surface of the water as if dead ; and 
then they take np canoe loads of them. * If you 
put them into warm water they presently recover. 

The crocus is a fish in shape like a pearch, and 
in taste like a whiting. They croke and make a 
noise in your hand when taken with a hook or 
net. They are very good. 

The herrings in Carolina are not so large as in 
Europe. They spawn there in March and April, 
running up the fresh jivers and small fresh runs 
of water in great shoals where they are taken. 
They become red if salted ; and drest with vine- 
gar and oil, resemble an anchovy very much ; for 
they are far beyond an English Herring when 

Smelts, the same as in England ; they lie down 
a great way in the sound towards the ocean, where, 
at some certain seasons, are a great many very fine 

Breams. — ^The fresh water affords no such breams 
as in England that I have as yet discovered ; yet 
there is a sea bream which is a flat and thin fish, 
as the European breams are. 

The taylor is a fish about the bigness of a trout, 
but of a bluish and green color with a forked tail, 
as a mackarel has. They are a delicate fish and 
plentiful in our salt waters. Infinite numbers of 
species will be hereafter discovered as yet un- 
known to us ; although I have seen and eaten of 

230 lawson's history 

several other sorts of fish which are not here men- 
tioned, because, as yet, they have no certain names 
assigned them. Therefore I shall treat no farther 
of our iftlt water fish, but proceed to the fresh. 

The first of these is the sturgeon, of which we 
have plenty, all the fresh parts of our rivers bemg 
well stored therewith. The Indians upon and 
towards the heads and falls of our rivers strike a 
great many of these and eat them ; yet the Indians 
near the salt water will not eat them. I have seen 
an Indian strike one of these fish seven feet long, 
and leave him on the sands to be eaten by the 
gulls. In May they run up towards the heads of 
the rivers, where you see several hundreds of them 
in one day. The Indians have another way to 
take them which is by nets at the end of a pole. 
The bones of these fish make good nutmeg graters. 

The jack pike or pickerel is exactly the same in 
Carolina as they are in England. Indeed, I never 
saw this fish so big and large in America as I have 
in Europe, these with us being seldom above two 
feet long, as "far as I have yet seen. They are 
very plentiful with us in Carolina, all our creeks 
and ponds being full of them. I once took out 
of a ware above three hundred of these fish at a 

Trouts, the same in England m in Carolina ; 
but ours are a great way up the rivers and brooks, 
that are fresh, having swift currents and stony and 
gravelly bottoms. 


The same gudgeoas as in Europe are found in 

The same sort of pearch as are in England we 
have likewise in Carolina, though, I think, ours 
never rise to be so large as in England. 

We have a white pearch, so called because he 
is of a silver color, otherwise like the English 
pearch. These we have in great plenty, and they 
are preferable to the red ones. 

The brown pearch, which some call welchmen, 
are the largest sort of pearches that we have, and 
very firm, white and sweet fish. These grow to 
be larger than any carp, and are very frequent in 
every creek and pond. 

The flat or mottled pearch are shaped almost 
like a bream. They are called irishmen, being 
freckled or mottled with black and blue spots. 
They are never takeft anywhere but in the fresh 
water. Thoy are good fish, -but I do not approve 
of them no more than the other sorts of pearch. 

We hav^ another sort of pearch which is the 
least sort of all, but as good meat as any. These 
are distinguished from the other sorts by the name 
of round robins, being flat and very round shaped ; 
they are spotted with red spots very beautiful, and 
are easily caught with an angle, as all the other 
sort of pearches are. 

We have the same carp as you have in England. 

And the same roach, only scarce so large. 

Dace are the same as yours too ; but neither are 
these so large nor plentiful, as tnth you* 



Loacli, the same as in England. 

Sucking fish are the nearest in taste and shape 
to a barbel, only they have no barbs. 

Cat fish are a round, blackiafi fish, with a great 
flat head, a wide mouth and no scales. They 
something resemble eels in taste. Both this sort^ 
and another that frequents the salt water, are ve- 
ry plentiful. 

Grindals are a long scaled fish with small eyes, 
and frequent ponds, lakes, and slow running 
creeks and swamps. They are a soft, sorry fish, 
and good for nothing ; though some eat tliem for 
good fish. 

Old wives. — These are a bright scaly fish, which 
frequents the swamps and fresh runs. They seem 
to be between an English roach and a bream, and 
eat much like the latter. The Indians kill abun- 
dance of these, and barbecue them till they are a 
crisp, then trimspoii; them in wooden hurdles, to 
their towns and quarters. 

The fountain fish are a white sort which breed 
in the clear running springs and fountains of wa- 
ter, where the clearness thereof makes them very 
difhcultto be taken. I cannot say how good they 
are, because I have not as yet tasted of them. 

The white fish are very large. Some being two 
feet and a half long and more. They are found 
a great way up in the freshes of the rivers ; and 
are firm meat, and an extraordinary well relished 

Barbouts and millers thumbs, are the very same 
here in all respects, as they are in England. What 


more are in the fresh waters we have not discov- 
ered, but are satisfied, that we are not acquainted 
with one-third part thereof ; for we are told by the 
Indians, of a great many strange and uncouth shapes 
and sorts of fish, which they have found in the 
lakes laid down in my chart. However as we can 
give no farther account of these than by hearsay, 
I proceed to treat of the shell fish, that are found 
in the salt water, so far as they have already come 
to our knowledge. 

The large crabs, which we call stone crabs, are 
the same sort as in England, having black tips at 
the *end of their claws. These are plentifully met 
withal, down in Core sound, and the south parts 
of North Carolina. 

The smaller flat crabs I look upon to be the 
sweetest of all the species. They are the length 
of a lusty man's hand, or rather larger. These 
are innumerable, lying in most prodigious quanti- 
ties, all over the salts of Carolina. They are ta- 
ken not only to eat, but are the best bait for all 
sorts of fish, that live in the salt water. These 
fish are mischievous to night hooks, because they 
get away all the bait from the hooks. 

Oysters, great and small, are found almost in 
every creek and gut of salt water, and are very 
good and well relished. The large oysters are ex- 
crellent pickled. 

One cockle in Carolina is as big as five or six in 
England. They are often thrown upon the sands 
on the sound side, wh6re the gulls are always 
^eady to open and eat them. 

264 lawson's history 

Clams are a sort of cockles, only differing in 
shell, which is thicker and not streaked, or rib- 
bed. These are fouud throughout all the sound 
and salt water ponds. The meat is the same for 
look and taste as the cockle. These make an ex- 
cellent strong broth, and eat well, either roasted 
or pickled. 

The muscles in Carolina have a very large shell, 
striped with dents. They grow by the side of 
, ponds and creeks, in salt water, wherein you 
may get as many of them as you please. I do not 
like them so well as the English muscle, which is 
no good shell fish. 

. Conks. — Some of the shells of these fish are as 
large as a man's hand, but the lesser sort are the 
best meat, and those not extraordinary. They . 
are shaped like the end of a horsesyard. Of their 
shells, the peak, or wampum is made, which is the 
richest commodity amongst the Indians. They 
breed like a long thing shaped like a snake, but 
containing a sort of joints, in the hollo wness 
whereof are thousands of small coaks, no bigger 
than small grains of pepper. 

The skellops, if well dressed, are a pretty shell 
fish ; but to eat them only roasted, without any 
other addition, in my judgment, are too luscious. 
Man of noses are a shell fish commonly found 
amongst us. They are valued for increasing vig- 
or in men and making barren women fruitful ; but 
I think they have no need of that fish, for the wo- 
men in Carolina are fruitful enough without 
their help. 


Wilkes, or perriwinkles, are not so large here 
as in the Islands of Scilly, and in other parts of 
Europe, though very sweet. 

The sea snail horn is large, and very good meat. 
They are exactly shaped as other snail horns are. 
Fidlars are a sort of small crabs, that lie in holes 
in the marshes. The raccoons eat them very much . 
I never knew any one try whether they were 
good meat or no. 

Runners live chiefly on the sands. But some- 
times run into the sea. They have holes in the 
sand beaches and are a whitish sort of a crab. 
Though small, they run as fast as a man, and are 
good for nothing but to look at. 

Spanish oysters have a very thin shell, and 
rough on the outside. They are very good shell 
fish, and so large, that halt a 4ozen are enough to 
satisfy an hungry stomach. 

The flattings are inclosed in a broad, thin shell, 
the whole fish being flat. They are inferior to no 
shell fish this country aflTords. 

Finger fish are very plentiful in this country. 
They are of the length of a man's finger, and lie 
in the bottom of the water about one or two feet 
deep. They are very good. 

Shrimps are very plentiful and good, and are to 
be taken with a small bow net in great quantities. 
The small cockles are about the bigness of the 
largest English cockles, and differ nothing from 
them,||inless in the shells, which are striped cross- 
wise, as well as longwise. 



* Muscles, which are eaten by the Indians, after 
five or six hours boiling to make them tender, and 
then are good for nothing. 

Crawfish in the brooks and small rivers of wa- 
ter amongst the-Tuskeruro Indians and up higher, 
are found very plentifully, and as good as any in 
the world. 

And thus I have gone through the several spe- 
cies, of fish, so far as they have come to my knowl- 
edge, in the eight years that I have lived in Caro- 
lina. I should have made a larger discovery when 
traveling so far toward the mountains and amongst 
the hills, had it not been in the winter season, 
which was improper to make any enquiry into any 
of the species before recited. Therefore, as my 
intent was, I proceed to what remains of the pres- 
ent state of Carolina, having already accounted for 
the animals and vegetables as far as this volume 
would allow of, w^hereby the remainder, though 
not exactly known, may yet be guessed at if we 
consider what latitude Carolina lies in, which 
reaches from 29 to 36° 80', northern latitude as I 
have before observed. Which latitude is as fer- 
tile and pleasant as any in the world, as well for 
the produce of minerals, fruits, grain and wine, as 
other rich commodities. And, indeed, all the ex- 
periments that have been made in Carolina, of 
the fertility and natural advantages of the coun- 
try, have exceeded all expectations as affording 
some commodities which other places, in the same 


latitude, do not. As for minerals as they are sub- 
terraneous products, so in all new countries, they 
are the species .that are last discovered ; and espe- 
cially in Carolina, where the Indians never look for 
any thing lower than the superficies of the earth, 
being a^'race of men the least addicted to delving 
of any people that inhabit so fine a country as 
Carolina is. As good if not better mines than 
those the Spaniards possess in America, lie full 
west from us ; and I am certain we have as moun- 
tainous land and as great f>robability of having 
rich minerals in Carolina as any of those parts 
that are already found to be so rich therein. But 
waving this subject till some other opportunity, 
I shall now give you some observations in general, 
concerning Carolina; which are, first, that it lies 
as convenient for trade as any of the plantations 
in America; that we have plenty of pitch, tar, skins 
of deer, and beeves, furs, rice, wheat, rie, Indian 
grain, sundry sorts of pulse, turpentine, rosin, 
masts, yards, planks and boards, stave and lumber, 
tijnber of many common sorts, fit for any uses ; 
hemp, flax, barley, oats, buck wheat, beef, pork, 
tallow, hides, whalebone and oil, wax, cheese, 
butter, &c., besides drugs, dyes, fruit, silk, cotton, 
indico, oil and wine tjiat we need not doubt of as 
soon as we make a regular essay, the country be- 
ing adorned with pleasant meadows, rivers, moun- 
tains, valleys, hills, and rich pastures, and blessed 
with wholesome, pure air ; especially a little back- 
wards from the sea, where the wild beasts inhabit, 

268 lawson's history 

none of which are voracious. The men are active, 
the women fruitful to admiration, every house be- 
ing full of children, and several women that have 
come hither barren, having presently proved fruit- 
ful. There cannot be a richer soil, no place 
abounding more in flesh and fowl, both wild and 
tame, besides, fish, fruit, grain, cider, aad many 
other pleasant liquors, together with several oth- 
er necessaries for life and trade, that are daily 
found out, as new discoveries are made. The 
stone and gout seldom trouble us ; the consump- 
tion we are wholly strangers to, no place affording 
a better remedy for that distemper than Carolina. 
For trade we lie so near to Virginia that we have 
the advantage of their convoys ; as also letters 
from thence in two or three days at most, in some 
places in as few hours. Add to this that the great 
number of ships which come within those capes, 
for Virginia and Maryland take off' our provisions 
and give us bills of exchange for England, which 
is sterling money. The planters in Virginia and 
Maryland are forced to do the same, the great 
quaatities of tobacco that are planted there, ma- 
king provisions scarce ; and tobacco is a commo- 
dity oftentimes so low as to bring nothing, where- 
as provisions and naval stores never fail of a mar- 
ket. Besides, where these are raised in such plen- 
ty as in Carolina, there always appears good house 
keeping, and plenty of all manner of delicate ea- 
tables. For instance, the pork of Carolina is very 
good, the younger hogs fed on peaches, maiz, and 


^ such other natural produce ; being some of the 
sweetest meat that the world afibrds, as is ac- 
knowledged by all strangers that have been there. 
And as for the beef in Pampticough and the south- 
ward parts, it proves extraordinary. We have riot 
only provisions plentiful, but clothes of our own 
manufiactures, which are made and daily increase ; 
cotton, wool, hemp, and flax being of our own 
growth ; and the women to be highly commended 
for their industry in spinning and ordering their 
housewifery to so great advantage as they gene- 
rally do, which is much more easy by reason this 
happy climate^ visited with so mild winters, is 
much warmer than the northern plantations, 
which saves abundance of clothes, fewer serving 
our necessities and those ni our servants. But 
this is not all, for we can go out with our commo- 
dities to any other part of the West Indies, or 
elsewhere, in the depth of winter ; whereas, those 
in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
the colonies to the northward of us cannot stir for 
ice, but are fast locked into their harbors. Be- 
sides we can trade with South Cswolina, and pay 
no duties or customs no more than their own ves- 
sels both north and south being under the same 
lords proprietors. 

We have, as I observed before, another great 
advantage, in not being a frontier, and so contin- 
ually alarmed by the enemy ; and what has been 
accounted a detriment to us, proves one of the 
greatest advantages any people could wish, which 

270 lawson's history 

is, our country's being faced with a sound near, 
ten leagues over in some places, through which, 
although there be water enough for as large ships 
to come in at, as in any part hitherto seated in 
both Carlinas ; yet the difficulty of that sound to 
strangers, hinders them from attempting any hos- 
tilities against us ; and at the same time, if we 
consider the advantages thereof, nothing can ap- 
pear to be a better situation, than to be fronted 
with such a bulwark, which secures us from our 
enemies. Furthermore, our distance from the 
sea rids us of two curses, which attend most other 
parts of America, viz : muskeetos and the worm 
biting, which eat ships bottoms out ; whereas at 
Bath-town, there is no such thing known ; and as 
for muskeetos, they hinder us of as little rest as 
they do you in England. Add to this, the unac- 
countable quantities of fish this great water or 
sound, supplies us withal, whenever we take the 
pains to fish for them ; advantages I have no 
where met withal in America, except here. 

As for the climate, we enjoy a very wholesome 
and serene sky, and a pure and thin air, the sun 
seldom missing to give us his daily blessing, un- 
less now and then on a winter's day, which is not 
often ; and when cloudy, the first appearance of a 
north-west wind clears the horizon, and restores 
the light of the sun. The weather, in summer, is 
very pleasant. The hotter months being refresh- 
ed with continual breezes of cool reviving air ; 
and the spring being as pleasant and beautiful, as in 


any place I ever was in. The winter, most com- 
monly, is so mild, that it loots like an autnra, 
being now and then attended with clear and thin 
north-west winds, that are sharp enough to regu- 
late English constitutions, and free them from a 
great many dangerous distempers, that a continu- 
al summer afflicts them withal, nothing being 
wanting as to the natural ornaments and blessings 
of a country, that conduce to make reasonable 
men happy. And for those that are otherwise, 
they are so much their own enemies, where they 
are, that they will scarce ever be any one's friends 
or their own, when they are transplanted so, it is 
much better for all sides, that they remain as they 
are. N^ot but that there are several good people 
that, upon just grounds, may be uneasy under 
their present burdens; and such I would advise 
to remove to the place I have been treating of, 
where they may enjoy their liberty and religion, 
and peaceably oat the fruits of their labor, and 
drink the wine of their own vineyards* without 
the alarms of a troblesome worldly life. 

If a man be a botanist, here is a plentiful field of 
plants to divert him in. K he be a gardner, and 
delight in that pleasant and happy life, he will 
meet with a climate and soil that will further and 
promote his designs, in as great a measure, as any 
man can wish for ; and as for the constitution of 
this government, it is so mild and easy, in respect 
to the properties and liberties of a subject, that 
without rehearsing the particulars, I say once for 

272 lawson's history 

all, it is the mildest and best established govern- 
ment in the world, and the place where any man 
may peaceably enjoy his own without being 
invaded by another ; rank and superiority ever 
giving place to justice and equity, which is the 
golden rule that every government ought to be 
built upon, and regulated by. 

Besides it, is worthy our notice, that this pro- 
vince has been settled, and continued the most 
free from the insults and barbarities of the Indians 
of any colony that was ever yet seated in America, 
which must be esteemed as a particular providence 
of God, handed down from heaven to these people, 
especially when we consider how irregularly they 
settled North Carolina, and yet how undisturbed 
they have ever remained, free from any foreign 
danger or loss, even to this very day. And what 
may well be looked upon for as great a miracle, 
this is, a jjlace where no malefactors are found 
deserving death, or even a prison for debtojs, 
there beTng no more than two persons, as far as I 
have been able to learn, ever suffered as criminals, 
although it has been a settlement near sixty 3'ears; 
one of whom was a Turk that committed murder, 
the other an old woman, for witchcraft. These, 
tis true, were on the stage and acted many years 
before I knew the place, but as for the last, I wish 
it had been undone to this day, although they give 
a great many arguments to justify the deed which 
I had rather they should have had a hand in than 
myself; seeing I could never approve of takhig 


life away upon such- accusations, the justice where- 
of I could never yet understand. 

But to return to the subject in hand, we there 
make extraordinary good bricks throughout the 
settlement. All sorts of handicrafts, as carpenters, 
joiners, masons, plaisters, shoemakers, tanners, 
tailors, weavers, and most others. Many with 
good beginnings, and God's blessing, thrive very 
well in this place, and provide estates for their 
children. Land being sold at a much cheaper 
rate there than in any other place in America, 
and may, as I suppose, be purchased of the lords 
proprietors here in England, or of the governor 
there for the time being, by any liiat shall have a 
mind to transport themselves to that country. The 
farmers that go thither (for which sort of men it 
is a very thriving place) should take with them 
some particular seeds of grass, as trefoil, clover 
grass all sorts, sanfoin, and common grass, or that 
which is a rarity in Europe, especially, what has 
sprung and rose first from a warm climate, and 
will endure the sun without flinching. Likewise, 
if there be any extraordinary sort of grain for in- 
crease or hardiness, and some fruit trees of choice 
kinds, they will be both profitable and pleasant to 
have with you, where you may see the fruits of 
your labor in perfection, in a few years. The ne- 
cessary instruments of husbandry I need not ac- 
quaint the husbandman withal. Hoes of all sorts 
and axes, must be had, with saws, wedges, augurs, 
nails, hammers, and what other things may be ne- 

274 lawson's history 

cewaiy for building with brick, or stone, which 
sort your inclination and convenience lead you to. 
For, after having looked over this treatise, you 
must needs be acquainted vrith the nature of the 
country, and therefore cannot but be judges, what 
it is that you will chiefly want As for land, none 
need want it for taking up, even in the places there 
seated on the navigable creeks, rivers, and har- 
bours, without being driven into remoter holes 
and comers of the country for settlements, which 
all are forced to do, who, at this day, settle in 
most or all of the other English plantations in 
America ; which are already become so populous 
that a new comer cannot get a beneficial and com- 
modious seat, unless he purchases, when, in most 
places in Virginia and Maryland, a thousand acres 
of good land, seated on a navigable water, will 
cost a thousand pounds ; whereas, with us, it is at 
present obtained for the fiftieth part of the money. 
Besides our land pays to the lords but an easy quit 
rent, or yearly acknowledgement ; and the other 
settlement pay two shillings per hundred. All 
these things duly weighed, any rational man that 
has a mind to purchase land in the plantations for 
a setdement of himself and family, will soon dis- 
cover the advantages that attend the settlers and 
purchasers of land in Carolina above all other colo- 
nies in the English dominions in America. And 
as there is a free exercise of all persuasions amongst 
christians, the lord's proprietors to encourage min- 
isters of the church of England have given free 


land towards tlie mainteDance of a church, and es- 
pecially for the parish of S. Thomas in Pampti- 
coTigh, over against the town is already laid out 
for a glebe of two hundted and twenty three acres 
of rich well situated land, that a parsonage house 
may h& built upon. And now I shall proceed to 
give an account of the Indians, their customs and 
ways of living, with a short dictionary of their 

«F ITOBTH CABOimi. 277 




The Indiaiis, which were the inhabitants of 
America when the Spaniards and other Europeans 
discovered the several p&rtd of that country, are 
the people which we reckon flie natives thereof; 
as indeed they were, when we first found out those 
parts and appeared therein. Yet this has not 
wrought in me a full satisfaction to allow these 
people to have been the ancient dwellers of the 
new world, or tract of land we call- America. The 
reasons that I have to tiiix^ olherwise, are too 
many to set down here ; but I shall give Ihe reader 
a few before I proceed, and some eMhershewiU 
find scattered in my writings elsewhere* 

In Carolina (the part I 40W treat of) are the 
fairest marks of a deluge, th^t at dome time has 
probably msk^e strtinge alterations as to the sta* 
tion that country was thep in, that ever I saw, or, 
I thinky read of, in any history. Amongst the 
other subterraneous jniiptters that have been dis- 

a13 ^ 


covered, we found, in digging of a well that xvas 
twenty-ix feet deep, at the bottom thereof, many 
large pieces of the tulip tree, and several other 
sorts of wood, some of which were cut and notch- 
ed, and some squared, as the joices of a house are, 
which appeared (in the judgment of all that saw 
them) to be wrought with iron instruments; it 
seeming impossible for anything made of stone, 
or what they were found to make use of, to cut 
wood in that manner. It canaot be argued, that 
the wood so cut, might float from some other con- 
tinent, because hickory and the tulip tree are 
spontaneous in America, and in no other places 
that I could ever learn. 

It is to be acknowledged that the Spaniards 
give us relations of magnificent buildings, which 
were raised by the Indians of Mexico and other 
parts, which they discovered and conquered, 
amongst whom no iron instruments were found. 
But tis a great misfortune that no person in that 
expedilion was so curious as to take an exact 
draught of the fiibrics ofthose people, which would 
have been a discovery of great value, and very ac- 
ceptable to the ingenious ; for, as to the politeness 
of stones, it may be eftected by collision and grind- 
ing, which is of a contrary nature, on several ac- 
counts, and disproves not my arguments in the 

The next is, the earthernpots that are often found 
under ground, and at the foot of the banks where 
the water has washed them away. They are, for 


the most part broken in pieces ; but we find them 
of a different sort, in comparison of those the In- 
dians use at this day, who have had no other ever 
since the English discovered America. The bow- 
els of the earth cannot have altered them, since 
they are thicker, of another shape and composi- 
tion, and nearly approach to the urns of the an- 
cient Romans. 

Again, the peaches, which are the oijy tame 
fruit, or what is foreign, that these people enjoy, 
which is an eastern product, and will keep and re- 
tain its vegetative and growing faculty the long- 
est of anything of that nature, that I know of. 
The stone, as I elsewhere have remarked, is thick- 
er than any other sort of the peaches in Europe, 
or of the European sort, now growing in America, 
and is observed to grow, if planted, after it has 
been for several years laid by ; alid it seem« very 
probable that these people might come from some 
eastern country ; for when you ask them whence 
their forefathers came, that first inhabited the 
country, they will point to the westward, and say, 
where the sun sleeps our forefathers came thence, 
which, at that distance, may be reckoned amongst 
the eastern parts of the world. And, to this* day, 
they are a shifting, wandering people ; for I know 
some Indian nations that have changed their set- 
tlements many hundred miles, sometimes no less 
than a thousand, as is proved by the Savanna In- 
dians, who formerly lived on the banks of the 
Messiasippi, and removed thence to the head of 


one of the rivers of South Carolina, since which, 
for some dislike, most of them are removed to 
live in the quarters of the Iroquois or Sinnagars, 
which are on the heada of the rivers that disgorge 
themselves into the bay of Chesapeak. I once met 
with a young Indian woman that had been brought 
from beyond the mountains, and was sold a slave 
into Virginia. She spoke the same language as 
the Coramine Indians, that dwell near Cape Look- 
out, allowing for some few words, which were dif- 
ferent, yet no otherwise than that they might un- 
derstand one another very welL 

The Indians of North Carolina are a well shaped 
clean made people, of different statures, as the 
Europeans are, yet chiefly inclined to be tall. 
They are a very straight people, and never bend 
forwards or stoop in the shoulders, unless much 
overpowered by old age. Their limbs are exceed- 
ing well shaped. As for their legs and feet, they 
are generally the handsomest in the world. Their 
bodies are a little flat, which is occasioned by be- 
ing laced hard down to a board in their infancy. 
This is all the cradle they have, which I shall de- 
scribe at large elsewhere. Their eyes are black, 
or of a dark ha^el ; the white is marbled with red 
r 1 reaks, which is ever common to these people, 
^ aless when sprung from a white father or mother. 

heir color is of a tawny, which would not be so 
dark did they not dawb themselves with bear's oil, 
and a color like burnt cork. This is begun in 
their infancy and continued for a long time, which 


fills the pores and enables them better to endnre 
the extremity of the weather. They are never 
bald on their heads, although never so old, which, 
I believe, proceeds from their heads being always 
uncovered, and the greasing their hair, so often 
as they do, with bear's fat, which is a great nour- 
isher of the hair, and causes it to grow very fast. 
Amongst the bear's oil, when they intend to be 
fine, they mix a certain red powder, that comes 
from a scarlet root which they get in the hilly 
country, near the foot of the great ridge of moun- 
tains, and it is no where else to be found. They 
have this scarlet root in great esteem, and sell it 
for a very great price one to another. The reason 
of its value is, because they not only go a long way 
for it but are in great danger of the Sinnagers or 
Iroquois, wlio are mortal enemies to all our Ir 
dians, and very often take them captives or ki.. 
them before they return from this voyage. Th . 
Tuskeruros and other Indians have often brought 
this seed with them from tjie mountains ; but it 
would never grow in our land. With this and 
bear's grease they anoint their heads and temples, 
which is esteemed as omamentali as sweet powder 
to our hair. Besides, this root has the virtue of 
killing lice, and sniffers none to abide or breed in 
their heads. For want of this root, they some- 
times use pecoon root, which is of a crimson color, 
but it is apt to die the hair of an ugly hue. 

Their eyes are commonly' full and manly, and 
tieir gate sedate and majestic. They never walk 

282 lawson's history 

backward and forward as we do, nor contemplate 
on the affairs of loss and gain, the things which 
daily perplex us. They are dexterous and steady, 
both as to their hands and feet, to admiration. 
They will walk over deep brooks and creeks on 
the smallest poles, and that without any fear or 
concern. Ifay, an Indian will walk on the ridge 
of a barn or house and look down the gable end, 
and spit upon the ground as unconcerned as if he 
was walking on terra firma. In running, leaping 
or any such other exercise, their legs seldom mis- 
carry and give them a fall ; and as for letting any 
thing fall out of their hands, I never yet knew one 
example. They are no inventers of any arts or 
trades worthy mention ; the reason of which I 
take to be, that they are not possessed with that 
care and thoughtfulness, how to provide for the 
necessaries of life as the Europeans are ; yet they 
will learn any thing very soon. I have known an 
Indian stock guns better than mostof our joiners, 
although he never saw one stocked before ; and 
besides, his working tool was only a sorry knife. 
I have fitso known several of them that were slaves 
to the English, learn handicraft trades very well 
and speedily. I never saw a dwarf amongst them, 
nor but one that was hump-backed. Their teeth 
are yellow with smoking tobacco, which both men 
and women are much addicted to. They tell us that 
they had tobacco amongst them before the Euro- 
peans made any discovery of that continent. It 
differs in the leaf from the sweet scented, and 


Oroonoko, whicli are the plants we raise and cul- 
tivate in America. Theirs differs likewise much 
in the smell, when green, from our tobacco before 
cured. They do not use the same way to cure it 
as we do, and therefore the difference must be 
very considerable in taste ; for all men that know 
tobacco must allow that it is the ordering thereof 
which gives a hogoo-to that weed rather than any 
natural relish it possesses when green. Although 
they are great smokers, yet they never are seen 
to take it in snuff or chew it. 

They have no hairs on their faces, except some 
few, and those but little, nor is there often found 
any hair under their arm pits. They are contin- 
ually plucking it away from their faces by thft 
roots. As for their privities, since they wore tail 
clouts to cover their nakedness, several of the men 
have a deal of hair thereon. It is to be observed 
that the head of the penis is covered, throughout 
all the nations of the Indians I ever saw, both in 
old and young. Although we reckon these a very 
smooth people, and free from hair ; yet I once saw 
a middle aged man that was hairy all down his 
back ; the hairs being above an inch long. 

As there are found very few, or scarce any, de- 
formed or cripples amongst them, so neither did 
I ever see but one blind man ; and then they 
would give me no account how his blindness came. 
They had a use for him, which was to lead him 
with a girl, woman or boy, by a string ; so they 
put what burdens they pleased upon his back, and 


made him vety serviceable upon all such occasions. 
■No people bare better eyee, or see better in the 
nigbt or day than the Indiana. Some alledge that 
&e smoke of the pitch pine which they chiefly 
bam, does both preserve and strengthen the eyes ; 
as, perhaps, it may do, because that smoke never 
o£fends the eyes, though yon hold your &ce over 
a great fire thereof. Thb is occasioned by the 
Tolatile part of the turpentine, vrhich rises with 
the smoke, «ai is of a friendly, balsamic nature ; 
for the ashes of the pine tree a£ford no fixed salt 
in them. 

They let their umls grow very long, vrhich, they 
reckon, is the use nails are designed for, and laugh 
at the Europeans for pairing theirs, which, they 
say disarms them of that whic^ nature dewgned 
them for. 

They are not of so robust and strong bodies as 
to lift great burdens, and endure labor and slavish 
work, as the Europeans are ; yet some that are 
slaves, prove very good and laborious ; but, of 
themselves, they never woik as the English do, 
taking care tor no farther thaa what is absolutely 
necessary to sugport life. In traveling and hunt- 
ing, they are very indefatigable, because that car- 
riea a pleasure along with the profit. I have 
m some of them very strong ; and as fi>r run- 
and leaping, they are eztraordinaiy fellows, 
ivill *lance for several nights together with the 
lest briskness imaginable, their wind never 
tg them. 


Their dances are of different natures ; and for 
every sort of dance they have a tune, which is al- 
lotted for that dance ; as, if it be a war dance, they 
have a war-like song, wherein they express, with 
all the passion Snd vehemence imaginable, what 
they intend to do with their enemies ; how they 
will kill, roast, sculp, beat, and make captive, such 
and such numbers of them ; and how many they 
have destroyed before. All these songs are made 
new for ever j feast ; nor is one and the same song 
sung at two several festivals. Some one of the 
nation, which has the best gift of expressing their 
designs, is appointed by their king and war cap- 
tains to make these songs. 

Others are made for feasts of another nature ; 
as, when several towns, or sometimes different na- 
tions have made peace with one another ; then 
the song suits both nations, and relates how the 
bad spirit made them go to war and destroy one 
another ; but it shall never be so again ; but that 
their sons and daughters shall marry together, and 
the two nations love one another, and become as 
one people. 

They have a third sort of feasts and dances, 
which are always when the harvest of corn is ended 
and in the spring. The one to return thanks to 
the good spirit for the fruits of the earth ; the other 
to beg the same blessings for the succeeding yeai 
And to encourage the young men to labor stoutly 
in planting their maiz and pulse, they set a sort 
of an idol in the field, which is dressed up exactly 



like an Indian, having all the Indians habit, be- 
sides abundance of Wampum and their money, 
made of shells, that hangs about his neck. The 
image none of the young men dai^ approach ; for 
the old ones will not suffer them to come near 
him, but tell them that he is some famous Indian 
warrior that died a great while ago, and now is 
come amongst them to see if they work well, 
which if they do, he will go to the good spirit and 
speak to him to send them plenty of «om, and to 
make the young men all expert hunters and 
mighty warriors. All this while, the king and old 
men sit round the image and seemingly pay a 
profound respect to the same. One great help to 
these Indians in carrying on these cheats, and in- 
ducing youth to do what they please, is, the uninter- 
rupted silence which is ever kept and observed 
with all the respect and veneration imaginable. 

At these feasts which are set out with all the 
magnificence their tare allows of, the masquerades 
begin at night and not before. There is common- 
ly a fire made in the middle of the house, which 
is the largest in the town, and is very often the 
dwelling of their king or war captain ; where sit 
two men on the ground upon a mat ; one with a 
rattle, made of a gourd, with some beans in it ; 
the other with a drum made of an earthern pot, 
covered with a dressed deer sMn, and one stick in 
his hand to beat tnereon ; and so they both begin 
the song appointed. At the same time one drums 
and the otJier rattles, which is all the artificial mu- 


sic of their own making I ever saw amongst them. 
To these two instruments they sing, which carriies 
no air with it, but is a sort of unsavory jargon ; 
yet their cadences and raising of their voices are 
formed with that equality and exactness that, to 
us Europeans, it seems admirable how they should 
continue these songs without once missingto agree, 
each with the others note and tune. 

As for their dancing, were there masters of that 
profession amongst them as there are with us, they 
would dearly earn their money ; for these crea- 
tures take the most pains at it that men are able 
to endure. I have seen thirty odd together a dan- 
cing, and every one dropped down with sweat, as 
if water had been poured down their backs. They 
use those hard labors to make them able to endure 
fatigue and improve their wind, which indeed is 
very long and durable, it being a hard matter in 
any exercise to dispossess them of it. 

At these feasts, they meet from all the towns 
within fifty or sixty milesround, where they buy 
and sell several commodities, as we do at fairs and 
markets. Besides they game very much, and of- 
ten strip one another of all they have in the world ; 
and what is more, I have known several of them 
play themselves away, so that they have remained 
the winners servants, till their relations or them- 
selves could pay the money to redeem them ; and 
when this happens, the loser is never dejected or 
melancholy at the loss, but laughs and seems no 
less, contented than if he had won. They never 

288 LAWsoir's histoky 

difier at gamiDg, neither did I ever see a dispute^ 
about tlie legality thereof, so much as rise amongst 

Their chiefest game is a sort of arithmetic, which 
is managed by a parcel of small, split reeds, 
the thickBess of a small bent; these are made 
very nicely, so that they part and are tractable in 
their hands. They are fifty-one in number ; their 
length about seven inches. "When they play, 
they throw part of them to their antagonist. The 
art is, to discover upon sight, how many you have, 
and what you throw to him that plays with you. 
Some are so expert at their numbers that they 
will tell ten times together, what they throw out 
of their hands. Although the whole play is car- 
ried on with the quickest motion it is possible to 
use, yet spme are so expert at this game, as to win 
great Indian estates by this play. A good set of 
these reeds, fit to play withal, are valued and sold 
for a dressed doe skin. 

They have several other plays and garbles, as 
with the kernels or stones of persimmons, which 
are in. effect the same as our dice, because win- 
ning or losing depend on which side appear up- 
permost, and how they happen to fall together. 

Another game is managed with a batoon and a 
ball, and resembles our trap ball ; besides, seve- 
ral nations have several games and past-times, 
which are not used by others. 

These savages live in wigwams, at cabins, built 
of bark, which are made round, like an oven, to. 


prevent any damage by hard gales of wind. They 
make the fire in the middle of the house, and have 
a hole at the top of the roof right above the fire, 
to let out the smoke. These dwellings are as hot 
as stoves, where the Indians sleep and sweat all 
night. The floors thereof are never paved nor 
swept, so that they have always a loose earth on 
them. They are often troubled with a multitude 
of fleas, especially near the places where they dress 
iheir deer skins, because that hair harbors them ; 
yet I never felt any ill, unsavory smell in their cab- 
ins, whereas, should we live in our houses, as they 
do, we should be poisoned with our own nastiness, 
which confirms these Indians to be, as they really 
are, some of the sweetest people in the world. 

The bark they make their cabins withal, is gen- 
erally cypress, or red or white cedar ; and some- 
times, when they are a great way from any of these 
woods, they make use of pine bark, which is the 
worser sort. In building these fabrics, they get 
very long poles of pine, cedar, hickory, or any 
other wood that will bend ; these are the thickness 
of the small of a man's leg, at the thickest end, 
which they generally strip of the bark, and warm 
them well in the fire, which makes them tough 
and fit to bend. Afterwards, they stick the thick- 
est ends of them in the ground, about two yards 
asunder, in a circular form, the distance they de- 
sign the cabin to be (which is not always round, 
but sometimes oval) then they bend the tops and 
bring them together, and bind their ends with 


bark of trees, that is proper for that use, as elm 
is, or sometimes the moss that grows on the trees, 
and is a yard or two long, and never rots ; then 
they brace them with other poles to make them 
strong; afterwards cover them all over with bark, 
80 that they are very warm and tight, and will 
keep firm agaimst all the weathers that blow. They 
have other sorts of cabins without windows, which 
are for their granaries, skins, and merchandises, 
.and others that are covered over head; the rest 
left open for the air.- These have reed hurdles, 
like tables, to lie and sit on, in summer, and serve 
for pleasant banqueting houses in the hot season 
of the year. The cabins they dwell in have benches 
all round, except where the door stands, on these 
they lay beasts skins, and mats made of rushes, 
whereon they sleep and loll. In one of these sev- 
eral families commonly live, though all related to 
one another. 

As to the Indians' food, it is of several sorts, 
which are as follows : 

Venison, and fawns in the bags, cut out of the 
does belly ; fish of all sorts, the lamprey eel except^ 
ed, and the sturgeon, our salt water Indians will 
not touch ; bear, and bever, panther, polecat, wild 
cat, possum, raccoon, hares, and squirrels, roasted 
with their guts in ; snakes, all Indians will not 
eat them, though some do ; all wild fruits, that 
are palatable, some of which they dry and keep 
against winter, as all sort of fruits, and peaches, 
which they dry and make quiddonies and cakes, 


thfCt are very pleasant, and a little tartish ; young 
wasps, when they are white in the combs, before 
they can fly, this is esteemed a dainty ; all sorts of 
tortois and terebins, shell fish, and stingray, or 
scate, dried ; gourds, melons, cucumbers, squash- 
es, pulse of all sorts ; rockahomine meal, which is 
their maiz, parched and pounded into powder; 
fowl, of all sorts that are eatable ; ground nuts, or 
wild potatos ; acorns and acorn oil, wild bulls, beef, 
mutton, pork, &c., from the English ; Indian com, 
or maiz, made into several sorts of bread; ears of 
com roasted in the summer, or preserved against 

The victuals is common throughout the whole 
kindred relations, and often to the whole town, 
especially when they are in hunting quarters, then 
they all fare alike, whichsoever of them kills the 
game. T^^7 ^re very kind and charitable to one 
another, but more especially to those of their own 
nation ; for if any one of them has suffered any loss, 
by fire, or otherwise, they order the grieved person 
to make a feast, and invite them all thereto, which, 
on the day appointed, they come to, and after ev- 
ery man's mess of victuals is dealt to him, one of 
their speakers, or grave old men, makes an har- 
rangue, and acquaints the company thatthat man's 
house has been burnt, wherein all his goods were 
destroyed ; that he and his family very narrowly 
escaped; that he is every man's friend in that 
company ; and that it is all their duties to help him, 
as he would do to any of them had the like misfor- 

292 lawson's msTOET 

tone be&Uen them. After this oration is over, 
every man, according to his quality, throws him 
down upon the ground some present, which is 
commonly beads, ronoak, peak, skins, or furs, and 
which very often amounts to treble the loss he has 
suffered. The same assistance they give to any 
man that wants to build a cabin, or make a canoe. 
They say it is our duty thus to do; for there are 
several works that one man cannot effect, therefore 
we must give him our help, otherwise our society 
will fall, and we shall be deprived of those urgent 
necessities which life requires. They have no 
fence to part one anothers lots in their com fields, 
but every man knows hia own, and it scarce ever 
happens that they rob one another of so much as 
an ear of com, which, if any is found to do, he is 
sentenced by the elders to work and plant for him 
that was robbed, till he is recompensed for all the 
damage he has sufiered in his com field ; and 
this is punctually performed, and the thief held in 
disgrace that steals from any of his country folks. 
It oft^en happens that a woman is destitute of her 
husband, and has a great many children to main- 
tain ; such a person they always help, and make 
their young men plant, reap, and do every thing 
that she is not capable of doing herself; yet they 
do not allow any one to be idle, but to employ 
themselves in some work or other. 

They never fight with one another unless 
drunk, nor do you ever hear any scolding amongst 
them. They say the Europeans are always rang- 


ling and uneasy, and wonder they do not go out 
of this world, since they are so uneasy and discon- 
tented in it. All their misfortunes and losses end 
in laghter ; for if their cabins take fire, and all their 
goods are burnt therein (indeed, all will strive to pre- 
vent farther damage whilst there is any possibility) 
yet such a misfortune ends in ahearty fit of laughter, 
unless some of their kinsfolks and friends have lost 
their lilies ; but then the case is altered, and they 
become very pensive, and go into deep mourning, 
which is continued for a considerable time ; some- 
times longer or shorter, according to the dignity 
of the person, and the number of relations he had 
near him. 

The burial of their dead is performed with a 
great deal of ceremony, in which one nation dif- 
fers in some few circumstances from another, yet 
not so much but we may, by a general relation, 
pretty nearly account for them all. 

When an Indian is dead the greater person he 
was, the more expensive is his funeral. The first 
thing which is done, is to place the nearest rela- 
tions near the corps, who mourn and weep very 
much, having their hair han^ng down their shoul- 
ders in a very forlorn manner. After the dead 
person has lain a day and a night in one of their 
hurdles of canes, commonly in some out house 
made for that purpose, those that officiate about 
the funeral go into the town, and the first young 
men they meet withal, that have blankets or match 
coats on, whom they think fit for their turn, they 

294 lawson's history 

atrip them from their backs, who suffer them so 
to do without any resistance. In these they wrap 
the dead bodies, and cover them with two or three 
mats which the Indians make of rushes or cane ; 
and, last of all, they have a long web of woven 
reeds or hollow canes, which is the coffin of the 
Indians, and is brought round several times and 
tied fast at both ends, which, indeed, looks very 
decent and well; Then the corps is brought out 
of the house into the orchard of peach trees, where 
another hurdle is made to receive it, about which 
comes all the relations and nation that the dead 
person belonged to, besides several from other na- 
tions in alliance with them ; all which sit down 
on the ground upon mats spread there for that 
purpose ; where the doctor or conjurer appears ; 
and, after some time, makes a sort of o-yes, at 
which all are very silent, then he begins to give 
an account who the dead person was, and how 
stout a man he approved himself; how many ene- 
mies and captives he had killed and taken ; how 
strong, tall, and nimble he was ; that he was a 
great hunter ; a lover of his country, and possess- 
ed of a great many beautiful wives and children, 
esteemed the greatest of blessings among these 
savages, in which they have a true notion. Thus 
this orator runs on, highly extoling the dead man 
for his valor, conduct, strength, riches, and good 
humor; and enumerating his guns, slaves, and al- 
most everything he was possessed of when living. 
After which he addresses himself to the people of 


that town or nation, and bids them supply the 
dead man's place by following his steps, who, he 
assures them, is gone into the country of souls, 
which they think lies a great way off in this world 
which the sun visits in his ordinary course, and that 
he will have the enjoyment of handsome young 
women, great store of deer to hunt, never meet 
with hunger, cold or fatigue, but every thing to 
answer his expectation and desire. This is the 
heaven ^ey propose to themselves ; but, on the 
contrary, for those Indians that are lazy, thievish 
amongst themselves, bad hunters, and no warriors, 
nor of much use to the nation,*to such they allot, 
in the next world, hunger, cold, troubles, old ugly 
women for their companions, with snakes, and all 
sorts of nasty victuals to feed on. Thus is marked 
out their heaven and hell. After all this harangue 
he diverts the people with some of their traditions, 
as when there was a violent hot summer, or very 
hard winter ; when any notable distempers raged 
amongst them ; when they were at war with such 
and such nations ; how victorious they were ; and 
what were the name* of their war captains. To 
prove the times more exactly, he produces the re- 
cords of the country, which are a parcel of reeds 
of different lengths, with several distinct marks, 
known to none but themselves, by which they 
seem to guess very exactly at accidents that hap- 
pened many years ago ; nay, two or three ages or 
more. The reason I have to believe what they 
tell me on this account, is, because I have been at 


the meetings of several Indian nations, and they 
agreed, in relating the same circumstances as to 
lime, very exactly ; as for example, they say there 
was so hard a winter in Carolina one hundred and 
five years ago, that the great sound was frozen 
over, and the wild geese came into the woods to 
eat acorns, and that they were so tame, I suppose 
through want, that they killed abundance in the 
woods by knocking them on the head with sticks. 
But to return to the dead man. ' When this long 
tale is ended, by him that spoke first ; "perhaps 
a second begins another long story ; so a third, 
and fourth, if there be so many doctors present ; 
which all tell one and the same thing. At last 
the corps is brought away from that hurdle to the 
grave by four young men, attended by the rela- 
tions, the king, old men, and all the nation. When 
they come to the sepulcre, which is about six feet 
deep and eight feet long, having at each end, that 
is, at the head and feet, a lightwood or pitch pine 
fork driven close down the sides of the grave firm- 
ly into the ground ; these two forks are to contain 
a ridge pole, as you shall understand presently, 
before they lay the corps into the grave, they cov- 
er the bottom two or three times over with bark 
of trees, then they let down the corps with two 
belts, that the Indians carry their burdens withal, 
very leisurely upon the said bark ; then they lay 
over a pole of the same wood in the two forks, and 
having a great many pieces of pitch pine logs, 
about two feet and a half long, they stick them in 


tte sides of the grave down each end and near the 
top thereof, where the other ends lie on the ridge 
pole, so that they are declining like the roof of a 
house. These being very thick placed, they cover 
them many times double with bark, then they 
throw the earth thereon that came out of the grave, 
and beat it down very firm ; by this means the 
dead body lies in a vault, nothing touching him ; 
80 that when I saw this way of burial I was mighti- 
ly pleased with it, esteeming it very decent and 
pretty, as having seen a great many christians bu- 
ried without the tenth part of that ceremony and 
decency. Now, w^^n the flesh is rotted and 
moulded from the bone, they take up the carcass 
and clean the bones and joint them together ; af- 
terwards they dress them up in pure white dressed 
deer skins, and lay them amongst their grandees 
and kings in the quiogozon, which is their royal 
tomb or burial place of their kings and war cap- 
tains. This is a very large magnificent cabin, ac- 
cording to their building, which is raised at the 
public charge of the nation, and maintained in a 
great deal of form and neatness. About seven 
feet high is a floor or loft made, on which lie all 
their princes and great men that have died for 
several hundred years, all attired in the dress I 
before told you of. No person is to have his bones 
lie here, and to be thus dressed, unless he gives a 
round sum of their money to the rulers for admit- 
tance. If they remove never so far, to live in a 
foreign country, they never fail to take all these 

298 tAWSON*S ttlSTORt 

dead bones along with them, though the tedious* 
ness of their short daily marches keeps them never 
so long on their journey. They reverence and 
adore this quiogozon with all the veneration and 
respect that is possible for such a people to dis- 
charge, and had rather lose all than have any vio- 
lence or injury offered thereto. 

These savages differ some small matter in their 
burials ; some burying right upwards, and other- 
wise, as you are acquainted withal in my journal 
from South to North Carolina ; yet they all agree 
in their mourning, which is, to appear eveiy night 
at the sepulchre, and howl and weep in a very 
dismal manner, having their faces dawbed^ over 
with lightwood soot, (which is the same as lamp- 
black) and bear's oil. This renders them as black 
as it is possible to make themselves, so that theirs 
very much resemble the faces of executed men 
boiled in tar. If the dead person was a grandee, 
to|carry on the funeral ceremonies, they hire people 
to cry and lament over the dead man. Of this 
sort there are several that practice it for a liveli- 
hood, and are very expert at shedding abundance 
of tears, and howling like wolves, and so discharg- 
ing their office with abundance of hypocrisy and 
art. The women are never accompanied with these 
ceremonies after death, and to what world they 
allot that sex, I never understood, unless to wait 
on their dead husbands : but they have more wit 
than some of the other eastern nations, who sacrifice 
themselves to accompany their husbands into the 


n^xt world. Itis the dead man's relations by blood, 
as his uncles, brothers, sisters, cousins, sons and 
daughters, that mourn in good earnest, the wives 
thinking their duty is discharged, and that they 
are become free, when their husband is dead ; so 
ass fast as they can look out for another to supply 
his place. 

As for the Indian women which now happen iu 
my way, when young, and at maturity, they are 
as fine shaped creatures, take them generally, as 
any in the universe. They are of a tawny com- 
plexion, their eyes very brisk and amorous, their 
smiles afford the finest composure a face can pos- 
sess, their hands are of the finest make, with 
small, long fingers, and as soft as their cheeks, 
and their whole bodies of a smooth nature. They 
are not so uncouth or unlikely as we suppose them, 
nor are they strangers or not proficients in the soft 
passion. They are, most of them, mercenary, ex- 
cept the married women, who sometimes bestow 
their favors also to some or other, in their hus- 
band's absence ; for which they never ask any re- 
• ward. As for the report, that they are never found 
unconstant, like the Europeans, it is wholly false; 
for were the old world and the new one put into a 
pair of scales (in point of constancy) it would be a 
hard matter to discern which was the heavier. As 
for the trading girls, which are those designed to 
get money by their natural parts, these are dis- 
cernable by the cut of their hair ; their tonsure 
differing frpm all others of that nation, who are 


not of their profession^ which method is intended 
to prevent mistakes ; for the savages of America 
are desirous (if possible) to keep their wives to 
themselves, as well as those in other parts of the 
world. When any addresses are made to one of 
these girls, she immediately acquaints her parents 
therewith, and they tell the king of it, (provided 
he that courts her be a stranger) his m^esty com* 
monly being the principal bawd of the nation he 
rules over, and there seldom being any of these 
Winchester weddings agreed on without his royal 
consent. He likewise advises her what bargain 
to make, and if it happens to be an Indian trader 
that wants a bed fellow and has got rum to sell, 
be sure the king must have a large dram for a fee 
to confirm the match. These Indians that are of 
the elder sort, when any such question is put to 
them, will debate the matter amongst themselves 
with all the sobriety and seriousness imaginable, 
every one of the girl's relations arguing the advan- 
tage or detriment that may ensu e such a night's 
encounter ; all which is done with as much stea- 
diness a&d reality as if it was the greatest concern 
in the world, and not so much as one person shall 
be seen to smile, so long as the debate holds, mar 
king no dijQerence betwixt an agreement of this 
nature and a bargain of any other. If they com- 
ply with the men's desire, then a particular bed is 
provided for them, either in a cabin by themselves 
or else all the young people turn out to another 
lodging, that they may not spoil sport, and if the 


old pe<^le are in the same cabin along with them 
all night, they lie as unconcerned as if they wer© 
so many logs of wood. If it be an Indian of their 
own town or neighborhood, that wants a mistress, 
he- comes to none but the girl, who receives what 
she thinks fit to ask him, and so lies all night with 
Mm, without the consent of her parents. 

The Indian traders are those which travel and 
abide amongst the Indians for a long space of time ; 
sometimes for a year, two, or three. These men 
have commonly their Indian wives, whereby they 
soon learn the Indian tongue, keep a friendship 
with the savages ; and, besides the satisfaction of 
a she bed fellow, they find these Indian girls very 
serviceable to them, on account of dressing their 
victuals, and instructing them in the affairs and 
customs of the country. Moreover, such a man 
gets a great trade with the savages ; for when a 
person that lives amongst them, is reserved from 
the conversation of their women, tis impossible for 
him ever to accomplish his designs amongst that 

But one great misfortune which oftentimes attends 
those that converse with these savage women, is, 
that they get children by them, which are seldom 
educated any otherwise than in a state of infideli- 
ty ; for it is a certain rule and custom, amongst all 
liie savages of America, that I was ever acquain- 
ted withal, to let the children always fall to the 
woman's lot; for it often happens, that two Indians 
that have lived together, aa man and wife, in which 


** ^. 


802 lawson's bistort 

time tbey have had several children ; if they part, 
and another man possesses her, all the children go 
along with the mother, and none with the father. 
And therefore, on this score it ever seems impos* 
sihle for the christians to get their children (which 
they have by these Indian women) away from them ; 
whereby they might bring them np in the knowl« 
edge of the christian principles. [Nevertheless, we 
often find, that English men, and other Europeans 
that have been accustomed to the conversation of 
these savage women, and their way of living, have 
been so allured with that careless sort of life, as to 
be constant to their Indian wife, and her relations, 
fiK) long as they lived, without ever desiring^ return 
again amongst the English, although they had very 
fair opportunities of advantages amongst their 
countrymen ; of which sort I have known several. 
Ab for the Indian marriages, I have read and 
heard of a great deal of form and ceremony 'used, 
which I never saw ; nor yet could learn in the 
time I have been amongst them, any otherwise 
than I shall here give you an account of, which is 
as follows : 

* When any young Indian has a mind fbr sujch a 
girl to his wife, he, or some one for him, goes to 
the young woman's parents, if living ; if not, to 
her nearest relations, where they make ofiers of 
the match betwixt the couple. The relations re- 
ply, they will consider of it ; which serves for a 
sufficient answer, till there be a second meeting 
about the marriage, which is generally brought 


into debate before all the relations, that are old 
people, on both sides, and sometimes the king 
with all his great mto, give their opinions therein. 
If it be agreed on, and the young woman approve 
thereof, for these lavages never give their children 
in marriage witHout their own consent, the man 
.pays so much for his wife ; and the handsomer 
she is the greater price she bears. Now, it often 
happens, that the man has not so much of their 
money ready as he is to pay for his wife ; but if 
they know him to be a good hunter, and that he 
•can raise the sum agreed for, in some few moons, 
or any little time they agree, she shall go along 
with him as betrothed, but he is not to have any 
knowledge of her till the utmost payment is dis- 
charged ; all which is punctually observed. Thus 
they lie together under one covering for several 
months, and the woman remains the ^ame as she 
was when she first came to him. I doubt our Eu- 
ropeans would be apt to break this custom, but 
the Indian men are not so vigorous and impatient 
in their love as we are. Yet the women are quite 
contrary, and those Indian girls that have con- 
versed with the English and other Europeans, 
never care for the conversation of their own coun- 
trymen afterwards. 

They never marry so near as a first cousin, and 

although there is nothing more coveted amongst 

them than to marry a woman of their own nation, 

.yet when the nation consists of a very few people, 

«as nowadays it often happens, so that they are all 

304 lawson's history 

of them related to one another, then they look out 
for husbands and wives amongst strangers. For 
if an Indian lies with his sister, or any very near 
relation, his body is burnt, ind his ashes thrown 
into the river, as unworthy to remain on earth ; 
yet an Indian is allowed to marry two sisters, or 
his brother's wife. Although these people are 
called savages, yet sodomy is never heard of 
amongst them, and they are so far ifrom the prac- 
tice of that beastly And loathsome sin, that they 
have no name for it in all their language. 

The marriages of these Indians are no farther 
binding than the man and woman agree together. 
Either of them has liberty to leave the other upon 
any frivolous excuse they can make, yet whoso- 
ever takes the woman that was another man's be- 
fore, and bought by him, as they all are, must cer- 
tainly pay to her former husband whatsoever he 
gave for her. 2f ay, if she be a widow, and her 
husband died in debt, whosoever takes her to wife 
pays all her husband's obligations, though never 
so many ; yet the woman is not required to pay 
anything, unless she is willing, that was owing 
from her husband, so long as she keeps single. 
But if a man courts her for a night's lodging and 
obtains it, the creditors will make him pay her 
husband's debts, and he may, if he will, take her 
for his money, or sell her to another for his wife. 
I have seen several of these bargains driven in a 
day ; for you may see men selling their wives as 
men do horses in a fair, a man being allowed not 


only to change as often as he pleases, but likewise 
to have as many wives as he is able to maintain. I 
have often seen that very old Indian men, that have 
been grandees in their own nation, have had three 
or four very likely ydung Indian wives, which I 
have much wandered at, because, to me, they seem- 
ed incapacitated to make good use of one of them. 

The young men will go in the night from one 
house to another to visit the young women, in 
which sort of rambles they will spend the whole 
night. In their addresses they find no delays, for 
if she is willing to entertain the man, she gives 
him encouragement and grants him admittance ; 
otherwise she withdraws her face from him, and 
says, I cannot see you, either you or I must leave 
this cabin and sleep somewhere else this night. 

They are never to boast of their intrigues with 
the women. If they do, none of the girls value 
them ever after, or admit of their company in 
their beds. This proceeds not on the score of 
reputation, for there is no such thing, on that ac- 
count, known amongst them ; and although we 
may reckon them the greatest libertines and most 
extravagant in their embraces, yet they retain and 
possess a modesty that requires those passions 
never to be divulged. 

The trading girls, after they have led that course 
of life, for several years, in which time they scarce 
ever have a child ; (for they have an art to destroy 
the conception, and she that brings a child in this 
station, is accounted a fool, and her reputation is 

306 lawson's history 

lessened thereby) at last they grow weary of so 
many, and betake themselves to a married state, 
or to the company of one man ; neither does their 
having been common to so many any wise lessen 
their fortunes, but rather augment them. 

The woman is not punished for adultery, but tis 
the man th.t makea the taj.redpe,«,n sa/ic«on, 
which is the law of nations practised amongst them 
all ; and he that strives to evade such satisfaction 
as the husband demands, lives daily in danger of 
his life ; yet when discharged, all animosity ig laid 
aside, and the cuckold is very well pleased with 
his bargain, whilst the rival is laughed at by the 
whole nation, for carrying on his intrigue with no 
better conduct, than to be discovered and pay so 
dear for his pleasure. 

The Indians say, that the woman is a weak 
creature, and easily drawn away by the man's per- 
suasion ; for which reason, they lay no blame upon 
her, but the man (that ought to be master of his 
passion) for persuading her to it. 

They are of a very hale constitution; their 
breaths are as sweet as the air they breathe in, and 
the woman seems to be of that tender composition, 
as if they were designed rather for the bed than 
bondage. Yet their love is never of that force 
and continuance, that any of them ever runs mad, 
or makes away with themselves on that score. 
They never love beyond retrieving their first in- 
differency, and when slighted, are as ready to un- 
tie the knot at one end, as you are at the other. 


Yet I knew an European man that had a child 
or two by one of these Indian women, and afters- 
wards married a christian, after which he came to 
pass away a night with his Indian mistress ; but 
she made answer that she then had forgot she ever 
knew him, and that she never lay with another 
woman's husband, so fella crying, and took up the 
child she had by him, and went out of the cabin 
(away from him) in great disorder. 

The Indian women's work is to cook the victuals 
for the whole family, and to make mats, baskets, 
girdles, of possum hair, and such like. They 
never plant the corn amongst us, as they do 
amongst the Iroquois, who are always at war and 
hunting ; therefore, the plantation work is left for 
the women and slaves to perform, and look after ; 
whilst they are wandring all over the continent 
betwixt the two bays of Mexico and St Laurence. 

The mats the Indian women make, are of rushes, 
and about five feet high, and two fathom long, and 
sewed double, that is, two together; whereby 
they become very commodious to lay under our 
beds, or to sleep on in the summer season in the 
day time, and for our slaves in the night. 

There are other mats made of flags, which the 
Tuskeruro Indians make, and sell to the inhab- 

The baskets our neighboring Indians make are 
all made of a very fine sort of bulrushes, and some- 
times of silk grass, which they work with figures 
of beasts, birdi^, fi^es, &<;^ • 

808 LAW80H*8 HISTOinr 

A great way up in the cotintiyy both baskets 
and mate are made of the split reeds, -which are 
only the outward shining part of the cane. Of 
these I have seen mats, baskets, and dressing box* 
es, very artificially done. 

The savage women of America have veiy easy 
travail with their children. Sometimes they bring 
twins, and are brought to bed by themselves, 
when took at a disadvantage ; not but they have 
midwives amongst them, as well as doctors who 
make it their profession (for gain) to assist and de 
liver women, and Bome of these midwives are very 
knowing in several medicines that Carolina affords, 
which certainly expedite, and make easy births. 
Besides, they are unacquainted wilh those severe 
pains which follow the birth in our European wo- 
men. Their remedies are a great cause of this ei^ 
siness in that state ; for the Indian women will 
run up and down the plantation the same day, 
very briskly, and without any sign of pain or 
sickness; yet they look very meagre and thin. 
Kot but that we must allow a great deal owing to 
the climate and the natural constitution of these 
women, whose course of nature never visits them in 
such quantities, as the European women have. 
And though they never want plenty of milk, yet 
I never saw an lodian woman with very large 
breasts ; neither does the youngest wife ever fail 
of proving so good a nurse as to bring her child 
up free from the rickets and disasters that proceed 
from the teeth, with many other distempers which 


attack our infants in England, and other parts of 
Europe. They let their children suck till they are 
well grown, unless they prove big with child soon- 
er. They always nurse their own children them- 
selves, unless sickness or death prevents. I once 
saw a nurse hired to give suck to an Indian wo- 
man's child, which you have in my journal. After 
deliveiy, they absent the company of a man for 
forty days. As soon as the child • is bom, they 
wash it in cold water at the next stream and then 
bedawb it, as I have mentioned before. After 
which the husband takes care to provide a cradle, 
which is soon made, consisting of a piece of flat 
wood, which they hew with their hatches to the 
thickness of a board ; it is about two feet long, 
and a foot broad ; to this they brace and tie the 
child down very close, having near the middle, a 
stick fastened about two inches from the board, 
which is for the child's breech to rest upon, under 
which they put a wad of moss that* receives the 
child's excrements, by which means they can shift 
the moss and keep all clean and sweet. Some na- 
tions have very flat heads, as you have heard in 
my journal, which is made whilst tied on this cra- 
dle, as that relation informed you. These cradles 
are apt to make the body flat ; yet they are the 
most portable things that can be invented, for there 
is a string which goes from one comer of the board 
to the other, whereby the mother flings her child 
on her back ; so the infant's back is towards hers, 
and its face looks up towards t^e sky. If it rains 



^he throws Iter leather or woolen match coat, over 
her head, which covers the child all over, and se- 
cures her and it from the injuries of rainy weather. 
The Bavage women quit all companv, and dress 
not their own victuals during their purgations. 

After thej have had several children, they grow 
strangely out of shape in their bodies ; as for bar- 
renness, I never knew any of their women that 
have not children when married. 

The women's dress is, in severe weather, a hai- 
ry match coat in the nature of a plad^ which keeps 
out the cold, and, as I said before, defends their 
children frorfi the prejudices of the weather. At 
other times they have only a sort of flap or apron 
containing two yards in length, and better than 
half a yard deep. Sometimes it is a deer skin 
dressed white, and pointed or slit at the bottom, 
like fringe. When this is clean it becomes them 
very welL Others wear blue, or red flaps, made 
of bays and plains, which they buy of the English, 
of both which they tuck in the comers, to fasten 
the garment, and sometimes make it part with a 
belt. All of them, when ripe, have a small string 
round the waist, to which another is tied and comes 
between their legs, where always is a wad of moss 
against the ospubis, but never any hair is there to 
be found* Sometimes they wear Indian shoes or 
moggizons, which are made after the same man- 
ner as the men's are. 

The hair of their heads is made into a long roll 
like a horses tail, and bound round with ronoak, 


or porcelan, which is a sort of beads they make of 
the conk shells. Others that have not this make 
a leather string serve. 

The Indian men have a match coat of hair, 
furs, feathers, or cloth, as the women have. Their 
hair is rolled up on each ear, as the women's only 
much shorter, and oftentimes a roll on the crown 
of the hea^ or temples, which is just as they fan- 
cy^ there being no strictness in their dress. Be- 
twucttheii: legs comes a piece of cloth, that is tuck- 
ed in by a belt, both before and behind. This is 
to hide their nakedness, of which decency they 
are very strict observers, although never practiced 
before the christians came amongst them. They 
wear shoes of buck's and sometimes bear's skin, 
which they tan in an hour or two, with the bark 
of trees boiled, wherein they put the leather 
whilst hot^ and let it remain a little while, where- 
by it becomes so qualified as to endure water and 
dirt, without growing hard. These have no heels, 
and are made as fit for the feet as a glove is for 
the hand, and are very, easy to laravel in when one 
is a little used to them. When these savages live 
near the water, they frequent the rivers in summer 
time very much, where both men and women very 
often in a day go in naked to wash themselves, 
though not both sexes together. 

Their feather match coats are very pretty, espe- 
cially some of them, which are made extraordina- 
ry charming^ containing several pretty figures 
wrought in feathers, making them seem like « 

312 lawson's HiSTORr 

fine flower silk shag ; and when new and fresh^ 
they become a bed very well, instead of a qniltw 
Some of another sort are made of hair, raccoon, 
bever, or" squirrel skins, which are very warm. 
O&ers again are made of the green part of the 
skin of a mallard's head, which they sew perfectly 
well together, their thread being either the sinew» 
of a deer divided very small, or silk grass. When - 
these are finished, tiiey look very finely, though 
they must needs be very troublesome to make. 
Some of their great men, as rulers and such, ihsA 
have plenty of deer skins by them, will often buy 
the English made coats, which they wear on festi- 
vals and other days of visiting. Yet none ever 
buy any breeches, saying, that they are too much 
confined in them, which prevents their speed in 
running, &c. 

We have some Indians that are more civiliased 
than the rest, which wear hats, shoes, stockings, 
and breeches, with very tolerable linnen shirts, 
which is not common amongst these heathens. 
The Paspitank Indians did formerly keep cattie 
and make butter. 

These are them that wear the English dress. 
Whether they have cattle now or no, I am not 
certain, but I am of the opinion that such inclina- 
tions in the savages should meet wiiix encourage- 
ment, and every Englishman ought to do them 
justice and not defraud them of their land, which 
has been allotted them formerly by the govern- 
ment ; for if we do not show them examples of 


jastice and virtue, we can never bring them to be- 
lieve US to be a worthier race of men than them- 

The dresses of these people are so different, ac- 
cording to the nation that they belong to, that it 
is impossible to recount all the whimsical figures 
that they sometimes make by their antic dresses. 
Besides, Carolina is a warm country, and very 
mild in its winters to what Virginia, Maryland, 
Pensylvania, New York, the Jersies, and New 
England are ; wherefore our Indian's habit very 
much differs from the dresses that appear amongst 
the savages who inhabit those cold countries ; in 
regard their chiefest clothing for the winter sea- 
sons is made of the furs of beever, raccoon and 
other northern ftirs, that our climate is not ac- 
quainted withal, they producing some furs as the 
monack, moor, marten, black fox, and others to us 

Their dress in peace and war is quite different. 
Besides, when they go to war, their hair is combed 
out by the women and done over very much with 
bear's grease and red root, with feathers, wings, 
rings, copper, and peak, or wampum in their ears. 
Moreover, Hotej buy vermillion of th^Indian tra- 
ders, Wherewith they paint their faces all over red, 
and commonly make a circle of black about one 
ejfi and another circle of white about the other, 
whilst others bedawb their faces with tobacco pipe 
clay, lamp black, black lead, and divers other col- 
ors, Which they make with the several sorts of 

514 lawson's histoky 

minerals and earths that they get in different parts 
of the country, where they hunt and travel. When 
these creatures are thus painted, they make the 
most frightful figures that can be imitated by men, 
and seem more like devils than human creatures* 
You may be sure that they are about some mis- 
chief when you see them thus painted ; for in all 
the hostilities which have ever been acted against 
the English at any time in several of the planta- 
tions of America, the savages always appeared in 
this disguise, whereby they might never after be 
discovered or known by any of the christianB that 
should happen to see them after they had made 
their escape ; for it is impossible ever to know an 
Indian under these colors, although he has been 
at your house a thousand times, and you know 
him at other times as well as you do any person 
living. As for their women, they never use any 
paint on their faces ; neither do they ever carry 
them along with them into the field, when they 
intend any expedition, leaving them at home with 
the old men and children. 

Some of the Indians wear great bobs in their 
ears, and sometimes in the holes thereof they put 
eagles and other birds, feathers, for a trophy. 
When they Kill any fowl, they commonly pluck 
off the downy feathers, and stick them all over 
their heads. Some (both men and women) wear 
great necklaces of their money made of shells. 
They often wear bracelets made of brass, and 
sometimes of iron wire. 


Their money is of different sorts, but all made 
of shells, which are found on the coast of Carolina, 
which are very large and hard, so that they are 
very difficult to cut. Some English smiths have 
tried to drill this sort of shell money, and there 
by thought to get an advantage ; but it proved so 
hard, that nothing could be gained. They often- 
times make, of this shell, a sort of gorge, which 
they wear about their neck in a string ; so it hangs 
on their collar, whereon semetimes is engraven a 
cross, or some odd sort of figure, which comes next 
in their fancy. There are other sorts valued at a 
doe skin, yet the gorges will sometimes sell for 
three or fo w buck skins ready dressed. There be 
others, that eight of them go readily for a doe skin ; 
but the general and current species of all the In- 
dians in Carolina, and, I believe, all over the con- 
tinent, as far as the bay of Mexico, is that which 
we call Peak and Ronoak ; but Peak more espe- 
cially. This is that which at New York, they call 
wampum, and have used it as current money 
amongst the inhabitants for a great many years. 
This is what many writers call porcelan, and is 
made in New York in great quantities, and with 
us in some measure. Five cubits of this purchase 
a dressed doe skin, and seven or eight purchase a 
dressed buck skin. An Englishman could not af- 
ford to make so much of this wampum for five or 
ten times the value ; for it is made out of a vast 
great shell, of which that country affords plenty; 
where it is ground smaller than the small end of a 

316 lawson's history 

tobacco pipe, or a large wheat straw. Four or five 
of these make an inch, and every one is to be drill- 
ed through, and made as smooth as glass, and so 
strung, as beads are, and a cubit of the Indian 
measure contaihs as much in length, as will reach 
trom the elbow to the end of the little finger. 
They never stand to question, whether it is a tall 
man or a short man, that measures it ; but if this 
wampum peak be black or purple, as some part of 
that shell is, then it is twice the value. This the 
Indians grind on stones and other things, till they 
make it current but the drilling is the most diffi- 
cult to the Englishmen, which the Indians manage 
vdth a nail stuck in a cane or reed. Thus they 
roll it continually on their thighs, with their right 
hand holding the bit of shell with their left, so in 
time they drill a hole quite through it, which is a 
very tedious work ; but especially in making their 
ronoak, four of which will scarce make one length 
of wampum. The Indians are a people that never 
value their time, so that they can afford to make 
them, and never need to fear the English will take 
the trade out of their hands. This is the money 
with which you may buy skins, furs, slaves, or any 
thing the Indians have; it being the mammon (as 
our money is to us) that entices and persuades 
them to do any thing, and part with every thing 
they possess, except their children for slaves. As 
for their wives, they are often sold, and their 
daughters violated for it With this they buy off 
murders ; and whatsoever a man can do that is ill, 


this wampum will quit him of, and make him, in 
their opinion, good and virtuous, though never so 
black before. 

All the Indians give a name to their children, 
which is not the same as the father or mother, but 
what they fancy. This name they keep, (if boys) 
till they arrive to the age of a warrior, which is 
sixteen or seventeen years ; then they take a name 
to themselves, sometimes, eagle, panther, allega- 
tor, or some such wild creature, esteeming noth- 
ing on earth worthy to give them a name, but these 
wild fowl, and beasts. Some again take the name 
of a fish, which they keep as long as they live. 

The king is the ruler of the nation, and has oth- 
ers UHder him, to assist him, as his war captains, 
and counsellors, who are picked out and chosen 
from among the ancientest men of the nation he is 
king of. These meet him in all general councils 
and debates, concerning war, peace, trade, hun- 
ting, and all the adventures and accidents of hu- 
man afiairs, which appear within their verge ; 
where all affairs are discoursed of and argued pro 
and con, very deliberately (without making any 
manner of parties or divisions) for the good of the 
public ; for, as they meet there to treat, they dis- 
charge their duty with all the integrity imagina- 
ble, never looking towards their own interest, be- 
fore the public good. After every man has given 
his dpinion, that which has most voices, or, in 
summing up, is found the most reasonable, that 
they make use of without any jars and wrangling, 

318 lawson's history 

and put it in execution, the first opportunity that 

The succession falls not to the king's son, but to 
his sister's son, which is a sure way tQ prevent im. 
postors in the succession. Sometimes they poison 
the heir to make way for another, which is mot 
seldom done, when they do not approve of the 
youth that is to succeed them. The king himself 
is commonly chief Dr. in that cure. 

They are so well versed in poison, that they 
are often found to poison whole families ; nay, 
most of a town ; and which is most to be admired, 
they will poison a running spring or fountain of 
water, so that whosoever drinks thereof, shall in- 
fallibly die. When the offender is discovered, his 
very relations urge for death, whom nothing will 
appease, but the most cruel torment imaginable 
which is executed in the most public manner that 
it is possible to act such a tragedy in. For all the 
whole nation, and all the Indians within a hundred 
miles, if it is possible to send for them, are sum* 
moned to come and appear at such a place and 
time, to see and rejoice at the torments and death 
of such a person, who is the common and professed 
enemy to all the friendly Indians thereabouts, who 
now lies under the condemnation of the whole na- 
tion, and accordingly is to be put to death. Then 
all appear, young and old, from all the adjacent 
parts, and meet, with all the expressions of joy, to 
consummate this horrid and barbarous feast, which 
is carried on after this dismal manner. Firsts 



they bring the prisoner to the place appointed for 
the execution, where he is set down on his breech 
on the ground. Then they all get about him and 
jEou shall not see one sorrowful or dejected coun- 
tenance amongst them, but all v^ery merrily dis- 
posed, as if some comedy *was to be acted instead of 
a tragedy. He that is appointed to be the chief exe- 
cutioner, takes a knife and bids him hold out his 
hands^ which he does, and then cuts round the wrist 
through the skin, which is drawn off like a glove, 
and flead quite off at the fingers' ends, then they 
break his joints and bones, and buffet and tor- 
ment him after a very inhuman manner, till some 
violent blow perhaps ends his days; then they 
burn him to ashes and throw them down the river. 
Afterwards they eat, drink and are merry, repea- 
ting all the actions of the tormentors and the pris- 
oner, with a great deal of mirth and satisfaction. 
This accusation is laid against an Indian hero 
sometimes wrongfully, or when they have a mind 
to get rid of a man that has more courage and 
conduct than his neighboring kings or great men ; 
then they fiUedge the practice of poisoning In- 
dians against him, and make a rehearsal of every 
Indian that died for a year or two, and say that 
they were poisoned by such an Indian ; which re- 
ports stir up all the relations of the deceased 
against the said person, and by such means make 
him away presently. In some affairs, these sava- 
ges are very reserved and politic, and will attend 
a long time with a great deal of patience to bring 

320 lawson's history 

about their designs ; they being never impatient 
or hasty in executing any of their designs of re- 

Now I am gone so far in giving an account 'of 
the Indian's temper, I will proceed, and can give 
you no other character of them, but that they are 
a very wary people, and are never hasty or impa- 
tient. They will endure a great many misfor- 
tunes, losses, and disappointments without show- 
ing themselves, in the least, vexed or uneasy. 
When they go by water, if there proves a head 
wind, they never vex and fret as the Europeans 
do, and let what misfortune come to them as will 
or can happen, they never relent. Besides, there 
is one vice very common everywhere, which I 
never found amongst them, which is, envying oth- 
er men's happiness, because their station is not 
equal to, or above their neighbors. Of this sin I 
cannot say I ever saw an example, though they 
are a people that set as great a value upon them- 
selves, as any sort of men in the world, upon which 
account they find something valuable in themselves 
above riches. -Thus, he that is a good warrior is 
the proudest creature living ; and he that is an 
expert hunter, is esteemed by the people and him- 
self ; yet all these are natural virtues and gifts, 
and not riches, which are as often in the posses- 
sion of a fool as a wise man. Several of the In- 
dians are possessed of a great many skins, wam- 
pum, ammunition, and what other things are es- 
teemed riches amongst them ; yet such an Indian 


is no more esteemed amongst them, than any oth- 
er ordinary fellow, provided he has no personal 
endowments which are the ornaments that must 
gain him an esteem among them ; for a great deal- 
er amongst the Indians, is no otherwise respected 
and esteemed than as a man that strains his wits 
and fatigues himself to furnish others with neces- 
saries of life that live much easier. and enjoy more 
of the world than he himself does with all his pelf. 
If they are taken captives and expect a miserable 
exit, they sing ; if death approach them in sick- 
ness, they are «ot afraid of it ; nor are ever heard 
to say, grant me some time. They know by in- 
stinct, and daily example, that they must die; 
wherefore they have that great and noble gift to 
submit to everything that happens, and value noth- 
ing that attacks them. 

Their cruelty to their prisoners of war is what 
they are seemingly guilty of an error in, I mean 
as to a natural failing, because they strive to in- 
vent the most inhuman butcheries for them that 
the devils themselves could invent or hammer out 
of hell ; they esteeming death no punishment, but 
rather an advantage to him, that is exported out 
of thi» into another world. 

Therefore, they inflict on them torments, where- 
in they prolong life in that miserable state as long 
as they can, and never miss skulping of them as 
they call it, which is, to cut off the skin from the 
temples and taking the whole head of hair 
along with it, as if it was a night-cap. Sometimes 

322 lawson's history 

they take the top of the skull along with it ; all 
which they preserve and carefully keep by them, 
for a trophy of their conquest over their enemies. 
Others keep their enemies teeth which are taken 
in war, whilst others split the pitch pine into splin- 
ters, and stick them into the prisoner's body yet 
alive. Thus they light them which bum like so 
many torches ; and in this manner they make 
him dance round a great fire, every one buffeting 
and deriding him, till he expires, when every one 
strives to get a bone or some relic of this unfor- 
tuate captive. One of the young fellows that has 
been at the wars, and has had the fortune to take 
a captive, returns the proudest creature on earth, 
and sets such a value on himself, that he knows 
not how to contain himself in his senses. The 
Iroquois, or Sinnagars, are the most war-like In- 
dians that we know of, being always at war, and 
not to be persuaded from that way of living by 
any argument that can be used. If you go to 
persuade them to live peaceably with the Tuskeru- 
ros, and let them be one people, and in case 
those Indians desire it and will submit to them, 
they will answer you that they cannot livQ with- 
out war, which they have ever been used to; 
and that if peace be made vnth the Indians they 
now war withal, they must find out some others 
to wage war against ; for, for them to live in peace 
is to live out of their element, war, conquest, and 
murder, being what they delight in, and value 
themselves for. Wh5h they take a slave and in- 


tend to keep him to work in- their fields, they flea 
the skin from the setting on of his toes to the mid- 
dle of his foot, so cut off one half of his feet, wrap- 
ping the skin over the wounds, and healing them. 
By this cruel method, the Indian captive is hinder- 
ed from making his escape, for he can neither run 
fast or go anywhere, but his feet are more easily 
traced and discovered.'* Yet I know one man who 
made his escape from them, though they had thus 
disabled him, as you may see in my journal. 

The Indians ground their wars on enmity, not 
on interest, as the Europeans generally do ; for the 
loss of the meanest person in the nation, they will 
go to war and lay all at stake, and prosecute their 
designs to the utmost, tiU the nation they were in- 
jured by, be wholly destroyed, or make them that 
satisfaction which they demand. They are very 
politic in waging and cariying on their war : first, 
by advising with all the ancient men of conduct and 
reason, that belong to their nation ; such as super- 
annuated war captains, and those that have been 
counsellors for many years, and whose advice 
has commonly succeeded very well. They have 
likewise their field counsellors, who are accus- 
tomed to ambuscades and surprises, which meth- 
ods are commonly used by the savages, fo/ 1 scarce 
ever heard of a field battle fought amongst them. 

One of their expeditions afi[orded an instance, 
worthy mention, which was thus ; two nations of 
Indians here in Carolina were at war together, and 
fk party of each were in the forest ranging to see 

324 lawson's histoby 

what enemies they could take. The lesser num- 
ber found they were discovered, and could not well 
get over a river, (that lay between them and their 
home) without engaging the other party, whose 
numbers were much the greater ; so they called a 
council, which met, and having weighed their 
present circumstances with a great deal of argu- 
ment and debate, for a considerable time, and 
found their enemies advantage, and that they 
could expect no success in engaging such an une- 
qual number; they, at last, concluded oa this stra- 
tagem, which, in my opinion, carried a great deal 
of policy along with it. It was, that the same 
night, they should make a great fire, which they 
were certain would be discovered by the adverse 
party, and there dress up logs of wood in their 
cloths, and make them exactly s^em like Indians, 
that were asleep by the fireside ; (which is their 
way, when in the woods) so, said they, our ene- 
mies will fire upon these images, supposing them 
to be us, who will lie in ambuscade, and, after 
their guns are unloaded, shall deal well enough 
with them. This result was immediately put in 
execution, and the fire was made by the side of a 
valley, where they lay perdu very advantageously. 
Thus, a little before break of day, (which common- 
ly is the hour they surprise their enemies in) the 
Indians came down to their fire, and at once fired in 
upon those logs in the Indians clothes, and run up 
to them, expecting they had killed every man 
dead ; but they found themselves mistaken, for 



then the other Indians, who had lain all the night 
fitark naked in the bottom, attacked them with 
their loaded pieces, which so surprised them, that 
every man was taken prisoner, and brought in 
bound to their town. 

Another instwace was betwixt the Machapunga 
Indians and the Ooranine's on the sand banks ; 
which was as follows. The Machapungas were 
invited to a feast, by the Coranines ; (which two 
nations had been a l<mg time at war together, 
and had lately concluded a peace.) Thereupon, 
liie Machapunga Indians took the advantage of 
coming to the Coranines' feast, which was to avoid 
all suspicion, and their king, who, of a savage, is 
a great politician and very stout, ordered all his 
men to carry their tomakawks along with them, 
hidden under their match coats, which they did ; 
and being acquainted when to fall on, by the word 
given, they all (upon this design) set forward for 
the feast, and came to the Ooranine town, where 
they had gotten victuals, fruit, and such things as 
make an Indian entertainment, all ready to make 
these new friends welcome, which they did ; and, 
after dinner, towards the evening, (as it is custo- 
mary amongst them) they went to dancing, all to- 
gether ; so when the Machapunga king saw the 
best opportunity offer, he gave the word, and his 
men pulled their tomahawks or hatchets from un- 
der their match coats, and killed several, and took 
the rest prisoners, except some few that were not 
present, and about four or five that escaped. The 


prisoners they ^old slaves to the Enziish. At the 
time this was doue. those Indians had nothmff hot 
hows and arrows, neitL?r sMe havinjr pins. 

The Indians are verv' revenGr»?f il. and never for- 
get an injury done, till they have received satis- 
faction. Yet they are the fi*et'St people from heats 
and passions (wljicli j^ossess the Kurowans) of any 
I ever heard of. TLev never call anv man to ac- 
count for wliat he did, when he was drank ; hnt 
say, it was the drink that caused his misbehaviour, 
therefore he oueht to he forjriven. Thev never 
frequent a christian's house tliat is sriven to pas- 
sion, nor will thcv ever buv or soil with him, if 
^ they can get the .^arae commodities of any other 
person ; for they say, such men are mad wolves, * 
and no more men. 

They know not what jealousy is, because they 
never think their w ives are unconstant, unless they 
are eye witnesses thereof. They are generally 
very bashful, especially the young maids, who 
w^hen they come into a strange cabin, where they 
arc not acquainted, never ask for any thing, though 
never so hungry or thirsty, but sit down, -without 
Hpoaking a word, Ije it never so long, till tfome of 
the hou^o asks them a qtiestion, or falls into dis- 
course, with the Btr^anger. I never saw a scMd 
amongst them, and to their children they are ex- 
traordinary tender and indulgent ; neither did I 
ever see a parent coiTCct a child, excepting one 
woman, that was the king's wife, and she indeed, 
did possess a temper that is not commonly found 


amongst them. They are free from all manuer of 
compliments, except shaking of hands and scratch- 
ing on the shoulder, which two are the greatest 
marks of sincerity arid friendship, that can be 
shewed one to another. They cannot express fare- 
you-well ; but when they leave the house, will say, 
I go straightway, which is to intimate their depar- 
ture ; and if the man of the house has any mes- 
sage to send by the going man, he may acquaint 
him therewith. Their tongue allows not to say, 
sir, I am your servants ; because they have no dif- 
ferent titles for man, only king, war captain, old 
man, or young man, which respect the stations and 
circumstances men are employed in, and arrived 
to, and not ceremopy. As for servant, they have 
no such thing, except slave, and their dogs, cats, 
tame or domestic beasts, and birds, are called by 
the same name. I" or the Indian word for slave 
includes them all. So when an Indian tells you he 
has got a slave for you, it may, in general terms, 
as they use, be a young eagle, a dog, otter, or any 
other thing of that nature, which is obsequiously 
to depend on the master for its sustenance. 

They are never fearful in the night, nor do the 
thoughts of spirits ever trouble them ; such as the 
many hobgoblins and bug bears that we suck in 
with our milk, and the.lbolery of our nurses and 
servants suggest to us ; who by their idle tales of 
fairies, and witches, make such impressions on 
our tender ears,. that at maturity, we carry pigmies' 
souls, in giants' bodies and ever aftej-, are thereby 


80 macli deprived of reason, aikl unmaned, as 
never to be masters of half the breavery nature 
designed for us. 

Kot but that the Indians have as many lying 
stories of spirits and conjurers, as any people in 
the world ; but they tell it with no disadvantage 
to themselves ; for the great esteem which the 
' old men bring themselves to, is by making the 
others believe their familiarity with devils and 
spirits, 4tud how great a correspondence they 
have therewith, which if it once gains credit, they 
ever after are held in the greatest veneration 
imaginable, and whatever they after impose upon 
the people, is received as infEtUible. They are so 
little startled at the thoughts of another world, 
that they not seldom murder themselves ; as for 
instance, a Bear river Indian, a very likely young 
fellow, about twenty years of age, whose mother 
was angry at his drinking of too much rum, and 
chid him for it, thereupon replied, he would have 
her satisfied, and he would do the like no more ; 
upon which he made his words good ; for he went 
aside, and shot himself dead. This was a son of 
the politic king of the Machapunga, I spoke of 
before, and has the most cunning of any Indian I 
ever met withal. 

Most of the savages are much addicted to drunk- 
enness, a vice they never were acquainted with, 
till the christians came amongst them. Some of 
them refrain drinking strong liquors, but very few 
of that sort are found amongst them. Their chief 


liquor is ram, without any mixture. This the 
English bring amongst them, and buy skins, furs, 
slaves and other of their commodities therewith. 
They never are contented with a little, but when 
once begun, they must make themselves quite 
drunk ; otherwise they will never rest, but sell all 
they have in the world, rather than not have their 
full dose. In these drunken frolics, which are 
always carried on in the night, they sometimes 
murder one another, fall into the fire, fall down 
precipices, and break their necks, with several 
other misfortunes which this drinking of rum 
brings upon them ; and though they are sensible 
of it, yet they have no power to refrain this ene- 
my. About five years ago, when Landgrave 
Daniel was governor, he summoned in all the In- 
dian kings and rulers to meet, and in a full meet- 
ing of the government and council, with those In- 
dians, they agreed upon a firm peace, and the In- 
dian rulers desired no rum might be sold to them, 
which was granted, and a law made, that inflicted 
a penalty on those that sold rum to the heathens ; 
but it was never strictly observed, and besides 
the young Indians were so disgusted at that 
article, that they threatened to kill the Indians 
that made it, unless it was laid aside, and they 
might have rum sold them, when they went to the 
Englishmens' houses to buy it. 

Some of the heathens are so very poor that they 
have no manner of clothes, save a wad of moss to 
hide their nakedness. ThjBse are either lusty and 

Will not work ; otlierwi-^e tlievare crivoii to sramiDsr 
or (Iraiikenness*: vet these iret victuals as well as 
tlio re-t, ]»j<:iuse that is euinmon among-t them, 
if the V are caught in theft thev are slaves till thev 
repay the i»erson, as I mentioiied before, but to 
St -a I iVn:a the En_rli-h thev reckon no harm. Xot 
b'lt til u 1 have known ?0!iie fov savages that have 
bjon as tVje from theft as anv of the christians. 
When tiiev have a desiirn to lie with a woman, 
which thev ciiunot obtain anv otherwise than bva 
lar<rer reward tiian thev are able to srive, thev then 
Strive to liiake her drunk, which a s^reat manv of 
tliciii will be : then thev take the auvanta2:e to do 
wiiJi them what they please, and sometimes in 
their drunkenness, cut oft' their hair and sell it to 
the Eiiirlish, which is the greatest affront can 
be oiiered to them. They never value time ; for 
if they be going out to hunt, fish, or any other in- 
diiferent business, you may keep them in talk as 
long as you please, so you but keep them in dis- 
course, and seemed pleased with their company; 
yet none are more expeditious and safer messen- 
gers than they, when any extraordinary business 
that they are sent tibout requires it. 

When they are upon traveling the woods, they 
keep a constant pace, neither will they stride over 
a tree that lies cross the path, but always go round 
it, which is quite contrary to the custom of the 
English and other Europeans. When they cut 
with a knife, the edge is towards them, whereas 
wo alwa^'s cut and whittle from us. Xor did I 


ever see one of them left handed. Before the 
christians came amongst them, not knowing the 
use of steel and flints, they got their fire with 
sticks, which by vehement collision or rubbing 
together, take fire. This method they will some- 
times practice now, when it has happened through 
rainy weather, or some other accident, that they 
have wet their spunk, which is a sort of soft, corky 
substance, generally of a cinnamon color, and 
grows in the concave part of an oak, hickory, and 
several other woods, being dug out with au axe 
and always kept by the Indians, instead of tinder 
or touchwood, both "which it exceeds. You are 
to understand that the two sticks they use to strike 
fire withal are never of one sort of wood, but al- 
ways difter from each other. 

They are expert travelers, and though they have 
not the use of our artificial compass, yet they un- 
derstand the north point exactly, let them be in 
never so great a wilderness. One guide is a short 
moss, that grows upon some trees, exactly on the 
north side thereof. 

Besides, they have names for eight of the thirty- 
two points, and call the winds by their several 
names, as we do ; but indeed more properly : for 
the north west wind is called the cold wind; the 
north east, the wet wind ; the south, the w^arm 
wind, and so agreeable of the rest. Sometimes it 
happens that they have a large river or lake to 
pass over, and the weather is very foggy, as it 
often happens in Iho spring and falkof the leaf; 


80 that they cannot see which course to steer; in 
■ach a case, they being on one side of the river 
or Uke, they know well enough what course such 
a place, which they intend for, bears firom them. 
Therefore, they get a great many sticks and chunks 
of wood in their canoe and then set off directly 
for their port, and now and then t}irow oyer a 
piece of wood, which directs them, by seeing how 
the stick bears from the canoe stem, which they 
always observe to keep right aft ; and Ihis is the 
Indian compass, by which they will go over a 
broad water of ten or twenty leagues wide. They 
will find the head of any river, though it is five, 
six, or seven hundred miles oS, and they never 
were there in their lives before, as is often proved 
by their appointing to meet on the head of such a 
river, where, perhaps, none of them ever was 
before, but where they shall rendezvous exactly at 
the prefixed time ; and if they meet with any ob- 
struction, they leave certain marks in the way 
whore they that come after, will understand how 
many have passed by already, and whidi way they 
are gone. 

Besides, in their war expeditions, they have 
very certain hieroglyphics, whereby each party in- 
forms the other of the success or losses they have 
met withal ; all which is so exactly performed by 
their sylvan marks and characters, that they are 
never at a loss to understand one another. Yet 
there was never found any letters amongst the sav- 
ages of Carolina ; nor I believe, among any othw 


natives in America, that were possessed with any 
manner of writing, or learning throughout^all the 
discoveries of the new world. They will draw 
maps very exactly of all the rivers, towns, moun- 
tains and roads, or what you shall enquire of them, 
which you may draw by their directions, and come 
to a small matter of latitude, reckoried by their 
day's journeys. These maps they will draw in the 
ashes of the fire, and sometimes upon a mat or 
piece of bark. I have put a pen and ink into a 
savage's hand, and he has drawn me the rivers, 
bays, and other parts of a country, which after- 
wards I have found to agree with a great deal of 
nicety. But you must be very much in their 6t- 
vor, otherwise they will never make these discov- 
eries to you, especially if it be in their own quar- 
ters. And as for mines of silver and other metals, 
we are satisfied we have enough, and those very 
rich, in Carolina and its adjacent parts. Some of 
which the Indians are acquainted withal, although 
no enquirers thereafter, but what came and were 
discovered by chance; yet they say it is this 
metal that the English covet, as they do their peak 
and ronoak, and that we have gained ground of 
them wherever we have come. Now, say they, if 
we should discover fliese minerals to the English, 
they would settle at or near these mountains, and 
bereave us of the best hunting quarters we have, 
as they have already done wherever they have in- 
habited ; so by that means we shall be driven to 
some unknown country, to Uve, hunt, and get our 


'-. ^ t ju.l ' . .» ^ !-.-_ 1. t 

f. -.'*•'] in. T:.»-'r^-- ar.- :•..• r..: -i..-? tl..-: :Lr ^uvages 
i/:ve r^r not i.-ak'! _: kiivv.a v. i.j.t ai-e ao-^ain- 
tcJ v/:iL-.l oi* ::..'.: Ka:::re. Ai.«:. i:-lce«l. all men Lave ev»'r ir »n? ii].»^:i t': »-•_* «:'v.- •verx^. ;w1l»w 
tLeru to b<^ trojJ: nure e ^-' mv iixiTJiiious 

^ • ft ^ 

fri<fr.<], Mr.yi^-Ti-':^ Lo':i^^I:r^:llCii.orl>crllinS\^*itz- 
erlaij*!. v.huhti- ^e».'ii for several vcaiv, verv iutkiut- 
gabU^ aivl -trict ill ]/:-- dlscoverie- iiiiiuiigst those va«>t 
lod.r*-.s of liiountainsaiid spacious tracts uf laud, ly- 
lU'r towanl- tiiC Loads of the trrea: bavs and rivers 
of Vir/mia, Marvlaud and Pensvlvania, wLere he 
lias di-jcovered a spacious country inliabited by 
none but tlie sava;j"es, and not many of them, who 
yet are of a yen' friendly nature to the christians. 
This ;rentkiuan has been employed by the canton 
of Bern to find out a tract of land in the English 
America, where that republic might settle some of 
their people, which proposal, I believe, is now in a 
fair way towards a conclusion between her majesty 
of Great Biituin and that canton, which must 
needs be of great advantage to both ; and as for 
ourselves, I believe no man that is in his\vits, and 
imdcrstands the situation and affairs of America, 
])ut will allow. Nothing can be of more security 
and advantage to the crown and subjects of Great 
liritain, than to have our jfrontiers secured bv a 
warlike peojde, and our friends, as the Switzers 
are, especially when we have more Indians than 
we can civilize, and so many christian enemies 
lying on the back of us, that we do know not how 
long or short a time it may be before they visit us. 


•Add to these the effects and produet that may be 
expected from those mountams, which may here- 
after prove of great advantage to the British mon- 
archy : and none more fit than an industrious peo- 
ple, bred in a mountainous country, and inured to 
all the fatigues of war and travel, to improve a 
country. Thus we have no room to doubt, but as 
soon as any of those parts are seated by the Swit- 
zers, a great many Britains will strive to live 
amongst them, for the benefit of the sweet air and 
healthful climate which tliat country affords, were 
it only for the cultivating of kemp, flax, wine, 
and other valuable staples which those people are 
fully acquainted withal. Not to mention the ad- * 
vantages already discovered by that worthy gen- 
tleman I just now spoke of, who is highly deserv- 
ing of the conduct and management of such an 
affair, as that wise canton hasintrusted him withal. 
When these savages go a hunting, they com- 
monly go out in great numbers, and oftentimes 
a great many days' journey from home, beginning 
at the coming in of the winter ; that is, when the 
leaves are fallen from the trees and are become 
dry. Tis then they burn the woods by setting 
fii'e to the leaves and withered bent and grass, 
which they do with a match made of the black 
moss that hangs on the trees in Carolina, and is 
sometimes above six feet long. This, when dead, 
becomes black, though of an ash color before, and 
will then hold fire as well as the best match we 
have in Europe. Ii^ places where this moss is not 

1^ iawsok's msToinr 

found, aa towards the moontniia, ibej make Im<» 
tels of thebaik of cypreaB beaten, whidi serve a0 
well. Thns tfaey go and fire tbe woods for many 
miles^ and drive the deer and otlier game into small 
neeks of land and isthmnses where they kill and 
destroy what they please. In these hnnting qnar^ 
ters they have their wives and ladies of the camp, 
where they eat all the froits and dainties of that 
country, and live in all the mirth and jollity which 
it is possible for such people to entertain them* 
selves withal. Here it is that they get tiieir com- 
pliment of deer 'sldns and fnrs to trade witiki the 
English, (the deer skins being in season in winter 
which is contrary to En^and.) All email game, 
asturkiesy dacks and small vermine, they common- 
ly kill with bow and arrow, thinking it not worth 
lowing powder and shot after them. Of tur- 
kies they have abundance, especially in oak land, 

I have been often in their hunting quarters where a 
roasted or barbacued turkey, eaten with bear's fat, 
is held a good dish, and indeed I approve of it ve- 
ry well ; for the bear's grease is the sweetest and 
least o&nsive to the stomach, as I said before, of 
any fat of animals I ever tasted. The savage men 
never beat their corn to make bread, but that is 
the women's work, especially the girls, <^ whom 
you shall «ee four beating with long great pestils 
in a narrow wooden mortar ; and every one keeps 
her strdce so exactly, that tis worthy of admira- 
tion. Their codi^exy continues from morning till 

OF JfOBTSf CAkOttSA. 837 

night The hunting makes them hungry, and. 
the Indians are a people that always eat very • of- 
ten, not seldom getting up at midnight to eat. 
They plant a great many sorts of pulse, part of 
which they est green in the summer, keeping 
great quantities for their winter's store, which 
they carry along with them into the hunting quar- 
ters and eat them. 

The small red .peas is very common with them, 
and they eat a great deal of that and other sorts 
boiled witii their meat or eaten with bear's fat, 
which food makes them break vmid backwards, 
which the men frequentiy do and laugh heartily 
at it, it being accounted no ill manners amongst 
the Indians — ^yet the women are more modest 
than to follow that ill custom. At their setting 
out, they hare Indians to attend their hunting 
camp that are not good and expert hunters, there- 
fore are employed to carry burdens, to get bark 
for the cabins, and other servile work ; also to go 
baekwiurd imd forward to their towns, to carry 
news to the old people, whom they leave behind 
them. The women are forced to carry their loads 
of grain and olher provisions and get fire wood ; 
for a good hunter or warrior in these expeditions, 
is employed in no other business than the affidrs 
of game and battle. The wild fruits which are 
dried in the summer, over fires, on hurdles and 
in the sun, are now brought into Ihe field ; as are 
likewise the cakes and quiddonies of peaches, 
and that fruit and bilberries dried, of which they 

'^ y , 

f. . M* — ^ a. ^ A ^ 

' U-rrir i:i.<aLlZ 

**.- J *.. J /***• '^A ^ .-*- •• ^ , a* «1^ ^ ..*•- t-^--»-' i-.<.rr. v^*-.- 

t;. !r l'^:i .^■'; L.^^kc t/- .i .:# t-I; •:-:?- iili wl.:cL are 

li,*'y 1^ ^y. Vi 111. iLi«j--e mai* Jin^ruitr.*. tLeiri*aw skins, 
v,i*ii i!i<; j,L;r oij, wiiicii our ii»jit:^borih£r Indians 
bi'Iiig to liioir to'.vii.-, a:.u^ in ilc eaoiiiier time, 
inak^; li^o rl^iVc-.-j aini corry iiuiiters drcss thcin, tLe 
v» inter r-iii \)uiig not btrong* enough to dry them ; 
and thonc that arc dried in the cabins are I lack" 
and narty with the li;^ht\vood emoke, which they 
coiiunonly hum. Their way of dressing their 
hkinri is, by Boakiug them in water, so they get the 
liair oil with an instrument made of the bone of 
a deor'ri loot; yet some use a sort of iron drawing 
knii'e, which they purchase of the English, and af- 
ter tlie hair is off they dissolve deer's brains, which 
bol'ore hand are made in a -cake and baked in the 
embers, in a bowl of water, so soak the skins there- 
in till the brains have sucked up the water ;_then 
thoy dry it gently, and keei) working ij with an 


oyster sliell, or some such thing, to scrape withal 
till it is dry ; wherebyit becomes soft and pliable. 
Yet these so dressed will not endure wet, but be- 
come hard thereby ; which to prevent, they either 
cure them in the smoke or tan them with bark, as 
before observed ; not but that young Indian corn, 
beaten to a pulp, will effect the same as the brains. 
Tiiey are not. only good hunters of the wild beasts 
and game of the forest, but very expert in taking the 
fish of the rivers and waters near which they in- 
habit, and are acquainted withal. Thus they that 
a live great way up the riverapractice striking stur- 
geon and rockfish, or bass, when they come up the 
rivers to spawn ; besides the vast shoals of sturgeon 
which they kill and take with snares, as we do 
pike in Europe. The herrings, m March and 
April, run a great way up the rivers and fi'esh 
streams to spawn, Where the savages make great 
wares with hedges that hinder their passage only 
in the middle, where an artificial pond is made to 
take them in, so that they cannot return. This 
method is in use all over the fresh streams, to 
catch trout and the otlier species of fish which 
those parts afford. Their taking of crawfish is so 
pleasant,, that I cannot pass it by without mention ; 
when they have a mind to get these shell fish, 
they take a piece of venison and half barbacue or 
roast it, then they cut it into thin slices, which 
slices they stick through with reeds about six 
inches asunder betwixt piece and piece; then the- 
reeds are 'made sharp at one endj and so they 

840 lawsor's hibtoey 

stick a great many of them down in the bottom of 
the water, thua ^baited, in the small brooks and 
runs, which the crawfish frequent. Thus the In- 
dians sit by and tend those baited sticks, every 
now and then taking them up to see how many 
are at the bait ; where they generally find abun- 
dance, so take them ofi; and put them in a basket 
for the purpose, and stick the reeds down again. 
By this method, they will, in a little time, catch 
several bushels, which are as good as any I ever 
eat. Those Indians that frequent the salt waters, 
take abundance of fish, some very large and of 
several sorts, which to preserve, they first barba- 
cue, then pull the fish to pieces, so dry it in the 
sun, whereby it keeps for transportation ; as for 
scate, oysters, cockles, and several sorts of shell 
fish, they open and dry them upon hurdles, hav- 
ing a constant fire under them. The hurdles are 
made of reeds or canes in the shape of a gridiroii. 
Thus they dry several bushels of these fish and 
keep them for their necessities. 

At the time when they are on the salts, and sea 
coasts, they have another fishery, that is for a lit- 
tle shell fish, which those in England call Black- 
moors teeth. These they catch by tying bits of 
oysters to a long string, which they lay in such 
places, as they know, those shell fish haunt. These 
fish get hold of the oysters, and suck them in, so 
that they pull up those long strings, and take 
great quantities of f hem, which they cany a great 
way into the main land, to trade with the remote 


ladiaus, where tfaey are of great valae ; but never 
near the sea, by reason they are common, there- 
fore not esteemed. Besides, the youth and Indi* 
an boys go in the night, and one holding a light- 
wood torch, the other has a bow and arrows, and 
the fire directing him to see the fish, he shoots 
them with the arrows ; and thus they kill a great 
many of the smaller fiy, and sometimes pretty 
large ones. It is an established custom amongst 
all these natives, that the young hunter never eats 
of that buck, bear, fish, or any other game, which 
happens to be the first they kill of that sort ; be- 
cause they believe, if he should eat thereof, he 
would never after be fortunate in hunting. The 
like foolish ceremony they hold, when they have 
made a ware to fish withal ; if a big bellied 
woman eat of the first dish that is caught in it, they 
say, that ware will never take much fish ; and as 
for killing of snakes, they avoid it, if they lie in 
their way, because their opinion is, that some of 
the serpents kindred would kill some of the sav- 
ages' relations, that should destroy him. They 
have thousands of these foolish ceremonies and 
beliefs, which they are strict observers of. More- 
over, several customs are found in some families, 
which others keep not ; as for example, two fami- 
lies of the Machapunga Indians, use the Jewish 
custom of circumcision, and the rest do not, nei- 
ther did I ever know any others amongst the In- 
dians that practiced any such thing, and perhaps, 
if you aek them, what is the reason they do so, 

lA'l LAT/_.: r Ul^Jjhl 

• • • 

d^if n } ThiX'/r.i or h':-':o'ii.i ; iir^ i to pretoi.d to give a 

j';r *:-;5'? i*>jr a rrh'dt li.aiiV of iLeir ab- .ir-iities, 
V. i.i*'.. ;' r r, ^i;.f; r'jrasoii, t-.-.v reserve as a gecret 
J'. ; : J o :. : \ \ \ \ '•: .w-. -; . vc- .s ; o :• o: ;. envUe, t uey are j eal- 
o •-, Oi* ;!/']r v.'^;c;;:ijC'.-;-: \\\ ti^e practi.rin^r ibem ; so 
that tli-'V ij<'V';r a';oijaiM anv ciiiL-.tian with the 
kijov/j^'l'^c i!i-ji<ioi', let writ^rrrs pretei^d what they 
v/ili ; t*^r I hav»i known thera amozig-^t their iduls 
and df;a'i i:I.Jir"> in tlioir Quiogozon I'or several days, 
\\\i'*A'i^ I co'.jM never g;t admittance, to see what 
tij^y v/ere d'^:ji;r, thoJi;^li 1 Vr'as ar great friendship 
witii tlie k'.n^ and great men ; hut all my persua- 
Hion:4 ava.lel me nothin;^. Xeither were anv but 
Hie Vw.'Z, vvlili tliccojijurer, and some few old men, 
in lliJ'i Ijo'i.-e ; as for the young men, andchiefest 
nunjbern of the Indians, they were kept as igno- 
rant of what the elderii were doing, as myself. 
They all believe, that this world is round, and 
that tliere are two spirits ; the one good, the oth- 
er ba<l. The good one they reckon to be the au- 
thor and maker of every thing, and say, that it is 
lie, tliat gives them the fruits of the earth, and has 
iauglit lliem to hunt, fish, and be wise enough to 
overpower the beasts of the wilderness, and all 
oilier creatures, that they may be assistant, and 
benelicial to man ; to which they add, that the 
<(u<}ra, or good spirit, has been very kind to the 


Englishmen, to teach them to make guns, and 
ammunition, besides a great many other necessa- 
ries, that are helpful to man, all which, they say 
will be delivered to them, when that good spirit 
sees fit. They do not believe that God punishes 
any man either in this life, or that to come ; but that 
he delights in doing good, and in giving the fruits 
of the earth, and instructing us in making several 
useful and ornamental things. They say, it is a 
bad spirit, who lives separate from the good one, 
that torments us with sicknesses, disappointments, 
losses, hunger, travel, and all the misfortunes, that 
human life is incident to. IIow they are treated 
in the next world, I have already mentioned, and, 
as I said before, they are very resolute in dying, 
when in the hands of savage enemies ; yet I saAV 
one of their young men, a veiy likely person, con- 
demned, on a Sunday, for killing a negro, and 
burning the house. 

I took good notice of his behavior, when he 
was brought out of the house to die, which was 
the next morning after sentence, but he changed 
liis countenance with trembling, and was in the 
greatest fear and agony. I never saw any person 
under his circumstances, which perhaps, might be 
occasioned by his being delivered up by his own 
nation, (which was the Tuskeruros,) and executed 
by us, that are not their common enemies, though 
he met with more favor than he would have re- 
ceived at the hands of savages ; for he was only 
hanged on a tree near the jilace where the mur- 


der was committed ; and the three kings, that but 
the day before shewed sueh a reluctance to deliv* 
er him up, but would have given another in his 
room, when he was hanged, pulled him by the 
hand, and said : Thou wilt never play any more 
rogue's tricks in this world — ^whither art thou 
gone to show thy tricks now? Which shews 
these savages to be what they really are, viz : a 
people that will save their own men if they can, 
but if the safety of all the people lies at stake, 
they will deliver up the most innocent person liv- 
ing, and be so far from concern, when they have 
made themselves easy thereby, that they vsdll 
laugh at their misfortunes, and never pity or think 
of them more. 

Their priests are the conjurers and doctors of 
the nation. I shall mention some of their meth- 
ods and practices, and so leave them to the judg- 
ment of the reader. 

As I told you before, the priests make their ora- 
tions at every feast, or other great meeting of the 
Indians. I happened to be at one of tiiese great 
meetings, which was at the funeral of a Tuskeruro 
Indian, that was slain with lightning at a feast the 
day before, where I was amongst the rest. It was 
in July, and a very fair day, where, in the after- 
noon, about six or seven o'clock^ as they were 
dealing out their victuals, there appeared a little 
black cloud to the northwest, which spread and 
brought with it rain, wind and lightning ; so wa went 
out from the place where we were all at victuals, 


and went down to the cabins where I left the In<^ 
dians and went to lie in my canoe, which was con- 
venient enongh to keep > me dry. The lightning 
came so terrible and down in long streams, that I 
was afraid it wonld have taken hold of a barrel of 
powder I had in my yessel, and so blown me up ; 
but it pleased Gk>d that it did me no harm ; yet 
the violence of the wind had blown all the water 
away, where I rid at anchor, so that my canoe lay 
dry, and some Indian women came with torches 
in their hands to the side of the canoe, and told 
me an Indian was killed with lightning. The 
next day, I think, he was bnried, and I staid to 
see the ceremony, and was very tractable to help 
the Indians to trim their reeds and make the cof- 
fin, w)iich pleased them very much, because I 
had a mind to see the interment. Before he was 
interred, according to their custom, they dealt 
every one some hot victuals, which he took and 
did what he would with. Then the doctor began 
to talk, and told the people what lightning was, 
and that it killed every thing that dwelt upon the 
earth ; nay, the very fishes did not escape ; for it 
often reached the porpoises and other fish, and de- 
stroyed them ; that everything strove to shun it 
except the mice, who, he said, were the busiest 
in eating their com in the fields when it lightened 
the most. He added, that no wood or tree could 
withstand it, except the black gum, and that it would 
run round that tree a great many times to enter 
therein, bjit could not effect it Now you must 

onder-tand that ?f>n of jrum will not f-plit or rive ; 
thereiore, I suppose, the story misrht arise £h>ni 
tlience. At la^t he began to tell the most ridicu- 
lous, absurd parcel of lies about lightning that 
could be ; as that an Indian of that nation had 
once g^t lightning in the likeness of a partridge; 
that no other liirhtninor could harm him whilst he 
had that about him ; and that after he liad kept it 
I'jv several rears it srot awav from him; so that 
lie tLen became as liable to be struck with light- 
ning as any other person. There was present at 
the same time an Indian that had lived from his 
youth, chiefly in an Ensrlish house ; so I called to 
him and told him what a parcel of lies the conju- 
rer told, not doubting but he thought so as well 
as I, but I found to the contrary ; for he replied, 
that I was much mistaken, for that old man, who, 
I believe was upwards of an hundred years old, 
did never tell lies ; and as for what he said, it was 
very true, for he knew it himself to be so. There- 
upon seeing the fellow's ignorance, I talked no 
more about it 

Then the doctor proceeded to tell a long tale of 
a great rattlesnake^ which, a great while ago, lived 
by a creek in that river, which was Neus, and that 
it killed abundance of Indians ; but at last a bald 
eagle killed it and they were rid of a serpent that 
used to devour whole canoes full of Indians at a 

I have been something tedious upon this subject, 
on purpose to show what strange, ridiculous stories 


these wretelies are inclinable to believe. I suppose 
these doctors understand a little better themselves, 
than to give credit to any such fooleries ; for I 
reckon them the cunningest knaves in all the 
pack. I will therefore begin with their physic 
and surgery, which is next : 

You must know that the doctors or conjurers, to 
gain a greater credit amongst these people, tell 
them that all distempers are the eftects of evil 
spirits, or the bad spirit, which has struck them 
with this or that maladv, therefore none of these 
physicians undertakes any distemper but that he 
comes to an exorcism to effect the cure, and ac- 
quaints the sick party's friends, that he must con- 
verse with the good spirit, to know whether the 
patient will recover or not, if so, then he will drive 
out the bad spirit, and the patient will become 
well. Now, the general way of their behavior in 
curing the sick, a great deal of which I have seen, 
and shall give some account thereof, in as brief a 
manner as possible, is, when an Indian is sick, if 
they think there is much danger of life, and that 
he is a great man or hath good friends, the doctor 
is sent for. As soon as the doctor comes into the 
cabin, the sick person is set on a mat or skin stark 
naked, lying on his back and all uncovered, ex- 
cept some small trifle that covers their nakedness 
when ripe, otherwise, in very young children, 
there is nothing about them. In this manner the 
patient lies, when the conjurer appears, and the 
king of that nation comes to attend him with a 


rattle made of a gourd with peas in it. This the 
king delivers into the doctor's hand, whilst an- 
other brings a bowl of water, and sets it down. 
Then the doctor begins, and utters some few words 
very softly ; afterwards he smells of the patient's 
navel and belly, and sometimes scarifies him a 
little with a flint, or an instrument made of rattle 
snake's teeth for that purpose ; then he sucks the 
patient and gets out a mouthful of blood and serum, 
but serum chiefly, which, perhaps, may be a better 
method in many cases than to take away great 
quantities of blood, as is commonly practiced, 
which he spits in the bowl of water* Then he be- 
gins to mutter, and talk apace, and at last to cut 
capers and clap his hands on his breech and sides, 
till he gets into a sweat, so that a stranger would 
think he was running mad, now and then sucking 
the patient, and so, at times, keeps sucking, till 
he has got a great quantity of very ill colored mat- 
ter out of the belly, arms, breast, forehead, tem- 
ples, neck, and most parts, still continuing his gri- 
maces, and antic postures, which are not to be 
matched in Bedlam. At last you will see the doctor 
all over of a dropping sweat, and scarce able to 
utter one word, having quite spent himself; then 
he will cease for a while, and so begin again till 
he comes in the same pitch of raving and seeming 
madness, as before, all this time the sick body never 
so much as moves, although, doubtless, the lancing 
and sucking must be a great punishment to them, 
but they certainly are the patientest and most 


steady people under any burden that I ever saw 
in my life. At last^ the conjurer makes an end, 
and tells the patient's friends, whether the person 
wUl live or die; and then one that waits at 
this ceremony, takes the blood away, which re- 
mains in a lump, in the middle of the water, and 
buries it in the ground, in a place unknown to 
any one, but he that inters it. Now, I believe a 
great deal of imposture in these fellows ; yet I 
never knew their judgment fail, though I have 
seen them give their opinion after this manner, 
several times : Some affirm, that there is a smell 
of brimstone in the cabins, when they are conju- 
ring, which I cannot contradict, which way it may 
come, 1 will not argue, but proceed to a relation 
or two, which I have from a great many persons, 
and some of them worthy of credit. 

The first is, of a certain Indian, that one rainy 
night, imderminded a house made of logs, such 
as the Swedes in America very often make, and 
are very strong, which belonged to Seth South- 
well, Esq., governor of North Carolina, and one of 
the proprietors. There was but one place the In- 
dian could get in at, which was very narrow; 
the rest was secured, by having barrels of pork 
and other provisions set against the side of the 
house, so that if this Indian had not exactiy hit 
the very place he underminded, it had been im- 
possible for him to have got therein, because of 
the full barrels that stood round the house, and 
barricadoed it within. The Indian stole sixty or 


850 xawson's history 

eighty dressed deer skins, besides blankets, pow- 
der^ shot and ram, this being the Indian store 
house, where the trading goods were kept. Now, 
the Indian had made his escape, but dropped some 
of the skins by the way and they tracked his foot- 
steps, and found him to be an Indian ; then they 
guessed who it was, because none but that Indian 
had lately been near the house. Thereupon, the 
governor sent to the Indian town that he belonged 
to, which was the Tuskeruros, and acquainted them 
that if they did not deliyer up the Indian, who had 
committed the robbery, he would take a course with 
them, that would not be very agreeable. Upon 
this, the Indians of the town he belonged to, brought 
him in bound, and delivered him up to the goverpi- 
or, who laid him in irous. At the same time, it 
happened that a robbery was committed amongst 
themselves, at the Indian town, and this prisoner 
was one of their corgurers ; so the Indiana came 
down to the governor's house, and acq.uainted him 
with what had happened amongst them, and that 
a great quantity of peak was stolen away out of 
one of their cabins, and no one could find out the 
thief, unless he would let the prisoner conjure for 
it, who was the only man they had at making such 
discoveries. , The governor was content he should 
try his skill for them^ but not to have the prison- 
er's irons taken off, which was very well approved 
of. The Indian was brpught out in his fetters 
where were the governor's family, and sev^al oth- 


era of the neigbborhood, now livings to see this ex- 
periment ; which he performed thus. 

The conjurer ordered three fires to be made in a 
triangular form, which was accordingly done ; then 
he was hoodwinked verj securely, with a dressed 
deer skin, two or three doubles, oyer his face. Af- 
ter he had made some motions, as they always do, 
he went directly out of one of the three gaps, as ex- 
actly as if he had not been blindfolded, and kept 
Biiuttering to himself, having a stick in his hand, 
with which, after some time, he struck two strokes 
Tery hard, upon the ground^ and made thereon a 
cross^ after which he told the Indian's name that 
had stolen the goods, and said, that he would have 
a cross on his back ; which proved true; for when 
they took and searched him, there appeared two 
great wheals, on his back, one cross the other ; 
for the thief was at governor Southwell's house, 
and was under no apprehension of being discov- 
. ered. The Indians profiered to sell him as a slave 
to the governor, but he refused to buy him ; so 
they took him bound away. 

Another instance of the like nature happened 
at the same house. One of the Tuskeruro kings 
had brought in a slave to the same governor, to 
whom he had sold him ; and before he returned 
fell sick at the governor's house ; upon which the 
doctor that belonged to this kmg's nation was 
sent for, being a man that was held to be the grea- 
' test conjurer amongst them. It was three days 
before he could arrive, and he appeared, when he 

352 lawson's history 

came, to be a very little man, and so old, that his 
hair was as white as ever was seen. When he ap- 
proached the sick king, he ordered a bowl of wa- 
ter to be brought him and three chunks of wood, 
which was immediately done. Then he took the 
water and set it by him, and spurted a little on 
him, and with the three pieces of wood he made a 
place to stand on, whereby he was raised higher ; 
he being a very low statured man ; then he took 
a string of ronoak, which is the same as a string 
of small beads ; this he held by one end between 
his fingers; the other end touched the king's 
stomach, as he stood on the logs. Then he began 
to talk, and, at lengthy the bystanders thought 
really that they heard somebody talk to- him, but 
saw no more than what first came in. At last, 
this string of beads, which hung thus perpendicu- 
lar, turned up as an eel would do, and without 
any motion of his, they came all up, in a lump, 
under his hand, and hung so for a considerable 
time, he never closing Ms hand, and at length re- 
turned to their pristine length and shape, at which 
the spectators were much frightened. Then he 
told the company that he would recover, and that 
his distemper would remove into his leg, all which 
happened to 'be exactly as the Indian doctor had 
told. These are matters of fact, and, I can, at 
this day, prove the truth thereof by several sub* 
stantial evidences that i^e men of reputation, there 
being more than a dozen people present when this 
was performed ; most of whom are now alive. 


There are a great many other stories of this na- 
ture, which are seemingly true, being told by per- 
sons that affirm they were eye witnesses thereof; 
as, that they have seen one Boncommock, a Chu- 
wou Indian, and a great conjurer, take a reed 
about two feet long in his mouth, and stand by a 
creek side, where he called twice or thrice with 
the reed in his mouth, and, at last, has opened his 
arms and fled over the creek, which might be near 
a quarter of a mile wide or more ; but I shall urge 
no man's belief, but tell my own ; which is, that 
I believe the two first accounts which were acted 
at Mr. Southwell's plantation, as firmly as any 
man can believe any thing of that which is told 
him by honest men, and he has not seen ; not at 
all doubting the credit of my authors. 

The cures I have seen performed by the Indians, 
are too many to repeat here ; so I shall only men- 
tion some few, and their method. They cure scald 
heads infallibly, and never miss. Their chief reme- 
dy, as I have seen them make use of, is, the oil of 
acorns, but from which sort of oak I am not certain. 
They cure bums beyond credit. I have seen a 
man burnt in such a manner, when drunk, by fall- 
ing into a fire, that I did not think he could recov- 
er ; yet they cured him in ten days so that he went 
about. I knew another blown up with powder, 
that was cured to admiration. I never saw an In- 
dian have an nicer, or foul wound in my life; 
neither is there any such thing to be found amongst 
them . They cure the pox by a berry that salivates 


as mercury does ; yet they use sweating and de- 
coctions very much with it, as they do almost on 
every occasion; and when they are thoroughly 
heated, they leap into the river. The pox is fre- 
quent in some of these nations ; amongst which I 
knew one woman die of it ; and they could not, 
or would not, cure her. Before she died she was 
worn away to a skeleton, yet walked up and down 
to the last. We had a planter in Carolina who 
had got an ulcer in his leg, which had troubled 
him a great many years ; at last he applied him- 
self to one of these Indian conjurers, who was a 
Pampticough Indian, and was not to give the value 
of fifteen shillings for the cure. Now, I am not 
positive whether he washed the ulcer with any 
thing before he used what I am now going to speak 
of, which was nothing but the rotten, doated grains 
of Indian corn, beaten to powder and the soft down 
growing on a turkey's rump. This dried the ulcer 
up immediately, and no other fontanel was made 
to discharge the matter, he remaining a healthful 
man till the time he had the misfortune to^be 
drowned, which was many years after. Another 
instance, not of my own knowledge, but I had it 
confirmed by several dwellers in Maryland, where 
it was done, was, of an honest planter that had 
been possessed with a strange, lingering distem- 
per, not usual amongst them, under which he ema- 
ciated and grew every month worse than another, | 
it having held him several years, in which time 
he had made trial of several doctors^ as they 


<5all them, which, I suppose, were ship surgeons. 
In the beginning of this distemper, the patient 
was very well to pass, and was possessed, of sever- 
al slaves, which the doctors purged all away, and 
the poor man was so far from mending that he 
grew worse and worse every day. But it happen- 
ed that one day as his wife and he were commise- 
rating his miserable condition, and that he could 
not expect to recover, but looked for death very 
speedily, and condoling the misery he should leave 
his wife and family in, since all his negroes were 
gone. At that time, I say, it happened that an 
Indian was in the same room, who had frequented 
the house for many years, and so was become as 
one of the family, and would sometimes be at this 
planter's house and at other times amongst the In- 

This savage, hearing what they talked of, and 
having a great love for the sick man, made thi& 
reply to what he had heard : Brother, you have 
been a long time sick, and I know you have giv- 
en away your slaves to your English doctors. 
What made you do so, and now become poor ? 
They do not know how to cure you ; for it is an 
Indian distemper, which your people know not 
the nature of. If it had been an English disease, 
probably they counld Jiave cured you ; and had 
you conie to me at first I would have cured you 
for a small matter, without taking away your ser- 
vants that made com for you and your family to 
eat ; and yet^ if you will give me a blanket to keep 


me warm, and some powder and shot to kill deer 
withal, I will do my best to make you well still. 
The man was low in courage and pocket too, and 
made the Indian this reply : Jack, my distemper 
is past cure, and if our English doctors cannot cure 
it I am sure the Indians cannot. But his wife 
accosted her husband in very mild terms, and 
told him, he did not know but God might be 
pleased to give a blessing to that Indian's under- 
taking more than he had done to the English ; 
and further added, if you die I cannot be much 
more miserable, by giving this small matter to 
the Indian ; so I pray you, my dear, take my ad-, 
vice, and try him — ^to which, by her persuasions, 
he consented. After the bargain was concluded, 
the Indian went into the woods and brought in 
both herbs and roots, of which he made a decoc- 
tion, and gave it the man to drink, and bade him 
go to bed, saying, it should not be long before 
he came again, which the patient performed as 
he had ordered ; and the potion he had adminis- 
tered made him sweat after the most violent 
manner that could be, whereby he smelled very 
offensively both to himself, and they that were 
about him ; but in the evening, towards night, 
Jack came, with a great rattle snake in his hand 
alive, which frightened the people almost out of 
their senses ; and he told his patient that he must 
take that to bed to him ; at which the man was 
in a great consternation, and told the Indian he 


was resolved to let no snake come into his bed, 
for he might as well die of the distemper he had, 
as be killed with the bite of that serpent. To 
which the Indian replied, he could not bite him 
now nor do him any harm, for he had taken out 
his poison teeth, and shewed him that they were 
gone. At last, with much persuasion, he admit- 
ted the snake's company, which the Indian put 
about his middle, and ordered no body to take 
him away upon any account, which was strictly 
observed, although the snake girded him as hard 
for a great while, as if he had been drawn in by 
a belt which one pulled at with all his strength. 
At last the snake's twitches grew weaker and 
weaker, till, by degrees, he felt him not; and 
opening the bed he was found dead, and the man 
thought himself better. The Indian came in the 
morning, and seeing the snake dead, told the 
man that his distemper was dead along with that 
snake, which proved so as he said, for the man 
speedily recovered his health and became perfect- 
ly well. 

They cure the spleen, which they are much ad- 
dicted to, by burning with a reed. They lay the 
patient on his back, so put a hollow cane into the 
fire, where they burn the end thereof till it is very 
hot, and on fire at the end. Then they lay a piece 
of thin leather on the patient's belly, between the 
pit of the stomach and the navel, so press the hot 
reed on the leather, which bums the patient so 


358 lawson's histobt 

that you may ever after see the impression of the 
reed where it was laid on, which mark never goes 
off so long as he lives. This is used for the helly- 
ach sometimes. They can color their hair black, 
though sometimes it is reddish, which they do 
with the seed of a flower that grows commonly in 
their plantations. I believe this would change the 
reddest hair into perfect black. They make use 
of no minerals in their physic, and not much of 
animals; but chiefly rely on vegetables. They 
have several remedies for the tooth-ache, which 
often drive away the pain : but if they fail, they 
have recourse to punching out the tooth with a 
small cane set against the same on a bit of leath- 
er. Then they strike the reed and so drive out 
the tooth ; and howsoever it may seem to the Eu- 
ropeans, I prefer it before the common way of 
drawing teeth by those instruments that endanger 
the jaw, and a flux of blood often follows which 
this method of a punch never is attended withal : 
neither is it half the pain. The spontaneous plants 
of America the savages are well acquainted withal, 
and a flux of blood never follows any of their op- 
erations. They are wholly strangers to amputa- 
tion, and for what natural issues of blood happen 
immoderately, they are not to seek for a certain 
and speedy cure. Tears, rozins, and gums, I have 
not discovered that they make much use of ; and 
as for purging and emetics, so much in fashion 
with us, they never apply themselves to, unless in 
drinking vast quantities of their yaupon or tea, 


and vomiting it up again as clear as tiiey drink 
it. TUs is a custom amongst all those that oan 
procure that plants in which manner fhey take 
it every other morning or oftener, by which meth- 
od they keep their stomachs clean without prick* 
ing the coats^ and straining nature, as every purge 
is an enemy to. Besides the great diuretic quali- 
ty of their tea carries off a great deal that perhaps 
might prgudice their health by agues and fevers^ 
which all watery countries are addicted to ; for 
which reason I believe it is that the Indians are not 
so much addicted to that distemper as we are, they 
preventing its siezing upon them by this plant 
alone. Moreover, I have remarked, that it is only 
those places bordering on the ocean and great riv- 
ers, that tUs distemper is frequent in, and only on 
and near the same places this evergreen is to be 
found, and none up towards the mountains, where 
these agues seldom or never appear. Kature hav- 
mg provided suitable remedies in all countries, 
proper for the maladies that are common thereto. 
The savages of Carolina have this tea in venera- 
tion above all the plants they are acquainted with- 
al, and tall you the discovery thereof was by an 
infirm Indian, that labored under the burden of 
many rugged distempers, and could not be cured 
by all their doctors : so one day he fell asleep, 
and dreamed that if he took a decoction of the 
tree that grew at his head, he would certainly be 
cured. Upon which he awoke, and saw the yau- 
pon or caffena tree, which was not there when he 

362 liAWSOK'S HI8T0E7 

seldom bereaves them of their nose. I have seen 
three or four of them rendered most miserable 
spectacles by this distemper. Yet, when they 
have been so negligent, as to let it ran on so 
fJEir without curbing of it; at last, they make 
shift to patch themselves up, and live for many 
years after; and such men commonly turn doctors. 
I have known two or three of these no nose doc- 
tors in great esteem amongst these savages. The 
juice of the tiilip tree is used as a proper remedy 
for this distemper. What knowledge they have 
in anatomy, I cannot tell, neither did I ever see 
them employ themselves therein, unless as I told 
you before, when they make the skeletons of their 
kings and great men's bones. 

The Indians are very careless and negligent of 
liieir health; as, by drunkness, wading in the 
water, irregular diet and lodging, and a thousand 
other disorders, that would kill an European, 
which they daily use. They boil and roast their 
meat extraordinary much, and eat abundance of 
broth, except the savages whom we call the naked 
Indians, who never eat any soup. They travel 
from the banks of the Messiasippi, to war against 
the Binnagars or Iroquois, and are, if equal num- 
bers, commonly too hard for them. They will lie 
and sleep in the woods without fire, being inured 
tiiereto. They are the hardiest of all Indians, and 
run so &8t, that they are never taken, neither ^o 
any Indians outrun them, if they are pursued* 
Their savage enemies say, their nimbleness and 


vnnd proceeds from their never eating any broth. 
The small pox has been fatal to them, they do not 
often escape, when they are seized with that dis- 
temper, which is a contrary fever to what they 
ever know. Most certain, it had never visited 
America, before the discovery thereof by the chris- 
tians. Their running into the water, in the ex- 
tremity of this disease, strikes it in, and kills all 
that use it. Now they are become a little wiser ; 
but formerly it destroyed whole towns, without 
leaving one Indian alive in the village. The 
plague was never known amongst them, that I 
could learn by what enquiry I have made. These 
savages use scarrification almost in all distempers. 
Their chief instruments for that operation is the 
teeth of rattle snakes, which they poison withal. 
They take them out of the snake's hetfd, and suck 
out the poison with their mouths, and so keep 
them for use, and spit out the venom, which is 
green, and are never damaged thereby. The 
small pox and rum, have made such a destructian 
amongst them that, on good grounds, I do believe, 
there is not the sixth savage living within two 
hundred miles of all our settlements, as there were 
fifty years ago. These poor creatures have so 
many enemies to destroy them, that it is a wonder 
one of them is alive near us. The small pox I 
have acquainted you withal above, and so I have 
of rum, and shall only add, that they have got 
away to carry it back to the westiFord Indians, 
who never ka&w what it was, till wi&in very few 

864 lawson's history 

years. Nowthey have it brought them by the Tus- 
keruroSy and other neighbour Indians^ but the Tub- 
keruroB chiefly, who carry it in rundletB Beveral 
hundred miles, amongst other Indians. Some- 
times they cannot forbear breaking their cargo, 
but sit down in the woods, and drink it all up, and 
then hollow and shout like so many bedlamites. 
I accidentally once met with one of these drunken 
crews, and was amazed to see a parcel of drunken 
savages so far from any Englishman's house ; but 
the Indians I had in company informed me, that 
they were merchants, and had drunk all their 
stock, as is very common for them to do. But 
when they happen to carry it safe, which is sel- 
dom, without drinking some part of it, and filling 
it up with water, and come to an Indian town, 
those that buy rum of themhave so many mouthfuls 
for a buck skin, they never using any other meas- 
ure ; and for this purpose, the buyer always makes 
choice of his man, which is one that has the great- 
est mouth, whom he brings to the market with a 
bowl to put it in. The seller looks narrowly to 
the man's mouth that measures it, and if he hap- 
pens to swallow any down, either through wilful- 
ness or otherwise, the merchant or some of his 
party does not scruple to knock the fellow down, 
exclaiming against him for &lse measure. There- 
upon, the buyer finds another mouthpiece to 
measure the rum by, so that this trading is very 
agreeable to the spectators, to see such a deal of 


quarrelling and controversy as often happens about 
it, and is very diverting. 

Another destroyer of them, is, the art they have, 
and often practice, of poisoning one another; 
which is done by a large white spongy root, that 
grows in the fresh marshes, which is one of their 
poisons, not but that they have many other drugs, 
which they poison one another withal. 

Lastly, the continual wars thes^ savages main- 
tain, one nation against another, which sometimes 
hold for some ages; killing and making captives, 
till they become so weak thereby, that they are 
forced to make peace for want of recruits, to sup- 
ply their wars ; and the difference of languages, 
that is found amongst these heathens, seems alto- 
gether strange. For it often appears, that every 
dozen miles, you meet with an Indian town, that 
is quite different from the others you last parted 
withal, and what a little supplies this defect is, 
that the most powerful nation of these savages 
scorns to treat or trade with any others, of fewer 
numbers and less power, in any other tongue, but 
their own, which serves for the lingua of the 
country, with which we travel and deal ; as for 
example, we see that the Tuskeruros are most 
numerous in North Carolina, therefore their 
tongue is understood by some in every town of 
all the Indians near us. And here I shall insert a 
small dictionary of every tongue, though not al- 
phabetically digested : 




















Eight, • 







Unche scauwhau, 


Nectec scaukhau. 


Wartsau scauhau, 


Ossa te wartsau, 


Touch se. 


Ki^you se, 









Black or Blue, idem 









OoBOcke nauh. 




Ough-tre's, # 



















Soone noponne, 
Tonne hank pea, 
Soone nomme, 



















Tau-unta winnik. 
















Awl or Needle, 


A Hoe, 

W auche-wocnoc. 















A Flap, 




Scissors and To- 

/^T_ I- 

bacco tongues. 


A Kettle, 


A Pot, 




A Pine Tree, 


























Gau hooptop, 

W ittape, 

Gun tock seike, 


















lawson's bistort 

A Horse. 

Baw Bkin, undrest^ 
Fawn skhiy 
Bear skm. 
Fox skin, 
Baccoon skin, 
Sqnirrel skin, 
Wildcat skin, 
Panther akin, 
A Mat, 
Drest skin, 
A Turkey, 
A Duck, 
A King, 

Hard or heavy, 
A Rope, 
A Possum, 


A Pestel, 
A Mortar, 

A Hots. 
Auoona hau,' 





















Waucots ne, 





Ootic CAugh-ne, 






W ay haushe. 

A Creek, 

W ackena. 

A River, 

Ahunt wackena. 

A Man, 


Old Man, 


Young Man, 




» Old Woman, 




A Child, 


A Boy, 








A Comb, 


A cake baked, 


A Head, 






















^h^ ^r^ ^p^« 






lawson'b history 

A Bag, 
A Louse, 
A Flea, 
A Stick, 
A Cow, 
A Snake, 
A Bat, 
A Goose, 
A Swan, 
A Crab, 
A Canoe, 
A Box, 
A Bowl, 
A Spoon 
A Path, 
Sun or Moon, 
A Star, 


A Rundlet, 
An Eel, 
A Cable, 
Small ropes. 
















Rouare cou, 















IJtsera utquichra. 



A Button, 

A Thief or Rogue, 
A Dog, 
A Beed, 
To morrow, 
To-day, - 
A little while ago, 
How manny, 

Will you go along with 
Go you, 
Give it me, 
That's all, 
A Cubit lengtk, 

A Gourd or Bottle, 
A lazy fellow, 
Englishman is thisty, 
I will sell you goods 

very cheap. 


Kawa, * • 

me, XJnta-hah, 
TJt chat, 
Wattattoo watse, 




All the Indians are drtmk, 
Have you any thing to eat, 
I am sick, 
A Fishrhook, 
Don't lose it, 
A Tobacco-pip^, 
I remember it^ 
Let it a}one, 
A Jew's-hi^rp, 
I forget it, 
Korth-west wind, 

A Horse. 

Baw skisiy undrost^ 
Bear $ibw§ 
Baccoon skin, 
Squirrel skin^i 

Papther s^ 



Gonnaugh jost twane 




Oon est nonne it quost 









Kommew^yrrt^upa u, 




Tive kiro, 









A Mat, 






Drest skin, 


A Turkey, 


A Duck, 


A King, 






Hard or heavy, 

Itte teraughy 

A Hope, 


A Pestel, 


A Mortar, 


Old Womaiiy 





W eetipsa. 

A Comb,. 

Sacketoome possma, 

A Head, 














A Bag, 




A Louse, 






6 lawson's 






A Cow, 


A Snake^ 




A Goose, 


A Swan, 




A Crab, 


A Canoe, 


A Box, 


A Bowl, 


A Spoon 


A Path, 


Sun or Moon, 

W ittapare. 



A Star, 

Wattapi untakeer, 





A Bnndlet, 


A Button, 





Booesoo possoo. 






Boocheha, . 





A Dog, 


A Beed, 









A little while ago, 




How many. 


W iU you go along with me 

, Quauke, 

Go you, 

Yuppa me, 

Give it me. 


That is all, 


A cubit length. 




A gourd or bottle. 

W attape, 

A lazy fellow. 


I will sell you goods 

very cheap, 

N'aahou hoo 

All the Indians are drunk, Nonnupper, 
Have you anything to eat, Noccoo eraute, 
I am sick, Waurepa, 

A tobacco pipe, • * Intom, 

I remember it, Aucummato, 

Let it alone, Sauhau, 

Peaches, Yonne, 

• Hickerynuts, Nimmia, 

A Jeu'slarp, Wottiyau, 

Snow, Wawawa. 

To repeat more of this Indian jargon, would be 
to trouble the reader ; and as an account how im- 
perfect they are in their moods and tenses, has 
been given by several already, I shall only add, 
that their languages, or tongues are so deficient; 

378 lawson's history 

that you cannot suppose the Indians ever could 
express themselves in such a flight of stile, as au- 
thors would have you believe. They are so far 
from it, that they are but just able to make one an- 
other understand readily what they talk about. As ^ 
for the two consonants L. and P. I never knew 
them in any Indian speech I have met withal ; yet 
I must tell you, that they have such a way of ab- 
breviating their speech, when in their great coun- 
cils and debates, that the young men do not un- 
derstand what they treat about, when they hear 
them argue ; It is wonderfal, what has occosioned 
so many different speeches as the savages have. 
The three nations I now mentioned, do not live 
above ten leagues distant, and two of them, viz : 
the Tuskeruros and tiie Woccon, are not two 
leagues asunder ; yet their speech diflfers in every 
word thereof, except one, which is Tsaure, Cockles, 
which is in both tongues the same, and nothing 
else. Now this difference of speech causes jeal- 
ousies and fears amongst them, wich bring wars, 
wherein they destroy one another ; otherwise the 
christians had not, in all probability, settled Amer-' 
ica so easily, as they have done, had these tribes 
of savages united themselves into one people or 
general interest, or were they so but every hun- 
dred miles. In short, they are an odd sort of peo- 
ple under the circumstances they are at present, 
ai^d have some such uncouth ways in their man- 
agement and course of living, that it seems a 
miracle to us, how they bring about their designs. 


ad they dd, when their ways are commpnly quite 
contrary to ours. I believe, they are, as to this life, 
a very happy people ; and were it not for the feuds 
amongst themselves they would enjoy the happi- 
est state, in this world, of all mankind. They met 
with enemies when we came amongst them; for 
they are ho nearer christianily now, than they 
were at the first discovery, to all appearance. 
They have learned several vices of the Europeans, 
but not one virtue, as I know of. Drunkenness 
was a stranger, when we found them oUt, and 
swearing their speech cannot express ; yet those 
that speak English, learn to swear the first thing 
they talk of. It's true, they have some Virtues 
and some vices ; but how the christians can bring 
these people into the bosom of the church, is a 
proposal that ought to be formed and followed by 
the wisest heads and best christians. After I have 
given one remark or two farther, of some of their 
strange practices and notions, I will give my opin- 
ion, how I think, in probability, it may be, if pos- 
sible, effected, and so shall conclude this treatise 
t>f Carolina. 

They are a very craving people, and if a man 
give tiiem any thing of a present, they think it 
obliges him to give them another ; and so on, till 
he has given them all he has ^ for they have no 
bounds of satisfaction in that way ; and if they 
give you any thing, it is to receive twice the value 
of it. They have no consideration that you will 
want what you give them ; for their way of living 


is 80 contrary to ours, that neither we n6r they 
can fathom one another's designs and methods. 
They call rum and physic by one name, which 
implies that rum make people sick, as when they 
have taken any poisonous plant ; yet they cannot 
forbear rum.' They make offerings of their first 
fruits, and the most serious sort of them throw in- 
to the ashes, nep^r the fire, the first bit or spoonful 
of every meal they sit down to, which they say, is 
the same to them as the pulling off our hats and 
talking when we go to victuals, is to us. They 
name the months very agreeably, as one is the 
herring month, another the strawberry month, 
another the mulberry month. Others name them 
by the trees that blossom, especially the dogwood 
tre6 ; or they say, we will return when turkey 
cocks gobhle, that is in March and April. The 
age of the moon they understand, but know no 
different name for sun and moon. They can guess 
well at the time of the day by the sun's height. 
Their age they number by winters, and say, such 
a man or woman is so many winters old. They 
have no sabbath or day of rest. Their slaves are 
not overburdened with work, and so not driven 
by severity to seek for that relief. Those that are 
acquainted with the English, and speak the tongue, 
know when Sunday comes^; besides the Indians 
have a distinct name for Christmas, which they 
call Winnick Keshuse, or the Englishman's God's 
moon. There is one most abominable custom 
amongst tliem, which they call husquenawing their 


young men, which I have not made any mention 
of as yet, so will give you an account of it here. 
You must know, that most commonly, once a year, 
at farthest, once in two years, these people take 
up so many of their young men, as they think are 
able to undergo it, and husquenaugh them, which 
is to make them obedient and respective to their 
superiors, and, as they say, is the same to them as 
it is to us to send our children to school, to be 
taught good breeding and letters. This house of 
correction is a large, strong cabin, made on pur- 
pose for the reception of the young men and boys, 
that have not passed the graduation already ; and 
it is always at Christmas that they husquenaugh 
their youth, which js by bringing them into this 
house and keeping them dark all the time, where 
they more than half starve them. Besides, they 
give them pellitary bark, and several intoxicating 
plants, that make them go raving mad as ever 
were any people in the world ; and you may hear 
them make the most dismal and hellish cries and 
bowlings that ever human creatures expressed ; 
all which continues about five or six weeks, and 
the little meat they eat, is the nastiest, loathsome 
stufi^ and mixt with all manner of filth it is possi- 
ble to get. After the time is expired, they are 
brought out of the cabin, which never is in the 
town, but always a distance off, and guarded by a 
jailor or two, who watch by turn. Now when 
they first come out, they are as poor as ever any 
creatures were ; for you must know several die 



under this diabolical pargation. Moreover, they 
either really are, or pretend to be dumb, and do 
not speak for several days ; I think, twenty or 
thirty, and look so ghastly, and are so changed, 
that it is next to an impossibility to know them 
again, although you was never so well acquainted 
with them before. I would fain have gone into 
the mad house, and have seen them in their time 
of purgatory, but the king would not suffer it, be- 
cause, he told me they would do me or any other 
white man an injury, that ventured in amongst 
them, so I desisted. They play this prank with 
girls aa well as boys, and I believe it a miserable 
life they endure, because I have known several of 
them run away at that time to avoid it. Now the 
savages say if it was not for this, they could never 
keep their youth in subjection, besides that it har- 
dens them ever after to the fatigues of war, hunt- 
ing, and all manner of hardship, which their way 
of living exposes them to. Beside, they add, that 
it carries off those infirm- weak bodies, that would 
have been only a burden and disgrace to their na- 
tion, and saves the victuals and clothing for better 
people that would have been expended on such 
useless creatures. These savages are described 
in their proper colors, but by a very few ; for those 
that generally write histories of this new world, 
are such as interest preferment and mercha,ndize, 
drew thither, and know no more of that people 
than I do of the Laplanders, which is only by hear- 
say. And if we will make just remarks how near 


such l*elations generally approach truth and nicety^ 
we shall find very few of them worthy of entet-' 
tainment ; and as for the other part of the volume, 
it is generally stuffed with invectiveB against the 
government they lived under, on which stage H 
commonly acted greater harbarities, in murdering 
worthy men's reputations, than all the savages in 
the new world are capable of equalizing or so much 
as imitating. 

And since I hinted at a regulation of the sav- 
ages, and to propose a way to convert them to 
Christianity, I will first particularize the several 
nations of Indians that are our neighbors, and then 
proceed to what I promised. 

Tuskeruro Indians are fifteen towns, viz: Haruta 
Waqui, Contah-nah, Anna"^Ooka, Oonauh-kare Ha- 
rooka, UnaNauhan, Kentanuska,Chunaneets,Ken* 
ta,Eno, Naur-hegh-ne, Oonossoora, Tosneoc, Nona- 
wharitse, Uursoorooka, fightingmen, 1200 ; Woe- 
con towns, 2; Yupwauremau, Tooptatmeer, fight- 
ingmen, 120; Machapunga town, 1, Maramis- 
keet, fighting men, 80 ; Bear River town 1, 
Raudauqua-quank, fighting men 50 ; Maherring 
Indians, town 1, Maherring River, fighting men, 
60 ; Chuwon Indians, town 1 ; Bennett's Creek, 
fighting men, 15; Paspatank Indians, town, 1; 
P^spatank River, fighting men, 10; Poteskeit, 
town, 1 ; North River, fighting men, 30 ; Notto- 
way Indians, town 1; Winoack Creek, fighting men, 
30 ; Hatteras, town 1 ; Sandbanks, fighting men, 
16; Connamox Indians, towifs2; Goranine, Ra- 

384 lawson's history 

rata, fighting men, 25; Neus Indians^ towfls, 2; 
Chattooka, Rouconk, fighting men, 16: Pampti- 
cough Indians, town, 1 ; Island, fighting men, 15; 
Jaupin Indians, six people. These five nations of 
the Totero's^ Sapona's, Keiauwee's, Aconechos, 
and Schoccories, are lately come amongst ns, and 
may contain in all, about 760 men, women and chil- 
dren ; total, 4780. 

Now there appears to be one thousand six hun- 
dred and twelve fighting men, of our neighboring 
Indians, and probably there are three-fifths of wo- 
men and children, not including old men, which 
amounts to four thousand and thirty savages be- 
sides the five nations lately come. Now, as I be- 
fore hinted, we will see what groijnds there are to 
make these people serviceable to us, and better 
themselves thereby. 

On a fair scheme^ we must first allow these sav- 
ages what really belongs to them> that is, what 
good qualities and natural endowments they pos* 
sess, whereby they being in their proper colors, 
the event may be better guessed at and fathomed. 

First, they are as apt to learn any handicraft, 
as any people that the world affords ; I wnll ex- 
cept none, as is seen by tiieir canoes and stauking 
heads, which they make of themselves ; but to my 
purpose, the Indian slaves in South Carolina and 
elsewhere, make my argument good. 

Secondly, we have no disciplined men in Eu- 
rope but what have, at one time or other been 
branded with mutining and murmuring against 


iheir chiefs. These savages are never found guilty 
of that great crime in a soldier. I challenge all 
mankind to tell me of one instance of it ; besides, 
they never prove traitors to their native country, 
but rather choose death tiian partake and side 
with the enemy. 

They naturally possess the righteous man's gift ; 
they are patient under all afflictions, and have a 
great many other natural virtues, which I have 
slightly touched throughout the account of these 

They are really better to us than we are to them, 
they always give us victuals at their quarters, and 
take care we are armed against hunger and thirst: 
We do not bo by them, generally speaking, but let 
them walk hj our doors hungry and do not often 
relieve them. We look upon them with scorn and 
disdain, and think them little better than beasts 
in human shape, though if well examined, we shall 
find that, for all our religion and education, we 
possess more moral deformities and evils than these 
savages do, or are acquainted withal. 

We reckon them slaves in comparison to us, and 
intruders, as oft as they enter our houses, or hunt 
near our dwellings. But if we will admit reason 
to be our guide, she will inform us that these In- 
dians are the freest people in the world, and so 
far from being intruders upon us that we have 
abandoned our own native soil, to drive them 
out, and possess theirs, neither have we any true 
balance in judging of these poor heathens, because* 

886 lawson's history 

we neither give allowance for their natural dieposi- , 
tion, nor the sylvian edacation,and strange customs 
(uncouth to us) they lie under and have ever been 
trained up to ; these are false measures for chris- 
tians to take^ and indeed no man can be reckoned * 
a moralist only, who will not make choice and use 
of better rules to walk and act by. We trade with 
them, it is true, but to what end ? Not to show 
them the steps of virtue, and the golden rule, to do 
as we would be done by. No, we have furnished 
them with the vice of drunkenness, which is the 
open road to all others, and daily cheat them in 
every thing we sell, and esteem it a gift of Chris- 
tianity not to sell to them so cheap as we do to 
the christians, as we call ourselves. Pray, let me 
know where is Uiere io be found one sacred com- 
mand or precept of our master, that counsels us to 
such behavior ? Besides, I believe it will not ap- 
pear but that all the wars which we have had with 
the savages, were occasioned by the unjust deal- 
ings of the christians towards them. I can name 
more than a few, which my own enquiry has giv- 
en me a right understanding of, and I am afraid 
the remainder (if they come to the test) will prove 
themselves birds of the same feather. 

As we are in christian duty bound, so we must 
act and behave ourselves to these savages, if we 
either intend to be serviceable in converting them 
to the knowledge of the gospel, or discharge the 
duty which every man, within the pale of the 
christian church, is bound to do. Upon this score, 


we ought to show a tenderness for these heathens 
under the weight of infidelity ; let us cherish their 
good deeds, and, with mildness and clemency, 
make them sensible and forwarn them of their ill 
ones ; let our dealings be just to them in every 
respect, and show no ill example, whereby they 
may think we advise them to practise that which 
we will not be conformable to ourselves. Let 
them have cheap penniworths, without guile in 
our trading with them, and learn them the mys- 
teries of our handicrafts, as well as our religion, 
otherwise we deal unjustly by them. But it is 
highly necessary to be brought in practice, which 
is, to give encouragement to the ordinary people, 
and those of a lower rank, that they might marry 
with these Indians, and come into plantations, -and 
houses, where so many acres of land and some 
gratuity of money, out of a public stock, are given 
to the new married couple ; and that the Indians 
might have encouragement to send their children 
apprentices to proper masters, that would be kind 
to them and make them masters of a trade, where- 
by th^y would be drawn to live amongst us, iand 
become members of the same eclesiastical and 
civil government'we are under ; then we should 
have great advantages to make daily conversions 
amongst them, when they saw that we were kind 
and just to them in all our dealings. Moreover, 
by the Indians marrying with the christians, and 
coming into plantations with their English hus- 
bands, or wives, they would become ehristians, 


and their idolatry would be quite forgotten, and 
in all probability, a better worship come in its 
stead ; for were the Jews engrafted thus, and ali- 
enated from the worship and conversation of Jews, 
their abominations would vanish, and be no more. 

Thus we should be let into a better understand- 
ing of the Indian tongue, by our new converts ; 
and the whole body of these people would arrive 
to the knowledge of our religion and customs, and 
become as one people with us. By this method, 
also, we should have a true knowledge of all the 
Indian's skill in medicine and surgery ; they would 
inform us of the situation of our rivers, lakes, and 
tracts of land in the Lord's dominions, where, by 
their assistance, greater discoveries may be made 
than has been hitherto found out, and by their ac- 
companying us in our expeditions, we might civ- 
ilize a great many other nations of the savages, 
and daily add to our strength in trade, and inter- 
est ; so that we might be sufficiently enabled to 
conquer, or maintain our ground, against all the 
enemies to the crown of England in America, 
both 'christian and savage. 

What children we have of theirs to learn trades, 
&c., ought to be put into those hands that are men 
of the best lives and characters, and that are not 
only strict observers of their religion, but also of 
a mild, winning, and sweet disposition, that these 
Indian parents may often go and see how well 
their children are dealt with, which would much 
win them to our ways of living, mildness being a 


virtue the Indians are in love withal, for they do 
not practice beating and correcting their children 
as we do. A general complaint is, that it seems 
impossible to convert these people to Christianity, 
as, at first sight it does ; and as for those in New 
Spain, they have the prayer of that church in latin 
by rote, and know the extei^ial behavior at mass 
and sermons ; yet scarce any of them are steady 
and abide with constancy in good works and the 
duties of the christian church. We find that the 
Fuentes and several other of the noted Indian 
families about Mexico, and in other parts of New 
Spain, had given several large gifts to the altar, 
and outwardly seemed fond of their new religion ; 
yet those that were the greatest zealots outwards, 
on a strict enquiry, were found guilty of idolatry 
and witchcraft ; and this seems to proceed from 
their cohabiting, which, as I have noted before, 
gives opportunities of cabals to recall their ancient 
pristine infidelity and superstitions. They never 
argue against our religion, but with all imagina- 
ble indifference own, that it is most proper for us 
that ]iave*been brought up in it. 

In my opinion, it is better for christians of a 
mean fortune to marry with the civilized Indians 
than to suffer the hardships of four or five years' 
servitude, in which they meet with sickness and 
seasonings amidst a crowd of other afflictions, which 
the tyranny of a bad master lays upon such poor 
souls, all which those acquainted with our tobacco 
plantations are not stratigers to. 


This seems to be. a more reasonable method of 
converting the Indians than to set up our christian 
banner in a field of bloody as the Spaniards have 
done in New Spain, and baptize one hundred with 
the sword for one at the font* Whilst we make 
way for a christian colony through a field of blood 
and defraud, and make away with those that one 
day may be wanted in this world, and in the next 
appear against us, we make way for a more potent 
christian enemy to invade us hereafter, of which 
we may repent, when too late. 





4 691,824