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\ y§ g ^KOPBKTT OV TBI ^ 









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City of Columbus 

Capital of Ohio, 


ALFRED B: lee, A. M. 

Author of *'Euroi>ean Days and Ways," *' Battle of Gettysburg," 

Sketches and Studies of Leading 
Campaigns," etc. 




■ J 




Kkw York and ChicaOo. 



CC>I»YWIGH'r, lHf»l*. 


Brave, Honesthearted, Muchenduring Men and Women 

vrho 'vsrere the pioneer architects of civilization in Central Ohio ; 

,to all of their successors ^vho, by industry, intelligence and 

virtue, have contributed to the advancement of their 

'vsrork to its present majestic proportions ; and to all 

who shall hereafter strive with honest purpose 

to carry forward that work to results yet 

more beneficent and beautiful, these 

volumes are respectfully dedicated. 





Origin op the State: Paqe. 

Chapter I. The Ohio Wilderness Alfred E. Lee. 3 

Chapter II. The Prehistoric liaces Alfred E. Lee. 19 

Chapter III. Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County . James Linn Rodgers 44 

Chapter IV. The Iroquois an<l Aljjonquins . Alfred E. Lee. ()2 

Chapter V. Advent of the While Man Alfre^l E. Lee. 81 

Chapter VI. Founding of Ohio Alfred E. Lee. 105 

Chapter VI. The Territorial Government .... 121 

Chapter VI. The State Government 123 op the City 

Chapter VI L 
Chapter VIII. 
Chapter IX. 
Chapter IX. 
Chapter X. 

Franklinton I Alfred E. Lee. 135 

Franklinton II Alfred E. Lee. 152 

Franklinton III Alfred E Lee. 104 

Franklin County (Mvil List .... 174 

Worthington Alfre<l E. Ue. 184 

Evolution of the City : 






















The Forest Settlement .... Alfred E. I^e. 201 

The First War Episode .... Alfred E. Lee. 230 

The First Public Buildings . Alfred E. Lee. 251 

The Capital as a Borough. 1816 1834. I. Alfred E. Lee. 2(K) 

The Capital as a Borough. 1810-18:J4. 11. Alfred E, Lee. 273 

The Borough Taverns and Coffeehouses . Alfred E. Lee. 281 

Fur, Feather and Fin .... Alfred E. Lee. 291 

The Scioto River Alfred E. Lee. 301 

From Trail to Turnpike . Alfred E. l^e. 311 

The National Road Alfred E. Lee. 320 

The Canal Alfred E.Lee. 330 

Mail and Stagecoach .... Alfred E. Lee. 341 

Mail and Telegraph .... Alfred E. Lee. 357 

Beginnings of Business .... Alfred E. Lee. 308 

Business Evolution .... Alfred E. Lee. 380 

Banks and Banking .... John J. Janney. 390 

The Press, I .... Osman C. Hooper. 410 

The Press. II Osinan C. Hooner. 452 

The Schools. I . . . James !■. Barnhill, M. I). 494 

The Schools. II . James U. Barnhill, M. 1). 521 



Evolution of the City— Continued : 





Bench and Bar 
Lands and Land Titles 
Geology and Geography. 
Climate and Hygiene. I 
Climate and Hygiene. II 
Social and Personal 

Leander J. Critchfield, A. M. 

John E. Sater, Esquire. 

. Edward Orton, LL. D. 

Alfnd E. Lee. 

Alfred E. Lee. 

Alfred E. I.iee. 



Church History — Part I. 

Chapter XXXVII. Pnsbyterian 

Chapter XXXVIII. Methodist 

Chapter XXXIX. Congregational 

W. E. Moore, D. D., LL. D. 757 
Joiin C. Jackson, D. D. 784 
BenJHUiin Talbot, A. M. 830 


Chapter XL. 

Representative Citizens 
.\mbo8, Peter E. 
Andrews, Doctor John 
Buttle?, Joel 
('arpenter, William B. 
Cox, Samuel S. 
Critchfield, Leander J. 
Egan, Patrick A. . 
Fieser, Frederick 
Firestone, Clinton D. 
Frisbie, Charles H. 
Galloway. Samuel 
Greene, Milbury M. 
Harrison, Richard A. 
Hildreth, Abel 
Hillery, Luther 
Hinman, Fdward L. 
Hoster, Louis 
Hubbard, William B. 
Hughes, John R. 
Jaeger, Christian K. 
Janney, John J. 
Johnson, Orange 
Jonet*, Richard 
Kilbourn, James 
Kroesen, James C. 
Kilbourn, Lincoln 
Lee, Alfred E. 
I^onard, Theodore . 
Lindeman, Louis 
Neil, Hannah . 
Neil, Robert K. . 
Neil, William . 
Orton, Edward 
Otstot, John 
Peters, Oscar 0. . 

Walter B. O'Neill, Esq. 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

■ • 

• • 

• • 

• • 





Contents. v. 

Representative Citizens^-Continued : Page. 

Pfaff, Carl T 874 

Piatt, William A 864 

Pugh, John M 874 

Powell, William 888 

Reinhard, Jacob 877 

Sater, John E 905 

SessionH, Francis C. 912 

Shepard, William 908 

Slade, William H 899 

Smith, David sm 

Sullivant. Lucas, Frontispiece 

Taylor, David 881 

Thurman, Allen G 855 

Townshend, Norton 8 859 

Wilson, Andrew 916 

Wright, Horatio 917 

Wright, James E 861 

Zettler, Louis 814 




Historical : Page. 

Glacial Boundary in Oiiio 20 

The Serpent Mound 38 

Ancient Earthworks near Worthington 46 

Ancient Mound on the Pope Farm opposite 48 

Ancient Earthworks in Delaware County 60 

Ancient Earthworks in IMcka way ('Ounty 50 

Map of Franklin County Earthworks opposite 56 

Ancient Earthworks in Fairfield County opposite 56 

Surrender of the Captives 88 

The Indians and Bouquet in Council 00 

Orifjfinal Plat of Franklinton 140 

The Lucas Sullivant Store, Franklinton 154 

The Lincoln Goodale Store, Franklinton 165 

Original Plat of Worthington 190 

Original Plat of Columbus, West Section 202 

Original Plat of Columbus, East Section 203 

Portrait of John Kerr 206 

Portrait of Lyne Starling 207 

John Kerr's Land Office 20?) 

John Brickeirs Cabin 211 

General Harrison's Headquarters, Franklinton 242 

Harrison Elm and Hawkes Hospital, Franklinton 247 

View of High Street, 1846 253 

The Swan Tavern 283 

Old Milestone 321 

Fort Cumberland in 1755 325 

Freeman's Chronicle Extra, January 24, 1813 42J 

Page of Freeman's Chronicle, June 16, 1813 431 

First Page of Freeman's Chronicle, July 23, 1813 455 

Page of Freeman's Chronicle, February 25, 1814 465 

Western Intelligencer Extra, October 1, 1814 477 

School District Map of Columbus, 1826 1845 497 

Old Rich and Third Street Schoolhouse 501 

The Old Academy 506 

Sullivant School 511 

Third Street School 514 

Garfield School 517 

Franklinton School 524 

viii. Illustrations. 

Historical — Ck)ntinued: Paob. 

Twentythird Street School 530 

Fifth Aveoue School 635 

Siebert Street School . . 543 

Portrait of Asa D. Lord 547 

Library Room, Public School Library 550 

Portrait of D. P. Mayhew 553 

l*ortrait of £. D. Kingsley 554 

Central High School 556 

I'ortrait of William Mitchell . . 558 

Portrait of K. W. Stevenson T . . 5<n 

North Side High School 563 

Land Map of Columbus * 631 

Franklinton Presbyterian Church, 1811 760 

Original First Presbyterian Church in Columbus 764 

"Trinity in Unity"' 766 

Present First Presbyterian Church, before Alteration 769 

First Presbyterian Church, State and Third Streets 777 

Wesley Chapel, 1892 792 

Third Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church 801 

Broad Street Methodist Episcopal Church 815 

Shepard Sanitarium opposite 704 

Portraits : 

Ambos, Peter E opposite 128 

Andrews, Doctor John opposite 400 

Buttles, Joel opposite 56 

Carpenter, William B opposite 720 

Cox, iSamuel S. opposite 448 

Critchfield, Leander J. opposite 584 

Egan, Patrick A opposite 736 

Fieser, Frederick op}>08ite 432 

Firestone, Clinton D., Volume II opposite 160 

Frisbie, Charles H. opposite 3H8 

Galloway, Samuel opposite 32 

Greene, Mil bury M opposite 240 

Harrison, Richard A. opposite 600 

Hildreth, Abel opposite 376 

Hillery, Luther opposite 816 

Hinman, Edward L opposite 256 

Hoster, Louis opposite 752 

Hubbard, William B opposite 416 

Hughes, John R opposite 264 

Huntington, P. W opposite 768 

Jaeger, Christian F opposite 224 

Janney, John J., Volume II 0]>po8ite 256 

Johnson, Orange . opposite 312 

Jones, Richard opposite 304 

Kilbourn, James opposite 184 

Kilboum, Lincoln opposite 336 

Illubteutionb. iz. 

PoRTBAiTS— CoDtinneiJ ; Page. 

Kroeeen, James C opposite "20 

Lee, Allreiii;, opposite S04 

Leonnni, Tlieodore opposite 296 

Lindemen, Ixiuis opposite 384 

Neil, Hannah opposite 784 

Neil, Itobert ... opposite 360 

Neil, liobert E opposite 352 

Neil. William opposite 344 

Orton, Edward . . opposite 672 

Otslot, John opposite 200 

Peters, Oscar U., Volume II opposite 152 

Pfttff, CarlT opiiosite 272 

Piatt, Williain A opposite 144 

Powell, WilJiam opposite 3<I2 

Puf-li Joljn M. opposite 28» 

Et^inliard, Jacob oiiposite 328 

Sater, John E. opposite 616 

Sessions, Francis C opposite S32 

Shepard, William opposite 701 

eUfle, W. H opposite 480 

Smith, David opposite 450 

Sulivant, LuChs Frontispiece 

Taylor, DaviJ opposite 160 

■rtiurman AllunG opposite 18 

Townalieni! Norloii 8 opposite 80 

Wilson, Andrew opposite lOH 

Wright, Horatio opposite 102 

Wright, James E. opposite 104 

Zettler, Ltiuis opposite 64(1 


Amhos. Peter E opposite 128 

Fieser, Frederick opposite 432 

Frisbie, Mary L. opposite 3f(8 

Hinman, E. L. opposite 256 

fioBter Lonia opposite 752 

Hubbsrd Homestead opposite 416 

Hugrhea, John It opposite 264 

Otstot, John opposite 200 

Powell, Frank E opposite 3!I2 

Pogh, John M opposite 2)48 

Sessions, Francis C opposite 8!W 

Thurman, Allen G opposite 16 

Zettler, Louie opposite 640 

Preface to Volume I. 

The labor which has i)r(Kluced this work, so far as its author is 
concerned, has been performed during such intervals and opportuni- 
ties as have been vouchsafed by an exacting business. Two years 
were spent in i)reparatory investigation and collection of materials 
before a line of the text was written. No statement has been made 
without authority, and the best authorities within reach, pertaining 
to the different subjects treated, have been consulted. When these 
have differed, as has not infrequently been the case, the author has 
exercised his own judgment ac(*ording to the best lights before him. 
His primary and directing purpose has been to be, before all things, 
truthful and fair. Tens of thousands of details have had to be dealt 
with, but in no instance has anything been left to mere hypothesis or 
opinion when the exact truth, real or apparent, could be arrived at. 
Much of the routine work has necessarily been confided to copyists, 
but the utmost care has been taken to prevent errors. For mis- 
prints, or errors in the matter quoted, neither the copyist nor the 
author is responsible. As a rule, quoted matter has been reproduced 
exactly as it has been found, verbatim et literatim. Even the punc- 
tuation, however awkward and contrary to present rules, has usually 
been preserved. Where inelegancies of expression or grammatical 
mistakes have occurred, these have been allowed to remain. Some- 
times these faults of diction have historical significance; they help 
to reflect the writer's mind and the spirit of his time. 

In general historical treatment the plan has been adopted of pre- 

xii. Prbkacb. 

senting each subjoct soparatoly, rather than that of blending all sub- 
jects, chronologieally, into one continuous narrative. This classifica- 
tion, it is beli(*vecl, will make the work much more ccmvenient and 
useful for reference than it could i)ossil)ly have been if constructed 
on the continuous narrative jjlan. To produce a symmetrical histor- 
ical tree we must have both stem and branches, and in order to give 
these their proi)er balance* and i»roportion we must before all consider 
the origin ot the tree and the elements from which its life and char- 
acter have l)een d(Tive<l. Hence the preliminary chapters of this 
work which relate to the i)rimitive races and wilderness and the 
original settlement and organization of the State. The history of 
Columbus is not merely that of a city, but also that of a capital, and 
no history of the capital of Ohio would be com[)lete which did not 
take into account the settlement and social organization of the great 
commonwealth which created the capital and of which it is the polit- 
ical centre. 

If any readers expect to find in these pages any labored and 
irrelevant personal mention; any coiinivance at pretentious selfasser- 
tion at the expense of merit ; any indulgene-e of mere family pride 
to the detriment of historical fairness; any unnecessary parade 
of personal folly and weakness; any i)andering to appetite for 
the salacious and criminal ; any apj)eals to the j>artiality of wealth, 
power or personal vanity ; any disguised advertisements mascjuerad- 
ing in the name of history ; or any fulsome laudation of the city or 
its citizens, individually or collectively, they will, the author hopes, 
be })rofoundly and completely disappointed. The mission of this 
work is to record facts and not to i)raise or dispraise persons or 
things except in the voice and terms of accurate and unswayed his- 
torical statement. 

To those, of whom there are many, who have responded orally 
or otherwise to the author's rerpiests for information, his acknowledg- 
ments are due, and are hereby heartily tendered ; to the others, bap- 

Preface. xiii. 

pily few, who have not responded to such requests even to the extent 
of the ordinary courtesy of acknowledging the receipt of a letter, no 
aspersions are offered and no reference would be made except as a 
matter of justice to the author in showing that the task of collecting 
the materials for such a work as this has not been easy or always 

To the gentlemen with whose contributed articles the author has 
been favored he feels deeply indebted, but his obligation is small 
compared with that which these conscientious, painstaking and able 
writers have laid upon the students of local history. The work they 
have so faithfully done is their fittest and best eulogium. No invid- 
ious distinction is intended, and certainl/ none will be inferred, when 
it is stated as the tribute of a personal friendship more than twenty 
years old, and as a matter of justice to one of the greatest living 
geologists, as well as to a citizen to whom Ohio and science owe a 
measureless debt, that the scholarly yet most interesting and practi- 
cal chapter on local geology and its related topics which Doctor 
Edward Orton has contributed to this volume was one of the very 
latest tasks which had engaged his pen prior to the moment when a 
sudden affliction compelled the suspension, brief, let us hope, of his 
work and usefulness- 

The biographical sketches which close this volume, it should be 
stated, have mostly been written by Walter B. O'Neill, Esquire, a 
graduate of Michigan University. 

For the publishers of this work the author desires to say that 
the spirit they have shown in risking a large amount of money in an 
undertaking of this kind, and the efforts they have made to produce 
such a result as would be creditable to the city and satisfactory to all 
interested, are such as richly deserve the cordial, helpful and liberal 
recognition of every publicspirited citizen. Few indeed are there 
who would have had the courage, not to say the ability, to grapple 
with the difficulties and discouragements incident to such an enter- 

xiv. Preface. 

prise, and still fewer are there who would not have found in it the 

grave of their financial hopes. The response with which the lousiness 

skill, energy and determination of those gentlemen have lieen met 

has surpassed the author's expectations, hut has not surj massed their 


Columbus, Ohio, July 27, 1892. 











Origin of the State. 



In the annals of Ohio the middle of the seventeenth century forms the divid- 
ing line between history and myth. All beyond that is vague and shadowy. Two 
hundred and fifty years ago the country now known as Ohio was a primeval wilder- 
ness which no white man had ever seen. Except along the southern shores of Lake 
Erie, where dwelt the Cat Nation of Indians, it was occupied by no fixed inhabit- 
ants. During the latter half of the seventeenth century it was a hunting preserve 
to the various Indian tribes which approached it from the north, south and east.* 

The authentic descriptions of this primitive solitude are extremely meager. 
For adequate conceptions of its virginal grandeur, gloom and loveliness, changing 
with the seasons, and untouched as yet by the hand of man, we are left mainly to 
the conjurations of our own fancy. La Salle, who was its first white explorer, has 
left us no record of its piiysical aspects.* Hunters and captives tell us of their ad- 
ventures, but do not describe the country.^ We know more of the interior of 
Africa than they have told us of the vast interior regions \vost of the Alleghanies. 
The early travelers and annalists have done little better. They came to view the 
land not for historical purposes, but to inspect and report its material resources. 
They have given us glimpses here and there of the external features of the coun- 
try, but only glimpses. They have at best drawn but the vague outlines of a 
picture the details of which would now be of intense interest. 

The Jesuit missionaries who explored the region of the Great Lakes and the 
Valley of the Mississippi were so absorbed in the work to which they had conse- 
crated their lives, or so occupied with other special purposes set before them, as to 
have given little thought, apparently, to their unique surroundings. They nar- 
rate incidents and experiences with minuteness, but dismiss natural objects with 
the barest allusion. It is by free interpretation of what they say, rather than by 
what they have actually said, that we must fill out and perfect our impressions of 
the great northwestern wilderness. Such interpretation we find in the pages of 
one of their most accomplished annalists, who has drawn the following Dore-iike 
picture of the primitive Canadian forest: 

Deep recesses where, veiled in foliage, some wild, shy rivulet steals with timid music 
through breathless caves of verdure ; gulfs where feathered crags rise like castle walls, 
where the noonday sun pierces with keen rays athwart the torrent and the mossed arms of 
fallen pines cast wavering shadows on the illumined foam ; pools of liquid crystal turned 
emerald in the refiected green of impending woods ; rocks on whose rugged front the gleam 
of sunlit waters dances in quivering light; ancient trees hurled headlong by the storm to 
dam the raging stream with their forlorn and savage ruin ; or the stern depths of immemorial 

^••■•sn* V. 11 till ♦!.»*n- M I ''a:' "-n •{.<**: v -.: m:r:i*m. ^ rizt*. -iaiiiii ix* li 
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-nil **.riu» *^:i' ■.»!■/ .1 ; -.''.r.!*. *•.".■.•* r^i*. 7 ▼"■:■. '.'^•r-rz*.'. us^. z.x^-\i:,Lrr*t '^ Mmjijp: iLp?i;.:r:7f:a. 

M •.•*r.r'. A '.'M v:yj>ru*j»: 'S •.onr.i*** ^i*.-^- ..- .c*rr»''-.'.r:-r«i : t-:- is. v ■*-"•- j-ilv"*- -i*^ 
;4i'.»v.i'Ji*r,.vjr "^^d •*?» •,■.* "..-•^ ;r.-.*n*. * ri.:. *:*.:> L*:'----i. *:!•: :c jL:i-i "r •i;£^ lii-wi *cr.TM^ 

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r,//r." 'f-i^ 'A 3 ■-.'.*■. — '.r^ uf. .•;-• .r.7r'*r'i ' r. i'-' ' 4.1*:. '.T-r- rl. t-::-^ nrr ::.r meju ■>** r-:«*>n- 

''/ '/Xv^r^-Ji vyr 't^3k::.*r .-.'.or*: fr<b«'j-;-ri: ar. i L'.O'je^ aci i— r.- brow^-: :f» - ";.e plaici?: «trmnice 
*ri.?r^..* »*:^f* »^:^r- :rav«:r*lf.;f '.h*: nvrr. an i ::iOD-'r:."-i ±*L a: r-^a^ei :r. :t> wairr*. Bat ihey 
fz/'XA^i'^'t '>r, '.^^.f -waT arxi.'; :»';;- *'^.;*.-; :«f-, inztxi^A '• y :"js ni^cr a*r-itrn.v of n-an. Descend- 
,f*jf JST.I.L fir.r**:f u*«Ty 'ak.*: '.o u^f: lar.'i ,f tL«r M.-.-r*. -'t i^^itioa. whi-.h. with the tarker 
•/*rAff>*: •.f,* »^/l«r fj^u^t^fA of thfr wiid^rmes- : all ■^tti'irr zan.^r ha : -ii^ppearoi. 

W* i^*r uoiW,riii hfi\ •i«i*rr and m^xr^. ba*tarL* ani wingl^* «>wan«. for they she»l their 
j/i'ir/i*r* Ifi tKi* 'y/'intrj', Frofii t:m«: lo time we nr*cr^t OiOiistrou?*, one of which struck so 
vioi^-ft'ly a;fi&(n.^t ^'ir ^.-ano*: that I vy>k it lor a larare trtre ^ probably a t-atfi^h] al»ut to knock 
uft 10» pi^>*. ArththtzT tiuifr we j^ierf-eive*] on ih»- water a luonster with the hea*i of a tiger, a 
\ffiiuU'A nuh^A like a wildcat's, a li^-ard and '.-an* erect, a i^rayish head and neck all Mack. On 
(AKt^tiif otif n*iUi we have taken hturifeon and a very extraordinary kind of tish : it resembles 
a lro*it with thij* differen':e, that it hah a larger lui.iUih but ^nialier eye:^ and snout.* 

-' Both nidenoflhe river." oouiiniie? Maniueiie. -are lined with lotlv woods. 
The, tuAihii^fffA, elrn and whitewood are of admirable heiirht aiid size. The num. 
SfiiTH of A'ild oattb: we heard bellowing make us belifve the prairies near. We saw 
/|iiaiU on the water s edf^e, and killed a little j»arrot with halt' the ht-ad red, the rest, 
with the neok, yellow, and the b^>«ly green." 

S^ime of the glorious Mrenen whicdi Uennepin has taint ly described but must 
have witneHWjd when he explored the upper Missi>sippi in Itj^O, are thus jx>rtrayed 
by hJM i^oetic ehronicler: 

The yotHiK MiflHiflHippi, fre«h from its northern springs. unstaine<l as yet by unhallowed 
union with the riot^>u8 Mi«80uri, floweil calmly on its way amid strange and unique beauties; 
a wildeniew clothed with velvet graas; forest-shadowed valleys: lofty heights whose smooth 
nUfiHiH Hft^fined levelled with the scythe ; domes and pinnacles, ramparts and ruined towers, 

The Ohio Wilderness. 6 

the work of no human hand. The canoe of the voyaji;ers, borne on the tranquil current, 
glided in the shade of ^ray cragj* festooned with blossoming honeysuckles; by trees 
mantled with wild grapevines, dells bright with the flowers of the white euphorbia, the blue 
gentian and the purple balm ; and matted forests where the red squirrels leaped and chat- 
tered. . . . And when at evening they made their bivouac fire, and drew up their canoe, 
while dim sultry clouds veiled the west, and the flashes of the silent heat-lightning gleamed 
on the leaden water, they could listen, as they smoked their pipes, to the strange, mournful 
cry of the whippoorwills, and the quavering scream of the owls." 

The wilderness stretching southward from Lake Erie was analogous to those 
solitudes of the Northwest, and yet different. An enthusiastic writer declares that 
" the Creator never planted on any other portion of His globe a forest more mag- 
nificent that that which clad the primeval hills and valleys of the Ohio basin." '® 
Another, writing in 1888, savs " tho wild scenery of this region seventy or oven 
fifty years ago must have been eminently beautiful. If any one at that time had 
ascended any elevated ground nenr the Ohio, or any of its larger rivers, the prospect 
of hill and dale, spread out immense, must have been delightful to the eye of the 
beholder. The spectator behold tall trees covered with vines of the grape and of 
wild roses hanging in clusters tVom near the ground to the topmost boughs. He 
saw, too, a beautiful shrubbery of flowering plants, tall grasses and a great profu- 
sion of wild flowers in full bloom, of every shade of color. All was silent and still 
except the singing birds of every variety, of wild fowls, — the paroquet, bob-of-lin- 
coln, quail, turkey, pigeon and mocking-bird.'" 

Daniel Boone has left this recortl of what he saw when he entered Kentucky 
in 1769: 

We found everywhere abundance of wild beasts of all soits through this vast forest. The 
buffalo were more fre<]uent than I have seen cattle in the settlements browzing on the leaves 
of the cane, or cropping the herbage on those extensive plains, fearless because ignomnt of 
the violence of man. Sometimes we saw hundreds in a drove, and the numbers about the 
salt springs were amazing. . . . Nature was here a series of wonders, and a fund of delight. 
Here she displayed her ingenuity and industry, in a variety of tiowers and fruits, beautifully 
coloured, elegantly shaped and charmingly flavored ; and we were diverted with innu- 
merable animals presenting themselves perpetually to our view. In the decline of the day, 
near the Kentucky River, as we ascended the brow of a small hill, a number of Indians 
rushed out of a thick canebrake upon us, and made us prisoners. 

In another part of Boone's narrative occurs this passage : 

One day I undertook a tour through the country, and the diversity and beauties of 
nature I met with in this charming season expelled every gloomy and vexatious thought. 
Just at the close of the day the gales retired, and left the place to the disposal of a profound 
calm. Not a breeze shook the most tremulous leaf. I had gained the summit of a command- 
ing ridge, and looking around with astonishing delight, beheld the ample plains, the beau- 
teous tracts below. On the other hand I surveyed the famous river Ohio that rolled in silent 
dignity marking the western boundary of Kentucky with inconceivable grandeur. At a vast 
distance I beheld the mountains lift their venerable brows, and penetrate the clouds. I kin- 
dled afire near a fountain of sweet water, and feasted on the loin of a buck which a few hours 
before I had killed. 

The unstudied rhetoric of this narrative, and its artless grouping of events, 
rather deepen than impair the impressions it conveys. 

The scenes along the Ohio River at this i)eriod possessed a unique fascination 
which excited the enthusiasm of every voyager. Colonel John May, who visited 


" the Ohio country " in 1788-89, floated down the river in a flatboat crowded, as he 
informs ua, with men, cows, calves, hogs, dogs, and baggage. His journal contains 
this striking passage referring to his experience while he took his turn at the helm 
one dark night during a thunderstorm: 

We moved on still as night. In the thick forest on either liand was to be heard the howl- 
ing of savage beasts, the whooping of one kind of owl, the screaming of another, while every 
now and then would come a burst of thunder. 

In another part of his journal May makes this record : '* Could not help re- 
marking again the beauties of the river. On each side mountains with valleys be- 
tween, rising progressively to view, and filling the mind with admiration and 
wonder. . . . While bathing I saw a flock of yellow-legged birds flying over 
and called them, when they lit down quite near me."" 

More suggestive still, and much fuller in details, is the journal of ** A tour in 
the unsettled parts of North America," in 170(> and 1797, by Francis Baily, a Fel- 
low of the Boyal Society of England, and a scientist of considerable repute. Mr. 
Baily set out from New York in September, 179G, and while descending the Ohio 
from Fort Duquosne disembarked to visit the ancient mounds at Grave Creek, in 
Virginia, below the present site of Wheeling. Describing this adventure he says : 

We at first traversed over a flat bottom on the banks of the river, and then ascending a 
very steep and high hill we were carried along the ridge of it till we came within about a 
mile of the place. As this hill carried us above the level of the .surrounding country, every 
break through the trees presented to us a »ea of wxxis^ whose tops just tinged by the setting 
sun displayed one of the most beautiful sylvan scenes I ever remember seeing; at the same 
time every now and then the Ohio opened to our view, whose gentle stream, covered with 
drifting ice, formed a fine contrast to its umbrageous shores. We had scarcely proceeded 
half our journey before a bear with three cubs crossed the road at some distance before us. 

Another incident which conveys a vivid idea of the scenes along the Ohio at 
this period occurred while the rude crafl bearing the voyager was descending with 
the current at midnight, in the midst of a violent thunderstorm. It is thus de- 
scribed : 

We were surprised at seeing a light ahead of us, apparently on the banks of the river. On 
our nearer approach to it Me observed this fire to move in different strange directions, and 
for some time puzzled our imaginations in conceiving what it could be. . . . On our com- 
ing opposite to it we saw distinctly the appearances of human beings nearly naked, and of a 
colour almost approaching to black ; and each of these beings furnished with a couple 
of firebrands which they held in each hand. There might be about a dozen of them, and 
they had got a large fire blazing in the middle of them, and were dancing around it in the wild- 
est confusion imaginable, at the same time singing, or rather muttering some strange incohe- 
rent sounds. Their peculiar appearance, whose effect was heightened by the contrast of the 
tempestuousness of the night, and the rolling of the thunder and lightning around us, 
put me in mind so much of the descriptions which are given of the infernal regions that for 
the moment 1 could not help considering them as so many imps let loose upon the earth to 
perform their midnight orgies ; though it proved to be nothing more than a few Indians who, 
disturbed by the inclemency of the weather, could not sleep, and were innocently diverting 
themselves with singing and dancing round their fire. 

In another place Mr. Baily speaks of " the delightful scenery " along the river 
and says : " If we put ashore ... we saw the works of nature profusely lavished 
through an uninhabited country ; if we possessed the water, our attention was 
continually attracted by the flight of immense flocks of wild fowl and other birds, 

Thb Ohio Wilderness. 7 

who, undisturbed, preserved their course regardless of our near approach ; or we 
might behold the nimble deer browzing on the banks, or the fierce bear darting 
through the thicket." 

This passage is suggestive : " After we had retired to rest sometime ... we 
heard ( as we had often done before ) the howling of wolves, bears and other wild 
animals around us; and several times the noise of their feet among the dry leaves 
on the ground, prowling about in search of prey." 

Further interesting chronicles of the scenes along the Ohio are found in the 
journal of "A tour into the territory northwest of the Alleghany mountains," in 
the spring of 1803, by Rev. Thad<ieus Mason Harris, a member of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, of Boston. Journeying by way of Philadelphia, Lancaster, 
Carlisle, Shippeuvsburg and Sharpsburg, Mr. Harris arrived at Pittsburgh and 
there embarked for the parts below in one of the primitive boats of the period. Of 
the appearance of the country from the river he says: 

Sometimes we were in the vicinity of dark forests which threw a solemn shade over us 
as we glided by; sometimes we passed along over hanging banks decorated with blooming 
shrubs which timidly bent their light boughs to sweep the passing stream ; and sometimes 
around the shore of an island which tinged the water with a reflected landscape. The lively 
carols of the birds, which "sung among the branches" entertained us exceedingly, and gave 
life and pleasure to the woodland scene. The flocks of wild geese and ducks which swam 
upon the stream, the vast number of turkies, partridges and quails we saw upon the shore, 
and the herds of deer or some animals of the forest darting through the thickets, afforded us 
constant amusement. 

The verdurous islands set like gems upon the bright surface of the water must 
have contributed much to the beauty of the river then, as they still do. Harris 
notes their loveliness and mentions the curious circumstance that "they are 
increasing in extent at the upper end and losing ground at the lower, which has 
led to the remark that the * islands are moving up the river.' " 

In the recollections of H. M, Brackenridge, who journeyed down the Ohio to 
the Mississippi in 1792, we are told that " not far from the Wabash they [Bracken- 
ridge and his companions] saw a small herd of buffaloes and secured a large calf 
for their supper. Once having encamped near a beautiful grove of sugar trees, the 
party found that a flock of turkeys had taken up their night's lodging over their 
heads. Twelve or fourteen of these served them for supper and breakfast. At 
another time the travellers had a * naval battle with a bear' which thev attacked 
as he was swimming across the Ohio River. After an exciting fight . . . 
they dragged their valorous but vanquished foe into their boat, and he proved to 
be of enormous size. . . . Flocks of screaming paroquets presently alighted 
over their heads, and humming birds attracted by blossoming honeysuckle flitted 
around them and flashed away again." 

Thus far we have seen the Ohio wilderness only as it was observed by early 
voyagers descending the river from Fort Duquesne (Pitt), now Pittsburgh. From 
the mouths of the Muskingum, the Scioto and the Miami, some of these men turned 
aside to explore the country north of the river and there found themselves im- 
mersed in 

Majestic woods, of every vigorous green. 

Stage above stage, high waving o'er the hills, 
Or to the far horizon wide difi'used, 
A boundless, deep immensity of shade. 

H History of the City of Colitmbuh. 

To oue of these explorers'^ who ascended the Miami Valley, we are indebted 
for this bit of description : 

Aboat one or two o'clock, having come to a delightful Hpot surrounded by lofty trees, 
(all of which were in full bloom) and furnished with a carpet which nature had decked with 
her most luxuriant colours, through which ran a rivulet as clear as the purest crystal, we 
agreed to halt. . . . The sun shone beautifully bright and the atmosphere was without 
a cloud ; and as our horses required a little rest, we tied them to a tree and wandered out 
into the woods, in order to enjoy the sweet present of nature, wherein every step we took 
afforded new beauties. 

Speaking of the same region this writer tells us that he had "seen oak trees, 
and those not uncommon, which measured near tour feet in diameter at the bot- 
tom, and which had a straight trunk without a single branch for seventy feet; and 
from that part to the termination of the upper branch it has measured seventy 

Such was the sylvan majesty which, at a later period, inspired the pen of 
William D. (rallagher when he wrote, one says, '* from the very bosom of the Miami 
woods," these stately linos: 

Around uie here rise up majestic trees 
That centuries have nurtured ; graceful elms, 
Which interlock their limbs among the clouds; 
Dark-columned walnuts, from whose liberal store 
The nut-brown Indian maids their baskets fille<l 
Ere the first Pilgrims knelt on Plymouth Rock ; 
Gigantic sycamores, whose mighty arms 
Sheltered the red man in his wigwam prone, 
What time the Norseman roamed our chartless seas; 
And towering oaks, that from the subject plain 
Sprang when the builders of the tumuli 
First disappeared. 

Another explorer" makes this record of what he saw in these woods: 

There is something which impresses the mind with awe in the shade and silence of these 
vast forests. . . . Our course through the woods was directed by marked trees. As yet 
there is no road cut. There is but little underwood, l)at on the sides of the creeks and near 
the river the pawpaw {Anyiona glabra^) the spice bush, or wild pimento {fjaurus benzoin,) and 
the dogberry {comus Florida,) grow in the gre4itest abundance. We often stop to admire the 
grapevines in these forests, which twine among and spread a canopy over the highest trees. 
Some are nine inches in diameter. They stretch from the root, which is often thirty and 
forty feet from the trunk of the tree, and ascend in a straight line to the first high limb thirty 
and even sixty feet from the ground. How^ they have reached such an height without the 
help of intermediate branches is unaccountable. 

The Muskingum Valley, as it appeared to the Moravian missionary Zeisberger 
when he explored it in 1772, is thus described in his biography: 

It extended a distance of nearly eighty miles, enclosed on both sides by hills, at the foot 
of which lay wide plains terminating abrui)tly in bluffs, or sloping gently to the lower bot- 
toms through which the river flowed. These plains that now form the fruitful fields of the 
** second bottoms," as they are called, were then wooded with the oak and hickory, the ash, 
the chestnut, and the maple, which interlocked their branches, but stood comparatively free 
from the undergrowth of other forests. The river bottoms were far wilder. Here grew wal- 
nut trees and gigantic sycamores, whose colossal trunks even now astonish the traveler; 
bushy cedars, luxuriant horse-chestnuts, and honey locusts, cased in their armor of thorns. 

The Ohio Wilderness. 9 

Between these, clustered laurel-bushes, with their rich tribute of flowers, or were coiled the 
thick mazes of the vine, from which more fragrant tendrils twined themselves into the 
nearest boughs, while here and there a lofty spruce tree lifted its evergreen crown above the 

Daniel Boone refers to the Scioto Valley, through which he was conducted 
during his captivity, as "exceedingly fertile*' and "remarkable for fine springs 
and streams of water." Others speak of it as marshy and malarious. Smith's 
narrative contains the following allusions to the upper Scioto country lying 
within the present boundaries of Franklin and the neighboring counties west and 
north : 

About the time the bucks quit running, Tontileaugo, his wife and children, Tecaughre- 
tanego, his son Nungany and myself left the Wiandot camps at the carrying place, and crossed 
the Sciota River at the south end of the glades, and proceeded on about a southwest course to 
a large creek called Ollentangy,^* which I believe interlocks with the waters of the Miami, 
and empties into Sciota on the west side thereof. From the south end of the prairie to 
Ollentangy, there is a large quantity of beech land, intermixed with first- rate land. Here we 
made our winter hut, and had considerable success in hunting. ... A few days after 
Tecaughretanego [an Indian soothsayer] had gone through his ceremonies and finished his 
prayers, the rain came and raised the creek a sufficient height so that we passed in safety 
down to Sciota, and proceeded up to the carrying place. About our winter cabbin is chiefly 
first and second rate land. A considerable way up Ollentangy on the southwest side thereof 
or betwixt it and the Miami, there is a very large prairie, and from this prairie down Ollen- 
tangy to Sciota, is generally first-rate land. The timber is walnut, sugar-tree, ash, buckeye, 
locust, wild cherry and spicewood, intermixed with some oak and beech. From the mouth 
of Ollentangy on the east side of Sciota, up to the carrying place, there is a large body of first 
and second rate land, and tolerably well watered. The timber is ash, sugar-tree, walnut, 

locust, oak and beech We proceeded from this place down Sandusky, and in 

, our passage we killed four ))ears, and a number of turkeys. 

But the country was by no means all timbered. Smith speaks of ** the great 
meadows or prairies that lie between Sandusky and Sciota,""^ which must have 
been in their primitive, as they are now in their cultivated state, of great natural 
beauty. Samuel Williams, a member of Captjiin Henry Brush's company of Chilli- 
cothe volunteers who marched to the relief of Hull at Detroit in the summer of 
1812, writes on the third of August, that year, from camp at Mauniee Kapids. 
" The country we yesterday passed through [yet in its original wildnessj is the 
most delightful 1 have ever seen. Our route most of -the day was over natural 
plains of many miles in extent, apparently as level as theocean, seemingly bounded 
only by the distant horizon, and interspersed with a few islets or groves of oak 
and hickory timber and hazel bushes, and here and there a solitary oak tree or two 
standing out in the open expanse. These isolated trees and groves contributed 
much to the beauty of the scenery. But this is not all. These plains are covered 
with a most luxuriant growth of grass and herbs, and an endless variety of beauti- 
ful native flowers, representing all the hues of the rainbow, and loading the atmos- 
phere with their perfume." 

Other prairie districts, since known somewhat indefinitely as the Darby and 
Pickawa3' plains, are referred to by Williams as the *' barrens," through which, he 
tells us, the Brush company marched for two days exposed to the hot sun, before 
reaching Urban a. Speaking of this district A twater says, '' the prairie north of 
Circleville appears to have been the bed of some considerable stream, the Scioto 

10 History of the City of Columbus. 

River, perhaps. In some places it is four feet from the present surface to the 
ancient one. On the latter once stood a thick forest of white cedar trees; these 
trees now lie on the ancient surface, in different stai^es of decay. . . . The whole 
prairie was once a cedar swamp."'* 

The animal life of the wilderness was exceedingly interesting^ and naturally 
drew more of the attention of the early chroniclers than its vegetable life. Smith's 
narrative contains frequent reference to the wild game of the woods. In his 
earlier pages, after having narrated his wanderings and adventures with the 
Indian party to which he was captive until they arrived at the creek now known 
as Rocky River, in Northern Ohio, and there halted for the winter, he says: 

As it was still cold weather and a crufit upon the pnow, which made a noise as we 
walked and alarmed I he deer, we could kill nothinjr, and consequently went to sleep without 
supper. The only chance we had under these circumstances, was to hunt l)ear holes; as the 
bears about Christmas search out n winter IcMlj^inp ])lace, where they lie about three or four 

months without eating or drinking The next morning early we proceeded on, 

and when we foun<l a tree scratched l»y the l>ear8 climbing up, and the hole in the tree 
sufficiently large for the reception of the bear, we then fell a sapling or small tree against or 
near the hole and it was my business to climb up and drive out the bear, while Tontileaugo 
stood ready with his gun and bow. We went on in this manner until evening, without suc- 
cess: at length we found a large elm scratched, and a hole in it about forty feet up. but no 
tree nigh suitable to lodge against the hole. Tontileaugo got a long pole and some dry 
rotten wood which he tied in bunches, with bark, and as there was a tree that grew near the 
elm, and extended up near the hole, but leaned the wrong way, so that we could not lodge 
it to advantage; but to remedy this inconvenience he climl)ed up this tree an<l carried with 
him his rotten wood, fire and pole. The rotten wood he tied to his belt, and to one end of 
the pole he tied a hook, and a piece of rotten wood which he set tire to, as it would retain 
fire almost like spunk ; and reached this hook from limb to limb as he went up; when he 
got up with this pole be put dry wood on fire into the hole, after he put in the fire he heard 
the bear snuff and he c^me speedily down, took his gun in his hand and waited until the 
bear would ('ome out; but it was some time before it appeared, and when it did appear he 
attempted taking sight witH his rifle, but it being then too dark to see the sigbti). he set it 
down by a tree, and instantly bent bis bow, took hold of an arrow, and shot the bear a little 
behind the shoulder; I was preparing also to shoot an arrow, but he called to me to stop, 

there was no occasion ; and with that the bear fell to the ground We remained 

here about two weeks, and in this time killed four bears, three deer, several turkeys, and a 
number of raccoons. 

This simple narrative, rude and spontaneous like the forest itself, convoys a 
more vivid impression than we obtain from many a more polished and pretentious 
attempt at descriptive writing. 

Beai*s w-ere common in the Ohio woods down to the beginning of the present 
century, after, which they were rapidly exterminated. Major John Rogers's 
journal of a voyage along Lake Erie in 17(11 contains this passage: " Wo traveled 
eleven miles and encamped, having killed in our march this day three Bears and 
two Elks." The following adventure in the valley of the Little Miami is narrated 
in Baily's journal, already (juoted : 

We had not [)roceeded far in the woods ere we discovered a hole in the top of a lofty 
oak, whose diameter was upwards of three feet at the bottom, and itj* height near 150 feet. 
. . . We saw evident traces of his [a bear's] claws impressed on the bark of the tree, and 
it was soon lesolved that the tree was to come down. Accordingly our two men set at it, and 
when they had nearly got through it we took our appointed stations to watch the egress of 
this tyrant of the woods. In a short time the immense trunk began to give way, and carry- 

The Ohio Wildernbss. 11 

ing all before it, fell with a tremendons crash upon the ground. Bruin, finding his habita- 
tion in motion, began to look out before it reached the ground, and with a sudden spring 
arrived there first. Immediately Dr. Bean levelled his piece and shot him through the body, 
but only so as to wound him, and the bear began to turn upon him; when at the lucky 
moment a limb of the tree fell upon the stump of his tail, and left him struggling to get free. 
This afforded me time to come to Dr. Bean's assistance, when I shot the poor animal through 
the head. ... In this expedition we killed two or three deer, and saw great quantities 
of wild turkeys. 

Both elk and buffalo roamed the Ohio woods grior to the year 1800. Smith 
mentions the slaying of a "buek-elk" which, he remarks," was the fattest creature 
I ever saw of the tallow kind." His account indicates that the animal was taken 
somewhere in the neighborhood of the Muskiniijum. Atwater affirms that " when 
Circleville was first settled the carcasses, or rather skeletons, of fifty individuals of 
the elk family lay scattered about on the surface."'* In his paper on the Mam- 
mals of Ohio, embodied in the State Geoloirical Survey Report, Prof A. M. Bray- 
ton says : " There is ample evidence of the former existence and abundance of 
the buffalo in Northern Ohio ; it occurred in otiicr parts of the State. Colonel John 
May met with it on the Muskingum in 1788, and Atwater says ' we had once the 
bison and the elk in vast numbers all over Ohio.' Hutchins says tiiat in the natural 
meadows, or savannalis, ' from twenty to fifty miles in circuit,' from the moutii of the 
Kanawha far down the Ohio the herds of buffalo and deer were innumerable, as 
also in the region drained by the Scioto." In his description of Lake Erie, about 
1687, La Hanton (quoted by Professor Brayton) says . *' 1 cannot express what 
quantities of deer and turkeys are to be found in these woods and in the vast 
woods that lie on the south side of the lake." In 1718 Vaudrcuil said of Lake Erie : 
"There is no need of fasting on either side of this lake, doer are to be found there in 
such abundance. Buffaloes are to be found on the south but not on the north 
shore. . . . Thirty leagues up the river [Maumec] is a place called La Glaise 
[now Defiance] where buffaloes are always to be found; they eat the clay, and 
wallow in it." Harris speaks in his journal of'' oi)en cleared spots on the summits 
of hills called * buffaloe beats' because supposed to be occasioned by the resort of 
those animals thither in fly-time."^* 

Smith's narrative contains this passage : 

We then moved to Buffaloe lick, where we killed several buffaloe, and in their small 
brass kettles they made about half a bushel of salt. I suppose thi.«? lick was about thirty or 
forty miles from the aforesaid town.^' and somewhere between the .Muskingum, Ohio and 
Sciota. About the lick was clear, open woods, and thin whito-oak land, and at that time 
there were large roads leading to the lick, like waggon roa<ls. We moved from this lick about 
six or seven miles and encamped on a creek. ^* 

Smith also tells of ambuscading a buffalo herd, from which he succeeded in kill- 
ing "a very large cow/' This seems to have occurred between the Olentangy 
( Darby Creek ) and the Scioto. 

Of the panther species both the mt)untain tiger and the mountain cat were in- 
habitants of the Ohio wilderness. The commissioners of Athens County offered 
bounties for both panther and wolf scalps down to the year 1818.-'^ Within a mile 
of Newark, Licking County, a marauding panther was shot as late as 1805.^^ 

Wolves infested the wilderness in great numbers, and their ululations at night, 
particularly in winter, must have been extremely dismal. 


The gray i'ox^ a beautiful animal, was very ahundaiit, but, strange to say, with 
tbi; approach of civilization the red fox supplanted it. 

Another frequent inhabitant wan the deer, whose timidity, grace and innocence 
enlist our sympathy although they never evoked the hunters mercy. 

SquiiTels were numberless, and their grand migrations were among the curi- 
ous phenonuMm of the forest/* 

Serpents of various kinds fre<|uented the marshes, the tall grass of the prairies 
and the tangled copses. Atwater says: "At an early period of our settlement 
the large rattlesnake was found along the Scioto, in considerable numbers, but the 
newly settled inhabitants, ascertaining that these ser])ents burrowed in a large 
stone mound a few miles northeastwardly from Circlevilio, after the seri>ents had 
gone into their winter quarters fenced in the mound, and, as the serpents came 
out of it in the spring of the next year, they killed them, so that it is a rare thing 
now to find one on this region."" 

Probably no other ])ortion of the earth was ever peopled by a more interesting 
vurietv of birds than the Ohio wilderness. Mr. Atwater's remarks on this subject 
are interesting. He says: "The wild goose visits us on the Scioto early in the 
autumn, and tarries with us until spring. . . . This bird lives all winter about 
Sandusky bay, and from thence southwardly to Pickaway plains. . . . Loons are 
seen along the Ohio River, but they are seldom killed. The heron and the crane 
visit us in the spring, and tarry here all summer and rear their young. The wmd- 
hill crane lives on the Scioto, and tarries there nearly all the year. . . . After a 
long storm from the southwest many birds of ditierent species are oflen seen hei"o 
of a most beautiful plumage, which disappear again after a week's fair weather. 
. . . (rulls, or stormy )»etrels are often seen along the Ohio River, before a south- 
western storm. A few years since, panxjuetts, in large fiocks, lived in the woods, 
along the Ohio River, from Miller's bottom downwar<ls, and along the Scioto River, 
upwards from its mouth, to where ('olumbus now stands. They are still in the 
woods along the bottoms below (.'hillicotiie near the river where there is ])roper 
food for them to eat, and birds enough tor them to torment by their squalling 
noise. * 

Myriads of wild jugeons nested in the wilderness, and their migi*atory flights 

over the silent *' sea of woods'' were sometimes prodigious. One of the French 

voyagers on the Mississippi remarks that " tl»e air was darkened and quite covered 

with them. " Harris's journal ( 1803 ) contains these statements referring to 


The vast fiights of pij^eous in this country seem incredible. But there is a large forest 
in Waterford (on the Muskingum ) containing several hundred acres, which had been killed 
in consequence of their lighting upon it during the autumn of 1801. Such numbers lodged 
upon the trees that they broke off large limbs ; and the ground below is crovered, and in 
some places a foot thick, with their dung, which hai« not only killed all the undergrowth, 
but all the trees are as dead as if they had been girdled.*' -"^ 

John Bradbury, an English botanist who explored the Missouri country in 
1809-11, writes of these birds : 

I . . . soon discovered that pigeons were in the woods. . . . This npecies of pigeon (Col- 
unibo migratorius ) associates in prodigious Hocks: one of these flocks when on the ground* 
will cover an area several acres in extent, and are .so close to each other that the ground can 
scarcely be seen. This phalanx moves through the woods with considerable celerity, picking 

The Ohio Wildbrnehh. K> 

up, as it passes along, everything that will serve for food. It is evident that the foremost ranks 
must be the most successfal, and that nothing will remain for the hindermost. That all may 
have an equal chance the instant that any rank becomes the last, they rise and flying over 
the whole dock alight exactly ahead of the foremost. They succeed each other with so much 
rapidity that there is a continual stream of them in the air, and a si<le view of them exhibits 
the appearance of the segment of a large circle moving through the woods. I observed that 
they ceased to look for food a considerable time before they become the last rank, but strictly 
adhere to their regulations, and never rise until there are none behind them.'* "^ 

The ornithologist of the Geological Survey, Dr. J. M. Wheaton, M. D., late 
of this city, says in his report: 

Until about 1855 pigeons were extremely abundant in Central Ohio, having at and before 
this time a roost and breeding place near Kirkersville, Licking County. Then, for weeks at 
a time, they might be observed flying over this city or around its suburbs. In the morning 
soon after sunrise until nine o'clock or after, their flight was westward from the roost. In 
the afternoon from four o'clock until sundown they were returning. During these periods 
they were never out of sight, and often dozens of flocks were in view at once. . . . Vast 
numbers were shot, killed with poles on their roosts, or captured in nets. . . . Many 
thousands were offered for sale in the market of this city. Most of them were brought alive 
in coops, and the purchaser had the choice of carrying them home alive or having them killed 
on the H[)ot. If he chose the latter, the seller by a dexterous movement fractured or dislo- 
cated the bird's neck between his teeth. The average price at this time was five or six cents 
a dozen. . . 

On several occasions we have been favored with a general migration of these birds, when 
they have appeared as described by Wilson, in ** congregated millions." This was the case in 
1854, when the light of the sun was perceptibly obscured by the immense, unbroken, and 
apparently limitless flock which for several hours passed over the city. In the fall of 1859 I 
witnessed a similar migration near Granville, Licking County, since which time the birds 
liave been much less numerous. On this occasion I had an opportunity of observing a large 
flock while feeding. The flock, after a little circling by the foremost ranks, alighted upon the 
ground, presenting a front of over a quarter of a mile, with a depth of nearly a hundred yards. 
In a very few moments those in the rear, finding the ground already stripped of mast, arose 
above the treetops and alighted in front of the advance column. This movement soon became 
continuous anduniform, birds from the rear flying to the front so rapidly that the whole pre- 
sented the appearance of a rolling cylinder having a diameter of about fifty yards, its interior 
filled with flying leaves and grass. The noise was deafening, and the sight confusing to the 

If such were the multitudes of these birds which swarmed over the country 
nearly sixty years after civilization had begun to destroy them and drive them 
from their haunts, how phenomenal must they have been when they roved the 
silent, unseen wilds before the white man's advent! 

The waterfowl of the wilderness, 

Consulting deep, and various, ere they took 
Their arduous voyage through the liquid sky, 

we may well believe constituted one of its most curious phases. Smith gives us 
some glimpses of it in his narrative. Describing a grand circular hunt on the 
Maumee during which the Indians drove multitudes of deer into the river he says : 
** The squaws and boys were busy tomahawking the deer in the water, and we 
shooting them down on the land. We killed in all about thirty deer, tho' a great 
many made their escape by water " ; and then adds : 

We had now great feasting and rejoicing, as we had plenty of homony, venison, and 

14 History of the City of Columbus. 

wild fowl. The i^eese at this time appeared to be preparing; to move southward — it might be 
askeil what is meant by the geese preparing to move? The Indians represent them as hold- 
^^K & great council at this time concerning the weather in order to conclude upon a day that 
they may all at or near one time leave the Northern I^kes and wing their way to the south- 
ern bays. When matters are brought to a conclusion and tlie time appointed that they are 
to take wing, then, they say, a great number of expresses are sent off in order to let the dif- 
ferent tribes know the result of this council, that they may be all in readiness to move at the 
time appointed. As there is a great commotion among the geese at this time, it would ap- 
pear by their actions that such a council had been held. Certain it is that they are led by 
instinct to a(»t in concert and move oflf regularly after their leaders. 

In another place Smith says: "Then (in October) the geese, swans, ducks, 
cranes, &c., eamo from tlio north, and alightetl on this little Lake (Sandusky bay) 
without number or innumerable. Sunyendeand [a Wyandot town on the bay] is 
a remarkable place for fish in the spring, and fowl both in the fall and spring." 

The approach of civilization modified but l>y no means discontinued these 
phenomena. " Wild geese, swans, ducks and wading birds,*' wrote Dr. Kirtland in 
1850, " literally swarmed about every lake, pond unti creek, during spring and 
autumn. Many species also bred on the Heserve. Forty years since, while travel- 
ling from Buffalo to Ohio, along the immediate .shore of the lake, the scene was 
constantly enlivened by the presence of ducks leading their young on the margin 
of the water, or hastily retreating to it on our aj)proach. It often happened that 
on doubling some point of land or fallen tree, we j>laced ourselves in a position to 
cut off their communication with their favorito element. The instructive expedi- 
ents to which the thoughtful mother would resort to extricate her charge from 
impending danger, was to us a matter of amuMcment and interest." 

** At the present time," wrote Dr. Whcaton in 1871), *' the geese find no more 
secure feeding grounds than the vast cornfields of the Scioto Valley. However 
these birds are less numerous than formerly, at least in the vicinity of this city. 
They seem to retain for a long time an attachment for places, and visit each year 
a favorite locality on the Olcnlangy Kiver, so near this city that 1 have known 
amateur sportsmen to refrain from shooting them, for the reason that they * were 
too near town to be wild geese.' "*'' 

A letter quoted by Dr. Manasseh (hitler, writing at the Marietta settlement in 
1788, says: ''Every spring a prodigious number of storks come to visit these 
plains; they arc at least six feet high, and more than seven feet from tip to tip of 
wings. 1 have never seen them come to feed that they were not surrounded by 
sentinels who watch around them to announce the approach of enemies. Some- 
times before their departure they assemble in great flocks, and the day being fixed 
all rise, turning slowly, and preserving always the same order, they describe long 
spirals until they are out of sight." 

Paroquets in the Ohio woods are referred to in various old chronicles, some of 
which have been already quoted. Their harsh squawk must have been one of the 
most impressive if not pleasing voices of the summer wilderness. They seem to 
have been partial to the valley of the Lower Scioto, although they were observed 
as far north as Lake Michigan. Audubon, writing in 18H1, says: ^^OurParra- 
keets are very rajndly diminishing in number, and in some districts where twenty- 
five years ago they were plentiful, scarcely any are now to be seen." In 1838 Dr. 
Kirtland observed that " the parrakeets do not usually extend their visits north of 

The Ohio Wilderness. IB 

the Scioto.*' In July, 1862, the late W. S. Sullivant, of Columbus, noticed a flock of 
twenty-five or thirty which alighted among the trees opposite his residence on the 
Capitol Square.** 

Another impressive bird of the wilderness, and one especially in keeping with 
its gloomier aspects, was the turkey buzzard, of which we have the following strik- 
ing picture in Bradbury's account of his exploratioiis of the Missouri woods : " We 
began to notice more particularly the great number of drowned buffaloes floating 
on the river; vast numbers of them were also thrown ashore. . . . These 
carcasses had attracted an immense number of turkey buzzards ( Vultur aura) and 
as the preceding night had been rainy, multitudes of them were sitting on the 
trees, with their backs toward the sun, and their wings spread out to dry, a com- 
mon practice with these birds ailer a rain."^^ 

A similar spectacle formerly frequent on the Ohio is mentioned by Harris, who 
says in his journal : " On the upper beach of one of the islands we saw a large 
flock of Turkey Buzzards, attracted there by a dead carcass that had floated down 
the river, and lodged upon the bar. These birds did not fly upon our ap- 

Dr. Cone says of these scavengers: *'The Turkey Buzzard breeds sometimes 
in communities and sometimes by single pairs, depositing its aggs on the ground, 
on rocks, or in hollow logs and stumps. The situation is generally in thick woods ; 
and when numbers breed together, the foulness of the resort is beyond description 
— vegetation may be destroyed over large areas. . . . They walk or hop 
indifferently, and sometimes move with a succession of leaps, accelerated with the 
wings. When about to take flight from the ground, they stoop for an instant till 
the breast almost touches, and then unfolding the wings, give a vigorous spring 
into the air; with a few powerful hurried flaps they are fairly ott\ They soon 
begin their gyrations with set wings, only beating at intervals, when they are 
forced to rise rapidly away from some obstacles; and circling thus they are 
shortl}' in the upper air." 

Of the eagles a whole chapter of interesting facts might be written. Smith 
says in his narrative: ** We came to Lake Erie about six miles west of Canesa- 
dooharie [Black River, in Lorain County]. ... I saw on the strand a number 
of large fish, that had been left in flat or hollow places; as the wind fell and the 
waves abated, they were lefl w^ithout water, or only a small quantity; and num- 
bers of Bald and Gray Eagles, &c., were along the shore devouring them." 

In another place be says "great numbers of turkey-buzzards and eagles" 
collected to devour some rockfish left by the Indians. 

The black eagles, says a colonial writer, " are most frequently sitting on some 
tall tree by the riverside, whence they may have a prospect up and dowMi the 
river, as 1 suppose to observe the fishing hawks ; for when they see the fishing 
hawk has struck a fish, immediately they take wing, and 'tis sometimes very 
pleasant to behold the flight, for when the fishing hawk perceives herself pursued, 
she will scream and make a terrible noise, till at length she lets fall the fish to 
make her own escape, w^hich the eagle frequently catches before it reach the 
earth or water."" 

Wilson's Ornithology contains the following references to the whiteheaded 
eagle in this State : 


lu one of tliose partial ini)j;rations uf triH^' wiuirreln that sometimes take place in our weet- 
ern forests, many thousands of them were drowned in attempting to cross the Ohio ; and at 
a certain place not far from Wheeling, a prodigious number of their dead bodies were floate<1 
to the shore by an eddy. Here the vultures assemble^! in great force, and had regaled them- 
selves for sometime, when a bald eagle made his api>earance, and took sole possession of the 
premises, keeping the vultures at their proj»er distance for several days. He has also lH*en 
seen navigating the same river on a floating carrion, though scarcely raise^l above the sur- 
face of the water, and tugging at the carcass regardless of snags, sawyers, planters or 

Doctor Wheaton, writing in 1879, says: "In the immediate vicinity of Colum- 
bus the white headed eagle is rare, and migrant or winter visitor. I have not 
seen one for twenty years, but a fine adult spociman was observed on Alum Creek, 
about four miles from the city, by my friends Doctors Fullerton and Landis in Sep- 
tember last, r have seen it in October, at the Licking County Reservoir, and have 
been informed that it remains through the summer and probably breeds there. 
About thirty years since, when a fatal epidemic prevailed among cattle, eagles ap- 
peared in considerable numbers in the northern part of this county' and fed upon 
the carc^isses ol' the victims.''*' 

The song birds of the wilderness excite the admiring comment of all its early 
explorers. Among those partial to the Scioto Valley was the thrush, of which At- 
water writes in the following strain of rhapsody: 

This Shakspeare among birds seats himself on some tree where the greatest variety of all 
sorts of birds dwell, and makes it his business to mock and disappoint them. Hence his com- 
mon name of mockingbird. Having seated himself in a proper place he listens in profound 
silence to the songs of the several birds around him. In the vernal season he makes the 
love call of a female of some near neighbor with heart stirring melody, until the males come 
in flocks to caress their loved mate, when lo I no such lovely bird is there. They find in- 
stead of the lovely fair one a homely brown thrush. ... In the evening, after the birds have 
reared their young ones, and when all join to raise their several hymns of praise, the thrush 
seats himself in this woodland orchestra, and begins by singing in succession the notes and 
songs of all the birds around him, beating all of them, using their own notes and singing their 
own songs. 

Having thus, as he supposes, carrie<i ottthe prize in this musical contest, he prepares for 
his finale^ by taking his seat on the topmost end of the highest bough of the loftiest tree 
standing on the highest ground in all tlie grove, and then commences to sing his own clear 
notes, and his own most delightful song. At times his wings are expanded, his neck is ex- 
tended, every feather in his whole body quivers with his exertion of every limb, and his 
whole soul is exerted to its utmost power to produce the most perfect melody that was ever 
heard in the woods of Ohio.*^ 

Such are some of the best indications we can obtain of what the Ohio wilder- 
ness was before modern civilization entered it. But strange to say, we find here 
the traces of another civilization, or at least of a modified barbarism, which must 
have antedated even the advent of the red man. We also find imbedded in the 
rocks, and scratched upon their surfaces, the tokens of events which took place in 
the vast development of nature before this goodly land became habitable for man, 
whether civilized or savage. 

Before proceeding farther let us examine these vestiges of the past, and inter- 
pret, so far as we can, their mysterious meaning. 

Jy.. . 


. » 

1* *a 

The Ohio Wilderness. 1? 


1. All the early voyagers on the Ohio, and all the first emigrants to Kentucky, represent 
the country as being totally destitute of any recent vestiges of settlement. Mr. Butler, in his 
history of Kentucky, remarks in the text, that '* no Indian towns, within recent times, were 
known to exist within this territory, either in Kentucky or the lower Tennessee '' ; but in a 
note he says, " there are vestiges of Indian towns near Harrodsburg, on Salt River, and at 
other points, but they are of no recent date." The same author and all others assert ** that 
this interjacent country between the Indians of the South and those northwest of the Ohio, 
was kept as a common hunting ground or field of battle, as the resentments or inclinations of 
the adjoining tribes prompted to the one or the other." — W. H, Harrison*s DiKoune on the 
Aborigines of the Ohio Valley. 

In the latter half of the seventeenth century, after the destruction of the Eries by the 
Five Nations, in 1656, what is now the State of Ohio was uninhabited. — Manning F, Force on 
The Indiana of Ohio, 

Speaking to the same effect, Hildreth says : " A belt of country from forty to sixty miles 
in width, on both the north and south banks of the [Ohio] River seems to have been appro- 
priated by the tribes who laid claim to the territory, almost exclusively as hunting grounds." 
--Pioneer Hutory, by S. P. Hildreth, 

2. History accepts it as an established fact that early in July, 1669, this bold adventurer 
left Montreal at the head of an exploring party, and that he probably spent the winter of 
1669-70 in the Ohio country between Lake Erie and the great stream which the Indians 

called •* Ohio," " Oligheny-sipu," or " Meesch-zebe." Writers conjecture variously that he 
reached the Ohio by following down either the Muskingum, the Scioto, or the Big Miami.— 
Footprints of the Pioneers of the Ohio Valky, by W. H, Venable. 

3. The Narrative of Colonel James Smith affords a good illustration of this. Smith was 
captured by the Indians in Pennsylvania in 1755, at the age of eighteen, and remained with 
them, most of the time in the Ohio wilderness, until he made his escape near Montreal in 
1 759. His journal kept during that period, and afterwards revised and published, is a valu- 
able and extremely interesting record of experience, but portrays meagerly the wild and 
wondrous forest scenes in which that experience took place. 

4. The Old Regime in Canada ; Francis Parkman. 
6. Discovery of the Great West ; Francis Parkman. 

6. Id June, 1673. 

7. Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, John Gilmary Shea. 

8. Polydon spatula, now very rare. 

9. Parkman. 

10. Venable's Footprints in the Ohio Valley. 

11. History of Ohio ; Caleb Atwater. A. M., 1838. 

12. Yellow-legged snipe or tattler, then common along the western rivers in autumn. 

13. Francis Baily, already quoted. 

14. Thaddeus Mason Harris. 

15. This probably refers to the Big Darby. A note on this passage by Smith's commen- 
tator, Mr. Darlington, based on John Brickeirs Narrative, says : *' By a law of the legisla- 
ture of Ohio, passed in 1833, * to restore the Indian names to certain streams,' this name 
(Ollentangy) is incorrectly given to the Whetstone, the eastern affluent of the Scioto, the 
Delaware Indian name of which was Keenhongsheconsepung, or Whetstone Creek, in Eng- 
lish. . . . Big Darby Creek, which rises in Logan County and flowing southeast empties into 
the west side of the Scioto in Pickaway County, opposite Circleville, is the real Ollentangy ; 
this is evident from Smith's description of his route from the Sandusky portage to that stream, 
and of the country between it and the waters of the Miami (or Mad River)." 

16. Afterwards known as the Sandusky Plains, and now embraced within the counties of 
Crawford, Wyandot, Marion and Hardin. 

17. History of Ohio. 

18. Ibid. 

18 History of the City ok CoUMiirs. 

19. HarriB'e Journal. 

20. The town liere referred to is mentioned by Smitii on a preeeding pa^, a8 '* an 
Indian town on the went branch of the MuHkinguni, about twenty miles above the forks, 
which was called TuUilahs, inhahiUni by Delawares. Caughnewagas and MohieanH." 

21. ** In Licking and Fairfield counties, now known as the Reservoir or Licking Summit 
of tiie Ohio Canal, ten miles south of Newark. The main Indian trail from the forks of the 
Ohio to the Miami towns led by this swamp, then, no doubt, of vast extent. Christopher 
Gist, agent of the Ohio Company (of Virginia), sent out to examine the country, with George 
Croghan and Andrew Montour, messengers, with presents from Governor Hamilton, of Penn- 
sylvania, to the Twight wees (Miamis), reached this point and encamped on January 17th, 1751. 
On the next day they ' set out for the Great Swamp,* as it is notice<l by (list in his journal." — 
Note by W, M, Darlington, 

22. History of Athens County ; C. M. Walker, ISiMi. 

23. History of Licking County ; Isaac Smucker. 

24. Hildreth's Pioneer History of the Ohio Valley speaks of the migration of gray squir- 
rels, in early times, " coming in millions from the north to the south, destroying whole fields 
of corn in a few days.** 

" I learn from Dr. Hoy" [of Racine, Wisconsin], says Prof. Brayton, "that one of these 
migrations is said to have taken place in 1842; he witnessed another in 1847, and a third in 
1852. From these facts, and from observations made in Ohio and elsewhere, he is of the 
opinion that the migrations, in most cases, at least, occur at intervals of five years, and if he 
be right, the S(iuirrels, which are now exceedingly abundant again in Southern Wisconsin, 
may be expected to migrate in the aututnn of 1857.* He further says that the migrations ob- 
served by him in Southern Wisconsin occurred when the mast was exceedingly abundant 
and the squirrels in good condition. Near Riicine th<*y were observed passing southward in 
very large numbers for about two weeks, at the end of September and the beginning of October, 
and it was a month before all had passed. They moved along rather leisurely, stopping to 
feed in the fields, and upon the abundant nuts and acorns <»f the forests. So far had they 
departed from their accustomed habits that they were seen on the prairie, four or five miles 
away from any timber, but even there, as usual, they disliked to travel on the ground, and 
ran along the fences, wherever it was possible."— /?^>orf on the Mammaliii of OhiOj by Prof, A. 
M. Brayton, Ohio Oeological Surrey Report, Volume IV. 

25. History of Ohio. 
20. History of Ohio. 

27. Gravier. 

28. Journal of a Tour, etc. 

20. Travels in the Interior of America in the years ISCK), ISlOarul isll ; by John Bra<lburv. 
80. Report on the Birds of Ohio; by J. M. Wheaton, M. D., 1S70. (leological Survey Re- 
port, Volume IV. 

31. Ibid. 

32. Ibid. 

:53. lYavels, etc. 

34. Journal of a Tour, etc. 

35. John Clayton, Rector of Crofton, to the Royal Soiuety, May 12, \(V^, on Virginia and 
what he saw there. 

'MS. A n\erican Ornithology, by Alexander Wilson, Philadelphia. 

37. Geological Survey Report, 1808-14. 

38. Historv of Ohio. 

♦ A migration of black and gray s^juirrels did take |dace in 1S57, as pre<lieted. 



The antiquity of man in the Ohio Valley 18 one of the dark and fathomless 
secrete of the past. Science has endeavored with but faint success to pierce its 
mystic shadows. Only within the last few years, and then by accident, have the 
first feeble glimpses been obtained into its remoter mysteries. By these glimpses, 
vague and unsatisfactory as they are, the eye of science traces the existence of 
man in this region back to that wondrous period when a vast sheet of ice, 
descending from the north, lay like a monstrous shield over the greater part 
of the Ohio basin. 

Of the advance and recession of that stupendous continental glacier the record 
is clear, copious and authentic. Nature has herself written it in cyclopean char- 
acter, manifest and enduring as the earth itself. " The evidence is conclusive," 
says Professor Wright, " that, at a comparatively recent period, the northern por- 
tions of Europe and America were covered with a vast mass of slowly moving ice, 
pressing down from the north pole towards the warmer latitudes."* This prodig- 
ious sliding mass was doubtless produced, like the glaciers of the Alps, by annual 
accumulations of snow, under a low temperature, packed and solidified by the 
influences of wind aod sun. East of the Atlantic it covered most of the British 
Islands, the whole of the Scandinavian peninsula. Northern Germany, and West- 
ern Russia. On this continent it slid down over the present area of New England 
and New York until it plunged into and was dissolved by the ocean. " Westwaixi 
from New York City," says Professor Wright, " I have myself carefully traced in 
the field the southern boundarj^ of the glaciated regions as far as the Mississippi. 
Beginning at New York City, and omitting the minor features, the line marking 
this southern boundary runs northwest to Salamanca, New York, thence southwest 
to the neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky, thence bending north to the upper 
part of Brown County, Indiana, thence southwest to Carbondale, Illinois, and 
thence northwest to the neighborhood of St. Louis. To this limit the ice of the 
glacial period continued in its southern movement, grinding down the elevated 
surfaces and filling up the depressions of the country, and bringing its vast burden 
of granite rocks from the north."* 

In Ohio the glacial boundary is wonderfully distinct, and has been located 
with precision. Professor Wright, who explored it during the summer of 1882, 
declares his belief that he has traced it with " tolerable certainty . . . upon nearly 
every mile of its course."* Entering the State from the east at Achor, in Columbiana 
County, it "continues nearly west to the middle of Stark County, where it turns 




more to the Bontli, crosHin^ the northern portion of Holmea County to (he northeast 
corner of Knox and Licking Coiinticx, the wusicni pun of Perry, turning here so 
as to pass throu<,'li Lancaster, in Fairfield County; touching the western edge of 
Hocking, and entering Rosn at Adelplii in the northcust corner. Here it turns to 
the west, crossing the Scioto Vnlloy a few miles north of Chillicottie, and emerg- 

ing from the county at its southwest corner, proceeding thence through the sonth- 
eastern corner of Highland, the northwestenj of Adiim^, reaching the Ohio River 
in the southerii part of Brown Connty, near Ripley. Cincinnati was completely 
enveloped by ice during the glacial period, and extensive glacial deposits exist in 
the northern part of Campbell and Boone Counties, Kentucky, and near Aurora 
in Dearborn County, Indiana."' 

The Prehistoric Races. 21 

The force exerted and the effects produced by this resistless ice-current 
were inconceivably vast. In New England, says Professor Newberry, it was " of 
such thickness and magnitude as to override all the features of the local topog- 
raphy except Mt. Washington."* From its marks on that mountain, which served 
as a kind of Nilometer to the glacier, Professor Newberry concludes that its upper 
surface must have been six thousand feet above the level of the sea; "in other 
words that the ice was three thousand feet thick.*'* By the movement and pres- 
sure of tl)is mass the surface of the earth was prodigiously scoured, furrowed and 
shaped. Hills were abraded, great valleys and basins scooped out, huge heaps of 
gravel deposited, terraces now known as ridges heaped up, and enormous quanti- 
ties of loose rock pushed or carried into the depressions formed. Crossing the 
original channel of the Ohio twenty-five miles above Cincinnati the ice-barrier 
arrested and threw back the descending waters, and thus, as it is believed, formed 
a lake six hundred feet deep in its lower part, and in its upper covering the pres- 
ent site of Pittsburgh to the depth of three hundred feet. When the ice melted, 
enormous volumes of water were produced which carried the gravel and silt down 
into the prodigious groovings of the glacier, filling them in many instances to a 
depth of more than two hundred feet. Thus the beds of our present watercourses 
were raised approximately, to their present level," and the whole surface of the 
country was submerged or swept by swirling eddies and currents. In the basin 
of the Great Lakes, excaviited by the mighty glacier,^ a fresh-water sea was formed 
in which pinnacled icebergs floated dovN n from the Canadian highlands, sowing 
broadcast their monstrous freightage of rocky debris as it fell from their slippery 
sides under the action of the sun. 

Behind it the receding ice-sheet left a surface of boulder clay which seems to 
have been overgrown, in the lapse of time, w^ith immense forests of coniferous 
trees.* This growth continued long enough to form a carbonaceous soil, and in 
many places beds of peat in which remains of the walrus, thcmusk-ox, the masto- 
don and the giant beaver have been found. "When the forest growth had spread 
over most of the drift area south of the lakes, and had occupied it for hundreds 
and perhaps thousands of years, a submergence of the continent took place which 
brought the waters of the Gulf of Mexico up the Valley of the Mississippi until 
this formed an arm of the sea which reached and covered all the lower half of our 


The lapse of time which has taken place since the close of the glacial era can 

be only conjecturally estimated. Judging by the rate of erosion which has been 
produced by the waters of Niagara and other post-glacial streams. Professor 
Wright thinks the recession of the ice cannot date farther back than ten or fifteen 
thousand years. A period of about eleven thousand years seems to have elapsed 
since " the Niagara began its work at Queenstown." 

Whether the existence of man has been coextensive with this period, and 
reached back to the stupendous but vanishing disorder of the Ice Age, is a question 
which has been often asked. " To give an answer," says Sir Archibald Geikie, 
"we must know within what limits the term Ice Age is used, and to what partic- 
ular country or district the question refers. For it is evident that even to-day 
man is contemporary with the Ice Age in the Alpine Valleys and in Finnmark. 
There can be no doubt that he inhabited Europe alter the greatest extension of the 

22 History of the City op Columhus. 

ice, but while the rivers were Htill larger than now from the melting snow, and 
flowed at higher leveln.*'" 

That man was eon tern porar}'^ with glacial recession on this continent is now 
one of the most positive conclusions of science. At the time when the ice-front in 
Ohio extended as far south as Cincinnati, says Professor Wright, " man, in a state 
of development similar to that of the Eskimo, was hunting the mastodon, and the 
reindeer, and the walrus in the valley of the Delaware. ... At that time the 
moose, the caribou, the musk-ox and reindeer ranged through the forests and over 
the hills of Kentucky.*''* Eemains of these animals have been found in the peat 
bogs of the glacial epoch, and while human remains have not been found there, evi- 
dences have nevertheless been brought to light which clearl}^ indicate the presence 
of man in the Ohio Valley ten thousand years ago. While digging a cistern at 
Madisonville, on the Little Miami River, eleven miles northeast of Cincinnati, in 
the year 1885, Doctor C. L. Metz took out of the glacial gravel, eight feet below 
the surface, a stone implement " of the true paheolithic type." The stone was 
black flint "not smoothed, but sinij)ly a rudely chipped, pointed weapon about 
three inches long."** Subsequently, in the spring of 1H87, Doctor Metz found 
another pala^olith in a similar deposit, thirty feet below the surface, at Loveland, 
Ohio. This second find was an oblong stone al)out six inches long, and carefully 
chipped to an edge. Both the Madisonville and the Loveland implement are ob- 
viously of human manufacture, and must have lain imbedded in the gravel ever 
since their deposit by the glacial streauK *' They show," says Professor Wright, 
"that in Ohio as well as on the Atlantic coast, man was an inhabitant before the 
close of the glacial period."'^ Simple as these articles are, the}' furnish proofs dif- 
ficult to dispute that the Ohio Valley was t)ne of the first portions of the globe to be 
inhabited by human beings. 

That earlier race, perhaps resembling the present Esquimaux of the distant 
North, was doubtless the beginning of a series of races which have since come and 
gone. Man}' years ago, says Geikie, the Danish archaeologists, taking their cue 
from the Latin poets, classified the prehistoric races of man as those of the Stone 
Age, the Bronze Age, and the Age of Iron. " There can be no doubt that on the 
whole this has been the general order of succession. Men used stone and bone 
before they discovered the use of metal. 'V,. The primitive Ohio man now appears 
to have been a user of stone, and an antitype and contemporary of the cave and lake 
dwellers of Europe. What further traces of him the gravel beds may yield no one 
can tell, but that further traces await discovery and will in due time come to light 
seems altogether probable. 

Who and of what j)articular character the paleolithic man's immediate suc- 
cessors were must be determined, as yet, chiefly by analogy. Everywhere, says 
Dr. Wilson, man seems to have passed through the same progressive stages: First, 
that of the savage or purely hunter state wherein he appears as " the savage oecu- 
pant of a thinlj^-peopled continent, warring with seemingly inadequate means 
against gigantic carnivora, the contemporary existence of which is known to us 
only by the disclosures of geological strata or ossiferous caves, where also the 
remains of still more gigantic herbivora confirm the idea of man's exhaustive 
struggle for existence": second, the -' pastoral state, with its flocks and herds, its 
domesticated animals and its ideas of personal property, including in its earlier 

Tub Prehistoric Kaces. 23 

stages that of property in man himself"; and third, the agricultural stage, or that 
of tillers of the soil, "the Aryans, the ploughers and lords of the earth, among 
whom are developed the elements of settled social life involved in the personal 
homestead and all the ideas of individual property in land.'"^ 

The succession of the earlier races on this continent seems to have followed 
something like this order of development, except that a savage race has succeeded 
one of apparently agricultural habits. Whether the more enlightened race degene- 
rated into the savage one or was displaced by it is an unsolved problem, but that a 
race or races antecedent and in some respects superior to the Indians dwelt here 
and spread over a large proportion of our present national area, is not doubtful. 
The evidence of this is palpable, not speculative, and is spread before us at our 
very doors. It was not submerged by glacial floods, or buried in glacial debris, 
but dates from a far more recent period than the Age of Ice. It confronts us on 
hilltop and plain, and in the depths of the unplowed forest. We .see its mani- 
festation in multitudes of ancient works of earth and stone, erected with immense 
labor, contrived with superior intelligence, and stored with curious mementoes of 
a vanished race. 

In the Scioto Valley that ancient people seems to have dwelt " in greater 
numbers than anywhere else in the Western States."'" In no other equivalent 
space are their works so numerous, varied, and interesting. Between Columbus and 
the Ohio River they strew the valley to the number of perhaps fifleen hundred. 
About six hundred of these are found within the limits of Ross County. Some 
memorable specimens once stood within the present corporate limits of Columbus. 
Manifestly this region was a favorite dwelling-place of these mysterious pioneers 
of the prehistoric period. It was an attractive .seat of ])opulation in their day just 
as it has been since. Whatever has been or can be ascertained about them must 
therefore have an absorbing interest for their successors in this valley. 

The number of these ancient works within the State of Ohio approaches twelve 
thousand, but the entire area of their discovery embraces a vastly greater field. They 
do not, so far as known, occur north of the Great Lakes, but they are found in 
Western New York on the headquarters of the Alleghany, as far east as the county 
of Onondaga, and along the shores of Lake Ontario to the River St. Lawrence. 
In Pennsylvania they accompany the Susquehanna as far down as the valley of 
Wyoming. They are observed along the Mississippi as far north as Wisconsin 
and Minnesota, and, at wide intervals, on the Upper Missouri and its tributaries. 
They are scattered through the Gulf States from Texas to Florida, from whence 
they extend northward into the Carolinas. Their occurrence is frequent in 
Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky and Tennessee. 

But the distribution of these works is by no means uniform. They keep 
company with the larger watercourses, and are seldom found among the hills. 
"The alluvial terraces or * river bottoms,' as they are popularly termed, were the 
favorite sites of the builders. The principal monuments are found where these 
^bottoms' are most extended, and vvhere the soil is most fertile and easy of cultiva- 
tion. At the junction of streams, where the valleys are usually broadest and most 
favorable for their erection, some of the largest and most singular remains are 
found. The works at Marietta ; at the junction of the Muskingum with the Ohio; 
at the mouth of Grave Creek ; at Portsmouth, the mouth of the Scioto, and at the 

24 History of the City of Columbus. 

moath of the Great Miami, are instances in point. Occasional works are found on 
the hilltops, overlooking the valleys, or at a little distance from them ; but these 
are manifestlv, in most instances, works of dofuncc or last resort, or in some way 
connected with warlike purposes. And it is worthy of remark that the sites 
selected for settlements, towns and cities, by the inva<linii: Europeans, are oflen 
those which were the especial favorites of the inoun<l buildei*s, and the seats of 
their heaviest population. Marietta, Newark, Portsmouth, (-hillicothe, Circle- 
ville,and Cincinnati, in Ohio: Frankfort in Kentucky'; and St. Louis in Missouri, 
may be mentioned in confirmation of this remark. The centres of population are 
now where they were at the period when the mysterious race of the mounds 

The exploration of these works was undertaken in the year 1845 by Messrs. 
E. Gr. Squier, A. M., and E. H. Davis, M. I)., of Chillicothe, Ohio. It was the 
original purpose of these gentlemen to investigate the ancient monuments of the 
Scioto Valley, but their researches were finally extended to the general field for 
this class of antiquities in the West. From their admirable rej)orl, embodied in the 
Smithsonian Institution ('ontributions to Knowledge in 1847, the statements last 
above quoted are taken. Tht*irs was l>y no moans the first or the last investigation 
that has been made, hut it was so ]>ainstaking and thorough that subsequent dis- 
coveries have not added very materially to the light which it sheds on the nature 
and significance of these vestiges of the past. 

Technicall}" the word mound signifies a tumulus of earth, but the works of 
earth and stone from which the so-ealled Moun«l liuilders have derived that name 
are by no means all of that character. Messrs. Squier and Davis classify them as 
mounds and enclosures, which generic orders they subdivide as mounds of sacrifice 
or worship and sepulture, and enclosures for defense, and for sacred and miscel- 
laneous purposes. The distribution of these works according to their character is 
comprehensive!}' stated by General Force : 

In the Southern States are most of the great truncated mounds and terraces, while de- 
fenBive are scarcely found, unleFS the great ditches peeuliar to the southern works were of 
this character. The extraordinary collection of great truncated moundfl at Carthage, Alabama, 
was formerly surrounded by a feeble line of embankment now wholly ploughed away, that 
once might have been the base of a 8tocka«le. The works found on the alHuents of the 
Upper Missouri are massive defensive work-*. Those found in Wisconsin are almost exclu- 
sively effigy mounds or isolated conical mounds; and elligy mounds are scarcely found out- 
side of Wisconsin. Going eastward from the .Mississippi we find in Illinois and Indiana 
many conical mounds, both large and small; in Illinois at Cahokia ihe giant truncated 
mound; and in Indiana some, though not many, are elaborate defensive works. In Ohio are 
foun<l the most important works of defense ; numerous mounds, some quite large; and a few 
of them truncated, and several effigy mounds. Besides presenting rei)re8entative8 of every 
species of work formed elsewhere, Ohio contains some of a character found nowhere else, 
such as the combinations of great squares and circles, and the altar mounds. South of the 
Ohio, in Kentucky and Tennessee, there is also a marked prevalence of works of a military 

An attentive examination <liscovers more local distinction**. The Si*ioto Valley, forming 
a belt running north and south through the middle of Ohio, has for its peculiarity the 
mounds designated by Squier and l>avis as " altar mounds," and also systems of embankments 
making enclosures of various mathematical fi>;u res, mainly the square and the circle. The 
distinguishing feature of the ea:?tern ])elt of the state is the truncated mound or terrace so 

The Prehistoric Rages. 25 

rare at the north yet found in great perfection at Marietta. The distinguishing feature of the 
western belt of the state is the ereat line of strong and naturally supporting works of defense. 
These three belts, corresponding with three valleys — the valley of the Miamis to the west, 
the Scioto Valley in the centre, and the Muskingum Valley to the east — appear by these 
local peculiarities to have been the homes of three different though kindred tribes. They 
appear, moreover, to have lived in the valleys as fixed abodes long enough to have learned 
to borrow from each other. For one small truncated mound or terrace is formed in the Scioto 
Valley, and a few of the mathematical figures that abound in the Scioto Valley are found, 
but not so perfectly constructed, in the valley of the Miamis. The pipe of peculiar form, 
called by Squier and Davis ** the pipe of the Moundbuilders " seems to be a specialty of the 
tribe of Moundbuilders who lived in the Scioto Valley.'* 

The topographical relations of the different works in the same valley or sec- 
tion are sach as to indicate some general design. Touching this subject General 

Force says: 


Three great works on the Great Miami — one at its mouth, one at Colerain and one at 
Hamilton, with subsidiary defensive works extending along the river at Hamilton ; several 
advanced works to the north and west of Hamilton, and streams flowing into the Great 
Miami ; and other similar defenses farther up the river at Dayton and Piqua, all put in com- 
munication with each other by signal mounds erected al conspicuous points, constitute 
together a connected line of defense along the Miami River. Fort Ancient on the Little 
Miami stands as a citadel in rear of the centre of this line. A mound at Norwood, back of 
Cincinnati, commands a view through a depression of the hills at Redbank eastwardly to a 
mound in the valley of the Little Miami ; northwardly through the valley of Mill Creek and 
the depression in the lands thence to Hamilton, with the works at Hamilton ; and by a series 
of mounds (two of which in Cincinnati and its suburbs have been removed) westwardly to 
the fort at the mouth of the Great Miami. So a series of signal mounds along the Scioto from 
the northern boundary of Franklin County to the Ohio River, a distance of over one hundred 
miles, could transmit by signals an alarm from the little work north of Worthington through 
the entire length of the valley to the works at Portsmouth.** 

Further proof of general design is seen in the arrangement of the mounds, 
which seem to form in each valley a chain of signal stations like the cairns of 
the ancient Celts. Squier and Davis remark that "ranges of these mounds may be 
obsei-ved extending along the valleys for many miles. Between Chillicothe and 
Columbus, on the eastern border of the Scioto Valley, not far from twenty may be 
selected so placed in respect to each other that it is believed, if the country were 
cleared of forests, signals of fire might be transmitted in a few minutes along the 
whole line. On a hill opposite Chillicothe, nearly six hundred feet in height, the 
loftiest in the entire region, one of these mounds is placed. ... A fire built upon 
it would be distinctlj'^ visible for fifteen or twenty miles up and an equal distance 
down the valley, (including in its range the Circleville works, twenty miles dis- 
tant), as also for a long way up the broad valleys of the two Paint Creeks, — both 
of which abound in remains, and seem to have been especial favorites with the 
moundbuilders. . . . Upon a bill three hundred feet in height overlooking the 
Colerain work and commanding an extensive view of the [Miami] valley, are 
placed two mounds which exhibit — in connection with other circumstances not 
entirely consistent with the conclusion that the}' were simple signal-stations — 
strong marks of fire on and around them. Similar mounds occur, at intervals, 
along the Wabash and Illinois Eivers, as also on the Upper Mississippi, the Ohio, 
the Miamis and the Scioto. On the high hills overlooking the Portsmouth and 

2() History of the City ok CoLrMBUs. 

Marietta works mou!j<l.s of stone are situated ; those at the former place exhil>it 
evi<lent marks ot'tire." 

An enthusiastic student of these anti«|uities, Coh»nel W. M. Andernon, of Cirele- 
ville, '* has demonstrated by actual survey, made at his own expense," .says one of 
our local historians, "that these si^rnal posts or watch towei-s which occur in the 
Scioto Valley, formed a regular chain or system, and that by means of tiros upon 
them sit]rnals could be sent up or down the country, to ^ive warning of tl»e 
approach of an enemy or to convej'^ other intelligence." To which the writer adds 
this interesting comment : 

It is by no uieanB improbable that centuries ajro stirring information of danger, of 
defeat, or of victorv may have been flashed from station to station hv means of beacon fires, 
the whole length of the Scioto and that messages of vast import may have been almost as 
guickly sent by this means in tlie prehistoric age as they now are hy electricity. It is an 
astounding but in every repi)ect reasonable conclusion that before the tiiscovery of America 
hy Columbus or by the Norse atlventurers intelligence may have l>een sent from the Ohio 
River to the interior of what is now the Stat^* of Ohio with at least as great rapidity as in the 
present age by the steam-driven mail train tliat sweeps up the valley from Portsmoutli to 
the Capital.-' " 

The magnitudi' of these ancient works is no less im})ressive than the skill of 
their arrangement, or the extent of their distribution. *'Some of them recall the 
barrows of Europe and Asia, or the huge mounds and ram|)arts of Mesopotamia, as 
displayed at liabylon and Nineveh; while others remind us of the ruined hippo- 
dromes and am])hitheatres of the (ireeks and Homans. . . . The barrows and ram- 
)Kirts arc construetetl of mingled t^arth and stones: and from their soliility and 
extent must have re<|uired the labour of a numerous pojmlation, with leisure and 
skill sufficient to uiulertake combine*! an<l vast operations. . . . These barrows vary 
in size, from a few teet in circumference and elevation, to structures with a basal 
circumference of one or two thousand fei't, and an altitude of fi'om sixt}* to ninety' 
feet, resembling, in dimensions, the vast tumulus of Alyattes near Sardis.''" The 
lines of embankment vai'y in height from five to thirty feet, and, in the inverse 
order of their fre<|Ui'ncy enclose areas of from one to tiily. two humlred and oven 
four huntlred acres. Lewis and Clarke discovered one on the Upper Missouri 
with an estimated interior area of six hundred acres. Hut the space enclosed does 
not always indicate the amount of labor expen<led. A fortified hill in Highland 
County has a mile and tive-eighths of heavy embankment enclosing an area of onlj* 
forty acres. The group of works at the mouth of the Scioto has an aggregate of 
not less than tw^^nty miles of embankment surrounding a space of about two hun- 
dred acres.-' 

The mounds vary in height and diameter from a few feet, or yards, to the 
ilimensions of the famous tumulus at Crave Creek, in West Virginia, which has a 
height of seventy feet, and measures a thousand teet around its The groat 
mound near Miamisburg, in Montgonieiy County, Ohio, rises to a perpendicular 
height of sixty -eight feet, has a circumference of 852 feet, and contains 311,853 
cubic feet of earth. "The truncated pyramid at Cahokia. Illinois, the largest 
ancient earthwork in the United States, has an altitude of ninety feet, and is 
upwards of two thousand feet in circuinterence at the base. The great mound at 
Selserslown, Mississippi, is computed to cover six acres of ground. Mounds of 

The Peehihtoric Races. 27 

these extraordinary dimensions are most common at the South, though there arc 
some of great size at the North."" Sa3'8 Flint in his geography : ** We have seen 
mounds which would require the hibor of a thousand men employed upon our 
canals, with all their mechanical aids, and the improved implements of their labor 
for months. We have more than once hesitated, in view of one of these prodigious 
mounds, whether it were not really a natural hill." 

The builders of such works, observes General Force, '*could not have been a 
sparse population ; they must have been to some extent an agricultural people; 
they must have had, perhaps each tribe for itself, a strong government of some 
sort, whether a chief or a council, that directed and was obeyed."** 

The purpose of all this mammoth delving, ramparting and mounding is indi- 
cated rather by the form it has taken than by its dimensions. A few special ex- 
amples may illustrate both. Let those of an obviously military character be first 

The positions of such works, as well as their torma of construction, are almost 
invariably suggestive of a judgment shrewd and trained in defensive warfare. The 
elevations which they occupy are such as no other points can command, and are 
usually inaccessible by their steepness except at one or two points. The summits 
are guarded by simple parapets thrown up a little below the brow of the hill, and 
of variable height and solidity, according to the facilities of the outlying ground 
for assault. Sometimes the embankment crosses the peninsula formed bj^ the junc- 
tion of two watercourses and is refused along each bank which it touches, as if to 
guard against flank attack. Within the intrenchments water for the garrison is 
invariably supplied by springs, streams or ponds. Mounds so located as to suggest 
their use as watchtowers sometimes rise within, without or in connection with the 
parapets. Concentric or overlapping walls usually guard the openings which seem 
to have been intended as gateways. Other openings, sometimes numerous, are 
believed to have been occupied by bastions of wood, which have now disappeared. 

"Nothing can be more plain," says Colonel Whittlesey, *' than that most of the 
remains in Northern Ohio, particularly those on the Cuyahoga river, are military 
works. There have not yet been found any remnants of timber in the walls; yet 
it is very safe to presume that palisades were planted on them, and that wooden 
posts and gSLtas were erected at the passages lefL in the embankments and ditches. 
All the positions are contiguous to water, and none of them have higher land from 
which they might in any degree be commanded. Of the works bordering on the 
shore of Lake Erie, through the State of Ohio, there are none but may have been 
int<)nded tor defence, although in some of them the design is not perfectly mani- 
fest. They form a line from Conneaut to Toledo, at a distance of from three to five 
miles from the lake, and all stand upon or near the principal rivers."^* This line 
seems to have been part of a general system of defenses *' extending from the 
sources of the Alleghany and Susquehanna, in New York, diagonally across the 
countr}' through Central and Northern Ohio to the Wabash.' *' 

Whittlesey continues: '* The most natural inference in respect to the northern 
cordon of works is, that they formed a well-occupied line, constructed either to pro- 
tect the advance of a nation landing from the lake and moving southward for con- 
quest; or, a line of resistance for a people inhabiting these shores and pressed upon 
by their southern neighbors. The scarcity of mounds, the absence of pyramids of 

28 HisTORT or the Citt of Columbus. 

earth which are so common on the Ohio, the want of rectangular and other regu- 
lar works, at the north. — all these differences ten* i to the conclusion that the north- 
ern part of Ohio was occupied bv a distinct people. At the north there is generally 
more than one wall of earth, and the ditches are invariably exterior. [In the non- 
military works the ditches are usually ^^^//irf the parapets ] There are some pas- 
sages, or 'sally ports,' through the outer parallel, and none through the inner one. 
There is also, in general, a space between the parallels suflScientl}' large to contain a 
considerable body of fighting men. By whatever people works were built, 
they were much engaged in offensive or defensive wars. At the south, on the 
other hand, agriculture and religion seem to have chiefly occupied the attention of 
the ancient people. 

" In view of the above facts we may venture to suggest a hypothesis, without 
undertaking to assign to it any more than a basis of probability. Upon the as- 
sumption that two distinet nations occupied the State,— that the northern were 
warlike, and the southern peaceful and agricultural in their habits, — ma}' we not 
suppose that the latter were overcome by their northern neighb:)rs, who built the 
military works to be observed on the Ohio and its tributaries, while the more regu- 
lar, structures are the remains of the conquered people?"" 

The differences here pointed out between the northern and southern earth- 
works are important. The northern are exclusively military', the southern are 
partly so but mostly ot'a non-military character. First among the defensive works, 
in the order in which they are mentioned by Squier and Davis, is that which oc- 
cupies the summit of a lofty detached hill near the village of Bourneville, twelve 
miles west of Chillicothe. This striking eminence rises abruptly in the broad val- 
ley of Paint Creek, the waters of which wash its base. Its summit is a wide plain 
marked with considerable depressions which contain water the whole year round. 
Around its brow, a little below the crest, are seen the remains of a stone wall which 
is two and a quarter miles in length, and encloses a space of 14t> acres. On its 
southern face this wall crosses an isthmus between the waters of Black Run and 
Reeves Hun, and is so arranj^ed there, by curving inward, as to form three gate- 
ways eight feet in width. The stones are of all sizes, and of sufficient quantity to 
have formed a para|)ct eight feet thick and t^f etjual height. On the least abrupt 
sides the wall is heaviest. The position commands a view of numerous other 
works of the mound -buiMing race, which seems to have been partial to the Paint 
Creek Valley. In respect to area inclosed this is the most extensive hill-work 
known in this country. It betokens great labor and the presence of a largo popu- 

The work known as Kort Hill, describe*] in the first Geological Survey of Ohio, 

is situated in the southern part of Highland County, thirty miles from Chillicothe 
and twelve from Hillsborough. This also is a steep, detached eminence and on 
most of its circumference difUcult to scale. Its embankment, over a mile and a 
half in length, consists of mingled earth an<l stone, and varies in height from six 
to fifteen feet, with an averai^e base of thirtv-tive or fort v feet. It extends around 
the brow of the hill, enclosing an irregular space of forty-eight acres within which 
are three difterent ponds. The ditch lias an average width of fifty feet, and is in 
some places sunk into the stratum ()f sandstone which underlies the terrace. 
Thirty-throe gateways, eleven of which have corresponding causeways across the 



ditch, open in the embankment at irregular intervals. "Considered in a military 
point of view, as a work of defence, it is well chosen, well guarded, and, with an 
adequate force, impregnable to any mode of attack practised by a rude or semi- 
civilized people. As a natural stronghold, it has few equals ; and the degree of 
skill displayed and the amount of labor expended in constructing its artificial de- 
fences, challenge our admiration and excite our surprise. With all the facilities 
and numerous mechanical appliances of the present day, the construction of a 
work of this magnitude would be no insignificant undertaking."*' Excepting a few 
small scattered mounds there are no other ancient remains nearer this work than 
the Paint Creek Valley, sixteen miles distant. 

Another fortified eminence rises on the west side of the Great Miami in Butler 
County, three miles below Hamilton. Its summit, skirted by a ditchless wall of 
earth and stone averaging five feet in height, overlooks all the adjacent country. 
The sides of the hill are steep, and are flanked by deep ravines. The enclosed 
space, sixteen acres, shows several excavations or "dugholes," from which material 
for the work seems to have been taken, liounds suitably placed for sentinel and 
observation posts are composed, in part, of loose stones. Four entrances twenty 
feet wide open at the salients, and are curiously guarded by curved embankments 
folding over one another like the Tiascalan gateways of the Aztecs. 

The crowning illustration of this of works, and one of the most interest- 
ing on the continent, is that known as Fort Ancient, situated in Warren County, 
on the banks of the Little Miami, thirty -five miles northeast of Cincinnati. Profes- 
sor John Locke, of the first Geological Survey, thus described it in 1843 : 

This work occupies a terrace on the left bank of the river, and 230 feet above its waters. 
The place is naturally a strong one, being a pennisula defended by two ravines, which, origi- 
nating on the east side near to each other, diverging and sweeping around, enter the Miami, 
the one above, the other below the work. The Miami itself, with its precipitous bank of two 
hundred feet, defends the western side. The ravines are occupied by small streams. Quite 
around this peninsula, on the very verge of the ravines, has been raised an embankment of 
anasual height and perfection. Meandering around the spurs, and reentering to pass the 
heads of the gullies, ic is so winding in its course that it required 196 stations to complete its 
sarvey. The whole circuit of the work is between four and five miles. The number of cubic 
yards of excavation may be approximately estimated at 628,800. The embankment stands in 
many places twenty feet in perpendicular height; and although composed of tough diluvial 
clay, without stone except in a few places, its outward slope is from thirty-five to forty-three 
degrees. This work presents no continuous ditch ; but the earth for its construction has been 
dug from convenient pits which are still quite deep or filled with mud and water. ... I am 
astonished to see a work, simply of earth, after braving the storm of thousands of years, still so 
entire and well marked. Several circumstances have contributed to this. The clay of which 
it is built is not easily penetrated by water. The bank has been, and is still, mostly covered by 
a forest of k)eech trees, which have woven a strong web of their roots over its steep sides ; and 
a fine bed of moss {Poiytrichum) serves still further to afford protection. 

The embankment has an average height of between nine and ten feet, but 
sometimes rises to twenty, with a base at the most exposed parts sixty feet in 
width. There are over seventy openings in the line which it is believed were 
originally occupied by bastions or blockhouses of timber. Originally these open- 
ings seem to have been ten or fifteen feet in width. An outwork 1350 feet long 
consists of two parallel walls which close at their farther extremity, there enclos- 
ing a small mound. The main work comprises two grand divisions connected by 



u lung and narrow paHHUge across whiili travei-scH are tlirowii. Water for the 
garrison is supplied by reservoirs and springs. At numerous points along the em- 
bankment are found large <iuantities of water-worn stones which it must have 
required great labor to colloot. Hmvely defended the work is impregnable against 
barbarian assault. 

The ancient earthworks in Ohio excel in numbers, extent and variety those 
of all the other States. Whatever the force was which has left these vestiges, we 
find its presence, it« character and its magnitude more profusely and significantly 
symbolized here than anywhere else. In part this symbolization betokens a mili- 
tJiry people, but only in part. While certain works, such as those just described, 
are plainly of a military origin, a much larger number, of no special military adap- 
tation, seem to be int^jnded for some purpose connected with the superstitious or 
pastoral pursuits of the builders. This is particularly the case in the Scioto Valley, 
where the square and cin-le, either separately or in combination, were favorite 
forms of construction. "Most of the circular works are small, varying from 250 to 
300 feet in diameter, while others are a mile or more in circuit. Some stand iso- 
lated, but most in connection with one or more mounds, of greater or less dimen- 
sions, or in connection with other more complicated works. Wherever the circles 
occur, if there be a /o.s5<^ or ditch, it is almost invariably interior to the parapet. 
Instances are frequent where no ditch is discernible, and where it is evident that 
the earth composing the embankment was brought from a disUmce, or taken up 
evenly from the surface. In the square and in the irregular works, if there be a 
fosse &i all, it is exterior to the embankment; except in the case of fortified hills, 
where the earth, for the best of reasons, in usually thrown from the interior."*' 

The circular and rectangular enclosures are generally situated on low bottom 
lands under the command of adjacent heights. This of itself proves that they 
could hardly have been intended for defensive purposes. The fact that the fossr, 
whenever it accompanies this class of works, lies within the parapet, makes the 
j)roof conclusive. The walls are sometimes massive, but for the most .part vary 
from three to seven feet in height. The smaller circles haveea<*h a single gateway, 
opening usually to the cast. Sometimes they contain one or more small mounds 
suj)posed to be intended for sacrificial purposes. Numerous little circles, from 
thirty to fifty feet in diameter, and devoid ofentrances, are observed in the vicinity 
of larger works, (.'onjecture has doubtfully assume<l that they may be remains of 
the vanished lodges of officers or priests. A few of the circles are slightly ellipti- 
cal, and octagonal forms of construction, as well as squares and rectangles, are 
sometimes seen. A large octagon near Chillicothe has equal sides, and angles 
arranged in mutual correspondence. In the rectangular works gateways open at 
the angles and midway on each side, all covered by small interior mounds or other 
elevations. The geometrical symmetry of the forms is striking. Many of the cir- 
cles are perfect, and many of the squares exact. Taken with the further fact that 
several of the squares measure exactly one thousand and eighty feet on each side, 
this is supposed to indicate the useof some standard of measurement and some 
means of determining angles. 

The great magnitude of some of these enclosures has been cited as the strongest 
objection to tiie hypothesis of their exclusively religious purpose. Squier and 
Davis, who raise this objection, answer it by suggesting that the Ohio works "wore 

The Prehistoric Races. 31 

probably, like the great circles of England, and the squares of India, Peru and 
Mexico, the sacred eDclosures within which were erected the shrines of the gods of 
the ancient worship and the altars of the ancient religion. They may have em- 
braced, consecrated groves, and also, as they did in Mexico, the residences of the 
ancient priesthood." Like the sacred structures of the Aztecs, they may have 
been regarded as a tinal refuge in time of peril, under the protection of the 
deities to whom they were dedicated. They may also have been used as arenas 
for games and other amusements. 

The further suggestion is made that the religious ceremonials of the mound- 
builders may have partaken of a national character, and therefore have drawn great 
multitudes together. Reasons are not wanting for the belief that the government 
of the people may have been a government by the priesthood, and that the popular 
superstition, whatever it wan, exercised a powerful control over the minds of its 
devotees. Certain it is that altars have been found within the sacred enclosures 
on which sacrifices were performed, and on which human beings were probably 
immolated. **We find also pyramidal structures which correspond entirely with 
those of Mexico and Central America except that, instead of being composed of 
stone they are constructed of earth, and instead of broad tlii^hts of steps have 
«rraded avenues and spiral j)athways leading to their summits.'" 

As these structures resemble those of the ancient Mexican race, may not the 
ceremonials to which they were consecrated have borne a like resemblance? 
Human sacrifices were practised by the Aztecs, we are told, surpassing those of any 
of the nations of antiquity. The number of victims annually ottered up has been 
estimated at from twenty to fifty thousand. One of the most important Aztec 
festivals, says Prescott, "was that in honor of the god Tezcatlepoca, whose. rank 
was inferior only to that of the Supreme Being. He was called 'the soul of the 
world,' and supposed to have been its creator. He was de|>icted as a handsome 
man, endowed with ))erpetual youth. A year before the intended sacrifice, a cap- 
tive distinguished for his personal beauty, and without a blemish on his body, was 
selected to represent this deity. Certain tutors took charge of him, and instructed 
him how to perform his new part with becoming grace and dignity. He was 
arrayed in a splendid dress, regaled with incense, and with a profusion of sweet- 
scented flowers, of which the ancient Mexicans were as fond as their descendants 
at the present day. When he went abroad he was attended by a train of royal 
pages, and as he halted in the streets to play some favorite melody, the crowd 
prostrated themselves before him, and did him homage as the representative of 
their good deity. In this way he led an easy, luxurious life till within a month of 
his sacrifice. Four beautiful girls, bearing the names of the principal goddesses, 
were then selected to share the honors of his bed; and with them he continued to 
live in idle dalliance, feasted at the banquets of the principal nobles, who paid him 
all the honors of divinitv. 

At length the fetal day of sacrifice arrived. The term of his shortlived >?lories was at an 
end. He was stripped of his gaudy apparel, and bade adieu to the fair partners of his revel- 
ries. One of the royal barges transported him across the lake to a temple which rose on its 
margin, about a league from the city. Hither the inhabitants of the capital flocked to wit- 
ness the consummation of the ceremony. As the sad procession wound up the sides of the 
pyramid the unhappy victim threw away his gay chaplets of flowers, and broke in pieces the 

32 History op the City op CoLUMBrs. 

musical instrumente with which he had eolaced the hours of captivity. On the summit he 
was received hy six priests whose lon^ and matted locks flowed disorderly over their sable 
robes, covered with hierojrlyphic scrolls of mystic import. They led him to the sacriflcial 
stone, a huge block of jasper, with its upper surface somewhat convex. On this the prisoner 
was stretclicd. Five priests seciiro<l his head and limbs; while the sixth, clad in a scarlet 
mantle emblematic of his bloody office, dexterously openi'd the breast (►f the wretched vic- 
tim with a sharp razor of itztii— a volcanic substance Imrd as Hint, — and inserting his hand in 
the wound, tore out the palpitating heart. The minister of death, first holding this up 
toward the sun, an object of worship throughout Anahuac, cast it at the feet of the deity to 
whom the temple was devoted, while ihe mnliitudes l)eIow prostrated themselves in humble 

Who knows but that scenes of which this was a type, exaggerated, perhaps, 
only in its splendors, may have taken place within these mysterious circles, 
squares and polygons, and around these skeleton-bearing mounds, io the valleys 
of Ohio? 

The most primitive form of human memorials is thai of a simple heap of earth 
or stones. It is the form which seems to Iiave fii*st suggested itself to the prehis- 
toric races, and time has fully justified the wisdom of its adoption. While the 
proudest architecture in marble and granite has crumbled in decay these mounds 
of earth have preserved their symmetry almost perfect through the lapse of cen- 
turies. Many of them stand to-day a|)j)arently as rounded and complete as the 
hands of their builders left them before recorded history began. Nor have they 
been limited to any single country, or continent. *' They are scattered over 
India; they dot the steppes of Siberia and the vast region north of the Black Sea; 
they line the shores of the Bospliorus and the Mediterranean , they are found in 
old Scandinavia, and are singularly numerous in the British Islands. In America, 
they prevail from the great lakes of the north, through the valley of the Missis- 
sippi, and the seats of semi-civilization in Mexico, Central America, and Peru, even 
to the waters of the La Plata on the south. We find them also on the shores of the 
Pacific Ocean, near the mouth of the Columbia Kiver, and on the Colorado of Cali- 
fornia."^'^ In the V>restcrn and Southern States of this Union they may be counted 
by tens of thousands. 

The individual forms of the mounds were doubtless determined by the special 
purposes for which they were intended. Usually they are simple cones, some- 
times terraced, frequently truncated. Some are elliptical or pearshaped. The 
pyramidal form is always truncated, and commonly provided with graded ascents 
to the summit. A lozonge-shaped mound surrountled by a wall and ditch rises on 
the Virginia shore of the Ohio nearly opposite to Blennerhassott's Island. An 
octagonal mound in Woodford County, Kentucky, measures 150 feet on each side, 
and has three graded ascents. Two small cones surmount its level truncated sum- 
mit. A curious oval-shaped mound rises on the east bank of the Scioto River in 
Libert^' Township, Ross County, Ohio. In Bradford County, Tennessee, exist 
several extensive terraces or earth platforms, one of which covers three acres. 
The courthouse of Christian (-ounty, Tennessee, at Ilopkinsville, is built on one of 
these artificial terraces. Another large terrace in Henry County, same Stat«, 
serves as the site of a dwelling. In the South are found many Teocalli-shaped 
structures, bearing a suggestive resemblance to those of the Aztecs. Examples of 
this form are found as far north as Portsmouth, Marietta, Chillicothe and Newark. 

/ I 


• •! 

• •• 

The Prehistoric Races. 33 

The conical form is sometimes mounted by a spiral stairway, other forms by ter- 
races resembling stairs. 

The size of the mounds varies extremely, generally increasing as we go south. 
The great Cahokia mound on the Mississi])pi, at the mouth of Cahokia Creek, in 
Illinois, is in the form of a parallelogram, covering a surface of eight acres. It is 
500 feet wide and 700 long at the base, and is ninot}* feet high. On one side of it 
is a broad terrace which is reached by a graded ascent, and was once cultivated by 
the monks of La Trappe as a garden. The entire summit area measures about five 
acres, and the interior contents of the whole structure about twenty million cubic 


Earth predominates in the composition of the mounds, and sometimes the 

material is clay exclusively although it is not found near by, and must have been 

transported for a long distance. It may have been preferred because of its superior 

tenacit}' and power to resist the elements. Stone is freijuently used, sometimes 

exclusively and sometimes as a component part. 

The Ohio mounds occur sometimes in grou))S but oftener singly, and mostly 
within or near the ancient embankments. A reniarkable group of twentysix on 
the Scioto Kiver three miles above Chillicothe has acc^uired the name of Mound 
( -ity. The single specimens are numerously seen crowning the valley -bordering 
hilltops and promontories in the neighborhooil of the cinuilar and angular earth- 
works, but it is no unusual thing to find them among the hills and in secluded 
places remote from the principal watercourses. 

Popularly, these shapely works have been supposed to be the monuments and 
sepulchres of distinguished persons, or to mark the sites, and enshrine the slain of 
great battles. But all this is mere conjecture. In accordance with their form and 
indicated purpose the mounds are classified by S(|uier and Davis as sacrificial, 
sepulchral, templar and nondescript or anomalous. Exclusive of the temple 
mounds, which are least numerous, those of the Scioto Valley are distributed 
among the other three classes in nearly equal proportions. 

The sacrificial mounds have three distinguishing characteristics: 1, they 
occur only within or near the sacred enclosures ; 2, the}' are stratified ; 3, they 
contain altars and altar deposits which have been subjecte,d to the action of fire. 
The stratification is composed of separate layers which conform to the convexit}" 
of the outer surfac-e, and cease at the natural level. In one of the Mound City 
(Ross County) specimens into which a shaft was sunk, these layers were pene- 
trated in the following order: 1, gravel and pebbles to the depth of a foot; 2, 
earth, slightly mottled, to the depth of two feet; 3, a lamination of fine sand one 
inch thick: 4, earth, eighteen inches; 5, another lamination of sand still 
thinner than the first; 6, an earth deposit a foot thick; 7, sand; 8, a few 
inches of earth ; 9, a round altar of burned clay, concave on the top and nine fieet 
In diameter at the base. The basin of the altar was evenly filled with fine dry 
ashes mixed with fragments of pottery the exterior of which exhibited excellent 
finish with tasteful carvings. Over the ashes covering the entire basin sheets of 
silvery mica were laid, and on these was heaped the partially burned fragments 
of a human skeleton. A few convex discs of copperlike harness ornaments were 
also found. The altar was solidified throughout by fire, its basin being so vitrified 
as to resist the blows of a hatchet. During the excavation a human skeleton was 


34 History ok thk City of Coli'mbiis. 

found about two feel below the surface, with its head to the east. No relics 
acconi])aiiie<l it. Probably it \vas an example of the Indian internient,s for which 
the upper portions of the mounds were used long after their original construction. 
The red men are known to have held the mounds in great veneration and to have 
frequentl}^ buried their dead in them, usually from eighteen inches to three feet 
below the Hurface. Mo8t of the bodies lie horizontally, but some are found in a 
Hitting posture. Among the relics found with them are rude implements of bone 
and stone, coarse pottery, silver crosses, gunbarrels and French dial plates, all of 
which, of course, are of Indian or modern origin. "As a general rule, to which 
there are few exceptions, the only authentic and undoubted reniains of the mound- 
builders are found directly beneath the apex of the mound.''*** 

The altars found in the sacriticial mounds, and from which they take their 
name, vary both in form and size. Sc»me arc parallelograms, others round, ellipti- 
cal, or square. There are diminutive ones only two feet in diameter, and others 
fifty feet long and twelve or fifteen wide. Their height rarely exceeds twenty 
inches. They are all moulded of tine clay burned hard, and rest on tlie original 
surface of the ground which has in some instances been first sprinkled with sand. 
They have occasionally been found without su])erstructure or covering, and have 
in such cases been referred to by early annalists as " brick hearths." 

Beneath another tumulus of the Mound City grouj) an altar in the form of a 
parallelogram was found, with ashes in its basin with which fragments of pottery 
were mingled. A beautiful was restored from these fragments. Three feet 
below the apex two well-j)reserve<i skeletons were found, accompanied by numer- 
ous implements of stone, bone, horn and copjier. In the altar-ashes of a third 
mound of the same group were found discs, tubes and silver-mounted ornaments 
of copper, and about two hundred stone pipes skillfully carved with figures of 
quadrupeds, birds and reptiles. Among the images shown in these carvings are 
those of the otter and the heron, each holding a fish in its mouth ; the hawk grasp- 
ing in its talons a small bird which it is tearing with its beak ; the turtle, trog, 
toad and rattlesnake; and the crow, swallow, buzzard, paroquet, and toucan. 

In a fourth mound of this group w^as reached, at the de))th of four and a half 
feet, a floor of water-worn stones on which a human skeleton lay with its head, 
which was singularly large and massive, pointing to the northwest. The bones 
retained much of their animal matter although a tire, of which the traces were 
plain, had been built over the body after its dej)osit. After the burial the hole 
had been filled and another fire kindled, burning the earth to a reddish color. 
Around the skull lay fragments of syenite such as the Indians were accustomed to 
use for the manufacture of implements before they learned the use of iron. 

In a fifth mound of the same grou]) were found sevei*al instruments of obsidian, 
scrolls skillfull}' cut from thin sheets of mica and pertbrated, traces of cloth made 
apj)arently from some fine vegetable tiber, pearl beads, and articles carved from 
stone, bone and copper. 

In a sixth mound an altar was found coinj)osed of successive layers placed one 
on top of another at ditfcreiit periods. The basin was paved with round stones 
about the size of a hen's ey;<r aiid ccmtained a thin layer of carbonaceous matter 
mingled witb burned human bones. Ten well w^rought copj>er bracelets encircling 
some calcined bones were f(;und in two heaps of five each. These and other cir- 

The Prehistoric Races. 85 

cunistanceH strongl}' indicated that human sacrifices had been offered on this altar. 

Mounds of the character just described are ahnost invariably embraced within 
enclosures which bear evidence of having been intended for religious purposes. 
Their location, their method of construction and their contents alike justify the 
inference that they were primarily designed and used for sacrifice, and not for 
int-erment. Fragments of the altars are found mixed with the calcined bones as if 
scaled off by the heat at the time the burning took place. The relics found 
deposited in and about the altars are so arranged and ))rotected as to indicate that 
they were placed there as votive offerings Among the articles of this class were 
found in one case fragments of ivory, fossil teeth, pieces of pottery, and stone 
carvings of coiled serpents carefully enveloped in sheet mica and copper. In lieu 
of an altar there were found, in another instance, two layers of hornstone discs, 
some thousands in number, round in shape or formed like spearheads. The relig- 
ious zeal which prompted such painstaking offerings must have been of an extraor- 
dinary type. 

The mounds classed as sepulchral are destitute of altars, vary in height from 

six to eighty feet, and generally take the form of a simple cone. " These mounds 
invariably cover a skeleton, (in very rare instances more than one, as in the case 
of the Grave Oeek mound), which at the time of its interment was enveloped in 
bark or coarse matting, or enclosed in a rude sarcophagus of timber, — >the traces, 
in some instances the very casts, of which remain. Occasionally the chamber of 
the dead is built of stone, rudely laid up, without cement of any kind. Burial by 
fire seems to have been frequently practiced by the mound builders. Urn burial 
appears to have prevailed to a considerable extent in the Southern States." 
Various remains of art are found accompanying the skeletons.*^ 

Burial in this form must have beeii a deliberate and solemn ceremonial. En- 
veloped in its coverings of bark, slabs or matting, and sometimes overspread with 
plates of mica and framed in by horizontal timbers, the skeleton lies prone on the 
smoothed original level of the ground, directly beneath the apex of the tumulus, 
which seems to have been piously and skillfully heaped over the remains. The 
bones have been so borne upon by its weight as to have sometimes indented the 
hard ground on which they lay. Usually a stratum of charcoal lying within a 
few feet of the summit betgkens the use of sacrificial fire, which was covered with 
earth before it had burned long enough to produce ashes or bake the earth be- 
neath it. Fragments of bones and a few stone implements have sometimes been 
found mingled with the charred embers. The skeletons have been reduced by the 
lapse of time to a few handfuls of dust, but have often left a good cast of their out- 
lines in the superincumbent earth. Their positions indicate ceremonious deposit, 
but are not uniform as to direction. None occupy the sitting posture in which 
Indian remains are often found. The sepulchral mounds are sometimes seen in 
groups, as in Butler, Pike and Ross Counties, but no general cemeteries of the race 
of their builders hava yet been discovered. Presumably the remains covered and 
commemorated by the mounds are those of distinguished persons. Their less con- 
spicuous contemporaries have vanished utterly. 

The Grave Creek mound exceptionally contains two sepulchral chambers, one 
at tlie base and one about thirty feet above it. Two human skeletons were found 
in the lower chamber, one male, the other female. The upper chamber contained 

36 History ok the (-ity of CoLiMitrs. 

ono Hkeleton only. Some thousands of slu^ll lM*uils. s«>ine inicA ornainentH, Hcvcral 
copper bracelets and various stone carvings were found with the human remains. 

Mounds of this, oa well as of the tirst class, were oft«n distuHied by the later Indians. 
Their remains are frequently found, in some teases in lar^* quantities, as if the mound had 
been used for a long period as a general burial place. Such was tlu^ ease with a large mound 
situated six miles above the town of Chill icothe. in which a great numl>cr of burials had been 
made, at various depths, from eighteen inches to four feet. The skeletons were, in places, 
two or three deep, and placed without arrangement with respect to each other. Some were 
evidently of a more ancient date than others, showing, from their condition as well as posi- 
tion, that they had been deposited at different periods. One or two were observed in which 
the skull ha«l been fractured by blows from a hatchet or other instrument, establishing that 
the individual had met a violent death. . . . Beneath all of these, at the depth of fourteen 
feet, and near the base of the mound, were found traces of the original deposit of the mound - 

The socalled temple mounds arc not numerous in Ohio. The only well-de- 
fined specimens known in the State are found at Portsmouth, Mariett^i, Chillicothe 
and Newark. They may be round, oval,oblont;, square or octangular in form, hut 
invariably have level tops. Sometimes the upper surface embraces several acres, 
in which case they are called '' platforms." Usually they are embraced within 
embankment enclosures, and are mounted by terraces or graded paths. Their 
name has been given them l»e(rause of their apparent suitableness as sites of tem- 
ples, or for the performance of spectacular religious ceremonies. Their likeness to 
the Mexican teocallis of the Aztecs is suggestive. No ivlies or human remains are 
found in them. 

Another form of ancient memorials occasionally found in the West is that of 
stone-heaps, or cairns. One of the most notable of these in Ohio is situated near 
the old Indian trail, about ten miles southwest of Chillicothe. It is a rectangle in 
form, sixty feet wide, one hundred and six feet long, and between three and four 
feet high. It is composed of stones of all sizes laid up originally in symmetrical 
outline. A similar heap, not so large, is seen on top of a high hill nejir Tarleton, 
Pickaway County. Tlie plow has turned up many rude relics in the neighbor- 
hood. Small and irregular stoncheaps arc otTli'n seen in hilly districts. Almost 
invariably each covers a skeleton. 

Pictured and inscribed rocks, bearing the images, of birds, beasts ami other 
objects are seen in various parts of the West. A few specimens have been found 
in Ohio. They are probably of Indian origin. 

Most singular and striking of all the works of the moundbuilding race are 
those which assume, fancifully, the shape of men, birds, quadrupeds, and reptiles. 
In the Northwest, notably in Wisconsin, these elKgies are seen upon the undulat- 
ing prairies, accompanied by earth cones and embankments. Along the great 
Indian trail from the shores of Lake Michigan, near Milwaukee, to the Mississippi 
above Prairie du (Allien they are especially common. One of the human forms 
measures 279 feet between the extremities of the outstretched arms, and 111 feet 
from the top of the head to the tinghs. Another elfigy of a gigantic man with two 
heads measures twenty tive feet across the breast. 

Some of the most curious of the effigy works extant are found in Ohio. Lick- 
ing County, which seems to have been " the centre of population of the old mound 
builders of the State,"'' contains some remarkable specimens. One of these forms 

earthwork effiRiert. " It is situuteil upon a liigli, iroscenl-form liHl or spar of land 
riJ-ing one hundred and fifty fiv-t aliovo the It'vel of Brusli (.'reek, which wnHhes its 
base. ■ The side of the liill next the stream prewenls a perpend ioulnr wail of rock, 
while tlie other slopes rapidly, thoii^rh it is not bo steep as to pretludo rultivation." 
The top of the hill is not level but slightly convex, and presents a very oven 8ur- 
tace one hundred and fitly feet wide by one thousand long, nieasuring from its ex- 
tremity to the point where it oonnocts with the table land. Conforming to the 
curve of the hill, and oecnpyinfj Itf very snnnnil, is the serpent, its head resting 
near the point, and its body wiTiding hack for seven hundred feet in graceful undu- 
lations, terminating in a triple coil at the tail. . . . The neck of the serpent ist 
stretched out and slightly curved, and iln mouth is opened wide au if in the act of 
swallowing or ejecting an oval figure, whiuli rests partially within the distended 
jaws. The oval is formed by an embankment of earth, without any perceptible 
opening, four feet in height, ami is perfectly regular in outline."" 

Such was the appearance of the work iis it was seen and described by Squier 
and Davis in 1S46. It wa- then covered with stately (brewt which was swept down 
by a tornado fourteen years later. The work of the husbandman followed that of 
the storm in clearing the surface, which was abandoned after a few years to a pro- 
miscuous irrowth ofred-hnd, sumac and briers. Fortunately the spot was visited 
in 1883 l>y Professor F. W. I'litnam, now of Harvard University, who became so 
much interested in the prcwrvation of the work in the interest of science, that he 
arranged for its protection and also tiir its purchase. His efforts were nobly 

The Preuistobic Races. 39 

seconded by Miss Alice C. Fletcher and other Boston ladies of rare intelligence, by 
whose zeal subscriptions to the amount of six thousand dollars were obtained, and 
sixty acres of land, including the Serpent Cliff, were purchased and conveyed in 
perpetual trust to the Peabody Museum of Harvard University/* Additional land 
has since been purchased aud the whole has been laid out as the Serpent Mound 
Park, which, at the suggestion of Professor M. C. Read, of the State Geological 
Survey, the General Assembly of Ohio has, by special enactment, placed under 
police protection, and exempted from taxation. 

The measurements of the serpent are phenomenal. The oval figure at the ex- 
tremities of its distended jaws is sixty feet across at its point of greatest width and 
one hundred and twenty feet long. The point of the promontory on which it rests, 
eighty feet from the precipice, "seems to have been artificially cut to conform to 
its outline, leaving a smooth platform ten feet wide and somewhat inclining 
inwards all around it.'*^"* Near its center once existed a Kmall elevation of stones 
showing the marks of fire. This probable altar has been demolished by ignorant 
visitors in the search for treasure. 

Partly enclosing the oval, nine feet from its eastern extremity, is a crescent- 
shaped bank seventeen feet in width. The serpent'n jaws begin from the extremi- 
ties of this crescent, which are sevent3'fivo feet apart. The head at the point of 
union of the jaws is thirty feet wide and i^ve feet hii^h. The total length of the 
body, from the extremity of the upper jaw to the tip of the tail is, 1,254 feet. Its 
average width of twenty feet, and its average height of about five, respectively 
taper down, to one foot, and two. 

The graceful curves throughout the whole length of this singular efiigy give it a strange, 
life-like appearance; as if a huge serpent, slowly uncoiling itself and creeping silently and 
stealthily along the crest of the hill, was about to seize the oval within its extended jaws. 
Late in the afternoon, when the lights and shades are brought out in strong relief, the effect 
is indeed strange and weird ; and this effect is heightened still more when the full moon 
lights up the scene, and the stillness is broken only by the " whoo-hoo, hoo-hoo" of the 
unseen bird of nigbt.^ 

The purpose which prompted the construction of this curious work is believed 
to have been a religious one. Such are the conclusions of Squier and Davis, who 
say in their comments: " The serpent, separate, or in combination with the circle, 
egg, or globe, has been a predominant symbol among many primitive nations. It 
prevailed in Egj-pt, Greece, and Assyria, aud entered widely into the superstitions 
of the Celts, the Hindoos and the Chinese. It even penetrated into America, and 
was conspicuous in the mythology of the ancient Mexicans, among whom its sig- 
nificance does not seem to have differed materially from that which it possessed in 
the old world."** 

Professor Putnam, who has carefully examined this work, and 'explored its 
ancient grave and mound adjuncts, is of like opinion. He says : " Here, near this 
sacred shrine, ceremonies of great import have taken place ; individuals of import- 
ance have been buried in connection with ceremonies of fire, and in two instances, 
at least, accompanied by the burning of human bodies — possibly human sacrifice, 
that constant accessory of many ancient faiths. In later times the shrine was 
still a place of resort, possibly as one held sacred in myths and legends; and finally 
a few of the scattered bands of the last century made their habitation on the spot, 

4»« HiSTilRY OK THK CiTV OF OoLl'MBrs. 

pr.i«ibly witlitiut any lf:rt^iidary knowledge or thought of the earlkT wor^bipen* at 
tfaTT •'hririo. ovvrirrown and halt* hidden by a forest whieh ueventy years ago was of 
the sarikv •-harart<-r a8 that on ail the hills about. "** 

While the^e lines are being written it \s announced from Chillicothe that the 
ft.*rm 01 <ome feline animal in iriirantir outline ha.s been traced for the first time 
amoDiT ihf ancient works of Koss <*ounty. Evidently the mystery of the mounds 
Tiiay yet be pn.ibed mort* tieeply than it has heretofore l>een. 

How ^hall we measure the antiijuity of the<e works? How far back in the 
anwritteii and unexplored hif*tory of man lies thf secret of their origin? "The 
^p'Wih «»f trees upon the works." says General Force, *• gives one indication. 
""^-laivr and Davis mention a trei* six hundred years old upon the great fort on 
Paint Oeek. Barrandt speaks ofa tree six hundre<l years old on one of the works in 
in»-- ^.i>! Ml try of I Ik* UpjK.'r Mi«»?M^uri. It i> said that Doctor Hildreth heard of a ti-ee 
fijhi huniirc«i v«ar?? t>ld on ont* «>!' tlu- niouii«is at Marietta. Manv trees thi-ec hun- 
drcd and ti»ur hundred vears old liavi- been observed. Some of the works must 
th<.'ix*fori- havi- been abandoned six or right hundred years a:^o. It is quite |K>ssi- 
bit* thcv Were abandMiied earlier, tor these survivinir trees niav not have been the 
tirst to sprinir up on the abandonment of the works. ... It may. therefore, be 
lairly held with some eoiitidence that the disap|H»arance «»f the mouhibuilders did 
not bei^in further back than a th(»us:ind years ai^o. antl that their extinction was 
Dot accomplished till centurie> later. '** 

Others who have earefullv studied the subject believe the mounds have ."(tooci at 
Iea>l twice ten eenturie-. < General VV. H. Harrison >uggeste<l that the mixed forests 
whieh grew upon them rnighl have been the result'^ of several generations of trees. 
He believetl their builders were of a race identical with the Aztecs. Many of their 
works, says Atwater, *• had irntevvays and parallel walls leading down to creeks 
whirh once washed the fo*>t of hilU trom whence the <tivams have now receded, 
forming extensive and newer alluvions, and worn down their channels, in some 
instances, ten and even tit^een teei."** That the nice of the mounds lived here a 
long time appeai-s evident, thinks Mr. Atwater, bei-ause of the ** very numerous 
cemeteries, and the vast numbei-s of persons of all ages who were here buried. It 
is highly prv>bable that more per>ons were buried in these mounds than now [I8ii3] 
live in this state. They lived in towns, many of which were populous, es|>ecially 
along the Scioto from Columbus southward. . . . Some have supj>osed that they 
were driven away by powerful foes, but appearances by no means justify this sup- 
position. That they co!i tended against some j>eople to the northeast of them is 
evident, but that thev leisurelv moved down the streams is also evident trom their 
increased numbers and their imprvn-ement in the knowledge of the arts.'**^* 

Who were the moundbuilders. whence came they, and whither did they go? 
Thest^ questions will perhaps never be settled conclusively. The Indian traditions 
which seem ti> tt>uch the ancient race are very t*ew and meager. The most tangible 
and interestiiii^ is that of the Uelawaiv**, who claimed to be the oldest of the Al- 
gonquin tribes and were kriown as gnindfathors. Originally they were called 
Lenni Lenape, sitcnityini; men. According t»> a tradition transmitted by their 
ancestors t'rt>m i!:eneratii>n u> generation they dwelt many centuries a^o in the Far 
West, and f»»r st)ine reas«Mi not i^xplained eniiu:rated in a body toward the East. 

.\t\er loiii; journeying I hoy arrived on tlio Namaesi-sipu (Mississippi) where 

Tbe Prebistoric Races. 41 

they fell in with the Mcngwe (Iroquois) who were also proceeding eastward. Be- 
fore the Lenape reached the Mississippi their couriers, sent forward to recon- 
noitre the country, discovered that the regions east of the Mississippi were in- 
habited by a very powerful nation which had many large towns built beside the 
great rivers. These people, calling themselves Tallegwi, or Tallegewi, are said to 
have been wonderfully tall and strong, some of them being giants. They built in- 
trenchments from which they sallied forth and encountered their enemies. The 
Lenape were denied permission to 'settle near them, but were given leave to pass 
through their country to the regions farther east. Accordingly, tbe Lenape began 
to cross the Mississippi, but while so doing were attacked by the Tallegwi who 
had become jealous and fearful of the emigrants. The Lenape then formed an 
alliance with the Mengwc, and fought numerous battles with the Tallegwi, who, 
after a war of many years, abandoned the country and fled down the Mississipjn, 
never to return. 

Such, in substance, is the tradition of the Delawares as narrated by the Kev. 
John Heckeweldei', a Moravian missionary to the Indians. Mr. Horatio Hale, 
who is an authority on the subject of Indian migrations, arrives at the conclusion 
tliat the country from which the Lenape emigrated was not the Fnv West, but the 
forest region north of Lake Superior; that the people who joined them in their 
war on the Tallegwi were not the Iroquois but the Hurons; and that the river 
they crossed was the Detroit, and not the Mississippi. The adaptation of the line 
of defensive works in Northern Ohio for resistance to an enemy approaching from 
the northwest seems to support this theory. But as to the identity of the race 
which fought behind those works we are still left mainly to conjecture. No 
hieroglyphics or scrap of written record remains to tell their story. That they 
were of a race now extinct, and had reached a degree of civilization far above that 
of their Indian successors, is a hypothesis strongly confirmed by evidence and 
stoutly maintained by many thoughtful and learned stuctents of American anti- 
quities. Others equally careful in their investigations insist that the builders of 
the mounds were Indians of the same race with tribes now living. As the subject 
belongs to the department of ethnology rather than to that of history, its discus- 
sion will not here be attempted. 


1. The Glacial Period and Archjeology in Ohio ; Professor G. F. Wright in the Arch;e- 
ological and Historical Quarterly, September, 1887. 

2. Ibid. Discussing the same subject from a European standpoint, Sir Archibald Geikie 
Bays : " From fhe height at which its transported debris has been observed on the Harz, it 
[the ice] is believed to have been at least 1470 feet thick there, and to have gradually risen 
in elevation as one vast plateau, like that which at the present time covers the interior of 
Greenland. Among the Alps it attained almost incredible dimensions. The present snow- 
fields and glaciers of these mountains, large though they are, form no more than the mere 
shrunken remnants of the great mantle of snow and ice which then overspread Switzerland. 
In the Bernese Oberland, for example, the valleys were filled to the brim with ice, which, 
moving northwards, crossed the great plain and actually overrode a part of the Jura 

3. Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, Volume V., page 755. 1884. 

4. Ibid, page 757. 

42 History ok thk City ok Columbl's. 

'>. Profes8c>r J. S. Newberry's theory of the cliinatic cause c»f this is thas stated: *'At a 
period probably synchronous with the glacial epoch of Europe — at least corresponding to it 
in the seijuence of events — the northern half of the continent of North America had an arctic 
climate; so cold, indeeil. that wherever there was a copious precipitation of moisture from 
oceanic evaporation, that moisture fell as snow ; and this, when consolidate<i, formed glaciers 
which (lowed by various routes toward the sea." One solution of this phenomenal con- 
dition of things has been found, sayn Profefis<:)r Newberry, in the eccentricity of the 
earth's orbit. The suggestion of this explanation was first made by Sir John Herschel, but 
it has been subsequently advocated by Professor James Croll, of Glasgow, with so much zeal 
that he may almost be considered its author. By careful determinations of eccentricity, 
through a period of several millions of years. Professor Croll ascertained that the earth re- 
ceded, at one time, eight millions of miles farther from the sun than it is now, and that this 
must have caused the winter in the northern hemisphere to last thirtysix days longer than 
the summer, the heat received during the winter being one-fifth less than now. '* Hence, 
though the summer was one-fifth hotter, it was not sutficiently long to melt the snow and 
ice of winter ; and thus the effects of the cold winter might becumulativein each hemisphere 
through what may be called the winter half of the great year (of 21,000 years) produced by 
the precessic)n of the equinoxes," — Refxjrt of the GfoU)g\ral Suri^ey of Ohw, Voiumf IL 

<». Geological Survey Report, Volume II. 

7. The Ohio throughout its entire course runs in a valley which has been cut nowhere 
less than ir>0 feet below the present level of the river. . . . The Beaver at the junction of 
tlie Mahoning and Chenango, is flowing IV) feet al)ove the bottom of its old trough, as is 
demonstrated bv a large number of oil wells bored in the vicinity. . . . Borings at 
Toledo show that X\w old becl of the Maumee is at least 140 feet below its present surface 
level. — Profefior S^'whetry. 

8. No other agent than glacial ire, as it seems to me, is capable of excavating broad, 
cleep, boat-shaped basins like those wliich hold our lakes. — Ibid. 

*.♦. The forests and flowers south of this margin [of glaciated territory] were then very 
<lifferent from those now covering the area. From the discoveries of Professor Orton and others, 
we infer that red cedar abounded over all the southern part of Ohio. Some years ago a pail 
factory was started in the neighborhood of (iranville, Lickmg County, using as the material 
logs of red cedar which were probably of preglacial growth. There is a record of similar 
preglacial wood, in Highland, Clermont and ButlerCounties, s|H*cimeD8 of which can be seen 
in the cabinet of the State University. In a few secluded glens opening into the Ohio River 
above Madison, Indiana, where the conditions are favorable, arctic or northern plants, which, 
upon the advance of the glacial sheet had been driven southward, still remain to bear witness 
of the general prevalence.— /Vo/>*)»or G. F. Writjht in the ArchceMogical and Historical Quar- 
terly, September y 18S7. 

10. Professor J. S. Newberry in Geological Survey Report, Volume U. 

11. Sir Archibald (reikie, Director General of the Geological Survey of the United 


12. Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, September, 1887. 

13. Ibid, December, 1887. 

14. Ibid. ^^ 

15. Sir Archibald Geikie. 

ir>. Daniel Wilson, LL. D., Professor of History, University of Toronto. 

17. Atwatt^r's History of Ohio. 

18. Squier and Davis, in Smithsonian Institution Contributions to Knowledge, Volume 
I, 1847. 

19. To What Ra<*e Did the Mound Builders Belong? A paper read before the Congrh 
IniernatioTiftJ dex Amt-rieanisteSf by General Manning F. Force, of Cincinnati. 

20. Ibid. 

21. History of Franklin and Pickaway Counties; published by Williams & Company, 

22. Article "America," by Charles Maclaren, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burg, Knc. Britannica. Volume 1. 

The Prehistoric Races. 43 


Squier and Davip. 






Colonel Charles Whittlesey, of Cleveland, Ohio. 


Squier and Davis. 




Squier and Davis. 






History of the Conquest of Mexico ; William H. Prescott. 


Squier and Davis. 








Archaeology of Ohio ; M. C. Read. 




Squier and Davis. 


Smithsonian Contributions. 




In 188(5. 


Squier and Davis. 


Professor F. W. Putnam in the Century Magmine for April, 1890 


Smithsonian Contributions. 


Century Magazine. 




Western Antiquities, ISiW. 







[James Linn Kixlgers was born on SnllivantV Hill, near Columbus, September 10, IStH. 
Ho received his education in the schools of Columbus and at the Ohio State University. His 
chosen profession is that of journalism, in which he has })een enga^^ed during the last dye 
years. He is now, and for some time past hap been, Assoi-iate Editor of the Columhw* Errning 

The science of geology huH demonstrated that the southern half of that terri- 
tory which is now Ohio offered to agriculture for ct'nturios before positive history 
began a soil abounding in fertilizing elements. The researches of ethnologists 
have led to the conclusion that tiie mound builders were inclined to pastoral pur- 
suits rather than to war. Ardueologists have obtained convincing evidence that 
these people were also in many ways artistically inclined. Science and investiga- 
tion have therefore given us a basis of fact upon which to build the general struc- 
ture of knowledge of the early conditions which surrounded the ancient people who 
dwelt in the region about us. It will not be diverging from the line of history to say 
that the fertile valleys of the Muskingum, the Scioto and the Miami were undoubt- 
edly densely inhabited by the people of that early day. Between those valleys 
were lands of promise, but along the water courses, the Ohio archaeologist has dis- 
covered the most general evidence of a practically coextensive population. Of the 
traces of habitation which make the Muskiiitrum and Miami valleys rich fields for 
arclueological exploration, it is not necessary to write because antecedent and con- 
temporary literature has had much to say concerning them. Of those of the Upper 
Scioto and the small tributary valleys something may be writU'n that can claim to 
be new. 

The alluvial deposits loft by the floods which for centuries unnumbered swept 
thi'ough the central groove of the southern half of Ohio made a broad and continuous 
valley, from the sit« of Columbus, or a little north of it, to the Ohio River. When 
the softening influence of time had altered the aspect of the landscape, this valley 
could well have had great attractions for an agricultural people. That its advan- 
tages were appreciated can be seen even at this late day, for no extensive area of the 
Scioto Valley exist>^ that has not some faint or pronounced trace of the works of 
ancient humar» beings. The hills which overlook what was once the broad Scioto 
bear evidence of the labor of anc'ient man; the level lands and river terraces show 
renuiants of <»arth works and mounds. an<l the soil itself is the repository of count- 
less relics whii^h contriV)ute their testimony to the solution of the question of the 


Ancient Earthworks in F^ranklin Coitntv. 45 

identity and customs of their original owners. Therefore we know that the Scioto 
country was the chosen home of a numerous people. It is of the traces Icfl by 
these aborigines in this immediate vicinity that this chapter will treat. 

Anyone who has studied the topography of Franklin County need not he told 
that the Scioto River, which is the main channel of the local watershed, has a com- 
paratively broad valley until it passes Columbus, going northward. The tribu- 
taries of the river spread out like the veins of a leaf as soon as Franklin County 
is reached in the journey up the valley, and this, while furnishing apparent proof 
of the causes for the greater width of the valley to the southward, shows that the 
identity of the principal basin is lost in this vicinity. The point known to the 
pioneers as The Forks, forming the junction of the Scioto and the Whetstone, now 
called Olentangy, may be deemed as a general terminus of the bottom land of the 
basin. That this fact had its influence with the ancients is proven by the further 
fact that the territory round about us contains the last of the distinct and numer- 
ous traces of the race which inhabited the Scioto Valley, justifying the conclusion 
that the ancient people stopped their northward Scioto River migration in Frank- 
lin County, or that they selected this region as the starting point of their habita- 
tions on their southward retreat. Consequently an inference, justified by all facts 
and theories, would be that while other branches of the same race penetrated 
farther north in other valleys and spread over a wider territory, the people of the 
Scioto Valley limited their domicile to the Franklin County portion of the Scioto 


Franklin ('ounty was once rich in the works of the mound builders, an<l while 

the specimens could hardly rival the great products of the race which have made 
the lands around Chillicothe perhaps the richest of all fields of Ohio archaBological 
exploration, they were important enough to warrant early attention and careful 
preservation in history, if not in material shape. Fifty years ago accurate descrip- 
tions of these works could have been had ; to-day much time must be spent in re- 
search and investigation to make possible even a fragmentary account of their 
existence. The pioneers were too busy in establishing their homes to give much 
attention to the vestiges of an unknown race; and their later successors, although 
possessed of more leisure, regarded such piles of earth as fit objects for the subdu- 
ing influence of the plow. Engineers of public roads and canals respected no such 
impediments reared by ancients, and cut through or leveled them for the gravel 
they contained. Later realists and men of practice, not theory, have nearly com- 
pleted the work of destruction, and so it has come to pass that in a county which 
once had nearly a hundred of the distinct and well-defined productions of ancient 
labor, there remain but few which have been spared in their original form. This 
fact has rendered a complete catalogue of these works an impossibility, and has so 
seriously interfered with the task of collecting historical and descriptive data that 
this chapter must be given with a frank acknowledgment of its deficiencies. It 
may also be said that the partial destruction of the earthworks and tumuli has 
resulted in such a chaos of reports and theories that a perfect classification of the 
works is now hopeless. The mounds that have been explored by inexperienced 
persons received none of the careful scrutiny now accorded to similar works by 
competent field archseologists, and therefore accurate accounts of the discoveries 
made, and Bcientific identification of the relics, are lacking and will never appear. 


History op tiik City of Columri's. 

For this reason, principally, the fitateiiioiits made here must be restricted to bare 
detail in the majority of instances. 


In all discussions of tho^c remains, precedence is given to the en<*Iosures which 
s<*em to have coml>ined the mysterious functions of fortifications and places of 
worship. Ln deference Ut the established rule, which is doubtless correct in theory, 
the peculiar work near Worthin^lon will tirst receive attention. 

In Squicr and Davis's Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published 
as volume one of the Smithsonian Contrihutions to Knowledge, is found a descrip- 
tion of this Worthington work as it appeared over titty yeai*s ago, when it was 

\s/onrnf scroti WoMk* 


surveyed and delineated hy Colonel ('harles Whittlesey. Time has changed it 
much since then, but the following extract from Colonel VVhittlesev's account is 
worthy of repetition : 

This work occurs on the banks of OlentauKy Creek, a tributary of the Scioto River, about 
one mile west of the town of Worthinj^on, Franklin County, Ohio The plateau upon the 
e<ljre of which it is situated, is elevated a])out fifty feet above the bottoms of the Olentangv, 
and consists of a clayey soil rest in jr upon the black shale formation of Ohio. The work is 
rectangular in form ; its sides correspond very nearly with the cardinal points (varying but 
five degrees) and measure six hundred and tliirty and live hundred and fifty feet respectivelv. 
The walls are accompanie*! by a ditch, and are very slight, tliough distinctly traceable. 
In the line of the southern wall is a largo truncatetl mound, twenty feet in height and measur- 
ing one hundred and ninety-two feet in <iiani<*ter at the base, and seventy-six feet in diameter 

Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 47 

at the summit. It is covered with large trees. The wall that leads from this mound to the 
left, is placed a little further outwards than that leading to the right. The mound in the 
centre of the enclosure is small and low. Near the southwestern corner of the work is a 
small circle with an interior ditch and single entrance ; it is one hundred and twenty feet in 
diameter. Some distance to the northwest of the enclosure, and on the opposite side of a 
deep ravine, is another small circle, one hundred and forty feet in diameter, with three 

A plan of thiH work, reproduced from the drawing of Colonel Whittlesey as it 
appears in Squierand Davis's report, is herewith presented. 

A short distance south of Worthington, on the Cook farm, are some remnants 
of an embankment and accompanying mounds. These are on an elevated spur at 
the junction of two small rivulets, or more properly speaking, dry ravines as they 
now are. The embankment, which in part follows the brow of one ravine, is nearly 
circular with an interior ditch, and tiie walls are but a few feet high. Two 
mounds, now very small, but originally conical in shape and about ten feet high, 
are in the enclosure. One mile southeast of this work, on the farm of Amazon 
Web-iter, and near the tracks of the C. C. C. & St. L. Railway, is an earth circle 
about thirty feet in diameter with slight walls. Another embankment of an irregu- 
lar course is located about twenty rods west of the circle. 

In Williams's History of Franklin and Pickaway Counties is a description of 
some remains of earthworks which occur near Dublin in this county. As these 
works exist in a much damaged state, the observations made a good many years 
ago are valuable and are here quoted : 

"On the banks of the Scioto River, in Perry Township," the Williams History 
says, "are remains of ancient works which have the appearance of fortification 
and were undoubtedly used as such by some earlier inhabitants of this county, of 
whom all trace, further than these forts and mounds, is lost. On the farm of 
Joseph Ferris, a mile north of Dublin Bridge, are to be seen in a good state of preser- 
vation, the outlines and embankments of three forts. One of these is within a few 
feet of his house and is perhaps eighty feet in diameter inside, with an entrance at 
the east side. The ditch and embankment are well defined. A short distance 
northeast of this spot, and within arrow shot of it, is a large fort in a square form, 
and enclosing nearly, or quite, half an acre of ground. Although the tramping of 
cattle for many years has worn down the embankments, they are several feet high 
and the ditch, which is inside the works, is now some six feet deep. When the 
country was first settled this ditch was filled with water, and was a bed of mire, a 
pole thrust into the ground to a depth often feet finding no solid ground beneath. 
This would tend to show that originally this was a strong place and that the ditch 
was quite deep. Time has filled it with dead leaves, and refuse matter has assisted 
in obliterating this work. It is situated on a hill that commands a wide view of 
the country for a considerable distance in either direction. At a little lower 
point, and nearer the river, is a small mound. There was also a small mound in 
the centre of the larger fort, which was opened many years since, and was found 
to contain the bones of a large man. These crumbled in pieces soon after being 
exp9Bed to the air. It is possible that by uncovering the ditch of this fort some 
relics of the extinct race that built these works might be obtained. Search of this 
kind has generally been turned to the mound, instead of the inner ditches of the 

4S IlisT<»RY or THE City of (\uj'MBrs. 

fori, whuro probably wan the bubiUition of tbe biiildera. A Hhort distance from 
this larger fort in a smaller one than that first deHcribed. There have been Heveral 
old works of thiH kind along the bankH of the river between these works and 
ColiinibuM. bnl they are mostly oblileratA^d by tho cultivation of the land on which 
they stood." 

In this rather cxtt'ndtMi di'scription, whi<-h has been ipioted verbatim, there is 
much to interest the general reader besides the theories with which man}' have 
studied these ancient works will not agree. The Dublin works can be seen to be 
somewhat similar to those opposite Worthington. In each is displayed the appre- 
ciation of the builders for a strong natural position. In reference to the statement 
that other works were located farther south along the Scioto, it can be said that it 
is more than probable that there were remains of this character, but if such was the 
fact a diligent search has faile<l to disclose their sites. It should be remembered, 
however, that ten years of cultivation of the land will do more to destroy such 
earthworks than hundre<ls of yeai*s of natural decay, and inasmuch as that |K)rtion 
of the Scioto ]>lateau has been plowed and harrowed for nearly seventj* years, it is 
not strange that the traces of circles or fortifications have not survived. 

.\nother extract from (Njlonel Whittlesey's paper reads : "Along Big Darbv 
Creek, in the western part of Brown Township, there existed man}^ evidences of 
that mysterious ])eople of whom so much has been written and so little known. 
On the farm of Henry Francis there is yet remaining an extc»n.sive mound, and 
tow-ards the creek were numerous others which have now <Hsappeare<l. These weiv 
evidently tumuli, or burial places, as many human bones were found during the 
excavation of these works. There was also an enclosure, or fort, on the farm of 
11. r. Adler, Esq., with two circles, enclosing perhaps one half an acre of ground. Its 
location was upon the high bank of the creek, toward which was the usual opening 
found in works of this kind. It was compri.»4ed of gravel which has been removed 
for building and other purposes. Human bones were also found here. It is 
highly probable that this was a favorite camping ground for the Indians, as stone 
hatchets, arrow points, skinning knives, etc., were found here in great numbers by 
the settlers." These remains are the only ones yet discovered in the northwestern 
part of the county. 

In the valuable contribution of Colonel Whittlesey to the publications of the 
Smithsonian Institution, contained ii» Volume III., there is a description of ancient 
works on the llarrisburg Road, about three miles southwest of Columbus. "These 
structures," wrote Colonel Whittlesey, *'are simply circles or figures approaching 
to circles with occasional irregularities. There is a difference offiftyfeetin the 
diameters of the larger ones and the outline bends each way from the curve of a 
true circle a few feet, making short straight portions not capable of representation 
on our scale. The ditches are at present very slight and not uniform in depth or 
breadth. From the top of the bank to the bottom of the ditch, the difference in no 
place exceeds two an<l a half feet. On all sides, for miles, is a low, clayey plain in- 
clined to be wet, with very slight undulation. This is the only remarkable fact 
connected with this work. Its ditch being external and its openings narrow indi- 
cates a work of defense, and if it wore known that the ancient inhabitants of the 
Scioto Valley used palisa<les, we might safely conclude this to be a place of defense, 
relying solely upon artificial strength. There is no running water in the vicinity." 

Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 49 

These circular works, according to the same authority, were about eight hundred 
and five hundred feet in diameter. At this time little if any trace remains to at- 
tract the inexperienced eye. 

Upon insufficient authority it has been stated that remnants of earthworks, 
suppose(i to be ancient forts, existed on the second eastern terrace of the Scioto 
River, about two and a half to three miles south and southeast of Columbus. No 
such traces, faint or otherwise, are now to be found. Not only have the socalled 
earthworks vanished, but all recollection of them has faded from the minds of men 
who can remember when agricultural labor was new in the Scioto Valley. The 
most easterly and southerly work was said to have been situated on the level, mid- 
way between Alum Creek and the Scioto. The others were assigned to a situation 
directly south of the city, on the brow of the terrace. It is more than doubtful 
whether those small enclosures ever existed, and the strong ])robabilit3' is that 
some low mounds, perhaps surrounded by the ditch and embankment, slight in 
form, were accepted as places of defense and called "forts" in lieu ol" a better 
name. ^ 

On the farm of Absalom Borror, one mile south of vShadeville, on the western 
side of the Scioto, is a circular embankment with low but very distinct walls. The 
diameter is about one hundred feet. It is situated on the level near the river and 
at the opening of a large ravine which extends towards the west. There are no 
accompanying evidences of ancient w^ork. 

About ten miles southeast of Columbus, on the second terrace of Big Walnut 
Creek and midway between that stream and the eastern line of the county, there 
is to be found on the farm of Thomas Patterson a nearl}" obliterated embankment, 
which is now beyond satisfactor}'^ measurement. A similar embankment or enclos- 
ure is found on Noah Leahman's place, on George Creek, a mile southeast of the 
Patterson remnant. It is partly in the woods, and, from the distinct trace there, 
is supposed to have been circular, or approximately so. 

The late Joseph Sullivant, of Columbus, who took a great interest in these 
ancient works, said that parallel lines of embankment existed near the old site of 
Franklinton, now enlarged into West Colwnbus. These works cannot now be dis- 
covered ; they vanished with the coming of the pioneers. 

Besides these well authenticated works in Franklin Count}^ there are two 
which have often been credited to Franklin, but which really belong to Delaware 
and Pickaway Counties. The first of these is situated on the eastern side of the 
Whetstone, four and a half miles above Worthington. The artificial defenses con- 
sist simply of an embankment of earth, three feet in height, with an exterior ditch 
of corresponding depth. This embankment, which formed the arc of a circle, 
when combined with the high blufi* of the creek and the two ravines leading east- 
ward, made a place of strong defensive advantages. The Pickaway County work 
is situated on the eastern side of the Scioto River, some distance south of the 
Franklin County line. Colonel Whittlese}^ said of it: "The ditches are here 
interior to the walls, which circumstance is averse to the idea of a defensive orit^in. 
The situation, however, with a steep bank and deep water on one side, and deep 
ravines with precipitous banks on the othei's, is one of great natural strength and 
adaptation lor defense." 


Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 51 

A circular work about one mile west of Alum Creek, and ^ve miles distant 
from Columbus, near the Westerville Road, has been called an "ancient fort," but 
its authenticity as a product of the moundbuilding race has been seriously ques- 
tioned on account of a tradition that the embankment was the base of a stockade 
constructed by General Harrison's Indian-fighting force in 1812. Some old settlers 
declare that the stockade was garrisoned for some time, and that the slight em- 
bankment is the only remaining vestige of that work. How true this may be 
cannot now be definitely ascertained, but the weight of opinion inclines to the 
theory that the circle is of ancient origin, because if a stockade had been a feature 
of the embankment, some trace of it would have been left, whereas there is none. 
Moreover, no mention is made in history of an outpost established by General 
Harrison so near to Franklinton. At any rate, whoever may have built the cir- 
cular work, it possesses little that can attract attention. It is small and isolated, 
and there are no mounds near it. 

At some remote period there may have been other earthworks along the high- 
lands bordering the various watercourses of Franklin County, but at this time no 
record or knowledge of them seems to be extant. If probabilities are to be con- 
sulted, it may be said that from the location of several mounds along the valleys 
of Big Walnut, Rocky Fork and Black Lick Creeks in the northeastern part of the 
county, it could be imagined that some earthworks existed there, if not for defen- 
sive purposes perhaps for sacred observances. But since other more thickly settled 
portions of the county are barren of these works, the theory fails unless other 
embankments and the like are discovered. It can be stated, therefore, that as far 
as known the works above described constitute the onl}' authentic and easily 
recognized remains of the kind in this immediate vicinity. 

That Franklin County, especially the portions of it contiguous to the Scioto 
River and extending eastward along its tributaries, had once many specimens of 
ancient mounds of nearly all classes and sizes, can be perceived even at this time. 
Although the present generation, and its predecessors, of our people have shown 
little respect for these interestin*^ works, a sufficient number of mounds exist, in 
whole or in purt, to prove that we now dwell in what was once a district thickly 
settled by the moundbuilding race. This is proven not on\y by many visible ves- 
tiges, but also by numerous tra^litions relating to ancient works which have been 
obliterated. The heedless destruction of these works has made it difficult to 
ascertain where they were situated, and the ill-treatment accorded to those 
remaining has necessitated conjectural descriptions to some extent. But with the 
assistance of old county maps, the recollections of citizens who may now be 
called pioneers, the notes^ of the earlier observers, and personal investigations 
during many days ol rambling over the country in Franklin County, a compara- 
tively accurate record of the mounds it now contains has been obtained. 

One of the most pretentious mounds of the county was that which formerly 
occupied the crowning point of the highland on the eastern side of the Scioto 
River at the spot where now rises St. Paul's Lutheran Church and adjoining build- 
ings, on the southeast corner of High and Mound Streets, in Columbus. Not a 
trace of this work is left, save the terraces of the church, although if it were yet 
standing as it stood a century ago it would be remarked as one of the most impos- 
ing monuments of the original Scioto race. When the first settlers came it was 

iVi History ov the City of CoLrMurs. 

regarded as a wonder, and yet it was not 8pare<l. The ex])ansion of the city de- 
manded its demolition, and therefore this grand relic of Ohio's antiquity was 
swept away. From the best intbrmation* to be had at this time this mound must 
have bt'en quit43 forly feet in height a!>ove the natural surface of the river terrace 
or blutr It is said to have been a shapely and graceful structure, with gradual 
slopes in all directions save t^) the southward, where the declination was somewhat 
abrupt. Standing as it did at the very crest of a natural shoulder of the highland, 
it must have been a giant among mounds. As was usual with such works, it was 
in the tbrm of a truncated cone, and if wc accept its reported height, its diameter 
on the level surface at the top was certainly one hundred or more feet. Its base 
diameter cannot be estimated accurately, but was ])robal)ly not less than three 
hundred feet. That its proportions were ample is attested by the fact that a large 
double frame house stood on its summit. Doctor Young, who erected this build- 
ing, was in later years succeeded in its occupancy by several well-known families 
of the town. Oak trees three feet in diameter grew upon the mound in those 
days, and it is stated that five large locust trees were rooted in the level surface on 
its summit. Such was the condition of the work up to the time when the city's 
streets encroached upon its slopes. When its destruction began, two forces of ex- 
cavators pushed into it from north and south until they met, and High Street 
became continuous in a straight line. The outer covering of the mound consisted 
ol hard clay followe(f successively and regularly' down to the base b}' stratifica- 
tions of gravel and sand, much of which now ibrms the bed of some of the princi- 
pal streets of that neighborhood. While the excavation was going on man\* 
human bones were unearthed which crumbled to dust as soon as exposed to the 
air, but were probabl}' not remains of the moundbuilding race. Inasmuch as the 
Indians buried their dead in the upper ])ortions of these mounds, it is rcASonahle to 
assume that these bones belonged to the re<l men. All who remember the opening 
of this mound have a mite of information to add Uy the story of its demolition. 
One says ''utensils' of various kinds were found ; another that ** trinkets " were 
discovered ; a third, that the father of the late William Piatt found a skull so large 
that it would go over his head ; a fourth that a silver buckle was turned up by the 
spade, and so on. But none of these statements can now be verified by the identi- 
fication of the articles taken from the mound, every trace of them having been lost. 
Tt is therefore safest to assume that, with the exception of the silver buckle report- 
ed, the finds are to be classed as relics of uncertain origin and doubtful antiquity. 
The buckle was probably the treasured possession of some Indian who had been in 
commercial relations with the French or English at Montreal, or their emissaries 
in the wilderness. 

It will be seen from this story of the High Street mound that its value as a 
meansof unlocking the secrets of its builders was completely lost. If it was reared 
over the treasures of a tribe or the bones of its dead, the excavators did not go 
deepenoni^h to discover them, and they may still lie beneath the massive church, or 
its adjuncts. This theory has often been advanced, but putting iiside such con- 
jectures, attention may be given to another possible purpose of this work. For 
many centuries the great earth -pile rose above the primeval forest of the river 
terrace. The natural elevation is such that when artificially increased forty feet, 
an extensive view of the upper Scioto Valley was ol»taine<i.and this has led to the gen- 

Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 53 

eral belief that the mound was a prominent signal station from which communication 
by beacon-light could be had with distant points in the valley. The facts which 
support this theory will develop as other mounds in this vicinity are mentioned. 

It has been maintained by intelligent persons who have studied this subject, and 
particularly by the late Joseph Sullivant, that upon the bottom lands near the 
junction of the Scioto and the Whetstone, were several well-defined specimens of 
mounds of which the pioneers availed themselves when they needed earth or 
gravel. One of these is said to have been situated in the central part of Franklin- 
ton ; another where the Ohio Penitentiary now stands, and several smaller ones 
immediately south of these on the west side of the river. Not a vestige or even a 
record of these works remains. 

The next mentionable mound stands on high lands which forms the terrace of 
the Scioto, about two and a half miles northwest of the State Capitol. It is on the 
northern side of the river, and in such a favorable location that from its summit the 
whole southward sweep of bottom lands may be seen. It may have been due to 
this fact that local tradition has assigned to this mound the purpose of marking the 
head of the valley together with that of serving as a station for one of a chain of 
signals. Of all the mounds in Franklin County this is the best preserved. The 
owntTS of the land on which it stands have jealously guarded it, and to-day it 
exists in a state as nearly perfect as the lapse of time and the fret of the elements 
will permit. A symmetrical truncated cone, graced with trees of modern growth, 
it is and may always be an inviting mystery. It is twentyone feet in height, one 
hundred and eleven feet in diameter at the base, and fift}' feet in diameter at the 
summit. Its present owner, Mr. William A. Pope, takes great pride in it, en- 
courages nature in covering its surface every season with a beautiful sod and care- 
fully preserves it from any kind of injury. Concerning this work Mr. Pope 
recently gave the writer some interesting information. In planting a tree at a due 
east point on its circumference, he discovered several large stones, which, with 
mufch regularity, were set at nearly a right angle from the slope, and adjacent to 
this curbing was a mass of hard burned clay. At another time, when digging a 
hole for a flagstji if which now rises from the summit of the mound, he noticed that 
the stratification was clearly defined, and, at a depth of about three feet, clay con- 
taining charred wood was reached. This is the extent of the exploration of the 
work yet made, but from these discoveries it may reasonably be inferred that 
extremely interesting revelations await further investigation. The portion of 
curbing unearthed would indicate that the mound has a continuous base protection 
of that kind, and the burned clay discovered may be part of one of the sacrificial 
altars so common to these works. The antiquity of this mound is indicated by the 
fact that several years ago Mr. Pope dug out of it stumps of black walnut trees 
three feet in diameter. 

On the second terrace of the river, a short distance north of the mound last 
described, is a smaller one which was recently explored by Mr. Pope. In it were 
found five skeletons which were undoubtedly of the later Indians. They were 
placed in a sitting posture, and were above the original level, a fact which disposes 
of any theory that they were remains of the ancient race. As the excavation was 
not complete, more important developments may reward a careful investigation. 
The mound was originally about ten foot in height, and possibly sixty five feet in 
diameter at the base. 

54 History ok thr City of roi.TiMBrs. 

Northwest of these moun<l8, on the west side of the river, about a quarter of a 
mile from the locality which for nearly a century haw been designated by the 
rather inisleadin^r name of '* Marble Cliff/' is a mound of about fifteen feet in 
height and eighty feet base diameter, ft is on the Shrumm farm, and quite near 
the Dublin Pike, Although much overgrown with bru«<h and trees, it is in a fair 
state of preservation, and has never been explored. The location is such as to 
justify the assumption that it could well have been utilized as a signal station. 

About a mile and a half north of the work just mentioned, and on the same 
side of the river, are said to exist the cultivated remnants of two once pretentious 
mounds. The writer has not been able to locate these works and must therefore 
accept, on seemingly good authority, the assurance of their existence. 

The mounds near Dublin have already been described in connection with the 
circles. These, so far as can be ascertained!, conclude the list of mounds on the 
west side of the river. To the Pope Mound and its neighbor on the east side can 
be added the record of two remnant* of ancient works, now nearly plowed 
away, on the Legg land, one mile north of Marble Cliff, and of another on the 
Davis farm, five miles north of the works last named. The Davis Mound stands 
on clear ground which has been cultivated for half a century, and is therefore 
much damaged. Its original dimensions probably measure<l fifteen feet in height 
and one hundred feet in base diameter. These are all the mounds of the most 
northerly Scioto group. Those of the Worthington work, and the ones attached to 
the embankment on the Cook farm have already been referred to, but concerning 
the first named some additional information can be given. The large mound 
which interrupts the southern wall of the enclosure remained untouched by ex- 
plorers for a long time, but early in the autumn of 18(16, it was partially investi- 
gated by Mr. William McK. Heath, of Worthington, who, after much difficulty, 
obtained permission from the Vining family, who owned the land on which the 
works are situated, to explore these mounds and circles. From the Ohio State Jour- 
nal of October 1, 1866, the following account of the exploration is taken: 

Mr. Heath ran a tunnel from eastward to centre, and sank a shaft from the top intersect- 
injj the tunnel, developing hundreds of tine beads, ashes, charroal, etc., fragments of antique 
pottery, and remains of two skeletons, much decayed of course, surrounded on all sides by 
multitudinons layers and carvings of wood now decayed. The positions of the skeletons 
were nearly east and west. Mr. Heath was prevented from pushing his explorations further 
on account of want of time. He is confident that interesting developments await the explorer. 

This account is introduced here because it has a decided bearing upon the ques- 
tion of classification of other mounds in Franklin County. In Koss County, whore 
such mounds abound, explorers have had almost the same results as those obtained 
bj' Mr. Heath. The same traces of fire, the beads and shells, the pottery and the 
human bones covered with vegetable mold, have been found in the more southern 
mounds. The evidence is therelbre practically conclusive that the customs of the 
ancients who inhabited Franklifi County territory w^ero identical with those of the 
race which dwelt in other counties of the Scioto Valley. It may further be re- 
marked that Mr. Heath probably discovered all the articles of any consequence in 
the mound which he explored. From the fact, clearly established by manj' ex- 
plorations, that the altar in this class of mounds was usually in the line of the 
axis of the cone, or, if the mound was elliptical, then near its center, and on the 

Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 55 

original surface of the ground, we may reasonably infer that Mr. Heath exhausted 
the secrets of this work. So far as known no attempt has ever been made to ex- 
plore the small mound in the center of the enclosure. 

Along the Whetstone is found a series of small mounds, one of which, on the 
Kenney farm, east side of the river, was originally fifteen feet high and seventy- 
five feet in diameter at the base but is now nearly extinct. It occupies a site on 
an elevated terrace from which a wide view of the bottom lands can be obtained. 
On the Coe farm, on the west side, is the remnant of another work which originally 
was ten feet in height and nearly seventy feet in diameter at the base. One mile 
north stands another which once may have been a distinct feature of the landscape, 
but is now of greatly diminished size. With the additional mention of a cache on 
the Wetmore land, a short distance south of Worthington, it may be said that the 
field of the Whetstone has been exhausted. This statement, however, depends 
upon the identity of the field to which some of the mounds situated immediately 
northeast of Worthington are assigned. The first of these is on the farm of G. J. 
White, one mile and a quarter north of Worthington and near a small run called 
the "Narrows." North of that, about half a mile, and within view from the 
C. C. C. & St. L. Eailway, stands a mound which was originally about twelve feet in 
height and seventy feet in diameter at the base. The first named is much smaller. 
Both have been considerably damaged by the cultivation of the land. 

In going toward the northern central part of the county, we observe the first 
of the most northerly mounds on Alum Creek. It is situated on the Samuel farm, 
one mile west of Alum Creek, on the high land near the Westerville road. It has 
been greatly reduced by the plow, and no estimate of its original size can be made 
at this time. 

Six miles, or thereabouts, to the southward from this work stands a mound 
occupying the high lands west of the creek. Its dimensions are small. Remains 
of a small mound once existed on the old Buttles farm two thirds of a mile west of 
the creek, and about two and a half miles northeast of the geographical center of 
Columbus. The traces of this work are now so slight that they admit of no de- 
scription, brief or otherwise. 

Until the last ^ve years, a mound of fifteen feet in height and of a diameter of 
seventyfive feet at the base, stood on the crest of the creek's eastern terrace, about 
two hundred yards south of the present extension of Broad Street. Its excellence 
as a gravel bed led to its partial destruction, and now only a confused muss of earth 
remains from it. During its excavation a variety of relics were found, but prob- 
ably none of importance, since no record of them has been preserved. 

The mounds along the northern portion of Big Walnut Creek next claim at- 
tention. Those found in the southern part of the county along this watercourse 
will be mentioned later. 

One mile and a half north of Central College, in Blendon Township, on the 
west side of the creek, rises a mound the dimensions of which cannot be ascertained 
at this time. One mile south of Central College, and also on the west bank of the 
creek, is a small mound which constitutes a topographical feature of the farm of 
M. Dickey. For a long distance from that point southward no mounds are to be 
found, but finally, on the high land of the farm of A. Morrison, one-fourth of a mile 
north of the tracks of the Pan Handle Railway, on the cast side of the creek, we 




56 History of the City of Columbus. 

encounter a mound of perhaps ten feet in height and eighty feet in diameter at the 
base. It has for some time been subjected to the work of the plow. To com- 
plete the record of the most northerly mounds of the Big Walnut, it is necessary to 
mention one which is situated on the land of W. Cornell, on the east side of the 
creek, about seven miles from Columbus. Although greatly marred b}' the exca- 
vation for the Old National Road, which cuts into its southern slope, enough of this 
work remains to show that it was originally symmetrical and of large dimensions. 
Probably it was thirty feet in height and two hundred feet in diameter at the base. 
No one seems to know whether it has ever been explored. 

Rocky Fork, a tributary of the Big Walnut, flowing through Plain, Jefferson 
and a small part of Mifflin Townships, has several mounds along its Franklin 
County course. The most northerly of these works is on the Shull farm, in Jeffer- 
son Township, two miles northeast of Gahanna. It stands on the east side of the 
creek. This mound is elliptical in shape, its greatest dimensions (estimated) beinir 
three hundred feet long by two hundred feet wide and about forty feet in height. 
A small conical excrescence marks its summit. Trees of large size are growing 
upon this work. 

One-half a mile east of Gahanna, on the western terrace of the creek, is found 
a large formation usually called the " Table Mound." This may or may not be an 
artificial work, the strong probability being that it is not, because it occupies an 
area of at least eight acres, and is decidedly unlike other products of ihe 
ancients. Being a slightly elevated plateau, it has a shape which perhaps justifies 
the name given it. A small mound is reported as having once occupied the crown 
of this plateau, but no vestige of it now remains. On the opposite bank of the 
creek, near the Table Mound, on the Dryer land, is a much-plowedover mound, 
which was originally fifteen feet in height and one hundred feet in diameter at the 

Black Lick, another tributary of the Big Walnut, and a much larger stream than 
Rocky Fork, is bordered in Jefferson and Plain Townships by some mounds of great 
size. Three miles north of Black Lick Station, on the Pan Handle Railway, rises 
an immense mound on the farm of Araba Mann. Although no accurate measure- 
ments of this work have been taken, it is certainly thirty foet in height and over 
three hundred feet in diameter at the base. The cultivation of the land has some- 
what reduced its size, but in its present shape it is one of the largest ancient works 
in the county. It is rather oblong thun circular in its form. One mile north of 
it, on the west side of Black Lick, stands a mound now about ten feet high and 
nearly one hundred feet in diameter at the base. A group of three mounds is 
found in Plain Township on the Ileadley farm, almost due north of the works last 
described. One of the members of this group which immediately arrests the eye 
on account of its irregularity and great size, has been suspected of being a natural 
rather than an artificial work. Competent and trustworthy judges, however, have 
pronounced it a work of the mound builders which was probably lefl in an un- 
finished state. It is nearly forty feet in height and, by moderate estimate, three 
hundred feet in (its longest) diameter at the base. The second mound of this group 
is forty rods, or thereabouts, northeast of the one just mentioned, and was origi- 
nally very large, but has been nearly leveled down. The third mound of the 
grou]> is about sixty rods south of the one last named, and is ten feet in height and 


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Scale, five uiilee per incb. 

AeteriBka representa the Dioande, on enlarKed scale. 

The small ahacled equaree denote the villages and towns of the ('ounty, arranged alpha- 
betically and numbered as follows: 1, Alton, 3, Black Lick; ^, BIcndon Cornere; 4, Canal 
Winchealer : b. Central College ; «t. Clintonville ; 7, Dublin ; 8, Edwards Station ; 9, Elmwood ; 
10, Flint; 11, Gahanna; 12, Gallowaj; IH, Georgesville ; 14, Grove City ; 15. Groveport ; 16, 
Uarriabarg; 17, Hilliards; 18. Haven's Corners; 19, Lockbourne; 20, Morgan's; 21, New 
Albany ; 22, Pleasant Corners ; 23, Reeves'a ; 24, Beynoldsburg ; 2^5, Scioto ; 2(1, Sbadeville ; 
27, Weaterville;28, Worlhington. 



FAinneio county sroup 

, NCnP, caNAL ".VIMCHt 

Scale, about five milcB to the incli. 

Mounds are reprencDted liy aKterifkR ; pflrtliworkx, liy small circles and hall circltv. 

Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 57 

possibly seventy-five feet in diameter at the base. The first of these works above 
mentioned is protected by the original forest, but the third, h'ke the second, has 
been badly damaged by the cultivation of the land. It cannot be stated positively 
that none of these northeastern mounds have been explored, but all attainable 
evidence and tradition points to that conclusion. 

The order which has been adopted for naming and locating the mounds would 
suggest that those in the southeastern and southern central portions of the count}' 
should be next mentioned, but since the mounds of the lower land levels are many 
and those outside of these districts, or in more remote tributary- valleys, are few, 
those of the Scioto Valley are passed for the present, and attention will next be 
given to suih as are found in the western and southwestern sections of the county, 
beginning with that drained by Big Darby Creek and its numerous " runs" 

One-half mile north of Galloway Station, in Prairie Township, rises a small 
mound on the farm of A. J. O'Harra. The dimensions of this work cannot at this 
time be given. 

The mounds on the Francis farm, in Brown Township, have boon previously 
mentioned. On the high lands east of the Big Darby, about one mile from Cheno- 
with's Mills, in Pleasant Township, is seen a mound of good size, and two miles or 
more southward another work of this kind stands on the farm of John Young, about 
half a mile northeast of Harrisburg. 

Near Morjran's Station, on the Columbus and Cincinnati iMidland Railway, a 
short distance south of the Pickaway County line, are two mounds on the bottom 
lands of the Darby. One of these which had already been reduced by the cultivation 
of the soil to a height of about three feet, was still further disturbed by the railway* 
builders, who excavated deep holes in it in order to obtain a resting-place for the 
nlas^ive timbers of a trestle work. This digging resulted in the discovery of two 
skeletons, a large number of arrowheads, and a quantity of relics of various kinds, 
among which were some stone utensils. These articles were then and there dis- 
tributed among the workmen, and although a few specimens fell into the hands of 
more appreciative persons, the value of the discovery was practically lost. It 
seems certain, however, that a large proportion of the relics were of Indian origin. 
About one hundred feet north of this mound stands another of loftier build and 
more ample dimensions, ft was originally about fifteen feet high and one hundred 
feet in diameter at the base, but is now much cut down. After the discoveries in 
the smaller mound, the people of the vicinity determined to explore the larger 
work, but their enthusiasm subsided after a small opening had been made, and 
since that time the work has remained undisturbed. 

The mounds of the southern central and southeastern portions of the county 
may now be described. It was upon the southern terraces of the Scioto, and 
along its tributaries, that the most extensive mound building population existed, 
and by comparison of the number of mounds in the different sections it would 
seem almost certain that where ten people dwelt on the land along the upper por- 
tions of the streams, fifty occupied the bottom lands iurther south. The most 
Westerly oi the mounds which stand on that part of tl)e Scioto watershed now under 
consideration is situated on the Alkire farm, on the south si<le of Big Run, in 
Franklin Township, about onehalf mile west of the Harrisburg Pike. It is of 
average size, and has been injured by the plow. About two miles southeast of this 


work wo find another small mound tlio exact location of which cannot now be 
stated. One mile further southeast, on the (^orry land, near the Jackson Pike, is 
found the remnant of a once largr mouud, the ijreater part of which has been re- 
moved for its gravel. Excepting tlu* fact that human bones were found in this 
work during its excavation, nothiiij^ is known as to its contents. 

On the farm of Joab Borror, in .Iacksf)n Township, two and a half miles south- 
west of Shadeville, stands a mound now only six feet hi^h. hut covering about onc- 
tburth of an acre of ii^round. Local tradition states that an expionttion 'of this 
work was made many years a^o and tliat a few relics were found in it, but what 
they were is not stated. This work is situated about one and a half miles due west 
of the cii'cle on Absalom Borror's farm heretofore described. 

.\bout three miles in a northwesterly direction from Shadeville, on the land of 
Solomon Swagler, is situated a mound about twenty feet high and one hundred feet 
in diameter at the base. It is in a good state of preservation, and has never been 

Crossing to the east side of the Scioto, and beginning at the southern boundary 
of the county, we find no mounds until we reach the plateau between the Scioto 
and the Big Walnut, two miles south of Shatieville, when three mounds are found 
on the Cloud farm, standini^ in a north and south line, about two hundred feet 
apart. The most southerly of these works, which is also the largest of them, is 
about H fit ceil feet in height and nearly on(; hun<lred fieet in diameter at the base. 
To the summit rises a smooth slope which resembles and may bo taken for one of 
the graded roadways of the ancieiits. The other mounds of this group are smaller, 
and being in the woods, are well preserved. The largest one is damaged by a road 
excavation which has clipped ofl' it.s southern base. Another mound, about ten 
feet high and fifty feet in diameter at the base, is situate*! on the high elevation 
which overlooks the Big Walnut from the east side. It is a mile northeast of the 
mounds last mentioned, and is also situated on the Cloud land. 

Farther up the creek, on its east bank, two mounds rise on the Clark farm, 
but a little distance apart. Orio of them is ten feet in height and fifty feet in 
diauicter at the base ; the other, eight feet in height and thirty feet in diameter at 
the base. On the farn\ of Mrs. K. J. Younir, about one mile northeast of Lock- 
boiirne, exists a mound of which little is known except that it is small and has 
never been subjected to exploration. On the high land which overlooks the 
secondary terrace of the Scioto, one mile and a half north of Shadeville, and one 
mile east of the river, stands a conical mound having a height of ton feet and a 
diameter of thirty feet at the base. It issituated on the land of William T. Span- 
gler, and has never been opened. On the Simpson farm, twoanda quarter miles 
from the Spangler MouikI in a direction bearing somewhat east of north, is (bund 
a damaged sjiecimen, of average original dimei»sions. Like nearl}' all of the 
mounds of that vicinity it has not been explored. 

Three (quarters of a mile northwest of the work last named are situated two 
others on the Shoaf tarm. They stand in a north and south line, and are only a 
few hmIs apart. The cultivation of their slopes and summits has resulted in their 
almost coniplete obliteration. 

A quarter of a mile northeast of the Shoaf Mounds are found the remains of 
two others i>f enormous size which have severely suffered whenever the road- 

Ancient Earthworks in Franklin County. 59 

builders desired a supply of gravel. These O'Harra Mounds, as they have been 
called, furnish some meager knowledge of the character of this singular class of 
works. Many years ago a county road was surveyed and excavated through 
these mounds, and although the excavation did not go down to the original surface 
it disclosed the outline of what was onco a logbuilt chamber, and the usual traces 
of human bones. A skull found at that time is now in the possession of Doctor 
Starling Loving, of Columbus. The O'Harra Mounds stand in a line true to the 
compass, and are separated by little space. The northernmost one is oblong in 
shape and has a maximum diameter at the base of five hundred and seventyfive 
feet. Its minimum diameter at the base is one hundred and fifYv feet and its 
height is twenty feet. The most southerly of these mounds is conical in form, 
nearly forty feet in height, and has a diameter at the base closely approaching 
four hundred feet. Eighty rods west of the O'Harra Mounds, on one of the Fisher 
tracts, stands a much reduced mound now only four feet high. Another remnant, 
one mile north of the O'Harra Mounds, is in much the same condition as the work 
last mentioned. 

At the intersection of the Lockbourne and Groveport roads, on the south- 
eastern face of the elevation known as Baker's Hill, stands a mound which has 
been partially explored, and has yielded some implements and fragments of 
potter^'. All trace of these articles is now lost. Before being disturbed by the 
excavator and the gravel digger, this work was fifteen feet high and seventytive 
Jeet in diameter at the base. As a point tor signaling over the broid valley it 
could hardly have been excelled, and it maybe ren\arked in passing that the posi- 
tion of Spangler's Mound offered the same facilities for communication by beacon 
light up and down the valley. 

Two miles southeast of Columbus exists a low mound upon which Origin 
Harris built his home many years ago. This improvement has put an end to the 
investigation of the secrets of this work and deprived it of many of its original 

Within the present limits of Columbus, on the grounds of the late Peter 
Ambos, on South High Street, stands a small mound, well preserved. It is a 
truncated cone, about eight feet in height and thirty feet in diameter at the base. 
By reason of its situation on the very edge of the steep bluff which overhangs the 
Scioto, it affords an excellent point of observation. As a signal station itcouM not 
have been better located. Attempts have been made to explore it but have never 
been carried to completion. 

A small mound which once stood at the present intersection of Town Street 
and Champion Avenue, was obliterated when Town Street was extended eastward. 
Near Canal Winchester, in the extreme southeastern part of the county, an in- 
teresting series of small mounds exists.* Their value and interest to the anti- 
<^luarian have been greatly impaired by the excavations of inexperienced persons 
Vrhose discoveries were of little value and by whom the articles founrl have been 
Widely scattered. The first Franklin County Mound to he considered in this 
stories is on the land of W. K. Algire, the second on James Lawrence's farm, an<l 
t\\e third on the farm of Isaac Leahman. A pronounced swell of ground on whicli 
Htands the home of E. Stevenson, has been rated as an artificial work, but it is now- 
believed to be a natural formation. The three mounds here mentioned are all 
Hmall and are situated about equal distances apart along the headwaters of George 

Vyi) History of thk Citv of CouMBrs. 

Creok, a tributary of the Little Walnut. The most northerly <>ne rises about two 
miles north of Canal Winchester. 

On Samuel Dietz's farm, a <|uarter of a mile north of Canal Winchester, stands 
an aluKJst obliterated small m«)nnd, <mi» mile west of which, on the Chaiiey place, 
is found another in about the same state of pnservation. One mile further west, on 
the south side of the Little Walnut an<l half a mile east of Groveport, is tound a 
work which was (»rii^inally eight feet in height and thirty feet in diameter at the 
base, but now exists onl}' in a few vestiges. Ain^her mound, nearly obliterated. 
is situated in the extrenie southeastern ]):irt of the towMiship. All of these moun<is 
rise on what may be called the second terrace of the Little Walnut Creek. 

In Fairfield County, about three miles to the southeast of Canal Wmchester, 
exists an interesting group of mounds, all of which are situated on the sj)urs of the 
high hills of that locality. From any one of the five mounds of this group a view 
of the others can be obtained, arid, in addition, a wide expanse of the eastern side 
of the Scioto basin can be brought within the range of vision. Three of these 
mounds lie upon a practically continuous spur. .\ not her lies across a deep ravine, 
and a third some five hundred yanls further southeast, upon another high point. 
In l^late 111., where they have been numbered for convenience of the descriptive 
text, it will be seen that numbers one and tour are enclosed by earth walls. Num- 
ber one is by far the most j>eculiar work of the group. It is now eleven feet in 
height and ellij)lical in siuipe, it> maximum diameter at the base being eighty- 
eight feet, and its minimum diameter >ixtytwo feet A-side from the tact that il 
is surrounded by two broad earth walls. whi<h now vary in height from a slight 
trace to over ten teet, this work is peculiar in boifig constructed, in greater part, of 
sandstones which varv in size from tnii'inent'* three inches in di:imetcr to others 
as large as a nnm can carry. Tlu^se s'one^ were evidently obtained from a place 
near by, where the evidences of an ancient (juarry exist. Number three, two 
hundred yards north of number one, and on tlu' highest elevation, is also a stone 
mound, no v about ten teet in height and seventy feet in iliameter at the 
Number four is an earth mound only four feet in height and thirtyfive feet in 
iliameter at the base. It is surrounded by a nioat and w^all, the traees of wliieh 
are now vi^ry slight. Perhaps twentyfive per cent, of the composition of this 
mound is sandstone. Number two, situated two hundred yards west of number 
one, is an earth formation, twelve feet in height and eighty feet in diameter at the Kxplorations of the stone moun<ls have given no results in relies or signs of 
burial. However, number five, which was an earth mound ten feet in height and 
sixty feet in diametei* at the base, gave a rich return for the labor of opening it. 
In the present month of February. 1S92, it has been explore<i by .some eager pe<»- 
ple who had been wrought up t() a high pitch of excitement and expectation by 
the remarkable discoveries lately made near Chillicothe.^ Defying the inclement 
weather, these inexperienced exi»lorers thoroughly <lemolished the mounds, and 
made some discoveries y^'vy inierc^sting to the arclneologist but rather disappoint- 
ing to themselves, as they were in search of gohl, silver and precious stones rather 
than implements of common stone or relics in copper. Penetrating a well- 
defined stratification intern^.ini^led with wood ashes, thev encountei*ed, near the 
natural level of grouml, small bi>ulders beneath whi<.h were found human bones, 
presumably of the aneienl people who built these mounds. The skeletons of a 
woman and a child lay near the boulder covering, beneath which, in a compact 

Ancient Kartii works in FrcVNKlin CorNTV. (>1 

layer, were discovered the skeletons of men, and still deeper, in repositories scooped 
out of the bod rock, lay other skeletons. Around the human remains a few relics 
of an uDimportant kind were found. It would be useless to undertake anything 
more than a simple statement of this very interesting discovery. The history of the 
twenty human beings whose remains were found in this work belongs to an inscrut- 
able past which their successors of to-day can never penetrate or understand. 

From the catalogue of Franklin County mounds and earthworks given in the 
preceding pages it will be perceived that, after making due allowance for the por- 
tion of those works which may have escaped observation, and for such of them as 
have long since disappeared through the agency of man and the elements, the 
estimate that fully one hundred distinct specimens of such works have existed in 
the county is not excessive. It has been the purpose of the writer to devote this 
chapter especially to the Franklin County works, without attempting any discus- 
sion of their relations to similar remains in the adjoining counties, although such a 
discussion might add materially to the completeness of this record. It may be 
further observed that little attention has been here given to the numerous tradi- 
tions and authentic records of discoveries of human remains and relics in different 
parts of the county, because their antit^uity cannot be known to be more remote 
than that of the Indian races of this region. The Indians buried their dead in 
numberless places, and the discover}' of human bones, ornaments and implements 
in the surface deposits is a logical result of that custom, corroborated by the char- 
acter and position of the articles found, in both which respects they are broadly 
distinct from the remains of the prehistoric race. An illustration of this remark 
may here be cited. Two miles west of the Statehouse, on the Old JSlational Road, 
now West Broad Street, lies the remnant of a large mound which has been 
commonly supposed to have an artificial origin. In cutting the road through this 
work many bones, pipes, arrowheads and flints of various kinds were found by the 
workmen. All these relics, including the bones, which were reasonably well pre- 
served, were of unmistakable Indian t)rigin. This fact, together with the geologi- 
cal probability that the mound itself was a glacial deposit, disposes effeciually of 
the popular notion that it was one of the works of the moundbuilding race. 


1. No small part of the data concerning the mounds df Franklin County has been ob- 
tained from the paper of Mr. Prosper M. Wetmore, of this city, submitted as a report to Pro- 
fessor G. Frederick Wright, of Oberlin College, Editor of the Ohio Archa?ological and Histori- 
cal Society's Quarterly, and contained in Volume 1, published in April, 1888. Mr. Wetmore, 
who has, for a long time, been interested in the study of these earthworks and mounds, de- 
voted many a summer and autumn day to field observation, and upon bis notes of measure- 
meats and the present condition of the mounds a portion of the foregoing has been based. 
The writer gratefully acknowledges the aid thus given, and also the kind co^iperation of Mr. 
Wetmore in obtaining information of value at this time. 

2. The information relating to this mound has been gathered from many sources, but 
chiefly from several old residents of Columbus. 

3. Mr. George F. Bareis, of Canal Winchester, Franklin County, a gentleman who takes 
the deepest interest in these mounds, has furnished most of the data concerning the Madison 
Township specimens, and is the authority for the reference to the result of the exploration 
of the Fairfield County mound. 

4. See lUuMrated American^ New York, Volume IX, number 102; article, **Some 
New Relics of the Moundbuilders," by Warren King Moorehead, Esq. 





Emerging from the myst^jry of the iuoun<l builders we cross the line which 
separates the extinct and reirordiess races from tin* races known to history. New 
light dawns as this bomnlary is])assed. but very much that we would like to know 
still lies in deep, impenetrable shadow. Whether the inhabitants of the two 
American continents at the time thev first fell un<ler the eve of civilization were 
properly s]>eaking one great family, or were fundamentally segregated by one 
or more lines ol' racial distinction, is a question not yet fully settled. That they 
approached more nearly to one common family character than the indigenous popu- 
lation of Asia or Africa is scarcely disputed. *' The Indians of New Spain** 
[Mexico], wrote Humboldt, "bear a general resemblance to those who inhabit 
Canada, Florida, Peru and Hrazil. We have the same swarthy and copper colour, 
straight and smooth hair, small beard, scpiat body, long eye, with the corner 
directed upwards towards the temples, prominent cheek bones, thick lips, and ex- 
pression of gentleness in the mouth, strongly contrasted with a gloomy and seven* 
look. (.)ver a million and a half of s(juare leagues, from Cape Horn to the River 
St. Lawrence and Beh ring's Straits, we are struck at the first glance with the 
general resemblance in the features ot the inhabitants. We think we perceive 
them all to be descended from the same stock, notwithstanding the prodigious di- 
versity of their languages." 

" At one extremity of the country,' says another writer, " we find the pigmy 
Es(|uimaux of four feet and a half in height, and at the other the Patagonian stand- 
ing above six feet. In complexion the variety is great, and may be said to em- 
brace almost every hue known elsewhere on the face of the earth, except the 
pitchy black of the Negro. About onehalf of all the knowMi languages belong to 
America ; and if we consider every little wandering horde a distinct community, we 
have a greater number of nations here than in all the rest of the world."* 

Among the American aborigines, numbering seven or eight millions, as many 
languages were spoken as among the seven or eight hundred million inhabitants 
of the Eastern Hemisphere. Yet it is a significant fact that between these multi- 
form mvxles of speech and those of the other braneliesof the human family none but 
an occasional and evidentlv accidental resi'mblatiee can be traced. At the same 
time there run through all these aboriginal tongues, numbering about 450 in all,* 
certain threads of connection. '* It is the confident opinion of linguistic scholars,** 
says Professor Whitney, ''that a fundamental unity lies at the base of all these 
infinitely varying forms of speech ; that they may be, and probably are, all de- 


The Iroquois and Al(K)NQUIN8. 63 

scended from a single parent language. For, whatever their differences of material, 
there is a single type or plan upon which their forms are developed and their con- 
structions made, from the Arctic Ocean to Cape Horn."' 

The German naturalist Blumenbach'* places all the American tribes under one 
class except the Esquimaux, who are deemed to be of Mongolian origin. After 
examining scientifically the skulls found in ancient tombs, and those of existing 
tribes, Doctor Morton* concludes that the American aborigines, except those inhab- 
iting circumpolar latitudes, were all of one species and one race, and comprise two 
great families differing intellectually but strongly related in their physical traits. 
These families are denominated the Toltecan and the American, the first being par- 
tially civilized, the latter wholly savage.*' The Esquimaux are a dwarfish race, 
rarely over five feet in height, crafty and dirty. They inhabit the northern coasts 
of this continent and its neighboring islands. On the northwest coast of Alaska 
are found four peculiar tribes known as Kaluschi, who have the distinction of 
being as fair, when their skins are washed, as the Europeans. 

At the time of the arrival of the Eriglish colonists on this continent the Indians 
occupying its eastern half belonged almost entirely to three stems : 1, The Algon- 
quin, comprising the Delawares, Shawnees, Narragansetts, Chippcwas, Knistonaux, 
and thirty or forty other nations, spread over the territory between the Mississippi 
and the Atlantic, and all speaking dialects of the same language ; 2, The Iroquois, 
called alternately the Five Nations or the Six Nations, and comprising fifteen or 
more tribes, among which were the Mohawks, Hurons, Senccas and Oneidas, dwell- 
ing on the south side of the Great Lakes and all speaking dialectic forms of the 
same language; 3, The Florida Indians, including the Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, 
Chickasaws, Natches and Mobiles. These three families, togethi.'rwith the Wocons 
and Catawbas, numbering altogether about a quarter of a million souls, occupied 
nearly the entire region east of the Mississippi, from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of 
Mexico, embracing a territory of more than a million square miles. 

Generally' speaking these various tribes were noted alike for the virtues and 
vices of savage character, in their fullest development. They cherished a high 
sense of honor, absolute fidelity in personal and tribal relations, and a fortitude 
which disdained suffering or misfortune. Few races have equaled and none have 
surpassed their stoical apathy in good and ill. Stern, gloomy and severe, they de- 
spised mirth or laughter, and gave expression to joy only in the hour of triumph. 
They believed almost universall3Mn the existence of a Supreme Being, and also in a 
spirit of evil, hostile to human welfare. They also believed firmly in a future state 
in which the souls of brave warriors and chaste wives would tranquilly pursue the 
occupations in which they most delighted on earth. According to the creed of the 
Dakotas the road to the " villages of the dead " leads over a ledge of rock sharp as 
a knife's edge, on which only the good could keep their footing and from which 
the wicked fell into the abysses of the evil spirit, there to be flogged and subjected 
to hard labor. Polygamy was practised, and incontinence and incest were in- 
dulged in, but the distinction between vice and virtue was clear in the savage mind, 
^ives were purchased, marriages festively celebrated and funerals conducted with 
decorum. Some of the nations wore little or no clothing, the usual dress of the 
m^les of the better-clad tribes comprising a buffalo-skin hung from the shoulders, 
a breechclout of undressed skins and moccasins of the same material, the women 

64 History of the City of Columbus. 

wore a long robe of undresHed hide, fastened around the waist. The Indian habi- 
tations consisted of huts or cabins,, usually round and small, but sometimes thirty 
or forty foot in diameter, formed with stakes set in the ground and covered with 
bark. An opening in the top served for the escape of smoke, and the skins of wild 
beasts for carpet and bedding. The practice of painting and tattooing the body 
was almost universal. The warriors also adorned themselves fancifully, and often 
tastefully, with plumes and other ornaments. 

Each tribe was governed by a chief and council, who were elective, but when 
matters of importance had to be decided all the warriors were consulted, and the 
concurrence of all was necessary to any final conclusion. The young might be 
present at the council but could take no part in the debate. Among the North 
American Indians there were several hundred distinct governments, which differed 
from one another chiefly in degrees of organization. The government of the Wyan- 
dots, who were the immediate predecessors of the white men in this part of the 
Scioto Valley, may be considered typical of them all. Its principal features may 
be thus stated :' 

The Wyandots recognized, in their social organization, the family, the gens, 
the phratry and the tribe. The family comprised the persons who occupied one 
lodge, or one section of a communal dwelling. Such dwellings, when permanent, 
were oblong in form, and constructed with poles covered with bark. The fire was 
placed in the center, and served for two families, one occupying the space on each 
side. The head of the family was a woman. 

The gens was an organized body of blood kindred in the female line. It took 
the name of some animal, which also served it as a tutelar deity. At the time the 
tribe left Ohio it comprised the following gentes: Deer, Bear, Highland Turtle 
(striped), Highland Turtle (black), Mud Turtle, Smooth Large Turtle, Hawk, 
Beaver, Wolf, Sea Snake, and Porcupine. By these names and their compounds 
the persons belonging to each gens were distinguished, as for example : 

Man of Deer gens, De-wa-ti-re, or Lean Deer. 

Woman of Deer gens, A-ya-jin-ta, or Spotted Pawn. 

Man of Wolf gens, Ha-ro-un-yu, or One who goes about in the dark. 

Woman of Wolf gens, Yan-di-no, or Always Hungry. 

The tribe comprised four phratries, each containing three gentes. The phra- 
try had a legendary basis, and chiefly a religious use. The tribe, by reason of the 
inter-relationships of the gentes, comprised a body of kindred. 

Civil and military government were entirely separate. Civil powers were 
vested in a system of councils and chiefs. The council of each gens comprised 
four women who selected a chief of the gens from its male members. This chief 
was head of the council of his gens, and the aggregated councils of the gentes 
composed the council of the tribes. The grand tribal chief or sachem was chosen 
by the chiefs of the gentes. The women councilors of the gens were chosen, in- 
formally, by the heads of the households. At the installation of a woman as coun- 
cilor, a tribal feast was spread, and the woman, adorned with savage braveries, 
was crowned with a chaplet of feathers. Feasting and dancing followed, and con- 
tinued, civilized fashion, late into the night. 

At the installation of a gens chief, the women adorned him with a chaplet of 
feathers and an ornamental tunic, and painted the tribal totem on his face. 

H<i History <>k thk City «»f <'uMM«rs. 

conduct certain relii^ious ceremonies, ami to prepare certain medicineg. Bach gens 
was exclusively entitles! to tlu' worship of its tutelar god, and each individual to 
the use of his own anuih't. 

Tlie crimes recognize*! by the Wyandots were adultery, thet\, maiming, mur- 
der, treason, and witchcratl. A maiden guilty ot fornication was ])unished by her 
mother or guardian, but it the crime was tiagrant and repeated it might be taken 
in hand by the council women of the gens. A woman guilty of adulter^' had her 
hair cropped for the first otlense, and for its repetition had her left ear cut off. 

Accusations of theft were tried helbre the council of the gens, from the decision 
of which there was no appeal. A defendant adjudged guilty was required to make 
twofold restitution. The crime of murder was tried before the ofYender's gens, but 
appeal might be had to the council of the tribe. If compensation w:js not made 
when guilt was found, the crime might be personally avenged. 

Treason consisted in revealing the st*crets of medicinal preparations, or giving 
other information or assistance to the enemies of the tribe. It was punished with 

The charge of witchcrall was investigated by the grand council of the tribe, 
and when sustained incurred the penalty <d' death, but the accused might appeal 
from the adverse judgment of the council to the ordeal by fire. F'or this purpose 
a circular fire was built, and the accuse<l was required to run through it from east 
to west, and from north to south. If he escape<l injury he was deemed innocent: 
otherwise he was adjudged guilty. 

An inveterate criminal might he declared an outlaw having no claim upon the 
protection of his clan. An outlaw of the lowest grade might be killed by any one 
who chose to take his life ; outlawry of the highest grade ma<le it a duty to kill 
the offender on sight. 

The miliUiry management of the tribe was vested in a council composed of its 
ablebodied men. and a chief chosen from the Porcupines by the council. Pris- 
oners of war were either adopted into the tribe or killed. If adopted, it was nec- 
essary for the captive to become a member of some famil}'. .\s a test of his cour- 
age the prisoner was required to run the gantlet. Should he behave manfully he 
would he claimed for adoption, but if disgracefully, ho was put to death. 

The institution of fellowhood was common among the Wyandots. According to 
this custom two young men would agree to unite in a perpetual covenant of friend- 
ship, by the terms of which each was bound to reveal to the other the secrets of 
his life, to give counsel to his fellow in matters of importance, to defend him from 
wrong or violence, and at death to be his chief n\ourner. 

Indian migrations, by clans and confederacies, were frequent, and resulted in 
a series of wars by which entire tribes were sometimes exterminated. " After the 
destruction of the Erics in KJ;")."),' says General Force. " the tract now the State of 
Ohio was uninhabited until the next century. The nations known as Ohio Indians 
moved into it after ITUO,'*" Who were thev, and whence did thev come? General 
Harrison says, " the tribes rcsi<icnt within the bounds of this State when the first 
white settlement commenced were the Wyandots, Mianiis, ShawMiees, Delawares, a 
remnant of the Moheigans, who had united themselves with the Delawares, and a 
band of the Ottawas.'"* The migrations and coiiHicts in process of which the State 
became thus peopled constitute one of the most ntomentous episodes in Indian his- 
tory, and cover an immense territorial field. 

The Iroquois and ALiiONQuiNs. «7 

The leading part in that episode must be ascribed to the Iroquois, whose i^enius 
for conquest surpassed that of all the contemporary Indian races. Theyhave been 
called The Romans of the New World. They called themsidves IIodeno.sannee, 
meaning ** they form a cabin."'" Collectively thoy were known as the Ongwe- 
houwe, or Superior Men. The name Iroquois was given them by the French. They 
proudly boasted of their racial antiquity, and it was undouhtedl}' great. The 
Lonapes, who bore the title of Grandfathers, and paternally styled the other Al- 
gonquins as children or grandchildren, acknowleged the superior age of the Iro- 
quois by calling thora uncles. In turn, the Lenapes were <lenominated by the 
more ancient race as nephews and cousins. 

Tradition, supported by circumstances of location and language, indicates that 
the original hordes of the Iroquois emerged at some very remote period from the 
human hives of the Northwest. When Jacques Cartier sailed up theSt. Lawrence, 
in 1585 he found them at the present site of Montreal. There, and along the St. 
Lawrence, they had dwelt since 1450 or 1500. When Champlain followed in the 
track of Cartier, in lOO'J thev had been driven south bv the Adirondacks, and 
dwelt on the southern borders of Lake Ontario. Ilorc tlu^y had ibrmcd a confed- 
eracy afterwards joined by the Tuscaroras" and known as the Kivo Nati(ms. The 
tribes originally composing this confederation were \\\v, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, C^ayugas and Senecas. This league, said to have been of very early origin, 
waw joined by the Tuscaroras in ,1713. It then numbered aboui twelve thousand 
souls, and was unquestionably the most powerful confederalion of Indians on the 
continent. Its geographical situation, its unity and its warlike qualities, alike con- 
spired to make it the predominant race. "Other tribes," says I)ouglas Campbell, 
"were hemmed in by mountains or by boundless barren wastes. " Not so with the 
Irocpiois, "their * Long House,' as it was called, lay on the crest of the most won- 
derful watershed in the world. On the north thev had water communication with 
the St. Lawrence and the Lakes, while on the south and west, the Hudson, Dela- 
ware, Susquehanna, Alleghany and Ohio afforded them highways to a large portion 
of the continent. Launching their light canoes on the streams which flowed from 
their hunting ground as from a mighty fountain, they could in time of need hurl 
an overwhelming force upon almost any foe." 

To this league, says Morgan, " France must chiefly ascribe the tinal overthrow 
of her magnificent schemes of colonization in the northern part of America."'* Had 
the French been able to obtain its alliance, as they did that of nearly all the other 
Indian tribes, the English would have beerj expelled from the contirjent, and we 
would have had here a Gallic instead of an Anglo-Saxon civilization. But nothing 
could move these Iroquois warriors from their constancy to cne Dutch and Eng- 
lish. For a century and a half they held the balance of power between the Gaul 
and the Saxon, and it was decided by the east of their influence that the Gaul 
must go. 

Kindred in language with the tribes of this league were the Andastes of Penn- 
sylvania, the Eries of Ohio, the Attiwandaronk or Neutrals, so called, on the north- 
ern shores of Lake Erie, and the nations occupying the peninsula between the 
Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. These together with the Six Nations composed 
the Huron- Iroquois family, which has been described as an island in the vast sea 
of Algonquin population extending south from Hudson Bay to the Carolinas, and 

68 History of the City of ("ouiMhrs. 

west from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Tbe Indians of this family who dwelt 
along the eastern shores of Lake Huron were known to the Iroquois as Quatoghies, 
and to the French as Hurons. They called themselves Ontwaonwes, meaning real 
men, but adopted the tribal designation of Wendals, or Ouendats, as it was 
Frenchified by the Jesuit missionaries. Chainplain and the Franciscan missionary 
Joseph le Caron visited them in 1615, and Father Sagard in 1624. According to 
the Jesuit Relations their settlements at that time extended southwardly about 
one hundred miles from the mouth of the French River and comprised twentyfive 
or thirty towns, of which that of Ossosane was chief The total population of these 
settlements was about thirty thousand. The frontier towns were fortified with a 
triple palisade and interior gallery ; the others were unguarded. The dwellings 
were made long so that each might contain several families, and were built of 
poles covered with bark. 

The tribes comprising the Huron confederation are diflPerently named by 
different writers. The most authentic nomenclature seems to be that of Attigna- 
wantaws, Attigneennonquahac, Arendahronon, Tohonteerat and Tionontates or 
Tobacco Indians,^^ whom the French called the Nation de Petun. The first two 
of these clans were original Huions, the others adoptive. From the conglomera- 
tion of these tribes, or rather of their fragments after the Iroquois dispersion, 
came the Wyandots known to history. 

The Wendals who formed the basis of that stock were much more intellit/ent 
and inclined to agriculture than their neighbors, the Northern Algonquins. None 
surpassed them in courage. To die for the interest and honor of his tribe, says 
Harrison, and to consider submission to an enemy as the lowest degradation, were 
precepts instilled into the Wendat mind from earliest youth. ^^ In Wayne's battle 
at the Rapids of the Miami thirteen chiefs of this tribe perished and but one 

Very anciently, according to one of their historians,'* the Wendats "inhab- 
ited a country northeastward from the mouth of the St. Lawrence, or somewhere 
along the gulf coast," but "during the first quarter of the sixteenth century" 
(1500-1525) they quarreled with their neighbors, the Senecas, while both were 
dwelling near the present site of Montreal. One of the traditions ascribes the 
origin of this quarrel to the intrigue and passion of a Seneca maiden who pledged 
her hand to a young Wendat w-arrior on condition that he would slay one of the 
chieftains of her own tribe. The murder was accomplished, and its recompense 
paid, but the Senecas were so enraged by it that they rose in arms and drove the 
Wendats from the country. Taking their course westward, the fugitives halted 
first on the Niagara, next at the present site of Toronto, and finally on the shores 
of Lake Huron. Their subsequent settlements in Ohio, says one of the State's 
historians, were in the nature of colonies from the main tribe, the principal seat of 
which was opposite Detroit.'* 

The curious cosmogony of the Huron Indians is thus summarized : ** A woman, 
Ataensic, flying from heaven, fell into an abyss of waters. Then the tortoise and 
the beaver, afler long consultation, dived and brought up earth on which she 
rested and bore two sons, Tawescaron and louskeha, the latter of whom killed his 
brother." Aireskoi, son of louskeha, was the chief divinity of tbe Iroquois and 

Thk Iroquois and Aujonquins. 69 

Although Algonqains, the Ottawas, famous chiefly as the tribe of the great 
Pontiae, were early friends of the Wyandots. When first discovered they inhab- 
ited the islands of Lake Huron and the peninsula of Michigan, but at an earlier 
period they dwelt on the Canadian river which bears their name, and while there, 
it is said, exacted tribute from all the Indians who crossed from or to the country 
of the Hurons.'^ They were unique among the North American tribes as wor- 
shipers of the heavenly bodies, the sun being the object of their supreme rever- 
ence. The French traders found them on the Sandusky peninsula as early as 
1750. " The Ottawas, so far as they have been observed on the soil of Ohio," says 
Taylor, " have hardly sustained the gravity and dignity of position which we spon- 
taneously assign to the Wyandot and the Delaware. Compared with his forest 
brethren the Ottawa, or Tawah, as the early settlers called him, whose life was 
nearly amphibious by his joint avocations as trnpper and fisher, seems to be 
rather a Pariah among his brethren."'' 

The Neutral Nation, so called by the French because they refused to take 
sides in the Huron-Iroquois war, were known to the Senccas as Kahkwas, and to 
the Hurons as Attiwandaronk. Their dwelling places were along the banks of 
Niagara and the neighboring coasts of Lake Erie. 

The Andastes were identical with the Susquehannas and Canestogas. They 
inhabited the country watered by the upper branches of the Ohio an<l Susquehanna. 
Of the Eries, so called by the Hurons, an<i named Eriquehronons by the Iro- 
quois, but little is known. The}' dwelt in that part of Northern Ohio which is 
skirted by the southeastern shores of Lake Erie. Their territories are said to 
have been "very populous."^ The title. Nation du Chat or Cat Nation, given 
them by the French, is thus explained in one of the Jesuit Relations : " We call 
the Eries the Cat Nation because there is in their country a prodigiou*s number of 
wildcats, two or three times as large as our tame cats, but having a beautiful and 
precious fur."*' Father Sagard, who was a minsionary among the Hurons in 1823, 
Pays: "There is in this vast region a country which we call the Cat Nation, by 
reason of their cats, a sort of small wolf or leopard found there, from the skins of 
which the natives make robes bordered and ornamented with the tails."** School- 
craft regards it as certain that the Eries '* were at the head of that singular con- 
federation of tribes known as the Neutral Nation, which extended from the ex- 
treme west to the extreme eastern shores of Lake Erie, including the Niagara." 
Traditional and circumstantial grounds have been found for the belief that the 
Kickapoos, Shawnees and Catawbas all sprang from remnants of this tribe. That 
the Eries were a warlike race cannot be doubted. A missionary journal of 1658 
refers to them as " the dreaded Cat Nation," the subjugation of which had then 
been accomplished. 

Next west of the Eries were the Miamis, another warlike tribe, first discovered 
in Eastern Wisconsin by the French, and numbering at that time (1 679) about eight 
thousand souls. Their belligerent spirit involved them in perpetual broils with 
their neighbors, the Sioux, and later with the Iroquois and French. Their course 
of migration was thus described by their famous chief, Little Turtle : *' My fore- 
fathers kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence they extended their lines to 
the headwaters of the Scioto; from thence to its mouth ; from thence down the 
Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, and from thence to Chicago over Lake Michi- 


gan." Their territory, says General Harrison, " embraced all of Ohio vrest of the 
Scioto, all of Indiana. and that part of Illinois south of the Fox Eiver, and Wiscon- 
sin, on which frontier they wore intermingled with the Kickapoos and some other 
small tribes. . . . Numerous villages were to be found on the Scioto and the head 
waters of the two Miamis of the Ohio."" By this tribe, it is believed, the Eries 
were crowded inland from the northwest. 

The neighbors of the Miamis on the west were the Illinois, whose confederacy 
extended along the eastern shore of the Mississippi south to within about eit^hty 
miles of the Ohio. 

The Lenno Lenape, or Delawares, claimed to be the oldest of the Algonquins, 
and to have come from the west. Afler driving the Tallegwi from the Ohio they 
pushed eastward and settled along the Delaware River, near which they were 
dwelling when first known to the whites, and which gave them their English name. 
William Penn bought large portions of their territory, after which the^' moved 
inland. This transaction resulted in a war, in the course of which the Delawares 
were driven west of the Alleghanies. The}'' reached the Ohio about the year 1700, 
and moved into the Muskingum and Scioto valleys.'"* They afterwards asserted 
their dominion over most of the eastern half of Ohio. 

TheShawnees were a nomadic tribe, sometimes descriptively designated as 
American Arabs. Their roving disposition has given rise to the fancy that they 
were "a lost tribe of Israel."-* They were Algonciuins, primarily of the Kickapoo 
tribe, and were first found by the whites in Wisconsin. Moving eastward, they 
encountered the Iroquois, by whom they were driven south into Tennessee. From 
thence they crossed the mountains into vSouth Carolina, and spread southward to 
Florida, and northward to New York. At a later period they drifted northward, 
again came in contact with the Iroquois, and were driven into Ohio. Their arrival 
here, after these wanderings, took place about the year 1750. Gist found one of 
their settlements in that year at the mouth of the Scioto. The French called these 
nomads Chaouanons, the English Shawanoes, the Iroquois Satanas. Their tribal 
divisions, four in number, bore the names Kiskapocke, Mequachuke, Chillicothe 
and Piqua. According to one of their legends, while their ancient warriors and 
wise men once were seated around a smouldering council fire there was a sudden 
I crepitation and puffing of smoke amid the embers, followed by the apparition of a 

man of splendid form emerging from the ashes. This was the first Piquan. 

" We first find the Shawano in actual history about 1660," says Force, " and 
living along the Cumberland river, or the Cumberland and Tennessee. Among 
I the conjectures as to their earlier history the greatest probabilitj' lies, for the 

present, with the earliest account given by Perrot, and apparently obtained by 
him from the Shawnees themselves about the year 1680 — that they formerly lived 
by the lower lakes, and were driven thence by the Five Nations."** " The Shaw- 
nees and Cherokees seem to have been the foremost in the Indian migrations 
^ which met the Mound Builders," says Judge Baldwin. According to the same 

1 authority, " while the Eries were at peace the Shawnees lived next south, probably 

in Southern Ohio and Kentucky."" But the Eries did not remain at peace, nor 
were the Shawnees permitted to stay. A thunderbolt fell in the midst of these 
tribes and their neighbors which crushed the Eries, drove oflF the Shawnees, and 
scattered other clans and confederacies to the four winds. 



In the year 1655 the Iroquois, usin^ their canoes as scaling ladders, stormed and 
carried the Erie strongholds, foil like tigers upon their defenders, and butchered 
them without mercy.*** The Erics seem to have been utterly dispersed, and were 
scarcely more heard of in history. The Shawneos, probable next neighbors of the 
Eries, were driven south and scattered to the winds. Having cleared Ohio of its 
inhabitants the Five Nations regarded and kept it as a hunting ground. 

Turning eastward, they next crushed the Tiogas, Abenakis and Susquehan- 
nas, placed half of Long Island under tribute, and asserted their supremacy on 
Massachusetts Bay. Then they resumed their career of western conquest. A map 
attached to Baron La Hontan's Voyages and Adventures in North America be- 
tween 16S:-{ and 1(594 has a line drawn across the country south of Lake Erie, ap- 
parently about thirty miles from the lake, representing ^' yo way that ye Illinese 
march through .i vast tract of ground to make war against ye Iroquese : The same 
being ye Passage of ye Iroquese in their incursions upon ye other Savages, as far 
as the river Missisipi." The annals of the Jesuit Missionaries say the victorious 
Iroquois attacked the Chicktaghicks, or Illinois and Miamis, encamped together 
on the Maumee in 1<J80, killed thirty and captured thret' hundred prisoners. But 
the defeate<i clans rallied, ambuscaded the retiring victors and retook their 

The extent of these later conquests of the Iroquois has been much disputed, 
one side being represented b}' Governor De Witt Clinton and the colonial histo- 
rian Colden, the other by President William H. Harrison. The tirst, says Bald- 
win, rely too much on the Iro(|uois accounts, the other too much on the traditions 
of the western Indians, but " it seems to be well settled that the Iroquis continued 
to occupy a considerable portion of Ohio at will."** Colden's history** maintains 
that they had subdued the Illinois in 1685, and is full of their wars with the 
Miamis. A French memoir of 1787 says they had attacked the Miamis and Illinois 
at Fort St. Louis, founded by La Salle near the Mississippi, had there encountered 
La Salle himself, had captured many prisoners, and had threatened the extermina- 
tion of the tribes of that region. They had ranged over the whole of Ohio, and 
scoured the country south and west of it. Of the Delawares, whose westward move- 
ment had brought them into southeastern Ohio, they had not only ma<le subjects 
but " women." *' About the year 1700 '* Messieurs les Iroquois," as La Hontan 
calls them, were at the climax of their power. Their conquests were vaguely re- 
tained, and their dominion was loose and flexible, but such as it was it extended 
over New York, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, the northern 
and western portions of Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Northern Tennessee, Illinois, 
Indiana, Michigan, part of New England and a large part of Upper Can- 
ada.'*' In Ohio they held not only admitted sovereignt}*, but actual legal oc- 
cupancy extending over most of the territory which now constitutes the State." 
Both the Shawnees and the Delawares were their tenant* at will. 

The cosmogony of the Iroquois resembled closely that of the Hurons. They 
worshiped Agreskoi, whom they honored with ot!erings of flesh and tobacco, and 
even with human sacrifice. They believed in spirits, and were particularly reverent 
to the presiding genii of maize, pumpkins and beans. The French missionaries 
succeeded in persuading them, or part ofthen), lo worship G-od, whom the converts 
recognized under the name of Havvenniio, meaning '* He is master." They buried 

The Iroquois and Aloonqiins. 78 

their dead temporarily, and every tenth year collected the remains in one long 
grave which they lined with furs, and variously decorated. Their captives taken 
in war were either adopted or tortured and burned at the stake. Their dress- was 
mainly a breechclout for men and a short petticoat for women. Both sexes wore 
moccasins and leggings. Their huts were roofed with bark laid over an arborlike 
frame of poles. 

The distribution of tribal bodies and fragments, in and outside of Ohio, caused 
by the whirlwind of Iroquois conquest, was somewhat promiscuous. A map pre- 
pared by Colonel Charles Whittlesey, and published in 1872," makes the following 
apportionment of the Indian occupation of the State from 1754 to 1780. To the 
Iroquois, and tribes of their adoption, Northeastern Ohio extending as far south as 
Wheeling Creek, and including the valleys of the Tgscarawas and Cuyahoga ; to 
the Wyandots and Ottawas the valleys of the affluents of Lake Brie wostofthe 
Cuyahoga as far as to the counties of Fulton and Henry; to the Delawares the 
valley of the Muskingum; to the Shawnees the Scioto and its tributaries, including 
territory eastward to Raccoon Creek and westward to the counties of Brown and 
Highland; and to the Miamis the western part of the State, iiicludiiig the valleys 
of the two Miamis and the Tipper Maumee. 

The Ohio Iroquois were mostly Senecas who settled in the northern and 
eastern portions of the State. They dwelt on friendly terms with their neighbors 
and dependents, the Shawnees and Delawares, with whom they also intermarried. 
Those in Eastern Ohio were called Mingoes, a Pennsylvania corruption of the 
term Mengwe applied to the Iroquois nations by the Delawares. Among them 
were probably some portions of the conquered Andastes. The Cuyahoga River is 
supposed to have derived its name from a band of Cayugas settled in that vicinity. 
Another .portion of the Cayuga tribe emigrated to Sandusky. 

In 1831 the Senecas sold their Ohio lands and removed to the Indian Terri- 
tory. Originally they were the largest and most westerly of the Iroquois nations. 
One of their principal chiefs was Red Jacket, of the Wolf tribe, whose original 
Indian name was Otetiani, meaning '* always read}'." He died in 1830. The most 
illustriouschief of the Mingoes was Tahgahjute, born a Cayuga, on the shores of the 
Susquehannn, and commonly known as Logan, of whom more will be said in a sub- 
sequent chapter. 

The Miamis probably came U) Ohio witliin the historical period. Together 
with their kindred the Illinois, they maintained a vigorous war vvith the Iroquois 
by whom, some writers claim,** they were not woi*sted. They were known to the 
Five Nations as Twightwees. Led by their noted chief MisheUonequah, or Little 
Turtle, they defeated Colonel Hardin's forces twice in October, 1790, and routed 
General St. Clair's army a year later. In 1834-5 they were removed to a Govern- 
ment reservation in Kansas. 

Drifting westward in their war with the Cherokees, the Delawares arrived in 
Ohio about the year 1700 and settled on the Muskingum In 1750 Gist found 
several of their villages on the east bank of the Scioto/" one of them, perhaps, be- 
ing that which gave its name to the present city of Delaware. In 1741 the Mora- 
vian missionaries began to labor among them in Pennsylvania, making numerous 
converts. Latera general emigration took place, and h}' 17r)8 the tribe had ceased 
to exist east of the Alleghanies. In 1772 the Moravian Delawares formed a settle- 

74 History op the (-ity of (>)litmbU8. 

ment at Gnadenhutten — "Tents of Grace" — now in Tuscarawas County, where 
ninety of them were cruelly butchered by the whites in 1782, on alleged but 
groundless suspicion of having been concerned in certain outrages in Pennsylvania. 
There is no darker bloodstain in the Ohio wihierness than this. By treaties of 
1785-89 lands were reserved for the Delawares between the Cuyahoga and the 
Miami, and for the Christians of the tribe on the Muskingum, but causes of dis- 
content arose which induced the beneficiaries of these grants to transfer their set- 
tlements to Canada, <m lands granted by the Knglish government. In 1808 a few 
members of this tribe remained on the Muskingum, and a small band was settled 
on the Whitewoman Creek, near Sandusky. Their Canada settlement at Fairfield, 
on the Thames, was destroyed by the Americans in 1814. In 1818 they ceded all 
their lands to the United States and removed to Missouri, leaving ou\y a small 
band in Ohio. 

The Ottawas, although intimately associated with the Wyandots, appear to 
have been in most respects their opposites. Mr. Shea speaks of them as " great 
cowards." After their overthrow b}' the Hurons they fled to the islands at the 
mouth of Green Bay, and thence to the Sioux country beyond the Mississippi. 
Driven back eastward by the Sioux in 1660, they halted at Mackinac, where they 
became involved again with the Iroquois. After the settlement of Detroit part of 
them migrated to that vicinity, while another part, remaining behind at Mackinac, 
crossed to Arbre Croche. After 1672 they were in constant companionship with 
the Wyandots, by whom they were persuaded in 1747 to settle on the lower Mau- 
mee. The}' took part in the last struggle of the French for (/anada, and when it 
ended disastrous!}' to their allies, their bold chief Pontiac, refusing to yield, 
organized a supreme effort by all the western tribes to drive out the English. He 
stealthily laid his plans for a general massacre of the English garrisons and settle- 
ments in May, 1763. reserving for himself the attack upon Detroit. His intentions 
becoming known in time to prevent the surprise of the post, he placed it under 
siege and neglected no expedient known to savage warfare for its reduction. To 
obtain subsistence for his warriors he issued promissory notes written on birch 
bark and signed with the figure of an otter. All these notes were redeemed. 
The siege was raised after several months, and most of the trihes ceased their hos- 
tilities, but Pontiac remained unsubdued. Withdrawing to the Illinois country 
he instigated fresh hostilities and held out for a time, but his followers dropped 
away from him, and he was obliged to submit, in 1766, to English rule. He was 
finally slain, while intoxicated, by an Illinois Indian at Cahokia, opposite St. 

In 1836 the Ottawas at Maumee exchanged 49,000 acres of land for 36,000 on 
the Osage, whither two hundred of them removed while about the same number 
remained in Ohio. The Michigan branch of the tribe continued its settlements 
there, but accepted lands in severalty in lieu of reservations. The Canadian Otta- 
was on the Waljjole, Christian and Manitoulin Islands have fused with their Indian 
neighbors of other tribes, and are generally self supporting and prosperous. 

The Shawnees are clustered, on the ancient maps, along the Scioto from its 
mouth northward to the Pickaway Plains, and also northeastwardly through the 
present counties of Clark, Champaign and Logan. Their Ohio settlements seem 
to have been resumed, afler the Iroquois dispersion, by a discontented portion of 

The Iroquoih and Algonquins. 75 

the tribe which emigrated from Virginia about the year 1730. In January, 1751, 
Christopher Gist, a Virginia surveyor sent out to explore the Ohio woods, arrived 
as he 8a3'8 in his journal at a Shawnee town, " situated on both sides of the Ohio, 
just below the mouth of Scioto Creek, and containing about three hundred men. 
There were about forty houses on the south side of the river an<i about a hundred 
on the north side, with a kind of state house about i\inety feet long, with a tight 
cover of bark, in which councils were held."""* At the time of Bouquet's expedition 
in 1764 the Shawnees had u})on the Scioto about live hundred warriors. Pickaway 
County, which takes its name from their Piqua tribe, contained their most impor- 
tant villages, the largest of which, said to have been the residence of the Mingo 
Logan, was Old Chillicothe, now Westlall. Cornstalk, one of their famous chiefs, 
and his sister, known as the Grenadier Squaw, gave their names to two others. 
Another village, which occupied the jii-esent site of Prankfort in Ross (.'ount}', is 
called Old Chillicothe, or Oldtown, by Squier and Davis. According to these 
writers a famous Shawnee village was situated there, grouped around one of the 
interesting works of the >round Builders. In its (jM Indian huryingground numer- 
ous relics deposited with the dead have been found. Another Shawnee village was 
located about three miles north of Xenia,"' and doubtless bands of these restless 
wanderers sojourned for a time in man}' different j)arts of the State. Their multi- 
plied migrations and settlements have bewildered antiquarian research. Their most 
famous chief was Tecumseh, horn near the j)resent city of Springfiehl about 1768, 
an<l killed in Harrison's battle of the Thames, October 5, 1H|:J. hi 18:n the Ohio 
Shawnees ceiled their lands to the United States and were removed to a (rovern- 
raent reservation in Kansas, w-here, in 1S54, the tribe inimbered nine hundred. 

The Wyandots, at\er having rallied from the Iroijuois dispersion, occupied the 
countr}' north and west of Detroit, and ranged southward through the wilderness 
to the Ohio and beyond. In 170H they j)enetrated to the Shawnees and Choctaws 
on these excursions, and encountered detachments of (!Jherokees then roving north- 
ward. One of these Cherokee bands joined them later in their settlements at San- 
dusky. In 1732 the Wyandots claimed the entire area of this State as their hunt- 
ing ground, and warned the Shawnees to shift their settlements south of the Ohio. 
Gradually the tribe centered at Sandusky prior to the colonial War of Inde- 

The territory comprised within the present limits of Franklin Count}' was 
visited and temporarily occupied by parties of Delawares, Mingoes, Shawnees and 
other tribes, but the Indians who held it in predominant possession during the 
historical period were Wyandots. Theirs were the eorntields planted in the 
meadow openings where Franklinton was built, and theirs the Indian village whose 
nmoking lodges stood in the forest where now stands the city of Columbus. The 
Iroquois, apparently reconciled at last with their old antagonists, were also here, 
at least three of their villages being located within the present boundaries of the 

The following anecdote of local occurrence, deemed to be illustrative of the 
character of the Ohio Wyandots, has been narrated :*" 

A party surveying on the Scioto above the site of Columbus, in 1797, had been reduee<l 
to three scanty meals for four days. They eame to the eanip of a Wyandot Indian, with hie 
family, and he gave them all the provisions he had, which cou) prised only two rabbits and 


a small piece of venison. This Wyan<lotV father had heen murdered by the whites in the 
time of peai'e ; the father of one of the surveyors had l)een killed by the Indians in time of 

The pathetic story of the nuirdor of thf Wyandot chief known as Leatherlips 
at his dwelh'ng-placo in the northern part of Franklin County has gained currency 
as authentic history. The order for thin murder is said to have emanated direct 
from Tecuniseh and his propiiet brother at Tippecanoe and to have been executed 
by their emissaries, (icneral Harrison entertained this opinion/' whicli is sup- 
ported by one of Heckewelder's correspondents in his historyof the Indian Nations 
The following account of the tragedy is given in the autobiography of Rev. J. B. 
Finle}^ who was at the time a missionary among the Wyandot Indians: 

During the summer of 1810. an event occurred, on the circuit adjoining the one which I 
traveled, of a tragical and melan<?ho]y diaracter; and, as I propose, in connection with my 
own biography, to furnish the reader with a cotem})oraneou8 historj- of the times in which I 
lived. I will relate the circumstances connected with that event. 

On the evening of the first day of June, six VV^vandot warriors went to the house of Mr. 
Benjamin Sells, on tlie Scioto River, about twelve miles above the spot where now stands the 
City of Columbus. They were equipped in the most warlike manner, and exhibited, during 
their stay, an unusual degree of agitation. 

Having ascertaine<l that an old Wyan<lot chief, for whom they had been making diligent 
inquiry, was then encamped, at a distance of about two miles further up, on the west bank 
of the river, they expressed a determination to put him to death, and immediately went off 
in the direction of his lodge. These facts were communicated early on the ensuing morning 
to Mr. John Sells, who now resiiles m the village of Dublin, on the Scioto, al>out two miles 
from the place where the doomed Wyandot met his fate. Mr. Sells immediately proceeded 
up the river on horseback in (|uest of the Indians. He so«)n arrived at the lodge, which he 
found situated in a grove of sugar trees close to the bank of the river. Th«.t six warriors 
were seated in consultation at the distance of a few hmIs from the lodge. The old chief was 
with them, evidently in the character oi a prisoner. His arms were confined by a small 
cord, but he sat witli them without any manifestation of uneasiness. A few of the neighbor- 
ing white men were likewise there,** and a gloomy looking Indian, who had been the com- 
panion of the chief, but now kept entirely aloof, sitting sullenly in the camp. Mr. Sells 
approached the Indians and found them earnestlv engagotl in debate. 

A charge of ** witchcraft'' had been made at a former time again&t the chief by some of 
his captors, whf»se friends had been <lestroycd, as they believed, by means of his evil powers. 
This crime, according to immemorial usage of the tribe, involved forfeiture of life. The 
chances of a hunter's life had brought the old man to his present location, and his pursuers 
had sought him out in order that they might execute uix)n him the sentence of their law. 

The council was of two or three hours' duration. The accusing party spoke alternately, 
with much ceremony, but with evident bitterness of feeling. The prisoner, in his replies, 
was eloquent, though dispiissionate. Occasionally a smile of scorn would appear for an 
instant on his countenance. At the close of the consultation it was ascertained that they 
had reaffirmed the sentence of death which ha<l before been passed upon the chief. Inquiry 
having been made by some of the while men, with reference to their arrangements, the cap- 
tain of the six warriors pointed to the sun and signified to them that the execution would 
take place at one o'clock in the afternoon. Mr. Sells went to the captain and asked him 
what the chief had done. " Very ba<l Indian," he replied, '* make good Indian sick — make 
horse sick — make die — very bad chief." 

Mr. Sells then made an effort to persuade his white friends to rescue the victim of super- 
stition from his impending fate, but to iv> purpo-e. They were then in a frontier situation, 
entirely open to the incursions of ihe northern tribes, and were, consequently, unwilling to 
subject themselves to the displeasure of their savage visitors by any interference with their 

The Iroquoir and Algonquins. 77 

operations. He then proposed to release the chief by purchase, ottering to the captain for 
that purpose a fine horse of the value of three hundred dollars. *' Let me see him," said 
the Indian. The horse was accordingly brought forward and closely examined, and so much 
were they staggered by this proposition that they again repaired to their place of consulta- 
tion, and remained in council a considerable length of time before it was finally rejected. 

The conference was again terminated, and five of the Indians began to amuse them- 
selves with running, jumping, and other athletic exercises. The captain took no part with 
them. When again inquired of as to the time of execution he pointed to the sun, as before, 
and indicated the hour of four. The prisoner then walked slowly to his camp, partook of a 
dinner of jerked venison, washed and arrayed himself in his best apparel, and afterward 
painted his face. His dress was very rich, his hair gray, and his whc»le appearance graceful 
and commanding. At his request the whole company drew around him at the lodge. He 
had observed the exertions u)ade by Mr. iSells in his behalf, and now presented to him a 
written paper, with a re<iuefit that it might be read to the company. It was a recommendation, 
signed by Governor Hull, and in compliance with the request of the prisoner, it was fixed 
and left upon the side of a large tree a short clintance from the wigwanj. 

The hour of execution being close at hand, the chief shook hands in silence with the 
surrounding spectators. On coming to Mr. Sells, he appeared much moved, grasped his 
hand warmly, spoke for a few minutes in the Wyandot language, and pointed to the heavens 
He then turned from the wigwam, and, with a voice of surpassing strength and melody, 
commenced the chant of the death song. He was followed closely by the Wyandot warriors, 
all timing with their slow and measured march the mueic of his wild ami melancholy dirge. 
The white men were all likewise silent followers in that strange procession. At the distance 
of seventy or eighty yards from the camp they came to a shallow grave, which, unknown to 
the white men, had been previously prepared by the Indians. Here the old man kneeled 
down and in an elevated but solemn tone of voice addressed his prayer to the (»reat Spirit. 
As soon as he had finished, the (captain of the Indians kneeled beside him and prayed in a 
similar manner. Their prayers, of course, were spoken in the Wyandot tongue. When they 
arose, the captain was again accosted by Mr. Sells, who insisted that, if they were inflexible 
in the determination to shed blood, they should at least remove their victim beyond the limits 
of the white settlement. " No I " said he, very sternly and with evident displeasure. . . . 

Finding all interference futile, Mr. Sells was at length compelled, reluctantly, to abandon 
the old man to his fate. After a few moments delay he again sank down upon his knees 
and prayed as he liad done before. When he ha<i ceased praying he still continued in a 
kneeling position. All the rifles belonging to the party had been left at the wigwam. There 
was not a weapon of any kind to be seen at the place of execution, and the spectators were 
consequently unable to form any conjecture as to the mode of procedure which the execu- 
tioners had determined on for the fulfillment of their purpose. Suddenly one of the war- 
riors drew from beneath the skirts of his capote a keen, bright tomahawk, walked rapidly up 
behind the chieftain, brandished the weapon on high for a single moment, and then struck 
with bis whole strength. Theblow^ descended directly upon the crown of the head, and the 
victim immediately fell prostrate. After he had lain awhile in the agonies of death the 
Indian captain directed the attention of the white men to the drops of sweat which were 
gathering upon his neck and face, remarking with much apparent exultation that it was 
conclusive proof of the sufferer*s guilt. Again the executioner advanced, and with the same 
weapon inflicted two or three additional and heavy blows. As soon as life was entirely 
extinct the body was hastily buried and with all its apparel and decorations and the assem- 
blage dispersed. The Wyandots returned immediately to their hunting grounds and the 
^hite men to their homes. . . . The Wyandot Nation to whom the old chief belonged never 
afterward were reconciled to the tribe that killed him. 

Although the charge made against Leathorlips was that of witchcraft, his 
friendship for the whites is believed to have been the real cause of his murder. 
The great Wyandot sachem, Tahre, The Crane, was accused of leading the assas- 
eins, but Harrison exculpates him. The real leader seems to have been another 
chief named Eon ad head. 

78 IllSToUY OF THE ClTV oK CoLrMBl S. 

For a long tinn* the plact* ot'oxocution and burial of tbo ol«l chief was marked 
by a rudo hoap of stones whi<-h lias now been replaced by a bandHome monument 
iTected by the Wyandot i'lub, a social organization of <'olunibus. The movtMuent 
which resulted in this ninnoriul was lu^gun at the annual reunion of the club held 
September IH. 1S87, in the stately forest known as Wyandot Grove, eight miles 
northwest of the city. On that occasion ( 'olon«'l Samuel Thompson, a member of 
the (rlub, delivered an oration in whirh he paid a glowing tribute to the general 
character of the Wyandots. and among other things siiid : "I learned from our 
venerable friend, the late Abraham Sells, former proprietor of this beautiful grove, 
rightly named by him Wyan<lot (irovr, [thatj near yon crystal spring once stood 
the cabin of this noted chief. It was here that the Wyandots halted to rest and 
refresh themselves when on their way to the white settlements at C-hillicothc. and 
subsequently at Kranklinton, this county. " 

In 1829 a small l>an<l of Wyandots still <lwelt on the Huron River, in Michi- 
gan, but the principal portion of the tribe, numbering about six hundred >ouls, 
was collecte<l on the headwaters of the Sanduskv. Hv treatv of \X'A'2 tliev s<dd 
their lands to the I'nited States, and were removed, <IH7 in number, to the junction 
of the Kaw and Missouri IJivers in the present Slate ot Kansas, (.-olomd S. P. 
McKlvain. a prominent citizen of ( 'olumbus, assiste<i as Government .\gent in 
their transjKjrtatioii to their new home. \ further removal of meml>ers of the 
tribe is thus referre<l to in the A'r/,lif Tnrrhh'tfhf of July 2«I, 1843: 

We are infonned by a retnrninji: wagoner, wlm had been aflsisting in the transportation 
of the Wyandot Indians to Cincinnati that four deaths (K*curre<l anion); them before their 
departure from that city. The <leceased persons were a woman and a child, Warp<^le, a 
chief aged li:^ years, an<l John Hicks. The hnlian la>t nanieil was on board a b<iat from 
which he fell into the river, in a .<»tate of intoxication. an<l was drowned 

'• The one <lrowned, " says a writer of the period, •• was probably the «>nl3' 
intemperate man of the tribe. "*' 


1. Charles Maclaren, fellow of the Royal Society of E<linbur^. 

2. The Italian )2^^o.irrapher Adriano Halbi estimate<l the number of Indian languages at 
428, of which 211 belonged to North, 4-1 to Central and 158 to South America. Other author- 
ities estimate the total nuud>er of aboriginal tonj?ues at 7tK), of which 430 were attributed to 
the north and :J:JO to the south. 

X language and the Study of I-^nguage : by Professor Whitney of Yale College. 

4. Johann Friedrich Blunienthal, born at <iotha, May 11, 1752; celebrated for his 
craniologieal researclies, an<l first to ai)ply the science of comparative anatomy to ethnological 

5. Dr. Samuel G. M(»rton, of Philadelphia, a physician and celebrated ethnological in- 

(). The T<iltecan fanuly embraced the civilize<i nations of Mexico, Peru and Bogota, 
extentlinj^ from the Uio (iila along the western shore of the continent to the frontiers of 
Chili, and on the eastern along the Gulf of Mexico, in North America. But even before 
the Spanish conquest, the Toltecan family were not exclusive poeseasors of these regions; 
they were only the predominant race, or ca.«le. 

7. On the authority of a paper entitled : "Wyandot Government; a Short Study in 
Tribal Society" : by .1. W. Powell, Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. First annual report:. 
to the Secrctarv of the Siiiiths(H)iau Uhslitution, 18S1. 

The Iroquois and Aloonqiins. 79 

8. A paper entitled : ** To What Race did the Mound Builders Belong? " By General 
Manning F. Force. 

9. Discourse on the aborigines of the Ohio Valley. 

10. Their territorial grouping was supposed to take that shape. " Of this cabin," says 
Mr. Shea, " the fire was in the centre, at Onondaga, and the Mohawk was the door." 

11. The Tuscaroras were a cognate nation which migrated southward at an early period. 
They attempted to massacre the North Carolina colonists in 1711, but troops were called from 
South Carolina, and they were routed in the battle of the Neuse. January 28, 1712, losing 
four hundred killed and wounded. On March 20. 1713, they suffered another disaster by the 
loss of their fort at Snow Hill, and eight humlred of their number captured. The residue of 
the tribe fled northward, and became the sixth nation of the Iro(iuois league. At a later 
period some of them settled in Ohio. 

12. ** I^eague of the Iroquois," by Lewis Henry Morgan; Rochester, 1851. 

13. So called from their extensive tobacco product and traflic. 

14. The following note is attache<l to General Harrison's *' Di8«'0urse " : 

When General Wayne assumed the position at Greenville in 1793, he sent forCaptain 
Wells, who eommanded a company of scouts, and told him that he wishe<l him to go to San- 
dusky and take a prisoner for the purpose of ol)taining information. Wells . . . answered 
that he could take a prisoner, but not from Sandusky. ** .\nd why not from Sandusky?" 
said the General. '* Because,'* answere<i the Captain, *' there are only Wyandots there." 
** Well, why will not Wyandots do?" " P'or the best of reasons," said Wells, " becaust? 
Wyandots will not be taken alive." 

15. Origin and Traditional History ol the Wyandots?, by Peter I), ('iarke ; Toronto, 1S70. 
10. History of Ohio; J. W. Taylor. 

17. Shea. 

18. Taylor. 

19. History of Ohio. 

20. Jesuit Relation of 1048. 

21. Ibid. 

22. Histoire du Canada, 1680. 

23. Harrison'*? Discourse. 

24. During his exploration of the Ohio country in 1750 Christopher Gist found several 
Delaware villages along the east bank of the Scioto, and was favorably received. He esti- 
mated the fighting strength of the trilns at that time at five hundred warriors. Commenting 
on this fact in a note to his text Taylor says : 

'* Gist by no means found the bulk of the Delawares upon the ' east bank of the Scioto,' 
althougii 'several villages' might have been scattered along its course. His nmte was doubt- 
less by the 'Standing Stone,' now Lancaster, and thence to the fertile Pickaway Plains, where 
the Shawnees were afterwards assembled in considerable force. When the Delaware chiefs. 
who were in the American interest, visited Philadelphia during the Revolution, they spoke 
of ' placing the Shawnees in their laps '—a figurative expression for the surrender of the 
Scioto Valley to them, as they ascende<i from the mouth of the river But the Delawares 
continued their occui)ation of the region now bearing their name in Ohio, and (4eorge San- 
derson, Ksq., in his History of the Early Settlement of Fairfield County, mentions them as 
joint occupants of that vicinity with the Wyandots. . . . While the Wyandots occupied the 
present site of Lancaster, a Delaware chief, calle<l Tol>ey, rule<l over a village called Tobey- 
town, near Royalton." 

The Wyandot village at Lancaster, according to Sanderson, contiiined a hundred wig- 
wams, and was called Tahre, or Cranetown, from the name of its chief. 

25. Taylor says they claimed to be such. History of Ohio, page 31*. 

26. Some Early Notices of the Indian Tribes of Ohio ; a paj)er read before the Historical 
and Philosophical Society of Ohio, by General Manning F. Force, 1871>. 

27. Indian Migration in Ohio; Hon. C. C. Baldwin, 1878. 

28. The Jesuit Relation of 1050 abounds in descriptions of the burning and torture of 
the captured Eries by the Iroquois. In its account of the storming of one of the Erie pali- 

Badee occurs this extravagant passage : 

80 History or tiik City of CoLrMBrs. 

** The beeie^rs try to carry the place by storm , but in vain ; they are killed as fast as they 
show themselves. They resolved to use their canoi^s as shields. They carry these in front, 
and thus sheltered they reach the foot of the intrench ment. But it was necessary to clear the 
Kreat beams or trees of which it waH built. They slant their canoes, and use them as ladders 
to mount the great pahsade. This boldness so astonished the besieged, that, their armament 
being already exhauster!, for their supply was small, especially powder, they thought to 
retreat and this was their ruin. For the first fugitives being mostly killed, the rest were 
surrounded by the Onnontaguehronnons, who entered the fort, and made such a carnage of 
women and children that the blood was in places knee deep." 

29. The Iroquois in Ohio; a paper by Hon. C. C Baldwin. 

liO, History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada Depending on New York : by Cad- 
wallader Colden. member of the King's Council and Surveyor-General of the Province ; 

31. General Harrison says in his " Discourse" : 

** Singular as it may seeni it is nevertheless true that the I^enapes, ui>on the dictation of 
the Iroquois, agreed to lay aside the character of warriors, an<l to assume that of women. 
This fact is undisputed, but nothing can l>e more different than the account which is given 
of the manner in which it was brought about and the motives for adopting it on the part of 
the Lenapes. The latter assert that they were cajoleti into it by the artifices of the Iroquois, 
who descanted largely upon the honor which was to be acquired by their assuming the part 
of peacemakers between belligerent tribes, and which could never be so effectual as when 
done in the character of the sex which never make war. The Lenapes consented, and agreed 
that their chiefs and warriors from thenceforth should be (tonsidered as women. The version 
of 1 his transaction as given by the Iroquois is, that they demanded and the Lenapes were 
made to yield this humiliating concession as the only means of averting impending de- 

32. Morgan. 

33. Baldwin. 

M. Walling and Gray*s Atlas. 

35. Notably General W. H. Harrison. 

3(>. See note 24. In his address before the Franklin County Pioneer Association in 1871. 
Mr. Joseph Sullivant, of this city, said he had reasons for the belief that Gist, in his journey 
** passe<i over or very near the present sit^ of Columbus." 

37. American Cyclojiedia, Vol. XII. 

38. Gist's Journal. 

39. Royce, in the Auttquarian for July, 1881. 

40. Howe's Historical Collections. 

41. Drake's Life of Tecumseh. 

42. Martin's History of Franklin County, published in 1858, mentions William Sells, 
Esq., of Dublin, as '* perhaps the only survivor of the white men referred to that were pres- 
ent at the execution." 

43. Ohio StaU Jofirnal, July 27, 1843. 

r: •• I 

4' ■ '•, M. ^ 




First of Europeans, or of the Caucasian race, to tread the soil of Ohio, was the 
brilliant Norman, a native of Rouen, Robert Cavelier de la Salle: Eager and 
daring, this tireless explorer arrived in Canada from France in IG66, his mind 
teeming with glowing fancies concerning the unknown West. Learning vaguely 
from the Indians of the great Mississippi and its beautiful tributary the Oyo, as the 
Iroquois called it, he conceived the idea that, launching upon these waters, he 
would be borne to the Pacific, and far round the globe toward India and China. 
Therefore, in token of the expected destination of his proposed enterprise, he gave 
to the settlement which he founded on the St. Lawrence the name of La Chine.* 
Disposing of his possessions in that colony, he set out in 16<)9 to explore the country 
between the lakes and the Ohio. At the head of Lake Ontario his two white com- 
panions quitted him, but he persisted in his purpose, reached the Ohio River, and 
descended it to the present site of Louisville. La Salle's record of this expedi- 
tion, if he ever wrote one, has not been preserved. After his assassination some 
years later, his papers seem to have been lost. He spent the winter of 1669-70 
within the present limits of Ohio, and probably passed through the State down the 
Muskingum, the Scioto, or the Big Miami. It is quite possible that he was the first 
white man who ever visited the spot whereon, nearly one hundred and fifty years 
later, was founded Ohio's capital. 

Having ascertained from this and subsequent expeditions the real course of the 
Mississippi, La Salle conceived some new and far-reaching schemes. Engaging in 
the fur trade, for which he obtained special favors from the King of France, he 
launched his canoes on the Ohio, the Wabash and the Maumee, and established 
posts for traffic along the banks of these rivers and the shores of the Great Lakes. 
He was also first to conceive plans for exploring the country from Lake Frontenac, 
as Ontario was then called, to the Gulf of Mexico, in order to extend the dominion 
of France over the entire Mississippi basin, and bring its inhabitants to the knowl- 
edge of the Christian religion. In 1678 he began to build the Griffon, a bark of 
sixty tons, which he launched the following summer near the present site of Buf- 
falo. On August 7th, 1669, with a crew of thirtyfour hunters, soldiers and 
sailors, he sot forth in this ship, which was the first craft of civilized construction 
to ride the waters of Lake Erie. He was accompanied b}'' an Italian soldier named 
Tonti, and Lewis Hennepin, a Franciscan friar of the order of Recollects. From 
Green Bay, which was reached in September, the Griffon, laden with furs, set out, 
and was lost, on her return to Niagara, while La Salle, with seventeen men and a 
6 [81] 



82 History of the City of CoLUMBrs. 

EecoUect monk sailed in canoes to the mouth of St. Joseph's River, then called the 
River of the Miamis. After building there a trading fort he led his party over- 
land, carrying its canoes and equipage, until he reached the Kankakee, wliich he 
descended to the Lake of Peoria, and there first came in contact with the Illinois 
Indians. Here he built another trading fort, and fitted out an expedition under Hen- 
nepin to explore the Upper Mississippi, reserving for himself the voyage of dis- 
covery down that river to its mouth. He then returned to Fort Frontenac, and 
after various journeys back and forth rejoined Tonti, in November, 1681, for the 
crowning expedition. Quitting the shores of Lake Michigan in January, 1682, La 
Salle led that expedition across the country by way of the Chicago River to the 
Illinois, and on the sixth of February arrived on the banks of the Mississippi. 
On the thirteenth of February, all being ready, the voyage was renewed, the party 
comprising twenty two arms-bearing Frenchmen, Father Membre — one of the Rec- 
ollect missionaries — and a band of Indians, including several women. After 
many interesting adventures La Salle arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi, 
named it the River Colbert, and explored the three channels by which its waters 
were discharged into the sea. He then reasconded to a point beyond the reach of 
inundation, erected a cross and formally proclaimed the dominion of the French 
king, by right of discovery, over all the territories of tffe Mississippi Valley. 
Louisiana was the name with which, in honor of his sovereign, he christened this 
vast wilderness realm, including the present State of Ohio. Over these immense, 
indefinitely-bounded territories France held jurisdiction for eightyone years. By 
treaties of 1762 and 1763 she ceded her claims west of the Mississippi to Spain, and 
those east of it to Great Britain. La Salle undertook to colonize the Louisiana 
province, and for that purpose brought over a party of settlers from France, but 
their ship missed her longitudes, passed the mouth of the Mississippi, and landed 
in Texas. From thence the hardy explorer undertook to make his way overland 
to Canada, but had not proceeded far before he was treacherously murdered by his 
companions.' La Salle was a man of genius, and deserves greater credit for his 
achievements than he has usually received. 

To colonize the Ohio country and set a bulwark against the claims and en 
croachments of the French, the Ohio Land Company of Virginia was chartered in 
1749. It included in its membership George Washington's brothers Lawrence and 
Augustine, and was chiefly represented in England by John Hanbury, a wealthy 
merchant of London. Thomas Lee, its founder and most active colonial member, 
was President of the Virginia Council. Robert Dinwiddie, another shareholder, 
was Surgeon-General for the Southern Colonies. 

This company obtained from the British government a grant of five hundred 
thousand acres of land " between the Monongahela and the Kanawha, or on the 
northern margin of the Ohio," ^ with the stipulation that no quit-rent should be 
paid for ten years, that at least one hundred families should be settled within 
seven years, and that the colonists should, at their own expense, build and garri- 
son a fort for defense against the Indians. 

There were at that time, says Sparks, *' no English residents in those regions." 
A few traders wandered from tribe to tribe, and dwelt among the Indians, but they 
neither cultivated nor occupied the land. The French had established numerous 
trading posts in the country, including one at the mouth of the Scioto, the founda- 

Advent of the White Man. 83 

tion of which dated prior to 1740. Perceiving the purposes of the English they 
began to assert formal possession of their discoveries on the Ohio and its tributaries, 
and warned the English and colonial traders to keep out of them. To emphasize 
their claims, the Marquis de la Gallissonniere, (Governor- General of Canada, dis- 
patched a force of three hundred men under Captain Celeron de Bienville, who 
^as commissioned to nail on the trees and bury in the earth, at the confluences of 
trhe Ohio with its tributaries, leaden plates engraved with the arms of France, and 
'bearing a legend asserting by right of discovery and treaty the paramount sover- 
oignty of Louis XV. over all those regions. Above each buried plate was erected 
a wooden cross. Mr. Atwater states that he had in his possession for some time one 
of these medals, which he describes as a thin plate of lead, rudely lettered. "It 
asserted the claims of Louis XV. to all the country watered by the * riviere Oyo' 
and branches, and was deposited at the mouth of the ' Venango riviere le 16 Aout, 
1749.*"* This plate was washed out at the mouth of the Muskingum — the Ye- 
nan-gue of the Indians — in 1798, and was delivered to Governor De Witt Clinton, 
-who deposited it with the Antiquarian Society of Massachusetts. A similar plate 
was found in 1846 at the mouth of the Kanawha, a short distance above its junction 
with the Ohio. ' 

Immediately alter Celeron's reconnaissance, the Krench began to fortif}' their 
trontier with stockaded garrisons. One of these was established at an inlet known 
as Presque Isle (now Erie) on the southeastern shore of Lake Erie, another on Le 
Eoeuf (now French) Creek, fifteen miles inland, and a third at the confluence of 
that creek with the Alleghany. From its site on that of an ancient Indian village, 
the fort last mentioned took the name of Venango. 

At an earlier date, in 1744, a treaty had been made with the Delaware and 
Iroquois Indians, at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, by which, in consideration of four 
hundred pounds sterling, the^^ ceded all right and title to lands west of the Alle- 
ghanies to the English. This pretended cession was a fraud. It was brought 
about by the free use of spirituous liquors, and was scottod at by the tribes in actual 
possession of the lands ceded. The only event which seems to have creditably re- 
lieved the proceedings of this Lancaster council \ya8 the delivery of a speech, by an 
Onondaga warrior, in which he suggested to the whites the importance of a union 
of the American colonies. The Indian statesman who made this suggestion forti- 
fied it by citing the advantages which the tribes of the Iroquois league had derived 
from unity. This is believed to be the first instance in which the consolidation of 
the states on this continent as one nation was ever broached. 

In the autumn of 1750 the Virginia Land Company employed Christopher 
Gist, a hardy pioneer and woodsman, experienced in Indian life, to explore its al- 
leged possessions on the Ohio and the tributaries of that river. Quitting his fron- 
tier home on the Yadkin, in North Carolina, Gist set out from the Potomac on the 
thirtyfirst of October, and journeyed westward by an Indian trail leading from 
Wills Creek, afterwards Fort Cumberland, to the Ohio. Crossing the Alleghany 
ranges, Gist arrived at Shannopin, a Delaware village on the Alleghany, swam his 
horses across that stream, and descended to Logstown, an Indian village on the 
Ohio, fourteen miles below the present site of Pittsburgh. Here Tanacharisson, a 
celebrated Seneca chief and haltking under the Iroquois confederacy, ruled the 
tribes which had migrated to Ohio. At the time of Gist's arrival, this eminent 

84 History <>f the (*itv ov Com-mbts. 

savage was absent in tlie chase. George Cro»^haii, an envoy from Pennsylvania, 
with Andrew Montour, his half breed interj)ret<;r, had pa.sse<l through Logstown a 
week previously on his way to the Twightwee an<i other tribes on the Miami. 
Gist was regarde<i with jealousy by the rough people at Logstown, who sulkily 
intimated that he would never ** go home safe." Preferring, he says, tlie solitude 
of the wilderness to the companionship of such cutthroats, he quitted them, pushed 
westward from the mouth of Beaver Creek, and on the fourteenth of December 
overtook Croghan at a town of Wyandots and Mingoes on the Muskingum. This 
town contained about a hundred families, half of them of French sympathies and 
half of English. He spent some weeks among them, and invited them in the name 
of the Governor of Virginia to visit that province, pr(»mising presents. On the 
sixteenth of January, 1751, he resumed his journey accompanied by Croghan and 
Montour, crossed the Licking, and on the nineteenth arrived at a small Delaware 
village bearing the now familiar name of Hock hocking. Thence he passed on to 
Maguck, another Delaware village, situated near the Scioto. "24th, went south 
fifteen miles to a town called Hurricane Tom's Town on the southwest of ScioU> 
Creek, consisting of five or six families. 25th, went down on southwest side of the 
Creek, four miles to Salt Lick Creek. ''^ The next point noted is a Delaware town 
of about twenty families situated on the southeast bank of the Scioto. Here a halt 
was called tor a few days, a council held, and some Indian speeches made. This 
was the last of the Delaware towns to the westward. 

The next stoj> was ma<le at the Shawnee town at the mouth of the Scioto. 
Here a curious Indian dance was in progress, which is described. After feasting, 
the savages spent the night in saltatory revelry. This was kept up for .«*everal 
days in succession, " the men dancing by themselves, and then the women in turns, 
around the fires ... in the form of the figure eight, about sixty or seventy of them 
at a time. The women, the whole time thoy danced, sung a song in their language, 
the chorus of which was: 

" * I am not afraid of my husband, 
I will choose what man 1 please.^ '*' 

The Shawnees found by Gist at the mouth of the Scioto had lately returned 
from their southern wanderings. Att^r his departure the}* were joined by various 
additional fragmentsof the tribe, and extended their settlements up the Scioto and 
Miami. They were friends to the English until these were suspected of trying to 
dispossess them of their lands; after that they held everything English in detesta- 
tion. Their chiefs promised Gist to attend a conference at Logstown the follow- 
ing spring. 

On the twelfth of February Mr. Gistj)arted with the Shawnees, and sot out for 
the Twightwee town on the Hig Miami, lie was accompanied by Croghan, Mon- 
tour, and Robert Kallender. The Twightwees arc described as a very numerous 
people, consisting of many tribes, all under the same form of government. The 
chief of their confederacy at that time was the king of the Piankcshas. Their town 
situated at the present site of Picjua, contained about four hundred families, and 
was considered the most important in the Ohio country. The Miamis had been at 
war with the Iroquois, but were tlieii at j)eace. Mr. Gist was kindly received b}' 
these Indians, and closed with them, in spite of overtures and presents by the 
French, a treaty of amity with the English. He then returned to and descended 

Advent op the White Man. 85 

the Ohio to a point about fifteen miles above its Falls. From thence he bent his 
course inland to the Kentucky River, from a mountain in the vicinity of which " he 
had a view to the southwest as far as the eye could reach, over a vast woodland 
country in the fresh garniture of spring, and watered by abundant streams ; but 
as yet only the hunting ground of savage tribes, and the scene of their sanguinary 
combats. In a word, Kentucky lay spread out before him in all its wild magnifi- 
cence; long before it was beheld by Daniel Boone."® 

In May, 1751, Gist reached his home on the Yadkin, but found his cabin 
vacant. An Indian massacre of the whites had taken place in the neighborhood, 
and his family, unharmed, had fied for refuge to the settlements on the Roanoke. 

By the unique journeyings thus ended much authentic information about the 
wild country west of the Ohio was for the first time obtained. " It was rich and 
level," says Washington Irving, " watered with streams and rivulets, and clad 
with noble forests of hickory, walnut, ash, poplar, sugar-maple, and wild-cherry 
ti*ees. Occasionally there were spacious plains covered with wild rye; natural 
meadows with blue grass and clover; and buffaloes thirty and forty at a time graz- 
ing on them as in a cultivated pasture. Deer, elk, and wild turkeys abounded. 
'Nothing is wanted but cultivation,' said Gist, * to make this a most delightful 
country.* Cultivation has since proved the truth of his words. The country thus 
described is the present state of Ohio."* 

These discoveries led to the circulation of some exaggerated and fanciful ac- 
counts of the regions explored by Gist, and also to some attempts to colonize them 
which were not successful. In 1749'" a party of Pennsylvania traders started the 
first English-speaking settlement known to have existed in Ohio. It was located 
at the mouth of Laramie Creek, now in Shelby County^ and was called Pickawil- 
lany Its duration was brief In 1752 the French and their Indian allies swooped 
down upon it, destroyed its trading house, killed fourteeen friendly Indians of its 
garrison, and bore off the traders to Canada, some of them, it is said, to be burned 
alive. Under instructions. Gist surveyed the Ohio Company's lands down to the 
Great Kanawha, laid out a town at Chartier's Creek on the Ohio just below the 
present city of Pittsburgh, and started a settlement at Laurel Hill, near the Yough- 
iogheny. The Company also established a trading post at Wills's Creek, now 

On the ninth of June, 1752, commissioners representing the Virginia colony 
held a conference with the Indians at Logstown. The Shawnees and Delawares 
Were represented, but the Iroquois declined to attend. The Ohio Company was 
represented by Gist. The commissioners urged the Indians to confirm the Lan- 
caster Treaty, but they at first refused, protesting that they had not intended 
to convey by that treaty any lands west of the war trail at the foot of the AUe- 
fjhanies. Some of their chiefs shrewdly remarked that since the French were 
claiming all the lands on one side of the Ohio and the English all on the other, 
the Indians seemed to have nothing to concede. Finally, by intrigue and bribery, 
they were prevailed upon to ratif}' the treaty, and grant all that was desired. 
The French met this by strengthening their garrisons at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf 
and Venango." George Washington, at that time a young man of twentytwo, 
was thereupon selected by Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, to go to Logstown, 
confer with the Indians therfe, and ascertain the force, positions and intentions of 

H«> History of tue City of CoLUMBUb. 

the French. He bore a letter from the Governor to the French commandant ask- 
ing for explanations. Accompanied hy (rist and a few frontiersmen, Washington 
arrived November 23, 1753, at the present site of Pittsburgh, inspected it, and 
thought it would be a good place for a fort. He reached Logstown on the twenty- 
fourth, conferred there with the Mingo, Shawnee and Delaware chiefs, visited the 
famous Delaware, Bockengehelas, at his lodge, and after a few days set out for the 
French forts. His party was augmented at Logstown b3' the Seneca halfking, 
an old sachem called White Thunder, and a few other Indians. He visited the 
French forts at Venango and Le Hoeuf, presented Governor Dinw^iddie's letter to 
Chevalier de St. Pierre, the commandant, and received from that officer an evasive 
answer which, with much hardship and adventure, he bore back to Williamsburgh. 

I^erceiving, from this artful repl}', the hostile purposes of the French, Gover- 
nor Dinwiddie dispatched Captain Trent, a brotherinlaw of Croghan's, to tinish 
the fort already begun by (he T^and Company at the Forks of the Ohio. Trent 
took with him about forty men. On the seventeenth of April, 1754, while this de- 
tachment was busily engagc'd ujjon its intrench ments, it was suddenly confronted 
by a motley force of more than a thousand French and Indians, with eighteen 
cannon. This force, under Captain Contrecour, had dropped down the Alleghany 
in canoes and barges from Yeiumgo. Ensign Ward, commanding in lieu of Trent, 
who was at Wills Creek, surrendered after a brief parley, and was allowed to 
march away with his intrenching tools. The French took possession of the un- 
completed stockade, finished it, and named it, in honor of the Governor-General of 
Canada, Fort Du Quesne. 

Thus began a nine-years war between the French and English, in which the 
various Indian tribes took sides according to their caprices or predilections. We 
need not follow its details. It ended with the Paris treaty of 1763, by which 
France surrendered her North American possessions to Spain and Great Brit- 
ain.*'^ The revolt of Pontiae followed. To the triumphant English this great 
Ottawa chieftain spoke defiance. '* Although you have conquered the French you 
have not conquered us," he exclaimed. *' We are not your slaves. These lakes, 
these woods, these mountains were left to us by our ancestors. They are our in- 
heritance, and we will part with them to none." Immediately, from the Allegha- 
nies to the Lakes, the tribes with which Pontiac had conspired rose to exterminate 
the English. On the sixteenth of May, Fort Sandusky, on Sandusky Bay, fell, by 
treachery, into the hands of the Wyandots,who massacred its garrison, and carried ofl* 
Ensign Paully, its commandant.'^ On the twentyfifth the stockade at the mouth of 
St. Joseph's, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, was surprised by Pottawattomies 
from Detroit, and its garrison massacred. Fort Miami, where the city of Fort 
W^ayne now stands, was attacked on the twentyseventh. Fort Ouachtanon, on 
the Wabash, just below Lafayette, surrendered on the first of June. On the 
second, the tort at Michilliniackinac was surprised and captured Presque Isle 
succumbed on the twentysecond. Le Boeuf and Venango were taken and burned 
on the eighteenth of July. Detroit was besieged by Pontiac in person, and a de 
tachment sent to its relief was destroyed. Fort Du Quesne — named Pitt by the 
British — w^as surrounded bj' an Indian horde, and cut ofl' from all intercourse 
with the East. 

Colonel Henry ]iou<iuet, commanding at Philadelphia, was dispatched with a 
force of five hundred men to the relief of the beleaguered post at the Forks of the 

Advent op the White Man. 87 

Ohio. Bouquet was an experienced and able Holdier who had served in Holland 
under the Prince of Orange. A Swiss by birth, he had been prevailed upon to 
accept a commission in the British colonial service. His expeditionary force, the 
old chronicles say, comprised *• the shattered remainder of the Fortysecond and 
Seventyseventh [Highlander] regiments, lately returned in a dismal condition from 
the West Indies." Bouquet took his course by way of Carlisle, and on the twenty- 
fifth of July arrived at Fort Bedford. All along the frontier he found plantations 
ravaged, mills burned, and the settlers fleeing from their homes. The march was 
resumed from Bedford on the twentyeighth. and continued without interruption 
until Fort Ligonier was pas.sed, and Bushy Run ap))roached. Here, at a point 
four days' march from Fort Pitt, the advance guard was suddenly assailed by 
Indians, who delivered a galling fire, and though driven from point U> point by 
the Highlanders, stubbornly returned to the onset, with increasing numbers, until 
Bouquet's entire force was surrounded. The fighting ceased only at nightfall, and 
was resumed at early dawn next morning, the savages coming on again with 
horrid yells. For a time it seemed that the fate of Braddock, eight years be- 
fore,'^ would be repeated, but Bouquet was a more skillful leader than Braddock, 
and entirely equal to the emergency. Feigning retreat, he drew the savages into 
an ambuscade, attacked them simultaneously in front and flank, and routed them 
completely. They disappeared in precijutate flight, leaving the column to con- 
tinue its march to Fort Pitt without further molestation. The Indian force which 
tr>ok part in this battle was composed of Delawares, Shawnese. Mingoes, Wyandots, 
Mohicans, Miamis and Ottawas. The defeat of these tribes had a discouraging 
effect upon Pontiac, who raised the siege of Detroit, after having maintained it for 
eleven months. 

In the spring of 1864 two expeditions were organized to curry the war into 
the Indian country west of the Ohio. One of these, eleven hundred strong, made 
for the lake region, and in July arrived at Niagara. It was led by Colonel John 
Bradstreet, who, as he approached Presque Isle, was met by ten Indians who pre- 
tended to be authorized to treat with him in behalf of the Delawares, the Shaw- 
nees and the Sandusky Wyandots. Deceived by these emissaries, who were only 
spies, Bradstreet closed an agreement with them, they stipulating that all captives 
possessed by the Indians should be given up, and all claims to English posts and 
forts abandoned. After this treaty, Bradstreet was disposed to turn southward, 
hut was required by the commander-in-chief. General Gage, to push on to Detroit. 
He arrived there on the twenty.sixth of August, and in the following September, 
led his force back to Sandusky. 

The expedition under Bouquet set out from Fort Pitt October third, passed 
Logstown and the mouth of the Big Beaver, crossed into Ohio on the present east- 
ern boundary of Columbiana County, and, on the ninth, j)itched its camps on 
Yellow Creek. The march was conducted with the utmost precaution against 
surprise, the column moving through the woods in j)arallel lines, open order, cov- 
ered by scouting parties in front, and by a strong guard in rear. The men were 
required to march at a distance of two yards from one another, keeping profound 
silence, and when attacked faced outwards, forming a square covering the supply 
trains, cattle and baggage. Sometimes the forest was so thick that the brush had 
to be cut to make way for the column, and sometimes it was interspersed with 

KH IIiMToHY or THE City or Culumbiu. 

beautiful opcniiigH and Ritvniiiiut). Hero utid there trwa were seeD symbolically 
painted by the [iidmiio, ilonoting llit: niimbor of their wars aod their succobb iii 

prisoners 11 rul nc-ulpn. "Two miles beyond Beaver ('reek, by two amall springH," 

C:J^//ie ty^ituarti i£Attviiai^/A-J^ 

nays the chionioler of the expedition, ■' was seen th« skull of a child that had been 
fixed (HI a pole by the Indiiins. " 

On the fith'entli. Bouquet eiitanipcd on the Musbinguin, where, the next day, 
he WHH visited by six Indians who said their chiefs were assembled eight miles 
distant, iviidy and anxious to tresit with liim. On the seventeenth a parley was 
held with these eliiefs in ii ■howei" i-reeled for the purpose, the Seoecas being 
i-epresenied by Kiyashutji. the Delawares by Cuatatoga and Beaver, and the Shaw- 

Advent of the White Man. 89 

nees by Keissinautchtha. These warriors proffered abject submission, and deliv- 
ered up part of their captives. Bouquet demanded the surrender of the remainder 
of their prisoners within twelve days, aftor which requirement he lurther terror- 
ized the neighboring tribes by advancing to the Coshocton forks of the Muskin- 
gum. At the fortified camp which was there laid out, a further delivery of 
prisonei^s took place, increasing the whole number surrendered to 206, mostly 
Pennsylvanians and Virginians. The Shawnees held one hundred more which 
they promised to and did deliver up the following spring. 

The scenes at Bouquet's headquarters when the captive whites were brought in 
and surrendered must have been very touching. " There were to be seen," says 
the chronicler of the occasion, "fathers and mothers recognizing and clasping 
their once lost babes, husbands hanging around the necks of their newlj' recovered 
wives, sisters and brothers unexpectedly meeting together after long separation 
scarce able to speak the same language, or, for some time, to be sure that they 
were children of the same parents. . . . The Indians, too. as if wholly forgetting 
their usual savageness, bore a capital part in this most ntfectiiig scene. They deliv- 
ered up their beloved captives with the-utmost reluctance; shed torrents of tears 
over them, recommending them to the care and protection of the commanding 
officer. Their regard to them continued all the time they remained in camp. 
They visited them from day to day, and brought thrrn what corn, skins, horses 
ainJ other matters they had bestowed on them while in their faujilies, accompanied 
with other presents, and all the marks of the most sincere aiwi tender affection. 
Nay, they did not stop here, hut, when the army marched, sonjo of the Indians 
solicited and obtained leave to accompany their former captives all the way to 
Fort Pitt, and employed themselves in hunting and bringing provisions for them 
on the road. A young Mingo carried this still further, and gave an instance of 
love which would make a figure even in romance. A young woman of Virginia 
was among the captives, to whom he had formed s-) strong an attachment as to call 
her his wife. Against all remonstrances of the imminent danger to which he 
exposed himself by approaching to the frontiers, he })ersisted in following her, at 
the risk of being killed by the surviving relations of many unfortunate |>ersons 
who had been captivated or scal])ed by those of his nation." 

It is no wonder, continues this quaint narration, that the children whf) had 
been taken captive in very tender years, had been kindly treated by the Indians, 
and had learned their language, should have '* consi<lered their new state in the 
light of a captivity, and parted from the savages with tears. But it must not be 
denied that there were even some grown j)ersons who showed an unwillingness to 
return. The Shawaneee were obliged to bind several of their prisoners and force 
them along to the camp ; and some women, who had been delivered up, afterwards 
found means to escape and run back to the Indian towns. Some who could not 
make their escape, clung to their savage accjuaintance at parting, and continued 
many days in bitter lamentations, even retusing sustenance. ''"'' 

The episodes thus described have furnished themes lor the genius of Benjamin 
West, and will forever engage the student of history with the same unique fascina- 
tion with which they have insj)ired the soul of the artist. 

Everything having been arranged with the Indians, Bou(|uet began his return 
march on Sunday, November 18, and arrived at Fort Pitt on the twentyeighth,hav- 


ing loBt dnriDgthe expeditioD but one man, who was killed and scalped while stray- ' 
\Bg from camp. His troops had retained perfect health, and had at no time been 
uhort of supplies. In testimony of the Hkill and success with which he had con- 


ducted the expedition Colonel Bouquet received complimentary addresses fVom the 
legislative bodies of Pennsylvania and Virginia. He died three years later of 
yellow fever contracted at Pensacola. 

From the marches of Bouquet and Bradslreot considerabln additional informa- 
tion concerning the Ohio country was gained, but the ideas of it which popularly 
prevailed were still extremely crude. This is illustrated by a map published in 

Advent of the White Man. 91 

1763, purporting to give an outline of the " British Dominions in North America, 
with the limits of the Govern ments annexed thereto by the late treaty of peace 
and settled by proclamation October 7th, 17<)3/'*" On this map Virginia extends 
to the Mississippi, and takes in the southern half of the present Slate of Ohio, the 
remainder of which is relegated, under British sovereignty, to the Indians. The 
mouth of the Great Miami (Mauniee) is assigned to the longitude of Fort Wayne, 
and the onl}' settlement shown between Detroit and Niagara is '* Sandoski,'* which 
is placed as far east as Cleveland. The ou\y stream indicated in Northern Ohio is 
the Maumee, which is faintly and inaccurately traced. A town called -' Gwahago " 
takes the place of the Cuyahoga, of which there is no vestige. The " Sciota " is 
drawn in its correct position, with a Delaware town on its banks about where the 
present city of that name stands. Such was the sUite of information as to Ohio 
only a century and a quarter ago. 

The claims of the English to this territory were as shadowy as their know- 
ledge of it. Prior to the treaty of Paris these claims were based chiefly upon the 
rights supposed to have been acquired by the Iroquois conquest, and the convey- 
ance of those rights b}' the chiefs of the Six Nations. A treaty of this kind was 
made in 1684, another in 1701, and a third September 11, 1726. By the latter the 
Indians conveyed their lands in trust, to be defended by the British sovereign '* to 
and for the use of the grantors and their heirs." By the negotiations at Lancas- 
ter, in 1744, already referred to, a deed was obtained recognizing the right of the 
British king to '*all lands that are, or by his Majest3''s appointment shall be, 
within the colony of Virginia." On this deed, obtained by intrigue and the free 
use of intoxicants, the grant to the Ohio Land Company of Virginia was based. 
Its worth lessness was recognized, and the Lo^^stown Treaty of 1752, which con- 
firmed that of Lancaster, and was obtained by similar means, was regarded as 
equally unsubstantial. Efforts were therelbre made, as soon as j)oace was declared, 
to obtain a new and better grounded concession. Thesi* efforts were hastened by 
the encroachments of the whites uj>on the disputed boundaries, and the resulting 
discontent of the Indians. Alter supplementary and ineffectual treaties had been 
made in 1764 and 1766, a conference with the chiefs of the Shawnees, Delawares 
and Six Nations was hehl on the twentyfourth of October, ITliS, at Fort Stanwix, 
now Rome, New York. Sir William Johnson conducted tl^e negotiations for the 
English, and obtained a grant of all lands not within a line, beyond which the 
whites were not to pass, extending from the mouth of the Tennessee to the Dela- 
ware. For this grant a sum of money amounting to about fifty thousand doHars 
was paid. It gave up all the territories claimed by the Six Nations south of the 
Ohio and Alleghany, including Kentucky, Western Virginia an<l Western Penn- 
sylvania. Much of this land was rlistributed as a bounty to the V^irginia volun- 
teers, among those making claims being George Washington, who obtained patents 
for thirtytwo thousand acres. To inspect and locate the larnls thus ceded, Wash- 
ington descended the Ohio from Fort Pitt to the Great Kanawha in a canoe during 
the autumn of 1770. He was accompanied by Colonel Ceorge Croghan, then dep- 
uty agent to Sir William Johnson. 

During this voyage, we are told, Washington had abundant opi)()rtunity to 
indulge his propensities as a sportsman. '' Deer were continually to be seen coming 
down to the water's edge to drink, or browsing along the shore . tiiere were innu- 

1)2 History of the Citv of (-oLUMBrs. 

inerable flocks of wild tiirkoys. and stroaming flights of duckw and geese; so that 
as the voyagers floated along, they were enabled to load their canoe with game. At 
night they enoainjied on the river hank, lit their fln?, and nuide a sumptuous hunt- 
er's repast. '"■ 

Landing at a Mingo town about seventyflve miles below Pittsburgh, the 
voyagers found the warriors busied with preparations to make a foray into the 
Cherokee country against the Catawbas. Stopping at the mouth of Captina Creek, 
now in Belmont County, this State, they investigated a report that a white trader 
had been recently murdered by the Indians in that neighborhood. The^' soon 
learned tliat the man had not been murdered at all, hut had been drowned while 
rashly swimming the Ohio. Washington did not fail to note, however, the dis- 
content of the Ohio Indians with the Stunwi.v treaty, an<l their jealousy of colonial 
encroachments u])on tlu'ir territorirs. 

Meanwhile a trio of devoted mm had pt^netrated these wilderness regions, not 
u|)on any selfish or warlike errand, l»ut upon a mission of peace and good will. 
These were the saintly an<l indefatigable Moravian missionaries, Charles F'rederick 
Post. ,Iohn lleckewehier, and David Zeisberger. Post was the |>ioneer. He had 
begun his missionary' labors among tin* Indians at Shekoneko, near the present city 
of Poughkeepsie. New York, in 1743, had marrie<i a baptized Tndian woman, and, 
at a later period, had shifted the scene of his eftorts to Pennsylvania. From 
thence, in 1758, the colonial authorities had twice sent him to the western tribes 
on peace- making missions, whirh he had surccssfully fulfilled. In 1761 he werjt 
alone to the Muskingum Valley, and with the j)ermissi()n of the Delawares, who 
had lately settled there, built a cabin on the banks of the Tuscaraw-as. He then 
returne<l to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and brought out Heckewelder, at that time 
a youth of nineteen. After a perilous journey of thirtythree days the\' reached 
their <lestination, and entered the Tuscarawas cabin ' singing a hymn." Below 
them, on the river, dwelt a white trader named Calhoon ; still farther below was 
an Indian town called Tuscarora, containing about forty wigwams. In the course 
of the summer the services of Post weri^ re«|uirel by the (lovernor of Penns^'lvania, 
an<l llerkewelfler was left alone. He remained until autumn, when the changed 
temper of the Indians obliged him to fly lor his lite. 

Zeisberger was more fortur)<MtC. Invited by the Delawares and Wyandots, he 
led a band of Christian Indians to the Tuscarawas in 1772, and founded the mis- 
sions of Schoenbrunn, Salem, and tinadenhiilten. Among his companions were 
Heckewelder and the Rev. John Ettwein. The simple and pious code of civil and 
religious obligation adopte<l by the Schoenbrunn congregation has been spoken of 
as "the first act of Ohio legislation — the constitution of 1772."" 

While these noblehearted Moravians were engaged in their mission of peace, 
other influences were at work to j)roduce war. During the winter of 1773-4 Doctor 
John Connolly, an a<lventurer of the jn'riod, undertook to assert the jurisdiction of 
Virginia over som<' of the western j>ortions of Pennsylvania, including the country 
about Port Pitt. Connolly was a nejihew to Colonel (ieorge Croghan, an in- 
fluential man w^hcjse worthless hrotherinlaw was the absent commander of the 
<letachnient which surrendiM'cd Fort Du (^ucsik* to the French. Supported b}' a 
band of annt'd followers, Connolly j)roclaimcd the authority of Virginia, gave the 
name of her governor, i>iininore. to Fort Pitt, and got himself recognized as com- 

Advent of the White Man. 93 

mandaDt of a district called West Augusta. At the instauce of the Pennsyl. 
vania proprietors he was arrested, and for a time held in custody, by General 
St. Clair, who suggested that this pestilent borderer desired an Indian war in 
order to palliate his own misdoing. His correspondence with the traders, explorers 
and land jobbers along the river justifies this presumption. His letters abounded 
in artful pretexts for brutalities toward the Indians, and his suggestions were soon 
carried into execution. The war of 1774, like some similar troubles of later date, 
was essentially a land-jobbers' war. 

On the sixteenth of April, 1774, a canoe belonging to a Pittsburgh trader was 
attacked by Cherokees near the Wheeling settlement, and one white man was 
killed. Although the offense was not committed by Ohio Indians, it was im- 
mediately seized upon as an excuse for attacking them. The Virginia surveyors 
and adventurers along the river assembled at Wheeling and organized under 
Captain Michael Cresap. This band got its cue from Connolly in two letters, de- 
nouncing the Indians, and declaring that war was inevitable. War was according- 
ly declared " in the most solemn manner," and during the same evening the scalps 
of two friendly Indians were brought into camp, perhaps with equal solemnity. 
Circumstances indicate that still more unoffending savages were murdered. Ebep- 
ezer Zane, the pioneer of the Wheeling colony, opposed this butchery, but he was 
not listened to.'* 

Next day some Indians were seen in canoes on the river, and pursued. They 
were chased fifteen miles and driven ashore, when u battle ensued and several of 
them were shot. It was then decided to march against Logan's camp, thirty 
miles farther up the Ohio. Let us pause to learn something of Logan. It is 
worth while. 

When Count Zinzendorf, the Moravian bishop, visited America in 1741-2, he 
established the first Indian congregation of his sect atShekomeco, on Seneca Lake, 
in New York. While sojourning there, he was entertaint^d by Shikellamy, chief 
of the Cayugas, who ruled a large body of the Iroquois. Shikellamy was converted 
to Christianity, and destroyed the idol which he wore about his neck. He died in 
1749, attended in his last moments by David Zeisberger. Logan was a son of this 
chief and derived his name from his father's attachment to James Logan, Secretary 
of the Pennsylvania colony. During his early manhood he was known all along 
the frontier for his fine presence, attractive qualities, and friendship for the whites. 
Judge William Brown, a contemporary Pennsylvanian, said of him : -'He was the 
best specimen of . humanit}' I ever met with, either white or red." Heckewelder 
soanded his praises in a letter to Jefferson. Zeisberger spoke of him as a man of 
good judgment and quick comprehension. 

In 1770, or thereabouts, Logan removed to the Mingo town, on the banks of 
the Ohio, which took his name. He was there when the border troubles of 1774 
broke out, and in the councils of his people advised forbearance.'* The Shawnee 
chief Cornstalk had sent his own brother only a short time anterior to the Wheel- 
ing tragedies to escort some Pittsburgh traders. Determined to provoke hostilities, 
Connolly undertook to seize this friendly Indian, and in the attempt to do so 
wounded one of his companions. 

Further outrages were scarcely necessary to provoke the hostilities desired, 
but they were not spared. After some hesitation which made the crime deliberate 


and tho moro atrocious, the (.'resap party, led hy Captain Daniel Greathouse, as- 
condod the rivor to cany out its nit?ditate<l tlosi^ns against the Mingo village. 
The method of this proctMhiro stamps its perpetrators with the brand ofcowardiee. 
Tiie Indian lodges were on the Ohio sjjle of the river, the (Treathousc eom|)any 
took its position on the side opp<»site. Tnsuspicious of harm, a party of five men, 
one or (wo wonien and a child, crossed from tiie lodges, and by direction of Great- 
house were offered rum. Three of tlie men became intoxicated : the others, and 
tiie women, on refusing to drink, were shot. The three who were stupefied with 
liquor were tiien tomahawked. Only the child, a tender female infant, was spared. 
Hearing the tiring, the Indians at the lodges sent over two men in a canoe to see 
what was the mattt^r. These were sh<>t as soon they landeci. Several more Min- 
goes then crossed at a point lower down, and wrre receive*! with a volley which 
kille<i most of them. The survivors tied. 

Among the victims of this massactre were Logan "s brothers and a sister. He 
vowed vengeance. While he l)roo<lcd on the unspeakable wrong done him, all the 
savage impulses of his nature rose within him, and took possession of his soul. 
From a counselor of peace and a j^attern of ge!)tleness, he w^as transformed into 
an unrelenting fury. Such was tlu' beginning of the Dun more War. 

Roaming among tlie white settlements on the u|)})er Monongahela, the en- 
raged chief, accompanied by eight chosen warriors, soon had his belt dangling 
with scalps. The Shawnees and all the Mingo bands took tiie field, recruited by 
some Delawares, Cherokees and Wyandots, although these tribes refused to take 
part as such. Soon cries of distress went up all along the border. Connolly and 
his fellow miscreants had aroused a temj>est which they could not allay. At the 
hands of one of his captives Logan <lictated a letter written in gunpowder ink and 
tied to a war-club. It read : 

"Cattain Cresap: -'^' Wliat di<l you kill my people on Yellow Creek for? The 
WMiite people killed my kin at Conestoga a ^reat wliile a^o. and I thought nothing of that. 
But you killed my kin again, on Yellow Creek, and took n^y cousin prisoner. Then I 
thought I must kill too, and I have been three times to war since. But the Indians are not 
angry — only myself. Captain Joun Logan." 

The legislature of the Virginia colony being in session, steps were immedi- 
ately taken to prote(ft the settlements and chastise the Oliio Indians for resenting 
the outrages they had sutfered. A preliminary foray was made into their country 
by a band of Virginians who assembled at Wheeling, in July, under (./olonel Mc- 
Donald, marched to the Muskingum, and <lestroyed several villages. T-his exploit 
only precipitated a general contlict. To force this to an issue, and crush the In- 
dians on their own ground, Lord Dunmore. Governor of Virginia, organized an 
expeditionary army in two divisions, one of which assembled, under his own di- 
rection, at Fort Pitt, the other at Cam|» l^nion. now Lewisburg, in Greenbriar 
(•ounty, Virginia, under General Andrew Lewis. These columns were to unite, 
under Dunmore, at the mouth of the Big Kanawha, and from thence strike the 
Shawnees at the ccntei' ni' their power in the Scioto Valley. Lewis's division con- 
tained three regiments, in all rli*vi*n hun<lred men, mostly hardy woodsnien. One 
of the regiments was led by Lewis's brother, Colonel Charles Lewis, another bv 
Colonel William Fleming, the ihinl by Colonel John Fields. A fourth was being 
recruited under (V>lonel fhri.stian. Fields and the Lewises had served un<ler 
Brad dock. 


Advent or th« White Man. 96 

Christian's regiment not being ready, Lewis set out with the others on the 
eleventh of September, and was piloted by Captain Matbew Arbuckle, an experi- 
enced woodsman, through the trackless forest. All the supplies and munitions bad 
to be borne by pack animals, which clambered with difficulty over the steep un- 
trodden mountains, and through their narrow defiles. After a toilsome march, the 
column arrived, about the sixth of October, at the mouth of the Kanawha. Dun- 
more was not there ; he had changed his plans. Having marched up the Potomac 
to Cumberland, and thence across the mountains to Fort Pitt, he floated his divi- 
sion in canoes and barges down the Ohio and landed it at the mouth of the Big 
Hockhocking. From this position, which he fortified, and called Fort Gower, he 
sent to Lewis a command to march across the country and join him near the Pick- 
away villages.*' Lewis was preparing to cross the river in compliance with this 
order, when suddenly, on the tenth of October, he was attacked by about a 
thousand Indians, mostly Shawnees, led by the great chief Cornstalk. This force 
had descended the Scioto from the Pickaway Plains, shrewdly intending to inter- 
cept and crush Lewis before he could unite with Dun more. 

The battle raged from early morning until past noon, and did not entirely 
cease until after sundown. At the first onset the Indians drove back the regiments 
under Charles Lewis and Fleming, and advanced from point to point, adroitly 
availing themselves of the shelter of the trees and logs. Above the din of the rifles 
Cornstalk's voice was heard calling to his warriors, "be strong! be strong!" He 
was seconded, it is said, by Logan, Red Hawk, Ellinipsico, and other celebrated 
chiefs. By precipitating Fields's regiment upon the Indians while they were driv- 
ing the other two, Lewis obliged them, in turn, to retire. They drew off sullenly 
and took up a new line, covered with fallen trees and driftwood, extending across 
the point from the Ohio to the Kanawha. They held this line stubbornly until dark, 
and then retreated. Thus ended one of the most skillful and obstinate battles 
foaght with the whites by the Western Indians. It has passed into history as the 
battle of Point Pleasant. It cost Lewis a loss of seven t^* five officers and men 
killed, and one hundred and forty wounded. Among the killed were Colonels 
Charles Lewis and Fleming. As the Indians threw many of their dead into the 
river, and bore off their wounded, their loss is not known. 

While Lewis was fighting, Dunmore was advancing up the valley of the Hock- 
hocking. He followed the river to the point where the town of Logan now stands, 
then crossed the divide and halted on the banks of Sippo Creek, about seven miles 
southwest of the present city of Circleville. Here he drew up his forces, in the 
woods, surrounded his position with parapets and ditches, and gave it, in honor of 
the young queen of England, the name of Camp Charlotte. As he approached 
this position, he was met by a white man named Elliott bearing a message from 
the Shawnees proposing submission, and asking for an interpreter through whom 
they could communicate. Pursuant to this request, Dunmore appointed Colonel 
John Gibson, who set out to confer with the chiefs at their lodges. 

Meanwhile Lewis brought forward his division and encamped on the banks of 
Congo Creek, a few miles southwest of Camp Charlotte. Ho had been reinforced 
by three hundred men under Colonel William Crawford, and was eager to avenge 
bis Point Pleasant losses. Despite his commander's negative, and the pending ne- 
gotiations for peace, he was determined to fall upon the Shawnee villages, and was 

9ri History ok the City of Coi.rMnus. 

only disHuaded from so doing when Dunniore, going to him in person, drew his 
sword, and threatened to kill him if he did not obey orders. Incensed at this, 
Lewis and his men aec-usi'd Dunmore of intending an alliance with the Indians 
against the colonists, who were then on tlie point of revolt against British author- 
ity. There seems lo have been no ground for this accusation. Dunmore was 
very much <iislilvcd by tlie Virginians, and was the last of their governors by royal 
appointment. Their prejudices against him were easily excited, and were prob- 
ably the only real basis for their suspicions. On the other hand he certainly de- 
.serves great credit for having refused to tolerate a useless and perfidious massacre 
of the Indians after he had begun to treat with them. 

The negotiations with the chiefs at Camp Charlotte were conducted with con- 
siderable formality and caution. Mr. Joseph Sullivant, of Columbus, remembered 
hearing the occasion described in his boyhood by the famous woodsman, Simon 
Kenton, who was, at the time of the narration, a guest at the house of Mr. Sulli- 
vant's father. Kenton claimed to have been an eyewitness of the proceedings at 
Cam}^ ('harlntte. The approach of the Indians to the treaty ground, he stated, 
was the most imposing sight he ever saw. Over ^va hundred warriors came rid- 
ing over the prairie in single file, and full paint, each one's face stained half red 
and half black. Aske<l by young Sullivant what this sigrjified, Kenton replied 
that it meant that the braves were e<iuall3' for peace an<l for war, and indifferent 
as to which should be the out(;ome. But this was only foreflfect; they really 
w^anted peace. *■- 

Apprehensive of treachery. Dunmore permitted not more than eighteen war- 
riors to enter his enclosures at a time, and these were required to deposit their 
weapons outside. Chief Cornstalk spoke for his people. Colonel Wilson, of Dun- 
more's staff, said of this Indian's appearance and oratorical gilts: ** When he arose 
he was no w^ise confused or daunted, but spoke in a distinct and audible voice, 
without stammering or repetition, and with peculiar em])hasis. His looks while 
addressing Dunmore were truly grand and majestic, yet graceful and attractive. 
I have heard many celebrated orators, but never one whose powera of delivery sur- 
passed those of Cornstalk on this occasion. " 

The Mingoes sullenly refused to take any part in the council. Kenton told 
Sullivant that their chief, I^ogan, was not only not present, but not believed to be 
anywhere near. On the other hand Colonel Gibson declares in an affidavit ap- 
pended to Jetfer.son's Notes that while he was conferring vvith Cornstalk and other 
chiefs at the Indian lodges, Logan came and took him aside and delivered to him 
a speech nearly the same as that reported by Jefferson ; and that upon returning 
to camp the deponent, Gibson, delivered this a<ldress to Dunmore. 

Writing at Circleville in 183S, Mr. Atw^ater says : " Though he (Logan) would 
not attend on Dunmore's council in pei*son, yet, being urged by the Indians, 
who were anxious to be relieved from Dunmore's army, he sent his speech in a 
belt of wampum, to be delivered to Earl Dunmore by a faithful interpreter. Un- 
der an oak on the farm of Mr. Wolf this splendid effort of heart-stirring eloquence 
was faithfully delivered by the person who carried the wampum. The oak tree 
under which it was delivered Uy Lord Dunmore still stands in a field, seven miles 
from ( ■ircleville, in a southern direction. An interpreter delivered it, sentence by 
sentence, and it was wM'itten as it was delivered. Its authenticity is placed beyond 

Advent of the White Man. 97 

the shadow of a doubt, and it of right belongs, and forever will belong to the His- 
tory of Ohio. " « 

On the other hand Kenton told Mr. Sullivant that he had never heard of such 
a speech until months afl«r the treaty. He was positive that no such speech was 
made. But Kenton's knowledge of all that took place at the council may not have 
been quite perfect. It is just as well to let the beautiful tradition stand, and 
thereby preserve to the literature of the wilderness one of its brightest gems. 

Of Logan's address three versions, substantially the same, have been preserved. 
One of these, taken from a letter of February 4, 1775, from Williamsburg, Virginia, 
found its wa3' into the American Archives; another, also extracted from a Virginia 
letter, was published in New York, February 16, 1775. The third is Mr. Jefferson's, 
published in 1781-2, and seems to be most authentic. It reads : 

I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave' 
him not meat ; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. During the course 
o! the last long and bloody war rx)gan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. 
Such was my love for the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, Logan 
is the friend of the white men. I ha<l even thought to have lived with you, hut for the in- 
juries of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, umrdered 
all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and children. There runs not a drop 
of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have 
sought it ; I have killed many ; I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country J re- 
joice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy uf fear ; Logan 
never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for 
Logan ? Not one. 

Taken in connection with the circumstances which are said to have inspired 
it, this is one of the most pathetic deliverances in all literature. Jn brevity, sim- 
plicity and directness of appeal, as well as in the immorlality of its thoughts, it 
bears a striking resemblance to Abraham Lincoln's dedicatory address at Gettys- 

Owing to the refusal of the Mingoes to participate in the negotiations, a force 
was dispatched by Dunmore to destroy their villages at the Forks of the Scioto, 
meaning the junction of that river with the Whetstone, at which now stands the 
city of Columbus. One of Dunmore's officers mentioned this expedition in his 
diary, a publication of which was seen by Mr. Joseph Sullivant, and is referred to 
by him in his address before the Franklin County Pioneer Society in 1871. Mr. 
Sullivant thus describes in that address the location of the Mingo towns against 
which he believes the Dunmore expedition to have been sent, and narrates some of 
the events which took place at the time they were attacked : 

There were three Indian encampments or villages in this vicinity; one on the high 
bank near the old Morrill House, one and a half miles below the city, from which the party 
was sent out to capture my father and his party, on Deer Creek, in 1795 ; one at the west end 
of the Harrisburg bridge ; and the principal one on the river below the mouth of the Whet- 
stone, near the Penitentiary where formerly stood Brickell's cabin, and now (1871) stands 
Hall and Brown's warehouse. 

The location of these villages I had from John Brickell, Jeremiah Armstrong and Jona- 
than Alder, who had been captives among the Indians. Alder was my visitor in my boy- 
hood, at my father's house and afterwards at mine, and I had many of the incidents of his 
life, as related by himself, which afterwards, at my suggestion, were written out. In his boy- 
hood Alder had been captured in Virginia by a marauding party of Indians, was brought into 

98 History of the City of Columbus. 

Ohio and adopted into a tribe, and when j^rown up niairied and lived among them. He lived 
on Big Darby, died then*, and was well known to our earlier settlers. ... 

In one of the personal narratives to which I have alluded he told me he had heard from 
the older men of this tribe that, in the fall of 1774, when all the male Indians of the upper 
village, except a few old men, had gone on their first fall hunt, one day about noon the vil- 
lage was surprised by the sudden appearance of a body of armed white men who immediately 
commenced firing upon all they could see. Great consternation and panic ensued, and the 
inhabitants fled in every direction. One Indian woman seized her child of ^ye or six years 
of age, and rushed down the bank of the river and across to the wooded island opposite, 
when she was shot down at the farther bank. The child was unhurt amid the shower of balls, 
and escaped into the thicket and hid in a large hollow sycamore standing near the middle of 
the island, where the child was found alive two days afterward when the warriors of the 
tribe returned, having been summoned back to the scene of disaster by runners sent for the 
purpose. This wooded and shady island was a favorite place for us boys when we went 
swimming and fishing, especially when we were lucky enough to hook Johnny Brickeirs 
canoe, and I have no doubt the huge sycamore is well remembered by many besides myself. 

"This interesting incident," adds Mr. Sulliviint, " connects our county directly 
with the old colonial times.""^ 

Colonel William Crawford, who commanded the expedition against the Min- 
goes, thus describes it in a letter to Washington : 

Lord Dunmore ordered my.self and two hundred and forty men to set out in the night. 
We were to march to a town about forty miles distant from our camp, up the Scioto, where 
we understood the whole of the Mingoes were to rendezvous the next day in order to pursue 
their journey. This intelligence came by John Montour, son of Captain Montour, whom you 
formerly knew. 

Because of the number of Indians in our camp we set out of it under pretense of going 
to Hockhocking for more provisions. Few knew of our setting off anyhow, and none knew 
where we were going to until next day. Our march was performed with as much speed as 
possible. We arrived at the town called Salt Lick town ** the ensuing night, and at day- 
break we got around it with one-half our force, and the remainder were sent to a small vil- 
lage half a mile distant. 

Unfortunately one of our men was discovered by an Indian who lay, out from the town 
some distance, by a log which the man was creeping up to. Thin obliged the man to kill the 
Indian. This happened before daylight, which did us much damage, as the chief part of the 
Indians made their escape in the dark ; but we got fourteen prisoners, and killed six of the 
enemy, wounding several more. We got all of their baggage and horses, ten of their guns, and 
two hundred white prisoners. The plunder sold for four hundred pounds sterling, besides 
what was returned to a Mohawk Indian who was then*. The whole of the Mingoes were 
ready to start, and were to have set out the morning we attacked them. Lord Dunmore has 
eleven prisoners, and has returned the rest to the nation. The residue are to be returned 
upon his lordship's demand. 

In the same letter Colonel Crawfonl thus summarizes the treaty concluded b3^ 
Dunmore with the Shawnees : 

First, they have to give up all the prisoners ever taken by them in the war with the 
white people ; also negroes and all of the horses stolen or taken by them since the last war. 
And further, no Indian for the future is to hunt on the east side of the Ohio, nor any white 
man on the west side ; as that seems to have been the cause of some of the disturbance be- 
tween our people and them. As a guarantee that they will perform their part of the agree- 
ment, they have given up four chief men, to be kept as hostages, who are to be relieved 
yearly, or as they choose. 

After the treaty, Dunmoro's army, twentyfive hundred strong, returned to the 
month of the Hockhocking, and thence to Western Virginia, where it was dis- 

Advent of the White Man. 99 

As to the subsequent career and end of Ijogan, Mr. Taylor makes the Ibllow- 
ing rtUitemeuts on the authority of Henry C. Brusli, of Tiffin : '* Ih' wandered 
about from tribe to tribe, a solitary and lonely man. Dejected and broken-hearted 
by the loss of his friends and the decay of his tribe, he resorted to the stimulus of 
strong drink to drown his sorrow, lie was at last murdered in Michigan, near 
Detroit. He was, at the time, sitting with his blanket over his head, before a eamp- 
tire, his elbow resting on his knees, and his head upon his hands, buried in pro- 
found reflection, when an Indian, who had taken some offence, stole behind him, 
and burie<l his tomahawk in his brains."=^ 

Accounts diflbring from this both as to the manner and place of Logan's death 
are given by other writers, one of whom claims that the old chief came to his end 
in the vicinity of Urbana, Ohio. 

The Dunmore treaty proved to be but a truce. With the opening of the War 
of Independence at Lexington the following year,' the intrigues of British agents 
were brought actively to bear upon the Indians to induce them to take sides 
against the colonists. Otticially sustained in his pretensions by (lovernor Dunmore, 
(.'onnolly. the Fort Pitt adventurer, assisted in Ihese schemes. The Six Nations, 
except the Tus<-aroras and Oneidas, allied theinselvts with the Knglish. The 
Shawnees and W^yandots wen^ incliue<l to do the .same thing. The Dehi wares, 
under the influence of the Moravian missionaries, were neutral. 

To promote good relations with the frontier tribes and countervail the eftbils 
to alienate them, the (/Ontinei»tal Congress organized an Indiai» Department, in 
three divisions. In 1776 ('olonel (reorge Morgan, of Princeton, New Jersey, was 
placed over the middle division, including the Western Indians, wMth hea<l<juarters 
at F'ort Pitt. This seems to have been a fortunate ap])ointment. Morgan was a 
prudent man, widely and favorably known by the tribes in his department, and 
for nearly two years prevented, by conciliatory manageiiient, any general outbreak. 
His efforts, and of the kind-souled Moravians were finally set at naught by 
acts of cruelty which have plante<l in the western course of civilization indelible 
marks of infamy. One of these dee<ls of shames was the murder of the Shawnee 
chief Cornstalk while on a friendly visit to the stockade erected after the Dunmore 
invasion at Point Pleasant." Accompanied by IJed Hawk, Cornstalk brought to 
that fort timely w^arning of tlie hostile disposition of his tribe, whereupon the <iom- 
mandantof the .stockade, (-aiitain Arbuckle, caused him and his companions to he 
seized and held as hostages. The ca])tive chief's son, Kllii)ipsico, a brave young 
warrior, came innocently in search of his father, and was also detained. The next 
day, while two men from the fort were hunting in tlu' neighboring woods, one of 
them was killed by a party of hostile Indians. Knraged at this, the .soldiers of the 
garrison fell upon their helpless captives and mercilessly slaughtered them. 
Arbuckle, it is said, protested against this deed, but was powerless t(» prevent it. 
The behavior of the Shawnees after that was just what sucii an act of perfidious 
butchery might be expecte<i to provoke."'^ Thenceforward until 1794 there was no 
peace along the border, anywhere from the Falls of the Ohio to Fort Pitt. For a 
time, Colonel Morgan and the Moravian Heckewelder managed to keej) the Dela- 
wares from joining the P]nglish, but their jiacific efforts, prejudice*! by the further 
slaughter of unoffending Indians, were finally overborne. 

Early in 1778 General Lachlin xMcIntosh was appointed by Washington to 
command on the western frontier, and erected at the mouth of the Hig Beaver a 

100 HlHTORY OK THE CiTY <iF ( *OI.rMKITft. 

Blockaded fortilicatioii hearing his name. Thence he marched into the interior the 
following autumn with a force of one ihouBand men, and erected upon the present 
site of Bolivar, in Tuscarawas County, anotiier fort which, in honor of the Presi- 
dent of Congress, was named Fort Laurens. This work was garrisoned with one 
hundred and fifty men under Colonel John Gibson. In January, 1779, it was be- 
sieged by over eight hundred Indians, and had been reduced to great extremilies 
when it was relieved b}' a second expedition under Mcintosh. A few months 
later it was abandoned. 

During the summer of 1779 Colonel John Bowman marched from Kentucky 
with a force one hundred and fifty strong, and attacke<l the Shawnees at Old Chil- 
licothe.*' The assault upon that place was to be made at daylight from difterent 
directions by two detachments, one of which was led by Bowman, the other by 
Captain Benjamin Logan As usual in such cases, there was lack of cooperation, 
and the effort failed. The enemy then took the aggressive and surrounded Bow- 
man during his retreat, but he managed to cut his way out, and recrossed the 
Ohio. Some months later Colonel Hyrd,a British officer, at the head of a band of 
Indians and Canadians, made a retaliatorj* raid into Kentucky. 

During the summer of 1780 Colonel George Rogers Clark, who had two years 
before captured Kaskaskia and subdued the Illinois, organized an expedition against 
the Indians on Mad River. His force, about one thousand strong, assembled on 
the ground where Cincinnati now stands, and from thence pushed for Old (^hilli- 
cothe, which was found deserted and burning. From thence a forced march was 
made to the Indian settlements at Piqua, which were attacked and dispersed. The 
town of Piqua was burned, and the cornfields around it laid waste. The expedi- 
tion then returned to the mouth of the Licking.** 

This chastisement relieved the settlements from Indian forays only tempora- 
rily. Active hostilities were resumed after a brief interval, and conducted in a 
miscellaneous way, as before, on both sides. Many of the expeditions by the 
whites were gotten up at private expense, without authority of law, badly con- 
ducted, and productive of no good results. Thus was precipitated the crowning 
atrocity in the annals of the border. Although the Moravian settlements had 
preserved strict neutrality between the combatants, thoy had not escaped molesta- 
tion. White and Indian banditti alike threatened them. The neighboring tribes 
had generally enlisted in the cause of the British, and endeavore<i to press them into 
that service. On the other hand, they were subjected to considerable annoyancei 
and some violence, by the colonial border ruffians of that period. In 1777 the 
Wyandot chief Pomoacan, of Upper Sandusky, appeared before their settlements 
at the head of two hundred warriors, but treated them kindly, and retired without 
doing them mischief In 1778 Gnadenhutten was abandoned, for a time, on ac- 
count of its annoyances from white marauders. Lichtenau was then settled, and 
vacated, in turn, the year following. In 1781 a Delaware chief, of the English 
party, approached with eighty warriors, but attempted no violence. On the con- 
trary he assured the Moravians of his good will, admonished them of their danger- 
ous situtation between two fires, and strongly advised their withdrawal from the 
fVontier. Ho assured them that the Long Knives, meaning the Virginians, would 
one day murder them. Finally, in the summer of 1781, a band of Wyandots, insti- 
gated by the British commandant at Detroit, compelled them to abandon their 

Advent of the White Man. 101 

settlements, and remove to Sandusky. Here they were soon reduced to a condi- 
tion of great destitution. Necessity compelled them to send part of their number 
back to their deserted homes and fields to procure food. Some of these messengers 
were borne off as captives to Fort Pitt. 

About this time, it is said, some depredations were committed by hostile 
Indians on the Pennsylvania border. This was made a pretext for a raid upon the 
Moravian villages. The raiding party comprised one hundred and sixty men 
from the Monongahela settlements, led by Colonel David Williamson. It arrived 
before Gnadenhutten on the sixth of March and found the Christian Indians at 
work in their cornfields. After these unoffending people had been corralled and 
persuaded to surrender their weapons, Williamson put the question to his fellow 
miscreants whether their captives should be taken to Pittsburgh, or pat to death. 
There were but sixteen votes for the more merciful alternative. Of those who 
voted for death, some were for burning the prisoners alive, but the majority were 
for scalping them. Let one of the chronicles of this sad history narrate what fol- 
lowed : 

When the day of their execution arrived, namely, the eighth of March, two houses 
were fixed upon, one for the brethren and another for the sisters and children, to which the 
wanton murderers gave the name of slaughter houses. Some of them went to the brethren 
and showed great impatience that the execution had not yet begun, to which the brethren 
replied that they were ready to die, having commended their immortal souls to God, who 
had given them that divine assurance in their hearts that they should come unto Him and 
be with Him forever. 

Immediately after this declaration the carnage commenced. The poor, innocent people, 
men, women and children, were led, bound two and two together with ropes, into the above- 
mentioned slaughter-houses, and there scalped and murdered. . . . Thus uinetysix persons 
magnified the name of the I^rd by patiently meeting a cruel death. Sixtytwo were grown 
persons, among whom were five of the most valuable assistants, and thirtyfour children. 
Only two youths, each between sixteen and seventeen years old, escaped almost miraculously 
from the hands of the murderers.** 

The Delawares, whose tribe was represented in the victims of this atrocious 
outrage, were soon given an opportunity to avenge it, and most horribly did they 
do so. In May, 1782, a mounted force four hundred and fifty strong was organized 
for an expedition against the Moravian, Delaware and Wyandot settlements along 
the headwaters of the Scioto and Sandusky. Its place of rendezvous was the 
Mingo village on the Ohio, a few miles below the present city of Steubenville. 
The expedition set forth on the twentyfifth of May, under Colonel William Craw- 
ford, one of whose lieutenants was Colonel David Williamson, of the Moravian 
massacre. On the fourth day out, the column halted over night at the solitary 
scenes of that massacre, and on the sixth day arrived at the Moravian village, 
likewise abandoned, on one of the upper branches of the Sandusky. Here some of 
Crawford's men mutinously insisted on turning back, but it was finally decided to 
continue the march for another day. After the column had proceeded for a few 
hours, its advance guard was attacked and driven in by Indians concealed in the 
tall grass. The fighting continued until dark. It was not renewed the next day, 
but the Indians were largely reinforced. At nightfall retreat was resolved upon 
and begun. It soon became a panic, and the whole command fled precipitately, 
abandoning its wounded. Only about one-half of the fugitives ever reached their 

102 History ok the City of Con m bus. 

homos. The iv8t were huiiUMl down by the IndiaiiH, and hutcherod. Crawford 
abandoned his nion, in whom he ha<i h>sl all eonfidenee, and atler wandering 
thirtysix hours in the wilderness was (captured l»y a party of Dolawares, wMio took 
him to their eamp on the Tymoehtee, and there [Mit him to death amid unspeakable 
tortures. This horrible scents was witnessed by Moctor Knight, who was taken 
with Crawford, but afterwards escaped. Another witness, com])laeent and merci- 
less, was Simon (lirty, thi' notorious white Indian of the border. 

A Delaware chief namrd Wingenund told Crawford that he must suffer in 
expiation of the Moravian massacre. The vi(*tim, w^th his hands tied behind his 
back, was then bound to the stake in such a way that he could walk around it 
once or twice. This being <lone, ('a]>tain Pipe, a Delaware chief, made a speech to 
an assembly of thirty or forty Indian men and eixt}' or seventy squaws and boys. 
Doctor Knight thus narrates what then fl)llowed : 

When the speech was tinishe<l, they all yelled a hideous and hearty ansent to what had 
been said. The Indian men then tonk up their guns and shot powder into the Coloners 
body, from his feet as far up iis his neek. I think not less than seventy loads were discharged 
upon his naked body. They then erow«le<l about him, and, to the best of my observation, 
cut otf his ears. When the throng had dispersed a little, I saw the blood running from both 
sides of his head in con8e«iuence thereof. 

The det^iils of the torture which slowly and finally extinguished life from 
Crawtbrd's body are too horrible tor recital. In res|iect to their fiendish atrocity- 
there is but one material distinction to he drawn between them and the cold- 
blooded butcheries of Cnadenhiitten and Salem. In the one case the perpetrators 
were savage, in the other civilized. 

With the surrender of Cornwallis on the nineteenth of September, 17S1, the 
independence of the American colonies was substantially achieved. A preliminary 
treaty of peace was signed at Paris «on the thirtieth of November, 1782, and on 
September 8, 1783, a treaty was concluded at Versailles by which the colonies were 
finally acknowledged to be free, sovereign, and independent. 

In October, 1784, the Six Nations, by treat}- at Fort Stanwix, released to Con- 
gress, with certain res<>rvations, all their territorial claims. In this negotiation 
Oliver W^olcott, I{ichard Butler aiid Arthur Lee represented the colonial govern- 
ment, and the chiefs Cornplanter and Ked Jacket the Indians. 

On the twontytirst of January, 178;'). a similar treaty was concluded with the 
Wyandot*i, Delawares, Chip]>ewas and Ottawas, by which they released all their 
Ohio claims except certain reservations the boundaries of w^hich wore defined. 
Fort Mcintosh w-as the sceneof these negotiations, which w-ero conducted in behalf 
of Congress hy Arthur IjCO, i^ichard Butler and (rcorge Kogors Clark. Among 
the chiefs signing in behalf of the Indians were Ilobocan, or Captain Pipe, Wing- 
enund and Packelant, who is supposed to have been identical with the famous 
Delaware, Bockcngehelas. 

By a conference held withthe Shawnees at the mouth of the Big Miami in 
January, 1786, they were in(luce<l to *' acknowledge the United States to be the 
sole and absolute sovereign of all the territories ceded by CSreat Britain.** 

Thus tl)e Indian title to the Ohio country was virtually blotted out, and the 
wilderness was prepared for the oeeupancy of a new^ race. The white man had 
come, and come to stay. 

Advent op the White Man. 103 


1. A short distance above Montreal. 

2. In Texas, March 17, 1687. 

3. Bancroft's United States. 

4. History of Ohio . 

5. Pioneer History ; S. P. Hildreth. 

6. Gist's Journal. 

7. Ibid. 

8. Washington Irving. 

9. Irving's Life of Washington. 

10. Taylor says, " early in 1752." See History of Ohio. 

11. Both Virginia and Pennsylvania at that time claimed the territory within which 
these garrisons were located. 

12. To the Indian tribes this change, says Parkman, '* was nothing but disaster. They 
bad held in a certain sense the balance of power between the rival colonies of France and 
England. Both had bid for their friendship, and both competed for the trade with them. 
The French had been the more successful. Their influence was predominant among 
all the interior tribes, while many of the border Indians, old allies of the English, had of 
late abandoned them in favor of their rivals. While the French had usually gained the 
good will, often the ardent attachment, of the tribes with whom they came in contact, the 
English, for the most part, had inspired only jealousy and dislike. This dislike was soon 
changed to the most intense hatred. Lawless traders and equally lawless speculators preyed 
on the Indians ; swarms of squatters invaded the lands of the border tribes, and crowded 
them from their homes."— Ftowcm Parkman. 

13. Paully's life was saved, it is said, by the fancy taken for him by a hideous old 
sqaaw, whom he was obliged to marry. 

14. While leading an expedition against Fort Du Qu^sne, General Edward Braddock 
fell into an ambuscade of French and Indians near that fort, and was defeated and mortally 
wounded, July 9, 1755. 

15. Historical Account of the Expedition Against the Ohio Indians in 1764 ; by Doctor 
William Smith, Provost of the College of Philadelphia, 1766. 

16. Irving's Life of Washington. 

17. Taylor's Ohio. 

18. ** In 1770 Wheeling was settled by a number of men from the South Branch of the 
Potomac, among whom was [were] Ebenezer, Silas and Jonathan Zane, with Colonel Shep- 
herd, all prominent men in the colonization and establishment of that place. Soon after 
which, locations were made on Buffalo and Short Creek, above Wheeling, where the town of 
Wellsburg now stands, then called Buffalo, and afterwards Cha,T\eston "—Eildreth's Pioneer 

19. Hon. Henry Jolly, for many years a judge of the courts of Washington County, 
Ohio, is quoted to this effect. See Taylor's Ohio. 

20. Cresap may have connived at the expedition under Greathouse, but he was not 
present at the massacre. 

21. This message, Hildreth says, was borne by Dunmore's guide, Simon Girty, and a 
man named Parchment. Girty was one of three brothers, Simon, George and James, who 
were taken prisoners in Pennsylvania about 1755, and adopted into different tribes. " Simon,*' 
says Taylor, "became a Seneca, and although a white savage, was not incapable of humane 
conduct, and was scrupulously exact in the redemption of his word. James was adopted by 
the Shawanese, and seems to have been an unmitigated monster. George was adopted by 
the Delawares, and belonged to that small fragment of the tribes who were constantly 
engaged in the campaigns against the settlements. The trio were desperate drunkards. 

104 History of the City op Columbus. 

" Early in the Revolutionary struggle the Girtys, like their Indian brethren, were unde- 
cided how to act. Even in the summer of 1777 James Girty was the medium of speeches 
and presents from the Americans to atone for the murder of Cornstalk ; while Simon Girty 
acted as interpreter for the United States on many occasions. About 1777 both brothers had 
been seduced bj' the British emissaries, and are known to border tradition as renegades. 
This is hardly just. They should not be regarded otherwise than as Indians of their respect- 
ive tribes. Such had been their training, their education. They were white savages, noth- 
ing else, and the active partisans of Great Britain for the rest of the century.'*— TViy/ar'* 
History of Ohio. 

22. Mr. Sullivant gave a synopsis of his conversation with Kenton on this subject in an 
address delivered before the Franklin County Pioneer Association, in 1871. 

23. Atwater^s Ohio. 

24. Sullivant's address. 

25. Called, according to some authorities, Seekonk, or Seekunk, which is the corrup- 
tion of an Indian word meaning ** a place of salt." 

2r>. Taylor's History of Ohio. 

27. The battle of I^xington was fought June 20, 1775. 

28. Called Fort Randol[>h ; built by troops from Virginia in the spring of 1775. 

29. See Taylor's History of Ohio ; Dodge's Red Men of the Ohio Valley ; etc. 

30. "The Shawnee town, * Old Chillicothe,' was on the Little Miami, in this county 
[Clark], about three and a half miles north of the site of Xenia: it was a place of note, 
and is frequently mentioned in the annals of the early explorations and settlements of the 
West. It was sometimes called the Old Town."— //bt/7<»'8 Historical CoHectioru, 

31. From the skillful and energetic leader of this expedition Clark County, Ohio, takes 
its name. 

32. Loskiel's History of North American Missions. 



koi:nding of oirio. 

Of the events ineideiii to the birth of Ohio, as the seventeenth State in the 
Union, some interesting volumes mi^ht be written. Only an outline sketch will 
be here attempted. So far as the subject relates to the grants, surveys, sales and 
titles of lands, it will be left mainly to the pen of an expert. 

At the close of the Revolutionary War the northwestern territories, embracing 
those of the present State of Ohio, were claimed, simultaneously, hy the Indians, 
whose titles were but vaguely extinguished ; by the individual colonies, and by 
Great Britain. The treaty arrangements hy which the Indian rights were tempo- 
rarily disposed of have alrea<ly been referred to. The pretensions of the embryo 
States were less easily adjusted, and lor a time postponed the consummation of 
their confederation. Over the entire region which now constitutes the States of 
Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, J llinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, both New York and 
Virginia maintained the right of exclusive domain. On the other side it was 
vigorously argued that whatever territories were wrested by the joint efforts of 
all from the common enemy, should be placed at the disposition of Congress for 
the common benefit. Maryland conspicuously held out for this proposition, and 
made its acceptance a condition of her assent to the articles of confederation. The 
articles were dated November 15, 1777, and were ratitied hy ten colonies July 9, 
1778. New Jersey signed NovemV)er 25, 1778, and Delaware February 22, 1779, 
but Maryland, for the reasons stated, still withheld her concurrence. Other col- 
onies threatened to join her, and the incipient union was placed in jeopardy of dis- 
ruption. Persisting in her claims, Virginia opened an office for the sale of lands 
west of the Ohio. Congress intervened by driving out the settlers, and the crisis 
became acute. At this juncture General Philip Schuyler announced in Congress 
that New York had executed to the general government a deed r)f cession of all 
the disputed territory west of her present boundaries. This patriotic act was con- 
summated March 1, 1781, in pursuance of an act of the legislature passed the year 
before. The cession was made without reservation. Thereuj)on Maryland joined 
the Confederation, thus completing, for the first time, the American Union. 

Constrained by the example of New York and the persuasion of Congress, 
Connecticut and Virginia made conditional concessions, the first reserving her 
jurisdiction, and the second excepting the whole State of Kentucky from her grant. 
These proposed acts of conveyance were carefully considered and exhaustively 
reported upon by a committee of Congress, which declared that New York had the 



only valid title. The dved of New York was therefore acoc])ted, that of Virginia 
rejected. The aceeptance dates from March 20, 17H2. 

Virginia thereupon authorized a new deed of cossion, still excepting Ken- 
tucky, but omitting some of the objectionable features of the former conveyance. 
She also reserved a body of land bounded east by the Scioto, west by the Miami 
and south by the Ohio, to be distributed as a bounty to her soldiers in the War of 
Independence. By this act, perfected March 1, 1784. Virginia relinquished to the 
[Tnited States all her claims on the territories north of the Ohio River, excepting 
the reservation named. By deed of Apnl IJ), 1785, Massachusetts conveyed to 
Congress, without qualitication, all rights under her charter to lands west of the 
western boundary of New York. Connecticut executed a like deed of cession 
September 14, I78t», but excepted from its provisions a belt of country one hundred 
and fifty miles long and about fifty wide, called in early times New Connecticut, 
an<l since known as the Western Reserve. B}' the distribution and sale of this 
tract she indemnified her citizens for their losses bv the British armies, and raised 
a fund for the support of her common schools. Washington and many other 
prominent men protested against her action, but Virginia's reservations furnished 
her a precedent which, with the gen<*ral <lesire for peace and union, enabled her 
to enforce her conditions. Iler civil jurisdiction over the Reserve was finally sur- 
rendered to the national authority May 30. 1800. 

The claims of (treat Britain upon the territories of the Northwest were main- 
tained with great tenacity. Pjven after the treaty of peace ihey were relinquished 
tnrdily and ungraciously. The ministry which negotiated the treaty was censured 
and overthrown, one of the accusations brought against it being that it had "given 
up the banks of the Ohio, the Para<lise of America." Lord North, leading the 
o]»position, insisted that the ministers " should have retained tor Canada all the 
country north and west of the Ohio." The united colonies being too weak to 
assert immediately their authority over so large a territory, the British roaorttjd to 
every pretext to hold it, and in defiance of the treaty continued to maintain their 
western garrisons. They even built a new fort where the town of Perrysburg 
now stands and practically continued the war through their allies, the Indians. 
Only the casting vote of Vice President Adams defeated a resolution in Congress 
to suspend intercoui*se with Great Britain until her armed forces in the West should 
be withdrawn. History fairly justifies the declaration attributed to General 
William JI. Harrison, that the War of Independence was not finally concluded 
until General Wayne's victory of Ajigust 20, 1794, blasted the hopes of the British 
by crushing the power of the Indians. 

Plans for the settlement of the new territories of the West were first conceived 
and carried into effect by the veterans of the colonial army. While yet awaiting 
the conclusion of peace in their camps on the Hudson, two hundred and eighty- 
three of these veterans memorialized Congress to grant them their arrears of pay 
in lands located between Lake Erie and the Ohio. Washington, by request, laid 
this petition before the Continental Congress, and reinforced it with his great 
influence, but without avail. The claims of the colonies upon the new territories 
being then still unadjusted, nothing could be done. The movement was obliged to 
bide its time, and so doing, proved to be the precursor of the most important 
pioneer enterprise of the West. Fortunately its most active spirit was General 

Founding of Ohio. 107 

Bufus Putnam, of Massachu.setts. On the twentieth of May, 1785, Congro«.s passed 
an ordinance providing for the surve}^ of its new western domain. Prom this 
ordinance as a basis has risen the present system of land division in Ohio.* It pro- 
vided originally for the organization of a corps of surveyors comprising one from 
each State, all under the direction of Thomas Hutchins, Survey or-Cieneral, or so 
called Geographer, of the Confederation. General Putnam was elected for Massa- 
chusetts, but was unable to serve, and recjuested that General Benjamin Tupper, 
another officer of the colonial army, should be appointed in his stead. This was 
done, and General Tupper repaired to his field of labor onl}' to learn that nothing 
could be done on account of the Indians. But while he was not permitted to sur- 
vey the Ohio country, he acquired a most favorable judgment of it as a field of enter- 
prise. Accordinfjiy, Putnam and himself joined in a publication dated January 
10, 1786, inviting their former comrades of the army to meet them in a delegate 
assembly at Boston to organize an association for settlement on the Ohio. The 
meeting convened at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern, in Boston, March 1, 1786, and 
orgjinized by electing (General Rufus Putnam as chairman, and Major Winthrop 
Sargent as clerk. It comprised eleven persons, rej)resenting eight counties. Arti- 
cles of association prepared by a committee of which General Putnam was chair- 
man were adopted, and thus the Ohio Comj)any was organized. 

It was the design of the Comj)any to obtain from Congress, by purchase, a 
large body of land on which they might lay the foundations of a new State. *' In 
one sense," says President Andrews, '' it was a private enterprise, as each share- 
holder ])aid for his share from his |)rivate funds; but ft was also in a measure a 
public enterprise, representing, on the one hand, the veterans of the army, whose 
private fortunes had been wasted by the long war for independence, and, on the 
other, the st^itesmen and patriots of the country who were anxious to see a new 
empire founded in the western region which, after the long struggle with individual 
states at home and Great Britain abroad, was now in the peaceable possession of 
the United States.'"' 

The stock of the Company comprised one thousand shares of one thousand 
dollars each. The owners of each section of twenty shares were entitled to elect 
an agent to represent them^ and the agents so chosen were authorized to choose 
five directors, a treasurer and a secretary. The first directors were General Eufus 
Putnam, General Samuel H. Parsons, and Rev. Manasseh Cutler. General James 
M. Varnum, of Rhode Island, was subsequei»tly chosen as an additional director, 
and Richard Piatt, of Now York, as Treasurer. .General Putnam was President 
and Major Sargent Secretary of the Board. 

The second meeting of the Company was held at Brackett's Tavern, Boston, 
March 8, 1787, by which time two hundred and fifty shares had been taken. 
Among the shareholders then, or who afterwards became such, were many of the 
most distinguished men in the Confederation.' No colonial enterpi'ise was ever 
favored with abler management or better material. Negotiations with the Conti- 
nental Congress for the purchase of a bod}- of land for the Company were author- 
ized, but were for some time unsuccessful. Finally, through the etforts of 
Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent, a contract was obtained for fitleen hun- 
dred thousand acres of land at a cost of one million dollars in public securities then 
worth about twelve cents per dollar. Onehalf the consideration was to be paid at 

108 History of the City of Columbus. 

the signing of the contract, the remainder when the exterior boundaries of the tract 
should be surveyed. By the advice of Thomas Hutchins, Surveyor-General of 
the Confederation, the lands were located on the Ohio, at the mouth of the 

Such was the Ohio Company's purchase. The contract was concluded verbally 
July 23, 1787, and was signed in writing on the twentyseventh of October follow- 
ing. It was the first contract of sale ever executed on the part of the Union Gov- 
ernment. Under it the Ohio Company finally came into possession of a traot of 
9()4,285 acres. 

In order to eonsunimate the arrangement certain concessions had to be made 
which were not originally contemplated. One of these was the substitution of 
General Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, as the intended Governor of the new 
territoiy, in lieu of General Samuel H. Parsons. Another concession was the ex- 
tension of the proposed purciiase so as to embrace the schemes of one William Duer 
and others who are described as "principal characters" of New York City. 
Unless those things had been done, the negotiations would probably have failed ; 
after the}^ were done a favorable conclusion was soon reached. In conformity 
with these arrangements a second contract, of even date with that for the Ohio 
Company, was made, conveying over four million acres of land to ^^ Manasseh 
Cutler and Winthrop Sargent for themselves and associates.'' Threefourths of 
this tract lay west and onefourth of it north of the Ohio ('ompany's lands. Such 
was the socallod Scioto Purchase. It was to be paid for at the rate of twothirds 
of a dollar per acre in public securities delivered in four semi-annual instalments. 

Simultaneously with the execution of this second or Scioto contract, ** Cutler 
and Sargent conveyed to Colonel William Duer, of New York Cit}", a onehalf inter- 
est in it, and gave him full powder to negotiate a sale of the lands in Europe or else- 
where, and to substitute an agent. Colonel Duer, [who was Secretary of the Board 
of Treasury], agreed to loan to the Ohio Company one hundred thousand dollars 
public securities to enable it to make its first payment to Congress — [Duer actually 
advanced $143,000] — and procured a large subscription to its shares. Soon afler. 
Cutler and Sargent conveyed a little over threefourths of their retained interest in 
about equal proportions to Generals Rufus Putnam, Benjamin Tupper, Samuel H. 
Parsons, C'olonel Ilichard Piatt, Royal Flint and Joel Barlow. Many others became 
interested with these in greater or less proportions."* 

The Scioto Compan}^ appointed Joel Barlow as its agent for the disposal of 
these lands, and sent him to Paris, where he spread abroad such captivating tales 
of the Scioto region that a large number of sales were effected. About six hundred 
of these purchasers came over from France, intending to establish homes on their 
supposed possessions, but soon learned that the Scioto Company had defaulted in 
its payments and (rould give them no valid title. Defrauded, nearly destitute and 
surrounded by hostile Indians in the wilderness, these French colonists found them- 
selves in a condition truly pitiable. Finally, in 1795, those of them who still 
remained were indemnified, in part, for their losses, by a congressional grant of 
twentyfour thousand acres lying in the eastern part of Scioto County. 

The Ohio Company's outcome was altogether dift'erent. On November 23, 
1787, its directors met at Brackett's Tavern, in Boston, and made arrangements for 
sending out its first band of settlers. General Rufus Putnam was appointed super- 

I^ouNDiNa'oF Ohio. 109 

intendent of the colony; Ebenezor Sproat, Anselm Tupper, R. J. Moigs, and John 
Mathews were selected as surveyors of its lands. The first party, numbering 
twentytwo men, mostly mechanics, set out from Danvers, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber thirtieth, under Major Haffield White. Exposed to the inclement weather of 
the season, this little band journeyed tediously over the mountains by an old 
Indian trail, aiming for Simrall's Ferry, on the Youghiogheny, thirty miles above 
Fort Pitt. At this appointed rendezvous a halt was made for the construction of 
a barge in which the entire expedition, when assembled, could float down the 

A second detachment, including the surveyors, quitted Hartford, Connecticut, 
January 1, 1788, under General Putnam. When it reached the mountains, its 
wagons were unable to go forward on account of the depth of snow, and sledges 
bad to be constructed for transportation of the baggage, (icneral Putnam arrived 
at Simrall's about the middle of February. The galley was then pushed to com- 
pletion, launched and named the Mayflower. It was fortyfive feet long and fifteen 
wide. Though not graceful it was stanch, its sides being thickly-timbered for 
protection against the bullets of the Indians. The commander of this pioneer 
craft was one of its builders, and a veteran seaman, C^aptain Jonathan Devol. The 
capacity of the Mayflower not being sufficient for conveyance of all the men and 
baggage, a supplementary flatboat and some canoes were provided. Embarking 
in this flotilla, the party, tbrtyoight in number, floated away from Simrall's on the 
second of April. On the seventh, in the early dawn of a misty morning, it landed 
on the north bank of the Ohio, at the mouth of the Muskingum. There by the 
riverside, a rude shed was immediately built as an office for the superintendent of 
the colony, and over it was unfurled the American flag. On the opposite or west- 
ern bank of the Muskingum, the same friendl}' emblem was seen floating over the 
bastioned pentagon of Fort Harmar." 

The first laws of the colon}^ were those of its own adoption. For the informa- 
tion of all, they were read aloud by Benjamin Tupper, and posted on the trunk of 
a tree. But the colonists were of such a character as to give little need for this 
expedient, and even that little need was destined to be brief The subject of pro- 
viding a system of civil government for the socalled '' transmontane half" of the 
republic had engaged the attention of Congress long in advance of this initial 
attempt at its settlement. A committee of which Thomas Jefferson was chairman 
already had the matter under consideration when Virginia completed her cession, 
and immediately thereafter reported a plan applicable not alone to the territories 
north of the Ohio, but to the entire western region, from the (iulf to the northern 
boundary of the Union. On the twenty-third of April, 1784, this plan, aft^er some 
amendments, one of which struck out a clause forbidding slavery, was adopted. It 
proposed a division of the territory into seventeen States, for ten of which Mr. Jeffer- 
son proposed the following descriptive titles: Sylvania, Micliigania, Chersonesus, 
Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illinoia, Saratoga, Washington, Polypotamia, and 

This scheme never took practical effect. Its proposed territorial divisions 
were inconvenient. The regions for which it provided government contained 
nothing governable, as yet, to govern. It anticipated settlement. But the Ohio 
Company's enterprise changed all this. The leading spirits in that venture wanted 

110 ITisToRv OF TiiK City ok Ccilumbhs. 

law HO I08H than land. They dewirod frec<loin, morality and social order 
oven more than land. They solieitAjd in behalf of their proposed commonwealth 
not only a territorial basis, but a strong and practical legal framework. Most 
fortunately for themselves, and for the (Ireat West, their wishes were fulfilled. 

Various additional ])rojects with respect to the new territories having come 
before Congress, a committee on the general subject was appointed. Its members 
were Messrs. Johnson of Connecticut, Pinckney of South Carolina, Smith of New 
York, Dane of Massachusetts, and Henry of Mar3'land. In September, 1786, an 
ordinance for the government of the territories was reported from that committee. 
It was a crude document, yet would doubtless have been passed on the day 
appointed for its third reading — May 9, 178r> — but for the antecedent appearance 
of the Ohio Company's agent on the scone. The presentation of that Company's 
petition by (general Parsons caused further proceedings as to the ordinance to be 
suspended. On the fifth of July Hev. Manasseh Cutler appeared in lieu of General 
Parsons as representative of the Ohio ('<)mj)any's interests, and this event is 
believed to have had some connection with the appointment of a new committee 
on territorial government which immediately followed. The raembei's of this com- 
mittee were Messrs. Kdward Carrington and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, 
Nathan Dane of Massaduist'tts, Kean of South Carolina and Smith of New York. 
From the hands of this committee came the legislative masterpiece known in his- 
tory, and famous for all time, as the Ordinance of 1787. It was entitled "An 
Ordinance lor the Government of the Territory of the United Stat<js Northwest of 
the Ohio," and was adopted in Congress July 13 by unanimous vote of all the 
States. Only one individual v(>t<j was recorded against it. 

Next to the Constitution, which followed in it the order of time, this ordinance 
is the most important act In the annals of American legislation. In 1830 Daniel 
Webster said of it : "We are accustomed to praise the lawgivers of an antiquity; 
we help to perpetuate the fame of Solon and Lycurgus; but I doubt whether one 
single law of any lawgiver, ancient or mo<lern, has produced effects of more d is- 
tinct, marked an<l lasting character, than the Ordinance of 1787. We see its conse- 
quences at this moment, and we shall never cease to see them, perhaps, while the 
Ohio shall flow." 

Thti authorship of this great ordinance has been variously ascribed. In its 
original form it was drawn by Nathan Dane, of Massachusetts, butthe ideas wMiich 
made it illustrious, and which fixed the character of the northwestern communities, 
were inserted afterwards, and seem to have emanated chiefly from the Virginia 
statesmen. The slavery prohibition, and that afterwards inserted in the Constitu- 
tion, forbidding all laws impairing tlie obligation of contracts, have both been 
attributed to Mr. Dane, but it is not certain that either was originally his. It is 
claimed that Doctor Cutler had considerable to do in molding the final character 
of the ordinance, and there are reasons for believing that, while it was being 
framed, the committee freely consulted him, and profited much by his suggestions. 
The sweeping assertion sometimes ijiade that he wasthe **Father of the Ordinance" 
is not sustained by historical evidence. 

One of the thoughttul forecasts of the Ohio Company was the adoption of a 
resolution reserving a tract of four thousand acres for city purposes at the mouth of 
the Muskingum. This was done in October, 1787. On the second of July, 1788, 

KoUNDINO OF Onio. Ill 

the directora held their first raeetiiig on the Hite of the propoHcd city, and ehris- 
tened it Marietta. The name was intended as a compliment to (^ueon Marie 
Antoinette, of France, whose conspicuous kindness to Franklin while representing 
the colonies at the court of Louis XVI. had touched the hearts of these brave pio- 
neers. To some of the streets and public places classical names were given which 
show how literary predilections, once well grounded, may predominate even amid 
the savage associations of the wilderness. One of the squares was called Capitolium, 
another (^uadranaou, and a third Cecilia; a prominent street, leading up from the 
landing, took the name of Sacra Via: a rectangular space, palisaded with hewed 
logs, was dignified as the Campus Martins. 

For some reason not arising from any immediate political necessity. Congress 
made haste to provide the new Territory with a full corps of officials. On the fifth 
of October, 1787, before a single emigrant had set out for the Ohio, Arthur St. ('lair 
was chosen as the Territorial (Governor. James M. Varnum, Samuel Holden 
Parsons, and John Armstrong, wore at the same time elected Judges, and Winthrop 
Sargent, Secretary. At a later date John (-leves Symmcs was named as Judge in 
lieu of Armstrong, who declined to serve. 

Governor St. Clair arrived at Fort Uarmar July li 1788. He remained at 
the fort until the fifteenth, when he was formally received at Marietta and 
delivered an address, which was replied to, in behalf of the colony, by (leneral 
Putnam. Such was the beginning of organized civil government in Ohio. 

Hy provision of the Ordinance, no legislature could be cho.sen until the terri- 
tory should contain fivo thousand free adult male inhabitants. Meanwhile it was 
made the duty of the Governor and Judges to provide such laws as might be neces- 
sary. These officials therefore addressed themselves at once to the formation of a 
statutory code. St. (-lair desired, first of all, a law for the organization of the 
militia, but the judges, pursuing some unique ideas of their own, drew up and pre- 
sented to him, instead, a scheme for the division of real estate. This scheme seems 
to have been chiefly intended for the despoilment of nonresidents. St. Clair 
rejected it, and a militia law was then passed. Other statutes which soon followed 
provided for the establishment of courts, the punishment of crimes, and the limita- 
tion of actions. On July twentyseventh the Governor established by proclamation 
the county of Washington, bounded south by the Ohio, east by Virginia and 
Pennsylvania, north by Lake Erie, west by the ('uyahoga and Tuscarawas as far 
south as Fort Laurens (now Bolivar), and thence by a line to the head of the 
Scioto and down that stream to its mouth. boundaries included the terri- 
tories now constituting the entire eastern half of Ohio and of Franklin Count}'. 
The seat of government for the county, as well as for the Territory, was at Marietta. 

The colony was soon increased by the arrival of additional settlers, until it 
numbered one hundred and thirty two. Officers of the militia were appointed, and 
also a corps of judicial officers, including justices of the peace and a judge of pro- 
bate. Rufus Putnam and Benjamin Tapper were made Judges of Common Pleas 
and on Tuesday, September 2, 1788, the first court ever held within the boundaries 
of Ohio was formally opened. On that memorable occasion "Governor St. Clair 
and other territorial officers, and miliUiry from Fort Harmar being assembled at 
the Point, a procession was formed, and, as became the occasion, with Colonel 
Ebenezer Sproat, Sheriff, withdrawn sword and wand of office at the head, marched 

112 History of the City of ('olitmbits. 

up a patb that had Ix'en cut tliroiigh the forest, to the hall in the iiortiiwent block- 
house ot* Campus Martius, where the whole eountermarcbed, and the Judges, 
Putnam and Tupper, took their seats on the high bench."* Rev. Manasseh Cutler, 
then visiting the colony, offered prayer, atlt^r which the commissionsof the Judges, 
(■lerk and Sheriff were read, and the Sheriff solemnly proclaimed : **0, yes! a court 
is opened lor the administration of even-handed justice to the poor and the rich, to 
the guilty and innocent, without respect of }»ersons, none to be punished without 
trial by their peers, an<l then in pursuance of the laws and evidence in the case." 

Several Indian chiefs, who liad been invited by (lovernor St. Clair Ut a con- 
ference, were witnesses of this curious scene. 

Such was the opening of the Court of (V>mmon IMeas. A court of <^uarter Ses- 
sions was opened Septend»er ninth. Paul Fearing was admitted to jmictice before 
it, and was the first lawyer in ihe Territory. 

A memoran<iuni of August 27 reads: *'.ludge Symmes, with several boats and 
families, arrived, on their way to his new |»urchase at the Miami. Has a dauffhter 
(Polly) along. They lodge with the <Jeneral and Mrs. Ilarmar. Stiiy three days 
and depart." 

This was a reinforcement for the second Knglish-sjicaking settlement in Ohio. 
In the Miami Valley that settlement was the first. It had its inception with Major 
Benjamin Stites, who descended the Ohio in a flat-boat in the spring of 1787, and 
ascended the Little Miami to the vicinity of Old Chillicothe. So captivated was 
Stites with the natural beauty of the countr}- that he determined to bring out a 
colony for its .settlement. Keturning east, he presented this idea to Judge John 
Cleves Symmes, then a member of Congress from New Jersey, who had himself 
visited the Miami country, and was readily persua<ied to undertake to purchase 
from Congress a tract of land in that region. In October, 1787, Symmes obtained 
a contract for a million acres, fronting on the Ohio, between the Big and Little 
Miami Rivers. Stites embarked on the Ohio with a party of twentysix colonists 
November 16, 1788, and a little after sunrise on the eighteenth landed at a point 
now within the corporate limits of Cincinnati. '* After making fast the boat," says 
the chronicler of this adventure, " tiiey ascended the steep bank and cleared away 
the underbrush in the midst of a pawpaw thicket, where the women and children 
sat down. They next placed sentinels at a small distance from the thicket, and, 
having first united in a song of praise to Almighty God, upon their knees they 
offered thanks for the past, and prayer for future protection." 

Blockhouses and log cabins were built, and the settlement was named Col- 

This colony was directly followed by a third, planted five miles further down 
the river, on a tract of six hundred and forty acres, bought of Judge Symmes by 
Matthias Denman. The price paid for this land, now covered by the city of Cin- 
cinnati, was thirty cents per acre. The tract fronted on the Ohio, directly opposite 
the mouth of the Licking. On the fifth of August, 1788, Mr. Denman associated 
with himself as partners in this enterprise Robert Patterson and John Filson. A 
short time aftt?rwards. Israel Ludlow took the place of Kilson, who was killed by 
the Indians. By Filson's suggctition, it is said, the colony took the name of 
Losantiville. Its original settlers, whose debarcation has been noted, were members 
of a party which had come west under Symmes, and halted atMaysville, Kentucky. 

FoiiNDJNo OF Ohio. 113 

The oxact date of thoir arrival at the Denman tract is somewliat uncertain; the 
date most generally accepted is December 28, 1788. They landed where the foot 
of Sycamore Street, Cincinnati, now rests, at a little inlet afterwards known as 
Yeatman's Cove. 

Ten months later, a detachment from Fort Harmar, under Major John Doughty, 
began the erection of a fort within the site of Losantivillo, directly opposite the 
mouth of the Licking. This work was completed the following winter (1789-90) 
and named Fort Washington. According to General Harmar, it was "built of 
hewn timber, a perfect square, two stories high, with four block houses at the 

The fourth settlement in the Ohio series was founded by Symmes in person, at 
North Bend, below Cincinnati. It dates from February, 1789. 

Governor St. Clair visited Fort Washington January 2, 1790, and after consulta- 
tion with Judge Symmes proclaimed the Symmes purchase as the county of Hamil- 
ton. The credit seems to be due to the (Jovernor of having blotted out, at the same 
time, the name of Losantiville, and caused the seat ofgovei'ment of the new county 
to hi.' known thenceforth as Cincinnati. 

The fiRh settlement in the series was that of the French colony, to which 
reference has already been made. It had its beginning in 1791, and took the ap- 
propriate name of Gallipolis. 

The first settlement in the Virginia Military District was founded at Manches- 
ter, on the Ohio River, in 1791, by Colonel Nathaniel Massie. In the pursuit of 
his duties as a surveyor, engaged in locating lands for the holders of Virginia 
militar}^ warrants, Colonel Massie found it necessary to establish a station for his 
party, convenient to the scene of his labors. A tract of bottom land on the Ohio, 
opposite the lower of the Three Islands, was chosen, and thither some Kentucky 
families were induced to emigrate. The entire town was surrounded by a line of 
wooden pickets firmly planted, with blockhouses at the salients. In the further, 
prosecution of his work. Colonel Massie explored the Scioto and became promi- 
nently identified with its early settlement. In 179(5 he lai<l out the town of (Miil- 
licothe on ground then covered by a dense forest. The settlement established 
there under his auspices was soon largely reinforced from Kentucky and Virginia. 

Up to this period colonial enterprise had been limited entirely to the southern 
portions of the future State. Emigrants and explorers had naturally drifted down 
the Ohio, and had aimed, thus far, to keep within reach of its facilities for communi- 
cation. Central Ohio was yet unexplored. In Northern Ohio a settlement was 
made July 4, 1796, at the mouth of Conneaut Creek, by a colony of fifty two 
emigrants from Connecticut under General Moses Cleveland. In September and 
October of the same \'ear General Cleveland and his associate surveyors laid out a 
town at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, but only two families passed the winter of 
1796-7 within its limits. In honor of its thunder the ])lace took the name of Cleve- 
land. The original colonists, both there and at Conneaut, sutfe red greatly from in- 
sufficiency of food. 

Ai\4ir the settlements along the Ohio, which have been mentioned, emigration 
began to pour into the country very rapidly. This excited the jealousy of the 
Indians; nor was this their only incentive to discontent. The treaties of Forts 
Mcintosh, Stan wix and Finney had been imperfectly Tinderstood by some of the 


114 Htrtort of thf. Citt of roLFMBrs. 

tribes, and very grudgingly acquiesced in by others. Even those who had con- 
sented to them regretted it when they saw the consequences of the act in the steady 
advance of colonization into the territories where they had been accustomed to 
roam in boundless treedom. Added to all this was the disquietude produced b}* the 
intrigues of the British, who still tnaint^iined their military posts in the Northwest, 
and kept up their trade relations with the Indians. 

This condition of things led to numerous forays by the savages along the border, 
and a state of great uneasiness in the settlements. Property was destro^'ed, un- 
protected frontiersmen were murdered, or borne away in captivity, and the navi- 
gation of the Ohio River was made exceedingly perilous, (rovernor St. Clair 
endeavored to assuage the hostility of the border tribes by friendly advances, but 
without success. He tinally succeeded in arranging a conference with their chiefs 
at Fort Harmar. and in pursuance of this arrangement two hundred warriors made 
their appearance at the Fort. On December 13, 1788, they arrived in procession, 
and were saluted by a discharge of firearms. Troops, with music playing, escorted 
them into the enclosure, and the negotiations with them formally proceeded. 
Among those present as peacemakers was John Hecke welder, the famous Moravian 
missionary. On January 9, 1789, two treaties were concluded at this conference, 
one of them being signed by twenty four chiefs of the Six Nations, the other by 
the representatives of the Wyandots, Delawares. Ottawas, Sacs, Chippewas and 

The stipulations thus entered into confirmed the treaties previously made, and 
were signalized by a large distribution of j)resents to the contracting savages, but 
without producing the desired result. The border disturbances were soon renewed, 
and the settlers appealed loudly for military protection. By correspondence with 
the authorities of Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky, Governor St. Clair suc- 
ceeded in collecting a force about fourteen hundred strong at Fort Washington, 
where General Josiah Harmar, commanding the Western Department, held his 
headquarters. The expedition set out from the Fort in September, 1790, aiming to 
strike through the woods to the Miami villages by wa}' of Old Chillicothe. Gen- 
eral Harmar was in command. His force comprised 320 regulars under Majors 
Willys and Doughty, and 1033 militia under Colonel Hardin, a veteran of the Con- 
tinental Army. The militia were shabbily equipped and poorly officered. When 
they met the enemy they broke and ran, leaving the regulars to do the fighting. 
General Harmar and Colonel Hardin, both brave, capable officers, did what they 
could to rally the cowards, but their efforts were unavailing. The Miamis were 
led by their great chief. Little Turtle. The expedition burned some of the Indian 
villages, and destroyed a large amount of ripening corn, but lost heavily in killed 
and wounded. 

This failure, for such it practially was, emboldened the Indians, and led to the 
formation of a confederacy of the northwestern tribes to annihilate the settlements. 
To meet this emergency Congress pa.ssed a law in pursuance of which General St. 
Clair was made military as well as civil governor of the Territory, and appointed 
chief commander in the West. After much effort St. Clair succeeded in gathering 
together about two thousand men for the renewal of operations against the 
Indians. The troops assembled at Fort Washington, and seem to have consisted, for 
the most part, of the scum of the border. Their fighting qualities and equipment 

F^ouNDiNO OF Ohio. 115 

were alike shabby. At the head of this force St. Clair set out from Fort Washington 
September 17, 1791, and made his way by a road cut through the woods to the 
point where now stands the city of Ilamilton. Here he erected Fort Hamilton. Fort 
St. Clair was established about twenty miles further on, and Fort Jeflferson about six 
miles south of the present town of Greenville. The march through the woods was 
difficult, and desertions took place daily. Indians hovered about but offered no seri- 
ous resistance until November 4, when the army was suddenly attacked by fifteen 
hundred warriors led by Little Turtle. The action took place within the present 
limits of Mercer County, and resulted in a complete victory for the Indians. The 
militia were struck first, and fled precipitiitely through the lines of regulars under 
General Butler. The pursuing Indians were charged by Butler, who fell mortally 
wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel William Darke, commanding Butler's second line, 
also charged, and for a time held the savages at bay. General St. Clair was sick 
at the time of the battle, yet appeared in the thick of the tight, and exerted himself 
to rally the troops. He was finally obliged to give orders for a retreat, which 
quickly grew into disorderly flight. The losses were terrible. The wounded 
numbered 283, the killed and missing <i30. All the artillery and baggage on the 
field were lost. The captured were subjected to horrible tortures. The fugitives 
who escaped rallied at Fort Jefferson, whence the retreat was continued in shame- 
ful disorder back to Fort Washington.'' 

Stimulated by their success in this affair, the Indians carried on their preda- 
tory war more actively than ever. " To describe the bloody scenes that ensued for 
twelve months," says one writer, "would reciuire a volume for that alone."* The 
settlers along the Muskingum and the Miamis were obliged to seek refuge within 
the forts. St. Clair, though acquitted of all blame hy a committee of ('ongress, re- 
signed his commission in the army, and devoted himself exclusively to his civil 
functions as Governor of the Northwest. President Washington asked for author- 
ity to recruit three additional regiments of infantry and one of cavalry for a term 
of three years, unless peace with the Indians should sooner be made. This request, 
moderate an<l reasonable as it was, provoked great opposition. The infant republic 
was poor, and the States, already heavily in debt, were to being further taxed 
for the protection of new settlements. Even the abandonment of the country west of 
the Ohio was seriously proposed. Finally the military establishment was increas- 
ed to four regiments of infantry, one of the cavalry, and a proportionate equip- 
ment of artillery, making an aggregate of five thousand men. The leader appoint- 
ed for this little urmy — an army in himself — was the hero of Stony Point, Gen- 
eral Anthony- Wayne. Commissioners to negotiate peace were sent out from Wash- 
ington, but accomplished nothing, (reneral ilutus Putnam, aided by the Moravian 
Heckewelder, concluded a treaty with the Wabash and Illinois tribes only. The 
others demanded, as an ultimatum, that tlie whites should recede beyond the Ohio. 

General Wayne, with Wilkinson second in command, pushed his pre|)arations. 
With a force three thousand strong he quitted Fort Washington October 7, 1793, 
and advanced six miles l)eyond Fort Jefferson. Here he established a fortified 
camp, near the presenl site of Greenville, Darke Count}', and called it Fort Green- 
ville. A detachment un<ler Wilkin.son gathenul up the bones of the slain on the 
field of St. Clair's defeat, and erected there Fort Recovery. A band of Indians 
under Little Turtle, assisted by officers in British uniform, attacked this fort June 

116 History of the City of Columbus. 

30, 1794, but was repulsed after a stubborn fight in which the officer commanding 
the fort. Major McMahon, and twentj'one of his men, were slain. On the eighth 
of August General Wayne resumed his advance. Quitting Fort Defiance on the 
fifteenth, he moved down the Maumee, with his right brushing the river, and on the 
nineteenth arrived at the head of the Rapids. Here he reconnoitered his front and 
found the Indians strongly posted amid fallen timber, behind a thick wood. They 
were drawn up in three mutualh' supporting lines, covering a front of two miles, 
and forming a right angle with the river. Behind them was the British fort. 

Early on the twentieth General Wayne moved to the attack. His force com- 
prised about two thousand regulars, and eleven hundred Kentucky cavalry under 
General Scott. The Indians, two thousand strong, were led by Little Turtle. As 
Wayne advanced, they undertook to turn his right, but he foiled them in this by 
precipitating Scott*s cavalry upon their right. At the same time. General Wayne 
brought forward his reserves, and ordered a charge, with trailed arms, to dislodge 
the Indians from their covert. This charge was delivered with great impetuosity, 
and was entirel}' successful. Within the space of an hour the enemy was driven 
from the. windfall and thicket and pursued two miles. The cornfields of the In- 
dians were then laid waste, and their lodges burned, even to within pistolshotof 
the British garrison. After a peppery correspondence with the British command- 
ant. General Wayne returned by easy marches to Defiance, but continued the work 
of destruction until all the Indian villages within fifty miles of the Maumee were 
blotted out. Wayne's loss in the battle was only one hundred and seven. 

This brilliant campaign tranquilized the entire frontier, from the Lakes to 
Florida, and culminated in a treaty concluded at Fort Greenville August 3, 1795, 
by which the Indians released to the Americans all their lands in the Northwest, 
except a few specified reservations. The reserved tracts comprised about onefifth 
of the present territory of Ohio, lying in its northwestern corner. In considera- 
tion of the lands given up, the Indians were paid twenty thousand dollars in 
merchandise, and guaranteed a personal annuity of nine thousand dollars, to be 
apportioned among the contracting tribes. The signatory chiefs agreed to deliver 
up all captives, and to keep the peace forever. 

After the Ti'eaty of Greenville the tide of emigration to the Northwest set in 
with renewed energy. In Ohio, new settlements rapidly followed one another 
along the valleys of the Miami, Scioto, Cuyahoga, Muskingum and Mahoning. In 
1790 the white population within the present area of the State numbered about 
three thousand ; in 1787 it fulfilled the prerequisite of " five thousand free male in- 
habitants of full age," fixed by the Ordinance of 1787 for the choice of a general 
assembly. The Governor therefore ordered an election of territorial representa- 
tives, to take place on the third Monday in December, 1798. Wayne County, with 
its seat of government at Detroit, was proclaimed August 15, 1795. It included 
the territories now constituting the northern half of Ohio, Northern Indiana, and 
all of Michigan. Adams County was proclaimed July 10, Jefferson July 29, and 
Ross August 20, 1797. 

The representatives to the first General Assembly of the Northwest Territory 
convened at Cincinnati, February 4, 1799. The Ordinance of 1787 required that 
they should be freeholders owning not less than two hundred acres each, and 
should be chosen by freeholders owning not less than fifty acres each. It was their 

Founding ok Ohio. 117 

first duty to nominate ten residents of the Territory, each possessing a freehold of 
not less than five hundred acres, from whom a Legislative Council of five members 
could be chosen by Congress. These nominations being made, the first session ad- 
journed without other transactions of importance, until September IG. The mem- 
bers of the first Council, selected by President Adams from the legislative nomi- 
nees, were Eobert Oliver, of Washington County; Jacob Burnett and James Find- 
lay, of Hamilton County; David Vance of Jefl^erson ; and Henry Vandenburg of 
Enox. The first General Assembly of the Territory, comprising the Governor, 
the Council and twentytwo Representatives, convened at Cincannati, September 
16, 1799, and adjourned from day to day, for lack of quorum, until September 23, 
when Henry Vandenburg, of Knox, was elected President of the Council and Ed- 
ward TiflSn of Ross, Speaker of the House. Governor St. Clair addressed the two 
houses in joint meeting September 2f). Jacob Burnett was appointed to prepare a 
respectful response to the Governor s speech. The response was agreed to by both 
houses and was replied to by the Governor. On September 30 Joseph Carpenter 
was elected Public Printer, and on October Jj the two houses in joint session elected 
William Henry Harrison to represent the Territory as Delegate in Congress. 
Governor St. Clair created the office of Attorney-General, and appointed his son, 
Arthur St. Clair, to that position. A petition from Virginia settlers, asking per- 
mission to bring their slaves into the Virginia military lands in the Territory, was 
unanimously refused. 

During its first session the General Assembly pas.sed aboiil thirty j)ublic acts, 
from eleven of which the Governor, pursuant to the authority veste<l in him, with- 
held his apj)roval. Its rules won* ])repan'<l by Jacob Burrictl, who was also the 
author of much of its most important legislation. Act^ regulating marriages and 
taverns, creating new counties and changing 'the boundaries of ct>unties already 
existing were among those vetoed. These vetoes produced dissatisfaction with 
Governor St. Clair's administration which he afterwards found inconvenient. On 
December 10, 1799, he prorogued the General Assembly until the first Monday in 
November, 1800. In his prorogation speech, hu gave reasons for his vetoes. 

At the time of his election as Territorial Delegate to Congress, Mr. Harrison was 
serving as Secretary of the Territory, in which office he had succeeded Winthrop 
Sargent, the first Secretary, who had been appointed Governor of the new Territory 
of Mississippi. The candidate for delegate against Harrison was Arthur St. Clair, 
the Governor's son, who was defeated by a majority of one.'® Agitation for a 
division of the Territory, and admission of the eastern portion as a State, had 
already begun, and Delegate Harrison, who had been elected as an advocate of 
both projects, was made chairman of the committee on division. St. Clair favored 
a temporary organization of the Territory in three districts, the eastern, with 
Marietta as its capital, to be bounded on the west by the Scioto and a line from 
thence to the western extremity of the Connecticut Reserve; the central, with its seat 
of government at Cincinnati, to have its western limits at a line drawn northward 
from the Kentucky River; and the western, with Vincennes as its capital, to em- 
brace all the territory west of the middle district. Congress finally determined the ' 
matter by an act passed May 7, 1800, making the division upon a line drawn from 
the mouth of the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery, and thence northward to the 
Canada boundary. From the region west of that line the Territory ot Indiana 

118 History op the City of CouTMBrs. 

was orgaDized, with William H. HarriMion afl Governor, and Colonel John Gibson, 
of Pennsylvania, as Secretary. The jurisdiction of the Northwest was thenceforth 
limited to the territorial area east of the dividing line, and its seat of government 
was fixed at Chillicothe. The county of Knox falling wholly within the Territory 
of Indiana, Henry Vandonburg, who resided in that county, ceased to be a mem- 
ber of the Legislative Council for the Northwest, and was succeeded by Solomon 
Sibley, of Detroit, Wayne County. 

The transfer of the territorial capital from Cincinnati to Chillicothe was 
brought about by the settlere who had poured into the Scioto Valley. These were 
almost exclusively Virginians and Kentuckians. The settlements iu the Muskin- 
gum Valley, and along the Ohio, except the French colony at Gallipolis, had thus 
far been derived mainly from Now England. Cincinnati and the valleys of the 
two Miamis attracted the Pennsylvanians and later the Irish and German immi- 
grants. The Western Reserve colony called itself New (Connecticut, and persisted 
in retaining its allegiance to the State of its origin. The civil jurisdiction of 
Washington County, within which it was included by Governor St. Clair, was 
ignored. After the colony had suffered much loss and embarrassment from the 
lack of civil government, the Connecticut Land Company asked the State to abate 
the interest due on its payments. This precipitated action by which Connecticut, 
on May 30, 1800, relinquished all jurisdiction over the Western Reserve, and all 
claim to lands therein conveyed by her authority. On July 10, Governor St. 
Clair reorganized the district, including the entire Reserve, as Trumbull County, 
with its seat of government at Warren. At its first election for Representatives 
this county cast only fortytwo votes. 

The first Territorial General Assembly held its second session at Chillicothe 
beginning November 3, and ending December 9. 1800. It elected William McMil- 
lan, of Cincinnati, as Territorial Delegate to Congress, in lieu of Mr. Harrison, who 
had resigned. Not much other business of importance was transacted. The 
session was proro^rued by Governor St. Clair. At the third and last session, which 
began November 24, ISOl, acts were passed to incorporate the towns of Cincinnati, 
Chillicothe and Detroit; to establish a universitj' at Athens on land granted by 
Congress for that purpose ; and to remove the scat of government from Chillicothe 
back to Cincinnati. The removal of the capital aroused so much feeling in Chilli- 
cothe, that for a time the members who voted for it were threatened with mob 
violence. It also accelerated the movement already begun, for admission of the 
Territory as a State in the Union. On January 23, 1802, the Territorial General 
Assemblj'^ adjourned to meet on the fourth Monday in November, 1803, but it 
never reassembled. 

The politics of the Territory had, at this time, reached an acute stage. The 
struggle by which Thomas Jefferson had gained the Presidency, finally by choice 
of the House of Representatives, had been hotly contested. Mr. Jefferson's 
partisans were known as Republicans; those of his antagonist, Mr. Adams, took 
the party name of Federalists. The closeness of the contest produced the 
temptation which has appeared at various times since, to widen the electoral mar- 
gin between the predominant parties by the admission of new States. Party spirit 
was at high tide in all parts of the country, and nowhere more so than in the 
Northwest Territory. Such was the intensity of political feeling that iu 1801 the 
two parties in Hamilton County held separate celebrations of the Fourth of July. 

Founding op Ohio. 119 

The Federalists of the Territory were led by Governor St. Clair, Jacob Burnet, 
Rufns Putnam and Benjamin Stites; the Republicans by Thomas Worthington, 
Nathaniel Massie, John Clevos Symmes and Doctor Edward Tiffin. Parallel with 
the issues between the parties ran the differences which had arisen betw^een Gover- 
nor St. Clair and the Territorial General Assembly. These differences related 
chiefly to the right of establishing now counties and determining their boundaries. 
The Governor stoutly maintained that these functions belonged to himself ex- 
clusively; the General Assembly maintained with equal positiveness that "after 
the Governor had laid out the country into counties and townships," it was com- 
petent for the legislative body to pass laws "altering, dividing and multiplying 
them," subject to executive approval. 

Owing to this and other disputes, Governor St. Clair's retention in office was 
strongly opposed. He was reappointed by President Adams, but this only changed 
the form of the intrigues for his displacement. Personal and political enmities 
were alike marshaled for his overthrow. On the other hand, a strong party rallied 
around him, and proposed to make him the first Governor of the new State. In 
pursuance of this ambition the St. Clair party brought forward in the Legislative 
Council a scheme to procure such an amendment of the Ordinance of 1787 as would 
make the Scioto River the western boundary of the most eastern State to be formed 
from the Northwest Territory. This scheme was vigorously opposed by the Re- 
publican leaders, who determined to send one of their number to Washington to 
labor there for its defeat. Thomas Worthington was chosen for this purpose, and 
was ably seconded by Nathaniel Massie and Edward Tiffin. It was Worthington 's 
mission not only lo defeat the St. Tlair scheme, but to obtain such legislation by 
Congress as would enable the Territory as it then was to gain admission to the 
Union. Incidentally he sought also St. Clair's deposition from the territorial gov- 
ernorship. The change which took place in the national administration favored 
him in all his endeavors, and he was in all successful. 

The Ordinance of 1787 required as a condition to the admission of the Territory 
as a State that it should contain sixtj- thousand free inhabitants. According 
to the census of 1800 it actually contained only 45,365. This difficulty was re- 
moved by an act of Congress passed April 30, 1802, enabling the people of the 
Eastern District to frame a constitution and organize a State government. This, 
it was hoped, would add another State to the Republican phalanx. 

In pursuance of the enabling act, a constitutional convention assembled at 
Chillicothe November 1, 1802. It was discreetly chosen, and accomplished its work 
in twentyfive days. Early in its deliberations it was addressed by Governor St. 
Clair, whose speech on that occasion has been differently reported. According to 
Judge Burnet, It was "sensible and conciliatory;" others assert that it opposed 
the formation of a State government, and criticised the administration of President 
Jefferson. The Governor's removal from office followed directly. Mr. Madison, 
the Secretary of State, notified him of it by letter dated November 22, 1802. 
Charles W.Byrd, Secretary of the Territory, thenceforward served as its Governor 
until the first state executive was installed. 

The Constitution of 1802 defined the boundaries of the State, provisionally, 
and established the seat of governmet at Chillicothe until 1808. It was never sub- 
mitted for popular acceptance at the polls. Congress approved it by act of Feb- 
ruary 19, 1803, and from that act dates the birth of Ohio as a State in the Union. 

120 History of the City of Columbus, 

« • 


1. It provided for a rectangular system of surveys, dividing the public domain into 
ranges, townships and sections, the boundaries being all in the direction of the cardinal 
points of the compass, so that a locality is designated by its distance east or west from a 
given meridian, and north or south of a given parallel, as a ship's place at sea by its longi- 
tude and latitude. The starting-point was at the place of intersection of the west line of 
Pennsylvania with the north bank of the Ohio River. From this point a line drawn west 
fortytwo miles was to form the base for the first seven ranges, from which at the six-mile 
points lines were to be run south to the Ohio River. The great system of surveys thus 
inaugurated has been applied to all the public domain, and through its simplicity and exact- 
ness of description has proved of incalculable value to all who have become owners of the 
soil. — Prmdeni Israel Ward Andrews^ LL, D., of Marietta College, 

2. Ibid. 

3. • Among the eminent members of the Company were Governors James Bowdoin, 
Caleb Strong and Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, the latter also at one time Vice-President 
of the United States; Governor William Greene, of Rhode Island; Governor Jonathan 
Trumbull, of Connecticut ; Samuel Dexter, United States Senator from Massachusetts and 
Secretary of the Treasury ; Uriah Tracy, United States Senator from Connecticut ; Ebenezer 
Hazzard, Postmaster-General under the Continental Congress; Brockholst Livingston, Asso- 
ciate Justice of the United States Supreme Court ; Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary 
of the Treasury ; Henry Knox, the first Secretary of War; and President Joseph Willard, of 
Harvard College. 

4. Colonel E. C. Dawes, in the Magazine of American Tlwtory for December, 188U. 

5. Fort Harraar was built by Major John Doughty in the autumn of 1785, at the mouth 
(right bank) of the Muskingum River. The detachment of United States troops under com- 
mand of Major Doughty were part of Josiah Harmar's regiment, and hence the fort was 
named in his honor. The outlines of the fort formed a regular pentagon, including about 
three quarters of an acre. Its walls were formed of large horizontal timbers, the bastions 
being about fourteen feet high*, set firmly in the earth. In the rear of the fort Major 
Doughty laid out fine gardens, in which were many peach trees, originating the familiar 
** Doughty peach." The fort was occupied by a United States garrison until September, 
1790, when they were ordered to Fort Washington (Cincinnati). A company under Captain 
Haskell continued to make the fort headquarters during the Indian war of 1790-95. From 
the date of the settlement at Marietta, across the Muskingum, in the spring of 1788, the fort 
was constantly occupied by settlers, then rapidly filling the country.— 3fi/t^ary Posts in Ohio ; 
by A, A. Graham. Archxological and Hiatorical Quarterly. 

6. Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair; by William H. Smith. 

7. Rev. Ezra Ferris. 

8. Atwater, with his usual defiance of syntactical rules, narrates the following dubious 
story : " There were in the army, at the commencement of the action, about two hun- 
dred and fifty women, of whom fiftysix were killed in the battle, and the remainder were 
made prisoners by the enemy, except a small number who rc^ached Fort Washington. One 
of the survivors lived until recently in Cincinnati, a Mrs. Catharine Miller. This woman ran 
ahead of the whole army in their flight from the field of battle. Her large quantity of long 
red hair floated in the breeze, which the soldiers followed through the woods, as their fore- 
runner that moved rapidly onward to the place of their ultimate destination."— i/wtory of 

9. Smith's Life of St. Clair. 

10. The votes stood, eleven for Harrison to ten for St. Clair, 

FouNDiNO OF Onio. 121 


«/>»vr«*)r— General Arthur St. Clair, from 1788 to 1802; Charles W. 
Byrd (acting), 1802-1803. 

^SrvTf f<in*>j — Major Winthrop Sargent, from 1788 to 1798 ; William H. Harrison, 
from 1798 to 1799 : Charles Willing Byrd, 1799 to 1803. 

^itfirney-Gtufral — Arthur St. Clair, Junior, appointed in 1796. 

Troimrer — John Armstrong, from 1792 to 1803. 

^-1 tulitors of Ptibh'c Acrouftta — Rice Bullock, December 18, 1799; Thomas Gibson, 
in IBOO. 

Territorial Judtje.^ — James M. Varnum, October 16, 1787, January, 1789; 
Samuel H. Parsons, October 16, 1787, November 10, 1789 ; John Armstrong, October 
16, 1 T87, declined to accept ; John Cleves Symmes, from February 19, 1788, to March 
3, 18€3; William Barton, August 20, 1789, refused to serve; George Turner, 
Septomber 12, 1789, resigned in 1797 ; Rufus Putnam, March 31, 1790, served until 
1796 ; Joseph Gilman, from December 22, 1796, to March 3, 1803; Rettirn J, Meigs, 
Junior, from February 12, 1798, to March 3, 1803. 

CVfrks of Governor atni of Ttrn'toritfl Court — William Col lis, appointed in 
'""^ptember, 1788; Armistead Churchill, appointed May 29, 1795; Daniel Symmes, 
time of service unknown. 

X)iJt'ij(ites in (^onf/nss — William II. Ilurrison, from 1799 to 1800; William 
^cHillan, from 1800 to 1801 ; Paul Fearing, from 1801 to 1803. 

The following is a list of Territorial Counties with dates of proehunation and 
nani^gQf QQmj^y seats: 

A^ashington, July 27, 1788, Marietta; Hamilton, January 2, 1790, Cincinnati; 

pt-. Olair, February, 1790, Cahokia; Knox, in the year 1790, Vincennes; Randolph, 

>n Lli^» year 1795, Kaskaskia; Wayne, August 15, 1795, Detroit: Adams, July 10, 

^J^"^, Manchester; Jefferson, July 29, 1797, Steubenville; Ross, August 20, 1797, 

^^^i 1 1 leothe ; Trumbull, July 10, 1800, Warren; Clermont, December 6, 1800, 

^•tiamsburg; Fairfield, December 9, 1800, New Lancaster; Belmont, Sopterabcr 

^* ^HOL St. Clairsville. 

"When the State of Ohio was organized in 1803, four of the counties above 
^*^**^«d fell outside of its limits. St. Clair and Randolph formed a part of the 
*^^^^cnt area of Illinois, Knox of Indiana, and Wayne of Michigan. 

Following is a list of the early territorial towns, with the names of their pro- 
P^'ifsiors and dates of foundation : 

Marietta, 1788, Rufus Putnam, for the Ohio Lund Company. 

Columbia, 1788, Benjamin Stites, Major (iano, and others. 

Cincinnati, 1789, Robert Patterson, Matthias Dennian and Israel Ludlow. 

Manchester, 1791. Nathaniel Massie. 

Ciallipolis, 1791, a French colony. 

Hamilton, 1794, Israel Ludlow. 

Dayton, 1795, Israel Ludlow and Generals Dayton and Wilkinson. 

Franklin, 1795, W. C. Schenck and Daniel C. Cooper. 

Cbillicothe, 1796, Nathaniel Massie. 

Cleveland, 1796, Job V. Styles. 

Franklinton, 1797, Lucas SuUivant. 

Steuben vi lie, 1798, Basaliel Wells and James Ross. 

Williamsburg, 1799. General William Lytle. 

Znuesville, 1799, Jonathan Zane and John Mclntire. 

New Lancaster, 1800, Ebenezer Zane. 

Warren, 1801, Ephraim Quinby. 

St. Clairsville, 1801, David Newell. 

Springfield, 1801, James Demint. 

Newark, 1802, W. C. Schenck, G. W. Burnett, and J. N. Cummings. 


Legislative Council — Jacob Burnet and James Findlay of Hamilton County ; 
Kobert Oliver of Washington County; David Vance of Jefferson County and 
Henry Vandenburg of Knox County. 

Representatives — Joseph Darlington, Nathaniel Massie, Adams County; Wil- 
liam Goforth, William McMillan, John Smith, John Ludlow, Robert Benham, 
Aaron Caldwell, Isaac Martin, Hamilton County; James Pritchard, Jefi^erson 
County; John Small, Knox County; John Edgar, Randolph County; Thomas 
Worthington, Elias Langham, Samuel Findlay, Edward Tiffin, Ross County; 
Shadrack Bond, St. Clair County; Return Jonathan Meigs, Paul Fearing, Wash- 
ington County; Solomon Sibley, Jacob Visgar, Charles F. Chabart de Joncaire, 
Wayne County. 

Officers of the Co?/ n(??7— President, Henry Vandenburg; Secretary, William C. 
Schenck; Doorkeeper. George Howard; Sergeant-at-Arms, Abraham Cary. 

Officers of the House — Speaker, Edward Tiffin ; Clerk, John Riley ; Doorkeeper, 
Joshua Rowland ; Sergeant-at-Arms, Abraham Cary. 


Legislative Co unci I —B^oheri Oliver, Washington County ; Jacob Burnet, James 
Findlay, Hamilton County ; David Vance, Jefferson Count}' ; Solomon Sibley, 
Wayne County. Robert Oliver was elected President. 

Officers of the House — Speaker, Edward Tiffin ; Clerk, John Riley ; Doorkeeper 
Edward Sherlock. 

Representatives — Joseph Darlington, Nathaniel Massie, Adams County ; Moses 
Miller, Francis Dunlavy, Jeremiah Morrow, John Ludlow, John Smith, Jacob 
White, Daniel Reeder, Hamilton County; Zenas Kimberly, John Milligan, Thomas 
McCiine, Jefferson County; Edward Tiffin, Thomas Worthington, Elias Langham, 
Ross County; Edward Paine, Trumbull County; Ephraim Culler, William Rufus 
Putnam, Washington Count}'; Frances J . Chabert, George McDougal, Jonathan 
Schieffelin, Wayne County. 


Temporary Officers — President, William Golbrth ; Secretary, William McFar- 

Permanent Officers — President, Edward Tiffin; Secretary, Thomas Scott; As- 
sistant Secretary, VV^illiain McFarland. 

Mertibers — Josi.'yih Darlington, Israel Donaldson, Thomas Kirker, Adam 
County; James Caldwell, Elijah Woods, Belmont County; Philip Gatch, Jam< 

Founding or Ohio. 


Sargent, Clermont County ; Henry Abrams, Emanuel Carpenter, Fairfield County ; 
John W. Browne, Charles Willing Byrd, Frances Dunlavy^ William Goforth, John 
Kitchel, Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, John Reily, John Smith, John Wilson, 
Hamilton County ; Kudolf Bair, George Humphrey, John Milligan, Nathan Upde- 
graif, Bazaliel Wells, Jefferson County; Michael Baldwin, Edward Tiffin, James 
Grubb, Thomas Worthington, Nathaniel Massie, Ross County ; David Abbot, 
Samuel Huntington, Trumbull County; Ephraim Cutler, Benjamin Ives Gilman, 
Rufus Putnam, John Mclntire, Washington County. 


1. The foregoing synopsis of the Territorial Government has been compiled from an 
article entitled ** Our Territorial Statesmen," by Isaac Smucker, in the Magazine of WaUrn 
Hutory for January, 1885. 



Arthur St. Clair' . 
Charles W. Byrd » 
Edward Tiffin ^ 
Thomas Kirker* 
Samuel Huntington 
Return Jonathan Meigs 
Othniel Looker * 
Thomas Worthington 
Ethan Allen Brown'' 
Allen Trimble* 
Jeremiah Morrow . 
Allen Trimble . 
Duncan Mc Arthur 
Robert Lucas 
Joseph Vance 
Wilson Shannon 
Thomas Corwin 
Wilson Shannon '' 
Thomas W. Bartley * 
Mordecai Bartley 
William Bebb 
Seabury Ford * . 
Reuben Wood* 
William Medill '• 
Salmon P. Chase . 
William Dennison 
David Tod 
John Brough " f 
Charles Anderson f 
Jacob D. Cox 
Rutherford B, Hayes . 










Highland . 

Warren . 



. Belmont 

Warren . 
. Belmont 





. Fairfield 

. Franklin 


Cuyahoga . 


Trumbull . 






















1844-1 846 













History op the City of Columbus. 

State Govemon— Continued. 



Sandusky . 









Edward F. Noyos ... 

William Allen 

Rutherford B. Hayes '* 

Thomas L. Young f . . . 

Richard M. Bishop 

Charles Foster .... 

George Hoadly .... 

Joseph B. Foraker 

James E. Campbell . . . , 

William McKinley 

1. Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, was Governor of the Northwest Territory, of which 
Ohio was a part, from July 113,. 1788, when the first civil government was established in the 
Territory, until about the close of the year 1802, when he was removed by the President 

2. Secretary of the Territory, and was acting Governor of the Territory after the re- 
moval of Governor St. Clair. 

S. Resigned March 3, 1807, to accept the ofKce of United States Senator. 

4. Return Jonathan Meigs was elected Governor on the second Tuesday of October, 
1807, over Nathaniel Massie, who contested the election of Meigs on the ground " that he had 
not been a resident of this State for four years next preceding the election as re^^uired by the 
Constitution," and the General Assembly, in joint convention, decided that he was not 
eligible. The office was not given to Massie, nor does it appear from the records that he 
claimed it. but Thomas Kirker, acting Governor, continued to discharge the duties of the 
office until December 12, 1808, when Samuel Huntington was inaugurated, he having been 
elected on the second Tuesday of October in that year. 

5 Resigned March 25, 1814, to accept the office of Postmaster-General of the United 

0. Resigned January 4, 1822, to accept the office of United States Senator. 

7. Resigned April 13, 1844, to accept the office of Minister to Mexico. 

8. The result of the election in 1848 was not finally determined in joint convention of 
the two houses of the General Assembly until January 11), 1849, and the inauguration did 
not take place until the twentysecond of that month. 

9. Resigned July 15, 1853, to accept the office of Consul to Valparaiso. 

10. Electfd in October, 1853, for the regular term, to commence on the second Monday 
of January, 1854. 

11. Died August 29, 1865. 

12. Resigned March 2, 1877, to accept the office of President of the United States. 
•Acting Governor. Succeeded to office, as President of the Senate. 

tActing Governor. Succeeded to office as Lieutenant-Governor. 


William Medill 
James Myei^s 
Thomas Ford 
Martin Welker 
Robert C. Kirk 
Benjamin Stanton 
Charles Anderson 
Andrew G. McBurnc}- 
John C. Lee 
Jacob Mueller 
Alphonso Hart 


1 854-1 85(j 

Thomas L. Young* 
H. W. Curtiss^^ 
Jaboz W. Fitch 
Andrew Hickenloopor 
R. G. Richards . 
John G. Warwick 
Robert P. Kenno<ly^ . 
Silas A. Conrad* 
William C. Lyon 
William V. Marquis 


Founding op Ohio, 


1. Under the new Constitntion of 1861, term two years. Until the year 1862, when the 
new State Constitution went into effect, the presiding officer of the Senate was elected by the 
Senate, and called Speaker. Since 1852, the Lieutenant-Governor has been the presiding 
officer of the Senate, and called President. 

2. Became Governor, vice Rutherford B. Hayes, who resigno<l March 2, 1877, to become 
President of the United States. 

3. Acting Lieutenant-Governor, vice Thomas L. Young. 

4. Resigned to take a seat in Congress. 

5. Acting Lieutenant-Governor, vice Robert P. Kennedy. 


William Creighton, Jr.* 
Jeremiah McLene 
M.08es H. Kirby 
B. Hinkson'* 
Carter B. Harlan 
William Trcvitt . 

John Sloanc 

Samuel Galloway . 

Henry W. King 

William Trevitt 

James H. Baker 

Addison P. Russell 

Benjamin R. Co wen* 


Wilson S. Kennon 
William W. Armstrong 
William H. Smith* 
John Eusseil 
iRaac R. Sherwood 
Allen T. Wikoff 
William Bell, Jr. 
Milton Barnes 
Charles Townsend 
James W. Newman 
James S. Robinson 
Daniel J. Ryan 
C. L. Poorman . 


1. From 1802 to 1850 the Secretaries of State were elected for three years by joint ballot 
of the Senate and House of Representatives. Since 1850, they have been elected by the 
people for a term of two years. 

2. Resigned in December, 1808. 

3. Resigned in February, 18;%. 

4. Resigned in May, 1862. 

5. Resigned in January, 1868. 


Thomas Gibson' 
^^njamin Hough 
^*Ph Osborn 
John A.Bryan . 
Jo^n Brough 
John ^oods 
^^*Ham D. Morgan 
^'''^nois M. Wright 

1. Until the adoption of the constitution of 1851 the Auditor of State was elected for a 
term of three years ; since ISTA the term of office has been four years. 

2. Resigned. 

3. Resigned in April, 1863. 

1815 1833 

Robert W. Taylor* 
Oviatt Cole 
James H. God man 
James Williams 
John F. Oglevee 
Emil Kiese wetter 
Ebenezer W. Poe 

I860- 1863 



History or thk City of Columbus. 

William McFarland 
Hiram M. Curry* 
Samuel Sullivant 
Henry Brown 
Joseph Whitehill 
Albert A. Bliss 
John G. Breslin 
William H. Gibson' 
A. P. Stone 
G. V. Dorsey 


1803-1816 W. Hooper 

S. S. Warner 
Isaac W^elsh* 
Leroy W. Welsh 
John M. Millikin 
Anthony Howells 
Joseph Turney 
Peter Brady . 
John C. Brown 

. 1816-1820 

. 1823-1835 

. 1847-1852 

. 1856-1857 

1857 1862 
. 1862-1865 

1. Prior to the adoption of the Constitution of 1851, the Treasurer 
for a terra of three years; afterwards for a term of two years. 

2. Resigned in February, 1820. 

3. Resigned in June, 1857. 

4. Died November 29, 1875, during his official term. 


1846-1851 Chauncey N. Olds 
. 1851-1852 

. 1854-1856 

. 1856-1861 

. 1863-1865 

1. Term of office, two years. 


W. B. Thrall . 1859-1862 Moses R. Brailey 

Joseph H. Riley 1862-1865 William T. Wilson 

1. Term of office three years. The office was abolished in January, 


1803 Charles W. Hill 

. 1803-1807 Benjamin R. Co wen 




of State was elected 

Henry Stanbery 
Joseph McCormiek 
George E. Pugh 
George W. McCook 
Francis D. Kimball 
C. P. Wolcott 
James Murray 
L. R. Critchfield 
William P. Richardson 

William H. West 
Francis B. Pond 
John Little 
Isaiah Pillars 
George K. Nash 
James Lawrence 
Jacob A. Kohler 
David K. Watson 


Cornelius R. Sedan 
Samuel Fin ley . 
David Ziegler 
Thomas Worth ington 
Joseph Kerr 
Isaac Van Horn 
William Daugherty 
Samuel C. Andrews 
William Daugherty 
Jacob Medary, Jr. 
Edward H. Cumming 
Thomas-W. H. Mosely 
J. W. Wilson . 
H. B. Carrington 
C. P. Buckingham . 

1. Term of office two years, 

2. Resigned March 1, 1891. 














E. F. Schneider 
William A. Knapp 
James O. Amos 
A. T. Wykoff 
Charles W. Karr 
Luther M. Meily 
William H. Gibson 
S. B. Smith 
E. B. Fin ley 
H. A. Axline 
Morton L. Hawkins* 
Thomas P. Dill 
E. J. Pocock . 






ForNDiNo or Onm. 



Under the CoDStitution of 1802 


Samuel HuDtingtou 
Return Jonathan Meigs 
William Sprigg 
George Tod 
Daniel Syinmes 
Thomas Scott 
Thomas Morris 
William W. Irwin 
Ethan Allen Brown 
Calvin Pease 
John McLean 
Jessup N. Couch 
Jacob Burnet 
Charles K. Sherman 
Peter Hitchcock 

















Under the Constitution of 1851 : 

Thomas W. Hartley 
John A. Corwin 
Allen Ci. Thurman 
Rufus P. Ranney 
William B. Caldwell 
Robert B. Warden 
William Kennon 
Joseph R. Swan 
Jacob Brinkerhoff . 
Charles C. Converse 
Ozias Brown 
Josiah Scott 
Milton Sutliff 
William V, Peck 
William Y. Gholson 
Horace Wilder . 
Hocking H. Hunter 
William White . 
Luther Day 
John Welsh 






















Gustavus Swan 
Elijah Hay ward 
John M.Goodenow 
Henry Brush 
Reuben Wood 
John C. Wright 
Joshua Collett 
Ebenezer Lane 
Frederick Grimke 
Matthew Birchard 
Nathaniel C. Read 
Edward Avery 
Rufus P. Spalding 
William B. Caldwell 
Rufus P. Ranney 

George W. Mcllvaine 
William H. West 
Walter F. Stone 
George Rex 
William J. Gilmore 
W. W. Boy n ton 
John W. Okey 
William W.Johnson 
Nicholas Longworth 
John H. Doyle 
William H. Upson 
Martin D. Folic tt 
Selwyn N. Owen 
Gibson Atherton 
William T. Spear 
Marshall J. WilliamH 
Thaddeus A. Minshall 
P>anklin J. Dick man 
Joseph P. Bradbury 





































Served from 1876 to 1879 : 
Josiah Scott Crawford Luther Dav' 

W. W. Johnson . Lawrence Thomas Q. Ashburn' 

D. Thew Wright . Hamilton 

1. Appointed vice Richard A. Harrison, from Franklin County, who resigned in January 



History of the City of Columbus. 

Appointed vice Henry C. Whitman, from Hamilton County, who resigned in March, 


Served from 1883 to 1885 : 

Mosos M. Granger . Muskingum 

George K. Nash 
Fmnklin J. Dickman 

(Charles I). Martin 
John McCauley 



Rodney Foos 
Arnold Green . 
Eichard J. Fanning 

1 806- 1875 


Dwight Croweli 
J. W. Cruikshank 
Urban H. Hester 

Term of office, three years. 


Alexander MeConnell 
John Harris 
R. Dickinson 
T. G. Bates 
William Wall 
Loander llansom 
William Reyan 
William Spencer 
Oren FoUett 
J. Blickensderfer, Jr. 
Samuel Forrer 
E. S. Hamlin . 
A. P. Miller 
George W. Manypenny 
James B. Steedman 
Wayne Griswold 
J. Blickensderfer, Jr. 
A. G. Conover 
John Waddle 
R. L. Backus 
John L. Martin 
John B. Gregory 



Levi Sargent 
John F. Torrence 
James Gamble . 
James Moore 
John M. Barrerc 
Philip D. Herzing . 
Richard R. Porter 
Stephen R. Hosmer 
Martin Schilder 
Peter Thatcher 
J. C. Evans 
George Paul* 
James Fullington 
Stephen R. Hosmer 
Leo Weltz* 
Henry Weible 
John P. Martin 
(\ A. Flickinger* . 
Wells S. Jones 
William M. Hahn . 
Frank T. McColloch 


1887- 1892 


Term of office, three years. 

3. A.ppointed vice Stephen R. Hosmer, deceased. 

4. ReC'lected. 


William H. Gibson. Served from April 11, 1888, to April 11, 1890. 

A. H. Latty. Served from April 11, 1888, to April 11, 1890. 

C. F. Baldwin.^ Served from April 11, 1888, to July 26, 1888. 

Robert M. Rownd. Appointed April 26, 1888, to succeed C. F. Baldwin, re- 
signed. Served until April 11, 1890, when the Commission expired by limitatioo 
of law. 

/','/'. //. 


A :i i. 


I , 


r I 

/'ZZZ^ ^i2^,.,^C_, 

• % 

FouNDiNcj OF Ohio. 


The Commissioii was rovivod by act of CToneral Assembly, passed April 18, 
1890, and the following members were then appointed for the t<3rm of two years: 
W. E. Boden, Robert M. Hownd, A. H. Roose. 

1. The Commission was originally created by act of the General Assembly, passed 
"March 28, 1888, for the purpose of establishing;, by actual survey, the boundaries of the canal 
property of the State, including channels, reservoirs, basins, etc. Tbe members were ap- 
pointed for a term of two years. 

L>. Resigned April 2(>, 1«88. 

Samuel Lewis* 
Hi^m n. Barney 
AnsoD Smythe . 
C. W.H. Catheart^ 
Emerson E White 
John A. Norris^ 
William D. Henkle* 
Thomas W. Harvey 


. •1837-1840 Charles S. Smart 





1806- 18«9 



J.J. Burns 
I). F. De Wolf 
Leroy [). Brown 
Eli T.Tappan" 
John Hancock' 
C. C. Miller' 


1. Term of othce, three years. 

2. From 1840 to 1854 the Secretaries of State were ex-otticio coram issioners of common 


Resigned in November, 1803. 

Resigned in June, 18(>9. 

Resigned in September, 1871. 

Died October 23, 1888. 

Appointe<l to succeed Eli T. Tappan, deceastd. Died in office June 1, 1891. 

Appointed vice John Hancock, deceased. 


. 1867-1871 James S. Robinson* 

George B. Wright* 

Richard D. Harrison ' 

Orlow L. Wolcott 

Johti G. Thompson* 

Lincoln G. Delano 

William Bell, Jr. . 


Hylas Sabine 
Henry Apthorp . 
William S. Cappeller** 
James A. Norton ' 


. 1872-1874 

. 1876-1878 


Term of office two years. 

Resigned in October, 1871. 

Died in April, 1872. 

Resigned in December, 1875. 

Resigned in February. 1881. 

Removed by the Governor. 

Appointed vice W. S. Cappeller and reappointed for a full term, 



L. L. Kice 

William O. Blake 

W. H. Foster . 

L. L. Rice .... 

Charles B. Flood 

William W. Bond 

1. Term of office, two years. 





William J. Elliott 

J. K. Brown 

W. 0. A. de la CV)urt 

Leo Hirsch 

S. V. Ilinkle 


130 History of the City of Columbus. 

superintendents of insurance.' 

William F. Church 18721875 Henry J. Reinmund 1884-1887 

William D. Hill . 18751878 Samuel E. Kemp . 18871890 

Joseph F. Wright . 1878-1881 W. H. Kinder 1890-1893 

Charles H. Moore . 1881-1884 

1. Term of oftice, three years. 


H. J. Walls . 1877-1881 Alonzo D. Fassett' 1887-1890 

Henry Luskey 1881-1885 John McBride'' . . 1889-1892 

Larkin McHugh . 1885-1887 

1. Term of office, two years. 

2. Legislated out of office. 

3. Appointed vice Fassett. 


Andrew Roy 1874-1878 Andrew Roy 1880-1884 

James D. Postoii . . 1878-1879 Thomas B. Bancroft . . 1884-1888 

David Owens 1H79-1880 Robert M. Hazeltine 1888-1892 

1. Term of office, four years. 


Henry Dorn 1885-1889 William Z. McDonald . 1889-1893 

1. Term of office, four years. 


S. H. Hurst 1886-1887 Edward Bethel . 1890-1892 

F. A. Derthick . . 1887-1890 

Term of office, two years. 


Thomas C. Hoover, M. D. Appointed in 1886. Reappointed at expiration of 

H. J. Sharp, M. D. Appointed in 1886. 

D. H. Beckwith, M. 1). Appointed in 1886 for four years. 

T. Clark Miller, M. D. Appointed in 1886 for two years. 

W. H. Cretcher, M. D. Appointed in 1886. Died in 1889. 

Professor E. T. Nelson. Appointed in 1887. 

John D. Jones, M. D. Appointed in 1886. Resigned in 1889. 

S. P. Wise, M. D. Appointed in 1886. Reappointed in 1889. 

Joseph L. Anderson, M. I). Appointed in 1889 vice J. D. Jones, resigned. 

S. A. Conklin, M. D. Appointed in January, 1889, for unexpired term of W. 
H. Cretcher. 

William T. Miller, M. D. Appointed in 1890. 

A. J. Scott, M. D. Appointed vice J. L. Anderson in 1891. 

C. O. Probst, M. D., Secretary of the Board. 

1. Term of office, seven years. The Board was constituted in 1886. The Attorney- 
General of the State is ex-officio a member of the Board. 

Founding or Ohio. 131 


1869— John 8. Newberry, LL. D, 
1872— E. B. Andrewb, LL. D. 
1875— Edward Ortou, LL. D. 


M. A. Daugheriy George B. Okey* 

John W. Okey' I.uther Day' 

John S. Brazee* 

1. Resigned. 

2. Succeeded John W. Okey. 

3. Resigned. 

4. Succeeded Luther Day. 


1863 — Bevus Speyer. 

1. Otiice establishjed in 1863; abolished in 1867. 


1869— Charles M. Kidgway. 

1. Office established in 1869; abolished in 1870. 


1867— Theodore G. Wormley. 
1877— Ezra S. Dodd. 


1878-1879— F. W. Green. 
1879-1880— William B. Williams. 
1880-1884— Louis Smithnight. 
1884-1886— (part) David C. Balleutine. 
1886 — (part) Louis Smithnight. 
1886-1890— George B. Cox. 
1890-1892— J. H. Dowling. 


1878 — Charles J. Wetmore. 
1878— Horace P. Clough. 
1881— George H. Foster. 
1885 — Charles W. Constant! ne. 
1888— George H. Foster. 


1857— William A. Moore. 
1866— Robert C. Smith. 
1874— James E. Cox. 
1875 — Victor Gutzweiler, Jr. 
1876— Robert C. Smith. 
1878— William T. Higgins. 
1878— T. Y. McCray. 

132 History uk the City ov Columbus. 

fish and qame wardens. 

1886— L. E. BuDtain. 
1890— George W. Hill. 


I860— William A. Piatt. 
1862— William M. Awl. 
1868— John H. Grove. 
1870— Charles M. Ridgway. 

I. The foregoing synopsis of the State Government has been compiled from the annual 
report of the Secretary of State, Honorable James 8. Robinson, for the year 1887, with supple- 
mentary additions mostly taken from W. A. Taylor's Hundred Year Book and Official 
Register, published in 1891. 

Origin of the City. 



In the spring of 1795 a surveyiog party of Kentuckians appeared in the woods 
on Deer Creek, within the present confines of Madison County. The leader of the 
party was Lucas SuUivant, the pioneer explorer of Central Ohio and founder of 

Mr. Sullivant was at that time about thirty years of age. Born in Mecklen- 
burg County, Virginia, in 1765, he participated, at sixteen, in an expedition to re- 
pel an Indian invasion of his native State. Cast upon his own resources early in 
life, he gained influential friends, one of whom was Colonel William Starling? 
whose second daughter he afterwards married. By diligent improvement of his 
time and means, he qualified himself as a Land Surveyor, and found in the hos- 
pitable wilderness of Kentucky, then an outlying county of Virginia, a useful 
field for the exercise of his talents Mr. Sullivant first located at Paris, in Bourbon 
County, Kentucky, and became owner of a fine tract of land in that vicinity. 
Subsequently he resided several years in Washington County with a family named 
Treacle, whose name he gave, after his arrival in Ohio, to the stream now known 
as Little Darby Creek, in the western part of Franklin County. Mr. Sullivant's 
biographer* describes him at his maturity as a man " of medium height, muscular 
and well proportioned, quick and active in his movements, with an erect carriage 
and a good walk, a well-balanced head, finished off with a cue, which he always 
wore ; a broad and high forehead, an aquiline nose, and a blue-gray eye, a firm mouth 
and square chin. He was firm and positive in his opinions, but courteous in 
manners and expression, prompt and decisive to act upon his own convictions, and 
altogether a man of forcible character, exercising an influence over those with 
whom he came in contact.'' 

After Mr. Sullivant's arrival in Kentucky, Virginia authorized her soldiers to 
appoint a surveyor of the lands which she had reserved for them from her cessions 
to the National Government. Their choice fell upon Colonel Richard C. Ander- 
son, who had served with distinction as an officer of the Continental Army.* On 
July 20, 1784, Colonel Anderson opened an office for the survey and distribution of 
the Virginia bounty lands, under the protection of a frontier stockade and block- 
house on the present site of the city of Louisville. Among the deputy surveyors 
whom he appointed were Nathaniel Massie, Duncan McArthur, Lucas Sullivant, 
John O'Bannon, Arthur Fox and John Beasley. 

Mr. Sullivant was assigned to the northern portion of the Virginia Military 
District, where we find him at the opening of this chapter. His party had been 



organized at liimefltone, now Maysville, Kentucky, and comprised about twenty 
men, including assistant surveyors, chain carriers, scout^s, porters, and other 
helpers. While running his lines on Doer Creek he encountered a mounted 
French trader accompanied by two Indians. Soon after this party had passed 
him, Mr. Sullivant heard shots, and going back found, to his dismay, that his rear 
guard had tired on and killed the Frenchman, and put his Indian companions to 
flight. SuUivant reprimanded his men severely for this unprovoked and unneces- 
sary attack, well knowing that it could not fail to incite early retaliation from the 
Indians at the villatres on the Scioto. Some of his companions scoffed at his ap- 
prehensions, but so sure was he of coming trouble, that he resolved to shifl the 
scene of his operations just as soon as he could close his work in that neighbor- 

His fears were soon realized. While ho was running his last lines, four days 
aft^r the afl^air of the Frenchman, Sullivant descried a band of Indians, larger 
than his own party, crossing the prairie at a considerable distance. This was a 
hostile expedition sent out from the Mingo villages then clustered about the 
present site of Columbus. Sullivant proposed fight, but his men were averse to it, 
and remained concealed in the high ^rass while the warriors passed by unsu?^pect' 
ing that near at hand were the very men whose scalps they were looking for. 
But the Indians did not miss their o])portunity. After they had ])assed. and Mr. 
Sullivant had cautioned his men to be <iuiet, and not to use their firearms, he re- 
sumed his work, which he was just finishing, at nightfall, when a flock of wild 
turkeys flew up into the trees near by. Tempted by these birds, the men disobeyed 
orders, and fired several shots. Sullivant warned his companions to be ready, for 
the Indians were still within hearing, and would soon be upon them. He had 
scarcely ceased when the warriors rushed at them with a whoop and a volley. 

Mr. Sullivant, says his son and biographer — who shall describe what followed — 
'* lifted his, which was on the Jacob's stafl' standing beside him, and, toss- 
ing it into a fallen tree top, unslung the light shotgun he carried strapped on his 
back, and fired at an Indian who was advancing upon him with uplifted toma- 
hawk, and, turning about to look for his men, saw they were in a panic and rapidly 
dispersing, and ho also took to his heels, and fortunately in about a quarter of a 
mile, fell in with six of his men. Favored in their flight by the darkness, and 
shaping their course by the stars, thoy journeyed all night and most of next 
day before halting. 

The third night, as they were travelinj; alonjr. footsore and weary, they heard voices 
which seemed to proceed from a hillock in front, and they stopped and hailed. The other 
party, discovering them at the same moment, challengt^d and ordered a halt. A parley 
ensued, when, to their great stirprise those on the hill appeared to be the other and larger 
party of their own men. But no advance was made by either side, each fearing the other 
might be a decoy in the hands of the Indians, for it was not an uncommon trick for the cun- 
ning savages to compel tlieir unfortunate prisoners to play such a part.^ 

Atl;er many inquiries antl some threats had been exchanged, Mr. Sullivant ad- 
vanced alone, and immediately verified his belief that the men he had been parley- 
ing with were members of bis own company. A reunion at once took place, amid 
the gloom of the wilderness, but not of the entire party. Two men were missing, 
and of these two one, named Murray, was known to have fallen dead at the first 
fire of the Indians. 

Franklinton. I. 137 

Many years after these events, while Madison County was being settled up, 
Mr. Sullivant's compass was found, in good condition, just where he cast it during 
his encounter with the Indians. His son, Mr. Joseph Sullivant, carefully pre- 
served it, and still had it in his possession at the time he wrote the foregoing 

Some time after the Deer Creek adventure, Mr. Sullivant began his surveying 
operations within the present limits of Franklin County. His party carried with 
it a supply of bacon, flour and salt, but depended for its subsistence mainly upon 
the wild game of the woods. This not always being a sure reliance, the company 
cook was sometimes driven to dire expedients to satisfy the hungry stomachs of the 
party. On one occasion, coming in at night, weary and hungry, the men, to their 
great delight, were regaled with appetizing odors issuing from a steaming camp- 
kettle. When the mess was ready each one received his share of hot broth in a 
tin cup, the chief being awarded as his portion the boiled head of some small 
animal. Opinions differed as to what the animal was, the raccoon, rabbit, ground- 
hog, squirrel, porcupine and opossum each having its partisans. Finally, on being 
driven to the wall, the cook acknowledged that the soup had been made from the 
bodies of two young skunks which he had captured '* without damage to himself" 
in a hollow log. The effect of this announcement was curious. Some of those 
who had partaken persisted that the soup was excellent, others wanted to whip 
the cook; one, only, involuntarily emptied his stomach. 

Wolves, howliniij and barking, hovered constantly around the camps of the 
expedition, seeking its offal, and the American panther, or catamount, was more 
than* once seen prowling about on the same errand. Once, when the party had 
pitched its camp near a place known to the early settlers as Salt Lick, on the west 
side of the Scioto, three miles below the present city of Columbus, a panther was 
detected crouched on the limb of a tree, almost directly over the campiire around 
which the men were sitting. The tail of the beast was swaying to and fro, its 
eyeballs glaring and its general behavior such as to in<iicate that it was about to 
make a spring. Seizing his rifle, a huntsman of the party took steady aim between 
the two blazing eyes, and fired. The panther instantly came down with a ter- 
rific scream, and scattered the camptire with the leaps and convulsions amid which 
it expired. 

When Mr. Sullivant awoke the next morning after this adventure, he felt some 
incubus on his person, and soon discovered that a large rattlesnake had coiled 
itself upon his blanket. Giving blanket and snake both a sudden toss, he sprang 
to his feet, and soon made away with his uninvited bedtellow. 

In the course of a subsequent expedition Mr. Sullivant appointed a rendezvous 
for his party at the junction of the Scioto and Whetstone (now Olentangy) then 
known to the surveyors and map-makers as the Forks of the Scioto. Should his 
men arrive there before he did, they were directed to leave a canoe for him, pro- 
ceed up the river and await him at the mouth of a stream now called Mill Creek. 
Owing to detention, he arrived at the Forks lati> in the afternoon, hut found a 
canoe awaiting him as arranged, and immediately set out in it to rejoin his com- 
panions. He had but just pushed into the stream when he detected three Indians 
lurking in a grove of huge sycamores which then stood on the west bank of the 
Whetstone. He drove his canoe rapidly up stream, cautiously followed by the 


Indians, who apparently oxpecled to surprise him after he should encamp for the 
night. At dusk he landed on a hrushy island opposite a point since known as 
the Quarry, three miles above the Porks. Perceiving that the Indians were still 
following, he drew up his canoe ostentatiously for the night, cut brush, drove 
stakes and built a tiro, as if intending to encamp, then taking his gun, compass and 
pack, he crossed to the west side of the river, and pushed on afoot. The Indians 
were completely <li.sconcerted by this stratagem and gave no further annoyance. 
After proceedini; a little way, Mr. Sullivant wrote an account of this adventure on 
a leaf of his note book, and left it in a split stick stuck in the ground beside u tree 
on which he carved his initials and the date. "A longtime afterward,'" says his 
biographer, *• when botanizing on the bank of the river above the quarry, I took 
refuge from a passing shower under the spreading branches of a large sugar tree. 
Some ancient ax marks on the bark attracted my attention, and, passing around 
the tree, I w^as surprised at seeing the letters Fj. S. and a date on the bark. This 
event, which I had heard rehited in my l)oyhood, instantly occurred to me, and I 
perceived I was standing on the precise spot where my father had left this memo- 
rial of himself, in the solitude of the wilderness, near fifty years before, when 
fleeing for his life, with naught but his nwu courage and self-reliance to sustain 

After rejoining his party, Mr. Sullivant continued his canoe voyage up the 
river and halted for several days on a creek, to which as a compliment to one of 
his trusted scouts and hunters he gave the name of Boke.* 

The following passages from the pen of Mr. Joseph Sullivant in the Sullivant 
Family MeworifiLuro of such local interest as to justify reproduction entire: 

I have heard my father state that on another rxM'asion, he was a^in ascending the 
Scioto with his party in canoes, in the latter part of April, and when a half mile Iwjlow the 
place now known as the Marble Cliff quarries, with the wind blowing down stream, they 
encountered a most peculiar and sickening odor, which increased as they advanced, and 
some of the men were absolutelv overcome with nausea occasioned bv the intolerable 

When arriving opposite the cliff the cause was revealed, and it was found to proceed 
from a prodigious number of snakes, principally rattlesnakes, which, just awakene<l from 
their winter torpor, were basking in the spring sunshine. Mr. Sullivant said, unless he had 
seen it, he never could have imagined such a eight. FA'ery available place was full, and the 
whole face of the cMtf seemed to be a mass of living, writhing reptiles. 

It will be remembered by the early settlers of Franklin Township that the fissures and 
holes in the rocky bank of the river were the resorts of great numbers of snakes, that came 
tliere every fall for winter quarters, an<l that several regular snake hunts, or rather snake 
killings, took place. The most famous snake den known was at the Marble Cliffs. There 
were two entrances into' the rocks from three to five feet in diameter, leading into a fissure or 
cave of unknown extent, and the bottom part of these entrances was as smooth as polished 
glass, from the constant gliding in and out of these loathsome reptiles, which were the an- 
noyance of the whole neighborhood, as well as the especial dread of us boys, who ha<i to go 
with our bags of grain to be ground at McCoy's Mill, about two hundred yards above. 

Several times on my trips to the mill I saw the venomous reptiles sunning themselves 
in the road, and I always turned aside, and the horse, from some natural instinct, seemed to 
be equally averse to go near them. I have a lively recollection of une occasion, when, 
mounted on three bushels of corn on the back of *'old Kate," we jogged until near the mill, 
when the old mare gave a enort and a shy that nearly threw me off, as she discovered a huge 
old rattlesnake lying in the middle of the road, as if he owned all the premises. The old 

Franklinton. I. 139 

mare, of her own accord, gave his snakeship a wide berth, and continued to snort and exhibit 
uneasiness for some time, and I know I received such a fright the cold chills ran over me, 
although it was a hot summer day. 

For years after the settlement of that neighborhood, frequent attempts were made to 
break up this resort, particularly when the premises were owned by Thomas Backus, who 
one cold winter, had large quantities of dr\' wood and brush carried into the cave, and 
set on fire in the spring; gunpowder was also used in an attenipt to blow up this snake den, 
as it was universally called, and one of the blasts found vent on top of a ridge a half a mile 
away, and formed a sinkhole which remains until this day. One of the most efficient means 
was building a hogpen, early in the fall, in front of the don. and the hogs were said to have 
destroyed great numbers. A pair of bald eagles had a nest in a tall cedar that formerly 
crowned the cliff, and they also killed many of these reptiles. 

While engaged in his surveying operations, Lucas Sullivant was careful to 
locate some choice tracts of land in his own right. He was much attracted by the 
fertility of the Scioto bottoms, of which he became, at an early date, an extensive 
owner. So far reaching were his acquisitions of the territories over which he 
sighted his compass that he came to be known as "monarch of all he surveyed."' 
The region about the Forks of the Scioto drew his attention esi)ecially. He was 
not only pleased with the fertility of its soil, and the luxuriance of its forests, but 
he foresaw its eligibility as a future scat of population. Its central position in the 
coming State then crystallizing into political form occurred to his mind. The use- 
ful relations which the Scioto River, then a navigable stream, might bear to a 
civilized community were considered. An additional hint was derived from the 
fact that the Indians, whose settlements have so often anticipated the location of 
the leading cities of today, had congregated in this neighborhood. After the Iro- 
quois conquest, they came here to hunt, and also, finally, to dwell. Within a few 
miles of the Forks of the Scioto, at the time of Sullivant's arrival, stood several of 
their villages. For many decades, apparently, their women had annually planted 
with Indian corn the rich bottom lying just below the Forks, within the bend of 
the river. Here, in a grove of stately walnut treses, skirting these Indian maize- 
fields, Lucas Sullivant, in August, 1797, laid out the town of Franklinton. 

The first plat fronted on the river opposite the Forks, and was drawn on a 
liberal scale. The lots were to be sold on a certain day, but before the appointed 
time, an inundation of all tlie lowlands took place, which has been known in the 
traditions of that period as the great flood of 1798. The plan of the town w^as 
therefore changed, and made conformable to the boundaries of the higher grounds 
adjacent to the original location. Here Mr. Sullivant erected the tirst brick dwel- 
ling in the county, and established his permanent home. His children w^ere born 
there, and there he resided until the day of his death. 

To promote settlement, he offered to donate the lots on a certain street to such 
persons as would become actual residents. To this thoroughfare he gave the name 
of Gift Street, w^hich it still retains. The very first family settlement in Franklin- 
ton was made by Joseph Dixon during the autumn of 1797. Several additional ar- 
rivals took place during the ensuing winter and spring. First among these early 
comers were George Skidmore. John Brickell, Robert Armstrong, Jeremiah Arm- 
stroDg, William Domigan, James Marshal, the Deardurfs, the McElvaiues, the 
Selises, John Lysle, William Fleming, Jacob Grubb, Jacob Overdier, Arthur O'Harra, 
Joseph Foos, John Blair, Michael Fisher and John Dill. The McElvaines emi- 

140 History of the Oitt of Coidhbos. 

grat«d to Ohio trom Kentncky in the spring of 1797. They remained at Chilli- 
cothe during the ensuing aummor, and arrived at Franklinton during the spring of 
1798. William Domigan came from Maryland, Michael Fisher from Virginia, 
Joseph FooB from Kentucky, aod John Dill from York County, Pennsylvania. 


The career of John Brickell, who was one of the first three or four white men 
who settled in Franklin Couniy, was one of extraordinary adventure. Brickell 
arrived at Franklinton in 1797, A few years later he bought a tract of ten acres 
on which the Ohio Penitentiary now fronts, and tliore built a cabin in which he 
dwelt during most of the remainder of his life. In 1842, the following deeply in- 
teresting sketch of his adventures, written by himself, was published in^the 
American Pioneer :' 

Pranklinton. I. 141 

I was bom on the twentyfourth of May, 1781, in Pennsylvania, near a place then known 
Stewart's Crossings, on the Youghiogheny River, and, as I suppose from what 1 learned 
in after life, about four miles from Beesontown, now Uniontown, in Fayette County. On my 
father's side, I was of Irish, and on my mother's of German parentage. My father died when 
I was quite young, and I went to live with an elder brother, on a prei'mption settlement, on 
the northeast side of the Alleghany River, about two miles from Pittsburgh. On the break- 
ing out of the Indian war, a body of Indians collected to the amount of about one hundred 
and fifty warriors, and spread up and down the Alleghany River about forty miles, and by a 
preconcerted movement, made an attack on all the settlements along the river, for that dis- 
tance, in one day. 

This was on the ninth of February, 17?)1. 1 was alone, clearing out a fencerow, about a 
quarter of a mile from the house, when an Indian came to me, and took my axe from me and 
laid it upon his shoulder with his rifle, and then let down the cock of his gun which it ap- 
pears, he had cocked in approaching me. I had been on terms of intimacy with the Indians, 
and did not feel alarmed at this movement. They had been about our house almost every 
day. He took me by the hand and pointed the direction he wanted me to go; and although 
I did not know him, I concluded he only wanted me to chop something for him and went 
without reluctance. We came to where he had lain all night, between two logs, without 
fire. I then suspected something was wrong and attempted to run ; but he threw me down 
on my face, in which position I every moment expected to feel the stroke of the tomahawk 
on my head. But he had prepared a rope, with which he tied my hands together behind 
me, and thus marched me oflT. After going a little distance, we fell in with George Girty, son 
of old George Girty. He spoke English, and told me what they had done. He said '* white 
people had killed Indians, and that the Indians had retaliated, and now there is war, and you 
are a prisoner; and we will take you to our town and make an Indian of you ; and you will 
not be killed if you go peaceably ; but if you try to run away, we won't be troubled with you, 
but we will kill you, and take your scalp to our town." I told him I would go peaceably, and 
give them no trouble. From thence we traveled to the crossings of Big Beaver with scarce 
any food. We made a raft, and crossed late in the evening, and lay in a hole in a rock 
without fire or food. They would not make fire for fear we had attracted the attention of 
hunters in chopping for the raft. In the morning, the Indian who took me, delivered me to 
Girty, and took another direction. Girty and I continued our course towards the Tuscarawas. 
We traveled all that day through hunger and cold, camped all night, and continued till 
about three in the afternoon of the third day since I had tasted a mouthful. I felt very in- 
dignant at Girty, and thought if I ever got a good chance, I would kill him. 

We then made a fire, and Girty told me that if he thought I would not run away he 
would leave me by the fire, and go and kill something to eat. 1 told him I would not. 
" But," said he ** to make you safe, I will tie you." He tied my hands behind my back and 
tied me to a sapling, some distance from the fire. After he was gone I untied myself and laid 
down by the fire. In about an hour he came running back without any game. He asked 
me what I untied myself for ? I told him I was cold. He said : *' Then you no run away ?" I 
said no. He then told me there were Indians close by, and he was afraid they would find 
me. We then went to their camp, where there were Indians with whom I had been as in- 
timate as with any person, and they had been frequently at our house. They were glad to 
see me, and gave me food, the first I had eaten after crossing Beaver. They treated me very 
kindly. We staid all night with them, and next morning we all took up our march toward 
the Tuscarawas, which we reached on the second day, in the evening. 

Here we met the main body of hunting families, and the warriors from the Alleghany, 
this being their place of rendezvous. I supposed these Indians all to be Delawares ; but at 
that time I could not distinguish between the difierent tribes. Here I met with two white 
prisoners, Thomas Dick, and his wife, Jane. They had been our nearest neighbors. I was 
immediately led to the lower end of the encampment, and allowed to talk freely with them 
for about an hoar. They informed me of the death of two of our neighbors, Samuel Chap- 
man and William Powers, who were killed by the Indians — one in their house, and the other 
near it. The Indians showed me their scalps. I knew that of Chapman, having red hair 
on it 

142 History of thb (*ity of ('olumbus. 

Next day about ten I iidianB started back to PittHbiirgli. Girty told me they went to pass 
tbemselve^ for friendly Indiana and to trade. Amun^; tliene was the Indian who took me. 
In about two weeks they returned well loade*! with ntore goods, whisky, etc. 

After the traders came back the ironjpany tlivided ; and those who came with us to Tus- 
carawas, and the Indian who took me, niurche<l on towards Sandusky. When we arrive<l 
within a day's journey of an Indian town, wliere FortSentHra since stooii we met two warriors 
going lo the frontiers to war. The Indian I was with had whisky. He and the two war- 
rion» got drunk, when one of the warriors fell on nic ami beat me. I thought he would kill 
me. The night was very dark, and I ran out into the wootis, and lay under the side of a log. 
They presently missed me, and got lights to searcli for me. The Indian to whom 1 belongeii 
called aloud ; " White man, white man I " I made no answer; but in the morning, after I ?aw 
the warriors start on their journey 1 went into camp, when* I was much pitied on account of 
my bruises. Next day we arrived within a mile of the Seneca town, and encamped for the 
night, agreeably to their manner, to give room for their parade, or grand entrance the next 
day. That took place 'about eight o'clock in the morning. The ceremony commence<l with a 
great whoop or yell. We were then met by all sorts of Indians from the town, ohl and 
young, men and women. We then called a halt, uml they formed two lines, about twelve 
feet apart, in the direction of the river They maile ^iguf (or me to run between the hnes 
towards the river. I knew nothing of what they wanted, and starteii ; but I had no chance, 
for they fell to beating me until 1 was brui.sed from hea<l to foot. At this juncture, a very big 
Indian came up an<l threw the company oil* me. an<l took me by the arm, and led me along 
through the lines with such rapidity that I s<*arcely touched the ground, and was not onct» 
struck after he took me till 1 got to the river. Then the very ones who beat me the worst 
were now the most kind and oHicious in wa»«hing me otf, feeding me, etc., and did their utmost 
to cure me. I was nearly killed, and di<l not get over it for two months. My impression is, 
that the big Indian who rescued me was C^aptain Pipe, who assisted in burning Crawford. 
The Indian who owned me did not interfere in any way. 

We staid about two weeks at the Seneca towns. My owner there took himself a wife, 
and then started with me and his wife through the Black Swamp towards the Maumee 
towns. At Seneca I left the Indians 1 had l>een acquainted with near Pittsburgh, and never 
saw or heard of them afterwards. When we arrivitd at the Auglaize River, we met an ledian 
my owner called brother, to whom he gave me : and 1 was adopted into his family. His 
name was Whingwy Pooshies, or Big Cat. I lived in his family from about the first week in 
May, 1791, till my release in June. I7i»5. 

The squaws do nearly all the labor except hunting. They take care of the meat when 
brought in, and stretch the skins. They plant and tend the corn; they gather and house it, 
assisted by young boys, not yet able to hunt. After the boys are at the hunting age, they 
are no more considered as siiuaws, and are kept at hunting. Tlie men are faithful at hunt- 
ing, but when at home lie lazily about, and are of little account for anything else, seldom or 
never assisting in domestic duties. Besides the common modes, they often practice candle 
hunting ; and for this they sometimes make candles or tapers, when they cannot buy them. 
Deer come to the river to eat a kind oi water grass, to get which they frequently immerse 
their whole head and horns. They seem to Ik» blindeti by light at night, and will suffer a 
canoe to float close to them. I have practiced that kiml of hunting much since I came to live 
where Columbus now is, and on one occasion killed twelve line deer in one night. 

The fall after my adoption, there was a great stir in the town about an army of white 
men coming to fight the Inilians. The squaws an*! boys were moved with the goods down 
the Maumee. an<l there waited the result of the battle, while the men went to war. They 
met St. Clair, and came otf victorious, loa<led with the spoils of the army. Whingwy 
Pooshies left the spoils at the town and came down to move us up. We then found our- 
selves a rich ^Hjople. Whingwy Pooshies's share of the spoils of the army was two fine 
horses, four tents, one of which was a noble marquee, wliich made us a fine house in which 
we lived the remainder of my captivity. He ha<l also clothing in abundance, and of all de- 
scriptions. I wore a soldier's coat. He had also axes, guns, and everj-thing necessary to 
make an Indian rich. There was much joy among them. 

Feanklinton. 1. 143 

I saw no prisoners that were taken in that battle, and believe there were none taken 
by the Delawares. Soon after this battle another Indian and I went out hunting, and we came 
to a place where there lay a human skeleton stripped of the flesh, which the Indian said had 
been eaten by the Chippewa Indians who were in the battle ; and he called them brutes thus 
to use their prisoners. During the time of my captivity 1 conversed with seven or eight 
prisoners, taken from different parts, none of whicli were taken from that battle, aj^reeably 
to my best impressions. One of the prisoners I conversed with, was Isaac Patton by name, 
who was taken with Isaac Choat, Stacy and others from a blockhouse at the Big Bottom, on 
the Muskingum. I lived two years in the same house with Patton. 1 think I saw Spencer 
once. I saw a large lad, who, if I recollect right, said his name was Spencer. He was with 
McKee and Elliot as a waiter, or kind of servant ; and, if I remember right, he was at the 

On one of our annual visits to the Rapids to receive our presents from the British, I 
saw Jane Dick. Her husband had been sold, 1 understood, for forty dollars, and lived at 
Montreal. He was sold because he was rather worthless and disagreeable to the Indians. 
When I saw her she lived at large with the Indians. She became suddenly missing, and a 
great search was made for her; but the Indians could not find her. After my release from 
captivity, I saw her and her husband at Chillicothe, where they lived. 

She told me how she was liberated. Her husband had concerted a plan with the cap- 
tain of the vessel who brought the presents, to steal her from the Indians. The captain con- 
certed a plan with a black man, who cooked for McKee and Klliot, to steal Mrs. Dick. The 
black man arranged it with Mrs. Dick to meet him at midnight, in a copse of underwo<><i, 
which she did, and he took her on board in a small canoe, and headed her up in an empty 
hogshead, where she remained until a day after the vessel sailed, about thirtysix hours. I 
remember well that every camp, and th(? woods were searched for her, and that the vessel was 
searched ; for the Indians immediately suspected she was on board. But not thinking of un- 
beading hogsheads, they could not tind her. I saw the black man at Fort Hamilton as I re- 
tumeil from captivity, who told me how he stole Mrs. Dick off, which was in every particular 
confirmed by Mrs. Dick^s own statement afterward. He also told me that there was a plan 
concerted between him and the Captain, to steal me off at the same time. " But," said he, 
**they watched you so close I could not venture it." This I knew nothing of, until I was told 
by the black man, except that I observed the vigilance with which they watched me. 

In the month of June, 1794, three Indians, two men and a boy, and myself, started on 
a candle-light hunting expedition to Blani^hard's Fork of the Auglaize. We had been out 
about two months. W^e returned to the towns in August, and found them entirely evacuated, 
but ggve ourselves little uneasiness about it. as we supposed the Indians had gone to the foot 
of the Maumee Rapids to receive their presents, as they were annually in the habit of doing. 
We encamped on the lower island in the middle of a cornfield. Next morning an Indian 
runner came down the river and gave the alarm whoop, which is a kind of a yell they use for 
no other purpose. The Indians answered and one went over to the runner, and immediately 
returning told us the white men were upon us, and we must run for our lives. We scattered 
like a flock of partridges, leaving our breakfast cooking on the fire. The Kentucky Riflemen 
saw our smoke and came to it, and just missed me as I passed them in my flight through the 
corn. They took the whole of our two months work, breakfast, jerked skins and all. One of 
the Kentuckians told me afterwards that they got a fine chance of meat that was left. 

Wayne was then only about four miles from us, and the vanguard was right among us. 
The boy that was with us in the hunting expedition, and I, kept together on the trail of the 
Indians till we overtook them, but the two Indians did not get with us until we got to the 

Two or three days after we arrived at the Rapids, Wayne's spies came right into camp 
among us. I afterwards saw the survivors. Their names were Miller, McClelland, May, 
Wells, Mahaffy, and one other whose name I forget. They came into the camp boldly and 
fired on the Indians. Miller got wounded in the shoulder. May was chased by the Indians 
to the smooth rock in the bed of the river, where his horse fell. He was taken prisoner and 
the rest escaped. They then took May to camp. They knew him ; he had formerly been a 


prisoner among them, and ran away from them. They told him : ** We know you ; you speak 
Indian language ; you not content to live with us. Tomorrow we take you to that tree ; 
( pointing to a very large hur oak at tlie edge of the clearing, which was near the British Fort,) 
we will tie you up and make a mark on your hreast, and we will try what Indian can shoot 
nearest it." 

It so turned out. The next day, the very day before the battle, they tied him up. made 
a mark on his breast, and ridilled his body with bullets, shooting at least fifty into him. 
Thus ended poor May. 

On the next day, being myself about six miles below with the squaws, I went out hunt- 
ing. The day being windy, I heard nothing of the firing of the battle, but saw some Indians 
on the retreat. One Indian, whom 1 knew, told me I had better go to camp, for the Indians 
were beaten, and they are pre[)aring at camp to make their escape. The runners, towards 
dusk, came in, and said the army had halted and encam[)e<i. We then rested that night, but 
in great fear. Next morning, the runners told us the army had started up the river towards 
the mouth of the Auglaize. We were then satisfied. Many of the Delawares were killed and 
wounded. The Indian who took May was killed, and he was much missed: for he was the 
only gunsmith among the Delawares. 

Our crops and every means of support l>eing cut otf, we had to winter at the mouth of 
Swan Creek, perhaps where Toledo now stands. We were entirely dependent on the British, 
and they did not half supply us. 

The starving condition of the Indians, together with the prospect of losing all their cows 
and dogs, made the Indians very impatient, and they became exasperated at the British. 
They said they had been deceived by them, for they had not fulfilled one promise. It was 
concluded among them to send a Hag to Fort Defiance in order to make a treaty with the 
Americans. This was successful. Our men found the Americans ready to make a treaty, and 
they agreed on an exchange of prisoners. I had the pleasure to see nine white prisoners ex- 
changed for nine Indians, and the mortification of finding myself left; there being no Indian 
to give for me. Patton, Johnston, Sloan and Mrs. Baker, of Kentucky, were four of the nine; 
the names of the others I do not recollect. Patton, Johnston and Mrs. Baker, had all lived 
with me in the same house, among the Indians, and we were as intimate as brothers and 

On the breaking up of spring, we all went up to Fort Defiance, and on arriving on the shore 
opposite, we saluted the fort with a round of rifles, and they shot a cannon thirteen times. 
We then encamped on the spot. On the same day, VVhingwy Pooshies told me I must go over 
to the fort. The children hung round me crying, and asked me if I was going to leave them. 
I told them I did not know. When we got over to the fort and were seated with the officers. 
Whingwy Pooshies told me to stand up, which I did ; he then rose and addressed me in about 
these words : " My son, these are men the same color as yourself ; there may be some of your 
kin here, or your kin may be a great way off from you ; you have lived a longtime with us ; I 
call on you to say if I have not been a father to you? If I have not used you as a father would 
a son ? " I said : '' You have used me as well as a father could use a son." He said : "I am 
glad you say so. You have lived long with me ; you have hunted for me ; but our treaty says 
you must be free. If you choose to go with the people of your color, I have no right to say a 
word ; but if you choose to stay with me, your people have no right to speak. Now, reflect on 
it, and take your choice ; and tell us as soon as you make up your mind." 

I was silent a few moments, in which time it seemed as if I thought of almost every thing. 
I thought of the children I had just left crying ; I thought of the Indians I was attached to ; 
and I thought of my people, whom I remembered ; and this latter thought predominated, and 
I said : ** I will go with my kin." The old man then said : *' I have raised you ; I have learned 
you to hunt; you are a good hunter; you have been better to me than my own sons ; I am 
now getting old and cannot hunt ; I thought you would be a support to my age ; I leaned on you 
as a stafl*. Now it is broken— you are going to leave me, and I have no right to say a word — 
but I am ruined." He then sank back in tears in his seat. I heartily joined him in his tears — 
parted with him, and have never seen nor heard of him since. 

.)h,,-t^ i'^t/t~''b 



■* *< 

• • • 

• ••• 

• • 


I learned the Delaware language well, and can apeak it now abont as well as English. I 
will give the Delaware names of a few streams. Sepung, is properly what we call a stream, 
there being no distinction between runs, creeks and rivers, as with us. They called the Ohio 
Whingwy Sepung, or Big Stream. Paint Creek, in Ross County, I never heard called Yocton- 
gee; but we called it Olomon Sepung, or Paint Creek. Seckle Sepung, or Saltlick Creek, is 
what is now called Alum Creek. Whingwy Mahoni Sepung, or Big Lick Creek, is what we 
called Big Walnut Creek. The Scioto was so called, but it is not a Delaware name, and I do 
not know its meaning. 

It was about the first of June, 1795, that I parted with Whingwy Pooshies. The next day 
I started for Fort Greenville. I rode on a horse furnished by the Americans. I was under 
the charge and protection of Lieutenant Blue, who treated me with every kindness; and at 
Fort Greenville had a good suit of clothes made for me by a tailor. We had been there about 
a week, when a company of men arrived from Cincinnati, among whom was a brother of my 
brother's wife, with whom I had lived and from whom I was taken. He told me of a sister I 
had, who waa married, and lived about nine miles from Cincinnati, up the Licking, on the 
Kentucky side. I then left Mr. Blue at Fort Greenville, and went to my sister's. She and 
all the neighbors seemed to be overjoyed, and a great crowd collected to see me, and hear about 
my living among the Indians. I then went to Grant's Salt Works, up Licking, to hunt for 
them. I made money there by killing deer at one dollar apiece, and turkeys at twelve and 
a half cents. I bought me a house, and had money left to take me to Pennsylvania. I went 
with a man named Andrew I^wis. There was great joy again, at my brother's on my return 
to his house, from whence I was taken. My sister-in-law, in particular, seemed much gratified 
with my return, as did the great crowd which here again collected to see me, and hear the 
narrative of my captivity. 

In 1797, I came to this place, that is, now Columbus, Ohio, and have resided here since ; 
generally enjoying good health, it never having cost me a dollar in my life for medical aid ; 
and without ever wearing any thing like a stocking inside of my moccasin, shoes or boots, 
from the time I went among the Indians to this day ; and I can say what perhaps few can at 
this day, that my feet are never cold. 

At another time, the Lord granting the opportunity, I will give more of the incidents of 
my life, as connected with the settlement and improvement of the country. 

Columbus, Ohio, Jan. 29. 1842. John Brickell. 

Mr. Brickell always wore a suit of buckskin to his latest day, and was mis- 
takenly supposed by many persons to be, in part, of Indian parentage. The 
habits which he had acquired while associated with the Indians during the plastic 
period of his life, clung to hira, but did not prevent his being a useful and much- 
esteemed citizen. He died July 20, 1844, aged sixty three. 

Jeremiah Armstrong arrived in Franklinton while yet a youth. He and his 
brother Robert were among the earliest pioneers of that settlement. After the 
founding of Columbus, he bought of the proprietors a lot on High Street, on which 
he kept, for many years, one of the principal hotels of the town. His first sign 
was "The Indian Chief," afterwards "The Red Lion." His son Harrison 
Armstrong took his name from General William H. Harrison, who was frequently 
his guest. Of his captivity among the Indians, Mr. Armstrong wrote the following 
deeply interesting account, which is taken from Martm's History of Franklin County^ ^ ^^. 

I was born in Washington County, Maryland, March, 1785. I had a sister (Elizab^t> "-. ' : 
and three brothers, William, Robert and John older than myself. We moved to the Mingo 
Bottom, and from there to Virginia, opposite the upper end of Blenner basset's Island. The 
Indians made frequent incursions into our neighborhood, and my mother was in constant 
dread of being killed by them ; she seemed to have a presentiment that she would have the 
fete of her parents, who were both killed by them in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Some- 
time in April, 1794, (I perfectly remember all the circumstances of that eventful night,) my 


140 History of the ('ity ok CoLiiMKOrt. 

brothers William and Robert had gone to a floating mill which my father owned on the Ohio, 
near the hoase ; the younger children were in bed. Father went down to the river to 
examine a trotline ; my mother sUmkI in the door, lK>ldin>{ a candle for him. T shall never 
forget her apj>oarance ; it waH the last time T ever l>eheld her ; she stood trembling like a leaf, 
so that the candle shook in her hand. I suppose that she wa^ afraid of the Indians, for 1 
then thought there was nothing (^Ise to fear. Father returned safe; barred both of the doors, 
as was his (*usti)ni, and then retiretl. KIiza1)eth, John and 1, slept in the loft of our log 

About three oVlock, we were awakened by the barking of our dog. Father sprang up, 
and without waiting to put on any clothing, unbarred one of the doors and ran out and 
hissed the dog; but in a moment he saw neveral Indians start from t)ehind the trees, hallooeil 
Indians^ and ran into the house, barretl the door, and caught up a gun.. By this time the 
house was Hurroun<led by twenty Wyandots. The poor, faithful dog had kept them off till 
he was disabled ; they had cut him so bad in the mouth that his under jaw hung loose. As 
the savages api>roached the house, father fired the gun ; then caught a bullet pouch, and 
sprang to the loft, put his bullet and ]>owder into his hand, but in attempting to put it into 
the gun found, too late, that he had taken the wrong pouch, and the bullet was too large; so 
he threw down the gun, tore open the roof, and sprang to the ground, fully expecting to be 
tomahawked the instant he reached it ; but fortunately he was not discovereil, for the most 
of the Indians were already in the house. They commenceii their bloody work by killing 
the three little ones. Mother attempted to escape through the chimney, but it is 8upi>ose<l 
that her clothes ciiught for she fell, and, as the Indians afterward told me, in attempting to 
raise Yrnr they found she could not stand ; her hij) was broken. Had she been able to travel 
they would not have killed her; but as she could not, they must have her scalp as a trophy. 
They also scalped the two oldest of the children, but from my mother took two. 

They dry these scalps on little hoops, about the size of a dollar, paint them and ^x them 
on poles, to raise as trophies of vict<)r>' when entering their villages. When seeing these so 
raised, I inquired why they took two from mother? They said because the babe's hair was 
not long enough to scalp, they took one from its mother for it. After killing my sisters and 
brother below, they came up to us, and took us down. Oh ! who can describe our feelings on 
entering that room of blood ! I was led over the slippery^ bloody floor, and placed between 
the knees of one of the savages, whose hands were still reeking with the blood of my 
dearest relatives. 

Mr. Misner. who lived about a hundred yards al)Ove us, hearing the noise, took a canoe 
and started for Belpre, to raise an alarm. When half way across the river, I suppose, he saw 
the Indians and my sister ; she was standing in the door and the house was lighted. Mr. M. 
called, **What is the matter?" One of the Indians told her to say nothing, which she did, 
being afraid to disobey. After plundering the house, they, with their three prisoners, 
started southwest ; they went rapidly for a mile or two then halted, forming a ring around us, 
and lighted their pipes, and made several speeches, apparently in great baste. We watched 
their gestures, and listened anxiously. I was afterward told that I was the subject of their 
debate. They expected to be pursued by the people of Belpre, and they thought me too 
young to travel as fast as necessary for their safety ; so they proposed killing me ; but a young 
Indian who had led nie, and observed my activity in jumping the logs, said he thought I 
would make a pretty good Indinny and they might go as fast as they pleased, and if I could not 
keep up he would carry me. So my life was spared, and we continued our journey at a rapid 
rate ; he sometimes carrying me, and 1 sometimes begging my sister to carry me. Sh^j poor 
V" ;'\ iprf, could s(*arcely carry herself. I was quite small of my age. 

. • - \ .* When we arrived opposite the mouth of Little Hocking, they found their canoes, which 
they had secreted in the bushes, got into them and hastened across the river. When they 
gained the opjmsite bank, they gave a never-to be-forgotten whoop, for they felt themselves 
safe. The next day they dined on a bear, which tliey had killed the day before. The oil of 
the bear was hung up in a deer skin ; they gave us some of it to drink ; we could not drink it. 
So they gave us of the bread and sugar which they had taken from my father's house — bread 
which my mother had so lately made. And where was she? Oh! my heart ached at the 


thought. They treated us kindly, and while our bread and sugar lasted we fared very well. 
But to return to my father. When he jumped to tlie ground from the roof, he ran to the 
river, took a canoe and crossed over to the island, went to Mr. James's, then to the mill for 
my brothers, wakened them, and with them returned to the house. What a horrible scene 
presented itself! There lay my mother and the babe on the ground. In the house the other 
two children were lying in their gore. The boy was still alive, and he asked my father why 
he pulled his hair. 

I saw Mr. John James^ a resident of Jackson County, in Columbus some years ago. He 
said that he was one of the twenty that followed the Indians down the river, saw their canoen, 
and where they landed, and also discovered by the tracks that we were still alive. They 
were afraid, if pursued farther, the Indians would kill us to expedite their flight. They were 
not far behind — the water was still muddy — so they returned. 

After eating our dinner, we started again, and our next halt was where Uincaster now 
stands. There we saw young Cox, a man they had taken from our neighborhood a few days 
previous. We spent the night there. In the morning two of the most savage of our party 
took John and myself, and started for Upper Sandusky. I missed not only my sister, but 
the young Indian that carried me. I had already begun to consider him my friend, although 
I did not then know that he had saved my life 

Our two conductors seemed to delight in tormenting us. They made us wade streams 
where the water came up to my chin. Brother John being two years older than myself, and 
taller, would lead me. They would laugh at our fears. We had nothing but rootsjind herbs 
to eat- When we came near their village in Upper Sandusky, they stripped us of our 
clothes, and tied a small part around our bodies in Indian style. When I cried at the loss of 
my clothes, one of them whipped me severely with his pipe stem. The Indian squaws and 
children came running from all directions to see, and we were no sooner in the house than 
the door was completely blocked up with them, which frightened me very much. 

Ak few days after our arrival, the party we had left behind came up, and I, when I saw 
them coming, ran to meet my friend, and was as glad to see him as if he had been my 
brother. My fondness for him no doubt increased his for me. 

The next morning we started for Lower Sandusky. In passing through the Seneca 

nation, the pole of scalps was hoisted. A little Seneca Indian ran to us, took the pole from 

the bearer, and carried it to an old squaw, who was sitting in the door of her hut. She 

examined it, handed it back to the boy, and he returned it to the Indian, then knocked both 

John and myself down. It was a privilege they had, as they belonged to another nation. 

After leaving the Senecas, we came to some of our own nation, that is, Wyandots. There 

they formed a ring before we ate, and the prisoner who spoke both languages, gave me a 

gourd with shot in it. telling me I must say grace. So he put some Indian words in my 

mouth, and bid me go around the ring, knocking the gourd with my hand, and repeating the 

words, which I did as well as I could. But my awkwardness made them laugh; so I got 

*^gT and threw down the gourd. I thought to myself it was very different from ttie way my 

iat^er said grace. 

On arriving at Lower Sandusky, before entering the town, they halted and formed a pro- 

ccBBion for Cox, my sister, my brother and myself to run the gauntlet. They pointed to the 

house of their chief. Old Crane, about a hundred yards distant, signifying that we should run 

iiito it. We did so, and were received very kindly by the old chief; he was a very mild man, 

beloved by all. 

I was then adopted into his family, the Deer tribe, my brother John into another, the 

Turtle tribe, and my sister into another ; so we were separated. I was p linted all over, and 

abroad belt of wampum put around my body. I was quite an important personage; and if 

my dear sister and brother had remained with me, I should have been happy; yes, happy, 

fori thought, now the Indians were my friends, I had nothing on earth to fear. My brother 

and sister were gone, and I was alone. I cried very much. An old prisoner tried to comfort me. 

He said I must not eat with the paint on me ; if I did, it would kill me. It was the paint of 

my adoption, and 1 suppose that while it was on me, I was considered neither white nor red, 

and, according to their superstition if L remained in that state, I should die. The prisoner 

took me to the river and washed it off, then led me back to the house. 

14S History of the City of CoLUMBrs. 

John was taken to BrownHtown, and Elizabeth to Maumee. I did not see either of them 
again for about four years, wlien my brother and myself rejoined our liberty. My sister re- 
mained with them but a few months. She was stolen from them by a ^ntleman in searcli 
of his sister, and taken to Detroit. Ah sbe had no means of returning to her friends, slie 
went with a family by the name of Dolson to Canada, and married one of the sons. When I 
saw her next she had a family of her own. 

After our adoption, the family to which I belonged came back to Columbus and cam{>ed 
near where the Penitentiary now stands. There we raised corn in what is now called 
SuUivant's Prairie. My home while with them was back and forth from there to Ix)wer 
Sandusky. The first night I spent in Franklin[ton] the Indians all got drunk. The squaws 
put me on a scatfold to keep them from killing me. The sc^uaws had sense enough to not taste 
the rum till the Indians were too drunk to harm them ; then they too got drunk. And, 
oh, what a time for me for a few days while the rum lasted ; but when it was gone they were 
very kind to me. 

After parting from my brother and sister, I heard so little of my own language, that I 
forgot it entirely, ami became attached to them and their ways. In fact, I became a vi»rv 
good Indian. They calletl me Hooscoa-tah-jah, (Little Head). A short time afterward, thev 
changed my name to Duh-guah. They often change their names. 

In the month of August, 17^M, when I had been a pris(»ner about four months, <ieneral 
Wayne conquered the Indiann in that <lecisive battle on the Maumee. B*»fore the battle, the 
squaws and children were sent to Iiower Sandusky. Runners were sent from the scene of 
action to inform us <»f their defeat, and to onler us to Sandusky Bay. They supposed that 
Wayne would come with his forces and massacre the whole of us. Great was the consterna- 
tion andc<mfasion ; and I, strange infatuation, thinking their enemies mine, ran and got into 
a canoe, fearing they would go and leave me at the mercy of the pale faces. We all arrived 
safe at the Bay ; and there the ludians conveyed their wounded. Old Crane among the num- 
ber. He was wounded in the arm ; and my friend, the one that saved my life, was killed. 
Wayne, instead of molesting us, withdrew his forces to Qreenville; and we returned to 
Franklin[tonJ (that now is,) and encamped below the dam, where there is a deep hole, called 
Billy's Hole, from Billy Wyandot. 

The only war dance I witnessed, wa.*< near where the Penitentiary now stands, when a 
party of them were preparing to leave for Kentucky in (juest of prisoners and 8cali»s. They 
returnetl with three prisoners and five scalps. Billy Wyandot and others were then prepar- 
ing to leave for Greenville to form a treaty, (August, 1795). By that treaty a great part of the 
l>resent limits of the State of Ohio was ceded to the whites ; and the Indians were to give up 
all the prisoners in their possession, which was d(»ne where found and recognized. 

My brother and myself were still held in bon<lage, our friends supposing us to be dead. 
When the lands acquired by the treaty were being surveyed by Generals Ma&sie and 
McArthur, Mr. Thomas, a former neighbor of my father's, being with them, saw me and 
knew me. He sent word to my brother William, who was then rt»siding in Kentucky. As 
soon as he heard that I was alive, he left Kentucky in Si'arch of me, with only six dollars in 
his pocket. He expected to lind me in Franklin. Not finding me there, he went on to Upper 
Sandusky. The Indians were on a hunting tour, and I was with them. The corn was then 
in the silk ; he was tohl that we would not be back until roasting-ear time. So he went back 
as far as Chillicothe, where he remained until the time appointed. Then he starteil again 
and came to Ix)wer Sandusky, where he found me quite happy, and so much of an Indian 
that 1 would rather have seen him tomahawked than to go with him. Old Crane would not 
consent to give me up. He said according to the treaty they were not obliged to release any 
that were willing to stay. They agreed to go to Brownstown and examine the treaty. 

Brother William, knowing the uncertainty of the Indians, went to Detroit for assistance. 
He applied to General Hamtramck, who gave him an olficer and twelve men. With this 
force he came to Brownstown, sixteen miles. We were all there, and I had found my brother 
John who was as unwilling to leave as myself. W^e were stnitting back and forth on the 
porch. I had a large bunch of feathers tied in my hair at the crown of my head and rings 
in my ears and nose. I was fc^eling very large and defiant. When I saw William coming, I 

Franklinton. I. 149 

said to John, " There comes oar white hrother.'' He came towards as and put out his hand 
to shake hands, hut we drew ourselves up scorufullyf and would not allow him to touch us. 
Oh, how little we knew or thought of the toil and suffering he had endured for our sake! 

We were both determined not to go with him ; so they took us by force. William took 
one of us by the hand and the officer the other ; they dragged us along to the boat. I well 
remember our setting one foot back to brace ourselves, and pulling with our might to get 
from them. But they succeeded in geting us into the boat and pushing off, leaving the old 
sqnaw who had the care of me, standing on the bank crying. There she stood, and I could 
hear her cries until lost in the distance. I cried too, till quite exhausted, and I fell asleep. 

John, being with the tribe that traded with the whites, did not forget his native tongue. 
Some days after we started, William related the story of our capture, the murder of our 
mother, sisters and brother. John repeated it to me. Oh, what a sudden change it wrought 
in me! It brought back the whole scene so forcibly to my recollection, that I clung to my 
brother with affection and gratitude, and never more had a wish to return to the red men. 

At Detroit we left our boat, and were kept in garrison four or five days, waiting for a 
vessel to take us to Erie, Pennsylvania. We. went from Erie to Pittsburgh, from there to our 
old home at Mr. Gillespie's, one of our old neighbors. We then changed our savage clothes, 
and after remaining several days, we left for Chillicothe, from thence to Franklin, my present 
home. Jbrbmiah Armstrono. 

Columbus, Ohio, April, 1858. 

In 1798 James Scott opened a small store in Franklintpn, much to the con- 
venience of the settlement. This v^as the beginning of permanent trade in the 
upper part of the Scioto Valley. Robert Russell opened an additional store in 
1803. Nearly everything in the way of supplies had to bo brought up the valley 
in canoes, or on packhorses, from the Ohio. One of tbe articles most necessary, 
and most difficult to obtain, was salt, the great scarcity and cost of which impelled 
Mr. Sullivant to resort to an expedient for its manufacture. " He knew," says his 
biographer, " that the deer resorted in great numbers to the lick on the river below 
Fmnklintou, and he had observed, when encamped there some years before, that 
there were strong evidences of the Indians having made salt in that place. The 
work was vigorously prosecuted, and the lick cleaned out, when it appeared that a 
feeble stream or spring of weak salt-water carao to the surface at the edge of the 
river. A wooden curb was inserted, which kept out a large portion of the fresh 
and surface water. The salt-water was gathered into long and large wooden 
troughs hollowed out from huge trees, and with the aid of a battery of common 
iron kettles and long-continued boiling, a limited quantity of rather poor salt was 
obtained ; but when a road was opened along Zane's Trace* from Wheeling to 
Lancaster, and thence to Franklinton, it furnished greater facilities for procuring 
salt, and this well was abandoned.'"® 

More curious still were the expedients resorted to for providing the materials 
for bread. Writing in 1856, Colonel Andrew McElvain says the " first mealmaking 
establishment" for the infant community was contrived by Samuel McElvain, by 
burning a hole in a stump, and adding "a sweep so fixed that two men could 
pound corn into meal." A sifter was added to this equipment by stretching a deer 
flkin over a hoop, and burning holes in it with a heated wire. This primitive con- 
trivance vanished, in due course, before the enterprising spirit of one Rogers, who 
erected a hand mill to do the meal -grinding for the settlement. Those who were 
not able to afford the luxury of hiring the services of the handmill, used improvised 
graters, or made hominy of their corn by pounding it in a log " mortar." 

150 History ok the ('ity of (^)LrMBrs. 

The first ferry across the Scioto of which there is any account was owned by 
Jo8e])h Foos, who was also proprietor of the first hotel in Franklinton, opened in 
1803. Owing to the active part taken in politics by its owner, this tavern — all 
public lodging-houses were then known as taverns — became the political head- 
quarters of the settlement. Mr. Foos served as Senator or Hopresentative in the 
General Assembly of Ohio during twentyfive sessions, including the first. During 
the War of 1812, in which he took an active part ho rose from the rank of captain 
to that of brigadier-general. From 1825 until he died in 1832, he held a commis- 
sion as Major-General ol' the State militia. He was a man of original ideas, and a 
speaker and writer of some note. 

Lucas Sullivant settled permanently in Franklinton in 1801. He had shortly 
prior to that time married Sarah Starling, the second daughter and fourth child of 
Colonel William Starling, of Kentucky. Of the ancestry of Lucas Sullivant little 
is known, but the lineage of the Stiirlings is perspicuous as far back as 1670, when 
their paternal ancestor, Sir William Starling, held the office of Lord Mayor of 
London. Their famil}' name being one of the most prominent and important in 
the early annals of Columbus, a few particulai*s as to its antecedents are germane 
to this narrative. The first of the SUirlings who came to this country was William, 
a great-grandson to the Lord Mayor, who settled in King William County, 
Virginia, about 1740. Married soon after his arrival to Jane Gordon, daughter of 
a Scot<'h j)hysician, William Starling died in his twentysixth year, leaving three 
children, who were])laced under the guardianship of Colonel Lyne, a wealthy neigh- 
bor, descended from an old English family which had settled in King William County. 
The Lynes were proud of their lineage, and very aristocratic; nevertheless young 
William Starling had the temerity to marry Susanna Lyne, his guardian's si.slor. 
Colonel Lyne's displeasure at this match made it convenient for young SUirling 
and his bride to emigrate to Kentucky, where they settled, in 1794, on a farm near 
Harrodsburg. One of the eleven children born to William Starling and Susanna 
Lyne was the second daughter, already mentioned, who became the wife of Lucas 
Sullivant; another was iiyne Starling, who, thougli he lived and died a bachelor, 
has perpetuated his nanie for all time as one of the four original proprietors of 
Columbus, and the munificent founder of the Starling Medical (college. 

Among the accessions to the Franklinton colony in 1803 were David and 
Joseph Jamison, who came from Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, and were soon 
followed by several other representatives of their numerous kindred. A sister of 
the Jamison brothers, while visiting them in their new home, "became acquainted 
with and married Samuel Barr, who had also come from the Shippensburg dis- 
trict. Barr was at that time one of the leading traders of the frontier. In 
connection with his cousin, John T. Barr, a wealthy merchant of Baltimore, he 
became interested in the firm of Barr k Campbell at Portsmouth, and established 
at Franklinton that of Barr k Keys. Immediately prior to his settlement in the 
Franklinton colony he had been engaged in business at Chillicothe. 

In 1803 Colonel i^obert Culbertson, also from Shippensburg, joined the colony 
''with his numerous family of sons, sons-in-law and daughters."" Twice a 
widower, there had been born to him twelve sons and daughters. In Franklinton 
he married a lady who had been twice widowed and was the mother of twelve 
sons and daughters. No issue resulted from this third union but the Jamison and 

Fbanklinton. 1. 151 

Culbertson families intormarriod, and from thenco sprang a nnmorous progeny. 
One of the suitors of Bachol Jamison, who married Samuel Barr, is said to have 
been the distinguished benefactor of Columbus who has given his name to Goodale 

Colonel Culbertson bought a large amount of land, not only about Franklin- 
ton, but on the eastern side of the Scioto. The next year after his arrival he was 
chosen as one of the Representatives of Ross County in the first General Assembly 
of Ohio. 

Soon after the founding of Franklinton, Mr. Sullivant laid out the town of 
North Liberty, on the Big Darby, where a few families soon gathered. This prob- 
ably took place about the summer of 1799.'* Contemporary settlements were 
made at the mouth of the Gahannab, and along the other principal watercourses 
within the present limits of Franklin County. Among the earlier arrivals on 
Alum Creek were Messrs. Turner, Nelson, Hamilton, Agler and JRoed. "In the 
mean time," says Martin, " Franklinton was the point to which the emigrants 
first repaired to spend some months, or perhaps years prior to their permanent 


1 . His son, Joseph Sullivant. 

2. Colonel Anderson was the father of Major Robert Anderson, the defender of Fort 
^^Unater, and of Hon. Charles Anderson, late Governor of Ohio. 

3. Sullivant Family Memorial. 

4. 1874. 

5. Sullivant Family Memorial. 

6. The son of [Arthur] Boke by a negro female, formerly a slave belonging to our 
family in Kentucky, was abandoned in infancy by his mother, but was nourished at her own 
l>reast by our mother, with her eldest son, William. This Arthur was, in after years, my 
nurse, and, spending his life in the family, at last found a resting-place with his old master in 
Green Lawn Cemetery. — Joseph SuUivanty in the Sullivant Family Meinoriai. 

7. His patents covered most of the territory from Boke's Creek south to a point below 
the Forks, and from the Scioto West to the Big Darby. 

8. The copy here given is taken from the History of Franklin County, by W. T. 

D. In 1797 the Government contracted with Ebenezer (some authorities say Noah) 

^'*^, to mark a trail from the present site of Wheeling, West Virginia, through the Ohio 

wiliierness to Limestone, now Maysville, Kentucky. For this service Mr. Zane was to have 

three eeclions of the public land, to be selected by himself. Assisted by some Indians, whom 

"^ employed as guides, he proceeded to survey a practicable route, wliich was marked by 

t>laxiiig" forest trees, and was thenceforward known as Zane's Trace. It crossed the 

Mns^ingum and Hocking at the points where now rise the cities of Zanesville and Lancaster, 

ancl ^jjg afterward extended from Lancaster to Franklinton. For many years it was the 

pnticipal, indeed the only traveled route through the Ohio wilderness. The arterial roads 

^^^ i^ilways by which it has been since superseded have attested the wisdom of its location. 

v^e Zanesville and Maysville Turnpike is said to follow its path very nearly from the 

sftnakingum to Chillicothe. Mr. Zane further evinced his sagacity by selecting his land at 

the points where now stand the cities of Lancaster, Zanesville and Wheeling. 

10. Sullivant Family Memorial. 

11. Martin's History of Franklin County, 

12. Ibid. 

13. Ibid. 



We have now reached an important point of political departure for the settle- 
ments at the Forks of th6 Scioto, and in the wilderness circumjacent. It is the be- 
ginning-point of the present County of Franklin. 

On the twentyeighth of August, 1798, the territorial county of Ross was pro- 
claimed by Governor St. Clair. It took its name from Hon. James Ross, a 
prominent Federalist of Alleghany County, Pennsylvania, and its boundaries were 
described in St. Clair's proclamation as follows: 

Beginning at the fortysecond mile tree, on the line of the original grant of land made by 
the United States to the Ohio Company, which line was run by Israel Ludlow, and running 
from thence west, until it shall intersect a line to be drawn due north from the mouth of Elk 
River, commonly called Eagle Creek, and from the point of intersection running north to the 
southern boundary of the county of Wayne, until a north line to be drawn from the place of 
beginning shall intersect the same ; and if it should be found that a north line drawn from 
the place of beginning will not intersect the said southern boundary of Wayne, then an 
east line is to be drawn from the eastern termination of said boundary until it shall intersect 
the aforesaid north line to be drawn from the point of beginning. 

From the northern part of the territory thus vaguely defined, Franklin County 
was set off by act of the First General Assembly of Ohio, passed March 30, to take 
effect April 30, 1803.* Its limits were thus set forth in the statute : 

Beginning on the western boundary of the twentieth range of townships east of the 
Scioto River, at the corner of sections numbers twentyfour and twentyfive in the ninth 
Township of the Twentyfirst Range, surveyed by John Matthews, thence west until it inter- 
sects the eastern boundary line of Green County, thence north with said line until it inter- 
sects the State line, thence eastwardly with the said line to the northwest corner of Fairfield 
County, thence with the western boundary line of Fairfield to the point of beginning. 

That is to say, according to Martin, " bounded on the east by nearly our pres- 
sent line, south by a line near the middle of what is now Pickaway County, on 
the west by Greene County, and on the north by Lake Erie."' 

"The creation of the county of Delaware in 1808," continues Martin, "reduced 
our northern boundary to its present line; the creation of the county of Pickaway 
in 1810, reduced our southern boundary to its present limits; the creation of Mad- 
ison in 1810, and of Union in 1820, reduced our western limits to the boundaries 
represented by Wheeler's County Map, published in 1842; but subsequently, by an 
act of the Legislature passed the fourth of March, 1845, our western boundary was 
changed by making Darby Creek the line from the northwest corner of Brown to 
the north line of Pleasant Township, as represented by Foote's Map of 1856; and 
by an act passed the twentyseventh of January, 1857, entitled ' An act to annex a 
part of Licking County to the County of Franklin,* there were nine half sections 


Franklinton. II. 153 

taken from the southwest corner of Licking, and attached to Franklin. This oc- 
casions the jog in the eastern line of Truro Township, as represented on the maps. 
Then at the session of 1850-1851, a range of sections, being a strip one mile in 
width, including the town of Winchester, was taken from Fairfield County and 
attached to the east side of Madison Township, in Franklin County as represented 
on Footers Map. The county is now [1858] in nearly a square form, and is twenty- 
two and a half miles in extent north and south, and would probably average a trifle 
over that from east to west."* 

The statute creating the county further provided that " courts for the said 
County of Franklin shall be holden in the town of Franklinton, until a permanent 
seat of justice shall be established therein, agreeably to the provisions of an act en- 
titled *an act establishing seats of justice.' " 

Under the Constitution of 1802 the ('ommon Pleas or County Judges werq 
chosen by the General Assembly, and wore called Associate Judges. By the act of 
April 16, 1803, it was made the duty of these Judges, to establish townships and 
fix their boundaries, to appoint certain county officers, and to discharge various 
other duties now performed by county commissioners. The first Common Pleas 
Judges appointed for Franklin County wore John Dill, David Jamison and Joseph 
Foos, of whom the first named was the President or Chief Judge. This Court ap- 
pointed Lucas Sullivant as its Clerk,* and on May 10, 1803, proceeded to divide 
the county into four townships, two east and two west of the Scioto. The eastern 
townships were named Harrison and Liberty, the western Franklin and Darby.* 
At the same sitting of the court an election of Justices of the Peace was ordered,, 
to take place on the twentyfirst day of the ensuing June. In pursuance of this 
order the following justices were chosen on the day appointed : In Franklin 
Township, Zachariah Stephen and James Marshal ; in Darby, Josiah Bwing; in 
Harrison, William Bennett; in Liberty, Joseph Hunter and Ezra Brown. On the 
same day, Ohio elected Jeremiah Morrow as her first Representative in Congress. 
The vote of Franklin County, cast at that election, as canvassed and reported by 
Lucas Sullivant, David Jamison and Joseph Foos, shows the following aggregate, 
by townships: Franklin, 59; Darby, 22 ; Harrison, 21 ; Liberty, 28; total 130. 

Liberal extracts from the proceedings of the first Common Pleas Court of 
Franklin County appear in Martin's History, transcribed, the author says, from 
unbound sheets of manuscript, in the handwriting of Lucas Sullivant, which had 
been thrown aside as office rubbish. The following portions of these extracts are 
of such local interest and significance as to deserve to be reproduced here: 

At a meeting of the Associate Judges of the Court of Common Pleas of Franklin County, 
on the eighth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and three, 
present the Honorable John Dill, Esq., first Associate, and David Jamison, Esq., second Asso- 
ciate Judges of said Court. Ordered, that the rates of Tavern License in Franklinton be 
four dollars per annum. 

Ordered, that a license be granted William Domigan, Sr., to keep tavern in his own 
house in Franklinton until the next Court of Common Pleas for Franklin County, and after- 
ward, until he can renew his license. 

Ordered that license be granted to Joseph Foos to keep a tavern at the house occupied 
by him in Franklinton for the accommodation of travelers until the next Court of Common 
Pleas for Franklin County, and afterward until the license can be renewed. 

Adjourned without day. 

Teetf Lucas Sullivant, Clerk, 

lIlNTtlRV OK TlIK ( "iTV Of ('oM'Mlirs 

Franklinton. II. 155 

At a session of the Associate Judges of the Court of Common Pleas for Franklin County, 
at the place of holding courts in Franklinton for the county aforesaid, on Thursday, the eighth 
of September, 1803, it being the first judicial day after the adjournment of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of the said County of Franklin— present John Dill, David Jamison and Joseph 
Foos, Gentlemen Associate Judges, aforesaid, who having assumed their official seats, and 
were attended by Lucas Sullivant, Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas of said county, the 
following proceedings were had, to wit: On the prayer of a petition signed by a number of 
signers as required by law, and who were citizens of this county, praying for a view of a road 
leading from the public square in Franklinton, out of said town on the Pickaway road, 
thence the nearest and best way to Lancaster, in Fairfield County, until it intersects the line 
between the counties aforesaid. Ordered, that the prayer of said petition be granted, and 
that John Brickell, Joseph Dickson and Joseph Hunter be appointed viewers of said road, 
who, or any two of them, shall view the ground aforesaid in this county and act in conjunc- 
tion with the viewers that may be appointed by the Court of Common Pleas of Fairfield 
County, on what point said road will cross the line between the counties aforesaid, to be on 
the nearest and best ground to be had from Franklinton to Lancaster. It is further ordered 
that Joseph Vauce be appointed surveyor to attend the said viewers on the above described 
road, and that he make a survey and report thereof to our next January term 

[Note by Martin : This road was made to cross the Scioto at the old ford below the canal 
dam, and pass through the bottom fields, then woods, to intersect what is now the Chillicothe 
road south of Stewart's Grove ; and continued to be the traveled road until after Columbus 
was laid out. Jacob Armitage kept the ferry over the river.] 

On the prayer of a petition signed by a number of freeholders and citizens of Franklin 
County, praying for a view of a road to lead from the northeast en<l of Gift Street, in Frank- 
linton, on as straight a direction as the situation of the ground will admit of a road, towards 
the town of Newark, in Fairfield County, so far as the line between the counties of Franklin 
and Fairfield. The prayer aforesaid granted; and ordered that Samuel McElvain, Elijah 
Fulton and Joseph Parks be appointed viewers, who, or any two of them shall view said road 
in this county, and act in conjunction with viewers that may be appointed by the Court of 
Common Pleas of Fairfield County, at what point on the line between said counties the road 
aforesaid shall cross, to be on the nearest and best ground from the point of beginning as 
aforesaid to the termination thereof. It is further ordered, that Samuel Smith be appointed 
surveyor to attend the said viewers and make a correct survey of said road, and report the 
same to our next January term. 

Ordered, that there be paid unto Jeremiah McLene, who was appointed by the Legisla- 
ture of the State of Ohio as one of the commissioners to fix the permanent seat of justice in 
this county (Franklin), the sum of fifteen dollars, it being a compensation for his services as 
aforesaid six days, and his additional service in writing and circulating the notices as required 
b} law. 

[Note by Martin : General Jeremiah McLene died at Washington City on the nineteenth 
of March, 1837, aged 70 years. His sickness dated from his attendance at the inauguration of 
Martin VanBuren on the fourth of that month. He had just completed his second term in 
Congress. He was a native of Pennsylvania, and in early life emigrated from that State to 
the then Territory of Tennessee, where he was an intimate companion of General Andrew 
Jackson, for whom he always entertained a great i>artiality. He was subsequently a pioneer 
to the Northwestern Territory. In the early part of the present century, he settled in the 
infant town of Chillicothe, and was, while there. Sheriff of Ross County. Then, there and 
at Columbus together, he served twentyone years in succession as Secretary of State, and was 
a very popular State officer. He was a surveyor and fond of his compass and the business- 
was for a number of years county surveyor for Franklin County, and also city surveyor of 

Onlered that there be paid unto James Ferguson, who was appointed one of the com- 
missioners to fix the permanent seat of justice in this county (Franklin), the sum of twelve dol- 
lars, it being a compensation for his services as a commissioner aforesaid six days. 

156 History of tue City o¥ Columbits. 

Ordered that there be paid out of the county treasury of Franklin, unto William 
Creighton, who was appointed by the legislature of the State of Ohio one of the commis- 
sioners to fix and establish the permanent seat of justice in the County of Franklin, the sum 
of twelve dollars, it being the compensation allowed him by law for six days service as a 
commissioner aforesaid. 
• •••««•••••••• 

Ordered, that there l>e allowed and paid to Joseph Fooh, Esq., as follows*. Four dollars 
expended by him in preparing for the reception of the CJourt of Common Pleas for Franklin 
County at September term, IHO.*^ ; also the sum of one dollar and fifty cents expended by him 
in conveying the election l>ox and a volume of the laws of the State to the house of election 
in Darby Township prior to the twentyfirst of June as required by law ; also the sum of 
three dollars paid by him to James Marshall, Estiuire, for bringing from the printing office 
part of the number of volumes of laws of this State, as was allowed by law for Franklin 
County, and which was brought for the use of the different townships ; also the sum of two 
dollars which he paid for the election boxes made use of at the past election in this county. 

Ordered, that there be paid to John Blair lister of taxable property in Franklin Town- 
ship, the sum of six dollars an<l fortynine cents, it being the compensation in full this day 
claimed by him before this court for his services in taking the list aforesaid, and also the list 
of enumeration in said township, and three miles mileage in making said return. 

On the prayer of a petition signed by a numl>er of citizens, house and freeholders of 
Franklin County, praying for the view of a road to lead from the public square in Franklin- 
ton to Springfield, in Greene County, to be on the straightest and nearest direction towards 
Springfield as the nature of the ground and circumstances will admit of a good road, ordered 
that Thomas Morehead, Alexander Blair and George Skidmore be appointed viewers of said 
road, who, or any two of them, shall view the same as far as the line between Franklin and 
Greene County, and make report to our January term next. It is further ordered that Cap- 
tain John Blair be appointed surveyor to attend said viewers on the above premises, and 
survey said roa<l, and return a fair plat or survey thereof a^ required by law. to our January 
session next. 

Ordered, that Jacob Grubb be appointed County Treasurer for the County of Franklin. 

Ordered that four dollars be appropriated for the purpose of completing the election 
boxes in this county, agreeably to the requisition of law. 

Ordered, that there be allowed for wolf and panther scalps as follows, to wit: For every 
wolf or panther scalp any person shall kill under six months old, one dollar ; for every wolf 
or panther that is above six months old, two dollars. The proceedings respecting any wolf 
or panther scalp to be particularly and pointedly regulated by the law passed by the Legisla- 
tive Council and House of Representatives in General Assembly of the territory of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio River entitled, An act to encourage the killing of wolves 
and panthers, passed ninth of January, 1802 ; said law to be complied with in every respect 
except the price given for scalps, which shall be as before mentioned in this order; and the 
holders of any certificate for such scalps shall be paid out of the county treasury so soon as 
the tax for 1804 shall be levied and collected, and not before. 

[Session of January 7, 1804] A return of the view of road from Franklinton lo New- 
ark was made by the surveyor and viewers that were appointed at September session which 
return of survey and report were received and ordered to be recorded. 

Ordered, that the supervisor in Liberty Township proceed to open said road thirtythree 
feet wide, and prepare and make it passable for loaded carriages or wagons. A petition was 
presented by the Reverend James Kilbourne and others, praying for a view of a road to lead 
from Franklinton to the town of VV^orthington, from thence to the south boundary of the 
fifth tier of townships, etc. It is ordered, that the prayer of said petition be granted, and that 
Michael Fisher, Thomas Morehead and Samuel Flenniken be appoints viewers, who, or any 
two of them, shall view and make report of the same. And it is further ordered that Joseph 
Vance be appointed surveyor to attend said viewers and make a correct survey of the same 
and return it to this court. 

Pranklinton. II. 157 

It is farther ordered tbat the prayer of the petition presented by the Reverend James 
KUbourne and others, praying for a road to lead from the town of Worthington to intersect 
^^e road which leads from Franklinton to Newark, be granted on the conditions that the 
^id petitioners defray at their own expense the viewing, surveying and opening the same. 

It 18 further ordered, that Maj. William Thompson, Ezra Griswold and Samuel Beach 
^appointed viewers of said road, and report the same to this court at their next session ; 
also, that the Reverend James Kilbourne be appointed surveyor, who shall attend said 
viewers, make a fair and correct survey, and return the same to this court at their next 

On application of Ezra Griswold for license to keep a tavern in Liberty Township, he be- 
ing recommended to the satisfaction of this court, .and he also paying into the Clerk's hands 
the tax required by law, it is ordered that license be granted him accordingly. 

On application of Nathan Carpenter of Liberty Township for license to keep a house of 
public entertainment, he being recommended to the satisfaction of this court and he having 
a/so paid into the hands of the clerk the tax required by law, it is ordered that license be 
granted him. 

Usual Osboum, having given bond with approved security for the collection of the county 
tax in Darby Township, it is ordered that he be appointed collector of the same. 

Ordered, that Lucas SuUivant be appointed Recorder for the County of Franklin ;wo 
tempore^ who shall proceed to provide the necessary books for the office, who shall, if he is 
not continued permanently be paid by his successor the necessary costs of the same at the 
lime of delivering up the records, etc., to his successor, which he shall <lo whenever a Re- 
corder shall be permanently appointed. 

Ordered that this court adjourn until Tuesday next. 

Test, Ll'cas SiXLivANT, Clerk. 

[Session of January 10, 1804] Ordered, that there be paid unto Adam Hosack, Sheriff 
of thia county, the sum of one dollar and fifty cents for summoning the grand jury for Jan- 
Wfy term, 1804. 

Ordered, that there be a jail built immediately for the use of this county, on the follow- 

"'^ plan, to wit: Of logs twelve feet long and eighteen inches diameter, with two sides 

newed so as to make a face of eight inches, and to be let down dovetailing so as to make the 

^ fit close together ; to be seven feet at least between the lower and upper floors, which 

oor 18 to be of timbers of like thickness, with three sides hewed so as to let them lie entire- 

y cioee, and to be smooth on the face of the lower floor, and the upper floor to show an even 

''^ like manner on the lower side, and to have two rounds of logs at least, of like timbers 

. .^^ the upper floor ; then to have a cabin roof (made of clapboards held down by timbers 

. ^"^nsversely in lines about three feet apart) well put on, a door cut out two feet eight 

^* wide and prepared in a workmanlike order, to hang the shutter of the door, which 

tK-^ is to be made in a strong and sufficient and workmanlike manner of plank two inches 

^^«. There is to be two windows, eight inches by ten inches wide, made in said prison 

. ^^f^» which windows are to be secured by two bars of iron one inch square sufficiently let 

* *^ each window, the corners closely sawed or cut down. 

Ordered that this court be adjourned without day. 

Test, Lucas Sullivant, Clerk. 

[Session of March 24, 1804.] Ordered, that there be paid to Joseph Parks and Samuel Mc- 
^*vain, each, three dollars out of the county treasury, for three days services in viewing of a 
""^^ from Franklinton to Newark. 

Ordered, that there be paid unto David Pugh and John Hoskins, each, two dollars and 

* quarter out of the county treasury for three days services in carrying the chain on the view 
^f the road from Franklinton to Newark. 

Ordered, that there be paid to Samuel Smith four dollars and fifty cents, for three days 
services in surveying the road from Franklinton to Newark, as per return of survey. 

Ordered, that there be paid out of the county treasury to Lucas Sullivant, eighty dollars, 
for the building of the jail, in Franklinton, for the county. 

158 History op the City of Columbus. 

Ordered, that Lucas Sullivant be appointed surveyor^ to attend the viewers of the road 
from Franklinton to Springfield, and to survey and return a plat thereof of that part which 
has not been viewed. 

Ordered, that there be paid unto John Dill, Esq., eight dollars out of the county treasury, 
cash by him advanced to purchase a lock for the jail of Franklin County. 

Adjourned, Lucas Sullivant, Clerk. 

The county jail ordered in the foregoing proceedings was built by Lucas Sul- 
livant at a coHt of eighty dollars. It was burned down not a great while afler- 
wards. There is "no record that stocks and a whipping-post were provided in con- 
nection with it, although an early tradition so states, and was corroborated by the 
customs of the period. Under the Territorial Government the use of such imple- 
ments of punishment began as early as 1788, and in 1792 the judges passed a law 
directing that the stocks, whipping-post and pillory, as well as a jail and courts 
house, should be erected in every county. In defiance of the Ordinance of 1787, 
forbidding slavery, a law was passed August 15, 1795, providing that a non-paying 
debtor might be subjected to servitude for a period of seven years on demand of 
his creditor. Under the Constitution of 1802 similar laws were enacted. They 
were borrowed originally from the Statutes of Pennsylvania. 

The courts of Franklin County met in hired rooms until 1807-8, when a court- 
house was erected under the supervision of Lucas Sullivant. It was built of brick 
manufactured from the clay of one of the ancient mounds of the neighborhood.* A 
brick jail, Arthur O'Harra contractor, was built about the same time, situated a few 
rods northeast of the courthouse. These buildings continued to bo used until the 
countyseat was removed to Columbus in 1824.** After that, the courthouse was 
used, for some time, as a school bouse. It remained standing until 1873, when it 
was torn away, and the present Franklinton school building was erected on its site. 

Among the new settlers in Franklinton from 1805 to 1809 were Isaac and 
Jeremiah Miner, Samuel White and sons, the Stewarts, the Johnstons, the Weatb- 
eringtons, the Shannons, the Stambaughs,tbe Ramsej^s, the Mooberrys, the Sharps, 
the Deckers, the Rareys, the Olmsteds, the Kiles, Jacob Gander, Percival Adams, 
John Swisher and George W. Williams." To these were added, from 1805 to 1812, 
several young men whose talents and energy afterward made them conspicuous. 
Among these were Lyne Starling, Doctor Lincoln Goodale, Doctor Samuel Par- 
sons, R. W. McCoy, Francis Stewart, Henry Brown, John Kerr, Alexander Mc- 
Laughlin, Orris Parish, Ralph Osborn, and Gustavus Swan. 

Owing to their subsequent prominence and usefulness, several of these earlier 
settlers in Franklinton deserve more particular notice. 

Isaac, afterwards known as Judge Miner, arrived from the State of New York 
in 1806 or 1807. Jeremiah Miner came a year later. After residing in Franklin- 
ton one or two years, the brothers engaged in stock-raising on Deer Creek, in 
Madison County. Several years later they bought a large tract of land, since 
known as the Miner farm, from which was derived a portion of the ground since 
consecrated as Green Lawn Cemetery. Judge Miner died in 1831, aged fiflythree. 
Jeremiah Miner was never married. He died at an advanced age, in Upper San- 
dusky, and was interred at Green Lawn. 

Orris Parish came from the State of New York. He was elected President 
Judge of Common Pleas for Franklin County in 1810, and afterwards represented 
the county in the General Assembly. 

Vranklinton. II. 159 

Kalph Osborn arrived in 1806 from Waterbury, Connecticut, whore ho had 
acquired the profession of the law. After remaining in Franklinton a few years, 
be removed to Delaware County, of which ho became the first Prosecuting At- 
torney. At a later period he removed to Pickawaj'^ County, and in 1810 was 
elected Clerk of the Ohio House of JRepresentatives. In 1815 he was elected 
Auditor of State, an office which he held eighteen years in succession. In 1833 he 
was chosen as State Senator for the Counties of Franklin and Pickaway. 

Doc^tor Samuel Parsons, father of Hon. George M. Parsons, whose name has 
been a prominent one in Columbus for many j'^ears past, was a native of Reading, 
Connecticut. Martin's History says of him : " He acquired his profession in his 
native State : removed to the west a young and unmarried man, and arrived at 
Franklinton on the first day of the year, 1811, where he located and commenced 
the practice of his profession. In 1816 he removed over to Columbus, where he 
continued to practice until the last eight or nine years of his life, when he retired. 
As a physician he was attentive and cautious, and acquired a high reputation — 
and as a citizen was highly respected. In 1843 he was, without solicitation or 
desire on his part, elected a Representative for this county in the State Legisla- 
ture, where he served with abilit3\ He was also for a number of years President 
of the Franklin Branch of the State Bank of Ohio." 

(lustavus Swan was born in the town of Sharon, New Hampshire, July 15, 
1787. After many severe struggles with poverty, he acquired the profession ol 
the law. He set out for Ohio on horseback in April, 1810, and in the ensuing 
May arrived at Marietta. He brought with him fifteen hundred dollars, which he 
loaned to a friend and lost. He was not dismayed by this misfortune, believing, 
says his biographer, '° that "a j'oung man's best capital with which to begin 
active life is good morals, a liberal education, and the fear of starvation." In the 
spring of 1811 he visited Cincinnati, Chillicothe, Zanesville, and finally F'ranklinton, 
where he concluded to make his permanent settlement. He was led to this deci- 
sion by the conviction that the seat of government of the State would be located 
at the Forks of the Scigto. He opened a law office in Franklinton, served as a 
volunteer in the war of 1812, and in 1814 transferred the theatre of his professional 
practice to Columbus. Of his subsequent career more will be said in its proper 
historical connection. 

John Kerr was a native of Ireland, born in 1778, and educated at the Uni- 
versity of Dublin. He came to America early in the present century, and arrived, 
about 1810, in Franklinton, near which he made extensive investments in land, 
particularly on the east bank of the Scioto. Chiefly from these investments he 
afterwards became very wealthy. 

Lyne Starling, born in Kentucky, December 27, 1784, came to Franklinton, 
by invitation of his brotherinlaw, Lucas Sullivant, in 1805. Having served as an 
assistant in the office of the clerk of the courts at Frankfort, he soon became a 
useful helper in the official duties of Mr. Sullivant, then clerk of the court at 
Franklinton. He finally became the clerk himself, and hehl the office for several 
years. Induced by a taste for business to renounce official station, he became a 
partner in trade with Mr. Sullivant, established a flourishing store, and was first 
to venture cargoes of produce in decked flatboats down the Scioto, and thence to 
New Orleans. When the war of 1812 broke out, he became a commissary for the 

U]{) History of the City of Columbits. 

Northwestern Army under General Harrison, and took large contracts for furnish- 
ing it« supplies. His investments in land were extensive and very profitable, as 
will hereatler be seen. Mr. Starlings personal presence was imposing, his height 
six teet six inches, his carriage graecful, and his dress faultless in the style of a 
gentleman of the old Virginia school. He was " emphatically a great man," says 
Hon. Gustavus Swan. ** He arrived at conclusions and was acting upon them, 
while ordinary minds were contemplating at j)remises. It was this peculiar in- 
tellectual superiority which rendered his efforts in business so uniformly success- 
ful, and which enabled him, before reaching the meridian of life, to amass one of 
the largest fortunes which have been accumulated in the West."" 

Although his wealth and dignity made him seem aristocratic to the popular 
mind, Mr. Starling was a man of generous impulses. Judge Gustiivus Swan, him- 
self a man of uncommon ability, paid him these tine compliments: •* Before the 
progress of disease had undermined his constitution, and a shattered nervous 
system had rendered his days wretched, Mr. Starling was amiable, frank, confid- 
ing, social and manly, wholly disinterest^^d in his friendships, charitable to the 
frailties of others, and only severe upon his own. The poor and necessitous never 
applied to him in vain, and he was as far from avarice as any man that ever lived. 
His mind had no grasp for small things, and when he relieved, it was no calculat- 
ing or grudging bounty."^* 

Another remarkable man who came to Franklinton in 1805, was Doctor Lin- 
coln Goodale. The father of Doctor Goodale was Major Nathan Goodale, one of 
the '* minute men " of the War of Independence. At the first outbreak of that war, 
in 1775, Major Goodale quitted his farm near Brookfield, Massachusetts, and 
enlisted in the Fiflh Massachusetts Infantry. lie fought brilliantly in several 
battles, was twice wounded, and suffered the horrors of the Jersey Prison-ship, at 
New York, w^hile, for a time, in captivity. Removing to the West, after the war, 
he arrived at Marietta July 2, 1788, and in April, 1789, settled at Belpre. There 
he assisted in building stockades tor defense against the Indians, and became an 
ofiicer of the militia by apjmintment ofiiovernor St. Clai». His subsequent fate is 
illustrative of the j)erils of pioneer life at that time on the Ohio frontier. Let the 
story be told in the words of one of the leading <*hroniclers of the events of the 
border : 

On the first day of March, 179:^, the [Belpre] colony met with the most serious loss it ha<l 
yet felt from their Indian enemies, in the captivity an<l ultimate death of Major Goo<]ale. 
On that day he was at work in a new clearing on his farm, distant about forty or fifty rods 
from the garrison, hauling rail timber with a yoke of oxen from the edge of the woods whicli 
bordered tlie new field. It lay back of tlie first bottom on the e<lge of the plain, in open view of 
the station. An Irishman, named John Magee, was at work grubbing or digging out the 
roots of the bushes and small saplings on the slope of the plain as it descends on to the bottom, 
but out of sight of Major Goo<lale. The Indians made so little noise in their assault that 
John did not hear tliem. The first notice of the disaster was the view of the oxen seen from 
the garrison, standing quietly in tlie field with no one near them. An hour or more they 
were observed still in the same place, when suspicion arose that some disaster had happened 
to Mr. Goodale. One of the men was called, and sent up to learn what had happened. 

John was still busy at liis work, unconscious of any alarm. In the edge of the woods 
there was a thin layer of snow, on which he soon saw moccasin tracks. It was now evident 
that Indians had been there, and had taken him prisoner, as no blood was seen on the 
ground. They followed the trail some distance, but soon lost it The next day a party of 


Franklixton. II. llll 

ran|2:era went out, but returno<l after u fruitlo8S scarcli. Tho river at tliip time was nearh' at 
full bank, and less danj^er was apprelioiided on that ar(M>unt ; it was also early in tlie s(>as<»n 
for Indians to approach the sc'tthMuentP. Tlie uncertainty of his condition left room for the 
imagination to fancy everything? horrible in his fate ; more terrihU* to )M»ar tlian the actual 
knowledge of his death, (ireat wan the <ii8tress of Mrs. (ioodale and the children, over- 
whelmed with this unexpe<"ted <*alamity. His loss threw a deep lijlonm over tlu* whole 
ronimunity, as no man was more highly valued; neither was there any f»ne whose roiinrils 
and influence were equally prized by the settlcuKMit. Me was in fact the life and soul oi this 
isolated cominunity. and left a vacancy that no other man couhl till. . . . 

At the treaty of 1705, when thecaj'tives were given up hy the Indians, sotne intelligence 
was obtained of nearly all the personn taken priH(mei*s from this part of Ohio, but none of the 
fate of Major Goodale. About the year 17'.w>, Colonel Forrest Meeker, since a citizen of 
Delaware County, and well acquainted with the family of Major <ioodale, and the circum- 
stances of this event, when at Detroit on business, fell in company with three Indians, who 
related to him the particulars of their taking a man prisoner, at Bel])re, in the spring of 17H3. 
Their description of his personal appearance left no doubt on the min«i of Colonel Meeker of 
its being Major Goodale. 

They stated thata party of eight Inclians were watching the Hettlement for mischief : and 
as they lay concealed on the side of the hill back of the plain, they heard a man driving or 
"talking to his oxen," as they expressed it. After carefully examining his movements, they 
saw him leave his work and go U) the garrison, in the middl(> of the day. Knowing that he 
woald return soon, they secreted themselves in tlie edi;e of the woods, and while he was 
ooeupied with his work, sprang out and seized upon him before he was aware of their pres- 
ence, or could make any defense, threatening him with death if he made a noise or resisted. 
After securing him with thongs, they commenced a hasty retreat, intending to take him to 
Detroit, and get a large ransom. Somewhere on the Miami, or at Sandusky, he tell sick and 
could not travel ; and that he tinaliy dieii of his .sickness. 

A Mrs. Whittaker, the wife of a man who had a store, and tradt^l with the Indians at 
Sandusky, has since related the sanu; account. That the Indintis left him at her house, 
where he died of a disease like a pleurisy, without having received any very ill usage from 
his captors, other than the means ntMressary to prevent his escape. This is probably a cor- 
rect account of his fate ; and although his death was a melanch<ily one, among .strangers, and 
faraway from the sympathy and care of his fri<>nds. yet it is a relief to know that he did not 
perish at the stake, or by the tomahawk of the savages.'' 

Doctor Goodale remembered Veil bein<^ HtationiMl, when a boy on the farm at 
Belpre, to watch for the approiudi of Indians while his lather and assistants wore 
at work in the fields. When he ouine to Kranklinton, he brouirht with him his 
widowed mother, and engaged in the practice of medicine, which profession he 
bad studies! in the office of Doctor Leonard .Jewel l, at Helpie. Hut the li'ade of 
the frontier was at that time so profitable that he was soon drawn into mercantile 
business, and opened a store, which be conducted with i^reat suc'cexs. Tart of his 
stock consisted of drugs and medicines, for which there was i^reat demand. Mean 
while he gave to the ]K)or his services as a physician free of iharfije. Kike the 
other business men of Pranklint4>n he made large investnuMits in the lands of the 
vicinity, and reaped therefrom u liberal profit, lie enlisted as a volunteer in the 
War of 1H12, becamo an AssisUmt Snri^eon in (^)lonel, afterwards (lovernor. Me 
Arthur's regiment, and was taken captive at II nil's surrendei-. and sent to M.ilden 
He was afterwards exchanged at (-leveland. 

Doctor Goodale was a man of extraordinary exeellenee. lioNjiitable. i'etine(l, 
strict in his integrity, and clear and accurate in his jndiiinent, \\r delii^lited in 
assisting others, and did many noble things in an unobtiiisive way. Ili.N bene- 
factions were numerous, that by wlii(di he is now best remembeied beini^ hi^ niu 
nilicent gift to the City of Columbus of the beautiful park which bears his name. 

\Vi'2, IllST<>RY OF TlIK ClTY OV OoMlMBI'S. 


1. The counties of contemporary ori^jin were Scioto, Warren, Butler, Mont);omer\', 
Columbiana, Gallia and Greene. 

2. Martin's History of Franklin County. 

3. Ibid. 

In his address before the Franklin County Pioneers, June .*{, 1871, Mr. Joseph iSullivant 
said : ** The first county of the Northwest Territory, establisheil within the present limits of 
the State, was Washington (bounty, which included all of our county east of the Scioto. The 
second county was Hamilton, lying betwixt the two Miamis, with the Little Miami for its 
eastern boundary. The third cortnty was Wayne, which included a large part of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, all of Michigan and a part of Minnesota, with its conntyseat at 
Detroit. Now the southern line of Wayne County was a line drawn west from Fort Laurens 
and continued until it intersected the east line of Hamilton County, which is here declared 
to l>e ' a due north line from the lower Shawnee towns upon the Scioto River.' It is evident, 
therefore, from this, that betwixt the time of establishing Hamilton County, in 1790, and that 
of Wayne, in 17%, the eastern boundary of Hamilton had been greatly extended. This is 
also confirmed, if we refer to the alteration in the western boundary of Adams County 
in 1798 

'* Now, whether we assume the lower Shawnee towns on the Scioto at the mouth of the 
river, to be intended, or those in the vicinity of Westfall, in Pickaway County, the due north 
line forming the eastern boundary of Hamilton would include the greater part of the present 
Franklin County, and must have passed just east of the spot where we are now assembled. 
So that it will be seen that our territory has been attached to seven distinct political divisions 
in succession, as follows: Bottetourt, Illinois, Washington, Hamilton, Adams, Ross and 
Franklin— with eight difiVrent countyseats, [viz.], Fincastle, Virginia; Kaskaskia, Illinois; 
Marietta, Cincinnati, Manchester, on the Ohio; Chillicothe, Franklinton and Columbus." 

4. The Constitution of 1802 contained thei^ requirements : " Each court shall appoint its 
own clerk for tlie term of seven years; but no ])erson shall be appointed clerk, except pro 
Unnpore, who shall not produce to the court appointing him, a certificiite from a majority of the 
judges of the supreme court, that they judge him to be well qualitie<l to execute the duties 
of the office of clerk to any court of the same dignity with that for which he offers himself.'* 
—Art. Ill, Sec. 9. 

5. Martin's History contains the following sketx^h of Franklin Township: "This is the 
oldest township in the county, and the only one of the four original townships that retains 
its name. It was laid out and organized when the county was, in 180:^. It then containeil 
about twice as much territory as the whole county now does. Its first settlement was the 
town of Franklinton and vicinity. . . . Then the settlement extended down the river; and 
amongst the first families to settle there were those of Samuel White, John Huffman, William 
Harrison, Sr., and a few others. The township was not reduced to its present limits until 
after the creation of Jackson in 18ir> and of Prairie in 181'.». The town of Franklinton has 
not varieil much in population and business for the last forty years [1858]. It has always 
been, to a great extent, a town of farmers and laborers, who lived in the town and workeil 
Mr. Sullivant's extensive prairie fields, or were engaged in stonequarrying, haaling, etc. For 
the last ten or twelve years there has been an extensive business done in this township in 
the raising, curing, and shipping of broom corn by Captain P. M. White and C. L. Eaton, 
Esq. The town and township have been the theatre for sportsmen. The race courses have 
always been in this township, generally in some of the large prairie fields adjacent to the 
town, but latterly at the Four-Mile House, so called, but still in the township, where a fine 
race course was fitted up some eight or ten years since, and still kept for sporting characters 
to practice their nags upon. 

** In the vicinity of the town is a large milling establishment, erected by Lucas Sullivant, 
E8<i., in his life time, and now owned and w^orked by some half dozen men, under the name 
of the Ohio Mannfactiiring Company. From one to two miles below Franklinton on the 
Scioto are Moullrr's Mills and carding machine, erecte<l by John Ransburgh. about the years 
181:^-14, and which wore lonjr known as Iviinsburtib's Mills. 


" On the bank of the river in the north vicinity of the town is the old Franklinton bury- 
ing ground. It cmbracefl a beautiful little locunt grove, enclosed with a board fence. This, 
it was supposed, was to be the final resting place of the pioneers who led the way in the set- 
tlement of this once wilderness. But of late years a number of removals have been made 
from thence to Green Lawn, amongst whom were the remains of Lucas Sullivant and wife, 
Lyne Starling, and General Foos and wife. But still the Franklinton graveyard is rather a 
neat and handsome village cemetery, and is as well calculated to call up a train of solemn 
and interesting retlections as any other spot of ground in the county." 

As to the creation of other townships in the county Martin says : " Previous to our re- 
duction of territory, in 1808, by the creation of Delaware County, the nuuiber of townships 
hail increased to nine, but by the organization of Delawan* County the number was reduced 
to the five following, to wit: Franklin, Sharon, Pleasant, Monlgoiuery and Hamilton- which 
have been divided and subdivided until they now number eighteen, the names and dates of 
the establishment of which are as follows : 


. March (i, 1815 


. December 7, 1813 


July 1,1811 


June 27, 1820 


. May 10, 1803 


. March 4, 1810 


March 9, 1807 


July 1, 1807 

Jackson . 

. March G, 1815 


. December 28, 1819 


September 6, 1816 


March 4, 181() 

Madison . 

. March 4, 1810 


. March 4, 1810 


September 2, 1811 


March 4, 1810 

Montgomery . 

. March 9, 1807 


. March 3, 1830 

6. An act of the General Assembly passed De('em])er 4, 1809, provides: "That there 
shall be erected and established in each county, whenever the comtnissioners may deem it 
necessary a good and convenient courthouse, and a strong and suthcient jail or prison, for the 
reception and confinement of debtors and criminals, well secuned by timbi*r, iron gates, bolts 
and locks, and also a whipping [>ost; and every jail so to be ereded shall consist of not less 
than two apartments, one of which shall be appropriated to the reception of debtors, and the 
other shall be used for the safe keeping of persons charged with, or convicted of crimes ; and 
the commissioners shall from time to time alter or rebuild any of the aforesaid buildings, 
which have heretofore, or may hereafter be built, as circumstances may require." 

7. Howe's Historical Collections. 

8. Martin's History. 

9. Ibid. 

10. Hon. George M. Parsons. 

11. Biographical sketch of Lyne Starling, at his death ; by lion. Gustavus Swan. 

12. Ibid. 

Joseph Sullivant, writing in the Sullivant Memorial, narrates this anecdote of Lyne 
Starling: '* I was once in his room when Edmund Starling was visiting him. He was lying 
on his bed and had just made rather a boasting statement as to his wealth, when, turning to 
his brother, he said : * Kdmund, that is pretty well for the fool of the family, is it not ?' * Yes,' 
.said Edmund, *but I don't understand about the fool.' Lyne continued: ' Do you recollect 
iiearing of old Mrs. Doake in Virginia, who used to do the weaving for our family ? ' Edmund 
assented, and Lyne said : * When I was a boy 1 went with my mother to carry some yarn to 
Mrs. Doake, and, being very bashful, did not enter the house, but stootl outsi<le by the door, 
where I heard distinctly every word that was sjud. The old woman was very parti(;ular in 
her inquiries about every member of the family, and wound up by saying, 'and how is that 
poor simpleton, Lyne?' We all laughed , as he did also, saying: ' Well, after all, 1 think the 
fool of the family has done pretty well ; but the fact is, that speech has stuck in my i^raw for 
fifty years.' Whether this speech of the old weaver had stiinulated him through life or in 
any way influenced his career cannot be known, but, pecuniarily, he was the most surcessful 
of his family." 

13. Pioneer History ; by S. P. Hildreth. 



As yet, the Franklinton settlement was but an island of civilization in a vant 
surrounding wilderness. It was at beat a raw, ungainly frontier village. The 
country roundabout was settling up gradually, but many of the squatters had no 
neigh])ors nearer than fifteen, or even twenty miles, and everything was yet in the 
rough. "When 1 opened my office in Franklinton in 1811,*' says Judge Gustavas 
Swan, " there was neither church, nor schoolhouse, nor pleasure carriage in the 
county, nor was tliere a bridge over any stream within the compass of an hundred 
miles. The roads at all seasons of the year were nearly impassable. Goods were 
imported, principally from Philadelphia, in wagons; and our exports, consisting of 
horses, cattle and hogs, carried themselves to market. The mails were brought to 
us once a week on horseback, if not prevented by high water. I feel safe in 
asserting that there was not in the county a chair lor every two persons, nor a 
knife apd fork for every lour." 

"The proportion of rough population," continues Judge Swanks biographer, 
*^ was very large. With that class, to say that ' he would fight,* was to praise a 
man ; and it was against him if he refused to drink. Aged persons and invalids, 
however, were respected and protected, and could avoid drinking and fighting 
with impunity; but even they could not safely interfere to interrupt a fight. 
There was one virtue, that of hospitality, which was not confined to any class."' 

The hardships endured by the pioneers in the wilderness were many and 
severe. The journey from the East, usually made in wagons, by a road which was 
merely a trail through the woo<ls, was tedious and perilous. Including unavoida- 
ble interruptions, it sometimes lasted for three months. Mountains and swollen 
streams had to be crossed, often with great difficulty and danger. Arriving at 
their destination the emigrants found themselves alone in the wild forest. In not 
a few instances their stock of provisions gave out, leaving them to such subsistence 
as they could gain from roots and wild game. Sickness was frequently brought 
on by the privation and exposure. 

A spot beiuic chosen for a clearing, the larger trees were girdled, the smaller 
ones cut down and burned. (Jorn was then planted by cutting holes in the ground 
with a hoe, or an axe and dropj^iiig a few kernels into each cavity. When buck- 
wheat was sown, it was necessary to watch it, at the ripening season, to keep the 
wild turkeys from destroying it. A gentleman whose father settled in Blendon 
Township in 1S07- inibrms the writer that the wild deer were accustomed to come 
into the clearijig around the family cabin to browse on the branches of the fallen 


Kk ASK 1,1 STUN. III. 

lt)(i lllSTuRY or THE (,*1TY OF CoH'MUUS. 

trees. The settler was a soldier of tlie War of Independonce, and had brought 
with him the long rifle whieh he had used in the battle of Bunker Hill. With this 
weapon, rested on the comb of the roof, he irequently shot the deer by moonlight, 
from the top of his cabin. The surrounding forest was very dense and the trees 
very large. Of roads there were none; logs and swamps were frequent. The 
family obtained its fii^st supplies of corn from Pickaway County, in exchange for 
baskets manufactured at the home fireside. Night seldom failed to bring visita- 
tions of vagrant wolves, howling dismally. Sometimes, to make their musical 
powers more impressive, these serenaders gathered in a circle around the cabin. 
Cows and other stock were permitted to range at will in the woods, and were 
hunted up and driven home in the evening. The animals huntod for the salt licks, 
and doing so would sometimes wander away for several miles. On one occasion a 
neighborhood damsel name<l Jane got over the creek, while driving the cows 
home, by holding on to the caudal extremity of one of the animals and making it 
swim. '*8he didn't get very wet," observed the narrator. "There wasn't much 
on her to wet — only a linen frock." 

The cabin of the Ohio pioneer was usually laid up with round logs, notched 
into one another at the ends, and chinked between with woo<len blocks and stones. 
The chimney was built outside of the walls, of crossed wooden strips, daubed with 
clay. At the base it expanded into a large open fireplace, with a firm lining of 
stone's. The roof was made of clapboards, five or six feet long, riven from oak or 
ash logs, and held down by being weighted with stones or poles. Not a nail was 
used in the ct)nstruction of the entire building. Greased paper was used in lieu of 
glass in the windows, which were sometimes curtained with a dilapidated garment. 
The door was hung on wooden hinges, and fastened by a latch raised from the out 
side by a string passed through a gimlet hole. To lock the door it was only neces- 
sary to draw the latcl. string in ; hence, to be hosj)itable, in current phrase, meant 
to leave the latchstring out. A ladder communicated with the " loft," or space be- 
tween the upper tioor and the roof, sometimes used for sleeping purposes. Tlie 
floor was laid with puncheons, of which also a stationary Uible was built, sur- 
rounded by benches consisting of slabs supported by wooden pins let in with an 

Few frontier housekeej)ers were so fortunate as to possess any porcelain dishes. 
The table utensils wore mainly articles of wood or pewter. Knives and forks w^erc 
rarities. Baking was done by spreading the meal dough on a clean boanl, and 
placing it before the fire, under wat^rh of one of the juvenile members of the 

l!)astern-made fabrics were so scarce and expensive as to bo beyond the reach 
of most of the settlers. Deerskin, flax and the fiber of the nettle were therefore 
used in the fireside manufacture of materials for clothing. By the mixture of flax and 
wool, when wool could be obtained, a coarse cloth was made called lir^sey woolsey. 
''Sheep's gray" was a compound of the wool of black sheep and white. The spin- 
ning wheel, kept constantly going, furnished the yarn from which woolen and 
linen cloths were woven. Deer hides were first thoroughly soaked in the nearest 
running stream, then scraped and dried. They were next tramped in a leathern 
bag filled with water mingled with the brains of wild animals. Afler each trarap- 
i ng. the hides were thoroughly wrung out. To keep them soft, they were some- 

Frankmnton. 111. 167 

times smoked. Finally they were colored with ochre, nibbed in with pumico. A 
single family would sometimes dress as many as a hundred deerskins in this way, 
in the course of the winter. To manufacture the buckskin thus produced into 
gloves, moccasins, and other articles of clothing, furnished useful occupation for 
many a leisure hour in the wilderness solitudes.* 

A buckskin suit over a flax shirt was considered full dress for a man. The 
outside masculine garment was a hunting shirt, with a cape around the shoulders 
and a skirt nearly to the knees, the front open, with heavy foldings, on the chest, 
and the whole fringed and belted. Trowsers of heavy cloth or deerskin were 
worn, or in lieu of them, buckskin leggings. Women who were so fortunate as to 
have shoes, saved them for Sunday use, and carried them on the way to church, 
until they neared the"*' meetinghouse," when they sat down on a log to draw them 
on. The men went barefoot, or wore moccasins. Their buckskin clothes were 
very comfortable when dry, but just the reverse when wet. Hats and caps were 
made of the native furs. 

The pioneer women had abundant opportunity and no end of incentive to 
practice the j^oetical philosophy that *' beauty unadorned 's adorned the most." 
Their usual garment** were made of linsey-woolsey, or a homemade mixture of 
linen and cotton, and were fabricated with little regard for ornament. Yet the 
ingenuity of the sex seldom failed to find some resource for ])ersonal embellish- 
ment. A typical belle of the wilderness has been thus described : *' A smiling face, 
fresh but dark, a full head of smoothly combe<i hair tied up behind in a twist 
knot; a dress, made out of seven yards of linsey-woolsey, closely fits the natural 
form and reaches to within six inches of the floor. It is fancifully and uniquely 
striped with copperas, butternut and indigo, alternatirig. The belt is made of 
homespun, but is colored with imported dj'e, and a row of buttons down the back is 
also set on a bright stripe. Heavy cowhide shoes conceal substantial feet and 
shapely ankles." 

Books were rare in the frontier settlements, an<i schools were a long time 
coming. A wilderness schoolhouse, says one of the chroniclers of the period, con- 
sisted of "a log cabin with a rough stone chimney ; a foot or two cut from the logs 
here and there to admit the light, with greased i)aper over the openings; a large 
fireplace, puncheon floor, a few benches made of split logs with the flat side up, and 
a well developed birch rod over the master's seat." A teacher who received a sal- 
ary often dollars a month, payable in produce, was considered fortunate. 

In a Centennial Address of July 3, 187<), Hon. Henry C. Nobh;, of ('olumbus, 
described some of the social customs of the pioneer period : " A wedding engaged 
then, as now, the attention of the whole neighborhood, and the frolic was antici- 
pated by old and young with eager expectation. In the morning the groom and 
his attendants started for his father's house to reach the bride's before noon, for the 
wedding, by the inexorable law of fashion, must take i)Iace before dinner. . . 
The horses, for all come on horseback, were caparisoned with old saddles, old 
bridles, or halters, packsaddles with a blanket thrown over I hem, and a rope or a 
string for a girth or reins as often as leather. They formed a procession as well as 
they could along the narrow roads. Sometimes an ambuscade of mischievous young 
men was formed, who tired off their guns and frightened the horses, and caused 
the girls to shriek. 

]()^ IIlSToKY OF THE ClTY OV (V»LrMIil>. 

The race for the boltlc took place hy two or more of tlie youiiK men racing over this 
rou^h roa<l to tliebri«le's limine, the victor to n»ceive a bottle of whisky, wliich he bore back iu 
triumph, and paKsod alon^ the procession for eacli one to take a drink in turn. Then came 
the arrival at the bride's hoiiHe, the ceremony, thy dinner, and the dance, all conducted witli 
the greatest fun and frolic till morning. Sometimes tliose who were not invited would 
revenge themselves by cutting oil' the maues, foretojw and tails of the horses of the wedding 

The logrolling, harvesting and husking bees for the men. and the ({uilting and apple- 
hut termaking inr the women, furnished freipient occaisions for S(K*ial intercourse, and gave 
ample opj)ortunity for the ilifl'erent neighborhoods to know the goo<.l or bad qualities of each 

Kifieshooting was a pastime which men loved, as it gave them an opportunity of testing 
their skill with that necessary weapon of defense, and means, often, of subsistence. When a 
beef was the prize, it was divided into six <|uarters by this (jueer arrangement: The two 
hind(|uarters were the highest prizes, the two foreijuarters the next, the hide and tallow the 
fifth, and the lead shot into the mark the sixth. 

A recent writer^ draws the following spirited picture of an old-time upi>lc- 
cutting frolic : ''The mid<lle.nged and the young of a whole neighborhood as- 
sembled at some spacious farmhouse to peel and pare great heaps of appleB for 
drying, or make into *l)utter' by stewing in boiled cider. 


The love-fortunes of men and maids were determined by the counting of apple-seeds : 
and whoever removed the entire skin of a pippin in one long ribbon, whirled the lucky 
streamer thrice around his head and let it fall behind him on the floor, and in the form it 
took a quick fancy read the monogram of his or her intended mate. 

After the apples were cut, and the cider boiled, the floor was cleared for a frolic, techni- 
cally so called, and merry were the dancers ancl loud the songs with which our fathers and 
mothers regaled the flying hours. The fiddler was a man of importance, and when, after 
midnight, he called the "Virginia Reel," .such shouting, such laughter, such clatter of 
hilarious feet upon the sanded punche<m floor, started thescreetjhowl out of doors, and waked 
the baby from its sweet slumber in the sugar-trough. I will not deny that Tom Wilkins. 
who came to the frolic <ircssed in a green hunting-shirt and deer-skin trousers, drank some- 
thing stronger than hard cider, and was bolder than he should have In^en in his gallant 
attentions to 8nsan. Kut let by-gones be by-gones. The apple cutting was fifty years ago, 
and Tom and Susan have danced the dance of life, and their tombstones are decorous 

These |>icturos of pioneer life, prosaically described, became doubly interest- 
ing when animated and idealized in song. No one was more adept at this than 
the late Hon. John (rroinor, of Columbus. At a meeting of the Franklin County 
I^ioneer Association, August 7, 18G0, Mr. (ireiner was introduced with tlie an- 
nouncement that he would sing an old-fashioned song to an old-faghioned tune. 
Ste])])ing forward, amid many plaudits, he sang to the tune "Old Timen," the 
following ditty of 


What care we for the flight of time, the hasty flight of years; 
The world's the same as ever to the early pioneers. 
In memory of the olden time, of youth's bright sunny day. 
We'll have a good old-fashione<l song, in the old-fashioned way. 

Once Columbus was a pawpaw })atch, no Cajjitol stood here; 
Xo public institutions were there dreamed of, thought of, near; 
The people iu log cabins <lwelt, the latchstring in the door. 
Opened to the jolly neighbors, dancing on the puncheon floor. 

■/ /■/ /ill 



A clearing in the wiMwood, and a sedion stjuare of land, 
An axe upon his shoulder, and a riHc in hla hand ; 
A wife and towhead eliiidren and an lionest heart, sincere, 
Were all the worldly riches of the early pioneer. 

Game bounding through the forest, and game whirring on tlie wing; 
The perch, the trout, the sahnon from the silver waters spring; 
Wild honey in the beegum — boiling sugar into cake, 
With beauty in the wilderness, life wasn't liard to take. 

Then men, all honestly inclined, in great and little things, 
Formed neither combinations, cli(|ues nor thieving whisky rings; 
Officeholders ctmld be truste<i — unsophisticated loons, 
They'd no more rob the public than steal your silver si)Oons. 

Then farmers sweat in harvest, from sun to sun, all day, 
With sickles, scythes and cra<lles, toiled in cutting grain and hay ; 
Now cutters, planters, mowers, reapers to the fields they haul. 
And ride and drive like gentleman, and scarcely work at all. 

The ladies dressed in homespun, and the linsey-woolsey gown. 
Was worn by the upper-crust, in country, an<l in town ; 
The house was kept in order, and the rooms wt^re neat as wax. 
An<l the wheel was kept a whirling while a spinning of the (lax. 

The beau who went a sparking staid until the break o' day— 
Sometimes till after breakfast — he couMn't tear himself away ; 
Sometimes he got the mitten, and a flea put in his ear, 
Which made itcpiite unpleasant for the early pioneer. 

Your grandmothers, fair ladies, all were modest and demure; 

No flattery ever sought or gave, of this you may be sure ; 

But, home from meetings Sunday nights, 'twere worth a sparkling gem 

To have seen these good old pioneers a sitting up to them I 

The fovG^oinfr poetry is not classic; it is not oven ^^ninimatical, l)ut it is the 
i^usii of a heart full of enthusiasm for the "old limes," and uflows in every lino with 
the frank and free, albeit untrained spirit of the conquei'ors of the wilderness. 
More graceful, but Hcarcely so truthful, or nearly so realistic, are the musical lines 
of William D. (xallaghor. 

A song for the early times out West, 

And our green old forest home, 
Whose pleasant memories freshly yet. 

Across the bosom come : 
A song for the free and gladsome life, 

In those earlv davs we le<l, 
With a teeming soil beneath our feet. 

And a smiling Heaven o'erhead I 
Oh, the waves of life danced merrily. 

And had a joyous flow, 
In the days when we were Pioneers 

Fifty years ago I 

The hunt, the shot, the glorious chase. 

The captured elk or deer; 
The camp, tiie big bright lire, and then 

170 History ok tiik ("itv of <'«»!.(■ Murs. 

Tlie rich and wlioU'soine cheer : — 
The sweet 8oiiiid Hleep at dead of night, 

By our campfire hlaxin^ hi^h — 
llnhroken hy tiie wolfV long howl, 

And the panther springing by, 
Oil. merrily parsed the time, despite 

(.)iir wilv Indian foe. 
In the days when we were pioneers, 

Fifty years ago ! 

Thi> is oxcelI(M»t poetry, hut the pioneer's time did not pass quite so merrily 
us the poet would have us think. Life on the border was, tor the most part, a 
very serious matter. Sickness a<lded its hard lines to those of privation and hard- 
ship. Pevcr and ague prevniled in autumn, and made lite miserable until the 
winter frosts set in. Sometimes the ai^ue «^ave place to a bilious fever of a malii^- 
nant type. Franklinton, owing to its low situation, and want of drainage was par- 
ticularly exposed to these diseases. 

At\or the Treaty of Greenville, the Indians mostly disappeared from the neigh- 
borhood, but a few still lingered about. One of these, known as Bill}' Wyandot, 
because of his connection with the tribe of that name, had his lodge on the w^est 
bank of the Scioto near the present crossing of the Harrislmrg Pike. Here, we 
are told, he had many a drunken bout with boon white companions. Once, in his 
youth, Billy had seen a large black bear swimming across the river at that point, 
and had plunged in, and slain the au<lacious ])rowler, in mid stream, with his hunt- 
ing knife. Proud of this exploit, the old Indian, one winter <lay, insisted on show- 
ing a couple of visitors, with whom he had been drinking freel}', how he had 
kille<l the bear. Against remonstrance, he plunged into the swirling current, laden 
with floating iee, and after whooping and floundering awhile in the antics of in- 
toxication, sank and was drowned in the act of killing an imaginary bear.' 

After Harrison's victory of the Thames, in (*anada, bands of Indians from the 
villages on the headwaters of the Scioto frequently came to Franklinton to trade 
with Lincoln (foodale, Starling \' J>eLashmutt, R. W. McCoy, Ileiuy Hrown, 
Samuel Harr, and other storekeepers, as the merchants were then called. These 
Indians brought furs, skins, baskets, maple sugar, cranberries, dry venison, and 
other arti(!les, for which they would accej)t pay onl}' in silver. Having obtained 
the coin, they bought ammunition, tobacco, knives. '• s«juaw-axes, ' ** squaw-cloth " 
(broadcloth), pigments for tattooing, blankets, brightly -colored calicoes, and finally 
a supply of whisky for the ** high drunk'' with which they usually closed their 
trading transactions. These orgies, in which the whole band participate<l except 
a few old men and women, who abstaine<l to take care of the rest, were accom- 
])anied with much singing, dancing, brawlifig and fighting. They no doubt con- 
tributed not a little to make Franklinton life interesting in a certain way. 

During one of these trading expeditions, a massive Indian named Bill Zane, 
while vet under the influence of his clebauch, took offense at Mrs. Lucas Sullivant 
because of the accidental loosening of one of his bundles lef\ at her residence, and 
was about to stab her with his hunting-knile when Mr. Sullivant rushed in, seized 
the savage by the throat, and hurled him out «)f doors. The nuirks of Zane's hunt- 
ing-knilc, with which he had angrily scratched the measure of a piece of cttlieo on 
the chairboard, were for a long time j)reserved as family mementoes of this 

Franklinton. III. 171 

Another advoDturo, curiously illustrative of the condition of the settlement 
and the spirit of the times is thus narrated : 

In 1809, while some of Lucas Sullivant's workmen were plowing in the Dutch 
Prairie,' "a nearly grown black bear came along very leisurely, without appar- 
ently being in the least disturbed by the immediate vicinity of the men and 
horses. One of the men, unhitching his horses, took a singletree, with a heavy 
traeechain attached, and mounting his horse, rode up alongside of the bear, and 
began thrashing him with the chain. The bear at first showed fight, but, winc- 
ing under the heavy blows, he started off at a lively pace, the man following, and 
with an occasional application of the traeechain finding little difficulty in driving 
him in any direction he chose, and finall}^, in about a quarter of a mile, succeeded 
ID guiding him right into the dooryard of the Mansion House, where he was im- 
mediately attacked by several dogs. A fierce battle ensued, in which the bear 
killed one of the dogs, and fought his way across the garden into the next lot, 
where he took refuge in the angle formed by the fence and house, and, protected 
in his rear, stood at bay. ... A crowd of men and boys, with fresh dogs soon 
gathered, and a regular bearbaiting commenced. 

The bear, standing on his hind legs in his corner, received the attack in front from the 
eager but inexperienced dogs, and, with a hearty hitg and rip with his hind claws, sent one 
yelping cur after another out of the fight. It was soon evident, that, so far as the dogs were 
concerned, it was a drawn battle, and measures were devised to capture the bear alive. For 
this purpose a rope was procured, with a slipnoose at one end, which was attempted to be 
thrown over his head, but which he, with surprising dexterity, cast aside each time. At this 
juncture a man by the name of Corbiis made his appearance, and, being pretty full of whisky, 
undertook to place the rope over the bear's head. When he got sufliciently close, the bear 
struck him a blow with bis paw, whereupon CJorbus dropped the rope and pitched in with 
his fists and feet, and a very exciting and famous rough and tumble bear fight took place ; but 
the poor beast, being much weakened and exhausted from his previous eff'»)rt8, the human 
brute came ofi" best, and killed the bear. This exploit was long the talk of the village.^ 

An incident of a less exciting nature, yet pleasantly illustrative of pioneer 
times in Franklinton, is narrated in a manuscript sketch furnished to the writer 
by Mrs. Emily Stewart, of Columbus. William Morion, a young man of twenty- 
one, arrived in Franklinton from Massachusetts in LSOH, and took boarding with 
Isaiah Voris, who kept a tavern on Gift Street, where now stands the new West 
Side Markethouse. Let Mrs. Stewart continue the narrative: "MissSallie Wait 
(daughter of Jen ks Wait, who came with his family to Franklinton from Johns- 
town, New York, in 1805, and was then living one mile south of the village), was 
going home from shopping, and stopped at the door of the Voris House to talk with 
Mrs. Voris. The young lady declined to go in, knowing the boarders were at 
supper. She talked a little too long. Young Morion came out, and Mrs. Voris in- 
troduced her friend. Soon after. Miss Wait resumed her walk, the yOung man 
overtook her with a bridle in his hand, said his horse had strayed away, and he 
thought it was at the Salt Lick, a salt spring a short distance from her father's house. 
The young couple talked pleasantly, and when they came to her house, he politely 
bade her good evening, and passed on, swinging his bridle. The next time she 
went to town, her friend, Mrs. Voris, spoke to her about her * beau.' *Who?' 
rthe inquired. *Why, that Yankee that walked home with you.' * He was no 
beau,' rejoined Miss Sallie, * ho was only hunting his horse that had strayed away.' 

172 IIisToKY «»K TiiK City of (NnjMBrs. 

The horse had been <|iiietly rating liay in tho Voris stable all this time. It was too 
t^ood lor Mrs. Voris to keej). She toUl it, and that Yankee had a warm time of it 
at that boarding house tor a whiU'. Hut he was not <liscouraged, for, on February 
14, iSOy, William Morion and Sallic Wait were united in marriage by tho liev. 
James lloge, then a missionary to the Northwest." 

Kev. James Iloge, here mentioned by Mrs. Stewart, had eomc to Fntnklinton 
in ISOo. lie had been lieensed to preach by the Presbytery of Lexington, Vir>rinia, 
and a)))>ointeil a missionary of the Presbyterian (-hiireh of the United States to 
" the State of Ohio and the parts adjacent thereto." With his advent the system- 
atic observance of the (Miristian religion had its inception in tho upper Scioto Valley. 
P\)r a time, the court-room was used as a cha])el, and the judges then sitting ad- 
journed, it it- said to hear the tir^t .serm»)n of the young missionary. From his 
efforts resulted the organization, on February S, ISOG, of the lii*st church of any 
denomination in this region. This was the First Presbyterian Church, then of 
Franklinton, now of Columbus. On September 25, 1S(»7, this society, comprising 
thirteen members, extended to young Ilogo a formal invitation to become its paster." 
This call was drawn in the handwriting of Lucas Sullivan t, and was signed by him 
as one of the trustees. It was accepted, and the pastoral relation thus formed 
continued, without interruption, nearly fifty yeaiv.'" In ISll Mr. Sullivant pre- 
sented to this congregation a brick meetinghouse, the tirst in FVanklinton, ereeteil 
at his own expense. This edifice stood near the river, o))posite the " British Island," 
afterwards so called some of the pris(»ners taken from the Britisli Army in 
the War of 1H12 wore for a short time confined there. Ouring that war, the 
church wjis used as a granary and storehouse until it was blown down by a great 
storm in April, 1S13. Soon after that calamity a socofid church was erected on tho 
same site. (.'Oncerning this ])ioneer ( -hristian society, the author of the Sufiirnttf 
Mimoriiil writes the following interostinLC ])assagcs : 

ThtTo was hut one service on ilie Sjihbath, to which many of the members came aft-er 
a ride of r^everal miles alon^ the bri<Ile-path>? through the wt»od8 covering the site of Colum- 
bus. Amon^ those were the Roods. Shaws, Nelsons. Tayloi-s, MoolK>rrys, Shannons, Pughs, 
Marrs, Stewarts, Ilondorsons. Longs, Pattersons, Fishers. an<i others. The service was 
todions — to mo, at least —and the sermon an hour and a half long, on the principle. I sup- 
pose, of (piantity oommonsurate with tho distance and <lilliculty «»f attendance. The writer 
has a lively rorolIo<tion of the relief lie experienced when nineteenthly was reache<l. for he 
know tho practical obeervations, the application, finally, and the *' in eonchmon" would 
soon f«»lh»w, and tho on<l was happily in view. Nor will ho over forget how one of the gootl 
old elders used to step forward in front of tho pulpit, and. with a wonderful a-heming and 
clearing of the throat, and sce-sawing of the hand, pitch the tune, ami carry it for the con- 

In my boyhoo<l I was nu»ro than once startled by the appearance of a big Indian, in all 
his paitit and finery, at the door or windows of tho old church, probably attnu^ted bycuriosit\ 
to SCO what was going on within. 

Hev. Seth Noble, also Presbyterian, arrived in Franklinton, and began preach- 
ing there, about the same time as Mr. iloge. A Nova Scotia refugee, born in 
Ma.ssachusotts, ho located in tho noiirhborhood on a trad of refugee land, whereon 
he l>uill a cabin in which ho dwelt until he died in 1>>07. 

These sketohos of Franklinton as an isolated and independent colony may 
properly conclude with the fi>llowing passages li-om letters written by Lync Star- 


ling" to his Bistor, Miss Jane Starling — afterwards Mrs. Davison — tlien in Ken- 
tucky : 

Franklinton, July 12, 1809. — " I have lati^ly purchased an elegant seat and 
tract of land opposite town, on the other side of the river, vvhi(*h I have an idea ol" 

The ^'elegant scat and tract of land " hero referred lo was j)arl of the ])resent 
site of CohinibuH, then covered with a dense forest. 

April 10, 1810. — ** We have strong expectations of getting the seat of govern- 
ment here after the sitting of the next legislature. Should we succeed, I think it 
would be very much to my father's interest to remove here. This country is now 
as healthy as Kentucky, and has every advantage which that State possesses, ex- 
cept the want of slaves, which is not so great an inconvein'ence as is generall}* 

October 31, 1810.—" I intend going to New Orleans from this place some time 
during next winter, and shall not return until summer." 

During the winter of 1810-11 Mr. Starling built some boats, loaded them with 
produce, and floated them from Franklinton to New Orleans. This was the pio- 
neer enterprise of its kind. 

September 13, 1812. — " Nothing here but the sound of war." 

The War of 1812 had begun. 


1. Hon. George M. Parsons. 

2. Vindl D. Moore. 

3. The author is indebted for many of tlie faets here stated to Mr. Virj^il D. Moore, one 
of the pioneers of Franklin CJonnty. 

4. W. H. Venable, LI.. D. 

5. Sullivant Family Memorial. 
0. Ibid. 

7. The former Indian cornfields were so called. They were also known as Sullivant's 

8. Sullivant Family Memorial. 

9. A full account of this c^ll will he given in the history of the Preshyterian churches 
in Columbus. 

10. The call contained this pledge : *' That you may be free from worldly cares and av- 
ocations, we hereby promise and oblige ourselves to pay you tlu^ sum of three hundred 
dollars, in halfyearly payments annually for threefourths of yonr tinu*, until we find our- 
selves able to give you a compensation for the whole of your time.'* 

11. The letters from which tliest* extracts are taken are printed in the Sullivant Family 




From the ori^anizjition of'lho Suite (loveriiinunt until 1812, Ohio was entitled 
t/> but one Congressional i{ej)reHentative. From 1H12 to 1822 the apportionment 
gave her six Representiitives : from 1S22 to 18H2, fourteen; trom 18S2 to 1842, 
nineteen; from 1842 to 1802, twentyoiie; from 1802 to 1882, twenty; from 1882 to 
1892, twentyone. 

From 1812 to 1822 the CongresHJonal District inclusive of this county com- 
prised the counties of Franklin, Lickiiit^, Delaware, Madison, Fairfield, Champaign, 
Montgomery, Miami, and Darke; from 1822 until 1832, Franklin, Delaware, 
Marion, Crawford, Knox, Jjicking and Coshocton; from 1832 until 1842, Franklin, 
Madison, Pickaway, Delaware, and Marion; from 1842 until 1852, Franklin, Lick- 
ing, and Pickaway. On June 27, 1803, the State chose its first liepresentative in 
Congress, for a term ol* two ycai^, heginning with the next preceding fourth of 
March. The Hej)resentatives for the entire State, and for districts inclusive 
of Franklin County, i'roin 1S03 to the present time, have been, with the counties 
of their residence, as follows : 

1803-1813 — Jeremiah Morrow, Warren. 
1813-1817— James Kilbourn, Franklin. 
1817-1821— Philemon Beechcr, Fairfield. 
1821-1823 — Jose])h Vance, Champaign. 
1823 1828— William Wilson, Licking.* 
1828-18.33— William Stanbery, Licking. 
1833-1837— Jeremiah McLene, Franklin. 
1837-1S43— Joseph Kidgway, Franklin. 
1843-1844— Heman A. Moore, Franklin* 
1844-1845— Alfred P. Stone, Franklin.' 
1845-1847— Columbus Delano, Knox. 
1K47-1 849— Daniel Duncan, Licking. 
1 849-1 853 — (/harlos Sweetzcr, Delaware. 
|s53-ls55-K(iHon B. Olds. Pickaway. 
1S55- 1857— Samuel (J alio way, Franklin. 
1 857- 18(;5— Samuel S. Cox, Franklin. 
lSt;5-lS«;7— James 1{. Iluhbell, Delaware. 
lSt;7-lS73 — (Jeorge W. Morgan, Knox. 
1S73-1S75— Hugh J. Jcwctt. Franklin, 
1S75-1S77— Ansel T. Walling, Pickaway. 
1 X77- J S7!»— Thomas Kwintf, Fairfield. 

Fkanklin Coknty (hviL List. 175 

1879-1885 — George Ij. Converse, Franklin. 
1885-1898 — Joseph H. Outhwaite, Franklin. 

1. Died before expiration of term. 

2. Dietl in 1844. 

:». Electeil October S, 1844, vice Moore, deceased. 


The Senatorial District inclusive of Franklin County has been constituted and 
represented, since the organization of* the State, as follows : 

180H — HosH County; Nathaniel Massie, Abraham ('laypool. 

180H-1805 — Hoss and Franklin; Abraham Claypool. 

1805-1806 — Itoss, Franklin and Highland: Duncan McArthur. 

1800-1807 — Uoss, Franklin and Highland; Abraham (■layj)Ool. 

1807-1808 — Ross, Franklin and Highland; Abraham Claypool, Duncan Mc- 

1808-1810 — Franklin and Delaware; Joseph Foos. 

1810-1811 — Franklin, Delaware, Madison and Pickaway; Joseph Foos. 

1811-1H12 — Franklin, Delaware and Madison; Joseph Foos. 

1812-1814 — Franklin, Madison and Delaware; John l^arr. 

1S14-1816 — Franklin, Madison and Delaware; Jose])h Foos. 

181G-1818 — Franklin, Madison and Delaware; Thomas Johnson. 

1818-1820 — Franklin, Madison and Delaware; Joseph Foos. 

1820-1822 — Franklin, Delaware, Madison and Tnion; Joseph Foos. 

1822-1828 — Franklin, Delaware, Ma<iison and Tnion ; Henry Brown. 

1823-1824 — Franklin, Madison, Union, Delaware, Marion and (Jrawford; 
James Kooken. 

1824-1825 — Franklin, Madison and Union; Joseph Foos. 

1825-1828 — Franklin, Madi.son and Union ; Joseph Foos. 

1828-1831— Franklin and Pickaway; Joseph Olds. 

1831-1833— Franklin and Pickaway; William Daugherty. 

1833-1835— Franklin and Pickaway; Ralph Osborn. 

1835-1837 — Franklin and Pickaway; Elias Florence. 

1837-1841— Franklin and Pickaway; John L. Green. 

1841-1842 — Franklin, Madison and Clark ; Alexander Waddle. 

1842-1844 — Franklin and Clark; Josej)h llidgway, Jr. 

1844-1846— Franklin, Madison and Clark ; Alfred Kelley. 

1840-1848 — Franklin, Madison and Clark; Jennet Stulson. 

1848-1850 — Franklin and Delaware; William Denison, Jr. 

1850-1851 — Franklin and Delaware; Abram Thomson. 

IS51-1854 — Franklin and Pickaw^ay ; John Cradhd)augh. 

1854-1850— Franklin and Pickaway; Samuel Ikrtlit. 

1850-1858— Franklin and Pickaway; Alfred Kelley. 

1858-1804 — Franklin and Pickaway; Augustus li. Pcrrill. 

1804-1800 — Franklin and Pickaway; George \j. Converse. 

1800-1868— Franklin and Pickaway; Ansel T. Walling. 

180.S-1870 — Franklin and Pickaway; Wobert Hulchcson. 

1870-1872- Franklin and Pickaway; Adin G. Hibbs. 

17«) HisToiiv OK TiiK City of (*oLi:BiBrs. 

1872-I87<i— Frimkliii and Pickaway: John (i. Thomjwoii,' William Miller/ 
187<i-lH78— Franiciin and Pickaway; William Millor. 
1878-1880 — Kranklin and I'ickaway ; Charles F. Kriinmel. 
1880-1882— Franklin and Pirkaway : A. H. Van Cleaf. 
1882-1884 — Franklin an<l Pickaway; Horace Wilson. 
I884-J88S — Franklin and Pi<kawav; A. \l. Van (.leaf. 
1SSS.IS90— Franklin and Pickaway: William T. Wallace. 
1S1K)-1892--Franklin and Pickaway; A. H Van (Mcaf, William T. Wallace. 

1. ResijriUMl. 

2. Vice John (i. Thcuiipson, rcsijjncd. 


Martin's History of Franklin County says: •' Until the 3'^ear 1808, Franklin 
elected with 1^)88 County, and was represented by four memberH. In 1808 and 
1809 Franklin and Delaware elected together, and were entitled to one member. 
In 1810 and 181 1 Franklin, Delaware, Madison and part of Pickaway, elected to- 
t'ether and were entitled to one member. In 1S12, Franklin alooe was first en- 
titled to one member, and continued to be represented by one until 1828, when she 
was entitled for one session, to two members; then reduced to one until 18H2, when 
she again elected two members; in ls33, only one; in 1SH4, two; in 1835 and 1830, 
only one; in 1837 and 183s, two; in 1S39 and 1840, one; in 1841, two; in 1842, one: 
in 1843, two; in 1844 and 1845, Franklin and Madison two; in 1846 and 1847, two ; 
in 1848, 1849 and 18ri0, one; and one a<lditional member elected in common with 
Delaware; and since 1851, under the New Constitution, Franklin is entitled to 
two membei's, to be electe<l biennially." 

Following is a list oi' the I^>presentatives chosen from the organization of the 
county to the present time : 

1803 — Michael Baldwin, liobert Culbertaon, Thomas Worthington, William 


1803-1804 — James Dunlap, John Evans, Flias Langham. 

1804-1805 — Michael Baldwin, James Dunlap, Duncan McArthnr, William 


1805-180t;— James Dunlaj), David Shelby, Abraham J. Williams, Elias Lang- 

18()r)-1807 — Ross, Franklin and Highland; James Dunlap, Nathaniel Maasie, 
Davi<l Shelby, Abraham J. Williams. 

1807-1808 — Ross. Franklin and Highland; Thomas Worthington, Blias l^ang- 
ham, Jeremiah McIiCne, William Lewis. 

1808-1809— Franklin an<l Delaware: John Blair. 
1809- 1810 — Franklin and Delaware: John Blair. 
1810-1811 — Franklin, Madison. Delaware and Pickaway; John Barr. 
1811-1812 — Franklin, Delaware. Madison and |)art of Pi(;kaway ; John Barr. 
1812 1813— Franklin ; (iuslavus Swan. Since 1812 Franklin County has been 
entitled to separate rcj)resentation. 
1813-1814— Thomas Johns(»n. 
1814- 1 81 5 - Thomas J oh nson. 
181 5-18D;— William Ludlow. 

Franklin Cihintv Civii, List. 

1816 1817-Thoma8 Moore. 
1817-181H— GustavtiM Swan. 
18lfl-1820— John A- McDow.ll. 
lft:?0-182-J— Jobii It. PaiiBh. 
18:i2- 1823— David Siiiitli. 
18:;:i 1824— JwitiH KillMiiini. 
l«24-183a— ( florgo W. WilliuniH. 
1S2«-1827— Duvid Smitli. 
1M27-1828— ThomaH ('. Flounioy. 
1«28-1829— Josopli RiUjfway una l>iiiiii<l Upsnii. 
lH2ft-lK30— William Duughorly. 
18301831— Jostpb Kidsway. 
1831-1832— Philo II. OlmslL'd. 

1H32-18;»— Francis Stt'wart. Murniiidiiko B. Wright. 
1833-1834— Pliilo if. Oliiislod. 
lK34.183ri-Adam Read, Jacob (irubb. 
1835-ia^t)— Adam Head. 
183i;-lS37— Alfred Kellcy. 
1837.1838— Alfrod Ki-lk^y, KoIhtI Neil. 
18:W-1839— John \V. Aii.lrews, JuniOH Killourn, 
1H39-181:0— Biilklcy ConiHloek. 
1S40-1S41— JiiniOH <!. lUiyiKtIdH. 

I84l-I842-J..sepli Clieimwilli, Natlmiiiel Meilh,.|-y. 
1842-1843— JoMc|>li Chciiowith. 
1S43-1HI4— Saniiicl I'arwuiH, Cortu 
lS44-lS4:>-FPiinkliii and MiiiiiHoii 
1S45-1S40— Franklin and Madisor 
1S4IMS47— Franklin and Miiilis<iii 
1. •147- 1848— Franklin and Madisitn 
184S-185))— Jami's Dal/.oil. 
1.-45II-1801— Delaware and Frankli 
lSal-1854 — Edward A. Stanloy, Kdwai-d (-'oiirtriKJil. 
1S34-1856— Hiram Hundron. Aluxander ThoinjiHon. 
18jlj-18f>8— (George M. PurHonn, JuincH II. Snitlb. 
!rt58- 18150- William R. Itankin, Hinfb {>. Chancy. 
1S6U-18(!2 — Benjamin L. Reow-, (ieor^e L. OinverHc. 
1802-1 W 14— ft eorge L. C'onverrte, Otto Drcfk^l. 
lwn4-lS6li— Otto Drt^sel,' Adin (i. Ilibbv J.ilm (i. Kdwanls. 
iHfifi-lXdH- Adin G. Ilil.hs, J. R. Marshall. 
lStlS.187lt— ('. T. Mann, William I,. I(i>ss. 
lf<70-1872— Llewellyn Baber, Claiko Whit,-. 
I.S72-1S74— William L. Kohh, Clarki- While, 
1S74-1876— (ieorge L. Cc.rivcrae, J-.hii H, lli-ilniiiri. 
lS7(M87t*— J. C- Gro-)m, (Jeoi^re L, ('onv<!rse. 
lx7H-188(l— H. J. Booth. Claike Whilt. 

1SK0-18S2— John C. iiroom', Bimjaniin l!r«s... W. T. Walla.-. 
1H82- 1884— William Hoi I, Jr., J. B. Hull, Itt^njamiii R.'es... 

ns <;rnm. 

J.Heiih [(i.ijiway 

, Jr., Cliarh's 


JoHfj.h Hidgway 

, Jr., Kdwiir.l 

! Fitzjroi-iild. 

John Nobl,., .h-r. 

^miali Clark.- 

Aiirini F. Perry, 

lioorge Tayl. 


; Wray Thomas 

and t'h!irle« 

1, Kal.>n, 

178 History of tiik (*iTy ok (-(U.iTMBiTrt. 

1SH4-1S.SG — Edwani W. Youn^, (!Jiisj)er Loeweimlein, Allen O. Myers. 
ISSd-lSSS— -Henry (-. Taylor, William Shei)ar(l, Hngli L. Chaney. 
1888-1890— Lot h. Smith, John B. Lawlor. 
1890-1892— John H. I.awlor,' Albert I). Hetfner/ Lot \j. Smith. 
1892-1894— Philip II. Hrmk, David P. Boyer, Benjamin T. Gayman. 

1. Resijifned. 

2. Vice Otto Dresel, roBijrnoil. 

.'i. Dieii before expiration of term. 
4. Vice John B. T^awlor, deceased. 

THE .IlDiriARY. 

Pns'nhnf Jfhi^jrs uf f/tr ("inininm PInis : 1803, Wyllis Silliman ; 1804, Levin 
Belt; 1805, Robert Slaughter; 1807, Levin Belt ; 1810, William Wilson ; 1812, John 
Thompson; 1810, Orris Parish, elected lor seven years, resigned 1819; 1819, F'red- 
erick Grimke, appointed to succeed Orris Parish, deceased; 1820, John A. Mc- 
Dowell, died in 1823; 1823, Gustavus Swan, appointed vice McDowell, then 
elected ; 1830, Frederick Grimke; 1834-1848, Joseph II. Swan; 1848, J. L. Torbet, 
who served until February, 187)2, when the office was abolished by the Constitu- 
tion of 1851. Under the new organization of the courts James L. Bates was 
elected for live years, and reelected in 1850 and 1801. He served until 1866. John 
L. Green was elected in 1807, and afterwards twice reelected. In 1868 Joseph Olds 
was elected for the district comprising the counties of Franklin, Madison and 
Pickaway. Jn 1873 K. F. Bingham was elected as successor to Judge Olds: Judge 
Bingham was reelected in 1878, and in 1888 was appointed Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, sitting at Washington. In 1879 Eli 
P. Kvans was elected for the term of five years, lie was reelected in 1884 and 
1889. Thomas J. Duncan was elected in 1886, and reelected in 1891. David F. 
Pugh was appointed by the Governor in 1888, vice Bingham appointed Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of tlie District of Columbia. 

Assoridtt' Judijcs: 1803, John Dill, David Jamison and Joseph Foos, electee i 
for seven years; 1808, William Thompson, appointed vice Foos, resigned; 18(»9 
Isaac Miner, elected vice Thompson; 1810, J^)bert Shannon, William Reed and 
Alexander Morrison, Jr. ; 1814, Arthur O'Harra, appointed vice Reed, resigned ; 
1815, Reed, vice O'Harra; 1817, Samuel G. Flenniken and David Smith; 1819, 
Recompence Stansbery, by appointment vice Reed, deceased; 1820, Abner Lord, 
elected vice Stansbery; 1821, Edward Livingston, appointed vice Lord, deceased : 
1822, John Kerr, appointed, and afterwards elected, vice Smith, resigned; 1823, 
Thomas Johnston, appointed vice Kerr, deceased ; 1824, Arora Buttles, elected 
vice Johnston; 1824, Samuel G. Flenniken, reelected; 1829, AVilliam McElvain ; 
1831, Arora Buttles and Samuel G. P'lenniken; 1836, Adam Reed; 18^7, 
William McElvain; 1838, Christian Heyl and Samuel G. Flenniken ; 1843, James 
Dalzell, appointed vice William McElvain, deceased ; 1844, John A. Lazell ; 1845, 
John Landes and Christian Hej^l ; 1851, William T. Martin, who served until the 
ofiice of Associate Judge was abolished by the New Constitution. 

J*rol.nif(' Jmhjfs : This otlice was created by the Constitution of 1851, and in 
()ctol>er of that year William W. Rankin was elected first Probate Judge of FVanklin 
County, for a term of three years, beginning in February, 1852. His successors 

Frankmn ('(irNTV Civil Kist. I7l> 

have been as Ibllows : 1S54, William Jamison; 1.^57, Herman B. Albery; ISGH, 
John M. Pugh; 1S7S, John T. Gale; ISS4, Charles G. Saffin ; 1S90, Lorenzo 1). 
II agar ty. 

('h'rl:x ijf tfw (\nirt : Prior lo the adoption of the Constitution of 1851 , the Conrt 
of Common Pleas and the Supreme Court each appointed its own clerk for the 
term of seven years, but in Franklin County the same individual was always 
ap])ointed by both courts. The clerks since the organization of the county have 
beeii as follows: 1S03, Lucas Sullivant; ISIO, Lyne Starling; 1S15, Ahram I. 
McDowell; 1836, Klijah Backus: 1888, Lyne Starling, Jr.: 184<), Lewis Heyl : 
1851, Kendall Thomas; 1854, Albert Buttles: 1857, John L. Bryan: 1869, James 
H. Smith : 1862, David W. Brooks; 1871, James S. Ahbotl : 1877, Harvey Casiiett : 
1S88, John J. Joyce; 1800, Theodore IL Beck; 1890, Willinm 11. Simonton, 
appointed vice Beck deceased, and elected for full term in iSiM). 


Until 1833 the Prosecuting Attorneys were appoirited for an indefinite period ; 
after 1833 they were elected biennially, until, by Act of April 20, 1881, the term 
was prolonged from two years to three. Since the organization of the eounty. the 
incumbents of the office have been as follows: 1805, Reul>en Bonam ; 18H), John 
S. Wills; 1813, David Scott; 1811), John A. McDowell; 1820, Thomas Backus; 
1821-1830, John R. Parish, James K. Corey, (rustavus Swan, Orris Parish, William 
Doherty: 1830, Joseph \\. Swan: 1834, P. B. Wilcox; 1830, Moses IL Kirby ; 
1838, William W. Backus; 1842. Lewis ileyl ; 1840, L. IL Wehster; 1848, Thomas 
Sparrow; 1850, B. F. Martin; 1854, George L. Converse: 185t», J. (). Heamey, 
Milton H. Mann; 1808, K. T. Delaney; 1870, (Jeorge K Nash; 1870, Joseph H. 
Outhwaite: 1870, W. J. Clarke; 1882, R. B. Montgomery: 1885, (^yrus lluling; 
1892, Curtis C. Williams. 



1803, Benjamin White, appointed, Adam Hosack, elected : 1807, E. N. DeLash- 
mutt; 1811, Samuel Shannon; 1815, Francis Stewart; 1810, John McFJvain ; 1823, 
Robert Brotherton ; 1827, John McElvain : 1829, Robert Brotherton ; 1833, Andrew 
McElvain ; 1837, James Graham; 1841, William Domigan ; 1845, John (iraham ; 
1849, John Greenleaf; 1853, Thomas Miller; 1855, William Miner; 1857, Silas W. 
Park ; 1859, (jeorge W. Huffman ; 18t;3, William Domigan ; 1807, (reorge IL Ear- 
hart, who died November 27, 1808, from which date the Coroner discharged the 
duties of the office until 1869, when, by election, Samuel Thompson became Sheriflf"; 
1874, W. E. Horn; 1878, Josiah Kinnear; 1880, J. U. Kickenbacher : 1881, Louis 
Heinmiller; 1885, William H. Barbee; 1887, Brice W. Custer. 


The General Assembly created the oOice of County Auditor at its session of 
1820-21.' Prior to that time the duties which have since devolved upon the Aiidi- 
tr)r were chiefly performed by the (-ounty CommissioiuMs and their clci'k. The 
Auditor was elected annually until 1824; after that hiennially. The first .\ndilor 
of Franklin County was Joseph Grate, appointed by the Commissioners in March, 
1821. The Auditors elected since that time have bren the following 

180 History of the C-itv of Colitmbi-k. 

1821, Zac'hariah MilU, oleetod for one 3'ear. 

1822, JoHeph (rratc, elerteci for one year. 
1828, Joseph Grate, elected for one year. 
1824, Joseph (4 rate, elected for two vearH. 

I82f), Joseph Urate, elected tor two years. I.)ied a few days after his election. 

182tJ, John C. lirodrick, a])pointed b}' the C'OmniissioncrB vice Gmte, deceased. 
Brodrick was reelected for a term of two years in 1827, 1829, 18H1, 18HH, 1835, and 

1839, Frederick (\»le. I^vlcct^ni in 1841 and 1843. 

1845, Smithson K. Wright. Reelected in 1847. 

1849, Holdemond Crary. IUM*le<ted in 1851. 

1853, John M. Pu^rh. Heclected in 1855. 

1857, .lohn Phillips. Reelected in 1859. 

1862, Matthias Martin. Reelected in 18()3 and 1805. 

1806, Dennis B. Strait. 

1868, S. E. Kile. 

1874, LeviT. Strader. 

1878, K. Kiesewetter. 

1884, Frank J. Reinhard. 

1890, Ifenry J. Oaren. 

1. At the precedinjj sesHion of the L(»ffislature, Jud{<e Flenniken was appointed, by tlie 
title of Auditor, to rate the lands of this county for taxation ; hut it was entirely a different 
office from the present, and only continued one year. The lands were then classed for taxa- 
tion as first, second and third rate, and charged a specified sum )ier hundred acres for each 
respective class. — Martin's HiaU/ry of Fruitkiin County. 


At first the (/onnty Treasurer was appointed by the Associate Judges; after- 
wards, until 1827, by the County ( ■onmiisioners. In pursuance of an act of the 
General Assembly passed January 24, 1827, the Treasurer has since that date been 
elected biennially. The first Treasurer was Jacob Grubb, appointed by the Asso- 
ciate Judges in 1803. lie continued to serve, by yearly reappointment, until 1827. 
Since that year the Treasurers have been as follows: 1827, ('hristian Heyl, ap- 
point^jd b}- the (-ommissioners ; 1827, Cliristian Heyl, elected for two 3'ear8 ; 1833, 
George McC.'Ormick ; 1835, William Long; 1841, Joseph McElvain; 1845, Joseph 
Leiby; 1851, O. P. llines; 1855, James II. Stauring; 1859, John G. Thompson; 
1863, Joseph Falkenbach ; 1867, Aaron C. lladley; 1869, James B. Wright, ap- 
pointed vice lladley, resigned j 1870, Lorenzo English; 1872, James E. Wright; 
1877, P. W. Corzilius; 1880, George Beck; 1884, A. D. Heffner; 1888, Henry 


"Many changes have taken place in the mode of collecting taxes. The first two 
or three years aflcr the organization of this county, the chattel tax was collected b}" 
Townshij) (collectors, and a County- Collector collected the land tax. After that, 
say from about 1806 till 1820, the State was divided into four districts, and aCollec 
tor of non-resident land tax appointed by the Legislature for each district; and a* 
the same time the County Collector collected the chattel tax, and lax upon resident 

Franklin ('ointv Oivii. List. ISl 

lands. And from about 1820 until 1827, the County Collectors collected all taxes 
for State and county purposes. Since 1827 it has been the duty of the Treasurer to 
receive or collect the taxes." — Mtrrfhi's JUstnnj of Fnniklln (hunfi/. 

The Collectors from the organization of the county until the ottice was abolished 
in 1S27, were as follows: 1803, Benjamin White; 1804, Adam ilosack; 1808, 
Klias N. DeLashmutt; 1811,.Iohn M. vVhite; 1812, Samuel Shannon ; 1815, Francis 
Stewart ; 1818, Jacob Kellar; 1822, Andrew Dill; 1823, Aiora lUittles; 1824, Peter 
Scdis; 182G, Robert Hrotherton, who served until the ottice was abolished. 



The office of County Assessor was created hy act of the (Tcneral Assembly, 
passed February 3, 1825. Prior to that date, each township chose its own assessor 
at the annual spring election. An act passed January IH, 1827, pr(»vided that the 
assessor should be appointed by the ('ounty Commissioners, to serve until the 
following October, and that thereafter they should bo elected by the voters, 
biennially. An act of March 20, 1841, abolished the office of County Assessor and 
provided that an assessor should be elected in each townsliip. The County Asses- 
sors during the continuance of the ottice were as tbllows: 1825, James Kilbourn; 
1827, John Swisher; 1835, James Ciraham ; 1837, William l)omigan, who served 
until the office was abolished. 


The County iiecorders were appointed by the Con»mon Pleas Judges until 
1831 : since that year they have been chosen triennial!}' by (he voters. The first 
Recorder was Lucas Sullivant, appointed in January, 1804. He serve<i until 1807, 
when Adam Ilosack was appointe<l. Ho.sack's successors by appointment were 
Lincoln Goodale in 1813, and Abram L McDowell in 1817. McDowell served until 

1831, since when the recorders have been elected as follows: 1831, William T. 
Martin; 184G, Nathan Cole ; 1882, F. M. Senter; 1885, Michael A. Lilley; 1888, 
Robert Thompson. 


An act of March 3, 1831, provided that the Surveyors should be triennially 
chosen by the voters; previous to that act, they had been appointed by the Court 
of Common Pleas. The first Surveyor was Joseph Vance, originally apj)ointed in 
1803, and continued by reappointment until his death in 1824. His successor, 
Richard Howe, after serving a brief })eriod, transferred the duties oi the office to 
his deputy, General Jeremiah McLene, who acted as Surveyor until 1827, when he 
was appointed to the office. Lyne Stiirling, Jr., was elected McLene's successor in 

1832, but resigned in April, 1833, and was succeeded by Mease Smith, who was 
appointed for the remainder of Starling's term. The surveyors since then elected 
have been as follows: 1833, Frederick Cole: 1S36, William Johnston : 1S39, Uriah 
Lathrop; 1842, John Graham; 1845, William Johnston : 1S48, Jesse Cortright ; 1S54, 
W. W. Pollard; 1857, Daniel Hess, resigned ; 18(»0, C. C. Walcutt. who resigned and 
was succeeded by Uriah Lathroj), apj)ointed for Walcutt's unexpired term: 181)2, 
Uriah Lathrop, elected; 1805, W. P. Brown: 1871, Josiah Kinnoar; 1875, B. F. 
Bowen ; 1883, Josiah Kinnear; 1889, John J. Dun. 

182 History of the City op Columbus. 


The first Commissioners of Franklin County were elected in June, 1804, and 
their terras of service, determined by lot, were as follows: John Blair, Clerk of the 
Board, until October, 1804; Benjamin Sells, until October, 1805; Arthur O'flarra, 
until October, 1806. The subsequent members of the board have been: 1804, 
Michael Fisher, Clerk; 1805, Ezekial Brown ; 1806, Arthur O'Harra ; 1807, Michael 
Fisher; 1808, James Marshall; 1809, Arthur O'Harra, Clerk; 1810, Robert 
Armstrong; 1811, James Marshall (Adam Hosack, Clerk); 1812, William Shaw; 
1813, Robert Armstrong (Gustav us Swan, Clerk) ; 1814, James Marshall (Joseph 
Grate, Clerk) ; 1815, William Mcllvain (J. A. McDowell, Clerk) ; 1816, Robert 
Armstrong, Samuel G. Flenniken (J. A. McDowell, Clerk) ; 1817, Joseph Grate, 
James Marshall (J. A. McDowell, Clerk); 1818, David Jamison (Joseph Grate 
Clerk until 1821, when he was appointed County Auditor, whose duties were, and 
have since been, in part, to act as Clerk of the Board of Commissioners) ; 1819, 
George W. Williams; 1820, Joseph Grate; 1821, Robert Armstrong, Horace 
Walcutt; 1822, James Marshall; 1823, Andrew Dill; 1824, Robert Armstrong; 
1825, William Stewart; 1826, John M. Walcutt; 1827, William McBlvain ; 1828, 
William Stewart; 1820, Horace Walcutt, William Miller; 1H30, Matthew 
Matthews; 1831, William Stewart; 1832, Horace Walcutt, who died in 1833; 
1833, John M. White, Matthew Matthews, and Timothy Lee, appointed vice 
Walcutt, deceased; 1834, Hiram Andrews, vice Stewart; 1835, Robert Lisle; 
1836, James Bryden ; 1837, R. W. Cowles, vice Andrews; 1838, John Tipton, 
vice Lisle; 1839, James Bryden; 1840, William W. Kyle, vice Cowles; 1841, 
Samuels. Davis; 1842, John Greenwood, vice Bryden ; 1843, William W. Kyle; 
1844, Samuel S. Davis; 1845, John Clarke, vice Gree;iwood ; 1846, Adam 
Stewart, vice Kyle; 1847, Thomas J. Moorman, vice Davis; 1848, O. P. Hines, 
vice Clarke; 1849, Jacob Slyh, vice Stewart ; 1850, Eli F. Jennings, vice 
Moorman; 1851, Jesse Baughman, vice Hines; 1852, C. W. Speaks, vice Slyh; 
1853, Edward Livingston, vice Jennings; 1854, Willis Mattoon, vice Baughman; 
1855, Theodore Comstoek, vice Speaks; 1856. Edward Livingston; 1857, 
C. P. Hines, appointed vice Mattoon, deceased; 1857, Isaac White, elected 
vice Hines; 1858, David L. Holton, resigned; 1859, Thomas Sparrow, appointed 
vice Holton ; 1859, John Snider, elected ; 1860, Dennis B. Strait ; 1861, Jacob Slyh ; 
1862, James W. Barbee ; 1864, John M. Koerner; 1866, John G. Edwards; 1867, 
William Gulich; 1868, Eli M. Lysle; 1869, J. O. B. Renick ; 1870, Francis Collins, 
vice Lysle, resigned; 1870, William Cooper, vice Gulich, resigned; 1870, Frederick 
Beck; 1871, John P. Bruck, vice Beck, resigned; 1872, Adin G. Hibbs; 1873, 
Francis Riley; 1874, Isaac S. Beekey ; 1875, Daniel Matheny ; 1876, Dennis B. 
Strait; 1877, Isaac S. Beekey; 1878, Daniel Matheny; 1879, Thomas Robinson; 
1880, Joseph M, Briggs ; 1881, Josiah C. Lunn ; 1882, William Wall ; 1883, Joseph 
M. Briggs; 1884, Richard Z. Dawson; 1886, Lewis Morehead ; 1887, same as in 
1886; 1888, Thomas D. Cassidy ; 1889, same as in 1888; 1890, Richard Z. Dawson, 
Thomas Cassidy, Lewis Morehead. 


1805, Joseph Dixon : 1807, William Domigan ; 1815,Townsend Nichols ; 1817, 
Thomas Kincaid; 1818, Robert Brotherton ; 1819, William Richardson; 1821, 

Franklin County Civil List. 183 

Adam Brotherlin ; 1825, Jacob Bbey ; 1830, Jonathan Neereamer; 1835, George 
Jeffreys; 1839, James Wale utt ; 1843, A. W. Reader; 1845, Horton Howard; 1849, 
A. W. Reader; 1851, James W. Barbee; 1853, A, W. Reader; 1855, Blias Gaver ; 

1869, Patrick Bgan ; 1891, John P. Egan. 


The first Directors were Jacob Grubb, Ralph Osborn and P. B. Wilcox, who 
were appointed by the County Commissioners, in 1832. Subsequent appointments 
were made as follows; James Walcutt, George B. Harvey, W. T. Martin, and 
William Domigan. Directors were first chosen by the voters at the State election 
of 1842, viz.: George Frankenberg for one year, Augustus S. Decker for two 
years, and for the three years term Robert Riorden, who was continued in office 
by releection until 1848, when he was succeeded by John Walton. Directors have 
since been elected as follows: 18491, S. D. Preston and ArthurO'Harra; 1852, Amos 
L.Ramsey; 1853, Rnfus Main ; 1854, Orin Backus; 1855, L. J. Moeller ; 1856, John 
Lysle; 1857, William Aston ; 1859, James Leirg; 1860, John Greenleaf (appointed 
vice Moeller, resigned) and Newton Gibbons and Philemon Hess, elected ; 1862, 
Fred Beck ; 1867, Jacob Grau ; 1868, Frederick Fornoff; 1869, Henry L. Siebert ; 

1870, W. H. Gaver; 1871, John Schneider; 1872, John H. Earhart ; 1873, W. H. 
Gavcr; 1874, John Schneider; 1875, John H. Earhart, 1876, W. H. Gaver; 1877, 
James Burns; 1878, John H. Earhart; 1879, Christian Bngeroff; 1880, James 
Burns; 1881, Jacob Reab; 1882, Christian Engcroif; 1883, James C. Cloary ; 
1884, Harvey Lisle; 1885, Emery McDermith ; 1886, James C. Cleary; 1887, 
Harvey Lisle; 1888, Stephen Kelley ; 1890, Adam Fendrich ; 1891, John P. Egan. 

superintendents of the infirmary. 

Robert Cloud, appointed in 1832, resigned and was succeeded by William 
King, who continued in charge until October, 1837, when he gave place to Edward 
Heddon. The Superintendents since then have been: 1844, C. F. Schenck ; 1851, 
Joseph McElvain ; 1852, Charles Jucksch ; 1853, Joseph McBlvain ; 1854, Daniel 
Evans ; 1857. L. J. Moeller; 1860, S. P. McElvain ; 1869, J. J. Fanston ; 1871, S. P. 
McElvain ; 1880, Thomas A. Jackson ; 1881, H. C. Filler. 


WORTH! n(;ton.' 

At the very bo;L?innin^ ot the Republic, the National ]>oiicy with respect to 
the limitation of slavery, became a matter of profound practical concern. In New 
England, particularly, it deeply affected the movement of population to the (ireat 
West, then ojK»ning to settlement. Thousands who were eaecer to participate in 
building up new States beyond the Ohio were inflexibly determined to live under 
no slavoholding rvijimt'. '* Make the land worth having," said Manassoh Cutler to 
the Continental Congress when bargaining for a tract for the New England Asso- 
ciates. " Unless you do," he continued, " we do not want it." The purport of this 
admonition was fully understood. '* Exclude alaveiy from the Northwest, and wo 
will buy your land there, and help you to ]»ay off the war debt; allow slavery to 
enter, and not a penny will we invest." Accordingly the great political charter, 
then maturing, for the vast regions northwest of the Ohio, was so framed as to 
forever prohibit, within their limits, all *' slavery and involuntary servitude." 

Fifteen years later this question came again to the front. A new State was 
about to be created, and a territorial convention, sitting at Chillicothe, was en- 
gaged in framing its constitution. Would that constitution admit slavery or 
exclude it ? Upon the decision of that question depended the political future of 
the new commonwealth, and the destiny of the thousands who desii'ed to become 
its citizens. Acting in conformity with the glorious covenant of the Ordinance 
of 1787, the Convention gave its voice for freedom, and incorporated these epoch- 
making provisions into the first constitution of Ohio : 

There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in tliis State, otherwise than 
for the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted ; nor shall 
any male person, arrived at the ajre of twentyone years, or female person arrived at the a^^ 
of eighteen years, be hehl to serve any person at? a servant, under the pretense of indenture 
or otherwise, unless such person shall enter into such indenture while in a state of perfect 
free<loni, and on condition of a Inyua /y^e* consideration received, or to be received, for their ser- 
vice, except as before excepted. Nor s-liall any indenture of any nejj:ro or mulatto, hereafter 
made and executed out of the State, or if made in the State, where the term of service ex- 
ceeds one year, be of the least validity, except those given in the case of apprentice8hij>8.- 

Among the New Englanders who awaited this verdict with deep interest, was 
James Kilbourn, then residing at Granby, Connecticut. Mr. Kilbourn was born 
at New Britain, in that State, October 19, 1770. The War of Independence broke 
out when he was but five years of age, and swept away nearly all the property' of 
his father, Josiah Kilbourn, who had been, prior to that lime, a prosperous farmer. 
This loss, together with tliat of three members of his family, who perished in the 


/i./V^vn,.. . 



WoRTiriN<JT()N. 1^5 

war. bereft the senior Kilbourn for several years ol his reason. The faniilv home- 
stead was broken iip, and young James Kilhourn, then a boy of sixteen, was 
obliged to quit his parents and go forth in search of the means of self-maintenance. 
This he did with a brave heart, and a spirit of determination above his years. His 
resources lay entirely within himself. When he crossi'd the parental threshold, 
and went out alone and penniless into the great world, he had neither coat nor 
shoes, and his education was so meager that he could scarcely write his name. 

After walking thirty miles, he obtained employment with a farmer, which 
engagement he exchanged at a later period for an ai)prenticeship with a clothier, 
whose trade he undertook to learn. Durini^ five months of each vear, reserved by 
the terms of his apprenticeship for his own dis])osal, he worked on the farm of a 
Mr. Griswold, whose son, then a young man, afterwards became a distinguished 
bishop of the Protestant Episcopal fhurch. The future bishop took a friendly 
interest in the young apprentice, and gave him instruction which supplied, to some 
extent, the deficiencies of his education. 

By means of these hel])s. and his energetic ert'orts to help himself, 3'oung 
Kilbourn rapidly nuistered the intricacies of his craft, and so won upon the confi- 
dence of his employers that he was placed at the liead of the clothiers estahlish- 
nient. He also won the hand of Miss Lucy Fitch, daughter of John Fitch, of 
Philadelphia, the inventor of steam navigation, and buihler of the first American 
steamboat."* Married at the age of nineteen to Miss Fitch, he soon afterwards en- 
tered upon a business career which carried him steadily ori to affluence. After 
becoming the owner of mills, stores and several farms, including that which his 
father had lost by the war, he settled as a merchant at (iranby. There we find 
him at the operiing of this chapter, meditating schemes of western colonization, 
and also officiating occasionally as a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
in which, at the solicitation of friends, he had taken orders. He had meanwhile 
founded a public library and acquired s(nne rej>utation as a writer and speaker. 
After his ordination, several parishes desired him as their permanent pastor, but 
he declined their invitations. The fascination of the Great West had seized upon 
his mind, and permeated the current of his thoughts. In pursuance of these 
predilections he had already made several preliminary explorations in western and 
northwestern New York, when his fatherinlaw, Mr. Fitch, advised him to turn 
his attention to Ohio. Acting upon this advice, he matured plans lor the organiza- 
tion of a company to establish a settlement in that region. These j)lans he began 
to broach in ISOO, but, 8a3's his biographer, '• it took about one year for him to per- 
suade his friends that he was in earnest — and another, that he was not insane. 
Ohio was then regarded as on the utmost verge of the West; ami they thought 
him too pleasantly situated to make so great sacrifices as were involved in such 

Kilbourn thought otherwise, and persisted in his designs. Having enlisted 
the first seven of the forty members of his proposed company, he set out in the 
spring of 1S02 on his first expedition to Ohio. Traveling \)y stage until he arrived 
at Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, where the stage line then terminated, he there 
shouldered his pack, walked over the mountains to Pittsburgh, descendejl the river 
to Wheeling, and thence penetrated the Ohio Wilderness by the way of Zane's 
Trace, which he followed to the Muskingum and Lancaster, where he turned 

186 History of the ('ity of Columbus. 

northward to the Forks of the Seioto. After spending the summer in exploring 
the country', and conferring with those best acquainted with it, he concluded his 
mission by selecting for the j)roposed settlement a tract of sixteen thousand acres 
on the east bank of the Whetstone, nine miles above Franklinton. He did not 
then purchase the land, but returned to Connecticut, and made his report to his 
associates. From that report, written by Mr. Kilbourn's own hand, on coarse 
paper now yellow with age, the following extracts are here copied : 

We, James Kilbourn and NathM Little being by a resolve and determination of the 
iSeioto Company appointed agent for said Company to explore the Territory of the United 
States Northwest of Ohio, and to transact any other business for said company which we 
should deem for their benefit, beg leave to report. 

Here follow descriptions of the country eastward from Wheeling, and of the 
lands in the valleys of the Muskingum, Hockhocking and Lower Scioto. The 
remarks on the tract finally selected for the colony contain these passages : 

This tract is situate on the Eastern side of the Scioto, and is watered largely by Wal- 
nut Creek — a stream as large as Salmon Brook in Granby — and the Bigbelly Creek, which is 
near or quite as large as Farmington River at Farmington ; both clear lively stt earns of 
pure water as ever flowed from a fountain, with small gravel and in places large pebble bot- 
tom. . . . There is in this tract a thousand acres at least, in one place, of the best clear mead- 
ow I ever saw in any place whatever, without a tree or a bush in the whole extent and the 
old grass and weeds are burnt off every spring. The present growth (which is good stack hay 
if mowed early) was, in the lowest places, higher than a horse's back, except where it was 
lodged down; and generally higher than my head, sitting on my horse, to the topmost spires. 
It was so thick as to he almost impossible to force a horse through it. A Mr. Spence and Mr. 
Little being with me, we had to take turns in going before, to break down a path, as a horse 
would tire and tangle himself in a small distance. 

This meadow is so «lry as to be good plow laml, and fit to be planted with corn, any year, 
with only plowing and fencing; and for the latter purpose there is a good forest of fencing 
timber around it on all sides, so that it might all be enclosed without drawing any rails two 
rods. The clear black mold in all this meadow, and others of the kind, is at least three feet 
deep, and will produce, if kept clear of weeds, seventy or eighty bushels of corn per acre, 
at a crop. This is fully verified by fields of corn on similar lauds in the vicinity. . . . 

The soil of this tract is, in my opinion, rather superior to any of so great extent 1 have 
seen in all the Territory. It is of various depths from six inches on the highest'hills, to 
three feet in the bottoms. Upon the large creeks, the bottoms seem to have a soil almost 
as deep as the banks of the stream. ... 

The prim;ipal timber is oak, making near one half of the whole. Part of this is white- 
oak — perhaps half — and the other yellow, black and Spanish oak. Then there is hard 
maple, hickory, black walnut, ash and whitewood in abundance. There is also cherry and 
butternut, elm, soft maple, buckwooil, some beach and honey locust. The undergrowth 
which is not thick except in some particular spots, is chiefly spice-bush, mixed with pawpaw 
in all the bottoms and richest uplands. Upon the thinnest upland the underwood, where 
any there is, consist* of boxwood, hard-beem, hickory saplings and hazelnut bushes ; but not 
an alder of any kind have I seen beyond the hills on the Forks. On the sides of the prairies 
are thousands of })lumbu8he8 which are very fruitful. 

The timber in all this region is much better than it is further south, and increasingly so 
as we go to the north, yet not very heavy, but generally of a fine size and straight, hand- 
some. Its growth is lighter by half than I had expected. But yet there are some very large 
trees in various parts, especially in the bottoms. I have frequently observed solid wbiteoaks 
which will measure twelve feet in circumference many feet from the ground, and black wal- 
nut and whitewood equally large, or nearly so, and buttonwoods in the flats much 
larger. . . , 


The navigable waters to thie tract are the 8cioto on the west and tlie Bigbellyj which, 
when there is water sufficient, is boatable and very good for the business, entirely across tlie 

Plums and apples are the principal natural fruits, of which there are thousands of 
bushels to be found in any part of the country, and they are not only plenty, but the plums 
are a fine palatable fruit, I apprehend, however, not very healthy. I saw a vast quantity 
of grapevines, but few or no grapes. They do not bear in the woods, especially in the rich 
bottoms. On the hills, and where it is open, they are said to bear well. I frequently saw 
vines that measure from six to eight inches in diameter. . . . 

There are three or four settlers on this tract, but none have purchased except one, Mr. 
Gibson, on the south tier of sections of No. 10. 

The main road from Chillicothe to Franklinton, at the Forks leads through the western 
part of this tract, and a road soon to be cut by order of Congress from the Forks and a great 
distance to the northwest, to Lancaster and Zanesville and thence on to the eastward may be 
brought through No. 10 in a direct course. 

The nearest trading town is at present Franklinton at the Forks. . . . but Chillicothe is 
tlie best and will be so for a considerable time yet. ... It will, for the present, be as much 
ae twelve miles from these townships to any mill whatever. . . . 

Respecting the healthfulness of this country, I have in rej)ort that it is in fact sickly, in a 
(X>n8iderable degree. At the first settlement it was thought to be very healthy, there being 
only a few cases of the ague and fever; but in the fall of 1800 a bilious fever took place 
of which many were sick, in the lowest situations, and some died. In the summer and 
autumn of 1801 the fever made its appearance again with more terror. Almost all were sick, 
l>oth in towns and country, so that it became difficult, in many instances to get tenders for the 
aick. In many instances whole families were down at a time, and many died. ... In the 
country around the Pickaway Plains, where are the lowest bottoms or rather the most fre- 
<^uent wet prairies, or meadows, and where the people have uniformly settled in the low bot- 
toms by side of the creeks, the fever prevailed more generally and violently than in any other 
part of the Scioto Country. But there is no part of the country exempt from the malady, 
from the Great Miami txy the Muskingum River. . . . What seems to me strange is that the 
Indians who were natives of this country are as subject to the disorder as the whitea. Of the 
few who remain in the Territory some are now sick with it. and they say it has always been 
so, and that they have often been obliged to move back from the meadows and bottoms, 
where they always lived, into the woods and uplands during the sickly season to es- 
cape it. . . . 

Colonel Worthington, who is a gentleman of first rate information, informed me that where 
families were careful in their manner of living and housing themselves from the damp air 
and fogs, they generally avoid the fever ; that many families, particularly his own and Mr. 
Windship's, by prudence, had almost wlioUy escaped. And he is of opinion that when a 
little more opened and those vast meadows improved by planting, mowing and feeding, so 
that the immense vegetation does not putrefy on the ground, and be wafted about in the air, 
[this] will become as healthy as any country whatever. 

Through the lines of this report wc see the country hereabouts as it was when 
just emerging from its primitive wildness. The staienionts made are frank, and 
no doubt in the main correct. 

The eftecl of this information, and of the free constitution of Ohio, completed 
in November, was such as to enable Mr. Kilbourn to raise his association, in a 
short time, to its full membership, to organize it as the " Scioto Company," and to 
close in its behalf, the contract for the sixteen thousand acres of land which he 
had selected. The organization of the Company dates from December 14, 1802. 
On April 7, 1803, Kilbourn again started for the West, this time on horseback, and 
followed by a millwright, a blacksmith, nine laborers, and a family in two wagons. 
Followinj? is the report of this expedition, transcribed from the original manu- 
script in the handwriting of Mr. Kilbourn : 



James Kilbourn, Agent for the Scioto Company, having attended to the several objects 
in the western country for which he was appointed, begs leave to report as follows. 

Tuesday, April 5th, 1803. Was prevented from beginning my journey as was expected, 
by having to meet the Committee and Secretary, which took up the whole day before the 
business could be fully arranged. 

Wednesday, 6th. Left Simsbury and proceeded to Hartford to get the specie changed 
for bill and credit. Procured the change of Hartford and Middletown notes with much diffi- 
culty and one dollar discount. Put up at Pratt's. 

Thursday, 7th. After finishing the business, which was not completed yesterday, set 
out on the journey. Dined at N. Haven, and obtained an exchange of the bill on that Bank, 
part in gold at the bank and part by private hands in bills of the United States, making dis- 
count of 25 cents. I^ft N. Haven just at evening, and put up at Milford. 

Saturday, 9th. Arrived at N. York, and put up at Dr. Stanbery's. Spent Saturday 
evening, Sunday and Monday, till 10 o'clock here, & having got the necessary business 
arranged set out for the westward. 

Thursday, 25th. Arrived at Pittsburgh after a very unpleasant journey on account of 
the snow storms & other disagreeable weather. 

Friday, 22nd. Proceeded directly to the business of obtaining millirons^ blacksmith's 
tools, iron, &c, &c, for part of which I had to go to the works & wait to have them made. 
Was detained here till Tuesday the 2(ith, 5 days, *& closely employed to get all things in readi- 
ness. During this time I purchased the following articles to wit: Crank, gudgeon, ragg- 
wheel, stake. 2 cowbells, 1 housebell, 2 faggots, nail rods & a box of window glass. Also 
some bilious pills & red Bark to use on emergency. Having this morning got all the heavy 
articles on Vjoard a Cincinnati boat, to be delivered by the Master (Mr. Eleader) to the care of 
Mr. Wm Russell, at Alexandria at the mouth of Scioto, at ten o'clock left Pittsburgh & pro- 
ceeded on my journey. The day following, at Wheeling, fell in company with two gentlemen 
from Litchfield who accompanied me thro' the wilderneps to Zanesville, where we parted. 
Found no hay for the horse in all the hill country, from St. Clair's to Zanesville ; had to keep 
the horse wholly on oats, which foundered him in a degree. Put up here from Friday even- 
ing, the twenty ninth, till Wednesday morning May 4th, when he became able to proceed on 
the journey. Had been hindered here 4 entire days. 

On Wednesday, May 4th, left Zanesville in company with Wm. Wells, Esqr., who went 
with me one day's journey on Licking road. Passed all the rest of the wilderness alone to 
Franklinton. Had a heavy N. E. storm all the way, & to swim my horse through 2 Rivers, 
by which I was completely wet from head to foot as possible ; the weather at the same time 
quite cold. This storm cleared with a sharp frost. On Friday, sixth, at evening, arrived at 
Franklinton very wet, cold and much fatigued. Put up at James Scott, Rsqr's, the man who 
had the care of survey the Dunlap section. 

Saturday 7th. Left Franklinton, went up Whetstone & spent this & the 2 following 
days in the woods viewing our lands & choosing out a place most favorable for our first im- 
provements. Returned to Franklinton Monday evening, the ninth, & found there the Mr. 
[Messrs.] Morrisons, who bad arrived the evening before, being the 8th. Put up with them 
at Mr. Scott's. 

Sunday, 10th. Procured as many articles of supplies as could be had at a fair price at 
Franklinton, & in the afternoon of the same day procured a boat with some hands of Mr. 
Warren (a New England man), who, with Mr. [Messrs.] Morrisons put off down the river to 
Chillicothe for the rest of the supplies. Took a horse, and went on myself by land, & by 
reason of some hindrance by Mr. Warren's hands the boat did not arrive till I had every- 
thing procured and ready to load, altho I had to procure the axes, chains, Ac, &c., to be 
made after I arrived. Found all produce much raised by the opening of the port of N. Orleans, 
which had been announced about 10 days when I got into the country. Bot. here the fol- 
lowing articles, viz: A smith's bellows, 300 cwt. Bar Iron, with some steel, grindstone, a large 
iron kettle for brewing & washing pot, dish-kettle, bake-pan, spider, tea-kettle, frying-pan, 
three chains, 5 woodsman's axes, 2 wedges, plow-iron & clevis, 8 hoes, 3 scythes, 2 shovels, 
one spade, draughts for smith's, hammer, sledges and a crowbar, 3 bushels salt, a sad iron. 


IlisTtiin' i>K TiiK City ok Cnr.i'Mius. 

ami ot'liis own sai^acitv and iiHloniitabU* rtlbrtH in estaMisliinj^ tlio now settliMnent. 
Roadiiii^ tliose homoiy but Hi^niti<ant dcUiils, wv learn wltat tlie eonditions of pio- 
neer lilt? won', and what toivsi^jjlit, diiiiron<c and resolution such an ontcrpriso vo 

I I 


- 8 



- 8 




- 26 





12 - 


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37 • 

- 4 


- 13 


- 20 


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- 36 



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17 • 
















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48 - 


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. u 


uUH;iN'\|. n.AT OK WQKTniNGTON. 

Tlu? lands hoiii^hi hy tin* Coinpany wcro tlu* first si'ction of* the first township, 
second nnd tliir«l st*cli(»ns of the serond townshiji. and the second seetion of the 
third township, in thi' i-iirliteenth range of the (.loverinnent surve}'. The priee 


paid waft one dollar and twontytivc contH per aero. By iho terms oi' their associa- 
tion, the purchasers agreed to reserve one hundred and sixty acres tor the support 
of schools, and the same amount for the benefit of a Protestant Episcopal C/iiurch. 
It was further covenanted that roads should be laid out, one running north and 
south, and one east and west, through the Company's tract, and that at the inter- 
section of those thoroughfiaros shouM bo located a town plat of one hundred and 
sixty single-acre lots, four of which at the central cornerH,^Hhould bo resorved as a 
public square. Reservation was also made of one lot for the school and one for 
the church. To the members of the Oompany town lots were apportioned as 
follows : 

James Kilbourn, 93, 94, IIG, 117; Thomas T. Phelps, 5, G, 150; Abner Pin- 
ney, 54, 59, 70,102, 127 ; Russell Atwater, 30, 40, 40, S(), 90, lOS, 119, 120, 121, 135, 
13(5 ; Jedediah Norton, 15, 41, 42, 47, 4S, 49, 50, 55, 56, 74, S3, H5, S7, 92, 10(1, 111, 
113 ; Job Case, 84, S>^, 91, 95, 155 ; Levi Hays, 13, 14, 19 ; Levi Buttles, 3, 4, 29, 
149, 24; Jeremiah Curtis, 68, 09; Zophar Topping, 1, 20, SO ; Ebenczer Street, 57, 
81 ; Nathan Stewart, 07, 99,100, 110, 143; Roswell Wilcox, 133; Lemuel Kilbourn, 
45; Jonas Stanberry, 36; Abner P. Pinney, 28; Josiah Topping, 23, 24, 53: 
Azariah Pinney, 44; Moses Andre w^s, 21, 22; Samuel Slopcr, 51, 52; William 
Thompson, 03, 77, 82, 103, 115, 141, 142, 140, 159, 160; Alexander Morrison, Sr., 2, 
26,39, 58, 72: Samuel Beach, 11, 12, 147, 148; John (iould, is, 109; Alexander 
Morrison, Jr., 31, 32, 33, 34, 43, 77, 1 14, 125, 12() ; Ezra Griswold, 10, 17, 01, 62, 78 ; 
William Vining, 104, 105, 123, 124; John Toi)ping, 131, 132; Israel P. Case, 27 ; 
Israel Case, 37, 38, 137, 138; David Bristol, 7, S, 00, (Jl ; Glass (.^ochran, 97, 107, 
112, 139, 140, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154; Lemuel G. Humphrey, Ambrose Case and 
Jacob Mills, 9, 93, 98; James Allen, 05, 09, 90; Nathaniel \V. Little, 25, 71, 
75, 118, 144, 157, 158; Ichabod Plum, 101 ; James Kilbourn and others, commitU^e. 
10, 35, 04, 76, 134. 

The first of the colonists to arrive have already been mentioned in the report 
of Mr. Kilbourn. Additional squads came at intervals, pursuing the Indian trails 
and cutting their way through the woodj|^ At midsummer Mr. Kilbourn returned 
to Connecticut and led out his own ifnd ten other families. Thus the colony 
gradually increased until it numbered one hundred persons. Meanwhile, fields 
were cleared and planted, the town of Worthington was surveyed and staked 
out,' twelve log cabins, a schoolhouse (used also as a church), and a blacksmith- 
shop — all of logs — wore built, and a mill and a dam on the Whetstone were begun. 
St. John's Parish, the first Protestant Episcopal society in the Northwest, was 
organized with Mr. Kilbourn as its pastoral leader. It included in its member- 
ship nearly all the adult members of the colon3\ During the winter a subscrip- 
tion school was taught by Thomas T. Phelps, who was succeeded, the ensuing 
season, by Clarissa Thompson." Political obligations were not forgotten. On 
July 4, 1804, an appropriate oration was delivered by Mr. Kilbourn, and seven- 
teen giant trees wore felled — one for each State — as a national salute. 

The first tavern in the colony was opened in 1803 b}' Kzra (Jriswold, who 
built, two years later, the first frame house in the settlement. Tin* first brick 
house was erected in 1804 by Mr. Kilbourn who, in 1S05, built a small gristmill 
on the Whetstone. Subsequently Preserved Leonard managed to turn an ovorshot 
wheel for milling purposes by water conducted to it in troughs. 

192 iTlsTORY OF THK CiTY OP Coi.rMHlTS. 

The first store in the settlement was kept in the GriswoUl cabin. It« pro- 
prietor was Nathan Stewart, who was also a distiller. A postoffice was estab- 
lished about the same time. The first postmaster was William Robe, who held the 
ottice ten years."* The mail was brought from Franklinton. The first physician 
was hoctor Josiah Topping, who arrived in 1805, but removed to Delaware in 
1S0(>. HiH place was supplied four years later by I)oct4)r J)aniel Upson. The first 
marriages in the rolon^' were thost' of Abner 1*. Pinney to Miss Polly Morrison, 
and Levi Pinne^' to Miss CharlotU* Beach. These allian(res were solemnized FVb- 
ruary 10, 1S04, by Thomas Stevens, Ksquire, in the log schoolhouse at Krank- 

Among the youFiger colonists was Joel Buttles, who, later in life, became a 
business partner with Doctor Lincoln (joodale. Mr. Buttles's father was a share- 
holder in the Worthington coloiiy, and was also interested in the New England 
settlement at Granville, twenty miles further cast. He brought out his lamily 
from Granby, Conneeticut, in the autumn of ISOL A diary written by Joel But- 
tles in 1835, and since printed, contains the tbllowing passiiges referring to that 
experience : 

There were [in 1S04] no white people living north of Worthington, except souie four or 
five families in what for a long tinu^ was called Carpenter's Settlement, which was on the 
Whetstone River, ahout Iift4*en miles north. On the east there were some thirty families 
about thirty miles away; and near what is now Newark there were a few familii^s. In the 
southeast direction, about ten miles, Reed N«*lson un<l Shaw, and perhaps one other fan^ily, 
had made a beginning on the bottom land of Alum Creek. Following down the Whetstone 
south hefore coming to Franklinton, nine miles from Worthington, a few families had lately 
settle<l, mostly from Pennsylvania. These were the Hendersons, Lysles, Fultons and Hun- 
ters. Franklinton was then the ))rineipal town or village north of Chillicothe, indeed I 
believe the only one, unh;8s JefTcrson, on the Pickaway Plains, liad been located, of which I 
am uncertain. It was a county seat, where courts for the county were held. On the west I do 
not know that there were any settlements 

For several years after the time of whicl) I write, the Indians still continue<l to make the 
country around their hunting grounds. Many times I have been to their camps. They invari- 
ably selected some pleasant situation for these^ffenerally near the river, or some stream, where 
water and wood were convenient, and when they had hunted a few days there they would 
shift to some other situation and. as they called it, hunt over another ground. It was 
thought that tlie whites would soon kill or drive off the deer entirely, but this did not appear 
to be the case for several years. Tlie whites were probably not as good hunters as the In- 
dians, and, being so uiuch more engaged in other things, it was found that the deer in- 
creased more in the neighborhood of the white settlements than at a distance where the 
Indians were more numerous. . . . 

We ended our journey on the fourth of Decmber, 1H04, now more than thirtyeight years 
ago. Three days before we reached our destination the snow fell about two or three inches 
deep. The storm began with rain and finished with snow, the ground not frozen at all, but 
that snow was a foundation for all others that fell during the winter. It gradually accumu- 
late<l until it was ten or twelve inches deep. 

About the first of January there was more rain, which soon turned into snow, and l>eing 
cold afterwards, a crust was formed which would generally bear young cattle. We had a 
cabin of one room for our numerous family and effects, and this ciibin was in the woocls, 
about twenty rods north of the public square or Main Street. It was a sorry time with us. 
Our cattle and horses had to be fed, though not much. We had to go to General Worthing- 
ton*s mill, on the Kinnacannick, above Chillicothe, for our Hour, al>out forty miles away, but 
as the roads were good— good snow paths— sleds, which could be soon made were put in 



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► * • • • 

• •. . • • 

W()RTHIN(^TON. 19:^ 

Very soon after our arrival, my father made preparations lor building? a more comfort- 
able house. Logs were hauled to the sawmill above the town, on the Whetstone River. 
These logs were soon converted into two-inch planks, thirteen feet long, which being set up on 
end, edge to edge, and spiked to suitable timbers, soon formed a house, such as it was. The 
roof was covered with boards from the mill, and the rough boards laiil down, without smooth, 
ing or straightening, for the floors. Thus, in about two weeks, we had a house to move into, 
which, though not wanner, was more roomy than the cabin, as there were two roomj^ below, 
and what answered to two above. The chimney, if it could be called one, was in the middle 
of the house; it was constructe*! of two pieces of large timber, fmmed in when the house was 
raised, about six feet apart, and about five feet high, above the floor, reaching across the whole 
width of the house. The fire was to be built upon the ground, and the smoke to ascend 
between these two timbers, which should be called mantel -pieces. On these mantelpieces 
boards were set up on end, running out through the roof, something in the shape of a square 
cone. But this did not do well, and had to be remodeled as soon as could be done. . . . 

At that time there were no other buildings in Worthington than log cabins except a 
frame storehouse built by Nathaniel Little on the north side of the public square. By the 
by, what I call and is now the public square, was then pretty much all the ** opening" there 
was about there. The ground laid out for a public S(|uare was, as was all the country about 
there, covered by a heavy growth of forest timber. At the time I speak of these trees on the 
square had been cut down only, falling across each other and every way, as they were 
naturally inclined. It was. of course, difficult getting about among these fallen trees, and 
going from house to house. 

On the north side of the public square there was the frame house I mentioned west of Main 
Street, and Ezra Griswold's double cabin on the east side of the street, who kept a tavern, 
the only one there was. On the east side of the square, there was a large cabin built for 
public purposes, and used on the Sabbath day as a church, Major Kilbourn officiating as a dea- 
con of the Episcopal Church. At all public meetings, it was a town hall ; and whenever the 
young people wished to have a dance or a ball, that being the only room large enough for 
that purpose, it was used as a ballroom ; and this, I know, was very oftea, probjibly once 
in ten days on an average. Of course the house was never long unoccupied or unemployed. 

On the south side of the public sf^uare, the only house was that of James Kilbourn, then 
called Major and Esquire Kilbourn, now Colonel Kilbourn, who was the principal sachem of 
the tribe, being general agent of the Company settlement — the Scioto Company —socalled 
clergyman of the place, Justice of the Peace, large stockholder, or rather landholder in the 
Company, had been the longest out there, and so the oldest settler, having been there over 
a year, and many other things which went conclusively to designate him as head of the clan. 
On the west side of the square, I only recollect one house, which was occupied by Isaac Case, 
at whose house I frequently boarded. . . . 

During the month of March, 1805, Mr. Buttles's father was overtaken by a 
frightiul tempest in the Licking wilderness. He was endeavoring, at the time, to 
make his way, on horseback, from the Kilbourn colony to the twin New England 
settlemeut at Granville. Seeing the storm coming on, at evening, he pushed 
ahead, hoping to find some house or other shelter, but lost his way, and was soon 
involved in utter darkness excej)t as the lightning illuminated with its tierce 
flashes the rayless gloom of the woods. " Finding it impossible to go further," says 
the diary of his son, *' he took the saddle from his horse, and las ing it down in the 
snow beside a large tree, he seated himself upon it and leaned against tho tree, 
holding the horse's bridle in his hand, in which position ho expectod to spend the 
night. But the rain poured down the tree so that he had to change sit nations several 
times before morning ; but no change saveil him from wet. We can hardly con- 
ceive of a more uncomfortable situation that what he desitribed his to be, knowing, 
as we did, the horrors of the night. As soon as the morning light enabled him to 


194 History op the City op Columbus. 

proceed, he went on, and soon came in sight of the house at which he had expected 
to stay. But a new difficulty had arisen. Licking Creek was now impassable, 
which the evening before was not ten inches deep. In short, the whole day was 
spent in getting himself over, leaving his horse to provide for himself." 

This adventure precipitated a fever, which resulted fatally in the ensuing 
June. Compelled by this calamity, young Buttles, then seventeen years of age, 
cast about for some means of independent support. The expedients which he 
adopted are thus set forth in his diary : 

Mr. James Kilbourn had procured a printing office to be brought to and established at 
Worthington for the purpose of publishing a weekly paper. He was himself acting as editor, 
but his other business rendered it desirable for him to disengage himself from the paper. I 
had never been in any printing office other than this, nor had I ever seen a type set; but I 
proposed buying this in conjunction with a man by the name of George Smith, a printer by 
trade. Our proposition was accepted and I engaged at once, not only as editor but as printer. 
This business succeeded so well, principally on account of the war with Great Britain soon 
after this time, which made this part of the country a scene of preparation, reinforcement, 
provisioning, etc., for the army which went against General Hull [sic]. The failure of that 
expedition left this country exposed as a frontier to the British and Indians, neither of which 
it afterwards appeared, bad the courage or ability to molest us. But they were fearfully 
apprehended by our people ; and many an alarm, or report of their coming, gave great dis- 
turbance and distress to us. Such stirring times made newspapers in great demand, and 
gave some good job work, and we made some money by the business. About this time I had 
to perform a campaign of a few weeks only with the militia, who were called out en mane to 
guard the country from the threatened attacks of the British and Indians of Canada, who it 
was feared, would come in by the way of Sandusky. 

The weekly newspaper mentioned in the foregoing extract was the Western 
IjitelUyencer, of which a full account will be given in the history of the press. In 
1812 Mr. Buttles sold his interest in the InteUigenctr in order to participate in a 
store opened by the Worthington Manufacturing Company at Franklinton. The 
founder of that Company was Mr. Kilbourn, whose personal career continues to 
engage our attention us the most conspicuous factor in the development of the 
Worthington colony. Soon after the organization of the State, he was appointed 
a civil magistrate and an officer of the militia on the northwestern frontier. About 
the same time he began trade with the Indians, whose boundarj^ fixed by the 
Greenville Treaty, was only twentyeight miles north of the Worthington settle- 
ment. Appointed in July, 1804, to survey part of the military lands of the Chilli- 
cothe District,*^ he explored, in the spring of 1805, the south shore of Lake Erie, 
and selected the present site of Sandusky as a post for northwestern traffic. By 
vote of the General Assembly, he was made one of the original trustees of the Ohio 
University at Athens in 1806, and one of the three commissioners to locate the 
Miami University in 1808. Promoted to but declining the colonelcy of the Frontier 
liegiment, he was elected in 1812, and many times thereafter reelected, as Presi- 
dent of the corporation of Worthington College. 

The Worthington Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1811, with 
James Kilbourn as President and General Agent. It was the pioneer manufactur- 
ing enterprise of Central Ohio, but was by no means limited to manufacturing. 
Besides undertaking to produce various articles in wool, leather and other 
materials, it circulated its notes as currency, and engaged extensively in mercan- 
tile business and banking.'^ Its factories were established at Worthington and 


Steubenville, and its stores opened at Worthington and Franklinton. When the 
War of 1812 broke out, the Company engaged extensively in the production of 
woolen fabrics for army and navy clothing. This part of the industrial depart- 
ment ceased, of course, with the conclusion of peace in 1815, after which the 
Company lost heavily in its multiplied enterprises until it failed, in 1820, 
sweeping away the investments of its shareholders and the entire fortune of its 

" Finding himself thus totally destitute of means," says Mr. Kilbourn's biog- 
rapher, " he took up his surveying apparatus again, and went into the woods. For 
more than twenty years he was much of the time busily engaged in his calling, 
and we hazard nothing in saying that he has surveyed more townships, highways, 
turnpikes, railroads and boundary lines than any other three men in the State."'^ 

Although fifty years of age when financial disaster overtook him, Mr. Kilbourn 
regained, by these efforts, a portion of his financial independence, and continued 
to take a conspicuous part in public enterprises. His services in political station, 
and on occasions of general interest, at Various periods of his life, will be men- 
tioned in their proper historical connection. 

We have now reached the period when the colonies at Worthington and 
Franklinton became rival suitors for the location of the ('apital of the State. Their 
emulation related not only to different sites but differing elements of population. 
Worthington was settled almost exclusively from New Kngland ; Franklinton 
from Kentucky, Virginia and Pennsylvania. The New Englanders offered the 
most elevated, the healthiest, and by far the most comely nit nation, but were over- 
matched. FVanklinton was rejected for reasons which experience has fully justi- 
fied ; but when the location was finally cho.sen it was near enough to the rivals for 
both to unite, and both did unite, in the develo])ment of the new community. 
Whatever special qualifications each possessed were actively and harmoniousl}' 
exerted to this end. Virginian, Kentuc.kian, Pen nsy Iranian and New Knglander 
each performed his part. They joined hands and hearts, not in founding a new 
city only, but in the evolution of a new individuality — that of the typical Ohio 


1. In writing this chapter, the author has made liberal use of a manuscript sketch of 
the Worthington colony, written, and kindly submitted, by A. A. Gralmm, Esq., iSecretary of 
the Ohio Archseological and Historical Society. 

2. Constitution of 1802, Art. III., Sec. 2. 

3. The original model of Mr. Fitch's steamboat is in the possession of Mr. A. N, Whit- 
ing, of Columbus, who is one of his descendants. 

4. History of the Kilbonrn Family; by Payne Kenyon Kill)onrn ; ISod. 

5. This was doubtless the 8ocalle<l Carpenter settlement, mention of which will he fonntl 
in a subsequent portion of the present chapter. 

(). During these visits of exploration Mr. Kilbonrn drew a niiii) of Ohio which w:i8 sul)- 
sequently much used by landbuyers an<l emij^^rants. In executing this work, he was iissisteil 
bycharUiand surveys placed under his inspection by Colonel Thomas Worthington, then 
Register of the Land OHice at Chillicothe. He drew upon information fur?iialie<l him ])y 
his fatherinlaw, Mr. Fitch, who had been, in his yontli, a captive anionsj the Indians of tlie 
Northwest Territory. 

196 History of the City op Columbus. 

7. The surveying was done by Mr. Kilbourn. The lands of the Company were divided 
into one hundred acre tracts, and apportioned among the shareholders, pro rola. Each share- 
holder was entitled to one town lot for each hundred- acre tract which he possessed. In 
the selection of places of residence in the town, Ezra Griswold settled on town lot 71, Wil- 
liam Thompson on 70, David Bristol on 60, James Kilbourn on 61, Samuel Beach on 92, Zo- 
phar Topping on 83, Alexander Morrison on 82, Nathan Stewart on 100, and Qlass Cochran on 
101. All drew water from a well on the church lot. 

8. The log schoolhouse stood on the south college lot. In its construction is said to 
have been used the first timber cut in the settlement. 

9. Mr. Robe was a dwarf, or man of remarkably small size, not weighing more than 
fifty to sixty pounds in ordinary health. He was well proportioned and neat in his appear- 
ance ; a well educated man, and gentlemanly in his manners. He was a teacher in the Worth- 
ington Seminary — afterwards a clerk in the State Auditor's office. He died in January, 
1823, aged about forty five years.— J/aWm's History of Franklin County, 

10. This appointment was tendered in the following letter — here copied from the origi- 
nal manuscript— addressed to "Rev.'d James Kilburn, Franklin County, near Franklin- 

Marietta, July 3d., 1804. 
Dear Sir: 

I have the honor to inform you that with the approbation of the Secretary 
of the Treasury, you are appointed District Surveyor for No. 1, of Chillicothe District, or of 
all that tract within the Sd. District, which is called the military tract.. I must request you to 
afibrd me the speediest intelligence of your acceptance or nonacceptance. In case of the first, 
the law requires an oath of affirmation, which it will be necessary to take before some magis 
trate, and transmit a copy thereof to the Secretary of the Treasury. With profoundest re- 
spect, f 

I am Sir, 

Your obt. Hum. Servt, 

Jared Mansfield. 

It appears on consideration necessary that a copy of the oath should be sent to this 

11. The following extracts from the Company's Articles of Association are copied from an 
original document, printed, except the signatures, at the office of the Western Intelligencer^ at 
Worthington, in January, 1813 : 

articles of association of the worthington manufacturing company. 

Article 1st. The objects, which this association or copartnership propose to efiect, are, 
to establish at Worthington in the state of Ohio, an extensive Manufactury of the various 
kinds of woolen cloth ; of Hats, Leather, and the various manufactures of which leather is a 
part ; a manufactory of pot and pearl ashes, and generally, any and all kinds of manufactories 
which experience may advise, and the company think fit and profitable for them from time to 
time to establish ; to purchase, raise and keep an extensive flock of sheep ; to introduce into 
the state of Ohio, and encourage the raising of the full blooded Merino sheep; to purchase, 
export, and sell, any and all kinds of the country productions which we shall judge profitable; 
and to establish and continue a complete variety store of goods, both of foreign and domestic 
articles which shall be suited to the demands of the country, including our own manufac 
tories, and the same to divide into as many branches as we shall think expedient. And to 
promote these purposes and the general object of thifi our association, we will also purchase 
and hold, or barter, sell and convey, as circumstances in the opinion of the company duly 
expressed shall justify any property or estate, real, personal, or mixed ; prescribing to our- 
selves no other limits, as to the amount of the capital stock, or the application thereof, than 
such as the body shall determine by ordinance or special resolution as may be done in pur- 
suance thereof by the proper officers. . . . 


Art. 2nd. The seat of the said manufactories, the store and countinghouse, or office of 
the company, shall be in the town of Worthington aforesaid ; but the members, and even 
some of the officers, as occasion shall require, may reside, and particular parts of the business 
of the company be transacted in any other place or places, where, and when we shall agree, 
or appoint by vote or otherwise. 

Art. 3rd. The capital stock of this company, be the same more or less, shall be divided 
into shares of one hundred dollars each, payable by installments of one tiflh at a time ; the 
first at the time of subscribing, and the remaining four, at such times as the company shall 
agree when duly organized. 

Article fourth provides for the election of a president, a secretary, three directors and 
** such other officers as may be found convenient," by the stockholders. 

Article fifth provides that the officers shall be chosen by ballot, each share casting one 

Article sixth directs that no i)er8on shall be employed by the company in any clerkship 
or other important function who is not a shareholder. 

Art. 7th. When any person shall make his subscription in sheep, labor, materials for 
building, land for the establishment, or goods for the store, to the acceptance of the directors, 
the payment or performance thereof as stipulated, will be received in place of a regular pay- 
ment by installments, as in the case of cash subscriptions. 

Article eighth instructs as to the duties of the president, acting as general agent for the 

Article ninth relates to proxies representing non resident shareholders. 

Article ten provides for the calling of special meetings. 

Art. 11. Books of subscription shall be immediately opened, under the care of James 
Kilbourn, of said Worthington, and George Fitch, of New York City, Who are hereby author- 
ized and requested to superintend the same, provide the proper books, and make exhibition 
thereof to the first meeting of the stockholders, to be holden as hereinafter provided. 

Article twelve fixes the time, place, and manner of holding regular meetings and elec- 
tions, and concludes as follows: "And we do hereby appoint James Kilbourn to be our 
President and General -Agent, and Joseph Garnett, Secretary, until the said first Tuesday of 
May next, and till others shall be elected and duly qualified to said offices." 

To the foregoing articles of association, and to the strict observance thereof we do each 
of us bind and pledge himself to the others, in the full amount of all damages which may 
accrue by his neglect or refusal. 

In testimony whereof, we have severally hereunto subscribed our names and affixed our 
seals, in presence of each other and of the attesting witness. 

First signed at the city of New York, this first day of November, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and eleven. 

P. 8.— The business proposed by this association shall go into operation so soon as one 
hundred shares shall be subscribed. 

Evolution of the City. 

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ColumbuH has the unique distinction of having been born a capital. ItH origin 
dates from the hour when the General Assembly of the State passed an act making 
it the seat of government. Until then it was an Indian hunting ground, covered 
with the primeval forest. 

The Constitution of 1802 fixed the seat of government at Chillicothe until 
180H, and expressly forbade any expenditure for public buildings for legislative 
purposes until 1809. The first General Assembly therefore met in the Ross County 
courthouse, which is described as a twostory stone building over which rose a 
cupola topped by a gilded eagle standing upon a ball. The edifice thus provision- 
ally adopted as the capitol had been begun in 1800 and completed in 1801. With- 
in its walls, said to have been laid up by a soldier of the War of Independence,' the 
Territorial Legislature had held its last session, and the convention which framed 
the first constitution of the State had met. But its apartments were soon found 
inadequate for the uses of the General Assembly, and were supplemented by erect- 
ing a brick annex connected with the main building by a covered passnge. The 
Senate met in the brick edifice, the House of Representatives in that of stone.^ 

But the government was temporarily located, as well as housed. That its 
permanent seat would go to some ])oint nearer the center of the State than Chilli- 
cothe was generally anticipated from the beginning, and, in this expectation, every 
settlement in the State even remotely eligible to win the prize took timely steps to 
secure it. Franklinton, Delaware, Worthington, Zanesville, Lancaster and Newark 
were among the earliest and most ardent of these suitors. The ''address of the in- 
habitants of the town of Worthington " hereto appended* doubtless fairly re[)re- 
sents the spirit and ingenuity with which each of the embryo cities ambitious of 
being Ohio's capital presented its case. 

Pressed by those importunities, the General Assembly jiassed an act Februarj- 
20, 1810, providing for a commission of five members, to be selected by joint ballot 
of both bouses, to hear arguments, inspect localities, and recommend a site for the 
permanent seat of government.^ In pursuance of this act James F'indlay, W. Sil- 
liraan, Joseph Darlinton, Resin Beall and William McFarland were appointed 
commissioners, and visited PVanklinton, but discarded its pretensions. It was 
condemned, because of its low situation, and the unsuitabieness of its plan. The 
commissioners then visited various other localities, with like results, and finally 
agreed to report : "That they have diligently examined a number of different 
places within the circle prescribed [forty miles from the 'common ccntro '], at?d 



HiHTdRv riF THB Cirv <ir CoLnaRra. 


The Forest Settlbmbnt. 


204 History of the City of Goumihts. 

the majority of said comniisHionorsare of opinion that a tract of land owned by John 
and Peter Sells, situated on the weflt bank of the Scioto River, four miles and three 
quarters west of the town of Worthington, in the county of Franklin, and on which 
said Sells now resides, appears to them most eligible." This report, dated at New- 
ark, September 12, and signed by all the commissoncrs wiis delivered to the (gen- 
eral Assembly December 11, 1810. The site thus recommended is that of the ])res- 
sent (own of Dublin, Franklin County, and seems to have owed its preference 
chietl}' to the desire to identify the ]>olitical with the geogi'aphical center of the 

The General Assembly continued to meet at Chillicothe until ISIO, but in (he 
latter part of that year was induced to transfer its sittings to Zanesville, wlujn^ a 
building for its especial accommodation had been provided. Here the sessions of 
ISIO-ISU and lHll-12 were held, and various additional j)roposals for permanent 
location, as well as the report of the legislative commission on that subject, were 
received. No definite action was taken, but among the new propositions submit- 
ted was oi»e which narrowed the controversy at once to a choice between the in- 
ducements which it offered and those presented by the pe(»ple of Worthington. 

The objections made to Franklinton on account of its low situation and untit- 
nessofplan suggested to some of its citizens, i)articularly landowners, the eligi- 
bility of the plateau forming the east bank of the Scioto, opposite. The elevation 
there was reasonably good, and the opportunity for platting a town without hin- 
drance from buildings, prearranged streets, or even clearings, was unlimite<l. The 
lands on the plateau had been patented as early as 1S02 to John Ilalstead, Martha 
Walker, Benjamin Thompson, Setli Harding and James Price, all refugees of the 
War of Independence. The original patentees had disposed of their titles, and 
these, alter intermediate transmissions, had come into the hands of Lyne Starling, 
John Kerr, Alexander McLaughlin and James Johnston, (-ombining their inter- 
ests, these four proprietors laid off a tract of about twelve hundred acres on the 
plateau, platted it, provisionally, into streets and squares, and submitted proposals, 
for the location of the seat of government thereon to the General Assembly at 
Zanesville. A copy of the plat accompanied their propositions, the full text of 
which was as follows: 


Tn fhc lIoiM'' the fjegialaiure of the Stntr of (th'm: 

We the subscribers do olfer the followinjr as our proposals provideii the lejjjislature at 
tlieir present session shall fix and establish the permanent seat of Government for said State 
on the PJast bank of the Scioto River nearly opposite to the town of Franklinton on half 8e<*- 
tions No.s. 1», 25 & 2<>, and parts of half sections N(»s. 10 & 11, all in Township 5 of Range 22 of 
the Refuj^ee lauds and commence their session there on the first Monday of December, 1817 : 

Ist. To lay out a Town on the lands aforesaid on or before the first day of July next 
aj^ret^ably to the plans presented by us to the Legislature. 

*2<1. To convey to the State, hy general warranty deed in fee simple such m^nare in said 
town of the contents of ten acres or near it for the public buildings and such lot of ten acres 
for Penitentiary and dependencies, as a director or such person or |>er8on8 as the legislature 
will appoint may select. 

8d. To erect and complete a State House, oftices & Penitentiary & such other buildings 
as shall l)e directed }>y the Legislature, to be built of stone and Brick or of either, the work to 
be done in a workman like manner and of such siz.e and dimensions as the Legislature shall 
think tit, the Penitentiary & dependencies to be complete on or before the first day of Jan- 
uary, 1815, The Statehouse and ollices on or before the first Monday of December, 1817. 


The Forest Settlement. 205 

When the baildin}^ shall be completed the Legislature and the subscribers reciprocally 
shall appoint workmen to examine and value the whole buildings, which valuation shall be 
binding, and if it does not amount to Fifty thousand dollars we shall make up the deficiency 
in such further buildings as shall be directed by law, but if it exceeds the sum of Fifty thou- 
sand dollars the I^egislature will by law remunerate us in such way as they may think just 
and equitable. 

The legislature may by themselves or agent alter the width of the streets and alleys of 
said Town previous to its being laid out by us if they may think proper to do so. 

LvNE STARLfNG. [seal.] 
John Kerr. [aeal.J 

A. McLauohlin. [seal.] 

James Johnston, [seal.] 
Attest> Elliott. 

Isaac Hazlbtt. 

These propositions were accompanied by the following bond : 

Know all men by these presents that we, James Johnston, of Washington County, 
Lyne Starling, of Franklin County, Alexander McLaughlin, of Muskingum County, & John 
Kerr, of Ross County, all of the State of Ohio, our heirs, executors, administrators or assigns 
do promise to pay to William McFarland, treasurer of said State, or his successors in office, for 
the use of the State of Ohio, the sum of One Hundred Thousand Dollars for the payment of 
which we do bind ourselves firmly by these presents, which are sealed with our seals and dated 
the 10th day of February, in the year of our Lord, 1812. 

The condition of the above obligation is such that if the above bounden James Johnston, 
Lyne Starling, Alexander McLaughlin, & John Kerr, their heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, shall truly and faithfully comply with their proposals to the State of Ohio by erecting 
the public buildings and conveying to the said Slate ground for the State House, offices and 
penitentiary they have proposed to do, then this obligation to be null and void, otherwise to 
be and continue in full force and virtue. 

James Johnston, seal. 

Lyne Starling, seal. 

A. McLaughlin, seal. 

John Kerr. seal. 

In presence of 

Wilson Elliott. 

Isaac Hazlbtt. 

The abfiolnto permanence of location on which the foregoing scheme was con- 
ditioned appearing to jeopardize its acceptance, the following supplementary 
propositions were submitted : 

To Oie Hon^ Ote legislature of Ohio : 

We the subscribers do agree to comply with the terms of our Bond now in possession of 
the Senate of the State aforesaid, in case they will fix the seat of government of this State on 
the lands designated in their proposals now with the .Senate, on the east bank of the Scioto 
River, nearly opposite to Franklinton, and commence their sessions there at or before the 
first Monday of December, 1817, and continue the same in the town to be laid off* by us until 
the year 1840. 

These conditional proposals are oflTered by us for the acceptan(;e of the I.,egislature of 
Ohio provided they may be considered more eligible than those previously put in. 

John Kerr. seal. 

Jame.s John.ston. seal. 

A. McLaiuuilin. seal. 

Lyne Starling. seal. 

Wilson Elliott. 

February 11, 1812. 


The FoRisT Bettlembnt. 207 

LvNE Starunu. 

2(»s History ok tiik (*itv of Coi.uMnrs. 

This (leparturo was promptly nu'l by (rountor ])roposalK fi*oin other contest- 
ants, parti <.'uhirly tVoin Worlliin^ton, which place, it luis been said, counted a nia- 
j<»rity in its favor. lUit in the closin«^ hours ol' the si^snion a nnpreino oft'ort was 
nwule in wliich Foos, Sullivani an«l otiier alert citizens of Franklinton took part, 
and when the test tinally eanic, a de<-ided majority was found on the Hide of Mr. 
Starling and iiis associates.* On the lonrteonlh of Februar}', the General Assemby 
settlejl the controversy for thirty years, at least, by passing the following act : 

Chapter XXXIV., Oliio I^ws, Vo!iin»e 10.— An act fixing and CRtablirthin^ the perma- 
nent and temponiry seats of government. 

Skc. 1. Be it enacted by tlie (nMicral Assembly of the State of Ohio, That the proposals 
made to thin U'^i.^hiture by Alexander Mcl^n^^hlin, John Kerr, Lyne Starling and James 
John.ston, (to lay out a town (►n tlieir lamls, situate i»n the east bank of the Scioto River, op- 
posite Franklinton, in the county of Franklin, and [onj parts of half sections number nine, 
ten, eleven, twentylive and iwentysix, for the purjjose of having the permanent seat of |?ov- 
ernment thereon established ; also, to convey to this state a K<]uare of ten acres and a lot of 
ten acres, and to erect a state house, such oHices, and a penitentiary, as shall be directed by 
the legislature), an? hereby aci^epted and the same and their penal bond annexed thereto, 
dated the tenth of Feb. one thousand eight hundre<l and twelve, conditioned for their faith- 
ful ]»erformaniH* of said proposals shall be valid to all intents and purposes, and shall remain 
in tlie otiice of the treasurer of slate, there to be kept for the use of this state. 

Skc. 2. He it further enacted, that the seat of government of this state be, and the same 
is hereby fixed and permanently establisheil un the land aforesiiid, and the legislature shall 
commence their sessions thereat on the first Monday of Dei^ember one thousand eight hun- 
dre«l and seventeen, and there continue until the first day of May, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty, and from thence until otherwise provided for by law. 

Skc. '\. That there shall be appointed by a joint resolution of this general assembly a 
director who shall, within thirty da\'H aftt^r his appointment, take and subscribe an oath faith- 
fully and im])artially to discharge the duties enjoined on him by law, and shall hold his 
office to the end of the session of the next legislature: Provided, That in case the office of 
the director aforesiiid shall by <leath, resignation, or in any other wise become vacant daring 
the recess of the legislature the (foveruor shall fill such vacancy. 

SKrr. 4. That the aforesaid <liret*tor shall view and examine the lands above mentione<l 
and suj>erintend the surveying and laying out r)f the town aforesaid and direct the width of 
stn^ets and alleys therein : also, to select tlu> square for public buildings, and the lot for the 
penitentiary and dependencies according to the proposals aforesaid; and he shall make a re- 
port thereof to the next legislature ; he shall moreover perform such other duties as will be 
required of him by law. 

Sk<t. 'i. That said Mclaughlin, Kerr, Starling, and Johnston shall, on or before the first 
day of July next ensuing, at their own expence, cause the town aforesaid to be laid out and 
a plat of the same recorded in the reconler's olli.^e of Fninkliu County, distinguishing therein 
the square and lot to be by them conveyed to this slate; and they shall moreover transmit a 
eertified <'opy thereof to the n<ixi legislature for their inspection. 

Skct. r>. That from and after the llrst day of May next, Chillicothe shall be the tem- 
porary s<'at of goverinncnt until otherwise provided by law. 

Matthias Corwin, 
Sprnker oj the Hoim- of Rfprent'nttUireg. 

Tnos. KiKKRK, 
Spenk'fr of the S'iuUe, 

IMie tr:i<-t ol' wlhl woodland thus chosen as the capital of Ohio was named 
(■olunibus." The christening look place vi'ry un<'ereinoniou8ly, it seems, by joint 
resolution passed February 20, ISTJ. on whic h date the (reneral Assembly passed 
an additional resolution appointing .loel Wright, of Warren County, as Director 

The Forest Settlement. 

I. Howe, Columbu.s Camera Club. imi. 


to '* view uird oxaniine * llu' lands prott'ercd, und to lay out aiid survey "the town 
uforoHaid." Meanwhile the four projirietors whose propositions had been aeeept'ed 
proceeded to perfect their stipulations with one another, and joined in a written 
covenant the preamble to which recites that " the Legislature of the State of Ohio 
have, by law, fixed and established the permanent seat of Government for said 
State, (n» half sections Nos. 0, 25 and 2i\, i\i\d parts of half soc^tions Nos. 10 and 11, 
all in Township 5, ratii^e 22. refugee lands, agreeably to the proposals of the par- 
ties aforcsai<l, made to the Legishiture of said State/' In these presents it was 
agreed that a connnon stock should be created for the benefit of the copartners; 
that all donations, and the proeeeds of all salfc, should be received by the syndi- 
cate on joint account ; that Starling's contribution to tlie real estate assets should 
be half section number twent^'tive, except ten acres already sold to John Brickcll ; 
that Johnston should contribute half section number nine and one half of half sec- 
tion number ten : that MeLaughlin and Kerr, who had previousl^*^ formed a part- 
nership with one another and were considered as a third party to the agreement, 
should put in half section number 2G ; that eacii partner should individually war- 
rant the title of the lan<ls he contributed ; that the business of the company should 
be managed by an agent of its own appointment; that on the fii'st Monday iu 
January, for live successive years, each partner should pay to this agent twenty- 
four hundred dollars, and sueh further sums as might be necessary to complete 
the public buildings ; and that when the contract with the State should be ful- 
filled, a final settlement and e<|ual division of profits and losses should take place. 
These stipulations were closed at Zanesville, J'ebruary 19, 1812. 

To complete the town plat in the size and form desired, a contract was made 
with Kev. James lloge lor eighty acres from the southern portion of half section 
number eleven, and one with Thomiui Allen for twent}' acres from the south part of 
half section number ten. One half of each of these tracts was retained as a con- 
tribution, and the other half conveyed back, in the form of city lots, to the donor. 
The McLaughlin and Kerr tract extended from the southern boundary of the town 
plat northward to an east<and-west line }>arallel to and just south of the present 
course of State Street. Stiirling's tract lay next on the north, extending to the 
vicinity of our present S])ring Street. Beyond Starling's lay the tracts obtained 
from Hoge and Allen. At a later period the proprietors laid out a supplementary 
addition of about forty two-acre lots, still further north, and conveyed to the town 
0!»e acre and a half tor the cemetery afterwards known as the North Graveyard. 
The value of the total donations obtained by the company on subscription was 
estimated at fifteen or twenty thousand dollars. The first agent of the company, 
appointed in April, 1812, was John Kerr, who was relieved on his own volition, in 
June, 18ir>. From that date until the company finally wound up its affairs, its 
business was maiuiged by Henry Hrown. 

The proprietors having ch>8ed their contract with the State, and all the pre- 
liminaries liaving been arranged, Director Wright called to his assistance Joseph 
Vancre, of Kranklin County, and proceeded to surve}' and stake out the streets, 
public S(|uarcs and building-lots of the ca])ital. The principal streets wore made 
to take the directions which they yet retiiin, erossing one another at right angles, 
and bearing twt^lve degree^ west of inn'th, and twelve degrees north of east. The 
breadth of the two main tlloroughfan^s, one ;r(»ing i»orth and .•40uth and the other 

Thb Forest Settlement. 

212 History of the City ok CoLUMBits. 

east and west, was, respeetivel}', one hundred and one hundred and twenty feet; 
that of the other streets, oightytwo and one-half feet. The frontage of the iulots 
was sixtytwo and one-half feet, their depth one hundred and eightyseven and one- 
half feet. The outlots contained each about three acres. #he town lots were ex- 
empted from taxation for county purposes until January 1, 1816, but were mean- 
while subject to an equivalent levy l)y the State Director, who was required to ap- 
ply as much of the proceeds Jis necessary to sinking a well for the Statehouse, and 
improving the State Road from Columbus to Granville." 

As soon as the Director had marked the boundaries of the streets, alleys, 
public squares and building lots of the proposed city, its proprietors published the 
following captivating advertisement : 

For Sale. 

On the premieep, commencing on Thursday, the eighteenth day of June next, and to 
continue for three days, in- and out-lota in the town of Columbus, established by an act of the 
legislature, as the permanent seat of government for the state of Ohio. 

Terms o/ Sale: One fifth of the purchase money will be required in hand; the residue 
to be paid in four e<iual annual installments. Interest will be required on the deferred pay- 
ments from the <lay of sale, if they are not punctually made when due. £ight per cent, will 
be discounted for prompt payment on the day of sale. 

The town of Columbus is situated on an elevateti and V>eautiful site, on the east side of 
the Scioto River, immediately helow the junction of the Whetstone branch, and opposite to 
Franklinton, the seat of justice for Franklin County, in the center of an extensive tract of 
rich fertile country, from whence there is an easy navigation to the Ohio River. Above the 
town, the west branch of the Scioto affords a goo<l navigation for about eighty miles, and the 
Whetstone branch a*^ far as the town of Worthington. Sandusky Bay, the only harbor on 
the south shore of Lake Erie (except Presque Isle) for vessels of Burthen, is situate due 
north from Columbus, and about om» hundred miles from it. An excellent roatl may be made 
with very liitle ex|)en8C' from tlie I-.owcr Sandusky town to the mouth of the Little Scioto a 
distance of about sixty miles. This will render the comnmnication from the lakes to the 
Ohio River throujjh the Scioto very easy by which route an immense trade must, at a da\' 
not very distant, be carried on which will make the (^ountry on the Scioto River rich and 
populous. The proprietors of the town of Columbus will, by every means in their power 
encourage industrious uiechanics who wish to make a residence in the town. All such are 
invited to become purchasers. 

Dated at Franklinton, April 13, 1812, and signed by the four proprietoi*8. 

The widespread interest which had already been excited by the movement to 
found a new State ca])ital in the woods of Central Ohio was intensified by these 
alluring statements. Attracted by them, lot bu^'ors and homeseekers eame from 
near and far to view the "high bank of the Scioto " of which so much had been 
8aid. They found there little except paper plats and freshly -driven stakes to in- 
dicate a town, or even a settlement, yet the promises of nature and of destiny 
alike conspired to make the locality interesting. Of the scenes which at that time 
greeted the canoe- voyaging pioneer as he approached the site of Columbus, ascend- 
ing the Scioto, the following spirited picture has been drawn:* 

On his left hand was a broad plain, bounded on the west by a low range of wooded hills, 
now in part a waving cornfield, in part a grassy meadow. Along the water's edge grew many 
wil<l plum trees whose blossoms filled the air with a pleasant perfume. Beyond the meadow 
an<l the corn the busy town of Franklinton appeared in the distance, guarded on the east and 
north by the river, whose thread of water was lost in the forest above. On the right 
bank of the river rose a sharply inclined bluff, covered by a sturdy growth of native forest 

Tub Forest Settlement. 213 

timber. The abruptness of this bluff gradually declined as the voyager ascended the stream. 
As he came up Ihe river he would have seen, south of the Indian mound, from which Mound 
Street took its name, a small cleared field, in which was the pioneer home of John McQowan, 
*ho then cultivated a farm which he afterwards, in 1814, laid out as McGowan's addition to 
Columbus. On the incline of the bluff, not far from the present crossing of Front and State 
streets, stood a round log cabin, surrounded by a small clearing and occupied by a man 
'darned Dearthirf and his family. He was probably a squatter on the Refugee lands, and was 
^^nre in his home as long as the rightful owner did not claim possession. His small garden, 
|^^8 rifle and his traps furnished him an abundant frontier living, and if he could live free 
''^in many of the comforts of civilized life, he was also free from many of its cares. Farther 
^''th, and not far from the site of Hayden's rolling mills on the banks of a small stream, 
^'^fe the ruins of an old saw mill, built about 16CH), by Robert Balentine, a citizen of Frank- 
//uton. Near it were also the ruins of a distillery, built by Benjamin White about the same 
tiino. They were now in decay and almost covered by small trees and underbrush. Near 
thie eite of the present penitentiary stood the cabin of John Brick ell, who for many years had 
b<^c?n a captive among the Indians. He now had a clearing made in the ten acres sold to him 
b5' l^r. Starling. Just above his cabin was the old Indian campground he had seen when an 
an trilling member of one of their tribes, and where, for many years before, Indian feasts had 
l^een held, councils of the tribes deliberated, and horible barbarities inflicted on unfortu- 
nate captives. Mr. Brickell and his family lived in measured security now, and the man, 
thoui^h now a freeman, could not, and did not entirely, forego Indian customs. He always 
wore deerskin moccasins and a skin cap with the tail of the animal dangling down his back. 
Indians were still plenty, and, owing to the evil influences of the British, troublesome. . . . 
Had the canoeist moored his birch bark vessel and ascended the blufl^, he would have 
found himself in a forest of oak, beech, maple, walnut and other trees common to the 
uplands of Ohio. Their full leaved tops were now the home of the wild songsters of the 
^'eatern woocls, who filled the air with their melodies as they flitted hither and thither 
ainongp the branches. Squirrels gamboled up and down their massive trunks, or from their 
fiizzy heights stopped to gaze at the intruder. Wild turkeys were plenty, deers not strange, 
^^<^ a still more formidable but not less valuable game, bears, not uncommon. About the 
^'■'^at trunks of the trees huge grape vines were here and there entwined, whose abundant 
oloBsonos promised a rich repast in the autumn. Smaller fruits, such as hawberries, huckle- 
"^^•"ies, wild plums, and wild blackberries, were everywhere. The Ohio forest was here in 
^^ its native grandeur and native beauty. The full leaved treetops and the leaves of the 
'^mibliug grapevines almost hid the sun in the heavens. Trees of American growth were 
®<^tteped here and there through this forest; the dogwood, wild plum, and hawberry, with 
*oxuHant blossoms, mingled their odors with those of the wild flowers all about him, filling 
the air with a rich fragrance. Nature was here in all her native supremacy, and had the 
traveller known of the purpose for which this plateau was destined, he perhaps might have 
Pondered if the busy life of a city would replace the life of the forest about him. Had he 
t^oticed the topography of the city's home, he would have seen a gradual incline from the 
^OftVi towards its centre, a more decided one from the west, and a level land towards the 
^^th ; eastward, the plateau slightly declined, while northward was a " prairie," as it wns 
Mt^rvrards called, in which he would have found many springs whose outlet was a small 
*^^eam which found its way westward to the river he had left. Excepting the cabins already 
^^nlioned, not a human habitation occupied the site of the future city. Where are now the 
"^usy haunts of man" was a western forest, whose life consisted only in that of bird and 
^east, whose home it had been for ages past. 

Pursuant to announcement, the sales began on the eighteenth of June, 1812, 
^nd contiDued until they were suflScient to justify tlie commencement of the public 
buildings. The lots sold were located mostly on Broad and High Streets, and 
brought from two hundred to one thousand dollars each. Araons< the early pur- 
chasers were Jacob Hare, Peter Putnam, George McCormick, George B. Harvey, 

214 History of the City of Columbuk. 

John Shields, Michael and Alexander Patton, William Altman, John Collett, Wil- 
liam McElvain, Daniel Kooser, Christian Ileyi, Jarvis, Benjamin and George Pike, 
William Long, Towneend Nichols and Doctor John M. Edmiston. Visiting piir- 
chasers lodged in the tavern at PVanklinton, and reached the place appointed for 
the sales by crossing the river in canoes, or nt the ferry. 

Improvements began at once, and were prosecuted with the rude energy char- 
acteristic of pioneer life. F'or a time havoc was let loose upon the forest and soon 
many a stately tree lay prone. The most shapely stems were used in laying up 
the walls of cabins or sjilit into clapboards, which served the purposes of sawed 
lumber, of which little could he had. The cropped undergrowth and branches and 
superfluous logs were piled in heaps and burned. For want of time and funds to 
remove them, the stumps were permitted to remain, and for a long time impeded 
the streets. The actual through fare therefore at tirst disdained the surveyor's 
boundaries, and took such devious courses as convenience and the condition of the 
ground might suggest. A few settlors were housed by autumn, but most of the 
cabin builders made arrangements to occupy their domiciles the following spring. 

The influx of settlers when that season opened, and during the remainder of 
the year 1813, was considered large. It was suflicient to increase the population of 
Columbus by the end of the year to about three hundred. There were several ar- 
rivals from Franklinton, several from Worihington. and a good many from Chilli- 
cothe and other settlements down the valley. These newcomers located chiefly on 
Broad, Front, Town, State, and Rich streets, and on High Street, west of the 
Capitol Square. Front was then expected to be the principal residence street, and 
became such for the time being. One of the first mercantile ventures in the vil- 
lage was that of the Worthington Manufacturing Company, which opened an 
assortment of drygoods, hardware and groceries in a small brick building orecteil 
on the subsequent site of the block known as the Broadway Exchange, a few rods 
north of the present Neil House. Joel Buttles was manager of this establish mont. 
McLene & Green opened a general store about the same time in a small log cabin 
which stood just east of the spot on which Mechanics' Hall was afterwards built, 
on the south side of East Rich Street. In the autumn of 1812 John Collett erected 
a twostory brick tavern on the second lot south of State Street, west side of High . 
This pioneer inn ot Columbus was opened for guests in 1813, under the manage- 
ment of Volney Payne.'" Collett took charge of it himself from 1814 until 1816, 
when he sold it to Robert Russell. 

Among other taverns opened about the same time as Collett's was one on 
Front Street, corner of Sugar Alley, kept by Daniel Kooser, and one by McCollum, 
known as the Black Bear, on the northwest corner of Front and Broad. A fourth, 
kept at the northeast corner of High and Rich by two brothers, ex-boatmen, 
named Day, was disguised as a grocery, but became so notorious for its brawls 
among Scioto River navigators as to be popularly styled The War Oflice. 

The Columbus Tnn was opened in 1815 by David S. Broderick, in a frame 
building at the southeast corner of High and Town. It is historically moDtiouod 
as "a respectable tavern." 

Isaiah Voris came over from Franklinton and started the White Horse Tavern. 
It was located on the present site of the Odd Fellows' Temple." 

In the spring of 181() James B. Gardiner, also from Franklinton, started the 
Ohio Tavern, occupying a wooden building on Friend Street, just west of High. 

TuE Forest Settlement. 215 

Such were some of the earlier Cohimbufi hostelries, of which, together with 
their successors, a more particular account will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

A similar enterprise, which afterwards developed as one of the most popular 
and widely-known inns of the period, was undertaken by Christian Heyl, whose 
experiences as one of the pioneer settlers in the embryo capital are deeply inter- 
esting. They are narrated in an autobiographical sketch'*^ which states that Mr. 
Heyl, when he arrived at Franklinton in the spring of 1H13, found that place so 
crowded with soldiers of the Northwestern Army, and labor so scarce, that he 
could neither obtain a house to live in, nor help to build one. He therefore betook 
himself to Columbus, w^here he had not at first intended to locate. How he estiib- 
lished his home in that wilderness borough is thus described : 

I succeede<l in getting a very rough cabin on the soiitheiiHt corner of Rich and High 
streets, where the Eagle Drug Store now is. The acconimodationfl were very poor indeed, 
but still I had to pay $125 rent and the cabins were not worth twenty dollars. They belonged 
to Nichols and Mr. Bradney. In the fall of the same year, I moved to Columbus. We were 
three days on the way from Lancaster to Columbus; the roa<l8 were very bad indeed. We 
had two heavily loaded wagons, with a five-horse team to each, and they had very hard work 
to get along. 

The second day we intended to get hh far as Williams's Tavern, about five miles from Col- 
umbus on the old Lancaster road, but we did not reach it, an<l so had to camp on the banks 
of the Big Belly, as it was then called. On the hist day we arrived at Columbus about three 
o'clock in the afternoon. The road from the old William Merion farm was laid out, but the 
logs were not rolled out of the way. We therefore had to wend our way as best we could. 
When we came to South Columbus, as it wjis called, at McGowan'a Finn, the road was fenced. 
Old Mr. McGowan refused to let me go through his gates. I tried to prevail on him to let 
me pass through. I also found that the old man was fond of a little good old whisky. I 
promised to make him a present of some, and the gates were at once opened. We then 
passeil on without any further trouble, and arrived at my great hotel, which I opened, and 
built a fire and got my wi<lowed sister to cook »ome supper while we unloaded the wag(»n. 
After all was unloaded, I set the table, which was the lid of my dough tray laid across two 
barrels of flour set endwise. I rolled barrels of flour on each Hide for our seats, and we made 
out to take our supper, and as we wen* very hungry, 1 think it was the best meal I ever ate 
in Columbus. Old Mr. Mc(Towan did not forget to call the next day for the prize I had 
promise<l him. . . . 

I then went on and l)uilt myself an oven to carry on the baking business. 1 had to get 
all my supplies from Lancaster, Fairfield County, for a number of years, this being a new 
county and Franklinton the headquarters of the army, where a great many troops were lo- 
cated, and consequently, provisions scarce. . . 

We had to go to Franklinton for all our drygoo<lfi, as there was at that time no store in 
Columbus. In the spring of the year 1H14 Green & Mcl^ne, of Lanca.ster, started a small 
drygooiis store in a cabin on the same lot where 1 lived. A second store was opened in a 
little brick house by the Worthington Manufacturing Company, and wan managed by Joel 
Buttles. . . . 

The first winter that I was in Columbus I had uiy firewood very convenient, as I cut it 
off of the lot where I lived. My cabin was divi<led into three rooms, or, more properly, into 
three stalls. A. widowed sister kept house for me and having lixed up the old cabin pretty 
comfortably, T carried on the baking business <iuite briskly. In May, 1S14, I marrie<l Esther 
Alsbach in Fairfield County, Ohio. When she first saw my great hotel, she seemed a little 
surprised, but she soon became contented. 1 did business in the old cabins for two years. I then 
purchased a lot on the same square, and built upon it the house that is now the Franklin 
House. I kept a hotel there for twentyeight years, and then traded it od' for a farm live miles 
northeast of Columbus on Alum Creek. 

21 ♦» UisTtiKY OP TiiK City of C«»LiTMBn8. 

A picturu of* early Columbus, com|mrnou to thiH one drawn by Mr. Ileyl, is 
found in the diary of* Joel Huttles, who writes: 

When I built my house, in which I lived for some years, it was ditficult, after the house 
was finished, to j^et the large trees around it cut down without falling on and injuring it. It 
was a forest all abtmt it, and the country almost in a state of nature. The winter after I 
came to Cohnnhus to live [1S|:M4], the deer came into what is now, and was then intended 
to be, the public squaie, to browse on the tops of the trees which had been felled for clearing. 
The town, alttiough located as the permanent teat of government, and the{)lan laid out by an 
agent of the State, was looked upon with little regard and slight expectation. The people of 
Franklinton were, of cour^e, excee<lingly jealous, as naturally they might be. with Columbus 
planteil directly before them on the op|)08ite bank of the river; feeling ran very high and 
sometimes led to insolence and altercation. But Columbus in a short time overtook Frank- 
linton, and the latter began to decline while the former increased rapidly. 

Many of the industries and mercantile establishments of Franklinton were 
transferred, one by one, to Columbus. Among the more prominent business part- 
nerships and proprietors in the older town when the newer one was founded were 
these : Henry Brown <fe Co., Dry^oods, Groceries, Liquors, Iron, etc. ; Richard Court- 
ney X* (/O., Hardware; J. Si R. McCoy, Drygoods, CxrocerieH, and Liquors; Samuel 
(■ulbertson, Hatter: Jeremiah Armstrong, Tobacco and Cigars; L. Goodale & Co., 
Drygoods, Groceries and Chinaware; SUirling & De Lash mutt, Drygoods, China, 
Glass, Hardware, Leather, Whisky, (tin. Salt and Groceries; J. Buttles & Co., Euro- 
pean, India and American Goods; D. F. Hcaton, *'Taylor" [sic] ; Joseph Grate, Silver- 
smith; and Samuel Barr, Drygoods and General Supplies. Most of these names 
became j)rominent in the business of Columbus. William Piatt began there as a 
silversmith and jewelei' in 1815 or 181t). 

The first postmaster of the capital was Matthew Matthews, appointed in 1814. 
His position seems to have been barren of both duties and emoluments. The mail 
arrived once or twice a week, and was distributed at Franklinton. Whatever por- 
tion of it, if any, Mr. Matthews had charge of, he gave out from his desk in Mr. 
Buttles*8 store, with which he was connected. He resigned and was succeeded, in 
1814, by Mr. Buttles who held the office thenceforward until 1829. 

A sawmill for the supply of lumber to the settlement was erected in 1813 by 
Richard Courtney and John Shields. Doubtless this mill wrought a revolution in 
the building resources of the village. It was located on the oast bank of the 
Scioto, a short distance below John BrickelTs cabin. A flouring mill erected by 
Mr. Shields three years later, in the southwest part of the town, took the Colum- 
bus patronage from the Kilbourn mill at Worthington, and other mills down the 

In 1814 the first markethouse, a substantial frame about fifty feet long, was 
erected. It was built by voluntary contributions, and located in the middle of 
High Street, a short distrance south of Rich, where it remained until 1817, when the 
transfer of the market to some other locality was proposed. The property owners 
on Broad, Town, State and Rich Streets all contended for it as a prize, and offered 
to' donate sites for a new building. The Broad Street people deemed it a strong 
point in their favor that their thoroughfare was so wide, and it is said that in 1816 
Joseph Miller erected the front part of the brick edifice afterwards known as the 
Buckeye House, where the Board of Trade building now stands, in the confident 
expectation that the Markethouse would be located in front of his premises. But 

The Forest Settlement. 217 

the town HUthoriticB decided otherwise, and closed a contract with John Shields to 
erect a new twostory market buildin^f, brick below and frame above, on State 
Street, immediately west of High. As a consideration for his performance of the 
contract, Shields was permitted to use or rent the two upper rooms for his own 
benefit; consequently one of them became occupied as a printing office, and the 
other, occasion all}', for religious services. Finally Shields sold his interest to John 
Young, who appropriated the aj)artments to gaming and its adjuncts. The first 
billiard table in the town was here made use of. "About the year 1S2() or lS3i),'* 
saj's Martin, "the Council bought out Young's interest, and the building was 
removed, and a larger markethouse, without *any rooms above, was erected on the 
same site, Elijah Ellis contractor. This building continued until the erection of 
the present markethouse on Fourth Street." 

Columbus passed the first tvvo years of its existence without a newspaj>er of its 
own. The first paper printed within the present corporate limits of the city was the 
Frrrmnns Chronir/c, issued weekly, or rather occasionally, in Franklin ton, by 
James B. Gardiner. AAer an existence of about two years, the Chronivle expired, 
and its able and independent editor betook himself to tavernkeeping. Its place 
as a local news and advertising medium was supplied by the Western IntcUi{jf'ueei\ 
which was removed thither in February, IS 14, from Worth ington. Its proprie- 
tors were Joel Buttles, P. H. Olmsted and Ezra Griswold, Junior. After coming 
here the InteUigenccr took the additional name of Calumbus Gazette, and was pub- 
lished, at first, in part of the building occupies! by the City House Tavern, on the 
southeast corner of High and Town Streets. Of its history, and that of its succes- 
sors in the journalism of the capital, a circumstantial account will be given in the 
chapters on The Press. 

Of the beginning of the Medical Profession in the new settlement the Freeman's 
Chronicle of March 11, 1814, made this announcement : "Dr. John M. Edmiston 
has commenced the practice of Medicine an<l Surgery at Columbus. His shop is 
on High Street, near Mr. Green's store." Doctors John Ball, Lincoln Goodale and 
Samuel Parsons were among Doctor Edmiston's earlier colleagues. 

By or before 1815 the Legal Profession was represented by David Smith, Orris 
Parish, David Scott and Gustavus Swan, who were soon joined by John R. Parish, 
T. C. Flournoy, James K. Cory, William Doherty, and others of later prominence. 
All eccentric Justice of the Peace named Shields is said to have been both droll 
and expert as a pioneer in the administrati(Hi of justice. The quarrelsome boatmen 
of the "War Office" kept in active exercise his talents both as a jurist und a wag. 
On Sundays Esquire Shields officiated as a volunteer clergyman. Being a poet, 
as well as a preacher, he wrote his own hymns. Justice Shields was a native of 
Ireland, and by fundamental occupation a bricklayer. Among the other early 
justices were James Marshall, Michael Patton, Eli C. King, William Long and 
Messrs. Townsend, Nichols, Martin. Richardson, Deshler and Wood. 

During the winter of 1813-14 a subscription school was kept in a cabin on 
the public square. Among the earlier teachers of the public schools of Columbus, 
all of which were maintained by voluntary donation, were Uriah Case, John 
Peoples, a Mr. Whitehill and W. T. Martin. 

The churchgoers of the new settlement attended the services conducted by 
Doctor Hoge in Franklinton until a cabin for church purposes, about twentyfive 



History of the City of Columbus. 

by thirty feet in size, was built on a lot donated by Doctor Hoge, near the corner 
of Spring and Third Streets, in the spring of 1814. Keligious services were held 
in this cabin, as well as at the Franklinton meetinghouse, until 1818. Such was 
the beginning of the First Presbyterian Church of Columbus. A Methodist 
Society was organized in 1814, and erected a hewed log church, with a shingle 
roof, on Town Street. The building thus provided was used for school as well as 
church purposes until 1824, when the society erected a new church on the same 
site. The ground is now occupied by the Public Library building. 

The first white person born on the present site of Columbus was Keziah 
Hamlin, daughter of John and Mar^i Hamlin, who dwelt in a cabin said to have 
been the first one erected on the territory now embraced within the limits of the 
city, on the east bank of the Scioto. The Hamlin domicile stood near the present 
location of the Hoster brewery. Some of the Indians then encamped on the low**- 
lands of the vicinity seem to have been much interested in the advent of the little 
stranger, for one day, not long after its birth, they carried the infant away to their 
wigwams, and kept it until evening, when they returned it with a pair of beauti- 
fully worked moccasins on its dimpled feet. The date of Keziah Hamlin's birth 
was October 16, 1804. On December 19, 1822, she was married to David Brooks, 
of Princeton, Ma8sach\isotts, one of the later landlords of the White Horse Tavern. 
The late David W. Brooks, of this city, was her son by this marriage. 

In February, 1814, Mr. George B. Harvey was wedded to Miss Jane 
Armstrong. This was the first matrimonial alliance solemnized in the Columbus 
settlement. Joseph Dillo and Miss Polly CoUett soon afterward celebrated the 
second. The first death is not recorded. 

The Scioto Eiver not being usually fordable at that period, intercourse be- 
tween Columbus and Franklinton was maintained chiefly by means of a ferry, kept 
by Jacob Armitage. To mitigate the inconvenience of this mode of crossing, the 
General Assembly passed an act, February 15, 1815, authorizing Lucas Sullivant 
and his associates, " if any there be," to build a bridge at the foot of Broad Street, 
and authorized collection of the following rates of toll : 

For each foot passenger, three cents; for every horse, mule or ass cue year year old or 
upwards, four cents; for each horse and rider, twelve and one half cents ; for every chaise, 
riding chair, gig, cart, or other two wheeled carriage, with two horses or two oxen and driver, 
thirtyseven and one half cents; for the same an<l one horse and driver, eighteen and three 
fourths cents ; for every coach, charriot or other pleasurable carriage, with four wheels and 
driver, drawn by four horses, seventyfive cents ; for the same carriage and driver, drawn by 
two horsest fifty cents ; for every waggon with two horses or oxen and driver, thirtyseven and 
a half cents; and for each horse or ox in addition, six and a fourth cents; for every horse, 
ujule or ass younger than one year old, two cents ; for every head of neat cattle, six months 
old or upwards, two cents ; for every head of cattle younger than six montlis old, and for 
every head of sheep or hogs, one half cent. 

All " public mails," and all troops and artillery of the State and United States, 
were passed free. The franchise was granted for the tei% of sixty years, but the 
right was reserved to change the rates of toll after 1831. 

Pursuant to this charter, Mr. Sullivant erected a roofless wooden toll bridge in 
1816.'^ As its direction formed a right angle with the course of the river, it 
touched the west bank at a point several rods below the ford, makinir necessary the 
opening of a new road across the fields to Franklinton. After the lapse of eight or 

The Forest Settlement. 210 

ten years, this bridge became infirm, and in 1826, was replaced by another with its 
western terminus at the original landing. Like its predecessor, it was destitute of 
roof or cover. 

A census of the settlement taken by James Marshall in the spring of 1815, 
showed a population of about seven hundred. The more prominent stores at that 
time were those of Alexander Morrison, Joel Buttles, Henry Brown, Delano & 
Cutler and J. & R. W. McCoy. The Franklin Bank, the pioneer institution of tlie 
kind, was incorporated in February and organized in September, 1816. An ac- 
count of it will be found in the chapter on Banking. 

Until this time little attempt at street improvement had been made In 
1816 a fund of about two hundred dollars was raised by private subscription to 
clear some of the stumps from High Street, and about the same time something 
vrsiB done to disincumber Front Street of logs and other debris. In following the 
crooked paths which led through the village clearings, the nightly pedestrian 
found the use of a tallow-dip, or the rarer luxury of a lantern, extremely necessary 
^vv^hen the moonlight failed. Trees, logs, stumps and ponds of water alike hedged 
his way. 

Such was the capita) as a forest settlement. 


1. Major William Rntledge. 

2. These buildings continued to be used as the seat of justice of Ross County until 1853. 
•^. The following extracts from the document here referred to are taken from an 

Qrigina.1 printed copy bearing date February 12, 1808, and entitled an "Address of the 
inhabitants of the town of Worthington relative to the seat of government." The author 
w indebted for this copy to Miss Emma Jones, of Columbus, a granddaughter of Hon. James 

" ^o the honorable^ the General Assembly of tfie Slate of Ohio : 

*' We, the undersigned, citizens and proprietttrs (»f Worthington and its vicinity, in 
Franklin county, understanding that the present general assembly will have it constitution- 
ally in their power to ^x the permanent seat of government of this state, and provide for the 
erection of public buildings, for the accomuiodation of the legislature and the otiicerB of state ; 
and aa this or a succeeding legielature will fix upon a place for the permanent seat of govern- 
ment, beg leave respectfully to represent. 

"That in our opinion, the town of Worthington is more eligibly situated for the seat of 
Sovernment, than any other town now settled, or any other position which can be chosen in 
^his state. 

"The situation of this town will be perfectly central for business, taking all matters into 
^consideration, and is almost so as it respects territory. 

"The centre of Worthington is in the third quarter of the second township in the eigh- 
^eutb range of the United States' military lands, and about one and a quarter miles south- 
westerly from the centre of said second township. 

" By refering to the state map, it will be seen that this town is exactly in a middle posi- 
tion, between the Ohio river at the mouth of Scioto, and the Sandusky bay, west of 
the Connecticut Reserve; varying therefore, so far only from the middle of the state, 
south, as the north-east corner of said Reserve, and the country west of Lake Erie, about the 
Miami of the Lake, would carry it, which cannot, we apprehend, exceed nine or ten miles, 
by the best calculation. 

" On an east and west line from the Ohio river to the west boundary of the state, Worth- 

220 ITlSTORY OF THE CiTV OK (Nm.vmbls. 

iii}i^ton is al>out twolve or thirteen milos from the centre, west ; but when the slant made V»y 
the Ohio river on the Fouth-east part, w compared with the projectinj? north-west corner, 
about the said Miami of th«{ Lake, it will be found that this town is not more than seventeen 
or eighteen miles south and west of the real centre of the state. 

'* It will also recollected by the legislature, and admitted by all, that the western part of 
this state, from the more even surface of the country, and better (piality of the soil, generally, 
has and must always have, a greater |)opulation than the eastern, according to the extent of 

'* Wortliington is situate*! on the east si<le of the main east branch of »Scioto, (<rom- 
monlv called Whetstone river) nine miles from its confluence with the west branch. 

*• This river is a fine navigable stream as far up as this town, equally so with the Scioto at 
Fninklinton ; for although the Whetstone is not quite so large as the other branch at high 
water, it is a more enduring stream, and has full as much water as the west fork in the dry 
season, in proportion to its size. This river is also as uuich narrower than the main Si'ioto, 
as it has less water, and has higher banks, and of course is of equal depth at least with the 
main river below the forks; and being very straight, of an easy and gentle current, and of 
sufticient width (from ten to twelve rods) is fully sufficient for the largest Orlean boats to 
descend, or large keel boats to ascend, to and from the town in the jirojwr seasons. 

" Another very important advantage is derived from this river, at this particular {loint. 
Immetliately above the centre of the town, there begin and conlinue northward up said river, 
for several miles, a f^ucces^ion of falls, made by bars of suli«l rock, running across the stream 
which furnish a number of the best mill seats in this state, a principal part of which are 
now iniprove<l and improving for variqus kinds of mills and water works; and this accommo- 
dation is found in the centre of an extensive, rich body of land, equal to any, without excep- 
tion, in the western countrv. 

*' Above these falls the river becomes still and gentle again, and continues so, and of 
about nine or ten rods in width, entirely to the Sandusky plains, there approaching very near 
to the east branch of the Sandusky river ; so that, by ere<*ting locks and slopes at the three 
or four mill-danjs upon the highest of those falls, (which from the solidity of the foundation 
might be done at no great expence) salt, goods, Ac, might be brought from the Lakes by 
water, to this town, with a very short portage. And thus might the mill-dams now made 
and erecting u|)on the river, while they answer the first important end proposed, be also sub- 
servient to the better navigation of those falls. 

"There are now in operation, at and above this town, three saw-mills, two grist-mills, 
and several other useful water machines, and three other mills are now building. By means 
of so early attention being paid to these important erections, the settlements in this vicinity 
have i>r(>gressed in building and other improvements beyond any other settlement in this 
part of the state, for the time, and have for three years past supplied, and do now supply, all 
the towns and settlements below for more than thirty miles upon the Scioto, with all their 
sawed timber for building, as also with their grinding, to a great distance. 

** Worthington is also situated on a high and handsome piece of ground, commanding a 
verv extensive view of the countrv on all sides. In point of elegance for building ground, it 
is not excee<led, if e<iualled, by any situation in the state; and with respect to healthiness, 
four years' experience has proved it without a parallel. 

'* The road from Zanesville, by the forks of Licking, to the counties of Champaigne and 
Miami, and the road from Chillicothe to Samlusky, cross at right angles, in the centre of this 
town ; and several other important roads, from tlifferent parts of the state, intersect with 
them near the same point. 

" From a consideration of these several particulars, (with many others of minor imj)ort- 
ance) we have drawn the above conclusion. That this town is a more central and eligible 
situation for the i^eat of gnrernmetit than a/i*/ oifur that can be found in this state. 

" With respect to accommodations for the meml)ers of the legislature «luring their session, 
should th(j general assembly think proper to change the seat of government at the next 
session, (which, however, we do not expect) and should fix it at this town, we can say with 

The Forest Settlement. 221 

confidence, that the houses now built, and building, (that will be finished within one year) 
will be fully sufficient for that purpose. 

*' We would also state, for the information of the general assembly, that a large and 
commodious building is now preparing for an academy, in which will be three spacious 
rooms, either two of which will be of full capacity to accommodate the two branches of the 
legislature, and whi«-h, when furnished, will \ye offered for the use of the state, in the proper 
season, until the state buildings can be erected. This house will l>e ready lus soon as 
required. Also, an eligi^e lot for the erection of said public buildings, shall be furnished 
upon the public ground. 

" Being also informed, that the citizens of several of the towns have opened subscrip- 
tions for the purpose of offering to the legislature, private contributions toward the expenccs 
of erecting the public buildings for the accommodation of government; — although we have 
thought there was reason to doubt the propriety of such a measure, yet, from |>resent circuui- 
stances, we have been induced to follow the example, as the following subscription will 
show ; and we confidently trust in the candor of the legislature, that they will not attribute 
the tender of this our proposed contribution, to improper motives. We disclaim th«» idea of 
purchasing, or offering to purchase, those privileges which of right might belong to anoiht»r 
part of the state, or which the public interest wouhl require to be elsewhere? established. On 
the contrary, conscious as we are, that the true interest of the state will In* best promoted by 
that, which our interest and sense of propriety has induccMl ns hrrein to suggest to the con- 
sideration of the general assc»mbly, we have no other motives in this offer, than to render 
more secure what we deem a natural privilege, and to manifest to i\w legislaturt', and to the 
state, that the citizens of this town, and its vicinity will not be behind th(>ir neighbors in 
contributing, according to their abilities, in the infant stato of tli(»ir town and settlement, to 
lessen the public expen(»es to the citizens of tht» more remote parts of the state, who cannot 
partake so fully the benefits of a central position, (which is the only consideration, we con- 
ceive, to justify those who first introduced this mode of procedure) as also, to counteract, in 
some degree, an undue weight, which might otherwi>e operate against the joint interest of 
the state and this town. 

'*A11 which we resjH»ctfully subndt to the consideration of the ^reneral assembly, in full 
confidence that a concern so important to the state, will be justly weiirhed, and that the 
advantageous situation of the town of Worthington for the permanent seat of the* state gov- 
ernment, will be duly noticed, notwithstanding the present infancy of the settlement. 

** Therefore we, the undersigned, citizens and proprietors of Worthington and its vicinitv 
in Franklin county, do each of us in his individual capacity, and for himself, promise an<l en- 
gage, to pay to the treasurer of the state of Ohio, for the time l)einy:, the sum or sums annexed 
to our names respectively, for the of erecting a state house in said town, for the ac- 
commmlation of the legislature and other ollicers of the government, provi<led this offer shall 
be accepted by the general assenddy, and the seat of government of this state he permanent- 
ly fixed, by law, at Worthington, within two years from the rising of the present a.ssend>ly, 
an<l not otherwise. 

"The suras so subscribed, to be paid in four equal annual installments; the first instal- 
ment thereof to become due at the end of one year from the acceptance of the subscription, 
and the passage of the law, fixing the seat of governnjent as aforesiiid, and the other three in 
annual succession thereafter, subject to such other restricticms only, as shall he immediately 
annexed to our respective signatures : The money, or other property so subscribed, to be ap- 
plied to the building of a state house in said Worthington, and to no other purpose. — Dated 
Worthington, January 20, 1«08. 

James KillM)urn . . . $*2(K)0 Lemuel (i. iluniphry 100 

do. for Norton & Kilbourn . 1(X)0 .V<lna Bristol 100 

do. for Jed. Norton . . . 2000 oOiK) Charles Thompson .... loO 

James Kill)ourn cash, for J. Dayton KXM) Aaron Strong 12o 

in land 5CK) ^-^^^^ (Tcorge Ciuse 100 

EzraGriswold 500 William Watson lUl 

Joflep)) Sage 
William Riibe 
MoMfi Maytiitrii 
Timothy ^e 
Asa (lillct 
Anioa Maxflelil 
SntiiiK-l WiUe«)n 
llauiel M. Brown 
Asaliol Hart 
John (iiMHt rich 
Nnali Amlrow! 
Joel Buttles 
GlasH CochmD' 
Joaiah To|>)>iiig 
Ghanuey Barker 
David Bristdl 
AiB-rnh Piimcv 
Jopliar Topping 
ElH^nezer Bmun 
JoHCpli C. MatthewH 
RiiBwell Willcox 
Thomas Pa.U 
William Thompmm to 
Isaac Fisher to be psiil 
Ahiai Case . 
Deaimon C 
William lioremly 
William U'Curdy 
Kliplittlel Barke 
James H. Hills 
Jaiiiea RusKell. ji 
Jaiiies Russell 
Cru«er Wrij[ht 
Samuel Sloper 
Israul P. CuKP 
Israel Case, to bo paiil 

Preserved Le 
John B. Manning 
William Morrison 
Simeon Wilcox 
Bcla M. Tnller 
Akxamler Morrison 
Abner P. IViine; 
William Vininn 
Itiiiac Case 
Daniel Btrnjamiti 
Benjamin Chap 
0\h:<] Blakely . 
Seth Watwm . 
SiimucI Bench, juii' 
John Cnmi 
U'viGDodrich . 

HiMTOIlY llF THB ('iTV OF f'OUJMmm. 

David Biiell 
RoHwell Taller 
George Case, jnr 
Bela Goodrich 
Klias Vininit 
Daniel Munsee 
.les»te Aiafrewfi 
True man Caae 
Isnac Biirtlet . 
Jeremiah Boardman 
Avery Powe 
Nathan ('arjienli^r 
John Car|ifnter 
John Patterson 
Thomas Broirn 
Azaristi Root 
Urlando H. Barker 
Moses Byxbe 
Mo(!es Byslje, jui 
Ralph Slack 
Jacob Ay 
Discovery OIney 
Augnstus Ford 
John Murphv 
John Helt 
Michael Gil 
Eli Manvell . 
Beujuniln Cantenter 
Cephas Cone 
Daniel Alden 
William Kancher 
Enoch Doniigan 
Gilbert Carpenter 
Daniel Weeks 
Gill>ert Weeks 

Joseph l^atshaw 
NiUhanie Landon 
I Un.]on . 
Sumnel l.andon 
Jona. Williams 
Jeremiah Cnrtess 
Ezekial Bod jam n 
Nathaniel Disljiiry 
Ttwinas Butler . 
MoaeB Carpenter 
Jolm Welch 
Nathaniel lall 
JnVm .TohuHon 
David Lewis 
Philo lIoa<lly 
laaait Uwia 
Chester [jcwia 


The Forest Settlement. 223 

Amasa Delano, payable in land out of the 

third township and third Section, 18th 

range, when the builing of the state 

house shall commence . 1000 Ezekiel Brown 50 

^iel Weeks, jun'r . . ♦. . 50 Wm. Luce 25 

Stephen Maynard 100 Silas Dunham 25 

^her Maynard 100 James Harper 15 

^oab Norton . . . :?00 Hector Kilbourn 35 

^^ward Phelps 100 John Wilson :i() 

J^^'^tT Clark 50 Anijah Royce ..... 50 

^®^iben Carpenter 50 Nathaniel W. Little .... 100 

'^^lifil Beach .• ... 150 John Topping 150 

l^Vi Pinney 50 130 subscribers .... $25,334 

" At a general meeting of the citizens of Worthington and its vicinity, for the purpose of 
col/ectiiig subscriptions towards erecting a state house, in said town, (in case the permanent 
seat of government should be there established) Major James Kilbourn was unanimously 
e/ecteil agent, to present the address adopted by this meeting to the honorable, the general 
aasenably, as also to tender to government, on behalf of said citizens, their proposed contribu- 
tions for the purpose aforesaid. 

Wm. Robe, Cierk. 
Worthington, February 3d, 1808. 

The agent appointed as above begs leave to observe, that for want of time this subscrip- 
tion liAd not a full circulation, and that there is good reason to expect considerable a<lditions — 
also that the subscribers are many and the sums small and there is none who is notable and 
^illinij^ to pay his subscription in case the end is obtained. 

James Kilbourn." 
-4- An act to provide for fixing the permanent seat of government. Passed February 
^. 1 » 1 0. Ohio Laws. Volume 8. . . . 

S^Hition one and two provide for the appointment of five commissioners by joint ballot 
"^otli bouses of the General Assembly, a majority of the board to be necessary for the rec- 
^^^rrk^ndation of any particular site. 

*'^ Sec 3. That after the commissioners shall have taken an oath or afhrmation faithfully 

^ ^^isoharge the duties enjoined on them by this act, they shall proceed to examine and select 

^ ixi ost eligible spot, which in their opinion will be most central, taking into view the 

°*^^^^»"al advantages of the state; Provided ; It shall not be more than forty miles from what 

'f^y l)e deemed the common centre of the state, to be ascertained by Mansfield's map 

"»«— of. 

• 4 

**Sec. 4. That after the commissioners shall have fixed on the most eligible spot, they 

^^^ make up a report of their proceedings and sign the same, seal it up and direct it to the 

^^^^-^er of the senate, and forward the same to the senate, within ten days after the com- 

. ^r^^^ment of the next session of the general assembly ; and if it shall appear to the satisfac- 

^^*^ of the next general assembly, that the place fixed on is the most eligible place, they shall 

^^^rm the report of the commissioners, and proceed to take such further order thereon as 

^t^em shall appear most advantageous and proper 

" 8bc 5. That the commissioners shall meet at Franklinton on the first day of September 
^^Xt, to proceed to discharge the'duties enjoined to them by this act, and shall each receive 
*^»'ee dollars per day. 

"This act to take effect from and after the commencement passage thereof. 

Edward Tiffin, 
Speaker of the fwiise of rrpresentatiirs. 
Duncan Mc Arthur, 

Speaker of the senate.** 
5. Copied from an old manuscript in the possession of H. T. Fay, Esq. 
(). The proceedings in the General Assembly with reference to the permanent location 
of the capital, as reported in the official journal of the House and Senate, were as follows, 
copied verbatim et lUeratim : 

224 History of the City op Columbub. 


January 17, lhl2; Mr. Evans from the couimittee appointed, reported as follows: 

The committee to whom were referre<i ho much of the unfinished business of the last 
session, relating to the fixings of the permanent seat of government and who were directe<l 
to receive donations therefore now beg leave to report that they have received proposals for 
the following places, viz. — Delaware. Sells's place, Thomas Backus's land, High Bank oppo- 
site Franklinton, High Bank Pickaway plains, and Gircleville, Pickaway county. 

Your committee beg leave to offer, for the consideration of the senate, an extract from 
the ditferent proposals attaching each to the place for which such proposals were made. 

For the town of Delaware, or any other part of section 4, township 5, range 19, in section 
3, townships and range IS; — Messrs. Moses Byxbe and Henry Baldwin, proprietors of said 
lands, submitted the two following proposals : 

First — to erect, at their own expense, within such time as the legislature shall fix on, a 
building which will accommodate both branches of the legislature ; an office for the auditor, 
secretary and treasurer; a public prison, and such apperpenances as may be necessary for a 
penitentiary together with one hundred acres of land, in a place convenient for raising pro- 
visions for the use of jirisoners, or such other purpose as may be required. All the buildings 
to be built of good materials, in a workmanlike manner, to be in all respects perfectly com- 
modious for the above purposes, and of such dimensions and plans as may be designated and 
adopted by the committee to be for that purpose appointed by the legislature. The one 
hundred acres. an«l the grouncl covered by the public buildings, and as much more as may be 
re<inired for walks and other public conveniences, to be conveyed to the state or trustees 
for their use, in fee simple, clear of all incumbrances. 

2<l. To convey an e<]ual undivided moiety of four thousand acres of land, to be laid off 
in one survey, out of section four, township 5, range 1!>, and section 3, township ft and ranije 
IS, iuid to include the i>lace to be fixed on for the seat of government: The four thousand 
acres to be selected by three persons, one to be chosen by the legislature, one by said Byxbe 
and Baldwin, and the third by the two thus named. 

For the place owned by Messrs, John and Peter Sells, the scite chosen by the commis- 
sioners: — John and Peter Sells will convey to the state, three hundred acres of land, to be 
taken off the east end of their tract, exclusive of the following reservations — a lot of l\0 poles 
s(|uare, inclu<ling the grist mill of John Sells. 

A lot of :\0 poles square, including the dwelling house and distillery of John Sells. 

A lot of 50 poles in length, 10 poles in width, for a log yard. 

A lot of '.\0 poles east and west, and SO poles north and south, including the house of 
Peter Sells, and the mill seat ; an<l 10 inn lots in the proposed town. 

Mr. Walter Dun agent in fact of John Qraham, offers for the same place four hundred 
acres of land — beginning at the upper back corner of James Holts's survey. No. 2543; 
thence south iiS degrees west, 70 poles ; thence north 22 degrees west, till the same intersect 
the upper line of the said Holt's survey. No. 2544; thence with the said line, north 68"^ east, 
and from the beginning east, so far that a line north 22 degrees west, will include said four 
hundred acres. 

Mr. James (THiloway Jun. offers for the same place, two hundred acres of land, entered 
and surveyed for John Crawford, on the waters of Darby Creek, No 7075. 

For the scite to be on section 4, township 1 four miles frotn Pranklinton, seven miles 
below Sells's place ;— Mr. Thomas Backus, proprietor of said section, offers one thousand acres 
of land, part of the aforesaid section, to be laid out in a town, as follows: One half shall be 
on the said given lands, and the other on said Backus's adjoining land. The town to be laid 
out in such a manner as the legislature shall direct. Said Backus offers to secure to the 
public, the use of such streets and public grounds as shall be laid out on his land. 

For the High Bank, nearly oi>po8ite to Franklinton— First. Messrs. Kerr and M,Laugh- 
lin, James Johnston and Lyne Sterling will convey to the state sections No. 9, 25, 26 contain- 
ing about one thousan<l acres, in township 5, of range 22 said tract to be laid out by the state 
into inn-and out lots, one half of which shall belcmg to the state, and the other to said donors: 



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The K(»rest Settlement. 22.') 

* They moreover offer to give to the state, four thousand dollars for four such lot.s as they wull 
choose out of the half belonging to the said state. 

Second— They offer to convey three hundred and fifty acres of land, off any such part of 
the aforesaid tract, as the state will, by agent or otherwise choose provided the state do lay 
out thereon a town previous to the first day of September next ensuing. 

They reserve ten acres out of the aforesaid land, sold by Lyne Sterling, in the north- 
westerly corner of his half section ; also about fortysix acres of low and broken land, in the 
south-westerly corner of M'Laughlin's and Kerr's half section— which land, so to be reserved, 
is designated on a plan accompanying this report. 

George Stevenson, Esq., proposes, on condition that the seat of government shall be 
fixed at Franklinton, or on the eastern bank of the Scioto, within one mile of that town, he 
will give live hundred acres part of his section No. IS, or two thousan<l dollars in cash, at his 
option, the conveyance to be executed, or the cash to be pai<l as soon as the foundation of the 
state house, or capitol shall be laid. 

For the High Bank, in the Pickaway Plain; — Mr. Henry Nevill offers a <lonation of one 
hundred and fifty acres of land, for the purpose of laying out a town by the state, out of 
which he reserves for his own use, two lots to be by him chosen out of all the lots not 
reserved by law for public use, and moreover, if the state will sell to the highest bidder, at 
such time, and on such terms of payment as shall be prcscribtMl by law, each and every lot in 
such town, (the two to be by said Xevill reserved excepted) if such sales <lo not amount to 
thirty five thousand dollars, the said Nevill offers to make up to the state defi(!iency in such 
money. Which sum of thirty five thousand dollars, shall be appropriate<l for the improve- 
ment and benefit of said town. 

Or otherwise said Nevill offers to take upon himself the disposal of all the lots, (except 
such as shall be reserved by law for i>ublic buildings) and out of the proceeds thereof, or of 
his own money, if the proceeds are not sufficient, he offers to erect, to the amount of thirty 
five thousand dollars, such public buildings as shall be directed by law; and if the legisla- 
ture thinks proper he will add to the tract of land heretofore offered, two hundred and fifty 
acres more. 

For the town of Circleville, Pickaway county;— A subscription, signed by forty one 
persons, amounting to five thousand and ninety five dollars, was handed to your committee. 

Your committee, having taken into consideration, the several proposals made for the 
dift'erent places, are of the opinion that the donations off^ered, in the first part of the propos- 
als of messrs. Byxbe and Baldwin, if accepted, will be the most advantageous to the state. In 
thus making up their opinion, your committee had in view the eligibility and central situa- 
tion of the places designated in the several proposals. 

Your committee begs leave to recommen<i to the consideration of the senate, the follow- 
ing resolution : 

Remlved, That a committee, to consist of members, be appointed to bring in a 

bill for fixing the permanent seat of government, on the lands of Moses Byxbe and Henry 
Baldwin, agreeably to the first member of their written propo.««als. 

All which is respectfully submitted by 

J. P. R. Biire.\l:, 
J. Pkitciiari), 
David Purviance, 
(teor(JE Tod, 


And from which Samuel Evans, one of the committee. <lissents as to the resolutions 

The said report was read, committed to a committee of the whole .senate, an<l made the 
order of this day. 

January 20, 1812: On motion, 

Ordered, That the committee of the whole senate be discharged from the further con- 
sideration of so much of the report of the select committee, as relates to the pro])osals of 



messrs. John Kerr ami Alexander M'Laugbliii for tixing the permanent seat of government. 

On motion, 

Ordered, Tbat meanrs. Kerr and M'Laughling have leave to withdraw said proposals. 

January 24, 1812, Mr. Evans laid on the clerk's table, proposals from inhabitants of 
the town of Worthington, for fixing the permanent seat of government, which were referred 
to the committee of the whole senate to whom was referred the report of the select committee 
on the same subject. 

February 1, 1812: Mr. Evans laid on the clerk's table proposals of J. and P. Sells, for 
fixing the permanent seat of government which were referred to the committee of the whole 
senate to whom was referred the report of the select committee on the same subject. . . . 

[On the same date the subject of fixing the seat of governu\ent was recommitte<i to the 
committee on that subject which had been previously appointed.] 

Februarys, 1812: Mr. Evan? from the committee to whom were referred the report 
and proposals, relative to fixing the permanent seat of government, reported the same, with 
the following additional report : 

The committee to whom were referred the proposals for fixing the permanent seat of 
government, begs leave to report. They have examined the proposals made since their first 
report, and find them as follows : 

Messrs. John and Peter Sells ofiers to lay out a town on their land, on such plan as the 
legislature will point out, and out of the same they will convey as much ground as may be 
necessary for a state house ofificen & penitentiary, and moreover to build a state house, and 
such other houses as commissioners, to be appointed by the legislature, shall direct, provided 
that the same does not exceed twenty thousand dollars ; which donation is to be made, 
if the legislature establishes the permanent seat of government on their lands, within three 

[The Committee here recites the propositions submitted by Mr. Starling and his associ- 
ates. The report then continues as follows :] 

Mr. James Kilbourn ofTers, if the permanent seat of government is established in the 
town of Worthington, to enlarge and extend the plan of the same, according to a plat trans- 
mitted to one of your committee. 

He also offers a subscription of three hundred and forty inn-lots, sixty six out lots, in 
said town five thousand acres of land near the same, and six thousand dollars in cash, labor 
and materials. The inn-lots to contain about three fourths acres each — the out-lotfi to con- 
tain about two and a half acres each. 

Otherwise mr. Kilbourn proposes to erect public buildings of the following/limensions, 
viz. — a state house one hundred and twenty five feet long and fifty feet wide in the wings, 
two stories high, with convenient rooms for the public offices, and a room for the federal 
court; of all which a particular description may be seen, by a reference to his last proposals. 
We observe, in short, that according to the plan therein delineated, the buildings will be 
elegant and commodious. The said mr. Kilbourn also proposes to erect a penetentiary house 
one hundred and fifty feet long and thirty feet wide, with a sufficient well, and every neces- 
sary accommodation. 

J. & P. .Sells have submitted to your committee, new proposals, in lieu of their former 
proposals — stating, that in case the legislature should prefer the following plan, they will 
erect a state house eighty feet long and fifty feet wide, two stories high, with such rooms as 
shall be necessary for the legislature and federal court, and a separate brick building, forty feet 
by twenty four, two stories high, for the public offices ; and also to convey a noted spring by 
an aqueduct, into the public square. 

Your committee can see it is not expedient nor necessary for them to give a specific 
detail of the several proi)osals submitted to their consitleration. They therefore beg leave to 
report this brief summary, believing that in i^ase the senate should fix ui)on a place for the 
permanent seat of government, it will be necessary more particularly to attend to the pro- 
posals for that place, an<l frame a bill accordinj^ly. 

The said report was read, and with all documents on the same subject, committed to a 
committee of the whole senate, and made the order of this day. 

The Forest Settlement. 227 

[The subject was then considered for a time by the seuatc iu committee of the whole.] 
February 5, 1812: The senate, according to the order of the day, again resolved itself 
into a committee of the whole senate, on the report of the select committee, to whom was 
referred so much of the unfinished business as relates to a bill, entitled, ''An act fixing the 
permanent seat of government," and after some time spent therein, the npeaker resumed the 
chair and mr. Purviance reported, that the committee had, according to order, had said 
T^'port under consideration, and agreed to the following resolution : 

Retolved, That a committee of three members be appointed to prepare and bring tii a 
\>iU, to fix and establish the permanent seat of government, at agreeably to the 

propositions of ; and that from and after the first day of May next, 

Lancaster shall be the temporary seat of government, until otherwise directed by law. 

A motion was made by mr. Foos, to fill the first blank in said resolution, with these 
words, the High-bank on tlie east side of the Scioto ni'tr, opposite the U/wn of Franklinton, 

A motion was made by mr. Bureau, to fill the first blank with tbese words, the town of 

A motion was made by mr. Bigger, to fill said blank with these words, the farm of Peter 
ami John SelU. 

A motion was made by mr. Caldwell, to fill said blank with these words, the town of 

A motion was made by mr. Evans, to fill said blank with these words, the High-bank^ in 
^^Pickatvay Plains. 

A Qiotion was made by mr. Bureau, to fill said blank with these words, the land of Moses 
^j/jrUt' and Henry Baldwin. 

A motion was made by mr. Pritchard, to fill said blank with the word, New- Lancaster. 
The question was first put on filling said blank with these words, the Highbank on tfie 
eoju side of the Scioto river, oppodte the town of Franklinton, and decided in the affirmative : yeas 
^•^^nays 9. 

The veas and nays being required by two members, those who voted in the affirmative 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, .Evans, Foos, Irwin, Looker, M' Arthur, M'Beth, 
'iirviance, Slaughter, Smith, Trimble, Welch, and Kirker (speaker). 
Those who voted in the negative were, 

^lessrs, Abbott, Caldwell, Kinney, M, Council, Pritchard, Rogers, Stone, Todd and 
^^'*^o<l bridge. 

The said resolution was further amended and then read, as follows : 
Jienolved by the senate and house of representatives that a committee of three members be ap- 
P<»int^(l on the part.of the senate, to prepare and bring in a bill, to fix and establish the per- 
"»«ntMit seat of government, at the High Bank, on the east side of the Scioto river, opposite 
^^'<? tA»wn of Franklinton, agreeably to the propositions of niessrs. Starling, Kerr, M'Laughlin 
'^^^^ Johnston; and that from and after the first day of May next, Lancaster shall be the 
^*^^uporary seat of government, until otherwise directed by law. 
A motion was made that the senate agree to the same. 
The ijuestion being put, was decided in the athrmative, yeas 17 — nays 7. 
The yeas and nays being required by two members, 
Those who vote<l in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Looker, M' Arthur, M'Beth^ 
MTonnell, Purviance, Rogers, Slaughter, Smith, Trimble, Welch and Kirker, (speaker). 
Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Abbott, Caldwell, Kinney, Pritchard, Stone, Tod and Woodbridge. 
Ordered, That mr. Bureau request the concurrence of the house of representatives therein. 
February 6, 1812 : A message from the house of representatives by mr. T. Morris. 
Mr. Speaker — The house of representatives have agreed to the resolution sent down for 
^'onmrrence, for the appointment of a committee to bring in a bill fixing the permanent and 
temporary seats of government, with amendments, in which they desire the concurrence of 
the senate. 

The said amendments were read. 

22S History of the (-ity op Columbus. 

A iiiotiou was inado by lur. M'Arlhur, that the Heiiate ilioagree to the second amend- 
ment of the house of representatives to said resolution. 

The said amendment was read, as follows : 

2d amendment line 10th strike out * lAncast^r,' and insert *Chillicothe.* 

On the question that the senate disagree to the sanu% no decision was ha<l, yeas 12 — 
nays 12. 

The yeas and nays being re.quire<l by two members. 

Those who voted in the affirmative were, Messrs. Abbot, Caldwell, Irwin, Kinney, 
M'Connell, Pritchard, Slaughter, Smith, Stone, To<l Trimble and Welch. 

Those who voted in the negative were, Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, F'oos, 
Looker, M'Arthur, M'Beth, Purviance, Rogers, Woodbridge and Kirker (speaker). 

The first amendment to said resolution, was read and agreed to by the senate. 

A motion was made, by mr. Woodbridge, to amend the third amendment. 

The question being put, was decided in the negative. 

The third amendment was then read, and agreed to by the senate. 

Ordered, that the second amendment made by the house of representatives to said reso- 
lution, lie for consideration. 

February 7 1812 : The senate resumed the consideration of the motion, made yesterday 
by mr. M'Arthur that the senate disagree to the second amendment of the house of repre- 
sentatives, to the resolution sent down for concurrence, for the appointment of a committee 
to bring in a bill fixing the permanent and temporary seats of government. 

The said second amendment was again read as follows : 

2d amendment, line 10th, strike out * Lancaster* and insert in lieu thereof * Chillicothe.* 

On the question that the senate disagree to the same, it was decided in the negative, 
yeas 10 — nays 13. The yeas and nays being required by two members, those who voted in 
the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Abbot, Kinney, M'Connell, Pritchard, Slaughter, Stone, Tod, Trimble, Welch 
and Woodbridge. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Ix)oker, M'Arthur, M*Beth. 
Purviance, Rogers, Smith and Kirker, (speaker). 

In pursuance of said resolution, the committee was accordingly appointed of mr. 
Purviance, mr. Bureau and mr. Bigger. 

Ordered, that Mr. Evans acquaint the house of representatives therewith. 

February 8, 1812 : Mr. Purviance, from the committee appointed, reported a bill fixing 
and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of government, which was received, 
read the first time, and ordered to pass to the second reading. 

February 10, 1812 : Mr. Evans laid on the clerk's table, further proposals, &c, of Messrs. 
Sterling, Kerr, McLaughlin and Johnston, relative to the permanent seat of government, 
which were committed to the committee of the whole senate, to whom was committed the 
bill fixing and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of government. 

The orders of the day were postponed till to-morrow. 

February 11, 1812: A motion was made, by mr. Woodbridge, that the committee of the 
whole senate be discharged from the further consideration of the bill fixing and establishing 
the permanent and temporary seats of government. 

The question being put, was decided in the negative. 

February 12, 1812: The senate took up the amendment, reported from the committee of 
the whole senate, to the bill fixing and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of gov- 

A motion was made by mr. Pritchard, that the further consideration of the same be 
postponed till the second Monday in December next. 

The question being put, was decided in the negative : yeas 12 — nays 12. 
The yeas and nays being required by tw^o members, 
Those who voted in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Abbot, Caldwell, Foos, Kinney, M'Connell, Pritchard, Slaughter, Stone, To<l, 
Trimble, Welch and Woodbridge. 

The Forest Settlement. 229 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Big:ger, Bureau, Dnnlap, Evans, Irwin, Looker, M* Arthur, M'Beth, Purviance, 
Rogers, Smith ft Kirker (speaker). 

The said amendment was then read, as follows: 

Strike out of the first section of said bill, these words, 'Alexander M'Laughlin, John 
Kerr, Lyne Starling and James Johnston, to lay out a town on their lands, situated on the 
east bank of the Scioto river, opposite Franklinton, in the county of Franklin, and parts of 
half sections No. 9, 10, 11, 25, and 26, for the purpose of having the permanent seat of govern- 
ment thereon established ; also to convey to this state, a square of ten acres, and a lot of ten 
acres, and to erect a state house, such offices and a penitentiary, as shall be directed by the 
legislature,' and insert in lieu thereof, the following: * Moses Byxbee and Henry Baldwin, to 
lay out a town on section 4, township 5. range 19, of the United States' military district, for 
the purpose of establishing the permanent seat of government of this state, in such place, as 
this general assembly, or a committee, or director, to be by them appointed, shall direct: 
Also to convey to this state, the ground covered by the public buildings, and whatever may 
be deemed necessary for walks and other public conveniences: Also one hundred acres for 
the use of the penitentiary : And to erect a state house, public ofhcos, and a penitentiary, 
within such time, on such place, and of such dimensions and materials, as the general 
assembly, or a committee, or a director, shall adopt. 

A motion was made by mr. Bureau, that the senate agre<^ to said amendment. 

The question being put, was decided in the negative, yeas 10— nays 14. 

The yeas and nays being required by two members. 

Those who voted in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Abbott, Caldwell, Kinney, M'Connell, Pritchard, Slaughter, Stone, Tod, Welch 
and Woodbridge. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Looker, M' Arthur, M'Beth, Pur- 
viance, Rogers, Smith. Trimble and Kirker, (speaker). 

A motion was made by Mr. Pritchard, that the tUh section of said l)ill be struck out. 

The said section was read, as follows : 

Skc. H. And be it further wact^dy That from - and after the day of next, 

Chillicothe shall be the temporary seat of government, until otherwise provided by law. 

The first blank in said section, was filled with the word first, and the second blank with 
the word May. 

The question was then put, and decided in the negative, yeas 11— nays l.X 

The yeas and nays being required by two members. 

Those who voted in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Abbott, Caldwell, Kinney, M'Connell, Pritchard, Slaugiiter, Stone, Tod, Trimble, 
Welch, and Woodbridge. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Ixioker, M'Arthur, M'Beth, Pur- 
viance, Rogers, Smith and Kirker, (speaker). 

A motion was made by mr. Tod, to amend said bill by striking out all the first section, 
after the enacting clause, these words *that the proposals made to this legislature, by 
Alexander M'Laughlin, John Kerr, Lyne Starling and James Johnston, to lay out a town on 
their lands, situate on the east bank of the Scioto river, opposite Franklinton, in the county 
of Franklin, and parts of half section No. 9, 10, 11, 25, and 26, for the purpose of having the 
permanent seat of government thereon established ; also to convey to this state, a square of 
ten acres, and a lot of ten acres, and to erect a state house, such oltices, and a penitentiary, as 
shall be directed by tlie legislature, are hereby accepted, and the same and their penal bond 
annexed thereto, dated the 10th of February, 1^12, conditioned for their faithful performance 
of said proposals, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, and shall remain in the office of 
the treasurer of state, there to be kept for the use of this Ptate,' and inserting in lieu thereof 
the followins:: 'That, from and after the first day of November, in the year of our Lord one 
thoasand eight hundred and sixteen, the seat of government for said state shall be, and 

280 History of the City of Columbus. 

remain, on section 4, township 5, runKe 19, in the United States' Military tract, situated on 
the east side of Whetstone creek, opposite the town of Delaware, in the county of Delaware, 
for the term of 15 years.* 

The question being put, was decided in the negative, yeas 8— nays 16. 

The yeas and nays being required by two members, those who voted in the aflirmative 

Messrs. Abbot, Caldwell, Kinney, M'Connell, Slaughter, IStone, Tod, and Woodbridge. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau. Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Looker, M'Arthur, M'Beth, 
Pritchard, Purviance, Rogers. Smith, Trimble, Welch, and Kirker, (speaker). 

The said bill was further amended. 

On motion of mr. Purviance, 

Ordered, That said bill be engrossed, and read the third time this day. 
* '^- ***«««*««« • 

Mr. M' Arthur laid on the clerk's table further proposals, <&c. of Messrs. M'Laughlin, 
Kerr, Starling, and Johnston, for the permanent seat of government, which were read. 

On motion, 

An engrossed bill, fixing and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of govern- 
ment, was read the third time. 

A motion was made by mr. Bureau, to amend said bill by way of rider, by adding to the 
second section these words: 'and there continue until the first day of May, eighteen hun- 
dred and forty, and from thence until otherwise provided for by law.' 

A motion was made by mr. Pritchard, to amend said proposed amendments, by striking 
out /or(y, and inserting in lieu thereof, twenty five. 

The question being put, was decided in the negative : yeas 8— nays 16. 

The yeas and nays being required by two members, those who voted in the aflirmative 

Messrs Abbott, Caldwell, Kinney, M'Connell, Pritchard, Stone, Tod, and Woodbridge. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Looker, M' Arthur, M'Beth, Pur- 
viance, Rogers, Slaughter, Smith, Trimble, Welch and Kirker, (Speaker). 

On the question will the senate agree to .*aid amendment by way of rider ? it was decided 
in the affirmative, veas 20— navs 4. 

The yeas and nays being required by two members, those who voted in the affirmative 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Caldwell, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Kinney, Looker, M' Arthur, 
M'Beth, Pritchard, Purviance, Rogers, Slaughter, Smith, Stone, Trimble, Welch, and Kirker, 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Abbott, M'Connell, Tod and Woodbridge. 

On the question, shall this bill pass as amended? it was decided in the affirmative: 
yeas 13— nays 11. 

The yeas and nays being required by two members, those w^ho voted in the affirmative 

Messrs. Bigger, Bureau, Dunlap, Evans, Foos, Irwin, Looker, M* Arthur, M'Beth, Pur- 
viance, Rogers, Smith and Kirker, (Speaker). 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Abbot, Caldwell, Kinney, M'Connell, Pritchard, Slaughter, Stone, Tod, Trim- 
ble, Welch and Woodbridge. 

Ordered^ That the title to said bill be, An act fixing and establishing the permanent and 
temporary seats of government. 

Ordered, That mr. Bureau request the concurrence of the bouse of representatives 

February 14, 1812 : A message from the house of representatives by mr, Edwards. 

Mr. Speaker — The house of representatives have passed the bill sent down for concur- 

The Forest Settlement. 231 

rence. entitled ''An act fixinp^ and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of 




February 5, 1812: A message from the senate by mr. Bureau. 

Mr. Speaker, — The senate have passed a resolution for the appointment of a committee 
of three members, to brios^in a bill fixing the permanent and tem])orary seats of government, 
in which tbev desire the concurrence of this house. 

The house took up the resolution sent down for concurrence, for the appointment of a 
committee of three members to bring in a bill fixing the permanent and temporary seats of 
government, and the same being read, was committed to a committee of the whole house, 
and made the order of the day for this day : Whereupon 

The house, according to order, resolved itself into a committee of the whole house, and 
after some time spent therein, mr. Speaker resumed the chair and mr. M'Cune reported, that 
the committee had under their consideration, said resolution, and had agreed to the same 
with an amendment which he presented at the clerk's table, and the same being taken up 
and read. 

On motion of mr. T. Morris, to agree to the amendment made in committee of the whole, 
by striking out Lancaster and inserting in lieu thereof ChilUcoihe^ and the question being 
taken thereupon, it was determined in the affirmative. The yeas and nays being required 
were, yeas 25 — nays 20. 

Those who voted in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, Clay pool, Edwards, Ellison, Evans, Foulks, Gregory, Huntington, J. 
Jones, Johnston, Ludlow, Monett, M'Kinney, D. Morris, T. Morris, Newport, Pollock, Rus- 
sell, Rodgers, Renick, Ross, Sharp, Sterrett and Corwin, (speaker) 25. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bryson, Crumbacker, Day, Ford, Frederick, Frame. Gass, Hooker, Hildreth, 
Harman, Imlay, T. G. Jones, Jackson, Mitchell, M'Cullough, M'Cune, Newcom, Shields, 
Shelby and Smith, 20. 

And the said resolution being further amended, 

On motion of mr. Ellison to agree to said resolution as amended : Whereupon, 

On motion of mr. Jackson, to postpone the further consideration of said question, until 
the first Monday of December next, and the question being taken thereupon, it was deter- 
mined in the negative. The yeas and nays being required, were yeas 13 — nays 30. 

Those who voted in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Bryson, Crumbacker, Day, Ford, Frederick, Frame, Gass, Hildreth, Harman, 
Imlay, T. G. Jones, Jackson and Mitchell, 13. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, Claypool, Edwards, Ellison, Evans, Foulks, Gregory, J. Jones, John- 
ston, Ludlow, M'Cullough, M'Cune, Monett, M*Kinney, D. Morris, T. Morris, Newport 
Newcom, Pollock, Russell, Rogers, Renick, Ross, Shields, Sharp, Shelby, Sterret, Smith, and 
Corwin, (speaker) 80. 

The question was then put, that this house agree to said resolution as amended : Where- 

On motion, 

The house adjourned until nine o'clock, to-morrow morning 

February 6, 1812: The house resumed the consideration of the resolution sent down for 
concurrence, for the appointment of a committee of three members, to bring in a bill fixing 
the permanent and temporary seats of government : Whereupon, 

The motion made yesterday for agreeing to said resolution, as amended, was withdrawn. 

On motion of mr. Huntington to strike out of said resolution these words, ' High Bank 
on the east side of the Scioto, opposite the town of Franklinton, agreeably to the proposals of 
messrs. Sterling, Kerr, M'Laughlin, and Johnston' and insert in lieu thereof, the following: 
' In the town of Delaware, or on any other part of section 4, township 5, range 19 of the United 
States' military tract, agreeably to the proposals of Moses Byxbe and Henry Baldwin.' A 

•j:i2 History of tiik City of C'okumbi'h. 

division of the queHtion being railed for, the (jiieHtion was tlien taken on striking out of the 
resolution the following: 'high bank, on the east side of the Scioto, opposite the town of 
Franklinton. agreeably to the proposals of messrs. Sterling, Kerr, MM^ughlin and Johnston,' 
and determined in the negative. The yeas and nays beintj requiretl were, yeas 20 — nays 25. 

Those who voted in the aflinnative were, 

Messrs. Bryson, Crumbacker. Day, Evans, Foulks, Frederick, Frame, Gass, Huntington, 
Harman J. Jones, T. (4. Jones, Mitehell, M'C'ullough, M'Cune, Monett, T. Morris, Reuick, 
Sharp and Smith, 20. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, Claypool, Kdwiirds, Ellison, Ford, (Gregory, Hooker, Hildreth, Imlay, 
Johnston, Jackson, Ludlow. M'Kinney, I). Morris, Newport, Newcom, Pollo*rk. Russell, 
Rodgers, Ross, Shields, Shelby, Sterrett and Corwin, (speaker) 25. 

And the said resolution being further aniended. 

On motion of mr. Pollock to agreee to .said rcsohition as amended; and on the question 
being taken thereupon, it was <letermined in the attirnmtive. The yeas and nays bein^ re- 
quired were, yeas 24 — luiys 20. Those who voted in the allirmative were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, (Maypool, E<lwanls, Ellison. Evans, Ford, Gregory, J. Jones. John- 
ston, Lu<ilow, Monett, M'Kinney, T>. Morris, T. Morris. Newport, Pollcok, Russell, Rodgers, 
Renick, Ross, Shelby, Sterrett an<l Corwin, (speaker) 24. 

Those who voted in the negative were. 

Messrs. Bryson, Crumbacker, Day, Foulks, Fre«lerick, Frame, Gass, Hooker, Hildreth, 
Huntington, Harman, Inday, T. G. Jones, Jackson, Mitchell, M'Cullough, M'Cune, Newcom. 
Sharp and Smith, 20. 

OnUred, That mr. T. Morris do carrv the .^aid resolution, with the amendments to the 
senate, an«l re<iuest their roncurrence. 

February 7, 1S12: On motion, 

Onkrvdy That a committee of three be appointed on the part of this house, to act jointly 
with the committee appointed on the part of the senate, to bring in a bill tixing the perma- 
nent and temporary seats of government, agreeably to a resolution to that effect ; and a com- 
mittee was ai)pointed of messrs. T. Morris, Huntington, and Sterrett. 

Ordered, That mr. Monett acquaint the senate therewith. 

February 12, 1812: A message from the senate by Mr. Bureau. 

Mr. Speaker — The senate have passed a bill, entitled An act ti.xing and establishing the 
])ermanent and temporary seats of government,' with an amendment by way of rider, in which 
they desire the concurrence of this house. Whereupon, 

Said bill was read the first time. 

February \'.\, 1S12: A bill Hxing and establishing the permanent and temporary seats 
of government, wjis read the second time, and committed to a committee of the whole house, 
and nuide the order of the day for this day. . . . 

The house, according to order, resolved itself into a committee of the wliole house, and 
after sometime spent therein mr. Speaker resumed the chair and mr. Crumbacker reiK>rted, 
that the committee had under their consideration a bill from the senate, entitled '* An act 
tixing and establishing the permanent and temi)orary seats of government," and had agreed 
to the same w ithout an anu>ndment, which he presented at the clerk's table, and the same 
being taken up and amended. 

On motion of mr. M'Cullough, to amend said bill .striking out. in the (>th, section, second 
line, the word ChiUieoihe, and inserting in lieu thereof, the word Franklinton, 

A division of the question being called for, the question was then taken upon striking 
out the word ChUlicothe, and resolve<l in the negative. The yeas and nays being re<]uired 
were, yeas 22 — nays 24. . . . 

On motion of Mr. Jackson to amend said bill by striking out the sixth section to said 
bill, as follows: 

Sec. (>. Andbeit further enacted. Thai from and after the tirst day of May next, Chilli- 
cothe shall be the temporary seat of government, until otherwise provided by law; and the 
question being taken thereupon, it was determined in the negative. The yeas and nays 
being required were, yeas 21 — nays 25. 


The Forest Settlement. 233 

On motion of mr. Jackson to amend said bill, by adding a new section as a 7th section to 
said bill, as follows ; 

Be it further enacted, That all the public property belonging to the state of Ohio, now in 
the town of Zanesville, shall be taken to the town of Chillicothe at the expense of the county 
of Ross, anything in the above recited act to the contrary notwithstanding ; and the question 
being taken thereupon it was determined in the negative. The yeas and nays beinjf requir- 
ed were, yeas 10 — nays 36. 

[ A motion by Mr. Sharp to strike out the first section of the bill accepting the proposals 
of the Starling syndicate was rejected, yeas 18 — nays 28J. 

Those who voted in the affirmitive were, 

Messrs. Bryson, Crumbacker, Day, Foulks, Ford, Frederick, Frame, Gass, Hildreth, 
Huntington, Harman, Ijam?, Jackson, Mitchell, McGullough, M'Cune, Sharp and Smith, 18. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, Claypool, Edwards, Ellison, Evans, Gregory, Hooker, Imlay, J. Jones, 
T. G Jones, Johnston, Ludlow, Monett, M'Kinney, D. Morris, T. Morris, Newport, Newconi, 
Pollock, Russell, Rogers, Renick, Ross, Shields, Shelby, Sterrett and Corwin. (speaker) 28. 

On motion of mr. T. G. Jones to amend the said bill by striking out in the first section 
12th line, the words, and a penitentiary, and the question being taken thereupon, it was deter- 
mined in the negative. The yeas and nays being required were yeas 15 — nays 31. . . . 

On motion of mr. Shelbv that said bill be read the third time tomorrow for its final pas- 
sage, and the question being taken thereupon it was determined in theaff^urmative. The yeas 
and nays being required wei*e, yeas 27 — nays 17. . . . 

February 14, 1812: A bill from the senate, fixing and establishing the permanent and 
temporary seats of government, was read the third time : Whereupon, 

On motion of mr. T. G. Jones, to recommit said bill to a committee of three members ; 
and the question being taken thereupon, it was decided in the negative. The yeas and nays 
being required were, yeas 11) — nays 26. . . . 

On motion of Mr. Huntington to amend said bill by inserting, in the (>th section and 3rd 
line, after the word until, the words following : The tint day of September in the ytar 1817, unless : 
and the question being taken thereupon, it was determined in the negative. The yeas and 
nays being required were, yeas 19 — nays 27. . . . 

On motion of mr. Harman, to amend said bill by adding to the end of the 6th section, as 
a proviso, the following : Provided, That the inhabitants of Chillicothe shall provide, at their 
own expence, a State house, well furnished, for the reception of the legislature, oftices suitable 
for the treasurer, secretary and auditor of State, <luring the continuance of the seat of govern- 
ment at that place ; and the question being taken thereupon, it was determined in the nega- 
tive. The yeas and nays being required were, yeas 11» — nays 27. . . . 

On motion that the said bill do now pass : Whereuj>on, 

On motion ofmr. Jackson, that the further consideration of said question be postponed 
until the first Monday of December nezt; and the question being taken thereupon, it was 
determined in the negative. The yeas and nays being required were, yeas IS — nays 28. . . . 

The question was then taken, that said bill do now pass, and resolved in the affirmative. 
The yeas and nays being required were, yeas 27 — nays 19. Those who voted in the affirma- 
tive were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, Claypool, Edwards, Ellison, Evans. Gregory, Hooker, Imlay, J. Jones, 
Johnston, Ludlow, Monett, M'Kinney, D. Morris, T. Morris, Newport, Newcora, Pollock, 
Russell. Rodgers, Renick, Ross, Shields, Shelby, Sterrett and Corwin, (speaker) 27. 

Those who voted in the negative were, Messrs, Bryson, Crumbacker, Day, Foulks, Ford, 
Frederick, Frame, Gass, Hildreth, Huntington, Harman Ijams, T. G. Jones, Jackson, 
Mitchell. M'CuUough, M'Cune, Sharp and Smith, 19. 

On motion, • 

Resolved, That the title be as aforesaid. 

Ordered, That mr. Edwards acquaint the senate therewith. 

Messrs. Sharp, T. G. Jones and Foulks gave notice that they, with others, in due time 
woald enter their protest against the proceedings of this house, on the bill, entitled '* An act 
fixing and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of government." 

roi" »" „ Mil**; „„K,o *" .,i„« »«»"', «,«•■ >" ", *» ** .',S« ""' . <,««'«*■, 

*^ R,,oli'«d' f V a«A ^ . tot con „^ ^^ tue ^vft ^^t al v 

^' A agreed W- f ^bly «/ *^ ^,t. '>^-'^°^X^o^^ * « ot ^eP^*' 

C"^"* ordered. ^^^ «! ^^^^^^^W^" VA**^^* * kV.o 3°' 

N^ere.. _^^_ Batr. f^^._ ©. >^°'' 

The Forest Settlement. 235 

Those who voted in the -negative were, 

Messrs. Bryson, Grumbacker, Day, Foiilks, Frederick, Frame, Ua88, Huntington, 
Harnian, Ijams, J. Jones, T. G. Jones, Jackson, Johnston, M'Cune, Monett, Russell, Renick, 
Ross. Sharp. Sterret and Smith, 22. 

February 21, 1812 : A message from the senate by mr. Bureau. 

Mr. Speaker — The senate have passed a resolution giving a name to the permanent seat 
of government, in which they desire the concurrence of this house : Whereupon, 

The liouse proceeded to consider the said resolution, and the same being read, 

On motion that the house agree to said resolution ; and the question being taken there- 
upon, it was determined in the allirmative. The yeas and nays being required were, yeas 
24— nays 10. Those who voted in the affirmative were, 

Messrs. Barr, Bell, E<hvard8, Fllison, Evans, Gregory, Hooker, Imlay, J. Jones, John- 
ston, Ludlow, M'CuUough, Monett, M'Kinney, Newport, Newcom, Pollock, Russell, Rogers, 
Renick, Ross, Shelby, Sterrett and Corwin, (speaker) 24. 

Those who voted in the negative were, 

Messrs. Bryson, Grumbacker, Foulks, Ford, Fredericrk, Frame, Gass, Jackson, Mitchell, 
and M'Gune, 10 

Ordered, That mr. Barr actiuaint the senate therewith. 

8. Act of January 27, 1814. 

9. A. A. Graham, in the Mngazinf of Wi-^iern Histtn-y for March, 1^85. 

10. Directory of the City of Golumbus;by E. Glover and William Henderson. 1850. 

1 1 . Western Intelligencer. 

12. Read before the Franklin Gounty Pioneer Association in April, 1S71. 

13. The following notice appeared in the ]Vi9tern Inlflligencer of December 12, 181(5: 
" My bri<lge across the Scioto River, between Frankliuton and Columbus is completed. The 
gates will be closed on the first of December next. But they shall be opened at suitable hours 
on Sundays and days of Thanksgiving, and a passage on the bridge free to all i)ereon8 going 
to and returning from divine worship, and to meud)ers of tlie Legislature, when going to or 
returning from the General Assembly of the state of Ohio. And at all times free to funeral 
processions and on such other occasions, and to such other persons as I may deem expedient. 
Pernnts for passage on the bridge by the year may be had on reasonable terms. 


*• November 25, IHKi. 



The beginning of the Columbus settlement was eoineident with that of the 
second war with Great Britain. The opening sale of lots by the Franklinton 
syndicate took place June 18,181*2; on the same day the formal declaration of 
war was signed by President Madison. No telegraph flashed the news of what 
had been done at Washington, and the sale of lots went tranquilly on as if noth- 
ing particular had happened. Yet the war was by no means unexpected, and its 
declaration, when it became generally known some weeks later, caused no 
surprise. Under the lead of Tecumseli, the Indian tribes of the Northwest, insti- 
gated, it is said, by British emissaries and acting as British substitutes, had 
actually begun hostilities during the preceding summer. On the seventh of 
November, 1811, Tecumseh's followers led by his prophet brother, Elskwatawa, 
had attacked General Harrison, the Governor of Indiana Territory, in his camp 
on the Tippecanoe, and had been defeated. This chastisement had quieted the 
malcontent tribes for the time being, but as soon as war was declared they rallied 
again under the British standard. 

In anticipation of the war, Congress, during its session of 1811-12, provided 
for the increase of the regular army to thirtytive thousand troops, and the muster 
of a large force ot twelve-months volunteers. Pursuant to these measures, Gover- 
nor Meigs, of Ohio, began in the spring of 1S12 the organization of three volunteer 
regiments, and General William Hull, then Governor of Michigan Territory, 
proceeded to collect a force, consisting mostly of* Ohio troops, for the invasion of 
Canada West. Hull had served creditably, though without distinction, in the War 
of Independence, and was believed to be patriotic and capable. He was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the western de])artment. 

Under the immediate supervision of Governor Meigs the Ohio regiments, 
numbered one, two and three, assembled at Dayton, Urbana and Franklinton, and 
were commanded, respectively, by Duncan McArthur, James Findlay and Lewis 
Cass. After organization, these regiments marched to Urbana, where the Fourth 
Regulars, a regiment which had participated in the battle of Tippecanoe, had 
taken post the preceding autumn. On the tenth of Juno the volunteers gave a 
formal salutation to the veteransof the Fourth, in whose honor a" green arch" was 
erected, on one side of which was displayed the word Tippecanoe with the painted 
Q^gy of an eagle's nest, and on the other side the word Glory. " The Fourth 
Regiment marched alone under the arch."' 

On the eighth of June Governor Meigs and General Hull held a conference 
with various Indian chiefs in the woods near Urbana, and closed au agreement 


The First War Kpisodk. 237 

with them by which Hull was to be permitted to open a road from the Greenville 
treaty line to the foot of the Maumee Eapids, and to protect the route with a chain 
of blockhouses twenty miles apart.^ Immediately after these HtipulatioiiH were 
signed the little army, with Hull in command, began its march, led by the First 
Regiment, which built Blockhouse McArthur about twenty miles north of Urbana, 
and the same distance further on. Blockhouse Necessity.' Passing the First, the 
Second Regiment pushed on and erected Fort Findlay. Nearly the whole country 
through which the army passed was covered with a dense forest through which 
a passage had to be cleared for the wagons and artillery. In the Black Swamp, 
through which the column floundered with great difticulty, sovoral of the heavily- 
loaded vehicles became hopelessly mired. Hull reached (he Maumee June 30, 
floated his command over that river in boats, and on July fifth arrived at Detroit. 
Seven days later he crossed into Canada, from which, after issuing a boastful proc- 
lamation, he withdrew on the eighth of August to Detroit, which stronghold, to- 
gether with all Michigan, he surrendered, on the sixteenth, to the British com- 
mander-in-chief, General Brock. 

The announcement of this cowardly capitulation contained in the Fmman's 
Chronide of September 5, 1S12, caused great consternation in Franklinton. 
"Such an unlooked-for and astounding blt)W almost paralyzed the country and 
created great alarm, for many of the Indian tribes, encouraged by this untoward 
event, and urged by the British agents, now oi)enly took sides against us. Months 
of apprehension supervened, and a feverish anxiety infected the whole community, 
for Franklinton was really a frontier settlement and the inhabitants were in con- 
stant dread lest by some sudden attack, their houses should be given to the flames, 
and their wives and little ones fall a prey to the tomahawk and seal ping-knife. 
. . . Indian alarms were frequent, and on such occasions the terrified settlers 
from up Darby Creek, Sells's settlement on the Scioto, from Delaware and Worth- 
ington and the adjacent regions came flocking into Franklinton, and at one time a 
ditch and stockade was commenced around the Courthouse, U) convert it int<) a 
citadel."* To guard against surprise, Mr. Lucas Sullivant kept two experienced 
scouts on duty as far north as the present village of ZanesHeld, in Logan County, 
to give warning of any hostile approach. 

Governor Meigs exerted himself with great energy in forwarding volunteers 
to meet the new emergency. A number of the Urhann Wittrh Toirer^ issued early 
in September, says : " Troops are daily arriving here, at Piqua and Delaware and 
continually pressing on to the frontiers, right and left. Great exertions are mak- 
ing to meet the savages. . . . ('aptain McNamara's company of mounted rifle- 
men started this day for Fort Wayne, to reinforce that post. Governor Meigs is 
here, and will make this headquarters.'' 

Governor Charles Scott, of Kentucky, was equally active in pushing to the 
front the militia of that State. To lead the Kentucky regiments ordered to Michi- 
gan, Governor Scott selected the victor of Tippecanoe, General William H. Harri- 
son, who overtook the troops assigned to his command while on their northward 
march, south of Dayton, which place they reached September I. On the third of 
that month Harrison arrived at Pi([ua, from whence he issued the following stirring 
appeal, dated "September 5, 1812, Four o'clock a. m." 

Mounted Volunteers I —I requested you in my late address [Sei>temher 2] to rendezvous at 
Dayton on the fifteenth instant. I have now a more pressing call for your services ! The 

2*\x History of thk City of CoLrMBrs. 

Britifih and Indians have invaded our country, and are now benieging (perhaps have taken) 
Fort Wayne. Every friend of his country who is able so to do, will join me as soon as possi- 
ble, well mounted with a good ritle, and twenty or thirty days provision. Ammunition will 
be furnished at Cincinnati or Dayton, and the volunteers will draw provisions (to save their 
salted meat) at all the public deposits. The Quarter- Masters and Commissaries will see that 
this ordered is executed. 

General Harrison delivered Fort Wayne from siege on the twelflh of September, 
and on the twentyfourth rceoivod a dispatch of the Hoventeenth appointing him to 
the chief command of the NorlhwostoVn Army. On assuming that command, he 
found tlie troops in summer dress, unprovided with socks or mittens, and ver}' 
meagerly supplied with blankets. He therefore appealed to the patriotic people 
of Ohio and Kentucky to contribute the articles oi' clothing necessary to pi^otect 
their defenders from the inclemency of winter. "Can any patriot sleep easy in 
his bed of down," he pleaded, " when he reflects upon the situtation of acentinel 
exposed to the cold of a winter night in Canada, in a linen hunting shirt? Will 
the amiable fair sex suffer their brave defenders to be mutilated by the frost for 
the want of mittens and s(M-ks which they can with little exertion procure for 

To collect supplies and organize troops more effectively for the expected winter 
campaign, General Harrison transferred to General James Winchester the com- 
mand at Fort Defiance, to which point he had pushed his advance, and proceeded 
thence, ria W^ooster to Franklinton. There we find him addressing a communi- 
cation to the War Department, on the thirteenth of October, At Chillicothe' 
which he visited on the sixteenth, he declined a ])ublic dinner tendered him, saying 
the soldiers of his command, "already far advanced into the wilderness," were suf- 
fering for necessary supplies, and that "it\vould not bo very agreeable to those 
brave fellows to learn that their general was fciisting in the rear at the time when 
they were confined to a bare sufficiency of the coarsest food." 

In the execution of his plans for retaking Detroit, General Harrison proposed 
to establish a depot of su])plies at Sandusky, concentrate his forces by different 
routes at the Maumeo Rapids, and advance with this united column to the River 
Kaisin. Three different lines of concentration and supply were adopted, the most 
w^esterly passing around the Black Swamp by the valleys of the Auglaize and 
Maumee, and the others leading through it. Tl»e Virginia troops, forming, with 
the Pennsylvanians, the right wing, crossed the Ohio at the mouth of the (rroat 
Kanawha, marched across the country to Chillieothe, and thence passed up the 
valley of the Scioto /vV/ Franklinton and Delaware to Upper Sandusky. In eon- 
sequence of this arrangetiient, Franklinton became an important rendezvous and 
depot of supplies. On the twentyfifth of October General Harrsion held a con- 
ference there with brigadier-generals Perkins and Heall, of whom the first had 
been assigned to the command of a brigade of Ohio militia encamped on the 
Huron. \ brigade of Virginians under (ieneral Leftwich arrived at Delaware 
November tJ, and was met tiiere by Harrison who had meanwhile j)ersonallv 
reconnoitered the HIack Swamp, and ordered Perkins to build through its oozy 
and dismal confines a practicable road. A brigade of Pennsylvanians had arrived 
at Mansfield. 

Franklinton had by this time become a bustling center of war pi'epa rations. 
The FrtimaiLn Chronic/c of October 81 says: " Our town begins to aasume quite a 

The First War Epi8ode. 231) 

military appearance. Six or seven hundred troops are already here. Two com- 
panies of Pennsylvania troops are "expected in a few days, and we look daily for 
the arrival of one hundred U. S. Dragoons from Kentucky. The force to be col- 
lected at this place will ho nearly three thousand. How long they will remain has 
not been ascertained.'' 

The same issue of the Chroitirfr contains the following items of minor military 
mention : 

General Harrison left this place on Tuesday morning for Mansfield, arcoinpanied I)y 
Generals Beall and Perkins. 

Captain Garrard's troop of horse arrived here on Mon<iay. 

Colonel Simrairs regiment arrived on VV^ednesday. 

Major Ball, of the U. 8. Army, arrived the same day. 

A company of U. S. troops under Captain Elliott arrived yesterday. 

About one hundred regulars, from Piqua, with three pieces of artillery, arrived today, 
and fired a salute. 

The Virginia troops arrived some days ago at C'hillicothe. They are expected here on 
Wednesday next. 

The same paper of November 7 says : 

The Virginia troops under General Leftwich arrived here on Monday evening, and 
marched on Wednesday for Delaware, where they still remain. Two companies of Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers under Captains Butler and Alexander arrived in town on Friday. 

The Cbronide of November 17 contains these items: 

General Harrison arrived in town onTliurstiay evening from Delaware, and was received 
with the military honors due to his rank. 

On Friday afternoon his excellency the Governor arrived here from Marietta, and was 
saluted by Captain Cushing's company of artillery. 

Major Benson, of the Virginia line, passed through here a few days ago, to take com- 
mand of a battalion now at Delaware. 

Several hundred stand of arms for tlie Kentucky cavalry were receive<l here on Friday. 

All the troops at this place paraded on tht^ public s<juare yesterday, and were revit^wed 
by his excellency Governor Meigs, accompanied by General Flarrison an<l his slaflT. 

To intimidate the Indians, who had been emboldened bv various minor sue- 
cesses, and to clear his letl flank, (icneral Harrison dispatched an expedition 
against the Miami villages on the Massassiniway, one of the tributaries of the 
Wabash. The expeditionary detachment comprised Colonel Simrall's Kentucky 
regiment of six months volunteer dragoons, .Major James V. Ball's squadron of 
United States dragoons, Captain P]lliott's company of the Nineteenlh United 
States Infantry, a small company of volunt^^er riflemen from the neighborhood of 
Greensburg, Pennsylvania, under Captain Alexandei', a company of Pittsburgh vol- 
unteer light infantry under Captain James Hutler, Captain Markle^-'s troop of 
horse, from Westmoreland (-ounly, Pennsylvania; Lioutenanl Lee's detachment 
of Michigan militia, and Captain Garrard's troop of horse from Lexington, Ken- 
tucky. This combined force, in all six hundred strong, was mostly mounted, and 
was led by Ijieutenant-Colonel John H. ('ampbell, of the Nineteenth United States 
Infantry. The expedition was organized at Franklinton, and inarche<l thence 
/'/// Xenia to Dayton, where it was detained several days in procuring horses. The 
Frefinnn's Chronlde of December 5, 1 Hi 2, thus notes its departure: ''On the eiii^h- 
teenth ult., between six and seven hundrcl troops, under the coinmaiHl of Colonel 
Campbell, of the United States Army, left this place on a .secret expedition.* 

240 History of the City of (youiMiu's. 

By forced marehew in severely cold weather, Colonel Campbell succeeded in 
surprising the Indians in their villages near the present site of Muncie, Indiana. 
The savages made a counter attack the following day, December 18, but were 
again routed. The Fnrtthtti's ('hron'nli-^ of December HO, 1812, gives the followiniir 
account of these battles, derived from (.'aptain Ilitc, who had "just arrived, express 
from C'olonel Campbell's detachment' : 

On the seventeenth, after marching all night, Colonel Campbell, with his command, 
arrive<l at one of the Massassineway towns, and instantly (*har)fed upon the town, drove the 
savaj?e8 across the Massassineway River, killed seven of them, and tookthirtyseven prisoners. 
Only two of our men were killed in this skirmish. . . . 

On the eighteenth, before daybreak, the horrid savajje yell was heard, the word was 
given /o an/M, and a niost <lesperate contliet coinmence<l. Captain Pierce, of the Zanesville 
troop, was killed at the iirst onset, while standing guard. He is reprt»sented t^ have behavo<l 
gallantly and died nobly. Lieutenant VVallz of Captain Markley's company, from Greens 
burg, Pa., was shot through the arm and not being satisfied with that, he again endeavored 
to mount his horse, and in making the effort was sliot through the head. His death wa>^ 
glorious. Captain Trotter, while charging with fury upon the enemy, was wounded in the 
hand. Lieutenants Basey and Hickman were slightly wounded. A great number of horses 
were killed. The action continued with unabated fury for one hour, when the savages were 
routed, and <lriven in all directions. . . . On receipt of the above pleasing intelligence, 
several rounds were tired by Captain Cushing's Artillery company now at this place.*^ 

Colonel Campbell's loss was eight killed and twentysix wounded. The Indian 
loss in killed was supposed to be thirty or forty. As Tecumseh was reported to be 
in the neighborhood with five or six hundred warriors, Campbell prudently with- 
drew to Greenville, and thence by slow marches to Franklinton, where he arrived 
early in January. Many of his horses were nearly starved, and one hundred and 
eighty of his men were frostbitten. 

On the second of January, 1813, (fcneral Harrison announced Colonel Camp- 
bell's success in congratulatory general orders issue<l from the Headquarters of the 
Northwestern Army at Franklinton. Until Oec^ember 30. the headquarters had 
been at Upper Sandusky, or rather wherever the Commander-in-chief liappened to 
halt for a brief interval between his rapid and frequent movements. The follow- 
ing contemporary items of military news are taken from the Fmnwni's (■hroHt'rU o^ 
the dates given : 

December 5 — About one hundred cavalry of General Crook's Brigade of Pennsylvania 
militia arrived here from Mansfield on Tuesday last. 

Four thousand six hundred and fortyeight large fat hogs have been driven from this? 
neighborhood within a few <lay8, destined for the Rapids, for the use of the Northwestern 

December 30— General Harrison's Headquarters are now at Upper Sandusky. A regi- 
ment and an odd battalion of the Virginia troops are encamped at that place. The remain- 
der of the Virginians are at Delaware; the Pennsylvanians were on their march from Mans- 
field to Upper Sandusky. 

An elegant volunteer company from Petersburg, Virginia, have arrived at Chillicothe. 
They are expected in this town in a few days. They are commanded by Captain McRae, 
brother of the Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia. . . . Since the above was put in type. 
General Harrison arrived here from Upper Sandusky, and proceeded to Chillicothe. He will 
return in a few days to Sandusky. 

Januarys, ISIIJ — Captain Cushing's eompany of Artillery marched from this place on 
the first instant for Sanduskv ; hut owing to the extreme inclemencv of the weather thev 
have yet progressed no further than Worthington, nine miles from here. 



• » • 


• • 

The First War Episode. 241 

The company of Petersburg, Va., Volunteers arrived here on Saturday last, in good 
health and spirits. . . . General Harrison is still at this place. 

Colonel Campbell and Alexander, with their companies, have returned here from 


A company of regulars, under Captain Bradford, arrived here a few days ago from 

January 15 — A company of U. S. Infantry arrived hereon Sunday from Chillicothe. 
There are now at this place four companies of regulars, and throe companies of twelve months 
volunteers. It is said they will not remain here many days. 

We are asked every day when the army will move for Detroit? Omniscience alone can 
solve the question. 

The public stores which are daily arriving at and forwarded from this place to the Head- 
quarters of the army are immense. Nevertheless it is said that there is but a small quantity 
of forage at Upper Sandusky. 

The weather, for some days past, has been extremely cold, the ground very hard frozen, 
and transportation thereby rendered tolerably easy. 

In pursuaiice of the plans for a winter campaign, on which General Harrison 
was still bent, General Winchester advanced from Fort Defiance to the Maumee 
Rapids where he arrived January 10, and established a fortified camp near the 
scene of Wayne's battle. Here Winchester was visited by messengers from French- 
town, on the fiiver Kaisin, twentysix miles south of Detroit, invoking his protec- 
tion against the Indians who threatened to ravage the settlement. In compliance 
with these requests, Colonel Lewis was dispatched on the morning of January 17 
with five hundred and fifty Kentuckians, followed a few hours later by a detach- 
ment one hundred and ten strong, under Colonel Allen. With a loss of twelve 
killed and fiftyfive wounded, Lewis dislodged and routed the enemy at French- 
town, to which point Winchester immediately marched forward with an additional 
force of two hundred and fifty men. On the morning of January 22, Winchester 
and Lewis were surprised, outflanked and routed by a superior force of British and 
Indians from Maiden under General Proctor. Five hundred and fifty of the 
Americans were captured, two hundred and ninety others were killed or missing. 
The wounded were left to the mercy of the Indians by Proctor, and were massacred. 
Among the victims were man}' representatives of the most prominent families in 
Kentuck}'. Winchester and Lewis were both taken captive. 

The movement which resulted in this terrible disaster seems to have been 
made without specific authority from General Harrison,** who, as soon as he heard 
of Winchester's advance, rushed through the Black Swamp with a reinforcement 
from Upper Sandusky, but arrived too late. Fugitives from Winchester's army 
announced its complete destruction, leaving nothing further to bo done but to bring 
forward the available troops, and concentrate them at the Kapids, which was 
accordingly done during the weeks next following. As the term of enlistment of 
the two Ohio brigades, and some of the Pennsylvania and Kentucky regiments, 
would expire in February, all further thought ot a winter campaign against 
Detroit was abandoned. As the position at the Rapids was a key point and an ad- 
vantageous base for future operations Captain Wood, of the Engineers, was ordered 
to fortify it, and constructed a system of palisades and blockhouses which took the 
name of Fort Meigs. Wood's own name was afterwards given to the county in 
which the fort was located. 



'tHE First War Episode. 243 

The news of Winchester's defeat, and the atrocious butchery of his wounded 
soldiers, produced widespread amazement and horror. All Kentucky was in 
mourning for its murdered sons, and all Ohio in apprehension of Indian raids and 
murders along the frontier. A draft was ordered, and a proclamation issued by 
Governor Meigs calling for three months' volunteers, the first division to 
rendezvous at Urbana, the second and third at Franklinton, and the fourth at 
Upper Sandusky. The Freeman s ('hronie/e ol' this period contains the following 
current military notes : 

February 19 — Governor Meigs has arrived in town to or^nize and facilitate the move- 
ment of the drafted militia now assembling here. Three companies are now encamped in 
this vicinity. 

March 5 — About two hundred and fifty of the drafted militia, under Colonel Steven- 
son, left here last week for Upper Sandusky. Several more drafted men are yet here, ami 
will march soon. 

Captain Garrard's troop arrived here last week, and started soon afterwards for San- 
dusky, but have since been ordered to Lebanon where the whole of Major Ball's squadron 
will remain for some time. 

March 19 — We have heard of no persons arriving from the Rapids for some days. The 
road through the Black Swamp is said to be utterly impassable. 

General Harrison left here on Monday last for Ohillicothe, from whence he will go Cin- 
cinnati, and perhaps to Kentucky.' He had previously received notice of his appointment as 
Major- Oeneral. 

About one hundred drafted militia, under the command of Major Pitzer, marched from 
here on Monday for St. Mary's. General Wingate and suite left here on Sunday for St. 

March 26 — There are no troops now at this place. Owing to the late rise of the wat-ers, 
and the consequent badness of the roads, no transportation of forage or militia stores can, 
for the present, be effected. 

April 9 — Cincinnati, April 3. On Tuesday last General Harrison left this place for the 
Rapids of the Miami of the Lakes. 

April 23 — His excellency. Governor Meigs, arrived here on Tuesday, to organize and 
facilitate the march of some independent companies, which have been ordered to rendez- 
vous here immediately. Part of a company of riflemen arrived here the same day from 

April 30 — Within the last week the following companies of Ohio militia, recently 
ordered out by his excellency the Governor, arrived at this place, viz: Captain McConnell's 
company from Zanesville, Captain Ewing's from Lancaster, Captain Brush's from Chilli- 
cothe. Captain Harper's from Paint Creek, and Captain McElvaine's frouj Fayette County. 
These five companies will form one handsome battalion of upwards of two hundred, and will 
be commanded by Captain Brush, of the Chillicothe Guards, who is the senior captain. 
They will march this day for Upper Sandusky, where they will be stationed to protect the 
vast quantity of public stores deposited at that place. The Governor will conduct them as 
far as Delaware. 

May 7 — By express from Fort Findlay, we understand that at that place, cannonading 
was distinctly heard, from the first instant, in the morning, to the third. For the first 
Iwentyfour hours it was incessant. . . . Governor Meigs was at Delaware when the 
news was first received — who immediately gave orders for mounted men to proceed with all 
possible dispatch. . . . Captain Vance's company [the Franklin Dragoons] of Cavalry 
left this place yesterday morning under Lieutenant Grate, destined for Upper Sandusky, 
where, we understand. His Excellency Governor Meigs will concentrate all the forces now 
collecting from this part of the state. We understand his excellency will command in 
person ; if ao, we have the greatest relyance on his courage and enterprise. We believe Gov- 
ernor Meigs will do his duty. 

244 History op the City op CoLUMBtts. 

The firing heard at Fort Findlay was that of the siege of Fort Meigs, begun 
on the twentjeighth of April by a force of British and Indians three or four 
thousand strong under Proctor and Tecumseh. Returning northward from Cin- 
cinnati, by way of the Auglaize Valley, General Harrison arrived at the Fort 
April 11, and assumed command of the garrison in person. Ball's Dragoons, from 
Lebanon, and a force of mounted Kentuckians had reached there before him. 
General -Green Clay was approaching at the head of an additional Kentuckj^ force 
when the enemy opened his batteries on the third of May. Aided by sorties from 
the fort, Clay cut his way into it on the fifth. Having lost several of his batteries 
and some hundreds of men killed, wounded or prisoners. Proctor abandoned the 
siege on the ninth, and disappeared down the Maumce. Satisfied that he would 
not soon return, General Harrison rode to Lower Sandusky, now Fremont, where 
he met Governor Meigs with a large force of Ohio militia pushing to the front. 
Passing on by way of Upper Sandusky and Delaware to Franklinton, the General 
found the entire route strewn with Ohio troops marching to the relief of the 
beleaguered fort.* The services of these men not being immediately needed, their 
organizations were disbanded much to their chagrin, by an order issued by General 
Harrison at Franklinton, May 16. 

A call for the enlistment of a troop of fifty mounted men for thirty days, to 
assist in the relief of Fort Meigs, was published in PVanklinton on the seventh of 
May, signed by Joseph Foos," Brigadier-General Fourth Brigade, Second Division," 
of the Ohio militia. During the preceding autumn General Foos had commanded 
a detachment from the Second Division, stationed at "the Plains of Sandusky." 
His call for dragoon recruits appealed especially to " the patriotism of the young 
men of Franklin County," but the troop could scarcely have been equipped or even 
organized prior to General Harrison's disbanding order of May 16. 

Another Franklinton organization is thus referred to in the Chronicle of May 28 : 

A part of Captain Vance's company of Franklin Dragoons detached at Lower Sandusky, 
to accompany the Governor from that place to Cleveland, have returned. . . . Captain 
Vance is appointed to the command of the garrison at Jx>wer Sandusky. 

General Cass arrived at Franklinton on the twentyseventh, and Major Ball's 
squadron of cavalry on the twentyeighth of May. 

Further attempts to retake Detroit being disallowed by the War Department 
until Commodore Perry's naval force, then being equipped at Presque Isle, now 
Erie, should be ready to sweep the lake. General Harrison made a hasty tour of 
inspection southward to Chillicothe and Cincinnati, but soon returned to Frank- 
linton, following the Twenty fourth United States Infantry, which he ordered 
thither from Newport. The Twentyfourth, Colonel Anderson, had been recruited 
in Tennessee. 

Riding ahead of the Twentyfourth, which came in a day later, General Harrison 
arrived at Franklinton June 6, and immediately invited a conference there with 
deputations from the neutral Indian tribes whose services he was very anxious to 
enlist in the American cause. The conference was held June 21, 1813, on the 
grounds of Lucas Sullivant, and is thus described in the SuUivant Family Mtmorial : 

The Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot and Seneca tribes were represented by about fifty o£ 
the chiefs and warriors. General Harrison rej)re8ented the Government, and with him wert^ 
his staff and a brilliant array of oHicers in full uniform. Behind was a detachment of soldiers . 

'..-•-■^t^l ■ 

The First War Episode. 245 

In his front were the Indians. Around all were the inhabitants of the region far and near, 
with many a mother and maid, as interested spectators. 

The General began to speak in calm and measured tones befitting the grave occasion, 
but an undefined, oppression seemed to hold all in suspense* as, with silent and almost 
breathless attention, they awaited the result of the Generars words, which seemed to fall on 
dull ears, as the Indians sat with unmoved countenances and smoked on in stolid silence. 
At length the persuasive voice of the great commander struck a responsive chord, and, when 
Tarhe, or Crane, the great Wyandot chief, slowly rose to his feet, and, standing for a moment 
in a graceful and commanding attitude, made a brief reply, and then, with others, pressed 
forward to grasp the hand of Harrison, in token, not only of amity but in agreement to stand 
as a barrier on our exposed border, a terrible doubt and apprehension was lifted from the 
hearts of all. Jubilant shouts rent the air, women wept for joy, and stalwart men thrilled 
with pleasure as they now thought of the assured safety of their wives and children from a 
cruel and stealthy foe, and they prepared at once, with cheerful alacrity, to go forth to the 
impending battles.' 

During this sojourn of General Harrison's an event of a tragical nature took 
place in Frauklinton. The Chronicle of June 16, 1813, contains the following ac- 
count of it : 

Awful Scenk. — A man named William Fish, a private in Captain Hopkins's company of 
U. S. Light Dragoons, was SHOT at this place on Saturday last for the crime of desertion and 
threatening the life of his captain. We never before witnessed so horrid a spectacle ; and can- 
not, in justice to our feelings, attempt a description of it. Three other privates, who were 
condemned to death by the same court martial, were pardoned by General Harrison. The 
last who was pardoned had been previously conducted to his coffin, and the cap placed over 
his eyes, in which situation he remained until Fish was shot; his reprief was then read. 

In tbe Chronicle of the same date are found these items : 

The Twentyfourth Regiment of U. 8. Infantry marched from this place on Sunday last 
for Cleveland, by way of Lower Sandusky. 

General Harrison's Headquarters are still at Franklinton. 

The affairs of the Northwestern Army begin to assume a new aspect. It will hereafter 
be composed principally, if not solely, of regular troops. The route by the way of the Rapids 
has been very properly abandoned. Measures are taking to transport the public stores now 
at this place to Cleveland. 

By this time startling news began to arrive again from the north, whore 
General Cla}' had been left in command of Fort Meigs. The Freeman's Chronicle 
of June 26 contains the following announcement which must have caused groat 
apprehension : 

Highly Important ! — An express arrived here on Wednesday afternoon from Fort 
Meigs, with despatches from General Clay to General Harrison, stating that certain informa- 
tion had been received that FOUR THOUSAND INDIANS had collected at Maiden — that 
fifteen hundred British regulars and militia were on their march to, or had arrived at Mai- 
den — and that an immediate attack was meditated on Fort Meigs, or the posts in rear of that 
Fort. General Harrison supposes that Lower Sandusky will be the first point of attack. 

On the receipt of this intelligence, all the troops at this post were immediately ordered 
to march for Lower Sandusky. They marched this morning. Colonel Anderson's regiment 
have been ordered to halt on this side of Lower Sandusky. General Harrison started yester- 
day morning and will overtake Colonel Anderson this evening. 

On the first of July a courier from Upper Sandusky arrived in Franklinton 
bringing a report that Fort Meigs, Lower Sandusky and Cleveland had all been 
attacked by Indians. These rumors caused great anxiety until contradicted by 
later information published in an extra issue of the Chronicle July 5. In this issue 

248 History of the City of Columbus. 

it was stated that General Harrison had arrived at Fort Meigs on the twentyeighth, 
that the post had not even been threatened, and that Colonel Johnson's mounted 
regiment had made a reconnoissance to the River Eaisin, but had discovered no 
enemy, A band of about one hundred Indians, prowling about Lower Sandusky, 
had killed a couple of straggling dragoons, and massacred a family near the fort, 
then disappeared. Major Croghan, with nearly five hundred regulars, was sta- 
tioned at the Broad Ford, seventeen miles from Lower Sandusky, ready to move 
to any point which might be endangered. The State militia ordered out by 
Governor Meigs during the alarm were dismissed again to their homes. 

His presence not being required at Fort Meigs, General Harrison passed over 
to Lower Sandusky, and thence, underescort of Ball's cavalry, to Cleveland, where 
the Secretary of War had ordered boats to be built for transporting the army across 
the lake. At Cleveland Harrison exchanged communications with Perry at 
Presque Isle, and received orders from Washington to call out the militia. Large 
quantities of army stores were forwarded from Franklinton to Lower Sanduskj' by 
Quartermaster-General Bartiett. 

Returning to the Sandusky River, Harrison was intercepted by a courier from 
Clay announcing that a force five thousand stronir, under Proctor, had ascended the 
Maumee in boats July 20, and was confronting Fort Meigs. A reassuring message 
went back to Clay, borne by his messenger. Captain McCune. Harrison suspected 
that the movement on Fort Meigs was only a feint to cover a descent on one of the 
Sanduskys, or Cleveland. He therefore took his station at Seneca Town, on the 
Sandusky, whence he could readily move to any i)oint likely to be threatened. 
Nine miles below, where Fremont now stands, a small stockade had been built on 
a tract of land reserved as a trading station in Wayne's treaty of Greenville. At 
the time Harrison took post at Seneca Town, this work was known as Fort 
Stevenson, and was held by a garrison of one hundred and sixty men under Major 
George Croghan, a young Kentucky ofiicer of twentyone years, nephew to General 
George Rogers Clark. 

After various ineffectual attempts to decoy General Clay out of Fort Meigs, 
Proctor reembarked his white soldiers and sailed down the lake, while Tecumseh, 
with some thousands of warriors, crossed the Black Swamp toward the Sandusky 
River. On the twentyninth the Indians swarmed out of the woods along the river, 
and appeared in front of Harrison's camp. Deeming Fort Stevenson untenable, Har- 
rison ordered Croghan to abandon it, and withdraw to Seneca Town. Croghan 
replied to this command that he was resolved to hold the fort, and was thereupon 
summoned to headquarters to answer for disobedience. Responding promptly to 
this summons, Croghan appeared before General Harrison, and so clearly proved 
that it would be more hazardous to abandon the fort than to attempt to hold it, 
that he was permitted to resume his command, and execute his own plans. His 
defense of Fort Stevenson against the assaults of a force seven or eight times as 
great as his own, forms one of the most brillant episodes of the War of 1812. 
Croghan was the Corse of that war, and F'ort Stevenson its Allatoona Pass. As- 
cending the river on the thirtytirst of July, Proctor began his assaults on the 
first of August, and renewed them on the second, but was on both days disastrously 
repulsed. During the night of the second, he drew off in disorderly retreat, leav- 
ing the escarpments, ditches and clearings around the fort strewn with his dead 

The First War Episodb. 


Photognph by F. H. Howe, isn. 

248 History of the City of Columbus. 

and wounded, numbering, in all, about one hundred and fifty. Croghan lost but 
eight men. On the thirteenth of August, the ladies of Chillicothe sent hiin a 
complimentary letter accompanied by the present of a sword. 

The rumors and reports which reached Franklinton during these events were 
of the most stirring character. The State militia, disbanded only a month before, 
and now mostly busied with the harvest, promptly took the field again at the sum- 
mons of Governor Meigs. The Frerynan's Chronicle of July 30, says: 

The militia are rushing forward from all quarters of the State. Thousands are already in 
advance of this place, and thoiieands are on the march to the rear. It is impossible to 
ascertain the number of troops assembled and assembling throughout the State. Between 
six and seven thousand would he a moderate calculation. Even his Excellency the Governor, 
who arrived here three or four days ago, and has been engaged day and night in the organi- 
zation of the militia, is still ignorant of what number of troops are in motion through the 
State. Upwards of three thousand have passed through here within the last two days, and 
we hourly hear of hundreds of others on the march. 

On the authority of Captain Vance, who had just returned from the Sandusky, 
the Chronicle of August 11^ says: 

General Harrison is at Seneca Town with between thirteen hundred and two thousand 
men, principally regulars. All the militia, except two regiments, will be sent home in a few 
days. The Governor will go to Seneca previously to his return, which will be in a few days. 
The Franklin Dragoons will accompany him. 

The emergency for which the Ohio volunteers were called out on this occasion 
was soon over, but their blood was up, and they wore anxious to fight it out with 
Proctor this time, and make an end of Jiritish invasion. Unfortunately they had 
enlisted for only forty days, a period entirely too short to make their services 
available for the autumn campaign then being planned. They were therefore dis- 
missed and sent homo again, to their profound disgust. The Freeman's Chronicle 
of August 20 says: 

Some thousands passed through here within the last week. Most of those who returned 
are extremely bitter against Governor Meigs and General Harrison. They say they were 
ciUled out and marched contrary to their will, without proper authority or an adequate 
emergency ; and complained that when they arrived at Sandusky they were not permitted 
to proceed and terminate the northwestern campaign by one strong and decisive effort. 

But, notwithstanding these complaints, whenever volunteers were needed, as 
happened again some weeks later, they were obtained. In Franklinton so liberal 
was the response to the call of patriotism that there was sometimes scarcely an 
able-bodied man left. 

The Chronicle of August 20, 1S13, contains this long- looked- for news: 

Commodore Perry writes to the Secretary of War, August 4, 1813, 9 p. m. : I have 
great pleasure in informing you that I have succeeded in getting over the bar the United 
States vessels, the I^wrence, Niagara, Caledonia, Ariel, Scorpion, Somers, Tigress, and 
Porcupine. The enemy have been in sight all day and are now about four leagues from us. 
We shall sail in pursuit of them at three tomorrow morning. 

Perry's brilliant victory over the British fleet on the tenth of September; the 
capture of Maiden by Harrison's army (transported across the lake by Perry) on 
tbe twentyeighth; and the victory of that army over Proctor and Tecumseh on the 
Thames River in Canada October 5, practically ended the war in Ohio. After these 
events the military operations in the Northwestern Department consisted mainly 

The First War Episode. 240 

ill guarding the frontier, which was done under the direction of Brigadicr-Croneral 
Duncan McArthur. General Harrison resigned his military commission, and was 
elected tx) Congress from the Cincinriati district. In March, 1814, Governor 
Meigs was appointed Postmaster-General, resigned the Governorship, and was 
succeeded therein by Othniel Looker, Speaker of the Senate. A treaty of peace 
between the United States and Great Britain was signed December 24, 1814, at 
Ghent, in Belgium. 

To the end of the war Franklin ton continued to be an important military 
rendezvous and point of distribution for both troops and supplies. Its armory, su- 
perintended by William C. layman, United States Commissary of Ordnance, repair- 
ed muskets and supplied ammunition. In February, 1814, the drafted Ohio militia 
were ordered to assemble at Franklinton. to the number of fourteen hundred. 
Lieutenant McElvain and Ensign Cochran were the officers locally engaged at that 
time in collecting recruits. The weather being very inclement, and the roads almost 
impassable, the work of enlistment and organization progressed slowly. No further 
imminent danger along the frontier impelled volunteers to exchange the comfort 
of their homes for the hardships of a winter campaign. In the latter part of 
February about two hundred men had assembled at Franklinton under the four- 
teen hundred call, and early in March a battalion of Ohio niilitia under Major 
Dawson, set out for Sandusky. Volunteers were called for about the same time to 
guard the British soldiers at Chillicothe, captured in Ilarrisoirs battle of the 
Thames. Part of these captives had been retained for a short time at Franklinton. 
A company of the Seventeenth United States Infantry, (.'aptain B. W. Saunders, 
arrived there from Kentucky June 4. One of the military arrivals in July was that 
of British captives, from Chillicothe, en mufv to Upper Sandusky. They were 
escorted by a detachment of regulars under Major Graham. The British taken 
by Johnson's regiment in the Thames battle were brought up from Newport, 
Kentucky, by Captain Stockton's Company of the Twenty eighth Infantry, early 
in August. 

Transient bodies of troops, regulars or militia, doubtless continued to enliven 
Franklinton by their arrival, dej)arture, or sojourn to the end of the year. This 
stimulated the business of the village, and made it prosperous for the time being, 
yet all of its people were heartily glad when the war was over, and all danger of 
Indian massacre forever passed "Thank God!" exclaimed Mi*s. Lucas Sullivant 
when she read in the Freanans (Vinmic/e that Ilarrison had taken Maiden. And 
so, doubtless, felt many another matron wlu) had survived through the alarms 
and anxietiesof frontier life in the War of 1812. 


1. Freeman's Ch ran iclf, J uuii 24, IS 12. 

2. The names of the Indian Chiefs who signed tl\is treaty were: Tarhe or Crane, 
Sha-ra-to, iSu-tuah, Mouu-kon, Dew-o-su, or Big River, of the Wyandots ; Cut-a wa-ha sa, or 
Black Hoof, Cut-a-we pa, Pi-a-go-ha, Pi-ta-na-ge, Ki-e-hisli-eina, of the Shawneee; Ma-tha-me, 
of the M in goes. 

3. So named, it is said, because, owing to the ditfieulty of the trail and the unstahle 
nature of the ground in the Black Swamp wliere it was built, tliis blockhouse was, from 
necessity, located at that particular point. 

4. Sullivant Family Memorial. 



History of the City of Columbus. 

5. The same issue of the Chronicle (December 30, 1812) announces Decatur's capture of 
the British frigate Macedonian, and Napoleon's entry into Moscow. 

6. Early in January, 1813, General Harrison wrote to the War Department from 
Franklinton : " My plan of operations has been, and now is, to occupy the Miami 
Bapids, and to deposite there as much provisions as possible, to move from thence with a 
choice detachment of the army, and with as much provision, artillery, and ammunition as 
the means of transportation will allow— make a demonstration towards Detroit, and by a 
sudden passage of the strait upon the ice, an actual investiture of Maiden." —Daioson^s Life of 

• 7. Referring to this tour of General Harrison's, Atwater says: "Leaving the troops 
in the garrison [at Fort Meigs] he hastily departed into the interior, by way of the Sanduskys, 
Delaware, Franklinton and Chillicothe to Cincinnati. He everywhere, as he moved along, 
urged forward to Fort Meigs troops, provisions, and all the munitions of war. At Chillicothe 
he found Colonel John Miller and one hundred and twenty regulars under him, of the Nine- 
teenth regiment. These the General ordered to Fort Meigs by way of the Auglaize route. 
He found but one company of Kentuckians at Newport, but two or three other companies 
soon reaching that place, he mounted the whole of them on pack horses, and ordered them to 
Fort Meigs. Going forward himself he ordered Major Ball and his dragoons, who had been 
cantoned at Lebanon ever since their return from the Missisineway expedition, to march to the 
same point. Harrison himself marcheil to Amanda on the Auglaize. Here he found Colonel 
Miller and his regulars, just arrived from Chillicothe, and Colonel Mills of the militia, with 
one hundred and fifty men who had been building and had completed a fleet of boats. Into 
these boatfi the General and these troops and boat builders entered, and in this way, reached 
Fort Meigs on the eleventh of April, 1813. — Aiwater's History of Ohio, 

8. The Franklin Chronicle of May 13, 1813, contains the following enthusiastic account 
of the outpouring of the Ohio volunteers for the relief of Fort Meigs : 

*' The siege of Fort Meigs was raised on the ninth, the British and their allies had 
retired, and the communication was perfectly open. . . . The troops were consequently 
ordered to return to their homes, and an express was despatched to onler back all who were 
then on their way to join the main body. About six hundred were met between Lower San- 
dusky and Delaware rushing on to the point of destination with the greatest zeal and alac- 
rity. Six or seven hundred more were on their march by way of Fort Findlay, who were also 
ordered to return. Several hundred, probably thomandSy of others were preparing to march 
from various parts of the state, and aJl this in the course of a few days. Such zeal, such prompt- 
itude, such patriotism were never surpassed in the annals of the world. Alt ages and ranks 
of citizens flocked by one noble impulse simultaneously to the standard of their country. 
. . . Never have we witnessed such a scene ; never, we believe, was such a scene exhib- 
ited in North America. We are confident that if the fort had not relieved itsef for ten days 
longer, ten thousand men from Ohio would have been on their march towards it. Although 
inexperienced and undisciplined, and sometimes refractory, yet it may be truly said that on 
such occasions as the late emergency, the militia is the bulwark of liberty." 

9. The Franklin Chronicle's account of General Harrison's speech to the Indians is as 
follows: *' The General promised to let the several tribes know when he should want their 
services, and further cautioned them that all who went with them must conform to his mode 
of warfare, not to kill or injure old men, women, children, nor prisoners; that by this means, 
we should be able to ascertain whether the British tell the truth when they say that they are 
not able to prevent Indians from such acts of horrid cruelty ; for if the Indians under him 
(General H.) would obey /iw commands, and refrain from acts of barbarism, it would be very 
evident that the hostile Indians could be as easily restrained by their commanders. The 
(ieneral then informed the chiefs of the agreement made by Proctor to deliver him to 
Tecumseh in case the British succeeded in taking Fort Meigs; an<l promised them that if he 
should be successful, he would deliver Proctor into their hands on condition that they should 
do him no other harm than to put a petticoat on /tim, ' for,' said he, * none but a coward or a 
squaw would kill a prisoner.'" 



The State Director provided for in the statute which permanently located the 
capital was vested with some very important functions. By the exercise of his 
discretion in the discharge of the duties laid upon him the character of the future 
city was, in some respects, permanently fixed. Probably no functionary ever had 
more to do with molding the infancy and marking out the adult future of Colum- 
bus, at least in a topographical sense. He was required to "superintend the sur- 
veying and laying out of the town," to "direct the width of streets and alleys," 
and " to select the square for public buildings, and the lot for the penitentiary " and 
its " dependencies." He was empowered to collect and disburse taxes on the town 
properly until January 1, 1816. In brief, the State of Ohio, acting through her 
agent, Joel Wright, was the sponsor of the newlyborn capital. 

Another duty with which the Director was charged, was that of supervising 
the erection of the public buildings which the original proprietors of the town had 
engaged to provide. In this matter, however, the agent of the State was by no 
means left entirely to his own discretion. By resolution passed February 18, 1812, 
a joint committee was appointed "to agree upon and lay down the plan on which 
the statehouse and penitentiary sliall be erected, and to point out the materials 
whereof they shall be built." Two days later a resolution was passed "laying 
down and agreeing to a plan on whicii the statehouse and penitentiary shall be 
erected," as follows: 

Rewlved by the Senate and Hou$e of Representatives, That the director, after selecting the 
squares and scites whereon the statehouse and penitentiary shall be built, shall proceed to 
lay down the size and dimensions of the said buildings as follows, viz ; The statehouse to be 
seventyfive feet by fifty, to be built of brick on a stone foundation, the proportions of which 
shall be regulated by said director, according to the most approved models of modern archi- 
tecture, so as to combine, as far as possible, elegance, convenience, strength and dura- 

The penitentiary to be sixty feet by thirty, to be built of brick on a stone foundation 
with stone walls projecting in a line with the front fifty feet on each end so as to form a front 
of one hundred and sixty feet, and to extend back from the front one hundred feet, forming 
an area of one hundred and sixty by one hundred feet. The walls to be fifteen feet high. 

The proportion of the penitentiary shall be regulated by the director, according to the 
best models which he can obtain from those states where theory has been tested by experi- 
ence, and the said director shall make a report of his proceedings in the premises, with a plan 
of said buildings, to the next Legislature within ten days after the commencement of the 


252 History of tue City of Columbus. 

In compliance with theso inNtructions, Director Wright seloctod the ground for 
the Pubh'c Square, staked out its boundaries, and fixed the location of the State- 
house on its southwest corner. The Square was then surrounded by a staked and 
ridered ** worm fence/* and was similarly enclosed as late as 1825. It was covered 
by a growth of beautiful forest trees which remained until cleared off by Jarvis 
Pike, under contract with Governor Worthington, in 1815 or 1816.* Pike was per- 
mitted to farm the ground, probably in consideration of his labor in chopping off 
its trees, and harvested from it three or four crops of wheat and corn. After that, 
the fencing became dilapidated, and the ground lay open for several years as a pub- 
lic common. According to A7/Ao ;//•//('>- (iazvfttTr of 1828, ninetenths of it were still un- 
occupied in that year except by the cows and schoolboy ball-players of the village. 
In 1834 the Square was enclosed, for the fii*st time presentably, with a fence of 
cedar posts and white painted palings, built by Jonathan Neereamer. This im- 
provement was instigated by Mr. Alfred Kelley, then agent of the State, who had 
the grounds planted at the same time with young elm trees, brought from the 
forest. The picket fence remained until replaced in 1839 by a higher one of rough 
boards, built to screen the convicts at work on the present Capitol. 

The Penitentiary was located by the Director on a plat of ton acres in the 
southwest ]>art of the town, fronting on Scioto Lane. A complete description of it 
is reserved for the history of the prison. 

Kxcepting excavation for the foundations, and the collection of materials, not 
much progress was made upon any of the public buildings in 1812. In December 
of that year Director Wright submitted the following report to the General 
Assembly : 

The director appointed to superintend the surveying and laying out of the town of Col- 
umbus, etc., respectfully presents on the subject of his appointment the following report: 

Having with diflidence submitted to the unexpected appointment, I repaired to the post 
assigned lue, superintended the surveying and laying out of the town on an elevated and 
beautiful situation ,*on the east side of the Scioto River, opposite the town of Franklinton, in 
Franklin County, directed the width of the streets and alleys, selected the square for 
public buildings and the lot for the penitentiary and dependencies, according to the 
plan or plat herewith presented. After selecting the public square and penitentiary lot, I 
proceeded to designate on the ground plat the sites and dimensions of the Statehoose and 
penitentiary, according to the size of each building prescribed by the Legislature. 

Being directed to regulate the proportion of the penitentiary acccording to the best 
models and plans I could obtain from those states where theory has been tested by experi- 
ence, I have applied for, and, at some considerable expense procured several, viz: Philadel- 
phia, New York and Kentucky. On applying for that at Baltimore I was informed it might 
be procured for thirtysix dollars; but at the same time being notified that it was not on 
the most improved plan, I did not think proper to make a second application. On ex- 
amining and comparing the plans received I found the penitentiary at Columbus could 
not he made exactly conformable to any of those procured without varying the dimensions 
proposed by the Legislature ; I have, however, drawn plans of the different stories so as to 
make the building useful as possible according to its sixe. 

I have also procured the penal laws of Maryland, with the rules and regulations for 
the government of the penitentiary at Baltimore, the penal laws of Pennsylvania, and an 
account of the state prison or penitentiary in the city of New York. These are submit- 
ted to the inspection of the Legislature with the plans above mentioned, to which are 
added plans of the Statehouse and public oifices. 

The Pikst Public Buildinu8. 


254 History of the City op Columbcs. 

It was contemplated to proceed, soon after last harvest, in building the penitentiary, 
so as to have it under roof previous to the opening of the present session, a contract to 
that efTect being niatle; but the unsettled state of public affairs and the drafts of the 
military prevented. The foundation, however, is dug, a large <iuantity of stone and up- 
ward of three humlred thousand brirks an' on the ground ready, prepared to proceed 
in the work early in the succeeding s})ring. 

Joel Wright, 

of Warren County, Director. 
Chillicothe, Ohio, 9th of 12th month, 1812. 

P. S. — As the last Legislature clid not furnish any pe<'uniar>' compensation for the 
director's services and expenses, he now applies for what may l>e deemed proper, and re- 
quests to be excuse<l or released from further attention to the subject of hia appoint- 
ment, and another appointed in his room. 

JoBL Wright. 

Oh February 10, 1814, the General AsHcmbly passed a joint resolution naming 
William Ludlow as " Director of the Town of Oolumbns." This appointment was 
renewed a year later. Mr. Ludlow was neither an architect," nor much acquainted 
with building," says Martin, but 'a faithful agent," and " a man of some talent 
and unquestionable integrity. '* Under his supervision most of the actual con- 
struction of the public buildings was accomplished. During the year 1813, but 
little headway seems to have been made, the war with its numerous distractions 
and constant calls for volunteers to repel invasion proving a great hinderance; but 
the favorable progress of the war in 1814 imparted a fresh stimulus to the work, 
and during that and the following year all the public buildings contracted for by 
the pr()j)rietorH were substantially completed. The Statehousc, as it appeared 
when finished, is described as "a common, plain brick building, seventy five feet 
north and south b}' tifly east and west, on the ground, and two lofly stories high, 
with a square roof, that is, eaves and cornice at both sides and ends, and ascending 
to the balcony and steeple in the centre, in which was a firstrate, well-toned bell. 
The top of the spire was one hundred and six feet from the ground. On the root 
adjoining the balcony, on two sides, were neat railed walks, from which a spectator 
might view the whole town as upon a map, and had also a fine view of the wind- 
ing Scioto, and of the level country around as far as the eye could reach."* 

The foundation of the building had an outside dressing of cut stone to the 
height of two feet above the ground, and a belt of the same material was laid in 
the outer wall around the building, at the top of the first story. Benjamin Thomp- 
son was contractor for the stone and brick work, except the stonecutting, which 
was done by Drummon & Scott. The carpenter work was done by George Mc- 
Cormack and Conrad Crisnian, the plastering by Gottlieb Leightenaker, the paint- 
ing by Conrad Hoyl. The shingles of the roof were of black walnut, furnished by 
Simeon Moore, one of the pioneers of Blendon Township. Freestone for the trim- 
ming to the foundation and openings was brought in wagons from Black Lick, 
twelve miles, by a wretched trail through the swamps. Theclay of which the bricks 
were made was obtained, in part, from the ancient mound which rose on the present 
site of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, on South High Street.* 

The principal entrance to the building was at the center of its southern front, 
on State Street. From the interior vestibule adjoining the main doorway flights 

The First Public Buildings, 255 

of stairs rose right and left leading to a gallery and to the Senate Chamber, which 
was in the second story and had two committee rooms but no gallery. The hall 
for the Representatives was on the lower floor, on the north side of the building. 
It was provided with two committee rooms and a gallery, and communicated with 
High Street by a door at the center of the west front. A rear door led to the wood- 

The halls, we are told, were " of good size," and " respectable wooden finish " 
consisting, in part, of large wooden columns handsomely turned, the workmanship 
of William Altman. The columns were painted in imitation of "clouded 
marble."* A polished stone slab, five by two and a half feet, built into the wall 
over the western entrance, bore the following inscription from Barlow's Colum- 
hind : 

Equality of rights is Nature's plan, 

And following Nature is the march of Man ; 

Based on its rock of right your empire lies, 

On walls of wisdom let the fabric rise. 

Preserve your principles, their force unfold, 

Let nations prove them, and let kings behold. 

Equality your first firm grounded stand, 

Then free election, then your Federal band ; 

This holy triad should forever shine, 

The great compendium of all rights divine, 

Creed of all schools, whence youtlis by millions draw 

Their theme of riglit, their decalogue of law. 

Till man shall wonder (in these schools inured) 

How wars were made, how tyrants were endured. 


Afler the stonecutter who copied these lines had finished his work, the State 
Director, Mr. Ludlow, who believed that the American Republic is a nation and 
not a confederacy, had the sunken letters of the word Federal filled up and the 
word Union imprinted over it. Many years later the composition with which this 
was done fell off, and the obnoxious word Federal reappeared, a harbinger, perhaps, 
of the approaching confederacy of the Southern States, and their attempted secession. 

A similar stone over the southern entrance was inscribed with an extract 
from the same poem. Over the east door Director Ludlow caused a smaller tablet 
to be placed, on which were chiseled the following lines of his own composition : 

General good the object of legislation, 
Perfected by a knowledge of man's wants, 
And Nature's abounding means applied. 
Establishing principles opposed to monopoly. 

The interior walls of the legislative chambers were hung with maps of the 
State and engraved copies of the Declaration of Independence, besides " various 
other articles of use and ornament."' 

In the autumn of 1816, after the building had been completed, a dozen or more 
ladies of Columbus held in the Hall of the House of Representatives a sewing party, 
at which they put together the first cai*pet ever laid in that chamber. The party 
was suggested by Governor Worthington, who honored it with his presence, and 
favored the fair seamsters with some fine apples from his Ross County orchard. 

256 History op the Citv of CouiMBrR. 

In further appreciatioii of their ettbrls, the ladies were served with tea in the 
evening at the resiiieuee of Mrs. John Martin on the opposite side of the street 
from the Statehouse. Among those who took })art in this memorable sewing bee 
were Mrs. William T. Martin, Mrs. (loorge McC'ormack and Mrs. George B. IIarvt»y. 

The bnilding for the executive and administrative offices of the State was 
erected in 1S15. It stood in line with the Statehouse, fifty or sixty feet north of 
it, and fronted on iligh Street. B. Thom}>son, who undertook to lay up its walls, 
died before his work was (•omj)leted, but his <*ontract was fulfilled under the super- 
vision of his widow. M. Patton contracted for the carpenter work, and Leighten- 
aker and Ilcyl for the plastering and painting. The building was a j)lain two- 
story brick, one hundred and fitly feet long and twentyfive feet deep. From 
Martin's de8<*ri})tion of it wc learn thut *it had a rough stone foundation, and a 
belt of cut stone along the front and ends at the height of the first story, a common 
comb roof of joint shingles, and four front doors, one toward the north end to 
enter the Secretary [of State's] office, two towards the south end to the Au<iitor's 
office, one of which, however, was kept closed and not used, and a large door in 
the centre." "Immediately inside of tiie centre door,'' continues Martin, *'by 
turning to the left you entered the Governor's office, or by turning to the right the 
Treasurer's office, or by advancing without turning to the right or the left you 
ascende<i on winding slairs to the second story, which wasalways appropriated for 
the Static Librar}', but formerly was used also lor the (Quartermaster s and Adjutant- 
General's offices, and by times for other public offices. The two front doors to the 
Auditor's office rather injured the symmetrical appearafjce of the building from the 


Five years later, in 1H2(», the United States, or " Old *' Courthouse, as it was 
afterwards currently known, was erected. Fronting on High Street, it stood mid- 
way between the present western and northwestern gates of the Capitol, in align- 
ment with the State buildings, about sixty feet north of that containing the execu- 
tive offices. It was built of brick, two stories hiirh, on a rough stone foundation, 
and was surmounted by a circular green-latticed dome from which the roof 
descended on four sides of the walls, which terminated in castellated forms. It 
was probably, says Martin, about fortyfive or fortysix feet square. " The front had 
a recess entrance about the size of a large portico, but within the line of the front 
wall. The same recess extended up through the second story, thus affording a 
pleasant view of the street fron^ the second story. On the lower floor there was 
a hall through the centre, and two rooms on each side, one of which was used for 
the office of the Clerk of the United States Court, one as an office for the mai-shal, 
and one as a jury room. On the second story was the court room and one jury 


This buihling was first occupied by the National Courts, removed thither from 
Chillicothe, about the year 1H21."' It was erected under the immediate supervision 
of (Jovcrnor lilthan Allen Brown, who is said to have been also its architect. Its 
cost was provided for, in part, from uncurrent funds of the Miami Exporting Com- 
pany, then in the treasury, but was mostly met by donations from the citizens ot' 

Behind the Unitetl States ('ourthouse a long, single-story brick building was 
erected in 1828 or 1829 for the county offices. ** It was divided into four apart- 


•"fc • • 


The First Pitblic RriLDiNos. 257 

ments," 8aj8 Martin, "with an outside door to each. The north room was for the 
Clerk of the Court, the next one to it for the Eecorder, the next for the County 
TreftBurer, and the fourth or south one for the County Auditor."" 

The county offices remained in this buildinii^ until their removal to the new 
County Courthouse, at the corner of High and Mound Streets, in 1840. It was 
demolished at the grading of the Capitol Square in 1857. 

The primitive condition of Columbus at the time the State buildings were 
erected is indicated by the fact that the fuel used about that time in the Western 
Infeliigenrer oftxcQy and perhaps also in some of the public offices, was obtained by 
chopping down the forest trees on High Street.'' The General Assembly was not 
disposed to await, however, the evolution of the town. On the seventeenth of 
February, 1816, it passed an act providing that from and aAer the second Tuesday 
in October of that year the seat of government of the State should he established, 
and thenceforward continue, "at the town of Columbus." The second section of 
this act reads as follows : 

The auditor, treasurer and secretary of state shall, in the month of October next, remove 
or cause to be removed, the books, maps and papers in their respective offices, to the offices 
prepared and designated for them severally in the town of Columbus ; and the treasurer shall 
also remove any public money which may be in his office; and the said public officers shall 
there attend and keep their offices respectively from and after that time, any law to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

The third and last section provided for payment of the expenses of removal. 

On December 2, 1816, the General Assembly convened in Columbus for the 
first time. Colonel P. H. Olmsted, writing in 1869, says "the members generally 
came on horseback, and sent their horses to the country lor the winter. Several 
boarded in Franklinton, and one or two in the country. On the adjournment ot 
the General Assembly, several of the members living in the country bordering on 
the Ohio River below Portsmouth, descended the Scioto in skills."'^ 

On the twentyeighth of January, 1817, the General Assembly passed an act 
requesting the Governor to appoint "one or more skillful mechanics" to meet such 
persons as might be named by " the proprietors of the town of Columbus," for the 
purpose of "measuring, valuing and assessing the joiner's work done on the State- 
house and public offices." The act further authorized the Governor, provided he 
could agree with the proprietors, to adjust their accounts with the State without 
the mediation of a commission, and to issue to them an order on the Treasurer in 
full payment of whatever balance should be found to bo due them "over and above 
the sum they were bounden by contract to expend" in the erection of" the publico 
buildings, offices and penitentiary." 

In pursuance of this act an amicable settlement was arrived at by which, after 
a deduction of six or seven percent, from the charges for carpenter work, a balance 
of thirtyfive thousand dollars, over and above the fifty thousand dollars required 
to be expended, was found to be due, and was j)ai(l to the jiroprietors, whose 
unique, difficult and highly responsible engagements with the state were thus siu*.. 
cessfully and satisfactorily terminated. 


2r»S History of tiik City of (you'MniTs. 


1. An act inoro particularly " ascertain! nj? tlio duties «»f the l>irector of the Town of Co- 
hiinhuH" was passed January 2s, isi:;. as follows: 

Sk* . 1. Be it enacted by the j?eneral asMMnbly of the st4ite of Ohio, That the DinM-tor 
appointed by the lejjislature, shall, within thirty days after his appointment, enter into a 
bond, with Butticient security, payable t^> the treasurer of this state, in the penal sum of four 
thousand dollars, and take ami subscribe an DUth, faithfully to dinchar^re the duties enjoined 
on him by law, and shall hold his oHice to the end of the session of the next legislature: 
Provide<l, that in case the ollice of Director aforesjiid shall become vacant by death, resigna- 
tion, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature, the (iovernor shall till the same; 
r*rovided also, that nothing in this act shall be so ccmstrued as to exonerate the proprietors 
of the town of Columbus, frcnn any reponsibility of their original contract. 

Skc. 2. That it shall be the duty of the said Director to superintend the erection of the 
public buildings in the town of CoUnnbus, agreeably to the plans laid down by the late 
Director except, in his opinion, alterations are necessary in the internal arrangement of the 
said buildings, in which case he is hereby authorized to direct the same, in such manner a« 
he shall judge moat likely to answer the pur}>08e for which such buildings are erected ; and 
in all things to see that the said public buildings are compos(»d, in all their parts, of pro}>er 
materials, and built in a good an«l workmanlike manner; and he is hereby authorized and 
required to object to any materials nf)t of }>roper quality, or any work not of the description 
aforementioned ; and if the Director shall perform or cause to be performed for his f>wu 
private advantage, any part of the above w<»rk, ho shall, on conviction thereof, forfeit the 
amount of his penal Ixmd. 

Se(;. '\. That it shall be the duty of the Director, for the time being, to prevent and 
abate all nuisances, either in the streets or public squares of said town, by digging for brick- 
yards, or any other purpose, and to presi^rve from trespass all wood and timber, the property 
of the state, within the said town, an<l to cut an«l dispose of such part as he may deem proper 
for the use of the state, and annually account for the proceeds of the same. 

Skc. 4. That it shall be the duty of the Director to make a report of his proceedings, 
and of the progress made in the erection of said buildings, whether in his opinion the same 
is composed of good materials and built in a workmanlike manner, to the next legislature, 
within twenty days after the ccmmiencement of its session. 

Skv. r>. That the director shall be entitled to receive for his services at the rate of six 
hundred dollars per annum, for all the time he may be engaged in discharging the duties of 
his otlice, payable quarter yearly on the certificate of the Governor that the services have 
been performed, being presented to the auditor, who is hereby authorized to issue bills for 
the siime payable at the othce of the treasurer of the state. 

2. Martin's History says: " The (lOvernor resided in Chillicothe, and some misunder- 
standing having arisen between Pike and him as to the terms or conditions of their contract, 
on the occasion of one of his visits to Columbus Pike had him arrested on capias and con- 
ducted by a constable l)efore 'Squire King, and the matter was decided in Pike's favor — per- 
haps adjusted without trial.*' 

:;. Martin's History of Franklin County. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Judge William T. Martin, writing in ISvS, said: '* Of those who assisted in the 
erection of the old Statehouse, there are still living in the city or vicinity, Jacob Hare, 
who kept a team and helped to haul the stone tor the foundation, Conrad Heyl, principal 
painter, and George B. Harvey, who was employed on it as car^tenter through its whole 

The First Public Buildin(js. 259 

6. Martin. ^ 

7. Eilbourne's Gazetteer. 

8. Martin. 

9. Ibid. 

10. A joint resolution requesting the Senators and Representative of Ohio in Congretfe to 
use their best endeavors to liave a law passed requiring removal of the National Courts from 
Chillicothe to Columbus was passed by the General Assembly January .30, 1818. 

11. Martin. 

12. Mrs. Emily Stewart informs the author that the family of William Merion, Senior, 
who built and occupied a cabin on their land at the present corner of High and Moler Streets 
in 1810, *• tapped the sugar maple trees around the door and made all the sugar they needed 
for the year." 

13. Communication to the Ohio State Journal. 


TlIK CAPITAL AS A HOR0U(iH. lrtlO-l?S34. I. 

The capital acquirod itK first corporato exisU^nce by act of the General Aflsem- 
bly, sitting at C'hillicotlic. By that act, passed February 10, 1810, a specifically 
bounded portion of ** the Township of Montgomery in the County of Franklin" was 
**erected into a town corporate," to be thenceforth *' known and distinguished 
by the name of the borough of Columbus." By the same statute it was made law- 
ful for the qualified electors of six months' resi<lence to meet at the Columbus Inn 
on the first Monday of the next ensuing Ma3^ and choose " nine suitable persons, 
being citizens, freeholders or housekeepers, and citizens of said town," to serve as 
its " mayor, recorder and common councilmen." The persons so elected were re- 
quired to choose from their own number a mayor, a recorder and a treasurer, all 
of whom should continue to act as members of the Council, the Mayor being also 
its President. Thus organized the board was made " a body corporate and politic," 
endowed with perpetual succession, "by the name and style of the mayor and 
council of the borough of Columbus." It was further empowered to enact laws 
and ordinances, levy taxes, erect and repair public buildings, " receive, possess and 
convey any real or personal estate for the use of said town of Columbus," and to 
appoint "an assessor, a town marshal, a clerk of the market, a town surveyor," 
and such other subordinate officers as might be deemed necessary. The prepara- 
tion of the tax duplicate was made the duty of the Recorder, the collection of the 
taxes that of the Marshal. The tt^rm of office of the councilmen was fixed at three 
years, three members to be elected annually, but the thirds of the first board were 
required to serve, resi)ectively, for one- two- and three -year terms, to be assigned 
by lot. Tht* choice of councilmen was made by general ticket, on the first Tuesday 
of May annually, all the electors of the town voting at the same poll.' 

The first borough election was held at the Columbus Inn May 6, 181(». The 
('Ouncil then chosen met at the same place on the thirteenth of May, and organized. 
Its members, in the onler of their terms of service, from one to three years, as 
determined by lot, were JarvisPike, .lohn Cutler, Henry Brown, itebert Armstmng 
Michael Patton, .Ici'emiah Armstrong. Caleb Houston, Robert W, McCo}', and John 
Kcirr. Jarvis Piki' was chosen Mayor, R. W. McCoy, Recorder, and Robert Arm- 
strong, Treasurer. Daniel Liggett was appointed Assessor, Samuel King Marshal, 
and William Long ('lerk of the Market. After ordering a purchtise of stationery, 
the first meeting adjourned, as appears by the minutes, " to Thursday evening next, 
at two o'clo<*k in the atlernoon." 

Tub Capital as a BoRoucm. I. 261 

On the twentysecond of April, 1817, at a meeting of the Council held at the 
house of John Collett, the Treasurer's accounts for the first year of the Borougb 
were rendered. The " state of the treasury," as reported by John Kerr and Henry 
Brown, who were appointed to examine the books, made the following exhibit: 

Small bills in circulation $210.83J 

Fees due the Common Council 88.50 

Due the Kecorder for stationery 14. 

Draft due Recorder, paid by him to Samuel King for services as 

Marshal, third quarter 20. 

Five per cent, to Treasurer for money received (amount received, 

$311.15) 15.27 

Ten per cent, to Treasurer for issuing corporation bills amount- 
ing to 1555.75 55.57 

John Cutler's bill for stationery 2.3 U 


By cash in the hands of Samuel King 165.61} 

Deduct pay due the Council 88.50 

On motion the pay due to the members was relinquished " for the benefit of the 
corporation." Christian Heyl was chosen Treasurer, to succeed Jeremiah Arm- 
strong, who resigned. An ordinance passed by this Council in March, 1817, 
declared the Markethouse on High Street to be a nuisance, and ordered its re- 
moval. It had been erected by voluntary contributions, and was never much used. 
During the latter part of August, 1817, the capital was visited for the first 
time by the Chief Executive of the Nation. Returning from a tour of inspection 
*>f the fortifications in the Northwest, President Monroe and his retinue arrived 
'^t Worthington from Detroit,' whence the party had journeyed on horse- 
back, moving "generally in a canter." The President wore an "old-fashioned 
^hree-cornered cocked hat," but was otherwise plainly attired in civilian costume. 
^liB face was ruddy from exposure to the midsummer sun. The Franklin Dra- 
goons, Captain Vance, escorted him from Worthington to Columbus, where he was 
^^corously met and entertained by a committee of citizens. The members of that 
^*>ramittee were Lucas Sullivant, Abner Lord, Thomas Backus, Joseph Foos, A. I. 
;^4;cDowell, Gustavus Swan, Ralph Osborn, Christian Heyl, Robert W. McCoy, Joel 
uitlos, Hiram M. Curry, John Kerr, Henry Brown and William Doherty. The 
resident was received at the Statehouse, where a neat and appropriate address of 
olcome was delivered by Hon. Hiram M. Curry, then Treasurer of State. In his 
^*^P'y ^^^ distinguished traveler and guest favored with some graceful compliments 
^hiG "infant city," as he termed it, from which he received these attentions.* 

The War of 1812 imparted a great impetus to business, in both Columbus and 

^ranklinton. Troops were continually passing and repassing, and there were 

Occasions when a force of two or three thousand men awaited orders in the camps 

ci.1ong the west bank of the river. Some of the pioneers of the borough acquired 

TTieans enough to pay for their homes by the sale of refreshments to the passing or 

sojourning troops of the Northwestern Army. The purchases and disbursements 

'262 History of tijk ('ity of Columbi:s. 

ol' the military ageiitK ot'tlie Ciovorniuont at Fraiiklintoii were large, and the de- 
mand for all kinds of* produce active, at high prices. The currency was deprecia- 
ted but plenty, and nearly every man's j)oeket was flushed. Pork advanced frt>m 
SI. 50 tt) S4.0() per hurnired, flour to S4.0() per hundred, oats and corn from flf'ly 
cents to one (it)llar j>er bushel, hay from ten t«> twenty d»»llars ])er ton, and other 
articles in like j)roj>ortion.* The ])ro])rietors ol' (><>Iunibus sold their towiixlots 
readily at good prices usually receiving a small cash payment with interest-bear- 
ing notes lor the residue, and giving a bond to make a title when the notes should 
be paid. 

Thus things went on merrily until the war closed, when there came a reaction. 
The disbursements of the National Government, then stiiggering under a war debt 
ot'eighty millions, suddenly ceased, the last soldier disappeared from Franklinton, 
and the early promise of that village was changed into doleful decay. The banks 
of the entire country, except New England, suspende<l specie payment, and the 
currency, then destitute of national quality, fell into hopeless confusion. All sorts 
of prices suffered a frightful colla])se: pork declined to 81.50 and flour to SI. 25 per 
hundred, corn and potatoes io ten or tw(dve cents per bushel, and other commodi- 
ties at a similai- rate. Real estate likewise took a downward plunge, and many of 
the town lots sold by the borough proprietors came back to them, the flrst pay- 
ments being forfeited by the ])urcha.sers. Money became as .scarce as it had just 
been plentiful, labor went unemploye<l, and families accustomed to luxury were 
obliged to use rye coftee and content themselves with the coarsest dress. 

The crisis culminated in ISIH, but its financial depression sjud confusion 
dragged wearily along for seven more years. Of the Columbus proprietors 
Alexandi4' McJjaughlin, onci' considered one of the wealthiest men in the State, 
became completely bankrupt, and was obliged to support himself by teaching a 
country school. I^]arly in the thirties he died. James Johnston, another of the 
proprietors, failed about the same time as McLaughlin, and emigrated to Pittj^- 
burgh, where he died in 1H42. John Kerr and Lyne Starling weathered the 
storm, l)Ut Kerr died in 1823, leaving a young family to inherit, and unfortunately 
to lose his large estate. Starling lived to the age of sixty four, and being a bache- 
lor, left no heirs to receive or to squander his property. 

Such was the depression, owing to the state of the currency and the failure of 
the proprietors, that the greater j)art of (he real estate of the borough was thrown 
upon the markt^. The choicest town lots around thoiJapitol Square went begging 
at threi* hundred dollars each. A great number of others were ottered at forced 
sale by the Sheriff or United States Marshal, but had to be reappraised again and 
again, at lower and lower values, before they finally found takers. Single lots 
which had been held at two or three hundred dollars seven vears before, were sold 
for ten or twenty, and some as low as even seven or eight dollars each. 

To add to the depression of l)UHines8 and price of j)roperty [says Martin] about the 
year 1822 or 1823, the title of Stirling's half section, on which the town was in part located, 
was called in duestion. It had originally been granted to one Allen, a refugee from the 
British Provinces in the time of the American Revolution. Alien had deeded it to his son, 
and the son had mortgaged it, and it was .sold at sheritrs sale to satisfy the mortgage, and 
Starling was the purchaser. 

It was now claimed by the heirs of Allen, who took various exceptions to Starling's title. 
First as to the sale from the old man Allen to his son ; also to the authentication of the 

The Capital as a Borough. I. 263 

mortgage by the son, and particularly to the sale of the Sheriff to Starling, on the ground that 
there was no evidence that an appraisement had been made as required by the statutes of 
Ohio, and suit was brought by ejectment against some of the occupants who owned the most 
valuable improvements, first in the Supreme Court of Ohio, and then in the United States 
Court for the District of Ohio. 

Mr. Starling defended the suits, and first engaged Henry Clay, who then practiced in the 
United States Courts at Columbus, as attorney. But owing to his appointment as Secretary 
of State, he was called to Washington City, and gave up the case, and Henry Baldwin, then 
of Pittsburgh, was next engaged, who conducted the defense with great ability, and about the 
year 1826, it was finally decided in favor of Starling's title. So the matter was put to rest as 
to that half section. 

The suit against Starling's half section was scarcely decided, when a claim was set up 
against Kerr and McLaughlin's half section. They had bought from one Strawbridge, who 
conveyed by an attorney or agent, and the deed ran thus : That the agent conveyed for 

Strawbridge, instead of Strawbridge conveying hy agent, and was so signed ; *' J M 

(the agent), (seal), attorney in fact for Strawbridge." 

Thus the defect in Kerr and McLaughlin's title was merely technical. But it was con- 
tended that this was not Strawbridge's deed, but the deed of the agent who claimed no title. 
And about the year 1826, a quitclaim was obtained from Strawbridge's heirs, by some man 
purporting to be a New Yorker, upon which a suit was brought in ejectment, as in the other 
cases, against one or more of the occupants of the most valuable lots. By a suit in chancery 
to quiet title, about the year 1827, this was all set right, and the title of Kerr and McLaughlin 

The gratification of the people of the borough at the outcome of these suits 

Has proportionate to the extreme anxiety and suspense which they had occasioned. 

Accordingly, when Mr. Starling won his case, a grand jollification was held at the 

-National Hotel, which was the next lineal predecessor of the present Neil House, 

^nd it 80 happened, says Mr. Joseph Sullivant in his biography of Starling, that 

thii ^rand proprietor, his lawyers and several friends, had tarried too long over 

the wine and were all put to bed in one large room. At a later hour it was 

Qetei-rmined to give thera a serenade, as expressive of the general joy produced by 

^^e ocicasion. Accordingly John Young, the proprietor of the Eagle Coffeehouse, 

and ^ warm admirer of Mr. Starling, with great exertion gathered a strong orches- 

^'•a o^ drums, fifes, fiddles, clarionets and horns, and proceeded to the hotel. But 

^® S»^eat prelude, more remarkable for noise and vigor than music or harmony, 

^ucJil ^ niy aroused the sleepers, and they arose in haste to ascertain the cause. Mr. 

'Uirl i ^g ^as very tall, six feet six inches in height, but easy and flexible in move- 

^^^*-« In the room with him was John Bailhache, quite a small man, once editor 

^■^ ^ Ohio State Journal. Somehow, in the darkness and confusion of ideas, 

I ***i Bg managed to thrust himself into Bailhache's breeches, with his feet and 

^® ^* ticking out nearly a yard below, and the little editor, minus his own gar- 

^^'^^j got into Starling's high boots and longtailed coat, which covered him all 

«ind still dragged behind like a fashionable lady's train of the present day. 

^^"^8 were desperately struggling to force their nether extremities through the 

. ^"^^ ^8 of their coats, and all were sweating and swearing when they were found 

^^ ^ 8 ludicrous guise, and informed that the crowd awaited their presence and 

"^ C)wledgraent of the unusual honor of a serenade." 

Ihe domestic life of the borough period reflects better than anything else the 
^^ <jondition of the people at that time. Let us take some glimpses into their 


homos, tor horc wc j)orceive, as iiowlu>re else, what they enjoyed, what they 
endured, Jin<i how they lived. Thi^ followin<r ehurniiiig pictures of the typical 
homo and housewife of the bt)rou^h arc drawn by the pen of Mrs. Emily Stewart, 
/^/vMerion, the su])jeet of whose sketch is the pioneer life of William Morion, »Senior, 
who built a cabin and settli'd on his land at the present corner of High and Molcr 
streets in the autumn of ISIO. Referring to Mrs. Mcrion, nrr Sallio Voris,* Mrs. 
Stewart writes: 

t)very one who worked un a farm at that time expei.^te<l to be boarde«i and lo<lged. The 
school teacher hoarded around. There were no cooking stoves, sew injr, knitting or washing 
machines, and even the i»lain washboard was not used here until about ISMO. It is evident 
that managing the housekec'ping department of this family was no small matter. Every 
garment worn by the family was made from the raw material. Tlie flax had to be spun» 
woven, bleached and made into garments. The table linen, toweling, bedding, and even the 
ticking and sewing thread were hand-made. The wool of a hundred sheep was brought in at 
shearing time. Mrs. Merion liad it washed, ])icked, carded (in early times by hand cards), 
spun, scoure<l, dyed, woven and made into flannel, jeans, linsej', blankets, coverlets and 
stocking yarn. Then it had to l>e made into clothing. The men's clothing was all home- 
made ; even their suspenders were knitted. Kacli member of the family ha<l two suits through- 
out, two pairs of stockings, and one pair uf mittens to commence the winter with. Tlie floors 
were covered with beautiful carpets, not nig, but all wool, of the brightest colors of her own 
dyeing. The milk of fifteen to twenty cows was brought in twice a day, to be turned into 
butter and cheese. ... 

It is impossible to do justice to the cooking of those days. Turkeys, geese, ducks, 
chickens, spareribs, beef roast, whole pi'4s,etc., were hung by twine cords which were fastened 
to hooks in the mantel, and roasted bi'fore the wood fire. Chickens, quail, squirrels, an<l 
tenderloin were first dipped in melte<l butter and broiled on the gridiron over wood coals. 
The eorn pone that w-as haked in the I>utch oven all night, and was hot for breakfast, was 
matched by johnnycakes baked on a board before the fire, and chicken pies with not less 
than three and sometimes five fat chickens in one pie. The boiled dinner consisted of liam 
or shoulder, a bag holding not less than three tpiarts being tilled with meat, vegetables and 
pudding batter which were all boiled together. Tlie pudding sauce was sweet, thick cream 
and sugar, or maple syrup. The brick oven, which held four pans of bread and twelve pies, 
was heated every day in summer, and twice a week in winter. Fruit in its season was pared 
and dried in the sun. Canning was unknown. Tomatoes, of which a few plants were 
placed in the flower beds, were purely ornamental and were called Jerusalem apples. Soda, 
then known as pearl ash, was not to be had. Mrs. Merion made it by leaching hickory 
iushes, boiling the lye into potash, and putting it in an earthen vessel, and baking it in the 
bri(;k oven, until it dried and wliitened. With this and buttermilk she maile delicious bis- 
cuit, hatter cakes and corn bread. Her table linen was of the whitest, her china always 
polished, and her table butter always stamped, in early times with four hearts, later with 
hanging pears. She was like the woman Solomon : ** She seeketh w*ool and (lax 
and worketii willingly with her hands. She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands 
hoM the distati'." 

She raised her family without nerves. They never heard of nervousness while under 
her car5. She was without fear. Returning from Frankljnton in 1H14, alone on horseback, 
she was overtaken by darkness while crossing the river at the old ford, near the present 
lower bridge of the Hocking Valley Railway. A gang of wolves took after her and chased 
her nearly to her own door. When asked whether or not she was frightened, she said, ** I am 
a good rider, and was on a horse which nothing could overtake. What bad I to be afraid of?'* 

The pioneer's wife had no time to improve her mind. All her time was spent in work. 
The long winter evenings were occupied with sewing, knitting or spinning on the little wheel. 
The family reading was the Bible, Life of Josephus, History of the United States, French 

t • 
* » 

• : » • 

The Capital A8 a Borough. 1. 265 

Revolution, Life of Benjamin Franklin, and the weekly paper. The mail came once a month 
in early times, and the postage, which was not prepaid, was twentyfive cents on each letter. 
Mrs. Merion liked to have some one read aloud in the evenings, but they had no lights except 
a large lamp' or a homemade tallow-dip candle.'' There was a standing offer in her family of 
five dollars to any one of her children that would read the Bible through aloud to the 
family. There were several that read one dollar's worth. Nathaniel read the Old Testament 
.but did not get into the New. His mother was so pleased, however, that she paid him in 

The story of another matron's life in the borough shall here be presented. It 
is told in her lettera to her parents, brothers and sisters — a package of precious 
mementoes kindly submitted to the inspection of the author by her surviving son. 
In the summer of 1817 the writer of these letters and her husband quitted their 
home at Easton, Pennsylvania, and journeyed westward, resolved to try their for- 
tunes at the frontier town of Columbus. The young emigrants, then newly- wedded, 
were not favored with an abundance of means, but were vigorous, eager and hope- 
ful. After a fatiguing and somewhat adventurous journey across the Alleghanies 
and through the still meagerly settled forests west of the Ohio, they arrived at 
their destination early in August. At the price of one thousand dollars they 
bought of Ilenry Brown, afterwards Treasurer of State, a town lot, now, in part, 
the site of one of the principal business blocks of the city. They were to pay for 
it, besides a gold watch worth two hundred dollars, given in exchange, two hun- 
dred dollars in cash, four hundred April 1, 1819, and two hundred April 1, 1820. 
The lot was located on West Broad Street, north side, a few rods west of High. On 
this ground the purchaser, who was a carpenter, erected with his own hands a 
plain, wooden dwelling. He and his young wife immediately reported to their 
eastern friends the enterprise which they had undertaken, and in response were 
sharpl}' admonished that they had better not buy any more town lots, at least not 
at such prices. The investment doubtless seemed adventurous at the time, and so 
indeed it proved to be. To be prepared to make the deferred payments when they 
should fall due, and to fit up their little home comfortably, was the serious Uisk to 
which the young carpenter and his wife addressed themselves, and it was a task 
which they did not fulfil without a most determined and difficult struggle. 

The letters to which reference has been made tell more impressively than can 
otherwise be told the pathetic story of this brave endeavor to found a home in 
primitive Columbus. They also contain many valuable historical facts fully justi- 
^y'^iig the liberal extracts from them which will now be made. The author of the 
letters was Mrs. Betsy Green Deshler, anri her husband was David W. Deshler, 
afterwards one of the most prominent and wealthy citizens of the capital. 

That Mrs. Deshler was a woman of uncommon intelligence and natural beauty 
of character is attested by every line she wrote. Judging her by these unaffected, 
unconstrained messages, than which there could be no truer reflex of her mind 
and character, she must have been a wife and mother of the noblest type. She 
was also an impersonation of modest, practical good sense. Without self-assertion 
she narrates in the simplest way her own and her husband's experiences — their 
plans, hopes, difficulties and disappointments. 

On the fourteenth of August, 1817, Mrs. Deshler writes to her parents : 

We have purchased and hauled 1500 bricks for our chimney at $4.50 per thousand at the 
kiln, and have engaged a frame twenty six feet front, eighteen deep, one story ten feet be- 

2t)6 History of the City ok Coli'mhus. 

tween the joit'e, which is to l)e completed and raised for fifty dollars. We intend netting our 
building: thirtytivo feet back, fronting towards the street, and dividing it into a room and 
kitchen, with chinniey in the centre so as to have a fireplace in both. The kitchen will be 
eleven by eighteen, the room fifteen by eighteen incliidin;r walls, chimney, <fec.,— small, but 
plenty huire enough for us and re<iuiring less furniture. As soon as the house is done we 
intend buihling a shop about the same size, an<l placin;: it in front, at the upper end of the 
lot. Both will coHt us about four hundred dollars exclusive of the carpent^ir work. . . . 
The iH^rson who owns the next half lot has offered us one hundred and fifty dollars C4ish for 
five feet, but we do not intend selling it as long as we can possibly hold it. I am in hopes by 
industry and economy we will be able to keep it. In a few years it will be very valuable. 

October 2, 1817, to her brother: 

PiVerything is cheap and plenty except salt and coffee, and a few other grocery article^^ 
which come liigli, owing to the distance they are transported, which is from Philadelphia or 
Baltimore. Sugar is cheaper here than at Easton ; we can get it in the spring of the year for 
\2i cents per pound, owing to its bein^j the pro<luction of our own state. Salt will come lower 
in a short time, as there are many saltworks in this part of the country, an<l some near 
Columbus. We can't boast of as nianv luxuries as vou (;an, but we have some which vou 
have not; one in particular is peaches. Such fruit I never saw before. One of the neighbors 
sent me in a basketful, several of which meajaured a full quarter of a yard in circumference. 
I have not seen any pears this fall, or any plums except wild ones, which we have in great 
abundance.*' Venison is sold here at fourshillings * for a whole deer, and turkeys for twenty- 
five cents. Babbits, pigeons and all kinds of game are very cheap. Tliey are brought here. 
})articularly venison, by the Indians, who live not far olf. I wished for Lydia the other <lay, 
as 1 ha<l a deliglitful boiled salmon for dinner, which was caught in the Scioto. [This prob- 
ably refers to a large lish with tlesh of a red color, locally known as ** red iior84'." No salmon 
have ever been taken in the Scioto.] I suppose* it weighed between four and five pounds. 
That, with a lish called the bass, not (juite so large, snld for twentyfive cents. We have no 
shad in this part of the country, but we have other kinds of fish which are caught at l^ke 
P>ie and sent here salted up in barrels. 

I have very good neighbors. People here are remarkably kind to strangers. Several of 
the neighbor women have told me to come and get any kind of vegetables out of their gar- 
dens. There is a little boy who brings me cream every morning for breakfast. . . . Our 
house is getting along very well. . . . All the dry boards made use of here are kiln-dried, 
as no board j-ard is kept here. 

We sold our horse an<l wagon for more than they cost us. The horse we traded to a 
man for the plastering of cmr house, which is the siime as cash. . . . Wood sells as it did at 
F!)aston many years ago, for a dollar a load, or a dollar and a cjuarter for a cord, piled up at 
your house. 

DeccmlK'-r 1, Is 17, to hoi* titthcr: 

We shall occupy but one room this winter, as David must make use of the other as a 
shop. Our house is not large, but it is very neat and convenient. . . . We took a great deal 
of i>ains to <liscover the prices of other lots, and when we compared the different situations ami 
prices we found ours quite reasonable. Property all sells very high in Columbus; the lot on 
the corner opposite ours was soM for eighteen hundred dollars and the owner has since been 
offered twentyfive hun<ired. which he tliought proper to refuse, knowing that in a short time 
it would be worth considerable more. You observe that it would be best for us not to buy 
any more lots. You need not be the least apprehensive, as we are now using every exertion 

NoTK— • Thf valin' of thi* shilliiiK was oiiesixth of a •l(»llar. The most comiuou of the silver pleoe« was 
tlio York shilling, worth twelvi.* and one half (vnts, or eight per dollnr, and known aliK> m a " bit" or ** levy;*' 
and the " tip/' or half shilling, worth ti\x and a ({uartor ceuti<. In the Southern States the tip was called a pic- 
Jiyune. It was the smallest silver coin then used. 

The Capital as a Boboucjh. I. 267 

to pay for that we have bought before we put ourselves any more in debt. . . . We rise every 
morning and have breakfast by candle-light, and then work industriously all day. . . . 

Oak, ash, walnut and cherry are the only kinds of boards ma^ie use of in this country, 
and they all sell for nearly the same price, viz, from twelve to fifteen dollars per thou- 
sand ; kiln-dried, six dollars per thousand more. . . . 

Carpenters do their work by the piece ; journeymen's wages one dollar per day and 
found ; bricklayers, four dollars per thousand, including lime, sand and tenders. I^nd 
unimproved from a dollar and a half to four dollars per acre ; improved from eight to 
sixteen dollars. Twothirds of the land in this section of the country will average thirty 
bushels of wheat to the acre. The risk of transportation to New Orleans exceeds the ex- 
pense of carriage. The market for western produce, in two or three years, will be New 
York by the way of Lower Sandusky aud Lake Erie. Spinning wheels are <lull sale on 
account of the scarcity of flax. . . . The Sandusky countrj^ [Indian reservation] compos- 
ing onethird of the State of Ohio, will either be sold or located next year by the IJnited 
States Government. 

January 31, 1818, to her brother: 

We have but one meetinghouse here, and that a Methodist, as onethinl of the in- 
liabitanta are of that denomination, but there is one on the other side of the S<Moto, about 
a mile from Columbus, which belongs to the Presbyterians. We [the Presbyterians] have 
meeting very often this winter in the Statehouse, which is a very large and commodious 
building for that jmrpose. 

March 26, 1818, to her sister : 

I have most excellent neighbors. They are as kind to me as jKJOple can possibly be. 
Our nearest neighbor but one is the family of the Auditor of the State. They are very kind. 
Mr. Osborn, for that is the gentleman's name whose family I have just mentioned, when we 
laid up our pork came over and cut it up, showed us how to salt it, and is now smoking it in 
his smokehouse. . . . 

The people, as a mark of attention when a stranger moves into the neighborhood, send 
them a dish of something that they think would be acceptable. . . . Our nearest neighbors 
[a family named Mills] are from Vermont, conse(|uently Yankees. They sent me a fine mess 
of stewed pumpkin, their favorite dish. Our next neighbors are Virginians. You must 
know that they are extremely fond of anything made of corn, and as a mark of attention they 
sent me a dish of hominy. The next, a German family, sent a dish of sourcrout. 

June 20, 1818, to her brother : 

We have a very neat house, and furniture good and plain, with a handsome green yard 
l>efore the door, and i)lanted with trees, rosebushes, currant bushes, raspberry bushes or 
vines, morning glories, and I know not what all. . . . 

The best wheat flour sells here for $2.50 per hundred, butter, by thousands, at twelve 
and a half cents, eggs at six and seven cents per dozen, and beef, uncommonly high, at six 
and seven cents per pound. At the last session a law was passed for the incorporation of 
Columbus, and since then we have our regular market days and hours. 

August 20, 1S18 ; writes to her brother that she had been very sick, and not ex- 
pected tx) live. The physicians treated the disease chiefly with laudanum. Her 
husband had formed a partnership, and obtained a contract for work at the State- 
house by which he hoped to make enough to meet his first payment and put up a 
shop. The letter continues : 

We have at length got a meeting-house up, and the seats have been sold out to defray 
the expence of building. We have bought one, the price of which was thirtyseven and a 
half centfl. . . . The Presbyterian congregation of the place, is very large. Almost every 
respectable family of the town belongs to the meeting. 

268 History of the City of Columbus. 

February 3, 1820, to her father: 

David works every day, and for the last five months has not got one dollar in money. 
. . . All the work that is done in Columbus is for trade, trade, and no money. It makes 
it difficult to get along. ... 

Produce of every kind has become low ; beef three dollars, pork ditto, butter twelve and 
a half cents per pound, venison fifty cents per saddle, and all else in proportion. Yet it is 
more difficult to get cook thitigs, as some of the neighbors used to say, than it was when they 
were higher. Groceries are high ; coffee 62} cents per pound, tea $2.25. Sugar we make 
ourselves, but loaf sugar is fiftysiz cents per pound. Salt we get by weight, three dollars for 
fifty pounds. Drygoods are low in proportion to other things. 

April 7, 1820: 

Produce of every kind is very low here, owing to the scarcity of money. ... I be- 
lieve the price [of freight from Philadelphia] is reduced to ten dollars per hundred weight. 

September 10, 1820 : 

In the spring David had considerable business, but for some time past he can't get a 
dollar's worth of work to do, and not only he but all other mechanics in town are in the 
same condition. . . . Many families have gone to the Wabash. . . . There are but three 
stores in town that do any business worth mentioning; formerly there were ten or twelve 
large stores. Owing to the depreciation of paper money, and the scarcity of specie, merchants 
cannot collect their debts, and therefore cannot replenish their stores. The few that can 
continue to keep an assortment say they are making money faster than ever they did since 
the war. 

Produce of every kind sells low; wheat fifty cents per bushel, rye forty, corn 12}, oats 
12^, barley 62} (its being used instead of cofi*ee enhances its price somewhat), butter from 
eight to twelve cents per pound, chickens eight cents apiece, beef four cents, veal four cents, 
pork two and a half cents pigeons from IH'i to twenty five cents per dozen, eggs 6|^ cents, 
apples fifty cents per bushel, peaches fifty cents. All are plenty and very good, but it is 
more difficult to get the articles mentioned than when they bore a high price, even double 
what they now bear. Tea and coflfee we scarcely pretend to think of, much less taste. 
When the coffee ran out we drank rye, and instead of tea, hot water. 


December 25, 1820, to hor sister : 

[Business still stagnant and labor unemployed. Mr. D. had been so fortunate as to get 
a contract to make shelves for the State Library, his first cash job for over ten months.' 
The first payment on his lot coming due, he had no funds with which to meet it, but 
managed to arrange for it.] 

February 14, 1821, to her brother : 

Columbus has been very lively this winter. The Legislature sat two months, and the 
Circuit Court sat here at the same time. Besides, we had most excellent sleighing nearly all 
winter. The Courthouse is to be placed on the Public Square, near our lot. 

We have had a number of conspicuous characters in Columbus this winter, among 
whom were Henry Clay, of Kentucky, a very genteel man in his appearance, but very plain, 
indeed. Tell father I always thought he was plain in his dress, but Mr. Clay is much plainer. 
If you recollect Uncle Ben's old-fashioned drab-colored cloth coat, with the buttons as big as 
a dollar, you will have some idea of Mr. Clay's coat which he wore all the time he was here.*^ 

With the financial crisiH of 1819, and tho industrial and business depression 
which followed, a scourge of malarial dinease prevailed in Central Ohio. During 
the spring and summer months the undrained forests of that region, with their rank 
growth and decay of vegetable matter, exhaled miasma, and filled the atmosphere 
with poison. In January, 1819, Mrs. Deshler lost her firstborn infant, a daughter, 

The Capital ab a Borouoh. 1. 209 

after a brief illness with inflammatory fever. From that time forward her letters 
make frequent mention of the miasmatic and febrile diseases with which herself, her 
husband, the borough and the country settlements round about were almost con- 
stantly afflicted: Kising from a prolonged and nearly fatal attack of the prevailing 
fever, her convalescence was just in time to enable her to nurse her sick husband 
whose life, for a time despaired of, was preserved by her faithful attentions. To such 
distresses were added, not for this particular family only, but for scores of others, 
indeed for the entire community, the gloom and discouragement of almost hopeless 
debt arising fmm the currency derangement and consequent industrial stagnation 
of the country. The following additional extracts from Mrs. Deshler's letters will 
convey some idea of the general condition of things which then prevailed : 

May 17, 1821, to her father: 

We have had a remarkably cold and backward spring; things in the garden are but 
barely up. On the seventeenth of April a snow fell several inches deep, and as yet we have 
not had more than two warm days in succession. Almost everybody here has been sick, 
owing to the disagreeable weather. 

September, 1, 1821, to her mother: 

We have had nothing but sickness and trouble in our family since June. . . . David was 
taken with the bilious fever on the first of July, and was confined to bed for nearly seven 
weeks, and part of the time entirely deranged. Without help, I took care of him fourteen 
nights in succession. . . . There has been, this season, considerable sickness in Columbus, 
but none to compare with that in the country. . . . There is not enough business for onehalf 
of the people who are well enough to work. 

October 20, 1821, to her brother : 

It is, and has been, more unhealthy this season than for many years. ... The most that 
appears to occupy the minds of the people this year is sickness, taking care of the sick, going 
to funerals, and hard times. There is no business, and any one who can keep what he has 
does well, without adding " a mite to the morsel." 

March 15, 1822, to her sister : 

Very dull times in Columbus. But one building going up next summer that we can hear 
of. Produce of every kind sells for little or nothing. The first tire of any consequence that 
ever took place in this town happened a few weeks since. Eight buildings were consumed. 
They were all small shops except one, a small dwelling house. 

May 28, 1822, to her brother : 

Business of all kinds is very dull and produce very low; flour $1.25 per cwt., corn 12h 
events, bacon 4 cents, butter from 6 to 8 cents, eggs 3 and 4 cents, chickens 5 and t> cents 
«ipiece, feathers 25 cents per pound, wool 50 cents, flax 8 cents per pouna, country linen 20, 
25 and 37 cents per yard, domestic molasses (for such is all we have) 50 cents per 
99illon. We laid in our sugar in time of sugar-making for six cents per pound, but now, 
<:kwing to the badness of the season, it brings eiglit cents per pound cash. 

September 29, 1822, to her brother: 

There has been much more sickness this season than has ever been known since the settle- 
ment of Franklin County. Our burying ground has averaged ten new graves per week, for a 
number of weeks past. . . . The most healthy, robust and vigorous persons are liable to be taken 
off with bilious fever, the prevailing sickness of the western country, and you would be as- 
tonished to see the anxiety of the people in settling up their worldly business before the 
sickly season commences. None feel safe, not one ; for in three or four days, from perfect 

270 History op the City of Columbus. 

health, many of our euterpritiing, useful and beloved citizens are laid in the grave, and many, 
many are the orphans and widows that our town presents. . . . Mr. Deshler has not in 
eighteen months received twenty dollars in cash for his work. We can get produce of every 
kind for work, but more than what we can eat must be thrown away, for it cannot be sold, 
and produce will not buy store goods, except a few articles such as whisky, feathers, beeswax 
and wool, and these the country people keep for themselves. . . . 

Prices of provisions are low ; wheat 25 cents, corn 12J^ cents, oats 14 cents, pork $2 per 
cwt., beef $3 per cwt., butter 6 to 8 cents, eggs 4 cents, chickens 4 and 5 cents apiece, honey in the 
comb 8 cents, lard (> cents, tallow S cents, sweet potatoes 75 cents, potatoes I8\ to 25 cents, 
apples 37>^ cents per bushel, peaches 12^ to \S^^ cents per bushel, dried peaches $1 per 
bushel, Hhellbarks 50 cents per bushel, &c. Groceries are lower than they have ever been ; 
tea $1.25, coffee 37J.i cents, loaf sugar .37i^ cents, maple sugar 10 cents, pepper, ginger and 
allspice 50 cents, salt fl per bushel, feathers 31 14 cents, wool 50 cents, flax 10 cents, Ac. 

February 27, 1823, to her brother : 

Business is yet dull in Columbus, but I think times are not so hard as they have been. 
. . . They [the hard times] have proved the greatest blessing to this country. People have 
felt the necessity for economy. They have learned the true valuation of property, and are 
much more careful about contracting debts. 

August 10, 1823, to her parents : 

This State has been very sickly this season, and the condition of this town has been for 
the last two weeks, and continues to become, very alarming. The fever which a great 
number of our citizens have become victims of is bilious, attended with extreme pain, some 
losing sight and hearing and still retaining reason. From perfect health, some die within 
four days* sickness, and I know of no instance of the patient lying more than ten or twelve 
days. . . . 

Our town is at present nothing but a scene of trouble, sickness and death. If you go to 
the door at midnight you see a light in almost every house, for watching with the sick and 
dead. No business of any kind doing, our town perfectly dull, people in the country si<;k, 
and strangers afraid to pass through the town. 

October 4, 1823, to her brother: 

The sickness of this country does not abate. The distress that the citizens of this State, 
and of this western country, and particularly this section of the State labor under, is unparal- 
leled by anything I ever witnessed. This town, and towns generally, have been awfully 
visited, and with such distress as I never wish to behold again, but at the same time nothing 
to compare with what has been endured in the thinly settled parts of the country. I could 
relate cases that would appear incredible and impossible, some of which are these : 

On a small stream called Darby, about eighteen miles from here, there are scarcely 
enough well people to bury the dead. In one instance a mother was compelled to dig a f:rA\e 
and bury her own child in a box that was nailed up by herself, without one soul to assist her. 
Only think of it ! Another case was that of a man, his wife and four children who had settled 
three miles from any other house. The father, mother and all took sick, and not one was 
able to hand another a drink of water, or make their situation known. At length a man in 
search of his horse happened to call at the house to enquire, and found a dead babe four days 
gone, in the cradle, the other children dying, the father insensible, and the mother unable 
to raise her head from the pillow. 

In another family, ten in number, only a few miles from town, all were sick except 
two small children who actually starved to death, being too small to go to a neighbor's, or 
prepare anything for themselves. In numbers of families all have died, not one member 
remaining. A person a few days ago passed a house, a short distance from town, out of 
which they were just taking a corpse. One of the men told him there were three more to be 
buried the next morning, and a number sick in the same house. Such is the distress of our 

The Capital as a Borough. 1. 271 

country that the farmers can do no ploughing, nor gather their corn, potatoes, or anything 

Provisions of every kind are very high, and scarcely to be had. There is no money in 
circulation, and hundreds who never knew what it was to want, are sick and actually suffer- 
ing for the common comforts of life. . . . You would be astonished to behold the faces of our 
citizens. There is not one, young or old, but that is of a dead yellow color. No kinds of 
business are going on except making (*oflins and digging graves. 

We are glad to get flour at $4 per barrel, beef at 4 cents per {>ound, butter at 12 j to l(i 
cents per pound, and everything v\m in proportion ; so you may judge how living is, between 
sickness and scarcity. 

October 13, 1S24, to her mother: 

You have no idea what ii scene of trouble and sickness we have passed through the 
last four months. George was si<»k live weeks with bilious fever, and never walked a step in 
four weeks. [This letter was written by Mrs. Deshler in her sick bed, on which she had 
lain for twelve weeks.] 

Novomber 20, 1824, to her brother : 

I was, perhaps, when I wrote home last, as low in spirits as I ever was in my life, and 
nowon<ler; all sick, all trouble, everybody dying, and, as a poor negro says, **everybo<ly 
look sorry, corn look sorry, and even de sun look sorry, and nobody make me feel glad." 

May 12, 1H25, to her brother : 

We have had an unspeakable winter in this country —scarcely cold weather enough to 
make it appear like winter. ... I hope we shall have a more healthy season than the past ones 
have been. If there is any change in the times, I think it is for the better. Produce, how- 
ever, is very cheap, and store goods are very low, more so than I ever knew them at Easton. 
While domestic cotton sells for 12J to thirtyseven and a half centfl per yard, good bed ticking 
:»7i, tea 11.50 per pound, cofTee :>li and other things in proportion. Columbus has altered 
much as respects dress in the last three or four years. A woman will not now be seen on the 
street unless she has on a leghorn flat and a cross or figured silk or J^afayette calico, or some- 
thing as fine. . . . I>afayette prints, belta, vests, shoes and boots, and even pocket handker- 
chiefs prevail." 

March 6, 1826, to hor brother : 

Every body in this town has been severely alflicted with influenza.'* Some few have 
died, but the prevalence of the disease has abated. ... I have three little darling children 
in the graveyard. . . . We have two here. 

October 10, 1826. Has visited Easton and returned. Writes to her brother: 
You can ^t imagine how much handsomer it looks in Ohio than at Easton. 

November 26, 1826, to her brother and sister: 

Our town is quite healthy and very lively. Provisions are plenty and cheap. 

Mrs. Deshler died August 2, 1827, when hereon, our present well-known fellow 
citizen, Mr. William G. Deshler, was but ten weeks old. She passed away, at the 
age of thirty years, while yet in the prime of her womanhood, a victim to the 
anxieties and maladies incident to the frontier. Y'et hor life, albeit so unpreten- 
tious and inconspicuous, failed not of enduring results. With such mothers as she 
to give birth to the architects of her civilization, it is not strange that Ohio has 
won her present distinction in the family of States. JUit we owe to such mothers 
something more than distinction, tor it was by their efforts and sacrifices, no less 
than those of their husbands and brothers, that the rude forces of nature were sub- 
dued, and the wilderness converted into smiling hills, valleys and plains, spread 
with blossoms and waving harvests. 

272 History of the City of Oolumbtts. 


1. A more circumstantial account of the organization of the borough government, to- 
gether with a complete copy of the statute of ita incorporation, \h reserved for the history of 
The Municipality. 

2. A formal reception was given to the President at Worthington. The address of 
welcome was delivered by Hon. James Kilbourn. 

3. Martin. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Ibid. 

6. See page 171. * 

7. ** Pineknots, tallow candles, and lard -oil lamps furnished light. The embers in the 
fireplace were seldom suffered to burn out, but when the last coal chanced to expire tbe fire 
was rekindled by striking a spark from the fiint into a piece of tinder. The tinder-box was 
to our ancestors what the match-box is to us. Sometimes, when the fire went out, a burning 
brand was borrowed from the hearth of a neighbor. Bread was baked in Dutch ovens, or bake- 
pans, set over beds of live coals raked upon the hearth, and meats and vegetables were boiled 
in pots hung by hooks upon a strong piece of green timber, called the *' lugpole," which was 
placed across the wide chimney-fiue, just above tbe blaze. In time tbe lugpole gave place to 
the iron crane. There was invented also a cooking utensil of tin called a refiector, by means 
of which biscuits were baked. . . . Corn bread was often prepared in the form of a johnny- 
cake — a corruption of journey cake — a loaf baked upon a ** johnny " board, about two feet 
long and eight inches wide, on which the dough was spread and then exposed to the fire. 
In Kentucky, the slaves used to bake similar loaves on a hoe, and called them hoe-cakes." — 
Venable^s Footprints of the Pioneers ifi the Ohio Valley. 

8. Much of the fiat land on tbe west side of the Scioto was thickly overgrown with 
wild plum bushes. 

9. These shelves, or rather cases, were afterwards called alcoves. About twenty of 
them were made by Mr. Deshler's own hands. When tbe old state building was demolished 
and the library removed to the present Capitol, these shelves were stored in the basement as 
old lumber. Mr. William G. Deshler bought one set of the cases of Governor Chase for ten 
dollars, and it now stands in the City Library as the Deshler Alcove, to which are attached 
over two thousand volumes. 

10. Mr. Clay was then attending trial of the suit of the Allen heirs vs.. Starling, men- 
tioned in the earlier part of the chapter. 

11. At that time Lafayette was revisiting and making a tour of the United States. The 
gratitude of the American people for his helpful services during the War of Independence 
was such that he was fOted and lionized wherever he appeared, and one of the forms which 
the popular enthusiasm assumed was that of bestowing his name on the prevalent fashions of 
the day in articles of clothing. I<*afayette was invited to visit Columbus, but was unable to 
do so, and sent his regrets. 

12. Perhaps a malady similar to that now known as la grippe. 

/ ^' ''', .,' 
/ // 

. I' 





The contemporary descriptions of ('olumbus during its borough period fre 
quently refer to ** its excellent springs and fine running streams of water." Good 
wells, it is said, were ** easily obtained in all parts of the town."' Later authorities 
corroborate these statements. They also concurrently represent that in and about 
the borough were numerous marshes, quagmires and ponds. In other words, the 
*• high bank opposite Franklinton ' on which the capital was located, while being 
saturated intermittently from the clouds above and constantly from springs be- 
neath, had the sponge like quality of retaining much of the water it received, and 
held more of it, in solution with decaying vegetable matter, than was good for the 
people who dwelt in that locality. Doubtless much of the sickness mentioned in 
the letters just quoted was due to this fact. The ground had no drainage excejn 
that of the surface, and the imprisoned water, as often happens with other idle 
agents, became a source of deadly mischief 

The principal morass, with its outlying swales and ponds, embraced the 
present sites of the Fourth Street Markethouse, Trinity Church, and the Cathe- 
dral, crossed the line of Broad Street, and extended in a northeasterly direction to 
the neighborhood of Washington Avenue. That part of it comprisii»g the tract 
now known as the Kelley property, and a considerable area east of it, was a 
quagmire, of such an unstable nature that the falling of a rail, or other similar 
concussion, would cause it to shake for yards around. Mr. Joseph Sullivant was 
accustomed to say that he could take a station on Spring Street from which he 
could shake it by the acre. Its most elevated point was the natural mound on 
which now stands the residence of the late Judge James L. Bates, near the corner 
of Grant Avenue and Broad Street. 

When the Hon. Alfred Kelley built on this ground, in 1836, the large, colon- 
naded mansion which still stands there, it was popularly termed " Kelley's Folly." 
But Mr. Kelly knew what he was about, as the sequel proved. He perceived that 
the morass was due, primarily, to saturation caused by a spring of strongly cha- 
lybeate water which issued in great volume at a point near the site chosen for his 
residence, just mentioned. So copious was the discharge of this spring that its 
tall over a ledge near its origin could be heard, during a quiet evening, to the 
distance of several squares. As soon as Mr. Kelley had changed the direction of 
itH current so as to afford it a ready escape, the bog around it began to dry up, but 
not sufficiently to prevent it from hopelessly miring the village cows which were 
18 [273] 

274 History of the City op Columbus. 

seduced by its marsh grass within its quaggy precincts. The soil of this morass 
was a black loam, and produced some excellent crops of corn for Mr. John L. Gill, 
who at one time owned part of it, for which he paid the sum of eighty dollars per 
acre. The price paid by Mr. Kelloy was about thirty dollars per acre. 

That part of Broad Street which passed through the swamp was easily cut by 
wheels, and in wet weather almost impassable. To make it a practicable thorough- 
fare, it was corduroyed, about 1820, from the site of the Cathedral eastward, by 
citizens working out their road tax. The roadway was thus considerably im- 
proved, but for a long time afterwards remained in a very bad condition, insomuch 
that even the light carriages which traversed it on social errands were often 

The entire East Broad Street region abounded in springs, one of which, issu- 
ing in the street a short distance beyond Cleveland Avenue, is said to have supplied 
the Old Statehouse with water, conducted to it by piping. When the sewers were 
laid, the waters from these springs, and of the swamp generally, were gradually 
absorbed, and so strong was the current which gushed into the channel cut for the 
Broad Street sewer that the progress of that work was seriously interfered with. 

Spring Street took its name from numerous natural fountains which issued in 
its vicinity, and fed a brook of clear water known as Doe Run. This rivulet bad 
two or three branches, one of which extended through the grounds now occupied 
by the railway?. Another, which had its origin in a copious spring near the present 
Church of St. Patrick, coursed southwesterly to a point near Fourth Street between 
Spring and Long, then, by a sudden bend, changed direction to Spring. Mean- 
dering through a wide and treacherous bog, sometimes called " The Cattail Swamp," 
Doe Eun was confluent on Spring Street with Lizard Creek, the waters of which 
were gathered from the springs of the Broad Street morass, and descended Third 
Street from a point near which now rises the Cathedral. Pursuing its westward 
course, after being fed by Doe Run, Lizard Creek crossed High Street by a depres- 
sion often or fifleen feet, and thence rushed down a gulley twentyfive feet deep to 
the Scioto. The High Street roadway at first descended to the bed of this creek, 
but afterwards leaped it by a wooden bridge. Mr. John M. Kerr informs the 
writer that he caught minnows in its waters in his youthful days, and Mr. Harri- 
son Armstrong states that when attending a school kept in a building ancestral to 
the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Bank, he and the other boys of the school used 
to amuse themselves in stoning the water snakes which glided in and out among 
the rocks in the bed of the creek on Chestnut Street. 

Of all the bogs of the borough, that of Lizard Creek seems to have been the 
most untrustworthy for all pedestrians, whether biped or quadruped. Wheels, of 
course, dared not venture into it, nor could a horse, much less a cow, expect to get 
through it without human assistance, but a judicious man might get over it by 
cautiously stepping on the hummocks, called in the borough dialect " nig- 
ger-heads," formed by tufts of swamp grass. A " nigger-head " violently 
jumped on, however, would suddenly disappear, together with the jumper. 
On West, no less than on East Spring Street, the bog was totally unreliable. Mr. 
John M. Kerr says he offered town lots there at one time for five dollars apiece, 
without takers. In times of freshet Lizard Creek sometimes asserted itself tre- 

The Capital as a Borough. II. 275 

mentiously, and became a roaring torrent. Mr. William Armstrong says he has 

8een it deep enough to swim a horse. Although no traces of it are now to be seen, 

as Iftte as May, 1833, the Council of the borough provided by ordinance for 

graveling Third Street on both sides of it, and for repairing two culverts over it on 

Fourth Street. The same ordinance provided for draining a pond at the east 

end of State Street, opposite the residence of Judge Parish, for repairing the bridge 

at " the south end of High Street," for filling up holes in Front Street, and for 

making a culvert at the corner of that street and llich. About a quarter of a mile 

east of the Union Station a sulphur spring gushed forth. The ground where the 

Station now stands, and all the territory round about, was of a swampy nature. 

On East Broad Street, near its junction with Twentieth, lay an inconvenient 
body of water, commonly known as the ** Crooked- wood Pond," in which the 
piscatoj*ial boys of the borough were accustomed to angle for catfish. A practic- 
able roi^dway was finally carried through this slough by rolling logs into it. Some 
of thoti^ logs were encountered in cutting for the sewer, five or six feet below the 
present surface of the street. From this point eastward to Alum Creek most of 
the stroet was laid with a corduroy track as late as 1830. Going westward, the 
outlying swales of the great Broad Street bog began to be encountered in the 
neighborhood of Monroe and Garfield avenues. 

W^ liere the Fourth Street Markethouse now stands, so say several citizens, who 
remen\V>er it, was a pond in which contemporary boys often went swimming. The 
north eirn extremity of this pond was a few rods south of the present corner of 
State sLYid Fourth Streets. Mr. William Armstronor says he has oflen mired his 
horse in a marshy place where the First Baptist Church now stands, and some- 
times Had great difficulty in extricating him. 

Ki^ooks which descended Fourth and Main streets poured unitedly into Peters's 

Kun, lirid turned the wheels of Conger's Flouring Mill, which, in 1825, stood in 

the rn.x^ine back of the Iloster Brewery. The Fourth Street brook drained a 

portion of the marshy territory east of High Street, and was a living stream the 

jear i»ound. Mr. John Otstot saj's it sometimes became so rampant in rainy 

^eath<5T as to sweep away the worm fences along its banks. Mr. J. F. Neereamer, 

oorn H^re in 1822, says the Fourth Street Run began near the present Highschool 

^»ldin^^ coursed westerly on State Street, descended Fourth, formed Iloskins's 

<^n<l where the Markethouse stands, and near the present junction of Fourth and 

^^^ Htreeta was joined in forming Peters's Run by a brook the source of which 

^ ^^ar the corner of Rich Street and Washington Avenue. 

^he grounds of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb were originally 

p *^^^py, and were overgrown with the bushes of the wild blackberry. Dick's 

'^^j a favorite skating place in winter, was at the junction of Third and Broad 

« ^^ts. its deepest part being the present site of Trinity Church. Where the Denig 

. ^T8on block now stands, on High Street, the surface of the ground was depressed 

^^ or four feet, forming a pond which was also a winter resort of the skaters. 
(1 . Among the other early springs of the borough was one on the east bank of the 
^^lo, just north of the present location of the State Street Bridge, on what was 
. ^>:'ward8 known as Wharflot No. 787. A so-called " fountain springhouse " was 
^^t there in 1840 by S. Doherty. 

27r» History of the City' of CoLUMBrs. 

In 1820, nays Mr. William Armstrong, there were not more than two or three 
brick houses in the borough. Its improved area terminated eastwardly at Fourth 
Street ; Town Street was yet all in timber. Primitive oak and walnut trees, some 
of them nearly six feet in diameter, were standing as far west on Broad Street as 
the present site of the First Congregational Church as late as 1S27. Mr. Harri- 
son Armstrong says he has walked on the fiiUen trees lying in Higli Street. Some 
of their stems, he avers, yet lie buried under the Odd Fellows' building. Doctor 
Theodore Young, who arrived in the borough in 1H20, informs the writer that 
there were then plenty of tree stumps yet rooted in High Street. At the corner 
of High and Friend stood a very large one which it required several days to re- 
move. On High Street, oj>posite the present location of the Metropolitan Opera 
House, there was a depression in the natural surface of about ten feet. The site of 
the Opera House was then occupied by the little shop of a wheelwright named 
Aaron Matthews. Doctor Young thinks tbe present surface of High Street in 
front of the Capitol is ten or fifteen feet lower than it was then. The northwest 
corner of State and High, where the American House now stands, was then oc- 
cupied by Robert W. McCoy's dry goods store. Going thence northward, on the 
west side of High Street, the buildings then existing came in the following order . 
1, Marsh's Bakery; 2, McCuUough's Tailorshop; 3, Tommy Johnson's Bookstore; 
4, the National Hotel; 5, three successive frame buildings occupied as groggeries, 
and known as the '* Three Sisters " ; 6, Judge Gustavus Swan's residence ; 7, a small 
frame dwelling, then the residence of Mrs. Nashee, afterwards used as a school for 
deaf mutes, and occupying in part the lots forming the southwest corner of Broad 
and High Streets. 

Northward from Broad on High, west side, came first the residence of Mr. 
Greenwood, and next to that the frame dwelling of George B. Harvey. From 
that there were no more houses on that side except Zinn's onestory brick dwelling 
on the corner of High and Spring. 

On High Street, east side, northward from Broad, we found the lots forming 
the northeast corner of Broad and High unoccupied, nor was there anything more 
in the nature of a building until we came to Wilson's tanyard, which embraced 
the present site of the Butler Building, on the northeast corner of High and Gay. 
From the tanyard on, there was nothing further until we came to Spring Street, 
where then stood a vacant log cabin. Beyond the cabin we stepped into the 
Spring Street swamp. 

On the w^est side of High Street, going south from State we first encountered 
Harvey D. Little's brick, twostory drygoods store, and next after that came Rus- 
sell's Tavern, beyond which there were no more buildings on that side until we 
came to G Wynne's drygoods store, also a twostory brick. 

The southeast corner of High and State was, in 1S20, vacant, but at a later 
period it was occupied by a frame building erected by Crosby for a drugstore. 
The first building on that side, going southward from State, was a harness shop, 
next to which came Xorthrup's horse- pasture, and next to that a little brick build- 
ing, on the corner of the alley. Beyond this brick came Brotherlin's hatstore. 
John M. Walcutt, whom Doctor Young mentions by his familiar borough title of 
" Daddy Walcutt," had a chairshop on the northeast corner of High and Town. 

The Capital as a Borough. II. 277 

Speaking of the condition of the borough at the time his father arrived in it 
in 1817, Honorable John R. Osborn says : 

The town had not yet been cleared of its standing timber, trees were standing in profusion 
on many streets, and over a large portion of the ground. High and Broad streets were well 
enough defined, and so were the cross streets between Front and Third, to theMound. The pub- 
lic Square was chopped, and I am not sure but that a wooden fence surrounded it ; but many 
years afterwards the thick stumps were still to be seen in it.- 

Mr. Joseph SuUivant stated in an address'* that a pawpaw thicket grew during 
the borough period near the present Second Presbyterian Church. Speaking of 
his schoolboy days, and associates, Mr. Sullivant, in the same address, thus rhap- 
sodizes: " What times we had in summer, with prisoner's base, fourholed cat, hop- 
scotch, round the stakes and roley-boley ; and in winter how we gathered the corn 
from off the outlotseast of Fourth Street, betwixt Town and Rich, and parched it 
on the old stove from Mary Ann Furnace ! " 

The stumps of primitive forest trees in High Street have been seen and are 

remembered by numerous persons now living. Mr. John Otstot remembers a big 

walnut one, which stood in front of Heyl's Tavern in 1S24, at which time the 

street had not yet been graveled. Mr. John M. Kerr speaks of another in front 

of the Capitol on which a friend of his used to sit during the summer evenings and 

play the violin. Mr. Samuel McClelland, who came to Columbus in 1830, has seen 

tree stumps taken out of South High Street, opposite Heyl's tavern. He believes 

that many others were not displaced but covered over in the original grading of 

the street, and this hypothesis has confirmation in the fact that, between Friend 

find Kieh Streets, on High, the stump of a beech tree wag disclosed in the excava- 

tionti for the Nicholson pavement in 1867. In 1830 there were yet several tree 

«^mn pisin Third Street opposite the present Engine House. High Street was then, 

"i ivot weather, no better than a " mudhole." The only importiint building which 

'^'oiix-t\\ Street could shbw at that time was the residence of Hiram Matthews, on 

the tio^thwost corner of Town and Fourth. Mr. Virgil D. Moore remembers High 

'^treoti ^R a " big road full of stumps " about 1825. Long Street, east of High, was 

orn ai, w^ented " with many stumps as late as 1834, says Mr. Reuben E. Champion. 

tH ^:^ borough at that period Mr. Champion further says : 

^■* ^:>ing out Broad Street, on its south side, after passing Third, all was commons and 

aniis^ ^^^ jj house until we came to where Seventh Street now is, and there stood asniall 

Jfr'livmt:. on the Ridgway farm. Beyond that there was nothing but woods to Alum Creek. 

"t li^:^ corner of Fourth, north side of Broad Street, was the residence of Doctor Hoge, the 

^en^r-^^^gj minister of the Presbyterian Church. Later, Peter Hayden erected his residence 

p *^^^ northeast corner. There were no houses on the east until you came to where W. A. 

^ ** liouse was built ; there was also a small house on the Hubbard farm. From thence it 

^as xii-^^ ^^ Alum Creek. The lot at the southeast corner of Broad and Third, where now 

B ^^«a ^ church [Trinity] was the " circus lot." The Champion farm contained about three 

,^^^^*'^d acres, and embraced most of the land between Broad Street and the Livingston Road, 

^^'^^^tern boundary being about opposite the old Lunatic Asylum. That was out of the 

^■o^t^ , and but little of it [the farm] was even fenced. Where now stand the Courthouse and 

^ ^^^T^n Church was a beautiful mound, and about one hundred yards south was " Nigger 

*^^^," the end of creation in that direction.'* 

The socalled "circus lot," it should be explained, took in part of the Capitol 
^\^are, in rear of the United States Court building. Nigger Hollow was the 

27S History of the City op Columbus. 

habitat of tho African population of the borough, and hence its name. Its dusky 
denizens seem to have been mostly emancipated slaves, of whom there was a consider- 
able influx about tho year 1828. On the Champion farm, about one mile from the 
Statehouse, grew an immense oak tree, which was one of the wonders of the borough 
vicinage. It was nearly six feet in diameter just above the ground, and when cut 
down in 1839 produced 305 fencerails and ten and a half cords of firewood. In its 
immediate vicinity grew several other oaks nearly as large. 

Petei's's Run took its name from Tunis Peters, Junior, who removed from 
Pickaway County to Columbus in 1830, established a large tannery in the vicinity 
of the Kun, and built his dwelling at the spot which now forms the southeast 
corner of High and Beck streets. Mr. Peters, at his own expense, erected of brick, 
on Mound Street, a Baptist Church building, which was torn away when the street 
came to bo graded some years later. His descendants are now prominent in the 
manufacturing and other business interests of Columbus. 

The forest occupying the present area of City Park took from its owner, 
Francis Stewart, the name of Stewart's Grove. 

The Harbor Eoad was so called because the pilferers of the borough, and later 
of the city, usually harbored in that vicinity. People who missed things went 
there to look for them. The thoroughfare is now known as Cleveland Avenue. 

Friend Street, now Main, was so named because in its early settlement the 
people who belonged to the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, were 
partial to it. 

The woods east of the borough were very dense, and abounded in wild game, 
of which more will be said in another place. Among the open spaces of the borough 
was a pasture field, of mostly solid ground, extending from the present location of 
tho Penitentiary to the Broad Street Bridge. 

A group of cabins on the corner of Spring and Fourth streets took the name 
of " Jonesburgh*' from that of its proprietor, David Jones, who owned a very large 
tract of land in the Spring Street region, east of High. On this ground Jones 
erected, ultimately, a score or more of small tenements which he rented mostly to 
German families after the people of that nationality began to arrive. One of his 
tenants was Jimmy Uncles, an eccentric character, somewhat intemperate, who 
was in perpetual contention with the proprietary lord of the swamp. During one 
of their quarrels. Uncles placed an old wooden pump stock in position, pointing 
from his window, and declared his purpose to bombard " King David's dominions." 
Thenceforward ** King David Jones " was one of the colloquialisms of the borough. 
On another occasion, when sued by Jones before a Justice of the Peace for the col- 
lection of some claim. Uncles put in a counterclaim for services to the plaintiff 
in " reading and expounding the Scriptures." 

The first German immigrant who settled in the borough was Christian Heyl, 
the circumstances of whose advent have already been narrated. In the year 1800 
Mr. Heyl, then a boy of thirteen, accompanied his parents in their emigration from 
Germany to the United States. So contrary were the winds that the ship in which 
they sailed spent tweutythree weeks, or nearly half a year, in making the voyage 
from Bremen to Baltimore. Among the borough settlers of German origin or descent 
who came after Mr. Heyl, were David W, Deshler in 1817, the Boeder family in 

The Capital as a Borough. II. 279 

1820, John Otetot in 1824, George Kraus in 1829, the Studor, Knics, Hunt, Lieht- 
enegger and Bberly families in 1831 ; Peter Ambos, Benedict Ritter, Otto Zirkel, 
and the Krumm, Jacobs and Keinhard families, in 1832, the Lohrer, Zettler 
and Hinderer families, Louis Hoster and Leonhard Beck in 1833, and the Siebort 
and Erlenbusch families, Joseph Schneider, Henry Roedter, Fritz Beck, Conrad 
Heinmiller and the llickly and Esswein brothers in 1834. After the opening of 
the canal to Columbus, the German immigrants were landed at the wharf by boat- 
loads. Among the arrivals of that period were the Moehl, Pausch, Neufang, Mac- 
hold, Zehnacker, Lauer, Moersch, Schultz, and Schweinsberger families, Professor 
Jueksch, Doctor Schenck, G. J. Mayor, Louis Silbcrnagel, Adam Luckhaupt, John 
Knopf, Esquire J. P. Briick, Louis Lindemann, John Burkhard, George Kreitlein, 
George Schreyer, Moritz Becker, Joseph Engler, Joseph Weitgenannt, the Koetz 
brothers, Casper Miller, John Blenkner, and John G. Bickel.* 

A considerable influx of Welsh people took place nearly contemporary with 
that of the Germans. Among the earlier arrivals of Welsh settlers were those of 
John O., Richard and William Jones, Thomas Cadwallader and Morgan Powell. 

A census of the borough taken during the last week of April, 1829, makes the 
following exhibit : 

Males under four years of age 153 

** between four and fifteen, 280 

" fifteen ami twentyone 153 

over twentyone, 422 

Total males, 1008 

Females under four 149 

between four and fifteen, 282 

" fifteen and eighteen, 193 

over eighteen, . 382 

Total females, 1006 

Grand total 2014 

Of the total population, as shown by these figures, one hundred and sixty 
persons were of African descent. 

The census of 1830, taken by Robert Ware, shows a total population of 2438, 
of whom 1343 were males, 1095 females, and 216, male and female, of African 

The county seat was removed to Columbus from Franklinton in 1824, at 
which time the Common Pleas judges were Gustavus Swan, President, and Edward 
Livingston, Samuel G. Flenniken and Arora Buttles, Associates. A. I. McDowell 
was the Clerk and Robert Brotherton the Sheriff. From 1824 until 1840 the county 
courts were held in the United States Court building, but the county oflSces, in the 
meantime, were lodged for several years in hired rooms until a building, already 
mentioned, was erected for their temporary accommodation, on the Capitol Square, 
by the County. 



1. The NatumcU Intelligencer, quoted in the Freeman^s Chronicle of August 5, 1814. 

2. Address before the Franklin County Pioneer Association June 1, 1867. 

3. Before the Franklin County Pioneer Association June 3, 1871. 

4. Sutiday Morning NewSy March 30, 18tX). 

5. Most of the information here given as to the German pioneers of Columbus has been 
derived from a paper read by the Hon. Henry Olnhausen before the Humboldt Society in Feb- 
ruary, 1889. 




liiiikocpiiig in the time of the borough period of Columbus was HOinething more 
thiin a busincKB; it was almost a profession. Although it required no special train- 
ing, like the pursuit of the law, or of medicine, it did both require and develop 
special traits and (jualifications. To be a successful landlord, or landlady, as the inn- 
keepers vvere called, was a worthy ambition in the public opifiion of the time, and 
enlisted the best endeavors of many of the best people. Not a few who undertook it 
failed, and not a few who succeeded in it became alHuent, accjuired extensive social 
influence, and stepped from it into stations of important ])ublic trust. At the polit- 
ical center of the State, where the resources of a new community were strained 
to provide for a large official and transient population, the opportunities and 
emoluments of this business were particularly attractive, and Columbus con- 
sequently possessed, in its early period, a larger proportion of inns, or, as they were 
more commonly called, taverns, than any other class of establishments. 

The first or pioneer tavern of the borough began its career some time during 
the year 1818 under the management of an original settler named Volney Payiie. 
It was kept in a twostory brick building erected for the purpose by John Collett on 
the second lot south of State Street, west side of High. Its sign in 1816 was The 
Lion and The Eagle. From 1814 the house was kept successively by Payne, Col- 
lett, John McElvain and again Collett, until 1817 or 1818, when it was purchased 
by Robert Russell, who had an appropriate emblem painted on its sign and called it 
The Globe. In company with Doctor Goodale, Mr. Russell, familiarly known in the 
borough as "Uncle Bob,'' had originally come to Franklin (.'ounty from Lancaster 
in 1805, tracing his way through the woods by the " blazed trees.'' lie settled first 
in F'ranklinton, followed merchandizing for ten years, removed to Circleville, then 
returned to Columbus and purchased Collett's establishment as above stated. 
Under his mangemont The Globe came to be considered one of the best taverns 
west of the Alleghanies. After an interval of some years during which the estab- 
lishment was conducted by Mr. Robinson, Russell resumed its control, which he 
retained until 1847, after which the building was occupied successively by F. C 
Sessions's drygoods store, B. & C. Ortman's shoestore, and the jewelry store of Buck 
& Brown. Its present successor is the Johnson Building. In 1850 Mr. Russell, 
having lost his wife by cholera, removed to a farm near Tiffin. 

The Columbus Inn, at which the Borough Council held its first sittings, was 
opened in 1815 by David S. Broderick in a frame building at the southeast corner 


282 History op the City op Columbus. 

of High and Town.^ This was the beginning of the establishment afterwards widely 
known as the City House, and also, for a time, as Robinson's tavern, under the 
proprietorship of Mrs. Robinson & Son. During the spring of 1818 Mr. Broderick 
retired, and was succeeded by James B. Gardiner, who emblazoned his sign with 
a blooming rosetree, and the legend : " The wilderness shall blossom as the 

Of the final fate of the old Columbus Inn, and of its earlier history, the fol- 
lowing mention is made, under date of April 4, 1854, in the Ohio State Journal : 

Yesterday, the workmen commenced, at the corner of High and Town streets, in remov- 
ing the venerable old twostory white frames formerly known as the City Hotel. This build- 
ing iH classic in the early annals of Columbus, and many reminiscences of bygone years are 
associated with it. At an early day, David S. Broderick, father of the late Colonel John C. 
Broderick, did the honors of host there. He was succeeded by the facetious ** Cokeley," who 
not only entertained his guests with provant, for which he was an expert caterer, but abund- 
antly amused them with his overflowing wit and humor. After him came Mr. James Robin- 
son, Mr. Samuel Barr, Colonel [P. H.] Olmsted, and we know not how many others. . . . For 
several years past it [the building] has served as a sort of makeshift, and been temporarily 
occupied by provision men, hucksters, and mechanic shops until better apartments could be 

In the same connection wo are told that Mr. D. W. Deshler, proprietor of the 
premises, is about to erect thereon a spacious and beautiful block of business 

The White Horse Tavern was established at an earl}' date, on the present site 
of the Odd Fellows' building, by Isaiah Voris, of Franklinton. Its name was em- 
blematically represented on its sign by the picture of a white horse led by a hostler 
dressed in green. It was a one-and-a-half-story frame in front, with a long narrow 
annex to the rear, supplemented by a commodious barn, which occupied the entire 
rear portion of its grounds. An upstairs veranda, with which the rooms on that 
floor communicated, opened upon the ample dooryard, and furnished a pleasant 
lounging. place in summer. The dining room was ranged with long tables, and 
warmed from a great open fireplace, out of which, in winter time, the burning 
logs snapped their sparks cheerily while the guests gossiped around it, seated upon 
sturdy oaken armchairs. In December, 1829, David Brooks became its landlord, 
and made it one of the favorite hostelries of the borough. Mr. Brooks seems to 
have resumed its management, after an interval, in 1837. It Was then known as 
the Eagle Hotel. 

The Swan Tavern, which had its origin, already chronicled, in the bakery of 
its proprietor, Christian* Heyl, was kept in a frame building which yet stands, on 
the corner of High Street, east side, and Cherry Alley. On its sign was painted at 
one time a white, at another a golden swan. Members of the General Assemby 
were fond of stopping with Mr. Ileyl, who provided royally both for them and for 
the horses from 'which they dismounted before his door. During its later career 
the Swan Tavern became widely known as the Franklin House, of which name, 
although at different times adopted b}' its rivals, it was the original and proper 
owner. In the spring of 1841 Colonel Andrew McElvain bought the establishment 
of Judge Heyl, and became its managing host Its location is described in an ad- 
vertisement of that period as ^* pleasant and commanding, ... a few rods north of 

The UiiBoiroii Tatebnb ahi) Cnyt 

284 History of the City op Columbus. 


the entrance of the National Road into High Street." In 1842 the ostablishraent 
passed from Colonel McElvain to J. W. & D. C. Dryden, of Xenia. In the spring 
of 1849 a Franklin House, possibly the same, was taken charge of by Grundy D. 

Jeremiah Armstrong's Red Lion Hotel, despoiled of many its original appur- 
tenances, still stands on South High Street. Its position is on the west side of the 
street, a few doors north of the late Metropolitan Opera House Block, between Rich 
and Town. Its nearest rival was the White Horse Tavern, which stood nearh' op- 
posite. On its first sign was painted an Indian Chief, but in the summer of 1822 
Mr. Armstrong advertised the ^'Columbus Hotel, sign of Christopher Columbus first 
landing from his ship in America;" and in 1827, ''The Columbus Hotel, sign of the 
Red Lion . . . one dollar per day for man and horse."^ Mr. Armstrong was a 
popular host, and entertained many distinguished guests. Mr. John L. Gill, who 
alighted at the Red Lion when he first arrived in the borough in 1826, says that "al- 
though not so large as the others, it became famous as the headquarters of several 
of the governors, among them Morrow, Trimble and Mc Arthur."^ General Har- 
rison, when visiting Columbus, stopped there habitually, as did also Clay, Ewing, 
Sherman and other men of national reputation. In 1850 the front part of the old 
Red Lion Tavern was removed, and the remainder of it fitted up for shops of 
various kinds. 

James B. Gardiner, who had acquired a large acquaintance as editor of the 
Ffmn<ni'fi Chronlrh\ in Franklinton, started the Ohio Tavern in 1816. It occupied a 
frame building on ground afterwards known as "the Howard lot," situated on Friend 
Street, just west of High. In 1818 Mr. Gardiner took charge of the Columbus 
Inn, as successor to Mr. Broderick, and was succeeded in the Ohio Tavern by Jar- 
vis Pike. In 1821 James Lindsey suc(!ceded Pike, and raised the sign of The 
Swan, but soon exchanged it for The Sheaf of Wheat. In the summer of 1822 Pike 
announced that he had "taken that large and commotlious stand on Broad Street, 
latel}' the property of II. M. Curry, Esq." It occupied a twostory frame building 
on West Broad, and was known as Pike's Tavern. 

McCollum's Tavern, The Black Bear, northwest corner of Front and Broad, 
was one of the early Columbus inns. Its successor, at a later ])eriod, was the Erin 
go Bragh. Daniel Kooser opened an inn contemporary with McCollum's at the cor- 
ner of Sugar Alley and Front Street, but its name is not recorded. 

In the autumn of 1825 was advertised the Tavern of The Golden Lamb, kept 
by Henry Brown "in the building foi*morly occupied by Mr. James Robinson, and 
recently by Mr. William Neil, on High Street, opposite the [Inited States ( 'ourt- 
house and State buildings." An advertisement of the next month following men- 
tions the same place as "Franklin Hall, sign of the Golden Lamb." In 1826 this 
establishment passed under the management of Edmund Brown, of West Union. 

A twostory brick tavern known as the Union Hotel was situated on South 
High Street, west side, nearly opposite The Swan, between Cherry Alley and 
Rich. John D. Rose, Senior, and John D. Rose, Junior, were its proprietors, and 
its sign The Golden Plough. In 1836 the Roses announce that " there being a large 
wagonyard attached to the establishment, families traveling, and large teams, can 
at all times be accommodated." At a later date General Edgar Gale became the 

The BoRoriiH Taverns and CoFFEEirousEs. 285 

host at the Union, after wlilch it wan generally known up and down the National 
Koad as Gale's Tavern. The junior Kose acquired celebrity as a barkeeper, and 
emigrated to New Orleans, where the St. Charles Hotel paid him a phenomenal 
salary as a dispenser of cordials. 

The large wagonyard attached to the Union Tavern was situated at the 
present southwest corner of Maifi and High Streets, west side of High, and was 
kept by Amos Meneely. It was at one time knowMi as the White Horse, at another 
as the Cross Keys, and was a favorite and famous resort of the great wheeled 
schooners of the road, which were locked up there over night for safety of the 
merchandise wMth which they were hiden. The Meneely yard was one of the 
liveliest places in the borough, ]>articularly in the evening, when, amid the crack- 
ing of whips, the shouts of teamsters and the jingling of bells which the sturdy 
roadsters bore upon their hames, the mammoth canvas-covered, broad-tread, six- 
hoi-se wagons, creaking with their burdens, and dusty \v\{\\ the day's travel came 
flocking in for the night. 

Another wagonyard, not so large, was kept on High Street just opposite 
Meneely 'h. 

On Front Street, west side, near State, the Culbertsofi tavern was kept in a 
twostory brick building which, in 1>^80, was still standing. Its sign was that of 
The Fox Chase, representing a fox pursued by a pack of hounds. James Culbert- 
son, a son of the proprietor, was a talented young attorney, practising at the Col- 
umbus bar. On a lot next to the Culbertson Tavern building a portion of the old 
Markethouse, removed from State Street, stood until a recent period. 

The use of distilled liquors was very common, and every tavern had its 
licensed bar. The guest was usually invited by his host to one gratuitous dram in 
the evening and one in the morning; whatever additional fluid refreshments he 
consumed he paid for. '* Tanzy bitters" were freely imbibed as a 8uppo.sed pre- 
ventive of the prevailing fevers. The habit of treating was common, and at the 
Russell Tavern it was a rule with the loungers w^ho used to sit on the sidewalk 
benches in front, that the first one to rise should treat the rest. Mr. John M. Kerr 
says it was habitual with many of the most prominent citizens of the borough to 
enjoy their mint juleps on summer evenings, seated on the sidew^alk chairs or 
benches of the cofl^eehouses and taverns. Ha lady of their ac(iuaintance chanced 
to pass by, they rose and greeted her graciously, each with his minted julep in 
his hand. 

The coffeehouse of the period was a place for gossip, refreshment and gaming. 
Among the exhilarating drinks dispensed there, coff*ee was one of the least called 
for, or thought of. The borough and early city life of the capital developed many establishments, by far the most popular and important of which was that 
of John Young. This tamous convivial resort and gambling place was located on 
the west side of High Street, a few rods north of State. Originally, in 182r), it 
took the humble title of' Bakehouse and Grocery," but in a few years it became 
known far and wide as the Eagle Cofleehouse. In one sense it was a social center 
of the borough. A citizen wMio remembei's it well remarked to the writer that 
"everybody went there except Doctor Hoge." This, of course, was intended 
partly as a jest, but it was more than half serious. People loved a little recreation 


then, as they do now, and John Young's was the place to find it. They went 
there to chat and be merry, and right merry they often were. The place was 
always cheerful, and its keeper, according to all accounts, was a very prince ot 
good fellows. He had been a baker, and had been set up in that business by Lyne 
Starling, who owned the premises. For the gaming which he tolerated no excuwe 
can be made except that it was the amusement of a raw, frontier town which had 
scarcely any other. The establishment had a public bathhouse attached to it — 
probably the only one in the borough — the water for which was pumped by a 
big, black bear, chained to a treadmill in the back yard. One day, while quite a 
number of loungers were watching this animal at his task, and Trowbridge, the 
actor, was teasing him, one of the bystanders remarked to a comrade that he would 
like to see, "just for the fun of it," what would happen if that bear should break 
loose. A few minutes later the bear did break loose, and a general scatterment 
followed. Among those who broke for a place of safety was John M. Kerr, to 
whom the writer is indebted for the history of this episode. Most of the company 
rushed for the street, but Mr. Kerr leaped upon a table, and in the excitement of 
the occasion was unconscious for several minutes that in the spring he had made 
the entire rear part of a dress coat he had on had been torn away by the latch ot 
a door against which he had been leaning. The bear was soon secured by his 
keeper, and the loungers resumed their juleps and their jollity. 

With the pleasure-seeking roysterers who frequented Young's place, singing 
was a favorite pastime. Among the ditties with which they fed their hilarity was 
one entitled " The Bobtailed Mare " ; another, "Old Kosin the Bow." Apropos ot 
the latter a wellknown citizen describes to the writer a singular scene which he 
witnessed as he quitted his place of business to go home very late one night, away 
back in the thirties. Passing the open door of Young's Coffeehouse, he saw Tom 
West lying on the counter in an accustomed state of intoxication. Beside him 
was a group of revelers including various gentlemen whose names, familiar in the 
annals of the borough, it is not necessary to mention. At the top of their voices 
they were all singing "Old Hosin the Bow," closing each stanza with the refrain : 

Now I'm dead, and laid on the counter, 
A voice shall be heard from below, 
A little more whisky and water 
To cheer up Old Rosin the Bow.* 

After each chorus a draught of whisky was administered to West. 

As a gambling resort, the Eagle Coffeehouse was frequented by some of the 
deftest experts in that vice which the cities of the East, South and West could 
then produce, and many pages might be filled with accounts of scenes and events 
within its walls, thrilling and sad as those of Monte Carlo. One of its devotees, 
strange to say, afterwards became a successful clergyman. Young finally sold the 
place, about 1839, to Basil A. Kiddle, who had long been his assistant, and removed 
to Cincinnati, where he died. In 1843 Culbertson & Vinal took charge of the 
establishment, and changed its name to The Commercial. The following passage 
in the later history of the place is found in the Ohio State *Tournal of March 27, 


The Borough Taverns and Coffeehouses. 287 

The buildlDg on High Street, opposite Capitol Square between the American and Neil 
House, which has been occupied for a great length of time by Mr. Sam. West as a billiard 
room, will be vacated on Friday next. On the following day the demolition of the building 
will commence, to make way for a fourstory stone front building, which will be erected by 
Messrs. E. T. Mithoff and D. S. Stafford. 

Most popular and famous of the coffeehouses, next to Young's, was the Tontine, 
situated on the south side of State Street, a few doors west of High, and known in 
the political slang of the thirties and forties as the Tinpan. Samuel Pike, Junior, 
was its proprietor in 1837; in 1843, 4 and 5, Francis Hall. Politically speaking, 
the Whig influences centered at the Eagle Coffeehouse, the Democratic at the Ton- 
tine. Partisan meetings were held, and party " slates " made up at both places, 
but the Tontine, paraphrased as Tinpan, became particularly noted for its secret 
caucuses, and sly partisan manipulation, ritimatol}'', in the heated party discus- 
sion of the period, the word " tinpan " was used as a synonym for caucus dictation 
and clandestine politics. 

Many additional coffeehouses, so called, started up during the borough and 
early city period. Among them were the Buckeye, on East Broad Street, in 1841, 
by Ira Grover; the Eclipse, in the Exchange Buildings, on West Broad Street; and 
the Bank Exchange, by R. Biddell, under the Mechanics' Savings Institute, corner 
of High and State, in 1842. In that year the proprietoiN of the Young establishment 
advertised it ironically as a "temperance" place, but real temperance refreshment 
rooms were not a myth. In 184;") the Washington Temperance House, by Mr. 
Alston, is announced, and in 184G a temperance restaurant, in the basement of the 
City Bank, by W. ToUivor. The first saloon, so called, is said to have been kept 
by Krauss, about 1832. Its location was on the west side of High Street, three or 
four houses north of Main. 

The advent of the first pretentious hotel, bearing that name, is announced in 
the following card, dated March 1, 1832, and published in the newspapers of the 
borough : 

The undersigned, from Lancaster, in this State, has taken the noted Tavern Stand, 
nearly opposite to the Public Buildings and Court House, in Columbus, and owned by 
William Neil, Esq., which will hereafter be known as the National Hotel, and will be 
furnished and attended to in a style equal to the highest expectations. The stages of the 
Ohio Stage Company stop at this house, and their office is attached to the establishment. 

John Noble. 

The signer of the foregoing card. Colonel John Noble, had been engaged in 
tavernkeeping at Lancaster, Ohio. As his career was identified in many import- 
ant particulars with the early development of the city, it may here be briefly 
sketched. Born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the emigration of his parents 
to Ohio in 1811 brought him to that State, where the family settled on a farm near 
Tarlton, in Pickaway County. During the War of 1812 he was engaged in busi- 
ness connected with the supply of the army at Franklinton. His tavern-keeping 
career began at Lancaster in 1820, but was interrupted at later dates b}- various other 
business enterprises, including canal contracts and a trading expedition to New 
Orleans. While in Columbus, he was several times elected to the City Council, 
and was first to inaugurate the measures by w^hich Broad Street was redeemed from 
the swamp, and beautified. As host of the National Hotel, which was the stage 

2H8 History of the City op Oolumbos. 

headquarters, and an eddying place to tlie immense current of emigration and 
businefls travel then beginning to pour through Columbus, he acquired an almost 
national acquaintance, and became one of the best known men in the West. In 
1840 Colonel Noble removed to Cincinnati, and took chari^cof the Dcnnison House, 
in which the futiire Governor Dennison was, for a time, a clerk. He returned to 
('olumbus in 1845, and at a later date was elected as Representative of Franklin 
County in the General Assembly. He returned to Cincinnati, and took charge of 
the Pearl Street House of that city, in 1847, but in 1854 removed back to Colum- 
bus, where he remained until his death in 1871, at the age of eightyone. Among 
the children of Colonel Noble were the late Hon. Henry C. Noble, of Columbus, 
and General John W. Noble, of St. Louis. 

The National Hotel was a twostory brick house, painted green. Its sign was 
of an oval form, and bore simply the names of the house and of its proprietor. 
The stage office, a singlestory brick, also green, occupied the present position of 
the main entrance to the Neil House. Colonel Noble's successor as proprietor of 
the National in 1839 was Colonel P. H. Olmsted. 

The next lineal successor of the National was the original Neil House, built by 
William Neil, whose name it bore, from 1839 to 1843, at a cost of over $100,000. It 
was considered a great enterprise in its day, and was intended to provide a hotel 
worthy of the new era which had by that time begun in the growth of the capital. 

During the night following the day of the Presidontml election, November (3, 
18()0, the Neil House took fire, and owing to the insufficiency of the water 8up])ly 
was mostly destroyed. A contract for its successor, the present building, was 
closed by Mr. Neil in March, 1861, with Miller tt Auld, of Mount Vernon, on plans 
prepared by Mr. Auld. The work of clearing away the fJchris of the oM building 
began in the following June, and in September, 1802, the new Neil House, Wal- 
stein Failing in charge, was opened to the public. It contained about one hundred 
and fifty rooms. 

"Where the American House now stands, on the northwest corner of High and 
State Streets, a tavern called the Franklin was at one time kept by Robinson. 
The present building was erected on the site of McCoy's dry goods store b}' its pro- 
prietor, llobert W. McCoy, who, in accordance with the custom* of the time, broke 
a bottle of whisky on its chimney top when the last brick was laid. On the 
twontysixth of November, 1836, announcement was made that Charles F. Dres- 
bach, then a jeweler, and William Kelsey had taken charge of it, under the title of 
C. F. Dresbach & Co. Mr. Dresbach had married a daughter of the veteran land- 
lord, Kobert Russell. In April, 1838, he withdrew from the concern and was sue- 
ceded by Samuel Pike, Junior, late of the Tontine Coffeehouse. The firm then 
became Pike & Kelsey. The sign of the American of that day like that of the 
National, and of nearly all the early Uiverns and hotels, was of elliptical form, and 
raised on a staff standing by the sidewalk in front of the establishment. In 1849 
an additional story was added, and various other im})rovenients in the building 
were made. Mr. Kelsey continued in the management until 1870, when he emi- 
grated to St. Louis, and took charge of the Planters' Hotel of that cit}'. His suc- 
cessor in the American was A. J. Blount. 

An establishment variously known as the Buckeye House, and the Broadway 
Hotel, with many transient aliases, occupied for man}' years the site of the Board 

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The Borough Taverns and Coffeehouses. 289 

of Trade BaildiDg, on East Broad Street. In 1840 its manager was Ira Grover, 
its owner Colonel John Noble. H. Hurd had charge of it in 1842 and 1845. It 
led an inconspicaoas and chequered career, sometimes as a tavern, sometimes as a 
boarding house. 

In March, 1846, Colonel P. H. Olmsted announced that in the following month 
of April he would take charge of the United States Hotel, at the northwest corner 
of High and Town Streets. In 1850 the house was "reopened '* by K. Eussell. J. 
Smith & Son took charge of it in 1851. Simonton & Son conducted it for a long 
period of later date. 

The list of taverns and coffeehouses of the borough period, and of their numer- 
ous hotel, saloon and restaurant successors, might be considerably prolonged, but 
without historical advantage. If this chapter has presented facts fairly represent- 
ative of the picturesque life and business of the early taverns and their congeners, 
its purpose has been accomplished. 


1 . Western TnteUigencer. 

2. Mr. Broderick had kept the Franklinton Hotel prior to his removal across the river 
to Columbus. Eliza Springer is announced as his successor in the Franklinton Hotel in 1816. 

3. Ohio State JoumaL December 12, 1827. 

4. Address before the Board of Trade, July 24, 1889. 

5. Various versions of this song, some of which are too coarse to be amusing, have been 
published. The following representative stanzas are taken from a very long one, containing 
both wit and sentiment, which went the rounds of the press in 1841 : 


Time creeps on the wisest and happiest, 

As well as all others, you know, 
And his hand, though it touches him kindly. 

Is laid on Old Rosin the Bow. 

My fingers grow stifif and unskillful. 

And I musjt make ready to go, 
Qod's blessing on all I am leaving— 

I lay down the viol and bow. 

This world and my cheerful companions, -* 

I love, but Vm willing to go. 
For a better, I trust, is in waiting 

Above, for Old Rosin the Bow. 

I've ever been cheerful, but guileless, 

And I wish all the world would be so, 
For there's nothing like bright happy faces, 

In the eyes of Old Rosin the Bow. 

Full many a gay-hearted circle. 

Has tripped on a light heel and toe. 
Through the good old cotillion and contra, 

Inspired by my viol and bow. 


n *■ 

290 History ok thk ('itv ok (\»Li'Miirs. 

An«l when a striii;? or:u-ke<l in the nii<l(lle, 
They just took a lireath, as you know, 

While KoHin retimed the oM li<Mle, 

And dapped Home new «lust on the how. 

All the vonth love the nierrv old fellow, 
Anil his heart's not nn^mteful, I know ; 

For, to see them all joyous and happy, 
Is bli^K to Old Kosin the Bow 

A few whom we love have <leparted, 
An<l oft to the ehurehyanl 1 go, 

And sit on some green, grassy hillock, 
And think on the sleepers below. 

Now when I'm laid umler tin? j^reens ward. 
Don't sorrow Um deeply for me. 

But think on the morrow that's coming, 
How sweet our reunion shall be. 

Then lay me 'neath yonder old chestnut, 
Without any funeral show. 

And but add to the tear of affection : 
" (rod care for Old Rosin the Bow." 

Then get me a simple stone tablet. 
To reach from my head to my toe. 

And modt»stly trace on its surface 
The name of Old Rosin the Bow. 

But do not forget to adorn it-- 
Just over my bosom, you know, 

Where so many lon^ years I have borne it 
With mv cheerful old viol and bow, 

That all who p:iss by and look on it. 

.May say, *' after all, I don't know 
But the truest philosopher living 

Was honest Ohl Rosin the Bow." 

r». Now SMUtiiea^t corner of Wall and State streets. 



The chronicles of the borough are not complete without some incidental notice 
of the wild creatures of the surrounding woods. Between the animal life of these 
forests, and the human life which sprang up in its midst there were naturally 
many interesting historical points of contact. 

In all the annals of the Ohio Wilderness, the abundance and variety of the 
wild beasts and birds which infested it obtained conspicuous mention. Its Iroquois 
conquerors regarded it as a hunting ground, and at the time of its first exploration 
by white men, parties of Indian nomads were roaming it in quest of its game. It 
was this which tempted the Wyandots southward from their villages about Detroit 
and Sandusky, and this, probably, which brought the Mingocs westward from 
their haunts on the Susquehanna and Mohawk. In every part of Ohio have been 
plowed up the arrowheads of flint spent from the bow of the moccasined expert 
of the chase. In no part were his skill and daring more liberally rewarded than 
in the Scioto Valley. The first explorers and settlers of that region all concurrent- 
ly testify that they found its forests abundantly peopled with every species of in- 
digenous game, both furred and feathered. The proofs are abundant that in this 
particular no exception is to be made of the forests which environed the borough 
of Columbus. The village hunters usually went east, says Doctor Edward Young, 
nor did they need to go farther than where Twentieth Street now is to find all the 
game they desired.* The Indian hunters lingered in the neighborhood long: after 
the first white settlements began, and for many years pitched their annual camps 
on Walnut Creek, and other watercourses of Franklin County. 

" When we first came to this country," says Joel Buttles in his diary, " there 
was a great deal of wild game, of course. I have sometimes killed three deer in 
one day. Turkeys were numerous, and easily killed. Wolves were also numer- 
ous. Bears were few, the country being too level to suit their habits. Buffaloes 
had long before left the country, though there had been a time when there were 
many about. Raccoons were an annoyance because of the damage they did to the 
corn in the fall season. The wolves could not do much damage because the sheop 
were so few at that time, but they destroyed young pigs, and it was our interest to 
kill them when we could. ... I trapped for them, and caught many, though my 
younger brother Aurora had better success than I had. I also took, in trapping 
for wolves, many of a certain kind of animals called fisher — a longlegged, dark- 
brown animal. The wolf, when caught, seeing no way of escape, gives up all at- 


292 IIiSTORy OF the City of Columbus. 

tempts, and yields himself a passive prisoner to be done with as his captor chooses, 
but ho will not thu» submit to a dog, and will fight one with great desperation. 

" I must not forget," continues Mr. Buttles, " to mention the opossum, a small 
animal about the size of a cat. though very different in appearance and form, being 
much heavier, and generally very fat. He has short legs, a sharp nose, small head, 
small, thin ears with very little hair on them, and the body covered with a short, 
coarse, curly white wool, wMth long black hairs intermixed, giving it a very un- 
sightly appearance. He has a long tail like a muskrat, in which there is great 
muscular strength so that the animal can sometimes suspend himself from the 
bough of a tree, which, in case of danger, it will ascend with great difficulty. 
It can make but little speed, and when pursued and overtaken, always throws 
itself down and feigns death. I never could by any means make it show signs of 
life but by putting a coal of fire or a blaze to its nose. I have known it carried for 
miles hanging by the tail across a man's shoulder, to all appearance lifeless, and 
nothing would make it move but the application mentioned above. It is one of 
the marsupial tribe, having a sack or pouch under the belly of the female, extend- 
ing from the hindlegs to the forelegs, and capable of being extended so as to almost 
prevent walking, into this pouch a small opening admits the young ones, where 
they find a safe and congenial abode. I once caught one with five young ones in 
this pouch. They were of the size of a very small mouse, and had no hair at all." 

The northeast part of Franklin County, says Virgil D. Moore, was as good a 
hunting ground as any in Ohio. How Mr. Moore's father, with the rifle he had 
carried at Bunker Hill, shot, from the roof of his cabin, the deer which browsed 
by moonlight in his clearings, has already been narrated. 

The first of the wild quadrupeds to disappear from the Central Ohio woods 
seem to have been the elk and the buffalo. Both were rarely seen in the Scioto 
Valley by the early explorers. Harrison Armstrong says he has heard his father 
tell of elk which the hunters had encountered, but not of buffalo. A history of 
Licking County published in 1881* says that about the year 1803 a small herd of 
buffaloes, six or eight in number, '^strayed from their usual haunts fistrther west, 
and reached a point a short distance east of where Will's Creek empties into the 
Muskingum. Here, for a day or two, they were pursued by the late John 
Channel, a famous hunter and pioneer, but without success so far as Mr. Channel 
was concerned." The antlers of the elk, says the same writer, were found " pro- 
fusely scattered in the forest," but no living specimens of the animal remained in 
Licking County at the time of the white man's advent. The final ezterminatioD 
of the elk and buffalo in Ohio dates from about the year 1800. The animals did 
not emigrate; they were destroyed. 

The cougar, commonly called panther, and the wild cat or catamount both 
prowled through the Franklin County forests. They were lithe, fierce and not 
pleasant customers to meet unarmed. The panther was a whiskered beast, 
with small head, large rounded ears, short hair of a tawny brown color, and 
a ringed tail. His weight sometimes reached one hundred and fifty pounds. His 
favorite prey was the wild turkey, of which he sometimes made havoc bordering 
on extermination. A night adventure of the Lucas Sullivant surveying party with 
one of those cats has already been narrated. The wildcat was of the same family 

Fur, Feather and Fin. 293 

as the cougar, but smaller, and of varying color, with dorsal lines, and slightly 
spotted. It was too savage to be tolerated and too unsociable to linger long about 
tbe settlements. Harrison Armstrong says he has seen wildcats in the woods near 
the present starch factory below the city. Another citizen informs the writer that 
when a boy he and a companion killed a young one near the Shepherd Watercure, 
on Alum Creek. 

The bear of the Ohio Wilderness occasionally came nosing around the settle- 
ments at the Forks of the Scioto. The late William S. Sullivant stated that he saw 
one come out of the woods not far from the spot on which now stands the Kelley 
Mansion. This is said to have been bruin's positively farewell appearance in the 
immediate neighborhood of the borough. 

Of the wolves the chronicles are numerous. They infested the Franklin 
County forests in considerable numbers, and were last of the beasts of prey to dis- 
appear. In her sketch of the Merion family, whose log dwelling stood at the 
present southwest corner of High and Moler streets, Mrs. Emily Stewart says the 
wolves were so numerous in that vicinity that " the dogs would chase them from 
the house at night," but that " when the dogs turned toward home, the wolves 
would chase them back until they would come against the door with such force 
as to almost break it down." How they pursued Mrs. Merion on her way home 
from Franklinton one evening in 1814 has been narrated. "The first winter that 
I lived in Columbus," said Judge Heyl, " we could plainly hear the wolves howl- 
ing at night in the east part of the town. A colored man who lived on Kich Street, 
one square from High Street, put some old meat on the ends of the logs of his 
cabin, and at night the wolves came and carried it off.*'^ Verily, the " high bank 
opposite Franklinton " deserved its title of those days as Wolf Kidge. 

Such a nuisance to the settlers were these animals, by reason of their depreda- 
tions upon the swine, sheep, and poultry, that the General Assembly began at a 
very early period to legislate for their extermination. A statute of February 19, 
1810, provided that any person who should "kill or take any wolf or wolves with- 
in this State" should receive a bounty of four dollars for each one over and two 
dollars for each one under six months old, on producing the " scalp or scalps with 
the ears entire" to a justice of the peace within thirty days, and taking an oath 
that the life of no bitch wolf had been spared by the claimant of the bounty "with 
a design to increase the breed." This law was reonacted December 6, 1819, and, 
with some amendments, December 22, 1821. It was again reonacted in 1830, and 
again in 1852. The amount of bounty paid for wolf scalps from the public funds 
has amounted to as much as eleven thousand dollars in a single year, but the claims 
on which a considerable part of this sum was expended are believed to have been 

Wild deer were often seen in the vicinity of the borough. They sometimes 
approached the cornfields near Franklinton, and loved to linger in the woods 
where now rise the monuments of Green Lawn Cemetery. When the first trees 
were cut down in the Capitol Square, these meekeyed creatures came to browse 
upon their branches. Jonathan Neereamer, a Councilman of the borough, frequent- 
ly shot deer in the forest which covered the territory now known as East Park 
Place. His son tells the writer that he killed one on the ground contiguous to 


Broad Street, north side, cast of Gtirfield Avenue. In January, 1825, John Ot«tot, 
as he informs the writer, saw five deer toetling together near the old cemetery, on 
Livingston Avenue. These were the hist deer seen hy Mr. Otstot in the neighbor- 
hood of Columbus. In the year 1><35 he killed one in the Nine Mile Woods, near 
Dublin. Mr. John Barr informed the writer that deer were seen between Alum 
Creek and the Big Walnut as late as lS-45. On November 13, 1855, Mr. William 
Neil saw two wild deer in his woods two miles north of the city.* A buck's horn 
was unearthed six feet below the surface during the excavation for the water- 
works building in 1871.* Judge Christian Heyl relates in his autobiography the 
following incident : 

Peter Putnam, one of the first settlers of Columbus, went out hunting one day, and shot 
an old buck, but when he approached the fallen animal to cut its throat it gave a kick with 
its hind legs which knot-ked the knife out of old Peter's hand, then sprang up and gave him 
fight. Putnam retreated behind a convenient tree followed by the enraged buck, whieh 
kept him dancing arouml that tree for some time. Finally the buck drew off and disappeared, 
giving Peter an opportunity to hunt for his knife, which, however, he was unable to find. 
He went home without game or knife, altogether ohopfallen. 

"The hunting or killing of deer,' say Martin, " was successfully practiced by 
oandle- or torchlight, at night, on the river. The deer, in warm weather, would 
come into the river after night, to eat a kind of water grass that grew in the 
stream, and the hunters, by taking a canoe, and a bright light in it, could let it 
float down the stream, and the light appeared to blind the deer until they could 
float near to them, and shoot them with ease." 

So numerous and mischievous were the squirrels of the early Ohio woods as to 
become, like the wolves, a subject of legislative persecution. A statute passed 
December 24, 1807, contained these curious provisions: 

Section 1. That each and every person within this State who is subject to the payment 
of a county tax, shall, in addition thereto, produce to the clerk of the township in which he 
may reside, such number of squirrel scalps as the trustees shall, at their annual meeting, 
apportion in proportion to their county levies, provided it does not exceed one hundred nor 
less than ten. 

Section 2. That the trustees Rhall, at their annual meeting, make out an accurate state- 
ment of the number of squirrel scalps each person has to produce, which list or statement 
shall be ^iven to the lister of personal property, who shall, at the time he takes in the returns 
of chattel property, notify each person of the number of squirrel scalfw which he had to 

Section three levies a fine of three cents for each scalp short, and provides a 
bounty of two cents for each one in excess of the number required. Section four 
makes it the duty of the Township Clerk to receive the scalps and destroy them 
by burning, or otherwise. 

The grounds for this statute, and the facility with which its requirement* were 
met, are indicated in the following passage from the diary of Joel Buttles: 

The grey and black squirrels were sometimes so numerous as to cause much destruction to 
the corn crop, men with dogs and guns not being able to protect it. At one time I knew sixty- 
seven killed offof one tree; but this tree stood in the midst of a cornfield into which the squirrels 
from the surrounding woods had gathered to feed upon the corn. When the dogs were sent into 
the corn, the squirrels retreated as best they could, getting up the first tree they could reach. I 

P^TK^ Feather and Fin. 295 

have known boys to go to the rivor in the morning and kill afl many nqnirrels with clubs as 
they could carry liome, in half an hour. This is cxplaint^d by the fact that, in the fall season 
of the year, this s<]uirrel seems to be migrating, and all over the country travelling in some 
particular direction. 

Mr. Joseph Sullivan! believed that these nii«^rations were caused, in part, by 
the rcstlcssneHH of the little animals produced from the torments of a grub whicii 
h>dged itself under their skin. 

John M. Kerr avers that while the migratory squirrels were swimming the 
Scioto, just below the moutli of the Whetstone, he has often waded into the stream 
and killed, in a few minutes, as many squirrtds as he could carry home. 

The Coliimhiis (tnzittr of April 25, 1822, says: 'M)n Friday and Saturday last, 
there were about nihc flunisunil >if/uirrr/,s kille<i in this county, near five thousand of 
which were killed in this immediate vicinity." 

The same paper of August 21), 1S22, contains the following account of the prep- 
arations tor a "grand scjuirrel hunt," which has deservedly cons^^icuous mention 
in all the early chronicles of the borough : 

The stiuirrels are beconnng so numerous in this county as to threaten serious injury if 
not destruction to the hopes of the fanner during the ensuing fall. Much good might be 
done by a general lurn wU of all citizens, whose convenience will permit, for two or three 
days, in order to prevent the alarming ravages of those mischievous neighbors. It is there- 
fore respectfully submitted to the different townships, each to meet and choose two or three 
of their citizens to meet in a huiUing caiicus at the house of Christian Heyl, on Saturday the 
thirty first instant, at two o'clock p. m. Should the time above stated prove too short for the 
townships to hold meetings as above recommended, the following persons are respectfully 
nominated, and invited to attend the meeting at Columbus: 

Montgomery, Jeremiah McLene and Edward Livingston ; Hamilton, George W. 
Williams and Andrew Dull ; Madison, Nicholas Goetschius and W. H. Richardson ; Tniro, 
Abiathar V. Taylor and John Hanson ; Jefferson, John Edgar and Elias Ogden ; Plain, 
Thomas B. Patterson and Jonathan Whitehead ; Harrison, F. C. Olmsted and Captain 
Bishop; Sharon, Matthew Matthews and Bulkley Comstock; Perry, Griffith Thomas and 
William Mickey; Washington, Peter Sells and Uriah Clark; Norwich, Robert Elliott and 
Alanson Perry; Clinton, Colonel Cook and Samuel Henderson; Franklin, John McElvain 
and Lewis Williams; Prairie, John Hunter and Jacob Neff; Pleasant, James Gardner and 
Reuben Golliday ; Jackson, Woolery Conrad an<i Nicholas Hoover ; MifHin, Adam Reed, and 
William Dalzell. 

In case any township should be unrepresented in the meeting, those present will take 
the liberty of nominating suitable persons for said absent township. 

Lucas Sullivant. Ralph Osboiin. 

Samukl G. Flenniken. Gustavus Swan. 

John A. McDowell. C. Heyl. 

The meeting held pursuant to the foregoing call was well attended, and 
adopted a series of resolutions dividing the county, for the hunt, into two districts, 
viz.: 1, All east of the Scioto '^south of the mouth of the Whetstone and east of 
the Whetstone Kiver;" 2, *'all west of said boundary." Afield marshal was 
appointed for each district, Lucas Sullivant for the first and Ralph Osborn for the 
second. It was arranged that the hunters should meet and the scalps be counted 
on the west side of the Scioto, opposite the mouth of the Whetstone, "the scalps 
to be given in upon the honor of the hunters." A match w^as arranged between the 
districts, and stakes provided for as follows : 

29G History op the City of Columbus. 

Re9olvedf That for the purpose of proper refreshments, and to encourage attention to so 
desirable an object, the hunt shall be for one barrel of whiskey. 

The days appointed for the chase were Saturday, Monday and Tuesday, 
September 7, 9 and 10. The Gaztfft of September 12, 1822, thus announces the 

result : 

The hunt was conducted agreeably to the instructions in our last paper. On counting 
the scalps, it appeared that nineteen thouttand six hundred and nxiy scalps were produced. It is 
impossible to say what number in all were killed, as a great many of the hunters did come not in. 

The count showed a majority of five or six thousand scalps in favor of the 
western district. 

According to Doctor Kirtland, wild turkeys were at one time more numerous 
in Ohio than tame ones arc now. They were partial to the Central Ohio woods, 
and to none more so than those around Columbus. Attracted by the neighboring 
cornfields they frequently ventured close to the borough. One morning while the 
door was open at the Merion domicile, says Mrs. Stewart, "the dog chased a wild 
turkey into the house, and it took refuge on the bed, where it was caught. It 
weighed twenty pounds.*' A citizen now living assures the writer that ho has 
shot a great many wild turkeys between Parsons Avenue and Franklin Park. 
Mr. John Otstot says he saw a flock of twenty or more near the present Asylum 
for the Insane in 1829 or 1830. On another occasion a flock alighted in a West 
Side cornfield, just north of the present State Street Bridge. They were fired on 
by sportsmen whose attention they attracted, and scattered in a panic. Several of 
the bewildered birds flew towards the town, and one of them, striking a building, 
was so injured by the shock as to be easily captured. The nest of the wild turkey 
was made upon the ground, and usually contained ten or fifteen eggs which were 
of buff or cream color, with blotches of dark umber-brown. 

Quails in large numbers frequented the cornfields near Franklinton. John M. 
Kerr tells the writer that he has often had good success in shooting them there. 

Wild ducks made bold to swim in the ponds in and about the borough. Har- 
rison Armstrong says he has seen them visit the Hoskins Pond, where the Fourth 
Street Markethouse stands, and that he has shot them there from a neighboring 
log stable. Another citizen informs the writer that he has shot wild ducks on a 
pond just east of Grant Avenue, on the grounds of the Institution for the Deaf and 

Wild geese frequently made their diurnal and nocturnal flights over the 
borough, and bluebirds and nuthatches merrily chirruped the approacli of spring 
in the neighboring thickets. Flocks of blackbirds chattered noisily in the 
environs of the borough and the early city. For many years, daring the city 
period, a numerous and noisy family of swallows inhabited the cornices of the 
Fourth Street Markethouse.* 

The species of house swallow commonly known as the martin was an inhabi- 
tant or rather a guest of the borough, invited and entertained by special arrange- 
ments for his comfort. During the twenties and early thirties, nearly every door- 
yard in town had its martinbox nailed to a tree, or erected on a pole. The 
unsightliness of these boxes, and the chatter and insolence of their legionary 
occupants, impelled some one to write as follows, September 22, 1831, to the Ohio 
State Journal : 

j('-l-lrtU'r% ^Lnt.a^ll(ii 




Pur, P'eathbr and Fin. • 297 

I certainly do not know of any other way in which so much additional beauty ruay bo 
given to Columbus at ^so little expense, as by merely taking down the martinboxes. The 
Martin is a savage bird, beyond all question, and to retain him among us may justly be con- 
sidered as a badge of barbarism, for we find that the Indians have always been fond of him. 
It is doubtless an amusement to them to see him everlastingly engaged in warfare with all 
other birds. We are told by Wilson that the Choctaws and Chickasaws cut off all the top 
branches from a sapling near their cabins, leaving the prongs a foot or two in length, and 
hang on each one a gourd or calabash hollowed out for their convenience. Wilson adds 
that '* on the banks of the Mississippi, the negroes stick up long canes with the same species 
of apartment fixed to their tops, in which the martins regularly breed.*' 

The writer goes on to condemn the martin as unlovely, noisy and a vicious 
persecutor of other and better birds. Yet this winged villager, whatever enmities 
his pugnacity evoked, no doubt had qualtities which made him both a welcome 
and useful visitant in those days, and which contributed to the animation of bor- 
ough life. Doctor Wheaton thus describes, in his report, the evening scones 
around the village haunts of the martins : 

After the breeding season is over, these birds congregate towards night in large flocks, 
and having selected a suitable cornice on some high building, make preparations for spend- 
ing the night. The retiring ceremony is very complicated and formal, to judge from the num- 
ber of times they alight and rise again, all the while keeping up a noisy chatter. It is not 
until twilight deepens into evening that all are huddled together in silence and slumber, and 
their slumbers are often disturbed by some youngster who falls out of bed, amid the derisive 
laughter of his neighbors, which is changed to petulant scolding as he clambers over them to 
his perch, tumbling others down. All at once the scene of last night's disturbance is (]uiet 
and deserted, for the birds have fiown to unknown southern lands, where they find less 
crowded beds, and shorter, warmer nights.'' 

Apropos of the martins the following paragraph from the Ohio State Journal 
of July 25, 1859, may here bo reproduced: 

Just before the city council met, a large, beautiful martin fiew in through an open window, 
and after circling about the ceiling a few moments rested upon the frame of the lifesize and 
lifelike painting of Dr. Goodale, just above the President's head. There sat the beautiful 
bird nodding approvingly to the action of the council, and blinking with suspicious eye. 

The flocks and flights of pigeons in the Central Ohio woods were phenomenal. 
These birds were accustomed to alight in great numbers, amid the Franklin ton 
cornfields, and were sometimes taken by traps in the immediate vicinity of the 
Columbus borough. A citizen informs the writer that he used to set his traps for 
them at the present corner of Town and Fourth streets. The flights of these birds 
over the town were sometimes marvelous to behold. In 1835 or 183(3 their 
numbers on the wing were so great as to fairly darken the sky for half a day at a 
time. Their general course was from west to east, probably in the direction of 
their grand roostingplace near Kirkersville, Licking County. The height at which 
they soared placed them beyond the reach of firearms. 

Wild pigeons were plentiful in the woods about Columbus in the spring ot 
1852 and autumn of 1853 and 1854; in March, 1856, they flew over the city in 
myriads. In the Ohio State Journal of February 24, 1860, we find these state- 
ments : 

The number of wild pigeons caught in the country the past few days is almost incredi- 
ble. We noticed on the streets the other day three wagon loads of the blue-winged birds, all 

29>< HisToiiY <»F THE City of ('oLUMurs. 

caii^^tit by one comiuiny of trapiK^rs. T\w city iiiarkot is tl(HMled with them, all fat and in 
g'xwl condition for the tahle. They 8i»U here for fifty (rents a dozen, and thoiiuands are 
8hi|>|>cd to the eaHt where $1.1*') and f !..')() a <lozen iu readily jriven for them. 

The same papcM* ot* Marcli 7, lS(;i, sa3's : 

Wild pi^^eonn made their appearance in this hicality an early ;i8 the nineteentli of Jan- 
uary, and thousands of them havi^ l)e(*n taken with nets, sold in (mr market, and 8hip(>ed to 
the eastern citi(*s. From January P.Mo A])ril r, there have !)een ship|>ed by tlie American 
and Adams Kxpress companies from this |H>int f<»ur liun<lred and three barrels [a total of 
h)l,2(M) birds]. About one third of that amount were dressed, one barrel containing four 
hundre<l pigeons. 

In 1S(>9 the birds were a^ain plentiful, and in .March, 1870, their tli<^hts over 
the city were immense. The j>rice at which they were sold in the ('olumbus 
market in 1S7() was as low as sixty an<l seventy cents per dozen. 

or the nii^ht birds which infested the unre;x<^Mierale forests about the boron^^h 
mention is rarely made, but we may well believe that the mottled owl, common in 
this region, habitually intoned in the midni«rht woods *' its wailing sereech." In 
184G a tine specimen ol* the snowy owl — head snowwhite and body same WMtb 
black spots — was ca))tured nine miles west <d' the city. In Juno, 1870, a large gray 
hawk settled down upon one of the trees in the Capitol S<juare. The perching of 
a transient flock of parroqueta on a tree in the same neighborhood in July, I8r>2, 
has already been noted. During the yeurs next preceding the borough period par- 
roquct.s were occasionally seen in the woods of the neighborhood. A gray eagle, 
which measured six feet from tip to tij) was shot near Groen Lawn Cemetery May 
10, 1859. Another bird of the same sjjecies which had gorged itself with young 
lambs, was caught four miles south of London, Madison County, Februar}' 22, 1856. 
The eagle's nest at Marble Cliffs in the early part of this century has been referred 
to in a preceding chai)ter. The Oh in Sfufc Jniinml of April 25, 1860, contains 
the following curious record : 

During the recent boisterous weather, when a strong wind from the lake was blowing, 
8<?veral lake fowls were conveyed inland, and when no longer able to combat the elements, 
dropped throughout the country. A beautiful large loon was deposited alive within the 
enclosure of the Penitentiary, captured, killed, and now Dixrtor Hamilton has it stuffed and 
placed in the rooms of the Columbus Scientific Association. Another loon was lodged in the 
steeple of the Holy Cross Church, where it died. A large cormorant, as big as a hen, fell on 
the farm of Mr. Price, in Gabannah ; also a longbilled lakebird, name not known. These 
latter fowls were brought to Secretary Klippart, who has had them stufifed, and will preserve 
them as mementoes of the storm. 

During the period of the Civil War— 1861-1805 — the quantity of game of all 
kinds in the forests of Central Ohio considerably increased, owing to the absence 
of the practised hunters, and the absorbed attention of the people. 

The finned inhabitants of the primitive Franklin County waters have been 
less copiously chronicled than the feathered inhabitants of the air, yet the locah 
historian is confronted with some fish stories of considerable magnitude. To be- 
gin with, a citizen whose menior^'^ goes back to the twenties has personal recol- 
lection of" a peculiar fish, about four feet long, weighing fifleen or sixteen pounds, 
and possessed of a long snout in the form of a spatula," which, once upon a time, 
long, long ago, was taken at Billy's Hole in the Scioto. [The writer may here i-e- 

Fur, Featiikr and Fin. 299 

mark that, for want of Bpace, it is scarcely possible to record all of the wonderful 
thin^ which are said to have happened at Billy's Hole.] 

Mr. John Otetot says: "The fish known as redhorse was caught in the Scioto 
with a brash drag, made by tying brush together with grapevines. This drag, 
with some men standing on it, was drawn along the bed of the river, driving the 
fish before it. The fish were taken in this way in great numbers, some being 
entangled in the brush. Among the redhorse captured were specimens three feet 
long. Suckers, catfish, gars and waterdogs were also taken. The fish caught 
were laid in heaps which were distributed by asking a blindfolded man who should 
take this one — and this." Every little stream, continues Mr. Olgtot, was in 
early times " full of fish."® 

Several black bass weighing from three to four pounds each, and two blue 
catfish, were caught in the Scioto in October, 1854.^ Mr. Moler caught a catfish 
weighing over thirty pounds in the same stream June 16, 1855."* In June, 1857, a 
catfish weighing fortytwo pounds was caught in the river two miles below tiie city. 
There are probably local anglers living who can tell of fish still larger than this 
caught in the Franklin County waters, but a historian feels bound to keep within 
the horizon of his information. 

In 1875, seventyfive thousand young shad from the Rochester, New York, 
hatchery, were deposited in the Whetstone just above the Waterworks. Hon. 
John H. Klippart, under whose supervision this deposit was made, informed the 
writer that these fish would annually descend to the Mississippi lliver, and, if 
undisturbed, regularly return, in season, to their spawning grounds in the Whet- 

In June, 1876, nearly eighty thousand young shad from the hatchery of the 
United States Fish Commission on the Delaware River were deposited in the 
Scioto. During the same month and year Secretary Klippart made a shipment of 
live fish from the Scioto River to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. Afler 
Mr. Klippart had stocked the Whetstone and Scioto with shad, the annual return 
of the fish was much hindered by the dams in the Scioto, but fish weighing from 
one to five pounds each, resulting from his deposits, were taken from the river in 

In the way of snake stories the chronicles of the borough period show nothing 
to surpass, in lively interest, that told by Mr. Joseph Sullivant of tl/e rattlesnake 
den at Marble Clifl^. It has already been repeated in a preceding chapter. With 
a single other story illustrative of the prevalence of snakes in the early woods 
around Columbus, the subject may be relegated to the imagination of the reader. 
It runs as follows : 

In very early times, it was a custom along the Scioto bottoms, for the pioneer farmers 
to turn their horses out to graze in the limitless forest, the natural growth of " woods 

pasture " being very luxuriant. John C. , the founder of one of the first families of the 

Buckeye State, had brought out to the Wild West, besides a beautiful youn^ wife, what was 
almost equally valued by an enterprising Virginia emigrant, two or three very fine blooded 
horses. After tethering them about his cabin long enough, as he fondly supposed, to insure 
their return home, he turned them out to " range." They stayed away two or three days. 
The owner began to fear the pickings might prove so abundant that he would lose his 
" impo'ted stawk fo'eve'." Forth he started on the search, provided with bridles, and a very 
long black hairrope halter. 

300 History op the City of Columbuh. 

AmoDg the terrors to the newcomers of that day were many awful stories of large snakes 
— copi>erheads, blacksnakes, rattlesnakes and divers other reptiles, the very enumeration of 
which makes one's flesh creep. Our friend hunted long and faithfully, prolonging the weary 
ta8k late in the night. It was moonlight, early in the fall of the leaf. The poor fellow, nearly 
discouraged by not having discovered a single trace of his beloved horses, was sad of spirit. 
He felt lonely and nervous. He began to think of the serpents and did not know what 
moment he might put his aching foot into the very coil of some dreaded monster. He had 
thrown his bridles and the rope halter over his shoulder. Passing over a heap of dry leaves, 
he heard an ominous rustle. Hastily casting his eye behind him, sure enough ! there was 
the enormous blacksnake right at his heels. Instantly John broke off at his best speefl. 
Soon he glanced back to see if the danger was over, when there ran the serpent as close as 
ever. He wondered at its rapidity in running, and endeavored to outdo himself. He now 
passed a small stream and the rustling ceased. Thinking he had left the reptile safely in the 
rear, he sat down on a log to rest his tired limbs. 

He resumed his way, and soon, as he crossed another pile of leaves, the rustling was 
heard again ; again he looked back, and there was another, if not the same serpent, as large 
as the flrst, and nearly as close to his legs. Off he started again as fast as possible, and still 
more frightened. Ever aud anon John would look back but there was the snake still in hot 
pursuit. John was ready to drop with fear and fatigue. At last, while his head turned to 
the rear to see if he had yet made good his escape, he ran against a huge log, and in utter 
exhaustion fell flat on the other side. Concluding it was all up now he exclaimed : ** Well, 
then, just bite and be d dl*' Wondering why he was not bitten, while thus in the pur- 
suer's power, he rose cautiously to a sitting posture, and found instead of a snake, his black 
hair halter innocently coiled at his side, which he liad mistaken for the great enemy. It was 
a snake humbug.'^ 


1. In 1839, Mr. Alfred Kelley, then residing on East Broad Street, published the fol- 
lowing " Notice to Sportsmen : " 

*'A11 persons, whether men or boys, are warned not to come into any of my flelds or on 
my premises, near the city of Columbus, with guns. Having this day had several panels of 
fence and a large patch of grass burned in consequence of wads on fire, being carelessly shot 
into dry stumps or grass, I am resolved to put a stop to the practice of shooting on my prem- 
ises, and if this warning fails to accomplish the object, I shall resort to more effectual 

"August 5, 1839." 
. 2. By A. A. Graham A Co. 

3. Autol)iography of Christian Heyl. 

4. Ohio State Journal^ November 14, 1855. 

5. Ibid, July 24, 1871. 

(). Ibid, September 10, 1859. 

7. Geological Survey Report, Volume IV. 

8. Conversation with the author. 

9. Ohio State Journal. 

10. Ibid. 

11. Ibid. 

' .v\. 



In his first report to the Scioto Company, in 1802, Mr. James Kilbourn spoke of 
the Scioto as a navigable stream. In 1803 the supplies which he procured for the 
Worthington colony were brought up by boat from Chillicothe. Those which he 
purchased and shipped at Pittsburgh also reached their destination by water. The 
early Indian traders and merchants at Franklinton obtained their goods by the 
same means of transportation. For many years after the first white settlements at 
and about the forks of the Scioto, that river was the only practicable inlet for 
merchandise or outlet for produce. Commercially New Orleans was to Central 
Ohio then what New York is now. It was the natural market for the surplus pro- 
ductions of the Scioto Valley, and was reached by barges, in frontier dialect " broad- 
horns," built and laden at their point of departure, and broken up, and sold with 
their cargoes, at their point of destination. 

The emigrants who quitted the country, as some of the early settlers did, trav- 
eled by the same means. There being no roads, they could not travel hy wagon. 
The readiest and cheapest way to *^go west" at that time, was to build a barge, and 
float down stream with the current. This was done by Mr. John Bansburg, who 
settled in 1809 on the west side of the river, near the present termination of Moler 
Street, and there erected a threestory frame mill. At a later date Mr. Eansburg 
sold his property to his soninlaw, Kollin Moler, from whom Moler Street takes its 
name, put all of his chattels, even to his domestic animals, on a large " broadhorn " 
of his own building, floated down the Scioto and the Ohio to the Mississippi, and 
settled near New Madrid, Missouri. In 1816 Colonel Andrew McElvain, who set- 
tled at Franklinton in 1797, and was the first white man to raise corn on the Sul- 
livant Prairie, built a barge on the Whetstone near the present King Avenue 
Bridge, and with his family and goods, and those of his neighbors, fiallentine and 
Skidmore, descended the Scioto and Ohio in this homemade craft, ascended the Wa- 
bash, and settled at Vincennes. 

The Scioto was deeper then than it is now, says Mr. S. P. McElvain — son of 
Colonel Andrew McElvain — and such is the concurrent testimony of the surviving 
pioneers. The water in it, says one of these, was in early times, never less in depth 
than three or four feet. " I have seen the keelboats which navigated it moored 
near the present Broad Street Bridge," says another. " Many of the broadhorns 
built here were floated to New Orleans, with cargoes of produce, and there taken 
apart and sold for the value of the lumber." Fed, as it was, by the primitive 


302 History of the .City of CoLrMiirs. 

springb and from the marsh -reservoirs of the forests, we may well believe that the 
current of the »Scioto was at that lime both copious and clear. No dams obstructed 
it, no sewage or factory ottal polluted its waters. Through the great, silent wilder- 
ness it meandered, overhung and shadowed by the giant buttonwood; smooth here, 
rippled there, fretted at intervals by sportive waterfowl, and mottled by the re- 
flected blue and green of sky, tree and meadow. Such was the Scioto when, nour- 
ished and screened as a child of the forest, civilization had not yet cropped away 
the trees which protected its sources, made a ditch of its channel, or exposed its 
.shrinking current to the blaze of the uiipit3Mng sun. 

Lyne Starling, it is said, was first to build barges, load them with produce, and 
float them from Frank linton to New Orleans. Ilis original ventures of this kind 
were made in 1810-11. The boats of Lucas Sullivant had navigated the river at a 
prior date, and at a later one those of William Neil descended from Worthington to 
New Orleans, whence their cargoes were shipped to Liverpool. Doubtless other 
similar enterprises were undertaken during the first quarter of the present century. 
In Pickaway County as many as thirty boats were built for the Scioto River trade 
in a single year. Most of them, we are told, " had a triangular bow, while others were 
square in the front as in the rear. There were three oars on deck — one in the 
rear, called the steering oar, and two side oar