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I CAITHOT pat forth this attempt inthoat a few words of 
apol<^ for haying undertaken it at alL The excuse is 
ehiefly, the attraction that the subject has had for me for at 
least twenty years, from the time when it was first taken 
up as matter of amusement. The di£Sculty of gaining in- 
formation, and the inconsistencies of such as I did acquire, 
oonvukced me that the ground was almost untrodden; but 
the further I advanced on it, the more I perceived that it 
required a perfect acquaintance with language, philology, 
ethnology, lagiology, universal history, and provincial an- 
tiquities ; and to me these were so many dark alleys, up 
which I only made brief excursions to knock my head against 
the wall of my own ignorance. 

But the interest of the subject carried me on—- often 
far beyond my depth, when the connection between names 
and words has lured me into the realms of philology, or 
where I have ventured upon deductions of my own. And I 
have ventured to lay the result of my collections before the 
public, in the hope that they may at least show the capa- 
UlttieB of the study of comparative nomenclature, and by 
classifying the subject, may lead to its being more fully 
studied, as an illustration of language, national character. 


Surnames and local names have been often discussed, but 
the Christian name has been usually considered too fortuitous 
to be worthy of notice. Camden did indeed review the 
current ones of his own day, and gave many correct expla- 
nations, chiefly from the German author Luther Dasipodius. 
Yerstogen followed him up, but was more speculatiye and 
less correct ; and since that date (as far as I am aware) no 
English author has given any real trustworthy information 
to the subject, as a subject. A few lists of names and 
meanings now and then have appeared in magazines and 
popular works, but they have generally been copies of Yers- 
tegen, with childishly shallow and incorrect additions. One 
paper, which long ago appeared in Chamber^ Journal^ was 
the only really correct information on English names en 
masse that I have met with. 

The Anglo-Saxon names had been, however^ treated of by 
Sharon Turner in his history, and Mr. Eemble put forth a 
very interesting lecture on Names^ Surnames^ and Nicknames 
ammg the Angh-Saxans. Thierry, moreover, gives several 
explanations, both of Saxon and Frank ones, in the notes to 
his ConquSte (TAngleterre and lUcits des Hois Merovingiens. 
These were groundwork. Neither Turner nor Thierry is 
always right, for want of having studied the matter com- 
paratively ; but they threw light on one another, and opened 
the way to the dissection of other names, neglected by them, 
with the aid of an Anglo-Saxon dictionary, n^^^]^ 

uigiiize y g 


The Scriptural class of names was studied with less diffi- 
culty. Every Hebrew (me has been fully discussed and eza- 
mined by the best scholars; and the Greek, both biblical 
and classical, have received the same attention, and are in 
&ct the most easy of all, as a dass. With regard to Latin, 
much must be doubtful and inexplicable, but the best in- 
formation at present attained to was easily accessible. 

The numerous race of German appellations has received 
fall attention from many ripe German philologists, and I 
have made much use of their works. The Scandinavian 
class has been most ably treated by Professor Munch of 
Christiana, in a series of contributions to the Norsk Moaned- 
shtifU^ of which I have been kindly permitted to make firee 
use, and which has aided me more than any other treatise on 
Teutonic nomenclature. 

Our Keltic class of names has presented far greater diffi- 
culties. For the Cymric department, I have gathered from 
many quarters, the safest being Lady Charlotte Guest's notes 
to the Mabinogion and M. de Yillemarqu^'s elucidations of 
King Arthur's romances, Bees' Webh Saints^ Williams's 
Ecclesiastical Afdiquities and Chalmers's Caledonia; the 
least safe, Davies's various speculations on British antiquities 
and the Oambro-Briton. These verified by Dr. Owen Pugh's 
Welsh Didionaryy and an occasional light from Diefenbach 
and Zeuss, together with a list kindly extracted for me from 
the Brut, have been my authorities in the Welsh and Breton 

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departments. In the Erse and Gaelic names I was assisted 
by a very kind letter from the lamented Dr. O'Donovan, 
whose death deprived me of his promised revision of this 
extremely difficult class, and left me to make it out to the 
best of my ability from his contributions to the publications 
of the Archaeological Society, from the notes to those of the 
Ossianic Society, Chalmers's Caledonia^ and the Highland 
Society's Gaelic Dictionary. 

From the first, however, I had perceived that the curiosity 
of the study does not lie merely in the meanings of the 
sounds by which men in one country are distinguished from 
one another. The changes through which the word passes 
is one great interest, and for this I had been collecting for 
years, from dictionaries, books of travels, histories, and 
popular tales, whenever people were so good as to give the 
genuine word, instead of translating it into English. Dr. 
G. Michaelis' Vergleichendes WOrterhuch der Q-ebrauchlichsUn 
Taufiiamen left me little to desire in this respect, especially 
with regard to German dialects, and I have used it copiously. 

The history of names, however, seemed to have been 
but little examined, nor why one should be popular and 
another forgotten — ^why one should flourish throughout 
Europe, another in one country alone, another around some 
petty district. Some of these questions were answered by 
history, some by genealogy, many more by the tracing of 
patron saints and their relics and legends. Here my great 


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«id has been a French edition of Alban Butler's LiveB of 
the SaitUSj where, in the notes, are many accounts of the 
looalitj and translations of relics; also, Mrs. Jamieson's 
Sacred and Legendary Art, together with many a chance 
notice in histories or books of travels. In each case I have 
tried to find oat whence the name came, whether it had a 
patron, and whether the patron took it from the myths or 
heroes of his own country, or from the meaning of the 
words. I have then tried to classify the names, haying 
found that to treat them merely alphabetically utterly 
destroyed all their interest and connection. It has been a 
loose classification, first by language, then by meaning or 
qpirit, but always with the endeayour to make them appear 
in their connection, and to bring out their interest. 

In general I haye only had recourse to original authorities 
where their modem interpreters haye failed me, secure that 
their conclusions are more trustworthy than my own could 
be with my limited knowledge of the subjects, which could 
neyer off be sufficiently studied by any one person. 

Where I haye giyen a reference it has been at times to 
tiie book whence I haye verified rather than originally ob- 
tained my information, and in matters of uniyersally known 
history or mythology, I haye not always giyen an authority, 
ttimlring it supcrfluous. Indeed, the scriptural and classical 
portion is briefer and less detailed than the Teutonic and 
Keltic, as being already better known. 

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I have many warm thanks to render for questions an- 
swered, and books consulted for me by able and distrngoished 
scholars, and other thanks equally warm and sincere to kind 
friends and strangers who have collected materials that haye 
been of essential service to me. 

Lastly, let me again present my apologies for my pre- 
sumption, where the necessity of tracing out the source and 
connections of a word has led me to wander beyond my 
proper ken ; let me hope that apparent affectations may be 
excused by the requirements of the subject, and express my 
wish for such corrections as may in time render the work 
far more accurate and complete.^ Let it be^ remembered, 
that it is the popular belief, not the fact, that spreads the 
use of a name, and that if there is besides matter that seems 
irrelevant, it has been rather in the spirit of Marmion's 
palmers, — 

* To charm a wear^hill 
With Bong, romance or lay. 
Some ancient tale, or glee or jest, 
Some lying legend at the least, 
They bring to cheer tte way.' 

March gihj 1863. 

* I wish to apologize for two errors detected too late. Grieelda is from 
gries, a stone, stone heroine, not an incorrect compound of Greek and 
Italian. Bard, a maiden, is from the Anglo-Saxon bryd, the same word 
as bride, the betrothed maiden. 


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Glomabt of Chbistiah Nambs z^ 


The Sptbit of Nohbiyolatubb i 



} I. Hebrew Nomendatiire ••••'' 15 

». The Alphabet 10 

3. Aspirates, Yowels, and Semi-Yowels • • . 11 

^ Labialfl iS 

5« Palatal Letters 30 

6. Dental Letters 35 


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Patriabohal Names 3S 

§ X. Adam • t^. 

2. Eve ..•...••. 4.1 

3. The Antedilavian Patriarchs • • • • 42 

4. Abi 4.3 

5. Sarah 4.S 

6. Isaac 49 

7. Jacob • • • • 53 

S. Simeon 59 

9. Jadah 60 

zo. Joseph ; • • 67 

IX. Bei\jamiii • • • 70 

zi. Job 73 


IsBASUTS Names 75 

§ I. Moses and Aaron ib, 

a. Miriam or Mary 76 

3. Elisheba, &o 87 

4. Joshua, &o 95 

5. Names from the Judges 99 

6. Names from Ohaanach 102 

7. David • • • • • . . • • 114 

8. Salem 116 

9. Later Israelite Names 118 

10. Angelic Names 125 


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PART n. 


Namxs from tbx Pbksian 133 

§ I . The Persian Language • • . . . ib. 

a. Cyrus 135 

3. Darius 137 

4. Xerxes 138 

5. Esther 140 

PART m. 


Namss from ths Gbbbk X41 


Nambs from Gbbbk Mttholoot . • • . • 147 

§ I . t6. 

a. Names from Zens 14S 

3. Hera 150 

4. Athene 152 

5. Apollo and Artemis 154 

6. Hele 15S 

7. Demeter 164 

8. Dionysos 166 

9. Hermes 168 

10. The Mnses and Graces 169 

11. Heroic Names 17^ 


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Names ntoic Animals 178 

§ I. The Lion •••..... i^ 

%. The Wolf iSx 

3. The Horse 183 

4. The Goat 187 

5. The Bee 189 

6. Names fbom Flowbbs 190 


HisTOBiOAL Obbbk Names ooiTBisniro OF Epithsts • 194 

§ I. Agathos ib. 

1. Alke 197 

3. Alexander, &o 198 

4* Aner, Andres 103 

5. Ba 105 

6. Hieros 210 

7* Pan Ill 

8. Nike 2IX 

9. Polys 216 

10. Phile 218 

11. Pirazis 220 

12. TrypheL 221 

13. Names connected with the Constitation.— Laos, &o. 222 

14. Names connected with the Greek Games • 224 


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§1 Q>. 

%, Names from TheoB 230 

3. Names from Ohristos S38 

4. Sophia 241 

5. Petros 244 

6. Names of Immortaliiy 247 

7. Royal Names 251 

S. Irene 254 

9. Qregorios %$$ 

10. Georgos 256 

11. Barbara 260 

12. Agnes 262 

13. Margaret 264 

14. Katharine 268 

15. Harrest Names ... ^ ... 271 

16. Names from Jewels 273 

17. Kosmos and Damianos 275 

18. Alethea^ &c* 276 

19. Pro 277 




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liATiir Pbjbnomina 284. 

§ I. Aulas, Cains, Cuaeos, Csbso ib. 

%. Lncios • 286 

3. Marcus 290 

4. Posthnmiis, &o 29^ 

5. Numeral Names 297 



§ i« Attius . 

2. ^milins 

3. Antonins 
. 4. Anrelins 

5. Caecilins 

6. Coelins • 

7. Claadius 

8. Cornelius, &c. 

9. Herminins 

10. Julius • 

1 1. Junius, &o. 

12. Valerius 

1 3* Yirginius 



OOOKOHINA • . • . • 330 

§ !• ib. 

2. Adrianus, &o 33^ 

3. Augustus 335 

4. Blasius 338 

5. C»sar 33^ 

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{ 6. Oaminas 34' 

7. Olemens ih. 

S. Oonstantiiui 34s 

9. Orispiia 345 

10. Galerios 34^ 

11. Panllus and Magnus 349 

IS. BxsfoB 353 



{I ib. 

»• Bellona •.•.,.•• 357 

3. Janus and Jana • . t&. 

4. Florentins 360 

5. Jovins 361 

6. Lanrentins 363 

7. Sancns ..368 

S. Old Italian Deities 370 

9. Qoirinns 371 

10. Sibylla 374 

11. Satorn, &o 376 


MoniBH Namxs from thb Latut 37S 

§ I. FromAmo (b, 

*. n Beo 380 

3. „ Olarus 385 

4. „ Oolnmba 387 

5. „ Dnrans •..•«•• 38S 

6. Karnes of Thankfolness 390 

7. Grescens • . ^ 391 

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$ 8. IClitary Names 393 

9. Names of GladnesB 395 

,0. Jus . I 59* 

II. Names of Holiness 399 

i». Ignatius . ^' 

,3. Pater +^* 

14. Grace ^3 

15. Vinco ^ 

16. Vita ^l 

X7. Wolves and Bears 4o6 

18. Names from Places and Nations . . . • 4«» 

19. Town and Country +'^ 

»o. Flower Names *'^ 

»i. Boman Catholic Names 4*3 


Nambs pbom Holt Dats . . • • .4*6 

Christmas ^• 

The Epiphany 4*8 

Easter Names 4-35 

Sunday Names 4-38 


Thb names here giy^n are referred, as far as possible, first to the 
language in which the form occurs, then to their root. 

The original names, in their primary form, are in capitals, the 
shapes they have since assuned are in Boman type, the contrao* 
lions in italics. A table is here given of the midn stems and 
branches, with the abbreviations nsed for them in the glossary.. 


Modern Jew (Jew.) 
Aram»an (Aram.) 

(Zend) J Persian (Pers.) 



VOL. I. 

( Modem Greek<Mod.Gr.) 
( Bossian (Boss.) 

f Italian (It.) 
Venetian ( Ven.) 
Spanish (Span.) 
Poftngnese (Port.) 
Provencal (rrov.) 
Wallachian (Wall) 

L French (Pr.) 

r Ancient British 


Cymric • • • 


L (Oom.) 

Kbltic ' • • « • 


Ancient Irish 

Modem Irish Dialect 

Gadhaelic • «• 
I (Gad.) 




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. Swiss 



Old German 



Gothic . 


Russian (Bnss.) 
Slovak (Slov.) 
Bohemian (Bohm.) 
Polish (PoL) 
Hnngarian (Hnng.) 
Idthnanian (Lith.) 
Lettish (Lett) 
Blyrian (m.) 

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Itfon, ai. Eng. Heb. moimtain, 70 
Aambiobx, m. Nor. Tea. dinne bear, iL 

AjkSiB, in. ^or. Ten. the gods, iL 181 
Aasta« /. Nor» Tea. love, ii. 382 
Aasoltr, in. Nor. Ten. dhine wolf, iL 

AisTALDB, M. JiTor. ToiL difine power, 

Abacnck, m. Scat. Heb. embracing, 123 
Abailard, in. Fr. Ten. noble fiimness (f ), 

iL 399 
AbSlardfin. Qer, Ten. noble firmness (f), 

^56<m, la. /V. Lat white, 334 
Abel,>pi. Eng. Heb. breath, 15, 42 
Abelard, m. £fi^. Tea. noble fiimness 

(?), iL 399 
AbeDona,/. Don. Gr. of Apollo, 166 
AbigaiL/. £iiy. Heb. fSftther of joy, 46 
Abimelech, ai. Eng, Heb. &ther of the 

king, 46 
Abishalom, m. En^.Heb. &ther of peace, 

Abner, m. Eng. Heb. father of light, 46 
Akr€L, /. CtmArai, Heb. father of a mol- 

AJnud, m. Eng. Dan. Heb. &ther of 

pndBe, 63 
Abraham, m. Eng. Fr. Heb. ikther of a 

maltitade, 45 
Abrahan, m. Span. Heb. &ther of a 

maltitade, 45 
Abrahao, m. Port. Heb. fother of a 

maltitade, 45 
Ahrcm, m. Dutch, Esth. Heb. finthar of 

a maltitade, 45 
Abram, m. Eng. Heb. fiither of height, 45 
Abramo, m. It. Heb. Ikther of molti- 

tades, 45 
Absalom, m. Eng. Dan. Heb. father of 

peace, 47, 116 
Abo-Jakobi, m. Arab. Amb. Heb. father 

of James, 8 
Aby, m. Am. Heb. fiither of moltitades, 

Accepted, m. Eng. Acoias, m. Lat. 303 
Aduemenee, m.Or. Pers. haying Mends, 


Aohaias, m. Lot. Kelt horseman, iL 147 
Achashverosh, m. Heb. Zend, venerable 

king, 138 
Achill, m. Oer. Gr. without lips (?), 176 
Achilla,/. Lat. Gr. without lips (?), 175 
Achille, m. Fr. Gr. without lips (?), 175 
Achillea,/. iL Gr. without lips (?), 176 
Achilles, m. Eng. Gr. without lips (f). 

AoHiLLEUS, Gr. (?) without lips, 172, 175 
Achim,m. Ger. Heb. the Lord will judge, 

Achsah,/. £fi^. Heb. anklet, 99 
Aeim, m. lU. Heb. the Lord will judge, 

Acima,/. lU. Heb. the Lord will judge, 

Ada,/. Eng. Teu. happy, 42 
Adah^/. Eng. Heb. ornament, 16, 42 
Adalard, m. JFV. Teu. nobly firm,ii. 394 
Adalfieri, m. It. Teu. noble pledge, ii. 

Adalbbbt, m. Ger. Teu. nobly bright, 

Adaloab, m. Lorn. Teu. noble spear, 

ii. 394 
Adaloisb, /. Fr. Teu. noble pledge, ii. 

Adaloisl, m. Xrom. Teu. noble pledge, 

ii. 396 
Adalhabd, m. Ger. Teu. nobly stem, 

Adalhbid, /. Ger. Teu. noble cheer, 

ii. 898 
Adalpolt, m. Ger. Teu. nobly bold, ii. 

Adalbik, m. Goth. Teu. noble long, iL 

Abaltjlo, m. Ger. Teu. noble day, ii. 400 
Adam, m. Eng. Fr. Dutch, Ger. Dan. 

Heb. red earth, 38, 42 
Adamina,/. Scot. Heb. red earth, 40 
Adamk, m. Lui, Heb. red earth, 51 
Adamnan, m. Scot. Heb. Lat. d^tarf 

Adam, 89 
Adamnanue, m. Lat. Heb. dwarf Adam, 

Adamo, m. Ital. Heb, red earth, 41 
Adam, m. Utt. Heb. red earth, 41 


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Adan^ m. Span. Heb. red earth, 41 
Adao, m. Port, Heb. red earth, 41 
Addala,/. Lett, Tea. noble cheer, 11. 398 
AddOt m. Frii, Tea. noble cheer, li. 807 
Addy,/, Eng, Tea. noble threatener, U. 

Ade, m, Flem. Heb. red earth, 41 
Adela,/. Eng. Tea. noble cheer, 11. 390 
Adelalda, /. Rom, Bass. Teo. noble 

cheer, 11. 399 
Adelaide,/. FV. Eng. Ger. Tea. noble 

cheer, li. 399 
Adelals, /. Old Fr, Tea. noble cheer, 

Adelajda, /. Slov. Tea. noble cheer, 11. 

AsELAB, m. Ger, Tea. noble eagle, IL 

Adelbebn, m. Qer. Tea. noble bear, 

Adelbert, m. Qer, Tea. nobly bright, 

Adelberta,/. Qer, Tea. noblj briight, 

Adelbold, m. Qer, Tea. nobly bold, 

Adelbrecht, m, Qer, Tea. nobly bright, 

11. S96 
Adelbur^, /. Qer, Tea. noble protec- 
tion, ii. 400 
Adelchis, m. Lai, Tea. noble pledge, 

11. S95 
Ad^e, /. Fr. Or. Tea. noble cheer, li 

Adeleve,/. Eng. Tea« noble gift, ii 399 
Adblfbid, m. Qer, Tea. noble peace, 

Adbloar, noble spear, li. 400 
Adelgard, m. Qer, Tea. noble gaard, 

Adelgis, noble pledge, li 895 
Adelhelm, noble heunet, ii 399 
Adelgonda, /. Rom, Tea. noble war, 

Adelgonde, /. Fr, Tea. noble war, ii 

Adelgonde, /. Qer, Tea. noble war, ii 

Adblhabt, m. Qer. Tea. noUy firm, 

Adblhblm , III. Qer, Tea. noble helmet, 

Adelhild, /• Qer, Tea. noble batUe 

maid, ii 400 

Adelbold, m. Qer, Tea. nobly firm, 12 

Adelicia, /• Lot, Tea. noble cheer, 

Adelinde, /. Qer* Tea. noble snake, 

Adeline, /. Eng. Tea. noble snake, 

ii 399 
Adelina,/. Eng, Tea. noble manner, 

Adalrik, m. Qer, Tea. noble raler, ii. 

Adelschalk, m. Qer. Tea. noble servant, 

Adelswinde,/. G«r.Tea. noble strength, 

Adeltrude, /. Qer. Tea. noble maid, 

ii- 897 
Adelulf, m, Qer, Tea. noble wolf, iL 

Adelwin, m, Qer, Tea. noble Mend, iL 

Ademaro, m. Ital, Tea. fierce greatness, 

Adeodat, m, Qer, Lat. by God given, 

Adeodatus, m. Lat. by God given, 237 
Adh^mar, m. Fr. Tea. fieroe greatness, 

Adllo, m. Qer. Tea. noble, ii. 397 
Adoy m. Erie. Tea. noble, 11. 897 
Adolf, m, Qer. Tea. noble wolf, ii 395 
Adolfine, /. Qer. Tea. noble wolf, ii 395 
Adolfo, m. Ital Tea. noble wolf, ii. 895 
Adolphe, m. Fr, Tea. noble wolf, ii 895 
Adolphas, m, Eng. Tea. noble wolf, ii 

Adonda,/. Span, Lat. sweet, 405 
Adosinda,/. Span. Tea. fieroe strength, 

Adrlaan, m. ]>uteh, Lat. from Adzia, 

Adrian, m. Eng. Ger. Lat. from Adria, 

Adrlana,/. Ital. Lat. from Adria, 83d 
Adriane,/. Qer. Lat. from Adria, 832 
Adriano, m. ItaL Lat. frY>m Adria, 382 
Adbiahus, m. Lat. NJi.D. Lat. from 

Adria, 7, 882 
Adrien, /. Fr. Lat. from Adria, 332 
Adrienne,/. Fr. Lat. from Adria, 382 
Aed, m. Welth, Kelt, fire, li 27 
Aeddon, m. Welsh, Kelt. ii. 27 
AxDB, m. Erie, Kdt. fire, 89, ii*^27 




^diiw, m. Lot. Gr. irith the ^gis, 

.Slf, at. A. 8, Ten. elf, iL 347 
.£lfoifu,/. a, 8. Teu. elf gift, iL 840 
MuBMa, fit. A. 8, Tea. high as an elf; 

Alfhsuc, ». jl.;9. Tea. elf helmet, ii. 

Mi^tMD, ». ^ S. Tea. elf oeonoil, ii. 

JSLrsic, m. ^. i9. Tea. elf raler, ii. 347 
JElfthbyth,/, A,S. Tea. threatening 

JBi^wna, m. A. S. Tea. el^briing, iL 

JBijiroLD, M. ^.S. Tea. elf raler, ii. 

MuASjn, «. Lai, Gr. of the san, 896 
£Ua, m. u4. 5. Tea. elf friend, iL 850 
JEUe, in. u4. S. Tea. elf friend, ii. 850 
^Emilia, /. Lot. afiable (?), 805, iL 

^milioni^ /, Xat. affiihle (f), 305 
.fmihanae, m. LaL affahle (?), 805 
iExiLius, m. L<i<. affahle (?), 805 
.£neas, m. Xa<. praise (?), 176, iL 64 
AixoHAS, nu £r$e, Kelt, excellent vir- 

tae,ii. 64 
iBTHELBAXJ), m. A. 8, Tea. noble prince, 

£thslbbtht, m. A, 8. Tea. nobly 

bright, ii. 895 
^THEiTLED, /. ^. i9. Tea. noble in- 
crease, ii. 400 
iETHELonxr,/. A. 8, Tea. noble gift, ii. 

jEthelhild,/. A.S, Tea. noble battle 

maid, ii. 400 
JEthelbxd, m. A, 8, Tea. noble conn- 

eil,iL 896 
iSTHEUUc, m. A,& Tea. noble raler, 

fiHsiTHBTTH, /. A. 8. Tea. noble 

threatener, iL 307 
iETHKLSTAH, m. ^. S. Tea. noble stone, 

JRjBRLWAXD, m. iil.S'* Tea. noble gaard, 

£thelwikx, m. ^.& Tea. noble friend, 

iETHELwoi^, m. A.8. Tea. noble wolf, 

iHiiif , m. Lot. 808 
Afimassg, m. Mu»s. Or. undying, 349 

Affbnso, III. PorU eagerness for war, iL 

Affrica,/. ManXf Irish, Kelt, pleasant, 

Afonso, m. PcrU eagerness for war, iL 

Agafla,/. Ru$$. Gr. good, 195 
Agafon, in. AttM. Gr. good, 195 
Agapet,/. 6^. love 
Agapit, m. i2tM«. Gr. loved 
Agata, /. It. Span. Swed. SIot. Ger. 

good, 196 
AoATHA,/. £1^^. Hang. Gr. good, 195 
Agathe,f, Fr, Ger. Gr. good, 195 
AoATHiAS, m. Or, good, 194 
Agathodes, m. Gr, good fame, 194 
Agathon, m. ti'tfr. Gr. good, 194 
Aggae, m, Etig, Heb. festival of the 

Lord, 124 
Aggate,/. Lett. Gr. good, 195 
Aggie,/. Bng, Gr. pare, 361 
AgUard, m. Fr, Tea. formidably bright, 

ii. 255. 
AgUbert, m, Frank, Tea. formidably 

bright, xi. 245 
Agilo, m. Oer, Tea. formidable, ii. 244 
Agiltrnde, ^. Oer. Tea. ibnnidable 

maiden, li. 245 
Agilalf, m, Frank, Tea. formidable 

wolf, iL 345 
AoDfHAB, ffi. Ncr, Tea. formidable 

warrior, iL 244 
Agilward, tn. Norm, Tea. formidable 

gaardian, iL 345 
Agla^,/. Fr, Gr. brightness, 173 
AoLAiA,/. Lot, Or, brightness, 178 
Agl%ja,/. Oer. Gr. brightness, 178 
Agmund, m. Nor, awM protection, 

Agnar, m. Nor. Tea. formidable war- 
rior, iL 244 
Agne, m. Nor* Tea. fonnidable warrior, 

Agnello, m. It, Gr. pare, 363 
Agkes,/. Dan. Eng. Ger. fV. Gr.pore, 

Agnesca,/. 7i(. Gr. pare, 263 
Agnese,/. //. Gr. pure, 203 
Agnesya,/. i?tiM. Gr. pure, 264 
Agnessa,/. i?t»«. Gr. pure, 364 
Agneta,/. £n^. Swiss, Gr. pure, 363 
Agnete,/. Da». Gr. pore, 364 
Agnies,/. /V. Gr. pure, 368 
, Agnizka,/. PoZ. Gr. pore, 364 ^ 

uicjmzea oy ^OOglC 



Agnola,/. It. Or. tngel, 137 
Agnolo, m. IL Gr. angel, 126 
Agnyta,/. LeU, Gr. pare, 264 
Agostma,/. /^ Lat. venerable, 387 
Agostinha,/. Port. Lat. venerable, 887 
Agostinho,/. Port. Lat venerable, 387 
Agostino, III. It, Lat venerable, 337 
Agoston, m. Hwiff, Lat venerable, 386 
Agraflna, /. Buis. Lat bom with the 

feet foremost, 884 
Agbicola, m. LaU Lat field tiUer, 338 
AoBiPPA, m, Lat, Lat bom with 

fSset foremost, 388 
Agrippina, /. Lot, Lat bom with the 

feet foremost, 384 
Agrippine, /. Fr, Lat bom with the 

feet foremost, 884 
Agueda,/. Port Gr. pure, 195 
Ahasuerus, m. £ng, Fers. venerable 

king, 138 
Ahrens, m. 6'tfr. Tea. powerftil eagle, 

Ahrold, m. powerftil eagle, ii 281 
AiAS, m. Or, Gr. eagle, 332 
Aidan, m. ^ny. Kelt fire, iL 28 
AiomiOB, m. ^'r. with the ^gis, 188 
Aileen, /. Ir, Gr. light, 160 
Ailie/f, Scot* Ten. famed war, iL 391 
Aileve,/. Eng, Tea. elf gift, ii. 349 
Aimable,/. Fr, Lat loveable, 879 
Aim^e,/. Fr, Lat loved, 879 
Aimerich, m. 6^. Tea. work raler, ii. 

Aimery, m, Eng, Tea. work roler, ii. 259 
Ami, J. Er9€, Kelt joy, ii. 87 
Aineoeallach, m. (?ae/, Kelt joyM war, 

AiNEiAS. m. Or, Qt, praise, 176 
AisTULF, m. Oer, Qt, swift wolf^ iL 382 
Ajax, m. Lo^. Gr. eagle, 332 
AJdUna,/. J?t<M. Lat eagle, 333 
Akim^ m. RutB, Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 99 
Aktema,/. Run, Gr. hospitality, 217 
Akuhiia,/. Bust, Lat eagle, 333 
Ala, m. £ruf, Teu. holy (?), ii. 886 
Alaf, m. I^, Tea. forefather's relic, iL 

Alam, m. Fr. It Lat cheerftil (?), 896; 

Kelt harmony, ii. 153 
Alan, m. Scot, Ger. Lat cheerfiil (?), 

396 ; Kelt harmony, ii. 158 
Ahme, /. Otr, Lat cheerfUl {?), 896; 

Kelt harmony, iL 153 

Alard, m, Oer. Tea. nobly 8tem,iL 890. 
Alario, m. Eng. Tea. noble ruler, ii. 

Alarich, m. Ow. Tea. noble ruler, ii. 

Alaster, m. Ooil, Ger. helper of men, 

Alatea,/. Span. Gr. trath, 276 
Aliwm, III. C^w. Kelt harmony, iL 15S 
Alban, m. ^^. Lat white, 384 
Albamus, m. Lai, white, 384 
the4>Albany, m. Scot, Kelt, white, 384 
Albar, m, Lat. Span, white, 885 
Alberic, m.^g. Tea. elf king, ii. 848 
Alberia,/. I^n. Lat white (f), 885 
Alberich, m. Oer, Teu. elf king, ii. 347 
Alberico, m. /t. Teu. elf king, ii. 347 
Albert, m. Eng. Fr. Buss. PoL Tetu 

nobly bright, ii. 396 
Alberta, /. Sng. Teu. nobly bright, ii. 

Albertine,/. (Ter. Teu. nobly bright, ii. 

Albertino, m. It. Teu. nobly bright, ii. 

Alberto, m. It, Tea. nobly bright, ii. 

Albm,/. ^M, Kelt white (?), 885 
Albin, m. G^. Lat white, 334 
Albina,/. Otr. Lat white. 384 
Albinia,/. jB!pi^. Kelt white (?). 884 
Albino, m. i2cwi. Lat white, 834 
Alboin, m. /V. Teu. elf friend, iL 347 
Alboino, m. Zom6. Teu. elf Mend, ii. 

Albrecht, m. Otr, Teu. nobly bright, 

Albwin, m. Oer. Teu. elf fiiend, iL 

Alcestls,/. Lat, Gr. champion, 197 
Alcibiades, m. £a^ Ger. strong oompel- 

ler, 198 
AUuin, m. Eng. Teu. hall friend, ii. 850 
AleuimUf m. Lat, Teu. hall firiend, ii. 

Alda,/. It Lat. Eng. Teu. rich, ii. 340 
Aldclatha, /. Oad. Kelt decaying 

beauty (?), 377 
Aldebert, m. .£ip^. Ger. Teu. nobly 

bright, iL 396 
Aldegonde,/. Flem, Teu. noble war, ii. 

Alderich, m. Oer. Tea. noble ruler, iu 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



AUgitbA,/. £ng» Ten. noble gift, iL 

AMhftlTn, m» Eng. Teu. noUe helmet, 

lldobnyido, m. Ital. Tea. batUe sword, 

it 335 
AMonga,/. i^pon. Lat. the sweet, 410 
Aldrovandoy m. /Ia2. Tea. battle sword, 

Al^aid, m. Prov. Tea. nobly stem, ii. 

Alterda,/, Prov. Tea. nobly stem, ii. 
* Aleardo, «. /ta2. Ten. nobly stem, ii« 
iksxo, ». FcrU God helper, 202 
Alqandro, m. ^pon. Tea. helper of 

men, 202 
Akjo, m. Span, Gr. helper, 202 
Aleks, m. Xett. Gr. helper, 202 
I Aleksa. m. &rv. Gr. helper, 202 

Akksijeder, m. Slav, Gr. helper of men, 

Aldcsander, m. Run, Gr. helper of men, 

Aleksge, m. Rtus. Gr. helper of men, 
^ J2tt, m. S£99. Gr. helper, 203 

Alexandra, /. ItaL Gr. helper of men, 
, 202 

Akeaandro, m. lUd, Gr. helper of man, 
^ AUuio, m, Ital. Gr. helper, 202 

Aletea,/. 5/Nm. Gr. truth, 276 
' AucTKEA,/. £^. Ger. Gr. truth, 278 
Alexander, m, Eng. Gr. helper of men, 

Akxandr, m. Bohm. Gr. helper of men, 
^ Alexandra, JBng, Gr. 201 
I Alexandre, nu Fr. Gr. helper of men, 
( 202 

Alexandrina, /. Eng. Gr. helper of men, 
^ 201 

I Alexandrine,/. Pr. Gr. helper of men, 
Alexardbos, m. Or, helper of men, 190 
Aleie. M. Fr. Gr. helper. 202 
Alexia,/. Oer. Gr. helper, 202 
Alexis, w. Eng. Ger. Gr. helper, 202 
AuDoos, II*. Gr. Gr. helper, 201 
Alexhia, to. Lat. Gr. helper, 201 
i AmiSy/. Nor. Teu. household spirit, 

Alfobjb, m. Nor, Tea. elf spear, ii 350 
Alfoebdub, /. Nor. Tea. elf woman, 

ii. 350 
AuTHsmuB,/. TiTar. Tea. elf cheerM* 

ness, iL 850 
Alfhild,/. Eng. Tea. elf battle maid, iL 

Alfliotr,/. Nor. Tea. elf terror, ii. 350 
Alfonso, TO. Span. Tea. eager for battle, 

Alfred, m. Eng. Fr. Tea. elf ooandl, ii. 

Alfreda, /. Eng. Tea. elf council, ii. 

Alfredo, m. It. Ten. elf council, ii. 348 
Alfried, m. Ger. Tea. elf council, ii. 

AuB, TO. Nor. Tea. elf, ii. 847 
Algar, to. £71^. Teu. hall spear, ii. 350 . 
Ajxjebnon, to. Eng. Fr. with whiskers, 

Alice,/. Eng. Teu. noble cheer, ii. 399 
Alicia,/. Ir. Teu. noble cheer, ii. 399 
■^AUck, TO. Scot. Gr. helper of men, 209 
Alienor,/. Prov, Gr. light, 161 
Aline,/. Ger. Teu. noble, ii. 345 
Alison,/ Scot. Teu. holy fame, iL 390 
Alitea,/. It. Gr. truth, 276 
Alix,/. Fr. Teu. noble manner, ii. 899 
Alkibiades, to. Gr. Gr. strong com- 

peller, 198 
Allan, TO. £71^. Lat. cheerftil (?), 896, 

Allen, TO. Eng. Lat. cheerfrQ (?), 396, 

Allighiero, to. Ital. Teu. noble spear, ii. 

Alma,/ Lat. fur 
Alma,/ Erae, Kelt all good, iL 22 
Alma,/. Eng. Buss, (from the river), 

Almedha,/ Welsh, Kelt, shapely (?), ii. 

Almeric, to. Eng. Teu. work ruler, iL 

Almerigo, to. 8p, Teu. work ruler, iL 

Ahnund, TO. Eng. Teu. hall protection, 

Alois, TO. Ger. Ten. HEunous war, iL 

Aloisia,/ Ger. Teu. famous war, iL 

Alolsio, TO. It, Teu. famous war, iii 890 



AbiziA,/, Bohm, Ten. femous war, ii. 
Alonso, m. Span, Tea. eager for battle, 

Aloys, III. Prov, Ten. fiunous war, 894, 

Alphege, m. Eng. Ten. tall as an elf, iL 

Alphonse, m. Fr, Ten. battle eager, ii. 

Alphondne,/. Fr, Ten. battle eager, ii. 

Alphonso, m. Efi^. Ten. battle eager, 

Alpin, m. Scot Kelt, elf; iL 38 
Jfoinoto, m. ItoZ. Ten. elf ftiend, 800 
Atiric, m. En^. Tea. ball raler, 850 
Alswytha,/. £ii^. Tea. hall strength, 

ii. 360 
Althea,/. £ti^. Or. wholesome, 277 
Alvar, III. Span. Port Lat white, 335 
Alured, m. Eng. Tea. elf peace, ii. 

Alwine,/. Ger. Tea. elf friend, ii. 847 
Alysander, m. Eng. Gr. helper of man, 

Amabel, /. Eng. Lat. loveable, 879 
Amabujs, m. Lat. loveable, 879 
Amable, m. Fr. loveable, 379 
AxADAS, m. Eng. Kelt, hasbandman, 

Amad6, m. Fr. Lat love God, 879 
Amadeo, m. JtoZ. Lat love Gt>d, 379 
Amadbub, m. Oer. Lat Lat love God, 

Amadigi, m. Ital. Lat. love God, 880 
Amadis, m. Span. Lat. love God, 879 
Amadore, m. jPtor. Lat. lover, 880 
Akabthon, m. KymriCt Kelt 880 
Amala,/. Lomh. work, ii. 257 
Amalasontha,/. strength, 

ii. 257 
Akalaswind, /. Z^if^. Tea. work 

strength, ii. 257 
Amalbeboa,/. Ger. Tea. work protec- 
tion, ii. 2(50 
Amalbebt, m. Ger. Tea. work bright, 

ii. 260 
Amalbebta,/. G«r. Tea. work bright, 

AxALFBiED, m. Oer. Tea. work peace, 

ii. 259 
Amalfbida, /. Oer. Tea. fiur work, ii. 


AxALOAiD, m. Srte, Kelt, work, or spot- 
less (?), ii. 109 
AmtUgund,/. Oer. Tea. work* war, ii. 

Amalia,/. Ital. Tea. work, ii. 257 
Amalie,/. Ger. Tea. work, 805, ii. 257 
Amalia, /. Buss. Slov. Tea. work, ii. 

AmalUda, f. Oer. Tea. work battle 

maid, ii. 260 
Amalina,/. Goth. Tea. work serpent, 

AicALBioH,ifi. Oer. Tea. work raler, ii. 

Amaltrude,/. Oer. Tea. work maiden, 

ii. 260 
Amand, m. Fr. Lat worthy to be loved, 

Amanda,/. Eng. Lat worthy to be be- 
loved, 879 
Amandine, /. Fr. Lat worthy to be 

beloved, 879 
Amando, m. ItaZ. Lat worthy to be 

beloved, 879 
Amandub, m. Lat. worthy to be loved, 

Amata,/. Lat. beloved, 379 
Amatus, fit. Lat. Lat. beloved, 879 
Amaury, m. Fr. Tea. work raler, ii. 

Amberkelleth m. Oael. Kelt ii. 88 
Ambrogio, m. Ital. Gr. immortal, 248 
Ambroise, m. Fr. Gr. immortnl, 248 
Ambrose, fit. Eng. Gr. immortal, 248, 

ii. 22 
Ambrosio, fn. Span. Gr. immortal, 248 
Ambbosios, m. Gr. immortal, 248 
Ambrosias, m. Lat. Gr. 248 
Ambroz, m. Bohm. Gr. immortal, 248 
Ambroz^, m. Pol. Gr. immortal, 248 
Ambras, m. Hung. Gr. immortal, 248 
Am6, m. Fr. Lat. loved, 879 
Amed^e, fn. Fr. Lat love God, 879 
Amelia./. Eng. Port Tea. work, 805, 

ii. 257 
Am61ie,/. Fr. Tea. work. 306, ii. 267 
Amelias, m. Eng. Tea. work, ii. 267 
Ameloty m. Fr. Tea. work, ii. 259 
AxELUNO, fn. Teu. work. ii. 257 
Americo, fn. Port. Tea. work raler, ii. 

Amerigo, fn. ItaX. Tea. work raler, ii 

Amias, m. En^. Lat love God, 880 

uigiiizea dv "^wJv^v./ 



Amioe,/. Eng, Lat. beloved, 880 
Amieia,/. Eng. Lat. beloved, 880 
Amicie, /. Camhrai, Lat. beloved, 880 
Ainlai<1h, m. Erse, Teu. forefather's 

Trfic, ii. 110, 261 
Amxa,/. Nor. Teu. grandmother, u. 260 
Amone, m. ItaL Tea. home, ii 228 
Ahos, lit. £91^. Heb. burthen, 128 
Amphxballus, m. Lat, Gr. embracing, 

AmvT099ij, m. Rtu8, Gr. immortal, 248 
Amund, in. Nor, Teu. awful protection, 

Amy,/. JSfi^. Lat. beloved, 805, 879 
Amyas, m. Eng, Lat, love God, 879 
Amyot, m. £11^. Lat. love God, 879 
Ana, /. Span, Bohm. Slov. Heb. grace, 

Analo, in. Ger, Teu. ancestral, iL 262 
AxjkioAS, M. Gr. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

AVAS,/. Nor. Teu. ancestral wairior, ii. 

Anarawd,/. WeUh, tree of shame, 158 
Anaatagio, m. ItaL Gr. who shaJl rise 

Ugain, 250 
Anastase, m. Fr. Gr. who shall rise 

again, 250 
Anastasia, /. Eng, Ital. Buss. Gr. who 

shall rise again, 250 
Anaetasy, m. Rusi, Gr. who shall rise 

again, 250 
An A8TA8IO8, m. Or, who shall rise again, 

Anastasius, m. Lat, Gr. who shall rise 

again, 250 
Anastasl, m. Bav. Gr. who shall rise 

again, 250 
Anastazy, m, Pol, Gr. who shall rise 

again, 250 
ATy^tplt^, m, Fr, Gr. eastern, 418 
Anatolia, /. Or, Gr. eastern, 418 
Anatolius, m. Or. Gr. eastern, 418 
AxAXAHDBAS, m. G?*. Gr. king of men, 

AsAXAKDBiDAB, m. Or, Gr. king of men, 

Anbiam, m. Nor, Teu. eagle bear, ii 282 
Ane€i, /. Bohm, Heb. grace, 105 
Aneela,/. Pol, Gr. angel, 127 
Ancelin, servant, ii. 119 
Ancelot, m. Fr, Lat. servant, ii. 119 
Ancelote,/. £r. Lat. servant, U. 119 
Aneika,/. Bohm, Gr. grace* 105 

Anoil^e,/. Fr, Lat. servant, ii. 119 
Anders, m, Dan, Gr. man, 203 
Andbaoathius, m. Or. good man, 204 
Andri, m, Fr. Gr. man, 203 
Andrea, m. Ital, Gr. man, 208 
Andieana./. Ital, Gr. man, 203 
Andreas,/. Oer, Gr. man, 7, 203 
Andr6e,/. Fr. Gr. man, 203 
Andreian, m. J2ii««. Lat from Adiia, 

Andrej, m. Ltw. Gr. man, 204 
Andrejek, m, Slav. Gr. man, 204 
Andres, m. Span. Gr. man, 203 
Andrew, m. Eng. Gr. man, 203 
Andrezek, m. PoL 203 
Andr^ja, m. iST^rv. Gr. man, 208 
Andries, m. N.L,D, Gr. man, 203 
Andriea, m. Fr. Gr. man, 203 
Androcles, m. Gr. man's fame, 204 
Andbomache,/. men's battle, 205 
Andronious, m. Lat, Gr. man's victoiy, 

Andy, m, Ir, Gr. man, 203 
Ane,f, Lith, Heb. grace, 105 
AnesUs, ii. 22 

Aneta,f, Serv, Heb. grace, 106 
Aneurin, m. Welsh, Gr. man of ex- 
cellence, 204 
Anezka,/, Bohm, Gr. pure, 2G4 
Anoanttb, m. Nor. Teu. favourite of 

Tyr, u. 214 
Ange, m, Fr. Gr. angel, 126 
Angel,/. Eng, Gr. angel, 127 
Angela,/. Eng, Span. It. Gr. angel, 127 
Angfele,/. Fr, Gr. angel, 127 
Angelica,/. ItaL Ger. Gr. angelic, 126 
Angelico, m. Ital, Gr. angelic, 126 
Angelina,/. Eng, ItaL Gr. angel, 127 
Angeline,/. i^r. Gr. angel, 127 
Angelino, m, Ital, Gr. angel, 126 
Angelique, /. Fr, Gr. angelic, 14, 126 - 
Anoelos, m. Or, Gr. angel, 125 
Angelot,/. Eng, Gr. angel, 126 
Anges,/. Fr. Gr. angels, 81 
Angharawd, /. Welsh, Kelt, free ftom 

shame, ii. 153 
Anoilbald, lug's prince, ii 249 
Anoilrich, lug's king, ii. 249 
Anoiltrud, lug's maid, ii. 249 
AngioU), m. It, Gr. angel, 82, 126 
Angus, m. Scot, Kelt, excellent virtue, 

ii. 64 
Anicet, m. Fr, Gr, unconquered, 216 
AnicetOy m. Rom. Gr. unconquered, f 



AnUnka,/. Serv, Heb. grace, 105 
AniellOy m. Neap. Or. angel, 126 
Anikita, m. Rum, Or. onconquered, 216 
Annikke.f, Litk. Heb. grace, 105 
Aniiia, f. Eng. Or. complete, 221 
AiUtOtf, Span, Heb. grace, 105 
Ai^ela,/. Bohm, Gr. angel, 127 
Ai\jelika, /. Bohm. Gr. angelic, 127 
Ai^jelina,/. Bohm, Or. angel, 127 
Anjuika^ f. Serv, Heb. grace, 105 
Aryutoka,/, Serv, Heb. grace, 105 
Ankaret, /. Eng. Gr. Kelt, free from 

shame (?), 153 
Anulff, m. Eng, Ten. ancestor's relic, 

u. 261 
Anmcha, nt. Erse, Kelt coorageous, n, 

Ann, /. Eng, Heb. grace, 105 
Anna, /. Gr. It. Swed. NJLD. Serv. 

Heb. grace, 24, 102 
Annabel, /. Scot. Heb. grace (?), 106, iL 

Annabella, /. Eng, Heb. grace (?), 106, 

ii. 39 
Annan,/. Welsh, Kelt ii. 153 
Annaple,/. Scot. Heb. grace (?), 106, ii. 

Annaliff, Swiss, Heb. graoe, 106 
Annas, m. Eng. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Annchet,/. Flem. Heb. grace, 105 
Annchen,/. Oer. Heb. grace, 105 
Anne,/. Eng. Fr. Heb. grace, 105 
Annnerl,/. Bav. Heb. grace, 105 
Annes, f. Eng. Gr. complete, 221 
Annette, f, Fr, Heb. grace, 105 
Annetta,/, Ital, Heb. grace, 105 
Annibal, m. 103 
Annibale,/. ItaL Phoen. grace of Baal, 

Annibas, 103 

Annieetf, Eng, Heb. grace, 106 
Annika,/, Dan, Heb. grace, 105 
Anninka,/, Russ. Heb. grace, 105 
Amynscha,/. Russ, Heb. grace, 105 
Annonciada, /. Span, Lat announced, 

Annonciade,/. Fr. Lat. announced, 80 
Annora, /. Eng, Heb. grace (T), 106, 

eagle of Thor, ii. 282 
Annor,/. Scot. Heb. grace, 113 
Annunciata,/. Lat. announced, 80 
Annunziata, /. ItaL Lat announced, 

Annuschi,/, Lett, Heb. grace, 105 
Annuschkat f. Ru$s, Lat grace, 105, 

Annusia, /. Russ. Gh*. complete, 221 
Annjs, /. Eng. Gr. complete (?), 106» 

Annze,f, Lith, Heb. grace, 105 
Anquetil, m, Fr. Teu. divine kettle, iu 

Ans, m, Lett. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Ansbrando, m. PoU Teu. divine sword» 

ii. 183. 
Anschar, m, Oer. Teu. divine spear, ii* 

Anselm, m. Eng, Teu. divine helmet, iu 

Anselme, m. Fr, Teu. divine helmet, iL 

Anselmo, m, Rom, Teu. divine helmet» 

ii. 183 
Anselot, m. Fr, Lat servant, iL 119 
Ansoab, m. Frank, Teu. divine war, ii* 

Ansgard,/. Eng. Teu. divine guard, ii« 

Ansgisil,/. Lorn, Teu. divine pledge, ii« 

Anshblm, m. Lorn, Teu. divine helmet* 

Amsketil, m. Frank. Teu. divine caul- 
dron, it 181 
Ansmunt divine protection, iL 183 
Ansis, m. Lett, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Anso, m. Or. Teu. divine helmet, iL 183 
Anstace,/. Eng, Gr. resurrection, 250 
Anstice, m. Eng. resurrection, 250 
Anstjs, m. Eng, resurrection, 250 
Ansvald, ii. 184 
Anta, m. Lapp. Gr. man, 204 
Antai, m. Hung. Lat inestimable, 807 
Antek, m. Pol, Lat. inestimable, 307 
Antelmo, m. It, Teu. divine helmet, iL 

Anthiball, m. Com, Gr. surrounding, 

Akthonius, m. Dutch, Lat inestimable, 

Anthony, m. Eng, Lat inestimable, 307 
AntibaU, m. Com, Gr. surrounding, 277 
Antoine, m. Fr. Lat. inestimable, ^7 
Antoinette,/. Fr, Lat inestimable, 307 
Antolin, m. Oer, Lat inestimable, 307 




Aaian^ m, Qer, Bass. Lat inestimable, 

Antooetto* /• Ituag, Lat» inestimable, 

Jatanetta, /. Suriss, Lat. inestimable, 

Jakmi, m* PoL Lat. inestimable, 307 
Antonia,/. JCoZ. Span. Lat inestimable, 

AjUonietL, /. Rom, Lat. inestimable, 307 
Antnmie,/. Ger. Lat. inestimable, 308 
Antoniettft, /. Rom. Lat. inestimable, 

Antonina, /. ItaL Span. Eng. Lat. in- 
estimable, 306 
Antonino, m, ItaL Lat. inestimable, 307 
AnUndo, m, lUU, Span. Lat. inestima- 
ble, 306 
AiTTOHius, fM« Lo^. inestimable, 306 
JsUotUf m. 2X^ Lat inestimable, 307 
Antonj, m, Eng. Lat i9e8timable, 306 
Antooi^e, m. ^utch, Lat inestimiable, 
I 307 

iato«. m. P«Z. Lat inestimable, 307 
Ants, m, Etth, Heb. grace of tbe Lord, 

Amty,/. Ir. Gr. resurrection, 250 
\ Jtofsia,/, Gr. complete, 321 

AnzioUto, m. Ven. Gr. angel, 136 
^ Anziolo, Ven. Gr. angel, 126 
AmioUna,/. Ven. Gr. angel, 126 
Aodhfin, M. Go^ Kelt white fire, ii. 

AoDH, m. Gael, Kelt, fire, ii. 28 
Aogoetino, m. PoL Lat venerable, 837 
Ai^HiB AlLluin,/. God. pleasantly ex- 
cellent, iL 30 
AoiBHiB Caomha, GcuL pleasantly ami- 
able, IL 39 
AoiBHUi,/. Erse, Kelt, pleasant, iL 37 
AoiFB, /. Er$e, Heb. pleasant, ii. 41, 

AoiDHHB,/. Er$e, Kelt fire, ii. 29 
AosGHAS,/. £rM, Kelt excellent virtue, 

176, ii. 63 
Aonio, m. ItaL Or, inestimable, 806 
Afeb, LaL boar, 324, iL 278 
Appia, m. Lat. 303 
Afpius, m. Lot. 808 
ApMne,/. Fr. Gr. of Apollo, 154 
Apolloi>obu8, m.Lot. Gr. gift of Apollo, 

Apollosia,/. Lat, Gr. of Apollo, 154 
Apollos, m, Eng. Gr. of Apollo, 154 

Appattaira, m. It Arab. Zend. Father 

Cyrus, 136 
Appo, m. Ger. Teu. wild boar, IL 278 
Aquila, m, Eng. Lat eagle, 332 
Aquilina,/. Lat. Lat eagle, 332 
Antbella,/. Eng. Ten. eagle heroine (f)t 

ii. 283 
ilr6ei/, /. Eng, Teu. eagle heroine (?), 

ii. 283 
Archambault, m, Fr. Teu. holy prince, 

ii. 255 
Archangel, m. Eng. Gr. archangel, 127 
•+Archibdd, m. iScot. Teu. holy prince, 

Archie, m. Scot. Teu. holy prince, ii. 

Archimbald, m. Ger. Teu. holy prince, 

Aidbaldo, m. Ital, Teu. holy prince, ii. 

Ardh, m. Erse, Kelt, high, ii. 125 
ArdUheer, m. Pers. Zend, fire king,139 
Areta,/. Com. Gr. virtuous rule, 153 
Areh, m. Slov. Teu. ever king, ii. 381 
Abeowydd, (7ym. Kelt. ii. 22 
Artnd, m. IhUch, Teu. eagle power, ii. 

Abethusa,/. Gr. Gr. virtuous, 197 
Areh, m. SZcw. Teu. ever king, ii. 382 
Aretino,m. ItoZ.Gr. virtuous, 158, 197 
Akoyro,/. Gr. Gr. silver, 274 
Abxanbod,/. silver wheel, ii. 80 
Abianwen, /. Welsh, Kelt, silver, 272, 

U. 30 
Ari, m. Nor. Teu. eagle, ii. 283 
Abinbiobn. m. Nor. Teu. hearth bear, 

ii. 283 
Ariovistns, m. Lat. Teu. host leader, ii* 

Arisa,/. Russ. Arab. ii. 461 
Aristai'chus, m. Lat. Gr. best governor, 

Aiistide, m. Fr. Gr. son of the best, 199 
Abistidbs, m. Eng. Gr. son of the best, 

Anstagoras, Gr. Eng. best assembly, 

Aiistobulus, m. LaL Gr. best council, 

Aristocks, Gr. Eng. best fame, 196 
Aristippus, Gr. Eng. best horse, 196 
Anus, Lat. Gr. manly, 419 
Arje, m. Dutch, Lat. from Adiia, 332 
Arkles, m, Eng, Gr. noble fame (?), 152 

uigiiizeu Dv "«>^_jv„/\^/ 




Armand, t». Ft, Ten. public, ii. 263 
Aimando, m. Span, Teu. public, ii. 253 
Armanno, m. It, Teu. public, ii. 253 
Armantine,/. Fr, Teu. public, ii. 253 
Armine, m. Eng. Teu. public, ii. 253 
Armiuius, m. Lat. Teu. public, ii. 253 
Armyu, m. Eng, Teu. public, ii. 258 
Arnaldo, m. Span, Irov. Teu. eagle 

power, ii. 281 
Axiialldr, m. Nor. Teu. eagle power^iL 

Arnand, m. fV. Teu. eagle power, ii. 281 
wlntout, m, Fr. Teu. eagle power, ii. 281 
Abnbiobo, /. Nor, Teu. eagle defence, 

ii. 283 
Aknbiobn, m. Nor, Teu. eagle bear, ii. 

Aendis,/. Nor, ii. 288 
Ame, m, Dutch, Lat. from Adria, 332 
Ameidur,/, Nor, Teu. eagle haste, ii. 

Abmoeib, m. ^or. Teu. eagle spear, ii. 

Abnorim, ffi. Nor, Teu. eagle mask, ii. 

Abngriheb, m. Nor, Teu. eagle mask, 

Abmfinm, m. Nor. Teu. white eagle, ii. 

Abmfbidub, /. Nor, Teu. fidr eagle, ii. 

Ambold, m. Oer, Teu. eagle power, ii. 

Amkatla, /. Nor, Teu. eagle cauldron, 

ii. 283 
Acmkjell, m. Nor. Teu. eagle cauldron, 

Arrdaug, f, Ger. Teu. eagle liquor, ii. 

Amleif, m. Nor. Teu. eagle relic, ii.283 
Arnliotor, m. Nor, Teu. eagle terror, 

ii. 288 
Ammodr, Nor. Teu. eagle wrath, ii. 288 
Arnold, m, Ger, Eng. Teu. eagle power, 

ii. 281 
Amoldine,/. Oer, Teu. eagle power, ii. 

Amolf, m. Oer. Teu. eag^e wolf, ii. 282 
Amost, m. Bohm, Teu. eagle stone (?), 

ii. 284 
Amostinrka, f. Bohm, Teu. eagle stone, 

ii. 284 
^moud, m. Fr. Teu. eagle power, ii. 281 
Amotd, m. Fr. Teu. eagle wolf, ii. 281 

Arnbidob,/. Nor. Teu. eagle haste, ii* 

Abnthor, m. Nor. Teu. eagle of Thor, 

ii. 282 
Amthora, /. Nor, Teu. eagle of Thor, 

ii. 282 
Abnthona, /. Nor, Teu. eagle maiden» 

Abnstein, m. Nor. Teu. eagle stone, ii. 

Amulf, m, Eng. Teu. eagle wolf, ii. 283 
Abhulv, m. Nor, Teu. eagle wolf, ii. 382 
Abnyalldb, m. Nor. Teu. eagle power, 

ii. 281 
Abnyid, m. Nor, Teu. eagle of the wood» 

Arri,f, Lith, Lat. honourable, 895 
Arrian, m. Dutch, Lat of Adria, 882 
Arrighetta, f. Ital, Teu. home ruler, ii. 

Arrighetto, m.Ital, Teu. home ruler, ii. 

Arrigo, m, Ital. Teu. home ruler, ii. 222 
Arrigozzo, m. Ital. Teu. home ruler, ii. 

Arriguccio, m. Ital, Teu. home ruler, 

ii. 222 
Arsaocs, m. Or, Zend, yenerable, 184 
Absha, m. Pen. Zend, venerable, 184 
Abshk, m. Pert, Zend, venerable, 184 
Absinob,/. Fr, Gr. venerable, 186 
Artabanus, fire worshipper, 141 
Artabanus, fire guardian, 141 
Artamenes, great minded, 141 
Abtakshatba, m. Zend, fire king, 189 
Artaxerxes, m. Or. Zend, fire king, 189 
Artemidore, m. Fr, Gr. gift of Artemis, 

Artemidoms, m. Lat, Gr. gift of Arte- 
mis, 2, 155 
Artemise,/. /V. Gr. of Artemis, 155 
Artemisia, /. It, Gr. of Artemis, 155 
Abth, m. Scot. Kelt, high, ii. 125 
Arthegal, m. Eng. Kelt, high courage, 

Abthoal, m. Erse, Kelt high courage, 

ii. 126 
Arthroael, m, Ene, Kelt high chief, ii. 

Abthub, m. Eng. Kelt, high, ii. 125 
Arthurine,/, Eng. Kelt high, 125 
Arthwys, m. TF^&/^ ii. 126 
Arturo, m. JtoZ. Kelt, high, ii. 125 
Artus, m. Fr. Kelt high, u. 128 

J DV ''•wJ V^V_/ 



Ane^ m. Dan, Tea. eagle of the wood, 

Arriragns, tn. Lot, Kelt, high king, ii. 

ArwysUi, m. WeUK Gr. best cooncil, 

AseeHn, m. Eng. Lat. servant, ii. 120 
AsBEEjif /, Nor. Ten. divine bear, iL 

AsBJOBe, /. Nor, Tea. divine protec- 
tion, ii. 183 
Abbjo&n, m. Nor, Tea. divine bear, ii. 

AsBBAKD, m. Ice. Tea. divine sword, iL 

Aboabd,/. Ice. Tea. divine guard, ii. 

AMgaut, m. Nor, Tea. divine good, ii. 

Atgjer, m. Nor, Tea. divine spear, iL 

Asgrimj m, lee. Tea. divine wrath, ii. 

..Mher, m. Eng, Heb. blessed, 16 
A«lrA^-1«^ divine caaldron, iL 182 
. AMheU m. Ice, Tea. divine caoldron, ii. 

. AsEETTL, m. Ice, Tea. divine caaldron, 

, Atltjem m. Nor, Tea. divine caaldron, 

AsLiJC «• Nor, Tea. divine sport, 46 
AsukYQ,/. Nor. Tea. divine liqaor, ii. 

AsLEiF, m. Nor, Tea. divine relic, iL 
, 184 
AsKUNDB, m. Nor. Tea. divine hand,iL 

AMWMMt m, Dutchy Gr. beloved, 255 
. AsPAMiBTAs, HI. Or, Pers. horse lover, 

. AsPASiA,/. €fr, Gr. welcome, 6 
Assrenta, /. ItdL Lat, taken ap into 

heaven, 80 
As9W, m. Eng, Tea. the gods, iL 181 
Atta/f. Oer, Lat, venerable, 387 
Astolfo, m. It(U, Tea. swiift woU^ ii. 

. AszRn), /. Nor, Tea. impalse of love, 

Asaeraes, m. Fr, Zend, venerable king, 
: 80, 138 ... 

AsviU), m. Nor, Tea. divine power, iL- 


AsTARD, m» Nor. Tea. divine ward, ii. 

AsvoB, m. Nor, Tea. divine pradence, 

AsvoRA,/. Nor, Tea. divine pradence, 

ii. 184 
Ata, m. Lapp. Gr. man, 204, m. fTun^. Tatar, faUier-like, 47 
Atanacko, m. 6fe9T. Gr. undying, 240 
Atanagio, m, Ital. 6hr. andying, 249 . 
Atanasia, m Ital. Gr. undying, 249 
Atanasio, m. It. Gr. undying, 249 
Athanase, m, Fr. Gr. undying, 249 
Athanasios, 111. Gr, undymg, 248 
Athanasius, m, Eng. Lat. Ger. Gr. un- 
dying, 249 
Athelstan, m. Eng, Tea. noble stone, 

Athelwold, m, Eng, Tea. noble power, 

Athenaoobas, m. Or, Athene's as- 
sembly, 163 
Athenaios, m, Gr. Gr. of Athene, 153 
Athenais,/. Fr. Gr. of Athene, 153 
Athenodorus, m. Lat. Gt. Athene's gift, 

AUi, m. Nor. Tatar, father-like, 47 
Attaj m. Lapp. Gr. man, 204 
Atte, m, Lett. Teu. rich, ii. 341 
Attila, m. Lat. Tatar, father-like, 47 
Attile, m. Norm, Tatar, father-like, 48 
Atilio, m. Ital. Lat. father-like (?), 48 
Atthjus, m. Lat, father-like (?), 48 
Auintch, m. LeU. Teu. rich, u. 341 
Attokt m. Lapp. Gr. man, 41 
Atty, tn. Ir, Kelt, high, or horseman^ 

ii. 147 
Aubrey, m. Eng, Tea. elf rakr, ii. 347 
Aubri, m. Fr. Teu. elf ruler, iL 347 
Aud,/. Ice. Tea. rich, ii. 340 
Auda,/. -Kw^. Teu. rich, ii. 340 
Auidafrei, m, Fr. Tea. rich peace, u. 

Audard, m. Fr. Tea. people's firmness, 

ii. 339 
AuDOBiE, m. Nor, Tea. rich hehnet, ii. 

AuDouNNE, /. Nor. Tea. rich war, iL 844 
Audoacert m. Ooth, Tea. treasure 

watcher, ii. 343 
AuDOENus, m. Lot, Tea. rich Mend, ii. 

Audofled,/. Frank, Teu. rich increase, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Audom, m. Ijomb. rich friend, ii. 841 
AuDB, m. Nor. Teu. rich, iL WO 
Audrey, /. £ng. Tea. noble threatener, 

Audu^, m. Ice, Tea. rich wolf, ii. 844 
AuDYAKB, m. 6?otA. Teu. treasure 

watcher, ii. 342 
Am>OYABD, m. Not. Tea. rich guard, ii. 

AuDWiNS, m. Frank. Tea. rich friend, 

ii. 841 
AuDUR, m. lee. Tea. rich, ii. 840 
AugeUy rich war, ii. 844 
AxjGMUND, m. i^or. Tea. awfril protec- 
tion, ii. 245 
August, m. Ger. Lat. venerable, 386 
Augusta,/. J^. Ger. Lat. venerable, 

Auguste, m. Fr. Lat. venerable, 836 
Auguuteen,/. Jr. Lat. venerable, 837 
Augustin, m. .^i^. Ger. Lat venerable, 

Augustina,/. Oer. Lat venerable, 887 
Augustine,/. Fr. Lat venerable, 387 
Augustino, m. Span. Lat venerable, 887 
Augustinus, m. Lat. Lat venerable, 

Augusts, m. Lett. Lat venerable, 836 
Augustus, m. Lat. Eng. Lat. venerable, 

Augustyn, m. Pol, Lat venerable, 386 
Auhfft Jr. Kelt horseman, ii. 147 
AuJusTS, m. Lett. Lat venerable, 336 
AuLUS, m. Lat. Lat sustaining (?), or 

cockle (?), or hall (?), 284 
Aurelia,/. Bng. Lat golden, 808 
Aur61ie,/. Fr. Lat golden, 808 
AuBELius, tn. Latj golden, 808 
AuBORA,/. Eng. Ger. Lat dawn, 856 
Aurore,/. ^r. Lat dawn, 856 
Austint m, Eng. Lat venerable, 337 
Authaire, m. Teu. rich warrior, ii. 344 
Avoid, m. Nor. Teu. ii. 243 
AvARDDWY, m. Cym, Kelt ii 21 
Avelj m. Ru88. Heb. breath, 42 
Avehne,/. Norman, Heb. pleasant, 41, 

Avenir, Russ. Ind. ii. 490 
^vm2, / i^n4/. Teu. wild boar battle 

maid, ii. 273 
> Averkie, fit. WaU. Tea. noble ruler, ii. 


AvguBt, m. Run, Lat venerable, 8M 
Avgusta,/. iZuM. Lat venerable, 886 
Avgusta,/. i2uM. Slov. Lat venerable^ 

Avgustin, m. Rust. Slov. Lat Toler- 
able, 337 
Avioe,/. J^. Teu. war refoge, iL 3U 
Avicia,/ Lat. Teu. war refbge, ii. 213 
Avis,/, j^. Teu. war refrige, ii. 212 
Avraam, m. Russ. Heb. father of mul- 
titudes, 46 
Avramij, m. Russ, Heb. fistther of mul- 
titudes, 45 
Awdry, /. Eng. Tea. noble threatener, 

ii. 399 
Awelf m. Russ. Heb. breath, 42 
Awlay, m. Scot. Kelt work, iL 110 
AwnoHt m. Jr. Heb. Lat Adam, tliB 

dwarf, 39 
Awst, m. Welsh, Lat venerable, 886 
AxAH,/. Eng. Heb. anklet, 99 
^0^ m. jDon. Teu. divine reward, 47, 

ii. 182 
Ayelt, m. Fris, Teu. formidable firm- 
ness, ii. 245 
Ayldo, m. Fris. Teu. formidable firm- 
ness, ii. 245 
Aylmer, m, Eng. Teu. formidable fame, 

Aylward, m. Eng, Tea. formidable 

guard, ii. 245 
Aylwin, m. Eng. Teu. formidable 

friend, ii. 245 
Ayhoin, m. Eng. Teu. formidable fame, 

ii. 245 ; elf friend, ii. 350 
Aymar, m. Eng, Teu. work ruler, 11» 

ii. 259 
Aymon, m. Fr. Teu. home, ii. 223 
Ayoub, m. Arab, Heb. persecuted, 78 
Azalais, /. Prov. Teu. noble cheer, iL 

Azalbert m. Prov. Tea. nobly bright, 

ii. 396 
Azelin, m. Norman, Tatar, fkther-like, 

Azemar, m. Prov. Tea. fierce fiime, iL 

Azo, m. ItaL Lat from Acca, 304 
Azor, m. Norman, Tea. the gods, iL 

Azzo, m. Itdl. Lat from Aoca, 304 
Azzolino, m. Ital, Lat from Acca, 804 


by Google 




Btt^«, AM. Nor. Ten. bow, iL 208 
Bob,/. Eng. Or. stranger, 261 
Baba,/. Lus. Swi$$, Or. gtranger, 261 
Babali,/, Swi$8, Or. stranger, 261 
Bmbbe,/, Lett. Or. stranger, 261 
BabeUf, 8wi$9^ Or. stranger, 261 
Babet^f. Fr, Heb. Ood's oath, 92 
BtOtette,/. Fr. Heb. Ood's oath, 02 
Babiehe,/. Fr. Heb. stranger, 261 
Babichtm^f. Fr. Heb. Ood's oath, 02 
-Babie,/. Scot. Or. stranger, 261 
Babuseha,/. Lus. Chr. stranger, 261 
Baecio, m. Ital. Lat. babbler, 339 
Badezom, fli. Bret. Or. baptizer, 108 
BadUo, m. Qer. Ten. messenger, 401 
Bado, m. Qer. Ten. messenger, 401 
Baez, m. WeUK Kelt, boar, 324 
Bahee,/. Manx, life, ii. 100 
Bahbam, m. Pers. having weapons, 130 
Bel, m. Lus. Pers. war conncil {f), 431 
.fti/, m. Lus. Lat. healthy, 328 
Bo^, m. JBiin^. Lat babbler, 339 
Bolotm, m. TF«2ffc, Lat. strong, 328 
Balbus, in. LaU stammerer, 3 
Baldbrecht, m. Qer. princely splendonr, 

Baldao, m. A. 8. Ten. white day, ii. 
' Saldassaro, m. Ital. Pers. war conncil, 
Baidefucde,/. Eng. Ten. princely in- 
crease, ii. 211 
Baldeoisel, m. Franik. Ten. prince 

pledge, ii. 210 
Baldekab, m. Qer. Ten. princely fisune, 

Baldekund, m. Qer. Ten. princely pro- 
tection, ii. 211 
Bauosbigb, m, Qer. Ten. prince mler, 

Baidebik, m. SwUs, Ten. prince mler, 

Baldetbttd, m. Qer, Ten. princely maid, 


Baldtbied, m, Qer, Ten. prince peace, 

-Baidie, m, Scot Ten. saored prince, ii. 

Baldo, n, Qer. Ten. prince, ii. 210 
Baldovino, m. lUiL Tea. prince friend, 


Baidrakm, m. Eng. Ten. prince raven, 

Baldbed, m. Eng. Ten. prince oonndl, 

Baldric, m. Eng. Ten. prince mler, iL 

Balderik, m. Swed. Ten. prince mler, 

Baldeiyk, m. PoL Ten. prince mler, ii. 

Baldub, m. Nor. Ten, white, ii. 209 
Baldwin, m. Eng. Ten. prince friend, 

Baldwike, m. £fi^. Ten. prince friend, 

Balint, m. Lith. Lat strong, 328 
Balk, m. Lus. Pers. war council (?), 430 
Balk, m. Lim. Lat healthy, 328 
Balsys, m. Lit^. Pers. war council (?), 

Balta, m. IZ{. Pers. war conncil (?), 430 
Baltasar, m. Span. Pers. war council (?), 

Baltasard, m. Ft. Pers. war conncil (?), 

Baltassare, m. ItoZ. Pers. war conncil (?), 

Baltazar, m. IZ2. Pers. war oonndl (?), 

Balthasar, m. GF^r. £n^. *Per8. war 

conncil (7), 430 
Balto, m. lU, Pers. war conncil (?), 

Baltramejus, m. Lith. Heb. son of frir- 

rows, 72 
BaUras, m. Zt^ Heb. son of frirrows, 

Baltyn, m. Lus. Pers. war conncil (T), 

-fiofo, TO. ^TirtM, Pers. war conncil (f), 

BSltzel, TO. iSfifftM, Pers. war council (?), 

Banam, £rs«, white, ii. 101 
Banef, tn. Slav. Lat of the city, 417 
Bandi, to. Eng. Or. man, 204 
Banquo, m. £n^. Kelt white, ii. 101 
Baothgalach, m. Erse, Kelt yonthM 

courage, ii 22 
Baptist, TO. Buss, Qer. Eng. Or. bap- 

tizer, 108 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Baptista, m. Port. Gr. baptizer, 108 
Baptiste, m. Fr. Gr. baptizer, 108 
Baptysta, m. Pol, Gr. bapdzer, 108 
Barak, i». Eng. Heb. lightning, 100 
* Barha, /. Ill, Span, Eng. Slav. Gr. 

stranger, 259 
' Babbaba, /• Qer. It. Run. Gr. stranger, 
Barbary,/. Eng. Gr. stranger, 261 
Barbe, /. Fr. Lett Qer. Gr. stranger, 

Barbelitf. Or. Gr. stranger, 261 
Barhica,/. Slov. Gr. stranger, 261 
Barbara,/. Lus. Gr. stranger, 261 
Barhota, J. Bohm. Gr. stranger, 261 
Barhraa, /. Duteh^ Gr. stranger, 261 
Barbule,/. LeU. Gr. stranger, 261 
BarhutUj. Lith. Gr. stranger, 261 
Barca, m. Lot. Phcen. lightning, 100 
Bardo, tn. Dan. Heb. son of fUirows, 72 
Bardolf, m. Eng. Ten. bright wolf, ii. 

Babdb, m. Nor. Ice. beard, ii. 424 
Barend, m. Dutch, Ten. firm bear, ii 

Bama, m. Ital. Heb. son of consola- 
tion, 72 
Bamaba, m. Ital, Oer. Heb. son of con- 
solation, 73 
' Barnabas, m. Eng. Heb. son of conso- 
lation, 78 
Bamab^ m. Fr, Heb. son of consola- 
tion, 78 
Bamabj, m. Eng. Heb. son of conso- 
lation, 78 
Barnard, m. Ir. Ten. firm bear, ii. 276 
Barney, m. Ir. Tea. firm bear, 73, ii. 

Barry, m. Ir. Kelt, looking straight at 

the mark, ii. 23 
Bart, m. Dutch, Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 
Bartek, m. Pol. Heb. son of fhrrows, 72 
Baartcl, m. N,L.D. Heb. son of ftirrows, 

Barteo, m. lU. Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 
' Barthcl, m. Oer. Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 
Barthelemi, m. Fr. Heb. son of ftirrows, 

BartholomoBns, Lot, Heb. son of fhr- 

rows, 71 
Bartholomao, m. Port, Heb. son of far- 
rows, 72 
Bartholomew, m. Eng, Heb. son of ftir- 
* rows, 72 

-4^arthram, m. Scot, Ten. bright rayenj 

Bartl, m. Boo. Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 

Bartleme, m. Sunss, Heb. son of f^- 
rows, 72 

BariUy, m. Ir. Heb. son of furrows, 72 

Bartli, m. Smes, Heb. son of farrows, 

Bartlme, m. Ba». Heb. son of fturows, 

BojrUomiej, m, Pol. Heb. son of ftir- 
rows, 72 

Bartholomieu, m, Fr. Heb. son of ftir- 
rows, 72 

Barto, m. Lus. Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 

Bartolik, m. lU. Heb. son of ftirrows, 

Bartold, m. Ger. Tea. bright power, 72, 
ii. 403 

Bartolo, tn. Span, Heb. son of ftirrows^ 

Bartolom^e, m. Fr, Heb. son of ftirrows, 

Bartolome, m. Span. Heb. son of ftir- 
rows, 72 
Bartolomeo, m. Ital. Heb. son of fur- 
rows, 72 
Bartram, m. Litt. Tea. bright raven, 

Bartramu8ch,m, Litt. Ten. bright raven, 

Bartulf, 171. Oer. Tea. bright wolf, ii. 

Bartuo, m. lU. Heb. son of fdirows, 72 
Barzillai, m. Eng. Heb. son of iitm^ 

Bascho, m. Swiet, Gr. awftil, 252 
Basil, 971. Oer. Eng. Gr. kingly, 258, iL 

Basile, m. Fr. Gr. kingly, 263 
Basilia,/. Eng. Gr. kingly, 263 
Basilio, m. Ital Gr. kingly, 253 
Basine,/. Frov. Gr. kingly, 258 
Baste, m. Nor, Ger. awftO, 252 
Basti, m. Ban. Gr. awftd, 252 
Baetia, m. Swite, Gr. awfhl, 262 
BastiaU, m. Swies, Gr. awful, 252 
Baetian, m. Oer. Gr. awftal, 262 
Bastiano, m. Itat. Gr. awftil, 262 
Battiao, m. Fort. Gr. awftil, 262 
Battien, m. Fr. Gr. awftd, 252 
Bat, m. Eng. Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 
Bathakat, f7i. Kelt, son of the boar, ii 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



BiTHiLDA, /. Eng. Ten. eommandisg 

battle maid, ii. 401 
Bathilde, /. Ft. Ten. commanding 

battle maid, iL 401 
Bathaheba, /. Eng. Heb. daughter of 

the oath, 71 
Bathshna, /. Eng, Heb. daughter of the 

oath, 71 
BAtaste, «. Pr, Gr. baptizer, 108 
Batrom, m. Lut, Ten. bright laren, iL 

Eatnmuaeky m. Lu$, Ten. bright raren, 

EaUaU, m. Fr. Gr. baptizer, 108 
Battista,/. Fr. Gr. baptizer, 108 
Baud, m. /V. Teu. prince, ii. 209 
BixmouiN, fli. Ft. Ten. princely friend, 

Baadoin^f. Fr. Tea. princely friend, ii. 

Bandri, m. Fr. Teu. bold mler, ii. 210 
BujDTiLDXjB,/. Nor. Tea. commanding 

battle maid, ii. 401 
Baodrand, m. Fr. Teaton, prince raven, 

Baodooin, fli. Fr* Tea. prince friend, 

BiuoB, m. he. Tea. bow, ii. 298 
Bauoisel, m. Ice. Tea. bow pledge, ii. 

BaiOBta, m. Span. Gr. baptizer, 108 
BvyK, m. Pol. Gr. kingly, 253 
Biadwbio, m. A. 8. Tea. batUe war, 

it 408 
Beat, fit. Fr. Lat. blessed, 881 
Beata,/. Eng. Lat, blessed, 881 
Beate,/. Fr. Lat. blessed, 381 
Beatrica,/. Siov. Lat. blesser, 381 
Beatrice,/. lUd. Eng. Oer. Lat. blesser, 

Beatriks, /. Etue. Lat. blesser, 381 
BxAXKix,/. French, Port. Lat blesser, 

Bbatub, m. Lat blessed, 381 
BdU,/. Swiss, Heb. God's oath, 92 
BObeli,/. Swiss, Heb. God's oath, 93 
BKBcni, /. Gael. Kelt melodioas, ii. 

Becky,/. Eng. Heb. noosed cord, GO 
Bkdaws, m. Cym. Kelt life, iL 100 
Bede, m. Eng. Kelt life, Tea. prayer,ii. 

. Beirick, m. Bokm. Tea. peace niler, iL 



Bsdriska,/. Bohm. Tea. peace raler.ii. 

Bedwulf, m. Eng, Tea. commanding 

wolf, ii. 401 
Bees,/. Eng. Tea. praying— Kelt life, 

ii. 100 
Beffana,/. It, Gr. manifestation, 481 
Bega,/. £iy. Kelt, life— Tea. prayer, iL 

Begga, /. Nor. Kelt life — Tea. prayer, 

ii. 100 
Beidi, m. Swiu, Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 119 
Bejmia, m, Lus. Gr. &ir fame, 209 
Beta, /. Span. Heb. God's oath, 918 
Beta, m. Hung. Tea. nobly bright, ii. 

BeUnda,/ Eng. Ital. (?) serpent, ii. 485 
Belisarias, m. Lat. Slav, white prince, 

Beutzab, m. Slay, white prince, 430 
Bells,/, Eng. Phoen. oath of Baal, 93 
Bbixona,/. Eng. Lat. warlike, 357 
Bellovisas, m, Lat. beaatifVil to behold, 

ii. 399 
Belphoebe,/. Eng, Gr. &r light, 156 
Beltran, m. Span. Tea. bright raven. iL 

Bema,/. Lus, Gr. fair speech, 309 
Ben, m, Eng, Heb. son of the right 

hand, 70 
Bsndik, m. Nor, Lat blessed, 883 
Bendikkas, m. Lett, Lat blessed, 883 
Bendsus, m, Lett, Lat. blessed, 888 
Benedek, m. Eung. Lat. blessed, 883 
Benedetta,/. Ital. Lat. blessed, 883 
Benedetto, m. Ital, Lat blessed, 383 
Benedict m. Eng, Lat blessed, 383 
Benedicta, /. Port. Eng. Lat. blessed, 

Benedictine, /. Oer. Lat. blessed, 383 
Benedicto, m. Port. Lat blessed, 383 
Benbdictus, m. Lat. blessed, 883 
Benedikt, m. Oer. Lat blessed, 383 
Benedickta,/. Oer. Lat. blessed, 383 
Benedit, m. lU. Lat. blessed, 388 
Benedix, m. Oer. Lat blessed, 383 
Benedykt, m, Pol. Lat blessed, 383 
Bengt, Swed. Lat. blessed, 383 
Bemhadad, m. Eng. Heb. son of the 

god Adad, 71 
Benigna,/. Oer. Lat. kind, 382 
Benigne, m. Fr, Lat kind, 382 
BEKiaEUS, m. Lat kind, 382 




Benie$eh, Ltu. Lat. blessed, 888- 
Benin, m. Fr, Lat. kind, 381 
Benita,/. Span, Lat. blessed, 888 
Benito, m. Span, Lat. blessed, 888 
Benjamin, m. Eng, Heb. son of the 

right hand, 16, 70 
Bei^amino, m. It. Heb. son of the right 

hand, 70 
Benjie, m. Scot, Heb. son of the right 

hand, 71 
Btnniad, m, Bret. Lat blessed, 888 
Bennfged, m, Bret, Lat. blessed, 388 
Bennet, m, Eng, JjBX, blessed, 888 
BennOt m. Qer, Ten. firm bear, iL 276 
Benoit, m. Fr. Lat. blessed, 888 
Benoite,/. Fr. Lat blessed, 383 
Benoni, m. Eng. Heb. son of sorrow, 

Bent, III. Dan. Lat blessed, 888 
Benvenutio, m. It, welcome, 884 
Benyna,/. Lith, Lat kind, 882 
Benzel, m, SwUt, Lat. blessed, 888 
Benzli, m, Sms$, Lat blessed, 888 
Beoan, m. ErUt lively, ii. 100 
Beobn, m. J./Sf. Teu. bear, iL 274 
Beobnttlf, III. ^.5. Tea. bear wolf, ii 

Beobnwald, m. A,S. Ten. bear power, 

Beorhtbio, m. ^.5. Ten. bright mler, 

Beowulf, m. A.S. Teu. harvest wolf, 

ii. 190 
Beppo, m. It. Heb. addition, 68 
Bera, /. Nor. Teu. bear, ii. 275 
Bebaoh, m. Erse, Kelt looking straight 

at the mark, iL 28 
B^ranger, m. Fr, Teu. bear spear, ii. 

Berangerd,/. ^. Teu. bear spear, ii. 275 
BermUtf m. Fr. Teu. bear power, ii. 

Bbbchta,/. Qer. Teu. bright, 488 
Bbbchthilda, /. Frank, Teu. bright 

battle maid, ii. 408 
BEBOHTiBAiaf , m, Frank. Teu. bright 

raven, iL 404 
Berchtvold, m. A.8. Teu. bright 

power, ii. 403 
Berdrand, m. Qer. Teu. bright raven, 

Berend, m. Qer. Teu. firm bear, ii. 276 
Berengar, m. Qer. Teu. bear spear, ii. 


Berengaiia, /. Eng. Teu. bear spear, ii. 

Berenger, m, Eng. Span, Teu. bear 

spear, ii. 275 
Berenguela, /. Span. Teu. bear spear, 

Bebbnice,/. Macedonian, Gr. bringing 

victoiy, 80, 213 
BerenU, LeU, Teu. bear firm, ii. 276 
Beighild, /. Nor. Teu. protecting battle 

maid, ii. 411 
Beroijot,/. Swed. Teu. mountain ter- 
ror, ii. 52, 411 
BergeJ. Lett. Kelt ii. 51 
Beboswain, m. Nor, Teu. protecting^ 

youth, iL 411 
Bergthob, m. Nor. Teu. protecdnR 

Thor, iL 411 
Berothora, /. Nor. Teu. protecting^ 

Thor, iL 411 
Beriah, m. Eng, Heb. son of evil, 2 
Bemal, m. Span. Teu. firm bear, ii. 

BemaXdo, m. Fr. It. Teu. bear's power, 

ii. 276 
Bernard, m. Eng. Teu. firm bear, iL 

Bemardekt m. Slov. Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bemardin, m. Fr, Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bemardina,/. Ital, Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bemardine,/. Fr, Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bernardino, m, Ital, Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bernardo, m. Ital, Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bemardu, m, WaUaeh, Teu. firm bear, 

ii. 276 
Bemat, m. Hung, Teu. firm bear, ii. 

Bemdo, m, Bav, Teu. beards daw* ii. 

Bemd, m, Erie, Teu. bear firm, iL 276 
Bemer, m, Qer, Teu. bear warrior, ii. 

Bemgard, m. Bun, Teu. bear firm, ii. 

Bemhard, m. Qer. Teu. bear firm, ii. 

Bemgard,/. Dan, Teu. bear spear, ii. 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Bemhardine, /. Get, Ten. bear finn, ii. 

Anwc«, Eng. Gr. bringizig yictoiy, 218 
Bemold, m. Qer. Tea. bear power, ii 

Bern, M. LetL Tea. bear firm, u. 276 
Berai, «. Nor. Ten. bear, iL 275 
Berta, /. ItaL Pol Ten. bright (Epi- 

phany night), 438 
Bertalda* /. Qer, Tea. bright battle 

maid, ii. 403 
Bertaldo, m. It. Tea. bright firm, ii. 

Bertar, m. Qer, Tea. bright warrior^ 

Bertel, m. Ger. Heb. son of fdrrows, 

Bertelt Dan. Tea. noUe brightness, ii. 

Bertdmet, m. Dutch, Heb. son of for. 

rows^ 72 
Bestha, /. Eng. Qer. Tea. bright, 

(Epiphany ni^t), 433 
Btfthe, /. Fr. Tea. bright (Epiphany 

night), 433 
BertMda, /. Qer. Tea. bright battle 

maid, ii. 403 
Berthold, m. Qer. Tea. bright firm, ii. 

BertiUe,/. Fr. Tea. bright battle maid, 

Benin, m. Fr. Tea. bright fidead, ii. 

Berto, M. Qer. Tea. bright, ii. 404 
Bertok, m. Htm^. Tea. bright raven, ii. 

Beitold, M. Qer. Tea. bright power, ii. 

Beitoldo, m. JtaZ. Tea. bright firm, ii. 

Bertol^ m. Qer. Tea. bright woU; ii. 

Beitoady m. Fr. Tea. bright finn, ii. 

Btttrade, /. Fr. Tea. bright speech, ii. 

Bertram, m. Qer. Eng. Tea. bright 

raven, iL 404 
Bortnn, m. Proo. Span. Tea. bright 

raven, ii. 404 
Bertraod, m. Fr. Qer. Tea. bright 

rtven, or shield, ii. 404 
, fiertrio, m. Span. Ten. bright raven, ii. 
> 404 

Bertrioh, m. Qer. Tea. bright rale, iL 

Bertrad,/. Oer. Tea. bright maid, iL 

Bertolf, m. Oer. Tea. bright wolf, ii. 

Bertueeio, m. ItaL Tea. bright friend, 

Bkrtwimb, m. Oer. Tea. bright friend, 

BerukeJ. LeU. Kelt strength, ii. 51 
Be$t,f. Eng. Heb. God's oath, 01 
Besse, m. Nor. Tea. bear. ii. 276 
Beisie,/. Sect. Heb. God's oath, 91 
Beeeg.f. Eng, Heb. God's oath, 91 
Bet,f. Eng. Heb. God's oath, 91 
Beta,/. Lui. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Beth,/. Gael. Kelt. life. ii. 100 
Betha,f. SiriM, Heb. God's oath, 92 
Bethia,/. I^. Kelt, life, iL 100 
Bethlem, m. Hung. Heb. hoase of bread, 

Bethoo,/. Oad. Kelt, life, ii. 100 
BttkaabeeJ. Fr. Heb. daaghter of the 

oath, 71 
BetteyJ. Eng. Heb. God's oath, 91 
Betta^f. JU Lat. blessed, 383 
Betu/f. Oer. Heb. God's oath, 91 
BeUina,/. It. Lat blessed, 883 
Bettine,/. Oer. Heb. God's oath. 92 
BeUino, m. Ital. Lat. blessed, 383 
Bitto, m. Ital. Lat. blessed, 383 
Bettiys,/. WeUk, Lat. blesser, 381 
Betty,/. Em. Heb. God's oath, 91 
Bevis, m. Eng, Tea. bow, ii. 299 
Biagio, m. ItoH. Lat. babbler. 339 
Bianca,/. Ital. Tea. white, 427 
Biasio, m. Ital. Lat babbler, 839 
Bibiana,/. Lat. living, 407 
Bibianas, m. Lat living, 407 
Biddalph, /. Eng. Tea. commanding 

wolf, ii. 402 
Biddy,/. Ir. Kelt strength, iL 52 
Bice,/. It. Lat blesser, 881 
BUdabertaJ. Oer.4M 
Bilichilde, /. Fr. Tea. resolute battle 

maid. ii. 227 
BUijopoe, m. Macedonian, Gr. loving 

horses, 29 
Bill, m. Eng. Tea. helmet of reeola- 

tion. 80, ii. 228 
BUle, /. Lith. Lat. wise old woman, 876 
Bindus, m. Lett. Lat blessed, 883 
Bim,/. Serv. Lat kind, 881 



Binkentios, m. Or, Lat. con<}aering, 406 
BioBouLY» m. ^or, protectmg wolf, ii. 

Biarge, ii. 411 

Birder, m. Dan. Ten. protecting war- 
rior, ii 411 
Birre.f. JBtth, Kelt, strength, ii. 51 
Biaehf Smu, Gr. baptism, 106 
Bitehelit Swiss, Gr. baptinn, 108 
Bjoraulv, m. /m. Tea. mountain wolf, 

Bjobn, m. Nor. Ten. bear, iL d74 
Bjornab, m. Nor. Ten. bear warrior, 

Bjornqjab, m. Nor, Ten. bear spear, 

ii. 276 
Bjomgjerd, m. Nor. Ten. bear spear, 

u. 376 
Bjornhabd, m. Nor. Ten. stem bear, 

ii. 276 
Bjormhbdimn, m. Nor. Ten. bear fiiiy, 

ii. 275 
Bjormstebn, m. Nor. Ten. bear star, ii 

Bjornxtlv, m. Nor. Ten. bear wolf, ii. 

Blaas,m i>tifeA, Ten. babbler, 889 
Blaoooost, ffi. Slav, good guest, ii. 458 
Blagorod, m. lU. Slav, good birth, ii 

Blagodvoj, m. lU. Slay, good war, ii. 453 
Blaooslay, fli. lU, Slay, good gloiy, ii. 

Blaoofe, lU. Slav, good war, ii. 453 
Blaise, m. Fr. Lat. babbler, 388 
Blaitot, m. Fr. Lat. babbler, 888 
Blanca, /. Qir. Span. Teu. white, ii. 

Blanch, /. Enq. Teu. white, ii 427 
Blanche,/. Fr. Teu. white, 2, ii. 427 
Blanchefleur, /. Fr. Teu. white flower, 
, 861, ii. 174 

Blanco, m. Sfon. Teu. white, ii. 427 
Bias, m. Span. Lat babbler, 888 
Blase, m. Eng. Lat. babbler, 838 
BUutk, m. lU. Lat babbler, 880 
Blasia,/. Qer. Lat babbler, 388 
Blasio, HI. It. Lat. babbler, 388 
Blasids, m. ^r. Lat. Lat babbler, 888 
BJ^i, m. GtfT. Lat babbler, 839 
BUuko, m. in. Lat babbler, 839 
J^^ofoA;, m. Boo. Lat babbler, 880 
Blathnaid, /. Erw^ Kelt white flower, 


Blaz, m. in. Lat babbler, 889 
Blaze, HI. Eng. Lat babbler, 388 
Blasz€j, m. Fol. Bohm. Lat babbler, 

Blazek, m. III. Lat babbler, 330 
Blazena,/. 5law. Slay, happy, ii. 454 
BUuko, m. la. Lat babbler, 839 
Blenda,/. Swed. Teu. dazzling, ii. 437 
Boadicea,/. X^. Kelt yiotoiy, ii. 80 
Boayentura, m. Port. Ital. well met» 

Bob, m. Eng. Teu. bright tame, ii. 300 
Bcbbo, m. der. Teu. father, ii. 263 
Bobo, m. Oer. Teu. fkther, ii. 268 
BodUtf, Nor. Teu. commanding battle 

maid, ii. 401 
Bodild,/. Nor. Teu. commanding bat- 
tle maid, ii. 401 
Bodo, m. Oer. Teu. commander, ii. 401 
Bodulf, m. Dan, Teu. commanding wolf; 

BonyuLF, m. A. S. Teu. commanding 

wolf, ii. 401 
BoDNAB, m. Dan. Teu. battle leader, ii. 

BoDMOD, f». Dan. Teu. battle tary, ii. 

BoDYULF, m. Dan. Teu. battle wolf, ii. 

Boel, f. Nor. Teu. commanding batUe 

maid, ii. 401 
Boemondo, m. It. Slay. God's loye (?), 

Boethius, m. Lat ii. 22 
BooDAK, m. Sla». Slay. God's gift, ii. 

BoGDAMA,/. Slan. Slay. God's gift, ii. 

BoGE, m. Nor. Teu. bow, ii. 298 
Bogidaus, m. Eng. Slay. God's gloiy, 

BoGo, tn. Oer. Teu. bow, ii. 298 
BoooBOj, m. Slav. Slay. Grod's battle, 

BoooHYAL, m. Slav. Slay. God's praise, 

BoooMiL, m. Slav. Slay. God's loye, ii. 

Bogasao, m. lU. Slay. God's gloxy, ii 

BooosLAY, HI. Slav, Slaye, God's glory, 

Booue, m. Eng. Teu. bow, ii. 298 
Bohdan, m. Bohm. Slay. God's gift, 4^ 

J DV 'S.-J V^V_/ 




Bobdana, m. JBahm. SIat. God's gift, 

Bohemond, sn. Eng, Slay. God's Ioto (?) 

BokmmU, m. Bokm, SlaT. God's love, iL 

Bokumir^ m. Bokm, Slay. God's peace, 

BoiDH, m. ChdhadU, Erse, yellow, ii. 


BoldUar, m. ITiMa. Pers. war cooncilT '^oyd, tn. Seoi. Kelt, yellow, ii. 101 
431 - - ~. ^. . 

Boleslao, m. Span, Slav, stronger glory, 

BdeslaSy m. Ft, Slay, strong gloiy, iL 

Boleslao, m. Pwi, Slay, strong glory, 

BoLBsuiy, m. flZov. Slay, strong gloiy, 

BoUa^ m. lU, Pers. treasure master, 480 
Bohazar, m. Sibv. Pers. treasure master, 

BoHA, /. It, Ger. Lat good, 882 
BoHAyENTUBA, m. H, well met, 884 
Bonayenture, m. Fr. It. well met, 884 
BosDB, m. Hot, fiumer 
Boni&c, m. .SdAni. Lat. well doer, 884 
Boniface, in, Eng, Ft, Lat. well doer, 

Bonifiacij, m. Riu%. Lat. well doer, 384 
Bonifitcio, m. It. Lat. well doer, 384 
BoKiFACius, m. 6^. Lat. well doer, 384 
Boniiaey, m. Pd, Lat well doer, 384 
Bonifaz, m, Qtr. Lat. well doer, 384 
BonifiBudo, m. /^ Lat. well doer, 384 
Bonne,/. Fr, Lat good, 882 
Bopp^ m. SwitSt Heb. sopplanter, 58 
Bvpf^^f. Swin, Heb. addition, 69 
Boris, m. Btus, fight, ii. 448 
Barka, m. Rum. Slav, fight, ii. 448 '^ 
Bormka, m. Run. Slay, fight, ii. 448 
Boriyor, m. Bohm, Slay, fight, ii. 448 
BoBOKY, protecting freshness, ii. 411 
Bcmy, protecting freshness, ii. 411 
Bcrboia, Hung, stranger, 261 
Boris, Hung, stranger, 261 
Bora, m. Eng. Kelt boar, 324 
Borudo, m. It, Heb. son of fbrrows, 72 
Boso, m, Qtr, Ten. commander, ii. 402 
Bo^, m, SI. Gt, awftil, 252 
Bot^an, m. Si, Gt, awM, 252 
Boihenc m. Qoth. Ten. oommanding 

king, iL 401 

Bothild, /. Dan, Ten. oommanding 

heroine, ii. 401 
Botho, m. Oer. Tea. commander, ii. 402 
Botolph, m. Eng. Ten. commanding 

wolf, ii. 402 
Botzhild, /. Oer, Tea. commanding 

heroine, ii. 402 
BoUo, m. Oer. Tea. commander, ii. 402 
Botzulf, m. Oer. Tea. oommanding 

wolf, ii. 402 

Bozena, m. Slop, Slay. Christmas child, 

Bozieko, m, Slov, Slay. Quistmas child, 

BoziDAB, m. Slop, Slay. God's gift, ii. 

BozxDA&A, m. Shv. SUye, God's gift, ii. 

Bozo, m. Oer, Tea. commander, ii. 402 
Bozo, m. Slav. Slav. Christmas child, 

Braqican, m. lU, Slay, brother, ii. 454 
Brcffon, m. Ill, Slav, brother, ii. 454 
Bram, m. Dutch, Heb. father of nations, 

Bran, m, Oael, Kelt rayen, ii. 42 
Bban, m. Cym. Kelt, raven, ii. 48 
Branca, Port. Tea. ii. 427 
Brancaleone, m, Ital, ann of a lion, 

Brand, m. Oer, Tea. sword, ii. 298 
Brandclf, m. Nor, Tea. sword wolf, iL 

Bbatouub, m. Ill, Slay, brother's love, 

u. 454 
BBAyAO, m. lU, Slay, wild boar, ii. 449 
Braz, m. Port, Lat babbler, 388 
Brazil, m. Manx, Kelt, strong, ii. 50 
Brsasal, m, Erse, Kelt. ii. 50 
Brenda,/. Boot. Tea. sword ^?), ii. 298 
Brengwain, /. Eng. Kelt white bosom, 

ii. 37 
Brenhilda, /. Sjian. Tea. breastplate 

battle maid, u. 318 
Brennias, m. Lat. Kelt, strong, ii. 42 
Brennone, Oer. ii. 60 
Brennas, m, Lat. Kelt strong, ii. 42 
Brensia, f, Esth. Lat lanrel, 867 
Brian, m, Ir, Kelt strong, ii. 48 
Brichteva, /. Nor, Tea. bright gift, ii. 

Briohtfled, /. A, 8. Tea. bright in* 

oiease,iL 405 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Bbiohtfbid, m.A.8. Ten. bright peace, 

ii. 405 
Bbightuab, a, 8. Tea. bright fisune, ii. 

BfiiCHTRio, m. A. S.TevL. bright king, 

ii. 406 
Bbichtseg, m. A. 8. Tea. bright war- 
rior, ii. 405 
Brichtstam, m,A.8. Tea. bright stone, 

ii. 405 
-^ Bride,/. Scot, Kelt, strength, iL 61 
Bridget,/. JSnff. Kelt, strength, ii. 61 
Brietta,/. Ir. Kelt, strength, ii. 61 
Brien, m. Fr, Kelt strength, ii. 48, ii. 

Brieac, m. Bret, Kelt, strength, ii. 60 
Briqhid,/. Erae, Kelt, strength, (god. 

dess of smiths,) 2, ii. 60 
Brigida,/. It. Kelt, strength, ii. 51 
Brigide,/. Fr. Kelt, strength, ii. 51 
Brigitta, /. Sioed, €hr. Kelt, strength, 

ii. 51 
Brigitte,/. Fr, Kelt, strength, ii. 61 
Britchia,/. Ltu. Kelt, strength, ii. 51 
Briia^f. Swed. Kelt, strengti^, ii. 51 
Brites,/. Port, strength, ii. 51 
Brithomart m, Kelt, great Briton, ii. 31 
Brithric, m, Eng. Ten. bright raler, 

ii. 404 
BritteJ. LeU, Kelt, strength, ii. 51 
Bkitomartis, /. Crete, Gr. sweet maid, 

156. ii. ai 
Brocmael, m. WeUh, Kelt, strong cham- 
pion (?) 
Broektvell, m. Eng. Kelt, strong oham- 

pion (?) 
Bronislay, m. Slav, Slav, weapon gloiy, 

ii. 448 

Bronisiava, /. Slav. Slav, weapon 

gloiy, ii. 448 
Bromwbn,/. WMi, Kelt, white bosom, 

ii. 87 
Bro$, m. Iau. Gr. immortal, 248 
Brotk, m. Lui, Gr. immortal, 248 
Branehaalt, /. Fr, Ten. breast-plate 

battle maid, ii. 313 
Brunilla, /. Nor. Ten. breast-plate 

battle maid, ii. 318 
Bruno, m. Oer, Tea. brown, ii. 425 
Brush, m. Eng. Gr. immorttd, 248 
Bryan, m, Ir. Kelt, strong, ii. 4U 
Brgneg, m, Ir, Kelt, strong, ii. 49 
Brynhud, m. Oer, Tea. breast-plate 

battle maid, ii. 818 
Brynjar, m. Nor, Ten. breast-plate 

warrior, ii. 818 
Brunttlf, m. Nor, Tea. breast-plate 

wolf, ii. 818 
BuADHACH, HI. Ene, Kelt. victorioTis» 

ii. 30 
Budhic, m. Bret. Kelt, victorious, ii. 

Buddud,/, Welth, Kelt, victory, ii 80 
BuDDUo,/. Wehh, Kelt victory, ii. 30 
Bugge, m, Dan, Tea. bow, ii. 298 
Baovo, It, Nor. Tea. bow, ii. 299 
Buiuo, m. 8erv, Slav, sword, ii. 448 
BuROENHiLD, A.S. Tea. protecting 

battle maid, ii. 411 
Burgrat, m. Ger, Tea. city council, ii. 

Burfa, m, Serv. Slav, storm, ii. 443 
BxTRRHED, m. A.S. Tea. pledge of coon- 

cil, ii. 411 
Byrger, m. Dan. Ten. protecting war- 
rior, ii. 411 

Caocuouido, m. It. ii. 465 

Cadell, m. Welth, Kelt, war defence, ii. 

Cadfer, m. stoat in battle, ii. 94 
Cadffrawd, m, Weleh, Kelt brother's 

war, ii. 94 
Cado, m. Welah, Kelt, war, ii. 94 
Gadoc, m. Eng. Kelt, war, ii. 94 
Cadogan, m. Eng. Kelt, war, 95 
Cados, m. Fr, Kelt, war, ii. 94 
Oaduad, m, Brit, Kelt, war 
Cadaan, m, Bret, Kelt, war horn, ii. 94 

Cadvan, m. Welsh, Kelt, war horn, iL 

Cadwaladyr, m. Weleh, Kelt, battle 

arranger, ii. 98 
Cadwallader, m, Eng, Kelt, battle ar- 

ranger, ii. 94 
Cadwallon, m. Wdth, Kelt, war lord (?), 

ii. 93 
Cadwqan, m. Welsh, Kelt, war, ii. 94 
Cjecilia,/. Lot. blind, 309 
CdeUie,/. Ger, Lat blind, 309 
CfciLius, m, Lat, blind, 809 

Digitized by Vj v^/v^/pj. l\^ 


OatmJum, m. Ene, Kelt, handsome, iL 

Caoimhafdnt m. Erse, Kelt, handsome, 

GssAR, m. LaL haiiy (?), 389 
CSsar, m. ^er. Lat haiiy (7), 889 
CjBsnTS, m. Zo^. cntting, d84 
Gxso, m. Xo^. catting, 284 
Gastaxo, m. ^jNzn. Lat. of Caieta, 886 
Oaharifa,/, Slco. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, ld4 
Cahir, m. Ir, Kelt battle slaoghter, ii. 

Caia., /. Lat, rejoiced in, 285 
Caieta,/. Lat. rejoiced in, 286 
Cailein, m. dove, ii. 117 
Gailleach,/. Mr$e, Kelt, handmaid, ii. 

Caillbach Aonohas, /. Br$€, Kelt. 

handmaid of Angus, ii. 117 
Gailleach Ck>EiifOHiN, /. Erie, Kelt. 

handmaid of Kevin, ii. 117 
Gailleach De,/. Ensy Kelt, handmaid 

of God, ii. 114 
Cain,'fii. Efig. Heb. possession, 16 
Gainan, m. Efiff, Heb. gaining, 43 
GAmsTEACH, m. Oaek Kelt, comely, ii. 


Gaixtioebm, /. ErH, Kelt, fiedr lady, iL 

Gaio, m, ItaL Lat rejoiced in, 284 
Gaibbbb, m. Erie, Kelt strong man, u. 

OaUlaVt m. Pot. Slay, honour gloiy, iL 

Gaics, m. Lat, rejoiced in, 284 
Gi^tano, m. Span. Lat of Gaeta, 286 
Galeb, m. Eng. Heb. dog, 00 
Galixtus, m. Xo^ of the chalice 
CaUgola, ni. Lat. of the sandal, 285 
GaUnm, m. Oad, dove, iL 117 
Gahrandre, m. Fr. 136 
Galvikus, m. Lai. bald, 340 
Galvo, fit. Span. Lat bald, 341 
CiMTLLk^f. Lat. Eng. It. Lat attendant 

at a sacrifice, 341 
Gamille, m. f. Fr. Lat attendant at a 

sacrifice, 341 
Gamillo, ni. lUd. Lat attendant at a 

sacrifice, 341 
Gamillus, m. Lat. attendant at a sacri- 
fice, 341 
Gtfnilo, m. Span. Lat attendant at a 

saci^lce, 341 

Caivdide, /. Fr. Lat. white, iL 134 
Cane, m. It. Lat. dog, ii. 77 
Canate, m. Eng. Teu. hill, 434 
Canutos, Lat. Tea. hill, ii. 434, 439 
Caouohin, m. KeU. comely, ii. 108 
Caoxh, Erw, Kelt, comely, ii. 108 
Caoiv, Eru, Kelt, comely, ii. 108 
Caoineach, Oad. comely, Kelt ii. 107 
Caoihnach, £r«0, Kelt, comely, ii. 107 
Cara.f. Or. Kelt, friend, iL 47 
Caradoc, m. Eng. Kelt, beloved, ii. 44 
Cabadwo, m. Wtkh, Kelt, beloved, ii. 

Caractacos, m. Lat. Kelt beloved, ii. 

Card, m. Dutch, Tea. man, ii. 367 
Carl, m. Otr. Tea. man, ii. 867 
Carlina,/. Ita). Tea. man, ii. 369 
Carlo, III. Itdt. Tea. man, ii. 867 
Carloman, m. Fr. Tea. strong man, iL 

Carlos, fa. Span. Tea. man, ii. 367 
Carlota, /. Span. Tea. man, ii. 869 
Carlotta, /. lial. Teu. man, ii. 360 
Carmela, /. Ital. Heb. vineyard, 06 
CarmieJiiad, m. Scot. Kelt, friend of 

Michael,ii. 47, 115 
Carmine,/. Ital. Heb. vineyard, 05 
Carnation, Ovp. Lat. incarnation, 81 
Carolina, /. Ital. Tea. man, ii. 369 
Caroline,/. Eng. Fr. Otr. Tea. man,ii. 

Carolus, fn. Lat. Tea. man, iL 367 
Carr^yf. Eng. Tea. man, ii. 369 
Carvilius, m. Lat. Kelt friend of power, 

ii. 21 
Catlav, m. Slav, honour gloxy, iL 463 
laro, fn. Ital. Pers. treasure master, 

Cassandra,/. Em. Gr. 177 

Casimir, m. Ir. Slay, show forth 

peace, ii. 461 
Casimiro, m. Ital. Slay, show forth 

peace, iL 461 
CassiveUaunus, m. Lat. Kelt, lord of 

great hate, ii. 22 
Castiboo, m. Slav, fear God, ii. 463 
Castdiib, fn. Slav, honour peace, iL 

CAsnsLAy, fn. Slav, honour gkrry, ii. 463 
Caswallon, fn. Eng. Kelt. lord of great 

hate (?), ii. 22 
Catalina,/. Span. Gr. purer, 269 
OaUnUJ. Fr. Gr. pure, 269 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


Categem, m, Eng, Kelt, head cbief^ ii. 

Gaterina, /. It, Gr. pore, 360 
Gaterino, m. It. Gr. pure, 270 
Cathal, Irishf eye of battle, ii. 92 
Cathaoib, m. ErUt Kelt, battle slaaghter, 

ii. 98 
Catharina, /. Eng. Gr. pure, 269 ' 
Catharine,/. Eng, Gr. pure, 269 
Gathbab, m. Erm, Kelt, battle chief, 

ii. 98 
CATHBAT,m. Oad. Kelt. batUe (?),ii. 98 
Gatherine,/. Fr. Gr. pure, 269 
Gathir, m. battle slaughter, ii. 93 
Gathlin, /. Gael, ELelt. beam of the 

wave, u, 98 
Gathmor, m. Gael, great in battle, ii. 93 
Gathttil, m. Gael, Kelt, eye of battle, 

ii. 92 
OaikwgJ, WeUh, Gr. pure, 271 
Catin,/, Fr, Gr. pure, 271 
Gato, m, Lai, cautious, 847 
Gaton, m. Fr, Ldit. cautious, 847 
Caion, m. Fr, Gr, pure, 269 
Gattwo, m, Welsh, Kelt, war, ii. 94 
Geadda, m. Lot, Kelt, war, ii. 93 
Geadwalla, m. A, 8, Kelt war lord, ii. 

Geannaich, m, Eru, Kelt reward, ii. Ill 
GEARA,/.Er«, Kelt ruddy, ii. 101, 114 
GsABAN, m. Eree, Kelt, black, ii. 107 
Oeeea,f. Ital. Teu. free, ii. 201 
CeeeareOa.f, It, Teu. free, ii. 201 
Oeeeina,/, It. Teu. ft«e, ii. 201 
Oeeo, m. Ital. Teu. free, ii. 200 
Gedl, m,f. Eng. Lat blind, 310 
Gecile,/. Fr, Lat blind, 810 
Gecilia,/. It. Eng, Lat blind, 810 
Gecilie,/. Gtr, Lat blind, 810 
Gedlija, /. lU, Lat. blind, 810 
GeoiHo, m. Ital, Lat blind, 810 
Cecily,/. Eng, Lat. blind, 810 
Cedd, m, A,S, Kelt war, ii. 92 
Cedoljub, m. SZ. child love, ii. 464 
Gbdomil, m. SI. child love, ii. 464 
Ceile Petaib, m, Erm, Kelt vassal of 

Peter, 115 
Cbw,/. WeUh, Kelt jewel, ii. 186 
Gbinwen, / Welth, Kelt, jewel, the vir- 
gin, ii. 185 
Georin, m. £rM, Kelt black, iL 106 
CeUmireJ, Fr, 136 
Celeste,/. Fr, Lat. heavenly, 400 
"Jelestin, m. iV. Lat heavenly, 400 

Gelestine,/. i^. Lat heavenly, 400 
Gelestino, m. I<a/. Lat. heavenly, 400 
Celia,/.£fy. Lat. 312 
CeUe,/. i^r. Lat 312 
GeUne,/. Fr, Lat 159, 313 
Gbobl, m. ^. iSf. Teu. man, ii. 859 
Genbybht, m. A, 8, Teu. bold bright- 
ness, ii 419 
GBN7UTH, m. A, 8, Teu. bold peace, iL 

Cenfus, m. ul. 8, Teu. bold eagerness, 

ii. 419 
Genhelic, m. ^.£>. Teu. bold helmet^ 

Genred, m. ^. 8, Teu. bold coanci], 

GENvnur, m, A. 8, Teu. bold wol^ ii. 

Cephas, m, Eng, Aram, stone, 345 
Ceol, m. A. 8. Teu. ship, ii. 438 
Geolnoth, m. A, 8. Teu. ship oomptil- 

sion, ii. 438 
Ceolred, fn. A, 8, Teu. ship oounoil, 

ii. 438 
Ceolwald, Tfu A,8, Ten. ship power, 

ii. 438 
Gbolwulf, m.A.8, Teu. ship wolf; ii. 

Cesar, m, Fr, Lat hairy (?), 840 
Cesare, m. It. Lat hairy (?), 340 
Cesarina,/. It, Lat haiiy (?), 840 
Ceslav, m. III, Slav, honour glory, ii. 

CestUlav, m. III, Slav, honour gloiy, ii. 

Chad, m, Eng, Kelt war, ii. 94 
Chaealmpios, m. Gr, joy lamp, 438 
Ghabibbrt, m. Frank, Teu. bright 

warrior, ii. 407 
Charilaus, m, Eng, Gr. grace of the 

people, 173 
CHABunjirD, m, Teu, ii. 408 
Charinus, m, Eng, Gr. grace, 178 
Ghariovalda, PaX, Teu. warrior power, 

Charissa,/. EfM, Gr. love, 173 
Ghabiton,/. Gr, Gr. love, 173 
Charity,/. Eng, Gr. love, 178 
Ghariwulf, warrior wolf, ii. 408 
Charlemagne, m, Fr, Teu. Lat Chariee 

the Great, ii. 867 
Charles, m. Eng, Fr, Teu. man, ii. 857 
Gharlet,/. Eng, Teu. man, ii. 868 
Charley t m, Eng. Teu. man, ii. 867 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



CharUe, m, Scot. Ten. man, ii. 857 
Chariot, m. Fr. Teu. man, ii. 357 
Charlotte,/. Eng. Fr. Oer. Teu. man, 

Chatty,/, Eng. Tea. man, ii.<859 
Chine,/. Fr. Lat. fair, 405 

Cherry,/. Eng. Gr, love, 178 

Qierabfmo, m. ItaL Heb. litUe cberab, 

Chiara,/. Ital. Lat fiunoan, 386 

^'tChrmie,/ Scot. Or. Ghiistian, 289 

C%iUebert,.fn.i^aniE. Ten. battle biightr~C%riftoZ, m. Scat. Or. Christ bearer. 


Childeberte,/. JVonJk, Ten. battle bright,^ ^Christian, /. iSco^. Dan. Or. Chriatian, 
it 234 

Childebrand, in. Frank Tea. battle 

brand, ii. 234 
Childerich, m. Frank. Tea. battle roler, 

Chilperic, m. Frank. Tea. helping ruler, 

Chim^ m. (?0r. Heb. the Lord will judge, 

CUmti, m. Swiss, Or. victory of the 

people, 216 
Chlodhilda, /. Lat. Frank. Tea. &- 

mou8 battle maid, ii 887 
Chlodoau), m. Frank. Tea. famooa 

power, ii. 391 
Ceclodobkst, fiL ^raiU:. Tea. fiunoos^ 

bright, iL 389 
Chlodobeu, m. Frot. Tea. holy fiune, 

ii. 390 
Chlodio, fli. Frank, fame, ii. 387 
Chlodomib, Frank. Tea. loud fiune, ii 

Chlodosind,' /. Frank. Tea. fiunous 

strength, iL 392 
Chlodoswintha, /. Oatk. Tea. fiunous 

strength, ii. 892 
Chlodoweh, m. Frank. Tea. holy fiune, 

ii. 892 
Chloe,/. Eng. Gr. blooming, 166 
Chloteb, m. Frank* Tea. fiunous war- 

rior, ii. 892 
Chochilaicas, m. Lot. Tea. sport of 

thought, ii. 802 
Choaroes, m. Gr. Zend, sun (?), 136 
Chbamnb, m. Frank. Teu. raven, 286 
Chrata, m. Swiss, Or. Christian, 240 
Ckrssteli, m. Swiss, Or. Christian, 240 
Ghrestien, m. Fr. Or. Christian, 250 
Ghrestienne/. Fr. Or. Christian, 240 
Cbnt^otSAf m, Swiss, Or. Chiist bearer, 


Chretien, Fr. Or. Christian, 240 

Chriemhild,/. Ger. Teu. helmeted bat- 
tle maid, ii. 189 

CkrissanUi, m. Russ. Fr. gold flower, 

Chris, Ef^. Or. Christ bearer, 241 

Christabel,/. Eng. fair Christian, 241 
Christackr, m. M. Gr. Gc Chiist bearer, 


Christiana,/. Eng. Or. Chriatian, 289 
Christiana,/. Nor. Or. Christian, 289 
Christiem, m. Dan. Gr. Christian, 289 
Chiisuna, m. Eng. Or. Christian, 289 
Christine, m. Fr. Gr. Christian, 239 
Christinha,/. Port Gr. Christian, 239 
Christmas, m. Eng. 427 
Christotf^ m. Muss. Or. Christ bearer, 

Christofer, m. Buss. Or. Christ bearer, 

Christoph, m. Gor. Or. Chiist bearer, 

Christophe, m. Fr. Or. Christ bearer, 

Christopher, m. Eng. Gr. Christ bearer, 

Christophera, /. Eng. Or. Chiist bearer, 

Chbisto^obob, m. Gr. Or. Christ 

bearer, 241 
Chbistophilon, Gtr. Or. Christ loved, 

Christophine,/. Gcr. Or. Christ bearer, 

Christovao, m. Port, Or. Chiist bearer, 

Chrodehilde,/ Fr. Teu. &mous hero- 
ine, ii. 371 
Chbodo, m. Fr. Tea. fame, iL 367, ii. 

Chrodogang, m. Frank. Teu. famed pro- 
gress, iL 371 
ClutKloswintha, /. Fr. Tea. famoufl 

strength, iL 370, 871 
Chiysanth, m. Bav. Gr. gold flower, 

Chbtsamthos, m. Gr. Or. gold flower, 

Chiyseis,/. Gr. golden, 274 




Chiysostom, m. Eng. Gr. gold month, 

ChiysoBtome, m. Fr. Gr. gold month, 

Chbybostomos, m. Cfr. Gr. gold month, 

Chrtsoucha,/. M. Or, Gr. golden, 374 
Chuedif m. AoUi^ Ten. bold council, 

ChuedUt m, Stoiu, Ten. bold conndl, 

Chuered, m. Swittf Ten. bold conndl, ii. 

CHuoNifuin), m. Old Oer, Ten. bold 

protection, ii. 417 
Chuoneath, m. Old Oer, Ten. bold 

cpnnoil, ii. 417 
CiAH, m. Erse^ vast, ii. Ill 
Cicero, m. Lot. vetch, 830 
Cioily,/. Eng. Lat. blind, 810 
Ofla,/.IZ/.Lat. blind, 311 
die,/. Hamb. Lat. blind, SU 
OaUca,/. lU, Lat. blind, 311 
Ciprian, m. Eng. Lat. of Cypms, 411 
Cipriano, m. I(. Lat. of Cypms, 411 
Ciriaco, m. Ital. Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Ciril, m. lU, Gr. lordly, 441 
Cirilo, m. Span, Ital. Ill, Gr. lordly, 441 
Ciijar, m. lU. Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Cirho, tn, lU, Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Giro, m, Slov. III. Gr. lordly, 441 
Cis/f. Eng, Lat. blind, 810 
Citlav, m, Slav, pure glory, ii. 458 
CitHslav, m, Slav, pure glory, ii. 458 
Clair, m. Fr. Lat. famous, 386 
Claire,/. Fr. Lat. famous, 386 
Clara, /. Eng. Span, Lat. famous, 886 
Clare,/. Eng, Lat. famous, 386 
Clarina, m. Eng, Lat. famous, 886 
Claribel,/. Eng, Lat. brightly fair, 386 
Clarice,/. Ital, Lat rendering finmons, 

Chirimond,£ii^. 386 
Clarinda,/. £fi^. Lat. brightly fair, 886 
Clarissa,/. Eng, Lat. rendering famous, 

Clarisse,/. Fr. Lat. rendering famous, 

Clarus, m. Lat feunons, 885 
Clat, m, Dutch, Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Claud, m, Eng, Lat lame, 313 
Claude,/, m. Fr. Lat lame, 313 
Claudia,/. Oer. It. Lat lame, 319 

Claudie,/. Prav, Lat lame, 818 
Claudina,/. It. Lat lame, 318 
Claudine,/. G^r. Fr, Lat lame, 818 
Claudio, tn. It. Lat lame, 818 
Claudius, m. Lat. lame, 313 
Clam, m. DtUch, Gr. victory of the 

people, 315 
Cleanthe, Fr. Gr. fiunous bloom, 223 
Clem, m. Eng. Lat. merciful, 842 
C16mence,/. Fr. Lat merdAil, 343 
Clemency,/. Eng, Lat. merdftil, 842 
Clemens, tn. Oer. Lat mercdM, 341 
Clement, m, Eng, Fr. Lat merciftd, 

Clemente, m. It, Lat merdftd, 843 
dementia,/. Oer. It. Lat, merdAil, 

Clementina, /. Eng. It, Lat merdfiil, 

Clementine, /. Oer. Fr. Lat merdAil, 

Clemenza,/. It. Lat. merdihl, 343 
Cleomachus, m. Gr. famous war, 228 
Cleopatra, /. Eng. Gr. fame of her 

father, 228 
Globes, m, Oer. Gr. victory of the 

people, 218 
Clodoveo, m. Span, Ten. holy fame, ii. 

Clodius, m. Lat. lame, 812 
Clotilda, /. Lat, Ten. famous battle 

maid, ii. 887 
Clotilde, /. Fr, Ten. famous battle maid, 

ii. 887 
Clovd, m, Fr. Ten. famous power, ii. 

Clovis, fTi. Lat. Ten. holy fame, ii. 388 
Cnjbus, tn. Lat. with a birth mark, 285 
Ctiogher, m. Ir. Kelt strong aid, ii. 83 
Cnnd, m. Eng, Ten. hill, ii. 434 
C(ELiA,/. Lat. 812 
C(ELiNA,/. Lat. 812 
Coenrad, m, Dutch, Ten. bold speech, 

Cohat, Prov, Ten. bold speech, ii. 418 
CoTt, Dan, Teu. bold speech, ii. 418 
Col, Welsh, Kelt ii. 76 
Cola, m. It. Gr. victory of the people, 

Colan, m. Com. Lat, dove, 888 
Colas, m, Fr, Gr. victory of the people. 

216 ' 
Colbert, m. Fr, Eng. Ten. cool bright- 
ness, ii. 428 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



! Gdbnnd, m. Eng, Ten. oool sword, ii. 

Colbom, fFi. £91^. Ten. black bear, iL 

CoUn, m. Fr. Gr. Tictoiy of the people, 

GoHn, M. Scot, Lat dove, 887 
Coltfi, m. Fr. Gr. victor, 216, 888 
Coliiiette, /. Eng, Lat dove, 887 
Colmaii, m. Ger, Lat. dove, 888 
Ck)lofiDbma, /. Ital. Lat. dove, 888 
Cohimb, m. Eng. Lat. dove, 887 
CoLUMBA, m. Lat, dove, 2, 887 
I Golombanns, m. Lat. Lat. dove, 887 
C01.XJMBINX,/. £91^. Lat. dove, 887 
Colombkill, m, Ir. Lat. dove of the 

Gftme, m, Fr. Gr. order, 275 
Gomo, m. It, Heb. supplanter, 57 - 
Coji, m. ErUf Kelt, wisdcnn, ii. 77 
^^Oonachar, m, Scot. Kelt, strong help, 

CoHAH, m. Bret. Kelt, wisdom, ii. 82 
Coneepcion,/, Span, Lat. in honour of 

the immacnlate conception, 81, 82 
Concetta^ f. It, Lat. in honour of the 

immacnlate conception, 81, 82 
Oonekita, f. Span. Lat. in honour of 

the immaculate conception, 81, 82 
CoKCHOBHAB, m. Erse, Kelt, strong help, 

CoHcoBDiA,/. Ger, Lat concord 
CoKOAL, m. Erte, Kelt, chief courage, ii. 

Coniah, m, Eng. Heb. appointed, 98 
CoimoB, 911. Ir, Kelt, strength great, ii. 

Comf , 911. Erte, Kelt, wisdom, ii. 77 
CoHHAiBE, 911. Oael. Kelt, hound of 

slaughter, ii. 88 
Connal, m. Ir, Kelt, chiefs courage, ii. 

Connel, m. Ir, Kelt, chief's courage, ii. 

Connor, 991. Ir, Kelt, hound of 

slaughter, ii. 88 
— t^onnull, m. Scot, Kelt, wise strength, 

Conquhare, m. Scot, Kelt, strong help, 

Conrad, m. Eng. Ten. able speech, ii. 

Conrade, m. Fr. Ten. able speech, ii. 


Conradin^ m, Fr. Ten. able speech, ii. 

Conrado, m, ItdL Teu. able speech, ii 

Consalvo, m. Ital, Teu. war wolf, ii. 817 
Constant /. Span, Lat. firm, 844 
Constance,/. £91^7. Fr, Lat firm, 844 
Cofistancia,/. £91^. Port, Lat firm, 844 
Constando, m. Port, Lat. firm, 844 
CoMSTANS, m. Ger. Lat firm, 848 
Constant fit- Ir. Eng, Lat. 844 
Constantine, 971. Eng, Lat firm, 844, ii. 

Constantino, 971. Ital. Lat firm, 844 
CoNSTANTiNUs, 911. Lat firm, 848 
CoNSTANTius, 911. Lat firm, 848 
Constanz, 911. Ger. Lat. firm, 844 
Constanze,/. Ger. Lat firm, 844 
^Conwalf m, Scot, Kelt, strength and 

valour, iL 87 
Cooey, m, IrUh^ Kelt hound of the 

meadow, ii. 88 
Coppo, m, ItdL Heb. supplanter, 57 
Coralie, /. Fr, coral, ii. 477 
CoBA, /. Gr. maiden, 146 
Core, m, Gr, Heb. 19 
CoBCBAN, m. Erse, Kelt, rosy, ii. 101 
Cordelia,/. £91^. Kelt jewel of the sea, 

ii. 85 
Cordelie,/. Fr, Kelt, jewel of the sea, 

Cordulatf, Ger, Kelt jewel of the sea, 

ii. 86 
Corinna,/. Gr. maiden, 146 
Corinne,/. Fr, a maiden, 146 
CoBMAO, 911. Erse, Kelt son of a chariot, 

Cormick, Irish, Kelt, son of a chariot, 

ii. 91 
CometUe, m. Fr, Lat horn (f), 814 
ComeUa, /. £91^. Ital, Lat. horn (?), 

Comelie,/. £r. Lat horn (?), 814 
Comelio, m. Ital, Lat horn (?), 814 
CoBNELius, 911. £91^. Lat horn (?), 818 
Comey, m. Ir. Lat. horn (?), 818 
Corradino, m. It, Teu. bold council, ii. 

Cosimo, m. Ital. Gr. order, S76 
Cosmo, wi. Ital. Gr. order, 275 
Cospatrick, m. Scot, Gael. Lat. boy of 

Patrick, 408, ii. 117 
Costanza,/. Span, Lat firm, 8^ ' 
Costanza,/. Ital. Lat firm, f 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



Cotahelm, m. Ger. Tea. diyine helmet, 

ii. 176 
Ootahram, m. Ger, Tetu good raven, ii. 

Cotalint, m. Qer. Ten. divine serpent, 

u. 176 
Cowrt, m. Neth. Tea. bold coancil, iL 

Cradock, m- Eng, Kelt, beloved, ii. 47 
CREiBDyDDLYDD, /. Welskt Kelt, jewel 

of the sea, ii. 35 
Cbeirwy,/. Welsh^ Kelt, token, iL 35 
Crepett m. Fr, Lat. curly, 346 
Crepin, m. Fr. Lat. curly, 845 
Crescence,/. Fr. Lat. growing, 893 
Crescenda,/. JtoZ. Lat. growing, 898 
Crescendo, /. ItaL Lat. growing, 3^3 
Cresgens, m. Lat. growing, 393 
Crescent, m. Fr. Lat. growing, 893 
Crescentia, /. Ger. Lat. growing, 893 
Crescenz,/. fav. Lat. growing, 393 
Cri80stomo,m. Span, Gr. golden mouth, 

Crispian, m. Fn^. Lat curly. 845 
Crispianus, m. Lat, curly, 345 
Crispin, wl Eng. Fr. Lat. curly, 846 
Crispino, m. i£. Lat curly, 845 
C^tispiNUS, m. Lot. curly, 345 
Cnsdano, fTi. Rom. Gr. Christian, 240 
Cristina, /- IL Span. Gr. Christian, 340 
Cristinha,/. Port. Gr. Christian, 240 
Cristofano, m. Ital. Gr. Christ bearer, 

Cristoforo, «. ItaL Gr. Christ bearer, 

Cristoval, m. Span, Gc Christ bearer, 

Crogher, m. Irish, Kelt stiong help, ii 

Crohoare, m, Irish, Kelt strong help, 

ii. 88 
CucHAisiL, fa. Erse, Kelt hound of 

Cashel, ii 83 
' Cuchullin, m. Scot, Kelt hound of 

Ulster, ii 83 
Cuddie, m. Scot. Tea. noted bright- 
ness, ii. 417 
CuoAN-MATHAiB, 7JI. Erse, Kelt hound 

without a mother, ii 88 
Cuillean, m. Oael. Kelt whelp, ii. 84 
CuMHAiOHE, m. Erse, Kelt, hound of 

the plain, 300, ii. 83 
Cunibert, m. Ger. Tea. bold brightness, 

ii. 419 

dunegonda, /. ItaL Tea. bold war, iL 

Cunegtindis, Port. Tea. bold war, ii 461 
Cunegonde, /. Fr. Teu. bold war, iL 

Cunobelinus, m. Lat. Kelt lord of the 

sun (?), war (?), ii. 45 
Cumo, m. Ger. Teu. bold council, ii. 

Currado, in. It. Teu. bold council, iL 

Cu-SiosvA, m. Erse, Kelt hound of the 

Shannon, ii. 83 
CusLiEBNE, m. Erse, Kelt hound of the 

mountain, ii. 83 
Custance,/ Eng. Lat. firm, 344 
Cutha, fR. A. S. Teu. skilled, ii. 416 
Cuthbert m. Eng. Teu. well known 

splendour, ii. 416 
CuTHBUBH,/. A.S. Teu. skilled pledge, 

ii. 416 
CuTHBRYHT, m. A, S. Teu. noted 

splendour, ii. 416 
CuTHWALD, m, A.S, skilled power, ii. 

CuTHwiNs, m,A,S. Teu. skilled friend, 

Cu-Uladh, m. Gadhael. Kelt hound of 

Ulster, ii. 83 
CwENBURH, /. A, S. Teu. queen pledge 
Cwrig,«. Welsh, Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Cyaxares, m. Eng, Zend, beautiful eyed, 

CymbeUne, m. Eng. Kelt lord of the 

sun, war (?), ii. 45 
Cyndeym, m. Welsh, Kelt head chief, 

CvKSBALD, m.A.S. Teu. prince Uneage, 

Cynebrioht, m, A.S. lineage of splen- 
dour, ii 419 
Cykeburh, m. A. S. Teu. pledge of 

kindred, ii. 419 
Ctnefryth, m.A.S. Teu. able kindred 

of peace, ii. 419 
Cynegundis, /. Port. Teu. bold war (?), 

ii. 419 
Cynric, m. A.S. Teu. royal kin, ii. 419 
Cynethryth, /. ^. iSf. Teu. threaten. 

ing kindred, ii. 419 
Cynewald, m. ^. iSf. Teu. kin of power, 

ii. 419 
Cynthia, /. Eng. Gr. of Cynthus, 156, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



CjnreHn, m. WeUh, Kelt lord of war 

(?), the 8im (?), ii. 45 
Cyprian, m. Eng. Ger. Or. Lat of Cy. 

pros, 412 
CrpBiAinjs, m. Lat. of Cypras, 411 
CypiieD, m. JV. Gr. Lat. of Cypras, 412 
CjT, m. Ft. Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Qrrui, m. .FV. Lat. spear man, 878 
Cjienios, m. GoZ. Eng. Lat. spear man, 

Qrnao, in. Fr, Gr. the Sonday child, 


Cyriacns, m. Lat Gr. Sonday child, 

Cyiiak, m. Gtfr. Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Cyril, m. £n^. Gr. lordly, 441 
Qrrill, m. Ger, Gr. lordly, 441 
Cyrilla./. Ger. Gr. lordly. 441 
(grille, TO. JV. Gr. lordly, 441 
C^rillo, m. Port. Gr. lordly, 441 
Cyrin, to. Gt. Lat. spear man, 878 
C^rus, TO. Eng. Peru, the sun (?), 186 
Cystenian, to. ITisb^, Lat. firm, 848 
Czenzit f. Hung. Lat increasing, 899 

Daanj m. Dutch, Heh. the judging God/ 

J>aarU,f. Dan. Gr. gift of God, 334 
Daint, m. Lu$. Heh. heloved, 114 
Badfto, TO. I#iM. Heb. beloTed, 116 
Dafod. WeUh, 115 
Dao, m. Goth, Teu. day, 365 
Daofikn, to. Nor, Teu. white as day, 

115, iL 366 
Do^fui, cheerftil as day, ii. 366 
Daohkid, cheerftil as day, iL 366 
Dagmar, tf, Dan. Teu. Dane's joy, ii. 

Daomt, /. Nor. Teu. freeh as day, iL 

I>ago, TO, Span. Teu. day, iL 265 
Dagobert, to. Fr. Teu. day bright, ii. 366 
Daoobbxcht, to. Frank. Teu. day bright, 

Daoolf, to. Ger. Teu. day wolf, iL 368 
Daob, to. Ice. Teu. day, ii. 266 
Daorid, m. Ger. Teu. day ooundl, iL 

DaipMn, to. Fr. Gr. of Delphi, 157 
Damaijs,/. Gr. Gr. cow, 376 
Damaris,/. £fi^. Gr. cow, 376 
Bamasfia, /. Pen. Pers. horse tamer, 

Damian, m. Ger. Eng. Russ. Gr. tam- 
ing. 976 
Damiano, to. JtoZ. Gr. taming, 276 
Dakiaitos, to. Gr. taming, 376 
Damianns, m. LcU. Gr. taming, 276 
Damiao, to. Port Gr. tazning, 275 
Damien, to. Fr. Gr. taming, 376 
Damhxait,/. EreCt Kelt. iL 184 
Dah. to. Sng. Heb. judge, 16, 121, iL 


^}^andie, to. Scot, Gr. man, 308 

Dane^^, TO. Dutch, Heb. the judging 

God, 121 
Damioa,/. /Sf^av. Slav, morning star, iL 

Daniel, to. Eng. Heb. the judging God, 

121, ii. 08 
Danielle, to. It. Heb. the judging God» 

Danihel, to. N.L.D. Heb. the judging 

God, 121 
Danil, to. Rues. Heb. the judging God, 

Danila, to. Slov. Heb. the judging God» 

Darnels, to. Lett. Heb. the judging God, 

Dankheri, to. Ger. Teu. thankftil war- 

rior, ii. 333 
Damerad, to. Ger. Teu. thanldtd speech, 

ii. 331 
Damkmab, to. Ger. Teu. thankftil fiune, 

Danewabt,to. Ger. Teu. thankftil ward, 

ii. 331 
Dannel, to. Swiss, Teu. the judging 

God, 121 
Dante, to. It. Lat. lasting, 880 
Daphne,/. Gr. Gr. bay tree, 192 
Darby, to. Jr. Kelt, ftreeman, ii. 87 
Darcy, to. Eng. Erse, dark, ii. 28 
Dabeb, to. Pers. Zend, king, 137 
Darya, /. Rusfi. Gr. gift; of God, 187, 284 
Darkey,/. Eng. Erse, dark, ii. 28 
Darius, to. Eng. Pers. king, 187 
Darte, to. Lett. Gr. gift, of God, 286 
Dabtatush, to. Pers. Zend, posseasor, 



by Google 



Daseha,/. Buss. Or. gift of God, 286 
Daschenka, /. Russ, Gr. gift of God, 

Dathi, m. Erset Kelt, far darting, 116 
Datsch, m. Danzig^ Heb. beloved, 115 
Daulf, m. Qer. Teu. day wolf, ii. 266 
Daveed^ m. Ru98, Heb. beloved, 115 
David, m. Fr. Eng. Ger. Heb. beloved, 

Davidas, m. Lett, Heb. beloved, 115 
Davidde^ m. ItdL Heb. beloved, 115 
DavidUf m. WaUach. Heb. beloved, 
^ Davief m. Scot. Heb. beloved, 115 
Davorin, m. Slav.Si&Y, of tibe war god, 

ii. 446 
Davboslav, m. Slav. Slav. Davor's- 

glory, ii. 446 
Davkoslava, /. Slav. Slav. Davor's 

glory, ii. 446 
Davy, m. Eng. Heb. beloved, 116 
Dawfydd, m. Welsh, Heb. beloved, 116 
Drf, m. Fr. Kelt, fire, ii. 29 
Deabbhfoboail, /. Erse, Kelt, purely 

fair daughter, ii. 106 
Deabo, m. Erse, Kelt red, ii 86 
Deb,f. Eng, Heb. bee, 60 
Debora,/. Ger. Heb. bee, 60 
Deborah,/. Eng. Heb. bee, 2, 60 
Dbcika,/. £ni7. Lat. tenth, 802 
Dbcixus, m. Lot. tenth, 802 
Deeius, m. Lat. tenth, 302 
Dedo, m. G^. Ten. people's mler, ii 

Deoen, warrior, Ger. Teu. ii. 298 
DsoENHABD, HI. Gcr. Teu. firm war- 
rior, 298 
Deicola, m, Lat. God's worshipper, 390 
Deinhard, Ger. Teu. firm warrior, ii. 298 
Deiniol, m. WeUh, Heb. the judging 

God, 121 
Delia,/. Eng. Gr. of Delos, 156 
Delicia,/. Eng. Lat. delightM, 406 
Delizia,/. Ital. Lat. deUghtM, 405 
Delphine,/. Fr. Gr. of Delphi, 157 
Delphinia,/. Gr. Gr. of Delphos, 157 
Delphinus, m. Lot. Gr. of Delphi, 156 
Demeter, m. Slav. Gr. of Demeter, 166 
Demetre, m. Fr. Ger. of Demeter, 165 
Demetria, m. It. Gr. of Demeter, 165 
Demetbios, m* Gr. Gr. of Demeter, 

Demetrius, m. Lat. Eng. Gr. of Deme- 
ter, 165 

Den^an, m. Buss. Gr. taming, 276 
Demodokos, m, Gr. people's teaoher» 

DEM0LE0N,'ni. Gtr. people's lion, 228 
Denis, m. Fr. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Denise,/. Fr. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Dennet,/. £n^. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Dennis, m. Eng. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Denys, m. O.Fr. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Deodati, m. Ital. Lat. God given, 890 
Deodatus, m. £fi^. Lat. Gt>d given, 

Deoobatias, m. Lat. thanks to God* 

Derdre,f. Erse, Kelt, fear, ii. 22 
Derede,/. Bav, Gr. gift of God, 234 
Deb<H), m. Scot. Kelt, red, ii. 86 
Dermot, m. Ir. Kelt, fireeman, ii. 86 
Derrick, m. Eng, Teu. people's wealth, 

ii. 337 
Desideratus, m. Lat. beloved, 391 
Desiderio, m. It. Lat beloved, 891 
Desiderius, m. Lat beloved, 391 
Desirata,/. It. Lat beloved, 891 
Deair^e,/. Fr. Lat beloved, 217 
Desse,/. lU. Gr. God given, 237 
Detrick, Bohm. Teu. people's ruler, ii. 

Deusdedit, m. Lat. God gave, 890 
Deusvtjlt, m. Lat. God mils, 390 
Devnet,/. Ir. Kelt ii. 134 
Devorgil, /. Scot. Kelt piirely fair 

daughter, ii. 106 
Devoslav. m. Slav, maiden glory, ii. 454 
Devoslava, /. Slav, maiden c^oiy, ii. 

Dewi, m. Wei. Heb. 116 
Dhuboda, Ga^U black, ii. 98 
Dhtjoal, m. GaeU Kelt black stranger, 

ii. 98 
IH,f. Eng. Lat goddess, 368 
Diago, m. Port. Heb. supplanter, 55 
DiAMANTo,/. Jf.Gr. Gr. diamond, 273 
DiAMA,/. Eng^ Lat. goddess, 368 
Diane, /. JFV. Lat goddess, 868 
Dtabmatt), m. Gael. Kelt freeman, 116, 

ii. 22, 84 
Dibble, m. Eng, Teu. people's pxinoe, 

u. 838 
Diccon, m. Eng. Teu. firm ruler, ii. 880 
Dick, m. Eng. Teu. firm ruler, ii. 380 
Didders,'m. Lett. Lat beloved, 891 
Didhrikr, m. Nor, Tea. people's ruler, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



^ Bidier, m. iV. Lftt bdoved, 891 
Didi^, 391 

Dido,/. L<U. Phoen. 89 
Diederike, /. Ger. Teu. people's ruler, 

ii. 337 
lyidrikf n. Nor. Tea. people's ruler, IL 

DidtehU, m. Lett. Teu. people's ruler, 

BidjmnB, m. Eng, Ger, twin, 64 
Diego, nu 5|Min. Heb. supplwter, 7, 55 
DmI, m. Ft. Lat. God's worshipper, 390 
DieUe,/. FrcBnehe-eonOij 390; Lat. God's 

worshipper, 390 
' D%eiu$, m. Hung. Gr. of Dionjsos, 168 
I DiepAoU, m. Oer. Teu. people's prince, 

JHtrky m. Dutch, Teu. people's ruler, 

Bietbeiga, in. /. Frank. Teu. people's 

I protection, ii. 339 
Dietbdrt,!!!. Frank.TevL. people's bright- 
ness, ii. 339 
Dietbold, m. Ger. Teu. people's prince, 

Bietbrand, m. Ger. Teu. people's sword, 

Bietfrid, m. Ger. Teu. people's peace, 

Dietger, m. Ger. Teu. people's spear, ii. 

Diethard, m. Ger. Teu. people's firm- 
ness, iL 339 
]>iethelm, m. Ger. Teu. people's helmet, 

Diether, m. Ger. Teu. people's warrior, 

JHetl, m. Bern. Teu. people's ruler, ii. 

Dietleib, m. Ger. Teu. people's reUc, ii. 

Bietlind, m. Ger. Teu. people's snake, 

Dietman, m. Ger. Ten. people's man, ii. 

IHetmar, m. Ger. Teu. people's £eune, iL 

Dieto, m. Ger. Teu. the people, ii. 837 
fVDietolf, m. Ger. Teu. people's wolf, ii. 
J 888 

f Bietram, m. Ger. Ten. people's raven, 
' , 4,889 
Dieterioo, m. lU Teu. people's rule, ii. 
I 387 

Dieterioh, m. Ger, Teu. people's rule, iL 

Dietrl, m. Bav. Ten. people's rule, iL 

DiEUDOHNi, m. Fr, Lat God given, 890 
Diez, Ger. Teu. iL 387 
Diggory, m. Eng. French, the almost 

lost, iL 483 
Dimitar, m. Slov, (h*. of Demeter, 165 
Dimitry, m. Ru»$. Gr. of Demeter, 165 
Dimitrjja, m. HL Gr. of Demeter, 165 
Dimitnje, m. lU. (h*. of Demeter, 165 
Dinah,/. Eng. Heb. jndgment, 74 
Dinist m. Port Gr. of Dionjsos, 168 
DiUeVt m. Ger. Teu. people's relic, iL 

Dinko, m. Slav. Lat Sunday child, 445 
Diodor, m. Ger. Gr. God's gift, 390 
Dionetta,/. Eng. Gr. of Dionysos, 168 
Dionigi, m. It. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Dionigio, m. It. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Dionis, m. Span, Gr. of Dionysos, 

Dionisia, /. Rom, Gr. of Dionysos, 

DionisQ, m. Ruts. Gr. of Dionysos, 

Dionisio, m. Rom. Gr. of Dionysos. 

Dionys, m. Ger. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Dionysia,/. JBn^. Ger, Gr. of Dionysos, 

Dionysio, m. Port. Gr. of Dionysos, 

DioNTsios, m. Gr. of Dionysos, 167 
Dionysius, m. Eng, LaU Gr. of Diony. 

80S, 167 
Dionysos, m. Gr. god of Nysos (?), 167 
DioBO, m. Ger. Teu. dear, ii. 422 
DiotUalvi, m. It. Lat God save thee, 

Diotrich, m. Ger. Teu. people's ruler, iL 

DippoJd, m. Ger. Teu. people's prinee, 

ii. 838 
Diriks, m. Lett. Teu. people's ruler, iL 
* 387 
Dirk, m. Dutch, Teu. people's ruler, iL 

DisA,/. Nor. Teu. active spirit, ii. 218 
Dith, m. Swiss, Heb. praise, 64 
Ditrik, m. Hung. Teu. people's ruler, ii. 

Diura, m. Ger. Teu. dear, iL 422 

J DV '•.wJ V^V> 




Dinthilt,/. Oer» Ten. people's heroine, 

ii. 887 
Diatrat, people's council, ii. 889 
Diim, m. Bohm. Gr. of Dionysos, 168 
Dix, m. Ger. Lat. blessed, 888 
LjouUja, m. Serv. Gr. well bom, 209 
I^wa4ji m. lU. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Djwrd^y m. IlL Gr. husbandman, 259 
jijurieat m, IlL Gr. husbandman, 359 
Dmitar, m. S«rv. Gr. of Demeter, 165 
Dmitra,/, Slav. Gr. of Demeter, 166 
Dmitri^ m. Rusi. Gr. of Demeter, 165 

Dmitrijt *»• i{ti««. Gr. of Demeter, 165 pDonald, m. Scot, Kelt, proud chief, ii. 
Dobrana, /. Slav, Slav, good, ii. 463 

Dobr^'a,/. /Slav. Slav, good, ii. 453 
DoBBooosT,in. Pol. Slay, good guest, ii. 

DoBBouuB, m. Sla/v, Slav, good lover, 

DoBBOSLiv, m. Slav, Slav, good glory, 

DoBBovoj, m. IlL Slav, good warrior, 

DoBBovxnc, m. IlL Slav, good wolf, ii. 

DoBBOTiN, m. i92av. Slav, good doer, ii. 

DoBBOTDLL,/. SUw. SUv. good doer,ii. 

Dodd, m. £fi^. Ten. of the people, ii. 887 
Ihlfine,/. Oer, Teu. noble wolf, 167, ii. 

Dolfino, m, Ven. Gr. of Delphi, 157 
DoUy.f. Eng. Gr. gift of God, 288 
Dolores,/. Span. Lat. sorrows, 2, 81 
Dolpht m, Eng. Teu. noble wolf, ii 895 
Dolphin, m. Fr. Gr. of Delphi, 166 
Dowuu, Lu8. Aram, twin, 67 
Domasky Lus. Aram, twin, 67 
DoMHK^LL, m. Ene, Kelt, great chief, 98 
Domingo, m. Span. Lat. Sunday child, 

Domingos, m. PorL Lat Sunday child, 

Dominic, m. Ger. Eng, Lat. Sunday 

child, 445 ^ 

Dominica,/. It. Lat. Sunday child, 445^ 
Dominichino, m. It. Lat. Sunday child; 

Dominico, m. lU Lat. Sunday child, 445 
Dominicus, m. G«r. Lat Sunday child, 

Dominik, m. Slav, Lat Sunday child, 


Dominique, m, Fr, Lat Sunday child, 

Domnech, m. Ir, Lat Sunday child, 

Domogoj, m. Slav. Lat Sunday child, 

Domokos, m. Hung. Lat Sunday child, 

DoK. m. Ir. Kelt brown, 3, 131, 390, 
ii. 97, 108 

DoNACHA, 911. Gael. Kelt brown war- 
rior, 131 

Donath, m. Ir. Lat ^ven, 890 
Donate m. It. IsL given, 890 
Donatus, m. Lat. given, 890 
DoxNAjr, m. Erse, Kelt brown, IL 98, 

D<mnet,f. Eng. Gr. of Dionysos, 168 
Donnetff. Eng. Lat. gift of God, 890 
Donoghue, m, Ir. Kelt brown chief, 11. 

Donough, m, Ir. Kelt brown warrior, 

168, u. 108 
DoNUMDEi, m. Lat gift of God, 890 
Dora,/. Eng. Ger. lU. Gr. gift of God, 

DoraUee,/. Fr. Gr. gift, 384 
Dorcas, /. Eng. Gr. gazelle, 133 
DoBCHAiDE, m. Erse, dark, ii. 28 
Dore, m. Florentine, Lat lover, 880 
Dore,f. Ger. Gr. gift of God, 28< 
DoBENK, /. Erse, Kelt, sullen, 2, ii. 23 
Dorette^f. Fr. Gr. gift of God, 284 
Dorfeiyf, Rust. Gr. gift of God, 285 
Dorindayf. Eng. Gr. gift, 384 
Dorka, f. Russ. Gr. gift of God, 285 
Dorlisa, f. Lus. Gr. Heb. Dorothea 

DomadiUa, f. Lat. Kelt purely fidr 

daughter, ii. 106 
Dorofei, m. Russ. Gr. gift of God, 285 
Doroltya, Hung. Gr. ^ of God, 285 
Dorosia,f,PoL Bohm. Gr. gift of God, 

Dorota, f. PoL Bohm. Gr. gift of God, 

Dorotea,/. It Gr. gift of God, 384 
Dorot^a,/. IlL Gr. gift of God, 385 
Dorothea,/. Span. Eng. Gr. Gr. gift of 

God, 388 
Dorothfie,/. Fr, Ger, Gr. gift of God 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



DoBOTHKTTS, n. Lot, Qt. gift of God, 

Dorothy/. Eng, Gr. gift of God, 388 
Dwothya,/. Hung. Gr. gift of God. 285 
Dort,/. DuUk, Gr. giftof God, 284 
I>o>rtcha^f. Dutch, Gr. giftof God, 284 
Doooe,/. Ft. Lat. sweet, 406 
DoQgal, n. ^S^t. Kelt. Uack stranger, 

iL96 > 

Douglas, m. Ami!. Kelt, dark grey, ii. 

Dovsabel,/. Eng. Lot sweet fSsir, 406 
Dowiie,/. Bn<?. Lat. sweet, 406 
Dngui, m. 5Zai7. Slav, dear, ii. 464 
Dngana,/. 5lav. Slav, dear, u. 461 
IhagankUff. Slav. Slav, dear, ii. 464 
Dng^a, m. i^Iov. Slav, dear, iL 464 
i%atAa, m. <9Zao. Slav, dear, iL 454 
DngojOa,/. SZcw. SUv. dear, ii. 454 . _ 
Dngoslar, si. Slav. Slav, dear glonr,*^^ 

I>ngotinka, m. Slav. Slav, dear, ii. 464 
Drenka,/. lU. Lat. horn, 814 
Drew, m. Eng. Ten. skilftd (?), ii 466 
We*, m. Dieted Gr. manly, 203 
Diooo, m. ItaL Ten. skilftd (?), ii. 466 
Drogon, si. Fr. Ten. skilftd (?), ii. 465 

I^t, SI. Nor. Ten. maiden, ii 286 
Dm, SI. PV. Ten. skUftil, ii. 464 
Dsi»T, SI. PieU KeLt. proclaimer, ii. 146 
Dwsnuk,/. LaL sfarraig, 846 
Dbusus, si. Lat. strong, 845 
Wiffe, /. Neih. Ten. spear maid, u. 826 
Dutrte, SI. Port. Ten. rich gnard, ii 

DuBDAiSTUATB, SI. EtM, Kelt, blaok 

man of two lordships, ii. 102 
Dtjbdainbkb, St. Eru, Kelt, blaok man 

of two riTers, Si 102 
DuBDJiLETHB, SI. Evtc, Kelt black, ii. 

DuBHAV, SI. Erse, Kelt black, ii 102 
|I>raHcoHBLAiTH, /. Eru, Kelt, blaok 
' nctofy, ii 102 

MvcBOMAR, m. Gael Kelt, black well. 
Leaped man, ii. 98 
pBCBooTHBA, SI. Erse, Kelt black man 
f of the Dodder 
vuBAOEASA,/. JETrstf, Kelt black beaaty, 


DxTBHBSSA, /. Erte, Kelt blaok nnrse, 

ii. 102 
DuBisiAY, SI. Slav. Slav, oak gloxy, ii 

Dnoia,/. Eng. Lat sweet, 406 
Dudde, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, ii 

Dndon, si. JFV. Lat God-given, 800 
Dndone, m. It. Lat God-given, 800 
Duessa,/. Eng. Kelt black nnrse, ii. 

' ^^Xhigald, sk SeoU Kelt black stranger, 

fiDnff, SI. Scot. Kelt black, ii. 08 
Dnloe,/. Eng. Lat sweet, 406 
Dnlda, /. Span. Lat sweet, 405 
Duloibdla,/. Eng. Lat sweet fair, 406 
Bnlcinea,/. Span. Lat sweet, 405 
Pumma$,m. Lith. Aram, twin, 67 

nnean, si. Scot. Kelt brown ohief^ ii 

Dttfutan, SI. A.G.S. Ten. lull stone, 

DurtuZ/, SI. A. G. S. Ten. lull wolf; ii 

DtmJso, m. Slav. Lat Sunday child, 445 
DunwaUon, Cym. Kelt. ii. 08 
Dnrand, si. i^. Lat lasting, 889 
Durante, si. It. Lat lasting, 800 
Dnrandarte, si. Span. Lat lasting, 389 
Dnrans, m. Lat lasting, 880 
DwedeUf. Boo. Gr. gfit of God, 284 
DurUf. Bav. Gr. gift of God, 884 
Du*a,f. m. SUt. happy, ii 464 
DusoHA,/. Bms. SlaT. happy, ii 464 
Diuchinka,/. Ruts. Slav, happy, ii 464 
Dutiea,/. Ruts. Slav, happy, li 464 
DwTNWEN, /. Welsh, Kelt white wave, 

ii. 184 
Dye,/. Eng. Lat goddess, 868 
Dyfim, m. Welsh, Greek, taming, 276 
Dymphna,/. Irish, Kelt ii. 184 
Dynawd, m. Welsh, hat. given, 801 
Dynval, m. Cym. Kelt of the weaned 

conch (f), ii. 08 
Dyoniey, m. Pol. Gr. of Dionysos, 166 
Dtbb, si. Dan. Ten. dear, ii 422 
Duterych, m. Pol Ten. people's roler, 







Each, m. KeU, Norse, ii 147 
Eachaid, m. OaeL Kelt, horaemsn, ii. 

Eachan, m. Gael Kelt horseman, 176, 

ii. 147 
Eaohmabchach, Erse, Kelt, horse rider, 

ii. 147 
Eachmilidh, m. Brset Kelt horse war- 
rior, ii. 147 
Ead,/. Bng. Ten. rich, ii. 840 
Eaobald,/. m. A.8, Tea. rich prince, 

Eadbryht,/. m. il.£^. Tei|. rich splen. 

dour, ii. 844 
Eadbubo,/. a. 8. Ten. rich protection, 

ii. 344 
Eadbubh,/. i4.5. Tea. rich pledge, ii. 

Eadfled, /. A, 8, Tea. rich increase!, 

ii. 844 
Eadfrith, m. A.8. Tea. rich peace, ii 

Eadoab, m.A,8, Tea. rich spear, iL 

Eadoifu,/. a, 8, Tea. rich gift, ii. 844 
Eadotth, /. A. 8. Tea. rich gift, ii. 

Eadhild, /. A. 8. Tea. rich battle maid, 

ii. 841 
Eadmund, m. A. 8. Tea. rich protec- 
tion, ii. 842 
Eadsed, m.A.8. Tea. rich coandl, ii 

Eadbic, m, A.8. Tea. rich raler, ii. 845 
EADswrra,/. A, 8, Tea. rich strength, 

Eadulf, m. A. 8, Tea. rich wolf, ii. 844 
Eadwald, m. A,8, Tea. rich power, ii. 

Eadwabd, m. A, 8* Tea. rich gaard, ii. 

Eadwio, m,A.8. Tea. rich war, ii. 84d 
Eadwine, m. A. 8. Tea. rich friend, ii. 

Eal,/. Bret, Kelt angel, 125 
Ealhfled,/. A, 8, Tea. hall increase, 

Ealhfbith, m. A.8, Tea. hall peace, ii. 

Ealhred, fn,A.8, Tea. hall speech, ii. 


Ealhswith, m.A.8. Tea. hall strength, 

Ealhwinx,/. m, A.8, Tea. hall Mend, 

ii. 850 
Easter, /. Ihig, Tea. Easter child, 437 
JEbba, /. Oer, Tea. firm wild boar, ii. 

Ebbe, FrU, Frit. Tea. firm wild boar, 

u. 278 
Ebbert, m. Fries, Tea. formidably bright, 

Ebbo, m. Ger, Tea. firm wild boar, ii. 

Eb£bhari>, m. Oer, Tea. firm wild 

boar, ii. 272 
Eberhardine, /. Oer. Tea. firm wild 

boar, ii. 272 
Ebebhild,/. Oer. Tea. wild boar bat- 
tle maid, ii 278 
Ebebmund, m. Frank, Tea. wild boar 

protection, ii. 273 
Ebebik, m. Oer, Tea. wild boar king, 

Ebertf m. (7er. Tea. firm wild boar, ii. 

Ebebulf, m. Frank. Tea. wild boar 

wolf; ii. 272 
Ebebwine, m. Ooth. Tea. wild boar 

friend, ii. 272 
EbilOf m. Oer, Tea. firm wild boar, ii. 

Eblest m, Prov, Tea. firm wild boar, ii. 

Ebo, m, Oer. Tea. firm wild boar, iL 

Eborico, m. 8pan, Tea. wild boar king, 

Ebrimuth, m. Oer, Tea. wild boar pro- 
tection, ii. 272 
Ebroin, m. Frank, Ten. wild boar friend, 

Ebitr, m. Oer. Tea. wild boar, ii. 272 
Ebtirbebo, m. Oer, Tea. wild boar bear, 

EcceUno, m. It. Tartar, father-like, 48 
Ecoberht, m. A, 8. Tea. formidaUy 

bright, ii. 248 
EcoFBiTH, m. A. 8. Tea. formidable 

peace, ii. 248 
Eckartf m. Oer. Tea. formidable firm- 
ness, ii. 248 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


Eddiardt, m. Oer, Tetu fonnicUible 

finnness, iL 243 
•Edan, Bk ScoU Kelt, fire, ii. 38 
Bdamt, m. LaL Kelt, fire, ii 28 
Edimrg, /. Ger. Tea. hch protectkm, 

Eddtj/. PriM. Ten. war reftige, iL 212 
Eddiwt,/. Eng, Ten. rich giit, ii. 346 
EdtJ. FrU. Tea. war reftige, ii. 212 
Ede^Neth. Ten. rich gatad, ii 848 
&do,f. &th. Tea. war refbge, ii 212 
Eddbeige, /. Oer, Tea. noble proteo- 

ti<»i, iL400 
Edeline, /. Oer, Tea. noble cheeri ii. 

Edelmar, m. Eng. Tea. noble greatnees, 

Eddtmd,/. Oer. Tea. noble maid, ii. 

Bdetfa, f. Bng. Tea. rich gift, ii. 845 
Edgar, m. Eng. Ten. rich spear, ii. 842 
Edgajd, St. Fr. Tea. rich spear, ii. 842 
£d^rdo, m. It. Tea. wealth spear, ii. 

^BMe, m. Scot. Heb. red earth, 40 
Mduintdeff. Eng. Tea. noble maid, ii. 

Edith,/. Eng. Ten. rich gift, ii. 845 
Edmond, fli. Fr* Tea. rich protection, 

Edmond, m. Eng. Tea. rich protection, 

Edmondo, in. Ital. Ten. rich protection, 

n. 848 
EdoiR, m. Eng. Heb. red, 1, 88, 40 
Edooard, m. Fr. Tea. rich gaard, ii. 

Ednard, m. 6^*. Tea. rich goard, ii 

Edoardo, «. JteZ. Tea. rich gaard, ii. 

Ednart, m. Dutch, Tea. rich goard, ii 

Ednige, m. f. Ital. Tea. war reftige, ii. 

Edoino, m. ItdL Tea. rich ftiend, ii. 

EdTald, m. Oer. Ten. rich power, ii. 

Edwald, m. Eng. Tea. rich power, ii. 

Edward, m. Eng. Tea. rich goard, ii. 

Edwin, m. Eng. Tea. rich ftiend, ii. 342 

Edwy, m. Em. Tea. rich war, ii 342 
Eed,f. Eng. Ten. wealth, 48 
Eegnatie, m. Rw$. Lat. fiery, 401 
Eelia, m. Buts. Heb. God the Lord, 

Eereenia,/. Rui$. Gr. peace, 254 
Eemest, m. Lett. Ten. eagle stone (?), 

ii. 245 
Eemstt Lett. Ten. eagle stone (?), ii. 245 
Eesaia, Rum. salvation of the Lord, 

Eerst m. E$th. Tea. eternal role, ii. 

Eesidor, in. Buss. Gr. strong gift, 285 
'Effie,f. Scot. Gr. fair speech, 209 
EoA, m. Frank. Ten. formidable, ii. 

Egbert, m. Eng. Tea. formidably bright, 

ii. 243 
Egbertine, /. Cfer. Teo. formidably 

bright, ii 248 
Eggericb, m. Fries. Teo. formidalde 

king, ii. 248 
Eggert, m. Oer. Tea. formidable king, 

ii. 248 
EggOf m. Friee. Tea. formidable king, 

ii. 248 
Egica, m. Span. Tea. formidable, ii. 245 
Egide, m. Fr. Gr. with an segis, 188 
^gidia,/. Scot. Gr. with the ^Bgis, 188 
Egidio, m. Ital. Gr. with the segis, 188 
Egidios m. IhttcK Gr. with the sgis, 

EoiHERi, m. Oer. Tea. formidable war- 
rior, ii. 248 
Egilbert, m. Fr. Teo. formidable bright- 
ness, ii. 245 
Egilhart, m. Oer. Teo. formidable 

firmness, ii. 245 
Egilolf, m. Fr. Teo. formidable wolf, ii. 

EgOmar, Oer. Teo. formidable fame,ii. 

Egilona,/. Span. Teo. formidable, ii. 

Egils, Nor. Tea. formidable, ii. 244 
Eginhard, m. Fr. Teo. formidable 

firmness, ii. 244 
Egmond, m. Oer. Tea. terrible proteo- 

tion, ii. 243 
EgoTf m. Rtus. Gr. husbandman, 259 
J^orkOy m. Rues. Gr. husbandman, 259 
£hregott,7ii. Oer. Tea. honoor God, ii. 


uguzfes^ Google 




Ehrenbrecht, m. Oer» Ten. honour 

bright, ii. 491 
EhrenprieB, reward of honour, n. 491 
EhrenMed, m. Chr, Ten. honour peace, 

ii. 491 
Eigils, m. Nor, Ten. awM, ii. 244 
JBUartt m. Oer. Teu. formidable firm- 

ness, ii. 245 
BUbertj m. Oer. Ten. formidable bright- 
ness, ii. 245 
EUeenJ, Ir, Gr. light, 160 
Eilif, m. Nor, Teu. ever living, ii. 882 
Eiliv, m. Nor, Teu. ever living, ii. 882 
Eimund, m. Nor, Teu. ever guarding, 

ii. 882 
EUo, m. (kf. Teu. formidable firmness, 

ii. 245 
EiNAB, /. Nor, Teu. chief warrior, ii. 

EiMDBiDE,/. Nor. Teu. chief rider, ii. 

EiNiAWN, m. WeUh, Kelt, just, 1<70, ii. 

Eino, m. FrU$. Teu. awfdl firmness, ii. 

EntEHAios, m. Or, peaceftil, 254 
EiBENi,/. Or. peace, 254 
EmiK, m. Nor. Teu. ever king, ii. 885 
Eisaak, m. Rub9, Heb. laughter, 49 
Eisenbart, m, Oer, Teu. iron bright, ii. 

Eisenbolt, m. Oer. Teu. iron prince, iL 

Eisenhardt, m. 67er. Teu. iron firm, ii 

Eithne,/. Ir, Kelt, fire, ii. 29 
^irin<I,w.iVbr.Teu.ishind Wend,]i.481 
Bkard, m. Oer. Teu. formidably fiirm, ii. 

JSkatrina,/. Ru$8. Gr. pure, 270 
£kiely m. Bng. Heb. strength of God, 

Ela,/. JB^. Nor. holy (f), ii. 886 
Elaine,/. ^. Gr. light, 160 
Elayne,/. Efi^. Gr. light, 160 
Elberich, m. £/0r. Teu. elf king, ii. 849 
Eldred, m. Bng. Teu. battle counsel, ii. 

Eldrid, m. Nor, Teu. battle counsel, ii. 

Eleanor,/. Bng, Gr. light, 161 
Eleazar, m, Bng. Heb. the Lord's help, 

EUk^ m. Hung. Gr. helper of war, 202 

Elena,/. ItdL Gr. light, 161 
Blene,/. m. Or. Gr. light, 162 
Eleonora,/. Eng, Gr. hght, 161 
E14onore,/. Eng. Oer. Gr. light, 161 
EUonorka,/, Slav. Gr. light, 161 
Elfleda,/. Eng. Teu. hall increase, ii 

Elfirida,/. Eng. Teu. elf threatener, ii 

Elffiva,/. Eng. Teu. elf gift, ii. 850 
Ell, m. Eng. Heb. God the Lord, 98 
Elia, m. /taZ. Heb. God the Lord, 94 
EUakim, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 97 
EUan, m. W. Lat. cheerAil, 896 
Elias, m. Eng. DtUeh, Heb. God the 

Lord, 98 
Elie, m. Fr. Heb. God the Lord, 94 
EUdure, m. Eng. Gr. sun's gift, ii. 159 
EHdi, m. W. Gr. sun's gift, ii. 159 
Elidan,/. WeUh, Lat. downy, 821 
EUezer, m. Heb. God will help, 88 
Elioius, m. Lat. worthy of choice, 898 
Elihu, m. Eng. Heb. God the Lord, 98 
£l\)a, m. Slov. Heb. God the Lord, 98 
Elijah, m. Eng. Heb. God the Lord, 

EuNBD,/. Welih, Kelt, shapely, ii. 140 
Elinor,/. Eng. Gr. light, 161 
Elisa,/. /toZ. Heb. oath of God, 92 
Elisabet,/. ^. Heb. oath of God, 89 
Elisabetta,/. Ital Heb. oath of God, 

Elisabeth, Oer. Fr. Heb. oath of God, 

Elisavetta,/. Ru$$. Eng. Heb. oath of 

God, 90 
Elischeba,/. Heb. oath of God, 89 
Elise,/. Fr. Heb. oath of God, 92 
Eliseo, m. It. Heb. God my salvation, 

Eliseus, m. Lat. Heb. God my salvation, 

Elisha, m. Eng. Heb. God my salvation , 

Elisif,/. i2tt««. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Eliza,/. Eng, Heb. God's oath, 91 
Elizabeth,/. Eng, Heb. God's oath, 92 
Etta,/, m. En^. Teu. elf friend, ii. 860 
EiXANOBBi, m. Oer. Teu. battle war- 
rior, ii. 850 
Ellinferaht, m. (?^. Teu. battle 

splendour, ii. 850 
EUe, m. FrU. Teu. battle, ii. 850 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



EOoi,/. Eng. Gr. light, 160 
EOaid, m. Nor. Ten. stranger, iL 488 
EJUn,/. WeUh, Gr. Ugbt, 160 
EOmg, m. Nor. Ten. ii. 488 
EUmor,/. Eng. Gr. light, 161 
£2Ztf , m. Eng. Heb. God the Lord, 95 
£Uo, m. Fris. Ten. battle, ii. 860 
EUo.f. Esth. Heb. God's oath, 93 
Elmark, m. FrU, Tea. helmed king, ii. 

£faio, m. It. Gr. amiable, 255, ii. 258 
Eloi, m. Ft. Lat worthy of choice, 894 
Elcosa, /. ItaJL Tea. fimioas holiness, 

ii. 390 
Eloise,/. Fr. Tea. famoas holiness, ii. 

Eby, an. Ft. Lat worthy of choice, 894 
Elphin, m. FT^^ Kelt, white, ii. 88 
Elsabetyf. Oer. Heb. God's oath, 92 
EUbet,/. GtT. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Eltbeth,/. 8wu», Heb. God's oath, 92 
EUe.f. Oer. Tea. noble cheer, ii. 899 
EUebin,f. Dan. Heb. God's oath, 90 
~^Uhender, m. Scot, helper of men, 802 
Elihie, m. Scot, helper of men, 202 
ElgU/f. Eng. Tea. noble cheer, iL 899 
•-^l^eikyf' Scot. Heb. God's oath, 91 
Elgpie,f. Scot. Heb. God's oath, 91 
ElU^f. Esth. Heb. God's oath, 92 
l^LTiRL,/. Span. Lat. white (?), 885 
EUbieta,/. PoL Heb. God's oath, 92 
Elzhietka, f. Pol. Heb. God's oath, 92 
EheoT, m. Fr. Heb. God will help, 88 
Ema,/. Span, Tea. grandmother, ii. 268 
Rmanael, m. Oer. Heb. God with as, 

Emerence,/. Fr. Lat. deserving, 894 
Emerentia, /. Oer. Lat. deserving, 894 
Emerentianaj /. Dan. Lat. deserving, 

ExKBEimxTS, m. Lat. deserving, 894 
Em/eram, f. Oer. Lat. deserving, 894 
Emerick, m. Slov. Tea. work roler, ii. 

Emery, m. Bng. Tea. work rale, iL 259 
Emehn, /. Eng. Tea. work raler, iL 259 
Emile, m. Fr. Lat. woA (?), 805 
Emilu,/ JtoZ. Lat. work (?), 805 
Enrilie,/. J^r. Lat. work, 805 
Emilija, m. JSter. Lat. work (?), 305 
Emilio, m. Itoi. Lat. work (?), 805 
Ehilius, w. JSVf^. Lat. work (f), 805 
EmUy, /. Eng. Lat. work (?), 806, ii. 


Emlyn,/. .S^. Tea. work serpent, iL 

Emm, /. Eng, Tea. grandmother, iL 

£mma, /. Eng. Tea. grandmother, 816, 

ii. 268 
Emme, /. Fr. Tea. grandmother, iL 

Emmeline,/. Eng. Tea. work serpent, 

ii. 259 
Emmerich, m. Oer. Tea. work rale, ii. 

Emmery, m. Eng. Tea. work rale, ii. 

Emmonj Ene, Tea. rich protection, ii. 

Emmott,/. Eng. Tea. grandmother (f), 

ii. 264 
Emrys, m. Welsht Gr. immortal, 248 
Emwtd, m. Nor. Dan. island protec- 
tion, ii. 482 
Enaid,/. Welih, Kelt, the soal, ii. 142 
Emoabnacion, /. Span. Lat. being made 

flesh, 81 
EndredCtf. Nor. Tea. sapeiior rider, ii. 

Endres, m. Oer. Gr. manly, iL 208 
EndrikU, m. Lett. Tea. home raler, ii. 

EndruttU, m. Lett. Tea. home raler, ii. 

Enea, m. It. Gr. praise, 176 
Eneca,/. Sban. Lat fiery, 401 
Eneco, m. Span. Lat. fiery, 401 
En^, m. Fr. Gr. praise, 176 
Enoel, m. Oer. Gr. angel, 127 
Enoelbeboa, f. Oer. Tea. angel of pro- 
tection, ii. 249 
Engelbert, m. Oer. Tea, bright angel, 

127, ii. 249 
Engelchent m. Oer. Gr. angel, 127 
Emglefbtd, m. Oer. Gr. Tea. angel 

peace, ii. 249 
Enoelhaiu), m. Oer. Tea. lag's firm- 
ness, iL 249 
Engelke, f. Nor. Tea. lag's battle maid, 

ii. 249 
Emoelschalk, m. Oer, Gr. Tea. angel's 

disciple, ii. 249 
Engel^e,/. Dutch, Gr. angelic, 127 
Engelram, m. Oer. Gr. Tea. lug's 

raven, 127, ii. 249 
Engerrand, m. Fr. Gr. Tea. lag's 

raven, ii. 249 


by Google 




Mighus, m. Scot, Kelt exoell^t virtae, 

ii. 68 
EDgrada,/. ^Mn. Lat. grace, 404 
Enid,/, Eng. Kelt soul, ii. 142 
Bnnica, m. Sp. Lat. Lat. fieiy, 402 
Bnnicutf m. Sp. Lat. Lat. fiery, 402 
Bnna/n, m. Fr. Heb. Lat Adam the 

dwarf, 89 
Enoch, m. Eng, Heb. dedicated, 42, 48 
Enos, m. j^n^. Heb. mortal man, 42, 

Enrichetta, /. lu Tea. home ruler, ii. 

Enrico, m. It. Tea. home raler, ii. 

Eniik, m. Slov. Ten. home raler, ii 228 
Enrika, /. Slov. Tea. home raler, ii. 

Enrique, m. SIpan. Tea. home ruler, ii. 

Enriqueta,/. Span, Tea. home rale, ii. 

IhueUs, m. Lett, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Enrilo^ m. Cfer. Tea. divine, ii. 183 
Entkys, m. Lett. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Entt m, Swiss, Lat laurel, 867 
EnzeU, m. Swiss, Lat. laurel, 867 
Enzio, m. ItaL Teu. home role, ii. 220 
Enzius, m, Lai, Tea. home rule, ii. 

EocHAiD, m. Erse, Kelt horseman, ii 

EooHAK, m. Gael, Kelt young warrior, 

207, ii. 141 
Eoghania,/. Erse, Kelt young warrior, 

ii 141 
^in, m. Erse, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

EoRCONBEBHT, m, A. S. Tou. saored 

brightness, ii. 255 
EoRcoMooT, m. A. S. Teu. sacred good- 
ness, ii. 255 
EoRCOMWALD, m. A. S, Teu. saored 

power, ii. 256 
EoRCONWiNB, m, A. S. Teu. sacred 

friend, ii. 255 
EoRMENBURO,/. A. S. Tcu. publio pro- 
tection, ii. 254 
EoBMENBURH, /. A, S. Tcu. public 

pledge, ii. 254 

EORMENQILD, /. A, S, TOU. pubUc 

pledge, ii. 254 

EoRMENOTTH,/. A. S. Tou. publlc gift, 

ii. 254 
EoRMENRic, m. A.S. Teu. public mle, 

ii. 254 
Eostafie, m. Slav. Gr. healthy, 209 
Ephraim, m. Eng. Heb. two-fold in- 

crease, 69 
Ephrem, m. R%us. Heb. two-fold in- 

crease, 70 
EpiDuiia, /. Ital. Gr. manifestation, 

Epifanio, m. Rom, Gr. of the manifes- 
tation, 482 
EpiU), m. Ger. Tea. wild boar, ii. 273 
EpnfBTHEus, m. Gr. after-thought, 142 
Epiphanie, /. Fr. Gr. manifestatioD, 

Efiphanios, m. Gr. of the manifesta- 
tion, 481 
Epiphanius, m. Lat. Gr. manifestation, 

Eppie,/. Scot, Gr. fair fame, 209 
J^[>o, m. Ger. Teu. firm wild boar, ii. 

Epurhard, m. Ger. Teu. firm wild boar, 

ii. 278 
EpurhelMj m. Ger. wild boar helm, iL 

Equitlus, m. Lot, Kelt horseman, ii. 

Eraric, m. Ger, Teu. warrior king, ii. 

Erasme, m. Fr. Ger. amiable, 255 
Erasmo, m. It. Gr. amiable, 255 
Erasmus, m. Dutch, L<U. Eng. Ger. Gr. 

amiable, 255, 891 
Erchenold, m. Ger, Teu. sacred prince, 

Erchimp^Ftb, m. It. Teu. sacred bright- 

nessr-u. 255 
Ercole, m. It. Gr. noble fkme, 151 
Erdmuth, ii. 491 
Erembert, m. Fr, Teu. public ^lendonr, 

ErenUmrga, f. Eng. Teu. public protec- 
tion, ii. 254. 
Eric, m. Ir, Eng. Teu. ever king, ii. 

Erich, m, Russ. Ger. Teu. ever king, ii. 

Erik, m. Slov. Teu. eier king, ii. 381 
Erik, m. Swed. Esth. Teu. ever king, 

ii. 881 
Erika, /. Swed. Teu. ever king, ii. 381 

uigiiizea dv ■'•wJv^v./ 



Erilo, «. Leu, Lett ever kii^irt ii* 3^^ 
.Airt^, m. ;8|Mtit. Tea. warrior battle, 

Ezkenoald, m. JVanl^ Ten. sacred 

power, ii. 255 
Ebl, m. Nor. Ten. eari, ii. 264 
Eblbbald, Cftr. Ten. eaii prince, ii. 264 
Eblsbbtht, Ger. Ten. bright earl, iL 264 
Eblheb, i^Tor. Ten. earl warrior, ii. 264 
Eblhild, Nor. Ten. earl maiden, ii. 264 
EauKe, earrs son, ii. 266 
Ebucvb, /. m. Nor. Ten. stranger, ii. 

SHmg, m. Nor. Ten. stranger, ii. 488 
Ennas, wu Lith. Ten. public, ii. 258 
Ermey m. Fr. Ten. pnbHc, ii 263 
Ermdinda,/. ItaL Ten. world serpent, 

Ermengard, /. Oer. Ten. pnblic guard, 

it 254 
Ennengarde,/. Bng. Ten. public guard, 

n. 254 
EEMEKioiLDi m. Ru$$. Tcu. pnblic 

pledge, ii. 461 
Ennentmd, /. Eng. Ten. maiden of 

the natioD, ii. 254 
Ennesinda, /. Span. Ten. pnbUo 

streoigth, iL 254 
Srmkt,/. Burg. Ten. public, ii. 260 
Ermin, /. Welth, Lat. lordly, 816 
Brmima, f. lUsL Lat lordly, 169, 816 
Ermo, m. Ital. Or. amiable. 255 
Srmo, m. ItaL Ten. public, ii. 253 
JBrmolaj, m. Eu$t. Or. people of Hermes, 

Ernest, m. Eng. Pol. Ten. eagle stone 

{?), iL 2B4 
Emeste, m. Fr. Ten. eagle stone (f), ii 

Ernestine, /. Oer. Ten. eagle stone (f), 

Ernesto, m. ItaL Ten. eagle stone (?), 

Emeszt, m. Hung. Ten. eagle stone (f), 

Entyo, m. Hung. Or. peaceful, 254 
Ernst, m. Oer. Ten. eagle stone (?), ii. 

Enutine, /. Oer. Ten. eagle stone (f;, 

Enzok,/. Hung. Heb. God's oath, 92 
End/, OT. Ger. Teu. boar wolf, n. 272 
Ertt^o, n*. 5jpait. Ten. army war, ii. 407 
Eifk, m. Pol. Ten. erer king, ii. 881 


Enebet,/. Hung. Heb. God's oath, 90 
Erzokjf. Hung. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Eta,/. A.8. Ten. the gods, iL 180 
Esaia, m. It. Heb. salvation of the 

Lord, 119 
Esaias, m. Eng. Oer. Heb. salvation of 

the Lord. 119 
Essie, m. Fr. Heb. salvation of the 

Lord, 119 
Esau, m. Eng. Heb. hairy, 38 
Esay, m. Eng, Heb. salvation of the 

Lord, 119 
Esbem, m. Dan. Teu. divine bear, ii. 181 
Esc,/. m. A. 8. Ten. ash tree, ii. 246 
Esohdrmonde, /. Fr. Lat Teu. famous 

protection, 386 
Eicwine,m. A.S.Tea. ash friend, ii. 246 
Esdras, m. Eng. Heb. rising of light, 

Esmendda,/. Span. Gr. emerald, 273 
Esperanga,/. I^oan. Lot hope, 405 
Esperance,/. Fr. Lat hope, 405 
Esperanza,/. Sjpan. Lat hope, 405 
EssA,/. Ir. Kelt, nurse, ii. 22 
Eseie,/. Eng. Pers. star, 140 
Estanislau, m. Port. Slav, camp glory, 

Esteban, m. Span, Gr. crown, 226 
Estella,/. %m. Lat star, 140 
Estelle,/. A. Lat star, 140 
Ester,/. It. Hung. Pers. star, 140 
Esterre,/. /f. Pers. star, 140 
Estephania,/. Port. Gr. crown, 226 
Estevan, m. Span. Gr. crown, 226 
Estevao, m. Port. Gr. crown, 226 
Estevennes, m. iV. Gr. crown, 226 
Esther, /. Eng. Pers. star, 140 
Estienne, m. Fr. Gr. crown, 226 
Estolfo,fii. Span. Ten. swift wolf. ii. 383 
Estrith,/. Dan. Teu. impulse of love, 

EsTLT,/. Cym. Kelt ikir, ii. 145 
Eth, m. Scot. Kelt fii«, ii. 28 
Ethel,/. Eng. Ten. noble, 397 
Ethelbuiga, /. Eng. Teu. noble protec- 

tion, ii. 397 
Etheldred, /. Eng. Teu. noble threat- 

ener, ii. 397 
Ethelind, /. Eng. Teu. noble snake, ii. 

Ethelmar, m. Eng. Teu. work ru!er, ii. 

Ethelred, m. Eng. Ten. noble council, 

ii. 397 


by Google 



Etheredt m. Eng, Ten. noble oonncil, 

ii. 897 
Ethert m. Eng, Tea. noble oonncil, ii. 

Ethfinn, m. Scot Ten. white fire, ii. 28 
Etienne, m. jFV. Gr. crown, 226 
Etiennette, /. Fr. Gr. crown, 226 
Etta, /. Ger. Ten. home mler, ii 222 
Etto, m. Oer, Ten. firm wild boar, ii. 

Ettore, m. It. Gr. defender, 175 
Etzel, m. Ger, Tartar, father like, 47 
Eubul, m. G«r. Gr. happy council, ii. 

Eucaria, /. m, ItaL Gr. happy hand, iL 

Enchaire, m. Fr, Gr. happy hand, 206 
Eachar, m. G«r. Gr. happy hand, 206 
Enchario, m. Port, Gr. happy hand, 206 
EucHABis./. Gr. happy grace, 206 
Enchary, m. Pol, Gr. happy hand, 206 
EucuEnt, 111. Gr. happy hand, 206 
Eucherius, m. Lot, Gr. hi^py hand, 206 
Eodbaird, m. ErM, Ten. rich guard, ii 

EuDBs, m. jFV. Ten. rich, ii. 841 
Endocia,/. Lat, Gr. approval, 206 
Eudocie, /. -Fr. Gr. approval, 207 
Eudokhia,/. Run, Gr. approval, 207 
Eudon, m. Fr, Ten. rich, ii 841 
EuDORA,/. Lot. Gr. happy gift, 206 
Endore,/. Fr, Gr. happy gift, 206 
Endossia,/. /t. Gr. approval, 207 
EuDoxiA,/. i2ttM. Gr. happy glory, 207 
Endoxie,/. Fr. Gr. happy glory, 207 
Enfemia,/. It. Gr. fiiir fame, 209 
Eufrosina,/. Rom, Gr. mirth, 172 
Eugen, m, Ger, Gr. well bom, 207 
Eugene, m. Fr, Eng, Gr. well bom, 

EnoENBS, m, Gr. well bom, 207 
Eugenia, /. It, Span, Eng, Gr. well 

bom, 207 
Eugenie, /. Fr, Ger. Gr. well bom, 

Eugenie, m. Rom, Gr. well bom, 207 
Eugenius, m. Lot, Gr. well bom, 207 
Eugeniusz, m, Pol. Gr. well bom, 207 
Euginia, /. Ene^ Kelt, warrior, ii. 141 
EuLAUA, /. It, Span Eng, Gr. fidr 

speech, 208 
Eulalie,/. Fr, Gr. fair Gn>eech, 209 
Eunice, /. Eng, Gr. happy victory, 


Enphame,/. Scot, Gr. fidr fiune, 209 
EuPHEMiA, /. Eng. Scot. DtUch, Gr. fair 

fiune, 209 
Enphemie,/. Fr. Gr. fiur fame, 209 
EuPHBASu,/. Eng. Gr. mirth, 208 
Euphrasie,/. Fr. Gr. mirth, 208 
Euphrosine,/. Fr, Gr. mirth, 172 
EupHBosYNE, /. Eng. Oer. Gr. mirth, 

Eustace, m, Eng, Gr. happy in harvest, '' 

209 aJUo »L S Ud^cul: " 
Eustache, m. i^r . Gr. happy in harvest, 

Enstachia,/. Eng, Gr. happy in harvest, 

Enstachie,/. Fr, Gr. happy in harvest, 

EusTAOHTS, m, Gr. happy in harvest, 

Enstachins, m. Lot. Gr. happy in har- 

vest, 210 
EusTATHios, m. Gr. healthy, 210 
Eustazia, /. It. Gr. happy in harvest, 

Eustazio, m. /(. Gr. happy in harvest, 

Euitathius, m. Rum. Or. Gr. healthy, 

Eustochium, /. Lot, Gr. good thought, 

ii. 209 
Eva,/. Ger, Dan. Lat. Heb. life, 41, 42, 

ii. 89 
Evaldy f, Fr, Ten. wild boar power, ii. 

Evan, m. Scot, Welshj Kelt, young war- 
rior, 207, ii. 141 
Evangeline, /. Am, Gr. happy mes- 
senger, 206 
Evangelista, m. It, Gr. happy mes- 
senger, 206 
Eve,/. Eng, Heb. life, 41, ii. 40 
Eveleen,/. Ir, Kelt, pleasant, ii. 40 
Evelina, /. Eng, Kelt, pleasant, ii. 40 
Eveline,/ Eng. Kelt pleasant, 41, ii 40 
Evelyn, m. Eng. Lat. hazel nut, ii. 40 
Even, m, Nor. Ten. island Wend, ii. 482 
Everard, m. Fr, Eng, Ten. firm wild 

boar, ii. 272 
Everardo, m. It. Tea. firm wild boar, 

ii. 272 
Everhard, m. Oer, Ten. firm wild boar, 

ii. 272 
Everhilda, /. Eng, Ten. wild bosr 

battle maid, ii. 278 


by Google 



iToilda, /. Bng, Tea. wild boar battle 
nudd, ii. 278 

Evertj m. JL. Ger, Ten. wild boar 
firm, IL 278 

Evert, JR. Oer, Ten. wild boar firm, 
ii. 278 

Evgen, m. Slov, Gr. weU bom, 307 

Evgenij, /. Slov. Gr. well bom, 307 

Evir, /. Scot, pleasant, ii. 40 

ETiraUin,/. 8eoU Kelt, pleasantly ex- 
cellent, ii. 39 

Evircoma, /. Scot. Kelt, pleasantly 
amiable, ii. 89 

Eylal^a, /. Shv, Gr. fair speecb, 206 

Errand, m. Fr. Ten. firm -viold boar, ii. 

Erre, «, Fr. Ten. wild boar, ii. 278 

Erremond, m. Fr. Ten. wild boar pro- 
tection, ii. 278 

EvroU, m. Fr. Ten. wild boar wolf, ii. 

Evnudy m. Fr. Ten. wild boar power, 
ii. 372 

Ewa,/. Russ. Heb. life, 42 

Ewa, /. Ger. Heb. life, 42 

Evan, m. Scot. Kelt, warrior, 207, ii. 

Ewart, fn. £ng. Ten. firm wild boar, 
ii. 278 

Ewarts, m. Lett, Ten. firm wild boar, 
ii 278 

Ewe, f. Lus. Heb. life, 42 

EweUne, /. Ger. Kelt, pleasant, ii. 40 

Etpert, m. Esth. Tea. firm wild boar, ii. 

Etperti,m. Lett. Ten. firm wild boar, iL 

Ewusche, f. Leu. Heb. life, 42 
EuLR, m. lior. Tea. island warrior, ii. 

Eydis, /. Nor. Ten. island sprite, ii. 482 
Eypbey,/. m. iVbr. Tea. island peace, 

ii. 482 
Eyoebd, /. Nor. Tea. island maid, ii. 

Etmumd, m. Nor. Tea. island protec- 
tion, ii. 431 
Eystein, m. Nor. Tea. island stone, 

887, ii. 431 
Eythiof, m. Nor. Ten. island thief 
Etny,/. Nor. Tea. island freshness, ii. 

ETUiiF, m. Nor. Tea. island wolf, ii. 

Eyvab, m. Nor, Tea. island pmdenoe, 

ii. 482 
Eyvind, m. Nor. Tea. island Wend, ii. 

Ezechiel, m. Ger. Heb. strength of 

God, 119 
Ezekias, m. Gr. Heb. strength of the 

Lord, 119 
Ezekiel, m. Eng. Heb. strength of God, 

Ezra, m. Eng. Heb. rising of light, 


Fabia, IL Lat bean grower, 315 
Fabian, m. Eng. Lat. bean grower, 815 
Fabiano, m. It. Lat. bean grower, 315 
Fabien,/. Fr. Lat. bean grower, 816 
Fabio, m. It. Lat. bean grower, 816 
Fabiola,/. lu Lat. bean grower, 815 
Fabius, m. Lat. bean grower, 815 
Fibijan, m. iSZov. Lat. bean grower, 816 
Fabnce, m. Fr. Lat. mechanic, 316 
Fabsicius, m. Lat. mechanic, 815 
Fabron, m. Ger. LaL mechanic, 815 
Fabronio, m. It* Lat. mechanic, 815 
FicHTNA, m. Er$e, ii. 33 
Facto, m. It. Lat. good worker, 884 
Fadriqae, m. Span. Tea. peace rale, ii. 

Faxk,f. Bret. Kelt, white wave,ii. 188 " 

Faith, f. Eng. 

FanchetU,/. Fr. Tea. free, 201 
Fanchon,/. Fr. Tea. free, 201 
Fanny,/. Eng. Tea. free, ii. 199 
FanHk,f. Bret. Tea. free, 201 
Fajrabert, m. Frank. Tea. travelled 

splendoar, ii. 432 
Faramond, m. Frank. Tea. travelled 

protector, ii. 483 
Fardorougha, m. Irish, Kelt, dark com- 

plexioned man, ii. 54 
Farghy,m. Irish, Kelt, excellent valoar, 

Faborut, Nor. Tea. travelled Grim, ii. 

Fabold, m. Ger. travelled power, ii. 433 
Farquhar, m. Scot. Kelt, manly, ii 56 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Fabtheon, m. Nor. Ten. travelled eer- 

vant, ii. 432 
Fabulf, m. Nor. Ten. travelled woU; ii. 

FASTBUBa, /. Frank. Tea. firm protec- 
tion, ii. 414 
Fastmann, m. Frank. Ten. firm man, 

Fastmund, m. Frank. Ten. firm guard, 

Fastolf, m. Ger. Tea. firm wolf, ii. 

Fastbadb,/. Ft. Ten. firm council, ii. 

Fausta,/. /<. Lat. lucky, 84fi 
Faustine,/. m. Ger. Lat. luckj, 346 
Faustina,/. It, Lat lucky, 346 
Faustine,/. Fr. Lat. lucky, 346 
Fausto, m. It. Lat. lucky, 846 
Faustus, m. Lat. lucky, 346 
Favour^ m. En^;. 372 
Faxabbandr, m. Ice. white hair, ii. 426 
Faxi, m. /c«. hair, ii. 425 
Faxio, m. It. Lat. good worker, 884 
Feabachtb, m. Gael, manly, ii. 66 
FEABOHAL,m. Erte. Kelt, man of valour, 

u. 56 
Feabohus, m. Eru^ Kelt man of 

strength, ii. 54 
Feaigus, m. Ir. Kelt man of strength, 

ii. 65 
Febe, / It. Gr. light, 166 
Febo, m. Span. Gr. light, 156 
Febronu,/. It. Lat. 370 
Federico, m. It. Teu. peace ruler, iL 

Fedeiiga, /. It. Tea. peace ruler, ii. 

Federigo, m. It. Teu. peace ruler, ii. 

Fedlemi,/. Eru, Kelt ever good, ii. 

Fedum , m. IrUht Kelt, good, ii. 108 
Fedor,/. m. J2tM<. Gr. God's gift, 233 
Feeleep, m. I^um. Gr. lover of horses, 

Feidlim, m. Erse, Kelt, ever good, 346, 

Feidrik, Bret. Teu. peace ruler, ii. 104 
FEiTHFAn.oE,/. -Bf»e, Kelt, honeysuckle 

ringlets, ii. 22 
Felice, m. It. Lat. happy, 846 
Felicia, /. Ena. happy, 846 
Felicidad,/* Span. Lat. happiness, 346 

Felicidade,/. Port. Lat happiness, d46 
Felicie,/. Fr. Lat. happy, 346 
Felicitjk,/. It. Lat happmess, 346 
Felicit§, /. Fr. Lat happiness, 346 
Feliks, m. Ru$$. Lat happy, 346 
FeUm, m. irtf^ Kelt ever good, ii. 

Felimy, m. IrUh, Kelt, ever good, ii. 

Felipa,/. Port. Gr. lover of horses, 

Felipe,/, m. Span. Gr. lover of horses, 

Felipinho, m. Port. Gr. lover of horses, 

Felipo, m. Span. Gr. lover of horses, 

Felippe, m. iS^n. Gr. lover of horses, 

Felise,/. Fr. Lat. happy, 346 
Fbux, m. Fr. Eng. Span. Slav. Lat 

happy, 346, ii. 108 
Feliz, TO. Port. Lat happy, 346 
Fenella,/. Scot. Kelt white shouldered, 

177, ii. 73 
Feo, m. It. Heb. gilt of the Lord, 52 
Feodor, m. Russ. Gr. God's gift, 232 
Feodora, /. Russ. Gr. God's pift, 283 
Feodosia, to. Ru$$. Gr. *God given, 287 
Feoris, TO. ErUt Gr. stone, 246 
Ferabras, to. Fr. Kelt strong arm, ii. 46 
Feradhaoh, to. Erse. Kelt, dark man, 

ii. 54 
Ferahbau), to. Oer. Teu. prince of 

life, ii. 435 
Febahmund, to. Oer. Teu. protection 

of life, ii. 435 
Ferdinand, to. Oer. Fr. Eng. Teu. ad- 
venturing life. ii. 435 
Ferdinanda, /. Oer. Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
Ferdinandine, /. Fr. Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
Ferdinando, to. It. Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
Ferdoragh, to. Erse, Kelt, dark man, 

ii. 54 
Ferdynand, to. PoL Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
FerencZy to. Hung. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Ferghal, to. £rM, Kelt man of strength, 

ii. 56 
Ferhonanths, to. Qoth, Teu. adventur- 

ing life, ii. 434 




^^ei^^os, m. 8coL Kelt man's strength, 

""^eigosianA,/. SeotJKt^t. man'sstrength, 
Ferigoj /. It, Ten. peace ruler, ii. 196 

Ferko^ wi. Hvm§. Ten. free, ii. 301 "^ Tlngal, m. Scot. Kelt white stranger, it 
Fernanda, /. i^Mn. Tea. adTentoring ^ 

life, ii. 484 
Fernando, ». /t Tea. adTentoring life, 

ii. 484 
Forand, m. Prov. Teo. adTentoring 

life, ii. 484 
FBrrante, m. It. Tea. adTentoring life, 

ii. 434 
Ferry, m, Fr, Teo. peace raler,ii. 194 
Fbstds, m. Lot. ii. 22 
.^otd, /. WeUK Kelt fierjr dart, ii. 51 
FiACHBA, m. Ene. Kelt eagle, ii. 06 
FSaere, ». Fr, Kelt eagle, ii. 97 
FiAiiMA,/. It Lat ii. 22, 466 
FUko, ». /Vi«. Teo. peace role, ii. 

Fiddy^f. Jr. Ten. peace strength, ii. 

Fidrik, m. Lu$. Teo. peace role, ii. 

Fieehen^ /. Oer. Or. wisdom, 248 
Fieke, /. Cfer. Or. wisdom. 248 
Fijme.f. Fr. Heb. addition, 69 
FiUp, m. Htmg. Gr. horse lover, 186 
Filibert, m. Fr. Teo. bright will, ii. 

fiUberto, m. /t. Teo. bright will, ii. 

Filikitata,/. Rus$. Lat happiness, 846 
FUip, m. Swed. Slav. WaU. Gr.loTer of 

horses, 187 
FUippa,/. It, Gr. lover of horses, 185 
Filippipo, m. IL Gr. loTer of horses, 

iHippOi m. /t Gr. lover of horses, 

Filomena, /. It. daoghter of light, 462 
FriTABHOR,/. Erse, Kelt fair eyelids, ii. 

FnrBiL, /. Eru, Kelt white blossom, 

862, ii. 78 
Finan, m. Iriih, Kelt £ur ofGBpring, ii. 

Fhtbo^f. Nor. Kelt white bow, ii. 70 
FiKDATH, /• Eru, Kelt &ir ooloor, ii 

FiNDBLTH, /. Erse, Kelt fair face, ii. 


FinMn, m. hisk, Kelt fidr o£^»ring, ii. 

FineUa, f. Irish, Kelt, fidr shoolders, iL 

FinetU,/. Fr. Heb. addition, 69 

FiHOHnf , M. Erse, Kelt fidr oflbpring, 

Fmian, m. Irish, Erse, Kelt fidr off. 

spring, iL 72 
FiNV, m. Nor. Kelt white, ii. 69 
FiNNA,/. Nor. Kelt white, ii. 69 
FiNHBOOi, m. Nor, Kelt white bow, ii. 

FnTNOABD, m. Nor. Kelt Nor. white 

defence, ii. 69 
FiNNOEiB, Nor. Kelt Nor. white spear, 

ii. 70 
Finni, m. lee. Kelt %hite, iL 60 
FinnkaHa,/. Nor. Teo. white kettle, iL 

FiNNKBTiL, m. Nor. Teo. white kettle, 

Fitmf^eV, m. Nor. Kelt. Nor. white 

kettle, ii. 70 
FiNNLEiK, m. Nor. Teo. Finn's sport, 

FiNirvARDR, HI. Nor. Kelt Nor. Finn's 

goard, ii. 70 
FniNviDR, m. Nor, Teo. Finn's wood, 

FiMscoTH, f. Erse, Kelt white blossom, 

862, u. 78 
Fintan, Irish, Kelt, white, ii. 74 
Finvola,/. Irish, Kelt white shoolders, 

ii. 78 
FioNN, HI. Gael. Kelt, white, iL 78 
FumnagtU, m. Eru, Kelt white, ii. 71 
FioNNOHAL, m. Oael. Kelt white 

stranger, ii. 71 
FioKNOHALA, /. Erse, Kelt, white 

shooldered, 177, iL 73 
Fiordiligi,/. It. fleor de lis, 862 
Fiore,/. Itdl. Lat flower, 361 
Fiordespina,/. It. hawthorn, B62 
Fiorentmo, m. It. Lat. floorishing, ii. 362 
FithiUm. Erse, Kelt 862 
Fjorleip, m. Nor. Teo. relic of life, ii. 

Flanna,/. Erse, Kelt roddy, ii. 101 
Flavia, /. It. Lat yellow, 816 
Flavian, m. Eng. Lat yellow, 816 
Flavianos, m. Lat yellow, 316 



Flavilla, /. Lat yellow, 810 
Havio, m. It, Lat. yellow, 315 
FiAVius, f». Lat. yellow, 1, 816, 864 
FUanee^ m. Eng, Kelt rosy, ii. 101 
Flidrik, m. Breton, Ten. home rule, ii.^ 

FlipoU, f, Fr. Gr. horse lover, 187 
Flobert, m. Fr. Teu. wise splendour, 

ii. 421 
Floberte, /. /r. Ten. wise splendour, 

ii. 421 
Flora, /. Eng. Lat. flowers, 860 
Flore, /. Fr. Lat. flowers, 860 
Florence, /. Eng. Lat. flourishing, 860 
Florence, m. Ir. Lat. flourishing, 360, 

ii. 72. 101 
Florentin, m. Fr. Lat. flourishing, 861 
Florentine,/. Fr. Lat. flourishing, 362 
FLOBBMTnrs, m. Lat. flourishing, 861 
Florentz, m. Ger.^Cat. flourishmg, 862 
FloretU^f. Fr. Lat. flowers, 862 
Florian, m. G^. Lat. floweiy, 862 
Florie,/. Go^i. Lat. floweiy, 862 
FUyry.f. Scot. Lat. flowers. 362 
Foka, tn. Rtus. Or. a Phooian, 418 
Fokke, m. Nor. Teu. people's guuxl, ii. 

Folkart, m. Ger. Teu. people guard, ii. 

FoLKER, m. Oer. Prov. people's guard, 

ii. 380 • 

Folkwar, m. Oer. Teu. people's great- 
ness, ii. 331 
Folko, m.Oer. Teu. people's guard,ii. 830 
FoLKPKRAHT, in. Ger. Teu. people's 

brightness, ii. 380 
FoLKWART. m. Ger. Teu. people's guard, 

ii. 830 
FoLKwiNE. m. Ger. Teu. people's friend, 

FoLRAD, m. Oer. Teu. people's coundl, 

ii. 830 
FoLKRicH. fit. Ger. Teu. people's ruler, 

jPoma. m. Rust. Aram, twin. 67 
Fomida,f. Ruts. Aram, twin, 67 
FoRTUNATus, w. Lat. fortune, 37 
Fortune,/. Eng. 872 
Fortunio, m. iSpan. Lat. fortunate, 872 
Fotte, m. iZiiM. Or. light, 150 
Foulques, m. Fr. Teu. people's guard. 

FouqueSf m. Fr. Teu. people's guard, ii. 

Franc, m. 8lov. Teu. free, ii. 197 
Frances,/. Eng. Teu. tree, ii. 199 
Francesca, /. ItaL Teu« free, ii. 198 
Francesco, m. ItoZ. Teu. free, ii. 197 
Francie, m. SeoL Ten. free, iL 900 
Francilo, m. Span. Teu. tree, 200 
Francina,/. Dutch, Teu. free, ii. 901 
Francis, m. Eng. Teu. free, ii. 198 
Francisca, /. Port. Span. Teu. fr-ee, ii. 

Francisco, m. Port. Span. Teu. fr-ee, iL 

Franciscus, m. Lot Teu. fr«e, ii. 197 
Franciaek, m. Slov. Teu. free, ii. 200 
Francisk, m. WaU. Teu. free, ii. 900 
FraneUka,/. Dan. Teu. free, ii. 901 
Franeiike, /. Slov. Ger. Teu. free, ii. 

FrancUkut, m. Ger. Teu. free, ii. 198 
FrancUque,/. Fr. Teu. free, ii. 901 
Francisquinho, m. Port. Teu. free, ii. 

Frandszek, m. Pol. Teu. tree, ii. 200 
Franck, m. Pol. Teu. tree, ii. 900 
Francitzka,/. Pol. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franco, m. It. Teu. free, ii. 200 
Fran<?oi8, m. Fr. Teu. free, 14, ii. 198 
Fran<?oise,/. Fr. Teu. free, ii. 198 
Francyhtje,/. Dutch, Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franek, m. Pol. Teu. free, ii. 901 
Franica,/. Slov. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franja,f. Slov. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franjo, m. Slov. Teu. free, ii. 200 
Frank,/. Eng. Teu. tree, ii. 199 
Frankel, m. Ger. Teu. tree, ii. 200 
Franko, m. 0. Ger. Teu. free, ii. 200 
Frans, m. Swed. Teu. free, ii. 200 
Frante, m. Bret. Teu. free, ii. 900 
Franuza,/. Bret. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franzje,/. Dutch, Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franta, m. Span. Teu. fr^ lord, ii. 

FrantUek,/. Bohm. Teu. free, ii. 200 
FrantUka,/. Bohm. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franulka,/. Pol. Teu. tree, ii. 901 
Franu8ia,f:Pol. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Franz, m. Ger. Teu. free, ii. 198 
FranzUk, m. Ruts. Teu. tree, ii. 201 
Franziska,/. Rum. Teu. tree, ii. 901 
Franziske,/. G«r. Teu. free, ii. 201 
Freavine, m. ^or. Teu. free friend, ii. 

Fred, m. Eng. Teu. peace ruler, ii. 194 
Freddy, m. Eng. Teu. peace ruler, ii. 194 


by Google 



FMcgonde,/. Fr. Ten. petoe war, ii. 

FssDEotmr,/. Frank. Tea. peace war, 

H. 193 
FrederiCy in. Fr, Ten. peace mler, ii. 

Frederica, /. Eng, Span. Port. Tea. 

peace ruler, ii. 105 
Redimek, la. Ena. Tea. peace roler, ii 

Fredeneo* la. Port. Tea. peace mler, ii. 

Frsderigo, ai. ^ikmi. Tea. peace raler, 

it 194 
Frederikj m. Dam. Tea. peace raler, iL 

Frederigae,/. ta. Fr. Tea. peace raler, 

it 195 
Fredewolt, wi. Fri$. Tea. peace power, 

Fredi^ at. FrU. Tea. peace power, iL 196 
F^ediswid, /. Eng. Tea. peace strength, 

FredU, m. 8wi$$^ Tea. peace raler. ii. 

Fr4dregy m. Norm. Oer. peace roler, 

iL 194 
Fradnk, m. 8med. Tea. peace role, iL 

fkedrika, /. Bwtd. Tea. peace rale, 

iL 195 
Freerik, ai. Dutch, Ger. peace roler, 

iL 194 
^titUmk^ ak Chr. Ger. free thooght, 

u. 196 
Frehmmd, wn. Oer. Tea. free protec* 

ticm, ii. 195 
Freimuih, ai. Cfer. Ger. free coorage, 

ii. 195 
Frek, m. Fri$. Tea. peace roler, iL 195 
Fremont, m. Fr. Tea. peace protec- 
tion, ii. 195 
Frena, m. Dutch, Tea. free, ii. 200. 
Fbeodhorio, m. A. 8. Tea. peace 

roler, iL 194 
Frerk, m. FrU. Teo. peace role, iL 195 
FBETHBSAHTEUt /. JSng. Tco. strength 

of peace, iL 196 
Frewen, ak Eng. Tea. free friend, ii. 

¥rewitsa, /. Eng. Tea. strength of 

peace, ii. 106 
RusTOEBDUB, lec. Tco. free home, iL 


Fridbald, m. Chr. Tea. peace prince, iL 

Fridbert, m. Oer. Tea. peace bright, ii. 

FridboTg,/. Oer. Tea. peace protection, 

Fridbobb, /. m. Oer. Tea. spear of 

peace, iL 193 
Fnder, ta. Oer. Tea* peace warrior, ii. 

Friderik, m. 8lov. Tea. peace roler, iL 

Fridgerda,/. Oer. Tea. peace goard, iL 

Fridgond,/. Frank. Tea. peace war, ii. 

Fbidhblm , fa. Oer. Tea. peace helmet, 

Fbidhebi, m, Oer. Tea. peace warrior, 

Fridhbekb, m. O. Nor. Tea. peace 

roler, ii. 195 
Fridisnid,/. Eng. Tea. peace strength, 

Fbidleifb, m. Nor. Tea. peace relic, iL 

Fridli, m, Swiu, Tea. peace role, ii. 

FridUb, m, Oer, Tea. peace relic, iL 

Fbidldu,/. Oer. Tea. peace snake, ii. 

Fridman, m, Oer, Tea. peace man, ii. 

Fridnuir, m. Oer. Tea. peace flune, iL 

Fbidmuio), m. Oer. Tea. peace protec- 
tion, iL 195 
Frido, m. Oer. Tea. peace, ii. 177 
Fridold, ta. Oer. Tea. peace power, ii. 

Fbidolf, m, Oer. Teo. peace wolf^ ii. 

Fridolin, m. Oer. Tea. peace, ii. 198 
Fridrad, m. Oer, Teo. peace oooncil, ii. 

Fridrada,/. Oer, Teo. peace oooncillor, 

Fridrich, m. Ru$$. Oer. Ten. peace 

roler, ii. 195 
Fridrik, m. Hung. Tea. peace roler, iL 

Fridrike, /. Oer, Tea. peace roler, iL 



by Google 



Fbidrikr. m. Not, Ten. peace ruler, IL 

Fridmn,/. peace wisdom, ii. 195 
Fbiduheri, m, 0. Qer. Tea. peace war- 
rior, ii. 198 
Fridulf, m. Not, Tea. peace wolf, ii. 

Friedel, m. Qer, Tea. peace wolf, ii. 

Friedrich, m, Qer, Tea. peace rule, 116, 

Frtfco, m. FrU, Tea. peace ruler, ii. 

Fbtthiof, 1ft. Nor, Tea. free thief, ii. 

Frithlaf, m. A, S, Tea. peace relic, ii. 

FBiTHoaAB, m, A,8, Tea. peace spear, 

Fbithswith,/. ^.iS.Tea.peace strength, 

ii. 196 
Fbtthwald, m. A, 8, Tea. peace power, 

u. 196 
Frithwolp, m. A. 8. Tea. peace wolf, 

FritZt m, Qer, Tea. peace raler, il. 194 
FriUe,/, Qer. Tea. peaee ruler, ii 196 
FritzinHf /. Qer, Tea. peace ruler, ii. 

Fboda, m. Nor, Tea. wise, ii. 431 
Frodbert, m, Qer, Tea. wise bright, ii. 

Frodberta, /. Qer, Tea. wise bright, ii. 

FrodineJ, Qer, Tea. wise friend, ii. 421 

Fbodhr, til. Nor. Tea. wise, ii. 421 
Frodwin, m. Nor, Tea. wise friend, ii* 

Froila, m. 8pan, Tea. Lord, ii. 198 
Fromsais, m. Er$e, Tea. fr^ ii. 200 
Fro win, m, Qer, Tea. ft'ee friend, iU 

Fruela, m. Span, Tea. Lord, ii. 198 
Fryc, m. PoL Tea. peace ruler, ii. 105 
Frydeiyk, m. Pol. Tea. peace ruler, ii. 

Frydryka,/. Pol, Teu. peace ruler, ii. 

Fulbert,ira. Eng, Tea. bright resolution^ 

ii. 281 
Fulcher, m. Fr, Tea. people's guard, ii. 

Fulberto, m. Rom, Tea. will bright, iU 

FaUp, m, JBtmg, Or, horse lover, 187 
Fulk, 171. Eng, Teu. people's guard, iL 

FuiiKO, m, Qer, Tea. people's guard, ii. 

Fuhrad, m. Qer, Teu. people's councilor, 

FuLvu,/. It Lat yellow, 815 
Fulvio, w. It. Lat. yellow, 815 
FuLvius, m. Lat yellow, 2, 815 
FyvhaUa,f, SeoU Kelt. f]Eur shouldeved, 

Fynvota^f* Scot, Kelt, fair shouldered, 

ii. 78 
^Fynwald,/, Scot, Kelt, fiedr shouldered^ 

ii 78 


Qdb, m, Eng, Heb. hero of God, 182 
Qabe, m, Bav, Heb. hero of God, 182 
Qahela^ m, Swiee, Heb. hero of God, 

QaherjeU, m. Lett. Heb. hero of God, 

QaberU m, Bav, Heb. hero of God, 182 
Gabilo, m. Qer, Teu. giver, ii 845 
Qabor^ m. Hung, Heb. hero of God, 182 
Gabriel, m. Span, Eng, Fr, Qer, Heb. 

hero of God, 182 
Gabriele, /. Qer, Heb. hero of God, 182 
Gabriella, /. Span, It, Eng, Heb. hero 

of God, 132 
Gabrielle,/. Fr, Heb. hero of God, 182 

Gabriello, m. It, Heb. hero of God, 18S 
QabrUt LeU, hero of God, 182 
QaJtrryelU Pol, hero of God, 182 
Qad, m, Eng, Heb. troop, 16 
Qaddo, m. It, Pen, treasure master, 48(1 
Gaetan, m, Fr, Lat. of Gaeta, 286 
Gaetano, m. It, Lat. of Gaeta, 286 
Gains, m, Eng, Lat. rejoiced, 284 
Qairigy m, Kelt, fierce, 256, ii. 94 
Givjo, 171. Slop, Lat. at Gaeta, 286 
Gal, m, Erse^ Kelt, valour, 847 
Galahad, Eng. milky way (?), ii 95 
Galath, Welth^ milky way (?), ii 95 
Qaldfridus, m. Lat, Teu. good peace, ii4 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Oflleas, m. Eng. Tea. helmeted, 847 
Oaleaz, m. Ger. Lat helmeted, 347 
Galeazzo, m. IL Lat helmeted, 846 
Oaleran, m. Fr. Tea. or Lat healthy 

or slaoghter role, 837 
OaleraDo, m. It, Tea. slaughter rale, 827 
Galgacos, si. Lot, Kelt, stammerer or 

hawk, ii. 187 
Galileo, tn. It, Kelt a oook (?) or Gali- 

lean (?), 847 
Gall, m. OadhaeU Kelt stranger, iL 76 
Gallo, m. It. Lat oook, 847 
Gallus,]ii Lat cock, 847 
Gandolf; m, Oer. Tea. progress of a wolf, 

it 485 
GiHDOLF, m. Oer, Tea. progress of a 

wolf, ii 485 
Gandolfo, m. It, Tea. progress of a wolf, 

Gamvre,/, Eng. Kelt white wave, ii 182 
ChMnore,/, £fi^. Kelt white wave (?), ii 

Oappe, m, Bav, Pers. treasare master, 

Gandt m, Fr. Tea. firm spear, ii 826 
Garcia, m. Spcm. Tea. spear, ii 828 
OareiUuto, m. Span, Tea. spear, ii 828 
Gabd, si. Nor, Tea. dwelling pla^ ii 

Gabdhab, m. Nor, Tea« wanior of his 

«oanti7, ii 241 
Gabdbbahd, m. Nor, Tea. sword of his 

countiy, ii 241 
Gabdxuhd, m. Nor. Tea. protection of 

his ooantxy, ii 241 
Garibaldo, m, It.T&a, war prince, ii 828 
Oarmer, m. Fr, Tea. protecting warrior, 

Gamut, m, Eng, Tea. spear firm, ii 820 
Garret, m. Tea. firm spear, ii 820 
Garsendis,/. Spcm, Tea. spear strength, 

Gareioi, m. Span, Tea. spear, ii 821 
Ooio, m, lU, Pers. treasare master, 480 
Gaspar, m. Span, It. PoL Pers. treasure 

master, 429 
Gaspard, m. Fr. Pers. treasare master, 

Gamrde,/. Fr, Pers. treasare master, 

Ga^ardo, m. It. Pers. treasare master, 

Gaspare, m. It, Pers. treasare master, 


Ga^Nirro, flk It, Pers. treasare master, 

Gaepe, m. Ban, Vers, treasare master, 

Gaspero, m. It. Pers. treasure master, 

Gaston, m. Span, Fr. ii. 467 
Gastone, m. Span, ii 467 
Gaton,/, Fr, Gr. pure, 270 
Gattirsch, m. LeU, Teu. God's firmness, 

Gattfff,/, Eng, Tea. spear maid, ii 825 
Gavbert, m, Fr, Tea. slaughter bright 

Gaucher, m. Fr, Tea. slaoghter spear,^ 

Gaud, m. Fr, Tei^. power, ii 421 
Gaudsntius, si. Lat r^oidng, 896 
Gaudenzio, m. It, Lat rcgoiohig, 896 
Gaugl, m, JSwiu, Heb. supplanter, 58 
Gauta, m, Swed, Teu. Goth. ii. 179 
Gautrek, m. Swed, Teu. Goth's king, 

Gaotulf; m, Swed. Teu. Goth wolf, ii 

"^ ^avin, m, Scot. Kelt hawk of battle, ii. 

Gavra, f, Slav, Heb. hero of God. 182 
Gavre, m, JIL Heb. hero of God, 132 
Gai9riU,in,Bm$, Heb. hero of God, 182 
GavrUf m. III. Heb. hero of God, 182 
OavrUa,f, Slav. Heb. hero of God, 132 
OavrUo, m. lU. Heb. hero of God, 182 
Gawain, m. Eng. Kelt hawk of batde, 

Gayorgee, m. Ru$$, Gr. husbandman, 

Gehert, m, 0. Ger, Tea. strong giver, ii. 

Gebhard, m, Ger, Teu. strong giver, ii 

Gebhardine, f, Ger. Teu. strong giver, 

U. 845 
Geddc,/. Lett. Teu. spear maid, ii. 825 
Gedderte, m. Lett, Teu. God's firmness, 

G€d6on, m. Fr, Heb. destroyer, 100 
Geert, m. Dan, Lus. Teu. finn spear, ii. 

Geib, m. Nor, Teu. spear, ii. 823 
Geibmund, f. Nor. "Teu. spear protec- 
tion, ii 328 
Geibny, /. Nor. Teu. spear freshness, 


by Google 



GsiBKiMDUB,/. Not. Ten. spear house, 

Obirriduk,/. Nor, Teu. spear impulse, 

GBiBTHior, m. Not, Tea. spear thief^ 

GsiBBJOBo, /. Not, Ten. spear proteo- 

tion, ii. 828 
Geibfuss, m. Nor, Tea. spear eager- 
ness, ii. 827 
Gbibhilda,/. Nor, Tea. spear heroine, 

ii. 827 
Gbiblauo,/. Nor. Tea. spear drink, ii. 

Gbibthbud, /. Nor. Tea. spear maid, 

ii. 322 
Gbibulf, m. Nor, Tea. spear wolf^ iL 

Oeitultt goat heroine, ii. 876 
OHtwald, goat prince, ii, 878 
Gblasius, m. Lot. Gr. laagher, 255 
Gelobs,/. Or, swan white, ii« 288 
OetUes, m, Dutch, Tea. warring, ii. 409 
Gelimib, m. Vandal, Tea. pledge of 

Gbltfbh), m, Ger, Tea. pledge of 

peace, ii. 822 
GeUruda,/. It, Tea. spear maid, iL 825 
Gbmlobo,/. Er. gem like, 274 
Geuma, /. It. gem, 278 
Genevieve, /. Fr, Kelt. (?) white wave, 

(?) ii. 133 
Oenevion, f. Fr, Kelt (?) white wave, 

ii. 138 
Gennaro, m. It, Lat of Janus, 859 
Genovefa,/. Ger, Kelt. (?) white wave, 

(?) ii. 188 
G^ovefik,/. It, Kelt, white wave,ii. 188 
Genovefica,/. lU, Kelt white wave (?), 

ii. 188 
Genoveva,/. Port, Kelt white wave (?), 

Genserich, m. Ger. Tea. spear raler, ii. 

Geof&ey, m. £fi^. Tea. God's peace, iL 

Geoffix)i, m, Fr, Tea. God's peace, iL 

' GeordUy m. Scot, Or, husbandman, 259 
Qeorg, m. Ger. Dan, Gr. husbandman, 

George, m. Eng, Gr. husbandman, 269 
(Georges, m, Fr, Gr. husbandman, 259 
'*t, m. Fr, Gr. husbandman, 269 

GeorgetOf f. Port, (}r. husbandman, 

Georgette,/, Fr. Gr. husbandman, 359 
Georgey, m. Eng, Gr. husbandmao, 

Georgiana, /. Eng, Gr. husbandman, 

Georgie, m, WaXL (}r. husbandman, 

Georgij, m. i2t«ff. Gr. husbuidman, 

Geoigina, /. Eng, ItaL Gr. husband- 

Georgine, /. Fr, Ger, Gr. husbuidman, 

Georgio, m. Ital, Gr. husbandman, 969 
Gboboios, m. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Georgius, ». NXJ>, Gr. husbandman, 

Georgy, m, Eng, (}r. husbandman, 259 
Geraint, m. Wekh, Kelt ship (?), iL 142 
Gerald, m. £ii^. Teu. spear power, iL 

Geraldine,/. Eng. Teu. spear power, iL 

G^erard, m. Eng. Fr. Teu. spear firm, iL 

Gerardo, m. Rom, Teu. spear firm, iL 

Gerart, m. O, Fr, Teu. spear finn, iL 

Gerasimus, m. Lot, Gr. venerable, 255 
Gerand, m, Fr, Teu. spear firm, iL 

Gerberge, /. Fr, Teu. spear protection, 

ii. 327 
Gerbert, m. Fr, Teu. spear bri^t iL 

Gebbold, m. Ger. Teu. war prince, iL 

Gebda,/. Nor, Teu. enclosure, ii. 240 
Gerde, f. Lett. Teu. spear maid. iL 

Gebdbud, /. Ger, Teu. spear maid, iL 

Gbbdub, /. Nor, Teu. enclosure, iL 

Gerel, m, Fri$, Teu. spear power, iL 

Gerelt, m. Frii, Teu. spear power, iL 

Geremia, m, ItaL Heb. exalted of the 

Lord, 120 
Gerga, m. UL Gr. watchman, 256 

Digitized by v^j v^v_/pj. i\^ 



GirgeU, m. Hung. Gr. watchman, 256 
Gergen^ m. Slov, Gr. watchman, 256 
Gekeabd, m. Ger, Teu. spear finn, 265, 

Gerhardine, /, Ger. Teu. firm spear 
Gerhold, m. A, S. Tea. firm speari 

GerHf, m, 2>ti. Teu. firm spear, iL 827 
Geriach, ». G^. Tea. spear sport, ii. 

Geriib, m. Qer. Teu. spear relic, ii 

Germain, m. Ejig. Fr, Lat German, 416 
Gennaine,/. Fr. Lat. German, 416 
Germana,/. 5pan. Lat. German, 416 
Gennann, m. G^. Lat German, 416 
Gennano, m. Jto/. Lat. German, 416 
Gbbxanus, m. Lat. German, 416 
Gebmab, m, Ger, Tea. spear fistme, ii. 829 
GsBNOT,iii. Ger. Teu. spear compulsion, 

ii. 328 
Gero, fit. Hung. Gr. watchman, 256 
Gero, /. Nor. Teu. divine wisdom, ii. 

Geroldf m. Oer. Teu. spear firm, ii. 

Gerolf, to. Ger. Teu. spear wolf, ii. 328 
Geronimo, to. IU Gr. holy name, 211 
Gerontius, m. Lat. Gr. old man, ii. 

Gerrakn, to. Ger. Teu. spear raven, ii. 

Gerriu, to. Dutcht Teu. firm spear, ii. 

Gerte, /. Lett. Teu. spear maid, ii. 

GerU, TO. L«tt. Teu. firm spear, ii. 327 
Qertraud, /. Ger. Teu. spear maid, u« 

Gertrad, /. Hung. Ger. Teu. spear 

maid, ii. 326 
Gertruda,/. It. Run. Teu. spear maid, 

ii. 825 
Gertrude,/. Eng. Fr. Teu. spear maid, 

Gertrudes,/. Port. Teu. spear maid, li. 

Gervais, to. Fr. Teu. war eagerness, ii. 

Gbbwali>, to. Ger. Teu. spear power, ii 

Gerva8,*TO.£7i^. Teu. war eagerness, ii. 

Gervasio, to. It. Ten. war eagerness, iL 

Gervazvi, m. Slav. Teu. war eagerness, 

ii. 328 
Gerwart, to. Ger. Teu. spear ward, iL 

Gerwas, to. Ger. Teu. war eagerness, ii. 

Gebwin, to. Ger. Teu. spear Mend, ii. 

Geta, TO. Lat. Teu. Goth, ii, 172 
Gevald, to. Ger. Teu. power giver, iL 

Gherardo, to. It. Teu. spear firm, iL 

Ghita,/. It. Teu. pearl, 267 
Giacinta,/. It. Gr. purple, 192 
Giacinto, to. It, Gr. purple, 192 
Giacobba,/. It. Heb. supplimter 
Giacobbe, to. It. Heb. supplanter, 67 
Giacomma,/. /^ Heb. supplanter 
Giacomo, to. /t. Heb. supplanter, 56 
Giacopo, TO. /t. Heb. supplanter, 55, 67 
Gtan, TO. It. Heb. the Lord's grace. 111 
Gianbattistaf to. /^ Heb. John the 

Baptist, 108 
GiankoSf to. M. Gr. Heb. grace of the 

Lord. Ill 
Giannakes, to. M. Gr. Heb. grace of 

the Lord, 111 
GianneSf to. M. Gr. Heb. the Lord's 

grace. 111 
Crianina,/. It. Heb. the Lord's grace. 111 
Giannino, to. /(. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Gianozzo, to. It. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Gib, TO. Eng, Teu. bright pledge, iL 

Oibichs, TO. Oer. Teu. giver, ii. 344 
Gibbon, to. £n^. Teu. bright pledge, iL 

Gideon, to. Eng. Heb. destroyer, 100 
Giertruda, /. Pol. Teu. spear maid, ii. 

Gift,/. Eng. Teu. 237 
GiL TO. Span. Lat. downy (?), 821, iL 

Gilavij, TO. Ru$i. Lat cheerftd, 397 

* Sts. Oerrashu and ProtasfaiB were martyn diflintened by St Ambrose, at MUaii. The 
■ame ia^UGytf ore probably from a claaaJcal souoe, oaleia it waa ozigiiiaUy that of a Teutonic 





Gilbert, m. Eng. Fr, Oer, Ten. bright 

pledge, ii. 116, 823 
Gilberto, m. ItTeu. bright pledge, ii.322 
**^~Gilbrid, f». Scot, Kdt. servant of 

Bridget, ii. 116 
Gilchrist, m. Scot. Kelt, servant of 

Christ, ii. 114 
^-Gilcolom, m. Scot. Kelt servant of 

Columba, 388, ii. 116 
Gildas, III. Lot. Kelt, servant of God, ii 

OilebcTt tn. Fr. Ten. bright pledge, ii. 

OiUSf m. Eng. Gr. with the sgis, 188 
Gilescop, m. QaeU Kelt, servant of the 

bishop, ii. 118 
Oilfredj m. Ger. Ten. pledge of peace, ii. 

GiU,f. Eng. Lat. downy, 820 
Gilleneaomh, m. OaeU Kelt, servant of 

the saints, ii. 11& 
^^Gilles, m. Fr. Gr. with the aegis, 188 
**"Gille8pie,/. Scot. Kelt, bishop's servant, 

ii.28, 118,256 
Gillet,/. Eng. Lat downy, 821 
GilHf Flem. Ten. bright pledge, ii. 822 
Gillian,/. Eng. Lat. downy, 821 
'^iriUies, m. Scot, servant of Jesus, ii. 114 
^' Gilmichel, m. Scot. Kelt servant of 

Michael, ii. 115 
^•^^OUmory^f. Scot. Kelt servant of Maiy, 

u. 116 
Gilmoir, /. Gael. Kelt servant of Maiy, 

ii. 115 
Gils, m. Nor. Ten. pledge, ii. 322 
Gilpatrick, m. Scot. Kelt servant of 

Patrick, 403, ii. 116 
Giodoco, m. It. Lat. joyflil, 895 
Giofred, m. It. Ten. God's peace, ii. 177 
Ginevra, /. Ital. Kelt, white wave (?), 

ii. 130 
Giobbe, m. It. Heb. persecuted, 73 
Gioachimo, m. It. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 99 
Gioa4:hinoy m. It. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 99 
GiOLLA Briohde, m. Er$e, Kelt servant 

of Bridget, ii. 116 
GioixA. Christ, m. Erse, Kelt servant 

of Christ, ii. 114 
GiOLLA Cheallaich, m. Erse, Kelt 

servant of Ceallach, ii. 117 
GiOLLA Choluin, m. Erse, Kelt servant 

of Columba, ii. 117 

GiOLLA Chomhohaill, m. Erse, Kelt 

servant of Congall, ii. 1 17 
GiOLLA Db, m. Erse, Kelt servant of 

God, ii. 116 
GiOLLA DuBDH, m. Erse, Kelt servant 

of the black, ii. 117 
GiOLLA Earch, m. Erse, Kelt senrant 

of Earc, iL 117 
GiOLLA JosA, m. Erse, Kelt servant of 

Jesus, ii. 115 
GioLLA-MA-NAOKH, m. Eru, Kelt serrant 

of the saints, ii. 115 
GiOLLA Phadrio, m. Erse, Kelt serrant 

of Patrick, 403, ii 116 
GiOLLA Bhiobach, m. Erse, Kelt ser- 
vant of the swarthy 
Giordano, m. It. Heb. the Jordan, 100 
Gioseffo, m. Ital. Heb. addition, 68 
Giotto, m. ItaL Ten. God's peace. 177 
Giovachino, m. ItaL Heb. the Lord wiB 

judge, 99 
Giovanna,/. Ital. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Giovanni, m. lUd. Heb. the Lord's graee, 

107, 111 
Giovannina, f. Ital. Heb. the Lord's 

GiovanifU), m. Ital. Heb. the Lord's 

grace. 111 
Giovanetto, m. ItaL Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Giovio, m. Ital. Lat of Jupiter, 868 
Girairs, m. Fr. Ten. firm spear, ii 327 
Giralda,/. Ital, Teu. spear power, ii. 

Giraldo, m. Ital. Teu. spear power, ii. 

Giraldus, m. Lat. Teu. spear power, ii 

Girart, m. Prov. Teu. firm spear, ii. 

Girault,m. Fr. Teu. spear power, ii. 

Girioel, m. Welsh, Gr. lordly, ii. 441 
Girroald, m. Fr. Ten. spesx power, ii 

Girolamo, m. IL Lat holy name, 211 
Girzie,/. Scot. Gr. Teu. golden battle 

maid, ii. 295 
Gishert,/* m. Ger. Teu. pledge bright, 

Gishom, m. Eng. Teu. pledse bear, ii. 



Gisala,/. Ger. Teu. pled' 155 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



Oithert^ m, Dutch, Ten. bright pledge, 

Oisebryht, m. Dutch, Tea. bright pledge, 

OiBEL,/. Frank. Ten. pledge, ii. 821 
GUelbert, m. Qer. Tea. bright pledge, 

GiBKiJiEBOS, pledged protection, ii. 822 
Qis^/. Fr. Tea. pledge, iL 831 
GisKi.FRn>, m. Oer. Ten. pledge of peace, 

ai8Ki.HABT, ». Qer. Tea. pledge of 

finnnees, ii 322 
G1SEI.HEB, m. Oer, Ten. pledge warrior, 

GisKLHiLDA, /. Ger, Ten. pledged 

heroine, ii. 822 
Gi8Eix>F, pledged reUo, ii. 822 
G1BBT.RTC0, im. Goth. Ten. pledged ruler, 

GiaU,/. Nor, Ten. pledge, ii. 321 
G18LAU0,/. Nor, Ten. pledge drink, ii 

Oitmonda,/. Qer. Ten. conquering pro- 
tection, ii 809 
Giswumdo, m. Oer. Ten. conquering 

protection, ii 809 
GUtur, m. Ice. Ten. pledged warrior, ii. 

Gith,/. Eng. Ten. happy gift, 846 
Giubileo, m. It. Lat. of the jubilee, 

Giuda, m. It. Heb. praise, 62 
Gmditta^f. lU Heb. praise, 64 
QvukOy m. lU. Qt. husbandman, 259 
GtuJbo, m. lU. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Giaha,/, It. Lat downy bearded, 331 
GioHana, /. It. Lat. downy bearded, 

Oinliano, m. It, Lat. downy bearded, 

Oiulietta, /. It. Lat downy bearded, 

Giulio, fit. It. Lat downy bearded, 

GtKTo, m. lU. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Ginseppe, m. It. Heb. addition, 68 
Oiuseppina./. It. Heb. addition, 68 
i Giosta,/. lU Lat just, 398 
Ginstina, /. It. Lat just, 898 
Giostino, m. lU Lat just, 898 
^ Ginsto, m. K. Lat just 

GjATLiUG,/. Nor. Ten. liquor giver, ii 

Gjatyald, m. Nor, Tea. liquor giver, ii 

Gjebo, m. Nor. Ten. bond, ii 240 
Gjsrhiij), /. Nor. Ten. spear battle 

maid, ii 328 
Gjerleiv, m. Nor. Ten. spear relic, ii. 

GjERMTJin), m. Nor. Ten. spear protec- 
tion, ii. 828 
Gjeruly, m. Not, Ten. spear wolf, ii. 

GjorghU, m. /2Z. Gr. husbandman, 259 
(yosta, m. Swed, Ten. Goth's staff, ii. 

Gjuko, m. Nor, Ten. giver, ii 345 
Gjuraj^ m, ItL Gr. husbandman, 259 
Gjurgjija,/. III. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Gjurginka,/, III. Gr. husbandman, 259 
G^uro, m. ia. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Gjutha,f. Nor. Ten. ii. 345 
GladtUj fit. TTelffc, Lat lame, 318 
Gladnse,/. £n^. Lat lame, 313 
Gladys,/. Welsh, Lat lame, 318 
Glasam, m. £rs«, Kelt blue, ii. 106 
Gland, m. Scot. Lat. lame, 318 
Gleb, fit. I^UM. Slav, ii 460 
Gloukera,/. iJi4«. Gr. sweet, 190 
Glycftre,/. Fr. Gr. sweet, 190 
Glykera,/. Gr. Gr. sweet, 189 
Go^alak, m, lU, Ten. God's servant, ii. 

Godafrei, m. Prov. Ten. God's peace, ii 

Godard, m. fr. Ten. divine firmness, ii 

Goddard, fii. Eng. Ten. divine firmness, 

Godebeii^ m. Ger. Teu. divine bright- 
ness, ii. 177 
GodebertA,/. Frank. Ten. divine bright- 
ness, ii 177 
GoDEoisEL, m. G«r. Teu. divine pledge, 

Godefroi, m, Fr, Teu. God's peace, ii. 

GoDEFRtBD, m. Get. Teu. God's peace, 

Gddel, m. Ger, Ten. divine peace, ii. 

Godeleva,/, m, Lat. Ten. divine gift, ii. 

GoDEUHD, /. Ger. Ten. good serpent, n. 

GoDSMAB, TO. Ger, Tea. good fame, ii- * • • 



Ooderic, m. Ft. Ten. divine king, ii. 175 
Godescalco, m. U, Teu. God's servant, 

ii. 176 
GoDESKALK, TO. Frank, Teu. God's ser- 

vant, iL 176 
Godfrey, m. Eng. Teu. God's peace, ii 

Godfried, m. HoU. Teu. God's peace, 

ii. 177 
GoDoiFU,/. A, S. Teu. God's gift, ii. 176 
Godine, /. to. Cambrai, Teu. divine 

friend, ii. 175 
Godinette, /. Canibrai, Teu. divine 

friend, ii. 176 
Godiva,/. Eng, Teu. divine gift, ii. 176 
Godon, TO. Fr, Lat. lame, S18 
Godric, to. £fi^. Teu. divine king, ii. 

Godwin, to. Eng. Teu. divine friend, 

ii. 175 
GoDwiNE, TO. A, O. S. Teu. divine 

fiiend, ii. 176 -^ 

GoDWULF, TO. A, G. 8. Teu. divine 

wolf, ii. 173 
Goelen,f. Flemish, Teu. war, ii. 817 
Goetz, TO. Ger. Teu. God's peace, ii. 177 
Goflfredo, TO. It. Teu. God's peace, ii. 

Gogo, TO. Fr. Gr. pearl, 266 
GoUaa, f. Nor. Teu. divine sea, ii. 175 
GoLUBiCA,/. lU. Slav, dove, 2, 388, ii. 

Gombert, to. Fr. Teu. war prince, ii. 

GouQalo, TO. Port. Teu. war, ii. 817 
GondabergBj f. Ger. Teu. war protec- 
tion, ii. 318 
Gondebaldo, to. I^an. Teu. war prince, 

ii. 818 
Gondebault, to. Fr. Teu. war bold, iL 

Gondebert, to. Fr. Teu. war bright^ ii 

Gondemir, to. Span. Teu. war fitme, ii. 

GoNDEBio, TO. Frank. Teu. war chief, 

Gonderioo, to. Span. Teu. war chief, ii. 

Gondesind,/. Span. Teu. war strength, 

ii. 818 
GoNDOL,/. TO. Nor. Teu. good, ii. 817 
Gondoline,/. Ger. Teu. war serpent, ii. 


GoNBOMAB, TO. 5flMm. Tcu. war fame, iL 

Gondomire, m. Span, war fkme, ii. 318 
GoTwrijy TO. £u$s. Lat honoured, 394 
Gonsalve, to. Fr. Teu. war wolf, ii. 317 
Gonsalvo, to. It. Teu. war wolf, iL 317 
Gonstan, to. Bret. Teu. hill stone, ii. 

Gonthery, to. i^'r. Teu. war rule, U. 816 
Gonthier, to. Fr, Teu. war army, ii. 316 
Gonthere, to. /f. Teu. war army, ii. 316 
Gontrada, /. Span, Teu. war ooonoil, 

ii. 317 
Gontram, to. Fr, Teu. war raven, iL 817 
Gdm, TO. Ger. Teu. war, ii. 817 
Gonzalo, to. Span. Teu. war wolf; iL 817 
Gonzalve, to Fr. Teu. war wolf, ii. 817 
Goraty, to. Russ. Lat 303 
Gorm, TO. Nor, Teu. war serpent, iL 818 
Gormfhlait.f. Erse, Teu. blue lady, iL 

Gospatrick, TO. Scot, GaeL Lat boy of 

Patrick, 403, ii. 117 
Gospavatf, III, Slav, lady 
Gosta, TO. Swed, Teu. Goth's staff, iL 

Gostanza,/. Span, Lat firm, 344 
GosTOMiL, TO. lU, Slave, hospitality, iL 

Gotardo, to. If. Lat good firm, ii. 176 
Gotfryd, to. Pol, Teu. God's peace, iL 

Goton,/. Fr, Gr. pearl, 266 
GoTTFBiBO, m. Ger. Teu. God's peace, 

ii. 177 
Gottgabe, to. Ger, Teu. God's gift, 937 
Gottgetreu, to. Ger. Teu. futhfril to 

God, ii. 178 
GoTTHABD, TO. Oef. Teu. divine firm- 
ness, ii. 176 
Gotthelf, TO. Ger. Teu. God's help, iL 

Gotthold, m. Ger, Teu. God's power, iL 

GoTTLEiP, TO. Oer, Teu, remains of di- 

vinity, ii. 177 
Gottlieb, m. Oer, Teu. God's love, iL 

Gottlob, TO. Ger, Teu. God's praise. iL 

GoTTscHALK, TO, Oer, Teu. God's ser- 
vant, ii. 176 
Gottseimitdir, to. Oer. Tea. God be 

with thee, ii. 178 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



GoTTWALD, w. Oer. Teu. God's power, 

ftwfe,/. Brabant, Teu. war, ii. 317 
Qif9trt, m. Dutch, Tea. God's peace, ii. 

GoKTiy, m. Swed. Ten. Goth's stafi; ii. 

6e4ce,/. .^. Lot grace, 404, ii. 87 

'"Onde,/. 5cot. Lat. grace, 404 
Gndlon, ». Bret, Kelt love, ii. 88 
GsAiDHKE,/. £rftf, Kelt love, ii. 87 
GiAi3iE,/.iii. Irish, Kelt love, 464, ii. 

Ondaoos, m. Lat, thanks, 404 
Gnziella,/. It. Lat thanks, 404 
Onzian, m. It. Lat thanks, 404 
Gragair, m. £rf«, Kelt, watchman, 256 
Grtdel,/. Bav. Or. pearl, 266 

^Ong, m. Scot. Kelt fierce, 266 
Grega, m. 5^. Gr. watchman, 256 
Gngoire, fit. Fr, Gr. watchman, 256 
Otegor, m. Oer. Gr. watchman, 266 
Gregori, m. It. Gr. watchman, 256 
OiEooRios, 01. Or. Gr. watchman, 255 
Gn^oritu, m. Lat. Gr. watchman, 256 
Gr^ry, m. .£iij/. Gr. watchman, 255 
Qregotf m. Dan. Gr. watcliman, 256 
Gngar, m. SZov. Gr. watchman, 256 
Gregm, m. jDan. G«r. Gr. watchman, 

Oreis, m. Swed. Gr. watchman, 256 ^ 
Gbkis, m. Nor. Teu. stone, ii. 295 
Orel,/. Bav. Gr. pearl, 266 
Gretxbu, m. Lith, Gr. watchman, 256 
Greta,/. Lith. Gr. pearl, 266 
Ontehen,/. Oer. Bng, pearl, 266 
QreU,/. Oer. Gr. pearl, 266 
Gretel,/. Bav, Gr. pearl, 266 
GretheJ. Ger. Gr. pearl, 266 
Gre^e,/. Dutch, Gr. pearl, 266 
GretU,/. Swiss, Gr. pearl, 266 
Oriffith, m. Welsh, Lat ruddy, 353 
Griiime, m. It. Lat ruddy, 363 
Grigge, m, Lett. Gr. watchman, 256 
Grigorie, m. WalL Gr. watchman, 256 
Gngory, m. Russ. Gr. watchman, 256 
Grigoiy, m. JlL Gr. watchman, 256 
Gbim, m. JVor. Teu. hebneted, ii. 189 
Grimaldo, m. It. Teu. fierce power, iL 

Grimsltos, m. fifpon. Teu. fierce power, 

ii. 189 
Orimaud, m. Fr. Teu. fierce power, ii. 

Grimar, m. Nor. Teu. helmeted warrior, 

ii. 189 
Gbimbald, m. Fng. Teu. fierce power, 

ii. ie9 
Grimbirt, m. (rer. Teu. helmeted war- 

rior, ii. 189 
Gbikheri, m. Oer. Teu. helmeted war- 
rior, ii. 189 
Gbimhild, /. m. Nor. Teu. helmeted 

hattle maid, ii. 189 
G&iMK£TYL, m. Nor. Teu. hidden caul- 
dron, ii. 189 
OrimJ^ell, m. Nor. Teu. hidden caul- 
dron, iL 189 
Grimwau), m. Oer. Teu. helmeted 

power, ii. 189 
Grmulf, m. JSng. Teu. helmeted wolf, 

ii. 190 
Orischa,/. Russ. Gr. watchman, 256 
Griotoam),/. Nor. Teu. utone maid, ii. 

Orischha,/. Russ. Gr. watchman, 256 
Griselda, /. It. Eng. Gr. Teu. stone 

heroine, ii. 295 
Grisostomo, m. It. Gr. golden mouth, 

Grissel,/. Eng. Gr. Teu. stone heroine, 

ii. 296 
Gristovalo, m. It. Gr. Christ hearer, 242 
Ontty,/. Eng. Gr. pearl, 266 
Grizel, /. Scot. Gr. Teu. stone heroine, 

Grozdana,/. Serv. Slav, rich in grapes, 

Gruach,/. Oael. Kelt hairy, ii. 100 
Gruffin, m. Welsh, Lat. ruddy, 353 
Gruflydd, m. Welsh, Lat ruddy, 353 
Chrunja, f. Russ. Lat. horn with feet 

foremost, 334 
Oruscha, f. Russ. Lat. horn with feet 

foremost, 334 
GrygalUs, m. Lett. Gr. watchman, 256 
Oryta,/. Lith. Gr. pearl, 266 
Grzegorz, m. Pol. Gr. watchman, 256 
Guadalupe,/, m. Span. 81 
GuaWerto, m. It. Teu. slaughter 

bright, 232 
Gualter, m. Port. Teu. powerftil army, 

ii. 421 
Gualthier, m. Fr. Teu. powerful army, 

Gualtiero, m. It. Teu. powerful army, 

ii.421 . 
Guarin, m. Fr. Tea. spear friend, ii. 828 

uigiiizeu Dv 





Gnaiino, m. It, Tea. spear Mend, ii. 

Onamiero, m. It. Ten. protectmg war- 
rior, ii. 412 

Qu^rin, m. Fr. Teu. protecting warrior, 

Guccio, m. It. Teu. home rule, ii. 222 

Guda,/. Nor. Teu. divine, ii. 178 

GuDBioRO, /. Nor. Teu. divine protec- 
tion, ii. 174 

GuDBRAND, m. Nor. Teu. divine sword, 
ii. 174 

GuDFiNN, divine whiteness, ii. 174 

GuDFiMNA, divine whiteness, ii. 174 

GuDHR,/. Nor. Teu. divine, ii. 173 

Gudiskako, servant of God, ii. 173 

GuDLEiF, m. Nor. Teu. divine relic, ii. 

GuDLEiFB, m. Nor. Teu. divine relic, ii. 

GuDLEiK, m. Nor. Teu. divine praise, 
ii 174, 818 

GuDMUND, m. Nor. Teu. divine protec- 
tion, ii. 174 

GuDNY, TO. Nor. Teu. divine freshness, 
ii. 174 

GuDOLv, m. Nor. Teu. divine woli^ ii. 

GuDRiD, /. Nor. Teu. divine impulse, 

GuDRiDuii,/.2*rar. Teu. divine impulse, 
ii. 174 

GuDRUNA, /. Nor. Teu. divine wisdom, 

Gudule,/. Oer. Teu. war, ii. 173 

GuDVAR, m. Nor. Teu. divine prudence, 
ii. 176 

GuDVEio, /. Nor. Teu. divine liquor, 
ii. 175 

Ouel/o, TO. It. Teu. wolf, 268 

Guendolen,/. Eng. Kelt, white hrowed, 

GuEMNEAN,/. Bret. Kelt, angel, ii 134 

Guennever,/. Eng. Kelt, white lady, ii. 

Guennol^,/. Bret. Kelt, white, ii. 184 

Guennold,/. Bret. Kelt, white, ii. 184 

Ouerin, to. Fr. Ten. war Mend, ii. 

Guerart, to. Fr. Teu. ii. 327 

Guglielma,/. It. Teu. helmet of resolu- 
Uon, ii. 229 

Gnglielmo, to. It. Teu. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 228 

Out, m. Fr. Kelt sense (?), ii. 31 

Guiderius, to. Lot. Kelt, wrathf^ (?), ii. 

OtUdetf TO. Fr. Kelt sense (?), ii. 81 

Ouido, TO. /t. £n^. Kelt, sense (?), ii. 

Ouidorij m. fV. Kelt, sense (?), iL 31 

Guidonef to. /^ Kelt sense (?), ii. 31 

GuUtUj. Fr. Kelt sense (?), ii. 81 

Guilbaldo, to. Port. Teu. bold prince, 
ii. 228 

Guilhermo, to. Port. Teu. helmet of 
resolution, ii. 229 

GuiUam^ m. Bret. Teu. will helmet, ii. 

GuiUerm^ to. Bret. Teu. will helmet, ii. 

Guillymt m. Welsh, Teu. will helmet, ii. 

Guillaume, to. Fr. Teu. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 229 

Guillaumette, /. Fr. Teu. helmet of 
resolution, ii. 229 

Guillaumine, /. JFV. Teu. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 229 

Guillene, to. Prov. Tea. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 229 

Guillena, /. Prov. Teu. will helmet ii- 

Guillermo, to. Span. Teu. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 229 

GuiUetU, f. Fr. Teu. helmet of resolu- 
tion, ii. 229 

Gaillibaud, to. JFV. Teu. resolute prince, 
ii. 228 

Guillot, TO. Fr. Teu. helmet of resolu- 
tion, ii. 229 

Guirauld, to. Fr. Teu. spear power, ii. 

Guiscard, to. Fr. Teu. wise war, ii. 239 

Guiscardo, to. It. Teu. wise war, ii. 

GuUAyf. Nor. Teu. divine sea, ii. 175 

GuUaugtf. Nor. Teu. divine liquor, ii. 

ChUlbrand, to. Nor. Teu. war sword, 
ii. 174 

GuUeikj to. Nor. Teu. war sport, ii. 318 

GuUeiVt TO. Nor. Teu. divine relic, ii. 

GtUmar^ to. Nor. Teu. war greatness, 
ii. 818 

GiUmundf to. Nor. Teu. divine protec- 
tion, ii. 174 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



Gwmpert^ m. Ger, Ten. war splendour, 

GuHBJOBo, /. JVor.Teo. war protection, 

GtJirBjoRN, /. Nor. Ten. war bear, iL 

G^nborg, /. Nor, Teu. war protection, 

OuNDAHABi, fit. 0. Oer. Tea. warrior, ii. 

GuxD£XAB, m. Ger. Ten. war spear, iL 

GuKDUs,/. G^. Tea. war serpent, ii 

GundoU; m. Oer, Ten. war wolf, ii. 317 
GwHdrada,/, Ger. Ten. war council, ii. 

Gnndred,/. £n^. Ten. war council (?), 

GovDBiDuii, /. Nor. Tea. war impulse, 

Gondola,/. Ger. Teu. war, ii. 317 
GuHBULF, m. Norm. Teu. war wolf, ii 

GuKBTAB, /. ^or. Teu. war prudence, 

Ouukild, /. Nor. Teu. war heroine, ii. 

Gvtdtf, Nor. Teu. divine freshness, ii. 

Gcinjkuo, /. Nor. Tea. war liquor, ii. 

GuHLEiF, m. Nor. Ten, war love, ii 

GuRLBiK, m. Nor. Teu. war sport, iL 

Qonnar,/. Nor. Teu. war, ii 816 
GuKHDEBicH, f». Nor. Tcu. war ruler, 

GuvNHiLDUB,/. Nor, Tea. war maid, ii. 

Otmnilda, f. Eng. Tea. war batUe 

maid, iL 316 
GtJMHOLFH, m. Ice. Teu. war woU^ IL 

Gunnora, /. Eng. Tea. war protection, 

Gunorod,/. Nor. Tea. war council, ii. 

GuKssTEiN, m. Nor. Teu. war stone, ii. 

GuKHB,/. Nor. Tea. war, ii. 816 
GtTHffULv, m. i^or. Tea. war wolf, iL 


GuNNWALD, m. Nor. Teu. war power, iL 

Gunthar, m. JFVanib. Teu. warrior, iL 

Gtmthe.f. Ger. Teu. war, ii. 319 
GuNTHBidl, m. Fr, Teu. war raven, iL 

GuNTRUD,/. Nor. Teu. war maid, ii. 316 
Gurvula,/. Ger. Teu. war, ii. 816 
Guossalvo, m. Prov. Tea. war wolf, IL 

Gum, /. Nor. Teu. divine wisdom, iL 

Gurth, m. JE7n^. Teu. bond,ii. 240 
Guru, f. Nor. Teu. divine wisdom, ii. 

Gushtasp, m. Pen. Zend, possessing 

horses, 187 
Cfusneyf. Eng. Lat. venerable, 335 
Gu$t, m. Dutch, Teu. Goth's staff, iL 178 
QvMia^f. Lut, Ger. Lat venerable, 386 
Gu8te/f. Lus. Ger. Lat venerable, 336 
GutUlyf. Ger. Lat venerable, 336 
GusTAF, m. Swed. Teu. Goth's staff, ii. 

Gustav, tn. Ger, Teu. Goth's staff, iL 

Gustave, m. Fr. Teu. Goth's staff, H. 

Gustavo, in. Som, Teu. Goth's staff, iL 

Gustavus, m. Eng. Teu. Goth staff, iL 

Gu8t8, m. LeU. Teu. Goth's staff, iL 178 
Gustylka,/. Iau. Lat venerable, 336 
Gutha,/. Ger. Teu. war, 319 
Guthlac, m. A. S. Teu. war sport, iL 

GuTHORM, m. Dan. Teu. war serpent, 

ii. 817 
Guthrum, m. Eng. Teu. war serpent, ii. 

Gutmar, m. Ger. Teu. war strength, iL 

Guttiere, m. Span, Teu. powerftil war- 

nor, ii. 421 
Guttorm, m. Eng. Teu. war serpent 317 
Guy, m. Eng, Kelt, sense (?), 409, iL 

Guyon, m. Fr. Kelt, sense (?), iL 81 
Guzman, m. Span. Teu. good man, ii. 

GwALCHMAi, m. WeUh, Kelt hawk of 

battle, iL 187 


by Google 



GwALLAWo, m. Welsh, Kelt, stammerer, 

or hawk, iL 137 
Qwirydd, m. Welsh, Kelt. ii. 46 
GwEN,/. Welsh, Kelt white, ii. 130 
Gwendolen, /. Welsh, Kelt, white 

browed, ii. 180 
Gwendoleu, m. Welsh, Kelt white 

browed, ii. 180 
GwENEAL,/. Bret. Kelt, white angel, 125 
GwENHWYFAR, /. Welsh, Kelt, white 

wave, ii. 180 
GwENFREWi, /. Welsh, Kelt white 

stream, ii. 130 
GwENWYNWYN, wi. WeUh, Kelt thrice 

fidr (?), ii. 184 
Gwethalyn, m. Welsh, Lat. of life, 407 
GwiAWN, m. WeUh, Kelt, sense (?), ii. 


GwiAWN, m. Cym. Kelt sense (?), ii. SO 
Gwric, m. Welsh, Gr. Sunday child, 4^1 
Gwril, jn. WeUh, Gr. lordly, 443 
GwBTHEYRN, iR. Welsh, excelling kin^, 

GwYDYB, m. Welsh, Kelt wrathfhl, ii. 

Giryn, wi. WeUh, blessed, ii. 181 
Gwyon, m. Welsh, Kelt wrath (?), ii. 

Owynaeth, /. En^. Kelt, bliss, ii. 136 
Oyda,f. Nor. Ten. ii. 846 
Cfyllys, m. Fris. Teu. warring, ii. 409 
Gyneth,/. Eng, Kelt blessed, ii. 136 
Gyrthr, wi. Dan, Teu. bond, ii. 340 
Oytha,/, Eng, Teu. 196. ii. 845 
Gyabert, m. Dutch, Teu. bright pledge, 

ii. 322 


Haagan, m. Nor, Teu. high kin, ii. 830 
Haakatha, m. Nor, Teu. ii. 820 
Haake, m. iSTor. Teu. high kin, iL 320 
Haaken, m. Nor. Teu. high kin, ii. 820 
HAAiiuND,m. Nor. Teu. high protection, 

ii. 820 
Haavard, nu Nor. Teu. high protection, 

ii. 330 
Habaar, m. Nor. Teu. dexterous splen- 
dour, ii. 330 
Habbakuk, m. Eng, Heb. embracing, 

Habor, m. Nor, Teu. dexterous bright- 
ness, ii. 820 
Hacco, m. Nor. Teu. high kin, ii. 820 
H&cke, m. Swiss, Teu. axe (?) 
Haokel, m. Swiss, Teu. axe (?) 
Baco, m. Lat. Teu. high kin, ii. 320 
~ Hacon, m. Scot. Teu. high kin, ii. 820 
Hada,f. Lus. Teu. war refuge, ii. 212 
Hadamk, m. Lus. Heb. red earth, 42 
Hadassah, Eng, Pers. Heb. myrtle, 140 
Hadrianus, m. Lat. from Adnan, 382 
Hadufrh), m. Oer. Teu. war peace, ii. 

Hadufuks, m, Gtr, Teu. war eagerness, 

ii. 313 
Hadulint,/. Ger, Teu.' war spear, ii.313 
Haduman, m, Ger. Teu. Hodur's man, 

ii. 212 
Hadumar, m. Ger, Teu. fierce fame, ii. 

Hadutau), m. Ger. Teu. fierce prince, 

ii. 211 
Hadupracht, wi. Ger. Teu. war's bright- 
ness, ii. 212 
Haduparc, /. Ger. Teu. war protection, 

U. 213 
Haduswinth,/. 6^otA.Teu. war strength, 

ii. 212 
Haduwald, wi. Ger. Teu. war prince, 

ii. 311 
Haduwio, /. Ger. Teu. war reftige, ii. 

Hafgbim, wi. Not. Teu. sea obscured, ii. 

Hafude, wi. Not, Teu. sea wanderer, 

ii. 488 
Haflok, wi. Not, Teu. sea relic, iL 438 
Hafthor, wi. Nor. Teu. sea Thor, ii. 

Haobart, Not. Teu. dexterous bright- 
ness, ii. 320 
Haobrand, Not, Teu. dexterous sword, 

ii. 330 
Haggai, wi. Eng, Heb. festival of the 

Lord, 124 
Haoan, wi. Dan, Teu. hook, iL 319 
Saggy,/, Eng, Gr. good, 196 
Haothor, m. -^?or.Teu. dexterous Thor, 

Hairuwulp, wi. Qoth. sword wolf, ii. 

Hake, wi. Not, Teu. high kin, iL ^8% 


by V-Jv 




Hakhamenish, m. Pen. Pers. having 

friouls, 134 
ffoJhma, m. Nor, Tea. high kin, 3, 200 
Hal, m. £ii^. Ten. home rale, ii. 222 
HaSbe, m. Ger, Teu. half. 11. 432 
"^Halbert, m, Scot, Teu. bright stone, 11. 

EUlbjoro,/. Nor, Ten. stone protection, 

Halhdan, ». ^or. Tea. half Dane, 11. 

Halbtubzno, m, Ger, Ten. half Tha- 

ringian, ii. 482 
Halbwaulh, m, Ger, Tea. stranger, 

half Wallachian, 11. 482 
Haldanns, m. L<U, Tea. half Dane, 11. 

Halob, /. Nor, Tea. stone spirit, Ii. 

Halex, m, Lut, Or, helper of men, 209 
Half, m. Ice, Tea. half, ii 482 
Halfdah, m. Nor. Tea. half Dane, U. 

Halfrid,/. Nor, Tea. hall fiur, 11. 294 
ffaHj m. Kaffir, Tea. home rule, 11 
HaUdora,/. Nor. Tea. stone of Thor, 

Eatgerd, f. Nor, Tea. stone fence, 11. 

H*T./aj^n, m. Nor, Tea. stone spear, ii. 

Haixorim, /. m. Nor, Tea. stone hd. 

met, ii. 294 
Hallosima,/. Nor. Tea. stone helmet, 

H. 294 
HalVatJft,/. Nor. Tea. stone kettle, ii 

Hallkjell, m. Nor, Tea. stone ketUe, ii. 

Haujud,/. Nor, Tea. stone yehemenoe, 

Halltho&a,/. Nor. Tea. stone of Thor, 

HALLWARD,m. iVor.Tea. stone gaardian, 

Halvab, m. Nor. Tea. stone prudence, 

Eameline,/, Fr, Tea. home, 11. 223 
Hamiih, m. Gael Heb. supplanter, 07 
Hamlyn, m. Eng, Tea. home, 11. 223 
Hamo, m. Nor, Ten. home, 223 
Han, fR. Esth, Svnse, Heb. grace of 

God, 111 
Hanan, m. .^. Heb. grace, 108 

Hananeel, m. Eng. Heb. grace of God, 

Hanani, m. Eng, Heb. grace of God, 

Hananiah, m. Eng. Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 102, 100 
Hanfhen, f. Oer, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 110 
Hancicka, f. Lus. Heb. grace, 106 
Handr^^ m. Lum, Gr. man, 204 
Hanka,/, Ltu, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

111, 114 
Hanke, m, Netherlandsy Heb. grace of 

the Lord, 111 
Hanna,f. Ltu. Heb. grace, 105 
Hannah,/. Eng. Heb. grace, 24, 102 
Hanne.f, Oer. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Hanneken, m, DuUh, Heb. grace of 

the Lord, 111 
HanneSf m. Dutch, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Hannibal, m. Eng. Phoen. grace of 

Baal, 103 
Hanno, tn. Lai. Com. Phoen. grace, 103 
HannybaU, m. Siviss, Oer. Phoen. grace 

of Baal, 103 
Hans, m, Oer. Dutch, Heb. grace of 

the Lord, 108 
Hamchen, m. Oer, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Hantel, m. Bav, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Hansli, m, SidUs, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Hanto, m. Lus. Lat inestimable, 307 
Hanusia, f. Pol. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Hanza,f. Lus. Gr. pure, 264 
Hanzyzka, f. Lus. Heb. grace, 106 
Happen-to-be, m. Eng. 
Hairald, m. Nor, Teu. warrior power, ii. 

Harding, m. Nor, Teu. firm, ii. 414 
Hardiknut, m. Dan. Teu. bold and able, 

Hardouln, m. Fr, Teu. firm friend, IL 

Hardrada, m. Nor, Teu. hardy, 11. 414 
Habdwig, m. Eng. Teu. hard war, ii. 

Hardwin, tn, Oer, Ten. firm friend, 11. 

Harenct m, Fr. Ten. army, 11. 406 

uigiiizeu Gv •'^.^^s.^kJ 




Habibebt, bright warrior, ii. 400 

Baring, m. Dan, Teu. army, ii. 406 

Harivau), m. warrior power, ii. 407 

Harm, to. Netherland. Gr. holy name, 

Harold, m. Eng. Tea. warrior power, 

Haroun, m. Arab, Heb. mountain, 76 

Harriet,/. Eng. Teu. home rule. 222 

Hany, to. Eng. Teu. home rule, ii. 221 

Habthaobepa,/. Nor, Teu. hard grip, 
ii. 413 

Habthaknut, to. Dan, Teu. firm hill, 

Hartrich,TO. Oer,Ten. firm ruler, ii. 414 

Hartmod, to. Oer, Teu. firm spirit, ii 

Hartmund, to. Ger. Teu. firm protec- 
tion, ii. 414 ^ ^ ^,^ — .J,. ^., -o— ^ -" 

Hartwig, to. Oer. Teu. firm war, ii. 4ir ^elen, /. Scot. Gr. light, 160 

Harvey, to. Eng, Kelt, bitter, ii. 161 
Hasli, TO. Swiss, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111__ 
Hasting, to. Dan, Teu. swift, ii. 884 
HaH,f, Swiss, Gr. puPB, 271 
Hatili,f, Swiss, Gr. pure, 271 
Hatto, to. Ger, Teu. Hessian, ii. 433 
Hatty,/, Eng, Teu. home rule, ii 422 
Hauk, to. Ice, Teu. hawk, ii. 283 
Hauleik, to. Nor, Teu. sport of thought, 

ii. 302 
Hayisia, /. Lat. Teu. war refbge, ii 

Havots, /. Eng, Teu. war refbge, ii. 

Hawoise, /. Eng. Teu. war refuge, ii. 

Haymo, to. Eng. Teu. home, ii. 422 
ffaymon, to. Eng. Teu. home, ii. 422 
Hazzo. to. Oer, Teu. Hessian, ii. 433 
ffazzy, TO. Eng. Zend, yenerable king, 

Hector, to. Eng. Gr. defender, 175, ii. 

ffeddo, TO. Fris. Teu. war, ii. 212 
Hedinn, to. Nor. Teu. ftiry, ii. 211 
Hedviga, /. Hung, war refuge, ii. 212 
Hedrige, /. Fr. war reftige, ii. 212 
Hedwig,/. Ger. Teu. warreilige, ii. 212 
Heebdegen, to. Ger, Teu. warrior 

blade, ii. 408 
Hboistbatos, to. Gr. army leader, 149 
Heimbert, to. Ger. Teu. home bright, ii. 


Hedobich, to. Ger, Teu. home mloTf 

ii. 220 
Heimrad, m, Ger, Teu. home council, 

ii. 223 
Heimrich, to. Ger, Teu. home rule, ii. 

ffein, TO. Ger. Teu. home rule, ii 222 
Heine, to. Ger. Teu. home rule, ii. 222 
Heinel, to. Ger. Teu. home rule, ii. 222 
Heinrich, to. Ger, Teu. home rule, ii. 

Hein^, to. Dutc^ Teu. home rule, ii. 

Heintz, to. Ger. Teu. home rule, ii. 220 
Hejba,/. Liu. Heb. life, 42 
Bejbka,/. Lus, Heb. life, 42 
Hektob, to. Ger. Gr. defender, 176 
HeUnng, to. G^er. Teu. half, ii. 482 
Helaine,/. En^/. Gr, light, 160 

Helena,/. Port. Eng. Span, Gr. light, 

Helfene,/. Fr. Gr. light, 163 
Helenka,/, Russ. Gr. light, 164 
Helewise, /. Eng, Teu. famous holi- 

ness, ii. 390 
HelMch, TO. Ger. helping ruler, ii. 418 
Helga,/. Nor. Teu. holy, 386 
HeUe, TO. Fr, Heb. God the Lord, 94 
Helier, w. Fr. Lat. cheerM, 396 
Heloi, TO. Nor. Teu. holy, ii. 388 
Heliodorus, to. Lat. Gr. sun's gift, 159 
Heliogabalus, to. Lat, Gr. sun's gift, 

HeUer, to. Jersey, Lat. cheerfhl 
Helhab, to. G^r. Teu. helmed warrior, 

Helmbold, to. Ger, Teu. helmed prince, 

ii. 297 
Helmebich, to. Ger, Teu. helmet king, 

ii 297 
Helmich, to. Ger. Teu. helmet, ii. 297 
Hehnhart, to. Ger, Teu. firm helmet, 

ii. 297 
Helhtao, to. Ger, Teu. helmet day, ii. 

Helmut, TO. Ger, Teu. helmet rage, ii. 

Helmine, f, Ger. Teu. will helmet, ii 

Helmold, to. Ger. Teu. helmet power, 

Heloise, /. Fr, Teu. fiunons holiness, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




BeUa,/, D€tn. Oer. Heb. God's oath, 90 
Hendiik, m. Dan. Dutch, Teu. home 

rale, iL 220 
Hffldiika, /. Dutchf Teu. home rule, 

Bendrifshka, m. Ltu, Gr. man, 204 
HengMtt^ m. A.S. Teu. horse, iL 278 
Hemdke^ m. Ger. Teu. home ruler, ii. 

Hemting, m, Oer, Teu. home ruler, ii. 

ffenmf, f, Eng . Teu. home ruler, ii. 222 
Henn, m, Fr, Teu. home rule, ii. 220 
Hekribtta,/. Eng. Teu. home rule, ii 

Henriette,/. Fr. Oer.Texi. home ruler, 

SenrUuL, f. Swed. Teu. home ruler, ii. 

Benriot, m. Fr, Teu. home ruler, ii, 

Henrique^ m. Port. Teu. home ruler, ii, 

Benriqueta^ f. Port, Teu. home ruler, 

n. 222 
Henry, m. Eng, Ten. home ruler, ii. 

Benryketa, f, PoL Teu. home ruler, ii. 

Henryk, m, PoU Teu. home ruler, ii. 

HsoBUWASD, m, A. 8. sword guar- 
dian, ii 296 
Hephzibah, /. Eng, Heh. my delight is 

in her, 120 
Bquy, f. Am. Heb. my delight is in 

her, 120 
Heradius, m. Lat, Gr. noble fame, 151 
Heraclidas, m, Lat. Or. noble fiune, 

Heracleonas, m, Lat. Gr. noble fame, 

Hbsaklbs, m. Oer, Gr. lordly fiEane, 

Henuic, m. Oer. Teu. warrior king, ii. 

Herberge, /. Fr, Teu. warrior protec- 
tion, ii. 408 
Herbert, m. Eng, Teu. bright warrior, 

Heri]»jam, m. Nor. Teu. warrior bear, ii. 

Herbrand, m. Nor. Teu. warrior sword, 


Herchenhold, m. Oer, Teu. sacredly 

firm, ii. 255 
Hercule, m. Eng. Gr. lordly fS&me, 14, 

Hercules, m. Eng. Gr. lordly fS&me, 

Herdegen, m. (hr. Teu. warrior blade, 

ii. 408 
Eertag^ m. Oer. Teu. army day, ii. 408 
Heremon, m. Erse, Kelt. ii. 63 
Hereward, m. Eng. Teu. sword guar- 
dian, ii. 298 
Hebuwulf, HI. Oer. Teu. sword wolf, 

ii. 298 
Hergils, m. Oer. Teu. warrior pledge, 

ii. 408 
Heribert, m. Fr. Teu. warrior bright, 

ii. 408 
Heribold, m. Oer. Teu. warrior prince, 

u. 408 
Herimar, m. Oer. Teu. warrior fame, ii. 

Heriold, m. Oer. Teu. warrior power, 

ii. 407 
Herjolf, m. Nor. Teu. warrior wolf, 

ii. 408 
Herlauo, /. Nor. Teu. warrior drink, 

u. 408 
HERI.EIF, m. Nor. Teu. warrior loye 

relic, ii. 408 
Herl&ik, tn. Nor, Teu. warrior sport, 

ii. 408 
Herluin, m. Fr. Teu. warrior Mend (?) 
ffermagoras, m. Or. assembly of 

Hermes, 169 
Eerma, SwisSy Teu. public, ii. 268 
Herman, tn. Oer. Teu. public • army 

man, 816, ii. 258 
Hermanoild, m. Goth. Teu. public 

pledge, ii. 258 
Hermanfried, m. Oer. Teu. public 

peace, iL 253 
Herraanfroy, m, Fr, Teu. public peace, 

ii. 253 
Herhanrich, m. Ger. Teu. public rule, 

ii. 253 
Hermesind, /. Ooth. Teu. public 

strength, ii. 253 
Hermes,/. Lat. Gr. of the earth, 168 
Hermia,/. Eng. Gr. of Hermes, 168 
Hermine./. It. Lat. lordly, 169, 316 
Herminius, to. Lat. lordly, 315 
Hermione,/. Lat. Gr. of Hermes, 169, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Hermolau8,m. Lat. Gr. Hermes' people, 

HermocrateSt m. Lat. Gr. Hermes' 

judge, 169 
ffermogenest m, Lat, Gr. Hermes' de- 
scendant, 160 
ffermund, m. Nor. Teu. army protec- 
tion, ii. 407 
Heman, m. Span. Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
ffemtmdat f. Span, Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
Hernando, m. Span. Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 435 
Hero,/. Eng. Gr. lady, 161 
Herod, m. Eng, Gr. of a hero, 152 
Herodias, m. £ng. Gr. of a hero, 152 
Herodotus, m. Eng. Gr. noble gift, 152 
Herulf, m. Nor. Teu. army wolf, ii. 408 
Herv6, m. Fr. Kelt, bitter, ii. 161 
Herwin^ m. Otr, Teu. army Mend, ii. 

Eery, m. Bret. Teu. home ruler, it 222 
Heseldel, tn. Qer. Heb. strength of 

God, 119 
ffeye,f. Dutch, Pers. star, 140 
Hester,/. Eng. Pers. star, 140 
Hesthera,/. Lat. Pers. star, 140 
Hezekiah, m. Oer. Heb. strength of 

the Lord, 118 
Hetty^f. Eng. Pers. star, 140 
Heva, f. Lat. Heb. life, 41 
Hew, m. Eng. Kelt mind, ii. 26 
BLezekiah, m. Eng. Heb. strength of 

the Lord, 24, 118 
HiALFREK, m. Nor. Teu. helping ruler, 

HiALPEBiK, m. Frank. Teu. helping 

ruler, iL 413 
Hierom, m. Eng. Gr. holy name, 211 
Hieronim, m. Pol. Gr. holy name, 211 
Hieronimo, m. It. Gr. holy name, 211 
Hieronimus, m. Lat. Oer. Gr. holy 

name, 211 
Hierondme, m, Fr. Gr. holy name, 211 
Hieronomette, /. Fr. Gr. holy name, 

Hieronymus, Lat. Gr. 201 
Hies, m. j^ov. Heb. gift of the Lord, 52 
Hieael, m. Bav. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Hilaire, m. Fr. Lat. cheerful, 896 
Hilaria,/. Eng. Lat. cheerftil, 396 
Hilariao, m. ^ort. Lat. cheerful, 396 

Hilario, wi. Sp. Port. Lat cheerf^, 396 
Hilarion, m. Fr. Lat. cheerfUl, 390 
HiLABius, m. Lat. Lat. cheerful, S96 
Hilaiy, m./. Eny. Lat. cheerfUl, 896 
Hilda, /. Eng. Teu. battle maid, ii. 

Hildebert, m. Frank. Teu. battle bright, 

Hildaberta, /. Ger. Teu. battle bright, 

HiLDBBJORO, /. Nor. Teu. battle maid 

protection, ii. 236 
HiLDEBOLD, m. Qer. Teu. battle prince, 

Hildebrand, m. Eng. Teu. battle sword, 

HiLDEGAR, m. G«r. Teu. battle spear, ii. 

Hildegarde, /. Ger. Teu. battle maid 

protection, ii. 285 
HiLDEouND,/. Nor. Teu. battle maid's 

war, ii. 236 
HiLDEouNNA,/. Ice. Teu. battie maid's 

war, iL 235 
Hildelildis, /. Lat. Teu; battie maid, ii. 

Hildemand, m. Ger. Teu. battie man, 

ii. 287 
Hildemunda, m. Ger. Teu, battle 

maid's protection, ii. 237 
Hilderich, m: Oer. Teu. battie rule, ii. 

Hilderik, m. Frank. Teu. battie rule, 

Hildert,/. Fries. Teu. battie council, ii. 

HiLDEWAUD, m. Frank. Teu. battle 

word, ii. 287 
Hildewig, /. Frank. Teu. battie maid 

war, ii. 235 
Hildiridur,/. lee. Teu. battie hastener, 

ii. 234 
Hildrad, m. Ger. Teu. battie council, iL 

Hilduara, /. Nor, Teu. battie prudence, 

ii. 235 
HiLDUB, /. Nor. Teu. battie maid, ii. 

HilUrt, m, Fr, Teu. battie bright, ii. 

HiiiPEBiK, m. Frank. Teu. batUe rule, 

ii. 237 
Hilram, m. Ger, Teu. battie raven, ii. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




Biba, /. Lw, Heb. God's oath. 92 
BiUbeta^ Lui. Heb. God's oath, 92 
EiixUka, Lus, Heb. God's oath, 92 
Hiltrade,/. Ger. Ten. battle maiden, 

iTtme, ». Fris. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 97 
ffiaumeltntd, /. Ger. Ten. heavenly 

iTincaiar, m. fV. Ten. lug's fame, ii. 248 
Hinko, m. Ger. Ten. Ing, ii. 248 
Hinrik, m. Frit. Swed. Tea. home role, 

Biob, m. Ger. Heb. persecated, 73 
HioRDis,/. sword spirit, ii. 298 
HiOBOEiR, m. sword war, ii 298 
HiOBifiF, m. sword relic, ii. 298 
HiOftULF, m. sword wolf, ii. 298 
HippoDAMcs, m. Or. horse tamer, 184 
HiFPODAXEiA,/. Gr. horse tamer, 184 
Hippolyt, m. Ger, Gr. horse destruc- 
tion, 184 
Hippolyta,/. Eng. Gr. horse destruc- 
tion, 184 
Hippolytt, m. Fr» Gr. horse destruc- 
tion, 184 
HippoLYTos, m. Gr. horse destruction, 

Hippolytus, m. Eng. Lot, Gr. horse 

dastruction, 184 
Birseh, m. Ger. Teu. stag 
Hinut m. FoL Gr. with a holy name, 

Hjat.¥ab, m. Nor. hehned warrior, iL 

^iarrande, Nor. Teu. sword horse, iL 

HiiOD, m. Frank. Teu. feunous, ii. 887 
EII.ODIO, m. Frank. Teu. fiunous, ii. 887 
Hi^DHEBi, m. Frank. Teu. fkmous 

army, iL 387 
HiiODHiLD,/. Frasik, Tea. famous battle 

nudd, ii. 888 
Hlodmab, m. Frank. Teu. loud fSune, iL 

Hlodwio, m. Framk. Tea. famous war, 

Hob, m. Eng. Teu. bright fame, iL 869 
'^ffohbie, m. Scot. Teu. bright stone, ii. 
Hocke, m. Dutch, Teu. mind, iL 801 
Hodidah, m. Eng, Heb. praise, 63 
Hodge^ m. Eng. Teu. spear of fkme, iL 

Hoel, m. WeUK Kelt lordly, ii. 148 
HooNi, m. Dan. Teu. deft (?), ii. 320 
HoLDA,/. Ger. Teu. gentle, 434 
ffoUx, m. Ltu. Gr. helper of men, 208 
Holger, m. Dan. Teu. holy, iL 386 
Holla,/. Ger. Teu. flaithful, 434 
Homfroi, m. Fr. Teu. support of peace, 

Honor,/. Eng. Lat honour, 894 
Honora,/ Ir. Lat. honour, 394 
Honoratus, m. Lat. honoured, 394 
Honors, m. Fr. Lat. honoured, 394 
Honoria,/. Eng. Lat honourable, 394 
Honorine, /. Fr. Lat honour, 394 
HoNORius, m. Lat. honourable, 394 
Horace, m. Fr. Eng. Lat 398 
Horacio, m. Sjnm. Lat. 393 
Horatia,/. £n^. Lat 393 
Horatio, m. En^. Lat 393 
Ho&ATius, m. Lae. 393 
Horatz, m. G^. Lat. 393 
ffordaknut, m. Dan. Teu. firm hill, 414 
Hona, m. A. S. Teu. horse, ii. 278 
Horta,/. Lu8. Gr. gift of God, 235 
Hortense,/. Fr. Lat. gardener, 892 
Hortensia,/. Ger. Eng. Lat. gardener, 

HoRTENSius, m. Lat gardener, 892 
ffortija.f. Lu8. Gr. gift of God, 236 
Hosch, m. WaUoon, thought, iL 302 
Ho8cha,f. Lu8. Lat bear, 411 
HosHEA, 911. Eng. Heb. salvation, 97 
HouEBv, m. Bret. Kelt, bitter, ii. 160 
Hovleik, m. Nor. Teu. sport of thought, 

ii. 802 
Haafen, m. Ice. Teu. raven, ii. 286 
Hrafemhildxjr, /. Ice. Teu. raven bat- 
tle maid, ii. 286 
Hrafenkjell, m. Ice. Teu. raven ket- 
tle, ii. 286 
ffrista, m. III. Gr. Christian, 240 
Hbodbern, m. Nor. Teu. funous bear, 

ii. 871 
Hbodhild, /. Oer. Nor. Teu. famous 

heroine, ii. 371 
Heodfrid, /. Oer. Nor. Teu. fSunous 

peace, ii. 871 
Hroi, m. Teu. Nor. fkmous freshness, 

ii. 371 
Hbodny, /. Teu. Nor. famous liquor, iL 

HroUaug, ii. 871 

HroUaf^ m. Teu. Nor. relic of fame, ii. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



HRODsnn),/. Nor.Teu, famoas strength, 

Hrodstein, wi. Nor, Teu. famous 

stone, ii. 371 
Hbudo, Nor. Tea. fame, ii. 871 
Broar, m. Nor, Teu. fEunous spear, ii. 

ffro\f, m. Nor, Tea. wolf of fune, ii. 

Hbosbert, m. Ger, Tea. bright horse, 

ii. 27» 
Hroshelm, m. Ger. Tea. horse helmet, 

ii. 279 
Hbosmund, /. m. Tea. fiamed protec- 
tion, 421 
Hroswith,/. Lonib. Tea. horse strength, 

421, ii. 279 
Hrosswald, m. Nor, Tea. horse power, 

ii. 279 
Hrothulf, m. Nor, famoas wolf, ii. 866 
Hbothoab, a. 8, spear of fame, ii. 3G6 
Hbothmund, m. Nor, Teu. f&mous pro- 
tection, ii. 870 
Hrothrekb, m. Nor, Teu. famous king, 

ii. 870 
Hrorekb, m. Nor, Teu. famous king, ii. 

Hrothulf, m. Nor, Teu. famous wolf, 

ii. 370 
Hruodoar, m. Oer, Teu. fSuned spear, 

ii. 866 
Hruodojer, m. Nor, Teu. fEuned spear, 

Hruodland, m. Frank. Tea. fame of 

land, ii. 860 
Hruodmar, m. Nor, Teu. famed re- 
nown, ii. 871 
Hruodperacht, m. Nor. Teu. bright 

fame, ii. 367 
Hruoderich, m. Nor. Teu. famed rule, 

ii. 870 
Hrudrolp, m. Nor, Teu. wolf of feme, 

Hu, m, Cym. Kelt, mind, ii. 27 
Huard,fn. Ger, Teu. firmin mind, ii. 808 
Hubbard, m, Eng, Teu. mind bright, 

u. 302 
Hubert, m. Eng. Fr, Teu. mind bright, 

u. 303 
Huberto, m. It, Teu. mind bright, ii. 803 
Hucpraht, m, Ger. Teu. ii. 803 
Hues, m, Fr. Teu. mind, ii. 27, 801 
Huet, m. Fr, Teu. Kelt (?) mind, 27, 


EuetUy /. Fr. Teu. Kelt mind, iL 26, 

Hugh, m. Eng, Teu. mind, ii. 26, 

141. 301 
Hugi, m. Nor, Teu. mind, ii. 801 
HuoiBALD, m, Fr. Teu. mind prince, 

ii. 803 
HuoiBBRT, m. Gm^. Teu. mind biigfat, 

ii. 803 
HuoiHARDT, m. Ger, Teu. firm mind, 

ii. 308 
HuoLEiK, m. ^or. Teu. sport of the 

mind, 177, ii 302 
Hugo, m. Span, Lot, Port, Teu. mind, 

ii. 301 
HuGOLEiK, m. Frank, Teu. sport of the 

mind, ii. 302 
Hugolin, m, Fr, Teu. mind, ii 301 
Hugr, m. Nor, Teu. mind, ii 301 
Hngues, m. Fr, Teu. mind, ii. 801 
Hxiguenin, m, Fr. Teu. mind, iL 301 
HuGUR, m. Nor, Teu. mind, ii. 800 
Huig, m. Dutch, Teu. thought, ii. 803 
Huldr,/. Swed, Teu. muffled. 434 
Hulla,/. Swed, Teu. muffled, 434 
Humbert, m. Fr, Teu. support of bright- 

ness, ii. 296 
Humfrey, m. Eng, Teu. support of 

peace, ii. 296 
Humfreid, m, Oer, Teu. support of 

peace, ii. 297 
Humphrey, m, Eng. Teu. support of 

peace, ii. 297 
Eumpst m. Eng. Teu. support of peaoe, 

ii. 297 
ffunaud, m, Fr, Teu. support of power, 

ii. 296 
HuND, m. Dan. Teu. dog, ii. 270 
Hundolf, dog wolf. ii. 270 
HuKOERDUR, /. Nor, Teu. supporting 

maiden, ii. 297 
Hungusj m, Scot, Kelt excellent rirtae, 

ii. 64 
Humbert, m. Nor, Teu. supiK>rt of 

brightness, ii. 296 
Hunnerich, m. Ger. Teu. support rnler, 

Hunold, m, Fr, Teu. support of power, 

ii. 296 
Huon, m. Fr. Teu. mind, ii. 301 
Huprecht, m, Lu9. Teu. bright feme, ii. 

Hutcheon, m. Scot. Teu. mind, ii. 801 
Hyacinth, m. Ir, Gr. purple, 191 




%adnthe,/. JFV. Gr. pnrple, 191 
Afoeinihietf. Oer, Gr. purple, 191 
HTOBiJk.c, m. A, G, 8. Tea. sport of 

thought, ii. 302 
Hyiuk^ m. Bohm. Lat. fiery, 402 

Hystaspes, fii. Or, Zend, possessing 

horses, 107 
Htwel, m. TTe^tA, Kelt. lordly, ii. 

Hywai, m. TF^slfft, Ten. mind, iL 27 

latfJktmo, m. It. Heb. snpplanter, 58 
logo, m. Span, Heb. supplanter, 58 
Most, III. Scot. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

lapetot, m. Or. afflicted, 142 
IiUfOABO, m. Nor. iron defence, ii. 298 
Ibtf. Eng. PhoBn. oath of Baal, ii. 98 
IMd, m. Oer. Teu. bow prince, ii. 349 
^IhboUf. Scot. Ten. oath of Baal, 93 II 
Ibert^ m. Oer. Ten. bright bow, ii. 249 
Ibraheem, m. Arab. Heb. fiftther of na* 

tions, 45 
Ichabod^ m. Eng. Heb. the glory is de- 
parted, 2 
Ida, /. m. Otr. Eng. Teu. happy, ii. 340 
Ida, /. Erse^ Kelt, thirsty 
Ide, «. Oer. Teu. rich, ii. 340 
IdeUeJ. Flem. Teu. rich, ii. 840 
Idonea, /. Eng. Teu. she who oyer 

works, ii. 217 
Idubfrge,/. Fr. Teu. happy protection, 

iL 344 
Iduke,/. Oer. Nor. Teu. she who works, 

Iggerieh, m. Fris. Teu. awftd king, ii. 

Ignace, m. Rtu$. Lat. fiery, 402 
Ignac^, m. Slav. Lat. fiery, 402 
Ignacio, m. Rom. Lat. fiery, 402 
Ignacy, m. Pol. Lat. fiery, 402 
IgnoMchOj m. Rues. Lat. fiery, 402 
Ignatie, m. YToZZocA. Lat fiery, 402 
Ignatg, m, Rtias. Lat. fiery, 401 
Ignatius, to. Eng. Lat fiery, 401 
Ignaz, m. Ger. Lat. fiery, 402 
Ignazia, m. J9at7. Lat. fiery, 402 
Ignazio, m. It. Lat fiery, 402 
^nes,/. Span. Gr. pure, 263 
jfyor, m. Ruts. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Ae,m. Fris. Teu. awfdl firmness, ii. 

Ikey, m. Eng. Heb. laughter, 49 
liar, m. TTtsJ^A, Gr. cheerful, 396 
Haria, m. i2uM. Lat cheerM, 396 
Dareey, Rust. Lat cheerful, 396 

nario, m. It. Lat. cheerM, 397 
narion, in. Russ. Lat cheerful, 896 
ndefonso, m. Span. Teu. eager for 

battle, ii. 287 
ndefonsus, m. Sport Teu. eager for 

battle, ii. 287 
IldericOf m. It. Teu. battle rule, ii 284 
lUska^ /. Slav. Lat downy bearded, 

iHa, m. Russ. Heb. God, the Lord, 29 
iforia, Hung. Gr. light, 164 
Use,/. Ger. Heb. God's oath, 98 
IUe,f. Ger. Teu. noble cheer, ii. 899 
Imagina^f. Ger, ii. 45 
Immakuel, to. Eng. Heb. God with us, 

Imogen,/, Eng. u. 45 
Incama^on,/. Span, Lat incarnation, 

Indee, Lett, home ruler, ii. 222 
Indrikis, Lett, home ruler, ii. 222 
Indus, Lett, home ruler, ii. 222 
Indride, to. Nor. chief rider, ii. 248 
Illes,/. Span. Gr. pure, 268 
InesUa,/. Span. Gr. pure, 268 
Ifiaz, Port. Gr. pure, 263 
/n^, TO. Nor. Teu. Ing, ii. 248 
Ingebera, /. Nor. Teu. lug's bear, ii. 

Ingeberge, /. Nor. Teu. lug's protec- 
tion, ii. 248 
Idoebjebo, /. Nor. Teu. lug's protec- 
tion, ii. 248 
Ingebrand, to. a. S. Teu. lug's sword, 

ii. 248 
Ingbojbrd, /. Nor. Teu. lug's guard, 

ii. 248 
Ingeltrani, to. Eng. Teu. lug's rayen, 

ii. 248 
Ihgeuef, to. Nor. Teu. Ing's relie, ii 

Ingehund, to. Nor. Teu. lug's protec- 
tion, ii. 248 
Ihgeridub, /. Nor. Teu. 
ness, ii. 248 


by Google 



Inohild, /. Nor, Teu. lug's battle 

maid, ii. 248 
Ingjard, m. Nor, Teu. Ing*8 spear, ii. 

Ingoberga, /. Lot. Teu. lug's protec- 

tioD, ii. 248 
Imorimr, m. Not, Teu. helmeted Ing» 

Ingram^ m. Eng, Teu. lug's raveu, ii. 

Inguij, m. Eng, Teu. lug's wolf, U. 

Ingulphus, m, Lat. Teu. lug's wolf, ii. 

Ingunna,/. Not. Teu. lug's maiden, ii. 

Inoye, m. Nor, Teu. lug's cousecra- 

tion, ii. 248 
lugraldr, m. Nor, Teu. lug's power, 

ii. 248 
lugvar, m. Nor. Teu. lug's warrior, ii. 

Inovechild, /. Nor, Teu. lug's bat- 
tle maid, ii. 248 
Ifiiga,/. m. Span. Gr. fiery, 402 
IQigo, m. Span, Gr. fiery, 402 
lunoceut, m. Eng. Lat. harmless, 890 
Innocentius, m. Lat. harmless, 899 
Inuocenz, m. Oer. Lat. harmless, 399 
luuocenzie,/. Ger. Lat, harmless, 399 
luuoceuzio, m. It. Lat. harmless, 399 
luuokentg, m, i2uM.Lat. harmless, 899 
TolOf m. Bret, Lat. downy bearded, 318 
lolOy m, Welsh, Lat. downy bearded, 

Ippolita, /. It. Gr. horse destruction, 

Ippolito, m. It, Gr. horse destructiou, 

Irene,/. Eng, It, Fr. Gr. peace, 264 
Ireusus, tn, Lat, Gr. peaceAil, 254 
Ibimo, m. Tkuringian, Teu. ii. 405 
Irmanfrit, m. Ger. Teu. public peace, ii. 

Imvrit, m. Thu. Teu. public peace, ii. 

Ibuno, m, bright, ii. 406 
Irwin, m. Erte, Kelt, ii. 63 
Isa,f, Ger. Teu. iron, ii. 298 
Isaac, m, Fr. Eng. Heb. laughter, 7, 49 
Isaak, m. Rues. Ger. Heb. laughter, 49 
Isabeau,/. Fr. Heb. oath of Baal, 91 
Isabel, /. Span, Eng, Port, Heb. oath 

of Baal, 89 

I$dbelinha,f.Port. Heb. oath of Baal, 93 
Isabella,/. It, Heb. oath of Baal, 90 
Isabelle,/. Fr. Heb. oath of Baal, 90 
Isac, m, Fr. Heb. laughter, 49 
Isacco, m. It, Heb. laughter, 49 
Isaiah, m. £71^. Heb. salvation of the 

Lord, 119 
IsAMBA&T, m. Fr, Teu. iron bright, ii. 

Isambaus, m. Fr, Teu. iron prince, ii. 

label,/, Scot. Heb. God's oath, 91 
Isbrand, m. Nor. Teu. iron sword, ii. 293 
Isebald, m. Ger. Teu. iron prince, ii. 293 
Isenbrand, m. Ger. Teu. iron sword, 293 
IsENOABD, m. Ger, Teu. iron defence, 293 
IsENGRiH, m. Ger. Teu. iron mask, ii. 293 
Isenhard, m. Ger, Teu. iron firm, iL 243 
IseuUe,/. Fr, Kelt, fair.ii. 145 
IsFUNDEAB, m. Pen, Zend. 138 
hgar, m, Ger, Teu, iron spear, iL 298 
IsoiER, m. Nor, Teu. iron spear, ii. 293 
Ishmael, m. Eng, Heb. heard of God, 2 
Isidor, 911. Span, Ger, Gr. strong gift, 

Isadora, /. Span. Gr. strong gift, 286 
Isidore,/, m. Fr. Gr. strong gift, 236 
Isidoro, m. It, Gr. strong ^ft, 236 
IsiDORUS, m. Lat. Gr. strong gift, 236 
Ising, m. Nor, Teu. son of iron, ii. 293 
Iskender, m. Turk, Gr. helper of men, 

Isobel,/. Scot. Heb. oath of God, 96 
Isolda,/ It, Kelt, fair, ii. 145 
Isolde,/. £71^. Kelt, fair, ii. 145 
Isolt,/. Eng. Kelt. fair,ii. 146 
IsRiD, / Nor, Teu. iron vehemence, ii. 

Issachar, m. Eng. Heb. hire, 16 
Issaak, m. Rtua, Heb. laughter, 49 
Istvan, m. ffung. Gr. crown, 226 
IsuLF, m. Nor, Teu. iron wolf, ii. 293 
Ita,/. Erse, Kelt, thirsty, 2, ii. 22 
Itzig, m, Pol, Heb. laughter, 49 
Ivan, m. Buss, Heb. grace of God, 109, 

Ivancica, f. Buss, Gr. Teu. grace of the 

Lord, 114 
Ivarytucha, m. Buss. Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Tvanku, f, Bulg, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 114 
Ivanna, /. Buss, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 114 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 






[to, m. 
[Ton, « 
Itot, m 

Dan. Ten. archer, ii. 249 
m, Ger. Teu. bow prioce, ii. 249 
m. Ger. Teu. bright bow, ii. 249 
Dan. Teu. archer, ii. 249 
Eng. Teu. archer, ii. 349 
IlL Heb. grace of the Lord, 114 
Eng. Teu. archer, ii. 249 
u Bret. Teu. bow bearer, ii. 249 
. Scot. Teu. bow beimar, ii. 349 

iTory, m. IrUhy ii. 249 
Izaak, m. Eng. Heb. laughter, 49 
Izahela,/. Pol, Heb. oath of Baal, 90 
hdbeUa.f, Hung. Heb. oath of Baal, 90 
Izak, m. Slov. Heb. laughter, 49 
Izod,/. Eng, Kelt fair, ii. 146 
Izoldo,/. Eng, Kelt, fair, ii. 144 
Izsakf m. Hung. Heb. laughter, 49 
Izydor, m, Pol Gr. strong gift, 236 

faak, m. Etth, Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jaap, m. Dutch, Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jaapje, /. Dutch, Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jabez, m. Eng, Heb. sorrow, 2 
Jaekym, m. PoL Heb. the Lord's judg- 
ment, 98 
Jacin, Slov, HI. the Lord's judgment, 98 
Tadnta,/. ^wn. 192 
facintha,/. Eng. Gr. purple, 192 
Jacinthe, m, Fr. Gr. purple, 192 
Jack, m. Eng. Heb. grace of God, 56, 

109, 111 
Jacket, m, Bav. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jacob, m. Eng, Fr. Heb. supplanter, 1, 

Jacobs, f. Fr. Heb. supplanter, 66 
JacobeHOy m. It. Heb. supplanter, 58- 
Jacobina, /. Scot. Heb. supplanter, 67 
Jacobine, /. Ger, Heb. supplanter, 64 
Jacobo, m. It. Span. Heb. supplanter, 

Jacobus, m. Lat, Heb. supplanter, 54 
Jaeomina,/. Dutch, Heb. supplanter 
Jacopo, m. It. Heb. supplanter, 66, 67 
Jacot, m. Fr. Heb. supplanter, 56 
Ja<?or, m. l?uu. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jacovina, f. Buss. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jacques, m, Fr. Heb. supplaiiter, 56 
Jacqueline,/. Fr. Heb. supplanter, 14, 

Jacqueminot, m. Fr. Heb. supplanter, 

Jacquetta, f. Eng, Heb. supplanter, 66 
Jaequette,/. Fr. Heb. supplanter, 56 
Jaddasus, m. Lat. Heb. Imown of God, 

Jaddua, m. Eng. Heb. known of God,^ 

Jadwiga, /. Pol Teu. war refhge, ii. 

/o^o, m. £fi^. Heb. supplanter, 57 
JaggeU, m. Bav. Heb. supplanter, 68 


Jagoda, m, Slav. Slav, strawberry, ii 

Jahus, m. Dutch, Heb. grace of the 

Lord. Ill 
Jaime, m. Aram. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jaka, m. Slov. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jakob, m. Hung. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jako, m. III. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jakob, m. Esth. Dutch, Oer. Pol, Heb. 

supplanter, 55. 58 
Jakoba,/. Dutch, Ger, Heb. supplanter, 

Jakobos, TO. Gr, Heb. supplanter, 64, 66 
Jakobine, /. Ger. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jakov, m. Russ. lU. Wall. Heb. sup- 
planter, 68 
Jakova,/. Hung. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jakohika, f. m. lU. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jaffrez, m. Bret. Teu. God's peace, ii. 

Jakub, m, Bohm, Heb. supplanter 
James, m. Eng, Heb. supplanter, 8, 33, 

Jamesina, /. Eng. Heb. supplanter, 57 
^ Jamie, m. Scot, Heb. supplanter, 65 
Jan, m. Nor, Dutch, Eng. Heb. grace of 

the Lord, 118 
Jannik, m. Bret, Hob. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Jana$, m, Lett, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Janak, Pol, Heb. grace of the Lord, 111 
JaTickzi, TO. Hung, Heb. grace of the 

Jane,/. Eng. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Janek, m. Scot, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Janesika, /. Slov. Heb. grace of the 

Janet, 1, Scot, Heb. grace of the Lord, 


Digitiz^ by Google 



Janez, m. Slov, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jaiija^f. Serv. Gr. pure, 262 
Janket m, Lut, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Janne, m, Dan. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jannedik^ f, Bret, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 112 
JanoSf m. Hung. Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Janotjet /. Dutch, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 114 
JanHjia, /. DtUch, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 114 
Janket /. Dutch, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 114 
Januamus, m. Lat. Januaiy bom, 859 
Janus, m. Dutch, Lat from Adria, 332 
Japhet, m. Eng. Heb. extender, 142 
Jaques, in. i«V. Heb. snpphuiter, 58 
Jaquette, /. Fr. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jarod, m. Eng. Heb. coming down, 43 
JiBLAE, m. Swed. Heb. earl warrior, ii. 

Jabomib, m. Bohm. Slav, firm peace, ii. 

Jabopolk, m. Ruts. Slav, firm peace, ii. 

Jaboslay, /. Rus$. Slav, firm peace, ii. 

Jarratt, m. Eng. Teu. spear firm, ii. 

Jartmd, m. Nor, Teu. spear truth, ii, 

Jatcha, m. Euis. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jasehenka, m. Euts. Heb. supplanter, 

JascMs, m. Lett. Heb. addition, 69 
Jaseps, m. Lett. Heb. addition, 69 
Jasper, m. Eng. Pers. treasure master, 

Jatmund, m. Dan. Teu. rich protec- 
tion, ii. 842 
Jauhert, m, Fr. Teu. good bright, ii. 177 
Jauffri, m. Prov. Teu. God's peace, ii 

Jantje, m. Dutch, Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 111 
Jayan, m. Eng. Heb. claj, 142 
Javotte,/. Fr. Kelt, white stream, ii. 138 
Jaward, m. Nor. Teu. rich guardian, ii. 

Jeyme, m. 8p. Port. Heb. supplanter, 54 

Jeames, m. Eng. Heb. supplanter, 57 
Jean, m. Fr, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jean, /. Scot. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jeanne,/. Fr. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jeannette, f, Fr. Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 112 
Jeannetton, f. Fr. Heb. grace of the 

Lord, 114 
Jeannot,m. i^V.Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jebbe, f. Frit, Teu. wild boar battle 

maid, 278 
Jeconiah, m. Eng. Lat appointed of 

the Lord, 98 
Jedert,/. Slov. Teu. war maid, ii. 825 
Jedrzej, m. PoL Gr. manly, 204 
Jeffrey, m. Eng, Teu. good peace, ii. 

Jefronitta, f. Ruts. Gr. mirth, 173 
Jehan, to. Fr. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jehanne,/. Fr. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jehoash, given by the Lord, 97 
Jehoram, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord is ex- 
alted, 97 
Jehoiachin, m. Eng. Heb. appointed of 

the Lord, 98 
Jehoiada, m. Eng. Heb. known of God, 

Jehoiakim, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 97 
Jehu, TO. Eng. Heb. the Lord is He, 97 
Jeka, TO. Lett. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jekups, TO. Lett. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jela,f. Serv. Gr. light, 164 
JeUna,/. SUw. Gr. light, 164 
Jelica,f. Russ. Slov. Gr. light 164 
Jelisavka,/. Serv. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Jelitsaveta, f. i2ia«. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Jellies, TO. Dutch, Teu. warring, ii. 409 
Jellon, TO. Scot. Lat downy bearded, 

Jemmy, to. Eng, Heb. supplanter, 57 
Jemima,/. Eng. Heb. dove, 73 
Jendritka, /. Bohm. Teu. home ruler, 

u. 223 
JenHn, to. Eng. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jennifer, /. Com. Kelt, white wave, ii . 


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Jemiy, /. Eng, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jenoveik, m. BreU Kelt, white stream, 

Jetu, m. Don. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

109, 111 
Jec^froi, «. J^V. Tea. dmne peace, ii 

Jep9^ m. LetL Heb. addition, 69 
Jerattiwi, m. Run. Gr. beloved, 225 
Jenut, m. Ru$9. Gr. amiable, 225 
Jera^f. Slav, Ten. war maid, IL 325 
Jeremej, «i. i2iu«. Heb. exalted of the 

Lord, 120 
Jeremiah, m. Ger, Slav. Heb. exalted 

of the Lord, 120 
Jerewdahj m. Ft. Eng. Heb. exalted of 

the Lord, 120 
Jeremias, m. Fr. Eng. Heb. exalted of 

the Lord, 120 
Jeremie, m. Fr. WaXL Heb. exalted of 

the Lord, 120, iL 87 
Jeremija, m. Ruts. Serv. Heb. exalted 

of the Lord, 120 
Jeremy, m. Eng. Heb. exalted of the 

Lord, 120 
Jerica/f. Slav. Ten. war maid, ii. 325 
Jerko, m. Serv. Gr. with a holy name, 

Jermyn, nt. Eng. Lat German, 416 
Jermj, m. lU. Heb. son of fturows, 72 
JeroUm, m. Serv. Gr. with holy name, 

Jerom, in. Ger. Gr. holy name, 211 
Jeromette,/. Fr. Gr. holy name, 211 
Jerome, m. Eng. Fr. Gr. holy name, 

Jeronimo, m. Part. Gr. with a holy 

name, 211 
Jeiram, m. £1147. Ten. war raven, ii 828 
Jerry, m. Eng. Heb. exalted of the 

Lord, 120 
Jervis, m. Eng. Ten. spear war, ii 328 
JervaUe, m. Eng. Tea. spear war, ii. 828 
JerzUt m. Pol. Gr. hnsbandman, 259 
Jesua, m. Ger. Heb. help of God, 119 
Jeseldiiel, m. Rust. Heb. strength of 

God, 119 
Jespers, m. Lett. Pers. treasure master, 

Jeshoa, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord my sal- 
vation, 96 
JeukOjf. Eng. 114 
/(MM, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord is, 114 


Jestie,/. ScoU Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Jettehenyf. Ger. Ten. home mler, iL 

Jetu^f. Ger. Ten. home ruler, ii. 223 
Jettjey f. Dutch, Ten, home ruler, it 

Jevoyf. Serv. Gr. fair speech, 209 
Jeva,/, Lett Serv. Heb. life, 41 
Jevan, WeUh, young warrior, iL 141 
Jewa,/. Rust. Heb. life, 41 
Jevchariz, m. Rust. Gr. happy hand, 

Jevdoksia, /. Rust. Gr. happy glory, 207 
Jevginnia,/. Ruts. Gr. weU bom, 207 
Jevgin\j, m. Ru8$. Gr. weU bom, 207 
J6vfin4)a,/. Rutt. Gr. fair fame, 209 
JevlaUja,/. Russ. Gr. fair speech, 208 
Jevstachij, m. Rust. Gr. fair harvest, 209 
Jewa,f. Lith. Heb. life, 41 
JeweleJ. Lett. Heb. life, 41 
Jezebel,/. Eng. Heb. oath of Baal, 89 
Jezitj m. Lett. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Jill,/. Eng. Lat. downy beard, 320 
JiUetjf. Eng. Lat downy beard, 320 
JilUan,/. Eng. Lat. downy beard, 320 
Jitka,/. Pol. Heb. praise, 64 
Jimy m. Eng. Heb. supplanter, 56 
Jiri, m. Bohm. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Jjewa,/. Lut. Heb. life, 42 
Joa, m. Span. Heb. the Lord will judge, 

Joachim, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 98 
Joachim, m. Rutt, Eng. Fr. Heb. God 

will judge, 98 
JoacHme, /. Fr. Heb. God will judge, 

Joahim, m. Slav. Heb. God will judge, 

Joakim, m. Rutt. Heb. God will judge, 

Joan, /. Eng. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Joanna, /. Eng. PoL Heb. the Lord's 

grace, 106, 112 
Joannes, m. Gr. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Joanico, m. Port. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Joaniniha, f. Port. Heb. the Lord's 

grace, 111 
Jo€u>, /. Port. Heb. the Lord's grace, 






Joaozinho, m. Port, Heb. the Lord's 

grace, 111 
Jooquim, m. Span, Heb. the Lord will 

judge. 98 
Joaquin, m. Span. Port, Heb. the Lord 

will judge, 98 
J equina, /. Port, Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 98 
Joash, m, Eng, Heb. given by the Lord, 

Job, m. Eng. Heb. persecuted, 73 
Johs^ m. Ger. Lat. sportive, 895 
Job$ty m, Bav. Lat. sportive, 895 
Joceliny m, Fr. Eng. Lat. sportive, 396 
Jochebed, /. Eng, Heb. person of merit, 

Jocheliy m. Swiss, the Lord will judge, 

Johann, m. Bav. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 97 
Jock, m. Scot, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

55, 108 
Jock, m. SwisSf Heb. supplanter, 68 
Jockel, m. Ger. Heb. supplanter 
Jockey, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord's grace 
Jocosa,/. Eng. Lat. merry, 396 
Jocosus, m. Lat. merry, 395 
Jodel, m. Bav, Lat. sportive, 396 
Jodetel, m. Fr. Lat. sportive, 395 
Jodpca, /. Eng. Lat. sportive, 396 
JoDOCUS, m. Lat. sportive, 396 
Jodoke,/. Ger, Lat. sportive, 396 
Jodokus, m. Ger. Lat. sportive, 896 
JoAR, horse warrior, ii. 280 
JoDis, horse sprite, ii. 280 
JoFRED, horse peace, ii. 280 
JoFRiD, fair horse, ii. 280 
JooEiB, horse spear, ii. 280 
JooRiM, horse mask, ii. 280 
Jokell, horse kettle, ii. 280 
JoKKTYL, hqfse kettle, ii. 280 
JoREiD, horse eagerness, ii. 280 
JosTEiN, horse stone, ii. 280 
JoRUNNA, horse lady, ii. 280 
Jomandes, Jordan, ii. 280 
J<^ren, Nor. Teu. glittering man, ii. 400 
J^RUND, iVbr.Teu. gUttering man, ii. 406 
Joel, m Eng. Heb. strong willed, 123 
Joe, m, Eng, Heb. addition. 69, 97 
Joeran, m. Dan, Gr. husbandman, 259 
Jofa, m. Lapp, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Jo/an, m, Lapp, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Jogg, m, Swiss, Heb. supplanter, 68 
Joggeli, m. Swiss, Heb. supplanter, 68 
Johan. m. Swiss, Esth. Heb. the Lord's 

grace. 111 
Johanan, Eng. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Johanna, /. Ger. Esth. Heb. the Lord's 

grace, 108 
Johanna, /. Eng. Heb. the Lord's grace» 

Johanne, /. Ger, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Johannes, m. Ger, Heb. the Lord's 

grace. 111 
John, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Johnnie, Scot. Heb. the Lord's grace. 111 
Johnny, Eng. Heb. the Lord's grace. 111 
Jokum, Dan. Heb, the Lord will judge, 

Joletta,/. Eng. Lat. violet, 422 
Joliette,/. Fr, Lat. downy bearded, 321 
Jompert, m. Fr. Teu. war splendour, ii. 

Jonah, m. Eng. Heb. dove, 2, 74 
Jonas, m, Lat. Heb. dove, 74, 111 
Jonaszus, m. Lith. Heb. dove, 74 
Jonathan, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord's 

gift, 71 
JoneUs, m. Lith. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Jonka, m. Lapp. Heb. dove, 74 
Jonkus, m. Lith. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Jonkuttelis, m. Lith, Heb. the Lord's 

grace. 111 
Jonuttis, m. Lith. Heb. the Lord's 

grace. 111 
J Oram, m. Eng. Heb. the Lord is ex- 
alted, 97 
Jordan, m. Eng. Heb. descender, 100 
Jorens, m. Norse, Lat. laurel, 367 
Jorge, Port, husbandman 
Jons, Dutch, Gr. husbandman, 269 
Jorwarth. m. Welsh, Teu. rich guard, 

ii. 340 
Jos, m. Eng, Heb. the Lord is salvation, 

Joscelin, m. Eng. Lat. just, 398 
Joscelind,/. Eng, Lat. just, 398 
Jose, m. Span. Port, Heb. addition, 68 
Josef, m. Span, Swed. Heb. addition, 68 
Jose£A, /. Span. Heb. addition, 68 
Josefina,/. Swed, Heb. addition, 69 

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Joeep, m. Prov. Fr, Heb. addition, 69 
Joseph, m. Fr, Eng. Ger. Heb. addition, 

16, «7 
Josepha, /. I^ort. Heb. addition, 69 
Josepbe, y. Ger, Fr, Heb. addition, 69 
Josephina, /. Port, Heb. addition, 69 
, Josephine, /. Fr, Eng, Heb. addition, 
Joees, m. Or, Heb. addition, 68 
' Joshua, m. Eng, Heb. the Lord is sal- 
Tftdon, 96 
Josiah, fvft. Eng, Heb. yielded to the 

Lord, 97 
Jossif; m. WtUl Heb. addition, 69 
Josipe,/. IW. Heb. addition, 69 
Josip, m. 72^ Heb. addition, 69 
Jofipa,/. III. Heb. addition, 69 
J<mpac, m. IlL Heb. addition, 69 
Josipica^f. Ill, Heb. addition, 69 
Joska,/. lU, Heb. addition, 69 
Jo^koy m. Ill, Heb. addition, 69 
Jo9h, m. Bav, Heb. addition, 69 
JoM^, tn, Fr, Lat. sportive, 895 
Jo*mUn, m. J^r. Lat. sportive, 895 
Jo«gif, m, Rtuis, Heb. addition, 69 
Jo»6q6, m. Fr. Heb. the Lord is salvation 
Jo#t, m. L. Ger, Lat just, 898 
v Jo#<, m. Suns$. Lat. sportive, 896 
I Jo#f, m. Ger. Lat, sportive, 895 
[ Jogtli, m. SurUi. Lat. sportive, 396 
r Joftf, m. LeU, Lat. just, 898 

Jawdain, m. Fr, Heb. descender, 101 
Jov, m, Rus*. Heb. persecuted, 73 
Jovan, m. Ill, Swiss. Heb. the Lord's 

grace, 111 
Jotana, f. III, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Jotfanna, f. Port, Heb. the Lord's 
' grace. Ill 

' Jovian us, to. Lat, belonging to Jupiter, 
Joviea, f. III. Heb. the liOrd's grace, 111 
Joy,/. Eng, 395 

Joyce, /. Eng. Lat. sportive, 895 
Joycelin, m. Eng. Lat just, 390 
Joza, m. Slov. Heb. addition, 69 
■■ Joze, m. Port. Heb. addition, 69 

Jozef, m. Pol, Slav, Heb. addition, 69 
JozefaJ, Pol Heb. addition, 69 
Joto, m. Ill Heb. addition, 69 
Jozefa,/. Bung, Heb. addition, 69 
Jra,/, Slov. Ten. spear maid, ii. 325 
Juan, w. Span. Heb. the liord's grace, 

Juana,/. Span. Heb. the Lord's grace, 


Juanito, m. Span. Heb. the Lord's 

grace, 121 
Juczi, /. Hung. Heb. praise, 64 
Judash, m. Eng. Heb. praise, 16, 60 
Judas, TO. 5cof . Heb. praise, 62 
Jude, TO. Enp. Heb. praise, 62 
Judical, TO. JBr«t. Lat. sportive, 895 
Judit,/. Bung. Heb. praise, 6 
Judith,/. G^r. Eng, Heb. praise, 63 
Juditha, /. Ger. Heb. praise, 63 
Judithe,/. Fr. Heb. praise, 63 
Judy, f. Eng. Heb. praise, 64 
*J^9^> /• -E'if?. Heb. praise, 64 
Jukums, TO. i/t7/t. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 99 
Jukkinum, to. Esth. Heb. the Lord will 

judge, 99 
Jules, TO. Lith. Lat. downy bearded, 

Jules, TO. Fr. Lat. downy bearded, 317 
Juli,/. Hung. IM. downy bearded, 817 
Julia, /. Eng. Lat downy bearded, 817 
Juliaantje, /. Dutch. Lat. downy 

bearded, 318 
Julian, TO. /. Eng. Span. Lat downy 

bearded, 818 
Juliana,/. Eng, Span. Port, Wall. Lat 

downy bearded, 320 
JuUane, /. Ger. Lat downy bearded, 

Juliano, to. Span, Lat downy bearded, 

Julianus, m. Lat. downy bearded, 317 
Juanito,/, Span. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Juliao, TO. Port. Lat. downy bearded, 

Julie, /. III. Fr, Wall. Lat downy 

bearded, 318 
Julien, TO. Fr. Lat. downy bearded, 320 
Julienne, /. Fr, Lat downy bearded, 

Juliet, /. Eng, Lat. downy bearded, 

Julietta, /. Span. Lat downy bearded, 

Juliette, /. Fr, Ger. Lat downy bearded, 

Julij, TO. 5tov. Lat downy bearded, 321 
JuUja,/. Russ, Lat. downy bearded, 321 
Julijan, TO. Slov. Lat downy bearded, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



JuUjana, /. Slov. Lat, downy bearded, 

Julio, m. Span. Lat. downy bearded, 

Julis,/. Bung, Lat. downy bearded, 320 
Juliska,/. Jffufig. Lat. downy bearded, 

Julius, m. Lat. Eng, Ger. Lat. downy 

bearded, 316 
Julka,/. Pol. Lat. downy bearded, 320 
Julyan, /. Eng. Lat. downy bearded, 

Junius, m. Lat. of Jnno, 821 
Jurck, m. Slav, Gr. husbandman, 259 
Jurgan^ m. Fris. Neth. Gr. husband- 
man, 259 
Jurgis, m. Lett. Gr. husbandman, 269 
JurguttiSyin. Lett. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Jurica, m. III. Gr. husbandman, 269 
JuRiSA, m. III. Slav, storm, ii. 443 
Jwm, m. Fris. Esth, Gr. husbandman, 

Jurot m, lU. Gr. husbandman, 259 
Jurriaan, m, Dutch, Gr. husbandman, 

Jurric, m. Dutch^ Gr. husbandman, 


Jurruschi m. Lett, Gr. husbandman^ 

Just, m. Ger. Lat. just, 898 
Justa,/. Lat just, 398 
Juste, m. Fr. Lat. just, 398 
Juste,/. Ger. Lat. just, 398 
Justin, m. Eng. Ger, Lat. just, 898 
Justina,/. Eng. Span. Lat. just, 398 
Justine,/. Fr. Ger. Lat. just, 898 
Justinian, m. Ger. Eng. Lat. just, 898 
Justmien, m. Fr. Lat. just, 398 
Justino, m. Span. Lat. just, 398 
JusTiNUS, TO. Lat, just, 398 
Justs, TO. Lett. Lat. just, 398 
Justyn, m, Pol. Lat. just, 398 
Juthe, f. Hung, Ger. Heb. praise, 63, 

ii. 319 
Jutka^f. Hung. Heb. praise, 64 
Juttay f, Ger. Heb. praise, 63 
Juzethyf. Bret. Heb. praise, 04 
JuzzUf m. Lett. Heb. God will judge, 

Jvan^ m. Bulg, Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Jvic, TO. III. Heb. the Lord's grace. 111 
Jvica, TO. lU, Heb. the Lord's grace, 



Kaatyf. Dutch. Gr. pure, 271 

Kaaiu, m. Nor, Ten. god of the winds, 

Kaalje.f. Dutch. Gr. pure, 271 
Kaddo.f. Esth. Gr. pure. 271 
Kadlj. Bav. Gr. pure, 271 
Kajetan, to. Slov. Lat. of Gaeta, 286 
Kajsa^f. Swed. Gr. pure, 271 
Kalle, TO. Swed. Ten. man, 357 
Kaaurentinajf. Bret, 
Kapo, m. Lu8. Pers. treasure master (?) 
Kapp, TO. Bav, Pers. treasure master (?) 
Karel, to. Esth. Dutch. Bohm. Dan, Teu. 

strong man, ii. 357 
Karen,/. Dan, Gr. pure, 269 
Kalle, TO. Swed. Teu. man, ii. 367 
Kantemir, to. Russ. Turk, happy iron 
Karadek, to. Bret. Kelt, beloved, ii. 45 
Karl, TO. Swiss. Teu. god of the winds, 

Karin^f. Dan. Teu. pure, 271 
Karlj TO. Swed. Ger. Teu. man, ii. 357 
Karla^f. Slov. Teu. man,ii. 369 
Karlic, to. IU, ii, 358 

KarUca, to. IU. ii. 858 

Karlo, TO. Rv98, III. Teu. man,ii. 357 

Karlmann, to. Ger, Teu. strongman, ii. 

KarlkOj to. Lus. Teu. man, ii. 368 
Karls, TO. Lett. Teu. man, ii. 368 
Karol, TO. Pol, Slov. Teu. man, ii. 368 
KaroUky to. Pol. Teu. man, ii. 358 
Kardina, /. Slav. Teu. man, 358 
Karolinka,/. Slov. Teu. man, u. S5S 
Karoly, to. Hung. Teu. man, ii. 368 
Karsten, to. Slav. L. Ger. Teu. ChnstiaD, 

Karstin,/. Dan. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kasche, f. Dantzig. Gr. pure, 271 
Kasch, TO. Dantzig. Teu. man, ii. 358 
Kasehis, to. Lett. Slav, showing peace, 

ii. 451 
Kasen, f. Dan. Gr. pure, 271 
Kaahuk, to. /i«W. Slav, show forth 

peace, ii. 451 
Kasia,/. Pol. Gr.pure, 269 
Kasimir, to. Ger, Slav, show forth 

peace, ii. 451 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 




^ , 

Easimira, /. dr. SIat. show forth 
peace, iL451 

Kashnirs, m, Lett. Slar. show forth 
peace, iL 451 

Easpar, m. Oer. Run. Bohm. Pers. trea- 
sore master (?), 439 

Easpe, m. Bav. Pers. treasure master (?), 

Kasper, m. Swed, Pers. treasure mas- 
ter (?), 430 

KtuperU m. Bav. Pers. treasure mas- 
ter (?), 430 

Kaspers, m. Lett. Pers. treasure mas- 
ter (?), 430 

Kaspor, m. Lus. Pers. treasure mas- 
ter (?), 430 

Kaas, m. Bav. Pers. treasure master (?), 

Kata,/. lU. Gr. pure, 269 
KataUn,/. Hmg. Gr. pure, 271 
Katarina,/. Swed. lU. Rtut. Gr. pure, 

Katarzina, f. Pol. Gr. pure, 271 
KaU, /. Eng. lU. Gr. pure, 271 
KateUf. Bret. Gr. pure, 271 
KateliKf. Bret. Gr. pure, 271 
Katerina^f. Bohm. Gr. pure, 271 
Katharine,/. Eng. Ger. Gr. pure, 271 
Kathehen,/. Ger. Gr. pure, 271 
Kathe,/. Ger, Gr. pure, 271 
Katherine^f. Eng. Gr. pure, 971 
Kathleen j. Ir. Gr. pure, 271 
KathrUf. Swiat. Gr. pure, 271 
Kathrilijf. Swiu, Gr. pure, 271 
Eathrina, f. Dan. Gr. pure, 271 
Kaii, f. Bung. Gr. pure, 271 
KatUaJ. lU. Gr. pure, 271 
Katieza, f. Bung. Gr. pure, 271 
Katie,/. Scot. Gr. pure, 271 
Katinka,/. Russ. Gr. pure, 271 
Katya,/. Russ. Gr. pure, 271 
Katla,/. Nor. Teu. cauldron, ii. 292 
Katra,/. Shv. Gr. pure, 271 
Katreij,/. Slav. Gr. pure, 271 
Katrin,/. Bav. Gr. pure, 271 
KairinaJ. Slav. Gr. pure, 271 
Katrine, /. Eng. Bav. Lett. Gr. pure, 
. 271 

Kats,f. Esth. Gr. pure, 271 
Katsehe,/. Lett. Or. pure, 271 
Kattel,/. Bav. Gr. pure. 271 
KaUy,f. Ir. Gr. pure, 271 
Kavima, m. Russ. Gr. order, 276 
JTay, m. Eng. Lat regoicmg, 285 

Kazhor, m. m PoZ. £f2ov. SoAai. SlaT. 

show forth peace, ii. 451 
Kanmien, m. PoL Slav, show forth 

peace ii 451 
Eean, m. Irish, vast. ii. 111. 
Kee,f. Dutch. Lat. horn (?), 314 
Keesy m. Dutch. Lat. horn (?), 314 
Keeijs,/. Dutch. Lat. horn (?), 314 
Keddar, m. ScoU Teu. battle army 
Keereel, m. Russ. Gr. lordly, 442 
Keiray Lapp. Teu. ever king, ii. 381 
Kenneth, m. Scot. Kelt, comely, ii. 107 
Kenny, m. Ir. Kelt, vast, ii. Ill 
Kentigem, m. FV 2«A, Kelt, head chief, 

Kentigema,/. Welsh, Kelt head chief; 

ii. 110 
Kephas, m. Chr. Aram, stone, 245 
Kerenhappueh, f. Heb. box of paint, 73 
Kerestel, m. Hung. Christian, 240 
Keresteliy m. Hung. Christian, 240 
Keriadek, m. Bret. Kelt beloved, ii. 46 
Kerstany m. Lus. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kerste.f. Lett. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kerstiy m. Est. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kerstiteliy m. III. Gr. baptizer, 108 
KersiOy m. lU. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kestery m. Eng. Teu. Christ bearer, 242 
Kert, Esth. Teu. spear maid, ii. 325 
Ketelbiorn, m. Nor. Teu. cauldron 

bear, ii. 292 
Ketelrtdir, /. Nor. Teu. cauldron 

ftiry, ii. 292 
KetterUyf. Bav. Gr. pure, 271 
Kettl, m. Nor. Teu. cauldron, ii. 291 
Kevin, m. Irishy Kelt, comely, ii. 108 
Keyneyf. Eng. Kelt, jewel, ii. 136 
Kezia,/. Eng. firet cassia, 72 
Khaoos, m. Pers. Zend, beautifld eyed, 

Kharalamm, m, Russ. of Easter, 

Kharalample, tn. Russ. Gr. joy of 

Easter, 438 
Kharitoun, m. Russ. Gr. joy of Easter, 

Khevronia, m. Russ. Lat 370 
KhoosroOy m. Pers. Zend. sun. (?), 136 
Kkury m. Pers. Zend, sun (?), 136 
Khshayarsha^ Zend, venerable king, 138 
Kisseyyf. Eng. Heb. cassia, 74 
Kieren, m. Irishy Kelt, black, ii. 106 
Kilian, m. Ger. Lat. blind, 311 
Kina/f. Swiss, Gr. Chiistian, 240 





Kirin, m, lU. Lat spearman, 373 
KUj m. Eng. Gr. Christ bearer, 241 
Kiogeir, m. Nor, Teu. people's spear, 

ii. 339 
Kitto, m. Ltu. Gr. Christ bearer, 242 
Kitty,/. Eng, Gr. pure, 269 
Kiodvala, Nor, people's power, ii. 339 
Kjogjery Nor, people's spear, ii. 339 
Kjol, Nor. people's wolf, ii. 339 
Kjold, Nor. people's wolf, ii. 339 
Kjoille, Nor. people's heroine, ii. 339 
KjovaU Nor. people's power, ii. 339 
Kjostolj tn. Nor. harsh wolf, ii. 411 
^artan, m. Nor. Kelt, sea warrior, ii. 

KjeJJbjorg, f. Nor, Teu. ketUe protec- 
tion, ii. 292 
KjeU, m. Nor. Teu. kettle, ii. 292 
Klaartje, m. Dutch, Lat. famous, 386 
Klaas, m. Dutch, Lat. yictory of the 

people, 216 
KVaa^iy m. Dutch, Lat. victory of the 

people, 216 
Klaada,m. Bret. Lat. lame, 313 
Klara,/. SI. Lat. famous, 386 
Klas, m. Bav, Dan. Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
KUuelf m. Bav. Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Klasns, m, Lat, Gr. victory of the 

- people, 216 
Elau(Uj, m. III. Lat. lame, 313 
Klaus, m. Ger. E$th. Lat victory of the 

people, 213 
Klavde, m, Slov. Lat. lame, 313 
Elavdij, fn. Buss. Lat lame, 313 
Klavinsh, m. Lett. Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
KUws, m. Lett. Gn victory of the 

people, 215 
K^ANTHES, m. Gr. famous bloom, 223 
Klemen, m. Slov. Hung. Lat merciful, 

Elemente, tn. III. Lat. merciAil, 342 
Klemet, m. Esth. Lat. merciAil, 342 
Klemin, m. Oer. Lat. 342 
Klunans, m. Buss, Lat 342 
Kleopatba, /. Gr. fame of her father, 

KlothUdCt f, Oer, Teu. famous battle 

Knelis, m. Dutch, Lat. horn (?), 814 
Knel, m, Dantxig, Lat horn (?), 314 
Kmud, tn, Dan, Teu. hill, ii. 434 

Enut, m. Dan, Teu. hill, ii. 434 
Koadou, tn. Bret. Kelt, wood liver 
Kodders, in, Lett. Gr. divine gift, ii. 176, 

Koenraed, m. Netherlands, Teu. bold 

council, ii. 418 
KoL, i». Ice. Teu. cool, ii. 427 
KoLBEiN, m. Ice. Teu. cold iron bone, 

KoLBJOKN, tn. Ice. Teu. black bear, ii. 

Kolina, f. Swed. Gr. pure, 271 
KoLBioRN, fn. Nor, Teu. black bear, ii. 

KoLFiNN, tn. Nor, Teu. cool white, ii. 

KoLFiNNA, /. Nor. Teu. cool white, ii. 

KoLORiM, tn. Nor. Teu. cool mask, ii. 

KoLGRiMA, /. Nor, Teu. cool mask, ii. 

Kolinka, m. Ruts. Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Kolja, tn. Buss. Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
KoLOMAN, tn. Hutig. slave council 

man, ii, 461 
KoLSKEGO, tn. Ice, Teu. black beard, 

Kondratij, tn. Buss. Teu. bold council, 

Konrad, tn. Hung, Swed. Ger. Ruts. 

Teu. bold council, ii. 418 
Konraditi, m, Ger. Teu. bold council, 

ii. 418 
Konradine, f, Ger. Teu. bold council, 

ii. 418 
Konstantia,/. lU. Slav. Lat firm, 344 
Kotistany, m, Slav. Lat firm, 344 
Konstanczia, /. Hung. Lat. firm, 344 
Konstantin, m. Teu, Slav, Ruts. Lat. 

firm, 344 
KontUmz, tn. Ger. Lat. firm, 344 
Korah, tn, Etig, Heb. 19 
Kobe,/. Or, Gr. maiden. 146 
Kored, bold council, ii. 418 . 
Koredli, bold council, ii, 418 
Kordel, f. Ban. Kelt jewel of the sea, 

ii. 36 
Kordule, /. Gr, Kelt, jewel of the sea, 

ii. 36 
Kormak, m. Ice, Kelt son of a chariot, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



KoreUhy m, HA. Zend, sun (?), 186 
Kernel, m. Dutch, Lat horn (?), 314 
KomeUe, f, WaU. Dutch, Lat. horn (?), 

Komem, m. Slav, Lat horn (?), 814 
KorstiaaQ, m. Dutch, Gr. Christian, 240 
EosMos, tn. Gr. order, 275 
Ko9tadin, m. Slov. Lat. firm, 345 
Kottaneia,/, Slav. Lat. firm, 845 
Ko9te, m, Slav. Lat. firm, 345 
Kos^, m. Ruts. Lat firm, 344 
Ko9ttmn, m. Pol. Lat firm, 844 
Kotka, III. Slov, Lat. firm, 345 
Kaulma, m. Bret. Lat. dove, 388 
Koulum, m. Bret. Lat. dove, 388 
KotDtma, m. Rums. Gr. order, 375 
Ebasisuly, m. Slav. Slav, fair glory, ii. 

Ebabimib, hi. Slav, fair peace, ii. 456 
Kbasokil, m. SZov. fair love, ii. 455 
Kret,/. Esth. Gr. pearl, 268 
Krikshte, m. lU. Gr. Christian, 240 
KriemhUd, f. Oer. Tea. helmet hattle 

maid, ii. 188 
Krispin, m. Dutch, Lat. curly, 846 
KHsia,f. Swiss, Gr. Christian, 240 
Krisial, m. Oer. Gr. Christ bearer, 240 
KristagiSf m. Lett, Gr. Christ bearer, 

Kristoppis, m, Lett. Gr. Christ bearer, 

KrisU,f. Lett. Gr. Christian, 240 
KrisUl,/. Ger. Gr. Christian, 240 
KrisH,/. Esth. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kristian, m. Swed. III. Gr. Christian, 

Kristiane,/. Slav. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kristijan,/. Slav. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kristina, /. Slav. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kristinsch, m. LeU. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kristof, m, UL Slav. Gr. Christ bearer, 

Kristofer, m. Swed. Gr. Christ bearer, 

Kristoffel, m. Sunss, Gr. Christ bearer, 

Kristofor, m. Slov. lU. Gr. Christ 

bearer, 242 
Kristseho, m, Lum. Gr. Christian, 240 
KrittuppoM, m. LUh. Gr. Christ bearer 
Kroet,f. Eith. Gr. pearl, 268 

Kronos, m. Grr. time, 142 
Kmschan, m. Gr. Christian, 240 
Krustinn,/. Bulg. Gr. Christian, 240 
Krustjo, m. Bulg. Gr. Christian, 240 
Kryspyn, m. Pol. Lat curly, 349 
Kryslof, m. Pol. Gr. Christ bearer, 242 
Krystyan, m. Pol. Gr. Christian, 240 
Ksersas, m. lU. Zend, venerable king, 

Kub, m. Lus. Pol. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Kuba, m. Pol. Heb. supplanter, 58 
Kubischu, m. Lett. Heb. supplanter, 68 
Kunel, m. Bav. Teu. bold speech, it 

Kuhnhardt, m. Ger. Teu. bold and firm 
Kuhnrat, m. Ger. Teu. bold speech, ii. 

Kunat, fit. Lus. Teu. bold speech, ii. 

KundeUf. Ger. Teu. bold war, ii. 418 
Kunds, m. Ger. Teu. bold speech, ii. 

KurUgunde, f. Ger. Teu. bold war, ii. 

Kunimund, m. Ger. Teu. bold protec- 
tion, ii. 418 
Kuno, m. Ger. Teu. bold, ii. 418 
Kunrad, m. Bohm. Teu. bold speech, ii. 

Kunrat, m. Puss. Teu. bold speech, ii. 

Kunsch, m. Slav. Teu. bold speech, ii. 

Kunz, m. Oer, Teu. bold speech, ii.418 
Kupina,/. III. Slav, gooseberry, ii. 441 
KupjENA, /. lU. Slav, gooseberry, ii. 441 
Kurt, m. Oer. Teu. bold speech, ii. 418 
Kustas, m. Esth.Ten. Goth's staff, ii. 179 
Kustav, m. EstKTQM, Goth's staft*. ii. 179 
Kwedders, m. Lett. Gr. divine gift, 233 
EuREiSH, m. Zend, sun (?), 136 
Eusteninn, m. Bret. Lat firm, 343 
Kymbelin, m. Eng. Eelt lord of the 

lion, ii. 46 
Kygeir, m. Nor. Teu. people's spear, ii. 

Kyer, m. Nor. Teu. people's spear, ii. 

Eynan, m. WeUh. Eelt chief, ii. 82 
Eybiakos, m. Gr. Sunday child, 441 
Eybillob, m. Gr, lordly, 441 


by Google 



LabrenziSf m, Lett. Lat. laurel, 367 
^ Lachlan, m, Scot, Kelt, warlike, ii. 106 
Lachtna, m. Erse. Kelt, green, 288, ii. 

Lackoj m. HI. Slav, ruling with fame, 

ii. 450 
Zmco, m. III. Slav, ruling with fame, ii 

LaczkOf m. Hung. Slav, ruling with 

fame, ii, 450 
Ladislao, m. Span. It. Slav, ruling with 

fame, iL 450 
Ladislas, m. Ft. Slav, ruling with 

fame, ii. 450 
Ladislao, m. "Pofrt. Slav, ruling with 

fame, ii. 450 
Ladislaus, m. Lai. Slav, ruling with 

fame, ii. 450 
Latdrad, 971. Qtr. Teu. fierce speech, ii. 

Laiowald, m. Get. Teu. fierce power, 

Laidwio, m. Oer. Teu. fierce war, ii. 

Lselia,/. Lat. B2S 
LiELius, m. Lat. 823 
Letitu, /. Eng. Lat. gladness, 397 
L€Qo$, m. Hung. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 390 
Lala,/. Serv. Slav, tulip, ii. 441 
Lalage,/. Lai. Gr. prattler, ii. 483 
Lambert, tn. Fr. Eng. Dutch, Oer. Teu. 

countiys brightness, ii. 430 
Lambertine, /. Ger. Teu. country's 

brightness, ii. 430 
Lamberto, m. It. Teu. country's bright- 
ness, ii. 430 
Lambrecht, m. Ger. Teu. countiy's 

brightness, ii. 430 
Lamech, m. Eng. Heb. smitten, 43 
Lammerty m. Dutchj Teu. country's 

brightness, ii. 430 
Lance^ m. Eng. Lat. servant, ii. 119 
Lancelot, m. Eng. Fr. Lat. servant, ii. 

Lancilotto, m. It. Lat. servant, ii. 119 
Landerich, m. Frank. Teu. land ruler, 

ii. 430 
Landerico, m. Ital, Teu. land ruler, ii. 


Landfranc, m. Eng. Teu. land free, ii. 

Landfranq, m. Oer. Teu. land f^ree, ii. 

Landfried, m. Oer. Teu. land peace, 

ii. 431 
Landinn, /. Oer. Fr. Teu. country, ii. 

Lando, m. Ger. Teu. country, ii. 431 
Landolf, m. Ger. Teu. country wolf^ 

Landrad, to. Oer, Teu. country's ooon- 

cil, ii. 431 
Landwin, to. Gr. Teu. country friend, 

ii. 431 
Lanfranco, to. It. Teu. country tree, ii. 

Lann,/. Er$e, Kelt, sword 
Lantperaht, to. 0. Ger. Teu. country's 

brightness, ii. 430 
Lanty, to. Ir. Lat. laurel, 367 
Laodamas, Or. people's tamer, 222 
Laodamia,/. It. Gr. people's tamer, 222 
Laodikb,/. Gr. people's justice.^ 22 
Lapo, TO. It. Heb. supplimter, 57 
Lara, f. Finn. Lat. famous, 386 
Laris, to. Frit. Lat. cheerftil, 397 
Larkin, to. Eng. Lat. laurel, 367 
Larry, to. Ir. Lat. laurel, 367 
Lars, TO. Dan. 367 
Larse, to. Swed. Lat. laurel, 367 
Lasctr, to. Russ, Heb. God will help, 88 
LasclU, f. Lett. Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 391 
Lassair, /. Erse, Kelt, flame, ii. 22 
Lassarfhina, /. ErsSt Kelt, flame of 

wine, ii. 22 
Lassla, to. Hung, ruling with fame, ii. 

Latte,f. LeU. Teu. man. ii. 369 
Launart, m. Fr. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Laur, TO. Lapp. Esth. Lat. laurel, 367 
Laura,/. Eng. Ital. Oer. Lat. laurel, 367 
Laure,/. Fr. Lat. laurel, 367 
Laurenza, /. Eng. Pert, Lat. laurel, 367 
Laurence, to. Eng. Lat. laurel, 366 
lAurencho, to. Pert. Lat. laurel, 367 
Lauren^ya, /. Pert. Lat. laurel, 368 
Laurens, to. Nor. Lat. laurel, 367 
Laurent, to. Ft. Lat. laurel, 367 

uigiiizeu Dv "'>^-Jvj'v./ 



Laurentia,/. Lot, laurel, 867 
Ljlubehtius, 971. Lot, laurel, 865 
Laxunes, m. Lap, Lat laurel, 367 
LattreUa^f, Eng. Lat. laurel, 367 
LoMTttu/f, Fr. Lat. laurel, 367 
^ Laurie, m. Scot, Lat laurel, 367 
Lanris, m. Lett. Lat. laurel, 867 
Laurits^ m, Dan. Lat. laurel, 867 
Launu, m. Eeth. Lat. laurel, 867 
Lam, m. Eeih, Gr. people's victory, 

Iat, to. Slov. Gr. lion, 180 
Latinia, /. Eng, of Latium, 870 
Layoslav, m. /S?ar. Slav, lion glory, 180 
Lavrentic, m. FaW. Lat. laurel, 867 
Lavrentij, m. Rtut. Lat. laurel, 867 
Latrentija, /. Ruu. Lat. laurel, 367 
lAvrenziB, m. £«M. Lat. laurel, 867 
Lawiee, f. Lett. Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 891 
Lawrence, m. Eruj. Lat. laurel, 867 
£azar, m. Ill, Hung. Heb. God will 

help, 88 
Lazare, m. Fr. Heb. God will help, 88 
LazanUot m. ^xm. Heb. God will help, 

Lajaso, m. i^xm. /^. Heb. God will help, 

Lazarus, m. Lat. Heb. God will help, 

Lazarro, m. l£. Heb. God will help, 88 
Lazart, m. Pd. Heb. God will help, 88 
Laxe, m. HI. Heb. God will help, 88 
Logo, m. III. Heb. God will help, 88 
Lazzaro, m. It. Heb. God will help, 88 
Lea,/. Ger. Fr. It. Heb. weary, 61 
Leah, /. Eng. Heb. weary. 16, 51 
Leander, m. Eng, Gr. lion man, 180 
Leandre, m. Fr. Gr. lion man, 180 
Leandro, m. It. Span. Gr. lion man, 

Leamdros, m. Or. Gr. lion man, 180 
LeSo, m. Port. Gr. Hon, 180 
Lear, m. Eng. Kelt, sea, ii. 35 
Lebboeus, m. Eng. Aram, praise, 62 
LEBfiECHT, m. Oer. live right, ii. 498 
Lebwin, m. Oer. Teu. beloved friend, 

Lech, i». Pol. Slav, a woodland spirit, 

Lechsinska, /. Pd. Slav, a woodland 

spirit, ii. 447 
Leger, m. Teu, people's spear, ii. 430 
Leen, m, Dutch, Teu. lion strong, 181 

Leendertt m. Dtttch, Teu. Hon strong, 

Left shoulder forward, m. Eng. 10 
Leentje,f. Dutch, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Leifr, TO. Nor. relic, ii. 261 
Leila,/, Moorish, i23 
Leikny, /. Nor, Teu. fresh sport, ii 

Leiul, TO. Nor. Teu. fierce wolf, ii. 408 
Le%aje,f. Dutch, Heb. God's oath, 92 
Lehs, TO. Slav, helper of men, 202 
Leli,f. Swiss, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Leila,/. It. Lat. 323 
Lelie,/ It. Lat. 828 
Lelio, TO. It. Lat. 823 
Lelika, /. Slov. Gr. fair speech, 808 
Lena,/. Alb. Lett. Gr. light, 164 
Lemet, to. Esth. Lat. merciful, 342 
Lenardo, m. It. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Lenort, to. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Lenchen,/. Ger, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Lencica, /. Slov, Gr. light, 164 
Lendrts, m. Lett. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Lene,/, Ger, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Lenhart, to. Ger. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Lenia, f. Alb. Gr. light, 164 
Lenka,/. Slov, Gr. light, 164 
Lenny, m. Eng. Teu. Hon strong, 181 
Lenore,/. Ger. Gr. light, 162 
Leno,/. Esth. Gr. light, 164 
Lenz, TO. Sunss, Lat. laurel, 867 
Leo, to. Oer. Span. Gr. lion, 178 
Leoboytha,/. a, S. Teu. love gift, ii. 

Leobhard, to. Frank. Teu. love 

strength, ii. 428 
Leocadia, /. Span. Gr. 180 
Leocadie,/. Span. Gr. 180 
Leodegaiius. m. Lat, Teu. people's 

spear, ii. 430 
Leodowald, m, A. 8. Teu. people's 

power, ii. 480 
Leofric, to. Eng. Teu. beloved rule, 

Leofistan, m. A. 8. Teu. beloved stone, 

Leofwine, to. A. S. Teu. beloved 

friend, ii. 423 
Leoline, to. Eng. Kelt. Lat. 181 
Leon, TO. It. Buss, Gr. lion, 179 
Leonard, m. £n^. If. Teu. lion strong, 

Leonarda, /. Span. Oer. Teu. lion 

strong, 181 


by Google 


Leonarde, /. It. Oer. Teu. lion strong, 

Leonardine,/. Ger. Teu. lion strong, 

Leonardo, m. Rom. Teu. lion strong 
L§once, m. Fr. Gr. lion Uke, 179 
Leoncie,/. Fr, Gr. lion like, 181 
Leoncio, m. It. Gr. lion like, 181 
Leone, m. It. Gr. lion, 179 
Leongard, m. Rtjist. Teu. lion strong, 

Leonhardf m. Oer. Teu. lion strong, 

Leanhardine, m. Oer. Teu. lion strong, 

Leonidas, w. Gr. lion Uke, 148, 179 
Leonie,/. Fr. Gr. lion, 179 
Leonor,/. Span. Gr. light, 161 
Leonora, /. It, Eng, Gr. light, 162 
Leonore, /. Fr. Gr. light, 162 
Leontia,/. Lat. Gr. lion like, 179 
Leont^j, m. Russ. Gr. lion like, 181 
Leontin, m. Ger. Fr. Gr. lion like, 181 
Leontine,/. Oer. Fr. lion like, 181 
Leontius, m. Lat. lion like, 179 
Leonz, m. Ger. Teu. lion strong, 181 
LeopOf m. Ger. Teu. people's prince, ii. 

Leopold, m. Ger. Fr. Teu. people's 

prince, ii. 429 
L€»poldine, /. Ger. people's prince, ii. 

Leopoldo, m. Slav. It. Teu. people's 

prince, ii. 429 
Leovigildo, m. Span. Teu. love pledge, 

ii. 423 
Lesiek, m. Pol. Gr. helper of men, 202 
Letitia, /. Eng, Lat. gladness, 897 
Lettice, /. Eng. Lat. gladness, 897 
Lethard, m. Ger. Teu. fierce firmness, 

Lethild,/. Ger. Teu. fierce battle maid, 

ii. 408 
Leti2ia, /. J^ Lat. gladness, 897 
Lettice, /. Eng. Lat. gladness, 897 
Letty,/. If. Gr. truth, 276 
Letty,/. Eng, Lat. gladness, 897 
Leudomir, m, Frank. Teu. people's 

fame, ii. 430 
Leu&oi, m. Or. Teu. people's peace, ii. 

Leunairs, m, Fr. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Leupold, m. Ger. Teu. people's prince, 


Leutoab, m. Ger. Teu. people's spear, 

ii. 429 
Leutgakde, /. Ger. Teu. people's 

guard, ii. 430 
Leutpold, m. Oer, Teu. people's 

prince, ii. 429 
Lev, m. Pol. Slov, Gr. lion, 180 
Levi, m. Eng. Heb. joining, 16, 51, 180 
Lew, m. Slav. Gr. lion, 180 
I^vor, m. Nor. Teu. gate ward, ii. 414 
Lewis, m. Eng. Teu. famous war, iL 

Lia, /. It. Heb. dependence, 61 
Libby,/. Eng. Heb. God's oath, 92 
LiBusA, /. Bohm. Slav, darling, ii. 445 
Lida, f. Bohm, Slav, people's love, ii. 

LiDVARD, m. Nor. Teu. gate ward, ii. 

LmwrNA, /. Bohm. Slav, people of Vina, 

ii. 462 
LiEBE, /. Flem. Ger. love, U. 428 
liebhard, m. Ger. Teu. love strength, 

ii. 423 
Liebtrud, /. Ger. Teu. love maiden, ii. 

Liedulf, m. Nor. Teu. fierce wolf, ii. 

Lienhardty m. Bav. lion strength, 181 
Lienl, m, Ger. Teu. lion strong, 181 
Lienzel, m. Russ, Teu. lion strong, 181 
Liert^ m. StDiss, Teu. lion strength, 

Lieschen, f, Ger. Teu. famous consecra- 
tion, ii. 390 
Lievina,/. Fltm, Teu. love, ii. 428 
Ligach/f, Gael. Kelt, pearly, ii. 22 
Ligaire, m, Fr. Teu. people's spear, ii. 

LikeloB, m, Bav, Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Lilian, /. Eng, Lat lily, 812, 423, ii, 

Lilias,/. Scot, Lat lily, 2, 312, 423, iL 

LiliolaJ. It. Lat blind, 312. 423 
Lilla,/. Eng. Heb. oath of God, 428 
Lilly,/. £n^. lily, 423 
Lina, f, Ger. Teu. man, ii. 869 
Line, f. Ger, Teu. man, ii 369 
Linet,/. Eng. Kelt shapely (?), ii. 140 
Linnea, /. Nor. Teu. lime tree, ii. 495 
LiNTRUDE,/. Oer, Teu. serpent maid, 



by Google 


Linuscha, f, Dant, Teu. man, ii. 359 
lionardo, m. It Teu. lion strong, 181 
Lionel, m. Eng. Lat. lion, 180 
lionello, m. It, Lat. little lion, 180 
liovigotona,/. Span. Teu. love Goth, 

Lipo, m. Lu8, Teu. remains of divinity, 
' iLl78 

itpp, m. Bav, Gr. loving horses, 186 
Lipp, m. Dant, Teu. relic of divinity, 

Lippa^ m. Bav. Gr. loving horses, 186 
Lippo^ m. It. Gr. loving horses, 186 
Lip9ts, m. Lett, Gr. loving horses, 187 
Lisa,/, Ban. Lws. Heb. God's oath, 00 
Lisbet, /. Ger. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Lubeta.f. Lett. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Li*e,f. Ger. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Liserliy f. Sioiss, Heb. God's oath, 92 
LUettCy f. Ft. Teu. famous consecra- 
tion, ii. 390 
Lisilka,/. Buss. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Lm,/. Bav. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Luka,f. Lus. Heb. God's oath, 92 
LUo.f. Eith. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Lurl.f. Bav. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Liuba^f. Flem. Teu. love, ii. 428 
Ltttberoa, /. Oer. Teu. people's pro- 
tection, ii. 430 
LruTBERT, wi. Ger. Teu. people's bright- 
ness, ii. 430 
LruTFRED, m. Oer. Teu. people's peace, 

ii. 430 
LiUTHOLD, m. Ger. Teu. people's firm- 
ness, ii. 430 
LiuTMAR, m. Ger. Teu. people's fame, 
* LiUTPOLD, m. Ger. Teu. people's valour, 
LruTPRAND, m. Frank. Teu. people's 

sword, ii. 430 
liuva, m. Span. Teu. love, ii. 423 
Liza,/. Buss. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Lizbeta,/. Slov. Heb. God's oath, 92 
lAzbetha,/. Buss. Heb. God's oath, 92 
Lizika,/. Slav. Heb. God's oath, 92 
» "^lAzzU/f. Scot. Heb. God's oath, 91 
l^ena/f. Albanian^ Gr. light, 161 
Ijodold, to. Nor. Teu. people's firm- 
ness, ii. 480 
Ijot, to. Not. Teu. people, ii. 430 
Uuldea^ f. Serv. Slav, love, ii 445 
Lfubima,/. Serv. Slav, love, ii. 446 
i^vbka,/. Buis. Slav, love, ii. 445 

Ltubmila, /, Slav. Slave, loving, ii. 445 
Ljubomir, to. Slav. SUv. love peace, ii. 

Ljuboslav, to. Slov. Slav, love gloiy, ii. 

Ljubov, /. Buss. Slav, love, ii. 44o 
Ljudevit,m. Shv. Teu. famous holiness, 

iL 390 
Ljudomili, /. Slav. Slav, people's love, 

ii. 452 
LruDOMiR, TO. Slav. Slav, people's peace, 

Lies, TO. Welsh, Lat. light, 287 
Lleurwg, to. Welsh, KelL light, 287 
Llew, to. Welsh, Kelt, lion, 180 
Llew, to. Welsh, Kelt light, ii. 159 
Llewellyn, m. En^. Kelt, lightning, 

ii. 169 
Llewfer, to. Welsh, Lat. light, 287 
Llewrwo,/. Welsh, Lat. light, 287 
Llyr, to. Welsh, Kelt, sea, ii. 35 
Lloyd, TO. Eng. Kelt, grey, ii. 36 
Llwyd, to. WeUh, Kelt, grey, ii. 36 
Llywelwyn, to. Welsh, Kelt, lightning, 

u. 287 
Lobo, TO. PoH. Lat. wolf, 410 
Lodewick, to. Dutch, Teu. famous ho- 
liness, ii. 390 
Lodoiska,/. PoL Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 391 
Lodovico, TO. It. Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 390 
Lodowick, TO. Scot, Teu. famous holi- 

ness, ii. 300 
Lodowig, TO. Ger. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 300 
Lodve, TO. Nor. Ten. famous holiness, 

ii. 390 
Lodward, to. Nor, Teu. famous guard, 

u. 390 
Lois, TO. Br. Teu. £unous holiness, ii. 

Loiseach, to. Erse, Kelt. 288 
LoTz, TO. jBr^t. Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 390 
Lola,/. Span. Teu. man, ii. 359 
Lolotte,/. Fr. Teu. man, ii. 359 
Lood, TO. Dutch, Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 890 
Looys, TO. Fr. Teu. famous holiness, ii. 

Lope, TO. I^an, Lat. wolf, 410 
Lopko, TO. -Ltw. Teu. God's praise, ii 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Lopot m. Lus, Ten. God's praise, ii. 178 
Lora, /. Eng, Lat. laurel, 867 
Lorenzo, m. It. Lat. laurel, 367 
LoreDZ, m. Ger. Dan. Lat. laurel, 867 
Lorenzo, m. It. Lat. laurel, 367 
Lori, m, Swiss, Lat. laurel, 367 
Ijorinez, m. Hung. Lat. laurel, 367 
LoritZy m. Esth. Lat. laurel, 367 
L&rl,f. Ger, Gr. light, 168 
Lotus, m. Lith. Lat. laurel, 367 
Lot, m. Eng. Heb. 10 
Lot, TO. Eng. Kelt, lion, 180, ii. 169 
Lotario, m. I^an, It. Tea. ffunous war- 
rior, ii. 392 
Lothaire, m. Fr. Ten. famous warrior, 

ii. 392 
Lothar, w. Ger, Teu. famous warrior, 

ii. 392 
Lothario, to. Eng, Teu. famous warrior, 

ii. 302 
Lotta,f. Swed. Teu. man, 859 
Lotte/f. Ger. Teu. man. ii. 359 
Lotty,/. Eng. Teu. man, ii. 359 
Lotze, TO. Ger. Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 390 
LouABN, TO. Kelt fox, ii. 21 
Louis, TO. Fr. Teu. famous holiness, 

ii. 890 
Louisa, /. Eng. Teu. femous holiness, 

ii. 391 
Louise, /. Ger. Fr. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 891 
Louison, /. Fr, Teu. fiimoas holiness, 

ii. 891 
Lova, f. Swed, Teu. feunouB holiness, 

ii. 891 
Love, /. Eng. Teu. love, ii. 423 
LovKDAY,/. Com. Teu. love (?), ii 423 
Lovisa, /. Swed, Teu. feunous holiness, 

ii. 891 
Lovisje, /. Dutch, Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 891 
Lovra,f, to. Serv. Lat. laurtl, 367 
Lovre, to. Slov. Lat. laurel, 367 
Lovrenika,/, lU. Lat. laurel, 867 
LowENHABD, TO. Frank. Teu. stem lion, 

LowENCLO, TO. Bav. Teu. lion claw, 181 
Loys, TO. Fr. Teu. famous holiness, ii. 

Lozoik, TO. Prov. Tea. famous 

LuMn, TO. Ir. Eng. Tea. love ftiend, ii. 

LuBOMiRSKi, TO. Pol. Slav, loving peace, 

116, ii. 445 
Luca, TO. Fr. Lat light, 288 
Luca, TO. It. Lat. light, 288 
LucANTS, TO. Gr. Lat. light, 288 
Lucas, TO. Span. Lat. light, 2b8 
Luce, TO. Fr. Lat. light, 287 
Lucia,/. It. Lat. light, 287 
Ludan, to. Eng. Lat. light, 287 
Luciana, /. It. Lat light 287 
Luciano, to. It. Lat. light 287 
Lucianus, to. Lat. light 287 
Lucie,/. Fr. Lat light 287 
Lucien, to. Fr. Lat. Ught 288 
Lucienne,/. Fr. Lat light 288 
Lucifer, to. Eng. Lat. light bringer, 289 
LuciFEBUs, TO. Lat. Lat light biinger, 

Lucile,/. Fr. Lat light, 288 
Lucilla,/. Eng. Lat light 287 
LuciNDA, /. Eng. Lat. light, 287 
Lucio, TO. It. Lat light, 287 
Lucius, to. Eng. Lat light 287 
Lucrece, /. Fr. Lat gain (?), 289 
Lucretia,/. Eng. Lat. gain (?), 289 
Lucretius, to. Lat gain (?), 289 
Lucrezia,/. It. Lat gain (?), 289 
Lucy,/. Eng. Lat light, 2«7 
Lucya,/. PoL Lat light 287 
Lucza,/. /Tmti^. Lat light 287 
Ludevic, to. ft'aK. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 390 
Ludgar, to. Ger. Teu. people's spear, ii. 

Ludi, TO. Swiss, Tea. famous holiness, 

ii. 390 
Ludmila, /. Ger, Slav, people's love, 

ii. 462 
Ludolf, m, Ger. Teu. people's wolf, ii. 

LuDOMiLLA, /. Oer. Slav, people's love, 

u. 452 
LuDOMTR, TO. Oer. Slav, people's peace, 

ii. 452 
Ludomir, to. Ger. Teu. famous great- 
ness, ii. 891 
Ludovic, TO. Wall. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 890 
Ludovica, /. Swed. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 891 
holine8drt~Lndovick, to. Scot. Teu. fiunous holi- 
ness, ii. 890 
Ludovico, m. It, Teu. fiunoos holiaess^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


LadoTicns, m. Lot, Ten. famous holi- 
ness, ii 890 

Ididoyike, /. Ger, Tea. famous holi- 
ness, u.d90 

Ladvig, m. Swed. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. S90 

Ludvik, m, PoL Bohm. Slov. Teu. {&• 
moos holiness, ii. 390 

Lodvika,/. PoL Teu. fSunous holiness, 
n. 390 

Ludvis, m. Pol, Teu. funous holiness, 

Ladvisia, /. PoL Teu. famous holiness, 
IL 890 

LuANicAisi, /. Erse, Kelt. £ur as the 
moon, a. 22 

LuGHAiD, m. Erse, Kelt light (?), ii. 160 

Loigi, m. It. Teu. famous holiness, u. 

Lois, m. Port. Span. Teu. famous ho- 
liness, ii. 890 

Loisa,/. Span. Port. Teu. famous ho- 
liness, iL 390 

Loise, /. Ger. Teu. fiEunous holiness, 
ii. 390 

LunxEACH, m. GaeL Kelt, mimic, ii. 
I LuUbert, m, Ger. Teu. people's bright- 
r ness, iL 430 

Lnitberga,/. Ger. Teu. people's guard, 

Lnitbrand, m. Ger. Teu. people's sword, 

Luitger, m. Ger. Teu. people's spear, iL 

Loitgarde, /. Ger. Teu. people's guard, 
h Luithaid, m. Ger. Teu. people's firm- 
ness, ii. 430 "^ 

Luilmar, m. Ger. Teu. people's fiune, ii. 

Luitpold, m. Ger. Teu. people's valour, 

Luiza,/. Port. Teu. famous hoUness, 

ii. 391 
Luisinha, f. Port. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 391 
Luka, m. Puss. Wall. Lat. light, 289 
Lukaczy m. Hung. Lat. light, 289 
Ldkas, m. Ger. Bohm. Lat. light, 288 
Lukascht m. Zau. Lat. light, 289 
Imkaschk, m. Las. Lat. light, 289 
Lakasz, m. Slav. PoL Lat. light, 289 
Luke, 711. Eng. Lat light, 288 
Lukezt m. Slov. Lat light, 289 
Luned, /. Welsh, Kelt, shapely (?), iL 

Lunette,/. Fr. Kelt shapely (?), ii. 140 
Lupo, m. Ital. Lat. wolf, 409 
Lupus, m. Lat. wolf, 409 
Lusche, f. m. Lett. Teu. famous holi- 
ness, ii. 391 
Luther, m. Ger. Teu. &mous •warrior, 

ii. 392 
Lutters, m. Lett. Teu. fkmous warrior, 

ii. 392 
Lagiayf. Bom. Lat light, 287 
Luzian, m. Buss. Lat. light, 287 
Luziano, m. It. Lat. light, 287 
Luzya^f. Buss. Lat light, 287 
Luzio^ m. It. Lat. light, 287 
Lycos, m. Gr. wolfi 2 
Lycurgus, m. Lat. Gr. wolf driver, 183 
Lydia,/. Eng. Gr. of Lydia, 412 
Lyn^e.f. Dutch, Gr. light, 161 
lAjs.f. Dutch, Heb. God's oath, 92 
Ijyye, f. Dutch, Heb. God's oath, 92 
I^uljt m. Scot. Teu. fierce wolf, ii. 408 


Maatfred,ii». Ger. Teu. mighty peace, 

ii. 416 
Maatulf, m. Ger. Teu. mighty wolf, ii. 
. 416 

Mab,/. Ir. Kelt mirth (?), iL 112 
Mabel,/. Eng. Lat. beloved, 379, ii. 112 
Mabelle,/. Fr. Lat beloved, 879 
Macaire, vu Ir. Gr. happy, ii. 458 
Macario, to. It. Gr. happy, ii. 468 
Hacbeath, m. Qacl. Kelt, son of life, 
u. 100 

"Macbeth, m. Scot. Kelt, son of lifb, iL 

Mace, ?». Fr. Aram, gift of the Lord, 

Machtildi f. Ger. Teu. mighty heroine, 

Makabios, blessed, Gr. ii. 460 
Macias, m. Span. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Macieu m. PoL Aram, gift of the Lord, 



by Google 



Macsen, m. WeUhj Lat greatest, 352 
Madawc, m. WeUh, Kelt, beneficent, ii. 

Maddalena, /. ItaL Heb. of Magdala, 

Maddalene,/. Lett, Heb. of Magdala, 

Madde.f.Pol Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Madeleine,/. Fr. Heb. of Magdala, 80 
Madelena, /. Span. Heb. of Magdala, 

Madeline,/. Eng, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Madelina,/. Rus8. Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Madehn,/. Fr, Heb. of Magdala. 86 
MaddU, m. Fsth. Heb. gift, of the Lord, 

Madge,/, Eng, Gr. pearl, 267 
MadUn,/. Bav. Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Madlena,/. Slov, Lus. Heb. of Magdala, 

Madlerika, /. Lu8, Heb. of Magdala, 

MadUyf. Esth. Heb. of Magdala, 87 
Madly na^f, Lith. Heb. of Magdala, 87 
Madoc, wt. Eng. Kelt, beneficent, ii. 87 
Madoc, /. m. WeUht Kelt, beneficent, 

ii. 29 
Mads, m. Dan, Heb. gift of the Lord, 

MadscheJ. Lett, Ger. pearl, 266 
Madwo, m. Welsh, Kelt, beneficent, ii. 29 
Mael, m. It, Kelt, disciple, ii. 113 
Maklbridh, m. Erse, Kelt, disciple of 

St. Bridget, ii. 116 
Maelclulth, w. Erse, Kelt, youth of 

the game, ii. 118 
Maelcoluin, m. Gael. Kelt, disciple of 

Columba, ii. 116 
Maeldeabg, m, Erse. Kelt, red chief, 

ii. 118 
Maeldoo, m, Erse, Kelt, servant of the 

star, 11. 26 
Maeldubh, m. Erse, Kelt: black chief, 

ii. 118 
Maelduine, m, Gael. Kelt, brown 

chief, ii. 118 
Maeleoin, m, Erse, Kelt, servant of 

John, ii. 118 
Maelfhionn, m. Erse^ Kelt, servant of 

Finn, ii. 118 
Maelowas, m. Cym, Kelt, chief (?), ii 

Maelowk, m. Cym. Kelt, chief (?), iL 


Maeliosa, m. Erse, Kelt servant of 

Jesus, ii. 114 
Maelmordna, m. Erse, Kelt, mcyestie 

chief, ii. 118 
Maelpatraic, m. Erse, Kelt, servant of 

Patrick, 403, ii. 110 
Maelruadh, m, Erse, Kelt red chief 
MA£LSEACQLAiN,m. Erse, Kelt servant 

of Secundus, 126, 298, ii. 118 
MaffeaJ. Ital. Heb. gift of the Ijord, 

Maffeo, m, Ital, Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Mag,f, Eng. Gr. pearl, 267 
Maga, /. Swiss, Heb. bitter, 79 
Magan, m. Not, Teu. power, ii. 41 6 
Magdalen, /. Eng. Heb. of Magdala, 

Magdalena,/. B,u»s, Span, Port, Heb. of 

Magdala, 86 
Magdalene, /. Ger, Heb. of Magdala, 

Magdeleine, /. Fr. Heb. of Magdala, 

Magdelina, /. Buss, Heb. of Magdala, 

Magdolna,/. Hung, Heb. of Magdala, 

Magdosia,/, Pol, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Magge, /. Lett. Gr. pearl, 207 
Maggie,/. Scot, Gr. pearl, 267 
Maginbert, to. Ger, Teu. mighty bright- 
ness, ii. 414 
Maginfried, m. Ger, Teu. mighty 

peace, ii. 416 
Maoinhild,/. Nor. Teu. mighty battle 

maid, U. 416 
Magmild, /. Nor, Teu. mighty battle 

maid, iL 416 
Magnus, to. Nor. Lat. great, 70, 362 
Magslieesh, to. Erse, Heb. drawn out, 75 
Mahault, /. Fr. Teu. mighty battle 

maid, ii. 416 
Make, TO. Bav, Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Mahon, m. Erse, Kelt, bear, ii. 109 
Mahthild,/. Ger. Teu. mighty battle 

maid, ii. 416 
Mai,f. Esth, Gr. pearl, ii. 267 
Maida, ii. 486 

Maidoc, m. Jr. Kelt beneficent, ii. 39 
MaU,f, Esth. Heb. of Magdala, 87 
Maie,f, Esth. Gr. bitter, 79 
Maieli,/, Swiss, Heb. bitter, 79 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Mm§e,f, LeU, Gr. pearl, 266 
Maika,/. Buss, bitter, 79 
MaOUtrd^f. Cambrai, Heb. bitter, 78 
MahifrQij m. Fr, mighty peace, ii. 415 
Mnnfroy^ m. Eng, mighty peace, ii. 


MrnUm,/, Fr, Heb. bitter, 78 
Utar,/. Welsh, Ueh. 79 
Mairgr^, Erte, Gr. pearl, 264 

I Uame^f. Scot. Gr. pearl, 264 
Uaja,/. 8wi$M, Heb. bitter, 78 

I Mcgktn,/. Swed, Heb. hitter, 79 
^Maitie,/, Scot. Heb. bitter, 79 
Mak$a^/. m. lU. Lat. greatest, 352 
Uohtica,/. I a. Lat. greatest, 353 
Makwimitian, m. Ru$s. 1st. greatest 

^miUan, 353 
MaksjmiliaD, m. PoL Lat. Lat. greatest 

ACTniliftn, 353 

Mat,/. JhUch, Ten. work, ii. 256 
JToI,/. Eng. Heb. bitter, 79 
MoJ^f. E$th. Heb. of Magdala, 76 
Ualaebi, m. Eng. Heb. angel of the 

Lord, 155, 298, U. 117 
MaiaUel^ m. Eng. Heb. shining of God, 

Halberg, /• Nor. work protection, ii. 
' JfoZeihtfn,/. (?tfr. Ten. work, ii. 259 
'^Malcolm, m. Scot, Kelt, servant of 
\ Colamba, 388, ii. 116 
I Male, f. Ger. Ten. work, ii 259 
I Uaifrid, f. Nor. Ten. fair work, ii. 
Malgherita,/. It. Gr. pearl, 264 
Malgonata,/. Pol. Gr. pearl, 266 
Medgoaia,/. Pol. Gr. pearl, 266 
^ lfai»./.JSra#r, Heb. bitter. 10 
^-Malise, m. Scot. Kelt, disciple of Jesns, 
MaXk, m. Esth. Pers. king, 430 
Maikm,/. Eng. Heb. bitter, 79 
Maltrud,/. Nor. Ten. workmaid, ii. 359 
Mihina^ /. Gael. Kelt, handmaid (?), 

it 92 
Mahine,/. Fr, Kelt, handmaid (?), iL 
. W 

Manasseh, m. Eng. Heb. forgetting, 

Maaasses, m. Lat. Heb. forgetting, 69, 

Manda, f. J^. Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Mandelhuhf- Sent. Heb. of Magdala, 


Mandubrath, m. Gym. Kelt, man of 

black treasure, ii. 21 
Manfred, m. Eng. Teu. mighty peace, 

ii. 415 
Manfredi, m. It, Tea. mighty peace, ii. 

Manna, f. Bao. Heb. bitter grace, 163 
Marma, m. Lapp. Lat. great, 352 
Mannas, m. Lapp, Lat. great, 352 
Manhooskan, m. Red Indiant white 

cloud, 10 
Manoel, m. Port. Heb. God with us, 

Manon, m. Fr. Heb. bitter, 79 
Manovello, m. It. Heb. God with us, 

Manuel, m. Fr. Eng. Span. Heb. Qod 

with us, 95 
Manuelita,/. Span. Heb. God with us, 

Ma/nueUto, m. Span. Heb. God with us, 

Manas, m. Dutch, Teu. public, ii. 258 
Manus, m. Irish, Lat. great, 69, 352 
Mael Eoik, m. Er. Heb. disciple of 

John, 107 
Mara, f. Las. Heb. bitter, 80 
Marc, m. Fr. Lat. of Mors, 291 
Marca,/. Ger. Lat. of Mars, 292 
Marcel, m. Fr. Lat. of Mars, 294 
Marcella, /. Jr. Lat. of Mars, 294, ii. 

Marcelli, /. Fr. Lat. of Mars, 294 
Marcellianus, m. Lat. of Mars, 294 
Marcellin, m. It. Lat. of Mars, 294 
Maroeltino, m. It. Lat. of Mars, 294 
Marcello, m. It. Lat of Mars 
Marcellus, Lat. of Mars, 293 
Maboh, m. Erse, Kelt, horse, 290, u. 

Marchell, Welsh, Lat. horse, ii. 146 
Marcia,/. Ir. Lat. of Mars, 292 
Mardan, m. Oer. Lat. of Mars, 293 
Mardano, m. It. Lat. of Mars, 293 
Mabcianus, m. Lat. of Mai's, 293 
Marcie,f. Fr. Lat. of Mars, 292 
Marcin, m. Pol. Lat. of Mars, 292 
Mabcius, m. Lat of Mars, 291 
Marco, m. It, Lat. of Mars. 7, 291 
Marcos, m. Span. Lat of Mars, 291 
Mabcus, m. Eng. Lat. of Mars, 291 
Mare, Lith, Heb. bitter. 79 
Mareiel, Bav. Heb. bitter, 79 
MareUi, Swiss, Heb. bitter, 79 

u,c izea /Joogle 



Marek, Pol Lat. of Mars» 291 
Maretff, Dan, Gr. pearl, 267 
MareUj, Lett. Gr. pearl, 267 
Marenzt, f. Lett. Lat. deserving, 394 
Marczi, m. Hung. Lat of Mars, 298 
Marfa, /. Ruts. Heb. becoming bitterT 

Margaret,/. Eng. Gr. pearl, 264 
Maigareta, /. ffufiff. Qer. Pol Gr. 

pearl, 267 
Margarete,/. SwUt, Gr. pearl, 267 
Margarethe,/. Otr. Gr. pearl, 267 
Margarida,/. Port. Gr. pearl, 267 
Margarita,/. Span. Ruts. Gr. pearl, 267 
Makoabite,/. Gr. pearl, 2, 264 
Margarith,/. Dutch, Gr. pearl, 267 
Margery,/. Eng. Gr. pearl, 267 
Marget/f. Eng. Gr. pearl, 267 
Mai^berita,/. It. Gr. pearl, 367 
Marghet, Otr. Gr. pearl, 267 
Margit/f. Hung. Gr. pearl, 267 
Margotyf. Fr. Gr. pearl, 267 
Margoton,/. Fr. Gr. pearl, 267 
Mar^te,/. LeU. Gr. pearl, 267 
Maiigryta,/. Lith. Gr. pearl, 267 
Marguerite, /. Fr. Gr. pearl, 267 
Man,/, fiiifi^. /mA, Heb. bitter, 78 
Maria, /. ( Univergal) Heb. bitter, 77, 294 
MariaUt,/. Jew. Gr. pearl, 267 
Mariam,/. Gr. Heb. bitter, 77 
Marianma, /. Ruts. Heb. bitter grace, 

Mariamne,/. Heb. bitter, 77, 108 
Mariana, /. Port. Span. Heb. bitter, 

Mariane,/. Oer. Heb. bitter, 104 
Marica,/, IM. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marie,/. (?«r. Fr. Bap. Heb. bitter, 77 
Mariedelf. Slav. Heb. bitter, 79 
MarUkeJ. Dutch, Heb. bitter, 79 
MarieUf. Bav. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marietta,/. It. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marietu/f. It. Heb. bitter, 79 
Mary a,/. Russ. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marike,/. L. Oer. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marina,/. It. Lat. marine, 418 
Marinha, /. Span. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marino,/. It. Lat marine, 418 
Mario, f. m. It. Lat of Mars, 82, 294 
- Marion,/. Fr. Scot. Heb. bitter, 79 
Mariqxdnhm, f. Port. Heb. bitter, 79 
Mariquita, /. Port. Heb. bitter, 79 
Maritomes, /. iS[pan. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marias, m. Lat. of Mars, 294 

Marlf. Bav. Heb. bitter, 79 
Maija,/. Za|»p. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marjarita, Slav. Gr. pearl, 267 
Marjeta, Slav. Gr. pearl, 267 
Marjeta, /. Slov. Heb. bitter, 79 
^Mariorie,/. Scot. Gr. pearl, 267 
Mark, m. Eng. Ru$$, Esth. Lat. o: 

Mars, 298, ii. 146 
Marka, f. Hung. Heb. bitter, 79 
MarkelX, m. Russ. Lat of Mars, 293 
Markeilin, m. Rutt. Lat of Mara, 298 
Marko, m. WaU. Lat of Mars, 298 
Markos, m. Gr. Lat of Mars, 290 
Markota,/. Bohm. Gr. pearl, 267 
Markulf^ fit. Oer. Tea. border wolf, ii. 

Markos, m. Hung. Lat of Mars, 201 
Markusch, m. Ims. Lat of Mars, 201 
Markward, m. Oer. Ten. border ward, 

ii. 423 
Markwint m. Oer. Ten. border friend, 

Marlyf. Bav. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marlena,/. Lut. Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Marmaduke, m, Eng. Kelt sea leader 

(?), ii. 159 
Marquard, m, Fr. Tea. border ward, ii. 

Marret,/. Esth. Gr. pearl, 265 
Marri,/. Esth. Heb. bitter, 79 
Marrije, /. LeU. Heb. bitter, 79 
Ma Robert, m. African^ mother of Ro- 
bert, 8 
Marsali,/. Gael Gr. pearl, 264 
Mart, m. E$th. Lat of Mars, 291 
Marta, /. It. Boh. Heb. becoming bit- 
ter, 86 
Marten, m. Swed, Dutch, Lat of Mars, 

Maktha,/. Hung. Eng. Port. Heb. be- 
coming bitter, 86 
Marthe, /. Fr. Heb. becoming bitter, 

Martbon,/. Fr. Heb. becoming bitter, 

MarHa, m. Swi$9, Lat of Mars, 298 
Martvjn, m. Dutch, Lat of Mars, 298 
Martili, m. Swiss, Lat of Mars, 298 
Martin, m. Fr. Russ. Eng. Port. Slov. 

Lat. of Mars, 292 
Martina,/. Eng. Lat of Mars, 298 
Martine,/. Fr. Lat of Mars, 298 
Martinbo, m. Port. Lat of Mars, 293 
Martino, m. Span. lu Lat of Mars, 292 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


MiBXDrus, m. Oer, Lat. of Murs, 292 
Martiiis, m. Lat of Man, 291 
Martoni, m. Hung. Lat of Mars, 203 
Mmrttehu, m, LeU. Lat. of Man, 293 
Hartjn, m. Eng. Lat of Man, 298 
MrnuKha,/. Lu$. Heb. bitter, 79 
Mani$ehe/f, Lett, Heb. bitter, 79 
MtaiUe,/. Leu. Heb. bitter, 79 
r-Marj,/. Eng. Heb. bitter, 7, 79 
Marya,/. JPol Heb. bitter, 79 
Maryke,/. Lith. Heb. bitter, 79 
Martfma, /. PoL Heb. bitter, 79 
Maryna,/. Pol Heb. bitter, 79 
MarzelHn, m. i2iiM. Lat of Man, 292 
Mania,/. It. Lat of Mars, 292 
Manoeeo; m, Ven. Lat of Man, 291 
Maaaeeio, m. Ital. Aram, twin, 67 
Maaanielio, m. Ital. Aram. Ger. twin, 

Mateka,/. Rum. Heb. bitter, 79 
MoKhe,/. LeU. Gr. pearl, 267 
Matekinka,/. Rmu. Heb. bitter, 79 
Mato, m. It. Aram, twin, 65 
Hassiiiiiliano, m. It. Lat greatest iEmi- 

lianas, 353 
Massimo, m. It. Lat greatest, 862 
Mattueeioy m. It. Aram, twin, 65 
Matj m. Eng. Heb. gilt of tbe Lord, 68 
Mateo, j^Mtn. Heb. gift of the Lord, 52 
Mate, Hung. Heb. gift of the Lord, 52 
Mataus^ m. Bohm, Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 52 
Mateutz, m, Pol Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Matfeif m. Butt. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Matevs, m. Slov. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Mathe, m. Bav. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

MiTH-aHAifHAiN, M.Efte, Kelt bear, ii. 

MatMa, m. Wall Heb. gift of the Lord, 

MatMat, m, 8wed. Fr. Switt, Heb. gift 

of the Lord, 52 
Mathieu, m. JProv. Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 52 
Mathilda, m. Hung. Ten. mighty battle 

maid, ii. 416 
Mathilde, /. Ger. Ten. mighty battle 

maid, iL 416 
Matijaj m, 8erv, Heb. gift of the Lord, 

MatQda,^. Eng. It. Ten. mighty battle 

maid, li. 416 
Matilde, /. Fr. Ten. mighty battle maid, 

BfATTANiAH, fvi. Eng. Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 51 
Matt, m. Swed. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Mattea,/. It. Heb. gift of the Lord, 52 
Matteo, m. It. Heb. gift of the Lord, 52 
Matthans, m. Oer. Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 62 
Matthes, m. Oer. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Matthew, m. Eng. Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 52 
Matthia, m. Otr. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Matthies, m. Fr. Bav. gift of the Lord, 

Matthien, m. Port, Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 52 
Matthias, m. Eng. Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 51 
Matthit, m. Chr. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

MaUkyt, m. Dutch, Lett. Heb. gift of 

the Lord, 52 
Mattia, m. Ital. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Mattga, m. Slav. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Matty, f. Eng. Heb. becoming bitter, 

Matty,/. Eng. Ten. mighty battle maid, 

Matrei, m: Butt. Heb. gift of the Lord, 

Matyas, m. Pol. Hung. Heb. gift of the 

Lord, 52 
Maude, f. Eng. Ten. mighty battle 

maid, li. 416 
MaudUn, /. Eng. Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Maun,/ Eng. Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Mauna, m. Lapp. Lat great, 332 
Maunet, m. Lapp. Lat great, 351 
Maur, m. Fr. Lat dark, 413 
Maura,/. It. Ger. Lat dark, 418 
Maure, /. Fr. Lat dark, 41 3 
Maurice, m. Fr. Eng. Lat. Moorish, 415 
Mauricio, m. Port. Span. Lat Moorish, 

Maurids, m. Dan. Lat Moorish, 416 
Maubitiub, m. Lat. Moor, 415 


Maurits, m. Dutch, Lat Moor, 415 
Maurizio, m. luU, Lat. Moor, 410 
Mauro, m. Rom, Lat. Moor, 413 
Maubus, m. Lat. Moor, 418 
Maoryc^, m. Pol. Lat Moor, 415 
Mave, /. IrUh, Kelt mirth (?), 86, ii. 

Maria, /. Rust. Lat. dark, 418 
Mayritg, m. Rws. Lat dark, 413 
Mavrxuchay f. Ruts, Lat dark, 418 
MawkinJ. Eng. Heb. bitter, 79 
McLx, m. Get. Lat. greatest, 358 
Maxa^f, Oer, Lat greatest, 368 
Maxime, m. Fr. Lat greatest, 862 
Maximien, m. Fr. Lat greatest, 868 
Maximilian, m. Ger. Lat greatest 

^milianus, 858 
Maximiliane, /. Oer, Lat greatest 

iEmilianas, 353 
Maximiliao, m. Port, Lat greatest 

^milianus, 363 
Maximilien, m. ^. Lat greatest ^mili- 

Maxtmus, m. Lat greatest 852 
Maxl, m, Bav. Lat greatest iEmiUanas, 

Mawdwsn, /. Cym, Kelt, mannerly, ii. 

May,f. Eng, Heb. bitter, 79 
May/f, Scot, Gr. pearl, 267 
Maynardt m. £71^. Ten. mighty firm- 
ness, ii. 416 
Mayne, m. Eng, Ten. mighty, ii 415 
Matalein, /. Pro, Heb. of Magdala, 86 
Meadhdh, /. ErHt Kelt mirth (?), S6, 

ii. 112 
Mbaqhab, m. ^M, Kelt merry, ii. 112 
Meara, m. Irish, Kelt menr, ii. 112 
Meave, /. Er$e, Kelt mirth (?), 86, ii. 

Mechel, f, Bav, Ten. mighty battle 

maid, ii. 41 6 
Mechtild, /. Bav, Ten, mighty battle 

maid, ii. 415 
Medal,/, Bav, Heb. bitter, 79 
MM^,f. Fr. my delight, 405 
Meews, m. L. G. Heb. son of Airrows, 72 
Meg,/, Eng. Gr. peaii. 267 
MsoiNHARD, m. 6er. Ten. mighty firm- 
ness, ii. 415 
Mkqinhxbi, m. Oer. Ten. mighty 

warrior, ii. 415 

4,/. Fr. Ten. mighty battle maid, 

Mehetabel,/. £11^. Heb. beneficient» 74= 
Meinbem, m. Oer. Ten. mighty bear, 

ii. 416 
Meinbert fn. Oer. Ten. mighty bri^lit;- 

ness, ii. 415 
Meinbot, m. Oer. Ten. mighty com- 
mander, ii. 416 
Meinfred, m. Oer. Ten. mighty peace, 

ii. 415 
Meinhard, m. Oer. Ten. mighty firm- 

ness, ii. 415 
Meino, m. Oer. Ten. mighty, ii. 415 
Moinolf, m. Oer. Ten. migh^ wolf^ ii. 

Meinrad, m. Oer. Ten. mighty conncil, 

Meinward, m. Oer. Ten. mighty gnard, 

Meirchawn, m. PicU Kelt ii. 146 
MEiRiADwa, m. Welsh, Kelt sea protec- 
tor, ii. 169 
Mekel, m. L. Oer. Heb. who is like to 

God, 181 
Melanell,/. m. Eng. Kelt honey (?), ii. 

Mblanu,/. Eng. It. Gr. black, 166 
Melanie,/. Fr. Gr. black, 166 
Melany,/. Eng. Gr. black, 166 
Melchior, m. Span. Oer. Pers. kinR, 

Melchiore, m. It. Pers. king, 480 
Melchiorre, m. It. Pers. king, 480 
Melchisedec, m. Eng. Heb. long of 

righteousness, 15 
Meletius, m. Lat honied, 189 
Melicent/. Eng. Ten. work strength, 

189, ii. 267 
Melicerte,/. /V. Ten. work strength, ii. 

Meuob,/. Ert^. Lat better, 400 
Melisenda,/. iSJpon. Ten. work strength, 

Melissa,/. It. Eng. Lat bee, 189 
Melisse,/. Fr. Lat bee, 189 
MeHte,/. fV. Lat bee, 189 
Melitus, m. Lat. honied, 189 
Melonjr,/. ^n^. Gr. dark, 166 
Melnsina,/. Eng. Ten. work strength, 

189, ii. 267 
Melusine,/. Fr. strength, 

189, u. 257 
MeWa, m. Eng. Kelt chief, ii. 119 
Memba, m. Fris. Ten. mighty bear, ii. 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




m. Frii. Tea. mighty bear, ii. 

Meneia,/. Span. Lat. Sunday child (?), 

or adviser (?), 446 
Mendei, m. Span. Lat Sunday child, 

Mtmiea,/. It. Lat Sunday child, 444 
Memieo, m. It. Lat Sunday child, 445 
'^Meme/f. ScoU Heb. bitter, 78 
Jfomo, m. Ger. Teu. mighty strength, 

Jfeno, m. Ger . Teu. mighty strength, ii. 

JfMf, fit. Oer. Lat merciM, 843 
MenU^ m. Oer. Lat mercifhl, 342 
Memt2€l, m. Ger. Lat merciful, 842 
JKenz, JR. Dan. Lat. merciAil, 342 
Menz, Serv. Lat Sunday child, 445 
Menzel, Serv. Lat Sunday child, 44S 
MeOj m. /t. Heb. son of ftirrows, 72 
l&oaud,/. J^n^. Gr. emerald, 278 
Meroede,/. /t. Lat fiivours, 81 
Mebckdes,/. iS^n. Lat favours, 81 
Mebcy,/. ^»i^. 
Kebddhim, m. TTf 29^1 Kelt, sea hill, ii. 

Meredith, m. Eng, Kelt sea protector, 

MsREWiHS, m. A.S. Teu. famed Mend, 

Meriadoo, m. £r«t Kelt sea protector, 

Mcrica,/. Eng. Teu. work rule, ii. 269 
Meriehy m. Ger. Teu. work ruler, ii 269 
Merriky m. Oer. Teu. work ruler, ii. 269 
Meriin, m. Eng. Fr. Kelt sea hill, ii. 

Merlino, m. IL Kelt sea hiU, ii 156 
ICebohelm, m. A.S. Teu. famed helm, 

ii. 422 C^i^<^i»i) 

Merovee, m. Fr. Teu. &med holiness, 

Meroveus, m* Lat Teu. fkmed holiness. 

Mebowald, m. A.8. Teu. fkmed power, 

MerHl, m. Ger. Lat of Mars, 292 
Mertiny m. Bant. Lat of Mars, 292 
MerieUf. Eng. Gr. myrrh, 276 
Meboyeh, m. Frank. Teu. famed holi- 
ness, ii. 422 
Mebovihb, m. A.S. Teu. famed, ii 422 
Mervyn, m. Eng. Kelt sea hill, ii. 150 
Mesd^ioes,/. Fr. my delight, 405 

Metayf. Qtr. Ger. pearl, 267 
MeU.f. Ger. Gr. pearl, 267 
MeteUUyf. Dan. pearl, 267 
Methusalem, m. Eng. Heb. man of the 

dart, 43 
Metje,/. Dutch, Gr. pearl, 266 
Metrophanes, m. Ger. Slav, fire glory, 

{?), ii. 447 
MetUy f. Dan. Gr. pearl, 266 
MewrUse, m. Fr. Lat Moor, 414 
Meuriz, m. WeUh, Lat Moor, 414 
MeweSf m. Oer. Heb. son of ftirrow8,72 
Meyrieky m. Eng. Teu. work ruler, ii. 

Micah, m. Eng. Heb. who is like the 

Lord, 124 
Micha, m. Oer. Heb. who isUke to God, 

Michael, m. Oer. Eng. Heb. who is 

like to God, 131 
Michaella, /. It. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Michaele, /. m. It. Heb. who is like to 

God, 181 
MichaeUne,/. Oer. Heb. who is like to 

God, 181 
MichaeUs, m. Oer. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Michail, m. Rxls$. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Michaila, m. Ruts. Heb. who is like to 

God, 181 
Michal, m. Bohm. Pol. Lw. Heb. who 

is like to God, 131 
Michauy m. Fr. Heb. who is like to God, 

MichSe, m. Fr. Heb. who is like to God, 

Micheiy m. Russ. Heb. who is like to 
I God, 131 
Michel, m. Fr. Heb. who is like to God, 

Michele, m. It. Heb. who is like to God, 

Michelle, m. Fr. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Micheltje, m. Ihitchy Heb. who is like 

to God, 131 
Michiel, m. IhUch, Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Michon, m. Fr. Heb. who is like to 

God, 130 
Mi4iky fit. /r. Heb. who is like to God, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Mickel, m. Swed. Heb. who is like to 

God, 180 
Miedal,/, Bav, Heb. bitter, 79 
MUke.f, Dutch, Heb. bitter, 79 
MieUf, Bav, Heb. bitter, 79 
ift«/i,/. /SiriM, Heb. 79 
MieraUf' Bav, Heb. bitter, 79 
Mies, m. Swiu^ Heb. exalted of the Lord, 


MUlQe^f, Dutch, Heb. bitter, 79 
Migael, m. I^n. Port, Heb. who is like 

to God, 131 
Miguela, /. Port. Span. Heb. who is 

like to God, 130 
Miha, m. Slov. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
MihaO, m. Wall Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Mihal, m. Slov. Emg. Heb. who is like 

to God, 131 
Mihaiy, m. Hung. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Hiho, m. Serv. Heb. .who is like to 

God, 131 
Mija,f. Swiss, Heb. bitter, 79 
Mijailo, m. Serv. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Mik, m, £sth. Heb. who is like to God 
Mikael, m. Sved. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Mikas, m. Swed, Heb. who is like to 

God, 181 
Mike,/. Dutch, Heb. bitter 79, 130 
Mikel, m. Esth. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Mikelina, f. Buss. Lett. Heb. who is 

like to God, 131 
Mikkas, m. Lett. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Mikke, m. Lett. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Mikkeles, m. Lith. Lett. Heb. who is 

like to God, 131 
Miklaoz, m. Slov. Gr. pe<^le's victory, 

Miklaos, m. Lus. Gr. people's victoiy, 

MikU, m. Esth. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Miklos, m. Hung. Gr. people's victory, 

Mikolaj, m. Pol Gr. people's victory, 216 
MihUas, m. Bohm. Gr. people's victoiyr 


MUa,f. Slav. Slav, lovely, ii. 454 
Mila,f. Lus. Lat work (?), 305 
Milan, m. Bret. Gr. crasher, 227 
Milan,/, m. Slov. Lat lovely, iL 454 
Milari, ny Slov. Lat. cheerful, 397 
Milborough,/. Eng. Tea. mild pledge, 

MiLBUBOA,/. Lot, Tea. mild pledge, ii. 

Milcah,/. Eng. Heb. queen 
MiLDBUBH, /.A.S. Tea. mild pledge, ii. 

MiLDOYTH, /. A.S. Tea. mild gift, ii. 4524 
Mildred,/. Eng. Tea. mild threatener, 

ii. 424 
Mildreda, /. Lat, Tea. mild threatener, 

Mildrid, /. Da$i. Tea. mild threatener, 

ii. 424 
MiLDTHBYTH, /. A. 8. Tea. mild threat- 
ener, ii. 424 
Miles, m. Eng. Gr. crasher, 227 
Milhan, m. J^mm. Lat. afibble, 305 
Milica,/. Slav. Slav, love, 905, ii. 464 
Milicent, /. Eng. Tea. work strength, 

ii. 259 
MiLiDH, m. Erse, Kelt, warrior, 227 
MiHvo, m. Slav. Slav, love war, ii. 454 
Mi^o, m. Sen, Heb. who is like to God, 

Milka, m. Lus. Lat. work or affable, 306 
Millicent, m. Eng. Tea. work strength, 

ii. 459 
MiUica,/. lU. Heb. bitter, 79 
MiUy, /, Eng. Tea. work strength, iL 

Milo, m. Lat, Gr. crasher, 227 
Milon, m. Fr, dt Or. Gr. crasher, 227 
Milone, m. ItaL Gr. crasher, 227 
MiLOSLAv, m. Slov. Slav, love glory, ii. 

Mimi,/. Fr. Tea. helmet of resolation, 

Mimmeli,/. Swiss. Tea. helmet of re- 
solation, ii. 229 
Mine, / Get. Tea. helmet of resolu- 
tion, ii. 229 
MineUa, /. Eng. Tea. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 229 
MiNERViNA,/. Lat. of Minerva, 871 
Minette,/ Fr. Teu. helmet of resolu- 
tion, ii. 229 
igala, /. Scot, Kelt, soft and fair, ii. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Minka, /. PoU Tea. helmet of lesola- 

tion, ii. 229 
Minne, /. Oer. Tea. helmet of resolo* 

tion, ii. 229 
^Mimia./. Scot. Tea. memory, ii. 229 
Minks, /, Ger, Tea. memory, iL 229 
i Ifinnehaha, /. Red Indian, liiaghing 
' wstor, 10 

Ifinada, /. Eng. Lat. to be admired 
Miriam,/. Eng. Heb. bitter, 77 
Jftrio, m. Slov. Tea. work role, ii. 259 
MiBosukT,/. Slay, peace gloxy, ii. 461 
MUoj m. Serv. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Miieba, m. Run. Heb. who is like to 

God, 131 
Muehenkat m. Run. Heb. who is like 

God, 131 
Miskay m. Serv. Hvmg. Heb. who is like 

to God, 131 
Mifltislans, m. Lat. Slav, avengmg 

glory, iL 449 
Mitar, m. Serv. III. Gr. of Demeter, 166 
Mithridates, m. Or. Pers. given to the 

son, 141 
Mitra,f. Slav. Gr. of Demeter, 166 
MiTROFAir, m. Rusi. fire glory (?), ii. 

Ml4Dbn, m. Serv. Slay, yoang, ii. 464 
Modestine, /. Fr. Lat. modest, 400 
' MoDESTUs, m. Lat. modest, 400 
Modesty,/. Eng. Lat. 400 
Modwenna,/. Welsh, Kelt. ii. 185 
Moei>oo, m. Erse, Kelt, servant of the 

star, ii. 29 
Moggy, m. Eng. Or. pearl, 267 
Mogae, m. Erse, Kelt, amiable, ii. 29 
' ^Mtmia,/. Scot. Kelt, soft, ii. 98 
Moise, m. Fr. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Moises, m. Port. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Moisi, m. WaU. Ueb. drawn oat, 76 
M(Bfl8€{j, m. Russ. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Moissey, /. Manx, Heb. bitter, 79 
Mcjsia, m. Serv. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Mojsilo, m. Serv. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Mojzeez, m. Pol. Heb. drawn oat, 75 
' Mojzisch, m. Boh. Heb. drawn oat, 75 
Mnjzya, m. Slov. Heb. drawn oat, 75 
Molde, /. Eng. Tea. mighty batUe 

maid, ii. 416 
MoUg,/. Eng. Heb. bitter, 79 
Monacella,/. Lat. little nan, ii. 161 
Moncha,/. Erse, Lat. adviser, 445, iL 


Monegonde, /. Flem. Heb. thoaghtfbl 

MoMOFiNN, /. Erse, Kelt ftir haired, 

Moni, /. Swab. Lat. adviser, 445 
Monica,/. It. Eng. Lat. adviser (?), 445 
Monike, /. Oer. Lat adviser, 446 
Moniqae, /. Fr. Lat. adviser, 446 
Moore,/. Scot. Kelt great, ii. Ill 
Mob,/. Erse, Kelt great 80, ii. Ill 
^Morag,f. Scot. Kelt great ii* HI 
Morets, m. Don. Lat moor, 416 
Morgance, f. m. French, Kelt sea 

dweller, ii. 166 
Morgan, m. Welsh, Kelt sea dweUer, 

418, ii. 166 
Morgana, f. Eng. Kelt, sea dweller, ii. 

Morgue,/. Fr. Kelt sea dweller, ii. 156 
MoBOWEN, /. Welsh, Kelt sea lady, ii. 

MoBowN, m. Welsh, Kelt sea dweller, 

ii. 166 
Moric, m. Bohm. Shv. Lat Moor, 415 
Moricz, m. Sung. Lat Moor, 415 
Moritz, m. Dan. Lat Moor, 415 
Moritz, m. Oer. Lat Moor, 415 
Moriz, m. Russ. Lat. Moor, 416 
MoBMAN, m. Bret. Kelt, sea man, ii. 167 
~M(yma,f. Scot. Kelt beloved (?), ii. 98 
MoroU, m. Eng. Kelt, sea protection, ii. 

Moroagh, m. It. Kelt sea protection, 

ii. 168 
Morris, m. Ir. Lat. Moor, 415 
Mortough, m. Ir. Kelt sea warrior, ii. 

Morty, m. Ir. Kelt, sea' warrior, ii. 158 
MoBVEN, m. Bret. Kelt, sea man, ii. 

MoBVBBN, m. Welsh, Kelt sea raven, 

MoBVBTN, m. Welsh, Kelt sea hill,ii. 166 
Mose, m. It. Heb. drawn oat 76 
Moses, m. Eng. Oer. Heb. drawn oat, 

Mote Mahal, /. Arab, pearl of the 

harem, 2 
Moasa, m. Arab. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Mozes, m. Dutch, Slav. Heb. drawn 

oat 76 
Mozses, m. Hung. Heb. drawn oat, 76 
Mbbna, /. Serv. Slav, white in the eyes, 

ii. 464 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Mro8t m. Lu8, Gr. immortal, 248 
Mrosk, m. Lus. Gr. immortAl, 248 
MsTiSLAV, m, Slav, avenging gloiy, ii. 

MuntcHEABTACH, fit. EnCt Kelt, sea 

warrior, ii. 158 
HuiRERADHACH, m. Erte, Kelt, sea 

protector, ii. 168 
MuiBOis, m. Ersit Kelt, sea, ii. 158 
Mukkel, m. Bav. Slov. helpless, 108 
Mvkkiy m. Bav. Slov. helpless, lOH 
jtftm, m. Eng, Tea. lich protection, ii. 

Muna, /. Span, Basque, ii. 467 
^Mond, m. Scot, ii. 74 
MuNOHU, fn. OaeL Kelt, loveable, ii. 

-Mango, m. 5cot. Kelt, loveable, ii. 

Munilay f. Span, Basqae, ii. 467 
MuMO, m. Span, Basqae, ii. 467 


'Mardooh, m. Scot, Kelt sea protector, 

ii. 158 
Mariel,/. Eng, Gr. myrrh, 275 
Murphy^ m, Ir. Kelt sea warrior, ii. 

MuRRiN, /. Eru, Kelt, long haired, ii. 

Murtagh, m. Ir, Kelt, sea warrior, iL 

Murtoagh, m. /V. Kelt, sea warrior, ii. 

Mundora,/, Eng. Gr. gift of the Moses, 

Myles, m, Ir. Gr. crasher, 228 
Myne, Lith. Tea. helmet of resolution, 

li. 229 
MynetUt Lith, Tea. helmet of resolu- 
tion, ii. 229 
Myra,f, Eng, 

My tie, f. Scot, Gr. pearl, 266 
Myvanwy,/. WeUh, Kelt ii. 163 


Naatje.f, Dutch, Heb. grace, 105 
Nace, m. Slov. Lat. fiery, 401 
Nada,/. Serv. Slav, hope, ii. 445 
Nadan,/. Serv, Slav, hope, ii. 445 
Nadezna,/. Ru8s, Slav, hope, ii. 445 
Nadine,/. Fr, Slav, hope, ii. 445 
Nafaniel, to. Ritst. Heb. gift of God, 71 
Nahum, m. Eng, Heb. comfort, 124 
Nan, f, Eng. Beb. grace, 105 
Nancy,/. Eng, Heb. grace, 105 
Nandel, m. Oer. Tea. adventuring life, 

ii. 485 
Nanette,/, Fr. Heb. grace, 106 
Nani,/, Hung. Heb. grace, 105 
Nanna,/. Nor. Tea. bold, u. 211 
Nanna,/, It. Heb. grace, 105 
Narmeli,/ Swiss, Heb. grace, 106 
Nannerl,/, Bav. Heb. grace, 105 
Nanni, m, Ital. Heb. the Lord's grace, 

Nanno, in, Fris. Tea. bold, ii. 211 
Nannon,/, Fr, Heb. grace, 105 
Nannot, m, Gr. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Nanny,/. Eng, Heb. grace, 106 
Nanon,/. Fr.Ueh. grace, 106 
Nanty, m. Scot. Lat. inestimable, 307 
Naomi,/. Eng. Heb. pleasant, 76 
Nap, m. Eng. Lat of the new dty, 412 

Naphthali, m. Eng. Heb. wrestling, 16 

Napo, m, Ger, lit. of the new city, 

Napoleon, to. JFV. Gr. of the new city, 

Napoleone, m. It, Gr. of the new city, 

Napolio, TO. It, Gr. of the new city, 

Narcisse, to. Fr, Gr. daffodil, 190 

Narcissus, to. Eng. Gr. daffodil, 190 

Narkiss, m. Buss, Gr. daffodil, 190 

Ntutagio, /. to. It. Gr. of the resurrec- 
tion, 250 

Nastassja, /, Russ. Gr. of the resurrec- 
tion, 250 

Naste,/, TO. Lett. Lat. Christmas child, 

Nastenka,/. Russ, Gr. of the resurrec- 
tion, 260 

Nat, m. Eng, Heb. gift of God, 71 

Natale, to. It, Lat. Ghristmajs child, 

Natalia, /. It, Span, Lat Christmas 
child, 427 

Natalie, /. Fr, Ger, Lat Christmas 
child, 427 

Natal^ja,/. Russ. Lat. Christinas child, 


by Google 



Natalita,/. Span, Lat. Christmas child, 

NtUaiuuUe, m. It. Heb. gift of God, 71 
Nataseha^ /. Ruu. Lat. Chruftmas child, 
. 427 
NaUuchenka^ /. Russ, Lat. Ghristmas 

child, 427 
Nathan, m. Eiig, Heb. gift, 71 
Nathanael, to. Eng. Heb. gift of God, 

Nathanial, m. Wall. Heb. gift of God, 

Nathaniel, to. Fr. Heb. gift of God, 71 
NatiTidad,/. Span. Lat. birth, 427 
Navarino, m. Eng, ii. 486 
N(uji^ m, Bav. Lat fiery, 401 
Nazarene, to. Qer. Heb. of Nazareth^ 

Naze^ m. Bav, Lat. fiery, 402 
JVkKi, TO. Bav, Lat. fiery, 402 
Neal, TO. ir. Kelt, chief; ii 61 
Neapolio, to. /^ Gr. of the new city, 412 
Neapoleon, to. It. Gr. of the new city, 

Neeeht to. Slov. Gr. man, 204 
Ned, to. .£^. Ten. rich guard, ii. 343 
Neda,/. Bt*(^. ShiY. Sunday, 446 
Nedan, to. Bvig. SJav. Sunday, 445 
Nedelko, to. Bulg, Slav. Sunday, 446 
Nede^ka,/. £u^. Slav. Sunday, 445 
Nedelschkoy m. Hi. Slav. Sunday, 446 
Nedo, TO. lU. Slav. Sunday, 445 
Neeldje, to. Dutcfe, Lat. horn (?), 814 
Nehemiah, to. Eng. Heb. comfort of the 

Lord, 124 
Nkidhard, to. Ger. Ten. firm compul- 
sion, ii. 409 
Nbill, to. Oadhael, Kelt, champion, iL 

NeUe.f, Dutch, Lat horn (?), 814 
NeUe.f. Qer. Gr. stone, 247 
NeUyJ. Eng. Gr. light, 168 
Neot, to. ^. £>. compulsion, ii. 409 
Nepomucen, to. PoZ. Slav, helpless, 108 
Nepomuk, to. Bokm. Slav, helpless, 108 
Kebo, to. J^. Lat strong, 355 
Nese^f, Lett. Gr. pure, 264 
Nesle, TO. ^. Lat black, 864, ii. 61 
NessUf f. Manx, Gr. pure, 268 
Nest,/. WeUh, Gr. pure, 268 
Neto,f. E$th. Gr. pure, 264 
Neza,f. Slav, Gr. pure, 262 
Netxca,f. Slov, Gr. pure, 264 
Nial, m. Nor, Kelt, champion, ii. 61 


mh,f. Eng, Heb. God's oath, 93 
Nicholas, to. Eng. Gr. victory of the 

people, 213 
Nicfum,/. Fr, Heb. grace, 105 
Nick, TO. £»i^. Gr. victory of the people, 

Nickel, TO. Bmv, Gr. victory of the 

people, 217 
Nicodlme, to. Fr, Gr. victory of the 

people, 210 
Nicodemus, to. Eng. Gr. victory of the 

people, 213 
Nicol, TO. Scot, Gr, victory of the people, 

Nicola, TO. lU Gr. victory of the people, 

Nicolaas, to. DtUch, Gr. victory of the 

people, 215 
Nicolas, TO. Fr. Gr. victory of the people, 

Nicolau, TO. Port, Gr. victory of the 

Nicole, TO. Fr, Gr. victory of the people, 

Nicolette, /. Fr, Gr. victory of the 

people, 215 
Nioolina, /. Gr, Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Nicolo, TO- ItdL Gr. victoiy of the 

people, 216 
Nidbert, to. Oer. Ten. bright compell- 

ing, ii. 409 
Nidhert, m. Ger, Teu. firm compelling, 

ii. 409 
Niels, TO. Scot. Kelt champion, 854, ii. 

Niel, TO. Dan. Gr. victoiy of the people, 

Nigel, TO. Scot, Lat black, 854, ii. 61 
NioKLLUS, TO. Lat black, 354 
NiQEB, TO. Lat. black, 854 
NiKiAS, TO. Gr, conquering, 213 
Nikka, to. Laipp, Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Nikkelis, to. Lett, Gr. victoiy of the 

people, 216 
Nikhi, TO. -Finn. Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Nikla, TO. Bav, Gr. victory of the 

people, 216 
Niklaas, to. Dutch, Gr. victoiy of the 

people, 215 
Niklat, TO. Ger. Swed, Gr. victory of 

the people, 215 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Niklau, m. Boo, Gr. Tiotoxy of the 

people, 216 
Nikodem, m. Or, Gr. victoiy of the 

people, 216 
NiKODEMOS, m. Gr. Shv, Bulg. Tictory 

of the people, 213 
Nikola, m. Rut$. Gr. Tictoiy of the 

people, 216 
Nikol^, m Rut$. Gr. Yictorjr of the 

people, 216 
Nikolas, m. Dutch, Gr. victory of the 

people, 215 
NxkolMcha, m. Ruu. Gr. Tiotoiy of the 

people, 218 
NiKoukus, m. Oer, Gr, victoiy of the 

people, 215 
Nikon, m. Run, Gr. victoiy, 218 
Niku,m, Finn, Or, victory of thepeopl^T 

NiU$f m. Finn, Gr. victory of the people, 

NiUe, Nor, Gr. stone, 246 
Ni^onJ. Fr, Heb. grace, 105 
NtTo, m. Finn, Gr. victoiy of the peo- 
ple, 216 
NiUy m, Swed. Gr. victory of the people, 

NinettaJ, Ital, Heb. grace, 105 
Ninette J, Fr. Heb. grace, 106 
^inian, m. Scot. Kelt. ii. 116 
NiNiDH, m. Erse, Kelt ii 116 
Ninon,/, Fr. Heb. grace, 106 
NioBD, m. Nor, Tea. sea god, ii. 216 
Nithard, m. Oer, Tea. firm compulsioii, 

Nitt, m. Cter, Teu. firm compalsioD, 

Njal, ffi. Ice, Ten. champion, ii. 61 

Noa, m. lU Heb. rest, 24 

Noah, m. DtUch, Heb. rest, 24 

NoACHAS, m. Or, Heb. rest, 24 

Noah, m. Bng. Heb. rest, 15, 19, 24, 48 

Noe, m, Fr. Ruts. Heb. rest, 19, 24 

Noel, m. Fr. Lat. Christmas, 427 

NoU, m, Bn{f. Teu. olive, 419 

N6U, m. Dutch, Lat. horn, 314 

Nona,/. JSn^f, Lat. ninth, 802 

Nonna, /. Lat ninth, 302 

Nonne, m. Fris. Tea. bold, iL 211 

Nora, f, Ir. Lat honour, 894 

Norahtf, Ir, Lat. honour, 394 

NoRBBBT, m. Ger, Teu. Niord's bright- 
ness, ii. 216 

NoBDHiLDA,/. Oer, Teu. Niord's battle 
maid, iL 216 

-Norman, m. Scot, Teu. Niord*s man.ii. 

Notberg,/. Oer. Teu. oompeUing pro- 
tection, ii. 409 

Notger, m, Oer. Teu. oompeUing spear, 

Notto, m. Nor. Teu. compelling wolf^ 

NoTTULF, m. Nor, Teu. compelling 
wolf, ii. 409 

Novak, m. lU. Slov. new 

Novia,/. lU. Slav. Lat new 

Nozzo, m. It, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Nuala,f, Ir, Kelt fidr shoulders, 177, 

Numps, m. Eng, Heb. staff of peace, iL 

Nufio,/. Span, 

Nuno, m. ^mhi. 

Nvniiata,/, It, Lat announced, 80 

Dado, m. Etth, Heb: red earth, 41 
Obadiah, m. Eyi^. Heb; servant of the 

Lord, 123 
Obramas, m, Lith, Heb. father of na- 
tions, 45 
Octove,/. Fr, Lat eighth, 801 
Ootavia, /. Eng, Lat eighth, 801 
Ootaviano, m. Rom, Lat. eighth, 801 
GoTAViANUS, m. La^ eighth, 301 
Octavien, m. Fr. Lat. eighth, 301 
Octavie,/. iY. Lat eighth, 801 
GcTAVius, m. Lot. eighth, 801 

Ocko, m. Frw. Teu. noble rich, ii. 

Oda,/. Oer, Teu. rich, ii. 340 
Odbjobo, /. m. (?«■. Teu. rich protec- 
tion, ii. 844 
Odds, m. Oer, Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Oddobiic, m. Nor. Teu. rich helmet, ii. 

Oddlauo,/. ^or.Teu. rich liquor, iL 344 
Oddleif, m. JiTor. Teu. rich relic, ii. 344 
Gddmund, m. Nor. Teu. rich protec- 
tion, iL 842 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



Oddxt, m, Nor. Tea. rioh freshness, 

Oddo, /. m. Nor. Teu. rich, n. 344 
Oddb,/. m. Nor. Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Oddysig, m. Nor.Ten. rich liquor, ii. 344 
Oddwakd, m. Ger. rich guard, iL 343 
Ode./. Abr. Teu. rich, ii. 341 
Odes, m. lu Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Odrlburoa,/. ^er. Teu. noble guard, 

Odelbrecht, m. G«r. Ten. noble bright- 

nesSfii. 400 
Odelois, m. Oer. Teu. noble pledge, ii. 

Odeuhd, /. Oer. Teu. noble snake, ii. 

Odelric, m. Ger. Tea. noble rule, ii. 

Odgisl, m. Nor. Teu. rich pledge, ii. 344 
Odojbb, m. Nor. Teu. rich spear, iL 348 
Oboukd,/. Ger. Teu. rich war, ii. 344 
Odiia,/. Ger. ^. Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Odilb,/. ^. Teu. rich, iL 341 
Odilo, m. Ger. Teu. rich, iL 841 
Odilon, HI. Fr. Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Odkatla,/. i^or. rich kettle, ii. 844 
Odkel, m. Nor. rich kettle, ii. 844 
Odli, m. 8wit$, Heb. red earth, 41 
Odmar, Nor. Teu. rich fame, ii. 344 
Odo, m. Gtr. Eng. Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Odoacer, m. Lot, Teu. treasure watcher, 

Odoardo, m. It. Teu. rich guard, iL 348 
OdoJf, m. Oer. Teu. rich wolf, ii. 844 
Odon, m. Fr. Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Odorioo, m. It. Teu. rich ruler, ii. 844 
Odnlf, m. Oer. Teu. noble wolf, ii. 205 
Odrald, m. Oer. Teu. rich power, ii. 844 
Odvin, m. Ger. Teu. rich friend, ii. 842 
Ody, m. Fr. Kelt lamb, ii. 140 
Odtssbus, m. Gr. hater, 176 
CEoiUT, m. Nor. Tea. (Egir's relic, ii. 

GSgils, m. ^or. Teu. awftil, ii. 243 
GBouLV, m. Nor. Teu. awfrd wolf, iL 

(EouNH, m. ^or. Tea. awftil maiden, ii. 

CBowiND, m. Nor. awfhl Wend, ii. 243 
Oelrich, m. (7er.|Teu. noble ruler, ii. 304 
OflBi. m. il. O. S. Teu. wild boar (?), ii. 

Ofurotf. Lat. Teu. island prudence, ii. 


Offy.f. Eng. Gr. divine love, 281 
Oggiero, m. Ital. Teu. holy, ii. 886 
OoMUND, m. Nor. Teu. awftil protec* 

tion, iL 243 
Ogier, m. Fr. Teu. holy, ii. 886 
OoNosLAT, m. III. Slav, fire glory, ii. 447 
OovALLD, m. Nor. awftil power, ii. 243 
if>ieif, m. Nor. Teu. island wolf; ii. 

(fnelf m. Nor. Teu. island wolf, ii. 431 
Oighrigh,/. Gael Gr. fair speech, 209 
OiSEAN, m. Gadhael. Kelt ii. 66 
Olaf, m. Nor. Teu. ancestor's relic, 419, 

iL 261 
Olaiis, m. Lat. Teu. ancestor's relk, iL 

Olav, m. Nor. Teu. ancestor's relic, ii. 

Clave, fi>. Eng. Teu. ancestor's reUc, ii. 

Olbracht, m. Pol. Teu. noble bright- 
ness, ii. 806 
Oldrieh, m. Bohm, Tea. nobler ruler, ii. 

02e, m. Nor, Teu. ancestor's relic, ii. 

Oleg, m. Ruse. Teu. holy, 161, iL 386 
Olery, m. Fr. Teu. noble ruler, iL 894 
Olfert, m. Oer. Teu. noble peace, iL 

Olga, /. Ruas. Teu. holy, 161, ii. 886 
Olger, m. Dan. Teu. holy, ii. 885 
Olier, m. Bret. Lat. olive, 419 
Olimpia,/. Ital. Gr. Olympian, 227 
OUnka/f. Rues. Teu. holy, ii. 261 
Olive,/. Efi^. Lat. 410 
Olivieros, m. Port. 8. Lat. oUve, 410 
Oliver, m. Eng. Lat. olive, 410, ii. 261, 

Oliverio, m. Port. Lat. olive, 410 
Oliveros, m. Span. Lat. olive, 410 
Olivia,/. Eng. Lat. olive, 410 
Olivier, m. i^. Lat. olive, 410 
Oliviero, m. It. Lat olive, 410 
02op, m. Etth. Teu. ancestor's relic, ii. 

^Ive, m. JVbr. Teu. ale, ii. 484 
^LVER, m. Nor. Teu. ale, ii. 484 
Olympe,/. Fr. Gr. Olympian, 227 
Olympia, /. Eng. Or. Olympian, 227 
Olympias,/. Eng. Gr. Olympian, 227 
Olympic,/ Ger. Gr. Olympian, 227 
Om Iskendar,/. ilra5. Arab. Gr. mo« 
I ther of Alexander, 8 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


Omm, m. Ir, Heb. Lat. dwarf Adam, 

Ondrej, m. Bohm. Gr. man, 204 
Onfroi, m. Fr. Teu. support of peace, 

ii. 297 
Onofredo, m. ItaL Teu. support of 

peace, ii. 297 
Onofiio, m. IL Teu. support of peace, 

ii. 297 
Onora, m. Erse, Lat honour, 394 
Onori, m. Fr, Lat honoured, 394 
Onory, m. SUrv, Lat honoured, 894 
Onuphrius, m. Lat, Teu. support of 

peace, ii. 297 
Onn&io, m. /t. Teu. support of peace, 

ii. 297 
Opan Tangot Red Ind, great elk, 10 
Ophelia,/. Eng. Gr. serpent, ii. 290 
Orac, m. Slov. Lat. 393 
Orasda,/. /t. Lat. 393 
Orazio, m. It, Lat. 393 
Orban, m. Hung, Lat citizen, 417 
Ordofio, m. Span, Teu. rich friend (?), 

ii. 342 
Orflath,/. .^«, Kelt golden lady 
Orlando, m. /to£. Teu. fame of the land, 

ii. 364 
Orm, m. Ice. Teu. serpent, ii 290 
Obuab, m. Nor, Teu. serpent warrior, 

Obmilda, /. Ice, Teu. serpent battle 

maid, ii. 290 
Orsch,/. Swigs, Lat bear, 411 
Orscheli,/, Swiss, Lat. bear, 411 
Orse,/. Hufi^. Heb. oath of God, 92 
Orseline,/. Dutch, Lat bear, 411 
Orsike,/, Hung, Heb. oath of God, 92 
OPBola,/. ItaL Lat bear, 411 
Orsolya,/. Hung, Lat bear, 411 
Orson, m. -Kn^. Lat bear, 411 
Ortensia,/. J(. Lat gardener, 392 
Ortensio, m. /£. Lat gardener, 392 
Ortleip, nu Ger, Ten. rich relic, ii. 344 
Ortgrim, m. Ger, Teu. rich helm, ii 342 
Ortoab, m, Otr. Teu. rich spear, iL 842 
Orto, m. Oer. Teu. rich, ii. 341 
Obtwin, m, Ger, Teu. rich friend, ii. 

Ortwulf, Oer, Teu. rich wolf, ii. 844 
Orzil, m, Prov, Teu. rich, ii. 341 
Osbert, m. Oer, Teu. divinely bright, 

ii. 186 
Osberta, /. Ger, Teu. divinely blight, 

ii. 185 

OsBORN, m. Eng. Ten. divine bear, iL 

Osberga, /. Eng. Ten. divine pledge, 

ii. 186 
Oscar, m. Fr, Kelt hounding warrior, 

ii. 92 
OscETYL, m. A, S, Teu. ii. 181 
Oseep, m, Russ. Heb. addition, 69 
Osfred, m, Eng.Ten. divine peace, iL 188 
OsoAR, m. Gael. Kelt bounding war- 
rior, ii. 92, 182 
OsoiFu, /. m. A, 8. Teu. Asagod's 

gift, ii. 186 
OsooD, m. Ban. Teu. Asagod, ii. 181 
Oska,/, Lus. Lat bear, 411 
Oskar, m, Ger, Teu. divine spear, ii. 183 
OsK£TYL,m. Dan. Teu. divine cauldron, 

ii. 182 
OsLAC, m. Eng. Teu. divine sport, iL 

Oslaf, m. Eng. Teu. divine legacy, ii. 

Osmod, Ger, Teu. divine wrath, ii. 186 
Osmond, m. Eng, Tea. divine protec- 
tion, ii. 184 
Osmont, m. Fr, Teu. divine protection, 

ii. 184 
Osred, m. Eng. Teu. divine council, ii. 

Osric, m. Eng, Teu. divine rule, ii. 185 
Ossian, m. Eng, Kelt. ii. 66 
OsTHBYTH, /. Eng. divine threatener, ti. 

OsuLF, m, Eng, Teu. divine wolf, iL 

Oswald, m, Eng, Teu. divine power, iL 

OswiNE, m, A. S. Teu. divine friend, ii. 

Osvyy, m. Eng, Teu. divine holiness, ii. 

Osyth,/. Eng, Teu. divine strength, iL 

Otemar^ m. Oer. Teu. rich frume, ii. 344 
Otfried, m. Oer, Teu. rich peace, ii. 

Othao, m. Part, Teu. rich, ii. 844 
Othello, m. It, Teu. rich, ii. 844 
Otheb, m. Oer, Teu. happy warrior, ii. 

Othes, m. Fr. Teu. rich, ii. 841 
Othilia, /. m. Fr, Teu. rich battle maid, 

ii. 341 
Otho, m, Lat. Teu. happy (?), ii. 341 

J DV "V-J V^V_/ 



Otpaidy m. Qer. happy bold, IL 341 
Otprahi^ m. Qer, happy bright, ii. 311 
Ottavia,/. m. It. Lat. eighth, 301 
OtUTio, m. //. Lat. eighth, 301 
Otte, m. Qer. Teu. happy, ii, 341 
Otthild, /. Ger. Teu. happy battle 
^ maid, ii 341 

Ottilia, /. Lat. Tea. happy battle maid, 

ii. 341 
Ottmar, m. Oer. Teu. happy fame 
Otto, m. It. Oer, Teu. rich, ii. 341 
Ottokab, m. Oer. Teu. happy spear, 

ii. 34a 
Ottone, m. It. Teu. happy, ii. 341 

Ottorino, m. It. Teu. happy, ii. 341 

Ottub, m. Nor. Ger. awful, ii 305 

Ouen, m. Fr. Teu. rich Mend, ii. 341 

Ougunna,/. Nor. Teu. rich war, ii. 

Oulf, Nor. Teu. rich wolf, ii. 344 

Ours, m. Fr. Lat. bear, 411 

Ooind, m. Nor. Teu. island Wend, ii 

OwAiN, m. Welsh, Kelt, lamb, or war- 
rior, 287, ii. 140 

Owen, m. Eng. Kelt, lamb, or young 
warrior, ii. 140 

Ozias, m. Or. Heb. 19 

Pablo, m. Span. Lat little, 349 
Pacifico, m. It. Lat. pacific, 394 
Paddy, m. Ir. Lat. noble, 403 
Padrig, m. Erte, Lat. noble, 403 
Pagano, 971. It. Lat. countryman, 417 
Paoahus, m. Lat. countryman, 417 
Pain, m. Eng. Lat. countryman, 417 
Pal, m. Hung. Lat. liUle, 349 
Palko, m. Hung. Lat. little, 349 
Palladius, m. Lat. Gr. of Pallas, 153 
Pallig, m. Dan. ii. 410 
Palnb, m. Dan. 11. 410 
Pamela./, ^n^. ii.485 
Paacrace, m. Ir. Gr. all ruler, 213 
Pancracio, m. i^om. Gr. all ruler, 212 
Pancracy, m. Pol Gr. all ruler, 212 
Paneras, m. Eng. Gr. all ruler, 212 
Pancrazio, m. Ital. Gr. all ruler, 212 
Pankratios, m. Gr. all ruling, 211 
Pofma, f. Hung. Heb. grace, 105 
Panm,f. Hung. Heb. grace, 106 
Pantaloon, m. Fr. Gr. all a lion, 212 
Pantaleone, fii. It. Gr. all a lion, 212 
Paola,/. It. Lat litUe, 351 
Paolina,/. /^ Lat little, 351 
Paolino, m. It. Lat. little, 351 
Paolo, m. /(. Lat little, 350 
Pappo, m. Ger. Teu. father 
PwraUhayf. Emu. Slav. Good Friday 

Parysatis,/. GV. Zend, fairy bom (?), 

Paraskera,/. i^uM. Slav. Good Friday 

child, 436 
Pari, m. Fr. Lat. fetherly, 408 
Parnel,/. Eng* Gr. stone, 347 

Parthenois, m. (7r. Gr. of the yirgiQ, 

Pabthenope, m. Fhig, Gr. the yirgin's 

city, 153 
Pa*, m. Pol. Lat. little, 360 
Pascal, m. Span. Heb. passover child, 

Pascha, /. Rtut. Slav. Good Friday 

child, 436 
Pascha, /. Russ. Slav. Good Friday 

child, 436 
Paschal, m. Fr. Heb. Easter child, 

Paschina, /. It. Heb. Easter child, 

Paschino, m. It, Heb. Easter child, 

Pascoal, m. Port. Heb. Easter child, 

Pascoe, m. Eng. Heb. Easter child, 436 
Pasoual, m. I^an. Heb. Easter child, 

Pasinek, m. Pol. Lat little, 350 
Pasquale, m. It. Heb. Easter child, 486 
Passion, m. Eng. Lat suffering, 438 
Pat, m. Ir. Lat noble, 403 
PaU, m. Scot. Lat. noble, 403 
Patebnits, m. Lat. fatherly, 403 
Paiie, m. Scot. Lat noble, 403 
Patience,/. Eng. Lat. bearing up, 400 
Patiens, m. Lat patient, 400 
Patrice, ffi. Fr. Lat noble, 403 
Patricia,/. Scot. Lat noble, 403 
Patricio, m. Rom. Lat noble, 403 
Patricius, m. Lat noble, 403 
Patrick, m. Eng. Lat noble, 403 


by Google 


Patziky, m. Ru$$, Lat. noble, 408 
PaUiz, m. Oer, Lat. noble, 408 
Patrizia,/. It. Lat. noble, 408 
Patrizio, m. It. Lat noble, 408 
•P<i%f /• ^n{f- Heb. becoming bitter, 

Paul, m. /v. (?«r. £ng. Lat. little, ii. 

Paula,/. Span. Port. Lat little, 850 
Paule,/. ^. Lat litUe, 850 
PauletUj. Fr. Lat littie, 361 
Paulin, m. 6^. Lat little, 850 
Paulina,/. Rom. Eng. Span, Lat litde, 

Pauline,/. Oer. Fr. Lat little, 350 
Paulino, m. It. Lat little, 350 
Paulinus, m. Lat little, 849 
PatUUca^f. Oer. Lat little, 851 
Paulo, m. 12om. Port Lat Uttle, 350 
Pauloty m. Fr. Lat little, 360 
Paultje, m. Dutch, Lat little, 860 
Paulus, m. Oer. Lat little, 349 
PaVi m. Lapp. Lat little, 851 
Pava, m. lU. Lat little, 851 
Pavalt m. Lapp. Lat little, 351 
Pavek, m. Hath. Lapp. Lat. little, 361 
Pavel, m. Ru89. Wail. Pol. Bohm. Lat 

little, 351 
Pavelek, m. Pol. Lat. little, 851 
PaviU, m. Lett. Lap. little, 351 
Pavko, m. IlL IM. UtUe, 851 
Pavl, m. lU. Lat. little, 851 
Pavla/f. Ru88. Lat little, 351 
Pavli, m. E$th. Lat little, 851 
Pavlenka, m. Russ. Lat little 
Pavlika^f. m. Slav. Lat little, 851 
PavUja, m. lU. Lat. little, 851 
Pavlin, m. Slav. Lat little, 361 
Pavlina,/. Slav. Lat little, 361 
Pavkucha, m. Russ. Lat Uttle, 351 
Pavol, m. Lus. Lat. little, 851 
Pawel, m. Pol. Lat little, 851 
Payen, m. Fr. Lat. countryman, 417 
Payne, m. Eng. Lat countryman, 417 
Peace,/. Bng. 394 
Peder, m. iVbr. Gr. stone, 246 
Pedo, m. Esth. Gr. stone, 246 
PedrinhOf m. Port. Gr. stone, 346 
Pedro, m. Port. Span. Gr. stone, 245 
Peggy,/. Eng. Gr. pearl, 267 
Peira, m. iVor. Gr. stone, 246 
P^o, m. IZZ. Gr. stone. 147 
Pelage, m. Fr. Gr. of the sea, 418 
Pelagia,/. m. ^. of the sea, 418 

Pelagio, m. Rom. Gr. of the sea, 418 
Pelagius, m. Lat Gr. of the sea, 4l8 
Pelayo, m. ^pan. Gr. of the sea, 418 
Pelbo, m. ^n^. Heb. dispersion, 15 
Peleif m. Swiss, Gr. of the sea, 418 
Pelgrim, m. Dutch, Gr. stranger, 417 
Pellegrino, m. /t Lat. pilgrim, 418 
Pen,/. Eng. Gr. weaver, 177 
Penabwen, /. Welsh, Kelt silver head, 

ii. 148 
Penelope, /. Eng. Gr. weaver, 177, ii. 

Penny,/. Eng. Gr. weaver, 177 
Pent, m. Lapp, Lat blessed, 383 
Penta, m. Lapp. Lat. blessed, 383 
Pentecost, m. Eng. Gr. Whitsuntide, 

Pentecoste, /. Eng. Gr. Whitsuntide, 

Pepa,/. Span. Heb. addition, 68 
Pepe, m. Span. Heb^ addition, 68 
Pepin, m. Fr. Ten. father, ii. 262 
Pepino, m. i{om. Ten. father, ii. 262 
Pepita,/. Span. Heb. addition, 68 
Pepito, m. Span. Heb. addition, 68 
Peppo, m. It, Heb. addition, 68 
Pepsa, m. lU. Heb. addition, 68 
Per, m. Swiss, Gr. stone, 247 
PsRAHTHERi, fit. 0. Gef. Tcu. bright 

army, ii. 408 
Perahthild,/. 0. Oer. Teu. bright bat- 
tle maid, ii. 408 
Perahtmab, m. 0. G«r. Teu. bright 

fame, ii. 408 
Perahtolf, m. 0. Oer. Teu. bright wol^ 

ii. 408 
Perahtram, m. 0. Oer. Teu. bright 

raven, ii. 408 
Percival, m. Eng. Kelt companion of 

the chalice, ii. 151 
Peredur, m. Welsh, Kelt companion 

of the chalice, ii. 151 
P6p6grin, m. Fr. Lat traveller, 418 
Peregrine, m. Eng. Lat. traveller, 418 
Peregrinus, m. Lat traveller, 417 
Peregrino, m. It. Lat stranger, 417 
Perent, m. Esth. Teu. bear firm, ii. 276 
PeretU,/. Fr. Gr. stone, 247 
Perino, m. /t Gr. stone, 247 
Pkrizada,/. Per*. Pers. faiiybom, 141 
Pemel,/. Eng. Gr. stone, 247 
Pero, m. It. Gr. stone, 247 
Pero, m. Esth. Teu. bear firm, ii. 276 
Pebpetua,/. It Lat lasting, 407 

J DV '•.wJ V^V_/ 



Perrin, m, Fr. Ger. stone, 246 
PeTTine,/. Fr, Gr. stone, 247 
Perronik, BreL 245, ii. 161 
Pert, m. Etth. Heb. son of ftinows, 

Pet, m. E$th, Gr. stone, 247 
Fetar, m. lU, Gr. stone, 247 
Peter, m. Eng. Ger. Gr. stone, 245 
PeteriSf m. Lett. Gr. stone, 245 
Peters, m. LeU, Gr. stone, 247 
Peiko, m. Iau, BtUg. Gr. stone, 247 
Peto, m. i^. Gr. stone, 247 
Petr, m. Bokm. Rues, Gr. stone, 246 
Petra, m. JEsth. Gr. stone, 347 
Petra, /. /K. Gr. stone, 247 
Petraea,/, Ger. Gr. stone, 247 
Petrarca, m. It, Gr. stone, 247 
Petras, m. Lett. Gr. stone, 247 
Petrica, m, lU. Gr. stone, 247 
PetHja,/. 10. Gr. stone, 247 
Petrik, m. Bret. Gr. stone, 247 
Petrina,/. Scot. Gr. stone, 247 
Petrine,/. l^r. Gr. stone, 247 
Petrinka, m. Russ. Gr. stone, 246 
Petrisse,/. G^tfr. Gr. stone, 247 
PetroneUa, /. Oer. Eng. It. Gr. stone, 

Petronelle,/. Fr. Gr. stone, 247 
Petronilha,/. PoH. Gr. stone, 247 
Petbos, m. Gr. stone, 246 
Petra, m. WaU. Gr. stone, 246 
Petms, m. Lot. Gr. stone, 246 
Petrusa,/. Ill Gr. stone, 247 
Petruscha, m. Rtus. Gr. stone, 246 
Pet»eh. m. Lus. Gr. stone, 247 
Petor, m. Bulg. Gr. stone, 247 
Pewlin, m. WeUh, Lat. little, 849 
Phaddei, m. Ruse. Aram, praise, 68 
Phadrig, m. jEJr<€, Lat. noble, 408 
Pharamond, m. Eng. Teu. travelled 

protector, ii. 482 
Phelim, m. Ir. Kelt. Erse, good, ii. 108 
^Phemie, f. Scot. Gr. fair fame, 209 
Pheodor, m. Rues. Gr. divine gift, 232 
Pheodora, /. m. Rues. Gr. divine gift, 

Pheodosg, m. Russ. Gr. divine gift, 236 
Pheodofiia, /. m, Russ, Gr. divine gift, 

Pherenike,/. Gr. bringing victoiy, 80, 

Phil, m. Eng. Ger. love horses, 187 
Phzlad^slphia, /. Eng. Gr. love of 

brethren, 192, 219 

Philalxthss, m. Gr. love of troth, 

Philandeb, m. Eng. Gr. love man, 219 
Philaret, m. Gr, Gr. love virtue, 219 
PHII.AILETOS, m. Gr. love virtne, 219 
PHiLE,/.Gr. love, 218 
Phileicon, lit. Eng, Gr. loving thought, 

10, 218 
Philetus, m. Am, Gr. love, 219 
Philibert, m. Fr, Teu. will bright, ii. 

Philine,/. Ger. Gr. love, 218 
Philip, m. Eng. Gr. love horses, 29 
Philipp, m. 0-er, Gr. love horses, 187 
Philippa, /. Eng. Gr. love horses, 187 
Philippe, m. Fr. Gr. love horses, 185 
Philippine, /. Ger. Fr, Gr. love horses, 

Phiuppos, m, Gr. loving horses, 185 
Pkilippot, m, Fr. Gr. love horses, 187 
Philippote, f. Fr. Gr. love horses, 187 
Philippus, m. L€U. Gr. love horses, 187 
Philologus, m. Eng. Gr. love the word, 

Philothfee,/. m. Fr. Gr. love God, 218 
Philotheus, m, Eng. Gr. love God, 218 
Philumena, /. Lat. daughter of light, 

Philum^e, /. Lat. daughter of light, 

Phillis,/. Eng. Gr. foliage, 192 
Philon, m. Fr. Gr. love, 218 
Philox4ne, /. Fr. Gr. loving the 

stranger, 186 
Phocas, m. Lat, Gr. Phodan, 418 
Phoebe,/. Eng. Gr. shining, 155 
Phcebus, m. Lat. Gr. shining, 155 
Phokas, m, Gr. Phocian, 418 
Photinee,/. Gr. light, 156 
Photius, m. Gr. light, 155 
Phrankiskos, m. M. Cfr. Teu. free, ii. 

Phroso,/, M. Gr. Gr. mirth, 172 
Phyllis, /. Eng. Gr. green bough, 192 
Pia,/. It. Lat. pious, 400 
Pico, wi. It. Lat, woodpecker, 871 
Picus, m. Lat, woodpecker, 371 
Pie, m. Fr. Lat. pious, 400 
Pier, m. It. Gr. stone, 245 
Pieran, m. Com. Kelt, black, ii. 107 
Pierce, m. Eng. Gr. stone, 246 
Piere, m. 0. Fr. Gr. stone, 245 
Piero, m. It. Gr. stone, 245 
Pieron, m, Fr, Gr. stone, 246 

uigiiized by LjOOQ iC 


Pierot, m. Fr. Chr. stone, 246 
Pierre, m, Fr. Gr. stone, 246 
Pitrrott m, Fr. Gr. stone, 245 
Piers, m. Eng. Gr. stone, 246 
Pie», m. Pol. Gr. stone, 247 
Piet, m. Dutch, Gr. stone, 248 
Pieter, m. Dutch, Gr. stone, 246 
Picti, m. Pol. Gr. stone, 247 
Pietro, m. It. Gr. stone, 245 
Pietruccio, m. /f. Gr. stone, 246 
Piety, /. Eng. Lat. piety, 400 
Pijf m. Ru8i. Lat. pious, 400 
Pikkaff. Lapp. Kelt, strength, ii. 52 
Pikke/f. Lapp. Kelt, strength, ii. 62 
PU./. Esth. Lat. wise old woman, 376 
Pilar,/. Span. Lat. pillar, 81 
Pilgrim, m. Eng. Lat. traveller, 418 
Pimme.f. Esth. Gr. fair fame, 209 
PinCtf. Ger. Gr. loving horses, 187 
Pinna, m. Lapp. Lat blessed, 383 
Pint, m. Lapp. Lat. blessed, 883 
Pinm, m. Ger. Gr. loving horses, 187 
Pio, m. It. Lat. pious, 399 
Piotr, m. Pol. Gr. stone, 246 
Pipin, m. Ger. Teu. father, ii. 262 
Pippa,f. It. Gr. loving horses, 185 
Pippin, m. Dutch, Eng. Tea. father, 

Pippo, m. It. Gr. loving horses, 185, 

Pirket,/. Lapp. Kelt, strength, ii. 61 
Pirimona, m. Maori, Gr. loving thought, 

Pirrit,/. Esth. Kelt strength, iL 62 
Pio, m. It Lat pious, 399 
Pius, m. It. Lat. pious, 399 
^etr, m. Lus. Gr. stone, 247 
Pjetrik, m. Lus, Gr. stone, 247 
Plaxy,f. Com. Gr. active (?), 221 
Plectrude, /. Fr. Teu. Ughtning battle 

Pobjus, m. Lith. Lat. of a bean, 316 
Poldo, m. Slav. Teu. people's prince, ii. 

PoUi, m. Swiss, Lat of the sea, 418 
Polidoro, m. It. Gr. many gifted, 217 
Polieukt, m. Russ. Gr. much desired, 

PoUksen^ja, /. Russ. Gr. much hospi- 

taUty, 217 
PoUy,f. Eng. Heb. bitter, 79 
P6Umia,S* Slov. Gr. of Apollo, 165 
PoUmija,/. Slov. Gr. of ApoUo, 165 
Polyoarp, m. Eng, Gr. much fSroit, 218 

Polydore, m. Eng. Gr. much gifted, 217 
PoLYDORus, m. Lat. Gr. much gifted, 

PoLYEUKTOs, m. Gt. much longed for, 

Polyhymnia, /. Eng. Gr. of many 

hymns, 171 
PoLYKARPOs, m. Gr. much fruit, 218 
Polyksenya, /. Russ. Gr. much hospi- 

taUty, 217 
PoLYXENA,/. Gr. much hospitality, 217 
Polyxfine, /. -Fr. Gr. much hospitalitT, 

Pomp6e, m. Fr. Lat of Pompeii, 323 
Pompeio, m. It. Lat of Pompeii, 323 
PoMPEius, m. Lat of Pompeii, 323 
Pompey, m. Eng. Lat of Pompeii, 823 
Ponce, m. Span. Lat. fifth, 300 
Poncio, m. Rom. Lat. fifth, 300 
Pons, m. Fr. Lat fifth, 300 
Pontius, m. Lat. fifth, 800 
Ponzio, m. It. Lat fifth, 300 
PopLicoLA, m. Lat worshipper of the 

people, 295 
Poppo, m. Ger. Teu. father, ii. 263 
PoRciA,/. Ger. Lat of the pigs, 323 
PoRcius, m. Lat. of the pigs, 323 
Portia,/. Eng. Lat. of the pigs, 323 
Porzia,/. It. Lat of the pigs, 323 
PosTHUMUs, m. Lat the last, 2, 294 
Poto, m. Ger. Teu. commander, ii. 402 
Prancas, m. Lith, Teu. free, ii. 201 
Prascovie, /. Fr. Slav. Good Friday 

child, 436 
Prassede,/. ItaL Gr. active, 221 
Pravdoslav, m. III. Slav, upright glory, 

Pravdoslava, / lU. Slav, upright glory, 

Pravoje, m. lU. Slav, upright gloiy, ii. 

Praxedes,/. Lat. Gr. active, 220 
Prechtl, m. Bav. Teu. bright £une, ii. 

Premislaus, m. Eng. Slav, thoughtftil 

glory, ii. 445 
Preban, m. Dan. Slav. ii. 458 
Predbiom, m. Dan. Slav. ii. 458 
Pribislav, m. 5tov. ii. 453 
l^bislava,/. Slav. ii. 453 
Priczus, m. Lith, Teu. peace ruler, ii. 

Pridrik, m, Lett. Tea. peace role, ii. 



by Google 


P&DCUS, m. Lat first, 297 
PMscnxA, /. Eng. Lat. ancient, 347 
Phisous, m. L€U. ancient, 847 
Priske,/. Ger, Lat. ancient, 347 
Pritsie, /. Eng. Lat. ancient, 347 
PrizzU, TO. Lett, Ten. peace ruler, ii. 

Pbochoros, m. Or, leader of the dance, 

Prochoms, m. Eng. Lat leader of the 

dance, 277 
Pbocopius, m. Lat, Gr. progresdve, 

Prokhor, m. Russ, Gr. leader of the 

dance, 277 
Prokop, TO. Bohm. Gr. progressive, 277 
Prokopy, TO. Ru88. Gr. progressiye, 277 
Proknpek, m. Bohm. Gr. progressive, 

Pbokethxus, ffi. Gr. love thought, 142 
ProeperOy m. It. Lat. prosperous, 397 

Prudence,/. Eng, 400 
pRUDBNTius, TO. Lot. prudent, 400 
Prydat, m. Litt. Ten. peace ruler, ii. 

Prydikis, m. Lith. Ten. peace ruler, ii. 

Pbzemtbl, m. Bo^. Slav. thooghtM, 

2, ii. 445 
Przshtslava, /. Pol. Slav, thoughtfdl 

gloiy, ii. 446 
Psyche, /. to. Gr. soul, ii. 468 
PuBLicoLA, TO. Lat. worshipper of the 

people, 295 
Publicius, TO. Lat. of the people, 295 
Publilius, TO. Lat. of the people, 295 
PuBuus, TO. Lat. of the people, 294 
PoLCHERiA, /. Oer. It. Lat. fair, 405 
Pulcherie,/. Fr, Lat. fair, 405 
PuBVAN, TO. Btdg. Slav, first, ii. 461 
PuBVAKCE, TO. BtUg. Slav, first, ii. 


QuADRATXJS, m. Lot. fourth, 209 
QuABTnrus, to. Lat. fourth, 299 
QuABTUS, TO. Lat. fourth, 299 
Quenburga, /. Eng. Lat. queen pledge, 

Quendrida, /. Eng, Lat queen threat- 

ener, ii. 236 
Quenes, m. Fr. Teu. hold speech, ii. 418 
Quentin, m. Scot. Lat fifth, 300 

Qu^an, TO. Flem. Scot, Kelt black, ii 

Quintianus, to. Lat fifth, 300 
QuiNTiUANUs, TO. Lat. fifth, 300 
QuiNTUS, TO. Lat. fifth, 299 
Quirict to. Fr. Gr. Sunday child, 441 
QuiBiNus, m. Lat. spearman, 372 
Quod-vult-Dbus, to. Lat. what Qod 

wills, 390 


Raadojeb, m. Nor. Tea. spear of £Eune, 

Baadgjerd, /. Nor. Tea. council guard, 

Reuanvndi m* Nor. Tea. council protec- 
tion, ii. 376 , ^ 

Rah, TO. Scot. Teu. bright fisune,' ii. 369 

Rabha, to. FrU. Teu. council com- 
mander, ii. 372 

Rabbe, to. Fri$. Tea. council com- 
mander, ii. 372 

Rahbo, m. Frit. Tea. coandl com- 
mander, iL 372 

Rachel,/. Fr. Eng. Oer. Heb. ewe, 60 

Bachele,/. It. Heb. ewe, 60 

Bachil,/. Rum, Heb. ewe, 60 


Badagaisus, to. Zat. Teu, cooncil 

pledge, ii. 272 
Radak, to. Slav. Slav, joy, ii. 446 
Radan, to. Slav. Slav, joy, ii. 446 
Radbebt, to. Gtr, Teu. council bright, 

ii. 372 
Radbod, to. 6^. Ten. council com- 
mander, ii. 372 
Radboab, to. Lorn, Tea. council spear, 

ii. 372 
Radeoisl, to. Lom. Teu. council pledge, 

Rabeoonde,/. /v. Teu. coundl war, 7, 

Radeounda,/. iS^n. Teu. ooandl war, 



Ji by Google 



Badelohifl, m. Lai, Tea. oouncil pledge, 

Badfried, m. Otr, Tea. oooncil peace, 

Badgand, /. Oer, Tea. coondl war, IL 

BiDDna, m. Slav, joyftil peace, IL 440 
Badinko, m. Slav, joji li* 446 
BadkOi m. Slav, joy, u. 446 
Badman, m. Slav, joy, 11. 446 
BiDifn^ m. Slav, joyfiil love, li. 446 
Badivoj, m. Slav, joyftil war, ii. 446 
Badcjgt m. Slay, jo^^ war, ii. 446 
Badolf, m. Eng, Tea. hoase wolf, IL 

BiDULFUs, m. Lai, Tea. hoase woli^ IL 

BiDosLAY, 111. Slav. joyAU glory, li. 

Bafael, m. Span, Hung, Heb. healing of 

God, 182 
Bafe, m. Eng, Tea. hoase wolf, 11. 

Baffoelle, m. It, Heb. healing of God, 

Baffaello, m. It, Heb. healing of God, 

Bafh, m. Nor, Tea raven, ii. 286 
Bafhulf^ lit. Nor. Tea. raven wolf, n, 

Bagano, m. 0. Oer, Tea. Jadgment, li. 

Baqinbald, m. Oer, Tea. prince of 

jadgment, ii. 879 
Baoinfred, m. Frank, Tea. jadgment 

of peace, ii. 878 
Baginfrida, /. Oer, Tea. jadgment of 

peace, ii. 878 
Baoinhard, m. Frank, Tea. firm jadge, 

Baoinheid, /. Nor, Tea. impolse of 

jastice, ii. 879 ^ 

Baoenheri, m, a. 8, Frank, Tea. war- 
rior of judgment, ii. 877 
BAonvHiLD,/. Frank, Tea. battle maid 

of jadgment, IL 878 
Baoinhold, m, Frank. Tea. jadging 

firmly, ii 378 
Baoinleif, m. Nor, Tea. relic of jadg- 
ment, ii. 879 
Baoinmund, lit. Frank, Tea. judge's 

protection, ii. 876 
Baoikhab, m. Frank. Tea. great jadg. 

ment, IL 878 

Baoinwald, m, Fyank. Tea. jadire niler, 

Baodtwabd, m. Nor, Tea. guardian of 
judgment, IL 879 

Baomab, m. Nor. Tea. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 876 

Baonfbed,/. Nor, Tea. wise Cur one, 11. 

Bagnold, m. Fratik, Tea. wise judge 
ruler, powerfU jadge, 11. 875 

Ragnridtf. Nor. Tea. wise fair one, ii. 

Bahel,/. PoU Heb. ewe, 60 

Kaimond, m. Fr, Tea. judge's protec- 
tion, 11. 876 

Baimondo, m. It, Teu. judge's protec- 
tion, ii. 876 

Baimons, nt. Prov, Teu. council 
strengthening protection, 11. 876 

Bainiald, m. Eng, Teu. power of judg- 
ment, li 874 

Bainardo, m, ItaL Tea. firm judgment, 

Bainart, m. Prov, Teu. firm judgment, 

Bainhard, m. Hung, Teu. firm judg- 
ment, li. 876 

Jiainer, m, Eng. Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, li. 877 

Rainu^f, m, 0, Fr, Teu. wolf of judg- 
ment, 876 

Etynold, m. Pol, Teu. power of judg- 
ment, 11. 876 

Balf, m. Eng. Teu. house wolf, 11. 414 

Balph, m. Eng, Teu. house wolf, 11. 

Bambert, Oer. raven bright, ii 286 

Bamiro, m. Span, Teu. great judge, ii. 

Bamon, m. Span. Teu. judge's protec- 
tion, li. 376 

Bampold, m. raven prince, li 286 

Banfdd, m. Scot, Teu. power of judg- \ 
ment, ii. 876 

Bamusio, m. Span. Teu. raven, li 286 

Bandal, m. Eng, Teu. house wolf, ii 

Randit f. Nor, Ten. wise fur one, li 

Eandid, m. Nor. Teu. wise fur one, ii 

Bandle, m. Eng. Teu. house wolf, li 414 ^ 

Bandolph, m. Eng. Teu. house wolf^ ii. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


BuidTe, m. Nor. Tea. house consecra- 
tion, ii. 414 

Mandoer^ m. iVbr.Ten. house oonseora- 
tkm, ii. 414 

Bahdyid, m. iVbr. Ten. house consecra- 
tion, iL 414 

Ba/Re, /. Not, Ten. warrior of judg- 
ment, iL 878 

Banieri, m, lU Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 378 

Sanmodt /. Nor. Teu. house courage, 

Ranna^f. Lapp, Teu. battle nudd of 
judgment, ii. 378 

RawKmod, m. Nor, Teu. house courage, 

Rawnog, /. Nor, Teu. house liquor, ii. 

J2€MiMtf, m. ^inn. Teu. free, ii. dOl 

Banulf; m. Eng. Teu. house wolf, ii. 

Bakteio,/. m. JVbr. Teu. house liquor, 

Baonmill, m. Erse, Teu. power of judg- 
ment, iL 376 

Baoul, m. ^. Teu. wolf of fkme, ii. 

Baphael, m. Eng, Fr, Oer, Heb. heal- 
ing of God, 132 

Rasche,/. PoL Lat. rose, 421 

RasiOjf, Pol, Lat queen, 81 

Ranru^f. Lith. Lat rose, 431 

Ratine^ f. Pol, Lat queen, 81 

Rod, m, Bav, Gr. amiable, 255 

RatmUt m, Dutch, Gr. amiable, 265 

Ratulf, m. 0. Oer, Teu. council bright, 

Raul, m. Rom. Teu. house wolf, ii. 414 

Rauius, m, Lith, Lat laurel, 367 

Rovelina,/, MerUane, Heb. medicine of 
God, 132 

RaoeUn, m, Eng, Teu. council wolf 

Bavengar, Eng,Tevi. raven spear, iL 286 

Bavenswar, Eng, Teu. raven spear, ii. 

Bajmond, m, Eng, Teu. wise protec- 
tion, ii. 876 

Baynard, m. PoU Teu. firm judgment, 
ii. 376 

Bayner, m. Eng, Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 377 

BAZOOimiK, m. Ru8$, Slay, wise man, 

Bebecca,/. Lot. Heb. noosed cord, 50 

Bebecque, /. Fr, Heb. noosed cord, 60 

Bebekah,/. Eng, Heb. noosed cord, 50 

Bebekke,/. Qer, Heb. noosed cord, 60 

Becaredo, m. Span, Teu. ruling by 
council, ii. 381 

Beohiarius, m. Lot, Teu. ruling an 
army, ii. 381 

Bechilda, /. Lat. Teu. ruling battle 
maid, iL 381 

Bechimiro, m. Span, Teu. ruling fame, 

Becimir, nt. Ooth, Teu. mling fame, ii. 

Bedmond, m. Ir, Teu. council protec- 
tion, iL 371 

Bedwald, m. Eng, Teu. council power, 

Beoina, /. It Oer, Lat queen, 81, ii. 

Beginald, m, Eng. Teu. powerM judg- 
ment, ii. 375 

Beginard, m, Frank, Teu. firm judge, 
ii. 875 

Beginand, m. Fr. Teu. powerful judg- 
ment ii* 375 

Beginbert, m. Oer, Teu. splendour of 
judgment, ii. 370 

Beointao, m. Frank, Teu. judgment 
day, ii. 378 

Beginwart, m. Frank. Teu. guardian 
of judgment ii. 378 

Peglf f, Bav. Lat queen, iL 379 

Regnard, m. Fr, Teu. firm judge, ii. 

Begnault, m. Fr, Teu. power of judg- 
ment iL 376 

Begnier, m. Fr, Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment ii> 378 

Bbqulus, m. Lat. king, 355 

Reichart, m. Oer, Teu. ruling firm- 
ness, ii. 381 

Reigltf. Oer. Teu. queen, ii. 379 

Rein, m, E$th. Teu. power of judgment, 
ii. 374 

Beinaldo, m. Span, power of judg- 
ment ii. 379 

Beinbold, m. Oer. Teu. prince of judg- 
ment, ii. 378 

Beine,/. Fr. Lat queen, 81 

Beiner, m. Oer. Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, iL 378 

Reinette^f. Fr, Lat o 

Beinfrid, m. Oer. T 
ment, iL 378 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


Beingard, m. Ruu. Tecu protection 

of judgment, ii. 878 
Beinger, m. Ger. Ten. spear of judg- 
ment, ii. 3 
Reinhard, wi. Ger. Ten. Ann judge, ii 

Reinhild,/. Ger. Teu. batUe maid of 

judgment, ii. 878 
Eeinmer, m. Ger. Teu. great judgment, 

ii. 378 
Beinhold, m. Ger. Teu. firmness of 

judgment, ii. 378 
Reinis^ m. Lett. Teu. power of judg- 
ment, ii. 375 
JUino, TO. Ger. Teu. power of judg- 
ment, ii. 875 
Reinolf, w. Ger. Teu. wolf of judgment, 

ii. 378 
Beinward, m. Ger. Teu. guard of judg- 
ment, ii. 878 
RekkertSt m. Lett. Teu. spear of fame, 

ii. 867 
Remarkable,/. American 
Bembald, m. Ger. Teu. prince of judg- 
ment, ii. 378 
Rembert, m. Fris. Teu. splendour of 

judgment, ii. 370 
Remi, m. Fr. 
RemmOt m. FrU. Teu. guardian of 

judgment, ii. 879 
Remwardy m. FrU. Teu. guardian of 

judgment, ii. 379 
Renard, m. Fr. Teu. firm judge, iL 876 
Renart, to. Fr. Teu. firm judge, ii. 376 
Renata, /. m. It. Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 877 
Renato, m. It. Ten. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 377 
Renaudy to. Fr. Teu. power of judg- 
ment, ii. 875 
Renauldy to. Fr. Teu. power of judg- 
ment, ii. 876 
Renboldj to. Ger. Teu. prince of judg- 
ment, ii. 878 
Ren6, TO. Fr. Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 877 
Ren^e, /. Fr. Teu. warrior of judg- 
ment, ii. 377 
Ren/red, to. Eng. Teu. judgment of 

peace, ii. 378 
Rennert, m. Fris. Teu. firm judge, ii. 

Rennold, to. Fri$. Teu. power of judg- 
- -t.ii.875 

RetUf m. Ger. Teu. firm judge, ii 376 

Renzo, to. /(. Lat. laurel, 367 

ResXf. Bav. Gr. carrying ears of com, 

RESTiTUTtJS, TO. Lat. restored, 4D0 
Restjn, TO. Welshf Lat. restored, 400 
Reuben, m. Eng. Heb. behold a son, 

Reta^f. Finn. Gr. pearl, 268 
Reynard, to. Bng. Teu. firm judge, ii. 

Reynold, m. Eng. Teu. power of judg- 
ment, ii 375 
Rhesa, TO. Eng. Chal. prince, 106 
Rhoda,/. Eng. Gr. rose, 102, 419 
Rhode,/. Gr. rose, 2, 192 
Rhodeia, /. rosy cheeked, 102 
Rhodopis,/. rosy cheeked, 192 
Rhonwen, /. WeUh, Kelt white skirt, 

Rhydderch, to. WeUhj Kelt. ii. 104 
Rhys, to. Welsh, Kelt, warrior, ii. 150 
Ricardo, to. Port. Teu. stem king, ii. 

Riccardo, m. It. Teu. stem long, ii. 880 
Ricbert, to. Ger. Teu. bright king, iL 

Ricciardetto, m. It. Teu. stem king, ii. 

Ricciardo, m. It. Teu. stem king, iL 

Rice, TO. Bng. Welsh, warrior, ii. 150 
Ricehard, m.A.S. stem king, ii. 380 
Richard, to. Fr. Bng. Teu. stem king, 

ii. 880 
Richenza,/. Ger. Teu. ruling fijmness, 

Richer, m. Ger. Teu. ruling warrior, ii. 

Richila, /. Span. Teu. ruHng battle 

maid, ii. 382 
Richilde, /. Fr. Teu. ruling batde , 

maid, ii. 382 ' 

Richiza,/. Ger. Teu. ruling firmness, ii. 

RiCKOLF, m. Ger. Teu. king wolf; ii. 

Biciberga,/. Span. Teu. ruling guard, 

ii. 382 
Rioimir, m. Lat. Teu. great king, iL 

381 ^ 

Rickel, m.Bav, Teu. noble' raler, ii. 394 
Rictmde, /. Fr. Teu. ruling maid, iL 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Bidolfo, M. lu Ten. fione rnkr, ii. 871 
.RietM, ». FUm, Teo. fair, ii. 196 
Bieuk, w, Bret. Kelt, warrior, ii. 160 
Biffht-about'/aee, m, Eng. 10 
Biganthe,/. O, ¥r, Teo. raUnff war, iL 

SUky in. 2ir«tJk. Tetu raUng firmness, 

u. 381 
Biikert, m. jVetA. Ten. ruling firmness, 

ii. 381 
Sikehen, /. Ger. Ten. peace mler, ii. 

Bike,/. Ger, Ten. peace ruler, ii. 196 
Bikheri, m. O. J^V. Teu. ruling warrior, 

Bikomar, m. Gm". Teu. ruling fame, iL 

Riknlf, m, Ger. Ten. ruling wolf, ii 881 
Bikwaid, m. Ger, Teu. ruling power, ii. 

Binaldo, m. IL Ten. power of judg- 
ment, ii. 875 
Bmnert^m. JVir.Teu. firmness of judg- 
ment, ii. 876 
Biok, m. Bret. Kelt warrior, ii. 160 
Biowal, m. BreL Kelt, lordly, ii 148 
Bita,f. lu Gr. pearl 268 
^ BiUhie, m. Scot. Teu. ruling firmness, 

Boald, m. Nor. Teu. fiunous power, ii. 

Boar^ m. Nor. Teu. spear of fame, ii. 
. 866 

Boh, m. Scot. Teu. bright fame, ii. 869 
^Bobbie, m. Scot. Teu. bright fkme, ii. 

Bohen, m. Fr. Teu. bright fame, ii. 869 
Bobert, m. Eng. Fr. Teu. bright fame, 

Boberto, m. Ital. Teu- bright fame, ii. 

Bobin^ m. Fr. Eng. Teu. bright fame, 
^ ii. 869 
Bobina, f. Scot. Teu. bright fame, ii. 

Bobinett m. Fr. Teu. fame bright^ ii 

BoCy TO. Fr. 


Bach, TO. Fr. Ger. 

Boderic, m. Fr. Teu. fiamous king, ii. 

Boderich,TO. Ger. Teu. fiimous king, ii. 


Boderiek, to. Eng. Teu. &mous king, 

ii. 104. 870 
Bodolf, TO. Ger. Teu. wolf of fiune, ii. 

Bodolfo, TO. lU Teu. wolf of fame, ii. 

Bodolph, TO. Eng. Teu. wolf of fkme, 

Bodolphe, to. Fr. Teu. wolf of fkme, 

Bodri, TO. Welsh, Teu. fiEunous king, ii. 

Bodrigo, TO. Span. Port. Teu. famous 

king, ii 870 
Bodrigue, m. Fr. Ten. famous king, 870 
Bodulfo, Span, wolf of fame, ii. 307 
Boese,/. Eng. Teu. fame, 420 
Boesia,/. Eng. Teu. fame, 420 
Boger, TO. Eng. Teu. spear of fkme, ii. 

Bogero, to. It. Teu. spear of fame, ii. 

Bogier, to. Neth. Teu. spear of flume, 

ii. 366 
Bognwald, to. Nor. Teu. power of judg- 

ment, ii. 375 
Bohais,/. Eng. Teu. fkme, 420 
Rohlop$, TO. Lett. Teu. wolf of fame, 

ii. 367 
Boibin, to. Erse, Teu. bright fame, ii. 

Bok, TO. III. Teu. 
Bokus, TO. Hung. 
Boeland, to. Neth. Teu. fame of the 

land, ii. 864 
Boland, to. Ir. Eng. Teu. fame of the 

land, ii. 861 
Bolando, to. Port. Teu. fame of the 

land, ii. 364 
Boldan, to. Span. Teu. fame of the 

land, ii. 362 
Boldao, TO. Port. Teu. fame of the land, 

ii 364 
Rolf, TO. Ger. Teu. wolf of fiime,ii. 867 
BoUang, to. Nor. Teu. famous liquor, 

ii. 363 
Bolleik, TO. Nor. Teu. famous sport, ii. 

Bolph, TO. Eng. Teu. wolf of fame, ii. 

BoUo, TO. Lat. Teu. wolf of fame, ii. 

Bolv, TO. Nor. Teu. wolf of fiune, ii. 



by Google 



Romain, m. Fr. Lat. Boman, 374 
Bomano, m. It, Lat. Boman, 374 
Boman, m. Slav, Lat. Boman, 374 
BoMANUs, m. Lat. Boman, 374 
Bomao, m. Port, Lat. Boman, 874 
Bomeo, m. /tai. Tea. fame, 374 
Bomola,/. /toZ. Lat. fame (?), 378 
Bomolo, m, Ital, Lat. fame (?), 373 
BoMUALD, f». Fr, Ten. famed power, 

BoMUAiDo, m. /t. Teu, fiuned power, 

BoMULUs, m. Zat. fame (?), 878 
^Bonald, m. Scot, judge power, ii. 876 
^ Bonan, m. Scot. Kelt seal (?), ii. 97 
Bonat,/. Er#c, Kelt seal (?), iL 97 
BoNooLFB, m. Nor, Teu. house wolf, ii. 

Ronnantf, house liquor, ii. 414 
Boxy, m. Jr. Kelt, red, ii. 104 
BosA./. /t. Span. Lat. rose, 420, ii. 270 
Bosabel,/. £71^. Lat. rose fair, 421 
Bosaclara,/. Eng, Lat. rose clear, 421 ~" 
Bosalba,/. It, Lat. rose white, 421 
Bosalbe,/. Fr, Lat. rose white, 421 
Bosalia,/. It. Lat rose, 420 
Bosalie, /. Ger. Fr. Eng. Lat rose, 

Bosalba,/. Rim. Lat. rose, 420 
Bosalind, /. Eng, Teu. fiune serpent, 

Bosaline, /. Eng, Teu. famed serpent, 

Bosamond,/. Eng. Teu. famed protec- 
tion, 421, ii. 279 
Bosamunda, /. It. Span. Teu. fiEuned 

protection, 421 
Bosamunde, /. Oer. Teu. famed protec- 
tion, 421 
Bosanne, /. Eng, Lat rose, 421 
Bosaura,/. It. Lat rose, 421 
Eoichana, /. Fere, Zend, dawn of day, 

Boschen,/. Ger. Lat. rose, 421 
BosoBAMA, /. Gael. Kelt rose bush, ii 

Bose./. Eng. Lat rose, 2, 420 
Bosel,/. Swits,Ten. rose, 420 
Boseli,/. Swiss, Teu. rose, 420 
Bosemonde, /. Fr. Teu. filmed protec- 
tion, 422 
Boseta, /. Port. Lat. rose, 421 
Bosetta,/. It. Lat. rose, 421 
Bosette,/. JPr. Lat rose, 421 

RosHiLDA, /. Ger. Teu. &med battle 

maid, 421 
Bosi, /. Swiss, Lat. rose, 420 
Bosia,/. Ay. Teu. fkme, 420 
Bosilde,/. Ger. Teu. horse battle maid» 

421, iL 279 
Hosimonda,/. It. Teu. horse protection, 

421, iL 279 
Rosina, /. Eng. It. Lat rose, 421 
Bosine,/. Fr. Ger. Lat. rose, 421 
Bosita, /. Span, Lat rose, 421 
BossKETTL, horse kettle, ii. 279 
Bosskjell, horse kettle, ii. 279 
Bosmer, m. Dan. Teu. sea horse, iL 

Bosmund, /. Oer, Tea. horse protec- 
tion, ii. 279 
Bospert, bright horse, ii. 279 
Bostiophus, m. Lat. Teu. horse thief^ 

ii. 279 
BosTisiiAY, III. Slav, increasing fiune, iL 

Boswald, f». Scot. Teu. horse power, iL 

Boswald, m. Dan. Teu. horse power, ii. 

Boswida, /. Oer. Teu. horse strongth, 

BoswiTH,/. Frank, Teu. horse strength, 

Bota, m. Maori, Heb. 10 
Rotholf, m. Fris. Teu. fiuned wolf, ii. 

Rotija,f. m. Gr. gift of God, 231 
Rottgers, m, Oer, Teu. famed spear, ii. 

Botlandus, m, Lat. Teu. fame of the 

country, ii. 361 
Rou, m. Fr. Teu. wolf of fiEune, iL 

Rovl, m. Fr. Tea. wolf of fame, ii. 

Bowena, /. Eng, Kelt white skirt, ii. 

Bowland, m. Eng, Teu. fame of the 

land, ii. 146, 860 
Roxana,/. Pers, Fr. dawn of day, 140 
Roy, m, Scot. Kelt red, ii. 104 
Boza,/. Pol. Lat. rose, 421 
Bozalia, /. Pol. Lat rose, 421 
Bozal^a, /. Slav. Lat rose, 421 
Bozer, m. Buss, Teu. famed spear, ii. 

Bozia,/. Pol. Lat rose, 431 

Digitizea uy -^wJv^vJ 




Bozina,/. Slav. Bohm. Lat. rose, 421 
Satsi, /. Hung, Lat. rose, 421 
Bozyna,/. PoL Lat. rose, 421 
Buadh, m. Erte, Kelt. i«cU 2, 853, ii. 

Buadii, m. Gael Kelt, red, ii 104 
RuADRioH, m. GodboeZ. Kelt red, ii. 

Baaridh, m. (?a«2. Kelt. 104 
Budbert, m. Oer, Ten. bright fiaone, ii. 

Baben, m. G^. Heb. behold a son, 15 
Bubert, m. It. Tea. bright fame, ii. 

Bodhard, m. 0^. Tea. famed firm- 
ness, ii. 865 
Bodiger, m, Oer, Tea. fiEuned spear, ii. 

Bodland, m. Oer, Tea. fiune of the 

land, ii. 864 
Badolf, TO. Oer. Tea. wolf of flune, ii. 

BuDOLPHX, TO. Ft, Tea. wolf of fame, 

ii. 367 
Badolphine,/. 6^. Tea. wolf of fame, 

ii. 367 
JRuedit TO. Stpiti, Tea. wolf of fame, ii 

SuedUf TO. Swiu, Tea. wolf of fiEune, ii. 

BuEDOLF, TO. Bav, Tea. wolf of fame, 

Boffo.TO. It. Lat. red, 858 
Baffin, TO. Fr. Lat red, 853 
BuFiNA,/. It, Lat red, 858 
Bofine,/. Fr. Lat. red, 358 
Bafino, TO. /e. Lat. red, 853 
BuFOTDs, TO. Oer, Lat red, 858 
BuFUs, TO. Am, Lat. red, 853 

BaggerOy to. It, Tea. funed spear, ii 

Baggiero, m. /£. Tea. famed spear, ii 

Rule, TO. Scot, Lat king, 355 
Baland, to. Oer. Tea. fame of the land, 

ii. 369 
Ruleff TO. FrU, Tea. wolf of fame, ii 

Mulf, TO. Oer. Tea. wolf of fame, ii 

Rulvesy TO. Fris. Tea. wolf of fame, ii. 

Rumilde, f. Oer, Tea. famed batUe 

maid, ii 371 
Bapert, to. Oer. Eng, Tea. bright fame, 

Baperto, to. It, Tea. bright fame, ii. 

Baprat, to. Slav. Tea. bright fiune, ii. 

Bnpreoht, to. Oer. Tea. bright fiune, ii 

Barik, to. Rvu. Tea. fiEuned rale, ii. 

Batger, to. Neth. Tea. spear of fame, 

Bath,/. Eng. Heb. beauty, 100 
Rv/y, TO. Span. Tea. famed rale, ii. 

Bazalia,/. IM. Lat. rose, 420 
Byoolf; TO. Fris. Tea. ruling wolf, ii 881 
Bydygier, to. Pol, Tea. spear of fame, 

ii. 868 
Bykert, to. Dutchy Tea. stem king, ii. 

Byklof, TO. Fris. Tea. ruling wolf, ii 381 
Ryszard, m, Pol. Tea. stem king, ii. 



Sabas, to. Oer. Heb. rest (?), 439 

Sabee, m. Buss. Heb. rest (?), 489 
Sabina,/. It. Eng. Lat Sabine, 347 
Sabine,/. Oer. Fr. Lat Sabine, 347 
Sabctus, to. liit Sabine, 347 
Sabrina, /. Eng. the Severn, 347 

8acha,f. Russ. Gr. helper of men, 202 
Saehar, to. Russ. Heb. remembrance of 
the Lord, 124 

Sachar^a, to. Russ. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Sadof, TO. Russ. Pers. (?), ii. 461 
Sadovit, TO. m. Slav, fhiitftil 
Sadhbh,/. Erse, Kelt 48 
Sadwm, to. Welsh, Lat of Saturn, 

Saerbrethaoh, to. J^rse, Kelt noble 

judge, 399 
Sahert, to. A.S, Tea. conquering 

brightness, ii 809 

uigiiized by VjOOQ IC 


Samund, m, A. 8, oonqnering protec- 
tion, ii. 809 
8<moaldj conquering power, ii. 809 
Scewardf conquering protection, ii. 809 
8aji,f. Dan. Gr. wwdom, 243 
8aher, m. Ena. Ten. conquering army, 

ii. 810 
8ahlke,f. Oer, Lat. rose, 420 
Sakaria, m. III. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Sakchej, m. Russ. Heb. remembrance 

ofthe Lord, 124 
Sakerlf m. Dan. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Sakkarias, m. Esth. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Sakse, m. Nor. Teu. rock, ii. 248 ^ 
Sal,/. Eng. Heb. princess, 48 
Salamans, m. Lett. Heb. peaceful, 117 
Salamao,/. Port. Heb. peaceful, 117 
Salamon, m, Fr. Hung. Heb. peaceful, 

Salaun, m. Bret. Heb. peaceful, 117 
8aUytf. Eng. Heb. princess, 48 
Salomao,/. m. Fr. Port. Heb. peaceful, 

Salomaun, m. Bohm. Heb. peaceful 

Salome,/. Eng. Russ. Oer. Heb. peace- 
ful, 117 
Salomea,/. PoL Heb. peaceful, 117 
Salomee,/. Fr. Heb. peaceful, 117 
Salomeli, f. m. Swiss, Heb. peaceM, 

Salomo, m. Oer. Heb. peacefVil, 117 
Salomone, m. Ital. Heb. peaceful, 117 
Salvador, m. Span. Lat. saviour, 400 
Salvatore, m. Ital. Lat. saviour, 400 
Salvestro, m. Ital. Lat. woody, 877 
Sam, m. Eng. Heb. asked of God, 60 
Samel, m. Esth. Heb. asked of God, 60 
SameU, m. Siviss, Heb. asked of God, 

Sammel, m. Swiss, Heb. asked of God, 

Sampson, m. Eng. Heb. splendid sun, 

Samsao, m. Port. Heb. splendid sun, 

Samson, m. Eng. Oer, Heb. splendid 

sun, 100 
Samuel, m. Oer. Eng. Fr. Heb. asked 

of God, 60 
Samuele, m. It. Heb. asked of God, 60 

Samuil, m. Wall. Heb. asked of God, 60 
Samuls, m. Lett. Heb. asked of God, 60 
Sancha,/. Span. Lat. holy, 369 
Sanchica,/. m. Span. Lat. holy, 369 
Sanche,/. Fr. Lat. holy, 369 
Sancho, m. Span. Lat. holy, 369 
Sancia,/. Oer. Lat. holy, 369 
Sancie,/. Fr. Lat. holy, 369 
Sancto, m. It. Lat. holy, 869 
Sanctus, m, Lat. holy, 869 
Sanders, m, Lett. Gr. helper of men, 

Sandor, m. Hung. Gr. helper of men, 

Sandrl,/. Bav. Heb. lily, 122 
Sandro, m. ItaL Gr. helper of men, 

Sandy, m. Scot. Gr. helper of men, 

Sam, m. Eng. Heb. asked of God, 60 
Sanerl,/. Bav. Heb. lily, 122 
Sanne,/. Dutch, Heb. lily, 122 
Sanson, Fr. Heb. splendid sun, 100 
Sansone, It. Heb. splendid sun, 100 
Santerl, m. Bav. Gr. gold flower, 274 
Santiago, m. Span. Lat. Heb. holy 

James, 54 
San^e,/. Dutch, Heb. lily, 122 
Santo, m. Rom. Lat. holy, 369 
Santos, m. Span. Lat. the saints, 445 
Sanzio, m. Ital. Lat. holy, 869 
Sapor, m. Gr. Zend, venerable king, 

Sapphebo,/. M. Or. Gr. sapphire, 273 
Sappi,/. Lith. Gr. wisdom^ 243 
Sara, / Fr. Hung. III. Oer. It. Heb. 

princess, 48 
Sarah,/. Eng. Heb. princess, 48 
Sarai,/. Eng. Heb. quarrelsome, 48 
Saraid,/. Erse, Kelt, excellent, 48 
8are,f, Fr. Heb. princess, 48 
Sari,/. Hung. Heb. princess, 48 
Sarica, f. uwng. Heb. princess, 48 
Sarotte,/. Fr. Heb. princess, 48 
Sarra,/. WalL Heb. princess 
Sasan, m. Zend, venerable king, 188 
Sasze, m. Fris. Gr. Christian, 240 
Sativola,/. Lat. Kelt. ii. 161 
Satubninub, to. Lat. of Saturn, 876 
Saul, m. Eng. Heb. longed for, 18 
Saunders, m. Scot. Gr. helper of men, 

Sava, m. Russ. Heb. rest (?), 489 
Saver^, m. /2Z. Arabic, bright, ii 200 

:ea dv "".wJ v^v_/ 



Savero, m. It. Arab, bright, ii. 200 
^Sawney J m. Scot Gr. helper of men, 

Saxo, m. Lot. Teu. pock, ii. 248J 
Sayer^ m. Eng. Teu. conquering army, 

ii. 310 
Scezpan, Lus. Gr. courage, 226 
Seezepan, Pol. Gr. courage, 226 
ScheUuf, m. Nor. Teu. shield wolf^ ii. 

Sckmui, m, Ger, Heb. asked of God, 60 
ScHouLSTiCA,/. Eng. Lat. scholar, 324 
Scholastike,/. Ger. Lat. scholar, 384 
Scholastique,/. Fr, Lat scholar, 384 
Schombely m. Lus. Heb. asked of God, 

ScHWANHiLDE, GtT. Teu. swau maid, 

ii. 288 
ScHWANBEBOE, Ger. Teu. swan protec- 
tion, ii. 288 
Schymankj m. Lus. Heb. obedient, 

Sef^/manz, m. Lus. Heb. obedient, 59 ^"Selma,/. Scof. Kelt fair (?) 

Science,/. Bng. Lat science, 870 
SciENTiA, /. Eng. Lat. science, 370 
SciPio, m. Eng. Lat staff, 348 
Scipion, m. Fr. Lat staff, 848 
Scipione, m. It. Lat. staff, 348 
ScROFA, m. Lat pig, 324 
Seachnall, m. Ir. Lat second, 125, 298 
Seabert m. Eng. Teu. conquering 

brightness, ii. 309 
Seaforth, m. £71^. Teu. conquering 

peace, ii. 808 
Skai^flaith,/. Erse, Kelt lady of pos- 
sessions, ii. 113 
Sealbeiach, m. rich, ii. 113 
Searlus, m. Erse, Teu. man, ii. 357 
Seaxbald, m. A. S. Teu. rock bold, ii. 

Seaxbert, m, A. S. Teu. rock bright, 

Seaxburh, /. A. S. Teu. rock pledge, 

u. 248 
Seaward, /. m. Eng. Teu. conquering 

guardian, ii. 808 
Sfbald, m. Ger. Fr. Teu. conquering 

-valour, ii. 809 
Sebastian, /. m, Ger. Eng. Span. Gr. 

yenerable, 251 
{^ebastiana, /. It. Gr. venerable, 258 
^bastiane, /. Ger. Gr. venerable, 258 
Mebastiano, fit. It. Gr. venerable, 252 
jISebastianus, m. Lat. Gr. venerable, 
^ 261 

Sebastiao, m. Port. Gr. venerable, 252 
Sebastien, m. Fr, Gr. venerable, 252 
Sebastienne, /. Fr. Gr. venerable, 258 
Sebastyan, m. Pol. Gr. venerable, 252 
Sebesta,/. Bohm. Gr. venerable, 263 
Sebestyen, m. Hung. Gr. venerable, 252 
Sebila, /. Span. Lat. wise old woman, 

Secundus, m. Lat. second, 126, 297 
Sedecias, m. Lat. Heb. justice of the 

Lord, 120 
Seemeon, m. Russ. Heb. obedient, 69 
Sefa^f. Swiss, Heb. addition, 69 
Seifred, m. Oer. Teu. oonqueriag peace, 

ii. 308 
Selbflaith, /. Erse, Kelt lady of pos- 
sessions, 375 
Selima,/. Arab. Heb. peace, 118 
SeHna,/. Eng. Gr. moon, 159, 312 
Seiinde,/. Ger. Teu. conquering snake, 

^elvach, m. Scot. Kelt, rich in catue, 

ii. 113 
Selvaggia,/. Ital. Lat wild, 377 
Selvaggio, m. It. Lat wild, 377 
Seoin, m. Erse, Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Seorgi, m. Erse, Grr. husbandman, 258 
Seph, m. Bav. Heb. addition, 69 
Sepherl, m. Bav. Heb. addition, 69 
Sepp, m. Swiss, Bav. Heb. addition, 69 
Seppeli, f. Swiss, Heb. addition, 69 
S^^, m. Swiss, Heb. addition, 69 
Seppli, m. Suriss, Heb. addition, 69 
Septime, m. Fr. Lat seventh, 301 
Septimia, /. Eng. Lat. seventh, 301 
Septimus, m. Eng. Lat. seventh, 301 
Serafina, /. Span. It. Heb. seraph, 129 
Serafino, m. Span. It. Heb. seraph, 129 
Seraphine, Fr. Heb. seraph, 129 
Serena, Dan. Eng. Lat. serene, 348, ii. 

Serene, /. Fr. Oer. Lat serene, 348 
Serge, m. Fr. 325 
Sergio, m. Lorn. 825 
Seroius, m. Lat. 325 
Serlo, m. Norseman, Teu. armour, ii. 

Sersa, m. III. Zend, venerable king, 139 
Seth, m. Eng. Heb. appoiated, 42 
Seumuis, m. Erse, Heb. supplanted, 57 
SeviUa, /. Spwn. Lat. wise old woman, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Sextus, m. Eng, Lat sixth, 300 

Shapoob, m. Pen. Zend, venerable 
king, 188 

8hawarUe'Ja$»anT Bed Indian, fierce 
wolf, 182 

Shawn, m. Ir. Heb* grace of the Lord, 
_Sheelah./. Ir, Lat blind (?), 312 

^holto, m. ScoU Kelt, sower (?), ii. 103 

Siade, m. Frie. conquering firmness, ii. 

Siard, m. Fri$, Ten. conquering firm- 
ness, ii, 311 

8ib,f. Ir, Lat. wise old woman, 875 

SibbcUdt m. Eng, Ten. conquering 
prince, ii. 810 

Siibaldo, m. It. Tea. conquering 
prince, ii. 310 

Sibbe, m. Ger. Ten. conquering com- 
mander, ii. 810 

Sibbel, m. Eng. Lat wise old woman, 

Sibbem, m. FrU. Ten. conquering bear, 
""^ Sibbie, /. Scot. Lat wise old woman^ 

Sibel, m. Frit. Teu. conquering 
prince, ii. 360 

Sibella, /. Eng. Lat. wise old woman, 

Siber, f. Nor, Teu. conquering pro- 
tection, ii. 310 

Sibertt m. Frit. Teu. conquering 
brightness, ii. 309 

Sibila, f. It. Lat wise old woman, 375 

Sibilla,/. It. Lat wise old woman, 876 

Sibille,/. Fr. Lat. wise old woman, 376 

Sibo, m. Frit, Teu. conquering mes- 
senger, ii. 810 

Sibod, m. Frit, Tea. conquering mes- 
senger, ii. 810 

Sibold, m. Frit. Tea. conquering 
prince, ii. 310 

Siborg^ f. Nor. Teu, conquering pro- 
tection, ii. 810 

Sibrand, m. Frit. Teu. conquering 
sword, 310 

Sibyl,/. Eng. Lat. wise old woman, 875 

Sibylla, /. Eng. Lat wise old woman, 

Sibylle, /. Ger. Fr, Lat wise old wo- 
man, 876 

Siccardj m. Fr. Teu. conquering firm- 
ness, iL 811 

Siccoy m. Nor. Teu. conquering peace, 

ii. 808 
Sichelgaita, /. It. Teu. Sicilian goat, iL 

Sidboltf m. Frit. Teu. conquering 

prince, ii. 310 
Siddet m. Frit. Teu. conquering bright- 
ness, ii. 309 
Siddert, m. Lith. Lat. beloved, 891 
Sidoine, m. Fr. Lat of Sidon, 412 
SiDONiA,/. fit. It. Lat of Sidon, 412 
Sidonie, /. Ger. Fr. Lat of Sidon, 

Sidwell, /. Eng. Kelt ii. 161 
SisoNius, m. Lat. of Sidon, 412 
Siegfried, m. Ger. Teu. conquering 

peace, ii. 808 
Siegmundf m. Ger. Teu. conquering 

protection, ii. 809 
l^em, m. 8. Ger. Heb. obedient 59 
Siiwart, m. Nor, Teu. conquering 

peace, ii. 808 
Siffredo, m. It, Teu. conquering peace, 

li. 808 . 
Sifjroiy m. Fr. Teu. conquering peace, 

SioBALD, m. Ger. Teu. conquering 

prince, ii. 809 
SiGBEBT, m. Ger, Teu. conquering 

brightness, ii. 309 
SiOBOD, m. Ger. Teu. conquering com- 
mander, ii. 309 
SioBioBG, /. Nor. Teu. conquering pro- 
tection, ii. 810 
SiGBBAND, m. Ger. Teu. conquering 

sword, ii. 810 
SiGEBALD, m. A. S. Teu. conquering 

prince, ii. 810 
SioEBEBo, m. Frank. Teu. conquering 

brightness, ii. 810 
SiOEBUBOE, /. Ger. conquering protee- 

tion, ii. 310 
SiOEFBED, m. A. 8, Tea. oonqueiing ' 

peace, ii. 308 
Sigefredo, m, Ital. Teu. conquering 

peace, ii. 808 
Sigfreda, /. Ger. Teu. conqueri^ 

peace, ii. 808 
Sigefix)i, w. Fr. Teu. conquerin| 

peace, ii. 808 
SioEHABD, m. A. 8. Teu. conquering 

firmness, ii. 808 ^ 

SiOEHELM, m. Ger, Teu. conquerin<' 

helmet, ii. 811 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



SiosHKRi, m. A, S, Tea. conqaering 
warrior, ii. 810 

SioKUMBf/.Ger. Tea. conqaering snake, 

SioxwoLF, m. A, S. conqaering wolf, ii. 

Sigfirid, m. Ger. Tea. conqaering peace 

Sigftida,/. Oer, Tea. conquering peace, 

SioFUB, fit. Nor, Tea. conqaering zeal, 
iL 311 

Sighar, m. Oer, Tea. conqaering war- 
rior, iL 810 

Sig^ard, m. Oer. Tea. conqaering 
firmness, ii. 811 

SioHSLM, m. (?«r. Tea. conqaering 
helmet, ii. 811 

Sigher, m. Ger, Tea. conqaering war- 
rior, ii. 811 

Sigismondy m. Fr, Tea. conqaering 
protection, ii. 809 

Sigismonda,/. Spaiu It, Tea. conqaer- 
ing protection, ii. 809 

Sigiamondo, m. It. Tea. conqaering 
protection, iL 309 

Sigismand, m. Eng. Tea. conqaering 
protection, ii. 309 

Sigismanda, /. Eng, Tea. conquering 
protection, ii. 809 

Sigismundo, m. Port. Tea. conqaering 
protection, ii. 309 

8U:ko, m, Ger, Tea. conqaering peace, 
ii. dOd 

Sigl, m. Bav. Tea. conqaering peace, 

Siglind,/. Ger. Tea. conquering snake, 

Sigmar, m. Oer. Tea. conqaering fame, 

Sigmond, m. Ger. Tea. conqaering pro- 
tection, ii. 809 

Sigmunda,/. Ger, Tea. conqaering pro- 
tection, iL 809 

SioMUKDB, m. Nor, Tea. conqaering 
protection, ii. 809 

8igo, m, Oer. Tea. conqaering, ii. 808 

Sigrad, m. Ger. Tea. conquering coun- 
cil, ii. 811 

SioKiDUB, /. Nor. Tea. conqaering im- 
pulse, ii. 810 

Sigrada,/. Ger. Tea. conquering coun- 
cil, iL 811 

Sigri,/. Nor, Tea. conqaering impulse, 

Sigrich, m. Oer. Tea. conqaering role, 

li. 311 
Sigrid,/. Nor. Tea. conqaering coun- 
cil, 348 
Sigtrud,/. Nor. Teu. conquering maid, 

ii. 811 
SiOTBYOoE, m. N(yr. conquering secu- 
rity, ii. 811 
Sigufrit, w. Ger. Tea. conquering 

SigvJiS^ m. Nor. Teu. conquering woUi 

Sigurd, m. Nor. Teu. conquering guard, 

ii. 306 
SioyiLLDR, m Nor. Teu. conquering 

power, ii. 810 
Sigvor, m. Nor. Tea. conquering pru- 
dence, ii. 81d 
Sigwald, m. Ger. Teu. conquering 

power, ii. 810 
SiowABD, M. Ger. Ten. conquering 

gnard, ii. 800 
Silas, m. Eng. Lat. living in a wood, 

Silvain, wi. Fr. Lat living in a wood, 

Silvano, m. It. Lat. living in a wood, 

SiLVxsTEB, m. Eng. Lat. living in a 
• wood, 876 
Silvestre, m. Fr. Lat. living in a wood, 

Silvia, /. It. Lat. living in a wood, 876 
Silvie,/. Fr, Lat living in a wood, 876 
Silvio, m. It, Lat living in a wood, 376 
Sinif m. Eng. Heb. obedient, 59 
SiMAiTH, m, Kelt peaceful, 116 
Simanas, m. Lett. Heb. obedient, 69 
Simao, m. Port, Heb. obedient, 69 
Simej, m. lU. Heb. obedient, 60 
SiM«ON, m. Eng. Ger. Fr. Heb. obe- 
dient, 15, 69 
Simnuut m, Lith. Heb. obedient, 59 
Simot m, lU. Heb. obedient, 69 
Simon, m. Fr. Eng. Ger. Span. Heb. 

obedient, 69 
Simonas, m. Lett. Heb. obedient, 69 
Simone, m. It. Heb. obedient, 69 
SimonetU,/. Fr. Heb. obedient, 69 
Simson, m. Fr. Heb. splendid sun, 100 
Simo, fit. HI. Heb. obedient, 59 
SiMDBALD, m. Ger. Teu. sparkling 
prince (?), iL 846 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Snn>BEBT, m. Qer, Teu. sparkling 
bright (?), ii. 846 

SiNDOLF, m. Ger. Teu. sparkling wolf 
(?), ii. 846 

SiNDRAM, m. Ger. Teu. sparkling raven 
(?). ii. 346 

Sing, m. Hind, lion, 179 

Sinibaldo, m. It. Teu. sparkling prince 
(?), ii. 346 

Sinovijt m. Ru$s. Arab, father's orna- 
ment, 149 

Sinovija^ /. Muss. Arab, father's orna- 
ment, 149 

Sintram, to. Ger. Teu. sparkling raven, 
U. 846 

SioLTiACH, m. Gael. Kelt sower, ii. 103 

8ippt m. Bav. Heb. addition, 69 

Stred^ f. Norman, Teu. conquering im- 
pulse, ii. 810 

Siriy f. Nor. Teu. conquering impulse, 
848. ii. 310 

SiRosLAv, m. Slav. Slav, fax famed, iL 

Siseberto, m. Span. Teu. conquering 
brightness, ii. 809 

Sisebuto, m. Span. Teu. conquering 
commander, ii. 309 

Sisyf. Eng. Lat blind, 311 

SUUy, f. Eng. Lat blind, 811 

Sismany m. III. Teu. conquering pro- 
tection, ii. 809 

Sismonde, m. It. Teu. conquering pro- 
tection, ii. 809 

Sisto, m. It. Lat sixth, 800 

SittOy TO. Fries. Teu. conquering bright- 
ness, ii. 309 

Siurd, TO. Nor. Teu. conquering guard, 
ii. 808 

SixUf, TO. Nor. Teu. conquering wolf, ii. 

Siward, to. Eng. Teu. conquering 
guardian, ii. 308 

Sixte, TO. Fr. Lat. sixth, 800 

SixTus, TO. Eng. Lat. sixth, 800 

Sizoy TO. Ger. Teu. conquering bright- 
ness, ii. 809 

Sjovaldy TO. Nor, Teu. conquering 
power, ii 810 

Sjovary m. Nor. Teu. conquering pru- 
dence, ii. 310 

Sjuly TO. Nor. Teu. conquering guard, 
ii. 310 

Sijurdy TO. Nor. Teu. conquering guard, 
ii. 309 

Skaky TO. Nor. Teu. servant 
Skarphedinn, Nor. Teu. sharp attack, 

Skeqo, to. Nor. Teu. beard, ii. 424 
SkeUumy to. Kaffir, Dutch, rascal, 10 
Skendery m. Slav, helper of man, 202 
SkersU, to. Lett. Gr. Christian, 240 
SkersUy to. Lett. Gr. Chrisdau, 240 
Skialde, to. Nor. Teu. shield, ii. 299 
Skiolde, to. Nor. Teu. shield, ii. 299 
Skioldbiobn, m. Nor, Teu. shield bear, 

ii. 299 
Skioldulf, to. Nor. Teu. shield wolf, 

ii. 299 
Skioldvar, to. Nor. Teu. shield cau- 
tion, ii. 299 
Sklear, to. Bret. Lat famous, 886 
Skleara,/. Bret. Lat famous, 886 
Skuldr,/. N(yr. Teu. shall, ii. 216 
SkuUy TO. Nor. Teu. shield, ii. 299 
Slavqjey TO. Slav. Slav, glorious love, 

ii. 488 
Slavofjub, to. Slav. Slav, glorious love, 

ii. 488 
Slavomil, to. Slav. Slav, glorious 

friend, ii. 438 
Slavomir, to. Slav. Slav, glorious 

peace, ii. 488 
Smaragda, /. M. Or. Gr. emerald, 273 
Smaragdos, m. M. Ger. Gr. emerald, 278 
Smily TO. Slav. Slave, beloved, ii. 464 
Smiljan, TO. Slav. Slave, everlasting 

flower, ii. 441 
Smiljana, /. Slav. Slav, everlasting 

flower, 2, ii. 441 
Smoljah, to. IU. Slav, long nosed, ii. 

Smouana,/. I/Z. Slav, long nosed, ii. 466 
Sn^biorn, to. Nor. Teu. snow bear, ii. 

SN-fiFRED, /. Nor. Teu. snow fair, ii. 298 
Sn^elaug, /. TO. Nor. Teu. snow ocean, 

ii. 293 
Sn£ulf, to. Nor. Teu. snow wolf, ii. 293 
Snorre, to. Nor. Teu. striving, ii. 410 
Snorro, to. Lat. Teu. striving, ii. 410 
Sodomina, /. £rw, Kelt, good lady, ii. 

Sofiayf. Hung. It. Gr. wisdom, 244 
SoL, /. Span. Nor, Teu. sun 
SolUy TO. Nor. Teu. armour, ii. 299 
Soloma, /. Eng. Heb. peace, 1 17 
S51mund, to. Dan. Teu. healing pro- 
tection, iL 800 

uigmzea oy ^OOglC 


SokMBon, m. Eng. Heb. peftoefal, 116 
Solrm, /. Nor. Ten. hedmg drink, iL 

Sobfor, healthy wanrior, ii. 300 
SoLTS, m. Dan, Tea. healthy warrior, iL 

SoLYEie,/. M. NcT, Tea. healing drink, 
X it 800 

Samerled, m. ScoU Tea. sammer wan- 
derer, iL 432 
Somhle, m. ChuL Tea. gonuner wan- 
derer, iL 432 
Sophia,/. Eng. Gr. wisdom, 243 
Sophie,/. Ft, Ger. Gr. wisdom, 243 
Sophocles, nt. Lett. Gr. wise &me, 244 
Sophonisba,/. Eng, PhcBn. 244 
SopHBOH, m. Eng, Gr. of sound mind, 

SopHBONiA, /. Eng, Gr. of sound mind, 

Sopkg,/, Eng, Gr. wisdom, 243 
SoBCHA,/. Ene, Kelt bright, 48 
Soke, m. Nor, Teu. armour, iL 299 
So$ana,/. WaU, Heb. lily, 122 
Speranza,/. It. Lat. hope, 405 
Sperata,/. /<. Lat hoped for, 406 
^a,/. lU, Gr. round basket, 273 
Spiridion, m. Ill, Gr. round basket, 273 
Spiridione, m. It. Gr. round basket, 273 
Spramis, m. Lett, Teu. free, ii. 200 
Sprimehen, /. iVl Lands, Teu. free, ii. 

^Jmzzu, m. Lett, Teu. peace raler, iL 

SpYsiDdN, m. M. Gr, Gr. round bas- 
ket, 273 
Spyro^ m, M, Gr, Gr. round basket, 273 
S$aehka, m. Rumm, Gr. helper of men, 

a»aehnika, m. Ruts, Gr. helper of men, 

Ssava, m. Russ, Heb. rest (?), 439 
Ssemar, m. i2ti««. Heb. obedient, 69 
Ssenka, m. Russ. Heb. obedient, 69 
Sserezsca, Russ, Lat 826 
Sseigii, m. Russ, Lat. 325 
Ssevasljan, m, Russ. Gr. awftil, 262 
Seerastjana, /. Russ. Gr. awful, 253 
SseriUa,/* ^t<«<* ^I^^^^ ^^i^ o^ woman, 

Sdmeon, m, Russ. Heb. obedient, 69 
Salmon, m. i2uM. Heb. obedient, 59 
Saofija,/. JZttW. Gr. wisdom, 242 
Ssonia,/, Russ, Gr. wisdom, 242 

Ssoninska,/, Russ. Gr. wisdom, 242 
Ssusanna,/. Russ. Heb. lily, 122 
Stajlle, m. Nor, Teu. steel, iL 293 
Stack, m. PoL Slav, eamp gloiy, ii. 

Stacherl, m, Bav. Gr. happy harvest, 

Staehes, m, Bav, Gr. happy harvest, 

Stachis, m, Lett, Slav, camp gloiy, iL 

Stachus, m, Bav. Gr. happy harvest, 

Stacy, f. Ir. Gr. resurrection, 250 
Stanca,/. HL Lat firm, 344 
Stand, m. Bav, Slav, camp gloiy, ii. 

Stancrl, m, Bav, Slav, camp gloiy, iL 

Stanes, m. Bav, Slav, camp gloiy, ii. 

Stanisav, m. ItL Slav, camp gloiy, iL 

SUmisl, m. Bav. Slav, camp gloiy, ii, 

Stanislao, m. Port. Slav, camp gloiy, ii. 

Stanislaus, m. Ger, Slav, camp gloiy, 

ii. 448 
STAifisLAY, m, Pol. Slav, camp gloiy, ii. 

Stanislaos, m, Lett, Slav, camp gloiy, 

Stanko, m. Ill, Slav, camp glory, iL 448 
Sumze, /. Ger. Lat. firm, 344 
Stas, m. Bav, Gr. of the resurrection, 

Stas, m. Pol, Slav, camp gloiy, ii. 448 
Stasi, m, Bav, Gr. of the resurrection, 

Stasrl, m, Bav, Gr. of the resurrection, 

Stastny, m. Bohm. Slav, happy, ii. 464 
Statire,/. Fr. Zend. 141 
Stefan, m. Slov. Sunss, Pol, Gr. crown, 

SUfanida,/, Russ, Gr. crown, 226 
Stefimie,/. Fr, Gr. crown, 226 
Stefano, m. It, Gr. crown, 225 
Ste£E(mo, m. It, Gr. crown, 326 
Steffel, m, Bav. Gr. crown, 326 
Steim, m. Nor. Teu. stone, 2, ii. 294 
Steihabna, /. m. Nor, Teu. stone eagle, 
ii. 294 


by Google 


Steikib, m. Nor, Ten. stone warrior, 

Steinbjobn, fit. Nor. Tea. stone bear, 

ii. 294 
Suindor^ m. Nor, Tea. stone of Thor, 

Steinfinn, m. Nor. Tea. stone white, 

Steinorim, m. Nor, Tea. stone hel- 
met, ii. 294 
Stbinhab, m. Qtr. Tea. stone war- 
rior, ii. 294 
Steinthob, f». Nor. Tea. stone of Thor, 

Steinuly, m. Nor. Tea. stone wolf, ii. 

Stbintob, m. Nor. Tea. stone pra- 

denoe, ii. 294 
Stella./. Eng. Lat. star, 140 
Sten, m, Oer. Tea. stone, ii. 294 
Stenka, m. Rust, Or. crown 
Stenzely m. Schluwig. Slav, oamp glory, 

Stepan, m. JZum. Bohm. Or. crown, 

Stepania, /. lU. Or. crown, 225 
Stepanida,/. Rum. Gr. crown, 225 
Stephan, m. ^er. Or. crown, 224 
Stephana,/. Eng, Gr. crown, 225 
Stephanie,/. Oer. Fr. Or. crown, 225 
Stephanine, /. Ger. Gr. crown, 225 
Stephanos, m. Gr. crown, 224 
Stephen, m. Eng. Gr. crown, 224 
Stepioa, m. ItL Gr. crown, 225 
l^epka, m. Rust. Gr. crown, 225 
Stepko, m. HI. Gr. crown, 225 
8Upo, m. IVL Gr. crown, 225 
Sterktjlv, m. Nor. Tea. strong wolf, ii. 

Steven, m. Dutch, Gr. crown, 225 
Stioamd, m. Eng. Tea. mounting, ii. 

Stilioho, m. La^ Tea. steel, ii. 294 
Stine,/. Ger. Or. Christian. 240, 837 
Stoffel, m. Bav. Switt, Gr. Christ bearer, 

Stoppel, m. Boo. Gr. Christ bearer, 

Straehota, m. Bohm, Slav, terror 
Stbashor, m. Slav, Slav, terrible peace 
Stbasislay, m. Slav. Slav, terrible gloiy 
Stratonioe, /. Eng. Gr. army victoxy, 

Styoe, m. Nor, Tea. rising, ii. 486 

Sttooe, m. Nor. Tea. rising, ii. 486 
Styntje,/. Dutch, Or. Christian, 240 
Styrk,/. Dan. Tea. strong, ii 410 
Styrker, m. Nor. Tea. strong, iL 410 
5^./. Eng. Heb. lily, 122 
Sueno, f». LcU, Tea. strong, ii. 419 
Suintila, m. (?ot/». Tea. strength, ii. 

Sukey,/. Eng. Heb. lily, 122 
Sulia, m. Bret. Lat downy beard, 818 
SuUana, /. ^r«t. Lat downy beard, 

Suleiman, m, Arab. Heb. peaceful, 117 
Sulpice, m, Fr. Lat red spotted face, 

SuLPicius, m. Lat red spotted &oe, 

Sulpoy, 971. Ger, Lat red spotted face, 

SuMALiDE, m. iVof . Tea. summer wan- 
derer, 432 
Susan,/. Eng. Heb. lily, 122 
Susana,/. I^an. Heb. lily, 122 
Susanna./. Ger. Heb. Uly, 2, 122 
Susannah,/. £n^. Heb. lily, 122 
Susechen,/. Oer. Heb. lily, 122 
Suse,f. Lett. Heb. Uly, 122 
Stisette,/. Fr, Heb. Uly, 122 
Susie,/. Eng. Heb. Uly, 122 
Sttska,/. Slav. Heb. Uly, 122 
Suton,/. Fr. Heb. lily, 122 
Suzanne,/. Fr. Heb. lily, 122 
SuzetU,-/. Fr. Heb. Uly, 122 
Suzan, /. Fr. Heb. Uly, 122 
Suzsi,/, Hung. Heb. Uly, 122 
SvEiN, m. Nor. Teu. youth, ii. 419 
Sten, m. Nor. Teu. youth, ii. 419 
Svewke, m. Nor. Teu. youth, 420 
Svenbjom, to. Nor. Teu. young bear, ii. 

SvERKE, m. Nor. Teu. swarthy, ii. 426 
Sverkir, to. Nor. Teu. swarthy, ii. 426 
SvETOioR, TO. lU. Teu. dawn of light, 

SvEVLAD, m. Slov. Slav. aU ruler, ii, 

SvjATOPOLK, TO. Rutt, SUv. holy govern- 

ment, ii. 458 
SvjATOsLAv, TO. i?t<M. SUv. holy^^loiy, 

Swain, m. Eng. Teu. youth, u. 419 
SwANA,/. iVbr. Teu. swan, u. 287 
Swanbrecht, to. Ger. Teu. swan bright 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


SwANHiLD, /. Not. Ten. swan battle 

iiudd,ii. 2S7 
SwAKHOLD, m. (hr. Ten: swan firm, ii. 

SwANiAua,/. JVbr.Teu. swan water, u. 

SwANHWiTB, /. Not, Ten. swan white, iL 

SwEKD, m. Dan. Tea. strong jonth, ii. 

Swetdke, m. Nor. Tea. strong, ii. 419 
SwETLAHA,/. Ruts. Tea. star, ii. 441 
Swibert, m. FrU. Tea. brightness, iL 

SwiDBiOBo, /. Nor. Tea. strong protec- 
tion, iL 419 
SwiDGEB, m. Nor. Tea. strong spear, ii. 

SwiNTFBiED, m. Ger. Tea. strong peace, 


SwiTHBEOBHT, 971. A. 8. Tea. strong 

brightness, ii. 419 
SwiTHELK, m. A. 8. Tea. strong helmet, 

SwiTHUN, m. Eng^ Tea. strong friend, 

ii. 419 
Sylvanas, vi. LaU liying in a wood, 

Sylvester, m. Eng. Lat. Hying in a 

wood, 376 
Sylyia,/, Eng. Lat Hying in a wood, 

Sylvias, m. Lat Hying in a wood, 376 
Syqfbtd, m. PoL Tea. conqaering 

peace, iL 808 
Syver, m. Nor. Tea. conqaering gaard, 

ii. 808 
Syvert, m. Nor. Tea. conqaering gaard, 

iL 808 
Szymon, m. Pol Heb. obedient, 59 

Tabby,/. Eng. Aram, gazelle, 122 
Tabeia, f. Oer. Aram. gazeUe, 122 ^ 
Tabbern, m. Fris. Tea. people's sword, 

Tabitha, /. Eng. Aram, gazelle, 122 
Taddeo, m. IIL Aram, praise, 62 
Tade, m. lU. Aram, praise, 62 
Tade, m. Frit. Tea. people's raler, 


Tadeiv, in. Nor. Thor's reHc, iL 262 
Tadeo, m. Spem. Aram, praise, 62 
Tadoh, m, Erse, Kelt, poet, 5, 62, iL 

Tadia, m. TU. Aram, praise, 62 
Taedleff m. Fris. Tea. people's reHc, iL 

Taffy J m. Welsh, Heb. beloyed, 115 
TaJUneJ. WeUh, Heb. beloved, 116 
Taganwart, m. 0. Get. Tea. .day gaard, 

ii. 266 
Tago, m. Span. Tea. day, iL 265 
Tiyo, m. Span. Tea. day, u. 265 
Takafebaht, wi. O. Ger, Tea. day 

blight, iL 266 
Taliessin, m. Welsh, Kelt radiant 

brow, ii. 82 
Tdlitha CtmUt f. Eng. Aram, damsel 

Taxxwch, Cym. Kelt, torrent, u. 140, 

Talorgan, m. Piet Kelt splendid brow, 

Tarn, m. Scot. Aram, twin, 65 
Tamar,/. Eng. Heb. palm, 74 
Tamcu, m. Hung. Anun. twin, 67 
Tamassa, m. Lat. Aram, twin, 67 
Tamasine,/. ^n^. Aram, twin, 67 
Tamhus, m, Lett Aram, twin, 66 
^amlane, m. Scot. Aram, twin, 66 
Tammy, f. Eng. Aram, twin, 66 
Tamoszus, m. Lett. Aram, twin, 69 
Tamiin, /. Eng. Aram, twin, 66 
Tancar, m. Oer. Tea. grateful warrior, 

ii. 381 
Tancard, m. Eng. Tea. grateftil gaard, 

ii. 881 
Tancred, m. Eng. Tea. gratefdl speech, 

Tancredi, m. It. Tea. grateM speech, 

Tanie?,m. £«</». Heb. judgment of God, 

Tankred, m. Ger. Tea. thankftil speech, 

u. 881 
Tanne, m. Lett. Lat inestimable, 807 
Tannegay, m. Bret. Kelt u. 161 
Tanni, m. Esth. Heb. judgment of God, 

Tate,/. A. S. S. cheerftil, u. 428 
Tavid, m. Esth. Heb. beloved, 116 



Teague, m. Ir. Kelt, poet, 5, ii. 109 
Tearlach, m. Gael. Teu. man, ii 357 
Tebaldo, m. It, Teu. people's yalonr, 

u. 838 
TeheSy m. Swiss, Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tecla,/. It» Ger. divine fame, 230 
Ted, m. Eng. Teu. rich guard, ii 342 
TedoTy m. Hamburgh, Gr. divine gift, 283 
TedriCy m. Norman, Teu. people's rule, 

ii. 337 
Tegan Euvron, m. WeUh, Kelt, golden 

beauty, ii. 46 
Teitr, m. Nor. Teu. cheerful, ii. 428 
Telemachus, m. Lat. Gr. distant battle, 

Telemaque, m. Fr. Gr. distant battle, 177 
Temperance, /. Eng, Lat. 
Tennis, m. Lett, Gr. of Dionysos, 168 
Tennis, m. Lett. Lat. inestimable, 807 
Tents, m. Lett, Gr. of Dionysos, 168 
Teobald, m. Pol, Teu. people's valour, 

ii. 338 
Teobaldo, m. It, Teu. people's valour* 

Teodor, m. Pol, 8U>v. Gr. divine gift, 

Teodora,/. It, Gr. divine gift, 283 
Teodorico, m. It, Teu. people's ruler, 

ii. 337 
Teodoro,/. It. Gr. divine gift, 282 
Teodosia, /. It. Buss, Gr. divine gift, 

Teodosio, m. It. Gr. divine gift, 237 
Teodorico, m. It, Teu. people's rule, ii. 

Teofil, TO. Slav, Gr. divinely loved, 230 
Teofila,/. It. Gr. divinely loved, 230 
Teofilo, TO. It, Gr. divinely loved, 280 
Terence, to. Jr. Lat. tender, 324, ii 118 
Terentia,/. Lat. tender, 824 
Terentilla,/. Lat. tender, 824 
Tebemtius, to. Lat. tender, 824 
Terenz, to. Oer, Lat. tender, 824 
Teresa, /. It. Span, Gr. oanying ears 

of com, 272 
Teresina, f. Pol, Gr. canying ears of 

com, 272 
Teresita,/, It Span. Gr. carrying ears 

of com, 272 
Terezia,/. HI. Gr. canying ears of com, 

Terezia, f. Hung, Gr. canying ears of 

com, 272 

Terezie, /. Bohm, Gr. canying ears of 

com, 272 
Terezyga, /. Pol, Gr. carrying ears of 

com, 272 
Terry, to. Eng, people's rule, ii 337 
Terza, f, lU, Gr. carrying ears of com, 

Tertu, to. Lat. third, 398 
Tebtius, to. Lat. third, 298 
Tertulla, third, 298 
Tertxtlulanus, 298 
Te^e, TO. Hamh. Gr. divine gift, 236 
Teunis, to. Dutch, Lat. inestunable, 307 
TeuntQe, f. Dutch, Lat. inestimable, 807 
Tewa, TO. Esth. Gr. crown, 226 
Tewdur, to. Welsh, Gr. divine gift, 280 
Tewdews, /. WeUh, divinely given, 237 
Tewes, m, Hamburgh, Heb. goodness of 

the Lord, 109 
Thaddd, m, Oer, Aram, praise, 62 
Thadd£U8, to. Eng, Aram, praise, 5, 

62, ii. 109 
Thaddej, to. Rvu, Aram, praise, 62 
Thaddea, to. Port. Aram, praise, 62 
Thady, to. Ir. Aram, praise, 5, 62, iL 

Thaiter, Erse, Teu. powerftd warrior, ii. 

Thakkraad, Nor, Teu. thankftd speech, 

ii. 331 
Thalia, /. Eng, Gr. bloom, 172 
Thangbraud, Nor. Teu. thankftd sword, 

ii. 332 
Thean, to. Fr. Teu. people's rule, ii. 337 
Thecla,/. Eng, Gr. divine fame, 230 
Thecle,/. Fr. Gr. divine fame, 230 
Thedo, m. West Fris, Gr. divine gift;, 230 
Thekla, /. GsT, Gr. divine fiune, 230, 

Theobald, to. Eng. Teu. people's prince, 

ii. 338 
Theobalda,/. Oer. Teu. people's prince, 

ii. 888 
Theobaldo, m. Port, Teu. people's 

valour, ii. 888 
Theobul, to. Oer, Gr. divine council 
Theobulaire, /. Oer, Gr. divine council 
Theoboulus, to. Lat. Gr. divine coundl 
Theodebau), a, S, S. ii. ZS& 
Thbodomaib, ii 887 
Theodemaro, ii 337 
TheodiscU), Span. Teu. people's pledge, 

ii. 389 
Theodolf, to. Oer, Ten. people's wolf 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



Thsodhabd, fit. Ft, Tea. people's firm- 
ness, ii. 339 
Theodo&edo, m. S^an, Tea. people's 

peace, ii. 339 
Theodor, m. Oer» Gr. divine gift, 282 
Theo]>okab, fit. Framk, Tea. people's 

spear, 339 
Thsodor^/. Eng, Ger, Gr. divine gift, 

Th^odorada, /. Ger, Tea. people's ooan- 

Theodore, m. Eiw. ^. Gr. divine gift, 

Theodoric, m. Frank. Tea. people's rale, 

287, u. 337 
Thbodqbioo, m. Port. Tea. people's 

role, ii. 337 
Theodoro, m. Port. Gr. divine gift, 282 
Thxodobos, m. Gr. divine gift, 282 
Theodoras, m. Lot. Gr. divine gift;, 232 
Theodose, m. /"r. Gr. divine gpLft, 282 
Theodosia,/. 6^. Eng. Gr. divine gift, 

Theodosio, m. Poit. Gr. divine gift;, 237 
Theodosias, m. Lot. Gr. divinely given, 

Theodotos, to, Gr. Gr. divinely given, 

Theodrict Eng. Tea. people's raler, ii 

Theodrekr, to. Nor. Tea. people's rule, 

ii. 887 
Theodale,/. Fr. Gr. God's servant, 285 
Theone, f. Ger. Gr. godly, 237 
Theophanes, to. Lot. Gr. divine mani- 

festation, 287 
Thbophanul, /. Chr. Lot. Gr. divine 

manifestation, 483 
Tbeophanie, /. Fr. Gr. divine mani- 
festation, 432 
Theophano, /. N. Ger. Gr. divine mazii- 

festation, 432 
Theophil, to. Ger. Qtt. divinely loved, 

Theophilay /. Eng. Gr. divinely loved, 

Theophile, to. Fr. Gr. divinely loved, 

Theophilo, to. Port. Gr. God loved, 330 
Theophilos, to. Gr. Gr. divinely loved, 

Th^luloa, m. Eng. Gr. God beloved, 

TheotaH, to. Fkm. Gr. divine gift, 383 
VOL. I. 

Thebesa, /. Eng. Gr. carrying ears of 

com, 272 
Therftse, /. Fr. Gr, oanTing ears of com, 

Theresia,/. Ger. Gr. harvester, 372 
Theresie,/. Ger. Gr. harvester, 372 
Theudebaldo, m. Span, Tea. people's 

prince, ii. 888 
Thettdebold, to. Frank, Tea. people's 

prince, ii. 888 
Thendebert, to. Frank. Tea. people's 

brightness, ii. 389 
Theadebrand, to. Ger. Tea. people's 

sword, ii. ^39 
Theudefred, to. Goth. Tea. people's 

peace, il 889 
Theadegisle, to. Ger. Tea. people's 

pledge, ii. 339 
Theadis, to. Span. Tea. the people, ii. 

Theudhilda, /. Frank. Tea. people's 

heroine, 339 
Theudolind, /. Ger. Tea. people's 

snake, n. 339 
Theudomib, to. Frank, Tea. people's 

fame, iL 337 
Theudowin, to. FranA. Tea. people's 

fHend,ii. 887 
TheunU, to. Dutch, Lat inestimable, 

Thiadmar, to. FrU. Tea. people's fkme, 

TMadelef, to. Frit. Tea. people's love, 

ii 389 
ThiaSf TO. Eng. Heb. gift of God, 62 
Thieti, TO. Fr. Tea. people's raler, ii. 

Thebdld, to. Fr. Tea. .people's prince, 

Thiebaolt, to. Fr, Tea. people's prince, 

ii. 338 
Thibaad, to. Fr. Tea. people's prince, 

ii. 838 
Thibaalt, m. Fr. Tea. people's prince, ii 

Thierry, to. JV. Tea. people's raler, ii 

TMeeU, m. StoitSf Heb. gift of God, 

Thiess, to. L. Ger. Heb. gift of God, 63 
Thiebolf, to. Jfor. Tea. people's wolf, 

Thiostan, to. Nor. Tea. harsh warrior, 


Digitized by Google 


Thiostolp, m. Nor, Ten. harsh wolf, 

Thiostwald, wi. Nor. Ten. harsh 
power, 411 

Thiou^ m. Fr, Teu. people's wolf, ii. 

Thirza,/. Oer. Heb. pleasantness, 100 

Thjodgeib, m. Nor. Ten. people's 
spear, ii. 839 

Thjodhildr, /. Nor, Teu. people's 
heroine, ii. 830 

Tbjodhjalh, m. Nor, Tea. people's 
heknet, ii. 889 

Thjodleit, m. Dan, people's relic, ii. 

Thjodulv, m. Nor, Teu. people's wolf, 
ii. 338 

Thjodyald, m. Nor, Teu. people's 
power, ii. 389 

Thjodvab, m. Nor, Ten people's pru- 
dence, ii. 889 

Thoddeivt m. Nor, '!«>-. .fhoi's relic, iL 

ThoUeiv, m. Nor. Teu. Thor's relic, ii 

Thoma, m, WdU, Aram, twin, 67 

Thomas, m. Fr, Eng, Aram, twin, 64 

Thorn asia,/. Oer. Aram, twin, 67 

Thomasin,/. G«r. Aram, twin, 67 

Thomasine,/. Eng, Aram, twin, 66 

Thob, m. Oer, Teu. the thunder god, ii. 

Thoba,/. Nor, Teu. thunder, ii. 205 

Thorald, m. Nor, Teu. Thor's power, 

Thobalfb, m. ^or. Teu. Thor's elf, ii. 

Thorabim, m. Nor, Teu. Thor's eagle, 
ii. 206 

Thorabna,/. Nor. Teu. Thor's eagle, 

^HORBERA, /. Nor, Tou. Thor's she 
Sear, ii. 206 

-norberg,/. Chr, Teu. Thor's protec- 
tion, ii. 206 

Thorberk, m. Nor. Teu. Thor's splen- 
dour, ii. 206 

Thobbjobg, /. Nor. Teu. Thor's pro- 
tection, ii. 206 

Thobbjobn, m. Nor, Teu. Thor's bear, 

Thobbband, wi. Ice. Teu. Thor's sword, 

Thord, m. Nor. Teu. thunder, ii. 206 

Thorer, m. Nor, Teu. Thor's warrior, 

Thobdis,/. Nor, Teu. Thpi^s household 

spirit, ii. 206 
Thorfinw, m. Nor. Teu. Thor's white 

man, ii. 206 
Thobfinna, /. Nor. Teu. Thor's white 

woman, ii 206 
Thoboabd, m. Nor. Teu. Thorns guard, 

Thoboaxttb, m. Nor. Teu. Thor the 

good, ii.206 
Thobokbda, /. Nor, Teu. Thor's 

maiden, iL 206 
Thoboebtub, to. Nor. Teu. Thor's 

Thoboils, to. Nor. Teu. Thor's pledge, 

2, ii.206 
Thoivisla,/. Dan. Teu. Thor's pledge, 

Thobobdc, to. Ice. Teu. Thor the hel- 

meted, ii. 207 
Thobounna,/. Nor. Teu. Thor's war, 

Thorhall, to. Nor. Teu. Thor's stone^ 

Thorhalla,/. Nor. Teu. Thor's stone,' 

Thobhilda,/. Nor. Teu. Thor's battl^ 

maid, ii. 207 
Thorhilde, /. Ger, Teu. Thor's battle 

maid, ii. 207 
Thorismondo, to. Span. Teu. Thor's 

protection, ii. 206 
Thorismund, to. Ooth, Teu. Thor's 

protection, ii. 205 
Thobkatla, /. Nor. Teu. Thor's caul- 
dron, ii. 206 
Thorkettl, to. Nor, Teu. Thor's caul- 
dron, ii. 206 
Thorkjell, to. Nor. Ten. Thor's cauldron, 

Thorlauo,/. Nor. Teu. Thor's liquor, 

Thorleif, to. Nor, Teu. Thor's relic, 

ii. 207. 261 
Thortj:ik, to. Nor. Teu. Thor's sport, 

Thormod, to. Nor, Teu. Thor's mood, 

Thorold, to. Eng, Teu. Thor's power, 

Thorolf, yi. Oer. Teu. Thor's wolf, ii. 


Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


. Thoroihea^f, M, Or. Get. gift of God, 

Thobsteik, m. Nor, Ten. Thox't jewel, 

Thobulva. /. Not. Tea. Thox'a wolf 

woman, ii. 206 
Thonmna,/. Ice. Ten. Thorns free wo- 
man, ii. 208 
Thorvalldb, fn. Nor. Ten. Thox'i 

power, ii. 205 
Thorvid, m. Nor, Thoi's consecration 
Thorwald, m. Ger. Ten. Thor's power, 

Thrall, m. Nor. T«n. serf; ii 262 
Tkrine,/. Oer, Gr. pnre, 271 
Thrudr, /. Nor. Ten. battle maid of 

constancy, ii 286 
Thnmas, m. O. Fr. Aram, twin, 66 
Thursday^ m. Eng, 445 
Thnrstan, m. Er^. Ten. Thof 8 jewel, 

u. 206 
ThyrgiU, m. Swed. Ten. Thorns pledge, 

Thyra, /. Nor. Ten. belonging to Tyr, 

ii. 214 
Thyrza,/. Eng. Heb. pleasantness, 100 
Tiabhern, m. Frit. Ten. people's sword, 

Tiaddo, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, ii 

TiadUleft m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, 

Tiaderik, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, 

ii. 337 
TiadOf m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, li 

Tiago, m. Span. Heb. snpplanter, 55 
TiaUeff m. Frit, people's mler, ii. 337 
Tiard, m. Frit. Ten. people's prince, 

ii. 837 
Tiarik, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, ii. 

TitB'k, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, ii. 

Tiart^ m. Frit. Ten. people's prince, ii. 

Tib, m. Eng. Ten. people's prince, ii. 338 
Tibal, m. Eng. Ten. people's prince, ii. 

Tiballa, m. Etig. Ten. people's prince, 

ii. 838 
Tibant, m. Fr. Ten. people's prince, ii 

V 337 

f. Scot. Heb. God's oath, 2» 

Tibbie, m. Eng. Tern, people's prince, 

Tibelda,/. Eng. Ten. people's prince, 

Hb^re, /v. Lat of the Tiber, 296 
Tiberia, Lat of the Tiber, 296 
Hberio, /(. Lat of the Tiber, 296 
Tiberius, Lat of the Tiber, 296 
Tibotta,/. £fi^. 
Tibout, m. Fr. Ten. people's prince, ii 

Tide, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, ii 

Tidmer, m. Frit. Ten. people's fimie, ii 

Tido, m. Frit. Ten. people's mler, ii 

Tiebold, m. Oer. Ten. people's prince, 

Tiedmer, m. Frit. Ten. people's fame, 

TieneUe,/. Fr. Gr. crown, 226 
Tiennon, m. Fr. Gr. crown, 226 
Tiennot, m. Fr. Gr. crown, 226 
Tieman, m. Ir. Kelt kingly, ii. 110 
Tietje, m. Neth. Ten. people's mle, ii 

Tiffany, /. Eng. Gr. divine manifesta- 

tion, 432 
Tiga,f, Lett. Gr, God's gift, 285 
TiOHEARNAOH, m. Erte, Kelt kingly, ii. 

Tigo, m. LeU. Gr. God's gift, 235 
TmoMiL, m. Slav. Slav, silent love, ii. 

TiHoiOR, m. Slav. Slav, silent peace, ii 

TmoBLAY, m. Slav. Slave, silent glory, 

Tike,/. Lett. Gr. God's gift, 235 
TiKLA, /. Pol Slav, goddess of good 

Inck, ii. 446 
TH, f. Eng. Ten. mighty battle maid, 

Tilda,/. Eng. Ten. mighty battle maid, 

Tile, m. Neth. Ten. people's mle 
TiUe, /. Ger. Ten- mighty battle maid, 

Tilo, m. Frit. Ten. people's rale, ii. 837 
Tim, m. Ir. Gr. fear God, 237 
Timofei, m. Butt. Gr. fear God, 238 
Timotcha, m. Rutt. Gr. fear God, 238 
Timoteo, m. It. Gr. fear God, 238 


Timothea,/. Eng, Gr. fear God, 287 
Timothfie, wi. Fr, Gr. fear God, 237 
T1MOTHEO8, m, Gr. fear God, 237 
Timotheos, fit. Ger, Lat. fear God, 287 
Timothy, m. Eng, Lat. fear God» ff, 237, 

Timoty, m. Pol, Gr. fear God, 237 
Timoty, m. Slav, Gr. fear God, 237 
Tina.f. It, Ten. man, ii. 359 
Tine,f. Ger. Gr. Christian, 240 
Tio.f, Esth, Gr. gift of God, 285 
Tirzah,/. Eng, Heb. pleasantness, 90 
Tiphame, /. Fr. Gr. divine manifesta- 
tion, 432 
Tit, m. Esth, Lat. safe (?), 296 
TiTA, m. It. Lat. safe, 296 
Tite.m. Fr, Lat. safe, 296 
TmiNus, m. Lat safe, 297' 
Tito./. It, Lat. safe (?), 296 
TiTURius, wi. Lat. safe, 297 
T1TU8, m. Lat safe, 296 
Tivador, m. Hung. Gr. divine pft 
TiZy Lett. Ten. people's ruler, li. 887 
Tiziano, m. It. Lat safe, 297 
Tjerri, m. Rums. Tea. people's mler, iL 

Tjod, m. J\^or. Ten. the people, ii. 337 
Tjodojeb, m. Nor. Tea. people's spear, 

ii. 337 
Tjodrekb, m. iVbr. Tea. people's roler, 

u. 337 
Tjodulv, m. Nor. Tea. people's wolf, 

Tjodwald, m. T^or. Tea. people's power, 

Tjoele,/. JRtw. Gr. divine f)une, 230 
7V)&et<, m. Swiss, Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tobejt m, Russ, Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tohiat m. It, Ger, Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tobias, m. Hung. Eng. Span. Heb. 

goodness of the Lord, 120 
TobiasZt m. Pol Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tohiest m. Swiss, Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tohija, m. Russ. Slov. Heb. goodness 

of the Lord, 120 
TohVt fn, Eng. Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 
Tobysas, m. Lett. Heb. goodness of the 

Lord, 120 

Todo, m. Fris, Tea. people's ruler, ii. 

Todor, m. III. Slov. Gr. divine gift, 288 
Todoiik, m. Slov. Tea. people's roler, 

Toff, m, Neth. Gr. Christ bearer, 242 
Tqffel, m, Neth. Gr. Christ bearer, 242 
Toger, Nor. Tea. people's spear, ii. 889 
Toinette,/, Fr, Lat inestimable, 807 
Toinon/f. Fr. Lat inestimable 
TpiRDELVACH, M. Eru, Kelt tall as a 

tower, 67, ii 111 
ToKE, m. Dan, raving, ii. 410 
ToUa,f. Rom. Lat victor, 406 
ToUo, m. Rom. Lat. victor, 406 
Tolomieu, m. Fr, Heb. son of fhrrows, 72 
Tolv, m. Dan. Tea. Thor's wolf, ii. 208 
Tern, m. Eng. Aram, twin, 65 
TWa, m. lU. Aram, twin, 66 
ToMAiMAJD, m, Erse, Kelt 66 
Tomas, m. Span. IVL Aram, twin, 64 
Tomasa,/. Span. Aram, twio, 66 
Tomasz, m. PoU Aram, twin, 66 
Tome, m. Span, Aram, twin, 64, 66 
Tommasso, m.' It, Aram, twin, 65 
Toneek, m, Slov, Lat. inestimable, 807 
Tone, m. Slov, Lat inestimable, 807 
Tonek, m. Slov. Lat. inestimable, 807 
Toni, m. Bav, Lat inestimable, 807 
Tonietto, m. It. Lat inestimable, 807 
Tonio, m. It. Lat inestimable, 807 
Tonisech, m. Lus, Lat inestimable, 307 
ToryeSt m. Fris, Lat inestimable, 307 
Tonk, m, Lus, Lat inestimable, 807 
TonneU, m. Sioiss, Lat inestimable, 307 
Tonnies, m. Fris. Lat. inestimable, 307 
Tonnio, m. Esth. Lat inestimable, 807 
Tonnis, m. Esth. Lat inestimable, 80? 
Tool, m, Dutch, Lat. inestimable, 807 
Toole, Jr. Kelt lordly, ii. Ill 
Toon, m. DutcJh Lat inestimable, 807 
Toon^e, m. Dutch, Lat. inestiinable, 

Torchel, m, Norman, Tea. Thor's eaold- 

ron, ii. 206 
Torihio, m. Span. Tea. Thorns bear (?), 

Torkel, m. Dan. Tea. Thorns canldroii, 

Torketyl, m. Nor. Tea. Thor's eaoldxon, 

TorU,/. Swiss, Gr. gift of God. 235 
Tormaid, m. Gael. Tea. Niord's man, 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Torqnato, m. IL Lat. wearing a neok 

chain, 348 
I ToBQUATUs, m. Lat. wearing a neok 

chain, 348 
TorquU, m, Eng, Ten. Thor's pledge or 

cauldron, 348, IL 206 
7V»so, fit. HL Gr. divine gift, 234 
Tostam, m. Nor. Tea. Thor'B stone, ii. 

7Vw%, m. Eng. Ten. harsh day, ii. 411 
Tostein, m, Fr.Ten. Thorns stone, ii. 206 
i Totila, m. Lat. Ten. battle leader, ii. 

ToU, m. G«r. Ten. people, ii. 338 
ToU, m. Lett Gr. fear God, 238 
Tonssaint, m. lY. Lat. all saints, 446, 

Tovi^ m. Swiss, Heb. beloved, 115 
Tovelif m. iSfims«, Heb. beloved, 115 
Tracy,/. Eng. Gr. carrying ears of com, 

Tbahbbme, m. 7r«Zt^ Lat 348 
Tr^ano, m. It. Lat 848 
Tbajanus, Lat. 348 
Tretudl, f. Bav. Ten. spear maid, ii. 

TraugoU, m. Oer. trust God, ii 491 
Trenel, m. Bav. Gr. pure, 271 
Tresehen,/. Hamb. Gr. harvester, 272 
Treuhold, m. Oer. faithful, ii 491 
Tri,/. Swiss, Gr. pure, 271 
Trili,/. Swiss, Gr. pure, 271 
Trine, f. Swiss, Gr. pure, 271 
Trineli,/. Svnss, Gr. pure, 271 
THntiU,f. French, Gr. pure, 271 
Trino,f. Esth, Gr. pure, 271 
Triptolemus.m. £91^. Gr. thrice plough, 

Tristan, m. Fr. Kelt herald, ii. 145 
Tristano, m. It. Kelt herald, ii 145 
Tristram, m. Eng. Kelt herald, ii 145 
Trix,f. Eng. Lat. blesser, 381 
Trodtf. Eng. Nor. constant battle maid, 

ii. 237 
Trofeem, m. Russ. Gr. nourishing, 221 
Trophimus, m. Lat Gr. nourishing, 221 
Troth, /. Eng. Ten. constant battle 

maid, ii. 237 
Troth, /. Eng. Teu. constant battle 

maid, ii. 237 
Trudchen, f. Ger. Teu. spear maid, ii. 

Trade, /. Oer. Lett. Tea. upear maid, 

Trudel, f. N. Lands, Tea. spear maid, 

Tru€{je, /. Neth. Ten. spear maid, ii 

Truta,/. Est)i. Teu. spear maid, ii. 825 
Truto,f. Esth, Teu. spear maid, ii. 825 
Trwst, m. Cym, Kelt prodaimer, ii. 

Tryg, m. Nor. Teu. true, ii. 414 
Tryogvb, m. Nor. Teu. true, ii. 414 
Tryn,f. Dutch, Gr. pure, ii. 271 
Tryphena,/. Eng. Gr. dainty, 222 
Tryphon, m. Gr. dainty, 222 
Tryphosa,/. Eng. Gr. damty, 222 
Trystav, m« Eng. Kelt, herald, ii 145 
Tsassen,/. Fris. Gr. Christian, 240 
TuATHAL, m. Erse, Kelt, lordly, ii 111 
Tualthflaith, /. Erse, Kelt noble 

lady, 277, ii. Ill 
Tudor, m. Welsh, Gr. divine gift, 282 
Tuoendrbich, m. Oer. Teu. virtue 

rich, ii. 401 
TuUia, /. It. Lat spout of blood (?), 825 
Tuixrus, m. Lat spout of blood (?), 825 
TuLLUS, m. Lat spout of blood (?), 824 
Tunstal, m. Eng. Teu. Thor's wolf, ii. 

Tunstan, m. Eng. Teu. Thorns stone, ii. 

Tuomas, m. Finn. Aram, twin, 68 
Turcetyl, m. A. S. Teu. Thor's kettle, 

ii 206 
Turgar, m. Eng. Ten. Thor's spear, ii. 

Turkehd, m. Eng. Teu. Thof s kettle, 

ii. 306 
Turlozgh, m. Ir. Kelt tower like, 324, 

ii. 113 
Tverbimir, m. Slav, firm peace, ii 458 
TvERDiSLAV, m. Slav, finn gloiy, ii. 

Tverdko, m. Slav, firm, ii. 458 
Twador, m. Hung. Gr. divine gift, 288 
Tybal,/. Eng. Teu. people's prince, ii 

Tyballa, /. Eng. Teu. people's prince, 

ii. 338 
Tybalt m. Eng. Teu. people's prince, 

ii. 338 
Tycho, m. Lat. Teu. raging, ii. 410 
Tyeddemar, m. Fris. Teu. people's 

fame, ii. 887 
Tykb, m. Dan. Teu. raging, ii, 410 
Tyge,m. Dan. Teu. raging, ii. 410 



Tymolensz, m. Slav, Gr. fear God, 

TynOf m. Lum, Lat. healthy, 828 

Tybe, m. Dan. Ten. divine, ii. 214 
Ttrajthui, m. Lat. Gr. king, 254 
Tziasio, 171. J?Vw. Gr. Christian, 340 


Uadxlbrecht, m. 0. G«r. Ten. noblj 

bright, iL 895 
Uaoalrioh, m. 0. (7^* Ten. noble roler, 

ii. 893 
Uailsi,/. J^rM, Kelt, proud, ii. 22 
Ubald, m. Oer. Ten. mind prince, ii. 

Ubalde, m. Fr. Tea. mind prince, ii. 

Ubaldo, 171. /(. Ten. mind piinoe, ii 

Uberto, m. Span. It. Ten. mind bright, 

ii. 801 
Uc, m, Prov. Tea. mind, ii. 801 
Uohtred, m. Eng. Ten. mind coanoil, 

ii. 801 
tJeko, m. Frii. Tea. noble rule, iL 898 
Uda,f. Oer. Ten. rich, 840 
Udalland, m. Ger. Tea. noble coontiy, 

ii. 400 
Udalrich, m. Oer. Tea. noble roler, iL 

Udalrike, /. Oer. Tea. noble ruler, ii. 

Udakique, /. Fr. Teu. noble ruler, ii. 

Udolfo, m. ItaL Teu. noble wolf, ii. 895 
Udvet m. Nor, Teu. happy war, ii. 844 
Ueli, m. Swist, Tea. noble ruler, ii. 894 
Uflfo, m. Ger. Tea. wild boar, ii. 278 
Uggieri, m. It. Tea. holy, ii. 885 
Ugo, 171. It. Teu. mind, ii. 301 
VgoUno, m. It. -Teu. mind, iL 801 
Ugon, m. Ill Teu. mind, iL 801 
Ugone, 771. It. Teu. mind, ii. 801 
Ugotto, m. It. Teu. mind, ii. 801 
Uguccione, m. ItaX, Teu. mind, ii. 801 
Ugues, 171. 0. Fr. Teu. mind, 801 
Uisdean, 771. Gael. Teu. mind, ii. 801 
Uladislaus, m. Lat. Slav, ruling gloiy, 

ii. 450 
VUmd, m, Oer. Tea. noble coontiy, ii. 

Ulbrechtf m. Oer. Teu. noble splendour, 

ii. 896 
Uldriki, m. Lett. Teu. noble ruler, ii. 


Ulerkt m, Fris, Teu. noble ruler, ii. 894 
Ulf, m. Nor, Teu. wolf, ii. 267 
Ulfae, m. Eng. Teu. tall wolf; ii. 269 
UiiFAB, 171. Nor. Teu. wolf warrior, ii. 

XJlfener, m. Eng. Teu. wolf, ii. 269 
Ulferdt 771. Oer. Teu. noble peace, iL 400 
Ulfilas, m. Lat. Teu. wolf, ii. 269 
Ulfried, m. Oer. Tea. noble peace, iL 

Ulfrio, 771. Eng, Tea. wolf ruler, ii. 269 
Ulfhsoimn, 771. Ice. Teu. wolf ftuy, ii. 

Ulfherdub, 771. Ice, Teu. wolf guard, 

Ulick, 171. Fr. Teu. mind reward, 177, 

Uliseo, 771. It. Gr. hater, 176 
Ulisse, 771. Fr. Gr. hater, 176 
Ulfliotr, 771. Ice. wolf warrior, iL 269 
Ulk,f. 771. Fri$. Teu. noble rule, ii. 894 
UU, m. Nor. Tea. will, ii. 227 
Ulli,/. Nor. Tea. will, IL 227 
Ullr, 771. Nor. Teu. will, 227 
Ulphilas, m. Lat. Teu. wolf, ii. 268 
Ullric, 77*. Bohm. Fr. Teu. noble ruler, 

ii. 894 
Ulrica, /. £71^. Bom. Teu. noble ruler, 

ii. 894 
Ulrick, m. Ger, Teu. noble ruler, ii. 394 
Ulrico, 771. Ital. Tea. noble ruler, ii. 894 
Ulrih, 771. Slov. Teu. noble ruler, iL 394 
Ulrik, 171. Frii. Teu. noble ruler, ii. 894 
Ulrika, /. Rtu$. Teu. noble rule, iL 

Ulrike, /. Oer. Teu. noble rule, iL 

Ulrique, /. Fr, Tea. noble rule, ii. 

Ulryk, m. Pol, Teu. noble rule, iL 

Ulryka, /. Pol. Teu. noble rule, iL 

Ulv, 771. Nor. Teu. wolf, ii. 268 
'Ulva,/. Nor. Teu. wolf, ii. 268 
Ulvhildur, /. Nor, Teu. wolf battle 

maid, ii. 268 


by Google 



Uljsses, m. Lot. Gr. hater, 176, ii. 

» UwuUi, m, Kaffir, monej, 10 
Umfae, m, Kaffir, a boy, 10 
UvA, /. Erie, Kelt, fiftmine, 2, ii 22, 

102, 217 
UscHi, /. Erse, Kelt, contentioas, 8, ii. 

Undine, /. Chr. Lat. of the waves 
UssA,/. /c«. Tea.. woman, ii 217 
UoU,/. Switt, Ten. noble ruler, ii. 294 
. UoTE, /. Ger, Ten. rich, ii. 340 

Uppo, m. Cr«r. Tea. wild boar, ii. 278 
TJpRAVDA, m, Slav, uprightness, ii. 468 
Urania,/. Eng. Gr. heavenly, 171 
Uranie,/. Fr, Gr. heavenly, 172 
Uranius, m. Lat Gr. heavenly, 172 
Urbain, m. Fr, Lat. of the town, 417 
Urban, m, Qer, Eng. Lat of the town, 

Urbana,/. Qer, Lat of the town, 417 
Urbano, m. It, Lat. of the town, 417 
Urbanus, m. Lat of the town, 416 
Urgel, m. Span, Ten. holy, ii 386 
Urraca, /. Span, Tea. council of war 

(?). 77, ii 870 
Urien, m. Welsh, Gr. heavenly, 172 
Vric, m, Eng, Tea. noble ruler, ii. 894 

Ursa,/. Slav, Lat bear, 411 
Urschel,/, Qer, Lat bear, 411 
Urschla,/. Swiss, Lat bear, 411 
Ursel, /. Eng, Lat. bear, 411 
Ursello, m, Rom, Lat bear, 411 
Ursilo, m. It. Lat bear, 411 
Ursin, m. Fr, Lat bear, 411 
Ursino, m. /t. Lat. bear, 411 
Ursley,f, Eng. Lat. bear, 411 
Ursola, /. Span, Lat. bear, 411 
Urssula,/. Russ. Lat bear, 411 
Ursula,/. Ger, Eng, Lat bear, 411 
Ursule,/. Fr. Lat bear, 411 
Ubsus, m. Lat. bear, 411 
Ursyn, m. Pol, bear, 411 
Urszula,/. PoZ. Lat bear, 411 
Urte,f. Lith, Gr. gift of God, 236 
Urvan, m, Rms, Lat of the town, 

Vsajahtda, m, Kaffir, one who rejoices, 

Uta,/. Qer, Ten. rich, ii. 340 
UxHYB, m. WeUh, Kelt terrible, 129 
(7^, m. Gw. Teu. noble ruler, ii. 394 
UvAKSHATABA, ffi. Zend, beautifcd eyed, 

Uzziah, m. Eng, Heb. might of the 

Lord, 19 

Vaecslav, m, Bohm. Slav, crown glory, 
ii. 449 

Vaclav, m. Bohm, Pol. Slav, crown 
^ory, ii. 449 

Vaedav, m, Bohm. Slav, crown glory, ii 

Vaeslav, m, Bohm, Slav, crown glory, ii 

Vol, m, Eng. Lat healthy, 828 

Valbjobg, /. Nor. Tea. slaughter pro- 
tection, ii. 232 

Vidborg, /. 8u>ed. Tea. slaughter pro- 
tection, ii 232 

Yalboig, /. 8\Dtd, Tea. slaoghter pro- 
tection, ii. 282 

Vald, m. Nor. Tea. power, ii. 420 

Valdemar, m, Fr. Tea. powerful fame, 
ii. 420 

Valdib, /. Nor. Teu. spirit of slaugh« 
ter, VL, 232 

YMm, m, Lat, Tea. power, ii. 420 

Valearius, m, Lat, Teu. slaughter 

spear, ii. 232 
Valek, m. Bohm. Lat healthy, 828 
Valente, m. It. Lat. healthy, 328 
Yalentim, m. Poft, Lat. healthy, 828 
Valentin, m, Fr. Lat healthy, 828 
Valentina,/./f. Lat healthy, 328 
Valentine, m. Eng, Lat. healthy, 328 
Valentine,/. Fr. Lat healthy, 828 
Valentino, m. It, Lat healthy, 828 
Valentinus, m, Lat. healthy, 328 
Valentyn, m, Pol Lat. healthy, 827 
Valer, m. Qer. Lat healthy, 827 
Valasquita, /. Span, Teu. slaughter, ii 

Val^re, m. Fr, Lat. healthy, 827 
Valeria,/. It, Qer, Lat. healthy, 827 
Val£Bianus, m, Lat. healthy, 827 
Valerie,/. Fr. Qer. Lat. healthy, 827 
Valerien, m. Fr, Lat healthy, 927 
Valeiiii, m, Russ, Lat healthy, 827 


by Google 


Talerio, m. It, Lat. healthy, 327 
Valerius, m. Lat. healthy, 827 
Valery, m. Fr. Teu. slaughter ruler, 

327, ii. 23a 
Valeska, f. Slav. Slav, ruling glory, ii. 

Valgardt m. iVbr. Teu. foreign spear, ii. 

Yalgjer, 971. lee, Teu. foreign spear, ii. 

Yaljgerda, m. Ice. Tea. foreign guard, 
ii. 232 

Yalheri, m. Frank. Teu. slaughter host, 

Valliaf m. Span. Teu. slaughter, ii. 232 

Valmontt m. Fr. Teu. slaughter protec- 
tion, ii. 232 

VcUpurgiSf/. Ger. Teu. slaughter pro- 
tection, or powerftil protection, ii. 
232, 421 

Valtheof, m. Nor. Teu. foreign thief, ii. 

Valtkud,/. Nor. Teu. slaughter maid, 

VaujtHchat 32 

Vanka^ m. Ruet. Heh. grace of God, 

Vanni, m It. Heb. grace of God, 107 

~^anora,f. Scot. Kelt, white wave, iL 

Vara J. lU. Gr. stranger, 261 

Varfolomei, m. Ruse. Aram, son of ftur- 
rows, 72 

Varinka.f. Buss. Or. stranger, 261 

Vamava, m. Ruts, Aram, son of conso- 
lation, 78 

Vartholomei, m. WaU. Aram, son of 
ftirrows, 72 

Varvara,/. Ruts. Gr. stranger, 261 

Vaschka, m. Rues. Gr. kingly, 258 

VathH,f. Eng. Pers. 141 

Vasilij, m. lU. Gr. royal, 253 

Vaso, m. lU. Gr. royal, 253 

Vassilij, m. Russ. Gr. royal, 268 

Vas^a, m. Russ. Gr. royal, 253 

Vasskay m. Russ. Gr. royal, 253 

Vatroslav, m. Slov. Slav, fieiy glory, 
ii. 447 

Vaubert, m. Fr. Teu. bright slaughter, 

Vaubourg,/. Fr. Teu. slaughter protec- 
tion, ii. 

Yaudru, /. Fr, Teu. slaaghter maid, 

Vautmde,/. Fr. Teu. slaughter maid, 

ii. 232 
Vavrinecy m. Bohm. Lat. laurel, 867 
Vavrzynec, m. Pol. Lat. laurel, 367 
Vebjorn, m. Nor. Teu. sacred bear, ii. 

Yebrand, m. Nor, Teu. sacred sword, 

ii. 23i^ 
Vedis, /. Nor. Teu. sacred sprite, ii. 

Vedorm, m. Nor. Teu. sacred snake, ii. 

Veojeb, m. Nor. Teu. sacred spear, ii. 

Yedhelm, m. Nor. Teu. sacred helmet, 

ii. 239 
Vedhild, /. Nor. Teu. sacred battle 

maid, ii. 239 
Vefelij. III. Kelt, white wave, ii. 133 
Vehka^ Bulg. great glory, ii. 460 
Veicht, m. Bav. Teu. living, 409 
Veidl, m. Bav. Teu. living, 409 
Yekoslav, m. Slav, eternal glory, ii. 

Yekoslava,/. Slav, eternal glory, ii. 449 
Veledatf, Teu. wise woman, ii. 226 
Yelislav,/. m. Bulg. Slav, great glonr, 

ii. 460 
Yelika,/. Bulg. Slav, great, iL450 
Yelimir, m. Bulg. Slav, great peace, ii. 

Venceslav, m. Slov. Slav, crown gloiy, 

Yenedikt, m. Russ. Lat. blessed, 383 
Yenetia,/. JSJn^. Kelt, blessed, ii. 136 
Yenice, /. Eng. Kelt blessed, ii. 136 
Ventura^ m. It. Lat. well met, 384 
Yenus, m. Lat. fair (?), 377 
Yenzeslaus, m. Ger. Slav, crown glory, 

ii. 449 
Yenzeslav, m. Russ. Slav, crown glory, 

ii. 449 
Yera,/. Serv. Skv. faith, ii. 446 
Yerban, m. Slov. Lat. of the city, 417 
Yercingetorix. m. Lat. Kelt, chief of 

one hundred heads, ii. 54 
Yerena, Oer. Teu. sacred wisdom, ii. 

Verena, f. Oer. Lat. Gr. true picture, 

Verenchen,/. Ger. Lat. Gr. true picture, 

Veremmd, m. Nor. Tea. guardian pro- 
tector, ii. 412 


by Google 


VergosillaBQs, m. Lat, Kelt man of the 

iMUiDer, ii. 54 
Vermndo, m. Span, beards protectioD, iL 

Vemulfo, m. Span. Ten. bear wolf, ii. 

Verra^f. IM. Slav, fiiith, iL 445 
Veronica,/. lU Bng. Lat Chr. tme image, 

Veronike,/. Get. Lat Or. tme picture, 

Veroniqne,/. Fr. Lat Gt. true picture, 

Vbbbes, m. Lai, boar, 824 
Vestan, m. Nor. sacred stone, ii. 289 
TSSTB8L4Y, fR. Bohon. Slav, crown 

gloiy, iL 449 
YssTLiDB, m. Nor, Ten. western wtn- 

derer, iL 482 
Vbtiude, m. iVbr. Ten. winter wan- 

derer, ii. 432 
Vema^f. III. Kelt white wave, ii. 183 
Vevayy /. Bav. Kelt white wave, iL 188 
w Vevina,/. Scot. Kelt mebdioos woman, 

ii. 22 
Victoire, /. Fr. Lat victorious, 406 
Victor, tn. Ger. Fr. Eng. Lat con- 

queror, 406 
Victoria,/. Eng. Lat conqueror, 406 
Victorie, /. Ger. Lat victorious, 406 
Victorine,/. Fr. Lat victorious, 406 
Vid, m. Bohm. Lat life, 409 
\idA, m. Hung. Lat life, 409 
Vida,/. Eng. Heb. beloved, 116 
ViOBRAND, m. Ger. Teu. war sword, uT 

Vigelius, fR. Lat. Teu. warring, iL 409 
VioFUs, m. Ger. Teu. war eagerness, iL 

VioHEABD, m. A. S. Teu. war firmness, 

ii. 409 
ViGLAP, m. A. S. Teu. war relic, ii. 409 
ViGLEiK, m. Nor. Teu. war sport, ii. 

Viktor, m. 52av. Lat. conqueror, 406 
Viken^, m. Butt. Lat conqueror, 406 
Viking, m. Nor. Teu. bay inhabitant, 

ViLBJORa,/. iVbr. Teu. resolute protec- 
tion, ii. 227 
Vilem, m. Bohm. Teu. resolute helmet 

Vilehn, m. Pol. Teu. resolute helmet 


'^^Igelm, fit. Butt. Teu. resolnte hel- 
met ii* 228 
ViLGERD, m. Nor. Teu. resolute protec- 
tion, 227 
Vilhelm, SUtv. Bung. Teu. resolute 

helmet, iL 227 
Vilhelmine,/. Swed. Teu. reedute hel« 

met iL 228 
Vi^ahn, m. Nor. Teu. resolute helmet, 

ii. 228 
Vilibaldo, m. Port. Teu. resolute prince, 

Vincene, m. Bohm. Lat conquering, 

Vincendo, m. Sjpan. Lat conquering, 

ViNOBNs, fit. Ger. Lat conquering, 406 
Vincent m. Eng. Fr. Lat conquering, 

Vincente, m. Port. Lat conquering, 

Vincenty, m. Pot Lat conquering, 

Vincenz, m. Ger. Lat conquering, 

Yincenzio, m. It. Lat. conquering, 

YiNciGUERRA, m. It. Lat Teu. con- 
quering war, iL 465 
Vindslao, m. It. Slav, crown glory, ii. 

Vincze, m. Sung. Lat. conquering, 406 
Yiola,/. IL Lat violet, 422 
Yiolante,/. Span. Lat. violet, 422 
Violet /. Scot. Lat violet 422 
Violette,/. fV. Lat. violet, 422 
Yirdumarus, m, Lat. Kelt, great dark 

man, H. 54 
Virgil, m. Eng. Lat flourishing, 829 
Viigile, m, Fr. Lat flourishing, 829 
Yirgilio, m. It. Lat. flourishing, 829 
ViBGiLius, m. Lat flourishing, 329 
Virginia, /. It. Eng. Lat flourishing, 

Virginie,/. jPt. Lat flourishing, 829 
Virginio, m. It. Lat flourishing, 82, 

ViRGiNnTs, m. Lat flourishing, 829 
Viriathus, m. Lat. Kelt man of fire (?), 

Viridis,/. /t Lat green, 428 
VisHTASPA, m. Pert. Zend, possessor 

horses, 137 
Vita, m. Butt. Bohm. Lat living, ' 

uigiiizea dv 's._jvj'v> 




Vjtat m, Bokm, Lat. living, 407 
Vital, m. Fr. Ger, Lat. of life, 407 
Titale, m. It. Lat. of life, 407 
Vitaliana,/. Ger, Lat of life, 407 
Yitalianos, m. Lat of life, 407 
Yital^, m. Rutt. Lat of life, 407 
YiTALis, ffi. Lat, of life, 407 
Vitgeir, tn. Ice. Teu. wise man, ii. 

"^ttore, m. It. Lat conqueror, 407 
Vittoria,/. It. Lat conqueror, 407 
Titus, m. Lat living, 407 
ViviA,/. Lat lively, 407 
Vivian, m. f. Eng. Lat lively, 408 
Viviana,/. It. Lat lively. 408 
Viviano, /. It. JaX. lively, 409 
Vivien, m. Fr. Lat lively, 408 
Vivienne,/. Fr. Lat lively, 408 
Vje&a,/. i2iMs. Slay, faitli, ii. 44ff 
VuLomiB, m. Russ. Slay, ruling the 

world, ii. 450 
Vladisav, m. Serv. Slay, ruling the 

world, ii 450 
ViAoisiAy, m. Ru$$, Slay, ruling the 

world, iL 450 
Vladivoj, m. Russ. Slay. mHng the 

army, ii. 460 
VLU>TSLAy, m. PoL Slav, ruling the 

world, ii. 450 
VuLOisLAVBA, /. Fot Slav. ruling the 

world, iL 450 
Vlaho, m. Hung. Lat babbler, 839 
VlMs, m. Russ. Lat babbler, 88.9 
Vlassij, m. Russ. Lat babbler, 839 
VojciECH, m. Pol. Slav, wairior, ii. 

VojTEOH, m. Bohm, Slay, warrior, ii. 

VojTEH, m. Slav. Slay, warrior, ii. 

Volfgango, m. It. Teu. wdf s progress, 

ii. 269 
Volker, m, Ger, Teu. people's guard, ii 

Volkmar, m. Ger. Teu* people's flune, 


Volguard^ m. Oer. Teu. people's guard, 

ii. 831 
Volgvard, m. Oer. Teu. people's guard, 

ii. 331 
Volodia, m. Russ. Slay, ruling the 

world!, ii 450 
Voloditika, m. Russ. Slav, ruling the 

world, 450 
VoLUNDB, wi. Nor. Teu. artM (?), ii. 

Yortigem, m. Eng. Kelt great long, ii. 

Vortya,/. Lus. Gr. gift of God, 235 
Vratislav, m. Slav. Slav, brilliant fame, 

Vread,/. Erse, Gr. pearl, 268 
Vreneii,/. Swab. Lat. Gr. true image, 

YsEULy, m. iS^ao. Slay, all gloxy, ii. 

YsEvoLOO, m. Slav. Slay, all ruler, ii. 

Yuc, m. Slav. Slay, wolf, 2, ii. 209, 

YuKMiL, m. Slav. Slav, wolf love, ii 

YuKMiB, m, Slav. Slav, wolf peace, ii 

VuKSLAy, m. Slav. Slay, wolf gloiy, ii 

VuLFQAB, m. A.S. Teu. wolf spear, ii 

YuLFHERE, tn. A.S. Teu. wolf wanior, 

ii. 269 
YuLFHiLDA, /. m.A.S, Teu. wolf bat- 
tle maid, ii. 269 
YuLFMAR, m.A.S. Teu. wolf fiune, ii 

YuLFNOT, m. A. S. Teu. wolf violence, 

YuLFSTAN, m. A. S. Teu. wolf stone, 

Vye.f. Fris. wisdom, 248 
Vysfslav, m. Slav. Slay, highest glory, 

Yyyyan,/. Eng. Lat living, 408 


Wahel, m. Rav, Aram, son of fUrrows, 

Wabishaw, m. Red Indian, red leaf, 7 
Wdbm, m. Bav, Aram, son of fturows, 7d 

Waitkus, m. Lith. Slav, warrior, ii. 448 
Wala, m. /^n. Teu. slaughter, ii. 232 
Walaheri, m. Frank. Teu. slaughter 
host, ii. 282 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



Wakmnnd, m. Frank, Ten. slmughter 
protection, ii. 282 

Walaiik, m. Frank. Ten. alanghter 
long, ii. 232 

Walaram, m. Frank. Ten. slaughter 
nven, ii. 282 

Walber, /. Esth. Ten. slaughter pro- 
teetioD, iL 282 

Walbert, m. Ger, Teu. power bright, ii. 

Waldburga,/. Eng. Teu. powerM pro- 
tection,* ii. 421 > 

Waldemak, f». Eng. Ger. Teu. power- 
fdl fame, ii. 421, 460 

Waldheri, tn. Frank. Ten. powerftil 
warrior, iL 420 

Waldl, m. Bav. Teu. will bold, ii. 229 

Waldo, m, Frank. Teu. power, ii. 430 

Waldobert, m. Ger. Ten. power bright, 

Waldrich, m. Ger, Ten. powerful rule, 

Walen, m. Eng. Teu. foreign thief, ii. 

Waleran, m. Flem. Teu. or Lat healthy, 

Walfrid, m. Ger, Teu. powerM peace, 

WalUnseh, m. Lith. Lat. healthy, 827 

Walmar, m, Ger, Ten. slaughter fame, 
u. 282 

Walpert, m. Ger. Ten. slaughter bright, 

Waffli f. Bap, Ten, powerful protec- 
tion, u. 421 

WaiporOf f. Ltu, Teu. slaughter pro- 
tection, ii. 421 

Walpurd, /. Flem, Ten. slaughter pro- 
tection, ii 421 

Walpurg, /. Ger, Ten. slaughter pro- 
tection, ii. 421 

Walram, m. Oer, Ten. slaoghter rayen, 

Walstan, m. Eng. Ten. slaughter stone, 

Walter, m. Eng. Ten. powerful warrior, 

WaUfrid, m. 0, Oer. Ten. powerful 
peace, iL421 

Waltheof, m. Eng. Teu. foreign thief, 

Walther, m. Ger. Ten. powerfW war- 
rior, ii. 420 
Waltier, m. 0. Fr. Ten. powerful war- 
rior, iL 420 
WaUinsh, m. Lett. Lat. healthy, 327 
WaUl, m. Bav. Ten. powerful warrior^ 

ii. 420 
Walwyn, m. Eng. Kelt hawk of battle, 
J Wamba, m. Span. Teu. belly, ii. 426 
-^WanderSf f. Scot. Kelt, white wave, iL 
Wakakd, m. Qer. Teu. protecting, ii. 

Warmund, m. Qtr, Teu. protecting 

guard, ii. 412 
Warner, m. Eng. Teu. protecting war- 
rior, ii. 412 
Wamot m. Ger. Ten. protecting, iL 412 
Wamfrid, m. Ger. Teu. protecting 

peace, ii. 412 
Wabneboid, m. Oer, Teu. protecting 

prince, ii. 412 
Warren, m. Eng, Ten. protecting friend, 

Wantutru, f. Melanerian^ little chat- 
tering bird, 10 
WoBtel, m. Ban, Gr. venerable, 252 
Wat, m. Eng. Ten. powerftil warrior, 

Watagimat, m. Bed Indian, eagle's 

nest, 10 
Water, m. Eng. Teu. powerftil warrior, 

Watersj m, Lett. Ten. powerftd warrior, 

Watier, m. 0. Fr. Teu. powerfbl war- 

rior, ii. 421 
WatUe, m, Swisi, Teu. powerful war- 
rior, ii. 421 
Wattles, m, Eng, Teu. powerful war- 

rior, ii. 221 
Watty, ii. 221 
Wawyn, m. Eng, Kelt hawk of batUe, 

u. 189 
Wawel, m. Boo, Aram, son of fUrrows, 

• This, on« of the En^sh mlBsionary mm prinoesMi in Owmvoj, if ib« pfttroness of the 
oalebrmted Yalporgianacht. She died ai Heidenheim, and her right feast is on the 25th of 
Febnuury ; but being translated to Criohatadt on the lat of May, and minoed into numerous 
lelloa, the latter day waa also hera, and strangely became connected with the witchea* aabbafh. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Wayland, m. Eng, Ten. artfol (?), ii. 226 
Weigelf m. Fris. Ten. warring, ii. 409 
Wbaltheof, mA,S. Teu. foreign thief, 

ii. 232 
Welf, m. Oer. Teu. wolf, ii. 269 
Welfkard, m. Ger, Teu. wolf strong, ii 

WenceslauB, m. Eng, SUv. crown gloiy, 

WendeUf, m. Oer, Ten. wandering 
WendelUtf. (^^- Teu. wandering 
Wendelgard, /. m. C^r. Teu. wandering 

Wendelgar, m, Oer. Teu. wandering 

Wendelin, m. G«r. Teu. wanderer 
Wendeline, /. Gcr. Teu. wanderer 
Wenefride, /. Eng. Kelt, white wave, 

ii 134 
Wendis, m, Lett, Slav, ruling glory, iL 

Wemelj m. Oer, Slav, crown gloiy, ii. 

Werburgha, /. Eng. Teu. powerful 

protection, iL 421 
WerlandSt m, Lett, Teu. adventuring 

life, ii. 436 
Werner, m. Oer, Tea. protecting army, 

Wernhabd, m. Oer, Teu. protecting 

firmly, ii. 412 
Webnheb, m. Oer, Teu. protecting 

army, ii. 412 
WetUt m. Finn, Teu. peace ruler, ii. 

Wetukka, m, Finn. Teu. peace ruler, ii. 

Wiartf m, Fris, Teu. war firmness, ii. 

Wieho^ m, Fris, Teu. war bright, ii 409 
Wido, m, 0, Oer. Teu. life, 409 
Wig, m,A.S. Teu. war, ii. 409 
WiOAND, m. Oer. Teu. warring, ii. 409 
WioBALD, m, Oer, Teu. war prince, ii. 

WioBEBT, m, Oer, Teu. war bright, ii. 

WioBUBOA,/. €^. Ten. war protection, 

Wige^ m, Oer. Teu. warring, ii. 409 
WioHABD, m, Oer. Teu. war firm, ii. 

WioHEUf , m. Oer. Ten. war helmet, iL 

WiOHEE, m. Oer, Teu. warrior, iL 410 

WioLAP, /. Oer. Teu. war relic, iL 410 

WiouND, /. Oer. Teu. war snake, iL 

WioKAKN, m. Oer. Teu. war man, ii. 

WiQMAB, m. Oer, Teu. war fiaume, li. 

WioKAM, m. Oer. Teu. war raven, iL 410 

WihU, m, Lett. Lat life, 409 

Wike,f. Lett. Gr. wisdom, 243 

Wilbrand, m. Oer, Teu. willing sword, 
ii. 227 

Wilfred, m. Eng. Teu. resolute peace, 

WiLPRiTH, m. £fl^. Teu. resolute peace, 

Wilfroy, m. Eng. Teu. resolute peace, 
ii. 227 

WiLHELM, m. SwiMSy Oer. Teu. helmet of 
resolution, ii. 229 

Wilhelmina, /. Eng. Teu. helmet of re- 
solution, ii. 229 

Wilhelmine, /. Oer, Teu. helmet of re- 
solution, ii. 229 

Wtlipf m. Fris. Gr. horse lover, 187 

WiUps, m. Lett, Gr. horse lover, 187 

WilU m. Eng. Teu. helmet of r^olu- 
tion, ii. 229 

Willaume, m. 0. Fr, Teu. helmet of re- 
solution, ii. 228 

WiUet m. Stoiss, Teu. helmet of reso- 
lution, ii. 228 

Willebald, m. DuUh, Teu. resolute 
prince, IL 228 

Wn.T.EHAD, m. G«f. Teu. resolute battle, 
ii. 227 

Willelme, m, Fr. Teu. hehnet of re- 
solution, ii. 228 

Willan, m. Lus. Netherlands, Teu. 
helmet of resolution, ii. 228 

Willemin, /. DtUeJ^ Teu. helmet of re- 
solution, ii. 229 

WiUen^e, f. Dvich, Teu. helmet of 
resolution, ii. 229 

William, m. Eng. Teu. helmet of re- 
solution, 10, ii. 228 

Williamina, /. Eng, Ten. hornet of re- 
solution, ii. 229 

WrLLiBALD, m, Oer.Ten. resolute prince, 

WiiiLiBEKT, m. Oer, Teu. bright will, iL 

WiLLiBROED, m. A. S. Teu. 227 

uigiiizea oy 'v_jv^v_/ 




WiLUBUKo, /. Oer, Ten. resolute pro- 
tectioD, ii. 328 

WiUie, m. ScoL Teu. helmet of reso- 
lation, ii. 228 

WiLLiGis, m. Oer, Ten. pledge of reso- 
hition, ii. 226 

WiLLiHABo, HI. Ger. Tea. willing firm- 
ness, iL^ 

WiLUHXsi, m. Oer. Tea. resolate war- 
rior, ii. 227 

Wn.T.nrn.p, /. Frank, Tea. resolute 
battle maid, ii. 227 

WiLLiHoiJ>, m. A, S, Tea. resolute 
power, ii. 227 

WnxacAB, m. Oer. Tea. resolate flune, 
ii. 228 

WnjjBAif, m. Oer. Tea. willing raven, 

WnxiRAT, m. Oer. Tea. willing resolate 
cooncil, iL 227 

WnjjRiK, m. Oer. Tea. willing reso- 
late ruler, ii. 227 

WiUo, m. Fris. Tea. willing helmet, ii. 

WnjjwoLF, m. Oer. Tea. willing wolf, 
ii. 227 

WiOy, m, Eng. Tea. helmet of resolu- 
tion, ii. 228 

WiLMAB, m. Oer. Tea. willing £une, ii. 

WUmett, f. Eng. Teu. helmet of reso- 
lution, iL 229 

WnjfOD, m. Oer. Tea. resolute mood, 
ii. 230 

Wflmot, m. Eng. Teu. resolute mood, 
H. 280 

WiLBicH, m. Oer, Teu. resolute ruler, 
ii. 227 

WiLTBUD, /. Oer. Teu. resolute batUe 
maid, ii. 228 

Winfred, m. Eng. Teu. friend of peace, 

WnmoTH, m. A. 8, Teu. friend of 
peace, ii. 184, 425 

Wingallok, m. Bret. Kelt white, iL 

Wingar, m. Oer, Teu. friend of war, ii. 

WiaiBALD, m. A. 8. Tea. friend of 
Talour, iL 424 

Winifrid, /. Eng. Kelt white stream, 

WiHMAB, m. Oer. Tea. friend of &me, 

WnvBAD, m. Oer, Teu. friend's coundl, 

WiMKicH, m, Oer. Teu. friend of rale, 

Winny,/. Ir. Kelt. Ounine, ii. 184 
Wippert, m. Oer. Tea. war bright, iL 410 
Wippoldt m. Oer, Teu. war prince, ii. 

Wiremot m. Maoris Teu. will helmet, 11 
Wisdom, f. Eng. 
Wishard, m. Oer. Teu. wise strength, iL 

WiTOAB, m. Oer. Teu. wood spear, ii. 

Witiza, m. Span. Teu. wood dweller, iL 

Witold, m. Oer. Teu. wood power, iL 

WiTOLF, m. Oer. Teu. wood wolf, iL 289 
WmtAM, m. Oer, Teu. forest raven, ii. 

WiTTEKHfD, m. Oer, Teu. forest dweller, 

Wittich, wi. Oer. Teu. wood dweller, ii. 

Wittig, TO. Oer. Teu. wood dweller, ii. 

Wladimir, m. Pol, Slav, ruling peace, 

ii. 450 
WladUf m. Lett. Slav, ruling glozy, iL 

Wladislay, m. PoU Slav, ruling glozy, 

Wolbrecht, m. Oer. Teu. wolf bright- 
ness, ii. 268 
Wolder, m. Duteh, Teu. powerftQ war- 
rior, iL 421 
Wolf, to. Oer. Teu. wolf, 2, iL 268 
Wolfier, m. Oer. Teu. wolf army, ii. 268 
WoLFOAX o, TO. Oer, wolfs progress, ii. 

WoLFHABT,TO. Oer, Teu. wolfs firmness, 

WoLFMAB, TO. Oer. Teu. wolf fiune, ii. 

WoLFiiAi>,TO. Oer, Teu. wolfs advice, ii. 

WoLFBAMM, TO. Oer. Teu. wolf raven, 

WoLFBicH, TO. Oer, Teu. wolf ruler, iL 

Wouter, TO. Dttte^Teu. powerftd warrior, 

Woreola,/. Bohm. Lat bear, 411 

uiguizeu oy ^OOglC 



Wridriki, m. Lett, Tea. peace roler, ii. 

Wruzit, m. Lett.TevL. peace raler, ii. 195 
WuLFSTAN, m.A.8. Tea. wolf stone, ii. 


Wiirsla,/. Lu8, Lat. bear, 411 
Wynt jn. Oer. Teu. waning, 

Wygard, m. FrU. Tea. warring, 


Xakthippe,/. Or. yellow horse, 184 
Xayeb, m. Spcm, Arab, bright, ii. 300 
Xavier, m. Fr . Arab, bright, iL 300 
Xaverie,/. Span. Arab, bright, ii. 200 
XaTeric, m. FaU. Arab, bright, ii. 200 
Xarerio, m. It. Arab, bright, ii. 200 
Xaveiy, m. Pol Arab, bright, iL 200 

Xema,/i2uM. Gr. hospitality, 217 
Xerxes, m. £fi^. Pers. renerable king, 

Ximen, m. £fpan. ii. 258 
Ximena, /. Span. ii. 258 
Ximon, m. Span. Heb. obedient, 59 
Xiste, m. Ft. Lat. sixth, 300 

Fo^o, m. £f/Nm. Heb. snpplanter, 58 
Yatmundf tn. Dan, Tea. happy protec- 
tion, ii. 342 
Testin, m. Welsh, Lat. jost, 308 
Yngvab, wi. Nor. Tea. Ing*8 warrior, ii. 

Yngvb, m. Nor. Tea. ii. 247 
Ynyr, tn. Welshy Lat. honourable, 894 
Yohinde,/. Prov. Lat. violet (?), 423 
Yolette,/. -Pr. Lat. violet (?), 423 
ronoartii, m. TFef«/i, Tea. nappy gaard, 

Ytabeltf. Span. Heb. God's oath, 90 

Ysaie, m. Fr. . Heb. salvation of the 

Lord, 119 
Yseulte, /. Fr. Kelt, spectacle, iL 145 
Ysonde, /. Fr. Kelt, spectacle, iL 

Ysolt,/. Enff. Kelt, spectacle, iL 145 
Yueins, m. Fr. Kelt, young warrior, iL 

Yvain, m. Bret. Kelt, young warrior, 

207, u. 139 
Yvon, m. Ir. Tea. archer, ii. 250 
Ywain, m. Welsht Kelt, young warrior, 



Zacarias, m. Span. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zaccaria, m. It. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Zach, m. Eng. Bav. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zacharia, m. Ger. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zachabuh, m. Eng. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zacharias, m. Port. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zacharie, m. Fr. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Zaohary, m. Eng. Heb. remembrance 

^f ♦>»A Lord, 124 

Zacharyasz, m. Pol. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zach^e, m. Fr, Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Zacheo, m.*/t. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
ZacherSf m. Bav. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zachereis, m. Bav. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
ZacheSy m. Bav. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Zacheo, m. Port. Heb. remembrance of 

the Lord, 124 
Zaccheus, m. Eng. Oer. Heb. remem- 
brance of the Lord, 124 




Zaidfie./.JFV.ii. 477 

Zakftriftfl, m. E$th, Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord 
ZackeHna, f. Bu8$. Heb. snpplanter, 

Zakharias, m. Bvmg. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zakheus, m. Sung, remembrance of the 

Lord, 124 
Zako, 911. lU. Heb. remembrance of the 

Lord, 124 
Zan, m. Dantzig^ Gr. Chrifitian, 240 
Zan, m. Gr. Heb. snpplanter, 82 
Zaneta,/. Buss. Heb. grace of the Lord, 

Zaqneo, m. Span. Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zara, /. Arab, Heb. princess, 48 
Za$$o, m. FrU. Gr. Christian, 240 
Zebnlon, m. £n^. Heb. dwelling, 16 
Zeehariah, m. Eng, Heb. remembrance 

of the Lord, 124 
Zedekiah, m. Eng, Heb. jostice of the 

Lord. 120 
Zedena,/. 6^. Lat of Sidon, 412 
Zeeb, m. Heb. wolf, 182 
Zeenab, /. Arab, father's ornament, 149 
Zeldob, m, Slav, wishing peace 
ZeUnde, conquering snake, ii. 309 
Zeuslat, m Slav, wishing gloiy 
ZsNAiDA, /. Ruu, Gr. daughter of Zeus, 

Zenaide,/. Fr. Gr. daughter of Zeus, 

Zenevieva,/. Bus$, Kelt, white wave, ii. 

Zbno, m. Gr. from Zeus, 148 
Zbhobia, /. Lat, Arab, father's orna- 
ment, 148 
Zenobie,/. Fr. Arab. Cither's ornament, 

Zenobio, m, Milan. Gr. from Zeus, 148 
Zenobius, m. Lat. 148 
Zehon, m. Or. Gr. from Zeus, 148 
Zenovia,'/. RtM. Arab, father's orna- 
ment, 148 
Zehoyia, /. Bu88, Slav, goddess of 

hunting, ii. 446 
Zenz,f. Bav. Lat. increasing, 393 
Zai2, m. J^av. Lat. conquering, 406 
Zenzel, m. Bav. Lat. conquering, 406 
Zentl,/. Ban. Lat. increasing, 393 
Zephaniah, m. Eng, Heb. protected of 

the Lord, 124 

Zephjrine, /. Fr. Gr. like the zephyr, 

Zerah, m. Eng, Heb. rising of Hght, 

Zerdosht, m. P«rf. Zend, gold star, 134 
Zerubabel, m. Eng, Heb. bom at Babel, 

ZUky Slav, Ten. ft«e, ii. 199 
Zezil^a,/. i?uM. Lat. blind, 811 
Zikmmd, m. Bo^m. Teu. conquering 

protection, ii. 309 
ZiUa,/. F^ Lat. 312 
ZiUola,/. F«i. Lat.312 
ZiUah,/. En^. Heb. shadow, 42 
Zinevra, /. Ven. Kelt, white wave, ii. 

ZtRosLAv, m. acorn glory 
ZiVAK, m. Slav, living 
ZiVANA,/. living 
Zizi.f, liuii. Arab, fiithef s ornament, 

148, ii. 446 
Zlata,/. Slov. Slav, gold, ii. 455 
Zlatana, /. Slov, Slav, gold, ii. 455 
Zlatibob, m. iSlov. Slav, gold, ii. 455 
Zlatko, m. Slov. Slav, gold, ii. 455 
Zlatqje, m, Slov. Slav, gold love, ii. 

Zlatouttb, m. Slov. Slav, gold love, ii. 

Zlatoslav, m. Slov. Slav, gold love, ii. 

Zlatoust, m. Bum. Slav, gold mouth, 

ZoB,/. Fr. Gr. life, 41 
Zofia, /. Pol. Gr. wisdom, 242 
Zoia,/. i2tiM. Gr. life. 250 
ZomeliSf m. Lett, Heb. asked of God, 

ZoTiff. Fr, Or, canying .ears of com, 

ZoBA, /. lU. Skv. dawn, 250, 356, ii 

Zorana./, lU. Slav, dawn, 856, iL 441 
ZorCtf. III. Heb. princess, 48, ii. 441 
Zorica,/. Slav, dawn, 366, ii 441 
ZoKisLAVA, /. Hi, Slav, dawn of glory, 

Zoroaster, m. Eng, Pers. golden star (?), 

Zo9aJ, Swi$$, Heb. lily, 122 
ZoselJ. Swi$$, Heb. lily, 122 
ZosiaJ, Pol, Gr. wisdom, 243 
Ziiga, m. Hxmg, Tea. oonqaering pro- 
tection, ii 309 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


ZsigtMtnd, m. Hung, Tea. oonquering 

protectioD, ii 809 
Zsoflie,/. Hung. Gr. wisdom, 248 
Zso/e,/, Hung, Gr. wisdom, 248 
Z8usane,f. LeU, Heb. lilj, 122 

Ziusanndtf, Hung, Heb. lilj, 122 
ZwETLANA, /. Kua. SUiY. sUr, ii 

Zygmunt, m. Pol, Heb. oonquering 

protection, ii.* 309.* 

* ETeipr foim of erery nmm« glTen in the ind«x ii not to be found in tho text ; bat in 
ftll oases where a referenoe is giren, the histocy, u fsr u Moerisinable, of the leading portion oi 
the oziginsl name will be found. 


Vol. I.— Page 11, line 4,— for * Usatabnla,' — * Usiyabala.' 
Page 204, — ^for 'lion fSune,' — 'man's &me.' 

Vol. II.— Page 39,— for • Alnir,*— 'Alain.' 

Page 99,— for ' Bethoi,'— ' Bethoc.' 

Page 214,— for * Tyre, in Norway, is the only direct one,' — ' Tyre and 
Thyra, in the North, are the only direct ones.' 


by Google 




Much haa been written upon the Surname, a comparatively 
modem invention, while the individual, or a« we term it, the 
M Christian name, has barely received, here and there, a casual 
notice from English authors, and has seldom been treated of 
collectively or comparatively. Yet there is much that is ex- 
tremely curious and suggestive in the rise and signification 
of the appellations of men and women, their universal or 
partial popularity, the alterations by which they have beai 
adapted to different languages, their familiar abbreviations, 
the patronymics formed from them, and the places or articles 
called from them. In fact, we shall find the history, the 
religion, and the character of a nation stamped upon the 
individuals in the names which they bear. 

It is to Christian names, properly so called, that our 
attention will chiefly be directed. Other names, not ac- 
knowledged at any time as baptismal, or only given so 
exceptionally as not to deserve notice, are here omitted, or 
only treated of when their analogy is needed to illustrate 
the history of a true Christian name. 

The original proper names of men and women arose— 
First, from some circumstance connected with the birth, 
such as Esau, hairy ; Jacob, taking by the heel ; Agrippa, 
bom with the feet foremost. 
Secondly, from the complexion, e.g.^ Edom, red ; Flavins 
VOL. I. B ^ . 

uigiiized by VjOOQiC 


and Fulvius, yellow; Don, brown; Buadh, red; Boidh, 
yellow ; Blanche, fair. 

Thirdly, from the qualities desired for the child, such as 
David, beloved ; the Persian Aspamitas and Greek Philippos, 
both lovers of horses; the Keltic Eochaidh, a horseman; 
the Teutonic Eadgifu, happy gift ; the Slavonic Przemyszl, 
the thoughtful. 

Fourthly, from an animal, Deborah, the bee ; Jonah, Co- 
lumba, Golubica, the dove ; Zeeb, Lycos, Lupus, Wolf, Vuk, 
all signifying that strangely popular wild beast the wolf. 
Fifthly, from a weapon, as the Teuton Gar, a spear. 
Sixthly, from a jewel. Mote Mahal, in Arabic, pearl of the 
harem ; Margarite, a pearl in Greek ; Stein, a stone or jewel 
in Teutonic. 

Seventhly, religious names, dedicating the child to the 
Divinity, such as Ishmael, heard of Grod; Elijah, God the 
Lord ; and among idolaters, Artemidorus, gift of Artemis ; 
Jovianus, belonging to Jupiter; Brighid, the Lrish goddess 
of smiths and poets ; Thorgils, Thor's pledge. 

To these we may add a few names of flowers, chiefly 
borne by women, and always indicating a poetical nation, 
such as Susanna, Lilias, Rhode, Rose, and the Slavonic 
Smiljana, the amaranth, a description of name never found 
among the unimaginative Romans. 

Also a few indicating times of deep sorrow and distress, 
such as Beriah, son of evil, named when it went ill with 
his father Ephraim; Jabez, sorrow; Ichabod, the glory is 
departed. These being of ill omen, never prevailed among 
the joyous Greeks; but among the quick-feeling Kelts we 
find Una, famine, and Ita, thirsty, recording, no doubt, times 
of sorrow. Also Posthumus and Tristan, though not originally 
bearing the meaning since attributed to them, and Dolores, 
a name of Spanish Roman Catholic growth, have all been 
applied to express the mournful circumstances of some * child 
d misery, baptized in tears.' 


by Google 


Natural defects have likewise furnished names, such as 
Balbus, the stammerer ; the Irish Dorenn, the sullen ; and 
Unchi, the contentious. These are most common among 
the Romans, owing to their habit of continuing a father's 
name, however acquired, to the son. And the Romans 
likewise stand alone in their strange and uncomplimentary 
fashion of giving individual names from numbers, one in 
which they have never been imitated, except now and then, 
where the number of a family has become so remarkable 
as to be deemed worthy of commemoration in the names 
of the younger children. 

The invention of original names usually takes place in the 
early stages of a language, for a preference soon arises for 
established names, already borne by kindred, and as the 
spoken tongue drifts away from the primitive form, the pro- 
per name becomes a mere appellative, with the original mean- 
ing forgotten, and often with a new one incorrectly applied 
to it. The names in popular use almost always belong to a 
more ancient language than that spoken by the owners; or 
else they are imported from some other nation, and adapted 
to the mouths of thase who use them. Flexibility of speech 
is only acquired at a very early age, and persons who have 
never spoken more than their mother tongue, have no power 
to catch foreign sounds, and either distort them, or assimi- 
late them to words of their own. The ear catches the word 
imperfectly, the lips pronounce it after their own fashion, 
and the first writer who hears it, sets it down to the best 
of his abilities, to be read, as it may chance, by others, igno- 
rant of the sound the letters were meruit to represent, and 
thus striking out absolute novelties. Even where it travels 
by the medium of writing, the letters of one language are so 
inadequate to express the sounds of another, that great 
changes take place in pronunciation, even while the spdling 
remains identical, and these become visible in the popular 





Thus a foreign conquest, or the fusion of one nation into 
another, by introducing two orders of names to the same 
country, and likewise breaking up and intermixing their 
two original forms of speech, leaves the names untouched 
belonging to the dead language, while the spoken tongue goes 
on living, growing, and altering. 

The Hebrew is an instance of this process. It was a 
living tongue up to the Babylonish captivity, and constantly 
formed new names from the ordinary speech of the people; 
but when the Jews returned, they spoke the Aramean dialect ; 
the old Hebrew was dead; th6y still called their childr^ by 
mangled and contracted Hebraisms, inherited from their fore- 
fathers, but were in general not aware of their meaning, and 
were willing to give them Grreek terminations to suit the 
literary taste of the east. That there was no vigour to 
throw out new names, is attested by the very scanty num- 
ber of Aramean derivation. Yet it is these corrupted Hebrew 
names, marred by Aramean pronunciation, by Greek writing, 
and by the speech of every country, that are the most uni- 
versaUy loved and honored in every Christian land. 

Greek may be said to have never died, and it has, from 
first to last, been the most vigorous of all languages in 
creating and spreading names, which are almost all easily 
explicable. It is a country, which, though frequently con- 
quered, has by its glorious literature, both pagan and 
Christian, gained wide dominion for its language, and even 
the present vernacular of the peasant and sailor is not so 
decayed but that they can comprehend a line of Homer or 
a verse of St. John. Thus there is a long list of Greek 
names ever new, with comparatively few importations from 
other tongues, and for the most part conveying their mean- 
ing and augury. 

On the contrary, before Latin was bom, the dialects that 
had produced Latin names were lost, and those who, by in- 
duce, bore the scanty stock that came down to them, 

uigiiized by VjOOQ IC 


were often at a loss for their meaning; nor in general is 
it so much the names actually borne by ancient Romans, 
as appellations formed out of tiie Latin language, that have 
been the Latin contribution to Christian nomenclature. The 
universal victors chiefly spread Roman names by adopting 
the conquered as their clients, and conferring their own no- 
mina when they bestowed the right of citizenship. 

Keltic still lives in its comers of the world, but invents 
no firesh epithets; it is as much as it can do to explain the 
old ones, which have for the most part CQntinued in use in 
their remote comers, but usually each with a name by the 
side from some more fashionable tongue, supposed to trans- 
late it to the civilized ear. For instance, Tadhg, which 
means in Erse, a poet, is called in English speech, league 
OT Thady ; and then further transformed into the Aramean, 
Thaddeus (praise) ; or the Greek, Timothy (honour God) ; 
with an utter loss of the true association. 

The Teutonic names are taken from the elder branches of 
the Teuton languages, before they became commingled in 
different degrees with the later progeny of Latin, and with 
one another. We here use the word Teutonic, because it is 
the most convenient term by which to express the class of 
languages spoken by the great Germanic family, though we 
are aware that it is not absolutely correct as a class-appella- 
tion including all. Iceland and Scandinavia use their ancient 
tongue, but slightly altered, and there may be found the true 
forms and interpretations of the greater number of the ap- 
pellations in common use. German continues the old High 
German, but is no safe guide to the meaning of names 
which belong to a much earlier form than that in which 
we now see it, cmd it has only created a few modem ones 
of its own. Anglo-Saxon explains most of its own names, 
but not reliably without comparison with the other branches. 
It was a language killed by the Norman conquest, just as 
lie Norse of the invaders had been previously smothered 


by their conquest of Neustria, and the English which grew 
up among them used more of the Frank names adopted by 
the Normans in France, than of its own Anglo-Saxon ones ; 
and only after the Reformation was there an attempt, and 
that not a very successful one, at the fabrication of native 
English names. France kept Frank names, and clipped 
them while ceasing to speak Frankish, and using minced 
Latin. Lombardy, too, used the old heroic names of the 
fair-haired barbarians, even while its speech was constant 
to the flowing Latiij ; and Spain has much more of the no- 
menclature than of the tongue of her Goths. 

Slavonian has corrupted itself, but become Christian, and 
while living on the eastern borders of the European common- 
wealth, has sent a few names of great leaders into the gene- 
ral stock of nomenclature, which has been formed by con- 
tributions frem these six original branches, with a few chance 
additions from other quarters. 

Each nation had a stock of its own at first, but as tribes 
became mixed, their names were interchanged, and varied 
by the pronunciation of those who adopted them ; and when 
Christianity produced real union, making the saint of one 
country the glory and example of the entire Church, the 
names of the holy and the great became a universal link, 
and a token of the brotherhood established from land to land. 

It was not at first, however, that this fusion of names 
commenced. The first Christians were Jews, with Hebrew, 
Aramean, or Greek names of their own, and their converts 
already bore Greek or Latin appellations, which were sel- 
dom altered. In the case of the Romans, children almost 
necessarily succeeded to family names, and the Greeks alone 
could at first exercise any choice, forming words of Christian 
meaning for their children, or bringing in those of their 
revered instructors in the faith; and afterwards, persons 
using the Latin tongue, but not encumbered with the nu- 
merous names of a citizen, followed their example. The 

uigiiizea oy 'v_jv^v^ 



Teutons, when converted, were baptized by the names they 
already bore, and gave the like to their children ; nor does 
it seem to have been till the older forms of the languages 
were expiring, that the introduction of old saintly names 
became by any means frequent. When names were mere 
appellations, not descriptions, a favourite character was 
sought for in the legends of the saints, or the child was 
dedicated to, or placed under the protection of, the patron 
whose name he bore. The theory was, that the festival in 
the calendar on which the birth took place, established the 
claim of the infant to the care of the patron, and thus fixed 
the name, an idea which still prevails in the Greek church, 
but it was more usual to select a favourite patron, and instead 
of keeping the child's birth-day, to feast him upon the holy 
day of the saint, a custom still observed in Roman Catholic 

The system of patron saints was greatly established by 
the veneration of relics. It was the presence of a supposed 
fragment of the body that was imagined to secure the 
protection of the saint to country, to city, to village, or 
family ; and often the ^ translation ' of a relic can be traced 
as the seed which has sown a whole crop of names sud- 
denly bursting out all over the country, as the Diego of 
Spain, the Andreas of Flanders, the Marco of Venice, the 
Adrianus of Holland, the Radegonde of Poitiers, the Anne 
of Prague. Or the prominence of a fresh doctrine is shown 
in nomenclature, as by the outburst of Scripture names 
in all Calvinist countries; so that in French pedigrees, 
Huguenotism may be traced by . the Isaacs and other patri- 
archal apparitions in the genealogy, and Puritanism has in 
England produced the quaint Old Testament appellations to 
be found in every parish register. On the other hand, the 
increasing devotion to the Blessed Virgin is indicated by 
die exaggerated use of Mary in Roman Catholic lands, the 
epithets coupled with it showing the peculiar phases of the 

uiguizeu oy ^OOglC 


homage paid to her, and ahnost ganging the amount of 
superstition in the country. 

Beligion has thus been in general the primary guide to 
individual nomenclature, and next in order must be ranked 
the family feeling that renders Christian names ahnost 
hereditary. In most places where primitive customs are 
kept up, it is an almost compulsory token of respect to 
call the eldest son after his paternal grandfather. This has 
indeed t3een almost universal. The ancient Greeks always 
did so unless the grandfather were alive, when the child was 
thought to take his place by bearing his name, and thus to 
bring death upon him. The Arabs have had the habit from 
time immemorial, and as parents are not called by their own 
name, but the father or mother of such a one, a young 
boy is always addressed as Abu, the father of his future 
son, who is to be called after his grandfather. An English 
lady at Jerusalem, whose husband's name was James, and 
that of her son Alexander, was always called by the Arabs 
Om Iskendar, and her child Abu lakobi. Parallel to this 
was Mrs. Livingstone's negro name of Ma Robert, the mo- 
ther of her little son. 

In Scotland and in the north of England, the paternal 
grandfather and grandmother have namesakes in the eldest 
son and daughter, then comes the turn of the grand-parents 
on the mother's side, then of the parents themselves, after 
which fancy may step in. In Germany the same practice 
prevails as regards the two eldest ; iwid likewise in the south 
of France, where the child, whatever its sex, bears the grand- 
father's name, thus accounting for various uncouth feminines ; 
but though thus christened, the two eldest children are never 
so called, but always by the diminutive of their surname. 

Nothing but a death brings any variety in the regular 
course of names in families where these customs have been 
kept up; but when a child dies it is reckoned of evil omen 
to call the next after it. 


by Google 


However, distmgaished, or wealthy, or beloved god- 
parents often interfered with these r^olar successions, and 
in this manner queens have been the great conductors of 
female names, bestowing them on their nobility, from whom 
they spread to the commonalty. 

Literature requires considerable cultivation in a country 
before it spreads many names. It gave some in the latter 
days of Greece, and more after the old hereditary customs 
of Rome were broken up; then, during the dark ages, its 
influence was lost, except at Byzantium; and only when the 
chivahrous romance became fashionable, did a few poetic 
knights and dames call their children after the heroes of 
the Round Table, or the paladins of Charlemagne, and then 
it must have been in defiance of the whole system of patron 
saints until the convenient plan of double names, first dis- 
covered by the Germans and French, enabled them to unite 
fancy and dedication, or compliment. 

The revival of learning in the fifteenth century, how- 
ever, filled Italy with classical names, some of which spread 
into France, and a few into Germany ; but as a general 
rule in modem times, France, England, and America, have 
been the countries whose nomenclature has been most af- 
fected by literature; France, especially so, the prevalence 
of different tastes and favourite novels being visible from the 
fifteenth century downwards, through its Arcadian, its Au- 
gustan, its Infidel, its Revolutionary periods ; while England, 
since the Reformation, has slightly partaken of all these 
tastes in turn, but with her own hereditary fashions and 
religious influences mingling with them; and America ex- 
aggerates ev^ variety in her mixed population. 

Savage nations who have any imagination in their com- 
position generally call themselves after the grander animals 
or phenomena of nature in their country, or from some 
point of personal appearance. The poetical names of the 
Red Indiwis are well known — Minnehaha, laughing water, 


the heroine of Longfellow's poem ; Watapinat, Eagle's Nest ; 
Wabishaw, the Red Leaf; Opan Tanga, Great Elk; MaW- 
hooskan, the White Cloud, and the like. Near Hudson's 
Bay, the Indian women are usually called from the martin. 
White Martin, Black Martin, Martin's Head. 

The KaflBrs give descriptive names intended to be of 
good omen, such as Umali, money; Umfae, a boy; or in 
remembrance of the time of their birth — thus, a child bom 
when the lung sickness was devastating the cattle at Natal 
was called by the name of Lung sick. It is the same with 
the Melanesian races. A girl from the Loyalty isles in the 
Pacific was Wasi tu tru, or little chattering bird. 

Such names as these, usually long and compound, (for it 
is a curious fact that the more uncivilized the nation the 
more polysyllabic the names), are insufiFerable to the rude 
and contemptuous sailors and colonists with whom these 
nations first come in contact, and Jack, Dick, or Tom, are 
sure to be applied by Englishmen to such natives as come 
into intercourse with these first settlers, and the habit of 
using significant names is rapidly dropped in favour of al- 
most any word picked up from the civilized man. A Kaffir 
boy was called Skellum^ the Natal patois of the Dutch schdmj 
a rascal, and a man who had been in the Gape corps, called 
his children by the words of command, Right about face, 
and Left shoulder forward ! 

When Christianity is brought in, missionaries have usually 
preferred giving what they consider as truly Christian names 
in baptism, as marking the line more distinctly between 
the savage and the convert, but 'as the sounds are often un- 
pronounceable by the native tongue, fresh forms are pro- 
duced, as, in New Zealand where the Maories being unable to 
pronounce 2/, call Lot, Rota; Philemon, Pirimona; William, 
Wiremo; and the Kaffirs of Natal, with an opposite diffi- 
culty call Harry, Hali ; Mary, Mali. 

Some missionaries however give a convert a name of 

J DV "^wJ V^V_/ 



Christian signification in its own language, as of twins bom 
to a Kaffir catechist, one, baptized at the point of death, was 
called in Kaffir, *He is going away;' the other, who was 
likely to live, * The Preacher.' Usatabula, One who rejoices, 
was another Kaffir convert. 

In every intelligent nation the giving of the name has 
always been regarded as a solemnity, often accompanied 
with a religious rite. 

With the Hebrews, circumcision was the period of giving 
the name to a child as a token of his being then admitted 
into the covenant made with Abraham and his descendants. 
The rite was usually performed by a priest, but the name 
was uttered by the father, and the solemnity was fixed at 
the eighth day after birth, by the original institution. 

The Arabs derived the custom from Abraham, though with 
msmy tribes it is deferred till the thirteenth year, the time 
at which Ishmad was circumcised. Other eastern nations have 
practised the same ceremony, deriving it, some from Maho- 
metanism, some from remote tradition ; and the Abyssinians, 
among many other Jewish customs, both circumcise and 
baptize. In fact, the Semitic and Hamitic tiations may all 
be broadly classed as circumcised, the descendants of Japhet 
as nncircumcised. 

And just as the practice of circumcision seems to have 
been already known, when divinely adopted as the mark of 
the covenant, so among the remaining nations, the naming of 
children was usually accompanied with a bathing in water. 

Greeks were named by their fathers at a solemn feast 
given on the 5th, 7th, or loth day of their lives. Romans 
inherited at least one name; but their own individual prse- 
nomen was in early times solemnly bestowed at fourteen, 
when they ceased to wear the btdla or hollow golden ball sus- 
pended from their neck, and assumed the toga virilis of white 
with a narrow purple hem ; but in later times, the name was 
imposed on boys on the ninth, on girls on the eighth, day, 


and with a bathing in water, whence this day was called, 
dies lustricus. 

The northern nations were wont — on the infant being pre- 
sented to its father — to dip it at once into water, and mark 
it with the sign of Thorns hammer, as its future name was 

So again the Buddhists of the east wash the child while 
they give the name, and thus the Portuguese priests who first 
visited them were led to believe their whole system a du^- 
bolical parody of Christianity. 

And as Baptism, already the sign of the admission of 
proselytes to the Jewish faith, was appointed as the means of 
entrance into the Christian covenant, the Apostles and their 
successors, following the old analogy, gave the name as they 
poured the water, and swore in the newly-admitted member 
of the Church. 

Thenceforth the same brief form of words has been said 
over every being who has been admitted to the Christian 
promises throughout the earth, and the name then imposed 
has been each one's individual, inalienable possession — the 
appellation in childhood, and afterwards us^ in the more 
solemn moments of life, in the marriage vow, in all oaths 
and engagements, and on all occasions when the person is 
dealt with in his individual capacity. 

The simple Christian name of Kings and Queens stands 
above all their titles, and for many years in Italy, the 
Christian name was the usual address to all persons of all 
ranks, as it still continues to be in Russia, where the simple 
baptismal name with the patronymic is the most respectful 
address from the servant to the noble. The concealment of 
the Christian name under titles and surnames gradually 
began to prevail in France under the Bourbon dynasty, and 
by the reign of Louis XIV. had so prevailed that territorial 
designations were exclusively used by all who could lay claim 
to ' — *^'' ^'~*h or to wealth ; and from the earliest age, children 

J DV "N^-J V^V./ 



were called Monsieiir de, or Mademoiselle de — ^their father's 
yarions titles or estates, — the juniors coining down to the 
Bnmame when all were exhausted by the elders, and the 
Christian name seldom allowed to appear even in the 
tenderest moments. It is only from their pedigree, not 
firom the letters of the most aflfectionate of mothers, that we 
can learn that the son and daughter of Madame de Sevigne 
ever had Christian names at all, and it was only to the fact 
that she was the youngest of so large a family that even 
Mademoiselle d'Adhemar was no distinction, that *' Pauline ' 
owed it that she was thus known. 

Englaad never became quite so artificial, but it was pro- 
bably to this French influence that it was owing that peers 
dropped the use of their Christian names, even in their 
signature, and that it became usual to speak of the married 
ladies of a family as * my daughter Baxter ' or * my sister 
Smith,' while the graceful title of a knight's wife, Dame, 
with her Christian name, was discarded for my lady, and the 
unmarried woman's Mistress Anne or Mistress Lucy, became 
the unmeaning Miss ; and after being foolishly called brevet 
rank and only used by old maids, has fallen into entire disuse. 

The turn for simplicity that inaugurated the French 
Revolution gradually revived regard for the true personal 
name, rather than the formal title, and it assumed its 
natural place as a sign of familiarity and endearment. 

Names of religion, as they were called, probably com- 
menced when a monk, chancing to bear an appellation too 
harsh or too heathenish to suit his brethren, dedicated him- 
self by some name dear to Christian associations — very 
possibly thus first beginning the fashion of reviving saintly 
nomenclature. Gradually the change became a matter of 
custom, and was supposed to betoken a change of life, a 
leaving the world and beginning afresh ; and in the instance 
of the admirable M6re Angelique of Port RavslI. we see 
tiiat the alteration was sometimes made r 7 


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design. Her true name was Jacqueline, but when presented 
to her Abbey at nine years old, the Pope refused to admit 
her at such an uncanonical age ; and so utterly unscrupulous 
had men's minds become with regard to church benefices that 
her father M. Amauld, conscientious and honourable as he 
was, actually imposed her on the Pope, by her monastic title 
of Angelique, which she was afterwards to render so famous 
by her piety, and by the discipline which she re-established 
in her convent. 

Confirmation is likewise considered by the Church of 
Rome as an occasion of adopting a new name, partly as a 
sign of a renewed vow and partly as a self-dedication to some 
favourite patron, sometimes as a means of obtaining a more 
euphonious title. Thus the youngest son of Catherine de 
Medici, having been christened Hercule, took advantage of 
his confirmation to call himself Fran9ois, the death of his 
elder brother having left that favourite of the house of 
Valois vacant for him. 

Popes began by a few instances of change of name on 
their elevation in honour of some favourite saint, but before 
the nth century, two or three instances of speedy mortality 
among those who would not part with their own, led to a 
belief that to retain it was unlucky, and a set of stock papal 
names was provided for all in turn, becoming further limited 
when it became the fashion to assume the name of the pontiff 
by whom the cardinal's hat had been given to the newly 
elected pope. 


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Section I. — Hebrew Nomenclature. 

Hebrew, the sacred language, and the medium of all our 
earliest knowledge of the world and of man, furnishes almost 
all of the first names known to us, which are in general, 
verbs, substantives, or adjectives from that tongue, suggested 
either by inspiration or by some of the natural motives 
observed in the former chapter. 

Cain was so called from the verb to getj when his mother 
cried in her joy, * I have gotten a man from the Lord,' in 
the futile hope that in him the promise of her seed would 
be fulfilled. Abel (Hebel) on the other hand signified a 
breath, or vanity, as though named when his parents were 
disheartened by experience of the dreariness of the world 
beyond the pturadise they had lost, or as some think this 
title may have been given after his death to express the 
shortness of his life. Noah, or consolation, was named in 
the spirit of prophecy ; so again was Melchizedec, king of 
righteousness; while Peleg, or dispersion, records in his 
appellation that he was bom at the time of the confusion 
of tongues. 

The minute history of the naming of the twelve patri- 
archs, with the remarkable allusions made to their names 
as their father blessed them, furnish the best illustrations 
of the presaging spirit of early nomenclature. 

Reuben, * behold a son,' cries the mother in her first pride; 
Simeon, ^ He that heareth,' because He had heard her prayer ; 


Levi, a joining, in the trust that her husband would be 
joined with her ; Judah, praise, in praise of Him who had 
given these four sons, and Judah, ^ thou art he whom thy 
brethren shsM praisCy is repeated by Jacob ; Dan, a judge, is 
so called by his adoptive mother because her cause is judged, 
*and Dan shall judge his people' is his father's blessing; 
Napthali commemorates Leah's wrestling with her sister; 
(3ad is one of the troop round Leah, *and a troop shall 
overcome him,' saith Jacob ; Asher, is blessed^ and Moses 
cries, ^ let Asher be blessed ;' Issachar, is hire ; and Zebulon, 
a dwelling, because Leah hoped her husband would dwell 
with her, and his promise from his father is that he shall 
dwell. Rachel cannot name her long desired first-bom 
without a craving that God would add to her another son, 
and thus Joseph means an addition, and when that second 
child was given, jHid she felt that it was at the cost of her 
own life, she mourned over him as Benoni, son of my sorrow ; 
but his father with more hopeful augury called him (prob- 
ably at hia circumcision) Benjamin, son of my right hand. 

The earlier names were very simple, such as Leah, weary ; 
Adah, ornament. But about the time of the going into 
Egypt compound words were employed, family names began 
to grow traditional, and several of Egyptian etymology were 

Some persons are of opinion that Hebrew, as a language, 
was only formed after the coming out of Egypt, and is re- 
ferred to in the Psalms by the words * he heard a strange 
language.' This, however, is mere speculation, and it is 
certain that Hebrew was only one of various eastern tongues 
all very nearly related to one another, and forming the Se- 
mitic family. These were the Arabic spoken by the tribes 
of the Desert, the Phoenician of the Ganaanite nations in 
Palestine, and the Syriac or Aramean of the Syrians and 
Assyrians or Chaldeans, who wreaked the divine vengeance 
upon the Jews. 


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Of these, Arabic survives, though of course greatly altered, 
but its literature, which is chiefly of the seventh and eighth 
centuries, forms an important link between the original and 
the spoken tongue, and assists in the interpretation of other 
eastern languages. 

Phoenician and Hebrew were closely allied, but the one has 
perished from the face of the earth, except in old inscrip- 
tions : the other, though ceasing to be a living language after 
the Babylonian captivity, when it became swamped in Ara- 
mean, haa ever since been the language of the learned among 
the Jews ; the Scriptures have been carefully preserved in it, 
without the slightest variation, and the lessons from the Law 
and Prophets, and the songs from the Psahns have never 
ceased to be rehearsed in the synagogues in their original form. 

The Aramaic, however, became the Jewish vernacular, and 
80 continued after the return from Babylon, nor has it ceased 
to prevail, under the name of Syriac, among a considerable 
portion of the natives of the East. So far had it diverged 
from the ancient Hebrew, that after the lessons from the 
Scriptures, a gloss or paraphrase was read aloud in the syna- 
gogues to enable the people to understand what they heard ; 
and the priests and scribes, or lawyers, alone, pretended to a 
clear comprehension of the old speech of their forefathers. 

Moreover, the Greek invasion of the East, and the estab- 
lishment of the Macedonian dynasties of Egypt and Syria, 
rendered the Grecian the language of foreign relations and 
of literature, and caused it to be understood by all who 
pretended to polite education, or meddled with politics and 
conojnerce. The Septuagint, or Alexandrian version of the 
Scriptures, was used in private by the Gnecised Jews, and 
was the form in which their sacred books became known 
to those of foreign nations who took interest in them. 

The Roman conquest in like manner brought in a certain 
amonnt of influence &om the Latin language, though not to 
the same extent, since all cultivated Romans were by this 

VOL. I. C 

uigiiizeu Dv 




time instructed in Greek as part of their education, and 
even those of inferior rank used it as the medium of com- 
munication with the people of the East. 

Thus, m the time of the Gospel history, the learned alone 
entered into the full import of the old Hebrew names, nor 
were new ones invented to suit the occasion, with a very few 
exceptions, and these few were formed from the vernacular 
Aramean. The custom was to recur to the old family names 
belonging to ancestors or kindred, and in the account of the 
circumcision of St. John the Baptist we see that a deviation 
from this practice excited wonder. Tradition and change of 
language had, however, greatly marred these old Hebraisms; 
Jehoiadah, (/ pronoimced y,) (known of God,) had after the 
captivity lost its significance in the form of Jaddua, then 
was Graecised, as IcdSoc, (Hiodae,) and was Latinized as 
Jaddeus ! These corrupted ancient appellations were the 
favourites, but imitation and compliment caused some Greek 
ones and even some Latin ones to be adopted, some persons 
using their national name at home, and bearing another for 
their external relations, such as John or Mark, Saul or PauL 

The persons most revered by Christians, and who have 
had the most influence on nomenclature, thus bore either 
corrupt Hebrew, or else Aramean, Greek, or Latin names, 
which all have been handed down to us through the medium 
of Greek authorship, afterwards translated into Latin, and 
thence carried by word of mouth into every Christian land, 
and taking shape from the prevalent pronunciation there. 

Eastern Christians have gone directly to the Greek ; but 

the Western Church used nothing but the Vulgate translated 

from the Septuagint and from the original New Testament 

Thus the Old Testament personages, as well as those of the 

Gospel, were known to mediaeval Europe, and are so still to 

the greater part of the continent in their Greco-Latin shape. 

* King James I. caused his translators to go back to 

itain head, using the original Hebrew and Greek — 

y applying to the Septuagint and Vulgate as means 


of elucidation, not as authorities. In consequence, many of 
the Old Testament names assumed their original shape, as 
far as it could be expressed by English letters, but these 
were mostly those but slightly known to the world, not 
those of the principal characters, since the translators 
were instructed not to make needless alterations such as 
should make the objects of ancient veneration appear in a 
form beyond recognition. Therefore it is that some English 
Old Testament names are unlike those of other nations. 

Those who were at work on the New Testament, however, 
left the ancient names, there occurring, as they found them 
in the Greek, and thus arose the disparity we remark in 
the title given to the same individual, Noah or Noe, Korah 
or Core, XJzziah or Ozias. 

For the most part Old Testament names, as such, have 
had little prevalence excepting under the influence of 
Calvinism. The Roman Catholic Church neglected them 
because they did not convey patronage, and Lutheranism has 
not greatly adopted them, but they were almost a badge of 
the Huguenot party in France ; and in England, William 
L'Isle, in 1623, complains of some * devising n6w names with 
apeish imitation of the Hebrew,' and in effect there are few 
that do not give an impression of sectarianism or puritanism. 
Li England and America, the more obscure and peculiar 
ones are chiefly adopted by the lower classes; in Ireland 
several prevail for another cause, namely, their supposed 
resemblance to the native Erse appellations that were long 
proscribed by the conquerors. 

Those that were borne by the remnant of faithful Jews, 
who were the stock on which the Christian Church was 
grafted, have gone out into all lands, infinitely modified by 
the changes they have undergone in their transit from one 
people to another.* 

• Books consulted : — ^Maz Midler's Lectures on Language ; Proper 
Name$ of Scripture ; Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 

uguCeaby Google 


Sbction n. — The Alphabet. 

Before, however, the force of these changes can be com- 
prehended, it will be needful to touch slightly on the history 
of letters. 

These, the expression of sounds by symbolic marks, have 
been distinctly traced backwards to Palestine, and were 
thought by the Jews to have been an actual divine revelation, 
so that the alphabet in its order was regarded as absolutely 
sacred, and the 1 19th psalm itself is one great acrostic — 
each of its twenty-two divisions consisting of eight lines all 
commencing with the same letter, all in alphabetical order, 
and in praise of the law, for the transmitting of which the 
pious Jew believed these letters to have been first given to 
man. The titles in the Bible version of the psalm, as well 
as to the metrical translation of Stemhold still attest its 
ancient system and significance. 

Whether this be reality, or only a devout imagination of 
the time of Ezra, there is reason to believe that the Hebrew 
letters at present in use, as well as the Phoenician, are both 
copies of some elder alphabet, very similar, but from which 
each has slightly diverged. From this too are derived other 
eastern alphabets, which, not conveying Christian names, do 
not concern the subject ; and from the Phoenician in its elder 
form came likewise the Greek letters, brought according to 
the old Greek myth by Cadmus from Thrace ; and from the 
Greek were derived first the Latin letters, and in later times 
the Gothic race of characters now in general superseded by 
the Latin. 

Each letter sufiered more or less change in its travels from 
varieties of pronunciation, and several additions were made 
to suit the exigencies of the language, some redundancies 
were cut off, others preserved by custom in spelling though 
not in speech. It is to these alterations that we owe tiie 
varieties of what is intended for the self-same name ; and for 
tilie better comprehension of our future subject, it will be 

uigiuzeu dv "h^-jv^v./ 



wisest, at the risk of some length, to explain the chief 

It must first be understood that the original alphabet was 
entirely of the consonant somids. The breathings between 
them were left to be indicated by the light of nature at first, 
and latterly, in the case of Hebrew, by small points or tittles. 
On the other hand there were many more forms of the 
aspirate, amounting to a guttural, and the original alphabet 
appears to have consisted of five courses of four sounds each. 
Aspirate or Guttural A JE HI B^ 
Labial . . . B F MP V 

Palatal or Sibilant . a K QSX 
Dental . . . 2> ®L N T 
Running over in our minds the first four letters which 
all the best known alphabets preserve, we shall see the prin- 
ciple of this arrangement, and that it is partially X5arried out 
in other courses of letters, though almost always broken in 
every alphabet by omissions or interpolations, and far from 
perfect even in the Hebrew. 

The Hebrew letters of the modem rabbis have greatly 
changed from those of primitive use, and to get an idea of 
their original form, it is necessary to recur to those used in 
coins and inscriptions where the germ of resemblance to 
Arabic and Greek can be detected, as well as in some cases 
a likeness to the object whose name they bore in the East, 
and carried to Greece, but dropped at Rome where it became 

The Greek alphabet, in its oldest form came direct from 
the elder Phoenician, and ended with t. The present Greek 
alphabet is the same in the main, but has received many 
additions, and some few subtractions, either from invention 
or adaptation. The Latin letters had sprung from it ^*'^^'^* 
most of these changes had taken place, and they tool 
bold rectilineal form and sturdy pronunciation in 
character of the people who used them, dropping soi 
changing the use of others, and calling all from aoim(iQQQQ[^ 

uigiiize y g 


The next eldest child of the Greek alphabet is the Runic, 
carried to the North in some unknown age, and employed for 
engraving on sticks for messages, on stones for monuments. 
It too named its letters, but not from the tradition of the 
eastern words of forgotten meaning, but from objects existing 
in the North, — and it arranged them in a form of its own. 

When the Goths grew civilized enough to write, and Ulfilas 
translated the Scriptures, it was from Greece again that the 
alphabet was taken, which with the modifications incidental to 
pronunciation and copying, has descended to modem times as 
Crerman or old English. 

The Anglo-Saxons had a separate alphabet of their own, 
more the child of Rome than of Greece, but which gave way 
beneath Norman influence to the current hand which had 
risen out of the old Gothic and which prevailed in MS. to 
the seventeenth century, and even to the present day in legal 
instruments. Anglo-Saxon letters are however still used in 
Erse printing. 

From the fact that the earliest printers were Germans, their 
types were at first in use, and account for the universal black 
letter that England employed with the rest of northern Europe. 

Italy, however, had been constant to the Roman letter ; 
and the superior clearness of such type gradually persuaded 
.the greater part of Europe to adopt it for their books; and 
by the end of the seventeenth century, the handwriting which 
had made these Roman letters cursive, was beginning to super- 
sede the stiff old Greco-Gothic English. * An Italian hand ' 
was, however, long esteemed as worthy of special note as an 

Section HE. — Aspirates^ Vowels^ and Senii- Vowels. 

A. B. H. I. J. 0. QRU. V. VTT. 

The first eastern letter, by name, in Hebrew, afcpA, was 
the softest form of the aspirate, and in form was said to 
represent an ox and its driver, <^ ; this being the form in 


Phoenician and on old Hebrew coins ; the rabbis, however, 
called it doctrine. It was turned into the Greek alpha, A a, 
and has since preserved its vowel mission unchanged, as a. 
The Runic A was formed ^, and meant the year, being 
called oar. The Gothic form was A ; iii the Saxon the bar in 
the letter crossed the apex. Our own intonation of the letter 
is exceptional, making it a double sound like ai instead of a. 

The fifth letter and first aspirate of the next course, ^, 
said to have been once a hieroglyphic of the pomegranate 
worm, but also explained as thisy was called he^ but on going 
to Greece was turned round as E c, and has so continued 
throughout the world as the second vowel, only slightly 
modified by language. /, ytSy an icicle did duty in the Runic 
writing both for / and JE, with a mark across it for the latter. 

The rougher aspirate, very harshly pronounced, has had a 
more complicated history. Shaped ^ and called chethy or 
life, the Samian Greeks termed it hetaary etay wrote it H 17, 
and used it as a harsh or long «, and in this form it lost 
its old purpose as an aspirate, or, more properly speaking, 
it gradually ascended above the line and left only its feet to 
indicate its former existence in Greek writing and mark the 
aspiration. The original 6, then, was used short and called 
epsilon, or e without the aspirate. Latin, however, saw no 
use in two sorts of e and retained the IT in its old use as an 
aspirate, and has thus handed it down to all the heirs of 
Latinity, though, curiously enough, German text-hand re- 
tains the old Greek 1; as its c. The Greek letter X x chiy 
was subsequently adopted for the harsher Greek aspirates 
which were akin to the sound of K. When the Septuagint 
was translated, the usual fashion of the writers was to in- 
dicate the aspirate at the beginning of a word by their 
accents and to omit that at the end, so as to make it de- 
clinable and soften the pronunciation. The Latin translator 
sometimes turned the accent into an A, sometimes omitted it 
altogether but preserved the Greek termination. Again, the 
Englishman, going back to the original Hebrew, used an H 


or ch hard where he found an aspirate, and at the same time 
the fellow-translator, working on the New Testament, copied 
down his Greek w^rd in similar spelling to what he found 
there. Thus we have Hannah and Anna; Hezekiah and 
Ezekias ; Noah, Noachas, and Noe. 

Aspirates are indeed a matter on which the world is little 
agreed. Europe retained few out of a large number used 
in Sanskrit, and h is the only letter by which modems mark 
them, often in combination with other letters. Our gh in 
cough J through^ &;c., is the remains of a disused guttural, and 
these sounds are still very numerous in the Gaelic languages, 
though there is no means of indicating them but by the K 
Even the Romans, who carried on the h for the benefit of 
the present world, seem to have been in doubt where to use 
and where to omit it, and their descendants, the Italians, 
scarcely ever use the h for its original purpose, though the 
Spaniards have made many of their words b^in with it in- 
stead of the / of the original Latin. Indeed, the principal 
use of A to an Italian is to make up the ch by which he 
represents the sound of the Greek, and that does duty with 
him for k q^ his enervated c, with also serving to harden his 
g upon occasion. 

It does its duty in most Teutonic tongues, into which it 
was imported as Yi ; but it has another office— sometimes 
with ch representing x, at others softening the sibilant with 
8ch in German, ch or sh in English, where its efiect on a c 
in ordinary instances is the exact reverse of that which it 
has in the Italian. In most Teutonic words the ch is soft, 
and likewise in some so long adopted from the Greek that 
custom has sanctioned their first ignorant pronunciation, e.g. 
in archbishop, while in those from the Greek, such as 
Christian, the sound is that of chi. 

In the Keltic tongues, again, h is introduced in the oblique 
cases, softening and altering the pronunciation of the former 
consonant. Indeed Erse never begins a word with it, except 
by inflexion from/ or «. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


The other offices of modern h will be referred to in speak- 
ing of ^ and 6. In the Runes ^ was hagel or hail. 

The ensuing letter I is said to have once represented the 
closed fist and to have meant the beginning, but it dwindled 
down in rabbinical writing to the smallest possible mark 
that could indicate a letter; whence its name, yod — in 
Greek, iota — ^has furnished a proverbial expression for the 
least quantity, — * Not one jot or tittle of the law shall fail/ 
* not an iota,' and, from its identity of form with the single 
stroke whence counting begins, comes the expression ^ jotting 

The Hebrew sound of this letter appears to have been that 
of our semi-vowel Y at the beginning of a word, and the 
Greeks indicate this by their mark of aspiration, when it 
was a commencement, or made it an ordinary i in the body 
of the word. The Romans seem to have considered it im- 
material which way their letter looked, whether J or L, and 
they moreover had a tendency to speak the Y between their 
teeth, so as to make it sound like the soft French je^ and 
this sound gradually attached itself to J, the form usually 
employed at the beginning of a word. Even in modem lan- 
guages, however, this double usage of i and j is far from uni- 
versaL Italian owns j only as a vowel, and spells the words 
that began with it in old Rome, and which she has preserved 
by tradition, with 6W, or in Venice with Z. Spain repre- 
sents with j the gutturals bequeathed by the Saracens ; 
Germany and Scandinavia use it as a consonant y ; France 
inherited more of its Latin sound than any other country, 
and thence, probably, England received it; but, with the 
ordinary literal habit of plain speaking and disregarding the 
delicacies of pronunciation, the English soon harshened the 
sound and turned it into little better than a supplementary 
Q soft or rougher cA. The distinction was very tardy of 
recognition in spelling. Long after it had been made by 
speech, indeed until very late years, dictionaries, Englbh, 
French, and Latin, still continued to mingle together % and /t 


to the confusion and indignation of beginners unable to 
appreciate the curious history to which this traditional 
arrangement testified. 

The account of the first syllables of the name of the Holy 
City will serve as an instance of the use of the letter yocL 
The last part of the name is shalem^ peace, which the rabbis 
say was given by Shem ; the first part is explained by them 
to be jirehj will see, from the words of Abraham after the 
sacrifice of Isaac — Jehovah jireh, the Lord will see or 

Others explain it as the dwelling of peace, or the founda- 
tion of peace ; but however this may be, the Hebrew sound 
most resembles Yerushalaim and was contracted into Yerush- 
alam, whence the Greeks took it as IcposoXiy/x and the Latin 
repeated it indifierently as Jerusolyma or Hierosolyma, the 
latter form of the word being preferred as poetical, from the 
similarity of sound with the familiar Greek l^o^^ Q^^^J^ 
which curiously echoed back its eastern epithet, still used by 
the Arabs, M KhoddeSy (the holy,) which long ago caused 
Herodotus to call it the city of Kadytis. By crusading 
Europe it was pronounced after the fashion of the various 
countries — the Gerusalemme of the Italian; the Jerusalem 
of France ; the Jorsala of the North ; and, for the most part, 
the Hierusalem of England, though the French form has be- 
come universal here within the last three hundred years. 

The next aspirate has been yet more prolific. Its original 
meaning is said to have been a spring of water or an eye ; 
its shape or (j > its name ain — e.g., am, ain dgiddiy 
(the goat's fountain,), JEngeddi; its sound that of wh. The 
Greeks helped themselves to it as a vowel Y i which they 
called ouj until in imitation of the rj and c, they gave it a 
longer companion, a double o at first, (w) which was called 
omega (great o) ; whilst the sound ou was discovered to be a 
diphthong and disintegrated into little o — omicron, and upsibm 
(bare w). This (Yv) upsilmi retained the consonant sound 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


of its parent ain as well as its own vowel sound, and it was 
in consequence very hard worked. The wh, as any one may 
convince himself by observing the various Scotticisms for the 
word ' what,' has a tendency to be mis-pronoimced on the one 
side as qu, on the other as /, by those who cannot whistle it 
correctly. So, on the one hand, the commencing ^ received 
from the Greek the work that his letter F, of which more 
anon, ought to have received, and thence came into the Ro- 
man alphabet, with double work tacked to it, in the shape of 
a Vy while the old wh sound of the ou turned into Q F, which 
likewise has had hard service, though in such constant union 
that I believe the Galilean coq has alone effected a separation 
between * the attached pair.' By-and-bye, however, Rome, 
finding F confusing as a consonant and vowel both, permit- 
ted a distinction between it and the rounded U; and further, 
in the case of Greek words imported into the language, 
adopted the shape F, to which the sound radicated by the 
old Hebrew ain was attached. 

The Teutonic nations coming in took and U as they 
found them ready to hand, but further multiplied them. Q 
or wh was sometimes © or CJ, and a still softer wh mergmg 
on the / or t; fell into t^, and by-and-bye into the W. The 
Roman alphabet, when adopted by the civilized world, re- 
ceived from the Teuton this same W. The Germans use it 
as a stronger V; the English give it that peculiar semi- 
vowel sound that foreigners can never imitate ; the Welsh 
use it as a vowel like a double ; the French, Italians, and 
Spanish, reject it altogether, as do the Italians the qu. The 
Gothic is however ^, and little used, the fl having the 
sound of 00, and \ f) generally being used to express the 
ordinary 0. 

Fhas travelled out of the Roman alphabet into the others, 
but has nowhere become domesticated but in England, where 
within the last three centuries it has been used as the end 
of words which in its cognate tongues have an ie, and for 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


a much longer period has commenced those which elsewhere 
have ay, as year {or Jahr, yea for ja. 

Of F we shall saj more in its true place among the 
labials; but w, a generally acknowledged vowel, deserves 
notice as peculiarly sounded, in good English, like ew. All 
other countries give it the soft sound of oOy and so does 
provincial English in most cases, so that it would be a 
curious inquiry how the present diphthong sound came to be 
that of good society. 

In Runic writing ^yOys is said to be a sea port ; n ur 
U is a river bank ; i/i yr Y, a bow and arrow. 

Mosh c[ is the only old half vowel of the East that has 
retained its own signification and use everywhere, except 
where imperfection of the organs has caused it to degenerate 
into its nearest relation L. Its Greek name is po, its shape 
Pp. The eastern name signifies head, the same word well 
known to us in books of travels as the reis captain or the 
rasy meaning a headland or cape; but in the North, the 
Rune of R meant either rain or riding, though the same 
form as the Latin was used. 

Section IV.— Labials. 

BP. V. F. M. 

The labial letters familiar to us are B, Fy iff, P, V. Our 
B began in the Hebrew as ^, bethy and meant a house, as 
we are often reminded by such names as Bethlehem, the 
house of bread ; Bethel, the house of God. 

The Greeks imitated its shape and name, as B )8 beta, but 
their pronunciation of it was softer than ours or the Latin, 
so that they would have spoken its name veto, just as the 
modem Greeks and their pupils, the Russians, do now, calling 
Sebastopol, Sevastopol, Basil, Vasili. 


by Google 


It is the same with the Spaniards, who even in spellmg 
were long absolutely indifferent whether to use J or v, and 
would write varan or baron, a man, whichever pleased them, 
pronouncing both alike. The Latin B would seem to have 
been more employed according to its present use in most 
European languages. 

It was the softening of the beta that caused the Greeks 
to disuse the gentle letter F, which they had at first derived 
from the Phoenician *), and long employed as a numeral 
after it had dropped out of their words, where its place was 
supplied sometimes by fi and sometimes by v with its con- 
sonant sound, and fiinally by the late invention of <^ phi, 
a compound of ir, and the aspirate. 

Latin took the F and made great use of it, never accepting 
its awkward substitute, but in words imported from the 
Greek using as an equivalent ph, as *ot/8os Phoebus. Most 
modem languages make the distinction of spelling the words 
derived direct from the Greek with ph, as, for instance, 
philosophy ; but Italian and Spanish refuse the compound, 
and term the love of wisdom fihsofia, 

Q seems to have been one original form of pe, meaning a 
mouth, the shape of the lips being preserved in the old 
Greek cd, which, however, became in Latin P, and so has 
descended to all the European languages without much 
change as a softer form of B. 

F, as we have already seen, is the consonant child of Y, 
the grandchild of ain. 

These four letters, B and P uttered with the lips alone, 
V and F or Fwith the lips and teeth together, are always 
liable to become confounded by the least defect in attention 
or organization, and some races seem absolutely unable to adopt 
some one or other of them. Thus, the Macedonians used 
B for ^, and called their Philip, Bilippos ; the High German 
always turned B into P, and called burg, purg, and to the 


by Google 


present day the same mispronunciation is remarked in the 
Welsh and the Swiss. Fluellen cries, ' Up to the preaches, 
you rascal ; will you not up to the preaches?' in the height 
of his martial ardour; and in Azeglio's novel, the Swiss 
servant Maurizio debates, * del pefer o nonpefere^ the Italian 
hevere being the word thus disguised. 

On the other hand the ruder forms of Low Grerman have a 
tendency to use the hard sounds on all occasions, as is seen 
in most English provincial dialects at the present time, and 
thus the gentle /, ahnost a semi-vowel, and often passing 
into wh or t;, is at the other end of the scale hardened into 
an English r, and then into a B. Thus, as in Macedon 
^peyuof (Pherenike) became Berenike, in England William 
goes by the name of Bill. The B of the Runes is biarkafiy a 
birch tree. 

To these must be added the nasal form of the labial repre- 
sented in old Phoenician as y, mem^ a spot (or water) and in 
Greek M ^d, mu^ a letter always retaining the same place and 
use in all alphabets, and not greatly liable to alteration. It 
is curious that while the original infant sound alha has 
ranged through every variety of the labial, as will shortly 
be shown, the term for the other parent, mam, preserves its 
primary consonant everywhere. Only a defect in the power 
of breathing through the nose destroys the sound of the Jf, 
and causes it to degenerate into jB as in the pronunciation of 
the modem Jews. *, the Runic -Sf is maduvy a man. 

Sbction V. — PaMal Letters. 

C G Z. E. S. X. ^. Q. CH. SH. 

The letters spoken from the palate divide themselves into 
gutturals and sibilants, the first uttered from the throat, the 
last hissed. It is impossible to divide them on account of the 
double use now appli^ to some of these signs of sound. 


Pirst among these was 4, a shape intended to refer to the 
hnmp of a camel, whose name, gimely it bore in the east, 
though afterwards explained by the rabbis as fulness. It 
tamed into the r y, gamma, of the Greeks, and was used like 
our g hard or gh, with a slightly nasal intonation. This sound 
was capable of falling into one like our English y, — as to 
give a mediaeval instance, we may see in the change from the 
ge of our old Saxon participles to the y of Elizabethan 
English, geclepid to yclept It was in consequence of this 
softened note of both r and F that the latter was only con- 
sidered as the double of the former, and losing its old name 
and nature, was called the digamma. This nasal effect of 
the old y is traceable again in words where the Greeks doubled 
it, or had it before another letter of the same class, such as 
ayycXos, AyxtoTys, which were pronounced and copied by the 
Romans as angehs, Anchises, So, too, it stood before an n, 
as in yvoo9 (gnoos, knowledge), liquefying the n, as it probably 
did in Latin, and still does in the Italian and French, while 
in Spanish, a mark above the n shows that it once was there, 
and the n is to be pronounced accordingly, e.g. Corugna, 
Corma. To judge by French and Italian tradition, g had 
the same effect upon /, though both in Latin and Greek we 
always harden it. 

The Romans copied r indifferently as (7 and G-, these being 
no doubt at first only accidental variations of copyists, until 
A.P. 120, when Spurius Carvilius is said to have marked a 
permanent distinction between the two forms of the letter. 
Though the first obtained the old rank of camel-backed gim^l 
in the alphabet, the second assumed the place and some of 
the uses of the palatal of the second row, the Z f , zeta of 
Greece, taken from the Phoenician Zy zaity meaning an olive 
tree. Like in shape and identical in name as this letter is 
with the Z that the Romans finally put on to the end of their 
alphabet, we must not confound it with the hard sound that we, 
a few of the (Germans, and the Tuscans ascribe to it, which even 

uigiiizeu Dv ■'•wJ v^ v_> V^ Iv^ 


in modem Greek is marked by placing t before it. This letter 
was originallj the parent of the soft sounds that Latins, 
Italians, Spanish, French, and English attribute to and Ch, 
and must have been sounded like a soft French J ; thus we 
find ZoF, an equivalent for James, and in an old history of the 
Franks, our Saviour's name begins with a Z. The remains 
of this old use of f are to be seen in the Venetians (the most 
Greek of Italians) using f where others use gi^ as in Angiolo, 
called by them Anziolo. Spanish likewise lisps away its Z to 
such softness, that Zaragoza would be called Tharagotha^ and 
what is more curious, preserves the memory of its old zeia^ by 
converting its c into one whenever needful, by the addition of 
the tail of the {, p, the mark that c becomes the zeta^ and is 
to be lisped, though standing before the vowels a, o, as in 
Alcobaga. The same custom is well known in the French pa, 
&c., and the mark is called a cedilla or cerilla. 

Bishop Ulfilas used r as the hard Greek r, and the other 
form Q for its use when bordered upon y, putting the first in, 
the place of gammay the latter in that of zeta. It is not 
improbable that this Q may be the origin of the French and 
Spanish f , as well as have assisted in forming our y, though 
its sound in German is without exception hard, and in cases 
where the softer sound is needed, j is employed in its stead. 

But besides this other occupation of the Latin (7, it re- 
ceived the work of the guttural of the third series, which 
Home chose to omit from the alphabet, namely the K k, kappa 
of the Greeks, the kophy P, or extended hand of the Hebrews. 
hard, that is before a and o, thenceforth stood for the 
Greek K, though the Quj the produce of ain, was employed 
where an t or e would have softened the sound of the modem 
letters. Ulfilas took the K however from Greek, and it has 
ever since been much employed in the German and Scandi- 
navian, where it enjoys a decided preference over (7, even in 
words taken from Latin ; and the principal use of c is to be 
used in combination with A, or in words imported from other 

uigiiizeu Dv '•.wJv^v./ 



languages. We r^j^ret to state that the Rnnic Y kaun^ meant 
itching, and represented the hand raised to scratch. 

The Anglo-Saxon alphabet, however, discarded JT, and 
used 27 or (7 for it, making cu serve the purpose of qu. K 
crept into our alphabet with Grerman tjpe in later times, but 
has never been nearly so much used as among our continental 
cousins : — ^France barely recognises it, and Italy and Spain 
not at all, though its absence has forced Italy to use the ch 
which represents x to harden her c before i and c, and'^A, 
likewise represents her Q- hard. Inheriting the Anglo-Saxon 
alphabet, the Erse has no A, while the Graelic uses it. On 
the other hand, Wales has always a c where the Bretons 
have a k. 

All this confusion has led to great mispronunciation of 
names, by those who received them merely by the eye. The 
rule that and Q- are hard before a, o, w, and y ; and soft 
before e and t, had many exceptions which were neglected, and 
sometimes was entirely disregarded, as in the case of the 
many Greek words beginning with Kv, which the Romans 
correctly represented by (7y, but which we most incorrectly 
speak as if spelt with «; so that though we know that in 
Ghreek the battle of Kwokc<^i7 was so called from rocks re- 
sembling a dog's head, we dare not, for fear of pedantry, 
term it anything but Sino sephale, though we spell it rightly 
as Cyno cephale. Such words as George, geography, geo- 
metry, have been great sufferers from the liberties taken with 
these letters. Our pronunciation is also in some measure to 
blame for its disregard of delicacies, and thus having reduced 
the soft lisping use of the f to a mere additional sibilant. 

The true original sibilants were *^ samech, which stood 
where the Greek $ did, and meant a fulcrum, also /^' said ; 
and sin and schin^ the latter meaning a tooth. It was the 
difficulty of pronouncing sch that made the word shibboleth 
fatal to the Ephraimites at the fords of Jordan. 

Sin was probably the parent of sigma (So-?) and of the 

VOL. I. p 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


useful and universal s of modern times. One of its old Greek 
forms was C, which may perhaps have assisted in transferring 
the softer sound to the Roman letter G. 

Schin was at first employed in Greek, but dropped entirely 
after a time, and was only revived in the compound form of 
shj chy or sch, which are used largely in English, French, and 
German, but are as unpleasant to the south as shibboleth 
could have been to the Ephraimites. 

The Greek ( was considered as a double letter, indicating 
8Sj cSj or scj and was in consequence neglected by the Ro- 
mans, till they brought it in at the end of the alphabet, and 
substituted the form of cki (x) for its triple twist, X has, 
however,' never been a letter in great favour, and in Spanish 
it always stood for one of the Moorish gutturals, but has now 
been discarded in favour of j. 

N , soly was the sun in Runic characters. 

As a letter that persons who lisp cannot speak, ^ has a 
certain tendency to turn into t, especially in Greek, where 
yXomj and yXosvi;, the tongue, are equally used, and ^oXaTra 
or OaXaa-a-a, the sea. Otherwise it is a letter that suffers few 
transmutations. It usually ended masculine words in the 
singular number and nominative case in Greek and Latin, 
but was omitted in the vocative, the oblique cases, and some 
plurals. But modem languages have always omitted it, 
making one of the other cases do duty for all, and the French 
and Spanish alone adopting the s of the accusative plural in 
all cases, 

Qreek, LaL ItaL Span. French. 

Nom. Lykos Lupus 

Voc. Lykos Lupe Loup 

Dot. Lyko Lupo Lupo Lobo 


Nom. Lykoi Lupi Lupi 

Ace Lykoas Lupos Lobes Loups 


by Google 


The French long retamed the s of Latin spelling, where it 
stood before a tj though skipping it in pronunciation, and 
its omission is even now indicated by the circumflex accent 
placed over the e and a, as in Stes for estes, dne or asney for 

* pst was a late Greek introduction, an absolute compound 
of pi and siffma^ hardly deserving the name of a letter, and 
never copied in other alphabets. 

Section VI. — Dental Letters. 
j>. e. L. N. T. 

Dental letters are formed by the tongue against the teeth. 

The primary one of them all is the eastern 4, daleth^ 
signifying a sea port ; or, as the rabbis say, tableSy narrow- 
ing off and well enclosed. The triangular shape A that the 
letter assumed among the Greeks gave rise to the name of 
the Delta of the Nile, which has since passed to all mouths 
of rivers that reach the sea in separate branches. 

The ^ du88 of the North took its name from the spectre 
of the hills, which were represented by the curved line, as 
the giant by the straight one. 

The eastern teth <j, (good,) passed to Greece as © theta, 
and flourished there, as it does still, indicating a very service- 
able sound, but one for which no other southern nation of 
Europe has any regard, so that it was excluded from the 
Roman alphabet, and though expressed in spelling by Tffy 
the h was not pronounced, and is dropped in modem Italian. 

The northern nations, however, had thfeir theta sound, so 
they drew a stroke across their ^, dtisSy to indicate it, and 
therein they were followed by both Groths and Anglo-Saxons, 
though the former made their letter f{| like psi instead of Oj 
while the Saxons, Icelanders, and Scandinavians, alone pre- 
served the true * thorny ©, or S. 

Digile?by Google 


The North uses the letter to the present day, but England, 
though preserving her pronunciation, was under French and 
Latin influence unluckily induced to discard her t> * tJiorn^^ and 
supply its place with th. Thenceforth we have confounded 
together two Saxon sounds, differing as d does from t ; one 
expressed by rfA, the other by th. Provincial dialects still 
preserve the difference in many cases. 

In the present day the German, though using the th in 
spelling, is unable to pronounce it, and stumbles at it in the 
English words where it is essential. Thus the Greek door 
was ©upa, but though the (Jerman spells it Thur^ the A is 
omitted in speaking the word, and the English, who once had 
dhor, now have left out the harder aspirate ; and the French 
in like manner use th in spelling but never pronounce it. 

Perhaps no letter has a more curious history than what 
was anciently written X> and called tau. From the sim- 
plicity of the two crossing lines it was identical with a mark, 
and thus it was said to be a tau that was set upon Cain. 
There has again been endless debate whether the marks of 
this kind on the rocks beneath Mount Sinai are indeed the 
tau of the ancient Hebrew, or the cross of the Christian. 

The Greek T, taUj appeared again in the Apocalypse, as 
the mark to be set on the foreheads of the faithful, and here 
its identity with the cross was matter of joyful devotional 
contemplation. It was probably in memory of this that the 
hermit, St. Antony, marked his garments with the T, which 
from thence has become known as the cross tau^ or of St. 

The T of the North was, however, 1, tyr^ supposed to 
represent Tyr the brave, with his hand bitten off by the 
wolf Feuris. Another form ^y also called tyr, was said to 
mean a bull. 

T in the Keltic languages receives the aspirate in the 
oblique cases, and thus becomes thy accounting for the Irish 
habit of turning all fs into th^si^ as creature, craythur, &;c. 

J GV "^.-J V^V_/-XI-^ 


There are not many varieties of pronunciation of these 
letters, except that when followed by an t or a they have a 
tendency to be sounded like shi or giy as in our numerous 
finals in tiony and this has led to some curious changes, 
chiefly, in ancient times, in Latin ; in modem, in French. 
Diespiter thus became Jupiter, and dies has become giamo 

Akin to these are the two liquid letters L and K; L, lamedy 
(a goad or discipline,) turned in Greek into lambda^ A X, and 
in Latin into L. The old Scandinavians preserved its Greek 
shape, and expressively called it lattgi (water), consider- 
ing its form to express the streams flowing from the hills. 
It is the most liquid of all the letters, and the Spanish U 
exaggerates its peculiar sound, and has absorbed that of other 
lettersythus making clamare (to call) into llamar^flere (to weep) 
into Uorar. Li Italian, gl indicates the same sound, and is 
the remains of an old nasal. Those who fail to pronounce 
the R generally make an X of it, as in the case of the 
Spanish coronel, (an officer of the crown,) which Italy turned 
into cohneUoy and the French adopted as colonel^ while we, 
oddly enough, followed the French in our spelling, and the 
Spaniards in our pronunciation. On the other hand, a mis- 
pronounced L falls either into It or i), and D will sometimes 
run into L. 

iV is to 2) what iff is to 5, the nasal liquid version of the 
same sound. The nun of the East is said to have meant a 
fish, hy (or continuall,) and its form suggested the N v, ww, 
of the Greeks, and the Nnoi Rome. In the Runes it was 
]^ naudy need. Its nasal sound was increased by placing before 
it J, O-y or C, but where there is no breathing through the 
nose it easily falls into d,* 

* Books consulted : — Kopp, Bilder and Schriften ; Kitto, BihU Cyclo- 
padia ; Junius, Gothicum Ghssarum ; Lye, Anglo-Saxon IHctionary ; 
Liddell and Scott, Greek Lexicon ; Littleton, Latin Dictionary ; Facciolati, 
Lexiron; Latliam, Handbook of the English Language; Pnchard, Celtic 


by Google 




Section I. — Adam. 

The oldest of all proper names comes from a word signifying 
red, and refers to the red earth (adama) out of which the 
first man was taken, reminding ns that dust we are, and unto 
dust shall we return. 

Some say that it should be translated * likeness,' and that 
it comes from the same root as ^ adama ' red earth, because 
red earth is always alike, wherever found. In this case, the 
first man would have been called from his likeness to His 
Creator, but the other explanation is preferable, especially 
as the same adjective, pronounced with a change in the vowel 
sound, so as to make it Edom, was the surname of Esau (hairy) , 
on account both of the ruddiness of his complexion and of the 
rerflentile pottage for which he sold his birth-right. The 
title passed on to his descendants and their country, the red 
mountains of Seir, and was Latinized into Idumea. The 
gulf that runs deep into those hills, has waters reddened by 
reflections from their crimsoned simimits, and shores red with 
the sand of their dibris^ and though the Jews called it the 
Sea of Suph or of Weeds, it was known to Greece as ^oAooxra 
€pv6p€a (TTialassa JEhythrea), to Rome as Mare Erythrevm or 
Bubrum, and to us as the red. Whether the Greek name were 
taken from the strange patches of ruddy light on its surface, 
or were a mere translation of the eastern term of Sea of Edam, 

ADAM. 39 

remains uncertain, but the name was dear to the primitive 
Christians, who loved to compare the deliverance of Israel 
from Egypt through the waters of the Erythrean sea, to the 
exodus of the faithful from this world, Hhrough the red sea 
of martyrdom.' ■ • 

Three cities in the land of Israel afterwards were called 
Adam or Adamah, from the redness of their soil. In the 
lately discovered remains of Babylonish literature, Adami 
appears as the inventor of agriculture, a curious coincidence 
that has occasioned various speculations, whether this may be 
a tradition of the days when * Adam delved,' or whether it 
should be regarded as an independent name. That tne re- 
collection of Adam long lingered in the east is testified by the 
name of Adam's Peak in Ceylon. 

No Israelites or Jews appear to have been called after our 
first father, and the first time Adam comes to light again, is 
among the Keltic Christians of Ireland and Scotland. It is 
not improbable that it was first adopted according to a frequent 
Gaelic fashion, as the ecclesiastical name most resembling the 
native one of Aedh or fire ; but however this may be, there 
was in the seventh century a distinguished abbot of lona, 
called in the dog Latin of the time, Adamnanus or dwarf 
Adam, and best known as Adamnan. He was the historian 
of his country, drew up a collection of canons of his church, 
brought the vexed question of the time of celebrating Easter 
to a conclusion, and moreover received a shipwrecked French 
bishop, who had been driven out of his course as far as the 
Hebrides, in returning from pilgrimage. His adventures en- 
livened the monastery, and edified the monks, and from them 
the abbot drew up an account of the Holy Land which long 
after served as a guide book to pilgrims. Adamnan, though 
not recognized by the Roman calendar, was regarded as a 
saint in his own country, but his name has been much cor- 
rupted. At Skreen in Ireland, where he founded a church, 
he is styled St. Awnan, at Raphoe he is patron, as St. Ennar 


in Londonderry he is St. Onan ; but in Soodand, Adam has 
become a national Christian name. The family who most 
affected it were the * gay Gordons.' It belonged to the gal- 
lant youth who forgot his deadly feud in the national cause 
at Homildon Hill, and to that other Adam O'Gordon, Earl 
of Huntley, the queen's man, whose dreadful deed at Towie 
is narrated in the fine ballad beginning : 

* It fell about the Martinmas, 
When the wind blew loud and cauld, 

Said Edom of Gordon to his men, 
We maun draw to a hauld.' 

Scottish pronunciation has thus made the same change in 
the vowel, that took place in the pronunciation of the name 
of Adam, and the surname of Esau; and this Hdie is the 
Scottish contraction rendered memorable by Edie Ochiltree. 
The feminine Adamina has been a recent Scottish invention. 

Mac Adam is a genuine Scottish surname ; and the like 
was assumed in Ireland by the Norman family of Du Barry, 
when, according to the usual process, they became JBibemi- 
nores ipsis JSibernicis. 

Since the days of the invention of good roads, this 
patronymic has turned into a verb, and the French expression, 
* Un chemin macadamize^ is a fine specimen of the progress 
of words, though, after all, what better could a road deserve 
than to come under the dominion of the son of red earth ? 

The English patronymics of Adam are Adams, Adamson, 
Adey, Addison, and Adkins. It was, however, less populaar 
in England than in Scotland, and its chief use there has been 
in later times as being scriptural. 

In Germany and the neighbouring countries there prevails 
an idea that Adam is always long-lived, and if the first 
infant of a family dies, the life of its successor is secured by 
calling it either Adam or Eve. In consequence it has various 
contractions and alterations. In Lower Lusatia it is Sladamk 

J DV "^wJ V^V_/ 


EVE. 41 

in familiar speech ; the Swiss abbreviation is Odli; the 
Esthonian Ado or OadOy the Lettisu was Adums. With its 
contraction, Ade^ it seems to have been very common at 
Cambrai through the middle ages. 

Italy, of course, knows the word, and calls it Adamo ; 
Spanish makes it Adan ; Portuguese Addo ; but none of these 
use it for a Christian name, as they do not own the Gaelic 

Section n. — Eve. 

*The mother of all living' — received from the lips of 
Adam a name signifying life, sounding in the original like 
Chawaj as it began with the rough aspirate. It was not 
copied by any of her daughters for a long time, and when 
first the Alexandrian Jews came on it in their translation, 
they made it Zoe (life), in order to show the connection of 
the name with the prophecy ; but afterwards in the course of 
the narrative, they merely made it Eva Eva, or in Latin the 
Meva or Eva through which we learnt to know her as Eve. 

The Eva of Ireland and Scotland, and the Aveline or 
Eveline of the Normans, were probably only imitations of 
the old Keltic names Aoibhiun and Aoiffe, and will therefore 
be considered among the Keltic class. 

Eve has been seldom used in England, though old parish 
registers occasionally show a pair of twins christened Adam 
and Eve. 

The same notion of thus securing a child's life that has 
spread the use rf Adam in Germany and its vicinity has had 
l^e same effect upon his wife, so that Ewa is common in 
Germany, and Eva prevails in Scandinavia. Russia has her 
as Ewa or Jevva, though not often as a name in use ; the 

• Books consulted :— Smith's Dictionary of the Bible; Proper Names 
of the Bible ; Lower's English Surnames ; Butler, Lives of the Saints ; 
Michaelis, Personen Namen, 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Letts as Ewe or Ewusche; the Lithuanians as Jewa or 
Jewele, the first letter of course pronounced like Y; and in 
Lusatia her namesakes are called Hejba or Hejbka.^ 

Section HL — The Antediluvian Patriarchs. 

The murdered son of Adam is called by a Hebrew word 
meaning breath, vapour, or transitoriness, and as some think 
may have been so termed in remembrance of his short life. 
The sound of the original word was more like Hebel, but the 
Greek making it 'A^cX, we receive it as Abel. 

It is not absolutely a modem Puritan name, for an Abel 
existed in Essex in the time of Henry IH., and Awel is 
known in Russia ; but it is generally given direct from the 
Bible, as are also Seth (appointed), and Enoch (dedicated). 

This last must not be confounded with Enos, the first-bom 
of Seth, which means mortal man; but it has often been 
remarked that there is a curious parallelism in names between 
the sons of Cain and of Seth. Lideed, there is a curious tra- 
dition that the whole scheme of deliverance was expressed 
respectively in the names of the two lines of antediluvian 
patriarchs, and that the thought must have thus been handed 
down through the Cainites as well as the Sethites. Thus the 
names are explained: — Adam (likeness), Seth (appointed), 
Enos (sorrow), Cainan (gaining), Malaleel (shining of God), 
Jared (coming down), Enoch (dedicated), Methusalem (death 
let go), Lamech (smitten), Noah (gives rest). 

Adah (ornament), the wife of Lamech, is often supposed to 
be the origin of our English Ada, but this is the hereditary 
Latinized form of Eed (happy or rich), and is the same as 
the German Ida. Zillah (or shadow), the other wife of 
Lamech, is a Gypsey name. Is it a remembrance of this 

♦ Smith's Dictionary ; Michaelis, Penonen Namen. 

ABL 43 

people's eastern origin in lands where shade is the greatest 
blessing, and * May your shadow never be less,' is the favourite 
compliment ? 

In the name of Methnsalem we trace a curious bit 
of history. Venerable as is our notion of the man who 
nearly attained ten centuries, if Grerman commentators are 
right, his name was warlike, and meant man of the dart, 
or of arms. Was he the first of the Sethites who learnt 
firom the inventive sons of Lamech the use of iron and brass 
as weapons of war, and was his long life spent in the fierce 
battles of Titanic warfare ? 

Noah (rest or comfort), prophetically called thus by his 
father, has seldom obtained any namesakes, and wild is the 
notion that connects him with the Fo, or Chian-Fo, of the 
Chinese, whom we have learnt to term Confucius.* 

Section IV. — Abi. 

Common to both the Semitic and Indo-European tongues, 
and traceable through all their branches is the parental title 
first uttered by the infant ; Abba, Abi, Aba ; Atta among 
the Slavonians, and again among the Goths ; Athair among 
the Irish, the iran/p of Greece, fondly called at home papa, 
iraTra and a7r</>vs (apphys), the pater of Rome, the German 
Vater, and our own father — il hdbho in Italy, and daddy in 
English cottages. 

Abba, in Aramean, was the first word of the prayer put 
int^ our mouths by our divrine master, and Abba in its 
original form was retained by the Apostles even when writing 
their Greek Epistles, and it is striking when translating 
the same words into the ' vulgar tongue ' of the Kafire race 
to find it brought round again to Aha wetu. 

The eastern Abba named the fathers of the first compf 

• Proper Names of the Bible; Michaelis, Personen Namen; Mazzc 

uiguizea oy ^OOglC 


of monks in the desert, and thus resulted in the abbatus of 
the Latin church, the abbot of the mediaeval times, and the 
abbe, the French clerical title, testifying to those days of 
foul abuse, when every man pretending to be in holy orders, 
was assumed to be the head of some monastic body and living 
at large by dispensation. 

The Papa, by which Xenophon makes Cyrus address Asty- 
ages, has lived on to be still the fond fatherly term in every 
nursery in Europe; to mark the simple parochial clergy of 
the Greek Church ; and in the Latin to rise to that perilous 
singularity and eminence that has rendered it and its de- 
rivatives watchwords of strife to so large a portion of the 
Christian world. 

But to return from these complicated associations of this 
most ancient name to the eastern tents where it began to be 
uttered, and where it is still not only applied in the sense of 
relationship, but was used to mark the abundance of some 
quality ; as, for instance, the peacock is called the father of 
beauty, the orange, the father of bitterness, the fox, the 
father of little holes ; and also as before mentioned, a parent 
is more usually called the father of his son than by his own 
name. This, however, is probably a late affectation, not 
applying to the time when the greatest of the patriarchs 
received his original name of Abram (father of height or 
elevation), which was changed by divine appointment into 
Abraham (father of a multitude) , foretelling the numerous 
and enduring offspring that have descended from him, and 
even to the present hour revere his name. 

No one, however, seems to have presumed to copy it as 
long as the Israelites dwelt in their own land, and the first 
resuscitations of it appear to have been among the Christians of 
the patriarch's native land, Mesopotamia, towards the end of 
the fourth century, when a hermit called Abraham, living 
near Edessa, obtained a place in the Coptic, Greek, and 
Roman calendars; and about the same time another Abraham 


uigiiizeu Dv " 

ABL 45 

was among the martyrs who were put to death by the fire 
worshipping zeal of the Sassanid dynasty in Persia. Two 
other Mesopotamian SS. Abraham lived in the next century, 
and died, one at Constantinople, the other in Auvergne, 
whither in some unaccountable manner he had been carried 
between foul winds and man-stealing barbarians when on a 
journey to visit the solitaries in Egypt. 

As one of the patrons of Clermont, this Abraham must 
have been the means of diffusing namesakes in France, espe- 
cially on the side towards the Low Countries. Abraham often 
occurs in the registers of Cambray ; and in compliance with 
the fashion of adapting the name of the father to the 
daughter, Abra was there formed, though apparently not 
earlier than 1644. Indeed the Netherlands and Holland 
are the only countries where this patriarchal name is really 
national, generally shortened into Abram and Bram; but 
the Dutch settlers carried it into America, where it is generally 
called either Bram or Aby. 

England never used it commonly, and in spite of one of 
Metastasio's sacred dramas, Abramo is hardly known to the 
south of Europe ; but the Eastern Church has introduced it 
in Russia, where it is Avraam or Avramij, and in Lithuania 
it changes into Obraomas. 

The Jews, never using it in their better days, employed it 
in their dispersion, and Abraham is thus a very common 
surname with them. It is weU known that Braham, re- 
nowned at concerts for nearly the first half of the present 
century, docked the first syllable to disguise the Jewish 

The pure religion of Abraham was supposed to be revived 
by Mahomet in Islam or the faith, and thus among the 
various branches of Arabs and GTurks, ^Ibraheem' occurs with 
perplexing frequency, answering to the reverence with which 
every Moslem looks back to the ^ Father of many nations.' 

tJbmy other Scripture names bear this prefix, but it would 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


be contrary to our plan to dwell upon those that have not 
been in subsequent use or are devoid of peculiar interest, and 
thus we pass on to observe that Abimelech (father of the 
king) looks like a hereditary title of the kings of Gerar; 
and that the gallant Abner, son of Ner (or light) seems to 
have been called, in modem Arab fashion, the father of a 
future Ner. 

Abigail (father of joy), strikes us as inappropriate to a 
woman, till we remember that the eastern nations use this 
expression for an abstract quality, and that she thus would 
stand for joyfulness. Her ready courtesy to David seems to 
have recommended her to the earliest readers of the English 
Bible, for Abigail occurs in registers as early as 1576, and 
was in a fair way to be one of the favourite English lady's 
names, when the back stair influence and supposed arts of 
Abigail Masham in the bedchamber of Queen Anne gave it 
a sudden fall. Abigail turned into a cant term for a lady's maid, 
and thenceforth has been seldom heard even in a cottage. 

Counter to his name was the course of the * Father of 
Peace,' named, perhaps, when David had hopes of peace with 
the sons of Saul, but best known to us through the moum- 
fulness of the father's bitter cry over the fate of the rebel to 
whom his heart still clung. He is Abishalom, at full length, 
in the record of his daughter's marriage with her cousin 
Rehoboam, but Absalom in the narrative of his life, a history 
that one would have thought entailed eternal discredit on the 
name; but it seems that in the earlier Christian times of 
Denmark, as well as some other countries, a fashion prevailed, 
especially among the clergy, of supplementing the native 
name with one of scriptural or ecclesiastical sound, and thus, 
about the middle of the twelfth century, Absalom was adopt- 
ed by a distinguished Danish bishop as the synonym of what 
Professor Munch conjectures to have been his own name of 
Aslak (reward of the gods), though Danish tradition has 
contracted it into Axel. This last is a national Danish 


by Google 

ABI. 47 

name, and it seems as if Absalom had been popularly sup- 
posed to be the Latin for Axel ; since, in a Latin letter of 
1443, ^l^f Axelsson is turned into Olaus Absalonis. 

Before quitting this prefix Ab, it seems to be the place to 
remark upon a name coming to us through the Tartar stock 
of languages, from the same source — ^Ab. Ata, (father, 
the source of Atalik, (fatherlike or paternal) ; to the presen 
day a title among the Usbeks of Bokhara. Thence that 
r^ent of the Huns, the scourge of God, who spread terror 
to the gates of Rome, would have been called Attalik among 
his own people, and thus historians have written his name of 
terror Attila. 

Li the tales of the Nibelungen, the great Hun, whom 
Eriemhild marries after the death of Siegfried, and at whose 
court the general slaughter takes place, is called Etzel in the 
German poem, Atli in the Northern saga, and this has gene- 
rally been regarded as identifying him with Attila and fixing 
the date of the poem ; but the monarch of the Huns is hos- 
pitable and civilized, with few features in common with the 
savage of Roman history ; and if Atalik were a permanent 
r^al title among the Huns, the chieftain may have been any 
other of the royal dynasty. His occurrence in that favorite 
poem, sung alike by all the Teutonic race, has rendered Atli 
very common from early times in the NorXh as well as Etzel 
in Germany, and vestiges of it remain even in England as 
the surname Edsall, corrupted into Isdaile. The Lombards 
took it to Italy, where it turned into Eccelino, and in the 
person of the fierce mountain-lord, Eccelino di Romagna, 
became as fearful as Attila had ever been to the Romans. 
The Roman nomen Athlius, with its legacy of Atulio and 
Attile to Italy and France, may perhaps be of like derivation.* 

♦ Books consulted : — Kitto's Bible Cyclopadia ; Michaelis, Personen 
Namen; Montalembert's Monks of the West; Alban Butler's Lives of the 
Saints ; Professor Munch On the Name of Bp. Axel; Sismondi's HisUyry 
of the Italian Republics; Nibeiungen Lied; KiUUnasaga, 

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Section V. — Sarah. 

The verb to fight or to rule furnished both the names of 
the wife of Abraham; Sarai (quarrelsome) was thus eon- 
verted into Sarah (the princess). If we may judge from 
the example of the bride of Tobias, the daughters of Sarah 
were occasionally called by her name, and Zara has been, 
with wlat correctness I know not, used as an eastern name. 

Similarity of sound, indeed, led the loose etymologists of 
former days into deriving the term Saracen from the sup- 
posed assumption of this race to be descended from Sarah, in 
preference to Hagar ; whereas the fact was that they never 
so called themselves at all, but received the title from their 
neighbours because they came from the East — in Arabic, sara. 

Sarah now and then occurs in England, as with Sara 
Beauchamp, (temp. Ed. I.,) but I suspect that she as well as 
Sarrota de Multon, who lived in the former reign, were al- 
terations of some of the derivatives of the Teutonic prefix 
Sig-yictorj^ as the masculine Saher or Serlo certainly came 
from Sigeheri. Sarah was never commonly used till after the 
Reformation, when it began to grow very popular, with its 
contraction Sally; and at the same time it was adopted as 
the equivalent for no less than three Irish names — Sadhbh 
(pronounced Soyv), Sorcha (bright), and Saraid (excellent). 
The two first are still in use, but always land Kelts make a 
still stranger use of Sarah, which they use to translate their 
native Mor (great), perhaps in consequence of its meaning. 

Elsewhere the name is occasionally used without the h 
that our biblical translators gave it. It is not, however, 
very popular, though the French have used it enough to 
make it Sarotte; in Dlyria its diminutive is Sarica; in 
Lithuania it is Zore.* 

• Books consulted -.—Proper Names of the Bible ; Le Beau's HUtoirt 
du Bos Empire ; O'Dooovan on Iri$h Proper Namet ; Michaelis, Per$oneu 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

ISAAC. 49 

Sbcttion VL — Isaac. 

When the first glad tidings of the Child of P»>mi8e were 
announced, Sarah laughed for very joy and wonder, and 
Laughter (Yizchak) became the name of her son ; known in 
Grec^ as lotzcuc, in Latin and to the European world as Isaac. 

It was not revived among the early Jews; but, like 
Abraham, it was used by the eastern Christians, and St 
Isaac, bishop of Seth Seleucia, was put to death with other 
Christian martyrs by Sapor II. of Persia. Another eastern 
Isaac was a hermit at Spoleto, in the sixth century, and 
Isaak has always been a favorite in the Greek Church. 
Several of the family of Comnenns, both at Constantinople 
and Trebizond, rendered Isaak a royal name ; and Isaak or 
Eisaak, whose feast falls on the 30th of May, is the patron 
of that cathedral at Petersburg which the czars have been said 
to dread to finish, on account of the prediction that he who 
completes it shall not long survive the end of the work. The 
name is frequently used in Russia and the other Greco- 
Slavonic countries, though not much varied. 

It had not much favour in the West, though it appears once 
in Domesday Book, and occurs in the Cambray registers. 
But its chief popularity was after the Reformation, when it 
is continually to be found among the Huguenots, and it seems 
to have passed from them to other French families, since 
it is sometimes found in pedigrees, and the noted de Sacy, 
a grandson of the Amauld family, was thus christened after 
his forefathers had long since conformed to the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

To us Izaak, as our ancestors spelt it, is endeared for the 

sake of ^ meek Walton;' and it is just so prevalent among 

us as to have the recognised contraction, Ike or Ikkey, but it 

is not old enough in use to have left any patronymics except 

what are probably brought in firom some family of Jews — 

VOL. I. 1 -___T^ 


uigiiizea oy ■' 


Isaacs and Isaacson. To these, however, Mr. Lower adds, 
Hyke, Hiscock, Higue, and Hickey. The German surname 
of Itzig was once a contraction of Isaac current among 
German Jews. 

Isaac's wife was called from rabak (to bind). The word 
Ribka meant a cord with a noose, and probably was given as 
conveying the firmness of the marriage bond. The Septua- 
gint and Latin gave her as Rebecca ; the authorized version 
as Rebekah ; and it is spelt in both ways by those who bear 
the name, who are chiefly of the lower ranks and generally 
called Becky. 

Here too should be mentioned the faithful nurse of Rebe- 
kah, who was so lamented that the tree beneath which she 
was buried was known as the oak of weeping. Her name of 
Deborah came from a verb meaning to hum or buzz, and sig- 
nified a bee, or, in after times, eloquent. Perhaps in the one 
sense it was borne by the simple nurse of Padan-aram, in the 
other by the prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, who roused the 
northern tribes of Israel to victory, and celebrated the battle 
afterwards in one of the most glorious of the songs of Scripture. 

But Deborah found no favour as a name except among 
English Puritans, and has acquired a certain amount of 
absurdity from various literary associations, which prevent 
* Deb.' from being used except by the peasantry. 

Of Rebekah's two daughters-in-law, Rachel signified an 
ewe. The aspirate in the middle of her name is more softly 
marked where, in the prophet Jeremiah, her descendants, the 
Benjamite women, who dwelt around her early grave at Beth- 
lehem, are spokejoi of as ^ Rahel weeping for her children 
because they are not,' and are assured that they shall yet 
come again to their own border. But she is *Raxv^, or 
Rachel, where St. Matthew again shows the mothers of 
Bethlehem weeping over their Isanbs, who should come agsdn 
in a higher sense. 

Dante made Vantica Bachele with her beautiful eyes, the 
type of heavenly contemplation, ever gazing at the miiror 

ISAAC. 51 

that reflected heavenly glory ; but her name was not popular, 
although the Manx princess Afirica was thus translated upon 
her marriage with Somerled, Lord of the Isles, somewhere • 
about the eleventh century. 

But Puritan days loved the sound of the word, and ^ that 
Bweet saint who sat by Russell's side' has given it a place 
in many an English family. Polish Jews call it Rahel ; in 
which form it was borne by the metaphysical lady who be- 
came the wife of Vamhagen von Ense. 

Rachel's less beloved and favoured sister had a name that 
came from hwah (hanging upon, dependence, or, as in her 
case it is explained, weariness) — Leah, in French Lea, in 
Italian Lia, under ^hich title Dante makes her the emblem of 
active and fruitful, as is her sister of meditative, love. It was 
from the same word that she named her third son Levi, when 
she hoped that her husband would be more closely united 
or depending on her. Levi's name was carried on into the 
Gospel times, and belonged to the publican who was called 
from the receipt of custom to become an apostle and an 
evangelist. His Aramean name was, however, that by which 
he calls himself in his own narrative, or more correctly 
speaking, by its Graecised form. The old Hebrew Mattaniah 
(gift of the Lord) was probably the origin of both the names 
Aatwe have in the Greek Testament as Mar^otos andMar^tas, 
Matthseus and Matthias as the Latin renders them. Some, 
however, make the first mean a faithful man ; but it is not 
possible to distinguish between the various forms that have 
risen out of the two among persons who, probably, had no 
idea that the Apostle who supplied the place of Judas was a 
different person from the Evangelist. The name has been 
more popular in Germany and its dependencies than elsewhere, 
though everywhere known. In Italy it heads the brave family 
of Yisconti, who were all called after the Evangelists ; and in 
Hungary Matthias Gorvinus is honoured as the last native 
hero who wore St. Stephen's crown. 

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^ MafiFeo 













Apostolic names are particularly common in Bavaria, pro- 
bably from the recnrring celebrations of the Mystery of the 
Passion, in which the peasants act the part of the sacred 
personages. In Germany, St Matthew and Matthias have 
produced the surnames Matthies, Matys, Thiess, and Thies- 
sen. Latinized after their queer scholarly fashion into Thy- 
sias. Also the Dutch surname Joncktys is said to be thus 
derived ; and while Italy has Maffei, we have Matthison and 

In England, even from the darkest times, the names of the 

JACOB. ^2 

Evangelists were kept familiar by the rhjme that Sunday 
schools have laboured to abolish — 

' Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 

Bless the bed I sleep upon. 

Four corners to my bed. 

Four Angels round my head, 

One to read, and one to write, 

And two to guard me all the night/ 
Probably this was originally an allusion to the four cherubim 
who are the emblems of the Gk>speb. It is remarkable that 
these four Eyangelists should in their very names show the 
languages most intimately connected with the out-spread of 
the Gospel, two being Hebrew, one Grsecised Latin, and one 
pare Latin.^ 

Section Vn. — Jacob. 

The twin sons of Isaac and Rebekah were called from the 
circumstances of their birth, Esau, the hairy, and Ja'akob, 
the latter word being derived from dkeb^ the heel, because in 
the words of the Prophet ^ he took his brother by the heel in 
the womb.' This, the action of tripping up, confirmed the 
mother's faith in the previous prediction tiiat *the elder 
should serve the younger,' and thus that the younger should 
supplant the elder. * Is he not rightly named Jacob, for he 
hath supplanted me these two times ' was accordingly the cry 
of Esau, when he found that by despising the birth-right he 
had forfeited the blessing to the brother who had obtained it 
by subtlety in his absence. 

The name of this third of the patriarchs was not repeated 
for many generations, but far on under the kingdom of 
Judah did the prophet Isaiah declare that in the time of the 
glories of the Church * another should call himself by the 
name of Jacob.' The meaning was no doubt that men of all 
nations should number themselves among the chosen seed of 
Jacob ; but it is very probable that the Jewish habit of 

♦ Books consulted: — Proper Names of the Bible; Michaelis, Personen 
Namen; Pott, Personen und Familien Namen; Douglas, Peerage of Scot- 
land; Butler's Lives of the Saints; Lower's English Surnames, ,a]c> 


literally interpreting the prophecies led to men axjtually 
calling their sons by the name of Jacob, long before those of 
his father and grandfather were revived. 

By the time of the return from Babylon we find two if not 
three persons mentioned as bearing the name of Atkub, and 
that this was meant for Jacob, is shown by its etymology ; 
as it likewise means the supplanter, by its likeness in somid to 
Yacoub, the form still current among the Arabs, and by the 
fact that the Akkub, who in the book of Nehemiah stands up 
with Ezra to read the law to the people, is in the book of 
Esdras, written originally in Greek, called 'laKopo^ (Jakobos). 

So frequent was this Jakobos among the returned Jews 
that it occurs in the royal genealogy in St. Matthew's 
Gospel, and was borne by two of the twelve apostles, by him 
called the Great, who was the first to be martyred, and by 
him termed the Less, who ruled the Church at Jerusalem. 

It is the Great Apostle, the son of Zebedee, who is the 
saint, in whose honour most of those bearing this name in 
Europe have been christened. A belief arose that he had 
preached the Gospel in Spain before his martyrdom at Jerusa- 
lem ; and though there was no questioning that the holy city 
was the place of his death, yet it was declared that his relics 
were brought to Galicia in a marble ship without oar or sail, 
which arrived at the port of Aria Flava, since called Patron. 
A little farther inland arose what was at first termed in 
Latin the shrine, of Sanctus Jacobus Apostolus. Men's 
tongues quickly turned this into Sancto Jacobo Apostolo, and 
thence confounding the title with the place, arrived at Santo 
Jaco de Compostella, or Santiago de Compostella. 

Li the year 939, at Clavijo, in the midst of a sharp battle 
with the Moors, the spirits of the Christian Spaniards were 
revived by the sight of Santiago mounted on a white steed, 
waving a white banner, and leading them on to victory. 
Thenceforth Santiago became their war-cry, and the saint 
was installed as a champion of Christendom. Subsequently 
no less than three Spanish orders of kni^||)^Qi94j^^j^^8ti- 


tuted in his honour, and his shrine became one of the most 
universal places of pilgrimage in Europe, more especially as 
the most marvellous fables of miracles were forged thereat 
The conventional representation of the saint was as a pilgrim 
to his own shrine, staff in hand and in his broad-leaved hat, 
one of the scallop shells thence named Pecten JacoboeuSy 
emblems probably of pilgrims' fare, but which led to oysters 
being considered appropriate to his festival ; so that the 25th 
of July, old style, ushers them in, and the grotto of their 
shells built by little Londoners on that day is the reminis- 
cence of his shrine, and testifies to his immense popularity. 
His saintly title had become so incorporated with his name 
that his votaries were in some perplexity where to separate 
them, and in Castillo his votaries were christened Tiago or 
Diego. Even as early as the tenth century the Oid's father 
was Don Diego de Bivar, and he himself Don Rodrigo Diaz 
de Bivar, Diaz being the patronymic. 

In 1207, Maria, Queen of Aragon, considering her infant 
son and heir to have been granted at the especial intercession 
of the twelve apostles, resolved to baptize him after one of 
their number, and impartially to decide which — 

' Twelve waxen tapers she hath made 

In size and weight the same, 
And to each of these twelve tapers 
Hath been given an Apostle's name. 

* From that which shall burn the longest, 

The infant his name should take, 
And the saint who owned it was to be 
His patron for his name^s sake.' 

Southey has comically described the Queen's agitations until 
the victorious candle proved to be that of the great Saint of 
Gralicia, whom Aragonese tongues called Jayme. The child 
thus christened became the glory of his kingdom, and was 
known as El Conquestador, leaving Jayme to be honourably 
borne by Kings of Aragon, Majorca, and Sicily as long as 
his family remained distinct. Giacopo Apostolo ^^,J^^,|^f^^^[e 


version of the name, whence they made their various Giacopo, 
Jacopo, Giadomo, Como, lachimo, and lago sujcording to their 
various dialects. Grermany recurred to the original Jakob ; 
but the French coming home with their own variety talked 
of Jiac Apostol, and named their children Jacques, or fondled 
them as Jacquot and Jacqueminot. The great church of St. 
Jacques, at Liege, spread the love of the name in Flanders as 
testified by Jacob von Arteveldt, the Brewer of Ghent ; and so 
universal throughout France was it, that Jacques Bonhomme 
became the nickname of the peasantry, and was fearfully 
commemorated in the Jacquerie, the insurrection of which 
English chroniclers supposed James (Joodman to have been 
the leader. It must have been when English and French 
were mingled together in the camps of the Black Prince and 
Henry V. that Jack and Jock became confounded together. 
Dame Jack was what Henry V. called the wild Jacqueline of 
Hainault, who, like his other Flemish sister-in-law, Jacquette 
of Luxemburg, must have been named in honour of the saint 
of Liege. Edward VL's nurse, whom Holbein drew by the 
soubriquet of Mother Jack, was perhaps a Jacquette ; but the 
feminine never took root anywhere but in France, where it 
is sometimes found as Jacobee. James had found its way 
to Scotland ere the birth of the Black Douglas, and was 
already a national name before it was given, in conse- 
quence of a vow of the queen of Robert lU., to her second 
son. He was brought to the throne by the murder of his 
brother David, Duke of Rothsay; and thus was the first of 
the royal Stuarts by whom it was invariably borne till the 
sixth of the line hoped to avert the destiny of his race by 
choosing for his sons more auspicious names. James and 
Jamie thus became great favourites in Scotland, and came 
to England with the Stuarts. It had indeed been previously 
used, as by the brave Lord James Audley under Edward 
in., but not so frequently, and the old English form was 
actually Jeames. Norden dedicates his Survey of Cornwall 
to James I. as Jeames ; and Archbishop Laud so spells the 

J DV 'V.-J V^V-ZJi 

JACOB. 57 

word in his correspondenoe. In fact, Jemmy and Jim are 
the natural offsprings of Jeames, as the word was pronomiced 
in the best society till the end of the last century. Then 
the gentry spoke according to the spelling; Jeames held 
his ground among the lower classes, and finally — thanks to 
Jeame^s Diary — ^has become one of the stock terms of 
conventional wit; and in modem times Jacobioa and Jamesina 
were coined for female wear. Jacobs, Jacobson, Jameson, or 
Jamieson were the surnames. Jaques too is common in the 
north of England. Fitz-James, invented for the Duke of 
Berwick, shows its novelty by the ill accordance of the 
old French prefix with the modem English termination. 
James 11. likewise gave his name to the gold coin Jacobus, 
and left the soubriquet of Jacobite to his adherents. On the 
other hand, a French religious order were called the Jacobin 
firiars, and certain pigeons, whose crests emulated their hoods 
and bands, took their name, which again remained to their 
convent after they had been ejected, and it had become a ren- 
dezvous of the most desperate of the democrats, thence termed 
the Jacobins. ' You are said to be a Jacobin, and I a Jaco- 
bite,' said Sir Walter Scott to Tom Moore, * so we coincide 
in politics to a T.' 

The Highlanders call the name Hamish ; the Irish, Seumuis. 
In fact, its variations are almost beyond enumeration. In 
Italy the ftdl name has the three varieties, Giacomo, Jacopo, 
Giacobbe, so no wonder the abbreviations are Coppo and Lapo, 
the last explaining whence Nicolo de Lapi obtained his 
surname. Giacomini, Jacobini, and many others are Italian 
family names; France shows Jacqueard, Jacquenin, and many 
more; and Germany has Jacobitz, Jacobi, Bopp, and other 
renowned names therefrom; Spain, Diaz and Jago, which 
last has come to England. It would almost seem as if 
Shakespeare had had the original meaning of Jacob in his 
mind when he took its Italian derivatives for his two greatest 
villains, — lago, who is regarded as a master-piece of intel- 
lectual wickedness, and lachimo, whose cmel stratagem is 



one of the stories common to the whole worid, from the High- 
lands to Mount Etna. 

Among these I have not placed the Greek or Slavonic 
Jacobs, for though all due honour is there paid to both the 
veritable apostles, it is not to the mythical Santiago de-Com- 
postella, whom we have traced as the root of all the Jameses 
of the West. 

The great Jakobos, who appeared at the Council of Nicea, 
and gloriously defended the city of Nisibis, handed on the 
apostolic name in the East; it has almost as many Greek and 
Slavonian variations as Latin and Teutonic. 

The Russian nameday is the 30th of April, either for the 
sake of St. James the Less, whose eve it is, or for a name- 
sake who perished in Numidia in the time of Valerian, and 
whose feast then falls. Their Jakov gets called Jascha and 
Jaschenka, and his feminine Jacovina and Zakelina. The 
Ulyrians twist the masculine into Jakovica, and the Lithu- 
anians into Jeka or Kubinsch.* 











Jaco hello 






* Smith's Dictionary of the Bible; Southey's Poems ; Jamieson's Sacred 
and Legendary Art; Butler; Michaelis; Pott; Bran|*|J^^gp^|^i^^i^tti«». 


Section Vm. — Simeon. 

Of the twelve sons of Jacob, four only have names of suf- 
ficient interest to deserve individual notice, and among these, 
the first requiring notice is Simeon, from schamay to hear. 

Simeon's name passed on to numerous Jews, and was very 
common in the Gospel times, no less than five personages 
being so called, namely, the aged man in the Temple, the son 
of Jonas, the other apostle called the Zealot or the Canaanite, 
and the leper, besides the tanner of Joppa, and the magician 
whose attempt to purchase spiritual gifts, has given the title 
of simony to his class of sins. 

By this time, however, the Hebrew Simeon had been 
confounded with the Greek 5rfuui' (Simon), snub-nosed, and 
used fix)m very early days. Judging by St. James, in his 
discourse at Jerusalem, calling St. Peter ' Simeon,' it would 
seem likely that this was used as their true national name, 
and that Simon was a Grsecism used in intercourse with 
strangers, or in writing. 

The anchorite, who took that strangest freak of fanaticism, 
the perching himself for life upon a column, is called both 
Simeon and Simon Stylites, but the latter form has generally 
been the prevalent one, and has belonged to numerous saints 
in both the Eastern and Western Church. The Greek Church 
has both St. Seem^on on the 3rd of February, and St. Ssimon 
on the 10th of May, and the Russian contractions are Ssemen 
and Ssenka. The West, too, had sundry Simons of its own, 
besides those common to all Christendom. We had a 
monastic St. Simon Stock, and though the Christian name is 
now uncommon, it has left us many varieties of surnames, as 
Simmonds, Simkins, Simpson, Simcoe, Sykes, etc., the spel- 
ling but slightly varied. It was more used among the French 
peasantry, and acquired the feminine Simonette. The Italian 
Simone was not unfrequent, and has made the surname 
Simoncelli; the Portuguese had Simao ; the Spaniards, Ximon gle 


and the Slavonians have the odd varieties of the Polish 
Szymon, the lUyrian Simej, the Lusatian Schymanz. 

It is the same word Schama that named the first of the 
prophets of Israel. Asked of (Jod is the import of Samuel, 
a name so endeared by the beautiful history of the call to 
the child in the temple, that it could not be quite forgotten. 
A Samuel, native of Palestine, who perished in the perse- 
cution of Maximian, left it to be a martyr's name in the 
calendar, and it has been a favourite in the Eastern Church, as 
Samuil, Samoilo, in Russia; while in Lusatia it is Schombel; 
in Lithuania, Zomelis. The reading of the Holy Scriptures 
was however, no doubt, the cause of its use here and in 
Switzerland, since we scarcely find it before the Reformation, 
though now Samuel is common in Switzerland, and Sam 

Section IX. — Judah. 

In her exultation at being the mother of so many promising 
sons, Leah called the fourth who was bom to her Jehudah 
(he will be praised) ; meaning brought forward by her hus- 
band Jacob when, in his death-bed blessing of his sons, he ex- 
claimed, ^ Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise.' 

It was a prophetic title, for when the birth-right forfeited 
by the unstable Reuben was divided, and the priesthood fell 
to Levi and the prime inheritance to Joseph, Judah obtained 
the spiritual inheritance for the future, and the precedency 
over the other tribes. * Judah was His sanctuary,' and the 
lion standard of Judah led the march of the camp of IsraeL 
In the very lot of Judah's inheritance the preparation was 
made for the permanency of the tribe by placing it in the 
mountain fastnesses, which above all other regions are the 
nurses of high spirit and ardent patriotism, and which in 
themselves defy an invader. 

* Prober Names of the Bible; Butler; Lower's English Surnames; 
Michaelis: Pott. 

JUDAH. 6 1 

That mountain territory, the kingdom of Judah, was fondly 
called by her prophet-poets the praise of the whole earth, 
and her capital the city of praise. It was not till, through 
her fall and captivity, she became known to the historical 
nations, that the title lovSoioi (loudaioi) began to be applied 
t% her people, and was gradually extended to all of Israelite 
blood scattered through the East, as was its Latin version, 
Judsei, to those who sued for the assistance of Rome, but 
only to rivet round their necks the yoke of iron threatened 
long before by Moses. 

Judea, then, was the small province where the chief events 
in the Gospel took place ; and as Judsei were its unbelieving 
inhabitants denounced to the Christian world, and became 
the Giudei of Italy, the Juden of Germany, the Juifs of 
France, the Jews of England — everywhere the proscribed 
wanderers, with their marked dress and the isolated quarter 
of the cities where they dwelt. Old English towns still have 
their Jewry-street, recalling the old biblical term, Jewry for 
Judea. But how changed are the present associations of Jew 
from what they were when Judah was the name of praise ! 

Thus, too, it has been with the individual name of Judah. 
Unused before the captivity, it was revived again after it, 
and carried to the highest fame and popularity by the brave 
Maccabee, who newly founded Judea and restored it, for a 
time, to freedom and honor. His surname is by some de- 
rived from a word meaning the Hammerer, by others from 
Makkabi, formed by initial letters of the motto on his standard, 
* Who among the gods is like unto Thee, Lord.' Judas 
Maccabeus, early as was his death, and imperfect as was the 
deliverance of his country when he was slain, was one of the 
chief heroes of Jhe world, and occupied a far larger space in 
the imagination of our mediaeval ancestors than he does in 
ours. Not only were the books of Maccabees considered as 
of equal authority with the canonical Scriptures, and doubt- 
less read aloud by chaplains of the taste of Father Aldrovand, 
in the Betrothed^ but, before 1240, a French metrical romance 


J DV V_-« V^V>S 


had recounted his exploits, and by Chaucer's time Judas Mac- 
cabeus was ranked among the nine worthies — ^with Alexander, 
Hector, Julius Caesar, David, Joshua, Clovis, Charlemagne, 
and Godfrey of Bulloign, — the subject of many a ballad and 
chap-book, and represented in many a masque and mumming. 
* Judas I am, yclept Machabeus,' begins the unfortun|te 
Pedant in Lovers Labour Lost^ when the punnbg courtiers 
assure him that Maccabeus dipt is plain Judas ; and even to 
the present day, Christmas mummers, in some counties, still 
number Judas Maccabeus among their dramatis personse. 

But his name has never occurred ! Frequent, indeed, it 
was among his own countrymen after his time, but of them 
was that man who rendered it for ever accursed. What was 
meant by the surname of Iscariotes has never been explained, 
some thinking it means that he came from a place called 
Kerioth, and others that it is derived from scortea^ an apron 
or bag; but be this as it may, his name was regarded with 
horror and became the synonym of a traitor ; and apocryphal 
gospels, mysteries, and ballads heaped execration on him. 
The tree on which he was said to have hung himself was 
called after him, and hated accordingly ; and Pulci in his 
poem of the Morgante Maggiore made the shade of a Judas- 
tree the spot where the traitor Ganelon planned the ambush 
against the army of Charlemagne in the pass of Roncesvalles. 

Another apostle bore the same name, but this did not 
suffice to redeem it, though altered into Jude to mark the 
distinction. ' I never can call him Jude,' cried the Arago- 
nese Queen in the ballad before alluded to ; and St. Jude has 
no namesakes in honour of that name of praise that he bore 
in remembrance that he was of the direct and royal line of 
Judah. He had, however, two Aramean names, Lebbaeus, 
supposed to mean hearty, or else from the town of Lebba, 
and Thaddaeus, which is satisfactorily explained as an 
Aramean form of the same word Praise, Graecised and 
Latinized of course before it came to us. 

It is not, however, popular. Italy has indeed used it a 

JUDAH. 63 

good deal as Taddeo, and Spain knows it as Tadeo; bnt 
though Ireland swanns with Thadys, who write themselves 
Thaddeus, this is only as a supposed English version of their 
ancient Erse, Tadhg (a poet). The Slavonic nations use it 
more than the West ; it is a favourite Polish name, and was 
almost regarded as heroic when Miss Porter's novel of Thad^ 
deus of Warsaw was the rage. The Russians call it Phaddei ; 
and the Illyrians, Tadia. No name has been so altered as 
Judah ; it is Hodaiah after the captivity, and Abiud, or 
rather Ab-jud, in St. Luke's genealogy. 

The feminine form of the name Jehudith, or Judith, 
belonged primarily to the Hittite wife of Esau, who was a 
grief of heart to Rebekah, but its fame is owing to the 
heroine of Bethulia, whose name is, however, said rather to 
mean a Jewess than to be exactly the feminine of Judah. 
Indeed some commentators, bewildered by the difficulties of 
chronology, have supposed the history to be a mere allegory 
in which she represents the Jewish nation. However, on the 
uncritical mind of the eighth or ninth centuries, her story 
made a deep impression, and a poem was in circulation in 
Europe recording her adventurous deed, and mentioning 
among the treasures of Holofemes' tent a mosquito net, 
whence the learned argue that the narrative must have been 
derived from some eastern source independent of the Apocry- 
phal book. 

At any rate, hers was the first name not belonging to their 
own language that was borne by Teutonic ladies, and long 
preceded that of any saint. Juditha, Jutha, or Jutta was in 
high favour at the court of the Karling Kaisers, and came . 
to England with the step-mother, who gave the first impulse 
to our great Alfred's love of learning. Her subsequent 
marriage took it to Flanders, and we had it back again with 
the niece of William the Conqueror, the wicked wife of 
Waltheof, and afterwards of Simon de St. Lis. Her micle 
cites her as a witness to a charter by the familiar abbreviation 
of Jugge, which was long used as the regular contraction. 

uigiiizeu Dv v_jv^vJV?Iv^ 


though Judy has since become more usual, and is exceedingly 
common in Ireland. 

Some etymologists have explained Punch and Judy to be 
the remnant of a popular mystery on the Passion, in which 
disputes between Pilate and the Jews formed the comic 
element, thus referring the name to a corruption of Pontius 
et Judcei; but this is contradicted by tracing Punch to his 
native home at Naples, where Policinello means a little 
thumb, and no doubt refers to the size of the puppets; 
besides which our grandmothers aver that, it is only within 
the last century that the person$^s have become fixed, or 
that Judy's name has been invariable, so as to become a pro- 
verb for rags and bufibonery. 

Even French families gave their daughters the name of 
Judith, which belonged to the gentle Comtesse de Bonneval, 
whose *ower true tale' Lady Georgiana Fullerton has en- 
deared to us. The Breton form is Juzeth ; and the Swiss 
ruthlessly turn it into Dith, but across the Alps it comes 
forth more gracefully as Giuditta; and the Poles make it 
Jitka ; the Hungarians, Juczi or Jutka. 

On the authority of Eusebius we venture to add a third to 
those who bore this name in the apostolic college, namely, 
him whom we know by the Aramaic and Greek epithets 
Thomas and Didymus, both meaning a twin. Tradition de- 
clares that his fellow-twin was a sister called Lysia. India 
is believed to have been the region of his labours and of his 
death; the Christians there were called after him ; and when 
in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese attained their object 
of reaching India by sea, they thought they discovered his 
tomb at Meliapore, transported the relics to Goa, and created 
San Tomas or Tomd into their patron saint. Long ere this, 
however, in every part of Europe had Thomas been revived 
with other apostolic names, but its great prominence was de- 
rived from the murdered Archbishop Becket, or St. Thomas 
of Canterbury. His shrine at Canterbury was the English 
Gompostella, visited by foreign as well as native pilgrims* 


The house where he was bom is only now ceasing to be St. 
Thomas' Hospital, and the greater proportion of churches so 
termed were under the invocation of the archbishop instead of 
the apostle, although it is only by charter or by wake-day that 
the dedication can be traced, since Henry VHI. did his utmost 
to de-canonize and destroy all memorials of the bold prelate 
whom he would most certainly have beheaded instead of as- 
sassinating. Nevertheless, it was Becket who had abready 
rendered Thomas a deeply-rooted national name, becoming 
Thompson, Tomkius, Tomline, Tomlinson, also perhaps Macey 
and Massey. One of his sisters had married into the De 
Boteler family, and receiving large grants of land in Ireland, 
became the ancestress of the Thomas Butlers constantly re- 
curring in the line of ^ Erin's brave Ormond ;' and Thomas of 
Ercildonne, or the Rhymer, proves that many Scottish Tams 
were already beginning soon after the murder. In Italy a 
martyr for ecclesiastical prerogatives was certain to be in high 
repute ; carvings, glass, paintings, and even needlework still 
bear his history and figure, always denoted by the clean cut- 
ting off of his scalp above the tonsure, and Tomasso flourishes 
greatly as a Christian name, the Italians, as usual, abbreviat- 
ing by the omission of the first syllable instead of the last, so 
that where we say Tom, they say Maso, and thence Masuccio, 
as we call one of their earliest great painters. Tomasso 
Agnello was the true name which, c(Hitracted into Masaniello, 
was the wonder of the day at Naples, and made the Spanish 
power there totter on its throne. 

Englishmen bestowed upon Kent the reproach that the 
tails cut from Becket's mules by his enemies had been trans- 
ferred to themselves, and foreigners extended the imputation 
to the whole nation, insomuch that, as Joinville tells us, the 
stout Earl of Salisbury and his men were goaded on to perish 
in their last fatal charge on the banks of the Nile by the 
French scoff that they would not take the front lest their 
tails Aould be detected. It is just possible that Tom Fool 


may be connected with this story, though more probably with 
some jester of forgotten fame, and as is the case with most 
muversal names, it has come to denote several male animals, 
such as cats, pigeons, and turkeys. We cannot help attri- 
buting the incongruous Peeping Tom of Coventry among the 
genuine Saxons who appear in the rest of the tale, to some 
of the strange legends bestowed upon the original saint, for 
whom a parody of his real doubts was invented regarding the 
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, who was said to have 
convinced him by appearing to him in glory, and letting 
down her girdle as a tangible proof of her exaltation. 

Church bells were wont to be baptized after the apostles, 
and the deep full sound of the first syllable of Thomas made 
it specially applicable to the largest and heaviest of the peal, 
whence the great Toms of Lincoln Cathedral and of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

The feminine Thomassine, Tamzine, and Tammie, are 
comparatively recent inventions. As to Tom Thumb, he 
owes his Christian name most probably to the spirit of 
reduplication. Some Teuton, or it may be, some still remoter 
fancy, had imagined the mannikin, called from his propor- 
tions Daumling, the diminutive of Daum, the same word as 
our Thumb; while the Scots got him as Tamlane, and though 
forgetting his fairy proportions, sent him to elfland, and res- 
cued him thence just in time to avoid being made ^ the 
Teind to hell.^ As Daumling he rode in the horse's ear, and 
reduplicated into Tom Thumb, came to England, and was 
placed at Arthur's court as the true land of romance ; then 
in France, where little Gauls sucked their Latin poUex as 
their pouce, he got called h Petit Poucet^ and was sent to the 
cave of an ogre or oreo— a monster (most likely a cuttle fish) 
— straight from the Mediterranean, and there performed his 
treacherous but justifiable substitution of his brother's night- 
caps for the infant ogresses' crowns, and so came to England 
as Hop-o'-my-Thumb, too often confounded with the true 
Tom Thumb. Tomas na Agaid is again a Keltic version* 




•- Thomas 
wu^ fThomassine 
^^•j Tamzine 








Fern. — Tomasa 



iVm.— Fomaida 


Fern, — ^Thomasia 


Lower Lusatian. 





Thomaa is the accepted equivalent for the Irish Tomalhaid, 
Tomaltach, and Toirdelvach, tall as a tower. 

Didjmns seems at one time to have been sometimes used; 
for a peasant family, at present called Diddams, appear in 
the older register as Didymus, and, oddly enough, several 
pairs of twins are set down to their account, as if explaining 
the source of the surname.^ 

Section X. — Jos^h. 

When after long waiting and hoping, a son was at length 
granted to Rachel, she called him Joseph from a word 
signifying an addition, because she hoped that yet another 
child would be added to her family. 

Joseph, beloved and honoured as he was for his own 

♦ Books consulted : — Froper Namei of tlie Bible ; Smith's BibUeal 
DieHonary / Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art ; Cave's Lives of the 
Apoetlee; Warton's English Poetry. 


lec^y Google 


beautiful character and eventful history, has perhaps at the 
present day the greater number of direct namesakes among 
the Arabs, who still are frequently called Yussuf. This, 
indeed, was the true name of the great Saladin^ for Salah- 
^-deen, which we have thus corrupted, is only his surname, 
the salvation of religion ; and the mosque that he built at 
Cairo is known as the Mosque of Yussuf. 

Only two Josephs occur again in the Scripture before the 
captivity in Babylon, but afterwards they were exceedingly 
numerous, and in the Gospel history two remarkable charac- 
ters are so named, as well as three others whom we know by 
the Graecised form of the name as Joses, u e. a fouirth 
brother of the royal family of James, Simon, and Jude ; he 
who was usually called by his surname of Barnabas, and he 
who was also called Barsabas, whose lot was cast with that 
of Matthias. The Latinized form we know aa the name of 
the historian Flavins Josephus. Legend loved to narrate 
that Joseph of Arimathea brought the Gospel to England, 
and that his staflF was the Christmas-flowering thorn of 
Glastonbury ; nay, that he carried hither the Sancgreal and 
the holy lance, the mystic objects of the adventures of the 
Round Table. 

Yet, in spite of ihe reputation of this holy man, and of 
the universal reverence for *the just man' of Nazareth, 
Joseph was scarcely used as a name in Europe till in 162 1 a 
festival day was fixed by the pope in honour of St. Joseph, 
the husband of the Blessed Virgin. 

Therewith an enthusiasm broke forth in Roman Catholic 
Europe for the name. All the world in Italy began to call 
itself Giuseppe or Gioseffo ; or for short, Peppo and Beppo 
have swarmed ever since in every village. 

Spain delighted in Josef or Jose, and the more devout in 
Jose Maria, with Pepe or Pepito for the contraction ; Pepita 
for the Josefa, who, of course, arose at the same time, these 
becoming the most common of all Peninsular names. 

Not to be behindhand in devotion, the Emperor Leopold 


christened his son Joseph, and thus recommended it to all 
his subjects ; and, perhaps, the Tyrol is the greatest of all 
the strongholds of the Josephs, being there called by its last 
syllable in all varieties of endearments, Sepp, Sepperl, &c. ; 
while the Swiss, on the other side, have Sipp and Sippli. 
Maaria Josepha was a daughter of Maria Theresa, and these 
two are seldom separated in Germany, Italy, or France; but 
as Maria forms part of the name of every Roman Catholic 
woman, and of most men, the second name is the one for 
use. Marie Josephe Rose was the Christian name of her 
whom we know and pity as the Empress Josephine, and to 
whom it is owing that France is full of young ladies usuidly 
called Fifine or Finette ; while the rougher damsels of Lu- 
cerne are content to be Boppi in familiar life. * 

The Slavonians use varieties of Josko and Joska; the 
Letts turn the name into Jaschis or Jeps. It is in fact 
broken into as many odd contractions as it can possibly 
undergo. It is Joseef or Oseep in Russia. 

England, having freed herself from Roman influence before 
this mighty crop of Josephs sprang up, merely regarded it as 
among other of the Scripture names chiefly used by Puritans, 
although Joseph Addison has given it distinction in litera- 
ture; and there Joe is of uncertain origin, as it is as often 
the contraction of Josiah or Joshua, as of Joseph. In some 
part^ of England Joseph and Mary are considered appro- 
priate for twins. Josephine is with us a mere introduction 
from the French. 

Joseph had named his two sons Manasseh (forgetting), 
because he said, * God hath made me forget all my toil,' 
and Ephraim (twofold increase). The first was early adopted 
by the Israelites ; we find it belongmg to the son of Hezekiah, 
and to the father of Judith, and, to our amazement,' to a 
mediaeval knight, whose friends may perhaps have brought 
it from the Crusades. Two early bishops of Cambrai bore 
the name of Manassds, and there is one among the under- 
tenants in Domesday Book. In Ireland, the nam| gf ^ 


a corruption of Magnus, derived from the Nortlimen who 
invented it, is turned into Manasses. 

Ephraim, like other patriarchal names, lived on in Meso- 
potamia; and St. Ephrem of Edessa, who lived in the 
beginning of the fourth century, is esteemed as a doctor of 
the Church, and is the name-saint of numerous Russians, 
who keep his day on the 28th of January, though the 
Roman Church marks it in July.^ 

Section XI. — Benjamin. 

When the long-desired * addition,' the second son, was given 
to Rachel, and in the words of Jacob she ' died by him when 
there was but a little way to come to Ephrath,' she called 
the infant who had cost her life Ben-oni (son of my sorrow) ; 
but this was changed by his father into Ben-Yamin (son of 
my right hand, i.e., prosperous). It is thought, however, 
that Yamin was the name by which he may have been called, 
since his tribe and their land are called sons or land of 
Yemini in the original. This was the name again of one of 
his nephews, the sons of Simeon, and it is still known to 
the Arabs ; but it is not the same as that of the ^ obedient 
Yamen,' transplanted from the Curse of Kehama into Jte- 
Jeded Addresses: he is the god of death, and belongs to 
Indian mythology. 

In spite of Rare Ben Jonson, Benjamin is an essentially 
Puritan and Jewish name; but was common enough in 
England to furnish us with Benny and Benson, besides the 
Jewish Benjamios ; and such a feminine as Benjamina has 
eveo l)een perpetrated. Oddly enough the Bretons call Ben- 
jamin Benoni, 

Beni was the eastern tribe designation, as it still is that 
of the Arabs; Benijaakan, the children of Jaackan; Beni 
'^ \s of Hassan, &c. 

ftUBihU; Miohaelis; O'Donoyan's Irit A 2/aiiiM. 


J DV V_J V^\_/X.l-^ 


We meet with it often again in proper names. Benhadad, 
son of the god Adad, was the Syrian royal designation ; and 
there are other instances, though not of remarkable persons. 
Bath (the daughter), seems in like manner to have been the 
female name answering to it ; the most noted instance being 
Bathsheba (daughter of the oath), called in the Chronicles 
Bathshua; by Josephus, Bcctf<raj8^; and thence in French 
Bibles, Bethsabee. 

Afterwards the place of Ben was taken by the Syriac Bar, 
the earliest instance being that of old Barzillai, the Gileadite, 
whose name signified the son of iron. It seems as though 
under the Herodean kingdom the custom was coming in that 
forms the first surnames, that of calling the son by his 
patronymic almost in preference to his own individual appel- 
lation, and thus arose some of the double titles that confuse 
US as to the identity of the earlier saints. Thus, the * Is- 
raelite without guile,' is first introduced as Nathanael, the 
same as the ancient Nethaneel, captain of the tribe of 
Issachar, and meaning the gift of God, being compounded 
of the divine word and Nathan (a gift), itself the name of 
the prophet who rebuked David, and of the son whose de- 
scendants seem to have taken the place of the royal line. 
But in the list of apostles, Nathanael is called by his 
patronymic Bartholomaios, as it stands in the Greek, and 
Tholomaios is referred to Talmai (furrows), which occurs in 
the list of the sons of Anak, and also as belonging to the 
King of Geshur, Absalom's grandfather. 

In the uncertainty whether it was really the apostle, Na- 
than^l was left unused until those English took it up, by 
whom it was made into Nat. Jonathan, it may here be 
observed, is almost exactly the same, and also means the gift 
of the Lord. 

The other form, though not popular, is of all nations, and 
£rom its unwieldy length has endless contractions, perhaps 
the larger number being German, since it is most ccHnmon 
in that central Teutonic land. * ^ . 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 













































Joseph, or Joses, as he was called since, coming from 
Cyprus, — he was one of the Hellenistic Jews, is best known 
to us under his surname of Barnabas, which St. Luke ex- 
plains from the Aramaic as mos irapaKh^^m (uios parakleseos), 
the son of comfort, a word which bears diflFerent interpreta- 
tions, since comfort may be either exhortation or consolation ; 
and it is in the latter sense that St. Chrysostom and our 
translators have understood the word, though there are rnsmy 
who prefer the other meaning. 

Barnabas has not been a very common name, though with 
an apostle for its origin, it could not fail to be everywhere 
known; but it was never royal; and the only historical 
character so called, Bemabo Yisconti, was enough to give 

JOB. 7J 

any name an evil odour. We make it Bamaby when we do 
use it, the Irish call it Barney and c(xifase it with Brian, and 
the Russians call it Yamava. One Barnabas Hutchinson, 
proctor of the chapter of Durham, who died in 1633, is thus 
commemorated in his epitaph : — 

* Under this theme tree 
Lies honest Bamabee/* 

Section Xn. — Job. 

We must not quit the patriarchal names without mention- 
ing that of Job. This mysterious person is stated in the margin 
of the Alexandrian version to have originally borne the name 
of Jobab, which means shouting; and a tradition of the 
Jews, adopted by some of the Christian fathers, makes him 
the same as the Jobab, prince of Edom, mentioned in the 
genealogy, in the 33rd chapter of Q-enesiSj a suppositicm 
according with his evident position as a great desert sheik, 
as well as with the early date of his history. 

Job, however, as he is called throughout his book, is ex- 
plained by some to mean persecuted, by others, a penitent, 
and it is evident from a passage in the Koran that this was 
the way that Mahommed understood it. The tradition of 
his sufferings lived on among the Arabs, who have many 
stories about Eyub, or Ayoub, as they pronounce the name 
still common among them, and their nickname for the patient 
camel is Abi Ayub, father of Job. The famous Kurdish 
dynasty of Khalifs in Egypt was called Ayoubite, from an 
ancestor named Ayoub. 

Jov, probably from their eastern connections, is a name used 
by the Russians, and has belonged to one of their patriarchs. 
Otherwise it is a very infrequent name even in England. 

Job's three daughters, Jemima, Kezia, and Kerenhappuch, 
are explained to mean a dove, cassia, and a horn of stibium. 

* Kitto's £i52ica2 Cyclopadia; Trollope's Qreek T««(^ip^,i^y ]^i^^$^B[e 


This latter is the pamt with which eastern ladies were wont 
to enhance the beauty of their eyelashes, and it is curious 
to find this little artifice so ancient and so highly esteemed 
as to give the very name to the fair daughter of the restored 
patriarch, perhaps because her eyes were too lovely to need 
any such adornment. Hers has never been a popular name, 
only being given sometimes to follow up those of her sisters ; 
Kezia is a good deal used in England, and belonged to a 
sister of Wesley, who was called Kissy ; but Jemima is by 
far the most general of the three. It has been even said 
that Jemama, the central district of Arabia, which the in- 
habitants say was caUed from an ancient queen, may preserve 
the name of the daughter of Job. 

The Hebrew interpretation of Jemima makes it a day, 
but the Arabic word for a dove resembles it more closely, 
and critics, therefore, prefer to consider it as the Arab 
feminine version of that which the Israelites had among 
them as Jonah (a dove), and belonged to the prophet of 
Nineveh, and afterwards to the father of St. Peter, both 
men of Galilee. It is not usual in Europe, but strangely 
enough the Lithuanians use it as Jonaszus, and the Lapps as 
Jonka. Jonas Hanway has given its later form a worthy 
reputation amongst us. 

What strange fancy can have made Mehetabel, the wife 
of one of the princes of Edom, leave hu four syllables to be 
popular in England? Many village registers all over the 
country show it. Was it a remnant of the East in Cornwall, 
or did Puritans choose it for its meaning, God is beneficent ? 
It was at Jarrow as early as 1578. 

Tamar, a palm tree, it may here be mentioned, has con- 
tinued common among eastern Christians, especially since a 
distinguished Armenian queen was so called. Now and then 
very great lovers of biblical names in England give it, and 
likewise Dinah (judgment).* 

* Smith's Dictionary of the Bible; Eitto's Biblical Cyclopadia; Fro* 
per Name$ of the Bible. 




Section I. — Mosea and Aaron. 

At the time of the Exodus, the Israelites had become a 
nation, and their names, though still formed from a living 
language, were becoming more hereditary and conventional 
than those of the patriarchal times. 

That of Moses himself, interpreted by the Scripture as 
meaning drawn out of the water, belongs rather to the 
Egyptian than to the Hebrew language. It has never been 
forgotten in the East, where the Arabs in the desert point 
out Gebel Mousa, the rock of Moses, whence they say the 
water flowed, and Wady Mousa, the vale of Moses. Mousa 
is a frequent name among the Arabs to this day, and among 
the gallant Moors of Granada, none stands so prominently 
forward in the noble rivalry of Abencerrages and Zegris 
as does the champion Muza. 

Moses was unused by the Jews while they continued a 
nation, but has been very common in their dispersion, and 
in Poland has come to be pronounced Mojzesz. The fre- 
quent Jewish surname Moss is taken from one of these con- 
tinental corruptions of the name of the great Law-giver. In 
Ireland the name Magsheesh has been adopted by the in- 
habitants as an imitation of Moses ; but no form of Moses is 
used elsewhere, except as a direct Scripture name. 

The tesselations of minute stones, so arranged as to form 
a design, are said to be called Mosaic from their supposed 
resemblance to the breastplate of the high priest, fashioned 
by Moses on Mount Sinai, but the word is far more likely to 
have a Ghreek origin, and to come from museum, the temple 
of the Muses, where it was used. u, j ,zea dv ^ v^v^^^lv 


Aaron's name is in like manner considered to be Egyptian, 
and the meaning is very doubtful, though it is commonly 
explained as a high mountain. 

Haroun, as the Arabs call it, has been in great favour 
among them ; and with us Haroun al Raschid, or the just, is 
better known by his wanderings in disguise in the streets of 
Bagdad than by all his substantial power. Among the 
Jews, Aaron is a frequent name, and sometimes is a surname, 
though in general his descendants are called Cohen, from the 
Jewish word for a priest. 

Aaron seems to have been assumed as a name by some of 
our old British Christians, or else it was accepted as an 
equivalent for something Keltic, for Aaron and Julius were 
among our very few British martyrs under Diocletian's per- 
secution, and a later Aaron was an abbot in Brittany ; but it 
has never been a name in use.^ 

Section n. — Miriam or Mary. 

The sister of Moses and Aaron, who led the songs of the 
Israelites when they saw their enemies dead upon the sea 
shore, was the first owner of that name which was to be the 
most highly honoured among those of women. 

Yet it is a name, respecting which there is great conten- 
tion. Gresenius derives it from Meri (stubbornness), with 
the addition of the third person plural, so as to make it 
mean their rebellion. Other commentators refer it to the 
word Marah (bitterness), and thence the bitter gum, myrrh, 
the same term that was applied to the brackish springs in 
the desert, and to which the desolate widow of Bethlehem 
declared her right, when she cried, *Call me not Naomi 
(pleasant), call me Marah (bitter).' This is on the whole 
the most satisfactory derivation, but in the middle ages it 

* Proper Names of the Bible ; Liddell and Scott's Oreek Lexicon ; 

Butler's Lives of the SainU. ugmzeu dv ^jv^/^ 

MmiAM OR MARY. 77 

was explained as Myrrh of the Sea, Lady of the Sea, or 
Star of the Sea, the likwiess to the Latin and Teutonic mar 
being probably the guide. Star of the Sea is the favourite 
explanation among Roman Catholics, as the loftiest and most 
poetical, and it is referred to in many of their hymns and 
other devotions. 

Miriam does not seem to have been repeated until after 
the captivity, when it took the Greek forms of Mariam and 
Mariamne, and became very frequent among Jewish women, 
probably in the expectation of the new deliverance from the 
bondage that galled them like that of Egypt of old. It was 
the name of the Asmonean princess in whom the brave Mac- 
cabean line was extinguished by Herod the Great; it belonged 
to three if not four of the women of the Gospel ; and we find 
it again marking the miserable being cited as having fulfilled 
the most terrible of all the woes denoimced by Moses upon 
the children of Jerusalem. 

The name of Mariam continued in the East, but was very 
slow in creeping into the Western Church, though not only the 
Blessed Virgin herself had borne it, but two very popular 
saints; namely, the Magdalen, and the Penitent of Egypt, 
whose legends were both current at a very early period. 

The first Maria whom I can find of undoubted western 
Wrth was a Spanish maiden, who was martyred by the Moors 
at Cordova, in 851. Michaelis, however, tells us that the 
old Spanish name of XJrraca is the same as Maria, and if 
this be the case, there were many votaries of the Blessed 
Virgin in the Peninsula, even in early times, for Urraca was 
an extremely common name in Leon, Castille, and Navarre, 
and is much celebrated in ballad literature. The Infanta 
Dona Urraca was being besieged in Toro by her brother Don 
Sancho, when the crossbow bolt was shot that killed the king, 
and ndsed his brother Alfonso to the throne, the same bolt 
on which the Cid insisted on Alfonso's making oath of inno- 
cence, and which thus occasioned the champion's life-lo"" 
banishment. Urraca too, by its uncouth ^^^^^^veDgle 


its owner from being Queen of France. The ambassadors, 
sent to choose between the Gastillian princesses, selected 
Blanca, as having the more pronounceable name, evidently 
not guessing that they might have called her sister Marie, 
and perhaps in consequence of this slight, Urraca fell into 
disuse, and Maria was multiplied in Spain and Portugal. 

It seems to have been the devotion of the Crusaders that 
first brought Maria into Europe, for we find the first in- 
stances about the middle of the twelfth century all at once ; 
Maria of Antioch, a Crusader's daughter, who married the 
Emperor Manuel Commenus ; her daughter, Maria Commena, 
married to the Marquis of Montferrat ; Marie, the daughter 
of Louis Vn. of France, and our Eleanor of Guienne, 
named probably during their Crusader's fervour ; then Marie, 
the translator of the Breton legends for Henry IH. ; Marie, 
the nun daughter of Edward I., and at the same time Marie 
all over the western world. 

Probably the addition of the German diminutive chen, in 
French on, formed the name of 

* A bonny fine maid of noble degree, 
Maid Marion called by name.' 

Very soon had her fame travelled abroad, for in 1332 the 
play of Bobin et Marion was performed by the students of 
Angers, one of them appearing as eiJiUette dSguisie; the origin 
of Marionettes^ puppets disguised to play the part of Maid 
Marion, is thus explained. They may, however, have received 
their name from the habit of caUiog small images of the 
Blessed Virgin Mariettes, or Marionettes. Several streets of 
old Paris, in which were such images, were called Rue des 
Mariettes, or later. Rue des Marionettes. All puppets thero 
came to be called Mariettes and Marmonsets; and two streets 
of Paris were down to the last century called Rue des Mar- 
monsets. Henri Etienne says, 'Never did the Egyptians 
take such cruel vengeance for the murder of their cats, as 
has been seen wreaked in our days on those who had mutilated 

uigiiizeu Dv v_jv^v/x l>w 



some MarmoDset or Marionette.' Even the bauble of a 
licensed fool was a Marotte, from the little head at its point, 
and the supernatural dolls of sorcerers, in the form of toads 
or apes, were described as Marionettes in an account of a 
trial for witchcraft in 1600. Marion became a common name 
in France, and contracted into Manon, and expanded into 
Marionette, as in a poem of the 13th century where Marion 
is thus addressed ; and in Scotland, where ' Maid Marion, 
fair as ivory bone,' likewise figured in rustic pageantry, she 
took a stronger hold than anywhere else, is in common life 
yclept Menie, and has escaped her usual fate of confusion 
with Marianne. With us, the Blessed Virgin's name, having 
come through the French, was spelt in their fashion till the 
translation of the Bible made our national Mary familiar. 
Mary 11. was the first of our queens who dropped the ie^ 
The chief contractions and endearments are as follows : — 


































Mair (W.) 




\ / 













\ / 





* Marriott occors in a Ornish register as a feminine in 1666. .^T^ 
















Marka i 


Our Latin Maria is a late introduction, brought in by that 
taste which in the last century made everything end with a ; 
when, as Scott laments in St. RonarCs Welly Mary lost its 
simplicity and became Maria; but this aflFectation is happily 
falling to the ground. 

It is only during the last three centuries that Maria has 
reigned supreme in Roman Catholic countries, marking jthe 
exaggerated devotion paid to the original. Indeed, the 
Italian proverb, answering to the needle in a bottle of hay, is 
' Oercar Maria in Ravenna^ so numerous are the Marias there. 
Even in Ireland there were no Marys till comparatively re- 
cent times ; but now the Mor that in Scotland is translated 
by Sarah, is changed in Ireland into Mary. 

Children especially placed under her patronage wear 
nothing but her colours, blue or white, for the first seven 
years of their life, and are in France said to be vou^s au 
blancj and whether male or female, are baptized after her. 

Since Maries have been thus multiplied, the attributes of 
the first Mary have been adopted into the Christian name, 
and used to distinguish their bearer. The earliest and best 
of these was the Italian Maria Annunciata, or Annunziata, 
contracted into Nunziata ; and followed up in Spain by Maria 
Anonciada ; and in France, by Marie Annonciade. Soon there 
followed Maria Assunta, in honour of her supposed assump- 
tion bodily into glory, but this never flourished beyond Italy, 
Spain, and her colonieeu ^ t 

*^' uig ized by LrOOgle 

IfmiAM OR MABT. 8l 

France has Marie des Anges, at least as a conventual 
appellation; as in Spain the votaress of the merciful in- 
terceding patroness is called Maria de Mercedes; and she 
whose parents were mindful of the Seven Sorrows supposed 
to have pierced the heart of the Holy Mother, would choose 
for their child Maria de Dolores. There was a legend that 
Santiago had seen a vision of the Blessed Virgin standing 
on a pillar of jasper and bidding him found at Zaragoza the 
church thence called Nuestra Senora del Pilar, whence in 
Spain at least, Pilar has become a female name, as Guada* 
lupe has likewise in honour of a miraculous image of St. 
Mary, preserved in the church of the mountain once covered 
with hermitages. Moreover, a district in Mexico, formerly 
called Tlaltelolco, was once the site of a temple to a favourite 
goddess of the Aztec race. After the Spanish conquest, the 
spot became the scene of a vision of Nuestra Senora, who 
appeared to a Christian Indian, and intimated that a church 
was there to be built in her honor. As a token of the reality 
of the vision, roses burst forth on the bare rock of the 
Tepeyac, which ftirther appeared impressed with a miraculous 
painting, which has been the great subject of adoration from 
the Mexicans ever since. Guadalupe, a free translation into 
Spanish of the native name of Tlaltelolco, has been ever 
since a favourite name with the damsels of Mexico, and is 
even adopted by such of the other sex as regard the shrine 
with special veneration. Maria del Incarnation is also Spanish. 
An English gypsey woman lately said * Carnation ^ was her 
daughter's name, and had been her grandmother's ; — was it 
from this source ? 

As queen of heaven, Maria has votaries, called in Italy 
Regina or Reina, the latter often found at Florence, very 
early ; in France, Reine and Reinette, the former being also a 
fiavourite in some parts of Crermany, where it has been con- 
fused with the derivatives of the old Teutonic Ragm, CounciL 

And since the promulgation of the new dogma, younf" 
ladies in Spain have been called Maria de la Concepcioir 

VOL. I. L^igmzea r^^ v^OglC 


in Italy, Concetta. Surely the superstition of these races 
is recorded in their names. The custom of adding Maria to 
a man's name seems to have begun in Italy about 1360, and 
now most individuab in Italy, and probably likewise in 
Spain, as well as in the more devout French families, bear 
ihe name of Maria; and the old Latin Marius and Yirginius, 
though their source is utterly alien alike from Maries and 
Virgins, have been pressed into the service, and made to do 
duty as Mario and Virginio in her honour. 

Li very early times the spirit of adoration forbade the 
Blessed Virgin to be spoken of without some form of special 
reverence. The Greeks called her the Panaghia (all holy) ; 
the Italians, Madonna ; the Spaniards, Nuestra Senora ; the 
French, Notre Dame ; the Crermans, Die Liebe Frau ; the 
Dutch, Onze Lieve Vrow ; and we. Our Lady. Nostradamus, 
the celebrated astrologer of the sixteenth century, was in 
reality Michel de Nostre Dame. The old exclamation, 
* marry,' is the remains of the oath by St. Mary. 

Among the many corruptions of her name and attributes 
may be mentioned Marybone Church, or that of St. Mary 
la bonne. Bow Church is that of St. Mary of the bows or 
arches, from the vaults supporting the steeple, whence the 
ecclesiastical court originally held there is termed the Court 
of Arches. Llanffair, in Wales,, is always the village of 
Mary, the aspirate of the genitive turning M into F. 

With us the Feast of the Annunciation is Lady-day ; it 
is Frauentag in Germany ; Var Frue-dag^ in Denmark ; in 
Welsh, Ghvgl Vari ycyhededdy the Feast of Mary of the 
Equinox ; and in Manx, Laal Mairrey my Sdnshy the day of 
Mary being whispered to. 

In the early spread of Christianity, our Lady had the 
benefit of all the fair things that the South had dedicated to 
Venus, or the North to Frigga, and thus she has left strong 
traces on every language. 

The little scarlet beetle was thought fit)m the five black spots 
on the wing cases to commemorate the five wounds of Christ, 

uigiiizeu Dy 's.-j v^v./^ l>w 


whence in France, it is 2a bSte du Ion Dteu; in Spain, 
la vaquilla de Dios; in Rnss, Bqja korovka; but we are 
content to call it Lady Cow, or Lady Bird; while the 
Grermans have Frauenkafer. Li France, the small pink 
cowries are les angles de la bonne Vierge ; in Switzerland, the 
small deer is Marienbok. 

The maiden-hair fern owes its name likewise to her; 
though at Rome it was capillus Veneris; and in Norseland, 
Frigga claimed its representative, the Aspleniun Nigrum (our 
black maiden-hair) ; but it is now Mariengras ; and so, too, , 
the Grossamer (or path of light) on our fields is, in Ger- 
many, the madchens sommer in spring ; but in autumn, the 
aiieweiben sommer. The word is not, however, summer, 
but the same as cymar (a veil or train), and these terms 
are the relics of an old belief that the gods swept over the 
fields in early morning, leaving their path of light trailing 
behind them in glistening dew, our gottessammer or gossamer. 

The arum is with us lords and ladies, a corruption of 
our Lord and our Lady, since it seems to have been once 
r^arded as a British passion flower, commemorating the 
column, the crown of thorns, the wounds, and the cave, 
and thus meriting its local Devonian name, a lamb in a 

Lady's fingers, the ordinary peasant name of the lotus comi- 
culatus, has supplied the place of the less reverent title of 
Grod Almighty's fingers, which is used in other countries, 
probably from the association with the eastern lotos-bean, the 
emblem of immortality among the ancient Greeks, and there- 
fore often introduced in paintings of the Supper at Emmaus. 

Lady's tresses is another relic of the joint property of the 
northern goddesses and of St. Mary. The satyrium albidumj 
which it most resembles, was in Iceland called Frigga- 
jargrasSf and sacred to Frigga, goddess of love and marriage, 
and was used in brewing love-potions. Here it became our 
Lady's, and a relic of the honour in which it was held lurks 
in a song accompanying a game of the Hampshire children : 


* Daffodilfl and daisieB, 

Bosemaxy and tresses. 
All the g^irls in our town, 
Most curtsey to the ladies.* 

Originally, no doubt, to our Lady. 

The beautiful veronica chamcedrys is called in France ks 
yeux de la bonne Vierge ; and with us, the gaiium^ it may be 
from its efficacy in epileptic cases, is Lady's-bed-straw. Sun- 
dew is Marienthranen (Mary's tears), in Germany and Den- 
mark ; and the Marybuds of Shakespeare may perhaps be the 
rose campion, which in Grermany is Marienrose; or the cam- 
panula, which is Marienglockchen (Mary's bells) ; this latter 
title may be connected with the Ave Maria, or Angelus-bell, 
so called because vespers, to which it is the summons, begins 
with the angelic salutation. ^ U tocco deU Ave Mariay is 
a recognised measure of the day in Italy. The star-shaped 
Marygold is said to be in blossom at all- feasts of our 
Lady, and the name of Marygold is applied to widely dif- 
ferent genera of flowers, the golden colour and starry form 
being all that was required by our unbotanical ancestors to 
mark them as sacred to the Star of the Sea. 

Fair maids of February are her Purification flower ; and the 
name of Frauenblume, in Germany, shows that the daisy ha s 
there been jiers. Mariendistel (Mary's thistle), in Germany, 
recals her sorrows ; and Lady-grass, in England, her purity. 
England finds her Lady's-smock in the cardaminej which 
strews the meadows like linen laid out to bleach; and provides 
her mantle in the broad leaves of the aJchemiUay and slippers 
in the pruneUa; though the Germans make the genista 
their Fratien schuh ; and their Frauenhandschuhy or glove, 
is the purple digitalis which with us remains the property 
of the folks, namely the fairies, to which Keltic tradition 
had assigned it when it was called the lus-more, or fairy- 
cap. Black bryony, too, is Mary's seal, or Lady's seal. 

Most of our clearest springs are Lady wells, and it is a 
curious proof of the inherent love of natural beauty in 

uigiiizea dv "^wJ v^v_/;^lw 

HmiAH OB MARY. 85 

England and Germany, that so many more names of things, 
fair and sweet, should be taken from her in these countries 
than in those where she is still adored, and where the entire 
month of May has now taken her name. 

Perhaps the Jews had in some degree adopted the Roman 
fashion of similar names in a family, since the sister of the 
Blessed Virgin bears the same as her own, and there is a 
great similarity between those of the sisters of Bethany, 
which both probably come from mara (bitter), although 
some deduce Martha from the Aramean mar (a lord), which 
we often hear as the title of Syrian bishops, as Mar EUas, &;c. 

Even the earliest writers on the Gosjpels were at a loss 
whether to identify the meek contemplative Mary of Bethany, 
with the woman that was a sinner, who is recorded as per- 
forming the same act of the devotion, and with Mary Mag- 
dalen, once possessed by seven devils and afterwards first 
witness of the Resurrection. While enquiry was cautious, 
legend was bold, and threw the three into one without the 
slightest doubt, going on undoubtingly to narrate the vain and 
sinfrd career of Mary Magdalen, describing her luxury, her 
robes, and in especial her embroidered gloves and flowing 
hair, and all the efforts of Martha to convert her, until her 
final repentance. The story proceeded to relate how the 
whole family set out on a mission to Provence, where Martha, 
by holding up the cross, demolished a terrific dragon ; and 
Mary, after having aided in converting the country, retired 
to a frightful desert with a skull for her only companion. 

It is this legendary Magdalen, whom painters loved to 
pourtray in all her dishevelled grief; and whose title was 
applied first in France and then in England to homes for the 
reception of penitents like her supposed self. It was pro* 
bably from the sturdy Anglo-Saxon distaste to exhibitions of 
sensibility, such as were displayed in vulgar representations 
of her, tliat the contraction of her appellation came to be 
applied to them, and especially to such affections when stimu- 
lated by intoxication. u,g ,zea dv ^ v^ogle 



The word itself is believed to be a mere adjective of place, 
meaning that she came from Magdala, which, in its turn, 
means a tower or castle, and is represented by the little 
village of Mejdel, on the lake of Tiberias, so that her proper 
designation would be Marj of Magdala, i.e., of the tower, 
probably to distinguish her &om Mary of Bethany with 
whom she is confounded. 

It is curious to observe how infinitely more popular her 
name has been than her sister's, i.e., accepting the mediaeval 
belief that they were sistars. The Marfa of Russia is of 
course like the English Martha, Matty, Patty, the true house- 
wifely Martha, independent of the legend of the dragon, and 
has there been a royal name occurring frequently among the 
daughters of the earlier Tzars ; and the Martha used in Ire- 
land is only as an equivalent for the native Erse Meabhdh, 
Meave, or Mab, once a great Irish princess, who has since 
become the queen of the fairies, Martha for Queen Mab ! 
Martha used also to be used for Mor, the same * great lady * 
who becomes Sarah in Scotland, though latterly the devotion 
to the Virgin has turned Mor into Mary. But the Marthe and 
Marthon of the south of France, and the rarer Marta of 
Italy and Spain, were all from the Proven9al dragon-slayer, 
and as to the popularity of Magdalen, the contractions in the 
following table will best prove it : — 










Mazaline— 0^ 





by Google 












The penitent Mary of Egypt has had her special votaresses, 
Maria Egyptiaca was a princess of Oettingen in 1666.* 

Section HL^JElisKebaj ^c. 

The names of the wife and son of Aaron bring us to a 
style of nomenclature that was very frequent among the 
Israelites at the period of the Exodus, and had begun 
even earlier. This was the habit of making the name con- 
tain a dedication to the Deity, by beginning or ending it with 
a word of divine signification. 

The divine title known to man before the special revelation 
to Moses in the burning bush, was the Hebrew word El in 
the plural Elohim, which corresponds to our term Deity or 
God-head. It was by a derivative from this word that Jacob 
called the spot where he beheld the angels, Beth El (the 
House of God), and again the place where he built an altar, 
El Elohe Israel (the God of Israel), as indeed his own name 
of Israel meant prevailing with God. 

This termination is to be found in the names of several of 
his grandsons ; but we will only in the present section review 
the class of names where it serves as a prefix. 

The first of all of these is Eliezer (God of help), the 
name of Abraham's steward who went to bring home Re- 
becca, and again of the second son of Moses. A very slight 
change, indicated in our version by the change of the vowels, 

* Smith's Dictionary of the Bible ; Michaelis ; Jameson's Legends of 
the Madonna ; Sacred and Legendary Art ; Romancero del Cid / Warton'e 
History of Poetry ; Grimm, Deutscha Mythologie ; O' Donovan On Irisl 
Names ; Festivals and their Household Words ; Christian Remembrance* 
Mme. Calderon de la Boroa, Mexico, ^\^ 


made it Eleazar, or God will help, the name of Aaron's 
eldest surviving son, the second high priest. Both con- 
tinued frequent among the Jews before the captivity, and 
after it the distinction between them was not observed, 
though Eleazar was in high repute as having belonged to 
the venerable martyr in the Antiochian persecution, as well 
as to the brave Maccabee, who perished under the weight of 
the elephant he had stabbed. 

In the Gospels, Eleazar has become Lazarus, and in this 
form is bestowed upon the beggar of the parable, as well as 
on him who was raised from the dead. It is curious to 
observe the countries where it has been in use. The true 
old form once comes to light in the earlier middle age as St. 
Elzear, the Comte de St. Sabran, who became a devotee of 
St. Francis, and has had a scanty supply of local namesakes. 
The beggar's name has been frequently adopted in Spain as 
Lazaro or Lazarillo; Italy has many a Lazzaro; Poland, 
shews Lazarz ; Russia, Lasar ; lUyria, Lazo and Laze. Are 
we to consider these as evidence of that truly noble spirit 
that honours the poor as their Master's representatives, or as 
tokens of that dangerous and abject spirit that would eat 
without working? A little of both, we fear, or the Laz- 
zaroni of Naples are much belied. 

Lazarus recurs again in an association hateful to travellers. 
Tradition supposed the leprosy to have been the disease of 
the beggar at the rich man's gate, and the hospitals erected 
for the like sufferers were therefore called lazwr houses, 
lazaresy lazzarettiy and carefully secluded. 

As the disease died out and these lonely buildings became 
untenanted, they were used as places of separation for persons 
liable to carry about infection of any disorder, especially the 
plague, and thence the lazzaretto, reviled by all die unfortu- 
nate victims of quarantine. 

Another curious derivation has been suggested by Mr. 
Jephson in his tour in Brittany. He says, that rope-making 
was one of the few occupations permitted to lepers, and that 


Tope-ifalks were often attached to their dwellings, so that the 
trade long remained obnoxious in consequence. The name 
lizard, he says, is in many instances still applied to the part 
of old towns where a rope-walk is situated ; and, finding one 
in the neighbourhood both of the Lizard point in GomwaQ 
and of Lezardieux in Brittany, he proposes this explanaticm. 

Aaron's wife was Eli scbeba, meaning God hath sworn, ue. 
an appeal to his coyenant. It recurred again in the priestly 
family in the Gospel period, and had become in its Greek form, 
Bkurafier ; in Latin, Elisabeth. Midway in time between these 
two holy women there had, however, lived a person whose 
name has a strange connection with theirs, being no other 
than that daughter of the Zidonian king, whom our version 
calls Jezebel, and the Greek Icfo^i/X. Her name is variously 
explained ; some thinking it means (without impurity), and 
others, that the word is the same as Elisheba, with the ex- 
ception that she appeals to the oath of the heathen Baal, 
whose votaress she was. We shall see an exactly analogous 
process with John and Hannibal, and we are the more con- 
firmed in this conjecture by finding that the ni^ce of Jezebel, 
she who fled from the persecution of her brother-in-law, and 
was the reputed foundress of the Phoenician oolony of Car- 
thage, was known to Greece and Bome as Elissa, long before 
the Scriptural Elisheba or Elisabeth had been brought before 
them. Her other name of Dido remains inexplicable, and, 
after all, maybe one of the endless ccmtractions of the name; 
it is not more unlike the original than Bet or Tib to Elisabeth 
or Isabella. At any rate, Elisabeth and Isabel, have been so 
constantly counterchanged that they cannot be considered 
separately, and Jezebel has a dangerous likeness to both. The 
Spanish Jews freely applied it to Isabel the GathoUc, when 
she permitted their persecution ; and to the present day our 
own Queen Elizabeth meets with no better treatment from 
Spain and Italy. 

The mother of the Baptist was not canonized in the West, 
tiioogh, I believe she was so in the East, for there arose ^ 


first historical namesake, the Muscovite princess Elisavetta, 
the daughter of Jaroslav, and the object of the romantic 
love of that splendid poet and sea-king, Harald Hardrada, of 
Norway, "who sung nineteen songs of his own composition in 
her praise on his way to her from Constantinople, and won 
her hand by feats of prowess. Although she soon died, her 
name remained in the northern peninsula, and figures in many 
a popular tale and Danish ballad, as Elsebin, Lisbet, or Helsa. 
It was the Slavonic nations, however, who first brought it 
into use, and from them it crept into Germany, and thence to 
the Low Countries. 

Elisabeth of Hainault, on her marriage with Philippe 
Auguste, seems to have been the first to suffer the transmu* 
tation into Isabelle, the French being the nation of all others 
who delighted to bring everything into conformity with their 
own pronunciation. The royal name thus introduced became 
popular among the crown vassals, and Isabelle of Angouleme^ 
betrothed to Hugues de Lusignan, but married to King John, 
brought Isabel to England, whence her daughter, the wife of 
Friedrich 11., conveyed Isabella to Germany and Sicily. 
Meantime the lovely chai*acter of Elisabeth of Hungary — 
or Erzsebet as she is called in her native country— earned 
saintly honours, and caused the genuine form to be extremely 
popular in all parts of Germany. Her namesake great-niece 
was, however, in Aragon turned into Isabel, and when mar- 
ried into Portugal, received the surname of De la Paz, be- 
cause of her gentle, peace-making nature. She was canon- 
ized ; and Isabel, or Ysabel, as it is now the fashion to spell 
it in Spain, has ever since been the chief feminine royal 
name in the Peninsula, and was rendered especially glorious 
and beloved by Isabel the Catholic. 

In the French royal family it was much used during the 
middle ages, and sent us no fewer than two specimens, namely, 
the ' She- Wolf of France,' and the child-queen of Richard 
n. ; but though used by the Plantagenets and their nobility, 
it took no hold of the English taste ; and it was only across 


the Scottisli border that Isobel or Isbel, probably learned 
from French allies, became popular, insomuch that its con- 
traction, Tibbie, has been from time immemorial one of the 
commonest of all peasant names in the Lowlands. The 
wicked and selfish wife of Charles "VT. of France was always 
called Isabeau, probably from some forgotten Bavarian con- 
traction ; but she brought her appellation into disrepute, and 
it has since her time become much more infrequent in France. 
The fine old English ballad that makes ^ pretty Bessee ' 
the grand-daughter of Simon de Montfort is premature in its 
nomenclature; for the first Bess on record is Elizabeth Wood- 
ville, whose mother, Jacquetta of Luxemburgh, no doubt im- 
ported it from Flanders. Shakespeare always makes Edward 
rV. call her Bess ; and her daughter Elizabeth of York is the 
lady Bessee of the curious verses recording the political 
courtship of Henry of Richmond. Thence came the name 
of Good Queen Bess, the most popular and homely of all 
borne by English women, so that, while in the last century 
a third at least of the court damsels were addressed as 
* Lady Betty,' it so abounded in villages that the old riddle 
arose out of the contractions : — 

* Elizabeth, Elspeth, Betsey, and Bess, 
Went together to take a bird^s nest ; 
They found a nest with five eggs in, 
Each todk one out yet they left four in.* 

This must be a north country riddle, for Elspath was the 
acknowledged old Scottish form of the full name, and is often 
so given, with Elspie as its contraction. I am told of a 
village in England, so entirely given up to this name, that 
almost all the grandmothers are called Betty, ahnost all the 
mothers Lizzie, and the daughters Elizabeth. 

During the anti-Spanish alliance between England and 
France, Edward VI. was sponsor to a child of Henri H., 
who received the Tudor name of Elisabeth, but could not 
become the wife of Philip H., and the supposed heroine of 
the romantic tragedy of Don CarloSy without turning into 



Isabel ; indeed, ihe Italian Elisabetta Famese— a determined 
personage — ^was the only lady who seems to have avoided 
this transformation. 

Poetry did not improve our Queen Elizabeth by makmg 
her into Eliza, a form which, however, became so prevalent 
in England during the early part of the present century, 
that Eliza and Elizabeth are sometimes to be found in the 
same family. No name has so many varieties of contraction, 
as will be seen by the ensuing list, where, in deference to 
modem usage, Elizabeth is placed separately from Isabella. 






















































by Google 



Lise and Lisette are sometimes taken as contractions of 
Elisabeth, but they properly belong to Louise. 



















Scotland and Spain are the countries of Isabel ; Englanc . 
and Germany of Elizabeth. 

Among the other names bearing this prefix must not be 
reckoned that of the high priest, Eli, who died at the tidings 
of the capture of the ark. His name had an aspirate; it 
is Eli in the Greek, and means high rank ; but from simi- 
larity of sound, it became confounded in popular nomencla- 
ture with the great name of the noblest prophet of the 
kingdom of Israel, who was called by two Hebrew words, 
meaning God the Lord, a sound most like what is repre- 
sented by the letters Eliyahu, the same in efiect as that of 
the young man who reproved Job and his friends, though, in 
his case, the Hebrew points have led to his being called in 
our Bible Elihu, while we know the prophet as Elijah, the 
translators probably intending us to pronounce they like an «. 
The Greek translators had long before formed HXias, the 
Elias of the New Testament 

When the Empress Helena visited Palestine, she built a 
church on Mount Carmel, around which arose a cluster of 
hermitages, and thus the great prophet and his miracles 
became known both to East and West. 

Indeed the Slavonians have given to the prophet the attri- 
butes of the Thunderer. They recollect how he shut up 
Heaven by his prayers, and again brought rain upon the 
earth ; and they see in the lightning the path of his horses 
of fire ; hear the rattling of the wheels of his chariot in the 
thunder; and thus they call the tempest Oromovik Hja. 

The semi-Christian people of the Caucasus are said abe^Ie 


lately to honour the prophet as the god of thunder ; they 
Bay when a man is struck by lightning, that Elias has taken 
him, and they dance round him singing ^ EUai, EUai, lord 
of the top of the rocks,' and set up a stake on his grave 
with the skin of a black goat. They pray to Elias to make 
their fields fruitful and avert hail ; and the Caucasians of the 
Caspian have been said to sacrifice goats on ^ Eliasday,' and 
hang up the skin on a stake. And thus among the more 
enlightened members of the Greco-Slavonian Church, Eelia 
or Dja is one of the most common names. Moreover, the 
Teutonic imagination laid hold of the prediction that Elijah 
should come again before the great and terrible day, and 
identifying him and Enoch with the two witnesses of the 
revelations, they mixed them both up with the old northern 
notion of the twilight of the gods which was to precede the 
destruction of the ^sir and the renovation of all things, and 
made Elias take the place of Thor, thus again connecting 
him with thunder. Whereas Thor had been said to kill the 
great serpent and die of its poisonous breath, an old Ger- 
man poem showed Elias as one of the white rob^ witnesses 
fighting with Anti-christ and the devil, and receiving severe 
wounds; whence an old Bavarian poem adds, his blood 
would rush forth, and kindle all the mountains into flames. 

And when the Crusaders visited the Mount of Carmel 
firowning above Acre,, and beheld the church and the hermits 
around it, marked the spot where the great prophet had 
prayed, and the brook where he slew the idolaters, no won- 
der they became devoted to his name, and Helie became very 
frequent, especially among the Normans. Helie de la 
Fleche was the protector of Duke Robert's young son, 
William Clito; and Helie and Elie were long in use in 
France, as Ellis must once have been in England, to judge 
by the surnames it has left. Elias is still very common in 
Holland and the Netherlands. 

The order of Carmelites claimed to have been founded by 
\e prophet himself; but when the Latins inundated Pales- 


tine, it first came into notice, and became known aD over the 
West. It was placed under the invocation of St. Mary, who 
was thus called in Italy, the Madonna di Carmela or di Car- 
mine, and, in consequence, the two names of Carmela and 
Carmine took root among the Italian ladies, by whom they 
are still used. The meaning of Carmel, as applied to the 
mountain, is vmeyard or fruitful field. 

Elisha's name meant God of Salvation. It becomes 
EUseus in the New Testament, but has been very seldom re- 
peated ; though it is possible that the frequent Ellis of the 
middle ages may spring from it. 

Here, too, it may be best to mention the prophetic name 
by which the Humanity of the Messiah was revealed to 
Isaiah — ^Immanuel (God with us). Imm meaning with; 
an being the pronoun. 

The Greeks appear to have been the first to take up a 
Christian name, and Manuel Eomnenos made it known in 
Europe. The Italians probably caught it from them as 
Manovello; and the Spaniards and Portuguese were much 
addicted to giving it, especially after the reign of Dom 
Manoel, one of the best kings of the noble house of Avis. 
ManueUta is a feminine in use in the Peninsula. When used 
as a masculine, as it is occasionally in England and France, 
the first letter is generally changed to ^.* 

Section IV. — Joshua^ ^c. 

A still more sacred personal divine name was revealed to 
Moses upon Mount Horeb — the name that proclaimed the 
eternal self-existence of Him who gave the mission to the 
oppressed Israelites. 

The meaning of that name we know, in its simple and 
inefiable majesty ; the pronunciation we do not know, for the 
most learned doubt whether that the usual substitute for it 
may not be a mistake. The Jews themselves feared to pro- 
Proper Names of the Bible ; Michadis ; Grimm, DetUtcha MythologU 


nounce it commonly in reading their scriptnres, and substituted 
for it Adonai, that which is indicated bj the ^ LORD/ in 
capital letters in our Bibles, while the French try to give 
something of the original import by using the word VEtemely 
and thus the tradition of the true sound has been hidden from 
man, and all that is known is that the three consonants 
employed in it were J V H. 

Yet, though this holy name was only indicated in reading, 
it was very frequent in combination in the names of the Israel- 
ites, being the commencement of almost all those that with 
us begin withje or jo, the termination of all those with iah. 
Kay, the use of the name in this manner has received the 
highest sanction, since it was by inspiration that Moses added 
to Hoshea, salvation — the syllable that made it Jehoshea or 
Joshua, * the Lord my salvation,' fitly marking out the war- 
rior, who, by divine assistance, should save Israel, and place 
them safely in the promised land. 

That name of the captain of the salvation of Israel seems 
to have been untouched again till the return from the captivity, 
when probably s<Hne unconscious inspiration directed it to be 
given to the restorer of the Jews, that typical personage, the 
high priest, in whom we find it altered into Jeshua ; and the 
Greek soon made it into the form in which it appears as be- 
longing to the author of the book of Ecclesiasticus, and 
which, when owned by the apostate high priest, under Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes, was made by him from Ii/o-ovs into latrta^ 
(Jason), to suit the taste of the Greek rulers. It had become 
common among the Jews ; it was, as we may see in the 
discourse of the Hellenistic St. Stephen, the current name 
for the ancient Joshua; and when assumed by TTini Who alone 
had a right to it, 

Most, by fear and love unstirred, 
XJnconsoions of its meaning heard — 
The name the Infant bore. 

A feaat m honour of that Name * to which every knee shall 
bow,' has been marked by the Western Church, and it is pro- 

I (If ill 17(^(1 n\/ ^ iv '^^Z'*^ LVr 

J DV V_J V„/V^/^ 


bablj in consequence of this that the Spanish Americans 
aotoallj have adopted this as one of their Christian names 
— a profanation whence all the rest of Christendom has 
shrunk. There too a and ita are added to it to make it 

And yet, though this shocks us, such is habit, that we have 
learnt to talk of a Jesuit without associating him with the in- 
tentions of the enthusiastic Loyola to dedicate his Company 
to that One Head alone, while the name of Joshua is freely 
given in honour of the great warrior of Israel, and is one 
of the favourites in England among the Old Testament names, 
as is testified by its contractions of Joe, Jos, and Josh. 

It is remarkable that the only Hebrew name containing 
this sacred prefix which is recorded before the time of the 
summons on Mount Horeb, is that of the mother of Moses, 
Jochebed, which is translated. Lord of Glory ; but as it is 
possible that it may rather mean a person of merit, this 
hardly deserves to be recorded as an exception. After the 
settlement of the Israelites in Canaan, especially under the 
kingdom, more names began thus than in any other manner, 
and were often contracted, as in the case of Jehoram, meaning, 
the Lord is exalted, and usually shortened to Joram. 

The slayer of Joram of Israel, Jehu, imported by his name, 
* the Lord is He.' It is much to be regretted that a silly 
allusion to his furious driving has made the word a sort of 
stock-joke with newspapers and facetious tourists. 

The high priest who preserved the infant Jehoash or Joash 
(given by the Lord), when Athaliah thought to destroy all 
the seed-royal, was called Jehoiada, or, known of the Lord, 
and this became frequent in the priestly family ; but we find 
it by Greek influence changed to Jaddua, and further Latin- 
ized into Jaddseus ! 

In the unfortunate son and grandson of the good Josiah 
(yielded to the Lord), we see some curious changes of name. 
The son was called both Eliakim and Jehoiakim, in which 

VOL. I. u,g ,zeaoy^v.vjgle 


the verb meant * will establish or judge ;' the only difference 
was in the divine name that preceded it. This miserable 
prince, during the first siege of Jerusalem, and his son 
Jehoiachin (appointed of the Lord), reigned for three months 
till the city was taken, and he was carried away to Babylon. 
The above mentioned seems to have been his proper name, 
but he was commonly called Jeconiah, and Jeremiah denounces 
his punishment without the prefix, as *' this man Coniah.' 

After the death of Nebuchadnezzar, Jehoiachin was brought 
out of prison, and lived in some degree of ease and favour at 
Babylon ; and there coming under the cognisance of Greek 
authors, a sort of compromise was made between his name 
and his father's, and he becomes sometimes Jeconias, and 
sometimes Joacim. Some even have supposed that he was 
the husband of Susanna, as the wealth and consequence of 
the Joacim of Susanna point him out as a man of rank and 
distinction. * Written childless' by Jeremiah, he however 
appears in the two genealogies of St. Matthew and St. Mark, 
but it is believed that this is only through his adoption of 
Salathiel, the nearest relative of the line of Nathan; and 
Jeconias is made to stand both for him and his father in our 
present versions of the Gospels. 

There was an early tradition that Joachim had been the 
nan^e of the father of the Blessed Virgin, but her private 
history did not assume any great prominence till about 1500, 
and in consequence the names of her parents are far less 
often used before than after that era. Her mother's name, 
as we shall see, had a history of its own ; and was earlier in 
use than that of her father, which never came into England 
at all, and was better known to us when Murat ascended the 
throne of Naples than at any other time. Being however 
found in the Greek apocrypha gospels, it was in use in the 
Greek Church, and is therefore to be found in Russia. Its 
forms are. 


by Google 




















The Germans, French, and Portuguese have the feminine 
Joachime, Joaquima ; or, in Illyrian, Acima.^ 

Sbotion V. — Names from the Judges. 

The book of Judges has not furnished many names to 
collective Europe. Caleb, the faithful spy, who alone finally 
accompanied Joshua into the Land of Ftomise out of all the 
600,000 who had come out of Egypt, had a name meaning a 
dog, seldom copied except by the Puritan taste, and only 
meeting in one language a personal name of similar signifi- 
cation, namely, the Irish cu (gen.) con, which means both a 
dog and a chief. 

Caleb's daughter, Achsah, probably from the shortness and 
pretty sound of her name, which means a tinkling ornament 
for the ancle, has a good many namesakes in remote village 
schools, where it is apt to be spelt Axah. Tirzah (pleasant- 
ness) was one of those five daughters of Zelophehad, whose 

♦ Dr. Posey's Commentary on the PropheU; Kitto's Biblical Dictionary j 
Jameson's Legends 0/ the Madonna; Michaehs. ^T^ 


heiresship occupies two chapters of the Book of Numbers, 
She probably was the origin of Thirza, the name of AbePs 
wife in Gessner's idyll of the Death of Ahel^ a great favourite 
among the lower classes in England, whence Thyrza has 
become rather a favourite in English cottages. 

Gideon (a feller or destroyer), seems by his martial exploits 
to have obtained some admirers among the Huguenots of the 
civil wars of France, for Gfed^on was in some small use 
among them. 

Barak has never that I know of had any imitators, but his 
name is interesting as being the same as Barca, so familiar 
among the Carthaginians, and meaning lightning. 

The name of the mighty Nazarene, whose strength was in 
his hair, is not clearly explained. Schimschon seems best to 
represent the Hebrew sound, but the Greek had made it 
%LfjL\ff<Tujv ; and our translation, Samson. Some translate it 
splendid sun, others as the diminutive of sun. 

The Greek Church and her British daughter did not forget 
the mighty man of valour, and Samson was an early Welsh 
Bishop and saint, from whom this became a monastic appel- 
lation, as in the instance of Mr. Carlyle's favourite Abbot 
Samson. The French still call it Simson, which is perhaps 
more like the original ; and our Simpson and Simkins may 
thus be derived from it, when they do not come from Simon, 
which was much more frequent. 

The name of the gentle and faithful Ruth has never been 
satisfactorily explained. Some make it mean trembling; 
others derive it from a word meaning to join together ; and 
others from Re^th (beauty), which is perhaps the best account 
of it. But in spite of the touching sweetness of her history, 
Ruth's name has never been in vogue, except under the in- 
fluence of our English version of the Bible. 

Perhaps this may be the fittest place to mention the pre- 
valence of names taken from the river Jordan during the 
period of pilgrimages. The Jordan itself is named from 
Jared (to descend), and perhaps no river does descend more 


rapidl J throughoat its entire course than does this most noted 
stream, from its rise in the range of Libanus to its fall in the 
I>ead Sea, the lowest water in the world. To bathe in the 
Jordan was one of the objects of pilgrims. King Sigurd, 
the Crusader, tied a knot in the willows on its banks, to be 
unloosed by his brother Eystein, and flasks of its water were 
brought home to be used at baptisms — as was done for 
the present family of royal children. It was probably this 
custom that led to the adoption of Jordan as a baptismal 
name, and it is to be supposed that it was a fashion of the 
Normans, since it certainly prevailed in countries that they 
had occupied. In Calabria, Count Giordano Lancia was the 
friend of the unfortunate Manfred of Sicily, and recognised 
his corpse. Jourdain was used in France, though in what 
districts I do not know, and Jordan was at one time recognised 
in England. Jordan de Thomhill died in 1200 ; Jordan de 
Dalden was at the battle of Lewes in 1264, and two name* 
sakes of his are mentioned in the pedigree of his family. 
Jordan de Exeter was the founder of a family in Connaught, 
who became so thoroughly Hibemicised, that, after a few 
generations, they adopted the surname of MacJordan, in 
order to resemble their neighbours, the Os and Macs. At 
present, Jordan has been entirely disused, except as a sur- 
name, both in England and France. M. Jourdain will not 
be forgotten by the readers of MoliSre. 

It is curious that the only other known river-name is the 
Roman Tiberius, from the sacred Tiber, if we except the 
Derwent and Rotha, proposed by the lake poets, as eupho- 
nious names for their children. 

Bethlem Gabor will seem to the mind as an instance of 
Bethlehem (the place of bread), having furnished Christian 
names for the sake of its associations, and Nazarene has also 
been used in Germany ; but in general, places very seldom 
give personal names, though surnames from them are common.* 

♦ Troptr Names of the BxbU ; Laing's Snorre Sturleton'e Eeimkringlr 


Section VT. — Names from Chaanach. 

Perhaps no word has given rise to a more curious class of 
derivatives than this firom the Hebrew Chaanach, with the 
aspirate at each end, signifying favour or mercy, or grace. 

To us it first becomes known in the form of Hannah, the 
mother of Samuel, and it was also used with the divine 
syllable in the masculine, as Hananeel, Hanani, Hananiah, 
or Jehohanan, shortened into Johanan. 

Exactly the same names were current among the Phoeni- 
cians, only we have received them through a Greek or Latin 
medium. Anna, the companion sister of Dido, was no doubt 
Hannah, and becoming known to the Romans through the 
worship paid to her and Elisa by these Carthaginians, was, 
from similarity of sound, confused by them with their Italian 
goddess, Anna Perenna, the presiding deity of the circling 
year {AnniLs), Virgil, by-and-bye wove the traditions of 
the foundation of Carthage, and the death of Dido, into 
the adventures of -^neas ; and a further fancy arose among 
the Romans that after the self-destruction of Dido, Anna 
had actually pursued the faithless Trojan to Italy, and there 
drowned herself in the river Numicius, where she became a 
presiding nymph as Anna Perenna ! A fine instance of the 
Romans' habit of spoiling their own mythology and that of 
every one else ! Oddly enough, an Annea has arisen in Ireland 
by somewhat the same process. The river Lifiey is there 
said to owe its name to Life, the daughter of the chief of 
the Firbolg race being there drowned. In Erse, the word 
for river was Amhain, the same as our Avon ; but in English 
tongues Amhain Life became Anna Lifiey, and was supposed 
to be the lady's name. Another version, however, said that 
it was Lif6, the horse of Heremon the Milesian, who there 

Hanno, so often occurring in the Punic wars, was another 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


version of the Hebrew Hanan, and the far-famed Hannibal 
himself answered exactly to the Hananiah or Johanan of the 
Holy Land, saving that it was the grace of Baal that un- 
happily he besought by his very appellation. The Greeks 
caUed him Annibas, and Rome wavered between Annibal and 
Hannibal as the designation of their great enemy. In the 
latter times of Rome, when the hereditary prsenomina were 
being discarded, Annibal and Annibalianus were given among 
the grand sounds that mocked their feeble wearers, and 
Annibale lingered on in Italy, so as to be known to us in 
the person of Annibale Caracci. 

It is a more curious fact, however, that Hannibal has 
always been a favourite with the peasantry of Cornwall. 
From the first dawn of parish registers Hannyball is of 
constant occurrence, much too early even in that intelligent 
county to be a mere gleaning from books; and the west 
country surname of Honeyball must surely be from the same 
source. A few other eastern names, though none as frequent 
or as clearly traced as the present, have remained in use in 
this remote county, and ought to be allowed due weight in 
favour of the supposed influence of the Phoenician traders 
over the races that supplied them with tin and lead. 

The usual changes were at work upon the Jewish names 
Hannah and Hananiah. Greek had made the first 'Anna, 
the second Ananias, or Annas. Indeed Hannah is only 
known, as such, to the readers of the English version of 
the Bible, from whom the Irish have taken it to represent 
their native Aind (joy). All the rest of Europe calls her, 
as well as the aged prophetess in the temple, Anne. 

The apocryphal gospels which gave an account of the 
childhood of the Blessed Virgin, called her mother Anna, 
though from what tradition is not known. St. Anna was a 
favourite with the Byzantines from very early times; the 
Emperor Justinian built a church to her in 550, and in 
7 10 her relics were there enshrined. From that time forward 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


Greek damsels, and all those of. the adjoining nations who 
looked to Constantinople as their head, were apt to be 
christened Anna. In 988, a daughter of the Emperor 
Basil married and converted Vladimir, Grand Prince of 
Muscovy, whence date all the nmnerous Russian Annas, 
with their pretty changes of endearment. The grand- 
daughter of this lady, Anne of Muscovy, sister of Harald 
Hardrada's Elisif, carried her name to France, where it 
grew and flourished. 

St. Anne became the patron saint of Prague, where a 
prodigious festival is yearly holden in her honour, and 
great are the rejoicings of all the females who bear her 
name, and who are not a few. It was from Prague that 
the Bohemian princess, Anne of Luxemburg brought it to 
England, and gave it to her name-child, Anne Mortimer, by 
whom it was carried to the house of York, then to the 
Howards, from them to Anne Boleyn, and thereby became 
an almost party word in England. 

Abroad it had a firesh access of popularity from a sup- 
posed appearance of the saint to two children at Auray, in 
Brittany, and not only was the Bretonne heiress, twice 
Queen of France, so named, but she transferred the name 
to her god-sons, among whom the most notable was the 
fierce Constable, Anne de Montmorency. Her Italian god- 
daughter, Anna d'Este, brought it back to the House of 
Guise, and shortly after a decree from Rome, in 1584, made 
the name more popular still by rendering the feast obligatory, 
and thenceforth arose the fashion of giving the names of the 
Blessed Virgin and her mother in combmation, as Anne 
Marie, or Marianne. This is usually the source of the 
Marianne, Mariana or Manna, so often found on the con- 
tinent ; in England, Marianne is generally only a corruption 
of Marion, and Anna Maria is in imitation of the Italian. 

Hardly susceptible of abbreviation, no name has underg<Hie 
more varieties of endearment, some forms almost being treated 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



like independent names, snch as the Annot of Scotland, an 
imitation of the French Annette, showing the old con- 
nection between France and Scotland; and in the present 
day, there has arisen a fashion of clpristening Annie, pro- 
bably from some confusion as to the spelling of Ann or Anne. 





















































































All these Annes can distinctly be traced from the 
Byzantine devotion to the mother of the Blessed Virgin - 
spreading westwards, and at Rome magnified by Mariolatry* 
There are however what seem like forms of Anne in the West 
before the adoption of the name from Russia and Bohemia. 
Romance and genealogy ascribe a sister Anna to King 
Arthur, bat this is probably merely a translation of the 

d by Google 

Digitized b 


Welsh Angharawd, which is treated as Anne's equivalent, 
and probablj suggested the Norman form of Annora. The 
Scottish Annaple and Annabella are likewise too early to 
come from St. Anne, and are probably either from Ana (the 
Irish mother of the gods), or from Aind (joy), a favourite 
name in early Gaelic times. 

Annabella by no means is to be explained to mean fair 
Anna, as is generally supposed. Bellus did, indeed, signify 
handsome in Latin, and became the beau and belle of 
French, but the habit of putting it at the end of a name, by 
way of ornament, was not invented till the late period of 
seven-leagued names of literature. Annys, or Anisia, is a 
separate name with a saint in the Greek caleudar, and was used 
in England from the Norman Conquest down at least to 1690. 

Returning to the source of these names, a curious identifi- 
cation may be pointed out which brings out another similarity 
between the genealogy in St. Luke iii., and in i Chronicles 
iii. Li the list of Zerubbabel's sons in the book of Chronicles, 
no Rhesa occurs, but there is a Hananiah. Now, Rhesa b 
not a proper name, but Chaldee for a prince, and was probably 
originally the epithet attached to Zerubbabel, as the prince of 
the captivity, and here put in by some transcriber as a sepa- 
rate name either of himself or his son. And Hananiah thus 
answers to the Joanna, son of Rhesa, of St. Luke, the divine 
syllable thus coming at the beginning instead of the end of 
the word. 

Icooira, or layyti^ for the masculine, l«avFa for the feminine, 
were already frequent among the natives of Judea, though it 
appears not used in the family of Zacharias when he was 
commanded so to call his son. 

The Evangelist, who was sumamed Mark, and Joanna, 
the wife of Herod's steward, both had received it indepen- 
dently, and thus it became a most universal baptismal name, 
given from the first in the East and at Rome. There were 
many noted bishops so called, in the fourth century, the 
earliest time when men began to be baptized in memory of 


departed saints, rather than by the old Roman names. The 
first whose name is preserved is Joannes of Egypt, one of 
the hermits of the Thebaid ; the next is the great deacon of 
Antioch, and patron of Constantinople, Joannes Chrysos- 
tomos (John of the golden mouth), whose Grreek surname, 
given him for his eloquence, has caused him to be best known 
as St. Chrysostom, and has perpetuated in Italy, Grisostomo ; 
in Spanish, Grisostomo ; whilst the Slavonian nations trans- 
late the name and make it Zlatoust. 

Joannes the silent, in the East, Johannes, the first of an im- 
mense Ibt of popes so called, and so maltreated by the Goths, 
that he died in consequence, and the beneficent patriarch of 
Alexandria, Joannes called the Almoner, all occasioned the 
name to be had in reverence. The last mentioned was ori- 
ginally the patron of the order of Hospitallers, though when 
these Franks were living at enmity to the Greek Church, they 
discarded him in favour of the Baptist. . Each of the two 
Scriptural saints had two holidays, — the Baptist on his 
nativity, and on his decollation ; the Evangelist, on the 27th 
of December, as well as on the 6th of May, in remembrance 
of his confession in the cauldron of boiling oil. 

Thus the festivals were so numerous that children had an 
extra chance of the name, which the Italians called Giovanni, 
or for short, Vanni ; and the French, Jehan. 

It was still so infrequent at the time of the Norman Con- 
quest, that among the under-tenants in Domesday Book, to 
68 Williams, 48 Roberts, and 28 Walters, there are only 10 
Johns, but it was flourishing in the Eastern Church, where 
one of the Eomneni was called, some say from his beauty, 
others from the reverse, Kaloioannes, or handsome John, a 
form which was adopted bodily by his descendants^ the Eom- 
neni of Trebizond. 

It had come into Ireland at first as Maol-Eoin (shaveling, 
or disciple of John), the Baptist sharing with St. Patrick the 
patronage of the island ; but Shawn or Seoin soon prevailed 
in Ireland, as did Ian in Scotland : but not till the Crusades did 



French or English adopt it to any great extent, or the English 
begin to anglicise it in general by contracting the word and 
writing it John. 

The misfortunes of the English Lackland and French 
captive of Poictiers caused a superstition that theirs was an 
iU-omened royal name, and when John Stuart came to the 
Scottish throne, he termed himself Robert lU., without, 
however, averting the doom of his still more unhappy sur- 
name. It did not fare amiss with any Gajstillian Juan or 
Portuguese Joao ; and in Bohemia a new saint arose called 
Johanko von Nepomuk, the Empress's confessor, who was 
thrown from the bridge of Prague by the insane Emperor 
Wenzel for refusing to betray her secrets. 

As St. Nepomucene, he had a few local namesakes, who 
get called Mukki or Mukkel. The original word is said to 
mean helpless. 

Double names, perhaps, originated in the desire to indicate 
the individual patron, where there were many saints of similar 
name, and thus the votaries of the Baptist were christened Gian 
Battista, or Jean Baptiste, but only called by the second Gr^k 
title — ^most common in Italy — least so in England* 








The Ulyrians, using the word for christianizing instead of 
that for baptizing, make the namesakes of the Baptist Ker- 

It was probably in honour of the guardianship of St. John 
the Evangelist of the Blessed Virgin that her name became 
commonly joined with his. Giovanni Maria Visconti of 
Milan, appears in the fifth century, and Juan Maria and Jean 
Marie soon followed in Spain and France. 

Johann was the correct German form, always, in fact, called 
Hans ; and it was the same in Sweden, where Johann I., in 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


1483, was known as King Hans ; and in Norway, Hans and 
Jens, though both abbreviations of Johan, are used as distinct 
names, and have formed the patronymics, Hanson and Jensen, 
the first of which has become an English surname. Ivan 
the Terrible, Tzar of Muscovy, was the first prince there so 
called, though the name is frequent among all ranks, and the 
8<His and daughters are called Ivanovitch and Ivanovna. 

Rare as patronymic surnames are in France, this universal 
name has there produced Johannot, while the contraction 
is Jeannot, answering to the Spanish Juanito and the patro- 
nymic Juanez. Jan is very frequent in Brittany, where it 
cuts into Jannik ; in Wales, where Ap Jon has turned into 
the numerous Joneses, Jenkins, and more remotely Jenkin- 
sons; and in the Highlands, where lan's sons are the Mac 
lans. The church of St. John at Perth seems to have led 
to that city being known as bonny St. John's town, or 
Johnstones; and thence the great border family of John- 
stones would deduce their name similar to, but not the same 
as, the English Johnson. In like manner the village around 
the church of St. John sent forth the St. John family, whose 
name is disguised in pronunciation, and de St. Jean is a 
territorial title in France. 

Jock is the recognized Scottish abbreviation, and it would 
seem to have been the older English one by the example of 
the warning to Jockey of Norfolk, at Bosworth ; at any rate, 
it has named the whole class of Jockeys, and has been 
adopted into the French for their benefit. The Scottish 
turkey cock is Bubbley Jock. Jack sounds much as if the 
French Jacques had been his true parent ; but * sweet Jack 
Falstaff, old Jack Falstaff ' has made it inalienable from John ; 
and not only has it given birth to many a Jackson, but it 
absolutely seems to stand for man, and has been given to 
half the machines that did the work of human hands, so that 
there are few trades without their jack ; besides which, jacks 
or buff coats were named after the rough riders who wore 


them, and cut down into jackets and jack-boots, and boot- 
jacks were named in the same way ; the name even passing 
to several animals — jack-an-ape, jackdaw, jack-snipe, jackass, 
&c. After such witnesses to the universality of Jack, who 
shall wonder at our national John Bull, however it may have 
arisen, or at our recent eastern soubriquet of Bono Johnny. 
Jack and Hans go in company in many a proverb in their 
various nations. Jack-pudding has his equivalent in Hans- 
wurst, and in sundry other uncomplimentary Johns, such as 
the Spanish Bobo Juan, answering to Chaucer's Jack fool, 
and the Italian Gianni, from whom we have borrowed our 
zany. * Hans in alien gassen ' is not more complimentary 
than ^ Jack-of-all-trades and master of none ; ' but while the 
old English is * every Jack has his Jill,' the more polite 
French say, * Monsieur vaut Men Madame.^ * All work and 
no play makes Jack a dull boy,' is the acute saying of a 
nation too prone to go without play; and very wise is 
the German, ^Was Hanschen nicht lemen wiUy lemt Hans 
nimmer mehr ' — ^ What little Jack will not learn, John can 
never learn.' 

Midsummer day being the feast of St. John Baptist, his 
name, both in English and German, has been given to various 
productions then in season. St. John's wort, or Johannis 
Kraut ^ the apple John, or John apple, Joliannis Apfel; and 
in German, the Johannis Wurmchen^ or glow-worm ; the Jo- 
hannis Kafetj cock-chafer ; Johannis Blvme^ daisy ; Johannis 
JRitte, meadow sweet. Johannis Beere is a currant ; and some 
declare that the same word became Jansbeere^ Gransbeere, 
gooseberry. Some, however, prefer the derivation gorseberry, 
because the thorny bush resembles gorse. 

From the notion that by the locusts that formed the food 
of the Baptist were meant the fruit of the carob, that tree is 
called in Germany, Johannis Brod ; while, for some unex- 
plained cause, the albatross is termed Johannis Gans. How 
would it figure in a translation of the Ancient Mariner f 
The various forms and contractions are infinite : — .qIp 





08 3 

■"" flans 

€8 a 3 3 a 

I w 08 08 r* 

00 0? O o8 O A 

-^ i gJJJ i § 

S a 08 a ^ *S o 


I I si 

*< o M H Q 
-g flS 08 « S 

O o o o O 


hid J^ 07 
' P fl -^ 



^ s 



I ^ 

PP C8 S 


2 8 
>V 0-S.2 

, o o > ► >► 

I '-a 
&= gg 

^ ► a p 

CQ O > « 





H o o S S 


I* ^ p g I'l 

pQ « 3 J5i5 J: 

I - 

uigiiized by vjOO 



It certainly is the most frequent and universal of names. 
As to the surnames from John, they are almost past reckon- 
ing. Johns, Johnes, Jones, Johnson, Jackson, Jenkins, 
Jenkinson, Jennings, iare the simplest forms in England. 
Mac Ian in Scotland. Then again we have Johanny, Johan- 
not, Joannot, Joanicot, in France ; Hansen, Hansemann, 
Hansing, in regions given to Hans ; and in Holland the 
Jansen, who, in the Latin form of Jansenius, convulsed the 
French Church with the leaven, wherewith the Jesuits refused 
to be leavened. Germany has Hanschel, Janecke, Janke, 
and the Slavonians Jankovitz. Moreover, John is large as 
Micklejohn, Grosjean, and Grootjans — small as Littlejohn, 
Petitjean, or Hanschko — handsome as Giovanizzi, and the 
Highland Mac Fadyans are the sons of a tall Jan. In Ireland, 
the Connaught branch of the great Norman family of De 
Burghs first Iricised themselves into Mac William, then the 
Mayo stem descended from a John, or Shawn turned into 
MacShoneen, and finally, when taken with an English taste, 
became Jennings. 

Though Joanna was a holy woman of the Gospel, her 
name did not come into favour so early as the male form, 
and it is likely that it was adopted rather in honour of one of 
the St. Johns than of herself, since she is not canonized ; and 
to the thirty feasts of the St. Johns, in the Roman calendar, 
there are only two in honour of Joannas, and these very 
late ones, when the name was rather slipping out of fashion. 
Its use seems to have begun all at once, in the twelfth cen- 
tury, in the south of France and Navarre, whence ladies 
called Juana in Spanish, Jehanne or Jeanne in France, came 
forth, and married into all the royal families of the time. 
Our first princess so called was daughter to Henry H., and 
married into Sicily ; and almost every king had a daughter 
Joan, or Jhone, as they preferred spelling it. Joan Make- 
peace was the name given to the daughter of Edward H., 
when the long war with the Bruces was partly pacified by 

:ea dv >wJ v^v_/ 



her marriage; an(} Joan Beaufort was the maiden roman- 
tically beloved by the captive James I., who, as his widow, 
80 fiercely revenged his death. The Scots, however, usually 
called the name Jean, and adopted Janet from the French 
Jeanette, like Annot from Annette. 

Jessie, though now a separate name, is said to be short for 
Janet, and from it probably Shakespeare named his Jessica, 
his ^ most sweet Jewess.' The queens, in their own right, of 
this name, have been more uniformly unfortunate than their 
male connterparts. Twice did a Giovanna reign in Naples 
in disgrace and misery ; and the royalty of poor Juana la 
Loca in Gastille was but one hmg melancholy madness. 
There have, however, been two heroines, so called, Jeanne 
of Flanders, or Jannedik la Flamm, as the Bretons call her, 
the heroine of Henbonne, and the much more noble Jeanne 
la Pucelle of Orleans. The two saints were Jeanne de Yalois, 
daughter of Louis XI., and discarded wife of Louis XIL, 
and fonndress of the Annonciades, and Jeanne Fran^oise de 
Chantel, the disciple of St. Fran9ois de Sales. 

Johanna is a favourite with the Qerman peasantry, and is 
contracted into Hanne. It was not till the Tudor period, as 
Camden states, that Jane came into use ; when Jane Seymour 
at once rendered it so fashionable that it became the courtly 
title ; and Joan had ahready in Shakespeare's time descended 
to the cottage and kitchen* 

' Then nightly sings the staring owl, 

To-whit, to-who, a merry note, 
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot* 

Jane, in her pride, must have named jean as an article of 
dress ; and when as Jenny she had come down to the wheel, 
the spinning-jenny was called after her; and Jenny Wren 
gmed her name in the nursery rhyme. 
























Whether Shakespeare's lovely Jewess, Jessica, was an im- 
provement upon the Jessie as diort for Janet, or intended as 
a feminine of Jesse, the father of David, does not appear. 
Jesse's name had the same prefix, and meant, the Lord is.* 

Section YH.— David. 

* The man after God's own heart' was well named from the 
verb to love, David, still called Daood in the East. It was 
AaviS in the Septuagint; Aa/?tS and AavctS in the New 
Testament ; and the Vulgate made it the name well-known 
to us. 

The Eastern Ohurch, where the ancient Scriptural names 
were in greater honour than in the West, seems to have 
adopted David among her names long before it was revived 
among the Jews, who never seem to have used it since the 
days of their dispersion. It has always been common among 

♦ Smith, Biblical Dictionary ; Butler, Livei of the Saints / Pott, Per- 
tonen Namens Lower, English Surnames; Michaelis; Camden, Britannia. 

uigiiizeu Dv "^^jv^v./ 




the Armenians and Georgians. Daveed is frequent in Russia, 
in honor of a saint, who has his feast on the 29th of July; 
and in Slavonic it is shortened into Dako ; in Esthonia it is 
Taved ; in Lusatia, Dabko. 

The influence of eastern Ohristianitj is traceable in the 
adoption of David in the Keltic Church. Early in the 6th 
century, a Welshman of princely birth (like almost all Welsh 
saints), by name David, or Dawfydd, lived in such sanctity 
at his bishopric of Menevia, that it has ever since been known 
as St David's, the principal Welsh see having been there 
transplanted from Caerleon in his time. Dewi was the 
yemacular alteration of his name, and the Church of Llan, 
Dewi Brevi, commemorates a synod held by him against the 
Pelagians. His feast, the ist of March, still remains the 
national holiday, when all Welshmen wear leeks on their 
hats, and the Welsh boy of highest rank at Eton presents 
a silver one to the head-master. Tradition declares that in 
one of the Black Prince's French campaigns, his Welsh 
followers being suddenly called to the charge from their 
bivouac in a garden, each stuck a leek in his helmet as a 
badge of recognition; and when chivalry and romance had 
created Sir David of Wales into one of the warlike Seven 
Champions of Christendom, who went about as knight-errants, 
slaying monsters and demolishing Turks, the leeks were not 
forgotten. * For my colour or ensign,' quoth the champion 
David, as he led his men to his last battle near Constantinople, 
' do I wear upon my burgonet, you see, a green leek beset with 
gold, which shall (if we win the victory) be hereafter an 
honour to Wales ; and on this day, being the ist of March, 
be it for ever worn by the Welshmen in remembrance hereof.' 
Who again can forget how Ancient Pistol was reduced to 
devour Fluellen's leek? Dafod, or Devi, thus grew popular in 
Wales, and when ap Devi ceased to be the distinction of the 
sons of David — ^Davy, Davis, and Davies became the surname, 
Tafl^ the contraction, and Tafline or Yida the feminine. 
The Keltic bishop was revered likewise in Scotland, and hilB^^ 



name was conferred upon the third son of Malcohn Cean- 
mohr, the best sovereign whom Scotland ever possessed, and 
desenredly canonized, although his Protestant descendant 
James YI. called him ^a sore saint to the crown/ because of his 
large donations of land to the clergy — ^at that time the only 
orderly subjects in the country. Affection and honour for 
the royal saint filled the Lowlands with Davids, and this has 
continued a distinctively Scottish name, with the derived 
surnames of Davidson, Davieson, and Mac Tavish. 

The anglicising Irish took David as the synonym of Dathi 
(far darting) ; and Diarmaid (a freeman) ; and the Danes made 
it serve for Dagfinn (day white).* 

Section YnL-Salem. 

It is remarkable to observe how the longing for peace is 
expressed in the names of almost every nation. The warlike 
Roman may be an exception, but the Greek had his Eireneos ; 
the German, his Friedrich ; the Kelt, his Simaith ; the Slave, 
his Lubomirski ; testifying that even in the midst of war, 
there was a longing after peace and rest! And, above all, 
would this be the case with the Hebrew, to whom sitting 
Mifely and at peace, beneath his own vine and his own fig-tree, 
was the summit of earthly content. 

Schalem (peace) ! The word is so frequent in eastern 
greetings as to have passed from Asia to Europe, and there 
has become well nigh a proverb, as Salem AleUeum^ peace be 
with you. It was the name of the typical kingdom of Mel- 
chisedek ; and was restored again, when Sion became the city 
of David ; and by the Prophet-King it was bestowed upon the 
two sons to whom he looked for the continuance of his throne, 
and the continuance of the promises of ^ peace,' — ^Absalom 
(father of peace), and afterwards witha truer presage, Salomo, 
or Solomon, (the peaceful) ! 

* Proper Noma of the Bible; Bees, Welih SainU; Jones, WeUh 
BkiUhee ; 0'DonoTui» Iriih Nam$ ; Seven ChampUm qf CkriiUndom. 

SALEM. 117 

And Jerusalem was truly the city of peace during that 
one reign, in which Solomon fulfilled the promise of his 
name, and foreshadowed the Prince of Peace. The fame of 
the wisest and most peaceful of kings not only spread 
throughout the Orient, but there continued, enhanced by 
evei^ exaggeration of Arabian fancy, until Suleiman B^ 
Daoud has become the monarch of magicians and occiilt arts, 
and the guardian of treasures untold. It was he who bound 
evil angels, and only loosed them on his errands ; it was for 
him that the hoopoes made a living canopy of themselves 
when he traversed the desert, and for their reward won crowns 
of gold, but when these proved perilous adornments, had 
them changed for feathered diadems. Sign or sigil used by 
him was for ever potent, and at his very name the whole 
world of jinns trembled and obeyed. Our own little Solo- 
mon's seal, once a magic plant, stiU witnesses to the strange 
powers ascribed to him, who did indeed know every plant, 
firom the hyssop to the cedar; and if we rightly read his 
book of the Preacher y so forestalled modem discovery as to 
the courses of the winds, that he well might warn us that 
there is ^ nothing new under the sun.' No wonder Suleiman 
was a favourite name in the East, especially among the 
Ottoman Turks, among whom the mighty prince, called by us 
Solyman the Magnificent, raised it to the highest fame. Selim 
and Selmar are other eastern forms used by his successors. 

Long before his time, however, Welsh and Breton saints 
had been called Solomon, as well as one early Armorican 
prince ; and likewise' an idiot boy, who lived under a tree at 
Auray, only quitting it when in want of food, to wander 
through the villages muttering ' Salaum hungry' — ^the only 
words, except Ave Mariuy that he could pronounce. When 
he died, the neighbours thinking him as soulless as a dog, 
buried him under his tree; but, according to the legend, 
their contempt was rebuked by a beauteous lily springing 
from his grave, and bearing on every leaf the words Ave 
Maria. Certain it is that an exquisite church was ther t 


erected, containmg the shrme of Salaun the Simple, who 
thus became a popular samt of Brittany, ensuring tender 
reverence for those who, if mindless, were likewise sinless, 
and obtaining a few namesakes. 

Salomon and Salomone are the French and Italian forms ; 
and Solomon is so frequent among the Jews as to have 
become a surname. 

Russia and Poland both use it, and have given it the 
feminines, Ssolominija and Salomea; but Schalem had 
ahready formed a true feminine name of its own, well known 
in Arabic literature as Suleima, Selma, or Selima, the last 
of which had come at least at Strawberry hill, to befit the 
^ pensive Selima, demurest of the tabby kind.' 

But returning to the high associations whence the names 
of Christians should take their source, we find Salome 
honoured indeed as one of the women first at the sepulchre ; 
and it is surprising that thus recommended, her name should 
not have been more frequent. It sometimes does occur in 
England, and Salom6e is known in France; but it is no- 
where really popular except in Switzerland, where, oddly 
enough, Salomeli is the form for the unmarried, and Salome is 
restricted to the wife. 

In Denmark, similarity of sound led Solomon to be 
chosen as the ecclesiastical name, so to speak, of persons 
whose genuine appellation was Solmund, or sun's protection. 
Perhaps it was in consequence that the Lord Mayor of 
London, of 1216, obtained the name of Solomon de Basing. 
The county of Cornwall much later shows a Soloma.* 

Section IX. — Later Israelite Names. 

By the time the kingdom was established most of the 
Israelite names were becoming repetitions of former ones, 

♦ Proper Namet of the Bible; Souvestre, Demien Bretom, 


and comparatdvely few fresh ones come to light, though 
there aro a few sufficiently used to be worth cursorily noting 

Hezekiah meant strength of the Lord, and in the Greek 
became Ezekias. Ezekiel is like it, meaning the Lord will 
strengthen. The great prophet who was the chief glory of 
Hezekiah's reign was Isaiah (the salvation of the Lord), 
made by Greek translators into Esaias, and thence called by 
old French and English, Esaie, or Esay. The Russians, who 
have all the old prophetic names, have Eesaia; but it is 
not easy to account for the choice of Ysaie le Triste as the 
name of the child of Tristram and Yseulte in the romance 
that carried on their history to another generation, unless 
we suppose that Ysaie was supposed to be the masculine of 
Yseulte ! the one being Hebrew, and meaning as above, the 
other Keltic, and meaning a sight. 

Contemporary with Hezekiah, and persecuted by the 
Assyrian monarch when he returned to Nineveh after the 
miraculous destruction 0^ his host, was the blind Israelite of 
the captivity whose name is explained to have been probably 
Tobijah (the goodness of the Lord), a name occurring again 
in the prophet Zechariah, and belonging afterwards to one 
of the Samaritan persecutors. Probably, in Greek, came the 
variation of the names of the father and son ; perhaps the lat- 
ter was once meant for Tobides, the son of Tobias. 

The marvellous element in the book made it in great 
favour in the days when it was admitted as of equal autho- 
rity with the canonical Scriptures ; it was a favourite sub- 
ject with painters; and RafiFaelle himself, in the Vierge au 
JPotssoUj actually contrived to bring in Tobit and his fish 
with the Madonna and St. Jerome and lion. Thus Tobias 
had a spread in the later middle ages much greater than the 
names of any of his contemporaries of far more certain his- 
tory, and in Ireland Toby has enjoyed the honour, together 
wiUi Thaddeus and Timothy, of figuring as an equiva- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



lent for Tadgh, a poet ; and it may be owing to this, that in 
England at least, the name has become somewhat ridiculous, 
and £Bkllen into disuse, except for dogs. 


















Hephzibah (my delight is in her), was the wife of 
Hezekiah, and it may hare been in allusion to her that 
Isaiah spoke of the land being called Hephsibah. It has been 
rather a favourite name in America, where it gets turned 
into Hepsy. t 

As Judah sinned more and more and her fate drew on, 
Jeremiah stood forth as her leading prophet. His name 
meant exalted of the Lord, and became Jeremias in the 
Greek, Jeremy in vernacular English. As the name of some 
of the early eastern saints it has had a partial irregular 
sort of use in the West, and is adopted direct from the 
prophet in the Greco-Slavonic Churches. The French, struck 
by the mournful strain of the prophet, use Jeremiade to 
express a lamentation; and the English are rather too 
ready, to follow their example. Jeremy is considered as 
another variety of equivalent for the Gaelic Diarmaid, and 
this has led to the frequency of Jerry among families of 
Irish connection. In Switzerland, Jeremias is contracted 
into Meies or Mies; in Russia it is Jeremija; but nowhere 
has it been so illustrious in modem times as in the person 
of our own Jeremy Taylor. The king whom Jeremiah saw 
led into captivity was Zedekiah (justice of the Lord.) 

The prophet of the captivity, Daniel, bore in his name 
an amplification of that of Dan (a judge). The termination 
signified God the judge, and the alias Belteshazzar, imposed 

:ea dv 's.-j v^v_/ 



npon Um by the Chaldean monarch, is considered to trans- 
late and heathenize the name, making Bel the judge. It is 
observable that Daniel never calls himself thus, though he 
gives these heathen titles to his three companions. 

Daniel has always flourished as a name in the East. 
Daniel and Yerda (a rose), were martyred by Shapoor in 
344 ; another Daniel was crazy enough to succeed Simeon 
Stylites on his pillar ; and thus the Armenian, Montenegrin, 
and Slavonian races are all much attached to Daniela, or 
Daniil, as they call it in Russia; or in Esthonia, Taniel or 
Tanni. The Welsh adopted it as Deiniol, the name of the 
saint who founded the monastery of Bangor, the High Choir, 
in the sixth century, and it was thus known to the Bretons ; 
and in Ireland it was adopted as the equivalent to DomnaU, 
Donacha, and other names £rom Don (or brown-haired), thus 
causing Dan to be one of the most frequent of Irish con- 

St. Jerome * transfixed with a dagger' — ^with his pen the 
additional chapters of the Book of Daniel relating to the 
story of Susanna, to shew that he did not regard it as 
genuine, but, like the story of Judith, it was greatly more 
popular than the narratives in the canonical books, and was 
commemorated in ballad, mystery, tapestry, and painting. 
The name was properly Schuschannah (a lily), though we 
know it as Susannah. It belonged to one of the holy women 
at the sepulchre, and it was likewise in the calendar, for 
two virgin martyrs, named Susanna, had suffered in the times 
of persecution, and though not commemorated in the Western 
Church, Queen Susanna, the ^ Lily of Tiflis,' had died for 
the truth in the hands of Mahometans. The name has been 
chiefly popular in France and Switzerland, as in England. 
Jamieson's popular songs give a Scottish version of the 
story of Becket's parents, in which the eastern maiden is 
thus introduced : — 


by Google 


* This Moor he had but ae daughter, 

Her name was called Susie Pye ; 
And eyerj day as she took the air, 
Near Beicham^s prison gaed she by.^ 

Susie Pje must be some wondrous transmogrification of 
the true eastern name, whatever it might have been, possibly 
Zeenab ! But in the English legend the lady is only called 
Matilda, as she was baptized. The Swiss contraction, Ziisi- 
Ketti, for Susanne-Catherine, is almost equally quaint.* 


























This may be the best place to mention the Aramean 
Tabitha, explained by St. Luke as the same as Dorcas (a 
roe or gazelle), the Greek word being from its ftJl dark eye. 
Tabitha and Dorcas both have associations unsuited to the 
<dear gazelle.' As the charitable disciple raised by St. 
Peter, her names were endeared to the Puritans; Dorcas 
has become a term for such alms-deeds as hers; and Tabitha 
must, I am much afraid, have been un unpleasant strait- 
laced aunt before she turned into a generic term for an old 
maid, or a black and grey cat. However, this may be a libel 
upon the Tabithas, for it appears that tabi was originally an 
Italian word for a species of watered silk, the taby waistcoat 

^ Proper Namet of the Bible; Jones, WeUh Shetchee; Michaelis; 
CVDonoYaQ; Butler. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


worn by Pepjs, the tabby and tabinet dress of our grand- 
mothers. Farther, Herrick calls barred clouds ^counter 
changed tabbies in the ayre,' so that it would seem likely 
that the barred and brindled colors of the cats was the cause 
of likening them to the stuff. Yet Gray's pensive Selima, 
though * demurest of the Tabby kind,' had ' a coat that with 
the tortoise vied.' On the whole it is likely, however, that 
the cat was called from the stuff, and that the lady must 
divide the uncomplimentary soubriquet with puss and some 
grim Aunt TabiUia, — it may be with Smollett's Tabitha 

Of the minor prophets, the names have been little em- 
ployed. Joel meant strong-willed ; Amos, a burthen ; Oba- 
diah, servant of the Lord, has been slightly more popular, 
perhaps, in honour of him who hid the prophets in a cave, 
with whom the mediaeval imagination confounded the pro- 
phet, so that loaves of bread are the emblem of Obadiah in 
ancient pictures of the twelve prophets. Even the Abbacuc, 
as the Apocrypha calls him, who, in the story of Bel and 
the Dragon is carried off by the hair to feed Daniel in the 
den of lions, seems to have been likewise supposed to be the 
same person in the strange notions of Scripture history that 
once floated among our forefathers. The name of Abacuck, 
or Habbakkuk, was conferred upon a child by one of the 
last persons one would have suspected of such a choice, 
namely, Mary, Queen of Scots. On her way to mass, she 
was way-laid by one of her caterers, who acquainted her that 
he had a child to be baptized, and desired her to give the 
name. ^ She said she would op^ the Bible in the chapel, 
and whatever name she cast up, that should be given to the 
child ;' and for the child's misfortune it proved to be * Aba- 
cuck!' He was afterwards the author of the Rolment of 
Courtis; but who, in thinking of Habbakuk Mucklewrath, 
would have imagined Queen Mary to have first imported the 
name ? It comes from the verb to clasp, and means embracing. 

J DV "^wJ V^V_/-X.I-^ 



Micah is a contraction of Micaiah, and means ^ Who is 
like unto the Lord.' Nahum — to us connected with * Tate 
and Brady' — ^was consolation ; Nehemiah expanded it, adding 
the Divine termination ; Zephaniah is protected of the Lord ; 
Haggai (festival of the Lord), called Aggae, when brought 
through a Greek medium, is rather a favourite in Russia. 

Zachariah (remembrance of the Lord), has been more in 
favour. After belonging to a king of Israel and to the priest 
murdered by King Jehoash, it came forth after the captivity 
as Zechariah with the prophet ; and in the New Testament, 
as Zacharias, names the father of the Baptist ; and the mys- 
terious martyr who was to fill up the measure of the iniquity 
of the Jews ; and again appears as Zaccheus, the publican 
of Jericho. It was rather frequent among Eastern Christians, 
and belonged to the pope who first invited the Franks into 
Italy to protect him from the Lombards ; nor has it ever 

uite died away 

' m the West, x 

uthough nowhe 

re popular. 























Of those to whom these later prophets were sent, Ezra's 
name is thought to be the same as that of Zerah, son of 
Judah, the rising of light, from whom likewise Heman, the 
writer of the 88th Psalm, is termed the Ezrahite. The name 
of Ezra is hardly to be recognized in that of Esdras, as the 
Greek translators rendered it.* 

* PropiT Namei of the Bible ; Michaelis; Chamben, Becordt qf Scotland. 

J DV V_-" V^V^/XI-^ 


Section X. — Angelic Names. 

We have thrown these together, becaoBe, though our 
common term for those spiritual messengers is Greek, yet 
all the other words for them, as well as the three individual 
angelic designations that have come into use as baptismal 
names, are derived from the Hebrew. 

Moreover, the first of these belonged to the last of the 
prophets, Malach-jah, the angel or messenger of God. It 
has even been thought by some commentators that this title 
of the prophet was the quotation of his own words, ^ Be- 
hold, I send my messenger (or Malachi) before my face ' — ^a 
prediction so wonderfully uniting the last prophet and the 
more than prophet. By these the author of the book is 
imagined to be Ezra, or some other of the great men of the 
restoration ; but this is, of course, conjecture. 

Malachi would never have been a modem name, but for 
the Irish fancy that made it the equivalent of Maelseachlain, 
the disciple of St. Sechnall, or Secundus, a companion of 
St. Patrick ; and as the era of him who is now called Ejng 
Malachi, with the collar of gold, was particularly prosperous, 
the name has come into some amount of popularity. 

The Septuagint always translated Mdach by A77€Xog, 
even in that first sentence of the prophet^ which in our ver- 
sion bears his name. Ayy^Xos (Angelos) had simply meant 
a messenger in Greek, as it still does ; but it acquired the 
especial signification of a heavenly messenger, both in its 
own tongue, and in the Latin, whither Angelus was trans- 
planted with this and no other sense ; and whence all our 
Christian languages have derived it, except the Breton, which 
calls these spiritual beings Eal, and the name from them Eal 
and Gwenneal (white spirit). 

Angelos first became a name in the Byzantine Empire. 
It probably began as an epithet, since it comes to light t- 


the person of Eonstantinos Angelos, a young man of a noble 
family of Philadelphia^ whose personal beauty caused him, 
about the year 1 100, to become the choice of the Prinoees 
Theodora Komnena. It is thus highly probable that Angelos 
was first bestowed as a surname, on account of the beauty of 
the family. They were on the throne in 1185^ and Angelos 
continued imperial till the miserable end of the unhappy 
IsaaCy and his son, Alexios, during the misdirected crusade 
of the Venetians. Angelos thus became known among the 
Greeks; and somewhere about 12 17, there came a monastic 
saint, so called, to Sicily, who preached at Palermo, and was 
murdered by a wicked count, whose evil doings he had re- 
buked. The Carmelites claimed St. Angelo as a saint of 
their order, and his name, both masculine and feminine, took 
hold of the fancy of Italy, varied by the Neapolitan dialect 
into Agnolo or Aniello— «.^., the wonderfiil fisherman, Mas- 
aniello, was, in fact, Tomasso Angelo ; by the Neapolitan, 
into Anziolo, Anzioleto, Anzioleta ; and by the Florentine, 
into Angiolo, Angioletto, and thence into the ever-renowned 
contraction Giotto, unless indeed this be from Goto&edo. It 
passed to other nations, but was of more rare occurrence 
there, except in the feminine. The fashion of complimenting 
women as angels, left the masculine Ange to be scantily used 
in France, and Angel now and then in England ; but in Italy 
alone, did Angiolo, and its derivative Angelico, thrive. All 
the other countries adopted the feminine, either in the simple 
form or the diminutive, or most commonly, the derivative, 
Angelica (angelical), noted in romance as the faithless lady, 
for whose sake Orlando lost his heart, and his senses. She 
was a gratuitous invention of Boiardo and Ariosto; for 
Spanish ballads and earlier Italian poets make him the faith- 
ftd husband of Alda or Belinda. However, Angelica ob- 
tained that character for surpassing beauty, which always 
leaves a name popular, and thus Angelica and Angelique 
have always been favourites. 

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Observe the two old simple forms of the native German, 
besides the later importations from Italian and French, the 
last, however, honoured by the genius of Angelica Kauff- 
man, as is the French Angelique through the Abbess of 
Port Royal. None of the forms have ever been popular in 
England, though occasionally used by lovers of ornamental 
names. Angel was most often a man's name here. We find 
it at Hadleigh, Essex, in 1591, and sometimes likewise in 

The German Engelbrecht, Engeltram, &;c., have not been 
here included, though usually explained as coming from 
Angel, because it seems more probable that they are referable 
to the same name as our own ancestral Angles— of which 
more in due time. Be it remarked how the old connection 
between g and z shows in the Venetian Anziolo, while on the 
other hand, there can be little doubt that the scholarly 
Gregory the Great made no difierence of pronunciation 
between the angelic choir and the fair island children who 
won his notice. 

Archangel has even been used as an English name. 

The mysterious creatures that are first mentioned as ^ keep- 
ing the way of the tree of life,' then were represented in the 
tabernacle overshadowing the ark, and afterwards were re- 

uigiiizeu Dv 'v_jvj'v_>S 


yealed in vision to the Prophet Ezekiel and to the Apostle 
St. John, combined in their forms the symbols of all that was 
wisest, bravest, strongest, and loftiest in creation — ^the man, 
the lion, the ox, and eagle. Even heathen fancy had some 
dim memory of their forms, as is testified by the winged, 
lion-tailed, man-headed bull of Nineveh, with hh calm, ma- 
jestic, benignant physiognomy, the equally composite sphynx 
of Egypt, and the griffin of Grreece and Rome. Indeed, the 
latter creature was adopted into Christian art, and is intro- 
duced by Dante as drawing the chariot after the fashion of the 
beings of Ezekiel's vision. 

Ancient theology paused to pronounce what these living 
creatures signified, deeming diem manifestations of the 
Divine Majesty, especially as revealed in the Gospels ; but 
those who loved to define, and who divided the angelic host 
into hierarchies, placed them in the first order of angels; 
and thus has the popular mind ever since regarded their 
name. Cherub, in die true Hebrew plural, cherubim, though 
cherubin, as we use it in the Te Deum^ is a corruption of the 
late Latin plural chervbini. On its meaning there is great 
doubt; the two explanations preferred by critics are ^the 
mighty one,' from the combination of wisdom and strength, 
and ' that which ploughs,' i.e., the ox, from, one of the forms. 
The cherubim, when regarded as the first order of angels, 
were supposed to excel in knowledge and intense worship. 
^ The cherub contemplation ' is thus a fit epithet of Milton. 
Mediaeval art represented the cherubim as blue, the colour of 
light, and indicated them by the human head and eagle's 
wings, giving childish features as the token of innocence, 
and thus gradually was the idea of these glorious beings, 
lost in the light of the Throne on high, connected with the 
chubby head finished off with a pair of little wings that has 
caused ' cherub' to be the stock epithet for a pretty infant! 
And it was in the lands where the back-ground of sacred 
pictures was wont to be crowded with these shadowy baby 

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heads, that Cherabmo arose as a Christian name, for it is 
hardly ever to be met with out of Spain and Italy. 

Equally misused is Seraph — ^now a lady's name, as Sera- 
phine in France; Serafina, in Spain and Italy; also applied 
to a musical instrument, and the adjective often used in a 
sort of irony for absorption beyond all sublunary matters. 
This, of course, arose from irreverent and exaggerated com- 
parisons, in the first instance, to the glory, the ceaseless song, 
and the ecstatic love of the heavenly spirits, in allusion to 
whom Thomas Aquinas was called the ' Seraphic ' Doctor. The 
seraphim had in paintings been shown of a glowing fiery red, 
as love was thought their great characteristic, and with six 
wings on account of the description in the vision of Isaiah, 
the only mention of them in Holy Scripture, but where the 
song is given that has ever since been echoed by the Church. 
The word seraph, or saraph, signifies burning, or fiery, and 
would apply to that intensity of glory that Ezekiel struggles 
to express in the cherubim by comparisons to amber and to 
glowing embers, or to their intense fervour of love. Seraph 
also is the word used for the fiery winged serpents that 
attacked the Israelites in the wilderness, and the likeness of 
which was the typical brazen serpent. Some think that the 
Egyptian god, Serapis, was called from these creatures, since 
he had a head like the serpent ; but others say he was only 
the dead Apis. Three individual angels have been revealed 
to us by name as of the seven that stand in the presence of 
(jod, and foremost of these is Michael (who is like unto 
Chxl), he who was made known to Daniel as the protector of 
the Jewish people; to Zechariah, as defending them from 
Satan ; to St. Jude, as disputing witii Satan for the body of 
Moses; and to St. John, as leading the hosts of heaven to 
battie with the adversary and prevailing over him. 

His name would have seemed in itself fit only for an arch- 
angel, yet before apparentiy he had been made known, it 
had been borne by tiie father of Omri of Samaria, and by a 


son of Jehoshaphat, and it was in effect almost the same as 
that of Micaiah, who foretold the destruction of Ahab, and 
the contracted form of Micah, the contemporary of Isaiah. 

Constantino the Gbreat dedicated a church in his new 
cily in honour of St. Michael, the archangel, and thence- 
forth Mickaelion, or Mikael, have been favourites with all 
branches of the Eastern Church. Nay, the Colossians re- 
vered him so early, that some think fliey may have given 
occasion to St. Paul's warning to them against the worship- 
ping of angels even before the apostle's death. 

An appearance of the archangel in Colosse led the way to 
another legend of his descent upon Monte GhJgano in Apulia, 
somewhere about 493. Then came a more notable vision, 
seen by Gregory the Great himself, of the angel standing 
with out-stretched sword on the tomb of Adrian, which has 
ever since been called the Castle of St Angelo. In 706, St. 
Michael was again seen to take his stand upon the isolated 
rock on the Norman coast, so noted as the fortress and 
convent of Mont St. Michel ; and again tradition placed him 
upon the Cornish rock, — 

* When the great vision of the guarded mount 
Looked towards Namancos and Bayona^s hold.* 

He was above all others the patron of the Christian warrior ; 
his armour-clad effigy was seen in ahnost every church; 
the young knight was dubbed in his name, as well as 
that of his national saint; and since the prevalence of 
saintly names, his name has been firequently bestowed. 
It is, perhaps, most common in the Greek and Slavonic 
countries; but Ireland makes great use of it; and Italy 
has confined it with the epithet angel, in the one dis- 
tinguished instance of Michelangelo BuonarottL 


by Google 




























There is some confusion in the German mind between it 
and the old michel (mickle, large), which, as a name, it has 
quite absorbed. It has the rare feminines, 






Legend has been far less busy with Gabriel, ^ the hero of 
God ;' the angel who strengthened Daniel, and who brought 
the promise to Zacharias and to the Blessed Virgin. His 
name is chiefly used by the Slavonians ; and in Hungary, we 
find it in combination with Bethlehem, belonging to that 
noted chieftain, Bethlem Grabor. 

It was known and used eyerywhere, however; and the 
Swedish house of Oxenstjema considered it to have been 
the saving of their line from extinction, all their sons having 
died in the cradle, owing, it was thought, to Satan's stran- 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 



gling them ; till at length one was named Gabriel ; and hay- 
ing thus obtained the protection of the guardian angel, sur- 
vived to be the ancestor of the minister of the great Grus- 
tavus. The feminine, Gkbrielle, has been a favourite in. 
France ever since la beUe Gabrielle gave it a reputation for 

















Kaphael (the medicine of God), is the angel who guided 
Tobias, and healed his father. Italy and Spain are the 
countries where his name is most used, and well it may, in 
the first named, after the fame of him who has made it the 
highest proverb in art. It hardly varies, except by the 
double^ of Italian, and the single one of Spain, to supply 
its Greek ^. I have heard of a girl at Mentone called 
Bavelina, probably Raffaellina.^ 

• Smith, DietUmary of the Bible ; Proper Noma of the Bible ; V^illiams, 
Commentary on the OotpeU ; Jameson* Sacred and Legendary Art ; Baskin, 
Modem Painters; Manyal^ Sweden. 


by Google 


PART n. 


Section L — The Persian Language. 

ScANTT as are the Christian names derived from the Persian 
race, ihey are very curious and interesting, partly on ac- 
count of the changes that they have undergone, and still 
more because the language whence they are derived belongs 
to the same group as our own, and testifies in many of its 
words to the common origin. 

In leaving the Semitic class, Hebrew, Egyptian, Syriac, 
and Arabic, we have, in fact, quitted one main branch of 
the great tree of language, and passed to another, namely, 
the Indo-European; the special tongue of the sons of Ja- 
phet, the chief boughs of which are the Sanscrit, the Persian, 
the Greek, Latin, Keltic, Teutonic, and Slavonic, each of 
which, mingling in different proportions with one another, 
and with the other classes of languages, have produced the 
host of dead and living languages of educated mankind. 
Nor have single words alone come to attest our conmion 
ancestry ; but many a nursery legend, or terse fable, crops 
out in one country after another, either in lofty mythology^ 
or homely household tale. For instance, the Persian trick 
of Ameen and the Ghool recurs in the Scandinavian visit of 
Thor to Loki, which has come down to Germany in the brave 
little tailor, and to us in Jack the Giant ELiller. The wild 
huntsman, like the wind itself, has been tracked &om the 
Ghauts to the Dovrefeld ; and many of iBsop's fables had 
served as apologues to Hindoo sovereigns and Persian mo- 


narchs ere the crooked slave rehearsed them to CrcBsns, or 
Phsedros versified them in Latin, to become proverbial 
throughout Europe. 

Only just hinting at these delights, we proceed to our 
actual subject, the Persian nomenclature, and the fragments 
thereof that have descended to us. The old nation were a 
branch of the great .Arian race (the agricultural people) , 
and called themselves Aiya, whence the present Iran and 
Herat. The Modes and Persians were both tribes of this 
nation, the latter called from Pars, their province, speaking 
difierent dialects of the same language, and holding the 
same faith ; adoring the sun (mithra), and the fire (atra), as 
emblems of Yezid or Ormuza, the supreme and invisible 
Deity. It is not to our present purpose to enquire at what 
exact period this religion was formerly taught by him whom 
Greeks call Zoroaster; modem Persians, Zerdosht; and 
whose name is differently derived from zara thrustra (gold 
star), or zarcdh ustra (having yellow camels). His code, 
the Zenda Vesta, which is still extant, was written about 
520 B.C. ; and its language, the Zend, was the sacred form 
of speech used in religion, and by the educated ; the Pehlvi 
was in more common use and ruder. Both dialects subsisted 
together through the reigns of these Medo-Persian mo- 
narchs, whom we know in Scripture and in Grreek history, 
and who are properly called the Achsemenids, the Greek 
form of sons of Achsemenes ; or in Zendish, Hakhamanish 
(having friends), their ancestor, whom they commemorate 
in their inscriptions on the rocks. 

The AchsBmenid dynasty perished in the Macedonian in- 
vasion ; but when the Syrian division of the Greek empire 
began to fail, the Parthians, a wild Persian tribe, rose to 
power under Arshk or Arsha (venerable), called in Greek 
Arsaces, whence his dynasty were termed the Arsacides. It 
lasted from 250 years before to 250 years after the Christian 
era; and the kings were terrible enemies to the Romans on the 
Syrian frontier; but they were a rude^, ,M^pi§4 .P^ <k- 

CYBUS. 135 

tested by the trne Persians, and at last were dethroned and 
set aside by a family claiming to descend from the old 
AchsemenidS) and called the Sassanid dynasty. 

These were the foes of the Byzantine Romans. They were 
very zealous fire-worshippers, persecuted out the sparks of 
Ghristiam1y,that had been lighted under the Arsacidae, revived 
in fall force the teaching of 2iOroaster, and spoke the old refined 
Persian instead of the PehlvL The traditions of their an- 
cestors were gathered up, literature was cultivated, and many 
old fragments were collected in the tenth century by the 
poet, Ferdosi, in the Shahrnameh or book of kings, a nar- 
rative of the adventures of the Achsemenids, in which they 
can just be traced out, but which agrees less with their con- 
temporary inscriptions than do the accounts of the Greek 
historians. Ferdosi, however, lived and wrote for foreign 
sovereigns, after the fall of the Sassanids, when the Arabs, 
in the first fury of the impulse given by Mahometanism, 
overran their country, extinguished the dynasty, impressed 
Islam upon the inhabitants, and left the scattered Parsees 
alone to represent the old faith of Zoroaster. Modem Per- 
sian has the groundwork of the older tongue, but has become 
mingled with Arabic and Turkish. 

The explanation of these stages of the language, and of 
the changes of dynasty, was necessary to explain the allu- 
sions needfrd in our selection of Persian names.^ 

Sbotion n. — Cyrus. 

To begin with the sovereign to whom all alike look up ; 
him who is ^ called by name in the book of Isaiah,' as tlie 
shepherd who should restore Judah after the Captivily. 
Kuru is a name said to be older than the Sanscrit from 

♦ Professor Max Mnller, Oxford Es»ay^eienee of Language; BawUn. 
son. Appendix to Herodotm; Malcolm, HUtory of Penia ; Le Beaa, Ba$ 
Smpire; Butler, Livei of the Saints: Keightley, Fairy Mythology; 
Dasent, Popular TaUifnm the None. ugmzea d >^. v^v^glc 


Persian, and of unknown signification ; although some derive 
it from Khar, one name for the smi, Kureish was the 
original form ; Koreish to the Hebrews ; Kupo? (Kyros) to the 
Greeks, whence the Romans took the Cyrus by which he is 
known to Europe. His only namesake in his own line was 
he who invited the 10,000 from Greece and perished at 
Gunaxa, and of whom is told the story of his willing accept- 
ance of the water of the river Kur or Cyrus, like him in 
name. When the Sassanids revived the old Achsemenid 
names they called this name Khoosroo, and the Byzantines re- 
corded it as Chosroes, when Chosroes Nushirvan, or the mag- 
nanimous, almost rivalled the glory of his ancestor — ^Kai 
Khoosroo, as the Shah-nameh called him. Not only had the 
fire-worshippers revived the name, but it had been borne by 
various Christians in the East, one of whom, a physician of 
Alexandria, sufiered in one of the persecutions, having been 
detected in visiting a Christian prisoner. He was buried at 
Ganope, in Egypt, and was called in the Coptic calendar 
Abba Cher, or Father Cyrus ; in the Greek, Abba Cyrus. 
His relics were afterwards transported to Rome, where the 
church built over them was called, by the Italians, Saint 
Appassara. Like a fixed star, the original Cyrus had shone 
through adjacent darkness, evident by his lustre, but his 
lineaments lost in distance, and thus Ferdosi makes him a 
mere mythical hero. Herodotus copied some distorted tra- 
dition; Xenophon pourtrayed imaginary perfection in his 
Oyropcedia; and modems have taken even greater liberties 
with him. ArtabaUy ou le grand CyruSy the ponderous ro- 
mance of Mile, de Scudery, was a stately French tale of love 
and war, containing a long amorous correspondence between 
Cyrus and his beloved, the model and admiration of the 
prideuses in their glory, and absolutely not without efiect 
upon nomenclature. In one village in Picardy there still 
exist living specimens of Oriane, Philoxdne, C61amire, Ar- 
sinoe, Calvandre, all derived from vassals named by their 

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DARIUS. 137 

enthusiastic seigneurs in honour of the heroines of the 
fashionable romances, and still inherited by their posterity 
long after the seigneurs and the heroines are alike forgotten. 

In imitation of Telemaque, the Chevalier Ramsay, an 
exiled Jacobite tutor to the Stuart princes, and the friend of 
Fenelon, wrote a philosophical narrative called Les Voyages 
de OyruSj full of curious information, once in some request as 
a French reading book in school rooms. 

Either from his being mentioned in the Bible, or from 
the CyropcBcliaj Cyrus has had some currency as an English 
baptismal name.''^ 

Section in. — Darius. 

Dar (to possess) is the root of Daryavush, called by 
Greeks Aopcto? ; by Romans, Darius ; by Ferdosi, Dareb— 
the title whence the gold coins of Persia were known to the 
Greeks as daries. There is reason to suppose that Darya- 
oush was rather a royal prefix than a proper name; since 
him whom the Greeks knew as Darius Nothus, or the bastard, 
is the first Dareb of the Shah-nameh. The Darius of Daniel 
is the Greek Cyaxares the Mede, the Kai Khaoos of Ferdosi, 
the old Persian Uvakshatara (beautiful eyed). The Darius 
of Ezra, the Darius Hystaspes of the Greeks, is in the Shah- 
nameh Gushtasp; in old Persian, Yishtaspa (possessor of 
horses), a curious coincidence with Herodotus' story of the 
manner in which he was raised to the throne, as well as with 
the legend that his horse's legs were drawn up into its body 
and were released by a miracle of Zoroaster. Gushtasp is, 
however, by some, thought to have been the father of Darius, 
the Hystaspes of the Greeks, and, perhaps, true heir to the 
throne ; but who waived his right in favour of his son, lived 
and served under him, and, finally, was killed by the break- 

♦ RawHnBon, Herodotus; Malcolm, Persia,' Le Beau, Bas Empire; 
EoUin, Ancient History; Butler, Lives of the SainU; Dunlop, History of 

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ing of the rope by which he was bemg let down to inspect 
the sculptures of the monument that Darius was preparing in 
his own life-time.* 

Darija is common among the Russian peasantry, but is 
probably a contraction of Dorothea. 

Section IV. — Xerxes. 

If Gushtasp be Hystaspes, the Isfundear of Ferdosi would 
answer to Darius instead of his son, called by the Greeks 
Xerxes, the produce of the old Persian Khshayarsha, from 
Khshaya (a king), at present shah^ and arsha venerable. 
By this name he termed himself in his boastful inscriptions, 
and this was to the Hebrews, Achashverosh ; whence the Sep- 
tuagint, Aotroin/pos; and thence the Latin and English, Ahas- 
uerus ; the French, Assuerus. Sassan, from whence the last 
dynasty traced their origin, is thought to be another word from 
this chameleon-like Khshayarsha, and Khshaya furnished the 
latter race with Shapoor (great king), the Sapor so often 
occurring in the history of the Lower Empire. 

Even our word * check,' so often recurring in the game at 
chess, is a remnant of schah-rendj (the distress of the shah), 
and testifies to the Eastern origin of the game ; xaque in 
Spanish, where xaque-mata is check-mate — the king is dead, 
fit)m the Arab mata (to kill). The French Schecs again came 
from the repetition of the word — ^thence again our chess. And, 
on the other hand, the black and white squares of the board 
gave to similar pattern the name of cheque-work ; whence 
the room thtis lined, where the court of the Duke of 
Normandy was held, was the echiquier, and crossed the sea 
to become our exchequer. 

Some etymologists, however, derive exchequer from schicken 
(to send), because the messengers from the court were sent 
throughout the duchy ; but this cannot be established. 

* Rawlinson, Herodotut ; Malcolm, Persia, 


uigiiizeu Dv " 

XERXES. 139 

The arms of the great family of Warremne were chequers; 
and they enjoyed the privilege of licensing houses of enter- 
tainment to provide boards where chess and tables might be 
played. It is very probable that their shield was assumed 
in consequence; at any rate, the sign of such permission was 
the display of the said bearings on the walls of the inn to 
which it was accorded, and thus arose that time-honoured 
sign of the Chequers, happily not yet extinct, though far 
from at present explaining its connection either with the 
stout earl, whose tenure was his good sword, or with the king, 
who lashed the ocean. 

Xerxes is called in Blyrian, Eserksas, or Sersa, otherwise 
his name has been unrepeated, except as the last resource in 
copy-books. Ahasuerus has had a little credit from its ap- 
pearance in Scripture, and Hazzy may be heard of in America. 

With the prefix Arta, in honour of the sacred fire, was 
formed the Persian Artakshatra, the ordinary Artaxerxes, 
the Sassanid Ardisheer. The oriental writers make the 
successor of Isfundear, Bahram, a name derived firom a 
Sanscrit compound, meaning * having weapons,' but they add 
that he was sumamed Ardisheer Dirazdust, the long-armed 
fire king, because his arms were of such length that he could 
reach his knees without stooping, a tradition agreeing with 
the Greek title of Artaxerxes Longimanus. One Eastern 
author, quoted by Sir John Malcolm, states that Bahram 
granted great favours to the Jewish nation, because his chief 
wife was of that race, while the Grerman Norberg says it was 
his mother, thus leaving it still in doubt whether he or his 
father were the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther. Josephus 
regards this prince as Artaxerxes, but later authorities think 
the date as well as the character more accordant with that of 

* 'Ba,yr]ia9on, Herodotui ; Malcolm, Periia; Forbes, Hittory of Chess; 
Smith, Dictionary of the Bible. 


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Section V.— JErfA^r. 

The reigning wife of Xerxes is known to have been 
AmestriSy the daughter of an Achsemenian noble, and she 
might well have been Vashti, set aside only for a time when 
the address of the nobles gained a victory over her. The fair 
daughter of the tribe of Benjamin, whose royalty ensured 
her people's safety, was in her own tongue Hadassah, or the 
Myrtle ; some say, Atossa; but the Persian epithet by which 
we know her may have been taken from satarahy a word 
showing the ancient union of the languages, since Aster is 
Arab and Greek ; and from thence, and the Latin steUa have 
sprung the modem itoik^ estrella, star, sterUy stjormay which 
tlie Septuagint gave as "Eo^p, the Romans as Esthera and 
Hestera ; whence the occasional variations in English of 
Esther or Essie, and Hester or Hetty. 

Not till the days of Racine was Esther much in vogue. 
The tragedian, being requested to write a sacred drama to be 
acted by the young ladies of St. Cyr, chose this subject in 
compliment to Madame de Maintenon, as the faultless Esther 
preferred before the discarded Vashti, namely, Madame de 
Montespan ! Esther, thereupon, became a favourite lady's 
name in France, and vied in popularity with the cumbrous 
splendours taken from the Scudery cycle of romance. At the 
same time it was borne by the two ladies who had the mis- 
fortune of Dean Swift's affection, Esther Johnson and 
Esther Vanhomrigh, whom he called one by the Latin name 
Stella ; the other, by the generic title of our finest English 
butterflies, Vanessa. Estrella was the heroine of a Spanish 
pastoral, whence the Abb6 Florian borrowed his theatrical 
shepherdess Estelle, which thus became a French name, 
though chiefly on the stage. 

Roschana, as it is now pronounced, is still common in 
Persia, and means the dawn of day. Roxane and Statire, as 

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ESTHER. 141 

rival heroines of Racine, became proverbs in France for the 
stately or the languishing form of tragedy dame. 

Parysatis, the daughter of Artaxerxes, is conjectured by 
M. Oppert to come from paru sati much land ; but Sir Jolm 
Malcolm tells us that Perizada (fairy bom) is still a Persian 
lady's name, and this appears the more probable derivation. 

Many of the heroes of the Scudery romances had their 
appellations copied from the high-sounding Greek forms of 
Persian names, derived from the sacred fire, such as Artabazus 
(fire worshipper), or Artabanus (guarding the fire), Arta- 
menes (great minded). 

Mithridates, or Meherdates, is an old Persian and Parthian 
name, meaning given to the sun, and chiefly known to us 
through that redoubtable old monarch of Pontus who was so 
dire a foe to the Romans, and from whose skill in chemistry, 
real or imaginary, our Mithridate mustard derived its name 
in old herbals.* 

* Bawlinson, Herodotus ; Prideftnx, CtmneetUm ; Smith, Biblical Die* 


by Google 




Passing from Persian to Greek names, we feel at once 
that we are nearer home, and that we claim a nearer kindred 
in thoughts and habits, if not in blood, with the sons of 
Javan, than with the fire-worshippers. Their alphabet is the 
parent of our own, and is at present read from left to right ; 
the pronunciation is comprehensible by our organs, and many 
of our woras are directly borrowed from the language. 

It is of the Indo-European class, and has much in 
common both with Kelt, Teuton, and much more with the 
elder and ruder Latin, besides haying contributed largely to 
the Latin tongue when Cbreek became the favourite study of 
the cultivated Roman. 

This older element is the tangible proof of the common 
origin of the nations, all alike referred to Japhet, the son bf 
Noah, and ftJfilling that prophecy of the patriarch which 
assigned a pre-eminence to his younger and more dutifrd 
son. Some indeed have imagined that they recognised 
Japhet (an extender) in the Ghreek Titan lapetos (the 
aflUcted), son of Eronos (time), and father of Prometheus 
(fore-thought), and Epimetheus (after-thought) ; others, 
again, in the Roman Jupiter. His son Javan (clay), is 
mentioned in Grenesis as the parent of the dwellers in the 
isles of the nations, and in strict accordance with this, the 
oriental races always knew the Greeks as Yavani. The 

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elder Greek would make this lafavoi (lafanoi), which when 
the central letter was disused, became Iojvuh (the lonians). 
This term, however, became restricted to an individual tribe 
among the Greeks, for whom a father and founder caQed 
Ion was invented. 

According to the Greeks themselves the original inhabitants 
were a nation called the l^elasgi, to whom they ascribed the 
gigantic ruins of walls and bulwarks which still exist in 
parts of their country. There is reason to suppose that 
these Pelasgians spread over great part of Asia Minor, and 
of Italy, and were the connecting link between the Greeks, 
their enemies, the Trojans, and the Latin races. Their 
language was forgotten and considered as utterly barbarous ; 
but there is ground for the belief that it was a rude form of 
Greek, holding the same relation to classical Greek and Latin 
as does old Gothic to German and English. 

The Pelasgi were afterwards subdued by the Hellenes, who 
came upon them firom Thessaly, and whose name was borne 
by the country and nation. Never content without a 
namesake-forefather, the Greeks made the Hellenes come 
from Hellen, son of Deucalion (a sort of Noah to them), 
and deduced from him their national tribes, the ^olian, 
Dorian, Ionian, and Achsean, declaring, however, that on 
being conquered by the hero Ion, a branch of the Pelasgians 
had assumed his name. The learned have disputed much on 
the origin of the Hellenes, but the most satisfactory sup- 
position seems to be that they were a section of the same 
race as the Pelasgi, but more able and vigorous, more war- 
like, thoughtful, and progressive, and in fact possessing that 
element of character which in the days of classic Greece had 
ripened to the fullest perfection attainable by human nature 
1^ to its own resources. 

Chreek having been matured among a nation of much 
thought and system, of blood apparently little mixed, was 
thus a very complete language, expressing new ideas by 

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compounds of its own words, and with no occasion to borrow 
from others. The national names are thus almost always 
explicable by the language itself, with a few exceptions, 
either when the name went back to the days of the old 
Pelasgi, or was an importation from Egypt or Phoenicia, 
whence many of the earlier arts had been brought. 

Each Greek had but one name, which was given to him by 
his father either on or before the tenth day of his life, when 
a sacrifice and banquet was held. Genealogies were exceed- 
ingly interesting to the Chreeks, as the mutual connection 
of city with city, race with race, was thus kept up, and 
community of ancestry was regarded as a bond of alliance, 
attaching the Athenians, for instance, to the Asiatic lonians 
as both sons of Ion, or the Spartans to the Syracusans, 
as likewise descended from Doros. Each individual state 
had its deified ancestor, and each family of note a hero 
parent, to whom worship was offered at every feast, and who 
was supposed still to exert active protection on his votaries. 
The political rights of the citizens, and the place they occu- 
pied in the army, depended on their power of tracing their 
line from the forefather of a recognised tribe, after whose 
name the whole were termed with the patronymic termination 
ides (the son of). This was only, however, a distinction, for 
surnames were unknown, and each man possessed merely the 
individual personal appellation by which he was always called, 
without any title, be his station what it might. Families 
used, however, to mark themselves by recurring constantly to 
the same name. It was the correct thing to give the eldest 
son that of his paternal grandfather, as Elimon, Miltiades, 
then Kimon again, if the old man were dead, for if he were 
living, it would have been putting another in his place, a bad 
omen, and therefore a father's name was hardly ever given 
to a son. Sometimes, however, the prefix was preserved, 
and the termination varied, so as to mark the fiunily without 
destroying the individual idaitity. Thus, Leonidas, the third 

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NAMES From the qreek. 145 

son of Anaxandridas, repeated with an augmentatiye his 
grandfather's name of Leo (a lion), as his father, Anaxan- 
dridas, did that of his own great grandfather, Anaxandras 
(king of man), whose son Eurjcratidas was named firom his 
grandfather Euiycrates. 

The Greeks were desirous of always giving promising and 
fortonate names to their children, and indeed these often had 
an important effect in dTter-life. The leader of a colony 
was sometimes selected because he would sound well as the 
founder and namer of the intended city. Again, when the 
Samians came to entreat the aid of the allied fleet in shaking 
off the Persian yoke, Leotichydas, the commander, demanded 
the name of the messenger, and hearing that it was Hege- 
sistratus (army leader), exclaimed, * I accept, Samian, the 
omen which thy name affords,' and granted his request. At 
the beginning of the Persian invasion, however, the enemy 
had captured a ship of Troezene, and apparently on the 
principle of * spilling the foremost foeman's life,' had put to 
death the handsomest man on board, one Leo, whose fate 
Herodotus conjectures was partly owing to his name. 

Sometimes, however, when evil fortune arose, it was dis- 
covered that the object of the disaster bore the augury 
thereof in the double meaning of his name (a part of it), as 
was the case with Ajax, who had been named Atas (Aias), 
from Aetos (an eagle), but whose appellation was connected 
with Ai (alas !) at the time of his frenzy before Troy. 

This single name rendered it diflScult to distinguish between 
different persons, and the name of the father terminated by 
ides was often used to mark out the son, as well as numerous 
nick-names. After the Romans had subdued Greece and ex- 
tended the powers of becoming citizens, the name of the adopt- 
ing patron would be taken by his client, and thus Latin and 
Greek titles became mixed together. Later, Greek second 
names became coined, either from patronymics, places, or events, 
and finally ran into the ordinary European system of surnames. 

VOL- I. T, ,o]r> 


Among the names here ensuing will only be foxmd those 
that concern the history of Christian names. Many a great 
heart-thrilling sound connected with the brightest lights of 
the ancient world must be passed by, because it has not 
pleased the capricious will of after-generations to perpetuate 
them, or only in such small and limited proportion, and 
so unchanged, as not to be worth mentioning. 

The female Greek names were many of them appropriate 
words and epithets ; but others, perhaps the greater number, 
were merely men's names with the feminine termination in 
a or «, often irrespective of their meaning. Some of these 
have entirely perished from the lips of men, others have 
been revived by some enterprising writer in search of a 
fresh title for a heroine. Such is Corinna (probably from 
Persephone's title K^piy (Kor6), a maiden, the Boeotian poetess, 
who won a wreath of victory at Thebes, and was therefore 
the example from whom Mdme. de Stael named her brilliant 
Corinne, followed in her turn by numerous French damsels ; 
and in an Italian chronicle of the early middle ages, the 
lady whom we have been used to call Rowena, daughter of 
Henghist, has turned into Corinna; whilst Cora, probably 
through Lord Byron's poem, is a favourite in America. 
Such too is Aspasia, Aoirocrui (welcome), from the literary 
fame of its first owner chosen by the taste of the seven- 
teenth century as the title under which to praise the virtues 
of Lady Elizabeth Hastings. Li the Rambler and Spectator 
days, real or fictitious characters were usually introduced 
under some classical or pastoral appellation, and ladies cor- 
responded with each other under the soubriquets of nymph, 
goddess, or heroine, and in virtue of its sound Aspasia waa 
adopted among these. It has even been heard as a Christian 
name in a cottage. ^ Her name's Aspasia, but us calls her 

• Bishop Thirlwall, Greece; Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities; Lappenbei^, AnglO'Saxont, 

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Sbction I. 

Greek appellations may be divided into various classes ; the 
first, those of the gods and early heroes are derived from 
langoages inexplicable even by the classical Greeks. These 
were seldom or never given to human beings, though deri- 
vatives from them often were. 

The second class is of those formed from epithets in the 
spoken language. These belonged to the Greeks of the his- 
torical age, and such as were borne by the Macedonian con- 
querors became spread throughout the East, thus sometimes 
falling to the lot of early saints of the Church, and becom- 
' ing universally popular in Christendom. Of others of merely 
classic association a few survived among the native Oreeks, 
while others were resuscitated at intervals; first, by the 
vanity of decaying Rome ; next, by the revival of ancient 
literature in the Cinque-cento; then, by the magniloquent 
taste of the Scudery romances in France ; again, in France, 
by the republican mania ; and, in the present time, by the 
same taste in America, and by the reminiscences of the 
modem Greeks. 

After the preaching of the Gospel, Greece had vigour 
enough to compose appropriate baptismal names for the con- 
verts; and it is curious to observe that no other country 
could have ever been so free from the tranmiels of hereditary 
nomenclature, for no other has so complete a set of names 
directly bearing upon Christianity. So graceful are they in 
sound as well as meaning, and so honoured for those who 
bore them, that many have spread throughout Europe. 

u| uzl oy Google 


Lastly, even modem Greek haa thrown oat many names 
of graceful somid, which are, however, chiefly confined to 
the Romaic Greek. 

Sbction n. — Names from Zeus. 

At the head of the whole Greek system stands the mighty 
Zeus (Zcv5), a word that has been erected into a proper name 
for the thundering father of gods and men, whilst the cognate 
0€os (theos) passed into a generic term ; just as at Rome the 
Deus Pater (God-Father), or Jupiter, from the same source, 
became the single god, and detis the general designation. 

All come from the same source as the Sanscrit Deva, and 
are connected with the open sky, and the idea of light that 
has produced our word day. We shall come upon them again 
and again ; but for the present we will confine ourselves to the 
names produced by Zeus, in his individual character, leaving 
those from Theos to the Christian era, to which most of* 
them belong. 

Their regular declension of Zeus made Dios the genitive 
case; and thus Diodorus^ Diogenes, &c., ought, perhaps, to 
be referred to him ; but the more poetical, and, therefore, 
most probably the older form was Zenos in the genitive ; and 
as Dios also meant heaven, the above names seem to be better 
explained as heaven-gift and heaven-bom, leaving to 2ieus 
only those that retain the same commencement. 

2fri¥iavy or, as it is commonly called, Zeno, was a good deal 
used in Greece throughout the classical times, and descend- 
ing to Christian times, named a saint martyred under Gal- 
lienus, also a Bishop of Verona, who lefr ninety-three ser- 
mons, at the beginning of the fourth century, and thus made 
it a canonical name, although the rules of the Church had 
forbidden christening children after heathen gods. Except 
for the Isanrian Emperor Zeno, and an occasional Russian 

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Sinon, there has not, however, been much disposition to use 
the name. 

Zenobios, life from Zens (Zti/o/Scos), is by far the easiest 
vrB,j of explaining the name of the brilliant Queen of Pal- 
myra; but, on the other hand, she was of Arabian birth, 
the daughter of Amrou, King of Arabia, and it is highly 
probable that she originally bore the true Arabic name of 
Zeenab (ornament of the father) ; and that when she and 
her husband entered on intercourse with the Romans, Zenobia 
was bestowed upon her as an equivalent, together with the 
genuine Latin Septima as a mark of citizenship. When her 
glory waned, and she was brought as a prisoner to Rome, 
she and her family were allowed to settle in Italy ; and her 
daughters left descendants there — Zenobius, the Bishop of 
Milan, who succeeded St. Ambrose, bore her name, and 
claimed her blood ; and thus Zenobio and Zenobia still linger 
among the inhabitants of the city. Nor, indeed, has the 
fame of the splendid queen passed entirely away from the 
deserts, where the columns of her city alone break the dreary 
waste ; for the women of the Anazeh tribe still are frequently 
called by her Grecised name of Zenobeeah. 

The romance of her story caught the French fancy, and 
Zenobie has been rather in fashion among modem French 
damsels. Perhaps it may yet produce a fresh form, for a 
print of the warrior queen exists, with jewelled hair, dressed 
like a helmet ; in which the engraver, wishing to show his 
erudition, gave her name in Greek letters ; and in order to 
be secure of her initial, went to the end of the alphabet, and 
produced the word OENOBIA I 

A Oilician brother and sister, called Zenobius and Zenobia, 
the former a physician and afterwards Bishop of ^gsB, were 
put .to death together during the persecution of Diocletian, 
BfA tiius became saints of tiie Eastern Church, making Sino- 
vij, Sinovija, or for short, Zizi, very fashionable among the 
Russians. Perhaps the Sinovija has prevailed the more from 

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its resemblance to the name of the Diana of Slavonic my- 

It is much more difficult to accomit for the prevalence of 
Zenobia in Cornwall. Yet many parish registers show it as 
of an early date : and dear to tihe West is the story of a 
sturdy dame called Zenobia Brengwenna, (Mrs. Piozzi makes 
the surname Stevens,) who, on her ninety-ninth birthday, 
rode seventeen miles on a young colt to restore to the land- 
lord a 99 years' lease that had been granted to her father, 
in her name, at her birth. 

Is this Cornish Zenobia direct from the Eastern Church — 
a name left by those missionaries who founded Peranzabuloe ; 
or is it the relic of some Arab slave of the Phoenicians who 
imported Hannibal ? 

Probably, among these should be reckoned Zenaida ; which, 
in that case, would bear the sense of daughter of Zeus. Al- 
though not belonging to any patron saint, it is extensively 
popular among Russian ladies; and either from them, or 
fix)m the modem Greek, the French have recently become 
fond of Zenwde.* 

Section m. — ^Upo — ^Hera. 

The name of the white-armed, ox-eyed queen of heaven, or 
*Hpa 'Hpiy (Hera or Here), is derived by philologists from the 
same root as the familiar German — herr and herrinn^ and 
thus signifies the lady or mistress. Indeed the masculine 
form ^pci>9, whence we take our hero, originally meant a free or 
noble man, just as herr does in ancient German, and came 
gradually to mean a person distinguished on any account, 
principally in arms; and thence it became technically ap- 
plied to the noble ancestors who occupied an intermediate 

* Smith, Dictionary ; Butler, Lives ; Gibbon, Rome ; Miss Beaufort, 
Egyptian Sepulchre and Syrian Shrines; Hayward, Mrs, Pioxzi. 

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HERA. 151 

place between the gods and existing men. The Latin herus 
and hera are cognate, and never rose out of their plain original 
sense of master and mistress, though the Jieros was imported 
in his grander sense from the Greek, and has passed on to 

It is curious that whereas the wife of Zeus was simply the 
lady, it was exactly the same with Frigga, who, as we shall 
by-and-bye see, was merely the Frau — the free woman or 

Hera herself does not seem to have had many persons directly 
named after her, though there were plenty from the root of 
her name. The feminine Hero was probably thus derived, — 
belonging first to one of the Danaides, then to a daughter of 
Priam, then to the maiden whose light led Leander to his 
perilous breasting of the Hellespont, and from whom Shakes- 
peare probably took it for the lady apparently *done to 
death by slanderous tongues,' but who happily revived. 

It is usual to explain as ^Upa-KXrji (fame of Hera) the name 
of the son of Zeus and Alcmena, whose bitterest foe Hera was, 
according to the current legends of Greece ; but noUe fame 
is a far more probable origin for Herakles, compound as he is 
of many an ancient champion, with gleams from the veritable 
Samson, and of the horrible Phoenician Melkarth or Moloch, 
with whom the Tyrians themselves identified Herakles, when 
with Alexander at their gates, they chained the little cap- 
tured statue of Apollo up to their own Melkarth, that the 
Greek god might be hindered from helping his friends. 

A few compounds, such as Heraclius, Heraclidas, Herac- 
leonas, have been formed from Herakles, the hero ancestor of 
the Spartan kings, and therefore specially venerated in Lace- 
dsemon. The Latins called the name Hercules ; and it was 
revived in the Cinque-cento, in Italy, as Ercole. Thus Hercule 
was originally the baptismal name of Catherine de Medici's 
youngest son ; but he changed it to Francois at his confirma- 
tion, when hoping to mount a throne. Exceptionally, Hercules 

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oconrs in England ; and we have known of more than <nie 
old villager called Arkles, respecting whom there was always 
a doubt whether he were Hercules or Archelaus. 

Hence, too, the name of the father of history, *Hpo8oTos 
(noble gift) ; hence, too, that of Herodes. Some derive this 
last from the Arab hareth (a farmer) ; but it certainly was a 
Chreek name long before the Idumean family raised them- 
selves to the throne of Judea, since a poet was so called who 
lived about the time of Cyrus. If the Herods were real 
Edomites, they may have Grrsecised Hareth into Herodes; 
but it is further alleged that the first Herod, grandfather of 
the first king, was a slave, attached to the temple of Apollo 
at Ascalon, taken captive by Idumean robbers. Hatefiil as 
is the name in its associations, its feminine, Herodias, became 
doubly hateful as the murderess of John the Baptist. Medi- 
aeval fancy mixed up her and her daughter Salome together. 
Some Italians called the rag-doll hung out of window at the 
Epiphany, Herod's daughter ; but the more universal fancy 
makes her a sort of counterpart of the Wandering Jew, con- 
demned to dance till the last day. Indeed, in Germany she 
took the place of Frau Holda, or Bertha, and was supposed 
to be a witch, prowling about all night, to the universal 
terror of children.* 

Sbction TV.-^Athene. 

The noble goddess of wisdom, pure and thoughtful, armed 
against evil, and ever the protector of all that was thoughtfully 
brave and resolute, was called AOipnrj (Athene) , too anciently for 
the etymology to be discernible, or even whether her city of 
Athens was called from her, or she firom the city. 

Many an ancient Greek was called in honour of her, but 

* liddeU and Scott, Dictionary; Eeightley, Mythology ; Life of Alex- 
ander; Grimm, Deutschen Mythohgie ; Smith, Biblical Dictionary* 

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ATHENE. 153 

tiie only one of these names that has to any degree survived 
is Athenais. 

There were some Gappadocian qneens, so called; and 
80 likewise was the daughter of a heathen philosopher in the 
fourth century, whom the able Princess Pulcheria selected as 
the wife of her brother Theodosius, altering her, however, to 
Eudocia at her baptism. 

It must have been the Scudery cycle of romance that 
occasioned Athenais to have been given to that Demoiselle 
de Mortemar, who was afterwards better known as Madame de 

Athenaios (belonging to Athene), Athenagoras (assembly 
of Athene), Athenagoros (gift of Athene), were all common 
among the Greeks. 

Athene's surname of Pallas, is derived by Plato from 
woAAciv to brandish, because of her brandished spear ; but it 
is more likely to be from vaXXai (a virgin), which would 
answer to her other surname of voptfcvos, likewise a virgin, 
familiar to us for the sake of the most beautiful of all heathen 
remains, the Parthenon, as well as the ancient jiame of 
Naples, Parthenope. This, however, was a female name 
in Greece, and numerous instances of persons called Par- 
thenios and Palladios attest the general devotion to this 
goddess, perhaps the grandest of all the imaginings of the 

There is something absolutely satisfactory in seeing how 
much more the loftier and purer deities, Athene, Apollo, 
Artemis, reigned over Greek nomenclature than the embodi- 
ments of brute force and sensual pleasure. Ares and Aphro- 
dite, both probably introductions from the passionate Asiatics, 
and as we see in Homer, entirely on the Ihrojan side. An oc- 
casional Aretas and Arete are the chief recorded namesakes 
of Ares, presiding god of the Areopagus as he was; and 
from t^e first may have come the Italian Aretino, and an 
Areta, who appears in Cornwall ; and Aphrodite seems to 

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have hardly one derived from her name, which is explained 
as the Foam Spnmg.* 

Sbction V. — ApoUo and Artemis. 

The brother and sister deities, twin children of Zeus and 
Leto, are with the exception of Athene, the purest and 
brightest creations of Greek mythology, so noble in their 
aspect, and so much above the rest of the Pantheon in their 
attributes, that a theory has been raised, that in them we have 
the separated fragments of an older and purer idea, broken 
up even in Homer's time, because the corrupt heathen mind 
— though able to perceive purity in woman, could no longer 
connect it with the other sex. 

In the Uiadj they are glorious beings, untainted with the 
spite and vice of some of the other Olympians. The one is 
the avenging Grod, who destroyed the wicked, but guarded 
the good, the prophet who inspired men both with oracles, 
and with song and poetry ; the other was likewise the avenger 
of wrong, and the protector of the weak, above all, of women, 
maidens, infants, and the young. 

Her name Aprc/us (Artemis) certainly meant the sound, 
whole, or vigorous ; his name AttoAXoiv (Apollon) is not so 
certainly explained ; though iBschylus considered it to come 
fix)m awoXXvfiij to destroy. 

They both of them had many votaries in Greece ; such 
names as ApoUodorus (gift of Apollo), Apollonius, and the 
like, arising in plenty, though none of them have continued 
into Christian times, though ApoUos was a companion of St 
Paul. The sole exception is Apollonia, an Alexandrian 
maiden, whose martyrdom began t^ the extraction of all her 
teeth, thus establishing St. Apolline, as the French call her, 
as the favourite subject of invocation in the tooth-ache. 

* Smith, Dictionary of Oreek and Roman Mythology ; Le Beau, Bos 
Entire ; Gladstone, Homer, 

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Abellona, the Danish form of this name, is a great favourite 
in Jutland and the isles, probably from some relic of the 
toothless maiden. The Slovaks use it as Polonija or Polona. . 

The votaries of Artemis did not leave a saint to per- 
petuate them ; but Artemisia, the brave queen of Halicar- 
nassus, whose mausoleum, after being a mythical wonder of 
the world in our childhood, has now come to be an ordinary 
sight of London, had a name of sufficient stateliness to 
delight the prddemes. Thus Artemise was almost as useful 
in French romances as the still more magnificent Artemidore, 
the French version of Artemidorus (gift of Artemis). 

It was a late fancy of mythology, when all was becoming 
confused, that made Apollo and Artemis into the sun and 
moon deities, partly in consequence of their epithets ^oi^os, 
*ot^i7, Phoebus, Phoebe, from 4>am (to shine). The original 
Phoebe seems to have belonged to some elder myth, for she is 
said to have been daughter of Heaven and Earth, and to 
have been the original owner of the Delphic oracle. After- 
wards she was said to have been the mother of Leto (the 
obscure), and thus grandmother of Apollo and Artemis, who 
thence took their epithet. This was probably a myth of the 
alternation of light and darkness; but as we have received 
our notions of Greek mythology through the dull Roman 
medium, it is almost impossible to disentangle our idea of 
Phoebus from the sun, or of Phoebe from the crescent moon. 
In like manner the exclusively modem Greek ^m^arq (bright), 
Photinee, comes from <^ phos (light), as does Photius used 
in Russia as Fotie. 

Strangely enough, we find Phoebus among the mediaeval 
Counts of Foix, who, on the French side of their little 
Pyrenean county were Gbston Phoebus; on the Spanish, 
Gastone Febo. Some say that this was originally a soubri- 
quet applied to one of them on account of his personal beauty, 
though it certainly was afterwards given at baptism ; others, 
that it was an imitation of an old Basque name. The last 

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prince who bore it was Fran9oi8 Ph^bus, who was thought 
to have been poisoned by Louis XI. 

Phoebe was a good deal in use among the women of Greek 
birth in the early Roman empire ; and ^ Phoebe, our sister,' 
the deaconness of Cenchrea, is commended by St. Paul to the 
Romans ; but she has had few namesakes, except in England ; 
the Italian Febe only being used as a synonym for the moon. 
It was in reference to the noble qualities of the huntress 
goddess of the moon, that Spenser named his lovely Belphoebe, 
as he also called his other warlike heroine Britomartis, this 
being the name of a Cretan divinity once independ^t, but in 
later times identified with Artemis, Phoebe, and the Italian 
Diana. Britomartis is said to come from the Cretan words 
fipvnK (sweet) and fuiprw (a maid), and was thus in every 
way appropriate to the fair champion of purity and virtue. 

Cynthia was a title belonging to Artemis, from Mount 
Cynthus, and has thence become a title of the moon, and a 
name of girls in America. 

Delia, another title coming from Delos, the place of her 
nativity, has been preferred by the Arcadian taste, and 
flourished in shepherdess poems, so as to be occasionally used 
as a name in England, but more often as a contraction for 

As primitive children of heaven and earth, /the sun and 
moon had the titles of Titanos and Titania, and thence we 
find the allusions to the sun as Titan in Elizabethan poetry ; 
and when Shakespeare, in Midsummer Nighfs Dream^ made 
the Greek nymphs into English fairies, he took Titania as 
their queen, considering it to be a name of Diana, or the 
moon, and thus more appropriate than the Mab of the Keltic 

DelphinioB and Delphinia were both of them epithets of 
Apollo and Artemis, of course from the shrine at Delphi. 
Some say that shrine and god were so called because the ser- 
pent Python was named Delphind ; others that the epithet was 

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derived from Ills having metamorphoeed himself into a 
dolphin, or else ridden upon one, when showing the Cretan 
colonists the way to Delphi. 

The meaning of Delphys (ScX<^) is the womb ; and thus 
the Greeks believed Delphi to be the centre of the earth, just 
as the mediaeval Christians thought Jerusalem was. It is 
firom this word that aZfXxfxK (a brother) is derived, and from 
one no doubt of the same root, that ScX^ts was first a mass, 
and afterwards a dolphin, the similarity of sound accounting 
for the confusion of derivatives from the temple and the 

It was probably as an attribute of the god that Delphinos 
was used as a name by the Greeks ; and it makes its first 
appearance in Christian times in two regions under Greek 
influence, namely, Venice and Southern France, which latter 
place was much beholden for civilization to the Greek colony 
of Massilia. Dolfino has always prevailed in the Republic 
of St. Mark ; and Delphinus was a sainted bishop of Bour- 
deaux, in the fourth century, from whom many, both male 
and female, took the name, which to them was connected 
with the fish of Jonah, the emblem of the Besurrection. 

In 1 125, Delfine, heiress of Albon, married Guiges, Count 
of Viennois. She was his third wife ; and to distinguish her 
son from the rest of the family, he was either called or 
christened, Guiges Dolphin, and assumed the dolphin as his 
badge, whence badge and title passed to his descendants, the 
Dauphins de Viennois, and was in time adopted by other 
families connected with his own, the dauphin counts of 
Auvergne and Montpensier. The last Dauphin, Humbert 
de Vienne, having let his only child fall from a castle win- 
dow while playing with it, left his country and title to 
Charles, son of King Jean of France ; and thence the heir- 
apparent was called the Dauphin — ^both the other counts- 
dauphin becoming extinct before the end of the sixteenth 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


Dalphin appears at Cambrai before 1200; and Delphine 
de Glandeves, sharing the saintly honours of her husband, 
Count Elz6ar de St. Sabran, became the patroness of the 
many young ladies in compliment to la dauphine. Delphine 
i^as a heroine of Madame de Stael, and is better known to 
English readers in one of Madame de Genlis' best stories 
in Les VeilUes du ChMeau. 

It is startling to meet with * Dolphin ' as a daughter of 
the unfortimate Waltheof, Earl of Mercia; but unless her 
mother, Judith, imported the French Delphine, it is probable 
that it is a mistake for one of the many forms of the Frank, 
Adel, which was displacing its congener the native ^thel. 
Indeed, Dolfine, which is yery common among German girls, 
now, is avowedly the contraction of Adolfine, their barbarous 
feminine for Adolf (noble wolf). 

The Delphin classics, once in general use as school-books, 
were arranged in umm Delphini as Latin made easy, for the 
use of the Dauphin, son of Louis XTV., whom even Bossuet 
failed to make anything but a nonentity. Now-a-days they 
are fallen into disrepute even as the first step to the temple 
of ApoUo.* 

Section VI. — Sele. 

The sun-god who drove his flaming chariot around the 
heavenly vault day by day, and whose ey^ beheld everything 
throughout the earth, was in Homer's time an entirely dif- 
ferent personage from the * far-darting Apollo,' with whom, 
thanks to the Romans, we confound him. 

11X109 (Helios) was his name, a word from the root ^, 
(light), the same that has furnished the Teutonic adjective 
heU (bright or clear), and that is met again in the Keltic 
heol (the sun). 

♦ Gladstone, Homer ; Smith, I>ictUmaT}j ; Keightley, Mythology ; 
Jameson, Legendary Art; Butler, Saints; Miss Millington, Heraldry, 

J DV 'S.-J V^V_/ 


HELE. 159 

It fumislied a good many names direct, snch as Heliodoros 
(sun's gift), as many Greeks were called before the sacri- 
legious Syrian whose overthrow in the temple forms the 
subject of perhaps the most dramatically composed of all 
Raffaelle's works. Heliogabalus, or Elagabalus, that most 
frantic of all the Roman Emperors, was so sumamed from 
having been originally a priest of the sun-god ; not, how- 
ever, the true Greek Helios, but a Syro-Phoenician invention. 
Heliodoros was corrupted in Britain into Elidure or Elidi, 
whom Geoffirey of Monmouth represented Bs a model of fra- 
ternal love in his account of Artegal and Elidure. He places 
them in very early British times, and gives Artegal a genuine 
Keltic name ; but that of Elidure was probably taken from 
some Romanized Brit<Hi. 

This same root ^e (heat or light) is found again in the 
Greek name of the moon, ScXiyny, once a separate goddess 
from Artemis. One of the Gleopatras was called Selene ; but 
it does not appear that this was used again as a name till in 
the last century, when Selina was adopted in England, pro- 
bably by mistake, for the French Celine, and belonged to the 
Wesleyan Countess of Huntingdon. 

From ikrj again sprang the name most of all noted among 
' Greek women, the fatal name of "EAcn^', Helene, the feminine 
of Helenos (the light or bright), though ^schylus playing 
on the word made it cXe-ms (the ship-destroying). 

* Wherefore else this fatal name, 
That Helen and destraction are the same.' 

A woman may be a proverb for any amount of evil or 
misfortune, but as long as she is also a proverb for beauty, 
her name will be copied, and Helena never died away in 
Greece, and latterly was copied by Roman ladies when they 
first became capable of a little variety. 

At last it was borne by the lady who was the wife of 
Gonstantius Chlorus, the mother of Constantine, and the 

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restorer of the shrines at Jerusalem. St. Helena, holding 
the true cross, was thenceforth revered by East and West. 
Bithjnia on the one hand, Britain on the other, laid claim 
to have been her birth-place, and though it is unfortunately 
most likely that the former country is right, and that she 
can hardly be the daughter of * Old King Cole,' yet it is 
certain that the ancient Britons held her in high honour. 
Eglwys Han, the Church of Helen, still exists in Wales, and 
the insular Kelts have always made great use of her name. 
Ellin recurs in old Welsh pedigrees from the Empress's 
time. Elayne is really the old Cambrian form occurring 
in registers from early times, and thus explaining the 
gentle lady Elayne, the mother of Sir Galahad, whom 
Tennyson has lately identified with his own spinning Lady 
of Shalott. Helen, unfortunately generally pronounced Ellen, 
was used from the first in Scotland ; Eileen or Aileen in 
Ireland. This must be reckoned as the queen of feminine 
names in its poetical associations, b^inning with the fatal 
beauty of the Hiady appearing again under the hands of the 
Greek dramatists, one of whom, Euripides, tried to re- 
deem her character by placing her safely in Egypt, and 
giving Paris nothing but a cloud to bear away to Troy. 
Then, with light reflected from the saintly Empress, Helena 
comes forth again as the Lady Elayne of the Round Table, 
as Eileen O'Brin of Lreland, victim like the original Helen 
of a cruel abduction. She was carried away to Castle Knock 
by Roger Tyrrel^ one of the fierce Anglo-Normans who first 
invaded Lreland, and put an end to her own life in his 
castle, thus becoming die theme of the pathetic laments of 
her countrymen. La Scotland again, 'Burd Helen' is re- 
nowned in ballad lore for her resolute constancy; fair EUen 
Lrwin for her piteous death upon the Braes of Kirtle, the 
iheme of song to almost every poet who heard the tale; and 
above all, Ellen Douglas is dear to all the world as the 
fairest and freshest of all the creations of Scott 


by Google 

HELE. l6l 

Always a subject for abduction, poor Helena, in Q-eoffery of 
Monmouthy as well as in popular Breton legend, the daughter 
of Eling Arthur's nephew, Hoel of Brittany, is seized by the 
dreadful giant, Ritho, and devoured at the top of Mount St. 
Michel, on the Armorican coast, where the hill of her sup- 
posed burial attests her story by its name of Tombelaine. 

Scottish tradition and ballad, probably originating in Eym- 
ric Strathcluyd, gives its Burd Helen a better lot, — she is 
only borne away to Elfland, and when 

' Child Rowland to the dark tower came,^ 

it was for the purpose of rescuing her. Burd, it may be here 
observed, is the Scottish feminine of the French preux, or 
prud'homme; the preux chevalier was brave and wise, the 
Burd of Scottish song was discreet. 

Nor are these Keltic Ellens the only offspring of the name. 
Elena in Italy, it assumed the form of Alienor among the 
Romanseque populations of Provence, who, though speaking 
a Latin tongue, greatly altered and disguised the words. 
Indeed there are some who derive this name from cXcos (pity), 
but there is much greater reason to suppose it another variety 
of Helena, not more changed than many other Proven9aI 
names. Alienor in the land of troubadours received all the 
homage that the Languedoc could pay, and one Alienor at 
least was entirely spoilt by it, namely, she who was called 
Eleonore by the French king who had the misfortune to 
marry her, and who became in time on English lips our grim 
Eleanor of the dagger and the bowl, the hateful Acquitanian 
grandmother, who bandies words with Constance of Brittany 
in King John. Her daughter, a person of far different nature, 
carried her name to Castillo, where, the language being always 
disposed to cut off a commencing «, she was known as Leonor, 
and left hosts of namesakes. Her descendant, the daughter 
of San Fernando, brought the name back to England, and as 
our* good Queen Eleanor,' did much to redeem its honour, 
which the levity of her mother-in-law, the Proven9al Alienor 

VOL. I« "-"y ' ^if ' " V ^-j ^ ^^ ^^ 


of Henry IH., had greatly prejudiced. Eleanor continued 
to be a royal name as long as the Plantagenets were on the 
throne, and thus was widely used among the nobility and 
afterwards by all ranks, when of course it lost its proper 
spelling and was turned into Ellinor and Elinor, still, how- 
ever, owning its place in song and story. Perhaps it came 
to the lowest ebb when Dame Eleanor Davies constructed 
out of her name the prophetic anagram, 'Reveal, Daniel,* 
so happily confuted by Archbishop Laud's showing that the 
words made quite as well, * Never so mad a ladie.* 

Meantime the Arragonese conquests in Italy had brought 
Leonora thither as a new name independent of Elena, and it 
took strong root there, still preserving its poetic fame in the 
person of the lovely Leonora d' Este, the object of Tasso's 
hopeless affection. To France again it came with the Galigai, 
the Marechale d' Ancre, the author of the famous saying about 
the power of a strong mind over a weak one ; and unpopular 
as she was, Leonore has ever since been recognised in French 
nomenclature. Lenore in Germany is again the ballad 
heroine of Biirger's fearful poem on the universal old tra- 
dition of the penalty of rebellious grief. 

The Greek Church was constant to the memory of the 
Empress, mother of the founder of Constantinople, and 
Helena has always been frequent there. And when the royal 
widow Olga came from Muscovy to seek instruction and 
baptism, she was called Helena, which has thus become one 
of the popular Russian names. It is sometimes supposed to 
be a translation of Olga, but this is a mistake founded on 
the fact that this lady, and another royal saint, were called by 
both names. Olga is, in fact, the feminine of Oleg (the 
Russian form of Helgi), which the race of Rurik had derived 
from their Norse ancestor, and it thus means holy. 

Sweden also has a Saint Helene, who made a pilgrimage 
to Rome, and was put to death on her return by her cruel 
relations in 1160. Her relics were preserved in Zealand, 
near Copenhagen, making Ellen a favourite name among 



Danish damsels, and once again making a figure in ballad 
poetry. It is probably from her that the Germans have 
taken up the name, and latterly transmitted to the French, 
among whom it was not common before the time of the ex- 
cellent Duchess of Orleans.* 

Helena, which, to add to its poetical association, figures in 
two of Shakespeare's plays— once as a Greek maiden, once in 
France— has a perplexing double pronunciation in English, 
the central syllable being made long or short according to 
the tradition of the families where it is used. The Greek 
letter was certainly the short e, but it is believed that though 
the quantity of the syllable was short, the accent was upon 
it, and that the traditional sound of it survives in the name 
of the island which we learnt from the* Portuguese, who first 
gave it. 

































• Smith, Dictionary; liddell and Scott; Keightley*8 Mythology; Glad- 
stone's Homer; Potter, JEschyUu, dc; Le Bean's Ba» Evwire; Bee's 
Welih Saints; Morte d^Artlmr; Hayes* Irith BaUads ; O'Donovan in 
Fubl of Irish Society; La ¥€t des Grhjes (note); Weber's Northern 
Romana; Michaelis; Pott, &e.; Professor Munch; Campbell's To^ 0/ 
Western Highlands. 

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Coins called the money of St. Helena were worn round the 
neck to cure epilepsy. * Moneta Sanctse Helenas,' is mentioned 
in the wardrobe accounts of Henry HI., and all Byzantine 
coins bearing a cross were taken for this purpose, as is shown 
by almost all the specimens preserved to modem times being 

Sbction Vn. — Demeter. 

Among the elder deities in whom the primitive notion of 
homage to the Giver of all Good was lost and dispersed, was 
the beneficent mother Demeter (Aiy/ii/nyp). Some derive the 
first syUable of this name from 717 (the earth), others from 
the Cretan Siyoi (barley), making it either earth mother, or 
barley mother ; but the idea of motherhood is always an 
essential part of this bounteous goddess, the materializing 
of the productive power of the earth, ' filling our hearts with 
food and gladness.' 

One beautiful myth represented the daughter of Demeter 
as disappearing beneath the earth for half a year, and then 
re-appearing during the summer months; and this allegory of 
the seasons grew in time into the story of the abduction of 
Persephone in * Dis's waggon,' to be the queen of the infernal 
regions ; and the disconsolate Demeter was charged with all 
the wanderings of the Egyptian Isis, while she sought her 

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DEMETER. 1 65 

daughter. Elensis was said to have been the place where 
Hermes restored Persephone to her, and it was the chief 
place of her worship, and of the mTStical rites that were 
entirely celebrated bj women, and known as the Eleusinian 
mysteries. Triptolemus, or thrice-plough, King of Eleusis, 
was probably a real personage, though whether the inventor 
of the plough, or the introducer of the worship of the god- 
dess, is uncertain. The legend made Demeter attempt to 
make him immortal, when an infant, by placing him over the 
fire, but his mother discovering the operation, and thinking 
the effect would be just the contrary, disturbed it by her 
screams ; and Demeter, by way of compensation, gave him a 
dragon chariot, and sent him through the earth with seeds of 

No namesake of this hero appears except the renowned 
Triptolemus Yellowley, of Zetland fame ; but Demeter had 
numerous votaries, especially among the Macedonians, who 
were the greatest name-spreaders among the Greeks, and 
used it in all the ' four horns,' of their divided empire. It 
occurs in the Acts, as the silversmith of Ephesus, who stirred 
up the tumult against St. Paul, and another Demetrius is 
commended by St. John ; but the Latin Church has no saint 
so called ; but the Greek had a Cretan monk of the fourteenth 
century, who was a great ecclesiastical author; and a 
Demetrios, who is reckoned as the second great saint of 
Thessalonika ; and Demetrios is one of the most popular of 
names in all the Eastern Church, and the countries that have 
ever been influenced by it. Among whom must be reckoned 
the Venetian dominions which considered themselves to 
belong to the old Byzantine empire till they were able to 
stand alone. Dimitri has always been a great name in Russia, 
and is notable for having belonged to the last of the race of 
Bunk, and having been assumed by the only specimen of the 
Perkin Warbeck race, who ever gained even a temporary suc- 
cess. The Slavonian nations give it the contraction Mitar, 


and the feminine Dimitra or Mitra. The modem Greek con- 
traction is Demos. 

In some parts of Greece, Demeter was worshipped primarily 
as the gloomy winterly earth, latterly as the humanized god- 
dess clad in black, in mourning for her daughter, whence she 
was adored as McXaim (Melaina). Whether from this title of 
the goddess or simply a dark complexion, there arose the 
female name of Melania, which belonged to two Roman 
ladies, grandmother and granddaughter, who were among the 
many who were devoted to the monastic Saint Jerome, and 
derived an odour of sanctity from his record of their piety. 
Though not placed in the Roman calendar, they are considered 
as saints, and the French Melanie, and old Cornish Melony 
are derived from them. 

On the contrary, her summer epithet was XXoTf (Chloe), the 
blooming, as protectress of green fields, and Chloe seems to 
have been used by the Greeks, as a Corinthian woman bo 
called is mentioned by St. Paul, and has furnished a few 
scriptural Chloes in England. In general, however, Chloe 
has been a property of pastoral poetry, and has thence 
descended to negroes and spaniels.^ 

Section VIIL — Dionysos. 

The god of wine and revelry appears to have been adopted 
into Greek worship at a later period than the higher divini- 
ties, embodying loftier ideas. So wild and discordant are the 
legends respectmg him, that it is probable that in the Bac- 
chus, or Dionysos, whom the historical Greeks adored, several 
myths are united ; t^e leading ones being, on the one hand, 
the naturalistic deity of the vine; on the other, some dimly 
remembered conqueror. 

The centre of his worship was Thebes, which claimed to be 

• Smith, Dictionary ; K^htlefs Mythology ; Montalembert, Jfonifci o/ 


by Google 

DI0NY80S. 167 

the native place of his mother Semele. His festivals, with 
their wild license, consecrated intoxication, and savage fnrj, 
produced some of the worst evils of paganism : and yet it was 
out of them that the Athenian Tragedy sprang in all its 
glorious heauty and thoughtful feeling after the truth. How 
seldom when we now speak of a tragic event do we connect 
it with the he-goat (rpayos) who, for his vine-browsing pro- 
pensities, was offered up to Bacchus before the choric songs 
and dances commenced. 

Bacchus (Ba#cxo9) meant the noisy or riotous, and was not 
much used in combination ; though so persistent was the word 
that the Italian peasant still swears ^per BacchoJ* Dionysos 
has never been satisfactorily explained, though the most ob- 
vious conclusion is that it means the god of !Nysa — a moun- 
tain where he was nursed by nymphs in a cave. Others 
make his mother Dione one of the original mythic ideas of a 
divine creature, the daughter of heaven and earth, and after- 
wards supposed to be the mother of Aphrodite. 

Names given in honour of Dionysos were very conimon in 
Greece, and especially in the colony in Sicily, where Dion 
was also in use. Dionysios, the tyrant, seemed only to make 
the name more universally known, and most of the tales of 
tyranny clustered round him — such as the story of his ear, 
of the sword of Damocles, and the devotion of Damon and 

In the time of the Apostles, Dionysius was very frequent, 
and gave the name of the Areopagite mentioned by St. Paul, 
of several more early saints, and of a bishop who, in 272, was 
sent to convert the Gauls, and was martyred near Paris. 
The Abbey erected on the spot where he died was placed 
under the special protection of the Counts of Paris ; and 
when they dethroned the sons of Charlemagne and became 
kings of France, St. Denys, as they called their saint, be- 
came the patron of the country; the banner of the convent, 
the Oriflamme, was unftirled in their national wars, and Mont 

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joie St Dmys was their war-cry. St. Denys of France wis 
invoked, together with St. Michael, in knighting Uieir young 
men ; and St. Denys of France was received as one of the 
Seven Champions of Christendom. 

The Sicilians, having a certain confusion in their minds 
between the champion and the tyrant of Syracuse, have 
taken San Dionigi for their patron ; he is also in high favour 
in Portugal as Diniz, and in Spain as Dionis. Denis is a 
very frequent Irish name, as a substitute for Donogh ; and, 
to judge by the number of the surnames, Dennis, Denison, 
and Tennyson or Tenison, it would seem to have been more 
common in England than at present. The Russians have 
Dionissij; the Bohemians, Diwis; the Slavonians, Tennis; 
the Hungarians, Dienes. The feminine is the French Denise; 
English, Donnet or Dennet, which seem to have been at one 
time very common in England.* 

Section IX. — ffermes. 

The origin is lost of the name of Hermes (Epfirj^)^ the 
swift, eloquent, and cunning messenger of Zeus; but it 
is supposed to come from ^ (the earth), and was called 
Hermafi, Hermes, or Hermeias. He was a favourite god all 
over Greece, and must have come in even before sculpture ; for 
though god of skill, his elder statues were mere four-cornered 
posts surmounted by a head, and thence all such posts were 
called Hermai in Attica ; witness the way-marks whose muti- 
lation, or the accusation of it, cost Alcibiades so dear. 

A long catalogue of Greeks might be given bearing names 
derived from him ; and it was correctly that Shakespeare call- 
ed his Athenian maiden Hermia, though his notions of Attica 
were oddly compounded of classic lore, native fairy mythology, 
and the titles of the Latin Crusaders who had for a time 
held the soil of ancient Greece. 

* liddell and Scott, Eeightley, Michaelis, Smith. 

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Hermas is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans, and is 
thought to be the same with the very early Christian author 
of the all^ory of The Shepherd^ but his name has not been 

Hermione was, in ancient legend, the wife of Cadmus, the 
founder of Thebes, and shared his metamorphosis into a 
serpent. Afterwards, another Hermione was the daughter of 
Helen and Menelaus, and, at first, wife of Neoptolemus^ 
though afterwards, of Orestes, the heroine of a tragedy of 
Euripides, where she appears in the unpleasant light of the 
jealous persecutor of the enslaved Andromache. 

We faiow her far better as our own heroine of the Winters 
Tahy and again as the mysterious ancestress of Anne of 
Geierstein, in whom Scott reproduced the legend of the demon 
mother of the fierce Angevin kings, or as the strange unsatis- 
factory inmate of good (Jeorge Heriot's house, in The Fortunes 
of Nigel. Hermione is generally supposed to be the same as 
the Italian Erminia and the French Hermine ; but these 
are both remains of the Herminian gens, and are therefore 

Hermocrates, Hermagoras, Hermogenes, every compound of 
this god's name prevailed in Greece ; but the only one that has 
passed on to Christianity is Hermolaos (people of Hermes), 
a name that gave a saint to the Greek Church, and is per- 
petuated in Russia as Ermolai.''^ 

Section X. — The Muses and Chraces. 

Descending from the greater deities of Olympus, we must 
touch upon the Muses, though not many instances occur of the 
use of their names. Movom (Mousai), their collective title, is 
supposed to come from fuuD (mao), to invent; it ftimished the 
term /unxrucos (mousikos), for songs and poetry, whence the 

♦ Keightley*8 Mythology; Cave's Live$ cf the Fathers; Smith, Die- 
thnary; ToUefs Euripide$. 

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Latin musay musictiSy and all the forms in modem language 
in which we speak of music and its professors. 

The original Museum, Mowciov (Mouseion), at Athens, was 
the Temple of the Muses, or as later tradition said, the burial 
place of Musseus, an almost mythical poet reported to be the 
author of certain hymns sung at the Eleusinian mysteries. 
It was from this temple that libraries and collections of art 
acquired the name of museum, and from its tesselated pave- 
ment that in-laid work was called mouseion, in Greek ; opus 
musivum^ in Latin; and mosaic all the world over — a far 
more satisfactory derivation than that from Moses. 

The Muses were also called Mneiai, or Remembrances, and 
said to be daughters of Mnemosyne (Memory), since heroic 
song is the child of recollection. The term pleasantly re- 
minds us of the common origin of our own Teutonic Minna, 
with its double sense of memory and love, the parent of the 
minne-singer and minstrel, as were tiie muses of the musician. 

It was not at first that these inspired nymphs were fixed 
at nine in number, or received the names by which they are 
known to us, but it was the general spread of the poetry of 
Eesiod that fixed them in the Greek mind under their ordi- 
nary designations. Poor ladies ! they have had severe service. 
Few poets have ever made a fair start, especially in the epic 
line, without invoking them, some never getting further 
than a hopeless ^ descend, my muse,' and resting when she 
appears, very properly, to have refused. Even the * sacred 
muse ' has been known to be invoked on scriptural subjects ; 
and when Herodotus named his nine books after them, he 
entailed hard work upon the historic muse to Uie end of 

Musidora (gift of the Muses) was one of the fashionable 
poetical soubriquets of the last century, and as such figures 
in Thomson's Seasons, 

As to the individual names, though after a country ball^ 
^ the votaries of Terpsichore ' are as inevitable in newspaper 

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language as is the ^ light fantastic toe,' they have scarcely 
any owners, except Polymnia (noXv/wia), she of many hymns, 
•whose modem representative, Polyhymnia, lies buried in a 
churchyard on Dartmoor, and startles us by her headstone. 
The West Indian negresses, sporting the titles of the ships 
of war, however, come out occasionally as Miss Calliope, Miss 
Euterpe, &c. 

The only Muse who has left namesakes is hardly a fair 
specimen ; for Urania (the heavenly), her epithet, as the pre- 
siding genius of astronomers, is itself formed from one of the 
pristine divinities of Greece, himself probably named from 
heaven itself, of which he was the personification. Ov/xu/os 
(Ouranos), Uranus, is in Greek both the sky and the first 
father of all. The word is probably derived from the root 
e>r, which we find in ^pos (a mountain), and opvvfiOL (to raise), 
just as our heaven comes from to heave. 

Uranus and Ge, the heaven and the earth, from being 
called the parents of all things, gradually, as floating dreams 
hardened down into superstition, were turned into the first 
pair of that series of overthrown ancestors, who were sup- 
posed to have preceded the reigning dynasty of Greek 
divinities. They were the father and mother of Kronoe 
(time), and of all the Titans ; and Aphrodite was sometimes 
called Urania, and said to have been the child of Uranus. 

This title of Urania, however, chiefly served to connect 
her with the Eastern Astarte or Ashtoreth, whose lamenta- 
tions for Tammuz — originally a myth of summer and vege- 
tation — ^were transplanted to Ghreece, and carried on in the 
streets of Athens ; the titles of the deities being changed to 
Aphrodite and Adonis, the latter evidently the same as the 
Eastern Adonai (Lord). It was in this character of the 
Queen of Heaven that Aphrodite Urania gained possession of 
Ashtoreth's planet, which we call by her Latinism of Venus. 

Such divinities as Uranus and Urania are ill-used by being 
ranked as relatives of the last of the Muses, but in very fact 

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we think the Uranius and Urania, who have transmitted 
their names to later times, most probably were called either 
from the muse or heaven itself, not from the forgotten ori- 
ginal deities. Uranius was not uncommon among the later 
Greeks, especially in Christian times ; a Gaulish author was 
so called, and it was left by the Romans as a legacy to the 
British. It makes its appearance among the Welsh as Urien, 
a somewhat common name at one time. ^ Brave Urien sleeps 
upon his craggy bed ;' but Camden, or some one else before 
him, thought proper to identify it with George, which has led 
to its decay and oblivion. 

Urania was revived in the days of euphuistic taste, when 
Sir Philip Sidney called himself Sidrophel, and the object of 
his admiration, Urania; it became a favourite poetic title both 
in England and France, and in process of time, a family name. 

0aXcia (Thaleia), though both Muse of Comedy, and one 
of the Three Graces, and signifying bloom, has not obtained 
any namesakes, though both her sister Graces have. 

These nymphs were the multiplied personifications of 
XdpK (Chans), grace, beauty, or charity. The Greeks w^ne 
not unanimous as to the names or} nmnbers of the Charites ; 
the Athenians and Spartans adored only two, and the three 
usually recognised were defined by Hesiod: Thalia (bloom), 
'AyXa^ (brightness), and Ev«^o<n5n; (mirth, cheerfulness, or 
festivity). Of these the last seems absolutely our own, — 

* Come thou goddess fair and free 
In heaven yclept Eaphrosyne, 
And by men heart-easing mirth.' 

However it has been ahnost exclusively by Greeks that the 
name has been borne; it was a great favourite among the 
Romaic Greeks, figuring again and again amongst the Por- 
phyrogenitai, and to this present day it is common among 
the damsels of the Ionian Isles. I have seen it marked on a 
school-child's sampler in its own Grreek letters, oddly con- 
trasting with the associations of Grace and of Empress. In 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


common life it is called ^pocna (Phroso). In Russia it is 

The other Grace, Aglaia, comes to light in Christian legend, 
as the name of a rich and abandoned ladj at Rome, who, 
hearing of the value that was set on the relics of saints, 
fancied them as a kind of roc's egg to complete the cariosities 
of her establishment, and sent Boniface, both her steward 
and her lover, to the East to procure some for her. He asked 
in jest whether if his bones came home to her, she would 
accept them as relics; and she replied in the same spirit, 
little dreaming that at Tarsus he would indeed become a 
Christian and a martyr, and his bones be truly sent back to 
Home, where Aglaia received them, became a penitent, took 
the veil, and earned the samtly honours that have ever since 
been paid to her. It is imfortunate for the credibility of this 
story that the date assigned to it is between 209 and 305, a 
wide space indeed, but one in which relic worship had not 
begun, and even if it had, the bones of martyrs must have 
been only too plentiful much nearer home. However, the 
French have taken up the name of Aglae, and make great 
use of it. 

A few ancient Greeks had names compounded of Gharis, 
such as Gharinus, Gharilaus, the nephew of Lycurgus; but it 
was reserved for Ghristianity to give the word its higher 
sense. Gharis, through the Latin caritas, grew to be the 
Christian's Gharity, the highest of the three Graces : Faith, 
Hope, Love, that had taken the place of Bloom, Mirth, and 
Brightness. And thus it was that after the Reformation, 
Charity, contracted into Cherry, became an English Christian 
name, perhaps in remembrance of the fair and goodly 
Charity of the House Beautiful, herself a reflex of the 
lovely and motherly Charissa, to whom Una conducted the 
Bed Gross Knight. Chariton, Kharitoon, in Russian, is a 
name in the Greek Church, from a confession of Sirmium, 
who under Aurelius was flogged with ox-hides and impri- 


soned, but was liberated on the Emperor's deaths and made a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 

Perhaps this is the place, among these minor mythological 
personages, to mention that Zephyr (the West wind) has 
absolutely a whole family of name-children in France, where 
Zephirine has been greatly the fashion of late years.* 

Section XL — Heroic Names. 

Not very many of the heroic names — ^glorious in poetry — 
have passed on ; but we will select a few of those connected 
with the siege of Troy, and handed on upon that account. 
Mostly they were not easy of comprehension even to the 
Greeks themselves, and were not much copied among them, 
perhaps from a sense of reverence. It was only in the times 
of decay, and when the recollection of the fitness of things 
was lost, that men tried to cover their own littleness with the 
high-sounding names of their ancestors. Moreover, by that 
time, Greek associations were at a discount. Rome professed 
to descend from Troy, not from Greece ; and, after her ex- 
ample, modem nations have tried to trace themselves back to 
the Trojan fugitives — ^the Britons to Brut, the French to 
Franco, &c. — and thus Trojan names have been more in 
vogue than. Greek. People could read Virgil long before they 
touched Homer, and the mediaeval tales were all in sympathy 
with the conquered, as is visible in the whole spirit in which 
Shakespeare deals with the two camps in his Troilus and 
Oressida. However, be it observed that the Trojan names 
are Greek in origin. The Trojans were of Pelasgic blood, as 
well as most of their opponents ; but they were enervated by 
residence in Asia, while the superior race of Hellenes had 
renovated their Greek relatives ; making just the difference 
that the Norman Conquest did to the English Saxon, in 
opposition to his Frisian brother. 

One of these inexplicable names was borne by *AxiXXcv8 

* Smith, Dictionary; EeighUey, lfyt^2(^y^^* Mpnt^ieml 


(Achilleus), the prime glory of Homer and of the Trojan war. 
The late Greek traditions said that his first name had been 
liigyron, or the whining, but that he was afterwards called 
Achilles, from A privative and x«^ (cheile), lip ; because 
he was fed in his infancy on nothing but lions' hearts and 
bears' marrow. This legend, however, looks much as if the 
tme meiming of the word had been forgotten, and this was a 
forgery to account for it. However this may be, modem 
France alone shows an Achille, unless, perhaps, the present 
kingdom of Gbreece. A martyr in Dauphine was called 
Achilles; and an Achilla appears, as a lady early in the 
Yisconti pedigree; and Linnseus named the yarrow or mil- 
foil Achillea^ for some reason best known to himself. It 
was, however, a convenient as well as graceful fancy of his to 
name the larger butterflies affcer the heroes of die Uiad; 
Priam thus appearing in the sober splendour of black velvet 
wings with purple eyes on them, and Hector as jet-black, 
be-dropped with blood-red. 

Gallant Hector, who, perhaps, is the most endearing of all 

the Trojan heroes, from the perfection of his character in 

tenderness, devotion, and courage, and the beautiful poetry 

of his parting with his wife and son, bore a name that is an 

attribute of ZeuSj'TEicTtt^ (holding fast), i.e., defending, from 

<fx<tt (hecho) to have or to hold — a word well-befitting the 

resolute main-stay of a falling cause. In many a pageant 

did Sir Hector of Troy figure among the Nine WorUiies, 

during the middle ages, with words put into his mouth that 

have unfortunately made his name into a verb for blustering. 

Italy, where the descent from the Trojans was early 

credited and not, perhaps, impossible, is the only country 

where his name has been genuinely imitated, under the form 

of Ettore. Among the champions of Italian courage at 

Barletta, history veritably records the name of Ettore Fiera- 

moeca, of whose story Azeglio has made a tale as tragical 

as the Bride of Lammermuir. The Hector of Norway is but 

an unitation of the old Norse Hagtar (hawk of Thor), an'' , 


the very frequent Hector of Scotland is the travestie of the 
Gaelic Eachan (a horseman). In like manner the Gaelic 
Aonghas (excellent valour), and the Welsh Einiawn (the just), 
are both translated into ^neas ; indeed it is possible that the 
early Welsh Saint, Einiawn, may indeed have been an ^ueas ; 
for, in compliment to the supposed descent of the Julii from 
-ZEneas, this name was very conmion in the latter times of 
the empire : it appears in the book of Acts, and belonged to 
several writers. Latterly, in the beginning of the classical 
taste of Italy, the name of Enea Silvio was given to that 
Piccolomini who afterwards became a pope. This form is in 
honour of that son of ^neas and Lavinia who was said to 
have been bom in a wood after his father's death. A son of 
the Earl of Hereford was called ^neas (temp. Ed. IH,) 

The pious ^neas owed his modem fame to Virgil. In the 
time of Homer, even his goddess-mother had not raised him 
into anything like the first rank of the heroes who fought 
before Troy. His name in the original is AtVctas (Aineias), 
and probably comes from cuVco (aineo), to praise. 

The poem that no doubt suggested the .Mfitid^ the Homeric 
story of the Greek wanderer, contains some of those elements 
that so wonderfully show the kindred of far distant nations, 
gathering together adventures that in the East befall Sindbad 
the sailor, and among the €rael, the cunning Connal. We 
are content to call this wonderful poem by something ap- 
proaching to its Greek tide, though we are pleased to term 
the hero by the Latin travestie of his name — ^Ulysses, the 
consequence, it is supposed, of some transcriber having mis- 
taken between the letters A and A« The Romans, likewise, 
sometimes called him Ulixes ; the Greek <ro- and f being, by 
some, considered as the same letter. 'OfiuTo-m (Odysseus), 
his tme name, is traced to the root 8vs (dys), hate, the 
Sanscrit dvishy and firom the same source as the Latin odio. 
Strange adventures were woven by legend, even after the 
close of the Odyssey ^ not permitting the much enduring man 
to rest in peace even in his beloved Ithaca, but driving him off 


again, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, to discover the Fortu- 
nate Isles and to found Olisipio, in which name, the source of 
Lisbon, the Romans believed they traced that of the hero of 
the Odyssey. Italians talked of Uliseo, and Fenelon taught the 
French to honour his favourite hero as lefils du grand Ulisse ; 
but the only place where the name is now used is Ireland, 
probably as a classicalism for the Danish legacy of Ulick — 
Hugleik, or mind reward. The Irish Finnghuala (of white 
shoulders) was not content with the gentle native softenings 
of her name into Fenella and Nuala, but must needs translate 
herself into Penelope ; and it is to this that we owe the nu- 
merous Penelopes of England, down from the Irish Penelope 
Devereux, with whom is connected the one shade on Sidney's 
character, to the Pen and Penny so frequent in many families. 

The faithful queen of Ithaca was probably named HiTFcXoiny, 
or IIiTFcXcMrcia, from her diligence over the loom, since vrprq 
(pene) is thread on the bobbin, vrjuiCofjucu. is to wind it ofiF; 
bat a later legend declared that she had been exposed as an 
infant, and owed her life to being fed by a kind of duck called 
wfjyfXoil/ (penelops) , after which she was therefore called. This 
has since been made the scientific name of the turkey, and 
translators of Christian names have generally set Penelope 
down as a turkey-hen, in oblivion that this bird, the D'Inde 
of France, the Welsch hahn of Germany, always in its name 
attesting its foreign origin, came from America 3000 years 
after the queen of Ithaca wove and unwove beneath her mid- 
night lamp. 

Her son Telemachus (distant battle) had one notable 
namesake in the devoted hermit who for ever ended the 
savage fights of the amphitheatre; but though Telemaque 
was a triumph of genius and tender religious feeling, in spite 
of bad pseudo-classical taste, has not been again repeated. 

Cassandra appears in Essex in 1560, and is still not for- 
gotten in Hants families.''^ 

* Smith's Dictionary ; Gladstone On JSTomer; ODonoyan, 
VOL. I. N 

uigliizeu Dy''>^jOOvt Iv^ 




Section L — The Lion. 

Much of the spirit of the nation is to be traced in the ani- 
mals whence their names are derived. The Jew, whose tem- 
per, except when thoroughly roused, was peacefid and gentle, 
had hardly any save the names of the gentler and more use- 
ful creatures: the ewe, the lamb, the bee, the fawn, &c. 
The Indo-European races, on the other hand, have the more 
brave and spirited animals, many of them running through 
the entire family of nations thus derived, and very possibly 
connected with that ^ beast epic,' as Mr. Dasent calls it, 
which crops out everywhere ; in the East, in apologues and 
fables ; and towards the West, in * mahrcheny according to 
the expressive German term. It is just as if in the infancy 
of the world, there was the same living sympathy with the 
animal creation that we see in a young child, and that the 
creatures had at one time appeared to man to have an indi- 
vidual character, rank, and history of their own, explained 
by myths, in which these beings are the actors and speakers, 
and assumed a meaning divine, symbolic, didactic, or simply 
grotesque, according to the subsequent development of Uie 
peoples, by whom they were handed down. 

The lion is one of these universal animals, testifying how 
long dim memories of the home in Asia must have clung to 
the distant wanderers. The * Sing,' so often to be found in 
Indian names, is his Hindoo appellation; and though no- 
where surviving in intermediate countries, Mr. Campbell de- 

J uy "V-J v^v_/ 


THE LION. 179 

tects it in the C^lic seanffy an adjective expressing lithe 
activity ; and, again, in a mysterious Gu Seang, who appears 
as a terrific monster, far more than a dog, in Highland 

The nations where the lion is indigenous have innmner- 
able terms for him in his infancy, vigour, and rage ; but all 
Europe has been content to borrow the term that the Greeks 
adopted for him, A€w. 

Leon, or Leo, was early a favourite name among the 
Greeks ; and Herodotus thinks it was its import that caused 
the captive Leo to be the first victim of the Persians. It 
passed on in unceasing succession through Greeks of all 
ranks tUl it came to Byzantine emperors and Roman bishops. 
Two popes, to whom Rome owed the deepest debt of grati- 
tude—to tiie one, for interceding with Attila ; to the other, 
for turning away the wrath of the Saracens — were both called 
Leo, and it thus became a favourite on the papal throne, and 
was considered to allude to the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, 
which was sculptured on St. Peter's, in the time of the Medi- 
cean Leo X. Leonine verses were so called firom a monk of 
Marseilles, in the twelfth century. They are the mediaeval 
Latin poetry, which, instead of owing their metre to the 
arrangement of long and short syllables, rhyme according 
to the genius of the Teuton languages. Thej had been 
invented long before the birth of him whose name they 

Leone, and Leon, and Leonie have continued in use in 
France and Italy. The word has been much compounded 
from the earlier Greek times^ Leontius, Leontia, whence the 
modem French, L6once. Leonidas, the glorious self-devoted 
Spartan whose name, after entire desuetude, has been revived 
in Greece and America, where Bishop Leonidas Polk has 
been a Southern general. 

The Romanized Britons adopted the Lion name, which 
amongst them became Llew^ the Lot of the romances of the 


Round Table, which likewise invented the gallant Sir Lionel, 
from whom Edward IH., in chivalrous mood, named his 
third son, the ancestor of the House of York ; and an un- 
fortunate young Dane, to whom the Dutch republic stood 
sponsor, received the name of Leo Belgicus. The Slavonic 
forms are Lev, Lai, and Lew, which, among the swarms of 
Jews in Poland, have become a good deal confounded with 
their hereditary Levi (joining). 

Acav8po9 (Leandros) , Leander, as we call it, means lion-man. 
Besides the unfortunate swimming lover whose exploit Byron 
imitated and Turner pamted, it belonged to a sainted bishop 
of Seville, who, in 590, effected the transition of the Spanish 
Visigoths from Arianism to orthodoxy. Very likely hia 
name was only a classicalizing of one of the many Gothic 
names from ktU (the people), which greatly conf^ those 
from the lion ; but, at any rate, he earned the right to send 
Leandro on for the benefit of Spain and Italy. 

So much alike is the lion's title in all the European tongues, 
that it is aknost vain to attempt to discern between the 
children of the Greek, the Latin, or the modem Leon ; in 
fact, all «;cr6 Greek; since it was only the Greeks, who, pene- 
trating into Asia and Lybia, really knew the creature at first. 

Leocadia, a Spanish maiden martyred by the Moors, had 
probably some connection with a lion in her name ; but it 
cannot be traced in the corrupted state of the language. 
Leocadie has travelled into France as a name. 

The Slavonians have Lavoslav (lion-glory), by which they 
translate the Teutonic Liutpold or Leopold (really people 
bold), but which is genei^y thought to mean a lion. 

The solitary Teutonic lion word is Lowenhard (the stem 
lion, or lion strong), which belonged to a Frank noble, who 
was converted at the same time as his sovereign, Glovis, and 
became a hermit near Limoges. Many miracles were im- 
puted to him, and St. Leonard became a peculiarly popular 
saint both in France and England. Li Uie calendar pub- 


by Google 



lished at Worcester in 1240, it appears that his feast, the 
6th of November, was one when no work but agriculture was 
allowed, and when people were commanded to hear mass. 
Charles VII. of France was a special votary of St. Leonard; 
and having invoked him before his wars with the English, 
at the final victory over them, presented the saint's relics at 
Noblac with a silver shrine representing the Bastille, and a 
little box, engraved with himself kneeling to the hermit. 
Some other relics of St. Leonard, kept by some Cistercian 
nuns, brought such a concourse of pilgrims by their mira- 
culous reputation, that the good nuns found their devotions 
impeded, and very wisely sent the relics away. Leonard ia 
thus a favourite name in France ; and has some popularity in 
England, chiefly, it is said, in the north, and in the Isle of 
Wight. Lionajdo is Italian, witness Lionardo da Vinci; 
and, according to Gil Bias, Leonarda is a Spanish feminine ; 
Germany has in surnames Lenhardt, Lehnart, Leinhardt, 
Lowen ; Italy invented the formidable Christian name, Bran- 
calleone (Brachium leonis), or arm of a lion; and Bavaria 
has Lowenclo (lion-claw). Denmark, however, deals most 
in lion surnames, adopted from the armorial bearings of 
the families that own them; such as Lowenharz, Lowen- 
bjelm, Lionhelm, Lowenstem (lion-star) ; and in Germany, 
names of places have given the territorial titles : Lowenberg 
(mountain), Loweneck (comer), Lowengard (house), Low- 
enthal (vaUey), Lowenstadt (city), Lowenfeld (field), Low- 
enstein (stone).* 











♦ Dasent» Northern TdU$; CampbeU, We$Um Highlandt / Pott, Per- 
$anen Namen ; Michaelis; Butler. 


by Google 


Section II.—The Wolf. 

The wolf is as popular an animal as the lion himself, and 
the different forms of his name, though all from the same 
root, attest that he was not, like the lion, only heard of, not 
seen, but the terror of every herdsman, the model of every 

Some of this popularity he must divide with his kinsman 
the fox, whose name, like himself, shows the same parentage 
as that of the fiercer wolf, whom he always outwits. The 
Sanscrit has varkaSj where resemblance is traceable, both to 
the >MK09 (lykos) and o-Xowr-ef (a-lop-ex), by which the 
Greeks designated the two beasts; to the Sabine hirpus^ 
Latin lupus and vulpes ; the wolf and vos^ or fuchs of the 
Teuton, the whelp, by which he calls their young, all alike ; 
the vuk of the Slavonian ; the hlek of the Breton. 

The prowling Zeeb, the Midianitish forager of Israel, was 
appropriately called from the godden wolf, Lt. the jackaU, 
answering to the Shaumanie Jassan, or prairie-wolf of the 
Iowa Indian of North America. It is a name only too 
appropriate to the fierce roving robber. But the wolves of 
the Indo-European world owe their names to universal tradi- 
tions of terror; the deadly weir-wolf, a being sometimes 
wolf, sometimes man, has inspired horror in almost every 
country, and heathenism never fails to make deprecatory 
entreaties to the object of fear until it assumes a semi- 

Lycaon (AvKaw) was the person in whom these dreams of 
the XvKavOfxmoi (lycanthropos or wolf-man) became fixed in 
the Greek mythology. He was said to have either sacrificed 
a child to Zeus, or to have offered the gods a banquet of 
human flesh, and was punished by transformation into a wolf. 

Wolf-named Greeks were numerous. Lycurgus, the law- 
giver, being the most famous ; but they were not followed 

uigiiizeu Dv n.-j v^v_/p^i\^ 


in Christian times, and as regards nomenclatnre are chiefly 
interesting because they illustrate the universality of the 
namesakes of this unattractive animal.^ 

Section m. — The Earse. 

The horse is as great a favourite as the lion, and is pro- 
minent in many a myth from the Caspian to the Frozen 
Ocean. His name in Sanscrit agva^ in Zendish esp or asp^ 
comes forth in the Greek wnros or ic/co?, showing its identity 
Tfith the Latin equtis, the Gaelic each^ and it may be witli 
the Teutonic hengst. 

Among these various races it is the Persian, the Greek, 
and the Grael, who have chiefly used the term for this noble 
animal in their nomenclature ; and we wonder not when we 
find the horses of the sun, the sacred creatures above all 
others in Persia, led forth in the van of the army; where 
legend at least spoke of the horse saluting the sun, and 
winning the throne for his master; and the theory of 
education was to ride, to draw the bow, to speak the 

And, in Greece, the horses of the sun were not indeed 
living and consecrated animals, but were supposed to be 
glorious white creatures called ^ws (Eos), Eastern, AWtuv 
(Aithon), burning, B/jmn; (Bronte), thunder, and *A<rrpainJ 
(Astrape), lightning, which drew the chariot of Helios from 
east to west, and then sank into a golden cup at night, 
whence they returned refreshed to renew their course. Posei- 
don, too, had his watery steeds ; and when he contended with 
Athene, for the possession of Attica, he produced a horse as 
his gift, and she the olive. Mr. Keightley has remarked the 
frequent connection between horses and water that is to be 

* liddeU and Scott; Pott 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 


found in the popular fairy-tales, especially those of Keltic 

The Persian feminine Damaspia is said exactly to answer 
to the Greek Hippodameia, the female of Hippodamus (horse- 
tamer), and this word is a most frequent element to Greek 
names, far too many in number to enumerate, except in the 
instances where the name has continued. 

One would have imagined that 'nnros (a horse) and Xwa 
(to destroy) must have suggested the name of 'ImroXoroc 
(Hippolytus), the son of Theseus, who was destroyed by his 
own horse, terrified by a sea monster; but, on the other hand, 
he appears to have been named after his mother iTnroXuny 
(Hippolita), the beautiful queen of the Amazons, whom 
Shakespeare has shown us hunting in his wondrous Attic 
forest. However this may be, Hippolytus has many name- 
sakes; among them an early Christian writer, and also a 
priest at Rome, who in the year 252 was condemned by the 
persecuting judge to die the death of him whose name he 
bore, and he was accordingly dragged to death by wild horses 
on the banks of the Tiber. The Christians buried him in a 
catacomb, which bears his name. Sant 'Ippolito became a 
parish church at Rome, and of course gave a title to one 
of the cardinals, and Ippolito and Ippolita have always been 
fashionable Italian names. He was also the patron of horse- 
men and horses, and the latter were solemnly blessed in his 
name. Near Royston, in Hertfordshire, are the remains of 
a subterranean chapel, dedicated to SS. Lawrence and Hip- 
polytus, whose figures are carved on the chalk. In the neigh- 
bouring church, horses were led up for benediction on the 
feast day, the 13th of August; and the memory of the 
samt still lingers in the corrupted name of the hamlet of 
Ippolits, although the country people call the representation 
in the cave the conversion of St. Paul. Xanthippe's name is 
feminine of Xanthippus (a yellow horse !) What a pity it 
was not a grey one ! 


by Google 

THE HORSE. 1 85 

The Persian Aspamitras (horse-lover) exactly corresponds 
to the Greek ^iXithtos (loving horses), which belonged to the 
kings of Macedon while yet obscure, and at length to that 
sagacious prince who prepared the future glories of his son 
by disciplining his army, and crushing Greece in spite of 
those indignant orations of Demosthenes, which have made 
Philippics the generic term for vehement individual cen- 

Macedon, by colonizing the East, spread Philippos over it, 
and thus it came to the apostle of Bethsaida, and likewise 
to one of the deacons, who were all chosen for their 
* Grecian* connections. 

The apostle was martyred at Hierapolis ; nevertheless an 
arm of his, according to the Bollandists, was brought to 
Florence from Constantinople, in 1205, and made Filippo, 
Filippa, Lippo, Pippo, Pippa, great favourites in Northern 
Italy. Students of early art cannot forget the painter Fra 
Filippo Lippi, nor lovers of poetry that pretty scene of 
Browning's, called * Pippa passes,' where the morning song of 
the passing maiden dispels the shadows in each house where 
the inmates hear her. 

Probably some other translation of relics gave St. Philip 
the patronage of Flanders and Brabant, but his namesakes 
among the sovereigns of that country came by another 
course. Greece and her dependent churches always used 
the name of Philip, or Feeleep, as they call it in Russia ; 
and it was the eldest son of the Muscovite Anne, Queen of 
Henri I., who was the first Philippe to wear the crown of \ 

France. He transmitted his name to five more kings, and 
to princes innumerable, of whom one became Duke of Bur- 
gundy, the duchy that gradually absorbed the Low Countries; 
and but for the cunning of Louis XI., and the soullessness 
of Charles the Bold, would have become a dangerous princi- 
pality. The half Flemish, half Austrian Philippe married 
Juana la Loca of Castille and Aragon, and in imitation of 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



him was baptized that persecuting grandson who began the 
roll of Felipe in Spain, and after whom was christened our 
own Philip Sidney, in the gratitude of Lady Sidney to the 
king consort for interceding for the life of her father, the 
Duke of Northumberland. From him, too, the Philippine 
Isles take their name. 

Philip, in both genders, was, however, already conmion in 
England. Queen Philippe, as she called herself, our ad- 
mirable Hainaulter, was the god-daughter of Philippe de 
Yalois, her husband's rival ; and many a young noble and 
maiden bore her honoured name, which one female descendant 
carried to Portugal, and another to Sweden, where both alike 
worthily sustained the honour of Plantagenet ; but both were 
not equally happy : the one had a most pious and gallant 
husband, and a whole constellation of glorious sons; the 
other, was the wife of a half-mad savage, and died a linger- 
ing death from an injury inflicted by him. 

The name of Philippe is particularly common in the Isle 
of Jersey, so that it has become a joke with sailors to tor- 
ment the inhabitants by calling them Philip as they would 
term an Irishman Paddy. Nor must we leave the name 
without noting Skelton's sparrow, that 

* When I said Phip, Phip, 
Upon my finger he would skip. 

A very far remove from Philip of Macedon. Philippo is 
additionally popular in Italy at present from the favourite 
modem Saint Filippo Neri.* 





Italian. | 





FUippo ' 








* BAw]mBon*a Herodottu ; KeighHef a Mythology ; Bntler; MiohaeUs. 

uiyiiizea dv "V-j v^v_/p^iw 
















Sbcjtion Vf.—The G-oat 

The goat stands out prominently in northern mythology, 
though there scarcely, if at all, used in nomenclature. In 
Greek mythology, he appears, though not distinctly, and the 
names derived from him are manifold. 

His own appellation otf , gen. aiyo^ (aix, aigos) is said to 
come from euo-o-cu (to dart), and is, therefore, individually 
Greek. Aiyjy (Aige) ^gse, the she-goat who suckled Zeus, 
is the constellation now called Cajpella ; and the otycs (aigis) 
aegis of Zeus, which he gave to Athene, and which bore the 
Gorgon's head, was probably originally a goat-skin, unless it 
were named from the verb, on account of its terror-darting 
properties. I suspect it was the goat, and, perhaps, like the 
star, a remnant of the notion more developed in the goat- 
drawn car of Odin. 

Some notion of horror, too, was mixed up with the goat. 
Pan, the universal god of nature, was partly goat in the 
combination of the symbols of all creation ; the satyrs who 
danced in honour of Bacchus came from rustics in goat skins 
to beings half-goat, half-man, and were thought to fill the 
forests, and be ready to fall upon and destroy the unwary 
traveller. Perhaps these were dim memories of the terrible 
apes left behind in the Asiatic forests, though now confined 
to Java and Sumatra, as well as the African interior ; the 

:ea dv "".wJ v^v_/ 



goat characteristics being added after tradition had dropped 
the true shape of the creature. The Slavonian Leschie and 
Keltic Phooka have the same goat-like marks of horror, and 
it is to these notions that the devils of the middle ages 
owe their cloven foot ; also, that it was frequently as a great 
black he-goat that witches described the appearance of Satan 
in their confessions in the persecutions that were carried on 
later than one likes to recollect. 

The goat-named Greek best known to us is ^gseus, the 
father of Theseus, whose name Shakespeare borrowed for 
Hermia's father. 

The goat was the standard of Macedon (the rough goat 
was the King of Grecia), as Daniel had announced while 
Greece was yet in her infancy, and Macedon in barbarism, 
not even owned as of the Hellenic confederacy. The un- 
fortunate posthumous son of Alexander was therefore called 
Aigos, or iEgos, in addition to his father's name. 

Aigidios (Aiyi8«os), ^gidius, is formed rather from the 
aegis than the goat. It has a perplexing history. In 475, 
there was an ^gidius, a Roman commander in Graul, who 
was for a time an independent sovereign, ruling over both 
Romans and Franks. About two centuries later, an Athenian, 
as it is said, by name ^gidius, having worked a miraculous 
cure by laying his cloak over the sick man, fled to France to 
avoid the veneration of the people, and dwelt on the banks 
of the Rhone, living on the milk of a hind. The creature 
was chased by the king of France, and, flying wounded to 
her master, discovered him to the hunters. Thenceforth he 
has been revered as St. Giles, and considered as the patron 
of numbers thus called. Now, is Giles a contraction of 
^gidius, or is it the corruption of the Latin Julius ; or, 
again, is it the Keltic Giolla, a servant, or the Teutonic Gils, 
a pledge ? Every one of these sounds more like it than the 
Greek word, and it does seem probable that the Athenian, 
if Athenian he were, was seized upon as patron by aliens to 

:ea dv '«>wJ v^v_/ 


THE BEE. 189 

his name, and then cut down to suit them. However, -^gi- 
dius continued to be treated as the Latin for Giles ; Egidio 
became an Italian name; and as St. Giles was patron of 
Edinburgh, Egidia was used by Scottish ladies j one of the 
sisters of King Robert IE. was so called, and even now it is 
not quite extinct.* 

Section N.—The Bee. 

The word /Ae«Xa (soothing things) gave the verb /aciXio-o-o), 
or fj.€Xia<m (melisso), to soothe or sweeten, whence the name 
of honey, and of the honey-bee. Melissa was sometimes said 
to have been the name of the nymph who first taught the 
use of honey, and bees, perhaps from their clustering round 
their queen, became the symbol of nymphs. Thence Melissa 
grew to be the title of a priestess as well as a lady's name in 
classic times, and furnishing the masculine derivations 
Melissus and Melito; indeed the second Anglo-Saxon, or 
rather Roman, Archbishop of Canterbury was St. Melitus. 

Melissa was invented by the Italian poets as the beneficent 
fairy who protected Bradamante, and directed Ruggero to 
escape from Atlante, and afterwards from Alcina, upon the 
hippogrifi". Thus she entered the domain of romance, and 
became confounded with the Melusine and Melisende, who 
had risen out of the Teutonic Amalaswinth ; and Melissa and 
Melite were adopted into French nomenclature, and passed 
first into English literature as a poetical title, possibly for 
some Melicent, and finally became a recognised name. 

Akin to Melissa is Tkviojpa (Glykera), the sweet; was not 
a feminine in good repute in ancient Athens, but it has 
since belonged to a saint of the Greek Churches, namely, 
the daughter of Macarius, thrice consul, who in the time of 
Antoninus, suffered torments for a long time at Trajanopolis; 

» KeighUey's Fairy Mythology ; Croker's Fairy Legends ; Tooke'a 
History of Russia; BuUer, 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


and Gloukera is prevalent in Russia ; and Glykera, or Gly- 
cere, in France.* 

Section VI. — Names from Flowers. 

It was not common in Greece to name persons from flowers, 
but two names in occasional use are connected with legends of 
transformation, though in each case it is evident that the 
name belonged origmallj to the flower, and then was traii^^ 
ferred to the man. How easily a nation of strong feeling 
can connect the most ordinary appearances of vegetation with 
some event of strong interest has been recently shown in two 
instances of modem times. The Scottish peasantry call the 
large noxious Senecio^ or rag-weed, stinking WiUiam, and 
say it marks the traces of the * butcher,' William of Cumber- 
land ; and the crimson anemones, which for ages immemorial 
have adorned the Campagna di Roma, are now attributed by 
the Romans to the blood of the patriots of 1848. Had 
Shakespeare been an unknown minstrel of an unprinting 
age, the purple stain of the little * western flower' would 
assuredly have continued to be charged upon * love's wound.* 

Thus the Narcissus, named undoubtedly from vapxao), 
(narkao), to put to sleep, has become the object of a graceful 
legend of the cold-hearted youth, for whose sake the nymph 
Echo pined away into a mere voice, and in retribution was 
made to see his own beauty in the water and waste fit>m 
hopeless love for his own image, until his corpse became the 
drooping golden blossom, that loves to hang above still pools 
of water, like the * dancing daffodils ' of Wordsworth. 

Narcissus seems to have been a name among the Greek 
slaves of the Romans, for we twice find it belonging to freed- 
men of the Emperor's. St. Narcissus was Bishop of Jerusalem 
in 195, and presided at the council that fixed the great 
festival of the Resurrection on a Sunday instead of on the 

* Liddell and Scott ; Professor Munoh ; Jnziias. 


day fixed by the full moon like the Jews. He was said to 
have changed water into oil for the supply of the illumi- 
nation on Easter night, and his name has not been entirely 
discontinued. The Russians call it Narkiss ; the Romans, 
Narcisso; and it has even been found belonging to an 
English peasant — or was he called like the children of 
Crabbers gardener in the Parish Register : 

' And Lonicera was the infant's name I ' 

Hyacinthus (YokivBo^) was a beautiful Spartan youth, who, 
being accidentally killed by Apollo in a game with the discus, 
was caused by the sorrowing divinity to propagate from his 
blood a flower bearing on its petals either his initial Y or the 
at (alas), the cry of lamentation. As to what might be this 
blossom doctors disagree. Some think it was the dark blue 
iris nearly black, since black hair is poetically called by the 
Greeks hyacinthine locks, and certainly the brown streaks on 
the throat of the flower might, by a stretch of fancy, be con- 
verted into letters ; but it is likely that the Greeks included 
in it the entire race now called Liliacce^ since their hyacin- 
thine was sometimes red, purple, sky-blue, white, or ferru- 
ginous. Tradition has restricted the hyacinth to the Greek 
ixiKivOoiy and our own wild blue-bell is emphatically called 
Syacinthus nan scriptus, because modem eyes have failed to 
trace upon leaf or petal the impress of Apollo's woe. The 
precious stone called the jacinth seems to have been dark 
blue. A yearly feast was held at Sparta in honour of 
Hyacinthus, and his name was perpetuated till Christian 
times, when a martyr bore it at Rome, and thus brought it 
into favour in Italy as Giacinto ; also a Polish Dominican in 
the thirteenth century, commemorated as the Apostle of the 
North, because he preached Christianity in great part of 
Russia and Tartary, penetrating to the borders of Thibet ; 
but curiously enough it is in Ireland alone that Hyacinth 
has ever flourished as a man's name, probably as a supposed 
equivalent to some native Erse name. There it is very common 


among the peasantry, and is in common use Sinty, while in 
France, Italy, and Spain, apparently without a saintly ex- 
ample of their own sex, Jacinthe, Giacinta. and Jacinta 
are always feminine, and rather popular peasant names. 

In this class, too, must be reckoned Daphne (the bay-tree), 
or as some think, the Alexandrian laurel — the wreath worn by 
victors, in song or in the battle-field, in honour of Apollo. 
Fable declared that this favourite tree was produced by the 
metamorphosis of the nymph Daphne when pursued by the 
god, and it was thought to have such sanctity about it as to 
protect all beneath ite shade from lightning. Daphne has 
not subsequently been used as a name except for dogs ; but 
Daphnis, a shepherd of Sicily, who is said to have first in- 
vented bucolic poetry, has been imitated in name by the 
whole herd of pastoral writers, with whom Daphnis and 
Ghloe are as inevitable as white lambs and purling streams. 

'PoSos (Rhodes), the rose, is a word connected in its source 
with the origin of the Teuton roihj Keltic ruaahj and Latin 
rufm. Roses are the same in ahnost every tongue, and they 
almost always suggest female names; and thus the Greeks 
had difiFerent varieties — ^Rhodopis (rosy-cheeked), Rhodeia, 
and others, of which the most interesting to us is Rhoda, 
' the household maid, of her own joy afraid,' who ' opened not 
the gate for gladness ' when she knew the voice of St. Peter 
as he stood without the door after his release from prison and 
death. Her name, as a Scripture one, has had some use in 
England, though, in general, the Roses of each country have 
grown upon their own national grafts from the one great 

^XXis (Phyllis), a green leaf or bough, had another story 
of transformation. She was a Thalian damsel who hung her- 
self because her lover did not keep his promise of returning 
to marry her, and was accordingly changed into an almond 
tree. Phyllis was the name of Domitian's nurse, and in pro- 
cess of time found her way among the dramatis personse of 

:ea dv "^wJ v^v_/ 



Arcadian poetry, and was thence honoured by Milton in hia 
noonday picture of the repast : 

'Of herbs and other conntry messes 
Which the neat-handed Phyllis dresses/ 

Either in hononr of the ^ neat-handed/ or of the songs in 
which she figures, Phyllis arriyed at being somewhat popular 
as a name in England. In one case, however, she was only 
used at first as a contraction for the formidable Philadelphia, 
and, in process of time, was herself given as a baptismal 
name ; a happy change.^ 

* liddell and Soott ; Butler, Life ; Eeightley, Mythology ; Loadon, 

^^^* DigitQed by Google 




Secjtion I. — Agathos. 

After passing from the fascinating but confused tales and 
songs that group around the ship Argo, the doomed family of 
-ffidipus, and the siege of Troy, the Greeks are well-nigh lost 
for a time, but emerge again in the fiill and distinct brilliancy 
of the narratives of Herodotus and his followers, who have 
rendered their small aggregate of fragmentary states and 
their gallant resistance to Asiatic invasion the great nucleus 
of interest in the ancient world. 

In the days of these wise and brave men, the nomenclature 
was, for the most part, expressive and appropriate, consisting 
of compounds of words of good augury from the spoken lan- 
guage, and, usually, as has been before shown, with a sort of 
recurring resemblance, from generation to generation, so as to 
make the enumeration of a pedigree significant and harmo- 

Of these was ayaOo^ (the good), precisely the same word as 
our own good and the German guth^ only with the commenc- 
ing a and Greek termination. 

Classical times showed many an Agathon (AyaBioy)^ and 
Agathias (Ayo^tas), and numerous compounds, such as 
Agathocles, AyaBoKkiff: (good fame), to be repeated in the 
Teutonic Gudred, and other varieties ; but the abiding use 
of the word as an European name was owing to a Sicilian 
girl, called Agatha, who in the Decian persecution was tor- 


by Google 


tared to death at Borne. Sicily considered her as one of its 
guardian saints, and that island, being first part of the Greek 
Empire, then, after a brief interval of Saracenic possession, 
held by the Normans, next, after the extinction of their line 
by the house of Hohenstaufen, afterwards by the French, 
the Arragonese, and, lastly, by the Spanish Bourbons, was 
likely to spread the knowledge of its patrons far and wide. 
Thus, the festival day of this martyred virgin is observed 
by both the Eastern and Western Churches, and her name 
is found in all the nations that ever possessed her native 
island. Greece has transmitted it to Russia, where the th 
not being pronounceable, it is called Agafia ; and the masculine, 
which is there used, Agafon; and. the Slavonian nations 
derive it from the same quarter in their difienng forms. 
The Normans adopted it and sent it home to their sisters in 
Neustria, where it was borne by that daughter of William 
the Conqueror who was betrothed to the unfortunate Earl 
Edwin, and afterwards died on her way to a state marriage 
in Castillo. In her probably met the Teutonic Gytha and 
the Greek Agatha, identical in meaning and root, and almost 
in sound, though they had travelled to her birth-place in 
Bouen by two such different routes from their Eastern 
starting place; the one through the brave worshippers of 
Odin, from the crags of Norway in the ships of the Viking, 
the other through the poetic Greek, in the galleys that 
brought the colonist to enervating Catania; tiien, when 
hallowed through faith, blood and fire, coming northward as 
a Christian version of the Norse Gytha. St. Agatha was a 
favourite saint in England; her symbol, the shears, with 
which she was mutilated, are carved in the old wooden 
calendars, and our Prayer Book retains her as a ^ black 
letter' samt. Agatha was once much more common as a 
name than at present in England, and seems stQl to prevail 
more in the northern than the southern counties. Haggy, 


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or Agatha, is the maid-servant^s name in Southey's DodoTy 
attesting its prevalence in that class before hereditary or* 
peculiar names were discarded as at present. 

France did not faQ to take np Agatha. Spain had her 
Agatha like that of the Italians, both alike omitting tiie 
aspirate that thej cannot pronounce. Portugal makes it 
Agneda; and the only other change worth noting is that the 
Letts cut it short into Apka. 

It is very curious that the comparatives and superlatives 
of the word good should always be irregular, or rather that 
instead of the gradually augmenting scale built up by addi- 
tions of perished words to the adjective itself, they should 
be fragments of different scales. 

Thus the comparison of aya^os is ^iv<juv (ameinon), better, 
from a disused word, probably surviving in the Latin 
ancemos (pleasant), and optoros (aristos), best, the positive 
of which is discernible in the root that formed Ares. 

Aristos was a favourite commencement with the Greeks. 
ApurrciScs (Aristides), most just of men, was thus called the 
Bon of the best. He has reappeared in his proper form in 
modem Ghreece ; as Aristide in republican France ; as Ana- 
tides in America. 

Aristobulus (A/>iaToj3ov\o$), best counsel, came originally 
from an epithet of Artemis, to whom Themistocles built a 
temple at Athens, as Aristoboul^, the best adviser. It was 
veryconmion in the various branches of the Macedonian empire, 
and was thus adopted in the Asmonean family, from whom 
it came to the Herodian race, and thence spread among the 
Jews. In the Epistle to the Romans, St. Paul sends his 
greetings to the household of Aristobulus ; and Welsh eccle- 
siastical antiquaries endeavour to prove that Arwystli, whom 
the Triads say was brought by Bran the Blessed to preach 
the Gospel in Britain, was the same with this person. 

Aristarchus (best judge) is also a scriptural name, and be- 
sides these we have Aristocles (best fame), Aristippoe (best 


by Google 

hone), Aristagoras (best assembly), and all the other nsoal 
compounds among the Greeks. 

Perhaps this is the fittest place to mention that ApSawn 
(Arethusa) is in use among the modem Greeks, and inter* 
preted by them to mean the virtnons, as coming from this 
source. This, according to the ancient legend of the fountain 
of Arethusa, in the island of Ortygia, does not seem proba- 
Ue. That tale was evidently intended to account poetically 
for the supposed fact that substances thrown into the river 
Alpheius, in the Peloponnesus, would come to light again in 
the fountain of Arethusa. Judging by the analogy of the 
names of other springs and rivers, it would be most likely 
that Arethusa was some local title originally given by the 
inhabitants to the spring, and adapted by the Greek settlers 
to their own tongue. Aretino has been used in Italy.* 

Section U.-^Alke. 

The words from aXxvj (bodily strength) have not turned 
into Christian names, in spite of the beautiful legend of Al- 
cestis, who gave herself to the realms of death to save her 
husband's life, and on whom Euripides wrote the choric song 
80 beautifully rendered by the late Professor Anstice. 

* Oh ! she was dear, 

While she lingered here, 
She is dear now she rests below ; 

And thou mayest boast, 

That the bride thou hast lost, 
Was the noblest earth can show. 

* We will not look on her burial sod 

As the cell of sepulchral sleep, 
It shall be as the shrine of a radiant god, 
And the pilgrim shaU visit that blest abode, 
To worship, and not to weep. 

* Smith; Jameson; Bees, Welsh Sainti. 

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And as lie turns his steps aside, 

Thus shall he breathe his vow— 
' Here sleeps a self-devoted bride ; 

* Of old, to save her lord she died ; 

^ She is a spirit now. 

* Hail, bright and blest one, grant to me 

* The smiles of glad prosperity I* 
So shall he own her name divine, 
So bend him at Alcesds' shrine.' 

Chaucer chose this ' self-devoted bride/ as the prime glory 
of the garland of good women, with whom he vindicated the 
fame of the sex whom he had been accused of holding too 
cheaply ; but still Alcestis had no namesake save in French 
romance, whence came the name of the ship Alceste, whose 
wreck, and the discipline of her crew, form one of the grand 
tales of British faithfulness. 

The deliverer of Alcestis, Hercules, was probably at first 
called AAxiSi^s (Alkides) as an epithet, the son of strength, 
but this was afterwards considered as a patronymic from his 
grandfather Alcseus. 

The only one of this class of names that has been revived, 
is that of the wayward pupil of Socrates, Alkibiades. AAia- 
fius&n^ is a sort of reduplication of epithets of strengdi, and 
would mean the strong compeller. After having long slept 
in the early grave of that spoilt and ill-used child of Athens, 
it has come forth again as a favourite name among the revi- 
vified Greeks, who, if names could eflfect it, are certainly 
recalling the days of ancient glory. 

Sbction m. — Alexander, ^c. 

Conquering Macedon was the portion of Greece^ if Greece 
it could be called, that spread its names most widely and 
permanently ; and as was but right, no name was more uni- 
versally diffused than that of the great victor, he who in 

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history is as prominent as Achilles in poetry. AXc^vSpos 
(Alexandros), from oXcfw (alexo), to help, and ai/Spe^ (andres), 
men, was said to have been the title given to Paris by the 
shepherds among whom he grew up, from his courage in 
repelling robbers from the flocks. It was afterwards a regu- 
lar family name among the kings of Macedon, he who gave 
it fame being the third who bore it. So much revered as 
feared was this mighty conqueror, that his name still lives in 
proverb and song throughout the East. The Persians ab- 
solutely adopted him into their own line, and invented a 
romance by which ^ Selunder' was made the son of a native 
monarch. Among the eastern nations, Iskander became such 
a by-word for prowess, that even in the sixteenth century the 
Turks would find no greater title of fear for their foe, the 
gallant Albanian, Georgios Kastriotes, than Skander B^, or 
Lord Alexander ; and still more recently, Sir Herbert Ed- 
wardes was told in the Punjaub, the utmost limit of the 
Macedonian advance, that the Indus was an Alexander, be- 
cause it changed the boundary of the petty states by alter- 
ing its own course. 

In 1070, Simon Seth produced a life of Alexander of Mace- 
don, in Greek, purporting to be a history by KaHisthenes^ 
the protovestiary of the palace of Constantinople, which had 
long been lost, but, in reality, a translation from the Persian. 
It was done into Greek, and thence into Latin, and filled 
Europe with stories of the prodigious achievements of the 
victor who soared into the air on griffin-back, dived into the 
sea in a glass-bell, and had a horn whose blast could be heard 
sixty miles oflf ! A French poem, called Le Bomcm cPAlex^ 
andre^ written in the twelfth century, gave the title of Alex- 
andrine to the metre of twelve syllables in which it was 
written, and was, about 1312, imitated by Adam Davie in 
his Life of Alysander* Quintus Gwrtius was also much read 
l^ those whose taste tended to reality rather than the mar- 
vellous ; and the exploits of the conqueror were a favourite 


by Google 


decoration. Even as early as the time of Henry L, the 
queen's chamber at Nottingham was painted with his history. 
He figured in the romance of Perceforest; and in the four- 
teenth century, Chaucer says, 

' Alisaundre's storie is commune, 
That eyerie wight that hath disorecion 
Hath horde somewhat or at his fortune.* 

His griffins and amazons figure with great eflfect in the beau- 
tifully illuminated book in the British Museum, presented by 
stout old Talbot to Queen Margaret of Anjou. 

Of the fifteen cities founded by Alexander, and called by 
his name, no less than six retain it; Alexandria, Alex- 
andretta, Scanderia, Gandahar, Iskenderoon, and Samerkand. 
Alessandria, in Italy, owes its appellation to the pope, in 
honour of whom the Lombard league called the city that they 
erected as a bulwark against the Ghibellines. Not only did 
the great conqueror possess many namesakes, — as indeed, there 
is a story that all the children bom the year of his conquest 
of India were called after him, — ^but Alexandres was already 
frequent in Greece ; and among the kingdoms formed out of 
the fragments of his empire, it recurred so as to become 
usual all over the Grsecised East. Even the Maccabean 
Jews used it, and it was common in Judea, as well as else- 
where, in the time of the Gospels, so that a large proportion 
of saints and martyrs bore it and handed it on, especially in 
Greece and Italy. A pope, martyred in the second century, 
rendered it a papal assumed name ; and the Italians used it 
frequently as Alessandro, shortened into Sandro. Nowhere, 
however, is it so thoroughly national as in Scotland, im- 
ported thither, apparently with other Greek names, by Mar- 
garet Atheling, who learnt them in the Hungarian court 
where she was bom and brought up. Her third son was the 
first of the three Scottish Alexanders, under whom the coun- 

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try spent her most prosperous days. The death of the last 
was a signal for the long death-feud between the northern 
and southern kingdoms, and all the consequent miseries. 

* When Alysandre our king was deade, 
That Scotland led in love and lee, 
Awa was sense of ale and bred, 
Of wine and wax, of gam^ and glee.* 

No wonder his namesakes were numerous. In the High- 
lands they came to be Alaster, and formed the surname Mac- 
Alister ; in the south, the contractions were Alick, Saunders, 
or Sandy, whence the very common surnames Saunders and 

The feminines Alezandrina and Alexandra are chiefly Ger- 
man and Russian, though now and then occurring in France. 

The first half of this name, AXcftos (Alexios), a defender, 
was in use in ancient Greece, where it belonged to a noted 
sculptor. Its saintly honours did not begin till the fifth 
century, when a young Roman noble, called Allexius or 
Alexis, ia said to have been so much bent on a monastic life, 
that being compelled by his parents to marry, he fled away 
on his wedding day, and lived seventeen years in a convent 
in Syria ; but, finding his reputation for sanctity too much 
for his humility, he came home in guise of a poor pilgrim, 
and spent anotiber seventeen years as a beggar maintained on 
the scraps of his father's kitchen, and constantly mocked 
and misused by the servants, until in his dying moments, he 
made himself known to his parents. The story is found in 
a metrical poem of the ninth century, and in the Gesta B(h 
manortm; his church, called St Alessio at Rome, gives a title 
to a cardinal; and his day, July 17th, is observed by the 
Greeks as well as the Romans ; and yet so strange is his 
history that it almost seems as if it might have been one of 
those instances in which an allegory acquired the name of a 
real saint, and attached itself to Idm as a legend. Alessio 

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had in consequence always been an Italian name, and with 
the family of the Komnenoi, Alexios came into use among 
the Byzantine Greeks, with whom it was very frequent. 
Alexia is often found as a lady's name in old records and 
accounts of the middle ages ; but it is apparently intended 
merely as the Latin equivalent for Alice, which we shall 
show by-and-bye to have an entirely diflferent origin. 
The surnames in England and Scotland are numerous.''^ 









































♦ Thirlwall, Greece; Le Beau, Ba$ En^re; Wascton, English Poetry 
(int); Butler; Pott; Michaelis^ 


by Google 



Section IV. — Aner^ Andros. 

Passing quickly over the words from avai (Anax), a king, 
which though common enough in ancient Greece, have no 
modem progeny, we come to those derived from oarrjp, gen. 
aySpoi (aner, andros), a man, which are less infrequent. The 
word itself has connections in the Sanscrit nara^ and SiOnd 
ner ; but its compounds all are frt)m its oblique cases* 

The most interesting of these to us is one formed by the 
corrupt Greek dialects used in Syria, namely that which fell 
to Ay2p€a9 (Andreas), the G^alilean fisherman, whom the 
Church Universal reveres as one of the foremost in the 
Glorious Company of the Apostles. The saint was martyred 
at Patras in Achaia, whence some of his relics were carried 
in the fourth century to Scotland, and were thus the occa- 
sion of St. Andrew's becoming the primatial see. Shortly 
after, the vision of Hungus, King of the Picts, of St. Andrew's 
Cross, promising him victory, rendered the white saltire the 
national ensign, and St. Andrew not only the patron samt, 
but in due time the knightly champion of Scotland, and 
made Andrew one of the most universal of names, and the 
patronymic Anderson very common. The other relics went 
first to Constantinople, and after the taking of that city, 
were dispersed through Europe. Philip the Good, of Bur- 
gundy, obtained some of them, and made him the patron of 
the order of the Golden Fleece, and Andreas became a 
frequent Flemish and Dutch name. It has a feminine in 
the countries where it is most popular, and its variations 
are as follows : — 









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Andreas Hofer is enough to give it the high renown of 
patriotism ; and nearer home Dandie Dinmont is not to be 
forgotten. The feminines are the French Andree and Italian 
Andreana. The Russians use Andrean as an equivalent 
for Henry ! Anderson is its chief patronymic, principally 

AvSpaya$o9 ( Andragathos) , good man, appears as the name 
of an obscure soldier in the wars after the death of Alexander^ 
and may have been brought to Britain by one of the legionary 
soldiers who came from every part of the empire, bringing 
names that have left their traces upon Welsh nomenclature, 
and made it the most perplexing in existence. Aneurin, 
reckoned as one of the Gynvaird or primitive bards of 
Britain, many of whose poems are still extant, and whose 
authorship is falsely claimed by many more, is said to have 
been originally Andragathius, thus corrupted by Welsh 
tongues, which have carried on this name even to the 
present day. 

AvSpofcXiT? (Androcles), lion-fame, gave several old Greek 
names, especially that of the slave, who in the early days 
of the empire had his life spared by the grateful lion whose 


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paw he had relieved of the thorn in the forest. Anins 
Grellius, who records the story, says that he had it from an 
eye-witness. It is remarkable that Dr. Davis, in the coarse 
of his discoveries at Carthage, heard the very same anecdote, 
as of recent occurrence to a fugitive Moor, captured and 
condemned, who asked as a favour to be thrown to a newly- 
caught lion. Is this gratitude a trait in lion-nature, or is 
the story another of the bright gossamers of popular belief 
that float over this work-a-day world, linking distant climes 
and races together? 

Andromache (man's-strife) must not, for her own sake, 
be forgotten, though her namesakes were so few. The more 
jH^pitious name of AvSpovticos (Andronicus), man's victory, 
was a great favourite, and occurs in St. Paul's Epistle to the 
Romans, probably having belonged to a Corinthian who had 
gone on from the busy city of traffic on the Isthmus to the 
great capital of the world. The name continued among the 
Greeks, Bsai belonged to numerous emperors, but has not been 
subsequently in much favour. 

Sbotion Y.—Uu. 

The word cv (well or happily) was the commencement of 
many a name of good augury from the earliest times, and 
mingles as much among Christian as among classical asso- 

Thus in company with ayycXos (a messenger), it formed 
EvayycXos (Evangelus), happy messenger or bearer of good 
tidings, the term first applied to a shepherd, who brought to 
Ephesus the tidings of a quarry of beautiful marble for the 
building of the temple that was the glory of the city and of 
all Asia. Adored with heroic honours as he was, the title 
must have seemed to the Ephesian Christians, above ail, 
to befit those spiritual shepherds who brought the best of 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


tidings, and Eyangelista became the term for a preacher^ as 
Evangelium of his doctrme, both becoming in time restricted 
to the four writers of the personal history of our Lord, and 
their narrative, as the very core and centre of the Good 
Tidings. In our own language the true English Good Spell, 
or Gospel, gamed the mastery of Evangel or Vangel, which 
lingered on till the seventeenth century, and later in Scot- 
land than in England, while the Continent uses Evangile and 
Vangelo; and all take the Greek term for the authors. 
Evangelista was an old Italian name ; and Longfellow appears 
to have invented Evangeline for the heroine of his po^n, 
whence many of the name have sprung up in America. 

Evxapts, from cv and x^*^, was an adjective for happy grace, 
answering to the Scottish winsome. Eucharis was the name 
of a nymph, and Fenelon has made her the tempter of 
Telemachus. But Eucharistia, or thanksgiving, came at 
length in the Christian sense to mean the highest act of 
worship, and thus has become the term for the Holy Com- 

With this must not be confounded the derivatives of Eyx«4» 
(Eucheir), happy hand, no doubt at first a mere epithet of a 
sculptor, but afterwards considered as a name, and belonging 
to no less than four distinguished sculptors of ancient 

Thence the Latinized Eucherius, which belonged to a 
Bishop of Lyons, a great author of ecclesiastical works, who 
died about A.D. 450; from him comes the Portuguese 
Euchario, the Italian Eucario, the French Euchaire, the 
Russian Jevcharij, the Polish Euchary. The learned Latin 
poetess Eucharia does not seem to have left namesakes ; but 
Eucharius was common among the Romanized Gauls brfore 
the Frank names got the mastery. 

Ev8w/w7 (Eudora), happy gift, was one of the Nereids, and 
afterwards did duty as Eudore in French romance. 

Eudocia and Eudozia are so much alike as to be often con- 

u I g 1 1 1 z eu D y "s—j v^' '^^ X "- ^ 

EU. 207 

fdsed, but have different significations. The first is EvSoicia 
(approval), the second Ev8ofia (good fame of glory). Both 
were great favourites with the Greek empresses, and were 
assumed by imperial brides, possessed of some appellation not 
supposed to befit the purple, as for instance, by the philo- 
sopher's daughter Athenais, and by the German Princess 
Adelaide. Saints of the Oreek Church handed Eudokhia on 
into Russia, where it has been worn upon the throne, and 
becomes in common parlance Jevdoksija. 

'Eiyevrjs (Eugenes), well bom, was a very old Greek author ; 
but Eugenics was the more usual form in classical times, and 
was carried on as Eugenius by the Romans. St. Eugenius 
was an African Confessor, and another Eugenius was Bishop 
of Toledo in 646. Both these gave much popularity to 
their name ; the first in the East, the second in Italy, where 
Eugenic came to that high-spirited Savoy, and, who, growing 
weary of lingering at the court of Louis XTV., and hearing 
himself called le petit Ahh6 du Hoij rendered the sound of 
Prince Eugdne dear to Austria and England; terrible to 
France and Turkey. Foe as he was, it is to his fame that 
the great popularity of Eugene in France is owing, whilst 
even in the country for which he fought Eugen is far less 
common. The Russians have it as Jevgenij ; and the Ser- 
vians as Djoulija ; indeed, well may these last remember the 
gallant prince who turned back the wave of Turkish invasion. 
Eugenius stands forth again and again in the early roll of 
Scottish kings, but whether these sovereigns ever lived or 
not, their appellation was certainly not Eugenius, nor any 
corruption from it ; but the Keltic Eoghan, Ewan, or Evan, 
still extremely common in the Highlands, and meaning a 
young warrior, though after the favourite custom of the Gbel, 
Anglicised and Latinized by names of similar sound. The 
Welsh Owain or Ywain appears to have had the same 
fate, as the first means a lamb; but this is not equally 
certain, as the British had many Latin and Greek names 

uigiiizea dv "^wJ v^ v> pt Iv^ 


current among them, and this may be a cormption of 

Eugenia was a virgin Roman martyr, of whom very little 
is known ; but this convenient feminine for Eugene has been 
in favour in the countries where the masculine was popular, 
and in our own day the Empress Eugenie has rendered it the 
reigning name in France. 

The names beginnmg with this favourite adverb are almost 
beyond enumeration, and it is only possible to select those of 
any modem interest. Ewuaj (Eunike) , Eunice, happy victory, 
was one of the fifty Nereids, from whom the name passed to 
Greek women, and thus to Eunice, the Jewish mother of 
Timothy, whence this has become a favourite with English 
lovers of Bible names, though unfortunately usually pro- 
nounced among the lower classes after the most ordinary 
English rules of spelling, You-nice. 

John Bunyan would have been reminded of his tower of 
Fair Speech by the number of Greeks called by words of 
this signification: Eulalius (EvAoXtos), Eulogius {EvXoyioi)^ 
Euphemius (Ev<^/uos)y all with their feminines, besideB 
M^pacria (Euphrasia). 

The feminines were more enduring than the masculines. 
Eulalia was a child of ten or twelve years old, who, with that 
peculiar exaggeration of feeling that distinguishes Spanish 
piety, made her escape from the place of safety where her 
parents had taken refuge, entered Merida, and proclaiming 
herself a Christian, was martyred with the utmost extremity 
of torture in the persecution of Diocletian, and was sung by 
the great Christian poet Prudentius, himself a Spaniard. 
His verses spread her fame into the East ; where the Russians 
carry on her name as Jevlalija ; the Servians, as Evlalija or 
Lelica. Another virgin martyr, under the same persecution, 
died at Barcelona, whence her relics spread into Guienne 
and Languedoc, and thus named the villages of Ste. Olaille, 
Ste. Aulazie, and Ste. Aulaire, the last a familiar sdgnond 

:ea dv "^wJ v^v_/ 


EU. 209 

title! Eulalia and Eulalie have been often used in Spain 
and France, and the former is found in the register of Ottery 
St. Mary, Devon — also frequently in Cornwall. 

Euphemia originally meant at once fair speech and absti- 
nence from the reverse, so that almost in irony it signified 
silence, and was applied to the stillness that prevailed during 
religious rites, or to the proclamation of silence. The Euphe- 
mia who was the parent of the wide-spread name, was a virgin- 
martyr of Bithynia, whose legend of constancy, unshaken 
and invulnerable, both to the lion and the flame, strongly im- 
pressed both the East and the West. Jevfimija, in Russia; 
Jeva, in Servia ; Bema, in Lusatia ; and Pimmie, in Lithu- 
ania; she is almost as much changed as by the EfiSe and 
Phemie of Scotland, which together with Euphame have pre- 
vailed since very early times, and can never be forgotten by 
the readers of the most deeply felt and noblest of idl Scott's 
works. It is a question whether this Scottish Euphame were 
really' one of the Greek names brought from Hungary by 
Queen Margaret, or if it be only another attempt to translate 
the Keltic Aoiffe. In the Highlands, however, the name is 
called Oighrigh ; which, to English eyes and ears, seems 
equally distant from either AoiflFe or Euphemia. The church 
of Santa Eufemia at Rome .gives title to a cardinal, and 
has spread the name in Italy and France. 

It remains somewhat doubtful whether Eustace should be 
referred to ESorotfibs (stedfast), or to Evoroxvs (happy in har- 
vest). The Eostafie, or Eustathius, of the Greco-Slavonic 
Church, certainly has the same festival-day (September 20th) 
as the Eustachius of the Latin; but the Latin Church has 
likewise a St. Eustachius, a different personage with a dif- 
ferent day. He of September 20th was a Roman soldier, 
who lived and suffered under the Emperor Adrian, but his wild 
poetical legend is altogether a work of the Western mind. 
It begins like that of St. Hubert, with his conversion by 
the apparition of .a crucifix planted between the horns of a 

VOL. I. P - T 


uigiiizea oy ■' 


stag, and a voice telling liim that he should suffer great things. 
The trials thus predicted were curiously similar to those of 
the good knight Sir Tsumbras. Like him he lost wealth 
and honours, wife and children; these last being carried away 
by wUd beasts, while he was transporting his family one by 
one across a river. Like him, too, he recovered all in due 
time, and was more wealthy than before; but unlike him, he 
ended his career by martyrdom within a brazen bulL A 
soldier saint was sure to be a great favourite in the middle 
ages, and the supposed transport of St. Eustace's relics to St. 
Denis, in very early times, filled France with Eustache, and 
thence Eustace, Wistace, or Huistace, as English tongues 
were pleased to call it, came over in plenty at the Norman 
Conquest. Eustace ^ Gomes,' who holds land in Domesday 
Book before the Conquest, must have been he of Boulogne 
who had such a desperate quarrel with the Godwinsons. 
There were six after the Conquest, and they, or their de- 
scendants^ sometimes called their daughters Eustachie, or 
Eustachia. Eustachia, a kinswoman of Henry IL, married 
Geoffrey de Mandeville: and Eustacie was once in favour in 
France; but all have a good deal lost their popularity, though 
we sometimes hear of Eustace in these days. The Bavarian 
contraction is Staches. Eusebius and Eusebia are the gentle 
or the holy — not very common.* 

Section VL — Sieros. 

The word Upo9 (hieros), sacred, gave the term for a priest, 
or any other person or thing set apart, and thus formed seve- 
ral names in the family of the kings of Syracuse, Hieron, 
Hieracles (holy fame), Hieronymus, i,e. 'Upmrvfioi (with a 
holy name). These continued in use among the Greeks, and 
came at length to that Dalmatian scholar and hermit, Eusebius 
Hieronymus Sophronius, who is reckoned as one of the great- 
est of the Latin fathers. As a saint of high reputation, his 

« liddeU and Soott; Smitli; Jameson; Sir Ismnbras; Ellis, Dome$day 
Books Michaelifl. 

:ea dv v_j v^v_/ 




name underwent the Italian process of changing its aspirate 
into a G-^ and he became San Cferonimo, or even Girolamo, 
whence the French took their frequent Jerome, and we fol- 
lowed their example. The Oermans did indeed hold fast to 
Hieronjmns; and the old English reformers would quote St. 
Hierom; but Jerome is the abiding name by which the saint, 
his namesakes, and the friars who took his rule are called. 
In Austria, the beneficent spirit who rewards good children 
on Christmas night, is called Grampus, which Grimm con- 
jectures to be a corruption of Hieronymus. Does this Gram- 
pus, assuming the aspect of a night-mare, account for the 
name given by sailors to one of the porpoise kind ? 

In Ireland, Jerome, like Jeremiah and Edward, has been 
forced into representing the good old Keltic Diarmaid. 








. Girolamo 







In Gambrai, Hieronome was the form, with the Hierono- 
mette for a feminine ; and among the Swinbumes of York- 
shire, in the seventeenth century, Jeronima thrice occurs.* 

Sbction Vn.— Pan. 

A few words beginning with wa? (all) must here be men- 
tioned. Not indeed * universal Pan,* the god of nature, nor 
Pandora, the opener of the perilous box, but Pankratios 
(iray/cpcLrios) all ruling. A boy thus called is said to have 
suffered at Rome, in his 14th year, in 304, under Diocletian. 
Even in the time of Gregory of Tours, it was supposed that 
certain vengeance followed false oaths made at his shrine, and 

* Grimm; Smith; Scott. 

3i|ti^ by Google 


his relics were therefore very valuable. A present of some 
from Pope Vitalian to our King Oswy brought St. Paucras 
into fashion in England, and Pancrace and Pancragio have 
also named many churches in France and Italy. The lily 
callei pancratium claims by its name to excel all others. 

UavraXew (Pantaleon), altogether a lion, was one of the 
numerous Christian physicians who suffered martyrdom. He 
died at Nicomedia, but his relics were brought to Constanti- 
nople, and thence to France, where he is the chief saint of 
the largest church at Lyons, and he is the patron of doctors 
next after St. Luke. His name was in use in France and 
Italy before. As a peasant name he fell, with Arlechino and 
Colombina, into comedy. His dress was on the stage made 
to fit tight to his body, and his medical associations caused 
him to be made a feeble old man, and appear as if all in one 
piece, whence Shakespeare speaks of the lean and slippered 
pantaloon. Thence again, when the entire leg was covered 
by the trousers instead of by stockings and breeches meeting 
at the knee, the name of pantaloon was applied to the new 
garment, and has now passed to America, where gentlemen 
wear pants, and young ladies are feminine in ^pantalettes!' 
Nicomedian doctor — altogether a lion.* 

Sbction Yni.—Nike. 

Niiciy (victory) was an auspicious word, which, being of 
feminine gender, as befitted a goddess, was a favourite close 
for women's names; such as Stratonike (army victory), 
^tpeyuaj (Pherenike), bringing victory. Berenike was the 
Macedonian pronunciation, and was in constant use among 
princesses of the two Greek kingdoms of Syria and Egypt. 
It was the hair of the sister-wife of Ptolemy Euergetes 
that was dedicated in the temple of Venus, and thence dis- 
appearing, was said to have mounted to the skies, and be- 
come the constellation still called Berenice's hair, which was 

♦ Butler. 


by Google 

NIKE. 21^ 

substituted for the child, once in the arms of the Virgin, 
thus destroying one of the signs that the ancient astronomers 
had connected with the promise of old. From these ladies 
those of the Herod family took the name, and thus it was 
borne by that Bemice who heard St. Paul's defence. Oddly 
enough the peasants of Normandy are fond of calling their 
daughters Berenice. Veronica is sometimes said likewise to 
be a corrupt form. 

In men's names Nike was the prefix, as in Nikon, Niklias, 
Nikodemos (conquering people), Nikolaos (NwcoXcUfe), a word 
of like meaning. This last, after belonging to one of the 
seven first deacons, and to the founder of a heresy doomed 
in the Apocalypse, then to the Bishop of Myra, from whom 
it acquired a curious legendary fame that made it universal. 
St. Nicholas is said to have supplied three destitute maidens 
with marriage portions by secretly leaving money at their 
window, and as his day occurred just before Christmas, he 
thus was made the purveyor of the gifts of the season to all 
children in Flanders and Holland, who put out their shoe or 
stocking in the confidence that Santa Klaus or Kneeht Globes, 
as they call him, will put in a prize for good conduct before 
the morning. The Dutch element in New England has intro- 
duced Santa E^laus to many a young American who knows 
nothing of St. Nicholas or of any saint's day. Another 
legend described the saint as having brought three murdered 
children to life again, and this rendered him the patron of 
boys, especially school-boys. 

The reign of the boy-bishop began on St. Nicholas' day, 
and ended on that of the Innocents, while the church ser- 
vices were celebrated by him and his young supporters, and 
vacancies in church preferment occurring in the interval^ 
were by him filled up. Probably Christmas holidays were 
kept in this manner instead of by going home in the days 
of poverty and lack of roads ; for Winchester College had 
its boy-bishop, and Eton Montem was a transfer of the re- 



mains of the old festival to a more genial season, when it had 
become altered almost beyond recognition. 

It might have been the thievish habits to which poverty 
reduced the university students of the middle ages, that 
caused clerks of St. Nicholas to become a facetious term for 
robbers, in connection, perhaps, with the title of Old Nick, 
which, as some tell us, is, in fact, the Teuton Nike, or Neck, 
Nixe (a malicious water spirit). 

A saint of both the East and West, with a history so en- 
dearing, and legends still more homely and domestic, Nicholas 
was certain of many followers throughout Christendom, and 
his name came into use in 'Europe among the first of the 
sainted ones. To us it came with the Norman Conquest, 
though not in great abimdance, for only one Nicolas figures 
in Domesday Book, but his namesakes multiplied. The only 
English pope was Nicolas Breakspear ; and Nicole or Nicola 
de CamvUle was the brave lady who defeated the French in- 
vaders at Lincoln, and secured his troublesome crown to 
Henry EI. She deserves to have had more ladies called after 
her in h^r own country, but the feminines are chiefly con- 
fined to France, where, in the fifteenth century, its contrac- 
tion was beatified in the person of a shoemaker's daughter, 
Collette Boilet, who reformed the nuns of St. Clai:a, and 
died in the odour of sanctity. The southern nations almost 
always contract their names by the omission of the first 
syllables, as the northern ones do by leaving out the latter 
ones ; and thus, while the English have Nick, the Italians 
speak of Cola, a contraction that became historical when the 
strange fortunes of ' Cola di Rienzi, the tribune of the 
people,' raised him to his giddy height of honour, and then 
dashed him down so suddenly and violently, that ^ You un- 
fortunate Bienzi ' has ever since been a proverbial expression 
of pity in Italy. 

The French language generally has both varieties of con- 
tractions, perhaps according as it was influenced by the Pro- 

:ea dv >wJ v^v/ 




Ten^al or the Frank pronunciation, and thus its Nicolas be- 
comes Nicole or Colas, sometimes Colin. Thence it has been 
suggested that Colin Maillard, or blind man's buff, may be 
Colin seeking Maillard, the diminutive of Marie, which 
would drolly correspond to the conjecture that the ' N or M' of 
our catechism and marriage service, instead of being merely 
the consonants of nameny stand for Nicolas and Mary as the 
most probable names. The French Colin is probably really 
Nicolas, and is the parent of all the Arcadian Colins who 
piped to their shepherdesses either in the rural theatricals of 
the ancient regime, in Chelsea China, or in pastoral poetry. 
The Scottish Colin may, perhaps, have been slightly in- 
fluenced by French taste, but he bears no relation to Nicolas, 
being, in fact, formed from his own missionary. Saint Co- 
lumba ; the true Scottish descendant of the patron of scholars 
is to be found in that quaint portrait, BaiUie Nicol Jarvie. 
The h with which Nicolas is usually spelt in English was 
probably introduced in that seventeenth century, which 
seemed to think good spelling consisted in the insertion of 
superfluous letters. 

Niel, a pure Keltic word, which has been adopted by the 
Northmen, and become naturalized in Scandinavia and Nor- 
mandy, h^fi also been translated into Nicolas, but quite in- 
correctly. Nils is the only real Nicolaus except E^laus used 
in the North, though Niel, and even Nigel, are sometimes 
confounded with it. Denmark has had a King Klaus; other- 
wise this popular name has only been on the throne in the 
instance of that great Tzar whom we had respected tiU the 
last year of his life, when his aggression forced us into war. 












by Google 


























The German Sieg answers exactly to the Greek Nike. 

St. Nikon of Pontus, sumamed Metatoites, because his 
sermons, like those of the Baptist, usually began with ' Re- 
pent/ left his name to the Greek Church when he died in 
the Peloponnesus in 998. The great patriarch of Moscow, 
Nikon, was almost in modem times the Becket of the Bus- 
sian Church. 

With the a before it, which in Greek contradict the en- 
suing word, like the Latin tn, and Teutonic uHj we have 
AyucrjToi, Aniketos, Anicetus, unconquered, the name of a 
pope, a friend of St. Polycarp, and an opponent of heresy, 
whence he is a saint both of East and West, and is called 
Aniceto at Rome, Anicet in France, and Anikita in Russia.^ 

Section IX. — Polys. 

IIoXus (Polys) much, very, or many, was a frequent open- 
ing for Greek names. Polydoros (HoXv&upos), many gifted, 

* LiddeU and Soott; RoUin ; Jameson; Butler; Michaelis; Ellis, Domes- 
day Book; Warton, English Poetry. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

POLYS. 217 

was the youngest and last surviyor of the sons of Priam, and 
according to l^e tale most accredited in Greece, had been en- 
trusted to the cruel Polymnester, of the Thracian Chersonese, 
who, on hearing of the fall of Troy, slew the youth and threw 
him into the sea, when his corpse was cast up by the waves 
at the feet of his mother Hecuba. 

Mediaeval Europe had a strong feeling for the fate of Troy, 
and the woes of * Polydore ' had an especial attraction for 
them, so Polidoro was revived in Italy, and has never quite 
died away. 

His sister IloXvfcwt (Polyxena), the feminine of UoXiJfo^ 
(very hospitable), had an equally piteous fate, being slain by 
the Greeks at the tomb of Achilles ; or as Philostratus as- 
serts, in a story that it is wonderful no French tragedian 
ever adopted, she had fallen in love with Achilles at Hector's 
obsequies, and took the first opportunity of immolating her- 
self upon his tomb as soon as the rest of the family lyere 
disposed of at the taking of Troy. Her misfortunes, though 
the subject of one of the tragedies of Euripides, would not 
concern the history of Christian names, had not her name 
been used in Russia. It seems that, according to the legends 
of the Eastern Church, a lady named Eusebia (gentle), who 
had been bom at Rome, fled from an enforced marriage with 
a king, and took refuge, first at Alexandria, then in the Isle 
of Cos, where she was called Xena, or the stranger. She 
founded a monastery at Mylassa in Caria, and there died in 
the 5th century. Eseenia, as she is called in Russia, has 
many namesakes, and probably was made ornamental by being 
lengthened into Poliksenja, which is likewise in use, with the 
contraction Polinka ; and Polixene has also been used from 
an early period in Germany, having probably come in from 
some of the Slavonic princesses with whom the Germans 

noA^cv#cro$ (Polyeuctos), much longed for, answering to the 
Desiderio of Italy, and Desiree of France, was an old classic 


name, and an officer who was martyred in Lesser Armenia about 
the middle of the third century, was placed in the martyro- 
logy of both East and West; but only has namesakes in Rus- 
sia, where he is called Polieukt. 

rioXvicapTTos (Polycarpos), that glorious Bishop of Smyrna, 
* faithful unto death,' and * receiving a crown of life when he 
played the man in the fire,' has had still fewer imitators of 
his suitable Christian name, much-fruit. 

In fact, these names have not been popular ; perhaps the 
sound of their commencement has made them ridiculous; 
nor has there been a saint whose legend was false enough for 
wide popularity. 

The word is rellited to the German viel^ and our/wS.* 

Section X. — Phik. 

^Ckq (Phile), love, was a most obvious and natural opening 
for names. It stood alone as that of several Macedonian 
ladies, and again with numerous men called Philon. 

Philemon (loving thought) was the good old Phrygian who, 
with his wife Baucis, entertained Zeus and Hermes, and were 
rewarded with safety when their churlish neighbours were 
destroyed, a vague reflection of the history of Lot. Phile- 
mon was very common among the Greeks, and the Epistle of 
St. Paul to the Golossian master of the runaway Onesimus, 
has made it one of the Scriptural names of tiie English. 
The Maories call it Pirimona. 

The Ptolemies of Egypt were particularly fond of sur- 
naming themselves by their love to their relations, though 
they generally contrived so to treat them aa to make the 
epithet sound ironical: Ptolemy Philadelphos (love brother), 
lecatise he murdered his brother; Ptolemy Philopater, be- 
cause he poisoned his father; though at least Philometer 
does seem to have had a good mother, and to have loved her« 
Such surnames were imitated by the Greek kings of Per- 

• Smith; Butler,pigi,,3,,y Google 

PHILE. 219 

gamns, all of whom were named Attalus, and it was from 
Attains Philadephus, the second of them, that the city of 
Philadelphia, mentioned in the Apocalypse, took its title. 
This perished city of brotherly love seemed to William Penn 
to afiFord a suitable precedent for the title of the capital of 
his Quaker colony, which has ever since been Philadelphia. 
Less happily, Philadelphia has even been used among Eng- 
lish women, apparently desirous of a large mouthful of a 

Whether Philadelphia set the fashion, or whether the 
length of name is the allurement, Americans have a decided 
turn for all these commencements with ^ Phile;' and Philetus, 
Philander, &c., are to be found continually among the roughest 
inhabitants of the backwoods and far-west. With us they 
are at a discount, probably owing to the fashion of the last 
century of naming imaginary characters from the qualities 
they possessed. Thus Philander wrote so many letters to the 
* diumals' of the eighteenth century, that the Tatler requests 
his correspondents to adopt some other title, he was so over- 
whelmed with Philanders (love-men) . He was the amiable gen- 
tleman in philosophical dialogue, or the affectionate shepherd 
in Arcadian romance, until the verb to philander arose from his 
favourite occupation of making love. Philalethes (love-truth), 
philosophized through his little day, and then became the in- 
dignant correspondent of a county newspaper, except when 
loving etymology less than truth, he became Philo- Veritas. 
In fact, none of these names are free from ridiculous associa- 
tions, except Philip, which came down through king and 
saint. Even Philologos (love the word), though saluted by 
St. Paul, has met no favour. 

Philaret (<>tX-af)cros), love virtue, is however popular in 
Bussia, for the sake of some Eastern saint, who no doubt 
derived it from Philaretos, a Greek physician. 

Classical dictionaries swarm with names thus commencing, 
and it is striking how these affectionate appellations are of aU 
xiations save one. Hebrew has its David, Gjpk jts^Phi' ^ 


Teutonic countless Leofs, the Slave his Liube, the Kelt hia 
Garadoc ; only the stem Roman omitted love from his desir- 
able virtues, for though amo has supplied its quota of appella- 
tions, these are not of the ancient Roman.^ 

Section XI. — Praxis. 

The verb irpaxnm (prasso), to do or act, and the substan- 
tives 'rrpay/m (pragma), ^pafts (praxis), business, were fertile 
in derivatives. There would be danger of incurring the 
reproach into which the word pragma has been twisted, did 
we so impracticaUy wander from our main subject as to enter 
upon these ; but it is worth observing how well and descrip- 
tively the great artist, Praxiteles, was fitted by his name, which 
may be rendered, perfect accomplishment. Possibly it was 
given to him in honour of the finish of his works ; but Praxis 
often figured in names, and one of those abstract ideas to 
which the Greeks loved to erect statues was Praxidike, execu- 
tive justice, as we should now call it. Menelaus raised a 
statue to this goddess, on his return, after justice had been 
accomplished upon Paris; and in Boeotia, three of these 
spirits of retribution were worshipped as bodiless heads, 
which received sacrifices of the heads alone of animals. 

The Christian interest of the words from this source is 
through Praxedes, who, according to the legend, was the 
daughter of the house in which St Peter lodged at Rome, 
and devoted herself, with her sister, to attending on Christians 
in prison, and burying them when they were put to death ; a 
course of life that resulted in a glorious martyrdom. In 
honour of these two faithful ladies was built one of the first 
churches of Rome, consecrated, it is said, as early as 141, 
and still existing in all the glory of its ancient mosaics. 
Santa Prassede, as modem Rome terms it, gives title to a 
cardinal ; and the admirable Carlo Borromeo was thus distin- 

• Smith; RoUin; liddeU and Seott. 

uigiiized by LjOOQ iC 

TRYPHE. 221 

guished, deserving, perhaps, more than any other known 
' hinge-priest ' of Rome to be called after the saint of holy 
activity. Prassede has continued in vogue among Italian 
women, who frequently learn their names from Roman 
churches. I have found Plaxy in Cornwall, possibly from 
this source. Here, too, we should place Anysia CAkvo-ui), 
from aywo (anuo), to accomplish or complete. She was a 
maiden of Thessalonica, put to death there under Maximian. 
Her day is the 30th of October, in the Greek calendar, and 
Annusia is a Russian name, but she is not in the Roman 
calendar ; and how the Normans heard of her it is hard 
to guess, unless it was either from the Sicilian Greeks, or in 
the Crusades; nevertheless, we are often met by Annys, 
Anisia, Annice, or Annes, in older pedigrees. The latter 
form occurs down to 1597 in the registers of the county of 
Durham. In later times the form was absorbed by Anne. 

Tpo<^iy (food or nourishment) formed Tp(K/»(ftos (the fruitful 
or nourishing), the name of an old Greek sculptor, and after- 
wards of the Ephesian companion of St. Paul who was left 
sick at Miletus. The people at Aries consider that he after- 
wards preached the Gospel in their city, and have made him • 
the patron of their cathedral ; but it is Russia that continues 
the use of his name as Trofeem.* 

Section XH. — Tryphe. 

Even among the heathen Greeks, T/ot)<^ (daintiness, soft- 
ness, or delicacy) had not a respectable signification. It was 
that which Lycurgus tru.=tod that he Lad banished from 
Sparta ; little guessing that the contributioii of his country 
to the Exhibition in Ultima Thule, far beyond the POlars of 
Hercules, would stand recorded thus : — * Demos of Sparta^ 
orange-flower-water ! ' 

Yet T/w^, or Tryphon, wa« a favourite with persons of 

« Butler; Sorios; Sir Cuthbert Shoriief Esiraeufram Parish EtgiiUm, 


inferior rank — artists, architects, and physicians ; and indie 
Decian persecution, a martyr so called was put to the extrem- 
ity of torture in Bithynia, and has remained highly honoured 
in the calendar of the Greek Church ; Trypho continuing in 
use as a Russian name. 

The feminine form, TpwfMiya (Tryphsena), was given to two 
of the daughters of the Ptolemys in Egypt, where it was far 
from inappropriate; but, probably, the two women whom 
St, Paul greets so honourably at Rome as Tryphawia and 
Tryphosa, were either Alexandrian Jewesses whom he had 
met at Corinth on their way to Rome, or else merely so- 
caUed as being the daughters of some Tryphon. They were 
not canonized, and the damty Tryphaoaa has only been 
revived in England by the Puritan taste. 

Section XTTT. — Names connected with the Constitution. — 
Laos J ^c. 

The democratic Greeks delighted in names connected with 
their public institutions — ^yopa (the assembly), 85/«>« (the 
public), Aaos (also the people), gave them numerous names, 
with which were closely connected the formations from Swaj 
(justice), and icXi/s (fame). These are a class that have a 
curious resemblance to those of the early Teutons and North- 
men — a race, who, though ruder, were equally spirited and 
free, and as much devoted to public speaking and appeals to 
the general assembly. 

The very word Aaos (laos), denoting the nation at large, 
has its counterpart in that Teutonic Meuie which has given 
us our word laity, and which we shall find so often in the 
names of our own forefathers, and those of France and 

Aao3afUKs (Laodamas), people tamer, had a feminine Aao&t- 
ftcta (Laodameia), principally noted for the beautifrd legend of 
her bitter grief for her husband, the first to fall at Troy, having 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


re -called him to earth for three hours under the charge of 
Hermes, a tale on which Wordsworth has founded one of the 
most graceful of his poems. Probably Florence must have 
had a local saint named Laodamia, for it has continued in 
vogue there, and Aaeglio bestowed it on the lovely maiden 
whom he made the heroine of his Niccolo dei Lapi. 

AaoSuof (people's justice), was a lady's name. Laodike 
recurred again and again in the Seleucid family; and the 
first of these queens had no less than five cities called Lao- 
dicea in honour of her. 

The demos better answered to the commons ; they expressed 
less the general populace than the whole voting class of 
free citizens, and were more select. We find them often at 
the beginning or end of Greek names, like the Theut of the 
Teutons : Demodokos, people's teacher ; Demoleon, people's 
lion ; Nikodemos, conquering people, etc. 

Aticiy (Dike), abstract justice, erected into a divinity, was 
not often a commencement, but was as common a finish to a 
female name as that often personified quality, Ntioy (Victory). 
KAios (Kleos) , fame, from KktUa (kleio) , to call, had as many 
derivatives as the Frank hJod, or loud for renowned, but most 
of them have passed out of u'-^though KXiavOrj^ (lOeanthes), 
famous bloom, the name of a celebrated sculptor, so struck the 
fancy of the French that Cleanthe — ^their epicene form — waa 
one of the favourite soubriquets for their portraits of living 
characters. Even Cleopatra (KAioinxTpa), fame of her father, 
with all her beauty and fame, did not hand on the name which 
she had received in common with a long course of daughters 
of Egypto-Greek kings. It is one of those marked names, 
known to everybody but used by nobody. 

Gleomachus only deserves to be noted as the exact Greek 
counterpart of the familiar Louis (Hlodwig), famous war.* 

« Smith ; Liddell and Scott. 


by Google 


Section XIV. — Names connected with the Oreek Glomes. 

The wreath of the conqueror was an appropriate allusion 
to those games where the Greek youth delighted to contend, 
and very probably the first Stephanos (Src<^aw)s) was so called 
by an exulting family whose father had returned with the 
parsley, or pine-leaf, crown upon his brow, and named the 
infant in honour of the victory. For Stephanos was an old 
Greek name, which had belonged among others to a son of 
Thucydides, before it came to that Hellenist deacon who 
first of all achieved the greatest of all the victories, and wcm 
the crown. Old Greek hymn-writers celebrated this accord- 
ance'of name and destiny, — 

* Thou by name a crown impliest, 
Meetly then in pang^ thou diest 
For the crown of righteousness/ 

Striking as is the true history of St. Stephen's martyrd<Hn, 
a miraculous legend was required to make his name frequent, 
and so old is that legend that Alban Butler, chary as he is 
of belief in the tales of his church, gives it at length. In- 
deed, besides St. Stephen's own day, as leader of the martyrs 
in will and deed, waiting on the King of Martyrs, there is 
another on the 3rd of August for *the invention of St. 
Stephen's relics,' which were pointed out in a dream to a 
priest of Caphargamala in the year 415, by no less a person 
than the Jewish doctor, Gramaliel, in a white robe, covered 
with plates of gold. Gamaliel himself, his son Abdiel and 
Nicodemus, were all buried in the same tomb with St. 
Stephen, and the inscription bore the names of Gramaliel, 
Abdiel, Nasuam, and Chileal, the two latter being the Syriac 
equivalents of conquering people, and of crown. The reality 
of the discovery was proved by the immediate recovery of 
sixty-three sick persons, and by a shower of much needed 

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rain. The bones were carried. to the church on Mount Sion, 
and thence dispersed into all quarters; even St. Augustin 
rejoiced in receiving a portion at Hippo, other fragments were 
taken to the Balearic Isles, and Ancona even laid claim to 
the possession of a bone, carried off at the time of the sainf s 

No wonder the name is common. Seven saints bore it 
besides the proto-martjr, and among them, that admirable 
King of Hungary, who endeared it to his people, and left the 
crown that has, until the present day, been so highly honoured 
at Prague. Our name of Stephen is probably due to the ac- 
quaintance of the Normans with Ancona, whence probably 
William the Conqueror obtained such interest in St. Stephen 
as to dedicate to him the Abbey built at Caen, to expiate the 
marriage with the abready betrothed Matilda. There is, 
however, no instance of the name in Domesday Book, and 
our king of turbulent memory took it from his father, the 
Count de Blois. In the roll of Winchester householders 
in Stephen's reign we find, however, already Stephen de 
Crickeled and * Stephen the Saracen.' Could this last have 
been a convert brought home from the East, and baptized in 
honour of the pious Count de Blois, father of the king — 
perhaps an adherent of the family ? It is everywhere in use, 
varied according to the manner in which the southern tongue 
has chosen to treat the double consonant. The feminine be- 
gan at Cambrai (at least) as early as the thirteenth century, 
and it is frequent in Caen, probably in honour of St. 
Stephen's Abbey at Caen. 






d ^ 


Digi^ed by VjOOQ iC 























I venture here to indnde the numerous names of which 
the leading word is OXv/uwr. They are generally derived from 
Mount OlympoSy the habitation of the gods ; but I cannot 
help thinking tliem more likely to be connected with the 
Olympian games, and to have been first invented for children 
bom in the year of an Olympiad. 

There were numerous varieties, but none have survived ex- 
cept the feminine Olympias, belonging to the proud but much- 
loved mother of Alexander, and like all other Macedonian 
names, spreading through the East. A Byzantine widow, of 
great piety and charity, who stood faithful to St. Chrysostom 
during his persecution by the empress, was canonized, and 
sent Olympias on to be a favourite with the Greeks, so that 
it flourishes among all ranks in the Ionian Islands. Italy 
had her Olimpia, probably through the Greek connections of 
Venice; and the noble and learned Olimpia Morata rendered 

J DV N.-J V^V_/ 



it famous. It was brought to France by the niece of Mazarin, 
the Gomtesse de Soissons of evil fame as a poisoner, and yet 
the mother of Prince Eugene. From her, apparently, Olympe 
spread among French ladies and long continued fashionable, 
and Surtee's History of the Cowiiy Palatine of Durham men- 
tions an Olympia Wray, married 1660. Here, too, must 
be mentioned Milone, though its connection with the subject 
is only through Milon, the famous Greek wrestler of Cro- 
tona, who carried a heifer through the Stadium at Olympia, 
and afterwards eat her in a single meal ; killed a bull with 
one stroke of his fist ; and finally, was caught by the hands 
in the recoil of a riven oak, and there imprisoned till eaten 
by the wolves. It is thought that the Roman Annius Papi- 
anus, the opponent of Clodius, was called after the athlete by 
way of nickname, from some resemblance in appearance or 
strength. Michaelis thinks the root of the word is the same 
with that of the old German verb milatij to beat or crush 
the relation of our MiUs, Thence may likewise have come 
the Latin Mtles^ and the Keltic JUilidhy both meaning a 
warrior. MUidh was the surname, according to cloudy 
Irish history, given to Hith, the hero, whose eight sons led 
the migration from Spain to Ireland, called from them the 
Mic Milidh, or Milesians, and considered as the ancestry of 
the purest blood in Ireland and Scotland. Nevertheless, the 
Irish Miles does not take his name from this hero, nor from 
the Persian St. Milles, Bishop of Susa, who perished in the 
great Sassanid persecutions, and who is probably called by 
anything but his right name. 

Milo belonged to the realms of romance. In the story of 
the Golden Ass of Apuleius, Milon is the master of the 
house where the unfortunate hero undergoes his transforma- 
tion; and having thus entered the world of imagination, 
Milon, or Milone as Italian poets call him, became a pa- 
ladin of Ghaiiemagne ; Milan was a Welsh knight in one of 
Marie of Bretagne's lays ; and in a curious old French ro- 



mance, Miles is the father of two children, one of whom 
is brought np by a lion, and defended by an ape as his 
champion. These stories, or their germs, must have struck 
the Norman fancy, for a Milo appears among the newly- 
installed landholders in Domesday Book, and Milo Fitz- 
wUliam stands early in the Essex pedigrees, but very soon 
the vernacular form became Miles. Among the Norman 
settlers in Ireland, Miles was a frequent name ; and in the 
Stanton family, when it had become so thoroughly Hibemi- 
cised as to dislike the Norman appellation, one branch as- 
sumed the surname of MacAveely, son of Milo, according 
to the change of pronunciation undergone by Erse consonants 
in the genitive. Miles or Myles itself was adopted as an Eng- 
lish equivalent for the native Erse Maelmordha, or majestic 
chief, and has now become almost an exclusively Irish name, 
though sometimes used in England by inheritance &om Nor- 
man ancestors, and generally incorrectly derived from the 
Latin MikSj whereas, its immediate parent is certainly the 
Greek Milo, whatever that may come from.* 

* liddell and Scott; Butler; Neale, Hymns of the Oreeh Chu/reh; 
Smith; Dxualo]^, History of Fiction ; U&Dmer,CkronieU of Ireland; Pub- 
liecttions of Iriih and Osiianic Soeietiei. 


by Google 




chbistian grbbk nambs. 

Sbction L 

Thb family that we place in this class are names that surose 
under the Christian dispensation. Some, indeed, are older, 
and many more may be so, and have been in nse among 
slaves, peasants, and persons of whom history took no cogni- 
zance ; but the great mass, even if previously invented, were 
given with a religious meaning and adaptation, and many 
embodied ideas that no heathen could have devised. Greek, 
above all others the ecclesiastical tongue, has sent forth more 
genuine and universal truly Christian names than any other 
language; the formations of Latin, German, and English, 
in imitation of hers are, in comparison, inharmonious and 
ungainly, carrying their meaning too openly displayed. 

Among these have been mixed, when they belong evidently 
to the same race, the exclusively modem Greek names, which 
have arisen since Greece and her dependencies ceased to be 
the great store-house of martyrs and saints, and the dispenser 
of sacred thought to the Christian world. Many, indeed, of 
these names may be of equally ancient date, only not belong- 
ing to any individual of sufficient renown to transmit them 
to other countries. 

Perhaps no land has been less beholden to others in her 
nomenclature than modem Greece. Hebrew names have, 
indeed, come in through her religion, and are more plentiful 
than they are farther west ; a very few were accepted from 
the Latin in the days when Constantinople was the seat of 
the Roman empire, and when the churches were one ; but 

uiguizeu oy ^OOglC 


scarcely one of the wide-spread * Frank * names has ever be«i 
adopted bj the Greeks. Even in Slavonic Russia the nomoi- 
clature remains almost exclusively Byzantme; the native 
Slave names are comparatively few, and those that come in 
from other nations are discarded, as at Constantinople, for 
some supposed Greek equivalent. 

Section H. — Names from Theos. 

Already in speaking of Zeus it has been explained that 
this and 0cos (Theos) are but differing forms of the same 
term for Divinity, although one became restricted to the 
individual Deity ; the other was a generic term in heathen 
days, retaining, however, so much of spiritual majesty that 
the translators of the Septuagint employed it to express the 
true Creator, and thus Christians embraced it as the designa- 
tion of the supreme object of worship ; and when they called 
their children by names thus compounded, they did so as an 
acknowledgment of Him whom their fathers had ignorantly 
worshipped when some of these appellations had been first 

The word Theos itself had been assumed as a surname 
by one of the worst of the line of the Syrian Antiochus, 
and Theon had never been infrequent among the Greeks. 
^o<^os (Theophilos), God-beloved, must have been so called 
before his Christianity, but probably not in a heathen sense, 
since one of the last high priests is thus recorded, and is 
supposed by some to have been the person addressed by St 
Luke in the dedication of the Gh)spel and Acts, though there 
is some doubt whether by this term the Evangelist intended 
an individual, or any godly person, but thenceforward Theo- 
philus became a name in the Church ; but it has been less 
used on the Continent than in England. There, probably 
firom its occurrence in Holy Scripture, and also firam being 

uiguizeu oy ^OOglC 



generallj the name of the favourite speaker in religious 
dialogues, it has been in some use, and so has its feminine, 
Theophila, the name of the mother of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
of whose father it is recorded that his habits of brevity of 
speech were such that when he called his wife * The,' she 
understood him to ask for tea ; when he called her * OSjj 
it was tantamount to ordering coffee. 



Italian and 



Theokles (©coicXtts), divine fame, was an ancient heathen 
name, and it is most probable that ®€Kka (Thekla) is the 
contraction of the feminine. St. Thekla was said to have 
been a disciple of St. Paul, at Anconium, and to have been 
exposed to Uons at Antioch. Though they crouched at her 
feet instead of tearing her, she is considered as the first 
virgin martyr, and it was deemed that the highest possible 
praise for a woman was to compare her to St. Thekla. 
Another Thekla of Alexandria is believed to have been 
the scribe of that precious copy of the Gk)spels given by 
Cyril Lucar to Charles I., and now in the British Museum ; 
and thus Thekla has always had high reputation in the East, 
though less known in the West, except that * Tecla* is the 
patroness of Tarragona. The name is best known to modem 
Europe through the high-souled daughter of Wallenstein, 
an invention, it is to be feared, of Schiller, but a very noble 
one, when she bids her lover trust his better self, and spurn 
the persuasions of her father, though she herself was held 
out ^e reward of treason. 






by Google 


®€o8opos (Theodores), and 8co8opa (Theodora), divine gift, 
are the most usual of these names; the first universal in 
the East and West, the second prevalent in the Eastern 
Church, but less common in the Western than the incorrect 
feminine Dorothea. 

There were numerous saints called Theodorus ; the favourite 
of the West being he of Heraclea, a young soldier, who burnt 
the temple of Cybele, and was martyred in consequence. 
The Venetians brought home his legend, and made him 
their champion and one of their patron saints, whence Teodoro 
has prevailed in the city of the Doge ; and from a church to 
him at Rome the Spaniards must have taken their Teodor, 
the French their Theodore, and the Germans the similar 
Theodor, which has always been frequent there. 

The ancient Britons must have known and used this name ; 
for among their host of small saints of princely birth appears 
Tewdwr ; and the Welsh made so much use of this form that 
when the handsome Owen ap Tewdwr won the heart of the 
widow of Harry of Monmouth, Tudor was an acknowledged 
surname, and in two generations more it became a royal one, 
in another two was lost with the childless progeny of the 
mighty Tudor. 

Our fourth archbishop of Canterbury, Greek in birth, and 
springing from the same city as St. Paul, is worthy to be our 
own St. Theodore, since he first sketched our ecclesiastical 
system, and infused life and energy into the mission of St. 
Augustine ; but the English of his time did not adopt his 
name, and here the Theodores are a recent introduction. 
They seem only to have been really hereditary in Wales, 
Greece, and Venice. By Greece is also meant all those 
Greco-Slavonic countries that received their nomenclature 
fit)m Constantinople, in especial Russia, where the th is 
exchanged for ph^ so as to produce the word Feodor ; and 
the Germans, receiving it again from the Greek, make it 


by Google 






Spanish and 
















Thefemmine Theodora has two independent saints, a mar- 
tyr and a Greek empress. It suffers no alterations except the 
Bossian J' at the commencement, and is not common except 
in the East. The West prefers the name reversed, and ren- 
dered incorrect. Dorotheas and Theodoms may indeed be 
exact equivalents ; but the invention of Theodora makes the 
giver feminine instead of the gift. It is the beauty of the 
l^nd of St. Dorothea that has made her name so great a 
favourite. Never did pious fancy form a more beautiful 
dream than the story of the Gappadocian maiden, who sent 
the roses of paradise by angelic hands as a convincing tes- 
timony of the joy that she was reaping. The tale is of 
western growth, and the chief centre of St. Dorothea's popu- 
larity as a patroness was in Germany ; but the name was like- 
wise in great favour in England, where Massinger composed 
a draima on her story. Dorothy was once one of the most 
usual of English names ; and ^ Dolly ' was so constantly heard 
in every household, that it finally became the generic term 
for the wooden children that at least as late as the infancy of 
Elizabeth Stuart, were called babies or puppets. In the days 
of affectation, under the House of Hanover, Dorothy fell 
into disuse, but was regarded as of the same old Puritan 


by Google 



character as AbigaU or Tabitha; whereas, though it was 
worn by Mrs. Dorothy Cromwell, and many a Roundhead's 
daughter, it was truly 0¥med by one of those * black letter 
saints ' of legendary memory whom such damsels would most 
have scorned. Latterly, probably from the influence of 
Grerman literature, the German contraction Dora, or more 
properly Dore, has come in as almost an independent name, 
which, perhaps, ought to be translated as simply a gift, 
though often used as a contraction for Dorothea. In Spain 
it was regarded as a romantic appellation, and Cervantes 
celebrated la discreta JDorotea as die lady who, after her 
detection in boy's attire washing her feet, beguiled Don 
Quixote out of his imitation of the frenzy of Amadis and 
Orlando by her personation of the Princess Micomicona. 
In the last century, Dorinda was a fashionable English fancy 
embellishment, Doralice a French one — ^perhaps from the 
German Dorlisa — Dorothea Elisa. The Russian Darija is 
reckoned as a translation ; but it does not seem probable, for 
the patroness of this latter was an Athenian lady, martyred 
with her husband, Chrysanthus, at Rome, and buried in a 
catacomb, which was opened in the days of Constantino the 
(jreat, and thus made them kno¥m to the East as well as the 
West. It must have taken much mispronunciation to turn 
Dorothea into Darija. The modem Greeks call the name, 
























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1 Italian. 























Before leaving the word doroSy we may mention the name 
Isidores Clo-tSaipos), a very old and frequent one among the 
ancient Greeks, and explained by some to mean Gift of Isis ; 
but this Egyptian deity is an improbable origin for a name 
certainly in use before the Greek kingdom in Egypt was 
established, and it seems more satisfactory to refer the first 
syllable to k (strength), a word which when it had its di- 
gamma was As, exactly answering to the Latin vis (force or 
strength). It commenced many old Greek names, but none 
that have passed on to Christian times except Isidorus, 
which was recommended first by one of the grim hermits of 
Egypt, then by an Alexandrian author, and then by three 
Spanish bishops of Cordova, Seville, and Badajos, the first 
of whom probably received it as a resemblance of the Gothic 
names beginning with eism (iron). In consequence, Isidoro 
and the feminine Isidora have continued national in Spain, 
and Isodoros in Greece, whence Russia has taken Eesidor. 

Theodotos (God-given) was in common use among the 
Greeks of the early empire, and apparently in Spain was 
corrupted into Theodosius, since Spain was the native land 

uigiiizeu Dv ' 




of him who rendered this form illustrious, though not tiU it 
had cost his father dear, as well as all those whose appella- 
tions had the same commencement. In the reign of the 
cruel and suspicious Yalens, a party of intriguers forestall- 
ing the invention of table-turning, interrogated a mysterious 
tripod on the succession of the throne, only instead of count- 
ing its raps, they supplied it with an alphabet, where it 
halted, like a learned pig, opposite to the significant letters 
0c 08, whence they augured that the coming emperor would 
be one of the many thus denominated, and fixed their hopes 
upon a certain Theodorus. Their experiment was discovered 
by the emperor, who made them sufier for it, but tried an- 
other on his own account, only substituting a cock for the 
tripod, and covering the letters with com, in order to see 
which the bird would first disclose in pecking at the grain. 
Again the same four appeared, whereupon the emperor tried 
to baulk the oracle by a summary execution of every indi- 
vidual guilty of writing himself Theod — , and among them 
even his best and most faithful general, Theodosius. But the 
magic prediction was not to be disappointed ; the son of the 
slaughtered general, inheriting in Roman fashion the same 
appellation, was safe out of reach in the West, and in the 
direful distress caused by the Gothic invasion, it was Valens' 
own nephew, Gratian, who called Theod — to share his throne 
. and save the empire, as Theodosius the Great Tewdwr, the 
Wefihform, is a sign how far and wide the fame of this great 
emperor extended, and the feminine of the name has been 
in favour in many parts of Europe, copied probably from 
some of the Byzantine princesses. The canonized person- 
ages of the masculine and feminine forms are, however, by 
no means imperial; the one being a hermit, the other a 
virgin martyr. 


by Google 











The Latin Christians endeavoured to imitate the sense of 
these names with their Adeodatos, as the Germans have with 
Grottgabe, and perhaps the English with Gift, which is some- 
times to be found among our modem vernacular female names. 

So the German (Jottschalk exactly renders the Gre^k Theo- 
doulos (®€oSov\oi)y God's servant; but thus, though borne by 
a saint, has been seldom repeated. Theone is also a German 

The entire race of Greek words thus derived must be care- 
ftdly distinguished from the Gothic ones, which at first sight 
appear to resemble them : such as Theodoric, Theudebert, &c., 
but are all, in fact, taken from the Teuton word ThetU (the 
people), the same that gives both the familiar Dutch and Teu- 
ton, though Greek and Latin pens have done their best to 
disguise them. 

Of Theophanos we shall speak among the varieties taken 
from sacred festivals, but we must not leave these titles of pious 
signification without mentioning Tifiotfcos (honour God), from 
nfirj (honour or worship), the noun formed from tm» (to 
honour or esteem), connected of course with the Latin timar 
(fear), in the disgraceful sense. 

Timotheus had been in use even in heathen times, as in the 
case of Alexander's musician, — 

' Timotheus placed on high 
Amid the tuneM choir, 
With flying fingers touched the lyre.' 

But probably it was with a frill religious meaning that the 
good Eunice chose it for that son who was to be the disciple of 





St. Paul and the first bishop of Ephesos. From him, and 
from several subsequent saints, the East and West both learnt 
it, but it flourishes chiefly in Russia at the present day as 
Teemofe. In Ireland, it was taken as one of the equivalents 
of the native Tadgh (a bard), (was it in honour of him of the 
tuneful choir?) and the absurdities of Irish Tims have cast 
a ridiculous air over it, mingled with the Puritan odour of the 
Cromwellian days, such as to lower it from the estimation its 
associations deserve. Mr. Timothy Davison, in 1670, named 
his daughter Timothea, but happily his example does not 
seem to have been followed.* 










Section m. — Names from Christos. 

The Greek verb XP"^ (chrio), to touch, rub, or anoint, 
formed the term Xptoros, which translated the old Hebrew 
prophetic Messiah (the Anointed) , and thence became the title 
of the Saviour, the very touch-stone of faith. 

Therefore it was that at Antioch the disciples came to be 
called XpioTwii'ot (Christianoi), aGreek word with a Latin ter- 
mination, the title that they accepted as their highest gloiy, 
and which has ever since been the universal and precious de- 
signation of a believer. Ghrestos (kind) was a Greek name, and 
Tacitus speaks of the expulsion of the Jews from Rome, as 
having b^n caused by tumults excited by one Ghrestus, pio- 

* Smith; Jameson; Butler; liddell and Scott ; HartweU Home, IiUro. 
duction to the Bible; Le Beau, B<u Empire; Michaelis. 

uiguizea oy ^OOglC 


bably from some confusion between their tamnltuous habits, 
and some report of the spread of the faith of Christ. At a 
somewhat later period, when the heathen world would fain 
have accepted the morality of Christianity without its mys- 
teries, there was an attempt at changing this denomination 
into XpcoTiayi (Chrestiani) , meaning only the beneficent, or 
even the simple and foolish, which was strenuously rejected by 
the orthodox, well knowing that on the retention of this sin- 
gle letter depended their confession of their Master's title 
and of their claim to membership with him. The first person 
-who is known to have been baptised after this title, was St. 
Christina, a Roman virgin of patrician birth, who was mar- 
tyred in 295. Her marvellous legend declares that she was 
ijirown into lake Bolsena, with a mill-stone round her neck, 
but that it floated to the surface, supported by angels, and 
that she was at last shot to death with arrows. She is there- 
fore, of course, patroness of Bolsena and of the Venetian 
States, where Cristina is often a name ; and her fame travelled 
to Ghreece, Bohemia, and Hungary, from which last place the 
Atheling family brought it to England and Scotland in the 
person of Christina, Abbess of Romsey. Christian, like the 
other Greek names of this importation, took deep root in 
Scotland, where Kirstin is its abbreviation among the pea- 
santry; and Christina, Stine, Tine, is common in Germany. 
John Bunyan's Christiana, as the feminine of his allegorical 
Christian, has made this form the most common in England. 
Christine, either through Germany or Scotland, found its way 
to Scandinavia, where the contraction is Kirste, or Kirstine. 
Being vigorous name-makers at the time of their conversion, 
the Northmen were not content to leave this as a mere lady's 
name inherited from the saint, but invented for themselves a 
masculine Christian, or Christiem as they call it in Denmark, 
which has belonged to many a sovereign in that kingdom, 
where it is especially national, and contracts into Eirsten. It 
is probably from the Danes that Christian as a surname passed 



to the Manx family, noted in Peveril of the Peak. From 
kings so called, are named the cities of Christiana, Christian- 
simd, and Christiansand* 























































by Google 


Christabel was already a name before Coleridge's time. It 
is to be found in Cornwall, in 1727, and in the North of 
England. It occurs at Crajke, in Yorkshire once, between 
1538 and 1652. 

From the same holy title was derived that of Xpurro^opoi 
(Christ-bearer), claimed by many an early Christian as an 
expression of his membership, as St. Polycarp on his trial 
spoke of himself as €^o<^opo$. To this title was attached the 
beautiful allegory of the giant ever in search of the strongest 
master, whom he found at last in the little child that he bore 
on his shoulders over the river. Simplicity soon turned the 
parable into credited fact, and St. Christopher became the 
object of the most eager veneration, especially as there had 
been a real martyr so called, and mentioned in the Mozarabic 
breviary, put to death in Lycia, and whose relics were supposed 
to have been at first at Toledo and afterwards at St. Denis. 
The sight of his image was thought to be a protection from 
sickness, earthquake, fire, or flood, for the rest of the day, 
and it was therefore carved out and painted in huge pro- 
portions outside churches and houses, especially in Italy, 
Spain, and Germany. The first mountain in Granada seen 
by vessels arriving from the African coast is called San 
Cristobal, as supposed to be as good an omen as th^ image of 
the saint himself, and the West Indian island was probably 
named in the same spirit, or else in compliment to the 
patron of the discoverer, whose name of Cristovalo Colon 
we disguise as Christopher Columbus, as much as that of 
the island under the soubriquet of St. Eitts. The cumbrous 
length is cut do¥m in England into Kit, Kester, and Chris, 
whence it has supplied the surnames Christopher, Christal, 
Kitson, and Stopher. A man named Christopher Cat is said 
to have kept a tavern, where a club held its meetings, 
and was therefore called the Kit-Cat club, and all the por- 
traits of the members being taken in three-quarter length, 
that particular size is said to have acquired its technical 

vol- L B ^T^ 



name of kit-cat. The modem Greeks shorten it into Chris- 
tachi, and such a favourite is it everywhere that two femi- 
nines have on occasion been formed — the German Christo- 
phine and English Christophera. In Spain our old friend 
Punch is Don Cristoval Pulichinela. 




























. Kristuppas 

Christopher was once far more common in England than 
it is at present. In the list of voters at Durham in the year 
1500, there were thirteen Christophers, and in 18 13 there 
were as many as ten. The Germans have also Christophilon, 
meaning, loved by Chriist* 

Section IV. — Sophia. 

Perhaps we ought to consider Sophia (2o<^ta) as one of 
the words most closely connected with divine attributes, since 
its use as a name was owing to the dedication of that most 
gorgeous of Christian temples by which Justinian declared 
that he had surpassed Solomon. It was called, and it has 

* Milman, ChrUtianity ; liddell and Scott; Jamesra 

uigiiizea oy 'v_j v^ 




borne the title through its four hundred years of bondage to 
Islam, Sta. Sophia (the holy wisdom of God), that figurative 
wisdom whom Christians considered the Book of Proverbs 
to point out as the Word of God. Moreover, the words of 
the * Preacher,' in the Book of Ecclesiasticus, * Wisdom 
(So<^ia) is the mother of fair Love and Hope and holy 
Fear,' had suggested an allegory of a holy woman with three 
daughters so called, and thus in compliment, no doubt, to 
the glorious newly-built church, the niece of Justinian's 
empress, afterwards wife to his nephew and successor, was 
called Sophia, which thenceforward became the fashion among 
the purple-bom daughters, and spread from them into the 
Slavonian nations, who regarded Constantinople as the centre 
of civilization. 

Through these Slavonians Sophia spread to Germany. A 
Hungarian princess was so called in 999; another, the 
daughter of King Geysa, married Magnus of Saxony, in 
1074, and Saxony scattered its Sophias in the next centuries 
all over the neighbouring states and into Denmark, where 
it has always been a royal name. Very nearly had the 
Electress Sophia brought it to our throne, and though the 
unhappy Sophia Dorothea of Zelle never took her place in 
the English Court, her grand-daughters made it one of the 
most fashionable ladies' names under the House of Hanover ; 
and though its reign has past with the taste for ornamental 
nomenclature, yet the soft and easy sound of Sophy still 
makes her hold her own. 

















uig, Ljga jy ^OOglC 


That nation which invented philosophy, or love of wisdom, 
so early that her first philosophers, feeling after the truth in 
their darkness, are beyond the reach of history, could not &il 
to have many other names even in the earliest times &om 
cro^ (wise), from the same root as the Latin sapio. Of 
these were Sophocles (wise-fame) ; and it would be tempting 
to add Sophron, but this is in the original Scm^pom', and signi- 
fies sound or temperate in mind, from <r(k (whole or sound). 
The first Sophron was a comic writer of unknown date, but 
his derivatives, Sophronius and Sophronia, by their imposing 
length, have recommended themselves as the titles for the 
most weighty and serious teachers in the instructive dialogues 
of the eighteenth century. 

As to Sophonisba, she must have had a Carthaginian or 
Numidian name, thus transmuted by Latin writers. As the 
subject of Scipio's generosity, she became a heroine for 
painting and tragedy, and her name was unfortunate to the 
poet ^omson when his pathetic line, 

' Sophonisba, Sophonisba 0/ 
was parodied by wicked wits — 

' Jemmy Thomson, Jemmy Thomson !* 

Otherwise we are not aware of its revival except in the 
noted case of the transformation of the marchicmess into 
Sophonisba Sphinx !^ 

Section V.— Pe^o«. 

Ghreat is the controversy that hangs on the form of ncr/)05, 
the surname divinely bestowed upon the faithful disciple 
Simon Bajgona, when he made his great confession of faith 
in the (Godhead and Messiahship of his Master. 

*Thou art Peiros (a stone), and on this Petra (a rock) 
I will build my Church,' are the words. Roman Catholics 

* Liddell and Scott; Smith; Jameson; Anderson, Noble and Royal 
Oetualogiei; Miohaelis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

PETEOS. 245 

endeavour to ground the alleged supremacy of their Church 
upon that of the Prince of Apostles^ declaring that he, 
Petros, was the rock on which the Church should be 
founded ; while Anglicans, looking more closely and candidly 
at the Greek, observe that for * this rock ' is used the word 
Petray signifying the whole living rock or crag, a fit founda- 
tion, and doubtless meaning the confession of faith newly 
uttered by Simon Barjona, while the name given to him is 
Petros, which signifies a part of the rock, a stone, thus 
owning the apostle as a portion of the Rock of Ages, but 
not the rock itself. So deep is the doctrine conveyed by 
one termination ! 

The apostle was sometimes called in his own lifetime 
by the Hebrew or Syriac equivalent Ki/*^?, or Cephas; 
but Petros, or Petrus, being both Ghreek and Latin words, 
he went down to posterity thus distinguished* His mar- 
tyrdom at Rome and the Roman claim to him as the 
first occupant of their See, the Cathedra Petn^ or chair of 
Peter, made him the first object of their veneration among 
saints, next to the Blessed Virgin, looking to him as they 
did as the foundation of their pre-eminence as a patriarchate, 
and as the Porter of Heaven. Many a Pietro was called 
after him in Italy to be cut down into Piero or Pier, and 
amplified into Pietruccio, or Petruccio and Petraccio. The 
devout Spaniards caught up the name, and had many a 
Pedro, nay, three Pedros at once were reigning at a time in 
three Peninsular kingdoms, and the frequency of Perez as a 
surname shows how full Spain is of the sons of Pedro. 
France had many a Pierre, Pierrot, or. in Brittany, Per- 
ronnik. Perrault, a common surname, may be a derivation 
from it, as is St. Pierre, one of the territorial designations. 
Before the Revolution, for some unknown reason, La Pierre 
and La France were the unvarying designations of the two 
lackeys that every family of any pretension always kept 
in those days of display. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



England had Peter, which Peter-pence, perhaps/ hindered 
from being a favourite, and borrowed from the French, Piers 
and Pierce, which, with Peters, Perrins, and Peterson, are 
the surnames, the last, probably, directly taken from the 
Petersen of Holland or Denmark. Feoris is the Erse version 
of Pierce, and the Anglo-Irish family of Bermingham took 
the surname of Mac Feoris from a favourite ancestor so called. 
Pedder or Peer are both much used in the North, and Peter 
in Germany; while the great Muscovite Inade Petr notable in 
his empire. The Irish, regardless of the true history of 
Patricius, want to make St. Patric]^ a namesake of St: Peter, 
and make all their Paddys own not only their national apostle, 
but the prince of apostles, for their patrons. The feminines 
of I^eter are Petronilla, said to have been his daughter, and 
whence has come Petronilla in Spanish, Petronille -shortened 
into Nille in Norway, Pemel or Pamel, once exceeding com- 
mon, though now forgotten, in England; but other female 
names have been made direct from the saint, Peronetta in 
Italy, Perretta in France, and even Petrina in Scotland. A 
little bird has taken its name from St. Peter, the little stormy 
Petrel, so called from her fearless walking on the waves in 
the storm, and the Spanish name of the John Dory is San 
Pedro, from the mark of St. Peter's thumb.* 

























* liddell and Scott ; O'Donovan ; Michaelis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 






























Sbction VI. — Names of Immortality. 

Rejoicing that ^ life and immortality had been brought to 
light' quickly broke out in the very names given to Christians 
at their baptism, and full of import were the appellations 
invented in these early ages of the Church, to express the 
joyful hope of everlasting life. 

Even in the Sanscrit, a-mrita expresses the elixir of life, 
* the amreeta cup of immortality,' which terminates the woes 
of Kailyal in the Curse of Kehamay and according to Hindo- 
myth was produced by the celebrated churning of the ocean. 
The name is traced to a privative and mn, a word to be met 
with again in m>orSj murder, &;c., and the notion of a water 
of life continued to pervade all the Indo-European races* 
Among the Greeks this life-giving elixir was afA^pwrui (am- 
brosia), immediately derived from SjxPpvwi (inmiortal), a 

uiyiiizea dv 




word from the same source. In various legends this ambrosia 
served to express the human craving for heavenly and im- 
mortal food, until, at length in later times, ambrosia came 
to be regarded as the substantial meat of the gods, as nectar 
was their drink. 

It was reserved for Christianity to proclaim the true am- 
brosia, the veritable food of Paradise, and thus it was that 
Ambrosios became a chosen name amongst them, borne in 
especial by that great Archbishop of Milan, who spent one of 
the most illustrious lives recorded in Church history. Already, 
as we may suppose, his fame had spread to Britain when 
Aurelius Ambrosius, the brave champion who so long with- 
stoM the Saxon invaders, bore it and left it to Ambresbury, 
and to the Welsh as Emrys. The Church has never forgotten 
this great saint; and Milan, where his own liturgy has never 
been discontinued, is especially devoted to her Sant' Ambrogio, 
but his history is perhaps a little too much in the clear light 
of day to afford the convenient shadow requisite for name* 
spreading legend, and his name has but moderate popularity. 
If St. Ambrose had not inherited his name from his father, 
it would have seemed an allusion to the swarm of bees that 
settled upon his cradle, presaging his future greatness and 












In the same spirit was formed "AOayatrto^ (Athanasios), from 
the word tfamros (death). The Undying was in itself a name 

uigiiizea oy 'v_jv^v_/ 




of good hope for a Ghristian, and it became dear to the 
'Church at large through the great Alexandrian patriarch, 
the bulwark of the faith. Tet, though it was the Latin 
Church that adopted the creed, or rather hjnm, called after 
him, though not of his composition, it is the East where his 
name has been kept up ; the West, though of course knowing 
it and using it for him individuallj, shows no namesakes 
except in Italy, where it is probably a remnant of the Greek 
influence upon Venice and Naples. The feminine Atanasia 
is, I believe, solely Italian. 






So again the new Christians took the old word dvc^orcun^ 
(meaning an awakening or raising), from drtonz/u (to make^ 
to stand up), and used it to signify the Resurrection ; then 
formed from it Avwrrda-ioi (Anastasios), of the Resurrec- 
tion, — Shaving the elements of the Resurrection within 
him or her, for the feminine Anastasia was as early and 
as firequent as the masculine; indeed the strange caprices 
of fate have decreed that, though the masculine form 
is exceedingly common all over the Eastern Church, it 
should, in spite of three saints in the calendar, one of 
papal dignity, be almost unused in the West, except in 
Bavaria, whilst the feminine, borne by two virgin mar^rs, 
is prevalent everywhere, and more so in Ireland than in any 
other country, probably from some supposed similarity to 
some native name, perhaps Aine (joy), but there is no 
tracing the freaks of Keltic equivalents. England (mce used 
the name more than at present, and then Anglicised it into 
Anstace. It is possible that the surname Anstice may be 
firom the masculine; Anstiss, Anstish, Anstyce, all occur 

:ea dv "^w-jv^v^V 



frequently as female names in the elder pages of a Devon- 
shire parish, where Anstice is now a surname. Anstis Squire 
is in the Froxfield register in 1587, and the name must once 
have been much more usual. 
















Amongst these well-chosen baptismal titles may be men- 
tioned Zmi (Life), no doubt given as meaning that the prin- 
ciple of Eternal Life was then implanted. It is strange that 
neither the Eastern nor Western calendar shows a Zoe, 
though a woman thus entitled was said to have been cured of 
dumbness by a miracle of St. Sebastian, and afterwards to 
have been the first of the martyrs in the persecution in which 
he died, about the year 286. After this, Zoe became fi^ 
quent among the women of the Greek Church, belonging to 
many of the royal ladies of the Blachemal, among others to 
her who endeavoured to shake the constancy of the sea-king, 
Harald Hardrada, to his Muscovite Elisif. From the lower 
empire it travelled to Russia, where Zoia is at present very 
common, and in the time of romantic interest in the new 
Greek kingdom, Zoe became fashionable in France, and still 
is much used there.^ 

• liddeU and Scott; Sonthey, Notes to CuTBe of Kehama; Snorre 
Sturleson, Heimikringla ; Le Bean, Bat Empire, 


by Google 


Section Vn. — Royal Names. 

Scj&o? (Sebas), awe or veneration, was compounded into 
the word ScjSoords (Sebastos), as a translation for Augustus, 
the imperial title coined by Octavianus to express his own 
peculiar sacred majesty. 

It waa not, however, apparently used for the original 
Augustus; at least St. Luke calls him Avyovoro?; and its 
technical use probably did not begin till the division of the 
empire by Diocletian, and his designation of two emperors 
as Augusti or Sebastoi, with their heirs as Casars. 

Subsequently to this arrangement no one would have dared 
to assume the name so intimately connected with the jealous 
wearers of the purple ; and, accordingly, it was a contem- 
porary of the joint emperors, who is the martyr-saint of this 
name — Sebastianus, a soldier at Eome, who, when other 
Christians fled, remained there to encourage the flock in the 
first outburst of the last persecution. He endured a double 
martyrdom; first, by the well-known shower of arrows di- 
rected against him ; and next, after his recovery under the 
care of a pious widow, who had carried away his supposed 
corpse to bury it, he defied the empe)*or again, and was 
beaten to death by clubs in the arena. 

Devout wom^ buried him in the catacombs, and his name 
slept for a hundred years at least till Pope Damasus built a 
church over his catacomb, which has ever since been called 
after him, and subsequent popes made presents of his relics 
to Tuscany, France, and other countries. A notion arose, 
Mrs. Jameson thinks, from his arrows reminding the classical 
world of the darts of Apollo, that he was connected with 
pestilence ; at any rate, there is an inscription in the church 
of St. Peter ad Vincula, explaining how, in 680, during the 
prevalence of a great plague at Rome, a holy man received 
an intimation that it should abate on the erection of an altar 
to St. Sebastian in that church. The altar is in existence. 



and beside it a mosaic, showing the saint as an aged, clothed, 
and bearded man, very unlike the handsome, undraped youth 
whose contortions have grown more excessive and undignified 
in proportion to the anatomical turn of art. He was a great 
favourite, both as soldier, martyr, and guard from pestilence ; 
and to him was ascribed the relief of Milan from the great 
plague of 1575, and of Lisbon in 1599. He must to the 
half-converted Germans have taken the place of Thor. . In 
Tergan there was a bell dedicated to him, inscribed ' Sancius 
SebastiantiSy Thor vester et nosterJ His name is thus found 
all over Europe, though less commonly in England and the 
Protestant parts of Germany than farther south. Indeed its 
especial home is Portugal, where it must have been specially 
cherished in memory of the rash Don Sebastiao, the last of 
the glorious House of Avis, for whose return from the fatal 
African campaign his country so long looked and longed. 

The city of Sevastopol, so sad yet so gallant a memory to 
us English, has one of the few modem names composed cor- 
rectly according to ancient laws of language. It is not, how- 
ever, named after the saint, but is like Sebaste of old, the 
city of the emperor. 




























by Google 








More ancient was the term BcuriXcvs (basileus), a king or 
prince, properly answering to the Latin reXy as did Sebastos 
to Angnstus, but usuallj applied in the Greek-speaking 
countries to the emperor. Thence came many interesting 
words, such as the term used in the empire for courts of royal 
judgment, Basilica, whence upon their conversion into places 
of Christian worship, the title Basilicon became synonymous 
with church. 

So, too, that royal looking serpent who was supposed to 
wear a crown on his head, and to kill with a look, was the 
basilisk ; and the familiar basilicoii ointment was so termed 
as being fit for a king. 

Boo-oX/os (kingly) was not' infrequent among the early 
Christians, and gained popularity through that great father 
of the Church, the Bishop of Neo-Caesarea, as well as other 
more obscure saints. It is extremely common in the Eastern 
Church, and especially in Bussia, where the first letter sufiers 
the usual change into V. There, indeed, it endures the gen- 
eral lot of popular names, and descends to the brute crea- 
tion ; for the male cat goes by the title of Yaschka, as does 
the female of Maschka. The feminine Basilia is still in use 
among the modem Grreeks, and once even seems to have been 
known among English ladies, since the sist^ of Earl Strong- 
bow is thus recorded in history, but its use has died away 
amongst us. 









uigiiized by LjOOQ IC 


Tyrannos (TvpcuTos), which properly meant a master, but 
was used by the early Greeks for a man who had more power 
than suited their republican systems, has passed into the 
obnoxious sense of tyrant in its progress to us. The only 
person I know of thus named was that Tyrannus in whose 
school St. Paul daily disputed; but it is "worth noting as 
one that we shall meet again as the Tiem or Tigheam of the 

Sbction VnX — Irene. 

In heathen days Etpijn; (Eirene), peace, was personified 
and adored as a goddess; in Christian times, when peace on 
earth was preached, she was formed into a name^— that which 
we know as Irene. Irene was the pious widow, whose cares 
revived St. Sebastian after his first martyrdom, and in 303, 
three sisters Agape (love), Irene, and Chionia underwent 
martyrdom at Thessalonica, but Irene seems to have absorbed 
almost all the subsequent honour, although Agapd is occa- 
sionally to be found in modem Greece, and formed the mas- 
culine surname Agapetus, once the property of a pope, and 
still used in Russia. 

Irene was extremely frequent among the Greek empresses, 
and belonged to the lady who would fain have added herself 
to the list of Charlemagne's many wives. Thence the 
Russians have it as Eereena, and in that ancient Greek 
colony at Sorrento, where the women's features so strongly 
re-call their Hellenic descent, Irene is continued as one of 
their baptismal names. 

Thence was derived the name of the great father of the 
Church, Ei^wTvcuos (Eirenaios), Irenseus; but few of the fathers 
had popular names, and Irenaeus has been little copied, ex- 
cept in Eastern Europe, where the Russians call it Iiinej, and 
the Hungarians, Emijd. 

The Teuton/nWand Slavonic mir have been infinitely more 

* Jameson ; Gibbon ; Bntler ; Pott ; Michaelis ; Munter, Oeschichte 
det ChrisUnthwM in Danemark and Nonoegetu 


padocian saint and martyr, of whom nothing was known but 
that he had been a soldier and died in the last persecution, 
bore the name of Georgios, and was deeply reverenced in the 
£a8t, where Gonstantine erected a church in his honour at 
Byzantine. As in the case of St. Christopher, and pro- 
bably of St Alexis, this honoured name became the nudeus 
of the allegory, the warrior saint contending with the dragon, 
aad delivering the oppressed Church, and of course the lovers 
of marvel turned the parable into substance. In 494, Pope 
Gelaaius tried to separate the true Georgius from the legend, 
vrhich he omitted from the offices of the Church, but popular 
fancy was too strong for the pope, and the story was carried 
on till the imaginations of the Crusaders before Jerusalem 
fixed upon St. George as the miraculous champion whom 
they beheld fighting in their cause, as Santiago had done for 
Galicia. Thereby Burgundy and Aquitaine adopted him as 
their patron saint; and the Burgundian Henry carried him to 
Portugal, and put that reahn under his protection ; as a 
hundred years later Richard I. did by England, making ^ St. 
George for merry England ' the most renowned of battle- 
cries. From Burgundy he was taken by the Germans as a 
patron ; and Venice, dways connected with Greece, ahready 
glorified him as her patron, so that ' in the name of St. 
George and St. Michael I dub thee knight,' was the formulary 
throughout half Europe, and no saint had so many chivahrous 
orders instituted in his honour. He became the English 
member of the Seven Champions of Christendom, and 
figured in many a mystery and morality, nay, he still sur- 
vives in the performances of the Christmas Mummers, who, 
however their play may vary in difierent parts of the country, 
never fail to enact St. George. In some places, however, the 
succession of four Greorges on the throne occasioned the vil- 
lage fancy to suppose that the warrior was only the reigning 
monarch, and for die seven years of William IV., the champior 
was turned into King William, and might never have return'^ 
to his true tiUe^ but for the accession of a female sovereigi> . 

VOL.1. uggeaoy^OOgle 


Still the name was less early used in the West than might 
have been expected, perhaps from the difficulty of pro- 
nmiciation. Georgios always prevailed in the East, and came 
to Scotland in the grand Hmigarian importation, with the 
ancestor of the House of Dmmmond, who bear three wavy 
lines on their shield in memory of a great battle fought by 
the side of a river in Hungary, before the Atheling family 
were brought back to England, attended by this Hungarian 
noble. On the usurpation of Harold, he fled with them to 
Scotland, and there founded a family where the Eastern 
Christian name of George has always been an heir-loom. It 
was probably from the same Hungarian source that Germany 
first adopted Greorg, or Jiirgen, as it is differently spelt, and 
thence sent it to England with the House of Brunswick; for, 
in spite of George of Clarence, brother of Edward IV., and 
a few other exceptions, it had been an unusual name pre- 
viously, and scarcely a single George appears in our parish 
registers before i7cx>, although afterwards it multiplied to 
such an extent as to make it doubtfrd whether George, John, 
or Charles be the most common designation of Englishmen. 
The almost entire lack of surnames formed fit)m it proves 
how recent is its popularity, but it sometimes stands alone as 
a surname, and St. George came in with the Normans, as 
once a territorial title. 

The feminine is quite a modernism. The first English 
lady on record, so called, was a godchild of Anne of Den- 
mark, who caused her to be christened Georgia Anna. The 
name had, however, previously existed on the Continent. 

Venice took its Giorgio direct from Greece, but the name 
was not popular elsewhere in Italy ; and at Cambrai, an iso- 
lated instance occurs in the year 1300, nor has it ever been 
common in France. The Welsh Urien (Uranius) descends 
from heaven to earth by considering Greorge as his equivalent 
The Irish translate the name into Keltic as SeoiigL^ 

* liddeU and Soott; Jameson; Butler; Michaelis; ODonoran. 

:ea dv "^wJ v^v_/ 


















































Jurgis ^ 














Section XI. — Barbara. 

Of the four great virgin saints, revered with almost pas- 
sionate affection in the Roman Catholic Ghnrch, each has 
been made the representative of an idea. Probably Agnes, 
Barbara, Katharine, and Margaret were veritable maidens 
who perished in the early persecntions, and whose lives, save 
for some horrible incident in their tortures, were unknown ; 
but around them crystallized the floating all^ories of the 
Church until Agnes became the representative of the triumph 
of innocence, Margaret of the victory through faith, Katha- 
rine of intellectual, and Barbara of artistic devotion. There 
was a speedy lapse from the allegory to the legend, just as 
of old, from the figure to the myth ; and the virgins' popu- 
larity in all countries depended, not on their shadowy names 
in the calendar, but on the implicitly credited tales of wonder 
connected with them. 

Barbara was said to be a maiden of Heliopolis, whose 
Christianity was revealed by her insisting that a bath- 
chamber should be built with three windows instead of two, 
in honour of the chief mystery of the Creed. Her cruel 
father beheaded her with his own hands, and was imme- 
diately destroyed by thunder and lightning. Here, of course, 
was symbolized the consecration of architecture and the fine 
arts to express religious ideas, and St. Barbara became the 
patroness of architects, and thence of engineers, and the 
protectress from thunder and its mimic, artillery. Her name 
has thus been widely spread, though chiefly among the 
daughters of artificers and soldiers, seldom rising to princely 
rank. It is from the Norman village of St. Barbe that the 
old English family so called takes its surname, although 
claiming pure Saxon blood. Barbara is the feminine of 
pappapoi (a stranger), the term applied by the Greeks to all 
who did not speak their own tongue. Home Tooke derives 
it from the root bar (strong), and thinks it a repetition of the 

uigiiizea oy 'v_jv^v_/ 




savage people's own reduplicated bar-bar (very strong) ; but it is 
far more probably an imitation of the incomprehensible speech 
of the strangers ; as, in fact, the Greeks seem rather to have 
Implied it first to the polished Asiatic, who would have given 
them less the idea of strength than the Scyth or the Goth, 
to whose language bar belonged in the sense of force or op- 
position. It is curious to observe how, in modem languages, 
the progeny of the Latin barbanis vary between the sense 
of wild cruelty and mere rude ignorance, or ill-adapted 























. Lett. 








The true old English form is Barbary. It appears thus 
in all the unlatinized pedigrees and registers ; and the pea-^ 
santry still call it so, though unluckily it is generally turned 
into Barbara in writing.* 

• Jameson; Home Tooke; Michaelis. 

d by Google 

Digitized t 


Section Xn. — Agnes. 

The word ayos (agos), a matter of religions awe, gave the 
adjective ayi/os (agnos), sacred or pure, whence was named 
the tree whose twigs the Greek matrons strewed on their 
beds during the festival of Demeter, and which the Romans 
called by a reduplication of its title in both languages, the 
Agnus Castus. Agnus, the Latin for a lamb, is said to have 
come from the consecration of those creatures to sacred pur- 
poses ; and thence, too, came Agnes, the name of the gentle 
Roman maiden, the place of whose martyrdom named the 
church of Sant Agnese. It is said to have been built by 
Constantino the Great only a few years after her death, on 
the spot where she was put to the utmost proof ; and it retains 
ain old mosaic, representing her veiled only by her long hair, 
and driven along by two fierce soldiers. 

Another very ancient church of Sant Agnese covers the 
catacomb where she was interred,. and she has always been 
a most popular saint both in the East and West, but most 
especially at her native city. There a legend became cur- 
rent, probably from her name, that as her parents and other 
Christians were weeping over her grave in the catacomb, she 
suddenly stood before them all radiant in glory, and beside 
her a lamb of spotless whiteness. She assured them of her 
perfect bliss, encouraged them, and bade them weep no m<M« ; 
and thus in all later representations of her, a lamb has always 
been her emblem, though it does not appear in the numerous 
very early figures of her that are still preserved. 

A custom arose at Rome, which remains to the present 
day, that on her feast, the 2ist of January, two lambs 
are brought to the pope to be blessed in her church, after 
which they are shorn, and the wool spun and woven by 
nuns into the palls presented by the pope to each primate. 


by Google 



Strangely and sadly enough, the fact that the Gospel for her 
day was the parable of the ten yirgins, and that her vigil 
was, therefore, specially marked, as well as that she was ac- 
cused of magic arts, and demanded by her persecutors who 
was her betrothed, resulted in the English superstition, that 
by watching and fasting on her eve, maidens could discover 
their fate in marriage ; nay, by praying nine times to the 
moon, and fasting on three St. Agnes' eves in succession, 
they could secure whom they would. A saint who was the 
object of so many legends could not fail of numerous votaries, 
and Agnes was common in England and Scotland, and was 
a royal name in France and Germany. The Welsh form is 
Nest A Welsh Nest was the mother of Earl Robert of 
Gloucester. iJSes, as the Spaniards make it, indicating the 
liquid sound of the gn by the cedilla, gained a mournful fame 
in Portug^ by the fate of Inez de Castro, and InesUa has 
been derived from it, while the former English taste for 
stately terminations to simple old names made th« word 
Agneta. It is more common in Devonshire than in other 
counties. In Durham, there is a curious custom of calling 
any female of weak intellect, ^ a Silly Agnes.' Italy has in- 
vented the masculine Agnolo and Agnello, often confounded 
with Angelo, and used as its contraction.* ' 















« Jameson; Brand, PojpvloT Antiq^itie$; liddeU and Soott; Miohaelis* 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

















Section Xm.— Jfar^are^. 

No name has been the occasion of more pretty fancies 
than MayoptTiTs ( a pear l), itself taken from the Persian term 
for the jewel, Mervarid (child of light), in accordance with 
the beanteous notion that the oysters rising to the surface of 
the water at night and opening their shells in adoration, 
received iAto their mouths drops of dew congealed by the 
moon-beams into the pure and exquisite gem, resembling in 
its pure pale lustre nothing so much as the moon herself, 
* la gran Margheritay as Dante calls her. The thought of 
the pearl of great price, and of the pearl gates of the 
celestial city, no doubt inspired the Christian choice of 
Margarite for that child of light of the city of Antioch in 
Pisidia, whose name as virgin martyr standing in the Litany 
without any authentic history, became, before the fifth century, 
the recipient of the allegory of feminine innocence and faith 
overcoming the dragon, even as St George embodied the 
victory of the Christian warrior. Greek though the leg^d 
were, as well as the name, neither flourished in the Eastern 
Church; but Cremona laid claim to the maiden's relics, and 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Hungary in its first Christianity eagerly adopted her name, 
and reckons two saints so called in the eleventh century, 
besides having sent forth the sweet Margaret Etheling, the 
wife of Malcolm Geanmohr, the gentle royal saint of the 
Grace Gap, who has made hers the national Scottish female 
name. From Scotland it went to Norway wilji the daughter 
of Alexander m., whose bridal cost the life of Sir Patrick 
Spens; and it had nearly come back again from thence with 
her child, the Maid of Norway ; but the maid died on the 
voyage, and Margaret remained in Scandinavia to be the 
dreaded name of the Semiramis of the North, and was ti^^ as 
the equivalent of Astrid and of Grjotgard. From Gremona 
Germany learnt to know the child-like Margarethe, one of 
the saints and names most frequently occurring there ; and 
Provence, then an integral part of the Holy Roman Empire, 
likewise adopted her. From her was called the eldest of the 
four heiresses of Provence, who married St. Louis, leaving 
Marguerite to all perpetuity to the French princesses. Her 
niece, the daughter of Henry HI., was the first English 
Margaret ; but the name was re-imported from France in the 
second wife of Edward I., and again in Margaret of Anjou, 
from whom was called Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry 
YH., and founder of the Lady Margaret professorship. 

Li her grand-daughter, Margaret Tudor, it ceased to be 
royal in England, though it had taken root among the 
northern part of the population, while, strangely enough, it 
hardly ever occurs among the southern peasantry. The 
Italian . reverence for Margherita, or Malgherita, as they 
called her, was increased by the penitence of Margherita <^ 
Gortona, whose repentance became so famed that she was 
canonized; and for the sake of her humility the dai sy became 
hftr eap^ifll Ajn^JpolT and took its French title of marguerite, 
which still survives in England as magweed, the local name 
of the chrysanthemum leucanthemumy or ox-eye daisy. The 
flower of the virgin martyr is the poppy, in allusion to the 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


dragon's blood, and the Margarets of the days of emblems 
were divided between pearls and daisies. St. Louis is said 
to have had for his device a ring of fleurs-de-ljs and daisies, 
with the motto, * Can we find love beyond this ring?' If 
true, this would prove that the daisy was Marguerite before 
the time of the penitent of C!ortona, and that the distinction 
was a late one. Margaret of Anjou assumed the daisy, with 
which the book given to her by stout Earl Talbot is plen- 
tifully besprinkled. Marguerite de Yalois, the brave and 
clever sister of Francis I., was called ^ La Marguerite des 
Marguerites^ but the pearl was her device. Muiy are the 
contractions of this favourite name, too long for the popular 
mouth. The oldest is probably the Scottish Marjorie, as 
Bruce's daughter was called, and which cut down into 
Maisie, the ^ proud Maisie' of the ballad, and later into 
Mysie, and was treated as a separate name. Mr. Lower teDs ns 
that the surname of Marjoribanks is derived from the barony 
of Raltio, granted to Marjorie Bruce on her marriage with 
the High Steward of Scotland. Margaret turned into M^ 
before the time of *Muckle-moued Meg of the Border,' or the 
much prized ^ Mons Meg,' and this as well as Maggie was 
shared with England, which likewise had Margery and Maiget, 
as well as the more vulgar Peggy and Gritty, and likewise 
Madge, the soubriquet given to owls, as was magot-piee, or 
magpies, to those bright black-and-white birds to whom so 
much quaint superstition has always attached. 

The French contraction was in the sixteenth century 
Margot, according to the epitaph, self-composed, of the 
Austrian, Flemish, or French damsel, who was so nearly 
Queen of Spain : 

' 01 git Margot, la gentille demoiselle, 
Qui a deux maris et encore est puceUe.' 

But Oogo is not an improved amendment. Marcharit is the 
Breton form. 


by Google 



In Germany the murdered child in the universal storj of 
the Maclumdal Baum^ says — 

' Maine sweater die Marleeniken 
Socht alle meine Beeniken/ 

Just as in England and Scotland — 

' My sister Margery, gentle May, 
Took all my little bones away.' 

Grrethel also figures in various ' Mahrcheny but Gretchen 
is now most common^ and is rendered classical by Groethe. 
Mete, in the time of Klopstock's sway over the lovers of 
religious poetry, was very fashionable; and Meta almost took 
up her abode in England, though the taste for simplicity has 
routed her of late. Some would have us believe that the 
English Peggy is the remains of the Danish pige (a girl), 
the word that has sufiered that startling change in the sign 
of the Pig and Whistle, once the Pige Washael (the maiden's 
greeting), i.e. the salutation of the Blessed Virgin ! 

Denmark, which with the Semiramis of the North has a 
full right to domesticate the name, calls it Mette and Maret, 
and places it in many a popular tale and ballad as Metelill, 
or little Margaret. 































by Google 






































Ey^ the modem German Jews use it and call it Marialit; 
and the yemacular Gaelic contraction used in Ireland is Yreadj 
though Mairgreg is the proper form.* 

Section XIV. — Katharine. 

The maiden martyr, whose name was chosen as the centre 
of the allegory of intellectual religion, was KaOapwrf (Katha- 
rine), Catharina, in Latin, from a virgin martyr of Alexan- 
dria, whose history being unknown, became another recipient 
of a half-allegorical legend. It is not found recorded 
earlier than the eighth century, and, indeed, the complete 
ignorance of the state of the Roman empire, shown by 
making her the daughter of a King of Egypt, argues its de- 
velopment at a very late period. Her exceeding wisdom, her 

* Beeves, Conehology ; Liddell and Soott; Butler; Miohaelis; Grimm; 
Weber, Northern Bomana, 


by Google 


Iieavenlj espousals, her rejection of the suit of Maximum, the 
destruction of the wheels that were to have torn her in pieces, 
her martyrdom by the sword, and the translation of her 
body by angels to Mount Sinai, are all familiar through the 
numerous artistic works that have celebrated her. The legend 
is thought to have grown up to its full height among the 
monks of the convent that bears her name at the foot of 
Mount Sinai. And the many pilgrims thither had the zest 
of a new and miraculous legend, such as seems always to 
have been more popular than the awful truth beside which it 
grew up ; but it never obtained credit enough in the East to 
make Katharina come into use as a name in the Greek 
Church, and it was only when the Crusaders brought home 
the story that it spread in ballad and mystery throughout 
the West. Indeed, the name did not prevail till it had been 
borne by the Italian devotee, Santa Caterina of Sienna, who 
tried to imagine the original Eatharina's history renewed 
in herself, and whose influence is one of the marvels of the 
middle ages. Before this, however, the fair Katharine, 
Countess of Salisbury, had been the heroine of the Grarter, 
and John of Gaunt had named the daughter, who, as Queen 
of Castillo, made Catalina a Spanish name, whence it re- 
turned to us again with Katharine of Aragon ; but in the 
meantime Catherine de Yalois, the Queen of Henry Y., had 
brought it again from France. 

The cause of the various ways of spelling this word would 
appear to be that the more ancient English made no use of 
the letter f , which only came in with printing and the types 
imported from Germany. Miss Catherine Fanshaw wrote a 
playful poem in defence of the commencement with (7, avouch- 
ing ^ to be no Saxon letter, and referring to the shrewish 
Katharina and the Russian empress as examples of the bad 
repute of the K; but her argument breaks down, since the 
faithful Spanish Catalina, as English queen, wrote herself 
Katherine, while the ' Shrew ' in Italy could only have been 

uiguizeu oy ^OOglC 


Gaterina, and the Russian empress is on her coins Ekaterina. 
On the whole, Eatherine would seem properly to be a name- 
sake of the Alexandrian princess, Catharine, the Votaress of 
Sienna. No name is more miiversal in all countries and in all 
ranks, partly from its own beauty of sound, partly from asso- 
ciation, Bxii none has more varied contractions. Our truest old 
English ones are Kate and Kitty — the latter wasahnost uni- 
yersal in the last century, though now supplanted by the 
Scottish Katie. The gracefrd Irish Kathleen is an adapta- 
tion of the old Ossianic Oathlin, the beam of the wave, 
the name of one of the stars — at least, if we dare depend 
on MTherson so far. 

Catherine has even produced a masculine name. Perhaps 
Anne and Mary are the only others which have been thus 
honoured; but the sole instance is Caterino or Catherin 
Davila, the historian, who had the misfortune to have 
Catherine de Medici for his godmother. Many places testify 
to the popularity of the saint, and the number of hills that 
bear her name are probably so called in honour of her burial 
on Mount SinaL The fireworks termed Catherine-wheels are 
an allusion to the instrument of her torture shattered by 
lightning, and the little Kitty-wren must once have been her 
bird. Moreover, in Italy, Santa Caterina is a term of derision 
applied to an old maid, and is likewise the name of the pray- 
ing mantb, probably fix)m the creature's lean scraggy aspect, 
and its devotional appearance, reminding the irreverent of 
a grim and skinny old spinster. 

The Russian city of Ekatrinenburg was called after the 
empress, and shows the incorrectness of the times, by placing 
a Teuton conclusion to a Slavonic edition of a Greek name.* 

* liddell and Scott; Butler; Jameson; MichaeliB. 


by Google 













































HatiU • 



















Sbction XY.—Earvest Names. 

From Otpia (to heat), came tf^o? (summer) , which, in simny 
Greece came likewise to mean the summer crop, just as in 

uiguizea oy ^OOglC 



Germany herhst serves for both aatanm and harvest. Tbawe 
OMpiia (to retif or gather in the crop), and from this veA, 
the pretty feminine Theresa, the reaper. * The first to bear 
the predestined name of Theresa,' as Montalembert says, wm 
a Spanish lady, the wife of a Roman noble called Paolinis, 
both devotees under the guidance of St, Jerome, whose 
writings most remarkably stamped the memory of his friezwis 
upon posterity ; and this original Theresa was copied again 
and again by her own countrywomen, till we find Teresa on 
the throne of Leon in the tenth century; but it was confined 
to the Peninsula until the sixteenth century, when that re- 
markable woman, Saint Teresa, made the Roman Cadiolic 
Church resound with the fame of her enthusiastic devotion. 
The Spanish connection of the House of Austria rendered 
it a favourite with the princesses both of Spain and Gtermany. 
The Queen of Louis XIV. promoted it in France as Therese, 
and it is specially common in Provence as Terezon, for short, 
Zon. The empress-queen greatly added to its fame; and it 
is known everywhere, though more in Roman Catholic coun- 
tries and families than elsewhere. That it nowhere occurs in 
older English pedigrees is one of the signs that it was the 
property of a saint whose claims to reverence began after the 






















real popularity of the word, witnessed by its many 



changes of sound, is, be it observed, in those Eastern do- 
mains of the empress where her noble spirit won all hearts to 
the well remembered cry ^Moriamur pro Rege Maria Theresia. 
Eustaches has ah^dj been explained as one of these 
harvest names. And to these may be added that of the old 
Cypriot shepherd hermit ^rvpi^w (Spirid5n), from <nn^s (a 
round basket). He was afterwards a bishop, and one of the 
fathers of Nicea, then going home, died at a great age, asleep 
in his com field ; in honour of whom Spiridione, or Spiro, as 
the Italianized Greeks call it, is one of the most popular of 
all names in the Ionian Islands, and has the feminine Spira.* 

Section XVI. — Names from Jewels. 

Margaret, which has been spoken of elsewhere, is the most 
noted of jewel names, but it probably suggested the few 
others that have prevailed. 

^pxpaySos (Smaragdos) is supposed to have be^n named 
from fJLcupio or frnp/jMurta (to twinkle or sparkle), whence the 
dog-8tar was called Maipa (Maira). This beauteous precious 
stone, bearing the colour of hope, was further recommended 
to ChristiaQS because the rambow of St. John's vision was 
< in sight like unto an emerald.' Thus, Smaragdos was one 
of the early martyrs ; and the same occurs occasionally in 
early times, once as an exarch of Ravenna ; but it was never 
frequent enough to be a recognized name, except in two very 
remote quarters, namely, as the Spanish Esmeralda and the 
Cornish Meraud, the last unfortunately now nearly, if not 
quite, extinct. 

The Sapphire would have seemed marked for ever from the 
nomenclature of Christians by the fate of the unhappy Sap- 
phira, nevertheless Sair<^p(i} (Sapphero), a name thus derived, 
is used among the modem Greeks of die Ionian Islands ; and 
80 also is Aio/iaini) (Diamante). 

For want of a better place, the Italian name Gemma must 

« liddeU and Soott; Montalembert; SurioB; Anderson, Qsnedloifiei. 

VOL. I. u,„uzeu?v^v.Ogle 


here be mentioned, though purely Latin, and coming from a 
word meaning the young crimson bad of a tree, though since 
used for a gem or jewel. In Erse gemlorg, gem-Hke, is almost 
exactly the same in sonnd and spirit. 

Moreoyer, both precious metals are used as female names 
in modem Greece, Kfrfyna (Argyro) silver, connecting itself 
with the Arianwy, or silver, of Wales ; and Xpiwwxa (Chiy- 
soucha) from Xpwroi (Ghrysos), gold. This latter word 
has formed many other names, beginning from Ghryses and 
his daughter Ghryseis, whose ransom was the original cause 
of * Achilles' wrath of mighty woes the spring.' In the 
soubriquet of Ghrysostomos, or Golden Mouth, we have al- 
ready seen it, and it is found also in Xfwowtfo? (Ghrysanthoe), 
golden flower, the husband of Saint Daria, in whose honour 
prevails the Bavarian Ghrysanth or SanterL 

I strongly suspect that the patient Grissel is a 'golden 
heroine.' True, ilda is a Teutonic termination, taken 
from the Valkyr Hilda; but, on the other hand, QrUj 
or Grrey, is nowhere else a Teutonic commencement, and 
it was a known custom of the Lombards to alter the Chi 
of the Greeks into (3^, as in Gristoforo, Grisostomo, as well 
as to put on feminine terminations without regard to analogy. 

Now, Griselda first came to fame in Boccaccio's Decamt" 
roney though she is said to have existed previously ; and hers 
is probably one of the tales of universal popularity, found 
in so many places as to be nowhere fixed. The British 
Enid, whom she supplanted in the regard of Englishm^iy 
was probably another form of the same theory of passive 
obedience. Petrarch repeated Boccaccio's tale to Ghaucer; 
he gave it to his clerk in the Canterbury Tales, and soon after 
it was translated from the Italian in many difierent forms, 
and spread all over France and Germwiy, in * mystery,' poem, 
and tale ; but nowhere did the heroine obtain so many name- 
sakes as in Scotland, where Grizel, Grissel, or Girzie has 
ever since prevailed among high and low, and found an even 

J DV >wJ V^V./ 



more perfect and indubitable oimer in the admirable Lady 
Grisell Baillie. 

If Griselda be not properly Chrysilda (the golden), she 
is most likely to be a corrupt Italian form of Grimhilda or 
Kriemhild, the avenging dame in the Nibelungen Lied. I 
find Groesia or Grriselda de Bruere in the time of Henry HL; 
but Griselda may have been only an adaptation of an earlier 
Norman name. Qrisley occurs in the register of Madron, 
Cornwall, in 1662. 

Muriel, an almost obsolete English name, comes from livpw 
(myrrh). Both it and Meriel were once common.* 

Sbgtion Xyn. — Kosmos and Damicmos. 

The pursuit of the relics of saints had already begun even 
in the fourth century. No church was thought thoroughly 
consecrated save by the bones of some sainted Christian, and 
it was during the first fenrour that led men to seek the bodies 
of the martyrs in their hiding places, that St. Ambrose dis- 
covered the bodies of two persons at Milan, whom a dream 
pronounced to be Kosmos and Damianos, two martyred 

They, of course, were placed among the patrons of Milan, 
and their names became favourites in Italy. Kosmos origi- 
nally meant order ; but, having been appUed to the order of 
nature, has in our day come usually to mean the universe. 

Gosimo, or Cosmo, as the Italians called it, was used at 
Milan and Florence, where it gamed renown in the person of 
the great man who made the family of Medici eminent, and 
prepared the way for their aspirations to the elevation that 
proved their bane and corruption. France calls the word 
Come without using it as a name, and Russia adopts it as 

Damianos was from the verb 8<ilfuu», identical with our own 

* Smith, Life 0/ Chaucer; Butler; Michaelis. 

uigiiized by LjOOQ iC 


tame, which we have already seen in combination. He had 
a good many chiyahrons namesakes, as Damiano, Damiao, 
Damien, and the Russians call him Demjan. The old Welsh 
Dyfan is another form strangely changed by pronunciation. 

From this word Safuuo came Aa/ioX^ (Damales), meaning, 
in the first place, a tamer or conqueror ; secondly, a young 
ox ; and the feminine AofioXis signified either a feminine 
conqueror or a heifer. So when Damalis, the wife of the 
Athenian general, Chares, died near Byzantium, where he 
was stationed with his fleet, he erected a monument over her, 
with a statue in form of a cow, and the place of her burial 
was called Damalis, either from her, or from a myth Ihat the 
place was so called from lo having landed there in her cow 
shape, in the legend in which Greece shows her kindred to 
the Brahmins and their sacred cow, and to the Northern 
races with their Audumbla. 

Damalis was a common name at Athens, and it is thought 
that this was the right form of Damaris, St. Paul's Athenian 
female convert, supposed to have been the wife of Dionysius, 
the Areopagite. This, as a Scripture name, appears in the 
register of St. Golumb Magna in 1745. 

Section XVJU.-^Aleihea, ^e. 

'AX^cca (Aletheia), truth, came firom a and \:rfi<a (to hide), 
and thus means openness and sincerity. 

When it first came to be used as a name is not clear. 
Aletha, of Padua, appears in 1411 ; and the princess, on 
whose account Charles I., when Prince, made his journey to 
Spain, was Do&a Maria Aletea. . About that time Alethea 
made her appearance in the noble family of Saville, and 
either to a leal or imaginary Alethea were addressed the 
famous lines of the captive cavalier : — 

* Stone walls do not a prison make, 
Nor iron bars a cage.* 


by Google 


Moreover, in 1669, Alethea Brandling, at the age of 
nine, was married to one Henry Hitch, esq., and the name 
occurs several times in Durham pedigrees. 

As far as the English Alethea is concerned, she is pro- 
bablj the alteration of an Irish name, for she chiefly belongs 
to the other island, and is there called Letty. What femi- 
nine it was meant to translate must be uncertain, perhaps 
Tuathflaith (the noble lady), or a name introduced by Mac 
Pherson as belonging to the mother of one of his heroes, 
and which he renders as Ald-clatha, or decaying beauty. 

The name Althea must not be confounded with it. G^iis 
last is AAtfcia (wholesome). It belonged of old to the un- 
fortunate mother of Meleager, and now designates a genus 
of mallows in allusion to their healing power. 

We find the prefix wpo, forming part of the word wpoKcmj 
(progress), whence the name .IIpoKoirios (Prokopios) ; in Latin, 
Procopius, progressive. It was the name of a martyr under 
Diocletian, in Palestine, and is a favourite in the Greek 
Church. The short-lived successor of Jovian was so called ; 
also the great Byzantine historian ; ana now Prokopij is very 
common among the Russian clergy ; and Prokop or Prokupek 
has found its way into Bohemia. Russia, likewise, uses in 
the form of Prokhor, the name of Prochorus (npop^opas), one 
of the seven deacons, and much Grsecized indeed must the 
imaginations of his parents have been when they gave him 
such an appellation, signifying the leader of the choral 
dances in the Greek theatres. 

*Ap4ifid\Xu> is to cast around — so we may understand 
Amphiballus to mean embracing. It was the name of that 
priest for whose sake St. Alban gave himself up to mar- 
tyrdom; nor did the Keltic Church forget him ; he was the 
original patron of Winchester Cathedral, and so late as 
1673 Anthiball appears in Cornwall. 


by Google 




HiTHEBTO we have had to deal with names at once explained 
by the language of those who originally bore them. With 
a very few exceptions, chiefly in the case of traditional 
deities, the word has only to be divided into its component 
parts, and its meaning is evident, while there was a constant 
fabrication of fresh appellations in analogy with the elder 
ones, and suited to the spirit of the times in which they 
were bestowed. 

But on passing the Gulf of Adria we come upon a nation 
of mingled blood, and even more mingled language, con- 
stantly in a condition of change; their elder history dis- 
guised by legends, their ancient songs unintelligible to the 
very persons who sang them, their very deities and rites con- 
fused with those of Greece, till they were not fully understood 
even by their most cultivated men ; and their names, which 
were not individual but hereditary, belonging to forgotten 
languages, and often conveying no signification to their owner. 

The oldest inhabitants of Italy are thought to have been 
Pelasgi, which is argued, among other causes, from the 
structure of the language resembling the Greek, and from 
the simple homely terms common to both; but while the 
Pelasgi of the Eastern Peninsula became refined and brought 
to perfection by the Hellenes, the purest tribe of their own 
race, those of ^e Western Peninsula were subjected to the 

J DV -^^-J V^V./ 



influence of various other nations. In the centre of Italy 
the Pelasgians appear to have been overrun by a race called 
Oscans, IViscans, or Gascan^ who became fused with them^ 
and called themselves Prisci Latini, and their country 
Latium or Lavinium. Their tongue was the elder Latin, 
and the Oscan is believed to have supplied the element 
which is not Greek, but has something in common both with 
Kelt and Teuton. These Latins were, there can be no 
doubt, the direct ancestors of the Romans, whose political 
constitution, manners, and language, were the same, only in 
an advanced condition. 

Roman legend and poetry brought the fugitive iBneas 
from Troy to conquer Latium, and found Alba Longa ; and 
after the long line of Alban kings, the twins, Romulus and 
Remus, founded the City of the Seven Hills, and filled it with 
Latins, i.e. the mixed Pelasgic and Oscan race of Latium. 
The first tribe of pure Oscans who came in contact with the 
Romans are the Sabines, who, after the war begun by the 
seizure of the Sabine women, made common cause with Rome, 
and thus contributed a fresh Oscan element to both blood 
and language. The Oscan race extended to the South, 
divided into many tribes, and their language was spoken in 
a pure state by the southern peasantry far on into Roman 
history. The numerous Greek colonies which caused the 
South to be termed Magna Gratia, became in time mingled 
with the Oscans, and gave the whole of Apulia, Bruttium, and 
Calabria, a very different character frt>m that of central Italy. 

Northward of Latium was the powerful and mysterious 
race calling themselves the Raseni, and known to the 
Romans as TuscL They are usually called Etruscans, and 
their name still survives in that of Tuscany. They are 
thought by some to have been Keltic, but their tongue is 
not sufficiently construed to afford proof, and their whole 
history is lost. Their religion and habits were unlike those 
of their Roman neighbours, and they were in a far more 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


adyanced state of civilization. In the time of Tarquinins 
Priscus they obtained considerable influence over Rome, many 
of whose noblest works were Etruscan ; and though this powCT 
was lost in the time of Tarquinius Superbos, and long wars 
were waged between Rome and Etroria, the effects of their 
intercourse lasted, and many institutions were traceable to 
the Etruscan element. Of the Roman families, some con- 
sidered themselves descended from different Latin tribes, 
others from Sabines, others from Etruscans ; and their gene- 
alogy was carefully observed, as their political position de- 
pended upon it. 

Their nomenclature was, in fact, the immediate parent of 
our own. 

Every Roman citizen had necessarily two names. The 
second of these was the important one which marked his 
hereditary position in the state, and answered to our sur- 
name. It was called the nomenj or name, par excellence^ and 
was inherited from his father, belonging also to the entire 
gens^ or tribe, who considered themselves to have a common 
ancestor, and who, all alike, whether wealthy or otherwise, 
took the rank of their gens, whether patrician, equitial, or 
plebeian. The daughters of the gens were call^ by the 
feminine of its name, and sometimes took that of the gens 
of their husband, but this was not always the custom. 

Besides these large tribes, there were lesser ones of families. 
K an ancestor had acquired an additional appellation, whether 
honourable or ludicrous, it passed to all his male descendants, 
thus distinguishing them from the rest of their gens, and 
was called the cognomen. For instance, after Marcus 
Manlius had saved the capitol, Gapitolinus would be the 
cognomen not merely of himself but of his posterity; and 
again, Lucius Crassus having obtamed the nickname of Dives, 
or the rich, it adhered to his son in the most abject poverty. 
The cognomina did not pass to females until the very late 
times, when the old habits of nomenclature were disturbed. 

:ea dv "^wJ v^v_/ 



Clients and freedmen took the gentile name of their patron, 
and when the fireedom of Rome was granted to a stranger^he 
took the gentile name of him from whom it was received, 
thus infinitely spreading the more distinguished nomina of 
the later republic and early empire, and in the Romanized 
countries gradually becoming the modem hereditary surname, 
the convenience of the family distinction causing it to be 
gradually adopted by the rest of the world. When the last 
of a gens adopted the son of another tribe to continue his 
line, the youth received the nomen and one or more cogno- 
mina of his new gens, but brought in that of his old one 
with the augmentative anus. As for instance, Publius 
^milius PauUus being adopted by Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Africanus, became Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus ^mili- 
anus, and his daughter was simply Cornelia. Again Caius 
Octavius, as adopted into the Julian gens, became Caius 
Julius Caesar Octavianus ; and the emperors bemg all adopted, 
arrived at such a multitude of names that the accumulation 
was entirely useless, and they were called by a single one. 

Added to' all these family names, each man had his own 
individual name, which was bestowed in later times, or 
more properly registered when, at the age of fourteen, he 
laid aside the childish tunic and buUa, or golden ball, which 
he had worn from infancy, and assumed the toga virtlis^ or 
manly gown, white edged with purple, which was the regular 
Roman dress. In the latter days, the prsenomen, was given 
on the eighth day, with a lustratio or washing of the infant. 
There was a very small choice of Roman prsenomina not above 
seventeen; an initial was sufficient to indicate which might be 
intended, nor did ladies receive their feminines in the earlier 
times. By which name a man might be called was arbitrary ; 
the gentile name was the distinction of rank, and perhaps the 
most commonly used by his acquaintance, unless the tribe 
were very large, when the cognomen would be used; and 
among brothers the prsenomen was brought in first as the 

:ea dv >wJ v^v_/ 


Christian name is with us. The great Marcus Tullins Cicero 
was called Cicero by those who only knew him politically, 
while to his correspondents he was Tnllius; his son, of the 
same name, was termed Marcus Cicero ; his brother, Qointos 
Cicero ; and Caius Julius CsBsar figures in contemporary cor- 
respondence as C. Caesar. 

In Christian times, the lustratio at the giving of the prse- 
nomen had become Holy Baptism, thus making our distinc- 
tion between baptismal and hereditary names. The strict 
adherence to the old prsenomina had been ahready broken 
into, especially in favour of women, who had found the univer- 
sal gentile name rather confusing, and had added to it femi- 
nine prsenomina or agnomina, had changed it by diminuticm or 
augmentation, or had taken varieties from the other gentee to 
which they were related. Christianity had given individuality 
to w(Hnan, and she was no longer No. i, or No. 2, the pro- 
perty of the gens. Significant names, Greek names, or 
saintly ones were chosen as prsenomina, and the true Christian 
name grew up from the old Roman seventeen. Besides these, 
the numerous slaves, who formed a large part of the Roman 
population, had each a single name, some foreign and dis- 
guised by Latin pronunciation, but others altered from their 
masters' names, and some Latin words expressing some 
peculiarity or word of good augury. Some of these slaves 
were among the martyrs of the Church, and their names were 
bestowed on many an infant Christian. Others were after- 
wards formed from significant Latin words, but far fewer than 
from Greek words, the rigid hereditary customs of Latin 
nomenclature long interfering with the vagaries of invention, 
and most of these later not being far removed from classical 

It should be observed that the original Latin word, espe- 
cially if descriptive or adjectival, usually ends in t^, represent- 
ing the Greek 09, and in t^e oblique cases becomingtando — in 
ihevocativee. When it was meant to signify one of or belong- 


uigiiizeu Dv " 


ing to this first, the termination was itis — thus from Tullius 
comes one belonging to TnUus — Tullius, in the vocative t; 
and again, one of the gens adopted into another, would be- 
come Tullianus, — Tullus, Tullius, Tullianus. The diminutive 
would be itttts, or ioluSy and i^ time became a separate name : 
Marcus, Marcius, Marcianus, Marcellus. In the adoption 
of Latin bj the barbarous nations, the language was spoken 
without the least attention to declension ; the Italians and 
Spanish used only the dative termination, making all their 
words end in 0; but the former preserving the nominative 
plural t, and the latter the accusative plural os^ while the 
French stopped short at the simple elementary word, and 
while finishing it in writing with an e, discarded all pro- 
nunciation of its termination. The vocative was their 
favourite case in pronunciation, and has passed to us in our 
usual terminal y. The a of feminine names was retained by 
Italy and Spain; cutofi' by France, Germany, and England.^ 

* Niebnhr, Rome ; Arnold, Rome: Smith, Dictionary of Qreek and 
Roman Antiquities; Max Mailer. 


by Google 




Section I. — Aulusy Caius^ CSmbus^ Ccmo. 

Foe the sake of convenient classification, it may be best to 
begin the Latin names with the original prsenomina and their 
deriyatives, few in number as they are, and their origin in- 
volved in the dark antiquity of the Roman pre-historic times. 
The chief light thrown upon them is in a work entitled De 
Factis Didisque Memorahilihus^ compiled by one Marcus 
Valerius Maximus, in the Augustan age, to which is appended 
a dissertation on Roman prsenomina of doubtful authorship; 
but whether by Valerius himself, or his abridger and imitator, 
the earliest information we possess as to these home appella- 
tions of the stem conquerors of the world. 

To begin with the first alphabetically, Aulus, which Vale- 
rius derives from the verb do (to sustain or nourish), Avli^ 
those bom to the sustaining gods. It was not a very com- 
mon prsenomen, and though it was the origin of a gens known 
as the Aulii, has not passed on to modem times. Some, how- 
ever, make it from avh (a court), the same word as halL 

C»so, from ccedo (to cut), was a praenomen more in favour 
in the early days of the republic than in later times, though 
it had belonged both to Gincinnatus and to the noble Fabian 
gens. It has been suggested as the source of the famous cog- 
nomen Cffisar, but there are other and more satisfactory hy- 
potheses on this point. The nomen Gsesius, of a plebeian gens, 
certainly arose from it. Cn«us, the prenomen of * Pompey, 
sumamed the big, is from nasvua'* (a birth mark). 

Gains, or Gaiius as the elders spelt it, was one of the most 

non of all Roman prsenomina, and was pronounced Gains, 

is written in St. Paul's mention of ^ Gains mine host' 

CAIU8. 285 

Men indicated it by the initial C ; women who bore it, used 
the same C reversed (O) on coins or inscriptions. Valerius, or 
his imitator, deduces it from gaudium parentum, the parents' 
joy, but it is more nearly connected with the Greek source of 
gavdeo (yauo) , to exult in. When a Roman marriage took place 
with the full ceremonies, such as rendered divorce impossible, 
the names Gains and Caia always stood for those of the mar- 
ried pair in the formulary of prayer uttered over them while 
they sat on two chairs with the skin of the sheep newly sacri- 
ficed spread over iheir heads; and when the bride was con- 
ducted to her husband's house, spindle and distaff in hand, 
she was demanded who she was, and replied * Where thou art 
Gains, I am Gaia;' and having owned herself his feminine, 
she was carried over his threshold, to prevent the ill omen 
of touching it with her foot, and set down on a sheepskin 
within. From this rite all brides were called Gaise. It is said 
that it was in honour of Tanaquil, whose Roman name was 
Gaia Gsecilia, and who was supposed to be the model Roman 
woman, fulfilling the epitome of duties expressed in the pithy 
saying, Domum mansity lanam fecit (she staid at home and 
spun wool), and was therefore worshipped by Roman maids and 
matrons. Gains was the prsenomen of Julius Gaesar, as well 
as of many other illustrious Romans, and it was the appella- 
tion by which the unfortunate fourth emperor was known 
during his life-time, though history has chosen to distinguish 
him by his nick-name of Galigula, given to him from his hav- 
ing worn the caligay or shoe of the common soldier, during 
his father's campaigns in Grermany. This then was the 
Gallic shoe, Q-dlugay or Gallicula, at Rome, in old Spanish 
becoming Q-dbches^ which, through France, named our Galosh 
or over-shoe. The Romans introduced Gains into Britain, and 
ihe Sir Kay, seneschal of Arthur's court, who appears in the 
romances of the Round Table, was probably taken from a 
British Gains; but the Highland clan, Mackay, are not sons 
of Gains, but of Ey. Gains GoUege, at Gambridge, is from 
its founder, Dr. Gains. u,, ,zea o ^ v^ ^.^ t^ 


It was probably from a word of the same source, that the 
Italian town and promontory of Caieta were so called, though 
the Romans believed the name to be taken irom Caieta, the 
nurse of ^neas, a dame who only appears among Latin authors. 
The city has become Gaeta in modem pronunciation, and from 
it has arisen the present Italian Gaetano. Who first was 
thus christened does not appear, but its popularity began on 
the canonization of Ghietano di Thienna, aVicentine noble and 
monk, who, in 1524 instituted the Theatine order of monks. 
He himself had been called after an uncle, a canon of Padua, 
learned in the law; but I cannot trace Gaetano back any fur- 
ther. It is in right of this saint, however, that it has become 
a great favourite in Italy. The Portuguese call it Gaetano, the 
Spaniards, Cajetano ; the Slavonians (who must have it through 
Venice), Kajetan or Gajo. It was a family name in Dante's 
time, and his contemporary. Pope Boniface "VJLLL, of whom he 
speaks with some scorn, had been Benedetto Gaetano.* 

Section n. — Lucius. 

Lux (light), gave the very favourite prsenomen Lucius, one 
bom at day-light. Many an L at the opening of a Roman 
inscription attests the frequency of this name, which seems 
first to have come into Rome with Lucius Tarquinius Prisons, 
and was derived from his family by the first Bratus. The 
feminine Lucia belonged to a virgin martyr of Syracuse, whose 
name of light being indicated by early painters by a lamp or 
by an eye, led to the legend that her beautiful eyes had been 
put out. At least, such is said to have been the continental 
notion ; but in her legend in old English, written about 1350 
or 60, and now among the Harleian MSS., nothing is said 
about her eyes, only there is an attempt to cut ofi* her head ; 
and after her neck is cut through, she goes on preaching till 
she has received the Holy Eucharist. 

The Sicilian samts were, b& has been already said, parti- 

* Smith; Diefenbach, CelHea Batler; Miohaelis. 

uigmzea oy ^OOglC 



cularly popular, and Santa Lucia is not only the patroness of 
the Italian fishermen, and the namesake of their daughters, 
but she was early adopted by the Normans ; and even in the 
time of Edward the Confessor, the daughter of the Earl of 
Mercia had been thus baptized, unless indeed her husband, 
Iyo Taillebois, translated something English into Lucia. The 
house of Blois were importers of saintly names, and Lucie, a 
sister of Stephen, was among those lost in the White Ship. 
The name has ever since flourished, both in England and 
France, but was most popular in the former during the seven- 
teenth century, when many noble ladies were called Lucy, but 
poetry chose to celebrate them as Lucinda, or some other 
fashionable variety of this sweet and simple word« 












The lady has here had the precedence, because of her far 
greater popularity, but the masculine is also interesting to us. 
The root Iilc (light) is common to all the Lido-European lan- 
guages; and ancient Britain is said to have had a king called 
Lleurwg ap Coel ap Cyllin,or Llewfer Mawr (the Great Light), 
who was the first to invite teachers of the Gospel to his country. 
He is latinized into Lucius, and this word has again furnished 
the Welsh Lies. Nothing can be more apocryphal than the 
whole story, but it probably accounts for the use of Lucius 
amongst Englishmen just after the Reformation, when there 
was a strong desire among them to prove the conversion of 
their country to be anterior to the mission of Augustine. 
Named at this time, Lucius Gary, Viscount Falkland, ren- 
dered the sound honourable, though it has not become com- 
mon. Luoio, or Luzio, is hereditary in Italy,z The Iri^v 


Lucius is the equivalent of the native Lachtna and Loi- 

The Lucillian gens of the plebeian order was formed from 
Lucius, and thence arose Lucilla, borne by several Roman 
empresses, and a local saint at Florence; and in later times 
considered as another diminutive of Lucy. 

Lucianus, on the other hand, was an augmentation, and 
having belonged to several saints, continued in use in Italy as 
Luciano or Luziano, whence Lucien, the honourable man of 
the Buonaparte family, derived his appellation, so plainly 
marking him, like his brother, as an Italian Frenchified. 

Luciana has continued likewise in Italy, and was anciently 
Lucienne in France. Perhaps the English Lucy Anne may 
be an imitation of it 

Lucianus contracted into Lucanus as a cognomen, and thus 
was named the Spanish poet, Marcus Annseus Lucanus, usu- 
ally called m English Lucan; but it has a far iiearer interest 
to us. Gognomina in antiSy contracted into the Greek 09, 
were frequently bestowed on slaves or freed-men, especially 
of Greek extraction. These were often highly educated, 
and were the librarians, secretaries, artists, and physiciaDS 
of their masters, persons of Jewish birth being especially 
employed in the last mentioned capacity. Thus does the 
third Evangelist, the beloved physician and reputed painter, 
bear in his name evidence of being a Greek-speaking pro- 
teg6 of a Roman house, Aov/cas (Lukas) being the Greek 
contraction of Lucanus or Lucianus. ^ Bis sound hath gone 
out into all lands,' and each pronounces his name in its own 
fashion ; but he is less popular as a patron than his brethren, 
though more so in Italy than elsewhere. 




Spanish and 



by Google 











There is a story of a clergyman who, puzzled by the reply 
of the sponsors when he ask^ the child's name, * Lucy, sir,' 
exclaimed, ^ Lucifer ! I shall give him no such name ; I 
shall call him John,' and so accordingly christened the un- 
lucky girl. 

But, in fact, Lucifer is no profane or satanic title. It is 
the Latin Luciferus, the light bringer, the morning star, 
equivalent with the Greek 4>osi>opo^y and was a Christian 
name in early times, borne even by one of the popes. It 
only acquired its present association from the apostrophe of 
the ruined King of Babylon in Isaiah as a fallen star : 'How 
art thou fallen from heaven, Lucifer, son of the morning !' 
Thence as this destruction was assuredly a type of the fall 
of Satan, Milton took Lucifer as the title of his demon of 
pride, and thence ' as proud as Lucifer ' has become a very 
proverb, and this name of the pure pale herald of day-light 
has become hateful to Christian ears. 

Lucretius, the name of a noted old gens, is probably from 
the same source, though some take it from lucrvm (gain), 
^ Lucrece, combing the fleece under the midnight lamp,' that 
fine characteristic Roman tale, furnished Shakespeare with an 
early poem ; and Lucrezia was one of the first classic names 
received by the Italians ; and though borne by the notorious 
daughter of the Borgias, has continued fashionable with them 
and with the French, who make it Lucrece ; while we have 
now and then a Lucretia, learnt probably from the fanciful 
designations of the taste of the eighteenth century.* 

* Smith; Butler; Kitto; Jameson. 

VOL. I. 

DiUzed by Google 


8BCTI0N in. — Marcus. 

The origin of Marcus, represented by the My so often a 
Roman initial, is involved in great doubt. It has been de- 
duced from the Greek /toAaicos (soft or tender), a very un- 
congenial epithet for one of the race of iron. Others derive it 
from mas (a male), as implying manly qualities ; and others, 
fix)m Mars, or more correctly, Mavors or Mamers, one of the 
chief of the old Latin deities. Diefenbach thinks also that 
it may be connected with the Keltic Marc (a horse), and 
with die verb to march. 

In the ancient conception. Mars was half warlike, half agri- 
cultural, of the stem, grave, honest, old Roman nature, well 
worthy to be the parent of Rome ; but he suffered much by 
being confounded with the blood-thirsty and voluptuous Ares 
of the Greeks, and better suited such votaries as ruined the 
provinces, than the grave, self-restrained warriors of the 
olden time. From wherever derived, Marcus was a frequent 
name in almost every gens ; but after Marcus Manlius Capi- 
tolinus had effaced the memory of his eminent services by 
his championship of the lower orders, his praenomen was 
prohibited in his family. 

It extended into all the provinces, and was that by which 
John, sister's son to Barnabas, was known to the Romans. 
Tradition identifies him with the Evangelist, who, under St. 
Peter's direction, wrote the Gospel especially intended for 
* strangers of Rome,' and who afterwards founded the Church 
of Alexandria, and gave it a liturgy. In consequence, 
Markos has ever since been a favourite Greek name, espe- 
cially among those connected with the Alexandrian patri- 
archate. In the days, however, when relic-hunting had be- 
come a passion, some adventurous Venetians stole the re- 
mains of the Evangelist from the pillar in the Alexandrian 
church, in which they had been built up, and transferred 
them to y^ce. 





The popular imagination does not seem to have supposed 
the saints one whit displeased at any sacrilegious robberies, 
for San Marco immediately was constituted the prime patron 
of the city ; and, having been supposed to give his almost 
visible protection in perils by fire and flood, the Republic it- 
self and its territory were known as his property, and the 
special emblem of the state was that shape among the Cheru- 
bim which had been appropriated as the token suited to his 
Gospel, namely, the lion with eagle's wings, the Marzocco, 
as the populace termed it. 

Marco was the name of every fifth man at Venice, and the 
winged lion being the stamp on the coinage of the great 
merchant city, which was banker to half the world, a marc 
became the universal title of the piece of money which, 
though long disused in England, has left traces of its value 
in the legal fee of six-and-eightpence. 

The chief popularity of the Evangelist's name is in Italy, 
especially Lombardy ; though the Greek Church, as in duty 
bound, has many a Markos, and no country has ceased to 
make use of it. Some, such as Niebuhr for his Roman-bom 
son, and a few classically inclined English, have revived the 
ancient Marcus ; but, in general, the word follows the national 




Spanish and 

Esthonian and 


Polish and 




From Marcus sprang the nomen Martins, or, as it was 
later written, Marcius, belonging to a very noble gens of 
Sabine origin, which gave a king to Rome, and afterwards 
was famous in the high-spirited and gentle-hearted Cnaeus 
Marcius Coriolanus. 

d by Google 

Digitized b 


The daughters of this gens were called Marcia, and this 
as Marzia, Marcie, Marcia, has since been used as the femi- 
nine of Mark. From Martins again came Martinua, the 
name of the Roman soldier who divided his doak with the 
beggar, and afterwards became Bishop of Tours, and com- 
pleted the conversion of the Gads. He might well be one 
of the favourite saints of France, and St. Martin of Tours 
rivalled St. Denjs in the allegiance of the French, when 
kings and counts esteemed it an honour to belong to his 
chapter ; and yet Martin occurs less frequently in French his- 
tory than might have been expected, though it is to be found 
a good deal among the peasants, and is a surname. Dante 
speaks of Ser Martino as typical of the male gossips of Flo- 
rence ; and from the great prevalence of the surname of Martin 
in England, it would seem to have been more often given 
as a baptismal name. Martin was a notable king of Aragon ; 
but zealous Romanist countries have perhaps disused Martin 
for the very reason that Germans love it, namely, that it 
belonged to ^ Dr. Martinus Luther,' as the learned would call 
the Augustinian monk, whose preachings opened the eyes of 
his countrymen. 

Junker Marten is the wild huntsman of Baden, from the 
usual legend of a wicked knight of that title. In the High- 
lands, however, the fox is Giolla Martin, the servant of 
Martin, it is thought, from his being as fatal to geese 
as Martinmas Day, which formerly in England, as now 
on the Continent, was the day of devouring them, so that 
his very feast is marked on clog almanacks with a goose; 
and a medal was struck in Denmark with Martinalia as the 
inscription, and a goose on the reverse. And probably born 
the fr^uency of the name, Martin is a donkey in France. 

St. Martin also owns a great number of birds, besides 
Martina (the eel) in Spanish. In the MS., BomafiduEenard 
the raven is Avis *Sandi Martini ; but in Spain, France, and 
Italy, he owns the Fako Oyaneus ; Martinets is a heron in 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Spanish, may be from his eating eek ; but the French call 
the kingfisher Martinet Picheur^ perhaps from his swallow- 
like skimming over the water, since they haye the Martinet^ 
as we have the Martin, perhaps as a term of endearment. 
Martlet seems to be a corruption of Martinet. We cannot 
forget how King Duncan looks at the Martlet's nests at 
Donsinane ; nor the quaint cause assigned by heralds for 
making the legless martin the badge of the fourth son, 
because he must fly away, having no land to stand on. 




Italian and 










Martina was one of the young Roman girls who endured 
the fiery trial of martyrdom under the Emperor Decius. Her 
plant is the maidenhair fern, so great an ornament to the 
Boman fountains ; and her name, whether in her honour, or 
as the feminine of Martin, is occasionally found in Italy, 
France, and England. 

Marcianus was an augmentative of Marcus, whence Mar- 
ciano or Marcian were formed. Marcellus is the diminutive, 
and became the cognomen of the great Glaudian gens. 
Marcus Claudius Marcellus was the conqueror of Syracuse, 
and the last of his direct descendants is that son of Octavia 
and nephew of Augustus, the prediction of whose untimely 
death is placed by Virgil in the mouth of his forefather, 
Anchises, in the Elysian Fields. St Marcellus was a young 
Roman soldier who figures among the warrior samts of 

J DV "V-J V^V> 



Venice, and now and then has a French namesake called 

Marcella was a pious widow, whose name becoming known 
through her friendship with St. Jerome, took the French 
fancy ; and Marcelle has never been uncommon among them, 
nor Marcella in Ireland. 

Marcellianus, another derivatiye from Marcellus, was the 
name of an early pope, whence Marcellin is at least known 
in France. 

From Mars again came Marius, the fierce old warrior of 
terrible memory ; but who, in the form of Mario, is supposed 
by the Italians to be the masculine of Maria, and used ac- 

Section IV. — Posilmmus^ ^c. 

Posthumus is generally explained as meaning a posthumous 
eon^iromfost (after), and hmm (ground); bom after his father 
was underground; but there is reason to think that it is, in 
fact, Postumus, a superlative adjective, formed from post^ 
and merely signifying latest; so that it originally belonged 
to the son of old age, the last bom of the family. It became 
a frequent praenomen by imitation, and in several Roman 
families was taken as a cognomen, while Postumius was the 
nomen of one of the most ancient patrician gentes in Rome, 
very frequently in high office, but not accomplishing any deeds 
of sufficient note to cause the transmission of their name to 
modem times. The friend of Horace, to whom his mournful 
ode on fleeting life is addressed, and the Leonatus Posthumus, 
beloved by Imogen, are the characters through whom this 
name is chiefly known. 

Publius, one of the favourite prsenomina, is derived by 

* Smith; Diefenbach: Boscoe, HUtory of Venice; Grimm; Tram- 
aetiofie of Philological Society, 


by Google 


Valerius Maximus from puhes (youth), but is more probably^ 
one of the people, coming from the old -word poplus, probably 
derived from the Greek ttoXAos (many) , and which was variously 
pronounced poplus, popolus, populus, and probably pMuSy 
since it resulted in the adjective publicua. It is unfairly re- 
presented by our word populace, for the Roman populus was 
the entire nation, self-governing, as expressed by their ini- 
tial in the grand cypher S.P.Q.R. The populus included 
both patrician and plebeian alike, and though it has deriva- 
tives in all modem languages, even people and popular do not 
quite express it, though public better follows its broader sense, 
which best answers to our words nation and national. 

Thus Publius was given in the sense of belonging to 
the nation, and was gallantly borne by Scipio, and many 
other noble Romans. Publilius and Publicius, gentile no- 
mina, rose out of it; and in the first year of the republic, 
Publius Valerius, the colleague of Brutus, was such a favourite, 
that he was called Publicola or Poplicola, the honourer of the 
nation — ^the people's worshipper. It was he who enacted the 
law, that the man who sought to be king should be liable to 
death from any hand: that law which caused Gsesar three 
times to put aside the crown, tendered to him by Antony, 
yet which in their own eyes justified his murderers. Publius 
has died away as a name, even in Italy: it is too harsh for 
modem lips. 

It was said that Leuce, a daughter of Oceanus, was carried 
off by Pluto to the regions below, where she was changed into 
a tree growing on the banks of Acheron, and that when 
Hercules retumed from his expedition in which he dragged 
Cerberus to the realms of day, he wreathed his head with her 
leaves, — ^grey on one side and green on the other, to signify 
that his labours had been in the upper and lower worlds. Li 
consequence, Leuce's leaves were wom by everyone when sa- 
crificing to him, and her tree came to be called poptduiy the 


by Google 


pec^Ie's tree, or, as we now know it, the poplar. In right of its 
name, the tree has served many a time as a popular badge, or 
tree of liberty. 

The yellow Tiber named Tiberius, haying itself been 
named (said the Romans) from one of the mythical kings of 
Alba Longa, Tiberinus, who fell into it and was drowned, bat 
afterwards became the river god, and caused the stream to 
be called Tiberis, instead of Alba as before, but the king's 
name looks much more as if it came from the river than does 
that of the river from the king. At any rate the stream is 
still Tevere, and many a Roman was called Tiberus, and 
wrote himself Tib. in honour of * Father Tiber.' The Sem- 
pronian and Glaudian gentes seem to have used it most fre- 
quently, and in the latter it came to the purple with Tiberias 
Claudius Nero Gsesar, and acquired its gloomy fame. Tiberia, 
probably in honour of the river, has since been know in Italy^ 
but has scarcely spread — ^though I have found a Tiberia 
Hoskin in Cornwall, in 1738, probably latinized from the old 
feminine of Theobald. They may, however, have been in 
honour of the sea of Tiberias, which was so called from the 
city named by Herod Antipas after the emperor. 

The pseudo Valerius Maximus derives Titus from the Sa- 
bine Titurius; others make it come from the Greek rua (to 
honour), others from tutus (safe), the participle of tueor (to 
defend). It was one of the most common praenomina from the 
earliest times, and belonged to both father and son of the two 
emperors connected with the fall of Jerusalem. Both were 
Titus Flayius Sabinus Yespasianus, but the elder is known to 
us by his cognomen, the younger by his prwnomen. Titus 
should have been a more usual Christian name in honour of 
the first Bishop of Crete, but it has hardly survived, except 
in an occasional Italian Tito; and here Dr. Titus Oates gave 
it an unenviable celebrity. Tita is also sometimes used in 
Italy. The historian, Titus Livius, has been famous enough 
to have his name much maltreated, we calling him Livy, the 


by Google 


French Tite Live. From Titus arose the gentes of Titins and 
Titinius; and from the first of these, Titianus was taken as 
a cognomen in several families, and snrviying in Venice, be- 
came the family name of the great painter Tiziano, whom we 
call Titiwi * 

Section V. — Numeral Names. 

Thus far and no farther went Latin invention for at least 
seven hundred years in the way of individual domestic names. 
Beyond these ten, they had, with a very few exceptions, 
peculiar to certain families, nothing but numerals for their 
sons; some of which became names of note from various cir- 
cumstances. The words, though not often the names, have 
descended into almost all our modem tongues. 

Primus, the superlative otprce (hetore), prcByprioryprimuSj 
was only used as a slave's name, or to distinguish some person 
of an elder race. Primo still lasts in Italy and Spain; it 
gave the French their premier ^ and though we follow our 
Teuton fathers in speaking of I^q first from the Saxon /orwki, 
we have learnt to use prime as an adjective in its superlative 
sense, and as a verb meaning to provide beforehand, and our 
primrose is the first flower of spring. This word, too, gave 
prince in all its varieties of different countries — just as 
Furst does in Germany. 

Sequor (to follow), gave Secundus; the feminine of which 
fell sometimes to the share of daughter No. 2, to distinguish 
her from the elder sister, who was called by the family name. 
Men only had it as a cognomen, and that only in the later 
times. It has passed into our own tongue as well as into the 
more direct progeny of Latin, but Germany holds out against 
it. Rome likewise used Secundus in the sense of favourable, 
much as we speak of seconding in parliamentary language. 
St. Secundinus was a companion of St. Patrick, called by die 

♦ Smith; London Arboretum ; Facciolati, Lexicon ; Valerius Mft-^" 

uiguizea oy ^OOglC 


Irish St. Seachnall. His disciples were christened Maol 
Seachlain, pupils of St. Secondinns, a name since turned into 
Malachi. King Malachi with the collar of gold, is truly the 
shaveling of the lesser follower. 

Simple one and two, first and second, might strike the 
world in different light, but the Indo-Europeans were content 
to inherit all the rest of the numbers from their common 
original. Tri in Sanscrit is the Greek rp€K^ forming rptro^ ; 
the Latin tria and tertius^ the Welsh dri^ the Saxon ihrij 
the Kimbric thryy the Teuton drei and drittej whence our 
own three and third. Tertius barely occurs as a Roman 
name; but Tertia was rather more common than Secunda, and 
by way of endearment was called Tertulla. From this di- 
minutive arose Tertullus and Tertullianus. 

The next number is identical in all the tongues, though a 
most curious instance of varied pronunciation. In Sanscrit it 
is chaiwffr, and the Latin quatuor exactly represents this, yet 
the intermediate Oscan was petur^ reflected back again by the 
Welsh pedwar^ and the -Slolic v€<Tvp€Sy while the Attic had 
TCTTo^, the Ionic, T€<r<rapa^ both the same though varied. 
The sound that gave rise to the Latin qu was whistled by the 
North into O, the parent of the wh that is sometimes sounded 
like an /, and thus arose the Cimbric fiuhur and Gothic 
fidvor^ and Anglo-Saxon /«?M^er, whence the Germans inherit 
vtcr, and -we four. The properties of four have rendered it 
the parent of many remote offspring. From the Ionic word 
the Romans took that of tessera^ for the small four-sided stone 
which they gave in as their ballot in elections, whence the 
fragments of many-coloured stones in mosaic pavements were 
called tesseroBy the word whence we have learnt to speak of 
tessellated pavement. From quatuor naturally came quater^ 
the fourth part, with all associations of the quarters of cities 
and armies; quarts again exist in measures, cuartos as a 
Spanish coin, and our fiurthing dates in name though not in 
coinage from Saxon times. The quadra^ or four equal-sided 

uigiiizeu DV 's.-J v^v_/;^l-^- 


rectangular figure, is however the most prolific source of 
words. Science may talk of quadrants and quadrature ; and 
the cuadrillay or quadrille, the four-sided dance, came fix)m 
Spain ; but before this tjie French had their carrSy and we our 
square. Stones were squared at the carr^ or quarry; and 
quarrels, or square bolts, were shot at the quarry, or game ; 
while the carri^ey the career of the knight, was run across 
the carre or square of the lists. But if a quarrel arose, 
four was innocent of it. It came from querelhy from querela 
(a complaint), from queror (to lament). But this is too 
much of digression to have hung to the skirts of Quartus, a 
name which after all only occurs once in St. Paul's writings, 
and so far as we know, nowhere else. Quadratus and Quar- 
tinus were late nomina. 

Five was in the Sanscrit panchariy to which the Kelts ad- 
hered with purnpy the Greeks with the Ionic ircvrc and -^lic 
ir€/A7r€, whence the Latins, who were rather in the habit of 
changing the Greek tt into g, obtained their quint and quin- 
que ; whilst in the North p melted into /, and from thence 
came the Gothic Jimfj the Cimbric Jimy the Saxon Jif, re- 
presented now by the Grerman funf, the Danish /ew, and 
English ^ve. The Italian chique and French cinq have led to 
our cinquefoil and other words so commencing. Why Quintus 
should have been so much more prevalent with the Romans 
than the earlier numerals does not appear, but it was one of 
the commonest praenomina, and was always indicated by the 
initial Q, while the Greeks called it KoiVros. Thence came the 
Quintian, or Quinctian, gens, an Alban family removed by 
Tullus Hostilius to Rome, so plain and stem in manners that 
even their women wore no gold, and principally illustrious in 
the person of Oseso Quinctius Gincinnatus. An obscure family 
named Quintianus sprung again from this gens, and in time 
gave its name to one of the missionary martyrs of Gaul, 
who, in 287, was put to death at Augusta Yeromanduorum 
on the Somme. His corpse being discovered in 641, the great 


goldsmith bishop of Noyon, St. Eloi, made for it a mag- 
nificent shrine, and built over it a church, whence the town 
took the name of St. Quentin, and Quentin became prevalent 
in the neighbourhood. It was also popular in Scotland and 
Ireland, but it is there intended to represent Cu-mhaighe 
(hound of the plam) , pronounced Gooey. From the diminutive 
of the Quinctian gens came that of Quintilius, and thence 
again Quintilianus, the most noted Roman rhetorician. Pon- 
tius is thought to be the Sanmite or Oscan fifth. It was 
an old nomen among those fierce Italians, and belonged to 
the sage who gave the wise advice against either sparing or 
injuring, by halves, the Romans at the Caudine Forks. Pontius 
Pilatus should, it would seem, have brought it into universal 
hatred, but it probably had previously become hereditary in 
Spain as Ponce, whence sprang the noble family of Ponce de 
Leon; the French had Pons; and the Italians, Ponzio. It 
may, perhaps, come from pons (a bridge). The Pontine 
marshes had nothing to do with it, but were called from the 
city of Sucssa Pometia. 

The world is much better agreed upon the ensuing nume- 
ral six ; the Sanscrit shashy and Hebrew sheshy the Keltic 
chwech, Greek c^, Latin sex, Gothic saths, Cimbric saisj 
Saxon six, the same in all modem tongues. Sextus was the 
prsenomen of the hateful son of Tarquinius Superbus, but 
after him it was disused, although thence arose the Sextian, 
Sestian, and Sextilian gentes. In later times it came again 
into use, and a bishop of Rome, martyred under Valerian, 
was named Sixtus, whence this has grown to be one of the 
papal adopted names, and is called by the Italians Sisto, 
whence the Sistine chapel takes its name, and the Dresden 
Madonna of Rafiaelle is called di San Sisto, firom the intro- 
duction of one of the three sainted popes so termed. The 
French used to call these saints Xiste. 

Seven is sapta in Sanscrit, hrra in Greek, saith in Keltic, 
siru in Cimbric, stuff in Danish, sibun in Gothic, seofon in 

Digitized by vjOO -5^ i^ 


Saxon, and the Latin septem gave Septimns, a name excep- 
tionally used among them as it is among us, for a seventh 
son. The Septimian gens arose from it. It named the month 
September, which, before the change of the beginning of the 
year from March to January, was the 7th. Caligula tried to 
change its name to that of his father G^rmanicus, but custom 
was too strong for him. 

AsUa in Sanscrit grew into Greek o^, Latin odo^ 
whence the Italian otto^ and Spanish ocho. The Kelts had 
wyth^ the Gimbrians dttay the Goths ahtan^ which has given 
birth to the Saxon eata^ our own eighty the German achty the 
French hmt. Some unknown Octavus (the eighth) probably 
founded the Octavian gens, which had only been of any note 
in Rome for 200 years before Caius Octavius Rufus married 
Julia, the sister of Caesar, and their son Caius, being adopted 
as heir of the Julian line, became C. Julius Gsesar Octa- 
vianus, though he afterwards merged this unwieldly title 
in that of Augustus. Octavius had gained a certain renown 
through him, and Ottavio has passed on in Italy, while 
eighth sons are perhaps most usually named Octavius. The 
gentle Octavia, his sister, the most loveable of matrons, has 
made Ottavia an Italian name, and Octavie is one adopted 
by modem French taste. October is the eighth month in all 
modem tongues. 

Nava is the Sanscrit nine, whence the elder Greeks 
had cKvc/u, which their children contracted into ewcia, while 
the Latins kept closer to the original with novem] the 
Kelts with naw^ the Goths with niun^ the Cimbric with mw. 
The Saxons and old Germans call it nigorty but as we have 
taken to nine^ the modem Germans have neun^ while the 
Latin still crops out in the nove^ nueve^ and neuf of Italy, 
Spain, and France. The curious similarity between the word 
for this number and the adjective neWy has been remarked on ; 
still identical in French, they are so in all save the termination 
in Spanish, Italian, Latin, and German; the Keltic was newyd^ 

uigiiized by VjOOQ iC 


the Saxon neof^ the Gothic had the ninej niugOy the Greek was 
vcos, anciently v€/-o9, the Sanscrit nava. It seems as if the 
ninth were necessarily so recent as to inspire the idea of 
novelty. Nonnos is not known as a name till very late, when 
Latin and Greek names were intermixed. Then it belonged to 
a poet, at first heathen, afterwards Christian. Nonna was 
the name of that female slave who wrought the conversion 
of (jeorgia to Christianity, and (we believe) has there been 
continued; and in Rome Nonnius and Nonianus occur in later 
times as gentile appellations. Nona has been bestowed in 
England upon that rare personage a ninth daughter. No- 
vember again bears traces of its having been the ninth 
month of the Romans. 

As does December of the tenth. The Sanscrit daza is 
clearly traceable in the Greek 3cKa, Latin decemy Keltic deg^ 
Gothic taihum, Cimbric iiriy and Saxon iyUy as these are 
in their descendants, the Italian dieciy Spanish diez^ and 
French diXy the children of decern ; the German zehan^ now 
zehn^ from iaihvm^ our ten from tytiy and the Scandinavian 
ti from tin. All our numbers are a closely connected cousin- 
hood. Decimus was a prsenomen in the family of Junius 
Brutus, inherited mayhap from a tenth son, and it was at 
Decimus Brutus that Caesar's dying reproach, Et tu BruiCy 
is thought to have been levelled. Decius was the name of 
a great plebeian gens, one of the oldest in Rome, and illus- 
trated by the self-devotion of Decius Mus.* 

* Clark, Handbook of Comparative Grammar; LiddeU and Scott; Fao- 
ciolati ; Junius ; Smith ; PublicaHons of the IrUh Society ; Butler. 


by Google 



Section L — Attius. 

The Latin nomina were those that came by inheritance, and 
denoted the position of the gens in the state, its antiquity, 
and sometimes its origin. Their derivation is often, however, 
more difficult to trace than that of any other name, being 
lost in the darkness of the Oscan and Latin dialects ; and in 
the latter times they were very wide-spread, being adopted 
by wholesale by persons who received the franchise, as Roman 
citizens, fiCm the individual who conferred it ; and after the 
time of Garacalla, A.D. 2X2, when all the free inhabitants of 
the empire became alike Roman citizens, any person might 
adopt whatever name he chose, or even change his own if he 
disliked it. The feminine of this gentile name, as it was 
called, was the inheritance of the daughters ; and on mar- 
riage, the feminine of the husband's nomen was sometimes, 
though not uniformly, assumed. 

These names are here placed in alphabetical order, as there 
seems to be nothing else to determine their position, and it is 
in accordance with the rigid Roman fashion of regularity. 

Thus we begin with the Accian, or Attian, or Actiangens ; 
one of no great rank, but interesting as having been fixed on 
by tradition as the ancestry of the great mountain lords of 
Este, who were the parents of the house of Ferarra in Italy, 
and of the house of Brunswick, which has given six sovereigns 
to Britain. Accius is probably derived from Acca, the mo- 
ther of the Lares, an old Italian goddess, afterwards turned 
into the nurse of Romulus. Valerius, however, deduces both 
it and Appius from a forgotten Sabine praenomen Attus. 
The Appien gens was not a creditable one ; but Appia was 
sometimes the name of mediaeval Roman dames. 

The genealogists of the house of Este say that Marcus 

uigiiizeu Dy -v^j v^v_/pi l\^ 

304 NOMINA. 

Actius married Julia, sister of the great Gsesar, and trace 
their line downwards till modernised pronunciation had made 
the sound Azzo. 

Him whom they count as Azo I. of Este was bom in 450, 
and from him and his descendants Azzo and Azzolino were 
long common in Italy, though now discarded. 

Section n. — M/nilius. 

Almost inextricable confusion attends the development of 
the title of one of the oldest and most respectable of the 
plebeian gentes, namely the ^milian, anciently written 
Aimilian. The family was Sabine, and the word is therefore, 
probably Oscan ; but the bearers were by no means agreed 
upon its origin, some declaring that it was ou/ivXos (afiable), 
and called it a surname of their founder, Mamereus, whom 
some called the son of Pythagoras, others of Numa. The 
later ^milii, again, claimed to descend from Aemylos, a son 
of Ascanius ; and others less aspiring, contented themselves 
with Amulius, the grandfather of Bomulus. Can this most 
intangible Amulius be, after all, a remnant of the Teutonic 
element in the Roman race, and be the same with the mythi- 
cal Amal, whence the Gothic Amaler traced their descent ? 
It is curious that maal or dmd means work in Hebrew, while 
ami is work, likewise, in old Norse, as our moU is in English, 
though in Sanscrit amda is spotless. Altogether, it seems 
most probable that the word md (a spot or stroke) may 
underlie all these forms, just as it does the German mal 
(time) ; that Amal (the without spot) was, in truth, the dimly 
remembered forefather ; and that thus the proud ^milii of 
Rome, and the wild Amaler of the forests, bore in their de- 
signations the tokens of fi common stock and a yearning 
after departed stainlessness. But this is a very doubtful 
notion, since the a privative is not found in the (Gothic 
tongues, except in the form of un. 

Of the wffimilii there were two chief stems — those with the 

cognomen Mamereus, from the supposed ancestor, himself 

^ ' "5^^ 

J DV "^^J VJ-V./^ 



called after Mars ; but the more interesting were the Paidli, 
of whom more will be said by-and-bye. Of them was the 
brave man who, defeated by Hannibal, preferred dying of his 
wounds to accusing his colleague ; and of them was tiie con- 
queror of Macedon : &om them, too, came the city of iElmilia 
or Lnola ; and when a scion of their house was adopted into 
the line of Scipio, he became Scipio ^milianus, and a second 
time Africanus. 

Several obscure saints bore the name of ^milius or ^mi- 
lianus ; and Emilij has always been a prevailing masculine 
name in Russia. In Spain, a hermit. Saint ^milianus, is 
always known as St. Milhan. Emilio was of old-standing in 
Italy ; but the great prevalence in France of fimile, of late, 
was owing to Rousseau's educational work, the hero of which 
had numerous namesakes among the children unfortunate 
enough to be bom in the years preceding the Revolution. 

The feminine had been forgotten until Boccaccio wrote his 
Teseide, and called the heroine Emilia. It was at once trans- 
lated or imitated in all languages, and became mixed up with 
the Amalie already existing in Grermany. Amalie of Mans- 
feld lived in 1493 ; Amalie of Wurtemburg, in 1550 ; and 
thence the name spread throughout Germany, whence the 
daughter of George IL brought it to England, and though 
she wrote herself Amelia, was called Princess Emily. Both 
forms are recognised in most European countries, though 
often confounded together, and still worse, with Amy and 
Enmia. No well-known saint is so called ; and it is said 
that De la Roche's beautiful design of the queenly Sainte 
Amelie was intended as a compliment to the Queen of Louis 
Philippe, an Amalie which came through Naples from Aus- 
tria, and therefore belongs to Amal.^ 









* Michaelis; Smith; Yfh9xU)Ji,EnglUh Poetry; Papen o^PkUologiedl8m[Q 

VOL. I. iymzeu^v_.w g 

306 NOMINA. 

Section m. — Antanius. 

Two gentes were called Antonins, a word that is not easy 
to trace. Some explain it as inestimable, but the Triumyir 
himself chose to dedace it from Antius, a son of Hercules. 
One of these clans was patrician, with the cognomen Merenda ; 
the other plebeian, without any third name, and it was to the 
latter that the avenger of Caesar and lover of Cleopatra 
belonged — Mark Anthony, Marc Antoine, or Marcantonio 
as modem tongues have clipped his Marcus Antonius. The 
clipping had, however, been ahready performed before the re- 
suscitation of his evil fame in the fifteenth century, for both 
his names had become separately saintly, and therefore muti- 
lated ; Mark in the person of the Evangelist, Antonius in 
that of the great hermit of the fourth century — ^the first to 
practise the asceticism which resulted in the monastic system. 
Of Egyptian birth, his devotions, his privations, his conflicts 
with Satan, were equally admired in the Eastern and Western 
Churches, and Antonios has been as common among the 
Greeks as Antonius among the Latin Christians. His bell 
and his cross shaped like a T, hi memory of the tow, or T 
with which, in the original Greek, the redeemed in the Book 
of Revelations are said to be marked, were thought to chase 
away evil spirits; and the pig placed at his feqt as a sign 
of his conquest over the unclean demon, was by popular 
ignorance supposed to be an animal dedicated to him. Li 
consequence, the monks of his order kept herds of swine, 
which lived at free quarters, and ^ as fat as a Tantony pig * 
became a proverb. 

St. Antony was abeady very popular when St. Antonio 
of ^adua further increased the Italian devotion to the name, 
and Antonio has ever since been exceedingly common in 
Italy and Spain. Classical pedantry made Antonio Paleario 
turn it into Aonio in honour of the Aonian choir; but 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



irhateyer he choee to call himself he made glorious by his 
life and 

The Dutch seem to have needlessly added the silent hy 
and we probably learnt it from them. In common with our 
neighbours, too, we called the erysipelas St. Antony's fire; 
Antonsfeuer in Germany, Tonesbear in Aix-la-Chapelle. 
The popularity of Antony has much diminished since the 
Reformation in England, where perhaps it is less used than 
in any other country. 






































The feminine form, Antonia, is very common in Italy and 
Spain. The Grermans have it as Antonie, and this was the 
original name of Maria Antonia, whom we have learnt to 
regard with pitying reverence as Marie Antoinette, whenice 
Toinette is a common French contraction. 

Digiied^by Google 















Antoninus, formed by adoption firom Antonius, cama to 
the purple with the emperor whose short and portable name 
was Titus Aurelius Boianius Arrius Antoninus, and who is 
further known by his personal surname of Pius. Antonina 
is the usual English feminine of Anthony.'^ 

Section IV. — Aurelius. 

The Aurelian gens was an old Sabine one, and probably 
derived its name from aurum (gold), the or of Italy and 
or of France, though others tried to take it from ^HAios (the 

The old name, Aurelia, for a chrysalis was like it, taken 
from the glistening golden spots on the cases of some of the 
butterfly pupse. The Aurelian gens was old and noble, and 
an Aurelia was the mother of Julius Csesar. Afterwards, 
the emperors called the Antonines were of this family of 
Aurelius, and building the city in Gaul called Aureliana, 
after them, caused its modem designation of Orleans, re- 
flected back again in the American New Orleans, with little 
thought of the stout Emperor Marcus Aurelius. The later 
Emperor Aurelianus, the conqueror of Pahnyra, is said to 
have taken his name from the Aurelian family, on whose 
property his father wbjs a farm servant. Aurelia has only 
been a modem name in France, where it was revived by 
fashion, and occasionally copied in England. Aurelius had 
been probably assumed in compliment to the imperial family 
by the gallant Briton who withstood the Saxon invaders, and 
turned into Eidiol, unless this were his native name. 

^ Michaelis; Pott; Smith; Faociolati; Brand; Jameeon. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Section V. — Ccdcilius. 


The most obvious origin of the nomen of the great Cseci- 
lian gens would be cceais (blind) ; in fact Ocecilia means a 
sloe-worm, supposed to be blind ; but the Csecilii would by 
no means condescend to the blind or smaU-ejed ancestor ; 
and while some of them declared that they were the sons of 
Csecas, a companion of ^neas, others traced their source to 
the founder of Pr»neste, the son of Vulcan Caeculus, who 
was found beside a hearth, and caUed from ccUeo (to heat), the 
same with KaUa (to bum). There waj9 a large gens of this 
name, famous and honourable, though plebeian ; but rather 
remarkably, the feminine form has always been of more note 
than the masculine. As has been before said, Caia Gsdcilia 
is said to have been the real name of Tanaquil, the modem 
Boman matron, patroness of aU other married dames ; and 
who has not heard of the tomb of Csecilia Metella ? But 
the love and honour of 'the Roman ladies has passed on to 
another Gsecilia, a Christian of the days of Alexander Se- 
verus, a wife, though vowed to virginity, and a martyr sing- 
ing hymns to the last. Her corpse was disinterred in a per- 
fect state two hundred years after, when it was enshrined in 
a church built over her own house, the scene of her death, 
which gives a title to a cardinal. A thousand years subse- 
quently, in 1599, her sarcophagus was again opened, and a 
statue made exactly imitating the lovely, easy, and graceful 
position in which the limbs remained. 

This second visit to her remains was not, however, needed 
to establish her popularity. She is as favourite a saint with 
the Boman matrons eis is St. Agnes with their daughters ; 
and the fact of her having sung till her last breath, estab- 
lished her connection with music. An instrument became 
her distinguishing mark ; and as this was generally a small 

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organ, she got the credit of having invented it, and became 
the patroness of music and poetry, 9S St. Katharine of 
eloquence and literature, and St. Barbara of architecture 
and art. Her day was celebrated by especial musical per- 
formances; even in the eighteenth century an ode on St 
Cecilia's day waj9 a special occasion for the laudation of 
music ; and Dryden and Pope have fixed it in our minds, by 
their praises, not so much of Cecilia, as of Timotheus and 
Orpheus. Already, in the eleventh century, the musical 
saint had been given as a patroness ; and the contemporaries, 
Philip I. of France, and William I. of England, had each a 
daughter C6cile. 

From that time, Cecile in France was only less popular 
than the English Cicely was with all ranks before the Re- 
formation. Cicely Neville, the Rose of Raby, afterwards 
Duchess of York, called ' Proud Cis,' gave it the chief note 
in England ; but her princess grandchild. Cicely Plantagenet, 
was a nun, and thus did not transmit it to any noble family. 
After the Reformation, Cicely sank to the level of ' stammel 
waistcoat,' and was the milk-maid's generic name ; — 

'When Ois to milking goes,' 

says the lament for the fairies ; and it is a pretty modest 
Cicily whom Piscator incites to sing Sir Walter Raleigh's 

* Gome live with me, and be my love.* 

And so the gentlewomen who had inherited Cicely from 
their grandmothers, were ashamed of it; and it became 
Cecilia, with Miss Bumey's novel to give them an example, 
until the present reaction against fine names setting in, 
brought them back to Cecil and Cecily. In Ireland, the 
Norman settlers introduced it,*and it became Sighile. 


by Google 












So entirely has the once favourite Cecily heen forgotten 
among the peasantry, that a house, originally the priory of 
Saint Cecile, had by general consent arrived at being known 
as Sampson's Seal, to the great perplexity of its owner, till 
he found a document showing its original title. 

Sessylt, the British form of the masculine, lasted on long 
in Wales; and the Italians kept up Cecilio. The English 
Cecil is, however, generally the surname of the families of 
Salisbury and Exeter, adapted to be a man's Christian 

Moreover, C»cilianus is supposed to be the origin of 
Kilian, one of the many Keltic missionaries who spread the 
light of the Grospel on the Continent, in the seventh century. 
St. Kilian is said to have been of Irish birth. He preached 
in Germany, and was martyred at Wurtzburgh; and his 
name has never quite ceased to be used in the adjacent 

Section VI. — Ccdius. 

Coeles Yivenna, an Etruscan general, named the Ccelian 
hill, and the Coelian gens, whence the Italians have con- 

* Facciolati; Smith ; Yalerios Maximns; Butler; Jameson ; Michaelis; 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

312 NOMINA. 

tinued Gelio and Oelia. In Venice the latter becomes Zilia 
and Ziliola, and is often to be found belonging to noble ladies 
and the wives of doges. At Naples it was Liliola, and it seems 
to be the true origin of Lilian and Lilias ; but of this more 
under flower names. The Irish, too, have adopted it as Sile, or 
Sheelah, and Celie and Celia haye been occasionally adopted 
by both French and English, probably under some misty 
notion of a connection with ca/w». (heaven), which is, how- 
ever, very unlikely. The prevalence of Celia among the 
lower classes in English towns is probably partly owing to 
the Irish Sheelah, partly to some confusion with Cecilia. 

Coelina was a virgin of Meaux, converted to a holy life 
by St. Genevieve. She is the origin of the French Celine, 
who probably suggested the English Selina, though as we 
spell this last, we refer it to the Greek Selene (the moon). 

Section VII. — Claudius. 

Another personal defect, namely lameness, probably was 
the source of the appellation of the Claudian gens, although 
by some the adjective claudus is rejected in favour of the 
old verb clueo, from the same root as the Greek kleOj and 
meaning to be called, t. e., famed. The Claudii were a family 
of evil fame, with all the darker characteristics of the Roman 
character, and figure in most of the tragedies of the city. They 
were especially proud and stem, and never adopted any one 
into their family till the Emperor Claudius adopted Lucius 
Domitius Ahenobarbus, who did not improve the fame of the 
Claudian surname of Nero. Clodius was another form of the 
same, and not more reputable. But the reign of the Emperor 
Claudius and the number of his freedmen, and new citizens, 
gave his gentile name an extensive vogue, and from his 
conquests in Britain was there much adopted. Besides, the 
Claudia who sends her greeting to St. Timothy in St. Paul's 
Epistle, is believed to have been the daughter of a British 

:ea dv "V-j v^v_/ 




prince and wife of Prudens, whose name is presenred in 
inscriptions at Colchester. 

The epigrams of Martial speak of a lady of the same name 
as British, and thus Claudia is marked by the concurrence 
of two very dissimilar authorities as one of the first British 
Christians, while the hereditary Welsh name of Gladys, the 
Cornish Gladuse, corroborate the Christian reverence for 
Claudia. The masculine form, Gladus, is likewise used, and 
in Scotland Glaud, recently softened into Claud, is not un- 
common. In France Claudie is very common in Provence. 
Louis Xn., who gave both his daughters male names, called 
the eldest Claude, and when she was the wife of Francois 
I., la Beine Claude plums were so termed in her honour. 
Her daughter carried Claude into the house of Lorraine, 
where it again became masculine, and was frequent in the 
family of Guise. The painter Gelee assumed the name of 
Claude de Lorraine in honour of his patrons, and thus arose 
all the picturesque associations conveyed by the word Claude. 

Claudine is a favourite female Swiss form.* 












Section Vm. — Cornelius^ ^c. 

The far more honourably distinguished clan of Cornelius 
has no traceable origin, unless from comu bdli (a war 

* Facciolati; Smith; Bees, Welih SaifUt. 

Digitized by LjOOQ iC 

314 NOMINA. 

horn), but this is a suggestion of the least well-informed 
etymologists, and deserves no attention. Scipio and Sylla 
were the most noted families of this gens, both memorable 
for very dissimilar qualities ; and Cornelia the mother of the 
Ghracchi, inherited her name from her father, Publius Cor- 
nelius Scipio A&icanus I. From him, too, she inherited 
that pure, high, dignified spirit that makes her, like Octayia 
and Volumnia, the highest type of womanhood without Re- 
velation ; and her answer that her twelve children were her 
only jewels, is one that endears her far more than the rest 
of the noble Roman dames. The centurion of the Italian 
band was probably a hereditary Roman Cornelius ; but earliest 
gentile Christian though he were, he was not canonized, and 
the samt of the Western Church is a martyred Pope Cor- 
nelius of the third century, whose relics were brought to 
Compiegne by Charles the Bald, and placed in the Abbey of 
St. Comeille, whence again a portion was carried to the 
Chapter of Rosnay, in Flanders. This translation accounts 
for the popularity of both the masculine and feminine forms 
in the Low Countries, in both kingdoms of which they con- 
stantly are found, and where Cornelius gets shorten^ into 
Kees, Knelis, Noll, or Nolle, and Cornelia into Keetje, or 
Kee. As an attempt to translate the native Keltic names 
beginning with cu or con, Cornelius, or Comey, is one of the 
most frequent Irish designations. Nelleson is the Dutch 
surname, and Nelson is likely to be thus derived as from 
the northern Nielsen. The Dantzic contraction is Kndz, 
and the Ulyrians call the feminine Drenka! 

The great Fabian gens was old Latin, and was said by 
Pliny to be so called from their having been the first to 
cultivate the bean fabaj while others say the true form was 
fodiiiSy or /(nnW, from their having invented the digging pits, 
fovecBy for wolves, a proceeding rather in character with the 
wary patient disposition displayed by the greatest man of the 
race, Quintus Fabius Mazimus, whose agnomen of Cunctator 

J DV -V-J V^V./ 


HERMIKinS. 315 

BO well describes the policy that wasted away the forces of 
the Carthaginian invader. Fabio has been occasionally a 
modern Italian name; Fabiola is the diminutive of Fabia; 
Fabianus the adoptive augmentation, whence the occasional 
French Fabien, and, more strailge to record, the Lithuanian 

Fabricius is probably from Faber (a workman), but there 
was no person of note of the family except Caius Fabricius 
Luscinus, whose interview with Pyrrhus and his elephant 
has caused him to be for ever remembered. Fabrizio Colonna, 
however, seems to be his only namesake. 

Flavus and Ftdvus both mean shades of yellow, and 
there were both a Flavian and a Fulvian gens, no doubt 
from the complexion of some early ancestor, Flavins being 
probably a yellow-haired mountaineer with northern blood ; 
Fulvius a tawny Italian. It is in favour of this supposition 
that Constantius, who brought the Flavian gens to the 
imperial throne, had the agnomen Chlorus, also expressing 
a light complexion. Out of compliment to his family the 
derivatives of Flavins became common, as Flavianus, Flavia, 
and Flavilla. Flavio is now and then found in modem 
Italy, and Flavia figured in the poetry and essays of the 
last century. Fulvia, 'the married woman,' as her rival 
Cleopatra calls her, was the wife of Antony, and gave her 
name an evil fame for ever by her usage of the head of the 
murdered Cicero.* 

Section IX. — Merminius. 

The Herminian gens is believed to be of Sabine origin, 
and its first syllable, that lordly herr^ which we traced in the 
Greek Hera and Hermes, and shall find again in the German 
Herman. There is little doubt that the Boman Herminius 

* Smith; Batler; Focciolati; Iriih Society. 

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3l6 NOMINA. 

and the brave Chernscan cliief, whom he called Arminius, 
were in the same relationship as were the ^milii and Amaler. 
Herminius is the word that left to Italy the graceful legacy 
of Erminia, which was in vogue, by inheritance, among 
Italian ladies when Tasso bestowed it upon the Saracen dam- 
sel captured by Tancred, and fascinated by the graces of her 
captor. Thence the French adopted it as Hermine, and it 
has since been incorrectly supposed to be the Italian for 
Hermione ; indeed, Scott indiscriminately calls the mysteri- 
ous lady in George Heriot's house Erminia or Hermione. 
The Welsh have obtained it likewise, by inheritance, in the 
form of Ermin, which, however, they now murder by trans- 
lating it into Emma. 

Section X. — Julius. 

' At puer Ascanios, cui nunc cognomen Inlo, 
Additer lias erat dam res stetit Ilia regno.* 

* The boy Ascanios, now lolos named — 
Has he was while Ilium^s realm still stood/ 

quoth Jupiter, in the first book of the JEkeidy whence Virgil's 
commentators aver that Ascanius was at first called after 
Bus, the river that gave Troy the additional title of Ilium ; 
but that during the conquest of Italy he was termed lulus, 
from iovAos (the first down on the chin), because he was still 
beardless when he killed Mezentius. The father of gods and 
men continues : 

* Nascetor pnlchrft Trojanus origine Csesar, 
(Imperiam Oceano, famam qai terminet astris,) 
Julius, a magno nomen lulo.' 

* A Trojan, by high lineage shall arise — 
GsDsar (whose conquering fame the sea and stars shall bound), 
Called Julius, from Julus mighty name.* 


by Google 

JULTOS. 317. 

The Julian gens certainly exceeded Rome in antiquity, 
and one of their distinguished families bore the cognomen of 
lulus ; but in spite of Jupiter and Virgil, Livy makes lulus, 
or Ascanius, not the Trojan son of -S]neas and the deserted 
Creusa, but the Latin son of ::dSneas and Lavinia, and modem 
etymologists hazard the conjecture that Julus may be only a 
diminutive of dius (divine), since the derivation of Jupiter 
from Deus pater (father of gods) proves that such is the ten- 
dency of the language. 

The family resided at Alba Longa till the destruction of 
the city by Tullus Hostilius, and then came to Rome, where, 
though of very high rank, they did not become distinguished 
till, once for all, their star culminated in the great Caius 
Julius C»sar, after whom the Julii were only adoptive, 
though Julia was the favourite name of the emperors' daugh- 
ters, and their freedmen and newly-made citizens multiplied 
Julius and Julianus throughout the empire. Many towns 
founded by the emperors preserve the Julian appellation 
strangely altered, as Julia Bona, now Lillebonne; Victus 
Julius, Ittucci ; Forum Julii, shortened into Frejus ; Julium, 
Zuglio in Italy ; and in Spain, Castra Julia was first Tro- 
gilium, and then Truxillo ; the X and J being, in Spanish, 
alike guttural in sound. The seventh month in the year, as 
July, Juillet, Luglio, Julio, Juli, reminds all Europeans Ihat 
the mighty Julius reformed the calendar and brought in the 
Julian era ; and our gillyflowers, the gillyflower stock and 
clove gillyflower, ill imitated by the French giroflee, still 
bear the impress of the month that was called after him. 

Julius was hereditary throughout the empire, and lingered 
on long in Wales, Wallachia, and Italy. It is the most 
obvious source for the French Gilles ; though, as has been 
abeady said, that word claims to be the Greek Aigidios, and 
is like both the Keltic Giolla and Teutonic Gil. The mo- 
dem French Jules and English Julius were the produce of 
the revived classical taste. The latter belonged to a knight 



whose familj name was Caesar; and Clarendon tells a story 
of a serious alarm being excited in a statesman by finding 
a note in his pocket with the ominous words ^Remember 
Julius Csesar/ which left him in dread of the ides of March^ 
until he recollected that it was a (liendly reminder of the 
humble petition of Sir Julius Csesar. 








Spanish and 





The feminine shared the same fate, being hereditary in 
Italy, and adopted as ornamental when classical names came 
into fashion in other countries. The Julie of Rousseau's 
Nouvelle JSidoise made Julie very common in France. 

English, Spanish, 
and Portuguese. 


French and 










Slovak. • 


As every family that in turn mounted the imperial throne 
was supposed to be adopted into the Julian gens, all bore its 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

JULIUS. 319 

appellation ; and thus it waj9 that out of the huge stock that 
had accumulated in the family of Constantius, the apostate 
bore by way of distinction the adoptive form of Julianus. 
It is in favour of the story, that the wife of Constantius was 
really British, that as long as any of that family reigned, 
this island adhered to the empire ; and that the names of the 
Constantian race were widely used among the inhabitants; 
nay, even Scottish tradition had heard of them, for is it 
not said of the terrible ^ Red Etin of Ireland ' ( Jotun or 

* Like Julian the Roman, 
He feared the face of no man ?^ 

As the adoptive form this was more widely diffused than 
Julius itself in the Latinized provinces, and thus came to 
the Conde Julian, execrated by Spain as the betrayer of his 
country into the hands of the Moors. 

To redeem the name from the unpopularity to which two 
apostates would seem to have condemned it, it belonged to no 
less than ten saints, the name of one of whom was the nu- 
cleus of a legend afloat in the world. He was said to have 
been told by a hunted stag that he would be the murderer of 
his own parents; and though he fled into another country 
to avoid the possibility, he unconsciously fulfilled his destiny, 
by slaying them in a fit of jealousy before he had recognized 
them when they travelled after him. In penance, he spent 
the rest of his life in ferrying distressed wayfarers over a 
river, and lodging them in his dwelling ; and he thus became 
the patron of travellers and a saint of extreme popularity. 
The saltire crossletted was called after him, and his was a 
reaUy universal name from Scotland to Wallachia during the 
middle ages. The terrible ballad of JeUon Chrceme shows the 
old Scottish form. 


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The feminine was already abroad in the Roman empire in 
the days of martyrdom, when St. Juliana was beheaded at 
Nicomedia under Galerius ; and in the days of (Jregory the 
Great, her relics were supposed to be at Rome, but were 
afterwards divided between Brussels and Sablon. She is 
said to have been especially honoured in the Low Countries, 
and must likewise have been in high favour in Normandy, 
perhaps through the Flemish Duchess Matilda. Julienne was 
in vogue among the Norman families, and belonged to that 
illegitimate daughter whose children Henry I. so terribly 
maltreated in revenge for their father's rebellion; and it 
long prevailed in England as Julyan: witness the heraldic 
and hunting prioress, Dame Julyan Bemers; and, indeed, 
it became so common as Gillian, that Jill was the regular 
companion of Jack, as still appears in nursery rhyme; 
though now this good old form has entirely disappeared, ex- 
cept in the occasional un-English form of Juliana. In Brit- 
tany, it has lasted on as Suliana, the proper name of the 
nun-sister of Du Guesclin, who assisted his brave wife to dis- 
concert the night assault of their late prisoner. Truly the nuns 
yclept thus were a spirited race, perhaps owing to a name 
which, if Virgil be to be trusted, is extremely unladylike. 










by Google 



Spanish, Portu- 

gaes6» and 








Another feminine diminutive, Julitta, was ourrent in the 
empire in the time of persecution, and belongs in the calen- 
dar to a martyr at Gsesarea in Cappadocia, as well as to her 
who has been abeady mentioned as the mother of the infant St. 
Kyriakos, or Cyr, a babe of three years old. She was under- 
going torture herself when she beheld his brains dashed out on 
the steps of the tribunal, and till her own death, she gave 
thanks for his safety and constancy. Together the mother 
and child were conmiemorated throughout the Church ; and 
the church of St. Gillet records her in Cornwall, as does that 
of Llanulid in Wales. Her name, however, when there borne 
by her namesakes was corrupted into Elidan. Jolitte was used 
among the French peasantry, and Giulietta in Italy, whence 
Giulietta Capellett appears to have been a veritable lady, whose 
mournful story told in Da Porta's novel, was adopted by Shake- 
speare, and rendered her name so much the property of poetry 
and romance, that subsequently Juliet, Juliette, and Giulietta, 
have been far more often christened in memory of the impas- 
sioned girl, than of the resolute Christian modier.^ 

Section XL — Junius, ^c. 

Junius was a distinguished clan at Home, especially in the 
fierce patriotic family of Brutus, so called from the pretended 
idiocy of the first Lucius Junius in the endeavour to secure 
himself from the jealousy of the Tarquins. The names have 
not since be^ in great use, except that Brut or Brute was 
made by Geoffirey of Monmouth ihe ancestor of the mythical 

* Smith; Facciolati; Michaelis ; Pott; Butler; Arrowsmith, OeogrO' 
fhy ; Bees; Jameeott ; Qe»ia Romainorum. 

VOL, I. 


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322 NOMINA. 

ancient British kings ; nay, according to his etymology, the 
eponymous hero of Britain ! Moreover, when hair-powder 
was deemed the token of aristocratic predilections, the wig 
that best emulated the natural locks was called Brutus, after 
the republican ; but it i& most familiar to us in the portraits 
of George IVi Junius is most noticeable as the nom de 
guerre of the celebrated satirist of the last century, whose 
incognito has been more perfect than, perhaps, any mystifi- 
cation productive of equal curiosity. Vehement American- 
ism has, if wit may be trusted, produced a Junius Brutus 
Figgs ; but otherwise, there is no instance of the recurrence of 
either as a Christian name, though the French surname, Junot, 
is no doubt a continuation of the Junian gens, through some 
Gallo-Roman family. As usual, the source of the nomen is 
as much a matter of conjecture to its Roman owners as to us. 
Some took it {rom jungOy to join, in remembrance of the junction 
of Romans and Sabines under Romulus a