Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the City of Trenton, New Jersey: Embracing a Period of Nearly Two Hundred Years ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

J \J 

IMrtunrb College lArorp 


L«gK7, wyek 

Om kair the to c o— hnm tkla 
cebcd la itto «a4cff tk« will of 


of Walthaa, MaMockaMtta, it to bo czpcaded for book* 
for cko ColUgo Library. The otbcr balf of tbc income 
b dcToCod to KbolareklM la Harrard Uahronity for the 
bcaeftt of dcaccaaaala of 

who di«4 at Watertowa. MaieachaaoCts, ia i6a6. In the 
abeoaee of MKh dceeaadaate, other peraou are eligible 
to the •cholaiahlpa. Tho will reqairea that this aanoaoce. 
•eat ahaU bo matU la every book added to the Library 
aaderlta prarlaloaa. 

gartart CoUese Uiiirarp 




F«0>l TMl 


«i..J i. itlB Ik. •m tf * 


fotlbi CDllrfi Libtur. TbtdtkcrLiViif Iki liconi 
ii d««t4 IB Kbblinkji la HuTirJ Uahinii; bt Iba 

-bo lici II WiKno-o, MiHUbuKiii, la KM. la Iba 
IbKfict Bf •neb JfKeaJiau, oibti pcnoai i» illflbl* 

.eai .b.U be «i4t la neif bo«k >d4e4 u (he Ubn>T 


'I ! 



■B»gy?;t^^wp^»yT . i 1 ■ . ■■ ■■ j i ip wiiarM^f^— ^■^^^^^^■^^^■^■^i^^iT ■ . — ^i^^^^p^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ 


OK int j 

City of Trenton 

.. — —J 















E-jiiracinT a P:ri]l of Hoiriy \m Hasircl YeaK, I 







■7> Vl 

T t 

■sfenirnrson 2'!*X :{T*.Iiui-Tir?i 

yirfirrtX-^ni/i/Trritimiitd '■ 

• -iHfh, ■ . ;; 

ntrfhmtUf /Am „ 

hiMinimilU 1, 

t//nt/ (»/ ■'Viiihhnl.fiiiif • 

y.eni iijimin \ 
^•f^inleiif fiini tiT/^iniihib '' 

ft .t/wtUiifit ', 

ijrh per Qunkrr Poi «/ \ 

/frfuuf ffai/je :| 

j(7/irA-s3iiisif t 

Lr line nntlrfJfivrvr ■. 

\toii mUi-inq Driifiu. tiuafts :■ 

\t Jitfiiinfill rudiimf tip i 
^h nttfiijcnt n-iiiiafii £ ninniiiff j. 

Rer to Ratll c of Pt /Jw/Z/fffAwtf f 

. I. ~~7,y-^t^dinnt!e Si ffirffiitivh. t 

d ^^p!J/icfein-nL , _ . i' 

r ir- --■'■'• -«^r-»„ . > 

?V5 J^ '/^^ 

FEB 4 1824 



.-^ HARVARD \ 


1 ■ u m^ . I ii..^. 




Letters patent of Giarles 11. to the Duke of York, 1CC4— Con- 
sideration for the grant — Power and authority — Seal of the 
province of New York affixed — James, Duke of York, re- 
leases to Lord John Berkley and Sir George Carteret, June 
24th, ICM, the province of Nova Cnisarea or New Jersey- 
Consideration money — Concessions or agreements of the 
Lords Proprietors — Powers of the Governor — Powers of 
other officers — Allegiance to the Ciown and fidelity to the 
Lords Proprietors — Courts — Levy taxes — Establish militia- 
Naturalization — I^and grants to settlers — Highways and 
streets — First Governor — E;ist and West Jersey 1 


First Legislature — I^ws of first Se.-sion — Every Kale to furnish 
himself Arms and Ammunition — Punishment for Arson- 
False Swearing — Kidnapping — Burglary — Stealing — Pun- 
ishment of Witches — Smiting or Cursing Father or Mother 
— Night-walking, Drinking, and frequenting Tippling-houses 
— Defraying the Public Expenses — Licenses for Marriage- 
Runaway Apprentices and Ser\*ants — Fine for Transporting 
or Harboring the Same — Drunkenness, how Punished — 
Brand-mark for Horses and Cattle— Ordinary — ^Trading with 
Indians prohibited — Working on Sunday, how punished— 
W^hat Gooils exempt from destraint — Weights and Measures 
to be sealed — Leather to be sealed — First Day of Public 
Thanksgiving in the Province — Governor's Salary — Division 
of the Province into Four Counties — General Assembly, 
Courts. Public Records removed from Elizabethtown to 
Amboy Perth — Division of the Counties — School-masters 
established — Schools regulated — Concessions and Agree- 
ments between East and West Jersey, etc., etc .'.•• 15 


ir JKDEX. 



First Palcnt — Wbcn granted — Extent of I^iml contained therein 
— Re!?en'ations niado by the Crown — Pretended claim of the 
Dutch and Swedes — Xew Jersey — Wlien pet oflT from New 
York — Extent of East and West Jersey — First Purchases-^ 
Consideration paid for Lands — First Settlement at Burling- 
ton — Flood at Delaware Falls — Littleworth, the- original 
name of Trenton. ^ 29 


First Settlers of Yorkshire- Tenth, northern part of Hopewell 
Township — When taken ui>— Trenton an<l Eiving — Location 
— PopuUition — Religious 'institutions, etc. — Lands in Tren- 
ton and ]fo|)ewen ,. 41 


The places of Public Wprship— Friends — Episcopalian — Presby- 
terian — First houses in Trenton — William Trent's -purchase 
— Boundaries of Burlington — Creation of Huntenlon County 
— Mrs. Penelo|)e Stout shipwrecke<l, and attacked and badly 
wounded by the In<lians — Her recovery and Descendants — 
First Courts in Hunterdon — WJiere held — First Judges — 
Grand Juries, etc. — High Sheriirs complaint of the Jail — 
Trial of the Rev. John Rowland for Theft, and of Rev. 
William Tennent for Perjury .• 50 


First Courts in Trenton — Original Boundaries of the Town — 
Place of the first Court-IIouso of the County of Hunterdon 
— ^Trenton Bank — The town named Trenton — Colonel Wil- 
liam Trent — First Families — Mr. Trent's first Residence — 
Kaming the Town— Builders of Friends' Meeting-House— 
First Borough Charter from George XL, including from 
Crwswicks Creek to Amivell — First Borough Officers — 
Division of the town and country Congregations — ^Trenton 
made the seat of Government 67 




Second Cliarter of the city — First OlTicors — ^Inrkct Houses — 
Mayors — Recorders — Aldermen — The Pillory and Whipping- 
post — Prevalence of the Yellow Fever— The Government 
Office removed to Trenton — President Adams* residence 
here — South Trenton — Its incorporation with the city — 
Boundaries of the city 74 


Churches and their Pastors — Presbyterian — Episcopal — Church 

at Lawrence — Church in Ewing— Separation of the city and 

i country Congregations — Evangelical Cliurch — German Re- 


formed Church — Reformed Dutch Church — Baptist Churches 
— Methodist Churches — Roman Catholic Churches — Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church — Univerialist Church, etc 87 




First Presbyterian Church — New Building — Mysterious Vault — 
I Church in Maidenhead — Ewing — German Reformed diurch 

— Evangelical Society — Reformed Dutch Giurch — St Mi- 
chaer» Church— St. PauVs Church— Trinity Cburcli— Metho- 
dist Episcopal Churches, etc., etc 104 


Trenton in 1776 — Extent of the town — Queen street — Front 
. street — Second street — King street — Route taken by the 
American Army — Generals Washington, Greene, Sullivan, 
Dickinson, Ewing, Sterling, Mercer, Stevens, Cadwalader, 
Mifflin — Colonels Bayior and Brearley — Captains William 
Washington^ Forrest, nnd Morris — Lord Cornwallis, British 
Commander-in-Chief— Colonel Rihl, Hessiftn Commander — 
Crossing the Delaware — Washington's guides to the city-* 
Commencement of the battle — Lieutenant Monroe — Bravely 
of Mrs. Clarke — Council of war — Retreat of the American 
Army by tho Sandtown road across Quaker bridge to Stony 
Brook — Death of General Mercer 152 





Second battle, or Cannonading of Trenton — Rnttle of Princeton 
— Engle Tavern — Council of war — Retreat of the Americans 
by the Sandtown road, across Quaker bridge, to Stony Brook • 
— Death of General Mercer — ^fajor Trent — Obituary notice 
of the death of Judge Trent — Destruction of the bridges in 
Warren an<l Greene streets — Destruction of Trent's old mill 
by floo<l — II. McCall's purchase — Destruction of the Ameri- 
can Inn by fire ^ 168 


AVashington's Reception at Trenton in 17S9 — An unpublished 
note of Genend Washington to tho I-^idies of Trenton—^ 
Population of the city in 1810, '20, MO, '00, 'o'), -CO, 70— 
Capital investe<l in Arts and }if an u factories — Roads, Travel- 
ing, etc. — niazing Star Ferry — Delaware and Il;irit»n Canal 
r.nd Camden and Aml)oy Railroad 1S2 


Literary Institutions — Xeivspapers — New Jersey Gazette — State 
Gazette — ^Truo American — Emporium — People's Advocate 
— Union — Argus — Plaindealer — Sheet Anchor — New Jersey 
Temperance Herald — Weekly Yifiitor — Daily News — Clay 
Banner — Trentonian — Re[mbHean Privateer — Reformer and 
Xew Jersey Tem]>erancc .\dvocate — Mercer Staudanl — Free 
Press — TnMiton Academv — Public and Private Schools — 
Libraries — Apprentices Library— Trenton Libnir}' — Consti- 
tutional Library — ^Trenton Institute — Irving Institute — Me- 
chanics Institute — Trenton Lvccum 210 




Manufactories— Stacy's ilill erected in 1680— Steel Works of 
Stacy Potts in 177C—Fithian's Cotton Mill — Converted into 
a Paper Mill — Suljsequent Owners of Paper Mill — Coxe^s 
^lill, 1756— Steel Works built in 17C9— Betts and Parmly's 

• Xail Factor}', IJ^OO— Hall and Anderson's Distillery, 1800— 
Billing's Oirding Machine in 1817 — Mdl of Lawrence Huron 
in 1814— Sartori's Calico Factory, 1817— Brister's Mills, and 
the various Manufactories on the Trenton Water Power, 
etc, etc 234 

IXDEX. vii 


Kew Jersey State Prison-^First Opening in 179S — Its Builder — 
The Guard-bouse, or Senti-y Box — Two Men Shot in nn 
Attempt to Escape — One Kille<l, tho other badly Wounded 
— Enlargement of Old Prison — Inscription on Old Prison — 
Commencement and Completion of New Prison — Xei? Jer- 
sey Arsenal — New Jersey Lunatic Asylum 258 


Miscellaneous — First Post-Office in Trenton, where locatc^d and 
by whom kept — E:ich subsequent Postmaster under tho dif- 
ferent Administrations to the Present Time — Quartering of 
Troops at Trenton, in 1755, by King (ieor;:c II. — Charter of 
Bridge across the Delaware — To whom Granted — Erection 
of Bridge — Flooils in the Delaware — Destruction of Bridges 
on the Simic — Trenton Water Works — Charter, to whom 
Granted — Charter Ti-ansfiMreil to the City — Officers Ap- 
pointed by the City — Banking Institutions — Trenton Bank 
—State Bank— Mechanics an«l Manurncturers Bank— America 
Bank — ^Trenton Saving Fund — Lodges, ^fasonic and Odd 
Fellows :,... 26S 


Meeting of Congress iit Trenton — Visit of Lafayette — Congres- 
sional Buildings on the Delaware — Robbery of the State 
Treasury — Professor D'Osfiore — Contraband Goods Seized — 
First Almanac — Court of A<lniiralty — Judge Trent's Planta- 
tion — Stage Boats — Dialogue b<*tween Satan and Arnold — 
United States National Bank — Ferries — Isaac Collins' Quarto 
Bible— Church Lottery— Sand-Bar 290 


State House — State Library — State Librarian — Government 
House — Encroachment upon State Property by Citizens of 
Trenton — Water Works — John Fitch, the Inventor of the 
Steamboat "City of Trenfon*'- Wards— Borough of South * 
Trenton — Congress — Elections — Mo<lel ^fessage of tho GoT- 
crnor — Resolution Fire Company — ^Trenton and New Bruns- 
wick Turnpike Company — Ix>ttcry to remove Obstructions 
in the Delaware 311 


viii INDEX. 



TLe Old Jail— State Bank — ^Trenton Aqiie<luct Company — ^AVar 
of 1812 — ^Trenton Library Company — ^layor's Court — Manu- 
facturing Companies — Mercer Cemetery — Riverview Ceme- • 
tery — Temperance Beneficial Society — Trenton Insurance 
Company — Evangelical neformecl Cliurcli — Trenton Monu- 
ment As.«ociation — Xottingliam Schools 340 


Trenton Iron Company — ^Trenton Mutual Life and Fire Insur- 
ance Company — ^Trenton Gas Light Company. — Union Health 
Insurance Company — Trenton and Lehigh Transportation 
Company — Pacific Mutual Insurance Company — I^ocomotive 
AVorks — Widows' Ilomc — Patent Promoting Company — 
Trenton Boat and Dockyard Comj^any — Horse Railroad — 
City Bridge — Union Industrial Home Association — Masonic 
Hall Association 349 


Trenton Arms Company — Trenton Car Works — Normal and 
Model Schools — Trenton Chain Manufactory — Normal 
School Boarding-Housc — ^Trenjon Co-operative Benefit So- 
ciety — Soldiers' Children's Home — ^Trenton Lock Company 
—Delaware Manufacturing Company — Trenton Hall and 
Building Association — New Jersey Silver Mining Company 
— £:i5t Trenton Land and Building Association 355 



Trenton Skating Park Club — ^Trenton Gold and Silver Mining 
Company — Ramsome Patent Stone Company — ^Trenton Vise 
and Tool Company — Yuma Silver Mining Company — Cen- 
tral Market — Mercer Gold and Silver Alining Company — 
National Pottery Company — ^Trenton Agricultural Works — 
New Jersey Pottery Company — Union Pottery Company — 
Trenton Woolen Company — ^Trenton Ice Company — Conti- 
nental Saw Company — Washington Market Association — 
Merchants and Traders Protective Union .« 358 

tmiftmmr^'nmr*'* ^ ■ ■! , ■ m wi . ■■ ■ ■■! i ^ . y 

IXDEX. ix 



Swearing by flio Uplifted Ifand — Trenton Academy — Two Crimi- 
nals pardoned under the Gallows — S;de of Stills at Beatty's 
Ferry — Lower Trenton Feriy — Association to Prevent Trade 
with the Enemy — HatiBcation of the Treaty of Peace 362 


Every Man a Soldier — ^To Provide Himself a Musket, and all 
the Necessary Ammunition — Fii-st Organized Militar}' Com- 
panies — Names of the Diflerent Military Companies and 
their Officers, from 1776 to 1870— The Lato Rebellion— 
Number of Men Liable to do Military Duty in the State — 
Number of Men Sent into the Field — Excess Over all Calls 
Made by the Executive of the United States— Expenses of 
Fitting Them Out— Soldiers' Children's Home 376 


Fire Department — Fire Association for the Relief of Disabled 
Firemen — Firemen's Beneficial Association — Fire Compar 
nies — Union — Restoration — Hand-in-ltand — Resolution — 
Eagle — Delaware — Good Will — Harmony — Trenton Hose, 
No. 1 — America Hose, No. 2 — Hook and Ladder Companies 
— Protection — Trenton Hose 389 


Additional Manufactories Omitted under their Appropriate 
Heads — Shoemaker's Almanac — ^Thomas Chalkley's Narra- 
tive of Travel— Bluing Star Ifotel— Bull's Head Hotel- 
Indian King and Ind'uin Queen Hotels — ^Trenton Directories 
— Veto of Mayor Hamilton — Indigent Widows' and Single 
AVomen's Home 141 


" 1 nr . 


THERE is no cily but has its local interests, which, when collected 
together and placed before its citizens, call up recollections of many things 
long since forgotten, and which, but for the historian, would never again, per- 
haps, have been called to mind. Tlie time and development of its resources, 
its public improvements, when and where constructed, and its public institu- 
tions, when and where erected, are all matters of local, if not general interest. 
The compiler of this work has labored to lay before the public the origin, first 
settlement, its manufacturing interests, from the earliest day to the present 
time, together with all matters that he thought would be of interest, not only 
to the citizens of Trenton, but to many who have been residents but now 
removed to other parts. 

He does not claim that the work contiins ever^'thing that has transpired 
during nearly two centuries of our existence as a village, lx>rough, town, and 
city. He has, nevertheless, culled from the voluminous matter that has come 
to hand such things as he supposed would be of peculiar interest to oui^ 
present inhabitants, as it would be an impossibility to present in detail, in a 
single volume, all matters of an interesting nature that have occurred in our 
city during the period covered by this history. 

This volume is mainly compiled from authentic sources, as the compiler has 
had full and free access to all documents contained in the State IJbrary, from 
which most of the information herein presented has been obtained. It is 
intended to show the origin and first settlement of a city which, in its revo- 
lutionary history, is second to no other city on our continent, and which con- 
tains within itself the elements of everything that should make it a thriving 
and prosperous city. Its facilities for manufacturing purposes are unsurpassed, 
■being so contiguous to the great markets of the western world ; the cheapness 
of its lands, its extensive water power, and facilities for shipping to all parti 


of the world, render it tmly a desirable place for all kinds of manufactories. 

Yet, while it possesses these great advantages, it is at least twenty-live yean 

behind the age in those elements which tend to malce a city greaL Possessing 

the facilities which we do, there is nothing to prevent our city achieving 

greatness, except the want of enterprise in its present inhabitants, and partial 

larly in the kind of material of which the legislative branch of our city b at 

present composed. Instead of encouraging enterprise, they seem to desire to 

throw every obstacle in the way. Our streets, instead of being paved, present 

the appearance of a country village; our city is poorly lighted, and police 

regulations bad. Thousands of dollars are annually spent upon the streets, 

and DO one can see where the money is expended. If, on the contrary, the 

amount of money now expended in putting on a few loads of gravel, to be 

washed down the hills the first rain that occurs, should be used in paving at 

least one street in each year, wc would, in a few years, (ind all our streets 

handsomely paved, with no additional expense to the tax payejrs, and they 

would then present a neat city appearance, free from dust and mud, and not 

that of a hamlet of the olden time, as they now do. There is no city better 

located for paving than ours ; it requires no sewerage, as nature has amply 

ivovidcd all the drainage necessary. All we want is enterprise, and until we 

get this we cannot even boast of being a city in appearance. 

Hoping this history, which has been compiled with great care, but which 

the author does not claim as being perfect, and regrets tliat it was not gotten 

tip by some abler hand, will be an acceptable offering, and proA'e satisfactory 

to all who may read it, is the earnest wish of 

Trenton, August i, 1871. 




History of Trenton. 



Letters patent of Charles IL to the Duke of Vorky 1 664 — Considera- 
tion for the grant — Power and authority — Seal of the provime 
of New York affixed—JameSy Duke of York, releases to Lord 
John Berkley and Sir George Carteret, June 24M, 1664, the 
province of Nova Casarea or Ntio Jersey — Consideration 
money — Concessions or agreements of the Lords Proprietors — 
Powers of the Governor — Powers of other officers — Allegiance 
to the Crown and fidelity to the Lords Proprietors — Courts — 
Levy taxes — Establish militia — Naturalisation — Land grants 
Jo settlers — Highways and streets — First Governor — East and 
West Jersey. 

ALTHOUGH this work is intended as a history of Trenton, 
I have taken the liberty of inserting at the commencement 
a few pages of state history, believing the same will be interest- 
ing to the general reader, giving him an insight into the first 
formation of our state, its habits and customs. Besides, the 
boundaries of our city have been so often changed, that in order 
. fully to set them before the public, it is necessary to show the 
original bounds of the entire state. 

Trenton, at one time, was in Monmouth county, then in Bur- 
lington and Hunterdon counties, and now in Mercer. At one 
.time it was in Hopewell, Ewing, and Nottingham townships; it 



now comprises an entire township, not designated as such, but 
known as the city of Trenton. 

And also, because, as stated by Dr. Hall, in his History of the 
Presbyterian Church, "the territory embraced in the present 
bounds of the city of Trenton lies so near the boundary between 
the Berkley and the Carteret grants, or the eastern and the 
western sections of the provine, that its history is connected 
with that of both the original divisions." 

The first discoveries made in this country were in 1497, on the 
twenty-fourth of June, by John Cabot, a native of Venice, under 
a commission given by Henry VII. of England. He discovered 
what is now known as the Island of New Foundland. 

His son, Sebastian, made a second voyage to thb continent, 
and in the month of May, 1498, discovered a large extent of 
this country. 

Many years subsequent, Sebastian made a third voyage, under 
the direction of Henry VIII. of England, and discovered the 
most southern section of the country, which he named Florida. 
He did not attempt to establish a settlement, but took posses- 
sion of the country on behalf of the cro^n of England. 

In 1500 two voyages were made to this country by the 

In 1508 the coast was visited by Nomundy fishermen, and in 
1523 a more formidable undertaking was entered upon by the 
French, to establish colonies in this country, under command of 
John Veranzo, a Florentine navigator of high repute: Francis 
I. fitted out four ships and placed them under his command. 

In 1606, during the reign of James I., a patent was issued 
by that monarch dividing Virginia, which at that time included 
nearly the whole country, into two equal parts. In the second 
part was included what are now the states of Mar}'land, Dela- 
ware, Pennsylvania, and part of New Jersey. 

The following grants and concessions will more particularly 
designate the founding of our state : 

Among the grants and concessions in Carteret's time, between 
1664 and 1682, published by Aaron Leaming and Jacob Spicer, 
and printed by William Bradford, of Philadelphia, printer to 
the King's Most Excellent Majesty for the province of New 

■-*--- — ■- - I ■■ I I I 


Jersey, containing the acts of the proprietary government before 
the surrender of Queen Anne, the instrument of the surrender, 
and her formal acceptance thereof. 

In Lord Cornbury's. commission and instructions consequent 
thereon, published by virtue of an act of the legislature of the 
said province, we find, among a number of other things, the 
following : 

"Anne, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland, Queex, defender of the faith, &c. To all whom these 
our present letters shall come, greeting : know ye, that among 
the records remaining in our secretary's office of our province of 
New York, in America, at our fort at New York, in America, 
we have inspected certain letters patents granted unto his late 
Royal Highness, James, Duke of York, deceased, which fol- 
loweth in these words : 

"Charles II., by the Grace of God, King of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. To 
all to whom these presents shall come, greeting : know ye, who 
for divers good causes and considerations us thereunto moving, 
have of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, 
given and granted, and by these presents for us, our heirs, and 
successors, do give and grant unfo our dearest brother, James, 
Duke of York, his heirs and assigns, all that part of the main- 
land of New England, begining at a certafn place called or 
known by the name of St. Croix, next adjoining to New Scot- 
land in America, and from thence extending along the sea coast 
unto a certain place called Petuaquine or Pequamaquid, and so 
up the river thereof to the farthest head of the same as it tendeth 
northward; and extending from thence to the river of Kenebequc, 
and so upwards by the shortest course to the river of Canada, 
northward. And also, all that Island of Islands, commonly 
called by the several name or names of Matowacks or Long 
Island, situate, lying, and being towards the west of Cape Cod 
and the Narrow Higansetts, abutting upon the main land 
between the two rivers there, called or known by the several 
names of Connecticut or Hudson's river ; together, also, with the 
said river called Hudson's river, and all the lands from the west 
side of Connecticut to the east side of Delaware bay. And also. 


all these several islands called or known by the names of Martin's^ 
Vineyard and Nantukes, or otherwise Nantuckett ; together with 
all the lands, islands, soils, rivers, harbors, mines, minerals^ 
quarries, woods, marshes, waters, lakes, fishings, hawkings,. 
huntings, and fowlings; and all other royaltys, pipfits, com- 
modities and hereditaments to said several islands, lands, and 
premises belonging and appertaining, with their and every or 
their appurtenances; and all our estate, right, title, interest, 
benefit, advantage, claim, and demand of, in, or to the said 
lands and premises, or any part or parcel thereof, and the 
re\'ersion and reversions, remainder and remainders; together 
with the yearly and other rents, revenues, and profits of all and 
singular the said premises, and of every part and parcel thereof. 
To be given and granted unto our dearest brother, James, Duke- 
of York, his heirs and assigns, forever ; to be holden of us, our 
heirs and successors, as of our manor of East Greenwich, in our 
county of Kent, in free and common soccage, and not in capitie, ' 
nor by knight service yielding and rendering." 

It was stipulated in the grant, that James, Duke of York, and*, 
his heirs and assigns, were to render yearly and every year, forty 
beaver skins when they shall be demanded, within ninety days 

He was also granted, his heirs, deputies, agents, commis- 
sioners, and assigns, full and absolute power and authority to 
correct, punish, pardon, govern, and rule all subjects within 
said territory, in all causes and matters, capital and criminal, as 
civil, both marine and others, as near as may be agreeable to the 
laws, statutes, and government of this our realm of England.. 
And to af^int all officers. 

This grant goes on to cite many other things, but as they 
do not relate particularly to the object in view, I deem it 
unnecessary to copy the whole letters patent. It concludes as 
follows : 

"In witness whereof we have caused these our. letters to be^ 
made patent. Witness ourself at Westminster, the twelfth day 
of March, in the sixteenth year of our reign. By the King. 

'* Howard.. 

- — , - - ■«« --- ..■■■,■■■■ — ■ .— ^ , _-.----.. I ... ...*»■ ■! ■ II •! ■ ■*^^*XI 



" All which by the tenor of these presents we have caused 
to be exemplified. In testimony whereof we have caused our 
seal of our said province of New York to be hereunto affixed. 
Witness our trusty and well-beloved Robert Hunter, esq., our 
captain-general and govemor-in-chief of our provinces of New 
York, New Jersey, and territories thereon depending in America, 
and vice admiral of the same, and at our fort at New York, 
this thirtieth day of October, in the tenth year of our reign. 


On the 24th day of June, in the sixteenth year of the reign of 
Lord Charles II., Anno Domini 1664, James, Duke of York, 
released to John Lord Berkley, Baron of Stratton, and one of 
His Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, and Sir George 
Carteret, of Saltrum, in the county of Devon, Knight, and one 
of His Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, " for and in 
consideration of a competent sum of good and lawful money of 
England to his said Royal Highness, James, Duke of York, in 
hand paid by the said John Lord Berkley and Sir George 
Carteret, granted, bargained, sold, released, and confirmed unto 
the said John Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, all that 
tract of land adjacent to New England, and lying and being to 
the westward of Long Island and Manhitas Island, and bounded 
on' the east part by the main sea, and part by Hudson's river, 
and hath upon the west Delaware bay or river, and extending 
southward to the main ocean as far as Cape May, at the mouth 
of Delaware bay, and to the northward as far as the northmost 
branch of the said bay or river of Delaware, which is forty-one 
degrees and forty minutes of latitude, and crosses over thence 
in a straight line to Hudson's river in forty-one degrees of 
latitude ; which said tract of land is hereafter to be called by the 
name or names of New Csesarea or New Jersey. 

'* For which they were to yield and render unto' the said 
James, Duke of York, his heirs and assigns, for the said tract of 
land and premises, yearly and every year, the sum of twenty 
nobles of lawful money of England, if the same shall be lawfully 



demanded, at or in the Inner Temple Hall, London, at the- 
Feast of St. Michael, the Archangel, yearly. 

'' Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of 


"Thcaias Heywood."* 

The first act of the lords proprietors was to grant concessions^ 
or agreements for the government of the province of Nevr 
Caesarea or New Jersey, to and with all and every the adven- 
turers and all such is shall settle or plant there. 

The governor of the proyincc had power, by and with the 
consent of his council, to depute one in his place and. authority, 
in case of death or removal, to continue until further order, 
unless the proprietors had commissioned one before. He also 
had power to make choice of and take to him six counselors at 
least, or twelve at most, or any even number between six and 
twelve, with whose advice and consent, or with at least three of 
the six, or four.of a greater number (all being summoned), he is 
to govern according to the limitations and instructions following,, 
during our pleasure. 

These instructions provided for a chief secretary or register, 
(who they were to choose, or in case of failure on their part, the 
governor was to choose), to keep exact entries in fair books,, of* 
all public affairs; to avoid deceits and lawsuits; to record and 
enter all grants of land from the lords to the planters, and all 
conveyances of lands, house or houses from man to man ; all 
leases for land, house or houses, made or to be made by the 
landlord to any tenant for more than one year. 

The surveyor-general was to be chosen by the proprietors, or 
in case of their failure to choose, to be appointed by the gover- 
nor, whose duty it should be to lay out, survey, and bound all 
such lands as shall be granted from the lords to the planters ; . 
and all other lands within the said province. And in case they 
misbehave themselves, as that the governor and council, or 
deputy governor and council, or the major part of them, shall 
JBnd it reasonable to suspend their actings in their respective: 



employment, it shall be lawful for them so to do, until further 
orders from us. 

That the governor, counselors, assemblymen, secretary, sur- 
veyor, and all other officers of trust, shall swear or subscribe 
(in a book to be provided for that purpose), that they will bear 
true allegiance to the King of England, his heirs and successors; 
and that they will be faithful to the interests of the lords 
proprietors of the said province, and their heirs, executors, and 
assigns, and endeavor to promote the peace and welfare of 
the said province; and that they will truly and faithfully 
discharge their respective trust in their respective offices, and 
do equal justice to all men, according to their best skill and 
judgment, without corruption, favor, or affection ; and the names 
of all that have sworn or subscribed, to be entered into a book. 
And whosoever shall subscribe and not swe^j*, and shall violate 
his promise in that subscription, shall be liable to the same 
punishment that the persons are or may be that have sworn and 
broken their oaths. 

All persons who were or should become subjects of the King of 
England, and swear or subscribe allegiance to the king and 
faithfulness to the lords, were admitted to plant and become 
free men of the said province. No person was to be molested, 
punished, disquieted, or called in question for any difference in 
opinion or practice in matters of religious concernments, but all 
were freely and fully to have and enjoy his and their judgments 
and consciences in matters of religion throughout the said 
province, and under no pretence was the liberty of conscience 
to be infringed. - 

The inhabitants, being freemen, were t6 make choice of twelve 
deputies or representatives from among themselves, to join the 
governor and council in making such laws as may be necessary 
for the present good and welfare of the province. 

As soon as parishes, divisions, tribes, and other distinctions 
were made, the inhabitants or freeholders of the same were 
annually to meet on the ist day of January, and choose free- 
holders for each respective division, tribe, or parish to be the 
deputies or representatives of the same, a majority of whom, with 


the governor and council, were to be the general assembly for 
the province. 

Power was granted the general assembly to constitute and* 
appoint such and so many ministers or preachers as they shall 
think fit, and to establish their maintenance; giving liberty 
beside, to any person or persons to keep and maintain what 
preachers or ministers they please. 

The assembly were to have power to appoint their own time 
and place of meeting, and the quorum was to consist of the one- 
third part of the whole number of members; they were 
authorized to enact all such laws, acts, and constitutions as shall 
be necessary for the well government of the said province, with 
power to repeal them at pleasure. Said laws were not to be 
against the interests of the lords proprietors, their heirs or 
asugns, nor any of those their concessions ; it was Specially 
provided that they be not repugnant to the article for liberty of 

The laws thus made were to be in force one year and no more,, 
unless contradicted by the lords proprietors, within which time 
they were to be presented to them for ratification, and being- 
confirmed by them, they were to be in continual force till they 
expired by their own limitation, or by act of repeal in like 
manner to be passed (as aforesaid) and confirmed. 

They were to constitute all courts, together with the limits, 
powers, and jurisdictions of the same; also the officers and 
number of officers belonging to each coutt, with their respective 
salaries, fees, and perquisites. ^ 

To lay equal taxes and assessments, equally to raise moneys- 
or goods upon all lands (excepting the lands of the^ lords 
proprietors before settling), in order to the better supporting of 
the public charge of the said government, and for the mutual 
safety, defence, and security of the said province. 

To erect within the said province such and so many manors, 
with their necessary courts, freedoms, and privileges, as to them 
shall seem meet and convenient. 

To create ports, harbors, creeks, and other places for the 
convenient lading and unlading of goods and merchandise out 
of ships, boats, and other vessels, as shall be expedient. 


To erect, raise, and build within the said province, or any 
part thereof, such and so many forts, fortresses, castles, cities, 
corporations, boroughs, towns, villages, and other plcaes of 
strength and defence. 

To constitute trained bands and companies, with the number 
of soldiers for the safety, strength, and defence of the said 
province, and of the forts, castles, cities, &c- 

To suppress all mutinies and rebellions ; to make war, offensive 
and defensive, with all Indians, strangers, and foreigners, as they 
shall see cause ; and to pursue an enemy, as well by sea as by 
land, if need be, out of the limits and jurisdictions of the said 
province, with the particular consent of the governor, and under 
his conduct, or of the commander-in-chief, or whom he shall 

To give to all strangers as to them shall seem meet, a naturali- 
zation, and all such freedoms and privileges within the said 
province as to his majesty's subjects do of right belong, they 
swearing or subscribing as aforesaid; which said strangers so 
naturalized and privileged, shall be in all respects accounted in; 
the said province as the king's natural subjects. 

To prescribe the quantity of land which shall be from time to 
time allotted to every head, free or servant, male or female, and 
to make and ordain rules for the casting of lots for the land and 
the la}-ing out of the same. - , 

To make provision for the maintenance and support of the 
governor, and for the defraying of all necessary charges for the 
government; as also, that the constables of the said province 
shall collect the lords' rent, and shall pay the same to the 
receiver that the lords shall appoint to receive thp same, 
unless the general assembly shall prescribe some other way 
whereby the lords may have their rents duly collected, without 
charige or trouble to them. 

The governor, with his council before expressed, is to see that 
all courts established by the laws of the general assembly, and 
all ministers and officers, civil and military, do and execute 
their several duties and offices respectively, according to the 
laws in force ; and to punish them for swerving from the laws^ 


acting contrary totheir trust, as the nature of their offences 
»liall require. 

To nominate 'and commission the several judges, members- 
id officers of courts, whether magistratical or ministerial, and 
slU other civil officers, coroners, &c., and their commissions, 
jpowers, and authority to revoke at pleasure. 

•To appoint courts and officers in cases criminal; and to 

empower them to inflict penalties upon offenders against any of 

the laws in force in the said province, as the said laws shall 

ordain, whether by fine, imprisonment, banishment, corporal 

Xninishment, or to the taking away of member or life itself, if 

there be cause for it. 

To place officers and soldiers for the safety, strength, and 
defence of the forts, castles, cities, &c 

Where they see cause, after condemnation, to reprieve until 
the case be presented, with a copy of the whole trial, proceed-^ 
logs, and proo^ to the lords, who will accordingly either pardon*, 
or command execution of the sentence on the offender, who is 
in the meantime to be kept in safe custody till the pleasure of 
the lords be known. 

''And that the planting of the province may be the more 
speedily promoted, we do hereby grant unto all persons who* 
have already adventured to the said province of New Caesarea or 
New Jersey, or shall transport themselves or servants before the^ 
ist day of January, which shall be in the year of our Lord 
1665, these following proportions, viz.^ to every freeman 
that shall go with the first governor, from the port where 
he embarks, or shall meet him at the rendezvous he appoints,, 
for the settlement of a plantation there, armed with a good 
musket, bore twelve bullets to the pound, with ten pounds 
of powder and twenty pounds of bullets, with bandiliers 
and match convenient, and with six months* provision for his 
own person, arriving there, one hundred and fifty acres of land, 
English measure ; and for every able servant that he shall carry 
with him, armed and provided as aforesaid, and arriving there, 
the like quantity of one hundred and fifty-acres, English 
measure. And whosoever shall send servants at that time, shall 
have for every able man-servant he or she shall send, armed and 


provided as aforesaid, and arrive there, the like quantity of one 
hundred and fifty acres ; and for every weaker servant, or slave, 
male or female, exceeding the age of fourteen years, which any 
one shall send or carry, arriving there, seventy-five acres of 
land ; and for every Christian ser\'ant, exceeding the age afore- 
/said, after the expiration of their time of service, seventy-five 
.acres of land for their own use. 

"To every master or mistress who shall go before the ist day 
of January, which shall be in the year 1665, one hundred and 
twenty acres of land ; and for every able man-servant that he or 
she shall carry or send, armed and provided as aforesaid, and 
arriving within the time aforesaid, the like quantity of one 
hundred and twenty acres of land ; and for every weaker servant 
or slave, male or female, exceeding the age of fourteen years, 
arriving there, sixty acres of land; and to every Christian 
servant, to their own use and behoof, sixty acres of land. 

**To every free man and free woman that shall arrive in the 
said province, armed and provided as aforesaid, within the 
second year from the ist day of January, 1665, to the ist day. 
of January, 1666, with Intention to plant, ninety acres of land, 
English measure; and for every man-servant that he or she 
shall carry or send, armed and provided as aforesaid, ninety 
acres of land of like measure. 

"For every weaker servant or slave, aged as aforesaid, who shall 
be so carried or sent thither within the second year, as aforesaid, 
forty-five acres of land of like measure ; and to every Christian 
servant who shall arrive the second year, forty-five acres of land 
of like measure. 

"To every free man and free woman that should arrive within 
the third year from January, 1666, to January, 1667, three-score 
acres of land ; every able man-servant, three-score acres of land; 
every weaker servant or slave, thirty acres of- land ; and to every 
Christian servant thirty acres of land, after the expiration of 
their time of service." 

The governor, council, and general assembly were to take care 
and direct that all lands be divided by general lots, none less 
Jthan two thousand one hundred acres, nor more than twenty- 



one thousand acres in each lot, excepting cities, tovns, &c., and 
the near lots of townships, and that the same be divided into 
seven parts, one-seventh part to them, their heirs, and assigns ; 
the remainder to persons as they come to plant the same, in 
such proportions as are allowed. 

The following was the form of the warrant to be given by the 
governor, or whom he should depute, in case of death or 
absence, which was to be signed and sealed by himself and the 
major part of his council, and directed to the surveyor-general 
or his deputy, commanding him to lay out, limit, and bound 
acres of land, according to the warrant: 

** The lords proprietors of the province of New Casarem or 
New Jersey J do herehy grant unto A B, of the , im the 

province aforesaid^ a plantation containing acres^ EngKsk 

measure J hounded (as in the certijicute)^ to hold to kim or ker^ kU 
or her heirs or assign s^ forever^ yielding and paying yearly to the 
said lords proprietors ^ their heirs or assigns^ every Jhe and 
twentieth day of March, according to the English account, one 
half -penny oflauful money ef England^ for every if the said cures 
to be holden of the manor ef East Greenwich, in free and commom 
soccage; the first payment of which rent to begin tJu five and 
twentieth day cf March, u»hich shall be in the year of our Lord 
one thousand six hundred and seventy, according to the English 

cucount. Given under the seal of the said province the day 

ef in the year if our Linrd 166-. 

** Convenient proportions of land for highways and for streets, 
not exceeding one hundred feet in breadth in cities, towns, and 
villages, &c, and for churches, forts, wharves, kajs, harbors^ 
and for public houses; and each parish for the use of their 
ministers, two hundred acres, in such places as the general 
assembly may appoint. 

''That the inhabitants of the said province have free passage 
through or by any seas, bounds, creeks, rivers or rivulets, &c., 
in the said province, through or by which they must necessarily 
]>as5 to.come from the main ocean to any part of the province 

''Given under our seal of our said province, the tenth day of 

■ ■ - -- - --" « „ ■■ U.. ■■ ^ .«— v-^—— . , ... f ■■■ I f . i«« Ml . r <l,.fc.^. 




February, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred 
sixty and four, . 1 . . . 

John Berkley, 
G. Carteret." 

. * • • • • 

Philip Carteret was appointed by John Lord. Berkley and Sir 
George Carteret, the first governor of "all that tract of land 
adjacent to New England, and lying and being to the westward 
of Long Island and Manhitans Island, and bounded by the east, 
part by the main sea and part by Hudson's river ; and Having 
upon the west, Delaware bay, and to the northward as far as the 
northermost branch of the said bay or river of Delaware, which 
is in forty-one and forty degrees of latitude; crossing over 
thence in a straight line to Hudson's river, in forty-one degrees 
of latitude, now commonly called by the names of New Csesarea 
or New Jersey; and of all the islands, inlets, rivers, and seas 
within the said bounds of our said province.'* 

This conmiission to Governor Carteret bears date the loth 
day of February, 1664. 

On the ist day of July, 1676, New Jersey was divided into 
two sections, called East and West New Jersey, Sir George 
Carteret receiving for his share the easterly section, extending 
eastward and northward along the sea coast and Hudson's river, 
from the east side of a certain place or harbor lying on the 
southern part of the same tract of land, and commonly called or 
known in a map of the said tract of land by the name of Little 
Egg Harbor, and William Penn, Gawn Lawrie, and Nicholas 
Lucas, their heirs and assigns, receiving in severalty as their full 
part, share, and portion of the said tract of land, in trust for 
the benefit of Edward Billinge, as the said undivided moiety was 
subject, and to be from henceforth called and distinguished by 
the name of West New Jersey; all that westerly part, share, and 
X>ortion of the said tract of land and premises, lying on the west 
side, and westward of the aforesaid straight and direct line drawn 
through the said premises from north to south, for and in 
consideration of five shillings to them, the said William Penn, 
Giwn Lawrie, Nicholas Lucas, and Edward Billinge, in hand 
paid by the said Sir George Carteret, the receipt whereof they 



-—'^^ »^^<*>i.-. .^.-r^ — .. -. -^ ,, • - -^, iMt I ^ 1,1 


do here respectively acknowledge^ the said Edward BiUinge and 
they, the said William Penn, Gawn Lawrie, and Nicholas Lucas, 
by and with the consent, direction, and appointment of the said 
Edward Billinge, testified by his being a party hereonto, and by 
his sealing and executing of these presents. 

This westerly part, share, and portion of the said tract of land 
and premises were, by the consent and agreement of the parties, 
called by the name of West Jersey, and was all that and only all 
that part, share, and portion of the said tract of land and 
premises conveyed by his said Royal Highness, as lieth extended 
westward, or southward from the west side of the line of said 
partition, on the Delaware river, andLextending to Egg Harbor, 
in which what is now the city of Trenton belonged. 



JFirsf Legislature — Lawt ofjirst Session-^Every male to furnish 
himself arms and ammunition — Punishment for Arson — Iuib€ 
Swearing^ — Kidnapping-^Burglary — Stealing — Punishment of 
Witches — Smiting or Cursing Father or Mother — Night-walk- 
ingp drinking^ and frequenting tippling-houses — Defraying the 
Public Expenses— Licenses for Marriage — Runaway apprcHr 
tices and servants — Fim for transporting or harboring tkM tanu 
-^Drunkenness, how Punished-^Erand-marh for .horses and 
cattle — Ordinary — Trading with Indians prohibited-^Worksng 
on Sunday, how punished — IVhat goods exempt front destraint-^ 
Weights and measures to be sealed— Leather to be staled— First 
day of Public Thanksgiving in the Province — Governo/s salary 
'^Division of the Province int^four counties — General AssesHr 
bly. Courts, Public Records removed from Elizabethtown to 
Amboy Perth — Division of the counties — School-masters 6stai^ 
lished — Schools regulated— Concessions and Agreements between 
East and West Jersey, etc., etc. 

THE first general assembly of the state met at Elizabethtown 
on the 36th day of May, 1668. 
Hon. Philip Carteret, governor. 

The council consisted of Capt. Nicholas Vcrlet, Daniel Pierce, 
Robert Bond, Samuel Edsall, Robert Vanguellin, William Far- 
don ; James Bollen, secretary. 

The burgesses consisted of Gasper Stemmetts, Battazer Bayard, 

for Bergen; John Ogden, John Brackett, for Elizabethtown; 

Capt. Robert Treat, Samuel Swame, for Newark, upon Pisha* 

wack River; John Bishop, Robert Dennes, for Woodbridge; 

James Grover, John Bound, for Middletown and Shrewsbury. 

The following is an abstract of the laws passed at this first 
session of the provincial legislature: 

For resisting the authority established by the lords proprietors^ 



as the governor, justices, or any other inferior officers, either in 
words or actions, fine or corporal punishment, as the court shall 
judge, upon due examination. 

'' Every male from sixteen years and upwards, to the age of sixty 
years, shall be furnished, at their own cost and charges, with good 
and sufficient arms, and constantly maintain the same, t//ir., a good 
serviceable gun well fixed, one pound of good powder, four 
pounds of pistol bullets, or twenty- four bullets suited to the guioi, 
a pair of bandoleers, or a good horn, and a sword and belt; and 
if any person or persons shall willfully neglect and not provide 
himself according to this act, within one month after publication 
thereof, he shall pay one shilling for the first week's neglect, 
and for*the next week's neglect and so for every week after, the 
sam of two shillings, by way of fine, to be levied upon his or 
their goods and chattels. ' * 

In the capital laws, it is enacted : 

'' That Jf any person or persons shall maliciously, wittingly, or 
willingly set bn^fire any dwelling-house, out-house, store-house, 
bam or stable, or any other kind of house or houses, corn, hay, 
fencing, wood, flax, or any other combustible matter, to the 
I>rejudice and damage of his neighbor, or any other person or 
persons whatsoever, he or they shall be committed to prison with- 
out bail or mainprize, and make full satisfaction ; and if he or they 
are not able to make satisfaction for the damages sustained by such 
willful and malicious act, then to stand to the mercy of the court 
whether to be tried for life or to suffer some other corporal 
punishment, as the court shall judge, all circumstances being 
first duly examined and considered of. 

'' If any person or persons shall willingly and maliciously rise 
up to bear false witness, or purpose to take away a man's life, 
they shall be put to death. 

" If any man shall willfully or forcibly steal away any man* 
kind, he shall be put to death. 

" If any person within this province shall commit burglary, by 
breaking open any dwelling-house, store-house, ware-house, out- 
house or bam, or any other house whatsoever, or that shall rob 
any person in the field or highways, he or they so offending 
shall^ for the first offence, be punished by being burnt in the hand 



with the letter T, and make fiiU^Usfaction of the goods stolen, 
or the damages that are done; and for the second time of 
offending in the like nature, besid'es the making of. restitution, 
to be branded in the forehead with the letter R. And for the 
third offence to be put to death as incorrigible. 

''And for stealing goods, money, or cattle, or any other beast 
of what kind soever, to make treble restitution for the first offence, 
and the like for the second and third offence, with such further 
increase of punishment as the court shall see cause; and if 
incorrigible to be punished with death. And in case they are 
not able to make restitution for the first, second, and third 
offences, they shall be sold, that satisfaction may be made. 

« If any person bt found to be a witch; either male or female, 
they shall be put to death. 

''If any child or children above sixteen years of age, and of 
sufficient understanding, shall smite or curse their natural father 
or mother, except provoked thereunto, and forced for their safe 
preservation from death or maiming, upon the complaint or 
proof of the said father or mother, or either of them, (and not 
otherwise) they shall be put to death. 

"If any person or persons shall be abroad from the usual place 
of their abode, and found in night-walking, drinking in any 
tap-house, or any other house or place at unseasonable times, 
afler nine of the clock at nighti and not about their lawful 
occasions, or cannot give a good account of their being absent 
from their own place of abode at that time of the night, if 
required of them, he or they shall be secured by the constable 
or some other officer, till the morning, to be brought before a 
justice of the peace or magistrate, to be examined, and if they 
cannot give them a satisfactory account of their being out at such 
unseasonable times, he or they shall be bound over to the next 
court, and receive such punishment as the justices upon the bench 
shall see cause to inflict upon them. 

"That a rale of thirty pounds be levied upon the country for 
the defraying of public charges, and this rate equally propor- 
tioned to each town. That is to say^ five pounds for each town, 
to be paid in manner as followeth : winter wheat at five shillings 
a bushel; summer wheat at four shillings and six-pence; peas at 



three shillings and six-pence; Indian corn at three shillings; rye 
at four shillings; barley at four shillings; beef at two-pence half- 
penny; pork at three-pence half-penny a pound; and this rate 
to be paid at or before the next general court, into the hands 
and custody of Mr. Jacob Mollins, of Elizabeth Town, which we 
desire of him to take into his hands for the use of the province, 
and when received, to disburse and pay to Capt. Bollen the 
«iim of twenty pounds, and the rest as he shall have order to 
improve for our use." 

. In order to prevent unlawful marriages, it was ordered that 
"no person or persons, son, daughter, maid or servant, shall be 
married without the consent of his or her parents, masters, or 
overseers, and three times published in and at some public meet- 
ing or kirk, where the party or parties have their most usual 
abode, or set up in writing their purposes of marriage -on some 
public house where they live, and there at least to abide for the 
space of fourteen days before marriage, which is to be performed 
in some public place, if possible may be, and none but some 
approved minister or justice of the peace within this province, or 
some chief officer, where such are not, shall be allowed to marry 
or admit of any to join in marriage, in their presence, and under 
the penalty of twenty pounds for acting contrary hereunto, and 
to be put out of theiroffice, according to the liberty of conscience 
granted by the lords proprietors in their concessions." 

The governor had power to grant his license, under his hand 
and seal, '^ to any person or persons that are at their own dispos- 
ing, or to any other under the tuition of their parents, masters, 
or overseers, to join in matrimony ; provided that the parents, 
masters, or overseers are present and consenting thereunto, or 
that their consent be attested by some public officer and 
presented to the governor before the granting thereof, and the 
others to clear themselves by oath or certificate. 

''That every apprentice and servant that shall depart and 
absent themselves from their masters or dames, without leave 
first obtained, shall be judged by the court to double the time 
of such their absence, by future service over and above other 
damages and costs which master and dame shall sustain by such 
nnlaiihrul departure. 


n"»i»..«... —■■t..^-- .._.^^ ^ ^-^>»— J— f t i t l- ^.^«. * - f - iMiarta 

I) itfjh "■'■ l»»t > 'in ' . ^3-m^—^^- 


''Anyone having been proved to have transported, or .to have 
contrived the transportation of any such apprentice or servant, 
shall be fined five pounds, and all such damages as the court 
shall judge, and that the master or dame can make appear, and 
if not able, to be left to the judgment of the court. 

''Every inhabitant that shall harbor or. entertain any such 
apprentice or servant, and knowing that he hath absented 
himsolf from his service, upon proof thereof, shall forfeit to the 
master or dame, ten shillings for every day's entertainment or 
concealment, and if not able to satisfy, then to be liable to the 
judgment of the court. 

** Concerning that beastly vice, drunkenness, it is hereby 
enacted, that if any person be found to be drunk, he shall pay one 
shilling fine for the first time, two shillings for the second, and for 
the third time, and for every time after two shillings, and six- 
pence.; and such as have nothing to pay, shall suffer corporal pun- 
ishment, and for those that are unruly and disturbers of the peace, 
they shall be put in the stocks until they are sober, or during the 
pleasure of the oflicer-in-chief in the place where he is drunk.** . 

This session .of the assembly was commenced on the, 26th 
and ended on the 30th of May, 1668. ... 

The next session was held at Elizabethtowp, on Tuesday, the 
3d of November, 1668, at which an act was passed requiring 
"all the soldiers in every town of -the province, from sixteen 
years old to sixty, to train- or be mustered at least four days in the 
year, and oftener if the chief military officer in the place see it 
needful, viz., two days in the spring and two days in the autumn, 
and that there shall be at least ten days between each training 
day ; any chief officer constituted and commissioned for that 
purpose, wittingly or willfully neglecting the same, shall forfeit 
for every day's neglect, twenty shillings to the public, and every 
soldier five shillings, and for half a day, two shillings and six- 
pence, and for late coming, one shilling.'* 

Every town within the province was to have a brand-mark for 
their horses, to distinguish the horses of one town from another; 
besides which every one was to have and mark his horse or Jiorses 
with his own particular brand-mark ; also, that every town shall 
have a horn brand-mark, for all cattle from three years old and 

20 mSTOR 7 i>F TRENTOH. 

upward. It was required that thercfibould be an officer appointed 
by the governor in each town to brand and record every particu- 
lar man*s brand, and the age of each of them, as near as he could, 
with the color and all observable marks it had before the brand- 
ing, whether on the ear or elsewhere, with the year and day of 
the month when branded, and to receive from the Owner six- 
pence for each horse, mare, or colt so branded and recorded ; 
and every one neglecting to have them branded was to be fineiTv 
ten shillings for every default. 

The hoises and cattle were to be branded with the same letter 
in each town ; that of Bergen, with the letter B ; Newark, with 
N; Elizabethtown, with £; Woodbridge, with W; Middletown, 
withM; Shrewsbury, with S; Delaware, with D; Piscataqua^ 
with P. 

' The brand was to be fixed on the right buttock of horses, and 
on the right horn of cattle ; the brander to have for cattle, two- 
X)ence i>er head. The sale of horses of all kinds was to be 
recorded in the town book within ten days after the sale, and 
the recorder was to receive three-pence per head for every such 
sale, under a penalty of forty shillings for every deikult. 

Every town was required to provide an ordinary for the relief 
and entertainment of strangers, the keeper of which was to have 
a license from the secretary, jmd oblige himself to make sufficient 
provision of meat, drink, and lodging for strangers ; and for 
neglect in any of the towns, they were to forfeit forty shillings fine 
to the country for every month's default after publication hereof. 

An persons were prohibited receiving or buying any cattle 
whatsoever of any Indian or Indians, whether swine, neat cattle,' 
or horses, under the penalty of ten pounds. 

December 2d, 1675, it was enacted ''that whosoever shall 
profane the Lord's Day, otherwise called Sunday, by any kind 
of servile work, tmlawful recreations, or unnecessary travels on 
that day, not falling within the compass of works of mercy or 
necessity, either willfully or through careless neglect, shall be 
punished by fine, imprisonment, or corporally, according to the 
nature of the offence, at the judgment of the court, justice, or 
justices where the offence is committed.'* 

Any person falling under the fine of a. penal law, no officer 




was allowed to lay destraint upon his or their arms or ammuni* 
tionsy plow-irons or chains, horses or cattle, as being so necessarj 
to their livelihood. 

Blacksmiths, locksmiths, or any other persons were forbidden 
to make, mend, or any way repair any Indian gun or guns, upon 
the penalty of paying for the first offence, after conviction, the 
sum of twenty shillings, and fpr the second offence, forty shillings, 
and for the third offence, to double the whole, and so to continue^ 
which fines to be one-half to the informer, and the other half to 
the public use. 

April 6th, 1676, an act was passed requiring all weights and 
measures to be sealed, according to the standard of England^ 
and for dry measure, according to Winchester measure. . . 

It was also ordered that the freeholders in every town choose 
a packer, to see that all meat in barrels for sale be good and 
merchantable, and well packed and salted, and to contain thirty- 
two gallons, and put his mark upon the cask or barrel, and to 
have for his pains of packing and marking of every such J)arrel> 

All leather was to pass under the hand of a sealer, and be 
approved by him, under a penalty of four-pence per hide. 

At a meeting of the general assembly, held at Woodbridge, 
October 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th, 1676, it was enacted that there 
be a 'May of public thanksgiving, set apart, throughout the 
whole province, to give God the glory and praise :for the signal 
demonstration of His mercy and favor towards us in this 
colony, in the preserving and continuing our peace in the midst 
of wars round about us, together with many other mercies 
which we are sensible of, which call aloud for our acknowledg- 
ment and thanksgiving to the Lord, and oblige us to live to His 
praise, and in His fear always.'* 

The laws of the general assembly were in force only one year, 
and conrequently at each yearly session the. same laws were 

The salary of the governor was fixed, jn the year 1675, ^' ^^1 
pounds per year, and five shillings were allowed hin) for a seal. 
In 1676, the governor lyas allowed four shillings a day for 
traveling expenses, the council and deputies, three shillings 


each per day, travdiog.. expenses,* and to continue during the 
time of their sitting. 

In 1679, the salary of the governor was fixed at two shillings 
per head for every male within the province from fourteen years 
old and upwards. 

A day of thanksgiving was appointed for '^ next Wednesday 
come three weelu: that will be the 26th of this instant, 

In 1681, a law was passed forbidding the sale of rum, brandy, 
wine, cider, strong beer, or any other intoxicating liquor to the 
Indians, nnder the penalty of twenty pounds for the first offence, 
and to be double for every offence after. 

Robert Barclay was appointed governor of East New Jersey 
for life, July 17th, 1683, and Gawn Lawrie, deputy governor, not 
exceeding seven years, commission dated July 27th, 16S3. 

Jeremiah Basse was appointed governor, April t4th, 1698. 

At a session of the general assembly, held at Elizabethtown, on 
the first day of the month called March, 1(82, the province was 
divided into four counties : 

''Bergen County, containing all the settlements between 
Hudson's river and Haclcensack river, beginning at Constables- 
Hook, and so extended to the uppermost bounds of the province 
northward between the said rivers. 

"Essex, and the county thereof, to contain all the settlements 
between the west side of Haclcensaclc river and the parting line 
between Woodbridge and Elizabeth Town, and so to extend 
westward and northward, to the utmost bounds of the province. 

« Middlesex County, to begin from the parting line between 
Essex county and Woodbridge line, containing Woodbridge and 
Piscataway, and all the plantations on both sides of the Raritan 
river, as far as Chesquake harbor eastward, extending south* 
west to the division line of the province, and northwest to the 
utmost bounds of the province. 

"Monmouth Cox^ty, to begin at the westward bounds of 
Middlesex county, containing Middletown and Shrewsbury, and 
to extend westward, southward, and northward, to the extreme 
bounds of the province; provided, this distinction of the province 



into counties do not extend to the infringement of any liberty 
in any court already granted," 

The sessions of the general assembly and the courts were held 
at EUizabethtown up to the 6th day of April, 1686^ and all the 
public records were kept there up to that time, when they were, 
by act of the general assembly, removed to the town of Amboy 
Perth, in the county of Middlesex, afterwards called New Perth. 
The courts were afterwards ordered to be held alternately at the 
town of Amboy Perth, Piscataway, and Woodbridge. 

Somerset county was set off from Middlesex, May 14th, liSS. 

On the 28th of September, 1692, the legislatiure finding the act 
imposing a fine on persons selling liquors to the Indians was inef« 
fectual to prevent that traffic, enacted that the penalty should be 
''for the first offence five lashes on the bare back, for the second 
offence ten lashes on the bare back, fpr the third, fifteen, for the 
fourth, twenty, and so many and no more for every such offence 
thereafter, to be inflicted by order of the court," 

In 1692, an act was passed authorizing the division of the 
several counties into townships, tribes, or divisions. 

In 1693, an act was passed to establish schoolmasters within 
the province, ''for the cultivation of learning and good minneis^ 
and for the good and benefit of mankind, which hath hitherto 
been much neglected within this province." 

In 1695, an act was passed regulating schools, in which each 
town was to choose three men yearly, who were " to appoint 
and agree with a schoolmaster, and to nominate and appoint the 
most convenient place or places where the school shall be kept 
from time to time, that as near as may be the whole inhabitants 
may have the benefit thereof!'* 

Concessions ^nd agreements of the proprietors, fireeholders, 
and inhabitants of the province of West New Jersey were made 
on the 25 th day of March, 1680, confirming the contract and 
agreement made on the 2d day of March, 1676, by William 
Penn, Gawn Lawrie, and Nicholas Lucas, unto Thomas Hutch- 
inson, Thomas Pearson, Joseph Helmsley, George Hutchinson, 
and Mahlon Stacy. 

Samuel Jennings was deputy governor in i68i| from the 25th 


of September, and was appointed governor the 14th of Novem- 
ber, i63i. 

The laws of the province of West Jersey were almost precisely 
the same as those of East Jersey. 

The general assembly held their sessions at Burlington. 

The courts were held- alternately at Burlington and Salem, 
they being the most populous towns in the province. 

In 1682, the legislature granted authority for the erection of 
public markets for the accommodation of the people ; the first 
market day was to be held at Burlington, to begin and take place 
the seventh day of the eighth month- next ensuing, and at Salem, 
the seventeenth day of the same month. 

'* The Seventh day, commonly called Saturday, weekly and 
every week, shall be the market day at Burlington, to be held 
there in the place formerly set forth for the market place ; and 
that the market for corn shall begin at the eleventh hour in the 

"That the third day, called Tuesday, weekly and every 
week, shall be the market at Salem, to be held before the town 
landing, formerly appointed there for the market place, and 
that the market for com shall begin at the eleventh hour in the 

For the encouraging, learning, and for the better education of 
youth, it was enacted that the island called Matininuck, late in 
the possession of Robert Stacy, with all and every the appurten- 
ances, was given to remain for the use of the town of Burlington 
for the maint^ning of a school for the education of youth within 
the said town. 

In 1683, the assembly gave to Thomas Budd and. Francis 
Collins one thousand acres of land (parts of the land to be 
purchased of the Indians above the falls), for the building of a 
market-house and court-house at Burlington. 

Samuel Jennings was, by the free election and vote of the 
assembly sitting at Burlington, chosen governor of the province 
on the nth of March, 1683. His previous appointment was by 
the lords proprietors. The assembly gave him six hundred 
acres of land, to be had and taken up above the falls, (after the 


purchase thereof was made from the Indians) with three yean' 
time to settle the same.* 

The first representatives of West Jersey were Thomas Ollirc, 
(speaker), Mahlon Stacy, Joshua Wright, John Lambert, Thomas 
Lambert,t William Emley, Godfrey Hancock, Daniel Leeds, 
Thomas Wright, Samuel Borden,} Robert Stacy, Thomas Badd, 
Daniel Wills, Thomas. Gardner, John Cripps, John White, John 
Chaifen, Bernard Devenish, Isaac Merriott, William Feachee, 
William Cooper, Mark Newbie, Thomas Chackeray, Robert 
Zame, Samuel Nevill, Richard Guy, Marke Reeves, Richard 
Hancock, John Smith, John Pledger, Edward Wade, George 
Deacon, Samuel Hedge, Andrew Thompson, Thomas Revell, 

At the session held at Burlington, July 7th, 1683, it was 

resolved and unanimously agreed upon by the assembly, that the 

. governor be chairman or speaker, and that he sit as one of the 

assembly, together with the council, and the chairman to have 

two votes, or a double vote. 

On the 20th day of March, 1684, Thomas Ollive was chosen 

September 25th, 1685, John Skene was chosen deputy 

November 3d, 1692, Andrew Hamilton was chosen governor. 

Previous to 1693, W&t Jersey had been divided into three 
counties, Burlington, Salem, and Falls, and these were sub- 
. divided into ten-tenths. By an act of the assembly of that year 
Cape May county was formed. 

Gloucester county was formed in 1694, and at the same sessioQ 
the boundaries of Salem county were more particularly set forth. 
At the same session an act was passed for the inhabitants ab3ve 
St. Pink 'or the River Derwent to belong to Burlington county; 
they had previously belonged to Monmouth county. 

At the session of May i2th, 1696, a bill was passed, called a 

. *Alt the lands in New Jersey were purchased from the Indians, and nooe 
were taken except bf purchase. 

t From whom Lambeiton was named. 

X From whom Bordentown took its name. 



qualifying bill, requiring officers who were not free to take an 
oath to sign the following declaration of fidelity and profession 
of the Christian faith : 

( • 

"I, A By do sincerely promise and solemnly declare, that. I 
will be true and faithful to William, King of England, and the 
govcmm^t of this province of West New Jersey; and I da 
solemnly profess and declare, that I do from my heart abhor, 
detest, and renounce, as impious and heretical, that damnable 
doctrine and position, that princes ex-communicated or deprived 
by the Pope, or any authority of the See of Rome, may be 
deprived or murdered by their subjects, or any other what- 
soever. And I also declare, that no foreign prince, person, 
prelate, state, ,or potentate hath, or ought to have, any power, 
jurisdiction, superiority, pre-eminence, or authority, ecdesias' 
ttcal or spiritual, within this realm.'* 


"I, A B, profess £uth in Goo, the Father, and in Jesus 
Christ, his Eternal Son, the true God, and in the Holy Spirit,, 
one God blessed forever more ; and do acknowledge the Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments to be given by Divine 

The tax ordered at this session to be raised for the payment 
and discharge of the provincial debt was one penny per acre of 
land cleared, improved, and fenced, meadow only excepted ; six- 
pence upon every hundred acres surveyed and unimproved land; 
six-pence per head upon all neat cattle from one year old and 
upwards; twelve-pence per head upon every horse and mare one 
year old and upwards; six-pence per head for every hog or 
swine that any person should sell, convey, or dispose of, living or 
dead ; one penny per head for every sheep; and also all persons- 
keeping or owning negroes should pay for every negro of tea 
years of age and upwards, two shillings and six-pence. Those 
refosing to pay, or giving in a false account, or concealing and 
not giving in a negro, were to be fined six shillings; for every 
head of such beast not given in, ten shillings ; for every acre of 
land improved, two-pence; and for every hundred acres of land 
animproved, nine-pence. 




:^. ;_-. i— . M^*i^. ' I 'Un t i l rfti^ .i - . !• ■ m ^ * ,,m m» » 



Previous to 1694, each tenth chose ten representatives for the 
provincial assembly, making one hundred representatives m all, 
jHrhich was according to the concessions of the lords piroprielois. 
After the year 1694 they were divided into counties. Burlington 
county comprised two-tenths; Gloucester county,* two-tenths ; 
and Salem county, one-tenth. Burlington county had twenty 
members; Gloucester county, twenty; Salem, ten; and Cape 
May, five. 

In the year 1696 this number was considered superfluous, and 
the representation was made, for Burlington, ten; Gloucester, 
ten ; Salem, five; and Cape May, three; m^ing in all, twenty* 
«ight members. 

In the year 1700, the assembly enacted,, ''that any person or 
persons that shall break into any house, out-house, or' bam, in 
the day-time or in the night, and shall steal any goods or 
merchandise to the value of one shilling or upwards, upon bein^ 
convicted thereof, shall (besides making the restitution of four- 
fold) for the first offence receive thirty-nine stripes upon the bare 
back, and being convicted a second time, shall have burnt with 
a hot iron upon his, her, or their forehead a Roman T, added to 
the above punishment, and being convicted a third time, shall 
be burned with a hot iron in the cheek with^the Roman letter T, 
jsuffer a twelve months' close imprisonment, and be kept to hard 
labor, only having a sufficiency of diet, and corrected by being 
whipt with thirty-nine stripes on the bare back once in every 
month during the said term of one year." 

After the first offence, if the offender begged transportation, the 
judge or justice of the Supreme Court was to allow it to him or 
her. After being transported, in case they returned within seven 
'years, they were to be apprehended, and not only make restitn* 
tion four-fold, but to receive thirty-nine stripes, and be branded 
with the Roman letter T on the forehead. 

At the session of May 12th, 1701, the law reducing the repre- 
sentatives to twenty-eight was repealed, and the old law allowing 
them fifty-five, re-enacted. 

On the 15th day of April 1702, the proprietors of the 
provinces of East and West Jersey surrendered to Queen Anne 
all the ]K>wers and authorities in them vested in said provinces^ 


previous application having been made to that end August 
1 3th, 1701. 

This surrender was signed by twenty-live of the proprietors of 
East Jersey, and by thirty-two of West Jersey. The surrender' 
was accepted by the Queen, at the Coxu-t of St James, the 17 th 
day of April, 170a, before the final articles of surrender could 
have reached England. . j 

On the 1 6th day of November, 1702, Edward Lord Combury 
(Edvi'ard Hyde) was appointed governor of the consolidated 

The assembly was ordered to sit alternately at Perth Amboy 
and Burlington, and to consist of twenty-four representatives, to 
be chosen, two by the inhabitants, householders of the city or 
town of Perth Amboy ; two by the inhabitants, householders of 
the city and town of Burlington; ten by the freeholders of East' 

New Jersey, and ten by the freeholders of West New Jersey. 


*Itis coouiiisnoii beais date'Dtoeniber 5t]i, 1702. . 


J^irst pdtent—When granted— Extent of land contained therein — 
Reservations made by the Crown— Pretended claim of the Dutch 
and Swedes— New Jersey— UTten set off from New York — 
ExUnt of East and West Jersey— First purchases— Considera- 
tion paid for lands— First settlement cU Burlington — Flood at 
Delaware falls— Littleworth^ the original name of Trenton. 

ALTHOUGH the English had very early made the discovery 
of North America, a considerable time elapsed before any 
advantages accrued. Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584, was the first 
Englishman who attempted to plant a colony in it* 

In this* year he obtained a patent from Queen Elizabeth, for 
him and his heirs, to discover and possess forever, under the 
crown of England, all such countries and lands as were not then 
possessed by any Christian prince, or inhabited by any Christian 
people. This was the first patent granted to Sir Walter Raleigh. 
Encouraged by this grant, Raleigh and other partners at divers 
times fitted out ships, and settled a colony at Roanore,f in 
Virginia; but, notwithstanding various attempts, they met with 

*That is, a regular colony under grants. Sir Armigell Wadd, of Yorkshire, 

A clerk of the Council of Henry VIII., and Edward VI., and author of a Book 

of Travels, was the first Englishman that made discoveries in America. H* 

Wa\poU% Anecdote* of Ihinting, vol ii, CataXogut of Engraven, pp. 18, 19. 

t Now Roanoke, in Virginia. At that time the country was divided into 
but two great divisions; the fiist or southern division was granted to the 
I^ndon company, and the second or noithem division, to the Flymoath 
company. The portion of territory to which the name of Virginia was givea 
extended from the thiity-fouilh to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude. 
Muffordi Eiitorg, p. 26. 



such discouragements that no great improvements were made 
untn sometime afterwards. 

In the year 1606, King James, without any regard to Raleigh's 
right, granted a new patent of Virginia, in which was included 
New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Mary- 
land. From Queen Elizabeth's time to the time of this patent, 
the whole country bore the name of Virginia, which was given 
it by Raleigh, in honor of the virgin queen of England, as some 
say, though others claim that it took its rise from the fact of 
its never having been settled before — being virgin soiL • 

The patentees were Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somen, 
Richard Hakluyt, (clerk), Edward Maria Wingfield, Thomas 
Hanham, and Raleigh Gilbert, Esqs., William Parker, George 
Popham,* and others. The extent of the land granted was from 
thirty-four to forty-five degrees north latitude, with all the islimds 
lying within one hundred miles of the coast. Two distinct colonies 
were to be planted by virtue of this patent, and the property 
invented in two different bodies of adventurers, the first to 
belong to Somers, Hakluyt, and Wingfield, under title of the 
London adventurers, or the London company, and was to 
reach from thirty-four to forty-one degrees, with all lands, 
woods^ mines, minerals, &c • 

The other colony was to reach from the end of the first, to forty- 
five degrees ; granting the same privileges to Hanham, Gilbert, 
Parker, and Popham, under the name of the Plymouth company, 
with liberty to both companies to take as many partners as they 
pleased ; forbidding others to plant within those colonies without 
their license ; only reserving the fifth-part of all gold and silver 
mines, and the fifteenth-part of copper, to the use of the crown. 

The London company, by virtue 6f this grant, fitted out 
several ships, with artificers of every kind, and all things 
requisite for a new settlement, which sailed for America and 
planted a colony there, but in the year 1623, there were so many 
complaints made of bad management, that on inquiry, a quo 
warranto was issued against the patent, and after a trial had in 

« Lord C3iief}aUice of England. 

.fc,—, ---- ■-- ■ ■ ■-■ — — ^^— ■ ■ -^ . ■■ — ^ T^" ■: ST - --— _-^»» - I 



the King's bench, it was declared forfeited;* after "which 
Virginia remained for a long time under the immediate direction 
of the crown. % • ' 

In the year the patent was granted, the Plymouth company 
also attempted to make a settlement, but with no great success 
until about the year 1620, when they sent fresh recruits from 
England, under the command of Captain Standish, who arrived 
at Cape Cod, in the latitudeof forty-twodegrees, and having turned 
the Cape, found a commodious harbor, opposite the point at the 
mouth of the bay, at the entry of which were 'two islands ^ell 
stocked with wood. Here they built a town which they called 
Plymouth. About this time, the colonies in New England were 
much augmented by multitudes of dissenters, who, thinking this 
a good opportunity of enjoying liberty of conscience, offered 
their services to the Plymouth company, and the grand patent 
being delivered up to the king, particular patents were granted 
to the Lord Musgrave, the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of 
Carlisle, and Lord Edward Gorges, and new colonies were 
planted in divers places on this continent. 

From what has been said, it is evident that the colonies of 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland were in- 
cluded in the great patent last mentioned ; but that becoming 
void, th^ crown was at liberty to re-grant the same to others. 

But it docs not appear that any part of those provinces was 
settled by virtue thereof; nor indeed was any distinct discovery 
of them made until many years afterwards. New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and other lands adjacent, notwithstanding the 
ancient right of the cro\vn of England, deduced as aforesaid, 
had two pretenders to them — the Dutch and the Swedes. - 

The claim the former set up was under color of a discovery 
made in the year 1607, by Henry Hudson, an Englishman by 
birth, and commander of a ship called the Half-Moon; fitted 
out from Holland by the East India company, for the purpose of 
discovering, by a northwest passage, a nearer way to China.' 

* Other accounts say the patent was dissolved by the King's proclamation in 
1624, and that though a quo \DaTTanio was issued against it, no detenntna- 
tion followed in the courts of justice. 


In thb voyage he sailed up to the place now called New York, 
d np the river, which he called Hudson* s river, and returning 
metime after to Amsterdam, the Dutch pretended to have 
rchased the chart he made of the American coast, and having 
»tained a patent from the states in the year 1614, to trade in 
iw England, they settled in New York, which place they 
lied New Netherlands and kept possession until Sir Samuel 
"gole, governor of Virginia, disputed their title, alleging that 
e country having been discovered by an Englishman, in right 

hb master, he could not suffer it to be alienated from the 
>wn without the king's consent. He therefore compelled the 
Uch colony to submit to him, and to hold it under the English. 
on after, a new governor coming* from Amsterdam, they 
t only neglected to pay their usual acknowledgment to the 
vemor of Virginia, but in the year 1623, fortified their colony 
' building several forts: one on the Delaware, (by them 
lied South river), near Gloucester, in New Jersey, which they 
med Fort Nassau ; a second on Hudson's (the North river), 

thie province of New York, which they named Fort Orange, 
d a third on Connecticut river, (by them called Fresh river), 
lich they named the Hirsse of Good Hope. 
Having examined into the Dutch claim to this continent, let 

look for a moment at that set up by their neighbors, the 

In the reign .of Gustavus Adolphus, in the year; 1626, an 
linent merchant, William Useling, who had visited this 
untry, on his return gave a glowing description of it, 
•plauded its fruitful and fertile lands as abounding with all 
e necessaries of life, and by many arguments he endeavored to 
rsuade the Swedes to settle a colony here. Literally carried 
ray by the glowing descriptions given by Useling, Gustavus 
(ued a proclamation at Stockholm, exhorting his subjects to 
»ntribute to a company associated for the purposes aforesaid. 
This company was very soon formed, and called the West 
idia company, and was confirmed by Gustavus. 

In a general convention assembled the year following, large 
ims of money were raised to carry on the intended settlement, of 
hich the king, the lords of the council, the chief of his barons. 


— -»-'.>:— ' ". ..JL^CTT. 

■-' ■ - I- J II r" I fc A — J * afci >r i i i 



Icnights, coronets, principal officers in his militia, bishops, 
clergy, and many of the common people of Sweden,- Finland,' 
and Liffland, contributed. * * 

In 1627, the Swedes and Finns accordingly came over hither.' 
Their first landing was at Cape Inlopen (now called Henlopen). 
Here they were so well pleased with the sight presented that 
they called it Paradise Point Sometime after tfiey purchased 
of some Indians, (but whether of such as had the proper right to 
convey we are not informed), the land from Cape Inlopen to 
the falls of the Delaware, on both sides of the river; These falls 
laid opposite, or rather on the west of the city of Trenton — hence, 
what is now the city of Trenton was included in that purchase. 
The Delaware was called by them New Swedeland stream ; and 
they made presents to the Indian chie& in order to obtain* 
peaceable possession of the lands they had already purchased. * 

But the Dutch continuing their pretensions,* in 1630, one 
David Petersz de Vries built a fort within the capes of Dela- 
ware, on the west, about two leagues from Cape Cornelius, at 
what is now called Lewistown, which was then called by the 
name of Hoarkill. 

In 1 63 1, the Swedes also built a fort on the west of Delaware, 
to which they gave the name of Christeen, the ruins of which 
are still visible. This fort was erected near Wilmington, from 
which the name of the noted creelc, Christiana, is derived. 

A small town was here laid out by Peter Lindstrom, their 
engineer, and here they first settled, but although this settlement 
was afterwards demolished by the Dutch, yet in 1810, Christiana 
township, including the village of the same name; numbered 
six thousand six hundred and ninety-eight inhabitants, and in 
1820, eight thousand three hundred and thirty-five inhabitants. 

On an island called Tinicum, sixteen miles above Christiana, 
and' on the Delaware, below the mouth of Darby creek, about 
six miles below Philadelphia, the Swedes erected another fort, 
which they called New Gottemburgh.* ' • i . 

On the 2d of September, 1655, the Dutch besieged Christiana 
fort and town, and destroyed New Gottemburgh, together with 
all the houses that were outside the forL 

From this time till the year 1664, New Sweden and New 

it Orange (Albany); from thence they drove a profitable 
with the Indians, who came overland as &r as from 
s to deal with them. 

I fint bounds of New Yoilc were ilaryland on the south, 
lio land as Car as could be discovered westward, the river 
nada, (now St Lawrence) northward, and New England- 
ird. ' 

baire now arrived at that period when, by the grants made, 
tyrinoe wai reduced into a much smaller compass. . . 
t pFOrince now called New Jersey* was by one of these 
act off from New York. It was probably called New 
in boim of Sir George Carteret, one of the proprietors,- 

; Dolce of York bring smed, did, on the 23d and 14th days- 
«, 1664, in consideration of a "competent sum of money, 
and convey unto Lord John Berkley, Baron of Stratton, 
mto ^ George Carteret, of Saltrum, in the county of. 
I, to Adr heiis and assigns forever,. all that tract of land 
nt to New England, west of Long Island and Manhattan's 
i, and bounded on the east by the main sea, a part of 
xi'a river; on the west by the Delaware bay and river, 
ling southward to the tnain ocean, as far as Cape May, at 
Mmth of Delaware bay, and north by the northernmost 
k of nid bay or river of Delaware, which is in forty-one 
es and iwty minutes of latitude, in a straight line to 
nt** river, said tract of land hereafter to be called Nova 

K ita W*. *• *^* - - - I ■. T* If *mi > '■ ■■ ■ fcp^a^ifcfcB 



taining, with their and every of their appurtenances, in as fall 
and ample a manner, as the same is granted unto the Duke of 
York by the before recited letters patent." 

Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, under this first grant, 
became sole proprietors, and so continued till the province 
became divided in 1676. Sir George Carteret then became the 
sole proprietor of the eastern division. The county of Bergen 
was the first settled place. A great many Dutch .being already 
there when the province was first smrrendered, remained under 
the English government. A few Danes were probably concerned 
in the original settlement of this county, from whence came 
Bergen, after the capital of Norway. 

In 1664, John Bailey, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson, of 
Jamaica, Long Island, purchased of certain Indian chie6, inhab^ 
itants of Staten Island, a tract or tracts of land, on part of which 
the town of Elizabeth now stands, and for which, on their 
petition. Governor Richard Nicholls, granted a deed or patent 
to John Baker, of New York, John Ogden, of Northampton, 
John Bailey and Luke Watson, and their associates, dated at 
Fort James, in New York, the 2d of December. This is what is 
commonly called the Elizabethtown grant 

Numbers of industrious, reputable farmers, most of whom 
were English residents of Long Island, fixed their residences 
about Middletown, from whence by degrees they extended their 
settlements to Freehold and thereabouts. 

To Shrewsbury, there came many families from New Eng- 
land, and there were very soon four towns in the province, 
Elizabeth, Newark, Middletown, and Shrewsbury^ and these 
with the country around, were in a few years plentifully 
inhabited by the accession of the Scotch; and many came 
from England, besides those of the Dutch that remained in 
the colony. 

Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret appointed Philip 
Carteret governor of the colony of New Jersey, and gave him 
power, by advice of a majority of the council, to grant lands to 
all such as by the concessions were entitled thereto, and though 
there is no provision in the concessions for bargaining with the 


ndians,* Governor Carteret, on his arrival, thought it prudent 
o purchase their rights. 

Governor Carteret did not arrive to take charge of the govem- 

ent till 1665, up to which time the province was under Richard 
*s administration, then governor of N^w York. 

Governor. Carteret, on his arrival, took up his residence at 
lizabethtown, which it is said he named after Elizabeth, wife 
f Sir George Carteret, his tMrother. 

He invited others to settle in the province, by sending ambas- 
^sadors throughout New England, to which many responded 
<sa.nd soon came and settled, some at Elizabethtown, oUiers. at 
"^Voodbridge, Piscataway, and Newark. 

Thus the province of East New Jersey increased in settlements 

d continued to grow until the Dutch invasion in 1673, when 
hey took possession of the country and put a stop to the English 

Philip Carteret remained governor till bis death in 1682. 
I-HJuring his lifetime the general assemblies and supreme courts 
at Elizabethtown. 

In 1675, a few passengers arrived from England for AVest 
ersey. One-half of the province at this time belonged to Lord 

rkley, while the other half was sold to John Fenwick, in trust 
or Edward Billinge and his assigns. 

The same year Fenwick sailed from London in a ship called 
he Griffith, and landed at a rich and pleasant spot near Dela- 
nrare, w]iich he called Salem, from the peaceable aspect which 
t bore. He brought his two daughters over with him, besides a 

umber of servants, two of whom, Samuel Hedge and John 

dams, married. 

Among the passengers who came with Fenwick, were Edward 

*Thb in 1673 was supplied by paiticnlar instructions, directing that the 
and cotmcil should purchase all lands from the Indians, and be 
rimbursed by the settlers as thej made their purchasesw 

t Governor Androts* of Yoric, in 1680, undertook to dispute the title .of 
"^Carteret as goremor of Jersey. He therefore sent an armed force to Kli^a- 
"M>etbtoim, seized and carried himjMrisoner to New York, oq pretence of hit 
^DQimmsaon not being a good one. 

■ „ . ^. ■ — . ■> I I ■ " ■■ ■ ■ I I ■ » ■ h 



Chaxnpness, Edward Wade, Samuel Wade, John Smith and wife, 
Samuel Nicholls, Richard Guy, Richard Noble, Richard Han- 
tock, John Pledger, Hipolite Lufcver, and John Matlock. 
These, and others with them, were masters of families. This is 
the first ship that came to West Jersey, and none followed for 
nearly two years, owing probably to a difference between 
Fenwick and Billinge. But this difference was settled to the 
satisfaction of both parties by the good offices of William Penn. 

Articles of concession were agreed upon and signed by a 
number of inhabitants of West Jersey, which were confirmed by 
a letter dated ''London, 26th of 6th Month, 1676." Article 
ist described the boundary of the new concession, as follows : 
"We have divided with Sir George Carteret and have sealed 
deeds of partition each to the other, and we have all that side on 
Delaware river from one end to the other ; the line of partition 
is from the east side of Little Egg Harbor, straight north, 
through the country to the utmost branch of Delaware river, 
with all powers, privileges, and immunities whatsoever; ours is 
called New West Jersey;^ his is called New East jersey.*'- * 

This, with four additional articles relating to the partition of 
the colony, was signed by Gawn Lawrie, William Penn, Nicholai 
Lucas, E. Billinge, John Eldridge, and Edmond Warner. 

In 1677, ^^<> companies of Quakers, one in Yorkshire and 
* one in London, made purchase of some of the West Jersey 
lands, and sent out the following commissioners to purchase the 
lands of the Indians. (It may be worthy of remark here, that 
none of the land in Jersey .was ever taken from the Indians^ 
except by purchase, satisfaction being rendered therefor on all 
sides). The commissioners above named were Thomas Ollive, 
Daniel Wills, John Kinsey, John Penford, Joseph* Helmsley, 
Robert Stacy, Benjamin Scott, Richard Guy,* and Thomas 
Foulke. Tliey fitted out a sailing vessel called the Kent, and 
landed their passengers, two hundred in number, at Raccoon 

'lUchnrd Gay came In the first ship; John Kiniey died at Shackamaxofl 
soon after landing; his remains were interred at Bailin(yton in land i^fipro- 
priated for a. burial gixmnd, but now a street /.'..(. 


Wi •laMffM-l '.. ■ .- ■ >^...,. ^. . J^ ^ , -^ ^^ ^ J 



creek, while the commissioners sailed around to a place the/ 
called Chygoes Island,* afterwards Burlington. 
• Their first purchase through their Swedish interpreters, Jsrael 
Helmes, Peter Rambo, and Lacy Cock, extended from Timber 
creek to Rancocas creek, and another from Oldman's creek to 
Umber creek. • • 

After this they got Henrie Jacobson Falconbre to be their 
interpreter, and purchased from Rancocas creek to Assunpink.f 
But when they had agreed upon this last purchase they had not 
Indian goods sufficient to pay the consideration, yet gave them 
what they had to get the deed signed. | They were, however. 

'From Chygoe, an Indian sachem who llTcd there, ' 

t Meaning Stony creek. 

}The deed ibr the lands between Rancocas creek and Thnbcr creek bear» 
^ate the loth of September^ 1667 ; that for the land from Oldman's creek to 
Timber creek the 27th of September, 1677 ; and that from Rancocas creek to 
Asnmpink the 10th of October, 1677. By the consideration paid for the lands 
between Oldman's and Timber creek a judgment may be formed of the rest- 
It consisted of thirty match-coats, twenty guns, thirty kettles and one great one, 
thirty pairs of hose, twenty iathoms of duflfeldSy thirty petticoats, thirty narrow 
hoes, thirty -bars of lead, fifteen small barrels of powder, seventy knives, three 
Indian axes, seventy combs, sixty pairs of tobacco tongs, sixty scissors, sixty 
tinshaw looking-glasses, one hundred and twenty awl-blades, one hundred and 
twenty fish-hooks, two grasps of red paint, one hundred and twenty needles,' 
nxty tobacco-boxes, one hundred and twenty pipes, two hundred bells, one 
hundred jewsharps, and six anchors of rum. In the year 1703, another 
purchase was made by the council of proprietors of West Jersey of lands lying 
above the falls of Delaware ; another was also made about that time of lands 
at the head of Rancocas river, and several purchases aDterwards, included the 
whole of the lands worth taking up in West Jersey, except a few plantations- 
leserved to the Indians. 

An Indian sachem, called King Charles, laid an English right on a large 
planfcsUion at Weekpink, in the county of Burlington, which was so contrived 
as to remain inalienable from hb posterity forever. At a meeting of the council 
oC proprietors held at Burlington the 2d day of November, 1703, present — 
George Deacon (preadent)^ Samuel Jennings, Thomas Gardener, Christopher 
Wctheialt, ^xA John Reading, it was ordered that John Wills, William Biddle, 
Jm., and John Reading, should go up to the Indians above the falls^ and par- 
ticnkrly to Caponockous and to Nimhammoe's wigmam, to treat with them, 
and to have the bounds of the lands lately purchased froni the Indians properly 
laid oat, and to get fiom them deeds for the tame. 


obliged to agree with the Indians not to settle till the remainder 

was paid. 

These commissioners, by mutual consent, laid out and settled 
New Beverly, which they afterwards called Bridlingtpn, but soon 
changed it to Burlington. The town was divided into tenths 
between the London and Yorkshire companies. 

Several of the first settlers of the Yorkshire tenth in West 
Jersey had built upon the lowlands, near the falls of Delaware, 
in the year 1676, where they lived for about sixteen years, 
improving to a considerable extent their habitations and lands. 
They had been told by the Indians that their buildings wer^ 
liable to be damaged by freshets, and the low situation of the 
place must have made it probable. .They had, however, got up 
several wooden tenements and out-houses, which in the spring of 
1692, were generally demolished. The snows suddenly melting 
above caused an uncommon overflow of the river, which came 
upon them so unexpectedly that many houses were surrounded 
with water and their inhabitants saved from destruction by the 
neighbors, who seeing their perilous condition, came with their 
canoes and landed them on the shore opposite. The water 
continued rising till it reached the upper stories of some of the 
houses, then most or all of them gave way and were dashed to 
pieces; many cattle were drowned, and beds, kettles, and other 
furniture were picked up on the shores below. The inhabitants 
were very much terrified, and considerable damage was done. 
Two persons in a house were carried away by the sweeping cur- 
rent and lost their lives before they could be rescued. By thb 
accident the owners were taught to fix their habitations on 
higher grounds. This they called the great flood at Delaware 

It has been asserted that the first settlement of Trenton was 
called by the Indians Littleworth, in consequence of its liability 
to be destroyed by a flood in the river. My impression, how- 
ever, is, that the inhabitants never recognized it as the name of 
the town. Mahlon Stacy, who was one of the first purchasers of 
land here, in letters written in 1680, dates them from "the Falls 
of Delaware." Rev. Dr. Cooley, who is supposed to have been 
the author of a series of articles published in the "State Gazette" 


■>■;■! *r 

■■■Hi »m ■! irtfd'wi 

•^* — ^ — ^ -■- ■ — 

ITt Ml 




of thb city, some yeaxs ago, and from which articles I have 
obtained considerable information for this and subsequent 
chapters, stated that he had seen a deed pf two lots lying east 
of Greene street, between Second street (now State) and the 
Assanpinlc, which were described as ''being in Littleworth." 
If the inhabitants ever called any part of Trenton by that name 
it must have^ been the lowlands between Front street and the 
creelc, as it is but a few years since that was low meadow ground 
and has been overflowed by freshets vrithin the memory of most 
of our citizens, and has within a few years been filled up until it 
has attained its present condition, being made ground. We are 
not prepared to dispute its being the name of the town at its 
earliest settlement, but have grave doubts oTsuch being the £u:t 

• \ 




JFirsf settUrs of Yorkshire tenth, northern part of Hopeweli 
townshi^When taken up — Trenton and Ewtng— Location — 
Population — Religious institutions, etc. — Lands in Trenton and 


■ % 

THE province of Nova Cscsarea or New Jersey was included 
in the original grant made by Chiles 11. King of England, 
to his brother James, the Duke of York, on the 20th of March, 
1664,* and in June of the same year, the Duke of York conveyed 
it to Lord John Berkley and Sir George Carteret, jointly. The 
province was called Nova Cassarea or New Jersey from the name 
of the Isle of Jersey, in the English channel, the country of Sir 
George Carteret, 

On the 6th of August, 1680, the Duke of York relinquished 
by deed his claim of ownership to the province of West New 
Jersey; at th^ ame time he reserved the right of government, 
and accordingly chose Edward Billinge as governor of that 
province, and Philip Carteret was chosen governor of East 

The Quakers of West New Jersey, who were now the proprie- 
tors, had established a liberal government, and had placed 

* Previous to 1752, the year commenced on the 25111 of March, conse- 
xjuently the time between the 1st day of Jannaiy and that day was reckoned 
with the former year, and wa^ usuaOy expressed by a double date. An instni- 
mentf for instance, bearing date Janoary 15th, 1640, according to our calendar, 
wonid be expressed January 15th, 1639-40; sometimes only 1639. The daj 
of the month by the new style may be ascertained by omitting ten diqfs in tfie 
seventeenth century, eleven days in the eighteenth century, and twdve days m 
the nineteenth centuiy. The alteration was made in England by a statute 
passed in 1751, to take elTcct in Jannaxy, 1752, which authorised the omisdoift 
of the eleven intermediate days of the oJendar — from the 2d to the 14th of 
Ibst mootfa. 

"'"•*--~^'— **-''**'^"-*"'''— * -""--- -^'*- ^. ...!'.^ — .^^^J^—^^.^ J - fl,^„j^^, ^ . ^ . ,, _■ .. ,,^ ..^. .-^ ■^■_.. 


their civil and religious liberties upon a foundation that promised 
to stand. 

William Fenn, with eleven associates, some of whom were 
already concerned in New Jersey, became the purchasers of 
Carteret*s province. The deeds of lease and release (which are 
yet in existence), were made to the purchasers on the ist and 2d 
of February, 1 68i-a. , . 

The new proprietors proceeded at once Vo appoint a governor, 
and their choice for this office fell upon Robert Barclay, of Urie, 
in Scotland, a member of their own body* 

After the London commissioners, who came over in the Kent, 
had laid out the town of Burlington, on the Delaware river, the 
Yorkshire commissipnei^^consisting of Joseph Helmsley, Robert 
Stacy, and William Enjley, chose the purchase from the Assan- 
pink,* or Falls pf the'Delawarc, to Ancocas or Rancocas creek. 

In .November of . this year, tiPb'o ships arrived with passenger?, 

th^ "XViUing ^Iind/;t* frona London, and the "Fly Boat 
Mai.tha," from Hull, with one hundred and fourteen passengers, 
who settled on the Yorkshire tract. In 1678, on the loth of 
December, tHe '.'Shield" arrived from Hull. 

This was the/irst ship that had ever ascended the river as (ar 
as Burlington. / . • « 

She moored to a tree, and the next morning after they arrived 
the passengers went ashore on the ice.{ Among the emigrants 
who came in t&is vessel were Mahlon Stacy, Thomas Potts, 
Thomas Lambert,§ Thomas Newell, and Thomas Wood, with 
their families; Godfrey Newbold, John Newbold, and ^Ir. Barnes, 
merchant, from Hull, Richard Green, and John Heyers-D 

• ^ « • • ... 

*This creek is called in the public recordsy Derwent, St. Fink, Son Fink, 
ASiOnpinky (meaning stony creek, from its giavdly bottom) and Assanpiiik, 
its present name. 

f Some of those who came in (his ^ip settled at Bnr1in(ftoa. 

{Thomas Lambert pttrcbased and sctded at Lambezton, and from him the 
place derives its name. These three persons will figure largely in the histoiy 

of Trenton.' 

• » 

I Cordon and Smith's HiAvy, p. 109. 




Mahlon Stacy took up a tract of land of eight hundred acres, 
lying on both sides of the Assanpinlc, but principally on the 
north side of the creelc* • ' 

Several of the first emigrants settled on the lowlands at the 
JFalls of the Delaware. 

The country in the vicinity of the .^ssanpink was for some 
time known as the Falls^ or Falls of the Delaware. Mahlon 
Stacy, in writing to his friends in England, dates his letter from 
the Falls of the Delaware, in West Jersey, the 26th of the fourth 
month, i68o.t 

He lived in a log house near the residence of Edward H. 
Stokes, Esq. . . 

This year (1680) ^lahlon Stacy completed his grist mill, 
which he built w^ith hewn logs, on the south bank of the Assan- 
pink creek, in Kingsbury (now Broad) street, on the same spot 
where the large paper raill owned by Henry McCall, Esq., now 
stands. This mill was built but one and a half stories high, with 
a gable facing the street. Judge William Trent purchased it 
about the year 1690, and rebuilt it of stone, two stories high. 
William Trent, the first Chief Justice of New Jersey, died on the 
25th of December, 1724. He was several years a member, and 
part of the time speaker of the house of assembly; and being 
a large trader at Trenton, when the place was laid out for a 
town, it took its name from him. He had been also speaker of 
the assembly of Pennsylvania, and bore the character of a gen* 
tleman. He died in Philadelphia.} 

About the same year that Mahlon Stacy built his grist mill on 
the Assanpink, Mr. Thomas Ollive built and completed a grist 
mill on his plantation, on Rancocas creek. These two mills 
were the only ones which supplied the country for miles iarotind, 
and for several years afker were the only ones in New Jersey. 

In the year 1681, a law was passed to measure the front of the 
river Delaware, from St. Pink to Cape May, in order to divide 

*Tliis tract lay between the old York road (now Greene street) and tibe 
Delaware iiTer, and between State and Fcny streets, and extended into what 
is now Hamilton township on the south ade of the creek. Lambeif^ purdiaae 
was south of Feny streeL 

t Smith's History, pu 114. % Smith's History, p. 419. 


i fc aai iM*-^**^— l.ak..^.J^A^.— ^.lA^^....^.. „ ,- . ^ ^,. ^^ ^ 

■>»' JaliM«^*i(B 


it into ten proprietaries, each proprietor to have his proportion 
on the front of the river, and to extend back into the woods, so 
as to contain sixty-four thousand acres, and each proprietary was 
to be divided into ten equal parts.* 

At this division the first proprietary, or Yorkshire tenth, 
extended from the As^pink, where it empties into the Dela- 
ware, west of the Warren street bridge, south to the Rancocas 
creek, in Burlington county, and east into the woods, so as to 
contain in each proprietary sixty-four thousand acres of land. 
At that time the main land extended nearly opposite Cox's 
mill,t at the mouth of the Assanpink, so as to include the Island 
of Sand, or Gravelly Island. And even within the memory of 
some of our oldest inhabitants, crops of wheat and corn have 
been raised on these hwlands^ now covered with water. 

The name of Littleworth| was given to the lands' lying on the 
north of the Assanpink, and belonging to Mr. Stacy's purchase. 

We were informed by the late Rev. Dr. Cooley that there is a 
map in the secretary of state's office of two lots lying east of 
Greene street, between Second street (now State) and the creek, 
'' being in Littleworth. ' '§ 

It is not known to how large an extent of country this term 
applied, but it is supposed by some persons that the settlement 
mentioned above was at the south end of the village of Lam- 
berton ; but in the absence of authentic records to substantiate 
the supposition, the name of Littleworth b not mentioned in 
any known writing which i^lates to property in that place. But 
I am inclined to the belief that if known to the inhabitants by 
this name at all, it took in all the lands south of Second (now 
State) street, north of the Assanpink creek, and east of the 
Delaware river, while others suppose it to have meant only the 

* Learning & SpScer, p. 436. 

fThe rains of Cox*s mill are still standing, a shoit distance south of the 
paper mill late Gannt & Derricicsoa's. It was about thiitj by thiity-eigbt feet, 

and baik of stone, ' ' 

* * * * • . 

{Smith*tNewJefsej. . 

• • • • 

{Tliese are the only records we are able to find to snbs6uitiate tbe name. * 

• .« imJ-SJaCj;:.MLrfJto»*J.nrftfca>*i^<M*<**J wX^ tmtrtmmm '^rfMii^M.MitaiUbh^JMki 



tract of country in the immediate vicinity of the Assanpink 
creelc, west of Greene street 

The land which lay north of Mahlon Stacy*s eight hundred 
acre tract on the Dela\\'are9 was taken up by Nathaniel Petit, 
and is at present part of what was known a few years back as the 
Rutherford estate. Adjoining thb tract were the lands of Peter 
Fretwell, William Spencer, and Joshua Ely, now owned by E. J. 
C. Atterbury, Esq., (late the Dickinson estate). General Thomas 
Cadwallader, the children of the late Mr. John Dean, the 
property of Henry McCall, Esq., and formerly Robert McCall, 
Esq., the latter of which was part of the Rutherford estate, and 
the former part of the Dean property. The Dean property was 
purchased of Joshya Ely by Mr. John Dean, in January, 1709, 
and was part of Hutchinson*s manor. 

From the northwest corner of the Dickinson- farm (or Mr. 
Spencer's land, now Mr. Atterbury's), on the river, commenced 
Thomas Hutchinson's manor, above mentioned. 

The first survey of twenty-five hundred acres was in June, 1687, 
and the addition of twenty-five hundred acres was surveyed in 
1689, vben the lands were taken up. This tract extended north 
on the Delaware between three and four miles, and back firom 
the river so as to include about five thousand acres; and from 
the northwestern boundary of Hutchinson's land on the Dela* 
ware, the society tract commenced, containing ten thousand 
a:res, surveyed in May, 1699. How far the western boundary 
of this tract extended northerly on the river is not at present 
definitely knowm 

The Hutchinson manor-house was on the farm on which the 
State Lunatic Asylum now stands, formerly owned by John 
Titus, Esq. All these lands, with most, if not all, the other 
tracts, were included in what was, as early as 1699, known as 
the township of Hopewell^ and which was bounded by the 
Assanpink on the south, by the line of division between East 
and West Jersey on the east, and by the present boundary of the 
township of Hopewell on the north. 

At what time this tract of country received the name of Hope* 
well I am not informed. A part of the plantation belonging to 
the Dean family was deeded by Jonathan Eldredge, of Burling- 

•♦*—'»>■■ -• • *-^>-^»-* ■ -iJ — . t — ....■- ^ , . ^ ^^ ' ^ ^ ^ 

MM*^Mli&^Hi«^B^ ^M^ 


ton, to Moses Petit, of Hopewell, in the township of Nottingham, 
in 1695. 

In 1683, the general assembly gave to Governor Jennings six 
hundred acres of land, above the Falls^ in consideration of his 
necessary charges as governor, '' when the lands shall have been 
purchased of the Indians.*** This shows that at the commence* 
ment of the seventeenth century the country above the falls had 
not been purchased or settled. 

Very few settlements had been made in the township at the 
commencement of the last century, with the exception of those 
made on the lowlands above the Assanpinlc, in 1676, and 
which were totally destroyed by the flood in 1692, already 
mentioned. After this disaster the buildings which were erected 
in the vicinity of the Assanpink were built on the south side oC 
the creek. . • * - . 

That spot of ground immediately adjoining the creek on the 
south was called Kingsbury, afterwards Kensington Hill; but 
when it became a manufacturing place of some note, the name 
was again changed to Mill Hill, which name it continued to 
bear until it was incorporated with Bloomsbury and made the 
borough of South Trenton. 4 

There are yet standing some of the old buildings erected at 
the opening of the nineteenth century, among which we may 
mention the house at the comer of Broad and Second street^ 
late the property of John Pearson, deceased ; the Eagle Tavern, 
on the corner of Broad and Ferry streets; a stone house in 
Broad street, on the west side, south of Market street, belonging 
to George James, where Daniel Fenton at one time kept a book- 
store; a frame house in the same street, nearly opposite the 
latter, lately owned by Miss Catherine Riley; a stone house 
belonging to M/s. Jane Kite, and now occupied as a looking- 
glass and picture-frame store, on the east side of Broad street, 
north of Market street ; a frame house nearly opposite, belonging 
to the German Lutheran Church, and occupied as a parsonage 
by Rev. George F. Gardiner, formerly belonging to the heirs of 
Captain Alexander Douglass, deceased, a revolutionary patriot, 

- "■ 

* f^caiining & Spicer, p. 471. 

•."mv i <!<• ' fi'wt'i I ■ ■■(Ai;ii"'.a - ■• i\m n tr1> fa^iaatahK^fc^^h^^fciB 



and noted as the place where General Washington held a coancil 
of war on the evening of the 2d of January, i777« ^t which 
time they resolved to surprise the enemy by falling on' their 
rear; the stone house near the comer of Broad and Factory 
streets, late the property of Daniel Lodor> deceased, which, in 
the year 1850, he converted into two stores, and put in brick 
fronts. These buildings were erected by George Bright, a baker, 
in the year 1756, who, at the same time, erected a stone bake- 
house directly opposite his residence, which was a few years 
since taken down. It was located between the paper mill and 
the building now standing on the south of it. On the end of 
the bakery was a grey stone tablet, bearing the inscription, G. B., 
1756. This same tablet can now be seen embedded in the wall 
of the large paper mill belonging to Henry McCall, Esq., about 
the.centre of the front of the building. 

Mr. Thomas Lambert settled at Lambertstown about the year 
1679, and from him the place took its name. . 

Mr. Isaac Watson, who came from Nottingham, England, 
settled on the place late in the occupancy of Mr. Benjamin Van 
Schoick, and in 1708 built the house which is still standing. 
The township of Nottingham was so called from the place in 
England from whence Mr. Watson came. About the year 1700, 
the settlements were commenced by persons who bought the 
lands from the original proprietors, or persons who had taken ap 
the lands; and most of the deeds of plantations in the different 
parts of the township bear date from 1699 to 1710. There was 
considerable difficulty experienced about the title of lands. 
.Grants of land had been made at different times to different 
persons, and when they were surveyed it was found that in some 
cases the same land had been granted to different persons. Some 
had purchased of those who had taken up the land, whose' titles, 
if they had any, were obtained from the Indians. 
. Dr. Daniel Cox, being one of the rightful proprietors of the 
lands in this section of the country, Mr. Thomas Revel! was 
appointed by the pui^a^rs to make such arrangements with 
Dr. Cox as would secure them in the possession of their land, 
and from the following it appears that he had attended to the 
business to their satisfaction: ...... 

.^>t.^_>.Mj,.^^^.:L.j^ . ■ ._■> ^_ . , ... _ . .^ .^ .. - ^ , ^ , . . _ zi 


*' August 26th, 1 703. We, undennritten, having, at the date of 
the above, at the house of Ralph Hunt, in Maiden township, 
heard read the agreement made the 20th of April, 1703, between 
Dr. Daniel Cox, Esq., and Thomas Revell, on behalf of the 
purchasers of the land within Maiden and Hopewell, do hereby 
declare and signify our full and free assent and consent to the 

** In testimony thereof have thereto set our hands the day and 
year above. 
''Joshua Anderson, Wiujam Green, 

Ralph and Samuel Hunt, John Burroughs, 
John Banbridge, Isaac and Joseph Reeder, 

Jonathan Davis, Theophilus Phillips, 

Robert and John Lanning, and others."* 

Notwithstanding the care wUch the first settlers took to 
secure good titles for their lands, many of them afterwards had 
to buy the second time or relinquish them; and several did give 
up the lands, with the improvements they had made, and settle 
in other parts of the country, rather than pay for them again. 
; The provincial legislature, in 1694, enacted that the inhabi- 
tants above the St Fink, or Derwent (Assanpink), in the 
province, should belong to Burlington.f 

In May, 1701, Andrew Heath and William Spencer were 
appointed assessors of the township of Hope>vell, and Nathaniel 
Petit, collector.^ These persons lived near the Jui/ls, except 
Mr. Heath, who lived on the farm now owned by Mr. Joseph B. 

From the year 1700, the settlement of the township was 
increased by persons from Long Island, East Jersey, and other 
parts. Messrs. Daniel Howell, Ebenezer Prout, Isaac Reeder, 
John Burroughs, Charles Clark, Richard Scudder, Robert Lan- 
i^ing, Jacob and John Reeder, William Reed, Simon Sacket, 
John Deane, John and Abiel Davis, Jonathan Davis, and others, 

* bo6k of Deedi A A A, p. 8^ la scoe^ of state't office, 
t Leamf Bg ft Splcer, p. 53a. 
{ Learning ft ^oer, p. 583. 

.^.^ ff *■ - —-^-- «-- ■ 


settled in what is now Ewing, as appears from their deeds and 
family records; and in April, 1703, Mr. John Hutchinson (only 
son and heir of Thomas Hutchinson, who died intestate), con- 
veyed a lot of land to the inhabitants of Hopewell as a place of 
burial. The instrument conveying the lands is as follows, and 
may be found on page 114, A A A, folio 105, at the secretary of 
state's office, Trenton : 

"John Hutchinson, of Hopewell, county of Burlington, &c., 
to Andrew Heath, Richard Ayre, Abiel Davis, and Zebulon 
Haston,* of the same county, &c., hath granted to the said 
Andrew Heath, &c., a piece of landf on the easterly side of the 
highway leading between the house of the said John Hutchinson 
and Andrew Heath, &c., containing two acres, in trust for the 
inhabitants of the said township of Hopewell and their succes- 
sors, inhabiting and dwelling within the said township, forever, 
for the public and common use and benefit of the whole town- 
ship, for the erecting and building a public meeting-house 
thereon, and also for a place of burial, and for no other use, 
intent, or purpose whatsoever.'* 

This probably was the first house built for public worship in 
the township of Hopewell and for Trenton, and, as far as we can 
ascertain, the firit in the state, except that of the Quakers. It 
was occupied by the Episcopalians until their church was built 
in Trenton, an 1 occasionally for many years afterwards. A 
portion of the foundation is still standing, and in it the stone . 
which consecrates the memory of Samuel Tucker, president of 
the second provincial congress of New Jersey, and state treasurer, 
as well as that of his wife, and several prominent citizens of 
Trenton of that day. 

» II I ■ M 

* Zebulon Haston lived on the place owned by the late Amos Reedcr, 
which was bought by Isaac Reeder in 1707, of Mr. Haston. 

fThis lot has, wiih'n the last twenty-five years, been sold by the trustees of 
the Episcopal Chu 'ch in Tn nton to Ralph Lannin^ and lies on an eminence 
about thirty rods northeast from his dwelling, and north of the State Lunatic 

i*«*— **MBfc«:*Ai*>M I. ■■■■II !■ III! ^1 Bil rt i 


CHAPTER V. . _. 

T^ fl€ues of public worship — Friends — Episcopalian — Presbj' 
terian — First houses in Trenton — WiUiam Trent s purchase — 
Boundaries of Burlington — Creation of Hunterdon County — 
Mrs. Penelope Stout shipwrecked and attacked and badfy 
wounded by the Indians — Her recovery and descendants — First 
Courts in Hunterdon — IVhere held— First Judges — Grand 
Juries^ etc. — High SheriJTs complaint of the JaUr-Trial oftho 
Rev. John Rowland for thefts and of Rev. William Tenneni 
for perjury. 

THE first settlements were made about the year 1676, at the 
Falls of the Delaware, by the Friends, and occupied both 
sides of the river. 

Those on the New Jersey side, besides those already men- 
tioned on the lowlands at the mouth of the Assanpink, were on 
the plains, south of the Assanpink, where Messrs. Norton and 
Lalor's farms, and Mill Hill and Lamberton were formerly 
situated. Gordon in his history, quoting from Kalm, says: 
'' Trenton is a long, narrow town, situate some distance from 
the Delaware, oh a sandy plain." 

This description certainly cannot apply to that part of Trenton 
north of the creek, or Trenton proper, and there is no land in 
the neighborhood of the city which will answer this description 
except that south of the Assanpink, mentioned above. 

There was a burying ground on the top of the hill at the 
extreme southern boundary of Trenton now incorporated in the 
Riverview cemetery. This place of burial belonged to the 
Friends, and in it repose the remains of some of the first settlers 
of this section of country ; the author himself can trace back to 
several of his ancestry who repose in this ancient place of burial. 
At a vbit to this grave-yard some years since, I found the 

■ ■ -*-■ 

f r ,^•^ -ii» m'^rr-' *-— ^- ^ 

i.ihi I I I* 



western end, next to the river, fenced in and ploughed up, while 
the eastern side was thrown open as a commons, and the mounds 
covering the remains of the ancestors of some of our own inhabi- 
tants were exposed to the ravages of cattle, and such mischievous 
persons as from time to time assemble there and desecrate the 
last resting place of the dead. This sacred spot has now been 
taken under the care of the Riverview Cemetery Company, and 
the graves are properly looked after and preserved, though 
suitable monuments have not yet, but we hope soon will be 
erected, to consecrate the memory of the illustrious dead who 
repose there. Chief Justice Henry W. Green a few years since 
purchased a plot of ground there for the burial of those who lost 
their lives in defence of their country in the recent rebellion. 
This ground was deeded by Mr. Green to the city, but we are 
grieved to say that no steps have yet been taken to have so 
sacred a spot properly cared for. The act was praiseworthy on 
the part of the donor, and no citizen of Trenton could possibly 
object to having the lot properly fenced and cared for. Con- 
gress at their last session voted Post No. 8, Grand Army of the 
Republic, of this city, eight condemned cannon as posts for 
fencing in the lot, and a few hundred dollars appropriated by 
common council would complete the work. When this is done, 
we learn Mr. Green is prepared to place a suitable monument in 
the lot. The lot is thirty by one hundred and thirty feet; 
about fii^y Union soldiers are buried there. 

The place of burial first mentioned was laid out about the 
year 1700. In the centre of the yard is a soapstone tablet about 
six feet long by two feet wide, bearing date 1712, the time when 
the old Presbyterian Church was founded. And although that 
building was not erected till 1726, yet all traces of it are now 
entirely obliterated, while the graves of those buried in the old 
grave-yard still remain a relic "of the times to which the 
memory of man runneth not." * 

The tablet is completely covered with inscriptions, but it is 
impossible to decipher them in consequence of their having 
been so much defaced. I have no doubt there is much upon 
them which would be of great interest to our readers; but, like 
many of the ancient arts, I fear they are entirely lost to us. 

>^ . 









South of this tablet, I saw another of white marble, apparently 
Pennsylvania marble. This stone bears a simple inscription in 
the following words: "In memory of John Bainbridge, who 
died 1732, aged seventy-five. He was a gentleman of great 
merit, having the confidence of the people; he was callril to fill 
many important offices in the colony." The name of John was 
spelt with "I," and in Bainbridge, the first <*i'* was crowded 
out and placed above the line. 

This ground is filled with graves, the prominence of which are 
in a good state of preservation, nearly all of them having head 
and foot-stones composed of brown and gray sandstone, but the 
two above mentioned are the only ones containing inscriptions. 
I have been informed that the grounds, before they were purchased 
by the cemetery company, belonged to the Friends of Cross- 
wicks. It was probably the first, and for many years their only 
place of burial in this vicinity, and served the country for miles 
around. I have heard it asserted that this was used as a burial 
ground by the Friends who lived as far down the river as Bur- 
lington, and that their dead were brought up the Delaware in 
canoes; but I can hardly credit this, as the Friends had a burial 
ground at Burlington as early as 1677, some twenty-three years 
before this ground was laid out for that purpose. 

The Friends who had left England, on account of the perse- 
cution raised against them for their religion, sought an asylum 
on the peaceful shores of the Delaware, where they have, undis- 
turbed, enjoyed the privileges of religious, as well as civil free- 
dom. For many years they had no public buildings for worship, 
but their meetings were held in private houses. 

''Governor William Penn, who, in the year 1683, issued an 
order for the establishment of a post-office, requested Phineas 
Pemberton carefully to publish the information on the meeting- 
house door^ that is, on the door of ihtfrivaie house in which the 
Society of Friends were accustomed to meet. It was usual for 
Friends settled about the Falls (or Fallsington, in Bucks county), 
to assemble at the houses of William Yardley, James Harrison, 
Phineas Pemberton, William Biles, and William Beakes. For 
the meeting-house at the Falls was not built till 1690, nor the 
one at Burlington till 1696, nor the one at Bristol till 1710."* 

*FnaM liUetOany, voL vit, p. 19. 

-l-.-_l--L— JL- X— .— — : . I - . ..I , t m/^ . mm l . ' , n t H > rt ■ > ■ ! 


The meeting-house in Trenton city was built in 1739. "^^ 
date was formerly on the building, but when it was repaired, in 
1838, in rough-casting it they covered the date completely over, 
which certainly was an error on their part, as it should have been 
left as a monument, to designate a period .prior to the struggle 
for American independence. 

The building is located on the corner of Hanover and Mont- 
gomery streets. It has been occupied for the same purpose since 
its erection up to the present time. The door of the entrance to 
thb meeting-house was on the south side of it, facing Hanover 
street, and directly over the door was the inscription above men- 

At the time of the separation, in 1828, one part of the society 
left this house, and for several years held their meetings in the 
building at the northeast corner of Greene and Academy streets, 
in the church formerly belonging to the Methodists, until 1858, 
when they built their place of worship in Mercer street, near 
Livingston. The meeting-house in Greene street stood a few 
feet back from the street, and they erected a brick wall about ten 
feet high in front of it 

It seldom happens but that disasters of some kind befall the 
settlers of a new country. Change of climate, modes of liviAg, 
the air, the soil, and other causes, not unfrequently occasion 
sickness and great mortality among them. This was the case, to 
a very alarming degree, among the first settlers on James river, 
Virginia, and also among those who landed on Plymouth rock, 
in Massachusetts. And many of the inhabitants in the vicinity 
of the Falls were visited with sickness, and were removed by 
death, by a malignant fever, which prevailed among them in 
1687, both in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.* , 

Phineas Pemberton sa>'s, ''that on the i6th of 3d month, 
(that is, March i6th), 1687, there was 'a great land flood,* and 
on the 29th a rupture." This is supposed to refer to the forma- 
tion of the island at Morrisville, opposite the Trenton bridge, 
which was at this time separated from the mainland. 
The flood here referred to is probably the same as that men- 

'IHendi' UitctUany, toL vS^ p. 31. 

>*■*— Jl^fc—^J^Ji.i^Jfci^^.Ja^^i J ■ ■ J ^- : >^ >■■ -- ^...M....-..^ -■ ; ^ „. . ^. — ^. 



tioned by Mr. Smith, as occurring in 1692,* and there appears 
to be an error in one of the dates, for it is supposed that so 
great a rise in the waters as to overflow the banks on the Penn- 
sylvania side of the Delaware river, at the falls, must have swept 
away the settlement on the lowlands, at the mouth of the Assan- 
pink; and yet, this is said not to have occurred till 1692. The 
lands on the Jersey shore might, however, have been much 
higher than on the Pennsylvania side, and probably they were, 
as they were tilled till many years afterward. 

Kalm, a Swede, who traveled in this country in 1748, says, 
'' that his landlord in Trenton told him that twenty years before 
(1726), when he settled there, there was hardly more than ^ne 

In August, 1814, Mrs. Jemima Howell (youngest daughter of 
Mr. John Burroughs), who was born in the year 1724, informed 
a citizen of this place that although she could not tell when the 
frame church (in Ewing) was built, yet she remembered that she 
had helped to scrub it, seventy years before. She said she also 
well remembered when there were but two or three small houses 
where the city of Trenton is built, and that it was woods from 
the neighborhood of the frame church to Mahlon Stacy's mill, 
on the Assanpink, the place now occupied by Mr. J. G. Burk as a 
paper mill ; that they had only a foot-path for many years after, 
and that the farmers carried their grain to market on pack horses. 

Kalm says that in 1748 there were near a hundred houses in 
Trenton. The probability is, from the description he has given 
of the town, that he included the buildings on the north and 
south sides of the Assanpink. He also says that there were two 
small churches — one belonging to the Church of England, and 
the other belonging to the Presbyterians. As Nottingham and 
Hopewell were settled almost entirely by Friends, there is reason 
to suppose that they were among the iirst to erect places of pub- 
lic worship, which was probably the fact, as their house was 
^ built in 1739. Nearly all the first buildings in the original city 
were on or near the York road (now Greene street), which led 
from Mahlon Stacy's mills. 

* Smith*! Histofy, p. 208. 


The Presbyterian and Episcopal churches of this city were 
both branches of their respective churches in the country. Most 
of the Episcopalians at first lived above the falls, in the vicinity 
of the church they built on the grounds of the Hutchinson 
family, As Mr. Thomas Hutchinson died before this ground 
was appropriated for a burial place, the family selected a spot on 
the manor, where several of them, and others, were buried, 
which is the ground above mentioned. 

This spot is about fifteen or twenty rods east of the road, and 
at the brow of the hill, nearly in front of the old manor-house, 
which was on the farm now belonging to the State of New 
Jersey, on which the lunatic asylum stands. 

The Presbyterians obtained a lot of land for a place of burial 
and on which to build a church, from Mr. Alexander Lockhart, 
who lived on the plantation now owned by the children of the late 
Dr. Joseph Olden. The deed bears date March 9th, 1709. The 
land was granted, in trust, to Richard Scudder, John Burroughs, 
Ebenezer Prout, Daniel Howell, John Deane, John Davis, Jona- 
than Davis, Enoch Anderson, William Osborne, Jacob Reeder, 
Cornelius Anderson, John Lefferous, Simon Sackett, George 
Farley, Caleb Farley, William Reed, and Joseph Sackett. 

Not long after this, probably in 1712, a house was built of 
logs, for a place of public worship, near the spot on which the 
brick church now stands, in the township of Ewing, of which 
Rev. E. F. Cooley was pastor until his death. At this time the 
Presbyterians in the city formed themselves into a congregation, 
separate from the church in Hopewell. 

In a few years after, the log building was taken down, and & 
frame one erected, which was occupied until the year 1795, 
when the brick church was built, and occupied by them until 
they erected the present edifice. 

We can find no record to show us with certainty the year in 
which the frame church was erected, but suppose it to have been 
about the year 1726, at the same time the church in the city was 

The city church was built, as will be seen by an inscription on 
the western portico of the First Presbyterian Church in State 
street, as follows : '' Presbyterian Church — formed 171a — ^built 

■ ■ I !■ I ■— fi>— ^ii ■ !■■ i J ■■ «i ii . m ■! ■ ; ii i.i ,i,w. .i.. i, ■• ,^, , , ., , ^^^ ^. .. ^^ ^ 


1726 — ^rebuilt 1805.'* These dates^ as has been urged by a late 
writer, could not refer to the church in the country, as, by the 
inscription on the tablet, the city church was formed the first 
year above mentioned, 1 7 1 3. It was at that time that a separation 
took place between the city congregation and the old church in 
the country. But no edifice was erected for public worship until 
1726, when the stone church was built, which was afterwards 
removed, and the brick one erected in 1805. This latter was 
taken down, and the present building was erected east of the old 
one, and in the immediate centre of the yard, in 1839. 

In the church yard, on the left as you enter from the street, 
there is a brown stone, which bears the following inscription : 

'' Here lieth the body of Margaret Anderson, who died on 
the 25th day of July, Anno 1733/'— just seven y^ars after the 
church was built. 

A century and a quarter ago, it was seldom any stone bearing 
an inscription was erected over the remains of the dead. Where 
it was done, at that day, it was in consequence of worth in the 

And although this is the oldest record we have any knowledge 
of, in reference to persons being buried in this yard, yet there no 
doubt were others buried there years before, as scarcely a grave 
can be dug in the yard, without disinterring the bones of some * 
one previously deposited there. 

In April, 1727, Enoch Andrews (Andnis, and now Anderson), 
conveyed to John Potterfield, Daniel Howell, Richard Scudder, 
Alexander Lockhart, William Yard, William HofT, John LefTer- 
ous, and Joseph Yard, a lot of land ''on the north side of 
Second street (now State), that goes to the iron works." These 
iron works were on the property formerly owned by G. Perdi- 
caris, Esq., and through which State street has now been 
extended to Hamilton township. 

This lot conveyed by Enoch Andrews was one hundred and 
fifty feet in length, and one hundred and fifty feet deep.* The 
lot thus deeded was on the eastern end of the old grave-yard — 
that piece of ground where the old church stood — being one 

*Book of Deeds A F, folio 108, in secretuy'i office. 

•*p;* *■fc^^^f tiAitf afiMr" 




hundred feet front ; consequently, when the additional ground 
\ came into the possession of the trustees of the church, it should 

have made a front of two hundred and fifty feet, but, by a sur* 
vey made in 1840, the lot is two hundred and forty-seven feet 
nine inches, being a loss of two feet three inches, which, at the 
present time, in that part of State istreet, is of considerable value. 

Although this church had been so long established, it was not 
till 1756 that George II. granted a patent, incorporating it as the 
Presbyterian Church of Trenton, appointing Rev. David Cowell, 
Charles Clark, Esq., Andrew Reed, Esq., Joseph Yard, Arthur 
Howell, William Green, and Alexander Chambers, trustees, 
under the name of ''Trustees of the Presbyterian Church of 

In August, 1714, Mahlon Stacy sold his plantation of eight 
hundred acres, lying on both sides of the Assanpink creek, on 
the Delaware, to Colonel William Trent, of Philadelphia, who 
removed to Trenton shortly after, and built the mansion now in 
the occupancy of Edward H. Stokes. It subsequently belonged 
to Dr. Daniel Coxe, and was known as the Bloomsbury farm. 
The tenant-house was the building situate on the comer of 
Market and Union streets, near the water power. 

In the year 1694, the general assembly fixed the boundaries of 
Burlington " on the south by the river Cropwell (formerly called 
Pensaukin), and on the north by the river Derwent (formerly 
called Sunpink).f 

In March, 1714, they set off the county of Hunterdon from 
the county of Burlington, making the Sunpink, or Assunpink, 
the southern boundary of Hunterdon, and making the county to 
include all the northern part of West New Jersey. But the 
inhabitants of the county were restricted from choosing memben 
of the general assembly until the year 1727, and continued to 
vote for representatives for Burlington, as before the county was 
divided. The county of Hunterdon took its name from Colonel 
Robert Hunter, who was provincial governor at the time the 

* A more pauticulmr description of this church will he given under its afp*^ 
priate head. 

fl^eaming & Spicer, p. 35a 

■--^*-*-— ~~ - ^ -^" — ^^^ — ^^j».j-..*ji..«j^^^^. — —J .. -- , ■ -'m 


county was set off. In 17279 Mr. John Potterfield and Joseph 
Stout were admitted to seats in the general assembly, as the first 
members from the county of Hunterdon. 

Morris county was formed from Hunterdon, l^Iarch 15 th, 
1738-9. It was named af^er Lewis Morris, Esq., then governor 
of the province. Sussex was formed from Morris, in June, I753- 
Warren from Sussex, in 1824, and named after General Warren. 
In 1838 Mercer was formed from the southern part of Hunter- 
don, viz,^ Lawrence, Hopewell, Ewing, and Trenton, in Hun- 
terdon county; Nottingham, in Burlington county, and East 
and West Windsor and Princeton, in East Jersey. It was named 
after the brave General Mercer, who fell in the engagement at 
ttie battle of Princeton, on the 3d of January, 1777. 

Mr. Joseph Stout, before mentioned, vns from Jhe northern 
part of Hopewell, the settlement of which was commenced in 
1704, by three families from Middletown, in Monmouth county. 
''The place was then a wilderness, and full of Indians." 

Joseph Stout was the son of Jonathan, the head of one of 
these three families, who, in 1705, purchased his plantation of 
William Biles, agent for William Croush and James Wass. He 
had resided on the land the previous year as a tenant. 

In a small pamphlet published in 1790, a very interesting 
account is given of this family. 

The parents of Jonathan Stout were Richard and Penelope 
Stout. ''Mrs. Stout was bom in Amsterdam, about the year 
1602. Her father's name was Vanprinces. She and her first 
husband (whose name is not known) sailed for New York (then 
New Amsterdam) about the year 1620. The vessel was stranded 
at Sandy Hook. The crew got ashore, and went toward New 
York, but the husband of Penelope being hurt in the wreck, 
could not travel with them, and they both tarried in the woods. 

" They had not been long left before the Indians came upon 
them and killed them as they thought, and stripped them of 
their garments. However, Penelope revived, although her skull 
was fractured and her left shoulder so injured that she was never 
able to use it like the other, besides she was so cut across the 
body that her bowels protruded, and she was obliged to keep 
her hand upon the wound. 

I .^M-t « <_ I - - - - . ■ - • ~ ^ ■^^_-i»-.:.-»_ic.j— ■ »■>-»■ M ii 

W -"'"•'' • ' '* " *• • — ~ 



''In this situation she continued for seven days, taking shelter 
in a hollow tree, living on what she could pick ofT from the tree. 
On the seventh day she saw a deer pass with arrows sticking in 
it, and soon after appeared two Indians whom she was glad to 
see, hoping that they would put her out of her misery. Accord- 
ingly, one made towards her, to knock her in the head ; but the 
other (who was an elderly man), prevented him, and throwing 
his watchcoat about her, took her to his wigwam and cured her 
of her wounds. Afterwards he took her to New York and 
presented her to her countrymen, expecting a present in return, 
no doubt. It was in New York that Richard Stout married her, 
in her twenty-second year. He was from England, of a good 
family, and in his fortieth year. They had several children, 
and Mrs. Stout lived to the age of one hundred and ten years, 
and saw her offspring multiplied to five hundred and two in 
about eighty-eight years."* * 

Mr. Jonathan Stout belonged to the Baptist (denomination, 
and was the founder of the Baptist Church in the northern part 
of the township of Hopewell. The church was organized the 
23d of April, 1715, and the members met in private dwellings 
until the year 1747, when their house for public worship was 

When the assembly made the county of Hunterdon in I7i4» 
they enacted that the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
jsions should be held alternately at Maidenhead (Lawrenceville) 
and Hopewell, "until a court-house and gaol for the county 
should be built."t 

An act was passed April 6th, 1676, ''that the county courts 
should be held at one time in one town, and at another time in 
another town,"J and accordingly they were held for the county 
of Hunterdon, in Maidenhead, in the months of June and 
December, and in Hopewell in March and September, from 
June, 1714, to September, 1719. The first courts in the county 

* I give the narrative ^^rhoixm as published in 17901 

t Laws and Ordinances, vol. i., p. loo^ in State Library at IVenton. 

^Learning & Spicer, p. 116. 



were held at Maidenhead on the second Tuesday of June, 17149 
but at what bouse we are not informed. 

Afterwards they were held at the houses of Theophilus Phillips, 
William Osborne, Mr. Hornor, and Daniel Bailey. 

In Hopewell they were held first and subsequently at the 
house of Andrew Heath and the house of Robert Lanning, (the 
place afterwards owned by the heirs of Nathaniel Lanning). 

In September, 1719, the courts were held in Trenton. ''It 
having been represented to the governor that the holding the 
courts alternately in Maidenhead and Hopewell was attended 
with inconvenience, in March, 1 719, he recommended that the 
courts should be held and kept in Trenton from the month of 
September next ensuing."* 

The magistrates present at the first court in the county, held 
at Maidenhead, were John Balnbridge, Jacob Belleijeau, Philip 
Phillips, William Green, John Holcomb, Samuel Green, and 
Samuel Fitch. The tombstone before mentioned in the burying 
ground at Lamberton no doubt refers to the John Balnbridge 
here mentioned, as it states " he was a gentleman of great merit, 
and having the confidence of the people, was called to fill many 
important offices in the colony." And he was no doubt the 
ancestor of the Bainbridges in this part of the country, and of 
the late gallant Commodore Balnbridge. 

William Green and John Reading were the first assessors of 
Hunterclon, and Ralph Hunt, the first collector — these offices 
at that time being county instead of township offices, as they 
now are. 

The first grand jurors were William Hixson, Daniel Howell, 
Robert Lanning, Henry Mershon, Richard Compton, George 
Woolsey, Joseph Reeder, Jr., Thomas Standling, Richard 
Scudder, Timothy Baker, John Burroughs, John Titus, Samuel 
Everett, John Ely, and Richard Lanning. 

John Muirheid, high sheriff, complained to the court in 1714 
and 1 71 7, and in June, 1719, and in March, 1720, that there 
was no gaol (or jail) for the county. 

* Laws and Ordinances, p. 223, State Uktinxy at Trenton. 


In 1728-9, John Dagworthy, Esq., high sheriff, compUdned 
to the court that the jail was so out of repair that escapes took 
place daily. " Ordered to be repaired."* 

In 1 714, the land became the property of Colonel Trent, and 
in 1 719, if not before, the courts were held here part of the time 
under the act of April, 1676, "directing them to be held in the 
towns alternately." 

In 1824 it was enacted ''that the Supreme Court for the 
county of Hunterdon, be held in July, at Trent's-town." 

The first courts held here were at the house of William Yard, 
now No. 24 East Front street. 

About the year 1 721, a log jail for the county was built at the 
forks of the roads leading from Trenton to Pennington, and 
from Pennington to the Eight-Mile-Ferry, nearly opposite the 
residence of the late Jesse Moore, Esq. 

From the complaint of the sheriff it appears that neither the 
jail nor the character of the inhabitants was much credit to the 
county if the criminals were so numerous and the prison so weak 
that escapes occurred daily. 

Although the sheriff complained to the court of the daily 
escapes from the jail, there does not appear on the record of the 
court many criminal cases presented by the grand jury. 

They found a bill at one term of the courts against a man 
'' for stealing a book called the New Testament^* and at another 
court against a man '' for stealing a horse bill.** Besides these, 
but very few bills were found. 

A few years afterwards some of the most interesting trials took 
place which ever came before this court, in which the Rev. John 
Rowland was tried for theft, and the celebrated Presbyterian 
clergyman. Rev. William Tennent, pastor of the Church at 
Freehold, and Joshua Anderson and Benjamin Stevens, promi- 
nent members of the Presbyterian Church at Trenton, were tried 
for perjury. 

The following is an account of that most singular affair : 
''About the year 1744, there was an unusual attention to 


* Minutes of the Couit, vol. U. 




religion in this* part of the country. The Rev. William 
Tennent and the Rev. John Rowland were considerably 
instrumental in calling the attention of the people to spiritual 

'' Mr. Rowland's popularity and success was very great among 
all ranks of people, and this drew upon him the enmity of those 
who disregarded religious truth, and among the number was the 
Chief Justice of the state. 

"The Chief Justice at this time was the son of Lewis Morris, 
Esq., then governor of the state. He was a member of the 
council as well as being at the head of the judiciary. Thie 
appointment of young Morris to this office was highly reprobated 
, by the people, who opposed the union of the legislative and 
judiciary, and more especially as this union was in the person of 
the son of the governor.* 

** At this time there was a man traveling about the country 
by the name of Tom Bell, of notoriously bad character, who 
had been indicted in most of the middle colonies, yet by his 
ingenuity and cunning had contrived to escape punishment. It 
happened one evening, that Mr. John Stockton, of Princeton, 
met with Bell at a tavern in that place and addressed him as Mr. 
Rowland. Bell told him his mistake. Mr. Stockton informed 
him that his error had arisen from his remarkable resemblance 
to Mr. Rowland. 

''This hint was sufficient for Bell. The next day he went 
into a neighboring town in Hunterdon, where Mr. Rowland 
had preached once or twice, and introduced himself as the Rev. 
Mr. Rowland who had before preached for them ; and he was 
invited to officiate for them the next Sabbath. 

'' Bell received the kindest attention of the family where he 
staid until the Sabbath, when he rode with the fiunily in their 
wagon to the church. 

"Just before they reached the church. Bell discovered that he 
had left his notes behind, and proposed to the master of the 
family, who rode by the wagon on a fine horse, to take his horse 
and ride back, that he might get his not» and return in time for 

• Mnlford's History, p. 545. 


the service. To this the gentleman assented, and Bell mounted 
the horse, rode back to the house, rifled the desk of his host, 
and made off with the horse ; and wherever he stopped he called 
himself the Rev. John Rowland. 

" At this time the Rev. Messrs. Tennent and Rowland, with 
Mr. Joshua Anderson and Benjamin Stevens, were in Maryland 
or Pennsylvania, on business of a religious nature. Soon after 
their return to New Jersey, Mr. Rowland was charged with the 
robbery. At the court, the judge with great severity, charged 
the jury to find a bill. But it was not until- they had been sent 
out the fourth time, with threats from the judge, that they 
agreed upon a bill for the alleged crime. 

"On the trial, Messrs. Tennent, Anderson, and Stevens, 
appeared as witnesses, and fully proved an alibi; for they 
testified that on the day the robbery was committed they were 
with Mr. Rowland, and heard him preach in Pennsylvania or 

''So. Mr. Rowland was acquitted, to the great disappointment 
aqd mortification of his prosecutors. Their enmity to religion, 
however, led them industriously, to seek occasion, if by any 
possible means, they might bring disgrace and ruip upon these 
servants pf God. 

''Theie were one or two circumstances which seemed to 
inspire the hope that their malicious feelings might yet be 
gratifjed. The testimony of the man who had been robbed was 
positive that Mr. Rowland was the robber ; and several persons 
who had seen the man who called himself Rowland, in possession 
of the stolen horse, corroborated his testimony. 
. " But Mr. Rowland was out of their ppwer. He had been 

"Their vengeance, therefore, was directed again^ those 
persons by whose testimony Rowland had been cleared, and 
fhey were accordingly accused for perjury^ and on fx part^ 
testimony, the grand jury found bills of indictment agatiosl 
Messrs. Tennent, Anderson, and Stevens, * for willful ^nd qof? 
rupt |.er,ury.' 

" Now the enemies of the gospel and revivals of religion appe^ 
to have thought that their end would be easily accomplished 


and that disgrace would be brought on religion, its ministers, 
and professors, for Messrs. Anderson and Stevens were pious 
men. These indictments were removed to the Supreme Court. 
But Mr. Anderson living in the county, and feeling his entire 
innocence of the crime of which he was charged, and being 
unwilling to lie under the imputation of perjury, .demanded a 
trial at the first Court of Oyer and Terminer. 

'^ He was accordingly tried, pronounced guilty, and sentenced 
to stand on the court-house steps one hour with a paper on his 
breast, on which was written in large letters, *this is for willful 
and corrupt perjury.* And the sentence was executed upon 
him in front of the court-house, which stood on the spot where 
the Trenton Bank now stands, in Warren street. 

''Messrs. Tennent and Stevens were bound overdo appear at 
the next court 

"They attended, having employed Mr. John Coxe, an 
eminent lawyer, to conduct their defence. Mr. Tennent knew 
of no person living by whom he could prove his innocence. 
His only resource and consolation was to commit himself to 
the Divine will;* and considering it as probable that he 
might suffer, he had prepared a sermon to preach from the 
pillory, if that should be his fate. On his arrival at Tren- 
ton, he found Mr. Smith of New York, one of the ablest 
lawyers in America, and a religious man, who had volun- 
teered to sud in his defence; also Mr. John Kinsey, one 
of the first counselors of Philadelphia, who had come by 
request of Gilbert Tennent (his brother) for the same pur- 

"Messrs. Tennent and Stevens met these gentlemen at Mr. 
Coxe's the morning before the trial was to come on. 

" Mr. Coxe wished them to bring in their witnesses, that they 
might examine them before going into court. Mr. Tennent 
replied that he did not know of any witness but God and his 
own conscience. Mr. Coxe replied, ' If you have no witnesses, 
sir, the trial must be put off; otherwise, you will most certainly 

* His affectionate congregation felt deeplj interested in his critical sitoatioo, 
and kept a day of fasting and prayer on the occasion. — Log CoXUgt. 



be defeated. Your enemies are nialdng great . exertions to ruin 

" *I am sensible of this/ ^id Mr. Tennent, *yet it never shall 
be said tba^ I h^ve delayed the trial or been afraid to meet the 
justi.ce of my country. I know my innocence^ and that G04 
whom I serve will not give me over into the hands of the enemy. 
Therefore^ gentlemen, go on with the trial.' Messrs. Sii\ith 
and Kinsey, whp werie religious men, told him that hi^ cpnfir 
dence and trust in God as ^ Chnstian ipinister of tbe gospel 
were well founded, and before a heavenly tribunal would tie all- 
important to him, but assured him that they would not avail ii| 
an earthly court, and urged his consent to put off the triaL But 
Mr. Tennent utterly refused. 

'' Mr. Coxe then told him that there was a flaw in the indict- 
ment, of which he might avail himselfl After hearing an 
explanation from Mr. Coxe respecting the nature of the enpr, 
Mr. Tennent declared that he would rather suffer death than 
consent to such a course. Mr. Stevens, however, seized the 
opportunity afforded, and was discharged. 
, ^\ Mr. Tennent assured his counsel that his confidence in Qod. 
was so strong, and his assurance that He would bring about his 
deliverance, in some way or other, was so great, that he did not 
wish them to delay the trial for a moment 

''Mr. Coxe still urged Mr. Tennent to have the trial put ofi^ 
and considered Mr. Tennent's refusal as manifesting a want of 
Christian meekness and prudence. But Mr. T. insisted that they 
should proceed, and left them, they not knowing how to act, 
when the bell summoned them to court. 

'' Mr. Tennent had not walked far before he was met by a 
man and his wife, who asked if his name was not Tennent 

'' He told them it was, and asked if they had any business 
with him. 

''The man said they had come from the place in Pennsylvania 

or Maryland where, at a particular time, Messrs. Rowland, 

Tennent, Anderson, and Stevens had lodged, and in the house 

where they were ; that on the next day they had heard Messrs. 

I Tennent and Rowland preach; that a few nights before they 

^ (the man and his wife) had left home, on waking out of a sound 



s1eq>, both had dreamed that Mr. Tennent was at Trenton, in 
the greatest distress, and that it was in their power, and theirs 
cnfyf to relieve him. This dream was twice repeated to them 
both, and so deep was the impression made on their minds, that 
they had come to Trenton, and wbhed to know of him what 
they were to do, — 

** Mr. T. took them before his counsel, who, after examining, 
them, and finding the testimony of the man^ and hb wife full 
and to the purpose, were perfectly astonished. Before the trial 
began, another person came to Mr. T., and told him that he 
was so troubled in mind, for the part he had taken in the prose- 
cution, that he could find no rest, till he had determined to 
come out and make a full confession. Mr. T. sent this man to 
his counsel. Soon after Mr. Stockton, from Princeton, appeared, 
and added his testimony. 

''On trial, the advocates of the defendant so traced every 
movement of Mr. Tennent, on the Saturday, Sabbath, and 
Monday, the time of the theft and robbery by Bell, that the 
jury did not hesitate to acquit Mr. Tennent. 

''Thus was Mr. Tennent, by the remarkable interposition of 
Divine Providence, delivered out of the hands of his enemies."* 

* I^g (Megtf by A. Alexander, D. D., p. i8^ 



Jursi Courts in Trenton — Original boundaries of the town — Piatt 
of the first Court- House of the County of Hunterdon — Trenton 
Bank-— The town named Trenton — Colonel William Tren^— 
First families — Mr. Trent s first residence — Naming the town— ' 
Builders of Friends* Meeting-House — First borough charter 
from George 7/1, including from Crosswicks creek to Amweli-^ 
First borough officers — Division of the town and country Con* 
gregations — Trenton made the seat of government. 

IN September, i7'9» ^^c county courts were held for the first 
time in Trenton, but whether in the house of William Yard, 
as before, or in some house south of the Assanpink, we m not 
informed, for at this time, the place on the south side of the 
Assanpink was known as Trenton, as will hereafter be seen* 

At this time it does not appear that the court-house was built, 
but probabfy was about a year after, or it might have been in 
course of erection at that time. 

The following order was issued in regard to constables: ''to 
find themselves with constables* staves, painted upon the upper 
end with the King's coat of arms, and to have them by next 
court, on penalty of being fined." 

In March, 1729, "the court ordered that the bounds of 
Trenton be entered on record as followeth : beginning at the 
landing on the Delaware river, in Nottingham, running up said 
river to the mouth of Jacob's (h'eek ; thence along said creek to 
the King's road, to a run called Jacob's run ; thence up said run 
to Thatcher's swamp, along a run that runs into Shabbakonk, 
and over Shabbakonk, including Ralph Hart's plantation, to the 
line that divides Hopewell from Maidenhead ; thence along said 
line till it comes to the line of Mr. Trent and Thomas Lambert's 


land ;* thence along said line betwixt Mr. Trent and Thomas 
Lambert to the Delaware river^ and so along said river to the 
first-mentioned station*'* 

Gordon's description of the bounds of Trenton^ in his Gazet- 
teer,f if the above be true, must be incorrect. He says, " Tren- 
ton was founded bj William Trent, a few years prior, to 1720. 
The place that was then known as Trent*s-town received its 
name about thb time, but was founded by Mahlon Stacy and 
others^ about the year 1678-9." 

. In December, 1720, ^e court ^'required the justices and 
freeholders to meet at the court-house on the 25th of that 
month, to levy taxes to defray county charges." And yet 
in March following they ordered the public-house keepers 
to meet at the house of William Yard (in Front street, 
where the court had been held for years before), to take out 

The lot on which the court-house was built is owned by the 
Trenton Banking Company, and upon it their banking-house 
now stands^ It was conveyed to the Trenton Banking Company 
by the board of chosen freeholders of the county of Hunterdon, 
May 8th, 18x4, just one hundred years after it was purchased 
by William Trent, by whom it is said (though by what authority 
I know not, except it be tradition), the lot was given to the 

The year in which the old jail was built, as stated above, is not 
known. It stood upon the same spot where (he Trenton Bank 
now stands. It was a two story building erected of grey sand- 
stone, with stuccoed front. The cells were in the lower story. 
The upper story was used as a court room, the entrance to which 
was by a number of stone steps, erected on the outside of the 
building and surmounted by an iron railing. The steps extended 
over the pavement, commencing from the gutter, and persons 

* This line commenced at the Eagle taTcm and ran to the Delaware riTcr* 
Mr. Trent's line being nofth, and Mr. Lambert's south, and is the same that 
is now c^led F^rzy street. 

f Gordon, p. 25a 

X Minutes of Hunterdon court, toL i., p. 61, clerk's office, Flemington. 


going into the court room were compelled to ascend from the 
street. Pedestrians going up and down the street passed directly 
under these steps. 

In this court room the Baptist denomination held their first 
meetings in Trenton, and here the Rev. Peter Wilson, of Hights- 
town, delivered his ever-memorable discourses. 

The jail was kept for many years by Jacob Wrighter. 

The steps were afterward removed from the street and placed 
crosswise upon the front of the building, commencing from 
either corner, on the north and south sides of it, and meeting at 
the top, in the centre of the building, forming a pyramid, so that 
any one going into the court room could ascend either from the 
north or south of it. Subsequently these steps were removed 
and placed inside the building. 

It is probable the grant above mentioned was made by Mr. 
Trent to the county about the year 1720, and that as a compli- 
ment to him for the gift, the place was called Trenton, or as it 
was first written, Trent's-town. 

Until this time, what is now known as the city of Trenton and 
townships of Hopewell and Ewing, was known as HopewelL 

The courts of the county, until 1719, were held at William 
Yard's and A. Heath's, in HopewelL 

Colonel William Trent was a gentleman of great respectability, 
and was for several years speaker of the house of assembly of 
Pennsylvania, and in September, 1723, he was chosen speaker of 
the house of assembly of New Jersey. In this year William 
Trent and John Reading were appointed commissioners for the 
county of Hunterdon. Mr. Trent died December asth, 1724.* 
It is supposed by some that he died in Philadelphia, but I 
believe it is not known to a certainty. 
I The following incident was related of Mr. Trent by Mr. Joseph 

i Reed. Mr. R. said that he remembered having heard when a 

^ boy, that Mr. Trent was in some way thrown from a boat into 

\ the Delaware river, and although a number of persons were on 

^ the shore they could afford him no assistance, as there was no 

other boat near, and all expected that he would be drowned. 

* Smith's History, p. 419. 



Mr. Trent had a large dog which stood on the shore^ and by 
whistling through his fingers he called him; the dog swam put to 
his roaster, who, taking hold of the dog's shoulders with one 
handy and swinmiing with the other« reached the ^hore in safety. 

In 17269 the legislative assembly granted to Jan^es Trent, the ' 
oldest son of William Trent, the exclusive use of the river 
Delaware for a ferry, two miles above and two miles below the 
falls. The ferry above the falb has been in tise until within the 
last twenty-five years, and was at the foot of Calhoun street, 
while the one below the falls was used until the Delaware bridge 
was erected in 1804-5. This last ferry was on the direct rout^ 
between New York and Philadelphia. Persons traveling between 
the two cities came by the old York road (now the straight 
turnpike) through Queen (now Greene) street an^ji over Mill 
Hill, to the Eagle tavern ; thence crossing the ferry,* reached 
Philadelphia by the way of Germantown. 
. Mr. William Yard, the ancestor of the families of that name 
in this part of the country, came from Devonshire, in England, 
and settled first in Philadelphia; he had four sons. With two 
of his sons, Joseph and William, he afterwards moved to 
Trenton. The other sons remained in Philadelphia. , 

William Yard, the father, in 1712, purchased of Mahlon 
Stacy about two acres of land lying on both sides of Front 
street, and between Warren and Greene streets. 

Joseph Yard lived on the corner of Front and Qrejene streets., 
in a frame house. , . 

William Yard, the other son, lived with his father in Front 
street, and after the death of his fath^ he occupied the property. 

They were Presbyterian families, and Mr. Joseph Yard was 
trustee in the church for many year^. 

The widow Mary Mershon, who lived in the same house until 
her decease a few years since, stated that she had heard her 
grandfather (Joseph Yard) say, "that theirs, if no^ the first, was 
among the first families who settled wh^re t^is city is built.'' 

*The ferrjr-liottse on this side of the river was the Urge brick house on the 
comer of Fair and Feny streets, now occupied as a tavern, and the largo brick 
mansion on the Pennsylvania side was also used for the same poipose. 


^ Colonel William Trent purchased the Stacy tract about the 

year 1714, and removed to this place, into a frame house built a 
few years before by his father for a summer residence, on the 
site where the Third Presbyterian Church now stands. 
I There is in possession of a citizen of Trenton a deed bearing 

date January, 1719-20, given by William Trent, of the city of 
Philadelphia, to James MacCombs, of the town of Trenton^ 
county of Hunterdon. This William Trent no doubt refers to 
Judge Trent, of Philadelphia, father of the Major, who purchased 
the Stacy tract. He owned land here at the time of his son's 
purchase, and from him, and not the Colonel, the place received 
its name. 

As the court recorded the bounds of Trenton in 1719, we may 
reasonably conclude that in this year Trenton received its name. 

Mrs. Mershon also observed, *^ that at the time the people 
were about fixing upon a name for the place some proposed 
calling it Yard^ s-tawn^ and others Trenfs-town. As Trenton 
was considered the handsomest name they concluded so ta 
call it." 

Whether this cause or the one before mentioned gave the 
place the name of Trenton is of little importance. 

From the best information which can at present be obtained 
it appears pretty evident that there were but very few buildings, 
in the place until after 1730 or 1735. About the year 1740^ 
several buildings were erected. Mr. Plasket built the Friends^ 
meeting-house, on the corner of Hanover and Montgomery 
streets in 1739, and Obadiah Howell, a great uncle of Obadiah 
1 Howell, late of this city, informed the late Thomas Ryall, a. 

mason of this city, who died a few years since at an advanced 
age, that he put the date of 1739 ^^ ^^^ house himself, being 
I then an apprentice to Mr. Plasket. 

I In the year 1740, Thomas Tindall, (a great grandfather of the 

1 compiler of this work) built the two story brick house on the 

northeast comer of Greene and Hanover streets. The initials^ 
T. T., 1740, were placed in the gable of the house fronting o» 
Hanover street, in bricks colored black. Hanover street at that 
time ran from Greene street to the Friends' meeting-house, and 
there terminated. About the same time a frame house was 




erected east of the above, which was for a number of years used 
as a parsonage. 

In 1 7489 there were nearly a hundred houses in the place. 
The flourishing condition in which the town appears to have 
been at that time, and its advantageous location for business, led 
the inhabitants to anticipate its rapidly increasing growth and 
prosperity, and supposing that both would be promoted by an 
act of ii^corporation by the crown, conferring borough privileges,, 
in the nineteenth year of the reign of King George II., (1746), 
Governor Lewis Morris and a number of the inhabitants of this 
district of country sent a petition to the king, stating that 
Treflton was the head of sloop navigation, and that a variety of 
circumstances rendered the place favorable for business, and that 
its interests would be greatly promoted by'such an ict^ 

Accordingly a royal charter was granted for a borough^ the 
limits of which were described as follows, vis., '^ Beginning at 
the mouth of Crosswicks creek; thence up said creek to the 
mouth of Doctor's creek ; thence up the said creek to Keith's 
line, between East and West Jersey ; thence along said line 
including Maidenhead and Hopewell, between Hopewell and 
Amwell, to Delaware river; thence down said river to the place 
of beginning; to be known as the borough and town of 

Thomas Cadwallader, Esq., was appointed chief burgess; 
Nathaniel Ware, recorder ; David Martin, marshal ; and Andrew 
Reed, treasurer. The other burgesses were William Morris, 
Joseph Warrell, Daniel Coxe, Andrew Smith, Alexander Lockart,. 
David Martin, Robert Pearson, Andrew Reed, Theophilus 
Phillips, Joseph Decou, Samuel Hunt, and Reuben Armitage. 

The common council were Joseph Paxton, Theophilus Sevems^ 
Benjamin Biles, Jasper Smith, Cornelius Ringo, Jonathan Stout,. 
Jonathan Waters, Thomas Burrowcs, Jr., George Ely, John 
Hunt, John Dagworthy, Jr., Joseph Phillips, John Welling, 
William Plasket, Daniel Lanning, and Benjamin Green.* 

But the inhabitants not experiencing the benefits which were: 

* liber AAA, Commisdonert, p. 266, secretary's office. 

• I 


anticipated from their charter^ they surrendered it to King 
George II. in the twenty-third year of his reign, 1750.* 

From the above charter it will be seen that the borough of 
Trenton, or Trenton, included very nearly the whole of the 
i I present county of Mercer. Kalm (before mentioned), who was 

at Trenton two years after the above borough was chartered, 
(1746)9 might with propriety say that '^ Trenton was situated 
on a sandy plain, remote from the Delaware." ^ 

In the year 1762, the parsonage lot in Hanover street was 
purchased of Stacy Beakes, of Philadelphia, and others, and 
conveyed to Moore Furman, Charles Clark, Esq., Andrew Reed, 
Esq., Joseph Yard, Arthur Howell, William Green, and Alexan- 
_ der Chambers, as trustees, and to their successors and assigns, 
** for a parsonage for said congregation forever, to be held and 
enjoyed by the Presbyterian minister of Trenton, regularly called 
by said congregation, and approved by the Presbytery of New 

Brunswick, "t 

. Although the church in town separated from the church in 

the country many years before, as has been already stated, it was 
not until 1 788 that an act was passed by the legislature legaliz- 
ing the division, and although the two congregations had been 
incorporated and had chosen trustees pursuant to an act of the 
legislature, passed at Trenton, March i6th, 1786, yet the two 
congregations held the parsonage in Trenton, jointly, until the 
year 1 790, when the congregation in the country " did, for a 
certain consideration, release, &c., all their estate, &c., in the 
parsonage property, to the trustees of the congregation in 
town. "J 

In 1 790, Trenton was made the seat of government of New 



• Liber AAA, Commissioneri, p. 306, secreUry*s office, 
f Deed A T, folio 163, secretaiy's office, Trenton, 
t Ibid.. foUo 106. 
{ Elmer's Ingest, p. 148. 


Second charter of the city — First officers — Market houses — Mayorr 
— Recorders — Aldermen — The pillory and whipping-post — 
Prevalence of the Yellow fever — The government office removed 
to Trenton— President Adams* residence here — South Trenton — 
Its incorporation with the city — Boundaries of the city. 

NOVEMBER 13th, 1792, the city of Trenton was formed 
from a part of the township of Trenton with usual coporate 
city privileges, and the following boundaries, v/s., ^'Beginning 
at the mouth of Assanpink creek and running up the same to: 
Bernard Hanlon's mill dam (now Millham) ; from thence along 
the road to the line between Trenton and Maidenhead ; thence 
along the said line to the road leading from Trenton to Maiden- 
head ; thence on a straight line to the northwest comer of a lot 
late of David Brearley, deceased ; thence on a straight line to 
the northwest comer of the land of I^mbert Cadwallader, 
whereon he now lives ; thence down the western line thereof to 
the river Delaware; thence down the same to the mouth of the 

Thus we see while the first charter embraced all that land 
below or south of the Assanpink, afterwards known as Kingsburj, 
and more recently Mill Hill and Bloomsbury, the charter ot 
1792 comprehended nothing below the Assanpink. December 
2ist, 1792, the ofhcers who had l)een appointed by the legisla^ 
ture, held their first meeting. They were Moore Furman,* 

* Moore Furman was a grandfather to the late Captain William E. Hunt, oT 
this city. He had charge of the commissary department in the American armj 
during the Revolution in 1776. He lived in the State Street House, in State 
street; his office was a one story brick building, and stood on the same spot: 
which the Chanceiy building now occupies. 






nnayor ; Aaron D. Woodruff,* recorder ; Samuel W. Stockton,'|' 
Abraham Hunt,^ and Alexander Chambers,! aldermen ; Charles 
Axford,|| Abraham G. Claypole,^ William Tindall,** Bernard 
Hanlon,ff and Aaron Ho\veil,|| assistants; and Pontius D. 

* Aaron D. WoodnifT resided on the corner of Greene and Hanover streets, 
'where llcndrickson & Leigh's store now is, and in the house erected bj Thomas 
Tindall, in 1 740. He was for many years attorney-general of the state, which 
office he filled at the time of his death. 

f Samuel W. Stockton lived in the mansion-house in Front street, now in 
the occupancy of Ralph L. Warner, dentist While going to Philadelphia in 
company with his son, in his own carriage, he saw in the neighborhood of 
Bristol some very fine cherries, and in an effort to get them from the trees, he 
fell, and so injured his skull that he died in a few days from the effects of it. 

X Abraham Hunt kept a store in that row of brick buildings in Warren street 
CO Jimcncing at the comer of State street, belonging to Samuel K. Wilson, and 
now occupied by C. B. Vansyckel and George A. Bennett, as stores. He 
resided in the northern part of the building; the front entrance to his house wns 
4on Warren street, and the store now occupied by Henry C. Furman as s hsT' 
«ess- maker shop, constituted his parlor. 

{ Alexander Chambers was also a merchant; his residence and store was oa 
the northeast comer of Str^tc and Willow streets. 

U Chiracs Axford lived in a stone house south of the feeder of the Delaware 
and Raritan canal, in Warren street. The house was torn down at the time 
of digging the feeder of the canal. 

\ Abraham G. Qaypole lived in a mansion in Warren street, which stood 
on the spot where James S. Gray now has a hardware store, and Ellis B. and 
Albert D. Smith have a saddlery and hardware store. 

.♦♦ William Tindall lived in a frame house on the east side of Warren street; 
the building was removed to the opposite side of the street at the time the 
feeder was made. It is now the second door north of the feeder on the left- 
hand side of the street 

ft Bernard Hanlon lived in the stone house at Millham, opposite Pratt and 
Howell's flouring mills. 

}} Aaron Howell lived in a frame house which stood on the lot in Warren 
street, where Mrs. L. Lafaucherie keeps a boarding-house; it was afterwards 
jrtmoved around into Perry street, on the lot now occupied by the Trinity 
M. £. Church. Howell, son of Aaron, built the house south of it, now owned 
hj Dr. Daniel Wannan. 

^6 HISTORY OF TREirroir. 

St^le,* treasurer. At this meeting it was resolved to sell the 
old market-house ; and at a meeting of the common council on 
the 29th of the same month, Mr. Charles Axford, who had been 
appointed for the purpose, reported that he had sold it '^ for five 
pounds one shilling ten-pence." 

This 'market-house stood in Warren street, commencing at 
State, in front of Abrahaui Hunt's store, and extending north 
about sixtjT feet up said street. Like the market-houses receptljr 
torn down, it occupied the middle of the street At the southern 
end of it, and about the centre of the crossing from Vansyckel's 
to Dill's corner, stood the old town pump, and near the pump 
stood those relics of barbarity, a whipping-post and the stocks or 
pillory. The latter instniment of torture differed somewhat from 
the modem instrument bearing the same name, in that the one 
here erected confined the handstand feet and not the head. The 
pillory was afterwards removed to the jail and when the city 
came into possession of a town-house or city prison the pillory 
was abolished, but the whipping-post was erected and remained 
for a number of years, when it, too, was abolished. It disap- 
peared in the night, and no one knew who removed it 

July 19th, 1793, the council agreed to build anew market- 
house '' in the middle of Second street, (now State) between 
King (now Warren) street, and Queen (now Greene) street, 
between Messrs. Claypole and Milnor's comers," (the former 
now owned by the heirs of George Dill, and the latter by Messrs. 
Murphy and Bechtel), 'Meaving a square from King street to the 
market-house of fifty-eight feet. ' ' Messrs. Charles Axford, James 
B. Machett, and Aaron Howell were appointed the building 
committee, and in the fall of the same year the market-house 
was built. There were two separate buildings erected, similar to 

* Pontius Dillciy Stille lived in the house now occupied by the family of the 
late William Potts, in Warren streeL Pcny street was not opened until some 
twenty years after; but south of Stine*s residence, adjoining Saint Michael*! 
Church, was an alley called Stille*s alley; his store was on the comer of 
Warren street and this alley. It was in 1813 (when Peny street was opened) 
abandoned as far as Stille's line ran; the remnant still remains, coming into 
Greene street between the residence late of Samuel McClurg and the Madisoa 



the market-houses recently removed, though of much smaller 
<]imensions. The first one, starting from Warren street, was used 
as a meat market, and the second as a truck market. lo conse- 
quence of the small size of the buildings, the space between the , 
two were used as markets for the sale of truck* 

About midway between the two markets there was a horse- 
shoe firmly imbeded in the stone flagging, and I well remember 
when a boy, of the hours of amusement afforded me watching 
•countrymen in their endeavors to remove it from its position. 
Who put it there, or in what way it was fastened, was in those 
days a mystery. 

There was also a market-house on Market street, fronting on 
Broad street. Mill Hill; this, too, stood in the middle of the 
street What year this market-house was built, or who were the 
projectors, there is no means of ascertaining, as I have tried every 
way in my power to find out, but without success. The second 
jstory, or room above the market, was used as a school-room; it 
was supported by eight strong brick columns, raising it about 
twelve feet from the ground. On the southeast end was a box 
stairway which afforded ingress and egress to the school-room 
above. This building was called the Mill Hill Academy, and 
was used as a primary department, while in the Trenton 
Academy the higher branches belonging to an English educa- 
tion were taught 

The market-house attached to the Mill Hill Academy was 
never occupied to my recollection, and some of our oldest 
inhabitants state that it was occupied but a very short time for 
the purpose for which it was erected. At that time the popula- 
tion of Mill Hill was so small, and the markets in Trenton being 
so much larger, a competition between the two could not be 
maintained, and therefore the smaller was compelled to give way 
to the greater. This market contained but five stalls, three upon 
the north side and two upon the south. The school-room, or 
upper story, was surmounted by a steeple containing a bell, 
which rang daily to summon the pupils before the august 
presence of their pedagogue. 

In 1837, the lower story was boarded up and used by the 


Eagle Fire Company as an engine house, the upper room being 
occupied by them a^ a place for meetings. 

In 1841, after Mill Hill had been incorporated into the 
* borough of South Trenton, it was resolved that the old building, 
which, in consequence of some of the timbers becoming decayed, 
was considered dangerous, should be removed, which was 
accordingly accomplished, it is said, by ,the women of the 
place. Thus perished from our sight a venerable relic, and one 
to which many a citizen of Trenton could look with pleasure as 
the place where his mind received its first mental budding. 

At about the same time that the market was built on Mill Hill, 
one was erected in Bloomsbury, at the corner of Warren and 
Bridge streets, opposite the store of Lewis Parker. This was a 
frame building, and occupied the entire walk on the west side of 
the street. This market was longer than the one on Mill Hill, 
yet much narrower, and contained seven stalls. On the eastern 
side there was no footpath, as it covered the gutter and extended 
into the public road. On the west side there was sufficient room 
between the market-house and the fence for the passage of a 
single individuaL 

In the year 1845, ^^^ ^^^ markets which stood in State street 

were taken down, and the ones recently removed from Greene 

street were erected, and in 1848, in consequence of a great 

increase of business, they too. were found to be entirely too 

.small, and the upper or north market was increased to double 


its former size. 

The matter having for a long time been agitated of building 
a market-house for the benefit of the lower wards of the city, and 
council having passed an ordinance to that effect, it was erected 
in Market street, east of Broad street, in 1845, ^X private 

In consequence of i^it growth and prosperity of the city, and 
several handsome stores having been erected in Greene street, 
the people demanded that the markets should be removed from 
the street. Consequently common council passed an ordinance 
relinquishing on the part of the city all right of control over the 
markets, and in the spring of 1870 the material was sold for 
eight hundred dollars, and the markets torn down. 


— — - ^ 

insTOR Y OF TREirrorr. 79 

John Taylor erected a market in Greene street, near Academy ; 
J. R. Freesc and S. K. Wilkson built one in Chancery street^ 
near Quarry, with a splendid hall for public meetings, balls, &c., 
in the second story. Two companies were formed, who built 
large and commodious markets, one at the. comer of Front axid 
Stockton streets, one story in height, called the Central Market, 
and the other fronting on Front, Greene, and Washington 
streets, near the Assanpink, called the Washington Market, with 
large and commodious rooms in the second story which can be 
used for various purposes. 

On the Greene street front, about the middle of this market, 
is a handsome brown stone statue of Washington, by Thorn, the 
great Scotch sculptor, made of stone taken from New Jersey 
quarries, and is an admirable likeness of the father of his 
country. This monument was unveiled on Monday, the 26th of 
December, 1870, the ninety-fifth anniversary of the ever-mem- 
orable capture of the Hessians. The address was delivered by 
C. C. Haven, Esq., and the presentation to the building was 
made by Hon. Alfred Reed, judge, and the acceptance by Hon* 
David Naar, president of the association. 

On the ist of April, 1870, the market built by Mr. Taylor was 
thrown open to the public. The size of this market is fifty-one 
by one hundred and twenty feet, and contains fifty-three stalls 
and one restaurant, and a cellar under the whole. The cost of 
the building was thirty thousand dollars. 

The company comprising the Washington Market was formed 
December 15th, 1869, and the association was incorporated by 
an act of the legislature, February 8th, 1870. The incorporatoxs 
were George Fitzgeorge, Adam Exton, Joseph B. Yard, John 
Taylor, Henry N. Barton, Casper Martino, Imlah and Charles 
Moore, Joseph G. Brearley, David Naar, Henry B. Howell, 
David Manko, and John F. Klein. 

The original projectors of this market were Henry N. Barton, 
Joseph B. Yard, and George Fitzgeorge. Their first organization 
was as above described, and the amount subscribed sixty thousand 
dollars. The^eal estate purchased cost sixty-nine thousand dol- 
lars, and the building thirty-six thousand dollars, making in all 
one hundred and five thousand dollan. 


The officers of the association are David Naar, president ; 
Henry B. Howell, secretary ; Joseph G. Brearley, Henry N. 
Barton, Imlah Moore, George Fitzgeorge, and Joseph B. Yard, 

The market on the first floor contains two hundred and nine 
stalls and one restaurant, the latter on Washington street. The 
building is two stories high. 

In the second story is a splendid and capacious hall which will 
seat about twelve hundred persons. This hall fronts one hun- 
dred and eight feet on Greene street, one hundred and thirty- 
four feet on Washington street, and one hundred and thirty-five 
feet on Front street, and is one hundred and sixty-five feet deep 
in the rear. It contains, besides the large hall, nine rooms fitted 
up for various purposes. 

The main hall is fifty by one hundred feet, with a stage fifteen 
Vet deep, with two ante-rooms, provided with wash-basins and 

Around the market is a gallery or corridor, surrounded by a 
handsome iron railing. 

Under the whole building is a commodious cellar, fitted up 
with all the modem improvements. 

The drainage in this building is perfect, as everything is car- 
ried off by drain pipes into the Assanpink creek. 

The market in Chancery street was the second one opened for 
the benefit of the public, Taylor's being the first The main 
building fronting on Chancery street is fifty by one hundred feet, « 
and is two stories high, with an extension in the rear twenty by 
one hundred and twenty feet, and one story high. Tlicre are 
one hundred and nineteen meat and vegetable stalls, and one 

The main hall on the second floor is flfty by eighty-flve feet, 
with two ante-rooms, and passage-way, and gallery on the south 
end about fifteen feet wide, and running entirely across the 
building. This hall will seat about seven hundred persons, and 
is splendidly arranged for meetings of grand bodies of the 
various secret societies extant 

The Grand Lodges of Odd Fellows and Masons held their 
annual meetings in this hall in 1870, and it gave general satis- 

l^l ^T i P^ * 


faction. It has two ante-rooms fitted up with wash-basins and 
water-closets. The stage is twelve by thirty feet. The cost of 
the building was about thirty-five thousand dollars. 

The owners are Samuel K. Wilson and Jacob R. Freese, and 
the hall is significantly called '' Freese HalL'' 

The Central Market is built on the comer o<* Front and Mont- 
gomery streets. It is one story high and contains fifty stalls ; it 
cost about forty-two thousand dollars. 

In September, 1 793, the yellow fever made its appearance in 
Philadelphia, and many citizens fell victims to the disease. And 
as a precautionary means to prevent the fever spreading among 
the inhabitants, should it make its appearance here, the common ' 
council of this city appointed Messrs. Axford and Howell a 
committee to procure a house for travelers and for poor persons 
who might be taken ill of that malignant fever. 

The public offices of the United States government were 
removed here during the prevalence of the fever in 17931 and 
in 1 798, Mr. Adams, the president of the United States took up 
his residence here; he resided in the house in Warren street, 
known as the Phoenix hotel, which was recently pulled down to 
give room for the extension of Quarry street. 

The following gentlemen have filled the office of mayor of this 
city, r/5., Moore Furman, appointed November 30th, 1792; 
Aaron D. Woodruff, February 19th, 1794; James Ewing, 
November 8th, 1797; Joshua Wright, November loth, 1803; 
Stacy Potts, March 12th, 1806; Robert McNeely, February 9th, 
1814; Charles Burroughs, November ist, 1832, being appointed 
by the legislature. In the ycfar 1847, Charles Burroughs resigned 
the office of mayor, when, according to the charter, Samuel 
Evans, Esq., being then recorder of the city, acted also in the 
capacity of mayor until Eli Morris was elected by the aldermen, 
November ist, 1847. lo the winter of the same year the legisla- 
ture so amended the charter of the city as to make the office of 
mayor elective by the people, whereupon, at the spring election 
in April 1848, Samuel R. Hamilton was elected mayor under 
the revised charter. In April, 1849, William C. Howell was 
elected; in 1850, William Napton was elected.- 

April 3d, 1855, William P. Sherman was appointed mayor. 


and on the loth of the same month John R. Tucker was elected 
mayor. In 1856, Joseph Wood was elected mayor, and in May 
of the following year he resigned, and Franklin S. Mills was 
appointed on the ist of June, and continued in office until 1861, 
and in April of that year William R. McKean was elected. In 
April, 1863, Franklin S. Milb was again elected, and continued 
in office until 1867. In April, 1867, Alfred Reed was elected, 
and in 1868, William Napton was again elected, and continued 
in office until 1871, when John Briest was elected. 

The following have been clerks of the city : Benjamin Smith, 
December loth, 1792; Jacob Benjamin, April, 1796; Peter 
Forman, April, 1807; Samuel T. Machette, April, 1822; David 
Johnston, January 28th, 1828; John R. Tucker, September, 
1836; Thomas Macpherson, April, 1837; Henry C. Boswell, 
April, 1842; Alexander M. Johnston, April, 1844; Lewis R. 
Justice, April, 1848; Charles W. Jay, April, 1849; Alexander 
M, Johnston, April, 1850; John O. Raum, April, 1857; Wil- 
liam N. Nutt, April, 1859; Matthew Brown, April, 1862; Ben- 
jamin Naar, Jr., August, 1864; Alexander M. Johnston, April, 
1866. Mr. Johnston occupies the position at the present time 

Previous to 1830 the collector was also the disbursing officer. 
From 1831 to 1854, the treasurers were appointed by common 
council, after which they were elected by the people until 1867, 
since which time they have been appointed by council. 

The following have been the financial officers of the city 
since 1800. 

William Rippon, 1801 ; Isaac Barnes, 1806; Peter Howell, 
1810; Israel Moore, 1814; Samuel T. Machett, 1827; Abram 
P. Atkinson, 1829; Samuel Coleman, 1830, collectors; Samuel 
Evans, 1831; William C. Howell, 1841; Jonathan Fisk, 185 1; 
James H. Clark, 1852; Jonathan S. Fish, 1853, treasurers 
appointed by council; Jesse M. Clark, 1855; Jonathan S. Fish, 
1856; William M. Force, 1858; Jesse M. Clark, 1859; Peter 
Crozer, 1862; John O. Raum, 1863, elected by the people; 
John O. Raum, present incumbent, appointed by council 1867. 

The act incorporating the "Borough of South Trenton" was 
passed February 28th, 1840. It was then enacted that James M. 

iiiHiiiipj J. . __ . mmt 

I ■ ■ « fci 



Redmond be appointed chief bargess ; James H. Sims and Bailey 

A. West, assistant burgesses; Marshall C. Holmes, high constable; 
and Jacob B. James, borough clerk, to continue in office until 
the first Tuesday in May, 1841, and from thenceforth until others- 
should be duly appointed in their places, under the said charter. 
They were constituted a body cor|x>rate and politic by the name* 
of ''The burgesses and inhabitants of the borough of South 
Trenton." The first meeting held under the charter was oni 
March 3d, 1841, when an organization of the borough was> 
effected. On the 4th of May, 1841, Richard J. Bond waschoseii 
chief burgess ; Wallaston Redman and Joseph Yard, assistant 
burgesses; Robert Wilson, clerk. May 3d, 1842, Franklin S. 
Milb was chosen chief burgess ; James H. Smith and Daniel 
Lodor, assistant burgesses; and Jacob B. James, clerk. May 
2d, 1843, Franklin S. Mills was again chosen chief burgess; 
David Lloyd and Samuel Sutton, assistant burgesses; Samuel 

B. Stafford, clerk. May 7th, 1844, Andrew Stilwell was appointed 
chief burgess; William McGill and Jacob Berdine, assistants;' 
and Joseph O. Rickey, clerk. May 5th, 1845, Andrew Stilwell 
was again chosen chief burgess ; Jacobs Berdine and Samuel B«* 
Stafford, assistants ; and John J. Duswald, borough clerk. May 
5th, 1846, John S. Gustin was appointed chief burgess; Samuel 
B. Stafford and William B. Paul, assistants; and John H..Morris/ 
clerk. May 4th, 1847, Samuel B. Stafford was chosen chief 
burgess; Charles Gorden and William B. Paul, assistants; and 
John H. Morris, clerk. May 2d, 1848, James W. Southard was 
chosen chief burgess ; Henry M. Lee and Joseph W. Bond, 
assistants; and Lewis R. Parker, clerk. May ist, 1849, John 
Valentine was chosen chief burgess; Abner Mershon and Jacob 
Berdine, assistants; and Lewis R. Parker, clerk. May yth, 
1850, Orrin Packard was chosen chief burgess ; Andrew Ross 
and William P. Mulford, assistants; and Lewis R. Parker, clerk. 
These were the last officers elected under the borough charter. 
In 1 85 1 the legislature incorporated the borough with the city 
of Trenton, calling that part which constituted the borough the 
third and fourth wards. 

The burgesses and inhabitants, under the borough charter,' 
had power to raise money for borough purposes, such as repairing 


roadsy &c., to the amount of five hundred dollars, which was 
ailerwards increased by a supplement to one thousand dollars. 
Under the auspices of the burgesses was commenced the grading 
of the streets and paving the sidewalks, which has materially 
improved this part of our city. 

In the year 1844, all that part of the city of Trentoa north of 
the Assanpink had been divided into four wards, numerically- 
called first, second, third, and fourth, the dividing line being 
Warren street between the first and second wards, and State 
street between the third and fourth wards. But in this division 
the wards were considered too small ; consequently, by an act of 
the legislature, passed March 26th, 1845, **^^ that part of the 
city lying and being on the eastern side of a line beginning oa 
the Assanpink creek at the point where the centre ot Warren 
street intersects the same, and running thence along the centre 
of Warren street to the Princeton turnpike ; thence along said 
turnpike to the city line, shall constitute one ward of said 
city, to be called Uhe East Ward of the city of Trenton ;* and 
all that part of the said city lying and being on the western side 
of the line aforesaid, 'shall constitute the other ward of said city,, 
and be called 'the West Ward of the city of Trenton.' " 

By this supplement two members of council were chosen 
annually, to serve for the term of three years — council consisting 
of twelve members. The officers of the first and second wards- 
were authorized under this act to hold the first elections in the 
east and west wards of the city, until such times as they should 
choose election officers in their respective wards. 

On the 14th of March, 1844, part of the township of Trenton 
was annexed to the township of Lawrence, as follows: ''All 
such parts of the city of Trenton lying and being northeasterly 
of the following lines or boundaries, to wit: Beginning in the 
Assanpink creek near the mouth of a brook, corner of lands late 
of Samuel Dickinson and of Joseph Broadhurst, deceased ; thence 
by the line between the said lands, and of others, north about 
thirty-two degrees west, to the Delaware and Raritan Canal ; 
thence up the middle of said canal to the line between the 
township of Lawrence and the' city of Trenton, be, and the 
same are hereby annexed to the township of Lawrence, in the 

.. :^ - " - ■ ■ --- — * '- -- i ■ -^-» -a> .«- —— •-i.J^ fc •■■■ rfi"^" 



the county of Mercer, and shall hereafter be considered as a part of 
said township of Lawrence, anything in the act entitled 'An act 
to incorporate the city of Trenton/ passed the 7th day of March, 
1^379 ^o ^^c contrary notwithstanding; and that this act shall 
take effect from and after the passage thereof.*' 
- In 1 85 1, South Trenton was (by an act of the legislature) 
annexed to Trenton, and the city was then divided into four 
wards. All east of the centre of Warren street and north of the 
Assanpink creek constituted the first ward ; that portion west of 
Warren street and north of the creek, the second ward ; and all 
south of the creek and east of Lamberton street, and north of 
Arsenal, or Cass street, was called the third ward ; while all west 
of Lamberton street, south of the Assanpink, and north of the 
Arsenal, was termed the fourth ward. That year six coundlmen 
were to be elected in the third and fourth wards. The term of 
office of two to expire each year, when others were to be elected 
to fill their places — two in each year — for a term of three years. 

In 1853 the fifth ward was (by an act of the legislature) 
formed from the first ward, and ''commencing at a point in the 
centre of Warren street, and opposite the centre of Hanover 
street, runs easterly along the centre of Hanover street, and in a 
direct line therewith, until it strikes the Delaware and.Raritan 
canal ; thence up said canal to the centre of Perry street.; thence 
easterly along the centre of Perry street, and in a direct lind 
therewith, until it strikes the Assanpink creek ; thence up the 
said creek until it strikes the township of Lawrence ; thence 
along said line to the branch turnpike road ; thence along said 
turnpike road southerly to Warren street ; and thence down the 
centre of said street to the place of beginning.*' 

Under this new arrangement, on April 7th, 1851, Williaoi 
Napton was elected mayor, and Samuel Evans recorder. 

In the fall of the same year, in consequence of Mayor Napton 
being elected a member of the legislature, John R. Tucker was 
appointed by council to fill the vacancy caused thereby. 

The following persons were elected aldermen : first ward, John 
P. Kennedy; second ward, Elias Phillips; third ward, Joseph 
W. Bond ; fourth ward, Majrshall C. Holmes. 

On the 1 2 th of April, 1852, the following officers were elected : 



mayor, John R. Tucker; recorder, Robert C. Belville; aldei- 
man of first ward. Job M. Bennett ; second ward, Elias Phillips; 
third ward, John S. Gustin ; fourth ward, Henry Minehart. 

On the 11th of April, 1853, John R, Tucker was re-elected 
mayor; Sylvester Vansyckel, recorder; Elias Phillips, alderman 
of first ward ; Roswell Howe, second ward ; Barnet T. Slinger- 
land, third ward ; William H. Manning, fourth ward ; David S. 
Anderson, fifth ward. 

In 1854, William Napton was elected mayor; Joseph Wood, 
recorder ; alderman of first ward, Thomas Morrell ; second ward, 
Robert S. Norcross ; third ward, Charles Whelden ; fourth ward, 
David Lloyd ; fifth ward. Harper Crozer. 

The present bounds of the city of Trenton are, on the north 
extending in a westerly direction to the lihe of Lawrence and 
Ewing townships to the Delaware river; thence, following the 
course of the river to the line of the town'ship of Hamilton ; 
thence east along Hamilton township, which is divided from 
Trenton by the Assanpink creek and the Delaware and Raritan 
canal ; thence following said canal and creek and the township 
line of Hamilton to the Lawrence line, the place of beginning. 

The bounds of Trenton have been altered at different times. 
In February, 1831, the farm of General Thomas Cadwallader was 
set off from the city of Trenton. In 1833, the township of 
Trenton was divided into the townships of Ewing and Trenton, 
but the boundaries of Trenton township were made the same as 
the city of Trenton. In 1858, the farm of S. E. Decou was set 
off from the city of Trenton and annexed to the township of 

. I -. 

.^^ ..- * . ...^.-..fcj*.- 

• ^ ■* •-'< 


Qiurches and their Pastors — Presbyterian — Episcopal — Church 
at Lawrence — Church in Ewing — Separation of the city and 
country Congregatiotis — Evangelical Church — German Re* 
formed Church — Reformed Dutch Church — Baptist Churches 
Methodist Churches — Roman Catholic Churches-^EvangeHcal 
Lutheran Church — Universalist Churchy etc* 

IN consequence of the close connection existing between the 
Churches of Lawrence, Trenton First Church, Trenton city, 
and Pennington, it is almost impossible to find any accurate 
records containing the early history of the Presbyterian Church 
in this town, as it is difficult to distinguish what churches are 
meant by Hopewell in connection with Maidenhead. 

In the records of the Presbytery and Synod of Philadelphia, 
the name of Joseph Yard is mentioned as being present at most 
of their meetings as an elder, from 1707 to 171 7; Mr. Daniel 
Howell was also present as an elder in 171 7. Both of these 
men were among the first settlers of this part of Hopewell, and 
both were elders in what was then Hopewell, and afterwards 
Trenton (now Ewing) First Church. 

This church was known as the Old Hopewell Church, and 
was connected with the Church at Maidenhead many years 
before the Church at Pennington was formed. 

The brick Presbyterian Church of Pennington, removed some 
time since to give way to another structure, was built in 1 766. 
This fact was ascertained from the widow Kirkpatrick, who, 
during the latter period of her life, resided in this city. She 
said the roof was put on the church the day she was bom. 

In 1709, the people of Hopewell and Maidenhead applied to 
the Presbytery of .Philadelphia for supplies, and Mr. Joseph 


Smith was directed to preach to the people on his way to and 
Urom New England. 

In 171 19 Mr. William Yard (brother of Joseph), applied to 
the Presbytery to assist them in getting a minister for these 

In September, 1 715, Philip Ringo presented to the Presbytery 
a call from the people of Hopewell and Maidenhead for the 
labors of Mr. Robert Orr, and he having accepted the call, was 
ordained at Maidenhead on the 20th of October, 1715. But it 
is probable he did not continue long in this charge, for in 
September, 1719, it is mentioned on the minutes of the Synod 
of Philadelphia that Mr. Orr had no particular charge. Rev. 
Moses Dickinson, a graduate of Yale College, and a brother of 
the first president of the College of New Jersey, succeeded Mr. 
Orr, in 1717. 

In 1729, Mr. Dickinson was followed by Rev. Joseph Morgan. 
He was pastor of the Church at Freehold from 17 10 until he was 
called to take charge of the united congregations of Hopewell 
and Maidenhead. 

From 1 7 19 till 1736, there are no satisfactory records which 
can be' found, that I am aware of, relating to these congregations. 

In the year 1736, they applied to the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia to have Mr. David Cowell, a licentiate of that Presbytery, 
ordained, which ordination took place November 2d, 1 736. 
' Mr. Morgan had been preaching in these congregations 
previous to April, 1737, but for how long a time is not known. 

The Rev. David Cowell preached in the town and country 
churches until 1760, when, from ill-health, he resigned his 
pastoral charge. Mr. Cowell was not married. He lived in a 
yellow frame house in West State street, adjoining the residence 
of William A. Benjamin on the west. He died December ist, 
1760, in the fifly-seventh year of his age, having served in the 
town and country congregations nearly twenty-four years. His 
remains were interred in the church-yard in Trenton city, 
where the Rev. John Hall, D. D., now has pastoral charge. 

In 1760, the Rev. William Kirkpatrick, who had been licensed 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, Augtist 15th, 1758, and 
ordained July 4th, 1759, was appointed to preach for these 

f^ «^^^taM 

■ #■ .lartliir^ *" ■ - V- - •^'^•' - A>— tj* ■■ * mMiik- ^ r^. ■■■^■- ■ .w ■*■ ■ ■ 



congregations, and in April, 1761, they gave him a call to settle 
among them ; but it does not appear that he either accepted or 
declined it at that time, though in the spring of 1762 he accepted 
the call, and in June, 1766, he accepted a call from Amwdl, 
and was installed pastor in August following ; he died in 1769. 

In 1767, Mr. Jonathan Edwards, then a tutor in the college 
at Princeton^ and son of the eminent president of the college, 
received a call from these congregations, but in April, 1768, 
declined accepting it, as he had been chosen professor in the 

In 1769, the united congregations of Hopewell and Maiden«> 
head presented a call for the Rev. Elihu Spencer, of the Presby* 
tery of New Castle, who was preaching at Shrewsbury, Shark 
River, and Middletown Point. Mr. Spencer accepted the call 
and removed from Eatontow.n, in Monmouth county, to Trenton, 
and lived the first year on the comer of State and Warren streets, 
in the house built by John Dagworthy, Esq."^ This building 
was afterwards converted into a tavern, and was called the City 
tavern, and was occupied for that purpose until its removal in 
1837, when the Mechanics and Manufacturers Bank building 
was erected u] on the same site.f 

Mr. Spencer pi cached one-third of the time in each meeting- 
house, in Maidenhead, Trenton, and the old meeting-house, 
until the close of the year 1784, when he departed this life on 
the 27th of December, in the 64th year of his ag& 

In October, 1738, a petition was sent from some of the people 
of Hopewell and Maidenhead to the Presbytery of Philadelphia, 

* Mr. Dagworthy removed from Lawrence. He owned and lived on the 
plantation of the late Gdeb Smith Green, and died in Trenton, September 
5th, 176a 

fThis house was Inilt by John Dagworthy, about the year 1760. It was 
two stories high, built of mud, and stuccoed. It was quite a large building. « 
The front door was reached by eight steps, which extended either way, from 
north and south, and similar to those fronting the building which now eccnpiet 
the same spot. This building afterwards came into the possession of Thomas 
Sterling. Upon the lot was built the fish market, and near the market stood 
the Union engine house, both of wluch were removed in 1837, when the 
present dwellings were erected thereon. 


desiring that body to constitute them a separate body. This 
petition was opposed by commissioners appointed by some of 
the members of the congregation who were unfavorable to a 
separation ; these commissioners, as well as those who favored a 
separation, met the Presbytery, and both parties being heard, 
and the subject ably discussed before that body, it was at last 
agreed, ''That inasmuch as the Presbytery judge it their duty 
that when new erections are made, particular care be taken that 
old standing congregations be not hurt or ruined." 

To prevent any evil from this course, which was now requested 
to be pursued, it was agreed, by the parties present of both con- 
gregations, that if they could not agree, by a majority of both 
parties of the respective churches, where to locate a meeting- 
house, they would refer the location of it to the Presbytery, and 
this agreement was signed, on behalf of the applicants in favor 
of the new erection, by Benjamin Stevens, John Anderson, 
Samuel Hunt, and Joseph Burt; and in favor of the old congre- 
gations, by Enoch Armitage, Thomas Burroughs, Edward Hart, 
and Timothy Baker. The Presbytery then, with entire unanimity, 
elected the applicants into a separate congregation or society. 
The new congregation then requested to be set off from the 
Presbytery of Philadelphia, and united to the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick. The Presbytery informed them that, in consequence 
of the afore-mentioned agreement, they could not, at present^ 
accede to their request, but if the business of locating the 
meeting-house should be satisfactorily settled, then the Presby- 
tery would, upon their application, take their request under 
further consideration. 

And again, in May, 1739, it was brought before the Presby- 
tery, when they referred it to the Synod for advice. At this 
meeting there was a call presented to Mr. Guild, from the old 
congregation of Hopewell, desiring his labors there. The con- 
sideration of this call was deferred by the Presbytery, until the 
opinion of the Synod on the subject submitted to them should 
be known. 

At this meeting, also, the following minute was made, vit.^ 
"The subject of Mr. Guild's ordination was resumed, and the 
Presbytery are of the mind that the aff;sur of Hopewell was 





determined in such a manner, by the Synod, that the way is dear 
for the people to proceed in making out a call for Mr. Guild ; 
yet they were desirous of settling him, and wished Presbjrtery to 
appoint one of their members to come and assist them in that 
affair." Accordingly, the Rev. Mr. Cross was appointed to 
attend to the business^ and the Rev. Mr. Cowell was to accom- 
pany him. 

At a meeting of the Presbytery, September i8th, 1.739, ^^ 
people of Hopewell and Maidenhead presented a €all for Mr. 
Guild, who took it into consideration, until the meeting was to 
be held at Hopewell, by the appointment of the Synod, to settle 
the affairs of these congregations, which had been referred to 
them by the Presbytery for advice. Circumstances, however, 
prevented this meeting of the Synod at HopewelL 

At a meeting of the Presbytery, September 17th, 1741, Mr. 
Guild declared his acceptance of the call from Hopewell and 
Maidenhead, having had it under consideration during this 
period, &c., and measures were adopted for his ordination, 
which took place on the 12th of November, 1741, at Hopewell. 
The Rev. David Evans preached the sermon on the occasion.* 

In May, 1743, the new society in Maidenhead and Hopewell 
presented a call to the New Brunswick Presbytery, for the Rev. 
John Rowland to settle among them, but we have no* evidence 
that he accepted it. From this time, supplies were furnished 
them until the meeting of the Presbytery in October, 1748, 
when they presented a call to the Rev. Timothy Allen. This 
call he took into consideration, but never accepted it, although 
he continued to preach for them until May, 175 s. 

In October, 1753, these congregations called the Rev. James 
Davenport, and he accepted the invitation, and was installed in 
October, 1754, and continued their pastor until nearly the close 
of the year 1757, when he departed this life. During his 
ininistry Mr. Davenport lived on the place in Maidenhead 
which had been occupied by the Rev. Mr. Morgan. 

In June, 1758, they presented a call for the labors of the Rev. 
Thomas Lewis, which he took into consideration. In May of 

* Minutes of Philadelphia P^resbjteiy. 



this year, the Rev. David Cowell and the Rev. John Guild, with 
the congregations of Trenton, Hopewell, and Maidenhead, were,, 
by an act of Synod, attached to the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 
Until this time they belonged to the Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
except the new society formed in 1738 from parts of the congre- 
gation of Hopewell and Maidenhead. In May, 1760, the Rev. 
Mr. Lewis returned the call which he had received from Hope- 
well and Maidenhead. 

In 1763, Mr. Guild was settled over the two churches. Maiden- 
head and HopewelL The same year the people made application 
to Mr. Enoch Green, (who had in December, 1761, been licensed 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, and ordained an Evangelist 
in September, 1762), to supply them the. Sabbaths that Mr. 
Guild did not preach for them, and in October, 1794, they gave 
him a call to settle among them. But the Presbytery advised 
him not to return the call until he and Mr. Guild could bring 
about a reconciliation and union of the two congregations of 
Maidenhead and Hopewell which had been so long diyided, but 
this they failed to accomplish after various efforts. In the mean- 
time Mr. Green was to be their stated supply. In 1766 he 
returned the calL 

In 1769, the Rev. Elihu Spencer preached in the old house 
(Ewing) in town, and in Maidenhead, and dying in 1785, Mr. 
Guild continued to preach in Maidenhead and Pennington. 

In 1740, the Church in Pennington was built on lands of Mr. 
Pinkerton about one mile west of the village of Pennington. In 
this church they continued to worship until their new one was 
built, which was a brick structure and erected in the village. 
Having finished this one, they abandoned the old church. 

In 1785, Rev. James Francis Armstrong, of the Presbytery of 
New Castle, supplied the three churches, as Mr. Spencer had 
done before them. 

In April, 1786, the Rev. Mr. Armstrong was present at the 
meeting of the New Brunswick Presbytery, a call having been 
presented for that gentleman at a previous meeting of the Pres- 
bytery. Mr. A. was at first admitted on trial for the gospel 
ministry by the New Brunswick Presbytery, in 1775, and about 
this time the British army, holding possession of this part of 

- - » .T T. I.. ■■■ - * - -r ir Uiv.Mb ' '^ -1-1> — -- - -^ ^- m.-*. t...i " -*• ■ tm^m ■■I B' I 



New Jersey, Dr. Witherspoon gave Mr. Armstrong a letter to 
the Presbytery of New Castle, where he was licensed and 
ordained, and was for some years a chaplain in the army. 

In April, 1787, Mr. Armstrong accepted the call from Trenton 
and Maidenhead. In 1790, the congregation of Lawrence asked 
for his labors half of the time, and from, this time till 1806 they 
were equally divided between Lawrence and Trenton. In this * 
year the city congregation asked for his labors the whole of the 
time, and thenceforward he was wholly employed in the city till 
the 19th or January, 1816, when he departed this life in the 
sixty-sixth year of his age, and the thirty-eighth of his ministry, 
and was buried in the burial ground of the First Presbyterian 
Church in Trenton. 

December 17th, 1816, Rev. Samuel Blanchard How, who had 
previously received a call from the c^gregation of Trenton city, 
was installed their pastor. In April, 1821, having received a 
call from New Brunswick, he accepted it, and dissolving bis 
pastoral relations here entered upon his new field of labor. 

On the 28th of November, 1821, Rev. William Jessup Arm- 
strong, D. D., was' ordained and installed pastor of the church 
in this city, and on April 24th, of the following year, having 
received a call from Richmond, Virginia, he accepted it, and bis 
pastoral relation here was dissolved. 

March 8th, 1826, Rev. John Smith was ordained and installed 
pastor of this church, and on the 6th of August, 1828, the 
pastoral relation was dissolved at his own request. 

On the nth of February, 1829, the Rev. James W. Alexander 
was installed pastor of the city congregation, and on the ist of 
October, 1832, in consequence of ill-health, Mr. Alexander 
asked leave to have his pastoral relation dissolved, which was 
granted. He then returned to Princeton and accepted aprofes- 
sorship in the college, which he held for a number of years, 
when he accepted a call in New York city, to preach in the 
Duane Street Church. Subsequently, however, he returned to 
a professorship in the Theological Seminary at Princeton. The 
Duane street congregation resolved to erect z," new edifice 
higher up town than their old one, and having finished it, they 
offered the pastoral charge to Mr. Alexander, which he accepted. 



serving on this committee. Various efforts had been previously 
made to maintain public worship in the vicinity of the present 
location of the church edifice, which is in the fourth ward, not 
far from the Delaware bridge. 

As far back as 1823, the Trenton and- Lamberton Baptist 
Church, under the pastoral care of Rev. William Boswell, became 
divided, and a party following the lead of their pastor, to whom 
they manifested a strong attachment, and under the influence of 
more than ordinary excitement caused by their maintaining 
''open communion" or fellowship with brethren of various 
Christain denominations, and other doctrines in which they 
were violently opposed by the Baptist brethren, they at once 
commenced building a small, but substantial brick edifice 
where the Second Church now stands, and in six weeks* time it 
was completed and occupied as a house of public worship. This 
house was about forty feet front by fifty-six deep. Here Mr. 
Boswell continued his ministerial labors with much zeal and to- 
the great acceptance of his hearers until near the period of his 
removal by death, which occurred on the loth of June, 1833, in 
the fiifly-ninth year of his age. A decent grave-stone covers the 
place of his burial in the ground immediately back of the place 
he occupied as a pulpit. 

The shepherd died and the flock became scattered, and finally 
after many difficulties were disbanded. 

For some length of time their house was not occupied, or it 
was open to any denomination who might chance to worship 
there. The Methodists not unfrequently held meetings in it, 
and at one time made a vigorous effort to obtain means for its- 
purchase, but without success. 

Finally some of the laymen connected with the First Presby* 
terian Church of this city, in view of the great destitution amon^ 
the rapidly increasing population in the vicinity of the church 
edifice, occupied it for the purpose of gathering in the children 
in the neighborhood and instructing them in the Sabbath-school; 
and occasionally having preaching there, until, at length, at a. 
meeting of the Presbytery in Kingston, August 2d, 1842, a com* 
mittee to whom the business had been referred, *' reported that 


a place for public worship had been purchased and handsomelj 
fitted up and opened for public service.*' 

At this meeting "The Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., was 
appointed to preach there the second Sabbath in August, and 
the Rev. B. H. Rice, D. D., the third Sabbath in August, and 
the further supply of the pulpit till the next stated meeting of 
the Presbytery was referred to Rev. John Hall and Rev. Dr. 

The venerable and Rev. Charles Webster was employed as a 
stated supply for a limited time, and he was succeeded by the 
Rev. Daniel Dereuelle in 1843, ^^^ ^^ regularly called and 
settled as their first pastor, with whom he continued to labor in 
word and doctrine for about five years. About the commence- 
ment of his pastorate, a brick Sunday-school edifice, one story 
high, was erected on the south side of the church edifice, which 
was also used for a session-house and lecture room. Mr. 
Dereuelle finally obtained permission of the Presbytery to resign 
his pastoral charge on account of his health. 

On the 23d of July, 1848, the Rev. A. D. White, who had 
been preaching for them a number of times, received a unanimous 
call to become their pastor, and on finally accepting it he was 
duly installed by the Presbytery as pastor of the congregation on 
the 9th of October, 1848. 

There was now a steady increase in the congregation and 
membership of the church until the spring of 1851, when a 
vigorous effort was made for enlarging the church edifice. John 
McArthur, Jr., architect, of Philadelphia, was employed to 
furnish plans and specifications — and pastor, elders, trustees, 
members^ "people of the world,'* and all hands, male and 
female, old and yoimg, who felt any interest in the undertaking, 
were set to work to give of their means according to their several 
ability, and to procure means, both in and out of the congrega- 
tion, until they should be permitted to see the desire of their 
hearts accomplished. 

The unsightly and dingy old edifice was rejuvenated at the 
mystic touch of the hand of genius ; forty feet were added to the 
eastern end, making the entire length ninety-six feet. Large 
new windows and a front view of the Romanesque style of arcbi- 


^™^"" . - II J ■ 



tccture were added, and the entire edifice newly plastered and 
painted inside, and a rough coat on the outside, in imitation of 
granite, presenting at once a neat, plain, and chaste house of 
worship, capable of seating six hundred people, and the entire 
improvement, including furnace, carpets, gas fixtures, &c., cost- 
ing about six thousand dollars, which amount was paid and the 
congregation left free of debt 

While this improvement was progressing, the congregation, \yf 
permission of the board of fireeholders, met in the Mercer court- 
house for public worship. The present edifice in its improved 
form was first occupied as a place of worship on the first Sabbath 
in October, 185 1, and on the Tuesday following, the Presbjrterf 
of New Brunswick held their regular fall meeting there, according 
to previous adjournment. 

A Sunday-school edifice was built in 1857, on grounds adjoin- 
ing the church edifice, on the north side, which cost about four 
thousand dollars. The edifice is of brick, rough-cast like the 
church, thirty-two feet wide and sixty feet long, two stories 
high, and is capable of seating six hundred children. The lower 
story is also occupied as a lecture room, prayer meeting room, 
session room, &c. 

Soon after the enlargement of the church edifice in 1851, the 
name of the First Presbyterian Church of South Trenton was 
changed by legislative enactment to the '' Second Presbyterian 
Church, Trenton," when South Trenton was no longer a 
separate ''borough," but was included within the corporate 
limits of the city. 

The Rev. Ansley D. White was succeeded in the pastorate of 
the Second Church by Rev. George S. Bishop. 

This was Mr. Bishop's first charge, he being called here 
directly from the Theological Seminary at Princeton. He was 
ordained to the work of the gospel minbtry and installed as 
pastor of the church, June isth, 1864. 

His pastorate continued only about twenty months, during- 
which time there were added to the communion of the church 
thirteen on certificate and thirteen on examination, being a 
total of twenty-six. Mr. Bishop removed hence to the Calvary. 
Church, of Newbuig, New York. 


The pastorate of Rev. James B. Kennedy, the present pastor, 
began here on the nth of October, 1866, on which day he was 
installed, and upon which occasion Rev. A. Gosman, D. D., of 
Lawrence, presided and proposed the constitutional questions. 
Rev. Samuel M. Studdiford, of the Third Oiurch, preached the 
sermon. Rev. William M. Blackburn, of the Fourth Chureh,~gave 
the charge to the pastor, and Rev. John Hall, D. D., of the 
First Church, gave the charge to the people. During" the five 
years which have since elapsed there have been added to the 
church, on certificate, thirty-four, and on examination forty- 
nine, making a total of eighty-three. 

The present membership is about two hundred and thirty- 
eight, being little, if any, in advance of what it was in the latter 
part of Mr. White's pastorate, which fact is accounted for by 
constant removab from the section of the city where the church 
is located to up-town localities. 

The church property consists of the lot on Union street on 
which the church edifice stands, together with the lecture and 
Sabbath-school rooms, the value of the whole being about thirty 
thousand dollars. 

T)ie present officers are Rev. James B. Kennedy, pastor; 
William H. Brace, John B. Clugston, Lewis Wooley, and 
Albert Drake, elders ; Edward H. Stokes, Lewis Bronson, 
George Brearley, Jacob Stuckert, Lewis Parker, Jr., Charles 
M. Hutchinson, and £• R. Cook, trustees; George Brearley 
and John Hunt, deacons; Lewis Parker, Jr., treasurer; John 
Bucknum, sexton. 

In the year 1848, the Third Presbyterian Church of Trenton 
was formed, and in 1849 they erected the edifice they now 
occupy, in Warren street, which was built by Mr. John Grant, 
of stone taken from the Ewing quarries. Their first pastor was 
the Rev. Theodore L. Cuyler. He commenced his ministration 
here in 1848, before their edifice was completed. At that time, 
they held their meetings in the Odd Fellows Hall, comer of 
Greene and Hanover streets. In June, 1853, Mr. Cuyler 
resigned his charge, and the Rev. Jacob Kirkpatrick, Jr., being 
chosen, accepted the call, but did not enter immediately upon 
his duties, and the church, for several months, received supplies 

p»*» ""T " ■ " ^ / j'^"^*"^^— ^i— WMmUBWI— ^^— ^—i — ^— i— ■^^■■w ■^— "^^^^i^ 



of ministers /rom other places. During the summer season, die 
First Church being vacated, to undergo some important repain, 
the Rev. John Hall, D. D., accepted an invitation to occupy die 
pulpit of the Third Church, and for his congregation to worship 
there, while their church was being repaired. 

Rev. Henry B. Chapin succeeded Mr. Kirkpatrick on the $fSi 
of February, 1859, and continued until January ist, i866. On 
the 25th of April, 1866, he was succeeded by Rev. S. ^L Stud- 
diford. Upon the occasion of his installation. Rev. P. A. Stud- 
diford, brother of the pastor, preached the sermon. Rev. P. 0« 
Studdiford, D. D., gave the charge to the pastor, and Rev. 
Samuel Hammell, D. D., the charge to the people. 

The present officers of the church are Samuel M. Studdiford, 
pastor; Joseph G. Brearley, Edward W. Scudder, William A* 
Clark, George S. Grosvenor, elders ; Edward J. C. Atterbory, 
Henry W. Closson, John Mutchler, Henry C. Worthington, 
deacons; Joseph G. Brearley, treasurer; Joseph Pycrait, sexton. 
The church has one hundred and twenty pews, with capacity 
for seating about six hundred persons. The present membership 
is about three hundred. 

On 'the 4th day of November, 1858, sundry persons tq the 
number of one hundred and two, represented by their commis- 
sioners, Messrs. John McKelway, Elias Cook, Andrew R. Titos, 
and William F. Phelps, appeared before the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick, then in session at Jamesburg, and petitioned that 
reverend body to organize them into a church, to be known as 
«« The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Trenton." 

Whereupon, it was resolved that the prayer of the petitioners 
be granted, and that the Rev. John Hall, D. D., the Rev. A. D. 
White, and Hon. Stacy G. Potts, ruling elders, be a conmiittee 
to organize said church when the way should be dear. 

On the 6th of November, and at the request of the petitioners 
aforesaid, this committee of Presbytery met at the rooms of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, No. 77 Warren street. The 
Rev. Dr. Hall, moderator of the meeting, opened the same widi 
prayer. The object of the meeting having been stated, the cer- 
tificates of the following persons were presented, and being found 


in order, at their own request they were oi^nized into a church 
to be known as ''The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Trenton:" 

From the First Presbyterian Church of Trenton, Andrew R. 

Titus, Mrs. Mary E. Titus, Watson F. Van Camp, Mrs. Hannah 

Van Camp, Charles Brearley, Mrs. Sarah A. Brearley, Edward 

T. Green. 

_ From the Third Presbyterian Church of Trenton, Benjamin S. 

Disbrow, Mrs. Elizabeth Dbbrow, Sarah Disbrow, John W. 
McKelway, Wm. W. L. Phillips, Labaw Dennis, Mrs. Marcia 
McNeely, George G. Roney, Anna Maria Lloyd, Joseph P. 
Lloyd, Anna H. Lloyd, William F. Phelps, John P. Hutchin- 
son, Elizabeth Hutchinson, Nathaniel R. Titus, Mrs. Ann Titus, 
Elizabeth Titus, Penelope Titus, William White, Mrs. Hannah 
H. White, Wilbur F. Wood, John C. Titus, Mrs. Lctitia Titus, 
Sumner C. Webb, Robert P. Galager, Mary E. Galager, James 
H. Farrand, Mrs. Louisa C. Farrand, Mary E. Farrand, Ange- 
lina McChesney, Joseph C. Potts, Anna W. Potts. 

At the same time and place, Messrs. Nathaniel R. Titus, Ben- 
jamin S. Disbrow, and Sumner C. Webb were elected ruling 
elders, and their installation was appointed to take place at the 
<lose of the public services on the afternoon of the Sabbath fol- 
lowing, November 7th. 

On the afternoon of Sunday, November 7th, 1858, the first 

^^ermon was preached to the Fourth Church by the Rev. Dr. 

Hall, in the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Association, 

Aom these words, ** God is faithful by whom ye were called into 

the fellowship of His Son Jesus Christ.'' ist Cor. i., 9. And 

the ruling elders above named were duly installed. 

These services concluded, a notice was read calling a meeting 
*<f the church and congregation to be held at the same place on 
Monday evening, November 8th, for the purpose, if the way be 
<lear, of electing a pastor. 

Pursuant to said call, the church and congregation assembled 

Monday evening, November 8th. The Rev. Dr. Hall officiated 

^as moderator, and Edward T. Green as clerk* At this meeting 

the Rev. Edward D. Yeomans, of Pennsylvania, was unanimously 

^ chosen as pastor, and Messrs. Webb, A. R. Titus, and McKel- 

* iray, were appointed a committee to prosecute the call. 


mSmJ*' m^ut.-% 


. .<»«.»Mi^>M<«»— ^fcj»*— iJ^ > ■ ■ .^l—^>» 


It was also resolved that Messrs. G. G. Roney, C. Brearlej, 
O. H. Hazard, and P. K. McClurg, be appointed a committee 
to organize a Sabbath-school in connection with this church. 

The following is a list of the clergymen who supplied the 
pulpit of the Fourth Church previous to the arrival of the pastor 
elect : 

November 7th» Rev. John Hall, D. D., from i Cor., i., 9. 
November 14th, Rev. W. H. Green, D. D., from John, xiii., 2. 
November 18th, (Thanksgiving Day), Rev. W. H. Green, D. D., 
from Psalms, cxxxvi., i. November 21st, Rev. W. P. Bond, 
morning — from i Cor., ix., 27; evening — from John, xxiv., 15. 
December 5th, Rev. J. C. Moffat, D. D., morning — from 3 Cor., 
v., 9 ; evening — from Mat., v., 10-12. December 12th, Rev. A« 
T. McGill, D. D., morning — from Is., xxvlii., 17; evening— 
from Mat., xxviii., 5. 

The Rev. £. D. Yeomans preached his first regular sermon 
December 19th, from P&dms, cxix., 105. 

At a meeting of the congregation on Wednesday, December 
15th, Messrs. Elias Cook, A. R. Titus, B. S. Disbrow, Joseph C. 
Potts, Wm. White, and Edward T. Green were elected trustees. 

At Princeton, December i6th, the Rev. E. D. Yeomans was 
received by the Presbytery of New Brunswick as a member of 
that body, and having accepted the call of the Fourth Church, 
his installation was appointed for the ^5th of February, and be 
was accordingly installed. The Rev. E. F. Cooley, D. D., pre* 
sidei» the Rev. J. W. Yeomans preached the sermon; the charge 
to the pastor was given by the Rev. A. M. McGill, D. D., and 
the charge to the people by the Rev. John Hall, D. D. 

At a meeting of the church July 6th, 1859, Mr. Aaron A. 
Hutchinson was elected a ruling elder, and on the following 
Friday evening was duly installed. 

At a similar meeting held September 19th, i860, Mr. E. B. 
Fuller was elected ruling elder, and Messrs. John C. Titus, John 
McKelway, and Andrew R. Titus were elected as deaconis, and 
on the 7th of October following, these gentlemen were installed 
in their several offices. 

On the ad day of June, 1863, the Rev. E. D. Yeoms^ iras 
released, at his own request, from the pastoral .charge of the 

I03 HisTOR Y OF TRBirroir. 

church, with a Tiew to his settlement over St Peter's Preshy- 
teriaa Church, Rochester, New York, 

The Rev. J. T. Duffield, D. D., of Princeton, supplied the 
pulpit until the arrival of the Rev. W. M. Blackburn, December 
aoth, 1863. 

Mr. Blackburn was called to the pastorate of the church 
November 38th, 1863. He commenced hb labors December 
37th, and was installed in February, 1864. At the installation 
the Rev. George Hale, D. D., presided, the Rev. J. G. Sjrmmes, 
preached the seimon, the Rev. John Hall, D. D., gave the charge 
to the pastor, and the Rev. J. T. Duffield, D. D., the charge to 
the people. 

Tlie pastorate of the Rev. W. M. Blackburn continued until 
August 1 6th, 1868, when it was declared ended by the action of 
the Presbytery, Mr. B. having been elected by the General 
Assembly in session at Albany, New York, the May preceding, 
to the professorship of Biblical and Ecclesiastical History in the 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary of the Northwest 

The pulpit of the church was then supplied by the Rev. Prof. 
_ C. A. Aiken, of Princeton, until November ist, 1868, when the 
new pastor elect assumed the duties of his office. 

At a meeting of the congregation October 5th, at which the 
Rev. Dr. Hall presided, a call to the pastorate of the church 
was given to the Rev. R. H. Richardson, D. D., of Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, Presbytery of Londonderry, and on the 6th, 
permission was given by the Presbytery to prosecute it through 
Messrs. A. A. Hutchinson, W. W. L. Phillips, E. Cook, J. W. 
Farrand, and R. Brandt, commissioners chosen by the cougre* 
gation for that purpose. 

The call having been accepted, the pastor elect was installed 
December 3d, 1868. On this occasion the Rev. Dr. Hall 
presidied ; the sermon was preached by the Rev. C. W. Shields, 
D. D., of Princeton. The charge to the pastor was given by the 
Rev. A. Gossman, D. D., of Lawrenceville, and the charge to 
the people by the Rev. J. R. Mann, D. D., of Kingston. 

On the 3d of February, Messrs. C. Brearley, B. Picket, and 
W. D. Sinclair were elected elders of the church, and on the 
jist were duly installed. 


January nth, 187 1, Mr. E. M. Fuller was re-elected to the 
same office, and installed. 

And on the i8th of the same month, Messrs. Sylvester Dana, 
Mindred W. Johnson, and W. W. L. Phillips were elected 
deacons, and on Sunday, 29th, were installed. 

The present organization of the church (April 15th, 187 1), 
is as follows : R. H. Richardson, D. D., pastor ; B. S. Disbrow, 
A. A. Hutchinson, E. B. Fuller, C. Brearley, B. Pickel, W. D. 
SincWr, ruling elders ; J. McKelway, J. C. Titus, S. Dana, W. 
W. L. Phillips, M. W. Johnson, deacons ; Elias Cook, J. H. 
Cogill, B. S. Disbrow, C. Brearley, W. W. L. PhiUips, W. 
White, trustees; E. B. Fuller, treasurer: B. Pickel, superinten- 
dent of Sabbath-school ; M. W. Johnson, vice superintendent of 

Immediately after the organization of the church, measures 
were taken for the erection of a church building, and the very 
eligible lot at the intersection of State, Clinton, and Ewing 
streets was soon purchased and the building began. The con- 
gregation worshipped in the city hall until the completion of 
their edifice. 

This was accomplished under the faithful and judicious super- 
vision of the building committee, consisting of Messrs. E. Cook, 
W. White, and C. Brearley, of which Mr. Cook was the chair- 
man, by October 15th, i860, precisely one year from the day on 
which the corner-stone was laid. On the i6th, the church was 
dedicated to the worship of the Divine God, the pastor, the 
Rev. E. D. Yeomans preaching the sermon. 

The buildings connected with the church are the main edifice, 
in the rear of which is the lecture room and Sabbath-school 
room, and behind these the parsonage. The spire was blown 
down January 2d, 1870, and was a great loss, not only to the 
church, but to the city of which it was so conspicuous an orna- 
ment. The present value of the church property is about 
seventy-five thousand dollars. 



First Preshytenan Church — New Building — Mysterious Vault-^ 
Church in Maidenhead- — Ewing — German Reformed Church-^ 
Evangelical Society — Reformed Dutch Church — St. Michael* s 
Church— St. Paul's Churchr^Trinity Church— Methodist Epis- 
co^l Churches t etc., itc. 

The First Presbyterian Church, in the city of Trenton, was 
built subsequent to the Presbyterian Church in Hopewell (now 
Ewing), and was a very antiquated stone building, about thirty 
feet front by the same in depth, and would seat about three hun- 
dred persons. The society was formed in 171 2, and in 1726. 
the stone church was built. 

In the year 1756, the church was incorporated by George II., 
by letters patent, appointing the Rev.' David Cowell, Charles 
Clark, Esq., Andrew Reed, Esq., Joseph Yard, Arthur Howell, 
William Green, and Alexander Chambers trustees, under the 
name of " Trustees of the Presbyterian Church of Trenton.*'* 

According to the inscription on the church in State street, the 
old stone building must have stood about eighty years, as it 
remained there until 1804, when it was taken down, to make 
room for the large brick church, which was built in 1805. This 
church was a much larger and more costly edifice than the old 
church. It occupied the same spot of ground. The new edifice 
was built of brick, in the year above named. It was placed 
about twenty feet back firom the street, with a tower in the 
centre, and surmounted by a steeple, in the belfry of which hung 
the same bell now in the steeple of the Fint Presbyterian Church 
of this city. 

* Liber 2 of De^ds, folio 444, secrctaiy's office. 

-•^ . ^ - «* •-■■1.^^. « 



The city clock was also placed in the steeple of the old church, 
having a face upon three sides of it, so that the time could be 
readily seen, approach the church from whatever quarter you 
might. This clock, for more than forty years, told to the deni- 
zens of our goodly city, faithfully, the hours as they onward 
rolled, and when the same were. struck upon the old bell, its 
sound was plainly heard, ** the country round.*' 

The entrance to this church was by double doors, placed on 
each side of the brick tower. The entrance to the tower was by 
a door opening from the street, and located on the east side of 
the same. The pulpit was placed against the tower, and the 
congregation sat facing the door. The galleries extended around 
three sides of the. building, and were entered by an open, wind- 
ing staircase, on the east and west side of the church, and near 
the doors. 

The church was formerly lighted by three large glass chande- 
liers, suspended from the ceiling, and burning spermaceti candles. 
But of late years, two of these chandeliers had been broken, and 
the church had been supplied with side lamps. This church 
being the largest building in the city, was in constant requisition 
for public purposes. Fourth of July celebrations, temperance 
meetings, &c., were usually held there. 

About the year 1836, the subject of building a new church 
began to be agitated, in consequence of fears in regard to the 
old' structure. Accordingly, in 1838, the old brick building was 
demolished, the place where it stood was filled up and levelled, 
and the new edifice was erected in the immediate centre of the 
yard. The new building cost twenty thousand dollars. It has a 
gallery across the front end for the use of the choir, and in it 
was a handsome fine-toned organ, manufactured by Holbrook & 
Ware, of Massachusetts. The body of the church will seat 
about nine hundred persons. The builders were Messrs. Hotch- 
kiss & Thompson, of New Haven, Connecticut. 

In removing the old stone church, in 1804, a vault was dis- 
covered containing two skeletons in a good state of preservation. 
This vault was supposed to have been built by Governor Cosbj 
in 1732, and the bodies found there, it has been thought, were 
British officers, belonging to the colonial government. Tradition 

^'^^•>'-'-^'—^*''^ - • •■ - - - -^-iiTnnrniiiiiflliriMraiMi ■ 'irf 


lys that one of these, an old bachelor, was, at his own request, 

*S>tiried by candle light, to prevent females attending his funeraL 

THiis vault remained under the brick church, unknown to the 

X^esent generation, until 1838, when, removing that church, it 

*«ras again discovered, and the coffins, although having been 

^here over a century, were in a tolerable state of preservation, 

and the skeletons themselves were perfect I was the first one 

^ho explored that subterraneous abode of the dead. I found 

the lid of one of the coffins had been removed, and wa^ placed 

in an upright position against the walL Near it, on the floor of 

the vault (which was cemented), lay a metal plate, which had 

evidently been upon one of the coffins, but was so eaten up with 

nist as to render it impossible to decipher the figures upon it ; 

but from what little I could see, I am fully satisfied it was the 

coat of arms of some ancient English family. 

In 1790, the congregation in Maidenhead called the Rev. 
James Francis Armstrong half of hb time, when his labors were 
confined to the two congregations of Trenton and Maidenhead ; 
but in 1806, Portly after the new brick edifice was completed, 
he accepted a call from Trenton city, for all his time, and 
• officiated there only. After being dismissed from his charge at 
Maidenhead, the congregation called and settled Rev. Isaac V. 
Brown, who continued their pastor twenty-one years, when, in 
consequence of ill health, he asked for his dismissal, which was 
accepted and his connection dissolved, December 9th, 1828. 
Through his influence the name pf the village was changed to 
Lawrenceville. On the i6th of June, 1830, Rev. Henry Axtell 
was ordained and installed pastor of this church and congrega- 
tion, and in February, 1835, he was, at his own request, 
dismissed, and on the 27th of April, 1836, the Rev. Joseph 
Mahon was installed pastor of the diurch and congregation, and 
in 1847, ^c ^'^^ l>y l^is own request, dismissed. The church 
continued for three years without a settled pastor, when in 
the spring of 1850, their present pastor. Rev. A. Gossman, 
was installed. 

In the year 1789, Rev. Joseph Rue received a c|dl from the 
Trenton First Church (now in Ewing) for one-fourth of his time, 
and the congregation of Pennington assenting, he accepted the 

.ft. .. ■ fa« 

-I- ■ - --f - •- -— ■* ' ■■ • i fm ■* H ill ■■III I ■ M ifcM>fljfcM 


call, and continued till 1800, when he gave to Trenton First 
Chui;ch one-third of his time, until 182 r, when he asked for s 
dismission from his charge in Trenton First Church, which was 
granted. From this time the Presbytery of New Brunswick 
supplied their pulpit till April, 1823, when the Rev. Eli F. 
Cooley, of Middletown Point, having received a call, removed 
there and was installed pastor the following June, which position 
he retained for a period of thirty-four years. 

At the meeting of the Presbytery, when the Rev. Mr. Guild 
was dismissed from his pastoral charge, the Rev. Joseph Rue, 
who had been ordained an Evangelbt, in June, 1784, received a 
call from the congregation of Pennington to become their pastor, 
which call he accepted, and was installed not long after. Mr. 
Rue continued to be the pastor of this congregation until the 
26th of April, 1826, when he departed this life. 

On the 30th of September following, the congregation gave the 
Rev. Benjamin Ogden, of Delaware, a call, which he accepted, 
and was installed December 5th, 1826. In October, 1838, he 
asked for and obtained a dismission from his pastoral charge, 
and removed with his family to Michigan. On the 7th of 
February, 1839, Rev. George Hale, their present pastor, having 
received a call to settle among them, was ordained and installed 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick.* *~ 

In the year 1834, a few members of the Presbyterian Church 
of Trenton city formed themselves into a society denominated 
•*The Trenton Evangelical Society." They employed the Rev. 
Truman Osborne, who labored for them for seven months as a 
missionary, preaching in one of the rooms of the Masonic lodge, 
corner of Front and Willow streets. 

On the 2d of April, 1835, the Rev. J. W. Davis, of the Ger- 
man Reformed Church, who had been preaching for the society 
for some time, organised seven persons into a German Reformed 
Church. On the 4th of March, 1836, the Rev. John H. Smalts 
received a call to be their pastor, and remained with them till 

*As these churches, Trenton, Ewing, Lawrence, and Pennington, are la 
their hbtoiy so closely connected, we thonght it best to gire a histocy of cac]i 
•DC for the benefit of the readcTi >^' 

im^^amm^.L^lti^Aau^mU^L.,^ai^j.^^XH^.Maitaiim^AL,m.^i^i,:.^. i^..ak .. h^^-JL,^^.... .^..^^ j-^ ^. — .w --•■■^ ■-^. ^..^ 


near the dose of the year 1838. Dtiring Mr. Smaltz's residence 
here the walls of the brick church were put up and the edifice 
enclosed. The comer-stone was laid September 8th, 1836. 
Ailer Mr. Smaltz left the place, the Rev. Messrs. Jesse Steiner 
and Edward D. Smith labored here each a few months. On 
the 2d of January, 1841, the Rer. Charles P. Wack/ of the 
Reformed Dutch Church, received a call. In May following, 
the church dissolved its ecclesiastical relation with the German 
Reformed Church, and in June, at a stated meeting of the 
Classis of Philadelphia, the church was received into the com- 
munion of the Reformed Dutch Church. Mr. Wack, by his 
indefatigable exertions while pastor here, had the church edifice 
handsomely finished, and o& the 30th of January, 1841, the 
church was dedicated by the Rev. Samuel A. Van Vranken, D. 
D., of New Brunswick. Mr. Wack continued their pastor for 
about two years, when, resigning his charge, the church was 
dosed. ' 

Concerning Saint Michael's Church (Episcopal) but very little 
is known ; all the facts, however, which I have been able to 
ascertain I will now proceed to lay before you. 

Kalm says: ''The church, a frame building, was commenced, 
in 1748, and finished in 1753." 

In 1755, the Rev. Michael Endang was settled as pastor, but 
in 1 761 the church was vacant. 

In 1763, the Rev. Mr. Tread well was settled. In 1770, Rev^ 
William Thompson was pastor. In 1774, Rev. Mr. Panton was. 
settled, and in April 1776, the services in the church were sus- 
pended in consequence of the war of the Revolution. 

When the British were in Trenton they converted the church, 
into a stable for their horses. After the close of the war the 
building was repaired. 

In 1788, the Rev. William Frazer was appointed to the rec- 

In i79S» the Rev. Mr. Vandyke was settled as pastor. 

In 1798, the Rev. Henry Waddell was appointed to the rec- 
torship, and continued to oflSciate until the year 18x0, when he 
departed this life. 

In xSxi, Rev. Mr. Ward was appointed rector, and continued 

. . I - - •- ' ■ • - ^- ^w^*t^^^^ ^« '■ " 



in his charge until the close of the year 1814, when the Rev. 
Mr. Sherwood was appointed in his stead. 

In 181 7, Re¥. James Montgomery, of Philadelphia, was chosen 
and officiated as pastor for about a year, when he removed to the 
city of New York. 

In May, 18 18, the Rev. Abiel Carter received a call, which at 
the close of the year he accepted, and at the close of the year 
1822, he resigned his charge and removed to Savannah, Georgia. 

In 1823, the Rev. William L. Johnson having received a call 
from this congregation, removed to Trenton early in the year, 
and in the beginning of the year 1830, he removed to Brookljm, 
New York. 

In August of this year, (1830), the Rev. Mr. Beasley, D. D., 
of Philadelphia, was chosen rector, and removed here the same 
season. Dr. Beasley resigned his charge in May, 1836, and in 
September following, the Rev.* Samuel Starr received a call, 
which he accepted, and removed to thb city shortly after. Dur- 
ing his residence here the church was entirely remodeled, the 
front being extended out to the street, thereby considerably 
enlarging the building. Previous to this alteration, the front 
stood about twenty feet back from the street. 

Rev. Samuel Clements was rector in 1855; Rev. Richard B. 
Duane, in 1858; Rev. Edward W. Appleton, in 1862. 

The present rector. Rev. Christopher W. Knauff, commenced 
his rectorship November i8th, 1866. 

The names of the present officers, elected April loth, 1871,. 
are James M. Davis, O. W. Blackfan, wardens ; James M. Davis, 
Ogden W. Blackfan, Henderson G. Scudder, Samuel K. Wilson,. 
£. Mercer Shreve, John Moses, William R. Mcllvaine, James C. . 
DeCou, Frederick R. Wilkinson, Samuel S. Stryker, and James 
Murphy, vestrymen. 

The church edifice has been rebuilt almost entirely during the 
present year (1870) at a cost of seventeen thousand dollars* Its 
present seating capacity b seven hundred and fifty. Value of. 
church property about forty thousand dollars. Number of com* 
municants two hundred and fifty-six. 

In 1848, Saint Paul's Church, in the third ward, was formed 
by members from Saint Michael's. They purchased a Iqt in 

ijMrifcaa^Mii I JI..I-I 'wi. 

• ■'■ 1- ■ ■il M l ^ 1 n • 

- - f T - I>| 



South' Trenton, (now part of the city)/ and erected a stone 
edifice thereon in the Gothic style of architecture. 

Their first rector was the Rev. Benjamin Franklin ; he con- 
tinued with them about three years, when, removing to Hoboken, 
the church was without a pastor. — 

The rectorship being ofiered to Rev. Francis Clements, he 
accepted, and remained with them until his death, which 
occurred on the i8th of December, 1852, in the twenty-eighth 
year of his age. 

The church was again for a short time without a rector, until 
the settlement of the Rev. James L. Maxwell, in 1853. In 1854 
he was appointed moral instructor in the State Prison, at the 
same time continuing to ofificiate as pastor of Saint PauFs. 

The Rev. J. L. Maxwell was called to the rectorship of Saint 
Paul's Church, at a meeting of the vestry, February loth, 1853, 
resigning the same in the month of April, 1855. ^^ services 
were held in St. Paul's for the ensuing five years. 

At a vestry meeting held in September, i860, the Rev. Thos. 
Drumm was called to the rectorship, holding this position until 
his acceptance of a chaplaincy in a New Jersey regiment, in the 
spring of the year 1862. 

In May of the same year, the present rector, the Rev. John C. 
Brown, accepted a call to the rectorship. The present officers of 
the church are Rev. John C. Brown, rector; Thomas Green, 
William Clark, wardens ; George James, Robert Aitken, William 
Green, M. D., J. Stokes, J. Bcrgelin, Joseph Little, Ambrose 
English, vestry ; Charles Hewitt, Earl English, Jacob R. Freese, 
delegates to the diocesan convention. 

There are sixty-four pews in the church, seating three hundred 
persons. Communicants over one hundred. Value of church 
property twelve thousand dollars. There is a large and flourish- 
ing Sunday-school of three hundred children, under the care of 
Mr. Charles Hewitt as superintendent. Two Bible classes of 
twenty-five each, male and female, are taught by Mr. Timothy 
Abbbtt and Mrs. S. McTrim. The libraries contain some eight 
hundred volumes. In nine years the congregation has grown 
from twenty-five to one hundred and twenty-five families. ^ 

The parish of Trinity Episcopal Church was organized Septem* 


ber 33d, 1858, by Catharine McCall, S. S. Barnes, G. A. Perdi- 
caris, Rodman M. Price, M. Bcasley, M. Dunn, C. C. Phelps, 
Edward D. Weld, A. T. Howell, Philemon Dickinson, W. Mf. 
(lorcross, William M. Babbitt, Thomas Cadwalader, William E. 
Hunt, C. H. Higginson, A. S. Livingston, and Samuel Simons. 
Rev. Hannibal Goodwin accepted the Brst rectorship Decern- 
bet 8th, 1858. He resigned September 29th, 1859. 
• The first services were held in Dolton's building, Warren 
street, and were continued at that place until the present church- 
edifice was ready for occupancy. 

The Rev. Norman W. Camp, D. D., was called and accepted 
the rectorship of the parish, December X9th, 1859. 

Rev. Henry Palethorp Hay, the third rector, accepted the call 
tendered him, on December 30th, i860. He resigned October. 
31st, 1863. .. . 

Rev. Mark L. Olds, fourth rector, accepted June 30th, 1864. 
He resigned March 37th, 1867. 

Rev. E. P. Cressy, D. D., fifth rector, assumed the duties of. 
his office May i3th, 1865, and continued his rectorship until 
hb decease. 

Rev. Albert Upham Stanley, the sixth and present rector, 
entered upon his duties November nth, 1866, 

The corner-stone of the new church in Academy street was 
laid with solemn and impressive ceremonies, June X5th, i86o,- 
by Rt. Rev. Mr. Odcnheimer, Bishop of the Diocese, assisted by. 
Rev. Mr. Brown, of Lambertville, Rev. Messrs. Burton and. 
Maxwell, Rev. P. L. Jaques, Rev. Dr. Dod, Rev. Dr. Camp,. 
and Rev. Mr. Beasley. The service was commenced by singing 
the one hundred and second selection of Psalms, after which the. 
Bishop read the Litany. 

These services were performed at the hall where the congrega- 
tion had been worshiping, after which a procession was formed 
and marched to the lot on Academy street, the bishop and clergy' 
wearing their robes of office. When near the location of the 
proposed church, the bishop, clergy, and others in the proces- 
sion commenced reading antiphonally, the one hundred and 
twenty-second Psalm of the Psalter. \Vhen this was concluded 

, V 

■liM tftimf i Trf iiii i>[ J ■•■■■■ I-.. .,...,■ ,_ - i r^ iB i i 



the bishop, clergy, and procession had reached the spot where 
the comer-stone was to be laid. 

After an appropriate prayer. Rev. Dr. Camp, the rector of the 
parbh, read a document setting forth that the comer-stone was 
laid by the Rt. Rev. Bishop of the Diocese; and recited at 
length the history of the parish, with the names of its ofificeis, 
communicants, &c. 

After the laying of the comer-stone and the singing of Gloria 
in Excelsis, the bishop returned thanks for the interest mani- 
fested in the project by the citizens present. He then spoke 
briefly of the enterprise which they had assembled to inaugurate 
with appropriate solemnities. 

After the ceremonies had been concluded, the clergy and 
invited guests dined at the State Street House. After dinner, 
the Rev. Dr. Camp made a few remarks concerning the enter- 
prise so auspiciously inaugurated, and tendered a welcome on 
l)ehalf of himself, the wardens, and vestry to the bishop, clergy, 
^nd other invited guests, to which Bishop Odenheimer responded 
Sn a short and beautiful speech, and in one of his most happy 
Ynoods tenderly and appropriately mentioned the name of the 
late Bishop Doane, when the whole company arose and remained 
standing in silence a few moments. The Rev. Mr. Brown hap- 
pily responded for himself and on behalf of the clergy. On 
^fcehalf of the laity. Judges Ogden and Vandyke responded in 
^Aiort speeches. Addresses were also made by Mayor Mills and 
^B. Mercer Shreve. Rev. Dr. Camp read a letter from Rev. Mr. 
^^oodwin, the first rector of Trinity Church. A. S. Livingston, 
., one. of the wardens of the church, spoke of the enter- 
rise this day entered upon, and of the connection of Rev. Mr. 
^Soodwin with the parish, in most eloquent and glowing terms, 
'^^nd he sat down in the midst of great applause. 

- The day was a very warm one, but admirable arrangements 

^lad been made by Mr. Westley P. Hunt, the untiring senior 

Xwrarden of the church. With admirable forethought Colonel 

^lunt ordered the erection of a temporary shed, made of lumber 

the ground, and open on all sides, for protection against rain 

sunshine. Under its grateful shade the bishop, clergy, invited 

Quests, the ladies, and the choir were gathered. Around upon 



all sides were dense masses of human beings — probably more than 
live hundred persons were present — and such admirable order was 
preserved during the whole time of the imposing and impressive 
ceremony, that every word was heard. 

Many of our prominent citizens other than Episcopalians were 
present, among whom we may mention Judge Dayton, Lawyer 
Grandin, and every Methodist minister in Trenton, with per- 
haps a single exception, and Thomas J. Stryker, Esq., cashier of 
the Trenton Banking Company. 

The cavity of the stone was twelve inches square and eight 
and a half inches deep — ^a large, heavy, and very hard stone about 
three feet square; its contents were hermetically sealed in glass 
jars, and then placed in the cavity. The list of contents, the 
past history of the parish, &c., were furnished by Rev. Dr. 
Camp, and were engrossed on parchment with exquisite taste, 
by our late worthy townsman Mr. Decius Rice, and then the 
instrument was presented to the church. 

The church is built upon the highest part of Academy street, 
and opposite the Trenton academy. The lot is seventy-five by 
one hundred and fifty feet deep. 

The c hurch is built of what is commonly known as Trenton 
sand stone. The cross and four tablets on the front of the 
building are of Pictou stone. The slate of the roof came from 
the celebrated Delaware Water Gap quarries. The ridge tiles 
and chimney top are terra cotta. Between the roof boards and' 
the slate is a lining of felt, which answers a three-fold purpose, 
vis. 9 a good bed for slate, a perfect non-conductor of sound, and 
keeps out the^cold. The building is heated by a large furnace 
in the cellar. 

The exterior of the building is a parallelogram, forty-two bj 
ninety-one feet. The style of the architecture is the first pointed 
Gothic. Above the dentils, where the gable shows at the ridge^ 
rise two turrets, one above the other, flaoked on either side with 
buttress caps of cut stone. There are three bells in the upper 
turret. Above all, eighty feet from the ground is a bean- 
tiful cross, eight' feet high, cut from Pictou stone. Jfust. over 
the arch of the upper and middle window and just.tmder 


^^*-^*»*— '■*^*'-^~^*^'-^=-*-^'''-'-^ — " — --■ — r.^-^^ ^-- ^ ^ — ■ - ■ -- 



HISTORY OF Trenton: 

the dentils are two tablets of Pictou stone, on which are wrought 
the words Laus Deo (Glory to God). ' " 

The windows in the front of the church are ornamented with 
the dove, the Maltese or St Andrew's cross, the Alpha and 
Omega, and the double triangle: The side windows, except the 
two nearest the chancel, have a colored grape-vine border, and 
are of Grisaille quarries. The two windows excepted above are 
memorials of the two departed Bishops of the Diocese of New 
Jersey, (Bishops Croes and Doane). They are of the Mosaic 
medallion pattern of the richest and most beautiful kind. That 
on the right as you enter the church is devoted to the late Bishop 
Croes, the first bishop of New Jersey* and the one just opposite 
on the other side, is devoted to the late Bishop Doane. 

The chancel b lighted at night by a peculiar arrangement ; 
within the chancel, and about one foot from the outer tdgt of 
the arch, are seen eight gas burners, four on each side, and about 
three feet apart. When these are lighted no one in the nave 
sees the flame, but the chancel itself is as bright as day. 

The wood work of the church is ordinary white pine, without 
paint, but oiled and varnished. 

The church was occupied for Divine service, October 14th, 
i860, and was solemnly dedicated to the worship of Almighty 
God on the 13th of December of the same year, by the Rt. Rev. 
J. H. Hopkins, D. D., LL.D., Bishop of Vermont, acting on 
behalf and at the request of Bishop Odenheimer, who was at the 
time suffering from a fracture of the patella. 

The clergymen in attendance, in addition to Bishop Hopkins, 
were J. H. Hopkins, Jr., of New York city, editor of the Church 
Journal, Rev. W. C. Doane, R. B. Duane, Rev. Mr. Drumm, 
Rev. Mr. Peck, Rev. J. S. Maxwell, Rev. Dr. Knight, of Bur- 
lington, Rev. J. B. Gibson, of Burlington College, Rev. Mr. 
Hommary, of Yardleyville, Rev. J. S. Thompson, of Somer- 
ville. Rev. Mr. Hepburn, of Pennsylvania, and the rector of 
the church. 

The instrument of donation was read by the rector, and the 
sentence of consecration by Rev. W. C. Doane, of Burlington. 
The rest of the consecration service was performed by the Bishop 
of Vermont 

Rev. Mr. Hopkins preached from Hebrews, ix., 24. 

ft« ^ 1 <■■»>■ 

fc^ jfc * '- --■■-'- ■ ^m ■ mmtmmi^m^^^l ■ ^i^n^ 



From the annual sermon preached by Rev. Albert U. Stanley, 
the present rector, in 1870, we learn that during the preceding 
year he had officiated two hundred and fifteen times, and 
preached one hundred and twenty-one sermons and celebrated 
the Holy Communion nineteen times in public and once private ; 
eleven had been confirmed, and five adults and eleven children 
baptized; there had been nine marriages; the rector had buried 
in all ten persons, and there had been one burial during his 
absence from home ; three of these were not connected with the 

At a meeting of the vestry, March 31st, 1870, Messrs. Living- 
ston, Simons, Biddle, Clarke, and Hall, were appointed a com- 
mittee to report a plan for the financial government of the 
church for the year. 

April 7th, they reported in favor of a free church system, a 
weekly payment of a small sum by each attendant, to dispense 
with renting pews, and that on and after Easter Monday the 
church wardens appropriate pews to all regular attendants upon 
the services. 

This plan was adopted, and Trinity Church is now free, being 
the only church in this city where pews are not rented. 

The plan has thus far worked well, and a better support is 
given to the pastor under the voluntary contribution system than 
he received from the rental of pews. 

The following b the report of Rev. Albert U. Stanley, the 
present efficient rector, for 1870 : 

Read services of the church two hundred and seventy-eight 
times; preached one hundred and twenty-one sermons; adminis- 
tered the holy baptism to two adults, and fifteen infants; cele* 
brated the holy communion twenty times in public and once in- 
private; confirmed seven; married five couples; and read the 
burial service at ten funerals. 

Methodism, or the doctrines taught by John Wesley, the 
father and founder of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Great 
Britain as well as in. America, was first introduced into- this 
country about the year^ z 763% The first man who preached their 
doctrines ia Trenton was Thomas Webb, captain of a British 
man-of-waTi He came here about the year 1766, and pleached 

*■! I I M I >■ wii f< >.at — i n ■ ■■M.ii ■!■ < ■■ ■■ 1 1 ■■ . ^i r.. ■■, ■ ■!■■ '., >.- _- ,, 


to the people in a stable located near the corner of Greene and 
Academy streets, and directly opposite the dividing line between 
the comer store and the Trenton academy. 

The new doctrine met at first with considerable opposition, 
and those who advocated it were persecuted to a greater extent 
by the ungodly than were some of the other religious denomina- 
tions. It did not at first meet with much encouragement from 
the wealthy and influential members of the community in conse- 
quence of its plain doctrine; but from its simplicity and entire 
adaptedness to the capacity of the unlettered and illiterate, it 
gain^ &vor with the common people, and in a short time a 
congregation was formed. 

In 1768, two years after its first promulgation among us, a 
society was formed who erected a frame chapel, and in the year 
1788 it was taken down and a frame church erected on the same 
site; and in 1808, that was also removed, and a brick edifice, 
afterwards in the occupancy of the Friends (Orthodox), was 
built. All these buildings were erected upon the same spot. 
In 1838, and during the ministry of Rev. Anthony Atwood, the 
congregation had increased to such an extent that they were 
obliged either to enlarge the old church or build a new one ; the 
latter expedient was adopted, and they purchased a lot in Greene 
street, below State, on the old Tucker property, and erected the 
present handsome brick edifice thereon, which has, since its first 
erection, been materially improved. 

In June, 1773, ^^ General Conference of the United States 
transacted all the business relating to this society. There were 
at that tijne but ten ministers and eleven hundred souls who 
composed the entire body of the Methodist Church; the same 
church, in 1844, could count more than a thousand ministers, 
and more than a million members. 

In 1773, there were but five stations or circuits in the entire 
country. These were New York, Philadelphia, New Jersey, 
Maryland, and Virginia. The New York station comprised 
part of Massachusetts, and the New Jersey station part of Penn* 
sylvania. There was an average number of members belong* 
ing to these five stations of two hundred and thirty-two souls, 
awaking in all eleven hundred and sixty memben, and to each of 


these stationsy which comprised almost an entire state, and some 
of them even a still lai^er territory, there were but two minis- 
ters to each district. 

New Jersey, as well as the other districts, was nothing more 
than a missionary station. 

The first Conference met at Philadelphia in 1773, at which 
time John King and William Watters were appointed to officiate 
in New Jersey; and at that time the church throughout the 
entire state numbered but two hundred members. 

In 1774, William Watters was stationed at Trenton. Fifty- 
seven members had been added to the church in the year ending 
at this time. 

On the 17th of May, 1775, John King and Daniel RufT were 
stationed at Trenton. King had been traveling through the 
state in the capacity of a circuit preacher the two years preced- 
ing this appointment. '^These two were to change every three 
months until the annual session of Conference. The society at 
this time numbered three hundred members. 
* May 3ist, 1 776, at the meeting of the Conference in Baltimore, 
Robert Lindsay and John Cooper were appointed to this station. 
This year there appears to have been a falling off in the mem- 
bership of about one-half, the whole number reported being only 
one hundred and fifty. What should have caused this I do not 
know, unless a division had taken place in the New Jersey 
district, which I think highly probable. 

May 3oth, 1777, Henry Kennedy and Thomas McClure were 
appointed. At this time the society numbered one hundred and 
sixty, being an increase of only ten in the year. 

On the 19th of May, 1778, Conference, at its session at 
Leesburg, appointed Daniel Ruff, and in the following year 
the Philadelphia station being added to that of New Jersey, Ruff 
was re-appointed with Philip Cox and Joshua Dudley. Confer- 
ence had a second meeting on the i8th of May of the same year^ 
but at that session they made no change in the previous appoint- 
ments in thb state. 

April 24th, 1780, at a meeting of Conference held at Balti- 
more, William Gill, John James, and Richard Garretson were 
appointed. It was at the same time ordered that they should 

y^^fcifca^aOirai— I^M^riMfc—ilfcil^^rJl^.fc— ^i^^*i^Bfc>a— — JltWi»«All^»^*i«ifc i !■ l»<i»—-^«*iM— a— i»<*i»»— ■*—*.<— ihi»^Mi»^ III I ■ MthMM^fcati^ai—a. 


change every six months. This year the Virginia Conference 
separated from the General .Conference in consequence of their, 
being opposed to certain ordinances practiced in the church. 
Such action was disapproved by the General Conference. 

April 1 6th, 1781, Conference met at Choptank, in the state 
of Delaware, but adjourned to meet at Baltimore on the 34th of 
the same month. At this session this state was divided into two 
districts, comprising East and West Jersey. Trenton being in 
West Jersey, Caleb B. Pedicord and Joseph Cromwell were 
appointed to this station. The whole number of members in 
the state at that time was five hundred and twelve. 

April 17th, 1782, they met at Ellis* preaching-house, in Sussex 
county, Virginia, but adjourned to meet May 3ist,nn Balti- 
more. Joshua Dudley and William Ivy were appointed for six 
months; John. Tunnell, of East Jersey, to take the place of 
Dudley, and William Clendening, of Pennsylvania, that of 
Richard Ivy. West Jersey reported three hundred and seventy- 
five members. 

May 6th, 1783, they again met in Sussex county, Virginia, 
but adjourned to meet the 27th of the same month, in Balti- 
more. Woolman Hickson and John Magery were appointed. 

They met at the same place on the 30th of April, 1784, and 
continued their sitting to May 38th, at Baltimore. At the latter 
place John Hagerty and Mathew Greentree were appointed. At. 
this session Trenton was set off from East and West Jersey, and 
the state divided into three districts. 

In 1785, Robert Cloud, John McClaskey, and Jacob Brush 
were appointed to officiate in Trenton. In this year the North 
American Conference separated from the British Conference, at 
the recommendation of John Wesley, and they formed a distinct 
and separate body, independent of the English Methodist estab- 
lishment, adopting the Episcopal form of church government, as 
recommended by Mr. Wesley. Thomas Coke, D. D., and 
Francis Asbury were elected bishops or superintendents. 

In 1786, Robert Sparks and Robert Cann were appointed 
pastors in Trenton. ^ 

In 1787, Ezekiel Cooper and Nathaniel B. Mills, and in 1788, 
John Merrick, Thomas Morrell, and Jethro Johnson, were 

■fc<l»i<t.^1*« 'in . 



Stationed here. In 1789, they were removed, and Joseph Crom- 
well and Richard Swain were appointed. In 1790, Simon Pile 
and Aaron Hutchinson were appointed by Conference. In 17919 
Robert Cann and Robert Hutchinson. In 1792, Gamaliel 
Bailey and Daniel Freeman. In 17939 Robert Sparks and Isaac 
Robinson. In 1794, John Fountain and Robert McCoy. In 
1795, John Ragan and Joshua Taylor. In 1796, David Bartine 
and Roger Benton. In 1797, Richard Swain and Ephraim 
Chambers. In 17989 Caleb Kendall and Joseph Lovell. In 
17999 Solomon Sharpe and Jesse Justice. In 1800, Robert 
Sparks and Henry Clarke. 

In 1800 Richard Whatcoat was added to the Bench of Bishops.* 
In 1801, Freehold was added to Trenton circuit, and David 
Bartine, Joseph Osborn, and William Brandon were the 
preachers ip charge. In 1802, New Jersey was transferred from 
the General to the Philadelphia Conference, and Anthony 
Turck and John Walker were appointed to Trenton station. In 
this year Freehold was set off from Trenton circuit. In 1803, 
William Mills and Gamaliel Bailey were appointed preachers in 
Trenton. In 1804, Joseph Totten and George Wooley. In 

* Bishop Whatcoat died in 1807, and in 1808, William McKendree 
elected bishop. The same year Dr. Coke, resigning his bishopric here^ 
removed to Europe, subject, however, to recall at any time by the Generml 
Conference or by all the Annual Conferences. On Tuesday, the 3d of May^ 
Dr. C. was found dead in his cabin, having started on a voyage to Ceylon to 
establish a missionary station there. In 1816, Enoch George and Ro&eit 
Richard Roberts were added to the bench of bishops. Bishop Asborr died 
on Sunday, March 31st, 1816, at the age of seventy-one years. In 1823, Joshoa 
Soule and Elijah Hedding were elected bishops. Bishop George died at 
Staunton, Virginia, August 23d, 1828. In 1832, James 0. Andrew and John 
Emery were added to the Bench of Bishops. In 1835, Thomas A. Morris was 
added. William McKendree, the senior bishop, died on the 5th day of March 
of this year, and John Emery, junior bishop, died on the i6th of December of ' 
the same year. He left his home on the above morning to go to Bahimore on 
business connected with his office, when he was thrown from his carriage and 
received a wound on his head of which he died on the evening of the same 
day. In 1836, Beverly Waugh was elected bishop. Bishop Roberts died al 
his residence in Indiana, on the 26th of March, 1843. 1^^ ume year, 
Leonidas Hamline and Edmund S. Janes were elected bbhops. ^ 

*.*Jii*»^— ^^—^^^^.■^^■^^^■—a^ ■.■■...,■.. 1. ■■■■■ t.^,^ .^^,.^..»^,. ■■■ ■ ^. ■■■. p ^ .-^ .. ^. ■ _ -^ 


i3o5, John Bethel and Samuel Budd. In i^6, William Bishop 
and Daniel Higbee. In 1S07, William McClenahan and P. P^ 
Sandford. In 1808, Peter P. Sandford and William Fox. In 
1809, William Fox and Jacob Hevener. In 1810, Thomas Strat- 
ton and Thomas Neal. In x8ii« William Mills. In 181 2, New 
Brunswick was added to Trenton station, and the state was again 
divided into two districts, and called East and West Jersey, 
Trenton station being in East Jersey district. The preachers 
appointed at this session of Conference were Joseph Totten and' 
William Mills. In 1 813, Joseph Osborne and John Van Schoick 
^were appointed. In 1814, John Van Schoick and John Femon. 
In 1815, John Walker and Thomas Neal. In 1816, John Rob- 
Snson and Joseph Rusling. In 181 7, Manning Force and Daniel 
3ifoore. In 18 18, New Brunswick was set off from Trenton cir- 
<mit, and Alexander McCairre was appointed for Trenton city. 
Hn 1819, James Smith, Sr., was appointed. In 1820, Solomon 
Sharpe. In 1821, Conference added Bloomsbury to Trenton 
^ty district, and Solomon Sharpe was appointed preacher in 
^:harge of the station. From thb time the preachers were 
stationed for two years. For the years 1822-23, Joseph 
l^ybrand was- appointed. For 1824-25, John Potts. For 
^826-27, William Tliatcher. In 1828, Joseph Lybrand was 
^ugain appointed to this station, but in 1829, having received 
^he appointment of presiding elder of the East Jersey district, 
Joseph Holdich was appointed preacher in charge ; he remained 
^ere two years, when Solomon Higgins was appointed in 1831, 
jsuid re-appointed in 1832, with Richard W. Petherbridge, super- 
annuated. In 1833 the Philadelphia Conference met at Newark. 
*This was the first meeting they ever held in New Jersey. At this 
Session they appointed for the years 1833-34, Thomas J. Thomp- 
son, and for 1835-36, James Dandy. 

In 1837, New Jersey was set off from the Philadelphia Con- 
ference, and constituted a separate body, under the name of 
«« The New Jersey Conference." 

The first appointment made by them for Trenton was for the 
years 1837-38, when Anthony Atwood was stationed here. In 
1839-40, Charles Pitman was appointed. In 1841-42, Charles 
H. Whitecar. For 1843-4, Daniel P. Kidder. Mr. Kidder 

-"■ r itafci H a t * . II •• Tf---— --* ■ 

I < niifc I ■ I iii>« ■ 


--^ **-—'- --v----- "> ■« — ■ -.-..I 



remained here but one year, being appointed editor in the* 
Methodist Book Concern. Joseph B. WaJcely was appointed ta 
the unexpired term of Kidder, and served at this station during- 
the years 1844-45. James Ayars in 1846-47. John S. Porter 
in 1848-49. Francis A. Morrell in 1850-51. George F. Brown 
in 1852-53. Richard Vanhorne in 1854. Joseph B. Dobbins, 
1855. W. £. Perry, 1858. Elwood H. Stokes, 1859. S. Y. 
Monroe, 1862. J. B. Dobbins, 1864. J. S. Heisler and L D. 
King, 1867. C. S. Vancleve, 1870. 

In 1846, some of the members of the Greene Street Church* 
formed a new congregation, who purchased the Reformed Dutch 
Church in Front street. Their first pastor was Clark Polley ; he 
preached here during the years 1846-47. In 1848-49, James 
Tuttle was appointed. In 1850, Rodney Winans; he remained 
here but one year; and for the years 1851-52, James O. Rogers. 
In 1853-54, Crook S. Vancleve. A. K. Street, 1855. ^ George • 
Hughes, 1857. P. Kline, 1858. Charles E. Hill, i860. Isaac* 
Winner, 1862. Jonathan Vannote, 1863. B. H. Durelle, 
1865. J. Warthman, 1869. 

In 1851, during the first year Mr. Rogers was here, the edifice 
was completely overhauled and enlarged, the front being- 
extended out to the street and stuccoed, thereby materially^ 
improving the appearance of the same. 

In 1852, a church was organized in Union street, in the fourth 
ward, and called, *' Union Street Methodist Episcopal Chorch.** ' 
In this year, as well as the following, 1853, Benjamin N. Reed ' 
was appointed preacher in charge, and during the year 1853, 
John S. Heisler officiated, and in 1853, Isaiah D. King. In 
1854, William Franklin. C. Miller, 1855. I. D. King, 1856. 
J. IL Burr, 1857. S. Townsend, 1858. W. W. Christine, 
1859. J- '^- Tucker, 1862. W. S. Zane, 1864. G. Dobbins, 
1865. A. J. Gregory, 1866. J. P. Turpin, 1867. Calvin C 
Eastlack, x868. A. M. North, 1870. 

State' Street Church was formed in 1859, their first preacher 
being George W. Bachelder. C. H. Whitecar, z86i. WiUiam 
H. Jeflerys, 1863. Thomas Hanlon« 1865. D. W. Bartine, 
1867. W. H. Peame, 1870. 

The following have been the preachers of Warihen Street- 


forty feet, and finished in a neat and plain style. The churdi 
dedicated to the worship of God on the 19th of October, 1823. 

The exercises of devotion were commenced with prayer by the 
Rev. Isaac James, a clergyman of the Methodist persuasion. The 
Rev. Thomas Boring preached a sermon adapted to the occasion 
from Haggai, ii. chap., 7, 8, 9 verses: ''And I will shake all 
Nations, and the desire of all Nations shall come; and I will fill 
this House with Glory, saith the Lord of Hosts. The silver is 
mine and the gold is mine, saith the Lord of Hosts. The Glory 
of the Latter House shall be greater than of the former^ saith the 
Lord of Hosts, and in this place will I give Peace, saith the 
Lord of Hosts.'* 

The Rev. Mr. Boswell was settled here at once, and continued 
to preach for them until his death, which occurred on the loth 
of June, 1833. After his death the Rev. Mr. Wilson preached 
there, and after his dismissal, which occurred a short time after, 
the church was closed until 1842, when it vras purchased and 
fitted up for a Presbyterian church, for which purpose it is still 

Rev. George Patterson became pastor of the First Baptnt 
Church in January, 1826, and closed his labors in March, 1828;. 

Rev. Morgan J. Rhees became pastor in April, 1830, and 
continued as such till November, 1840. * ^ 

Luther F. Beecher was ordained pastor in October, 1841, and 
continued as such for one year. 

Rev. John Young became pastor in February, 1843, ^^'^ c^'Q* 
tinned to the. 15th of August of the same year, when he resigned, 
and with one hundred and twenty-three others formed what was 
then called the Second Baptist Church, and built the house now 
occupied by the Central Baptist Church of this city. 

Rev. Levi G. Beck became pastor in February, 1844, and 
resigned in October, 1849. 
*- Rev. Henry K. Green became pastor January ist, 1850, and 

resigned January ist, 1853. 

Rev. Duncan Dunbar became pastor in March, 1853, and 
resigned November, 1854. 

Rev. Lewis Smith became pastor in December, 1854, and 
resigned December 1st, 1857. 




Rev. O. T. Walker became pastor October ist, 1858, and 
:2esigned September ist, 1863. 

Rev. D. Henry Miller became pastor in December, 1863, and 
resigned October 6th, 1867. 

Mr. Miller was succeeded by the present pastor. Rev. George 
"W. Lasher, April 1st, 1868. 

The comer-stone of the present church edifice was 4^id on 
^he 28th of July, 1859, the services consisting of prayer by Rev. 
^3^r. Newlin, of Bordentown ; address by Rev. John Dowling, 
ZS>. D., of New York; remarks by Rev. Reuben Jeffrey, D. D., 
^>f Philadelphia ; hymn read by Rev. A. D. White, of the Second 
^Vesbyterian Church ; remarks by Rev. W. E. Perry, of the M. 
L Church, Rev. Lewis Smith, of Hightstown, and F. S. Mills, 
[., of this city; box deposited in comer-stone by Rev. Dr. 
^>owling ; benediction by Rev. Dr. Street, of the M. E. Church. 
In the box deposited in the comer-stone, were placed each of 
%hc daily papers of Trenton ; '' Philadelphia Christian Chroni- 
^:rle;" "New York Chronicle;" the "Examiner;" "Watchman 
Reflector;" "Christian Secretary;" "Young Reaper;" 
Testament; "Philadelphia Public Ledger;" statistics of 
^he Baptist denomination in the United States; date of the 
^organization of the church; names of pastors of the church; 
^rhurch covenant; annual report of the American Baptist Pub* 
lication Society; minutes of New Jersey Baptist State Conven- 
tion; minutes of the West New Jersey Baptist Association; 
Records of church relative to the building ; names of his excel- 
lency the governor, and the executive officers of the state; name 
of the Chief Justice of the state ; name of the president of the 
XJnited States; notice of George Washington and the battle of 
*Trenton ; se\'eral small coins of the year 1859 ; names of officers 
of the New Jersey Lunatic Asylum ; names of trustees and prin- 
cipal of State Normal School; "American Baptist Missionary 
Magazine;" "Baptist Family Magazine;" "Macedonian;" 
names of the officers and members of the church; date of 
laying the comer-stone, with names of deacons, trustees, build- 
ing committee, master builder, chorister, and sexton; cards of 
the architect ; family record of the gentleman who presented 
the box. 



The church edifice was dedicated in August, i860, on which 
occasion sermons were preached by Rev. Thomas Armitage, 
D. D., of New York, Rev. Lewis Smith, of Hightstown, and 
Rev. D. Henry Miller, of Meriden, Connecticut. 

There are ui>on the floor of the church one hundred and forty- 
six pews, with a seating capacity of seven hundred and forty 
grown persons. In the galleries there are forty-eight pews, 
capable of seating two hundred and forty grown persons, and 
about thirty more may be seated in the orchestra, making a total 
of one hundred and ninety-four pews and the entire seating 
capacity of the house one thousand and ten, and when children 
are interspersed it often contains twelve to thirteen hundred 

The church was originally known as " The Trenton and Lam- 
berton Baptist Church,*' but in 1861, by act of the legblatnre, 
the name was changed to ''The First Baptist Church of Tren- 

The property owned by the church b the following : church 
edifice, and chapel beside it, with cemetery &c., on Centre 
street, valued at forty thousand dollars. 

The chapel in Hamilton was erected in 1868-69, and opened 
May 23d, 1869. The lots and chapel building corner of James 
and Annie streets, Hamilton, are valued at two thousand five 
hundred dollars. 

The chapel in the sixth ward was erected in 1870-71, and 
dedicated March 19th, 1871. The lot and chapel on Second 
street, sixth ward, are valued at two thousand dollars. Total 
forty-four thousand five hundred dollars. 

The present officers of the church are the following: Rev. 
George W. Lasher, pastor ; James Howell, Daniel B. Coleman, 
Enos Bowne, William Johnson, William W. Mershon, George 
Parker, Francis R. Lee, deacons ; William Johnson, Joshua S. 
Day, William I. Vannest, Isaac C. Gearhart, William Lee, Caleb 
Coleman, William Whitehead, trustees; Daniel B. Coleman, 
treasurer ; Gershom M. Howell, clerk. 

There have been baptized into the fellowship of the church 
since its origin, one thousand three hundred and fifteen persons. 
Its present membership is seven hundred and sixty-on^ 



The church at the present time sustains four distinct Sabbath- 
ihools. The first holding two sessions per Sabbath ' in the 
chapel on Centre street, with an aggregate of seven hundred 
^md fifty scholars. The second in the sixth ward chapel, with 
^ne hundred and twenty children. The third in Manning's 
^building, on State street, with sixty scholars. The fourth in the 
chapel in Hamilton, with one hundred and eighty scholars, 
snaking a total of more than one thousand one hundred scholars. 
The Central is not the second Baptist church of Trenton, but 
the fiAh in number of those called Baptist, including the Tren- 
ton and Lamberton, which being the oldest has become the first 
\yf the annexation of the village in which it was located to the 
<:ity« In 1823, the heresy of a pastor of that church resulted in 
liis removal, and with him a colony that took the name of the 
Second Baptist Church. They were not, however, recognized as 
such by the denomination, nor received into the sisterhood of 
Baptist churches. The house of worship in Union street now 
owned by the Presbyterians, built by them, proved to be their 
cradle and their coffin. Another pastor of the Trenton and 
Lamberton church withdrew with eighty-five members in 1843. ^ 
These organized as the Second Baptist Church, and were so 
received into the denominational family. They built the church 
edifice that formerly stood upon this site. Previous suspicions 
that the minister who caused the separation was not a regular 
Baptist minister ere long resolved themselves into the sad reality 
of truth. Whereupon the church broke into three parts. One 
returned to the old fold ; another clung to their place of worship, 
and the third formed themselves into ''The Trinity Baptist 
Church," and met in Temperance Hall. Nearly all of this last 
body was subsequently absorbed in ''The Central Church," 
which is thus the third Baptist church that has been identified 
with this site, and the fifth in the city in the date of its organi- 

The Central Baptist Church of Trenton owes its existence to 
New Jersey Baptists. The State Convention gave it birth, and 
b its mother. The interposition of the State Convention, both 
as respects its results and its cause, was providential. It termin- 
ated the disputes and divisions with which Baptbts in the state 




capital wasted their strength. The Second Church being broken 
in fragments, its house of worship, bought and nearly paid for with 
the moneys of the denomination, was likely to be lost to them. 
Informed of the facts, the State Convention obtained posses- 
sion of the property for the use of a Baptist church in the city.* 
Judge P. P. Runyan, of New Brunswick, and D. M. Wilson 
and J. M. Davies, of Newark, were appointed trustees. These 
brethren paid off the floating debt of several hundred dollars ; 
also the cost of repairs until the present church was constituted, 
to the trustees of which they transferred the property about 1864. 

Already has the seed sown yielded fruit. The children and 
grand-children of Judge Runyan, who, with the two other trus- 
tees, bore so cheerfully the responsibilities of this enterprise upon 
both his heart and his purse, make this their spiritual home, and 
here some of the second generation have found a gracious Saviour. 
Successive steps followed the first action of the convention, until 
on the 30th of April, 1854, twenty-nine persons organized them- 
selves as the Central Baptist Church of Trenton. These were 
Rev. J. T. Wilcox and wife, Mr. and Mrs. V. Nesbit, Mrs. S. 
Booze, Mrs. C. Finehout, Mrs. S. Biles, Mr. and Mrs. Ezekiel 
Reed, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Case, A. J. Byram, Mrs. Wm. Past, 
Miss U. L. Boss, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Trimmer, Mr. and Mrs. 
Wm. McKee, Mrs. I. Drips, Mr. and Mrs. I. D. Randolph, Mr. 
and Mrs. N. Holmes, Mrs. H. Gorden, Mrs. £. Warner, Mrs. 
B. Jones, Miss P. Elvis, Mrs. L. Price, Mr. R. F. Randolph, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Q. Carman, Sr.f On the xoth of May follow- 
ing, a council representing Baptist churches publicly recognized 
them as in the fellowship of the denomination. Joseph Case 
and £. Reed had been chosen deacons, and J. Trimmer, clerk.]; 

The Rev. Mr. Wilcox, missionary of the State Convention, 

\ f^ 


* A marked feature in the operations of the New Jersey ConTentson, retain- 
ing to Baptists church edifices that otherwise would be lost firom them, lias 
so fitf attended with the most happy resulti. 

f Fifteen were from the Trinity, two from Trenton and Lambeitoa, and 
twelve from other churches. 

X From a discourse delirered by Rev. T. S. Griflith to hb congregatloo. 
May I2th, 1867. ' ' \ 

^'^'-^^-^'—''^J-^—'^-'—^-*^-'-*''^'^'^^— — ■ ■• - - -^ ^ — -- -■ - — ^ 


came to Trenton in October, 1853. His resignation took effect 
March 21st, 1858. 

The Rev..L. Wright, the choice of both pastor and people, 
had already accepted the bishopric of the church, and com- 
menced his duties early in the following May. 

The house of worship was, in this pastorate, brought more in 
harmony with the nineteenth century, at the cost of one thousand 
two hundred dollars. To the regret of all, and leaving a cherished 
memory, brother Wright resigned in October, 1859. 

The Rev. Mr. Darrow succeeded him on the next Sunday, 
November ist After the lapse of one year and nine months, 
Mr. Darrow accepted a chaplaincy in the army and retired from 
his pulpit. ' ^ 

Rev. T. R. Howlet began his labors August ist, 1861. 

From the ist of February until the ist of December, 1863, the 
jBock iiras without a shepherd. 

The usual result of a vacation of the pastoral office followed. 
The membership was reduced, the congregation scattered, and 
at the last mentioned date, of the one hundred and seventy-three 
names on the register, forty had passed from the knowledge of 
the church, and since then have been either fonnd and dismissed, 
or else excluded. In this interim, thr^ rebuilding of the present 
house was begun and nearly completed. Its capacity was almost 
doubled, and little else remains of the former structure save a 
jxut of the old walls. The improvements cost eight thousand 
five hundred dollars, all of which not previously paid was pro- 
vided for on the day of rededication, March 3d, 1864. 

Since Mr. Griffith's pastorship in December, 1863, two hun- 
dred and fifty-three persons were added to the church, and 
of these one hundred and sixty-seven have been baptised. 
The membership numbers now three hundred and fifty-eight. 
There are in the church twenty-seven ''households of baptised 
believers/* seventy-one members are respectively under the ages 
of twenty-one and eighteen ; the youngest member b eight yean 
old, and the oldest eighty-one. 

Ten years ago a minute authorizes the treasurer to pay the 
trifling sum of a few dollars for expenses of ministerial help in a 
revival that year. In 1867, a minute shows five hundred dollars 

■ « 1" ^ II ll.'l ■■-■ — ■■ l l K l»l ■»»., 




paid for such aid. The receipts into the treasury for the quarter 
in 1857 were probably two hundred dollars; in the correspond- 
ing quarter for 1867 they were one thousand two hyindred dol- 
lars. A parallel of other interests would exhibit similar results 
and indicate the growth of one decade. 

The benevolence of the church has had a continuous growth. 
In all its history, there is no year but that it is credited in the 
minutes of the convention with contributions. Seventeen dol- 
lars was the sum of the first annual gifts. Those of this year are 
one thousand three hundred and fifteen dollars. In all, four 
thousand one hundred and thirty dollars has been contributed 
abroad — ^a sum but little less than that expended by the Conven- 
tion to originate and sustain the church, which was five thousand 
and fifty-three dollars. 

The Sunday-school has always been a preferred department of 
labor among us. The home school was established in 1853, with 
twelve teachers, eighty scholars, and the pastor for superin- 

There has been added in all to the church from the Sunday- 
school, one hundred and twenty-three. 

The Home school reports three hundred and seventy-one 
members ; one hundred and thirty of them are baptised believers. 
The revival has recently, added thirty-seven baptized disciples to 
the school. 

The pastor gave up the charge of the Home school to Mr. D. 
P. Forst, who filled the office of superintendent for five years, 
and was succeeded in January, 1 861, by Mr. J. EL Darrah, the 
present superintendent, who, with the exception of nine months 
during which Mr. William Stickney held the office, has con- 
tinued in the discharge of its duties. 

Mr. L. Cheeseman, librarian, has occupied the position for 
eleven years. 

A mission-school was established in i860, in the northwestern 
part of the city by Mr. Collins, who was its first superintendent. 
Mr. Forst, the present superintendent, has discharged the duties 
of the office four years. The school has been the means of good 
to many and is growing in numbers and usefulness. There are 
one hundred and ten names on the register. Two o^er mission 

f* i 

■tfi'arf Wirnii'ninii i iifuwTii I 'tyy^l — ^in -•— -.- ^- -. • , i if- nirri • m ir 



schoob have been organized, one in the new chapel. Perry street, 
with Mr. T. C. Hill as superintendent ; the other in East Tren- 
ton, with Mr. H. B. Green as superintendent. 

The rebuilding of the house of worship was a great undertak- 
ing for so feeble a folk. But invigorated by the expenditure and 
enriched in £uth by its fruits, that enterprise was no sooner com- 
pleted than other projects for ''church extension'* were taken 
hold of. In 1865, lots were purchased for tnission purposes. A 
parsonage was bought in 1866, and the mission chapel erected 
and opened for public service the same year. 

The officers of the church are T. S. Griffith, pastor; E. 
Cheeseroan, D. P. Forst, William McKee, A. J. Byram, T. C. 
Hill, deacons; C. B. Vansyckel, A. Jameson, A. J. Byram, R. 
M. Wilkinson, T. C. Hill, William McKee, D. P. Foist, trus- 
tees, of whom T. C. Hill and D. P. Forst were members of the 
first board of trustees chosen by the church ; James Buchanan, 
clerk; L. Cheeseman, treasurer. 

Before the year 1850, efforts were made to organize the Ger- 
man Protestants in and around Trenton into a congregation; 
hot partly the small number of German families, and partly the 
incompetency of the men undertaking such a work, were the 
causes of repeated failures. Early in the year 1851, commis- 
sioned by the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Pennsylvania, Rev. 
A J. Geissenhaimer, who was living at that time in New York 
city, came at regular intervals to Trenton, to preach the word of 
God to the Germans in their own language, and to administer 
to them the Holy Sacraments. The meetings were held in a 
public hall, and the interest in this good work was increasing, so 
that Rev. Mr. Geissenhaimer found it necessary to move his 
family to our city, to be enabled to devote his whole time and 
energy to the spiritual welfare of the small flock. As the mem- 
bers of this new organization were too few and their means too 
small to build or to buy a church, their faithful pastor, with his 
own money, bought a suitable property on Broad street, in the 
spring of 1853, and during the following summer erected on it a 
neat brick church, with the understanding that as soon as the 
congregation would refund him the expended money, he would 
give them a deed and clear title to the property. 

b^k* « A^ m i^i^J 

■■I I ",■■ a ■ iiirtfiw ■ - - ^u "' ''" — ' -~* ' * ^ — -^ ^- 


The location of the church b not only very favorable to the 
much scattered congregation^ being as much central as. possible, 
but the selection of this property was also very jodicioos, as there 
are historical reminiscences connected with iL Oq this lot is a 
small frame house, still well preserved, now used as the parson- 
age, which stood during the revolution and was then owned by 
Captain Alexander Douglass. 

There it was, in a small front room of this humble mansion, 
that General St. Clair had kis quarters after the American army 
had recrossed on the cast side of the Delaware during the week 
after the Hessians were taken in Trenton, on the 26th of Decem- 
ber, 1776. General Washington's headquarters, it is said, were 
at Mrs. Richmond's, or at a hotel near the old stone mill, but 
on the day of the fight at the Assanpink bridge, Thursday, Jan- 
uary 2d, 1777, they were too near it to be tenable, and this pro- 
bably was the reason why General St Clair's room was used as 
a headquarters on this memorable night It was here that the 
celebrated counsel of war was held, which was to decide the late 
of our struggle for independence. At that counsel Washington 
presided, and Greene, Sullivan, Mercer, Knox, St Clair, Stevens, 
Dickinson, Cadwallader, MifHin, Wilkinson, Stark, and other 
officers assisted. 

On the lot next to the above described house stands the small 
brick church, built in the Gothic style — ^thirty-three feet wide, and 
sixty feet deep, with a tower and steeple in front The church 
had sixty-two pews, and could seat two hundred and seventy. . 
persons. The building was finished in the fall of 1852, and 
dedicated on the 31st day of October in the same year — this 
being the three hundred and thirty-fifth anniversary day of the 
reformation. In the following spring a small frame school- 
house, eighteen by thirty-three feet, was built agsunst the rear 
end of the church, where the Sunday-school, and, for several 
years, week-day-school was held. 

Thus this little flock was provided with a house of worship, 
and with a place where their children were brought to the - 
knowledge of Jesos. 

The happy eflects of this work were soon visible, for not only 
did the number of members, increase, but it was^also. found*. 

• . . • ■ .*'; ■ ">'",^'" 



thirty-six feet deep, was finished by New Year, 1866, and dedi- 
cated on the following Sunday. On the first floor is a large 
school room, where upwards of ninety scholars can be seated^ 
besides the dwellings consisting of three rooms, for the sextoiu 
The second floor has but one room, which, by folding doors, can 
* be partitioned off into two rooms. The lower school room, on 
week days, is occupied by the German and English school, num- 
bering between ninety and one hundred scholars, and on Sun- 
days by the infant class. The upper room is used by the larger 
classes of the Sunday-school, and during the week evening ser- 
vices are held here. 

The congregation, in the space of eighteen years, has grown 
from about thirty families to almost three hundred, and the 
Sunday-school has at present three hundred and flfty scholars, 
with thirty-two teachers. Rev. George F. Gardner is the present 
pastor of the congregation. 

The following gentlemen compose the vestry : John J. Strasser, 
Peter Hartmann, and Jacob Young, trustees ; Charles Voelkert, 
Frederick Beckmann, Peter Weber, Frederick Rustow, Charles 
Oerkvitz, Andrew Ritter, John Padderatz, John Wagner, and 
Frederick Fritz, deacons; Charles Lebtien, secretary; Chris- 
topher Kuhn, guardian of the poor. 

There are two societies connected with this church, the one 
composed of male members, the other of female members of the 
congregation, known by the name of the '' Gustavus Adolphos ^ 
Association." The former was organized on the 26th day of 
September, 1863, and has now flfty-nine members. The latter 
was organized on March 20th, 1864, and has at present axtj- 
Ave members. The object of these societies is not only mutual 
assistance in case of sickness or death, but general benevo- 
lence, and the advancement of the welfare of the congregation. 
The timely assistance given during the past years, and their 
donations to the church, are the proud records of the past; and 
the healthy state of their finances, the harmony among the mem* 
bers, and the constant additions that are made to their numbei^ 
augur a prosperous future for these societies. 

In the month of January, 1871, a sweet-toned bell of seven 
hundred pounds weight was put in the tower, to call the 


ben of the church to divine service, to give, as the inscription 
on the bell says, " Glory to God in the highest." 

On the 5th of December, 1777, Isaac Collins started a weekly 
newspaper at Burlington, called the "New Jersey Gazette," and 
on the 4th of March of the following year he removed it to this 
city, and established his office at the corner of Queen and 
Second streets (now Greene and State streets), and at present 
occupied by Charles Scott, as a book-store. 

It was in the building occupied by Mr. Collins as a printing 
ofiBce that the first Catholic services were held, in 1804, by a 
missionary of the church. The subject of his discourse was, 
"The devotions of the Blessed Virgin," explaining the Avi 

I We have no further account of any effort being made to 
I establish the church until the year 181 1, when Father Carr, the 
I priest of Ssunt Augustine's Church, Philadelphia, and Father 
Hurley, officiated at the residence of Mr. John D. Sartori, in 
Federal street, in the frame building now used by the New 
Jersey Steel and Iron Company as an office. In 1813, Father 
Harold, of Philadelphia, an able and eloquent preacher, offici- 
ated in the same place. 

The Catholics increasing in numbers, about the year 1814, 
through the influence of Mr. Sartori, and other gentlemen con- 
nected with the congregation, they purchased the lot on the 
<:omer of Lamberton and Market streets, and erected the present 
brick edifice thereon, which, with the grave-yard, was dedicated 
to the services of the church the same year, by the Rt. Rev* 
Michael Eagan, Bishop of Philadelphia. 

They continued to worship in this building until, in conse- 
quence of their large increase of numbers, they found it entirely 
too small, and were obliged to seek better accommodations, 
and, in the year 1846, they erected their present handsome 
church on Broad street. This church is handsomely finished, 
built of brick, and stuccoed. It has a handsome, fine-toned 

In 1853, they found it necessary, for want of room, to enlarge 
this building; consequently, the wing in the rear was added. 



materially improving its appearance, as well as allowing them 
the additional room needed. 

During the eariy history of the \ church in this city, they had 
no regularly settled pastor, but received supplies from New York, 
Philadelphia, and Baltimore. 

In 1828, Rev. James Smith officiated, after which Fathers 
Doyle, Whalen, and Comnissky supplied the pulpit Their first 
resident pastor was Father Geaghen. His health (ailing, obliged 
him to give up the charge, and Rev. Patrick Rafferty came here 
in 1833. He resided in Front street, near Warren. 

He was succeeded by Rev. William Whealen, in 1833. ^P* 
tember, 1834, Rev. William Reilly; he remained but a short 
time, and was succeeded in the same year by Rev. Patrick 
Costello. In 1835, Richard Hardy. June, 1837, Rev. Daniel 
McGorian. November, 1839, Rev. John Charles Gilligan. He 
was succeeded in 1844, by Rev. John P. Makin. Father Makin's 
health failing, he was obliged to suspend preaching and to travel, 
during which time the 'church was supplied by Fathers 0*Don- 
nell and Young. 

On the 2oth of May, 1861, Father Anthony Smith came here 
and took charge of the parish, and remained in charge of Saint 
John's until the return of Father Makin, and the formation of 
Saint Mary's parish, January ist, 1871, when he took charge of 
the church, and Father Makin was again api>binted to take 
charge of Saint John's Church. 

In 1853, Rt. Rev. Bishop Rosevelt Bailey was appointed 
Bishop of Newark and Trenton, which formerly belonged to the 
Diocese of Philadelphia, and was attached to the Diocese of 

Bishop Kendrick, of Philadelphia, and his brother, now 
Bishop of St. Louis, and Archbishop Hughes, of New York, 
have on several occasions officiated here, in Saint John*s Church. 

The church on Broad street was built in 1848, and enlarged 
by building the addition on the west end, in 1856. 

In 1862, the sisters bought tl^e handsome property on Broad 
street, and fitted it up for the education of orphans. The con* 
gregation increasing rapidly in numbers, in 1865, in order to 


'^tf ^r**^ ^' - -^' ■- ^ "*'—"-' ■^ --'-*- --^'^"l^-"'-'-*-'^--^ •-»-*- •- ■> -•■*>--^^~-- -^ ■ •^^- — -«^- ■- - -• — ' 


give them better accommodations, the property where Saint 
Mary*s Church is now built was purchased. 

In i868» they purchased the property on Bank street, from 
Mr. McCully, and in 1870 built the parochial school, in the rear 
of the church. 

The parishes were divided January ist, 187 1, the Assaiipink 
creek being the dividing line : Saint John's south of the creek, 
and Saint Mary's north of it 

The solemn ceremony of dedication of St. Mary's Church 
took place on Sunday, January ist, 1871, and was performed by 
the Rt. Rev. James R. Bailey, Bishop of Newark, assisted by a 
large number of clergymen. The exercises were conducted with 
all the solemnity and impressiveness that characterize Catholic 

At ten and a half o'clock a procession was formed, consisting 
of the bishop, clergy, and acolyths, who made the circuit of the 
church outside and inside, singing the litany of the saints and 
appropriate psalms, and sprinkling the walls with holy water, 
after which a pontifical high mass was sung, at which the follow- 
ing priests assisted : Celebrant Bishop Bailey, D. D., minister 
assistant; Dr. Carrigan, V. G. of the Diocese; first deacon 
assistant. Father Makin, of this city ; second deacon assistant. 
Father Kirwin, of Burlington ; first deacon of the mass. Father 
Lesen, O. M. C, of Syracuse, New York; second deacon of the 
mass. Father Peter, O. M. C, of this city; master of cere- 
monies. Father Young, of New York. 

Several other clergymen occupied seats in the chancel. The 
vestments worn on the occasion were very handsome and valu- 
able. The set is complete, and was manufactured in Marseilles, 
France, and presented by the Rosary Society. 

Rev. William Clark, D. D., S. J., of Baltimore, preached the 
dedication sermon, and it was a masterly effort. 

The presence of so many clergymen at the altar, the brilliancy 
of the numerous lights upon it, the glitter of the rich vestments, 
and the swinging of censers amid the smoke of incense, com- 
bined to make up a striking tableaux, which could not fail to 
impress every beholder. Among those within the chancel rail 



The Annunciation to Saint Joakin. From Francis L. and 
John Demmer. 

The Welcome of Saint Anne. From Catherine and Robert 

The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. From Julia and John 

The Presentation in the Temple. From Ann and Edward 
Cawley. n 

The Annunciation of the Angel Gabriel, when an ambassador 
from the King of Kings saluted the humble Virgin with the 
words, "Hail! full of Grace!'* From Miss Marie Melica 

The Marriage of Joseph and Mary. From Bridget and Ann 

The Visitation. From Louis Hargous. 

The Nativity of our Saviour. From Philomena and John 

The Adoration of the Three Wise Men from the East. From 
Mrs. Donovan, in memory of Timothy Donovan. 

The Flight into Egypt. 

The Prophecy of Saint Simeon. 

Christ in the Temple, Disputing with the Doctors. 

The Marriage Feast at Cana, in Galilee. 

Christ's Farewell to His Mother, before entering upon public 

Christ Prostrate under the Cross, meeting His Mother. 

The Crucifixion. 

The Burial of Christ 

The Death of the Blessed Virgin. From Father Smith, pastor. 

The average size of the pictures is nine feet in width, by four- 
teen and a half in height. In some of them there are as manj 
as nine full-length life-sized figures represented. Each of these 
pictures is a volume in itself. But to dwell upon them sepa- 
rately, and point out their merits and beauty as works of art^ 
would occupy too much space. They are simply grand, and 
seem to increase in beauty with each succeeding visit. In clear- 
ness of outline, in the wondrous brilliancy of color, in the 
accurate reproduction of the most'delicate tints and shadings. 

H .. nrnnj iifc. m ih * ■■ i < >*.-■ > «■.. ■ ■ h / ^>^.«j.^.,^ — .u-^> ->.— w ^.^.m...^^. 


in richness and mellowness of tone, in the rarity and complete- 
ness of their finish, in all, indeed, that distinguish genuine works 
of art, they are something to be admired, if not wondered at. 
This is the verdict of those competent to judge. 

Suspended from the walb on each side of the church are four-- 
teen exquisite paintings. They are in heavy walnut frames, 
beautifully carved. They are twenty by forty-two inches in 
size, without the frames, and were presented by the Sodality of 
the Assumption. The paintings are executed in oil upon canvass, 
and are the work of artists in Munich, Bavaria, from which city 
they were exported to this country. They represent some of the 
most striking and important events of our Saviour's passion, from 
the time He was condemned to death to His burial, and are used 
in the beautiful devotion known as the Way of the Cross. As 
irorks of art they are faultless, and indeed what has been said of 
the memorial paintings is equally true of these. 

There are three altars. The side altars are dedicated respect** 
ively to Saint Joseph and Saint Anthony. The grand altar is 
built of the finest of white marble, highly polished, and is all 
that the most fastidious could have desired in this magnificent 
temple of ecclesiastical art. The style of architecture is Gothic, 
being thus in harmony with the style of the church. It rests 
upon massive foundations extending a considerable distance 
below the floor. The extreme length is sixteen feet, the altar 
table being twelve feet long. It is reached by three steps, which 
are over three feet from the floor. Below the altar table, which 
IS three and a half feet above the highest step, there are three 
recesses, formed by the projection of eight clustered columns, 
with foliated capitals. In the central recess is a finely executed 
bos relief oi a lamb. The other recesses are filled with represen- 
tations of the cross and other pious objects in b(u relief. Back 
of this front there are two wings, extending two feet on each 
side, the recesses of which contain bos reliefs. On these wings 
are two statues, nearly life-size — one of Saint Patrick, the other 
of Saint Bridget. Saint Patrick is dressed in full episcopal 
robes. In one hand is held the crosier, while the other is 
extended in benediction over his faithful children. Under his 
feet are numerous serpents. Saint Bridget holds in one hand a 



pen, and in the other the Book of the Gospels spread open. 
The statues of these illustrious saints are very fine. 

The windows are of stained glass. The largest and most 
beautiful of these is the one in the chancel. The size is twelve 
by twenty-five feet. In the centre is a representation of the 
coronation of the Blessed Virgin. To her right and left appear 
the Father and Son, jointly holding a crown, adorned with her 
superabundant virtues, which shine, like precious stones, above 
her head ; while above this the Holy Ghost is seen descending 
in the form of a dove. Below and around this group there are 
choirs of angels. In the extremes, on either side, the four 
evangelists are represented, upon tasteful pedestals. The upper 
portion of the window is enriched with foliations, the spaces 
being filled with appropriate designs. If it is looked upon as a 
means of assisting devotion -the design is perfect, and if it is 
viewed as a work of art merely, it is a gem of rare beauty in the 
way of stained glass work. It was presented by Miss Marie M. 

Fourteen large side windows admit an abundance of light in 
mellowed rays. There are four different patterns of them, thus 
giving quite a variety. The colors are blended with considerable 
taste, care being taken to have a predominance of those colors 
that more readily admit light. In the top of each the Chalice, 
the Host, the I^mb, the Cross, the Tiara, and other interesting 
and sacred objects are artistically represented in the glass in 
foliated surroundings. The windows were presented by the 
following parishoners, beginning in the same order as with 
the pictures in the nave: i. Catherine and Robert Wilson, s. 
Julia and John Cahill. 3. Ann and Edward Cawley. 4. Miss 
Marie M. Hargous. 5. Bridget, Ann and William Donohoe. 6. 
Louis Hargous. 7. Catherine and John Fritts. 8. Mrs. Margaret 
Meredith. 9. Catherine and Felix McGuire. 10. Ellen and 
Peter Grattan. 11. Anacletus Kessler and John Dewan. is. 
Elizabeth and John Kale. 13. Mary Ann and Nicholas Bendel. 
14. Margaret and Patrick Nolen. 

The pews are made of chestnut, with mouldings of black wal* 
nut, finished in oil. All the doors of the church are of solid 
black walnut, in some cases having chestnut panels. The coa 


fessionals are of the same materials, elaborately carved. There 
is a gallery mnning across the end of the church for pew-holders, 
and above this is the organ gallery, containing an organ that can 
justly be classed among the largest in the United States. It has 
thirty-six stops, from which it will be seen that its power and 
range is very great, and three stands of keys. It contains two 
thousand pipes. These vary in size from three inches to nine- 
teen feet in height, the large ones being almost of sufficient 
dimensions to allow a moderately sized man to pass through. The ' 
organ can hardly be said to be new, because the pipes and bel- 
lows were in use before it was purchased by Father Smith. But 
with these exceptions it is new, as experienced organ builders 
were engaged for many months in rebuilding it, from the best 
materials that could be procured. With the modem improve- 
ments that have been added, the value of the organ is not less 
than ten thousand dollars, although the original cost was con- 
siderably less than this sum.* It is a remarkably clear and sweet- 
toned instrument* 

In point of size and beauty of finish. Saint Mary's Church is 
probably without an equal in the Diocese of Newark. Taken as 
a whole, it is admirably proportioned. Indeed, its great size is 
not at first apparent, save to a practiced eye. From this cause, 
if examined in detail, we find a grand harmony prevailing 
throughout the entire building. Good taste, as well as good 
judgment, is displayed on every side. As a temple of worship, 
it is a4asting monument to the zeal of the Catholics of Trenton, 
who, though poor in this world's goods, are rich in faith, and 
shows what has been accomplished by their free-will offerings, 
judiciously expended ; and, as a building possessing many archi- 
tectural beauti^, it will be pointed out with pride, as one of the 
sights of our city. It is no exaggeration to say that thousands 
of dollars have been saved in building this church, through the 
economy, judgment, and indomitable energy of Father Smith. 
Nor was this result brought about by using inferior materials, for 
the very opposite is the fact. Although burdened with the care 
of a parish numbering nearly four thousand souls, whose spiritual 
wants he faithfully ministered to, yet he could be seen at the 
new building early and late, personally superintending the work* 

■jyr--^'*- --•■•^■••■i-:^ — ■ «' ■*■ — 1^ , I ' i ' i " ■ J— 



Neither the heat of summer nor the cold of winter deterred 
him. Of him it can be truly said : '' I have loved, O, Lord, 
the beauty of thy house/* Father Smith has taken charge of 
the new parish. He was succeeded in Saint John's parish bj 
Father Makin, who was formerly pastor of that church. 

The entire cost of the church was about ninety-five thousand 
dollars. There is seating capacity for one thousand five hundred 

In Trenton, at the begiiining of this century, there was but 
one Catholic church, for the Catholic population was very small, 
there being only thirty families, Irish, French, and German. 


The small chapel, erected on the comer of Lamberton and 
Market streets, was built by the Rt. Rev. Michael Eagan, D. D., 
O.. S. F., and Bishop of Philadelphia, in the year 1814, and 
dedicated to Saint Francis. From the above date until 1846, 
when the Irish built their new church on Broad street, there was 
only this congregation. After the division, the Germans alone 
were too small in numbers to support and pay the debts of the 
church, and it was closed. At this period, Mr. Peter Hargous 
paid the debt, bought the chapel, and presented it to Bbhop 
Bayley, of Newark. The Rt. Rev. Bishop permitted the Ger- 
mans to use it, and on the 23d of June, 1853, the Rev. Father 
Gemnier, the first German priest, was appointed, who, in 18569 
removed to the west. He was succeeded by Father Anton 
Muller, O. M. C, from Philadelphia, who remained until Feb- 
ruary, 1859, when Father Gemnier returned and took charge of 
the church, remaining until June, 1865, when he permanently 
retired from active service to Saint Mary's Hospital, Philadelphia. 

In June, 1865, the bishop sent Rev. Father Storr, who, seeing 
that Saint Francis' Church was too small for the congregation, 
which by this time had considerably increased in numbers, 
bought the Methodist Church in Front street, for eleven thou- 
sand dollars. Father Storr was removed in 1866, and the 
congregation remained for a few months without a permanent 
pastor, but the Sunday service was performed in the old church, 
by priests sent by the bishop from Newaik. 

During this year (1866) the celebrated missionary, Francis X. 
Weninger, S. J., visited Trenton, and, by order of the bishop^ 

. — ».^ W IX I 

.^ ■ :,;, ■ ■ .' . -^ •■■ -^s,-^ > «M 



On Sunday, the 9th df October, 1S70, Saint Francis* Chorch 
was the scene of very imposing Catholic ceremonies. The 
Bishop of the Diocese, the Rt. Rer. James R. Bayley, paid an 
officii visit to the above parish, and celebrated mass at eight 
A. M. At ten o'clock a grand high mass was sung, with deacon 
and sub-deacon. On this occasion the bishop administered the 
sacrament of confirmation to eighty-seven candidates, many of 
whom were girls, who were robed in garments of snowy white- 
ness. The candidates advanced by two's inside the chancel rail, 
and were confirmed. Their deportment was edifying, and gave 
evidence of the thorough preparatory training they had received 
from their pastor. Father Peter. Before administering the sacra- 
ment, the bishop preached a brief but eloquent sermon, in which 
he gave a lucid explanation of confirmation, and pointed out the 
priceless gifts that are bestowed upon all who receive it with 
proper dispositions. 

In the afternoon a new cemetery was consecrated by the 
bishop. It is a spacious lot of ground, situate on the comer of 
Washington street and Roebling avenue, in the rear of the 
Soldiers' Children's Home. A procession was formed at the 
church, right resting on Greene street, which moved at three 
o'clock. It was composed oX children who had been confirmed, 
the Emmett Guard, the Trenton Beneficial Society^ Saint John's 
T. A. B. Society, Saint Francis' Beneficial Society, Saint Boni- 
face Society, Saint Joseph's Society, Saint Vincent de Paul 
Society, the Sodality of the Assumption, and others. The 
clergy occupied carriages. All of these societies carried flags 
and banners, which added much to their appearance. There 
were not less than two thousand persons in line, and full as many 
followed on the sidewalks. It was probably the largest turn-out 
of any religious denomination that ever took place in this city. 

In the centre of the cemetery a large cross was erected, at the 
foot of which the bishop, assisted by several clergymen, began 
the impressive ceremony of consecration, after which they made 
the circuit of the enclosure, and returned to the cross. At the 
conclusion of this ceremony, the bishop preached an able ser- 
-non to the multitude present, after which the immense crowd 
returned to the city, without accident of any description. In 

tm aat^. ■*»*»» ^ ' 

.: -..^t^}>iL\^^'^».^-i'^M-V TLJtA. '7 S. 



of holding two services a day, thej were held in .the Sunday* 
school room connected with that church* 

The locality being unfavorable, on the 15th of May, 1870, 
they removed to the Mercer County Court-house, where they 
have continued to worship ever since, holding morning and 
afternoon services, and at present two sessions of the Sunday- 

The church attendance at first was quite small, there being not 
more than twelve persons present the first Sunday Mr. Bartholo- 
mew took charge. The first Sunday after the organization there 
were about twenty-five persons present ; on which occasion he 
preached from Luke, chap, xiv., 21, 23 verses, on the extended 
call to the Great Supper. 

Since their removal to the court-house the attendance has 
been larger and more regular. The church is still small and 
struggling hard against many discouragements to establish itself 
^ more permanently, and to secure a place of worship of its own. 
* The present membership of regular communicants is forty-five. 
The Trenton Messiah's Church ist a branch of the Messiah's 
Church of Morrisville, Pennsylvania. Early in the year 1863, 
at the beginning of the labors of Rev. D. I. Robinson with that 
church, public services were commenced in Trenton, where a 
number of the members resided. These services were held 
every Sabbath evening in the lower saloon of Temperance Hall. 
After about a year, the interest demanding it, at a meeting held 
February 15th, 1864, the Trenton membership was organized as' 
Messiah's Church of Trenton, New Jersey. The communicants 
numbered at the time of organization seventeen, and the services 
of Rev. D. I. Robinson as pastor, were secured. Public worship 
was continued at Temperance Hall, while an effort was at once 
made to erect a house of worship. During the year a small 
chapel was built in Clay street, near Market street, which was 
dedicated in October, 1864. The dedication sermon was 
preached by Rev. L. Osier, pastor of the Evangelical Advent 
Church of Providence, Rhode Island. 

The chapel was built of Trenton brown stone, thirty feet front 
by forty feet deep, and cost about two thousand two hundred 


dollars. It contains forty-six pews, and will seat about one 
hundred and eighty persons, and is still used by the church. 

Rev. D. I. Robinson officiated as pastpr from the time of the 
organization until March ist, 1865. Rev. D. Elwell, the pres- 
ent pastor, succeeded Mr. Robinson. The present number of 
communicants is sixty-five. 

The Sabbath-school held in connection with the church is 
under the superintendence of the pastor, and numbers fifteen 
teachers and about one hundred scholars. The uniform lesson 
system has been in use for two years. The library contains three 
hundred and eighty-six volumes. 

The church government is of the Independent or Congrega- 
tional order, the Trenton Church being associated with the 
Pennsylvania Conference of Messiah's Church. 

Public worship is sustained entirely by voluntary contributions. 

** Messiah's Church" is a denominational name. They were 
formerly known as ''Adventists" or "Second Adventists" — and 
that name expresses their denominational position — ^holding and 
prominently presenting the doctrine of the speedy second 
advent of Christ. 

But as there have been widely proclaimed doctrines under the 
name of Adventism, which they believe to be erroneous, and with 
which they do not desire to be identified, they have organized 
under a different name. 

The doctrines to which I more particularly refer, are those of 
Materialism and Unitarianism, so that in many sections Material- 
ism and Adventism are identical. They have, therefore, taken 
^he name of Messiah's Church, or Evangelical Adventists, the 
Hatter name being in use in the eastern states, and the former 
throughout Pennsylvania. 

The building in Montgomery street, above Academy street, 
purchased and fitted up by the Hebrew congregation of this 
^ity» was dedicated to worship March 23d, x866, with appro- 
priate ceremonies. 

The room was well filled with members' of the congregation, 
^nd a number of other citizens, among whom were clergymen of 
"^he different denominations of this city. Rev. D. Frankel, of 





Philadelphia, officiated, assisted by Rev. Mr. Gets and Rer. 
Mr. Strau^ 

The hymns during the exercises were chanted by a choir con- 
nected with Mr. Frankel's synagogue in Philadelphia. 

Judge Naar delivered the dedicatory address, and was followed 
by Rev. Isaac Leser, of Philadelphia. 

The exercises were closed by the choir chanting the one hun- 
dred and fiftieth psalm. 

There are two Friends* meeting-houses. That on the comer 
of Hanover and Montgomery streets was built in 1739, being 
the oldest house of worship in Trenton, and in Mercer 
street was built in 1858. The latter congregation worshipped at 
the comer of Academy and Greene streets until their new place 
of worship in Mercer street was built. 

The colored population have now two churches. Mount Zion 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Perry street, was built in 1819, and 
rebuilt in 1858. Their present pastor is Rev. Joshua Woodlin. ' 

They have also a meeting-house in Allen street, called Ssunt 
John's Weslcyan Methodist Episcopal Church, built in 1844^ 
which is at present without a regular pastor, although services 
are occasionally held there. 

The following statistics show the church membership, number 
of Sunday-school scholars, and estimated valuation of church 
property in the city : 

First Presbyterian — membership,- three hundred and twenty- 
four; scholars, three hundred and fifty; property, one hundred 
and twenty-five thousand dollars. 

Second Presbyterian — membership, two hundred and thirty- 
eight ; scholars, two hundred ; property, thirty thousand dollars. 

Third Presbyterian — membership, three hundred; scholars, 
five hundred ; property, fiSXy thousand dollars. 

Fourth Presbyterian — ^membership, two hundred and seven- 
teen; scholars, two hundred; property, seventy-five thousand 

Saint Michael's Episcopal— communicants, two hundred and 
fifty-six ; scholars, two hundred and seventy-five ; property, lortj 
thousand dollars.' ... 

**^" " ' " ''' IWIlill I I I !!■■< 



Ssunt Paul's Episcopal — communicants, one hundred; scholars, 
three hundred ; property, twelve thousand dollars. 

Trinity Episcopal — communicants, one hundred and twenty- 
five; scholars, seventy; property, twenty-six thousand dollars. 

Greene Street Methodist Episcopal — ^membership, five hundred 
and fifty ; scholars, five hundred and sixty-one ; property, fifty 
thousand dollars. 

Trinity Methodist Episcopal — ^membership, three hundred and 
seventy-five; scholars, four hundred and fifty; property, forty- 
five thousand dollars. 

Union Street Methodist Episcopal — membership, seventy- 
eight; scholars, one hundred and thirty; property, six thou- 
sand dollars. 

State Street Methodist Episcopal — membership, two hundred 
and eighty-four; scholars, three hundred and seventy ; property, 
fifty thousand dollars. 

Warren Street Mcthodist'Episcopal — membership, one hundred 
and twenty-four; scholars, two hundred and four; property, five 
thousand dollars. 

Central Methodist Episcopal — membership, three hundred ; 
scholars, five hundred and twenty-five ; property, fifty thousand 

First Baptist — membership, seven hundred and sixty-one; 
scholars, one thousand one hundred and ten ; property, forty- 
four thousand five hundred dollars. 

Central Baptist — membership, three hundred and fifty-eight; 
scholars, six hundred ; property, thirty thousand dollars. 

Trinity Lutheran — ^membership, one hundred and twenty-five ; 
scholars, three hundred and fifty ; property, thirty thousand 

Saint John's Catholic — membership, three thousand ; scholars, 
four hundred ; property, seventy-five thousand dollars;. 

Saint Francis' Catholic — membership, one thousand ; scholars, 
one hundred ; property, twenty thousand dollars. 
, Saint Mary's Catholic — ^membership, two thousand five hun- 
dred ; scholars, three hundred ; property, one hundred and six 
thousand dollan. 



Messiah's — membership, sixty-five; scholars, one hundred; 
property, two thousand two hundred dollars. 

Evangelical Lutheran — membership, forty-five. 

Total valuation of church property, eight hundred and sev- 
enty-one thousand seven hundred dollars. 

Total church membership, eleven thousand one hundred and 

Total number of scholars attending Sabbath-schools, seven 
thousand and ninety-five. 


Trenton in 1776 — Extent of the town — Queen street— Front street 
— Second street— King street-Route taken by the American 
army — Generals Wasfiington^ Greene^ Sullivan^ Diddnson^ 
Ewingt Sterlings Mercer, Stevens, Cadwalader, Mifflin — Colo- 
nels Baylor and Brearley — Captains IVilliam Wasliington, 
Forrest, and Morris — Lord Comwallis, British commander-in- 
ehirf-^Colonel Rahl, Hessian commander — Crossing the Dela- 
ware — WashingtofC s guides to the city — Comnuneement of the 
battle — Lieutenant Monroe — Bravery of Mrs. Clarke — Council 
of war — Retreat of the American army by the Sandtown 
road across Quaker bridge to Stony Brook — Death of General 

QUEEN (now Greene) street commenced at the north end 
of the town, and ran due south to the bridge over the 
Assanpinky at Trent's mills, now belonging to Henry McCall, 
Esq. Front street commenced in Queen, a few rods north of 
the Assanpink bridge in Greene street, and extended west to the 
Masonic lodge. Here the river road commenced and ran up 
Willow street to Potts' tan yard ; thence west through Quarry 
street, by Rutherford's and Colonel Dickinson's places in a 
northwest course, and through Birmingham to the Bear tavern. 
Second street commenced at Chambers' comer, at Willow street, 
(now comer of State and Willow), and ran east through State 
street to the old iron works, crossing King and Queen streets. 
King (now Warren) street, commenced on the Pennington road, 
on the north point of Queen (now Greene) street, and ran in a 
southerly direction by the old court-house and jail, (now Tren- 
ton Bank), to Front street. 

Perry street was not opened until the fall of 1813, and received 

fmx^^^»"'* '^yrr.T'y r' z^:'- T- ^-T *.j- - . 'rn' T'-.. '.-.r.-r. ' '' ' i"'-*;i%T^r'a*f ••?-^ ■'ngwrr' ••"""'•'' - > >^i.L^.l 



its name in honor of Commodore Perry, who had in the previous 
May achieved so signal a victory on the lakes. 

Between the residence of the late William Potts (comer of 
Warren and Perry streets), and Saint Michael's (Episcopal) 
Church, was what was then called Church alley, afterwards Still's 
alley, named by Pontius D. Still, who occupied the house late 
the residence of William Potts. Thb alley ran from King to 
Queen street. It was in King street, at the entrance of this 
alley, that Colonel Rahl, the Hessian commander, was shot, in 
endeavoring to pass through it, in order to rally his distracted 
troops. This alley was closed up by Mr. Still himself, though 
part of it still remains in Greene street next to the Madison 
house. The whole extent of Warren street at that time was from 
the Pennington road, taking a southwesterly direction by the old 
court-house, as far down as Front street. All below Front street 
belonged to the Bloomsbury farm. This part of Warren street 
was not opened as a street until 1801. 

From the north end of King and Queen streets to the village 
of Maidenhead (now Lawrcnceville), is six miles. 

And from the above point the general course of the road is 
north to Pennington, about eight miles. 

One mile from Trenton, on the Pennington road, the Scotch 
road branches off to the left, and for about two and a quarter 
miles its course is northwest, after ^'hich it bends to the north- 
east for a little distance, and thence its course is a little west of 

The road which leads from McConkey*s ferry (now Taylors* 
ville), runs northeast, and one and a quarter miles from the 
river it crossed the river road, at the Bear tavern, eight miles 
from Trenton; two miles further, it crosses the Scotch road, 
seven miles from Trenton. 

From the Bear tavern, on the river road, to Birmingham was 
three and a half miles, and from^Birmingham to Trenton, four 
and a half miles. From Birmingham across to the Scotch road, 
where it bends to the east (as mentioned above), is about one 
mile ; from this point to its junction with the Pennington road 
is two and a quarter miles ; and from thence to Trenton, one 
mile. V 

.*-^ -WW III ■*■■ iMlfc 



General Washington, with the division under General Greene, 
came the above-mentioned route from Birmingham to Trenton*. 
FM of the division went down King street, and the remainder 
down Queen street, extending into the field to the left, towards the 
Assanpink creek, the course of which is from the northeast for a 
mile or two, until it passes the iron works, (late the residence of 
G. Perdicaris), after which it bends to the west, and ran by 
Trent's milb, in Queen street, to the Delaware river. 

The division under General Sullivan, on the river road, entered 
the town by Colonel Dickinson's and Rutherford's, through 
Second and Front streets. • 

So the enemy were hemmed in by the Assanpink on the south 
and east, and by the American army on the west and north. 

On Wednesday, the 25th of December, 1776, General Wash- 
ington, with his army, was on the west bank of the Delaware 
river, encamped near Taylorsville (then McConkey's ferry), 
eight miles above Trenton. The troops under General Dickin- 
son were at Yardleyville, four miles above Trenton, and detach- 
ments were encamped still further up the river. The boats on 
the river had all been secured when General Washington had 
crossed with his army on the first of the month. 

The Pennsylvania troops were in two bodies; one at Bristol, 
ten miles below Trenton, and the other at Morrisville, opposite 
Trenton, under General Ewing.* 

At this time the British, under General Howe, were stationed 
in detachments at Mount Holly, Black Horse, (now Columbus), 
Burlington, and Bordentown ; and at Trenton there were three 
regiments of Hessians, amounting to about fifteen hundred men, 
and a troop of British light-horse. Divisions of the British army 
were also at Princeton and New Brunswick. 

One part of the plan of Washington was to recross the Dela- 
ware with his army at McConkey's ferry, on the night of the 25th 
of December, and for General Ewing, with a part of the army 
under his command, to cross at or below Trenton — thus, both 

* In Sparlci* Life of Washington this oflicer is called Ewing; in MarshalT^ 
Irwin; and in Wilkinson's, Irwing— aU evidently meaning the same oflicer. 

■ ■ >!■« 1^- 

■*.b.»> ^.^-a. 



called to lonning,* (who was a little in advance of the troops% 
andaskedy ''Who is there?*' Lanning replied, "A friend 1 
••A friend to whom?" "A friend to General Washington. 
At this the guard fired and retreated.f 

The American troops returned their fire, and rushed upoa 
them, driving them into town. 

At the head of King street. Captain T. Forrest opened a six- 
gun battery, under the immediate orders of General Washing- 
ton, which commanded the street. Captain William Washing- 
ton and Lieutenant James Monroe (afterwards presidciht of the 
United States), perceiving that the enemy were endeavoring to 
plant a battery in King street, near where the canal feeder now 
crosses Warren street, rushed forward with the advance guard, 
drove the artillerists from their guns, and took from them two 
pieces, which they were just in the act of firing. The same guns 
are now at the arsenal in this city. Captain Washington and 
Lieutenant Monroe were both wounded in this successful enter- 
prise. A part of this division marched down Queen (now 
Greene) street, and extended to the left, in order to cut off the 
retreat of the enemy towards Princeton. 

The division of the army which came down the river road, 
under the command of General Sullivan, fell upon the British 

* This Lanning had a few dajs beibre been taken prisoner by a scoodag 
party, in the Scudder neighborhood, near the Delaware rirer, carried to Trem- 
ton, and confined in a house on Tucker's comer, (now occupied by Joseph Gu 
Brearley & Co., as a hardware store, on the comer of State and Greene stfeets)^ 
Watching an opportunity, when there was a little commotion among the gnar^ 
he slipped out of the back door, sprang over a high board fence, and escaped 
to the house of Stacy Potts, who took him in, and concealed him that ni^bL 
The next morning Lanning, dressed in an old ragged coat and flapped bat, pot 
an axe under his arm, and went with his head down, limping along, and to 
passed the enemy's sentries in safety, in the character of n wood-chopper; hot 
when he got where the Pennington and Scotch roads meet, lookii^ in eveiy 
direction and seeing no person, he threw down his axe, and took to Didua* 
son's swamp, and so escaped* 

t^'^c commencement of the engagement, when Waslungtoa with \Ss^ 
tword raised, was giving his orders it b said a musket ball passed betweea Us 
lingers, slightly grazing then. He only said ** fkoi hummed By."* ^ 


advance guard at Rutherford's place, adjoining Colonel Dickin- 
son's, near the southwestern part of the town, at about the same 
time that Washington entered it on the north. 

Both divbions pushed forward, keeping up a running fire with 
small arms,* and meeting with but little opposition until the 
enemy were driven eastward in State street, near the Presbyterian 
Church, where there was some fighting, the enemy having made 
a momentary stand ; but finding themselves hemmed in and over- 
powered, they laid down their arms on the field northeast of the 
Presbyterian Church, and about due south of the Quaker meet- 

Colonel Rahl, the Hessian commander, whose headquarters, 
were at the City tavern, comer of Warren and Bank streets, 
opposite Still's alley, was mortally wounded during the early 
part of the engagement, being shot from his horse while endeav- 
oring to form his dismayed and disordered troops. 

When, supported by a file of sergeants, he presented his sword, 
to General Washington, (whose countenance beamed with com- 
placency at the success of the day), he was pale and bleeding, 
and, in broken accents, seemed to implore those attentions which 
the victor was well disposed to bestow upon him. • He was taken 
to his headquarters, where he died. 

During the engagement, a ball passed through the window of 
Bahl's headquarters, leaving a round hole, and considerably 
shattering the glass. 

The number of prisoners taken at that time was twenty-three 
oflScers and eight hundred and eighty-six privates. Four stands 
of colors, (two of which are now in the office of the secretary 
of state of Pennsylvania, at Harrisburg), twelve drums, six brass 
field-pieces, and a thousand stands of arms and accoutrements 
were the trophies of victory. 

The British light-horse and four or five hundred Hessiana 

* When the firing commenced on the morning of the battle^ a danghter of 
Mr. Stacy Potts was at Miss Coxe's. opposite the Efnscopal Church, and as 
she was nmning to her father's house (the old frame tavern, comer of Warrem 
and Bank streets), a mtiskct ball struck the comb firom her head, slightly In* 



,1 f ir^-i-r— ^^-^•■*—^— '***'* *' jfl^- fc »^..rtA>>^ ■■ .. ■• .-■ifc..^^fci— ^. in iiT 'ifchi^kafaMfcMa ifcJaa 


escaped at the beginning of the battle over the bridge across the 
Assanpink, at Trent's milk, and fled to Bordentowa, 

If General Ewing, whose division of the army was opposite *^ 
Trenton, had been able to cross the Delaware, as contemplated, 
and take possession of the bridge over the Assanpink at Greene 
street, all the enemy's troops who were in Trenton would have . 
been captured. But there was so much ice on the shores of the 
river that it was impossible to get the artillery over. 

The Hessians lost seven officers and twenty or thirty men. 
Twenty-four of these were buried in one pit, in the Presbyterian • 
burying ground, by the American troops.* 

Immediately after this victory — which* greatly revived the 
drooping spirits of the army — General Washington commenced 
marching his prisoners up to the Eight-Mile-Ferry (McConkejr's), 
and before night all were safely landed on the western shore of 
the Delaware. But General Washington would not let a man 
pass more than was necessary, until all the prisoners were over* 
The Americans had two privates killed, and two, it is said, were 
frozen to death. • 

The night after the taking of the Hessians, several of the 
American soldiers, who were worn down and poorly clad, took 
refuge at the house of Mr. Scudder, father of the late Mr. Rich* 
ard Scudder. Several of them became very sick in the night, 
and two or three died, and it is not at all unlikely that these 
were the persons mentioned in the history as having frozen to 

Although the American army suffered great privations and 
underwent very many hardships, still it is extremely doubtful 
whether the two men above mentioned actually froze to death. 

The Mr. Scudder above named lived about two miles and a 
half below McConkey's ferry. 

* Some yean after this battle, several skeletons and cofiins were foond where 
the waters of the river washed the bank in the soathwestem part of the faltf^ 
and many persons supposed that the Hessians killed in this engagement were 
honed there ; but it has been ascertained that this was the ground where the 
soldiers and others who died in the barracks and hospital at White Hill were* 
bitried. In excavating on the south bank of the Assanpink, within a few '^Iti^n^ 
human bones have been foond. 




and they must inevitably be cut to pieces if thej made any 
further resistance, they agreed to lay down their arms. 

'' The number that submitted in this manner was twenty-three 
officers and eight hundred and eighty-six men. 

'' Colonel Rahl, the commanding officer, and seven otheiSy 
were found wounded in the town. 

''I do not know exactly how many they had killed; but I 
fancy not above twenty or thirty — as they never made any regn- 
lar stand. 

'' Our loss is very trifling indeed— only two officers and one or 
two privates wounded. (These were Captains Washington and 

'' I And that the detachment of the enemy consisted of three 
Hessian regiments of Landspatch, Kniphausen, and Rahl, 
amounting to about one thousand five hundred men, and a troop 
of British light-horse; but immediately upon the beginning of 
the attack, all those who were not killed ^^or taken, pushed 
directly down the road towards Bordentown. 

''These, likewise, would have fallen into our hands could my 
plan completely have been carried into execution. . 

'' General Ewing was to have crossed before day at Trenton 
ferry, [just below where the Delaware bridge now stands], and 
taken possession of the bridge leading to the town,* but the 
quantity of ice was so great, that though he did everything in 
his power to efiect it, he could not cross. 

'' This difficulty also hindered General Cadwalader from cross- 
ing with the Pennsylvania militia from Bristol. He got part of 
his foot over, but finding it impossible to embark his artillery he 
was obliged to desist. 

'' I am fully confident that, could the troops under Generals 
Ewing and Cadwalader have passed the river, I should have 
been enabled, with their assistance, to have driven the enemj 
from all their posts below Trenton. But the numbers I had with 
me being inferor to theirs below, and a strong batallion of light- 

*Tlus was the bridge in Greene street, as there was no other 
the Assanpink at thai time. General Ewing was to have taken that post to 
prerenl the escape of the enemy to Bordentowa* 



■**''^^""^^"**^-^-^ '*"■ - '■'■•-^-•'^^ ■■ — -■ '^ ^ -•-...— ■ -i^^ ^ "■^■inuLmiitj 



infantry being at Princeton^ above me, I thought it most prudent 
to return the same evening, with the prisoners and the artillery 
we had taken. We found no stores of any consequence in the 

''In justice to the officers and men, I must add that their 

behavior on this occasion reflects the highest honor upon thenu 

The difficulty of passing the river on a very severe night, and 

their march through a violent storm of hail and snow, did not 

in the least abate their ardor — ^but, when they came to the 

, charge, each seemed to vie with the other in pressing forward ; 

and were I to give a preference to any particular corps I should 

do injustice to the other. Colonel Baylor, my first aid-de-camp, 

will have the honor of delivering this to you, and from him you 

may be made acquainted with many other particulars. His 

spirited behavior upon every occasion requires me to recom- 

^nend him to your particular notice.** 

The annexed account of >he battle of Trenton is taken from 
^he " Pennsylvania Journal** of 1781. 

''About eight o'clock in the morning, an attack was made on 
"^he picket-guard of the enemy. It was commanded by a youth 
^f eighteen, who fell in his retreat to the main body. 
_ ''At half-past eight o'clock the town was nearly surrounded, 
-^and all the avenues to it were seized, except the one left for 
^Seneral Ewing to occupy. An accident here liked to have 
^deprived the American army of the object of their enterprise. 
^!The commanding officer of one of the divisions sent word to 
^Seneral Washington, just before they reached the town, that his 
oMinmunition had been wet by a shower of rain that had fallen 
^hat morning, and desired to know what he must do. Washing- 
ton sent him word to * advance with fixed bayonets.^ This 
^Saconic answer inspired the division with the firmness and cour- 
9ige of their leader. 

^ "The whole body now moved onward in sight of the enemy. 
"An awful silence reigned in every platoon. . 
"Each soldier stepped as if he carried the liberty of his 
country upon his single musket 
"The moment was a critical one. 
"The attack was begun with artillery, under command of 

^^^ i:_-j;T1tiiri -—•^ - *'1r-a»>Ti i 

t-J^SiSXir^^^^^^^ ' ^^^— ^_ ._^___^^i^^.— ^i^»^»ji— j^ 


Colonel [afterwards General] Knox. The infantry supported 
the artillery with firmness. 

''The enemy were thrown into confusion at every quarter. 
One regiment attempted to form in an orchard, but was sooa 
forced to fall back upon the nuun body. A company of them 
entered a stone house,* which they defended with a field-piece^ 
judiciously posted in the entry. Captain [afterwards Colonel] 
Washington advanced to dislodge them with a field-piece, but, 
finding his men exposed to a close and steady fire, he suddenly 
leaped from them, rushed into the house, seized the officer who 
had command of the gun, and claimed him as a prisoner. His 
men followed him, and the whole company were made prisoners. 
The captain received a ball in his hand in entering the house. 

*' In the meanwhile, victory declared itself everywhere in favor 
of the American arms. 

'' The Philadelphia light-horse distinguished themselves upon 
this occasion by their bravery. They were the more admired 
for their conduct as it was the first time they had ever been .in 

''An anecdote is mentioned of Captain Samuel Morris, of tUs 
corps, which, though it discovers his inexperience of war, did 
honor to his humanity. In advancing toward the town, he 
came up to the lieutenant who had commanded the picket- 
guard. He lay mortally wounded and weltering in his blood, 
in the great road. The captain was touched with the sight, and 
called to General Greene to know if anything could be done for 
him. The general bade him push on and not notice him. The 
captsun was as much agitated with the order as he was affected 
by the scene before him; and it was not until after the fortunate 
events of the rooming were over that he was convinced that hb 
sympathy for a bleeding enemy was ill-timed. 

* This was a double stone house, one stoiy high, with hipped roo( and stood 
fronting the street, on the spot where the house of Meiter Beasley, Esq^ now 
stands. It was built by John Rickey, grandfather of the late John Ridccy, 
druggist, of this city. This building was erected in the year 1751. Thm 
orchard above mentioned was between the Ptesfayterian Chtudi and die old 
iron woilu, and occupied all the grounds between those two plaoes and Hit 
Asttnpink creek and Fiiendsf meeting-house. ^^ 




I'iirii ttitmA^uti^i^mm 

• I Mkmfm 



"After having refreshed themselves and rested a few hours in 
Trenton, the American armj returned, with their prisoners and 
other trophies of victory, to the Pennsylvania side of the river, ^ 
1>y the same way they came, with the loss of only three men, 
who perished by cold in recrossing the river — an event not to be 
wondered at when we consider that many of them were half 
naked, and most of them barefooted. 

"The next day, the British that were in Princeton marched 
to Trenton in pursuit of the American army, and went up the 
Scotch road as far as Mr. Benjamin Clarke's, [now William R. 
Mcllvaine's, Esq.] and inquired which route General Washing- 
ton had taken, and being informed that he had gone with his 
prisoners up the river road, they compelled John Clarke, their 
son, a lad about twelve years of age, to guide them across to 
Birmingham. Some of the American soldiers were at this time 
in Clarke's house. His mother, with true Spartan courage, 
unwilling to trust her son with the enemy, pursued the British, 
and prevailed upon them to give him up. 

" Soon after, the British finding Washington had crossed the 
Delaware, returned to Princeton. 

"The situation of the American army in the autumn of 1776 
was peculiarly trying, and the prospects of their righteous cause 
very gloomy. They had been obliged to retire before the enemy 
and cross to the west side of the Delaware. General Washington, 
believing it probable that General Howe, the commander of the 
British, would make an attempt upon Philadelphia as soon as the 
ice would enable them to cross, or before, had taken the precau* 
tion to have all the vessels and boats removed from the Jersey 
shore, from Philadelphia up to New Hope. 

" Writing to his brother, from the camp above the falls at 
Trenton, December x8th, 1776, he said, in view of the number, 
discipline, and position of the British army, contrasted with his 
own, ' You can form no idea of the perplexity of my situation. 
No man, I believe, ever had a greater choice of difficulties and 
less means to extricate himself from them. However, under a 
full persuasion of the justice of our cause, I cannot entertain an 
idea that it will finally sink, though it may remain for some time 
under a cloud.' 



'' Soon after this, his plan was laid for recrossing the Delaware 
at several points, to surprise and capture the enemy posted in 
different places along the Jersey shore. 

'^ But, owing to the ice, no part of the plan but that which 
referred to Trenion was carried into effect, and his success here 
showed the practicability of the whole, if the American troopi 
had been able to cross the Delaware. 

'' But, although they were providentially prevented from car* 
rying out their plans in this respect, yet, in another way, was 
Providence preparing for their success and the triumph of their 

'' The success of the American army oh the 20th of December, 
1776, revived the hopes of the country. The dark cloud which 
hung over the nation began to disperse, and Providence was 
pointing to the path which ultimately led to a bright and peace* 
ful day. 

''On the 29th of the same month. General Washington, writ- 
ing to congress from Newtown, Pennsylvania, says, ' I am just 
setting out to attempt a second passage over the Delaware with 
the troops that were with me on the morning of the 26th. 
General Cadwalader crossed over on the 27th, and is at Borden* 
town with about one thousand eight hundred men. General 
MifHin will be to-day at Bordentown, with about one thousand 
six hundred more.' And he adds, Mn view of the measures pro- 
posed to be pursued, I think a fair opportunity is offered of driy* 
ing the enemy entirely from Jersey, or, at least, to the extremity 
of the province."* 

On Monday morning, the 30th of December, 1776, General 
Washington recrossed the Delaware himself; but, owing to the 
great quatntity of drifting ice, his troops did not all reach Trenton 
till the evening of the 31st; and at this critical moment the 
army was likely to be diminished to a mere handful, as the time 
of service of the Continental troops expired that evening. But 
after much persuasion and the receipt of ten dollars bounty, by 
each, about one thousand four hundred of them re-enlisted for 
six weeks. 

These, with about three thousand six hundred Pennsylvania 


I • 11 r - I - -^•-'-"^--^•^ -"— - ■ ■- l^_^i^.ifc^^. ^ .^, 


a smart action from the troops who had formed very near them ; 
but at that instant, as I came in full view of them from the back 
of the wood, with his excellency General Washington, an officer 
informed him that one party had grounded their arms, and sur- 
rendered prisoners. 

''The others soon followed their example, except a part 
which had got off, in the hazy weather, towards Princeton. A 
party of their light-horse made off on our first appearance. 

** Too much praise cannot be given to our officers and men of 
every regiment, who seemed to vie with each other ; and by 
their active and spirited behavior they soon put an honorable 
sisue to this glorious day. 

**1 was immediately sent off with the prisoners to McConkey's 
ferry, and have got about seven hundred and fifly safe in town, 
and a few miles from here, on this side of the ferry, vii., one 
lieutenant-colonel, two majors, four captains, seven lieutenants, 
and eight ensigns. 

''We left Colonel Rahl, the commandant, wounded, on his 
parole, and several other officers and wounded men, at Trenton* 
We lost but two of our men that I can hear of— a few wounded— 
and one brave officer. Captain Washington, who asskted in 
securing their artillery, wounded in both hands.** 

The place of surrender was in the orchard, at the comer of 
Hanover and Stockton streets, as near as can now be ascertained* 

-jy^ — ^ ■^-.•>..-. lai^iii I •,-•- -"ii 



Second battle ^ cr Cannonading of Trenton — Battle of Princeton-^ 
Eagle tavern — Council of war — Retreat of the Americans fy 
the Sandtown rocut^ across Quaker bridge^ to Stony Brook — 
Death of General Mercer — Major Trent — Obituary notice of 
' the death of Judge Trent — Destruction of the bridgesln Warren 
and Greene streets — Destruction of Trent s old mill by floods 
JET, McCaW s purchase — Destruction of the American inn by fire. 


WHEN the Hessians were captured at Trenton, the several 
detachments of the British troops which were stationed 
at Burlington, Mount Holly, &c., immediately repaired to 
Princeton, where they were shortly after joined by a large 
re-enforcement from New York under Lord Comwallis. On 
Wednesday, the xst of January, 1777, General Washington 
ordered forward, on the Maidenhead road leading to Princeton, 
a small detachment as far as Smith's hill, late Charles Reeder's, 
Five-Mile-Run, where they awaited the advance of the British; 
but the advance guard of the Americans was at the village of 

The advance guard of the British on the same night were at 
the Eight-Mile-Run, near the residence of the late Caleb Smith 
Greene, Esq., about a mile and a half from the village. 

Early the next morning, the main army of the enemy moved 
on from Princeton, meeting with little opposition until they 
reached Smith's hill, when a little skirmishing took place with 
the companies under Major Miller and Colonel Hand, after 
which our troops retired before the enemy to a piece of woods 
at the Shabbakonk creek, where, as the enemy approached, thej 
poured a deadly fire upon them for a few momenta, which caused 

t. T w i » ■*■«* — 

--■■.., r^.- -^,„.^-.^.r-j.. ,■■■'■■.•■ ,-A,— .1 ■ ■tJHi'.^i I '"iTwiai' 


the Britbh to form themselves In order for battle. By this suc- 
cessful manoeuvre of the Americans, the British were detsined 
two or three hours. f 

A detachment had been stationed that day by General Wash- 
ington at the northern extremity of Trenton, near Nathan 
Beakes', where they had thrown up some works, in order that 
they might retard the progress of the British as much as possible; 
and when they came up, there was a brisk cannonading for about 
twenty minutes, when the Americans fell back into Trenton, and 
crossed over the Assanpink bridge at Trent's mill,* taking ap 
the planks of the bridge after them. 

General Washington had that day planted his artillery on the 
high bank on the south side of the Assanpink creek, and had 
thrown up a breastwork across the road leading south from this 

From the bridge to the Delaware (about one hundred rods in 
a westerly direction), the Assanpink was fordable ; and from the 
bridge the pond extended a quarter of a mile or more. Guards 
were placed along the line, from the Delaware eastward, on the 
south bank of the creek. 

The British passed down Queen street towards the bridge, and 
when they had reached Tucker's corner, (the southwest comer 
of State and Greene streets), some well-directed shots from the 
artillery on the south side of the bridge caused them to wheel 
about and retire to the high ground at the north of the town^ 
where they encamped for the night. 

A few British were in a room in the old court-house, (now the 
Trenton Bank), which commanded a view of the American post* 
tion at the Assanpink bridge, and some of them were killed by 
a cannon-shot (ired by the Americans, which knocked down a 
part of the wall. 

*This, the Queen (now Greene) street bridge, was the onlj bridge over tibte 
creek at that time, and was a wooden structure. It was bnih in 1762, and was 
carried away bj the flood of 1820, and rebuilt of stone in 182a. Tbe Warrem 
street bridge was built the same year. The Greene street bridge was aboiH 
one-third as wide as it now is, being considerably widened in 184J, and agaia 
in 187a The south arch was erected in 184J. 



Vi ii r • Ti - - • —■•■■■"*■ 

^ ..!.•..• U'UearfW 

,«. ---. — • t • •- 

mSTOK Y OF T^EArTOHr. 171 

supposed to be the wife of Captain Douglass, passed through the 
room, observing as she went, '' Gentlemen, that which you are 
talking about will succeed" — referring to their plan of opera- 
tions which proved so successful the next day. 

General Washington sent for Mr. Elias Phillips, of Maiden- 
head, who came into the council about ten o'clock. Washing- 
ton asked him how long he had lived in the place — ^whether he 
was acquainted with the direct road to the Quaker bridge,* and 
made other inquiries, the answers to ivhich were taken down. 

He then had Patrick Lamb called in, who lived at the bridge, 
and the answers which he gave to the questions proposed were 
also recorded. Ezekiel Anderson was also sent for, and after 
questioning him and finding all their answers to agree respecting 
the road and the country, Washington appointed these men as 
guides for his army that night. Having given orders to the men 
who were engaged in throwing up a breastwork on the south 
bank of the Assanpink, (now known as Quintin's Washington's 
Retreat), to continue their work until it should be necessary to 
retire for their own safety, and directing the fires to be renewed 
and kept up, about midnight he ordered the army to march off. 
Taking the lower road, through Sandtown and across Quaker 
bridge, they reached the Stony brook at the Quaker meetings 
house early on Friday morning, the 3d of January, where the' 
battle which drove the enemy from this part of New Jersey was 
so successfully fought. But many of our brave men fell on this 
memorable morning, and aviiong them was the gallant General 
Mercer, who first engaged the enemy, and who fell at an earlj 
. hour, covered with wounds. 

The late Dr. Moses Scott, of New Brunswick, with other sur- 
geons, was with General Mercer under the tree, after the battle, 
and said that he had received sixteen wounds by the bayonet, 
though these were not thought by the general himself, (who was 
a physician) to be necessarily mortal, but tiiat while lying on the 
ground, a British soldier had struck him on the head with his 

* * This bridge is over the Assanpink, a mile or two south of the road from 
Trenton through the village of Lawrenceville to Princeton, and nearly eqiii« 
distant from buh townt. v 




musket, ''and that/' said he, ''was a dishonorable act, and it 
will prove niy death." He lived but a few days. 

It is said that Sir William Erkskine, when the British army had 
reached Trenton on the ad, although it was just evening, urged 
Lord Cornwallis to engage the Americans immediately; but 
Cornwallis thought that the escape of Washington's army was 
impossible, and as his own troops were fatigued, they had better 
rest until the next morning. 

But the morning light dvscovered his error. Chagrined and 
dismayed, he retraced, with anxiety and haste, his steps towards 
Princeton, and did not attempt to pursue the American army, 
which had retired towards Pluckemin, but hastened his march to 
New Brunswick, where he had left his baggage and military 

The following account is taken from the "Connecticut 
Journal" of January 22d, 1777, just twenty days after the 
battfe occurred, and purports to have come from an officer 
who was in the engagement. 

He says: " Immediately after the taking of the Hessians at 
Trenton, on the 26th of December, 1776, our army retreated 
over the Delaware, and remained there for several days, and 
then returned and took possession of Trenton, where they 
remained quiet until Thursday, the 2d of January, at which 
time, the enemy having collected a large force at Princeton, 
inarched down in a body of four or five thousand to attack our 
people at Trenton. " 

"Through Trenton there runs a small river,* over which 
there is a small bridge.f 

General Washington, aware of the enemy's approach, drew 
hb army, (about equal to the enemy) over that bridge, in order 
to have the advantage of the said river and of the higher ground 
on the farther side.{ 

" Not long before sunset the enemy marched into Trenton, 

*The Assanpink creek. 

f Greene street bridge. 

X Now « Quintin'i Washington's Retreat"* 

, . ■ ■ ■ ^ _ _ . • > I T '" n - ' -' ■ ■ — - — ^^^fl«- 



and after reconnoitering our situation, drew up in solid column, 
in order to force the bridge, which they attempted to do with 
great vigor, at three several times, and were as oAen broken by 
our artillery, and obliged to retreat and give over the attempt, 
after suffering great loss, supposed to be at least one hundred 
and fifty hilled. 

''By this time night came on, and 'General Washington 
ordered fires to be kindled and everything disposed of for 
the night. 

'' But after all was quiet, he ordered a silent retreat, drew off 
his army to the right, marched all night in a round-about joad, 
and next morning arrived with his army at Princeton. 

'' All this was done without any knowledge of the cnemjr, 
who, in the morning were in the utmost confusion, not knowing 
which way our army had gone until the firing at Princeton gave 
them information." 

Here is another account of the battle of the Assanpink, and is 
given as related by an eye-witness, and which was published in 
the "Princeton Whig," November 4th, 1842. 

" When the army under Washington, in the year '76, retreated 
over the Delaware, I was with them. At that time there remained 
in Jersey only a small company of riflemen, hiding themselves 
between New Brunswick and Princeton. 

" Doubtless, when Washington reached the Pennsylvania side 
of the river, he expected to be so re-enforced as to enable him 
effectually to prevent the British from reaching Philadelphia. 

"But in this he was disappointed. Finding that he most 
achieve victory with what men he had, and so restore confidence 
to his countrymen, it was then that the daring plan was laid to 
recross the river, break the enemy's line of communications, 
threaten their depot at New Brunswick, and thus prevent their 
advancing to Philadelphia, which was only delayed until the 
river should be bridged by the ice. But Washington anticipated 
them. I was not with the troops who crossed to the capture of 
the Hessians. It was in the midst of a December storm that I 
helped to re-establish the troops and prisoners on the Pena* 
sylvania shore. 

" The weather cleared cold, and in a few dan we ctftssed oa 

tAliaUdmAi^^tilmiimimtn^Mtmm^ , ammt n a t t% i m ' ma ■! [ I • !■■■■> <■ t a lu -J k m ^ikm^mmUkmm^^Ltmmt^ 



the ice to Trenton. Shortly afterwards a thaw commenced, 
which rendered the river impassable, and consequently the 
situation of the army extremely critical. 

'' In the morning of the day on which the battle of the Assun- 
pink was fought, I, with several others, was detached under the 
command of Captain Longstreet, with orders to collect as many 
men as we could in the country between Princeton, Cranbury, 
and Rhode Hall, and then unite ourselves with the company 
of riflemen who had remained in that neighborhood. 

''We left Trenton by the nearest road to Princeton, and 
advanced nearly to the Shabbakonk, (a small brook near Tren* 
ton), when we were met by a little negro on horseback, gallop- 
ing down the hill, who called to us that the British army were 
before us. One of our party ran a little way up the hill, and 
jumped upon the fence, from which he beheld the British army 
within less than a half a mile of us. And now commenced a 
race for Trenton. We fortunately escaped capture; yet the 
enemy were so near, that before we crossed the bridge over the 
Assunpink, some of our troops on the Trenton side of the creek, 
with a field* piece, motioned to us to get out of the street while 
they fired at the British at the upper end of it. Not being on 
duty, we had nothing to do but choose our position and view 
the battle. 

'' Washington's army was drawn up on the south side of the 
Assunpink, with its left on the Delaware river, and its right 
extending a considerable way up the mill-pond, along the face 
of the hill where the factories now stand.* 

'' The troops were placed one above the other, so that they 
appeared to cover the whole slope from bottom to top, which 
brought a great many muskets within shot of the bridge. 

'' Within seventy or eighty yards of the bridge, and directly 
in front of it, and in the road, as many pieces of artillery as 
could be managed were stationed. 

'' We took our station on the high ground behind the right, 
where we had a fair view of our line, as far as the curve of the 

*Tliis WM A very high bill, extending from Greene to Watren streets, tad 
hat been taken away reeentljr. 

■~TT~ r rm . . .^x 

.. ■y..^^...:.--. • .,>^>jn>ira&.rf i iJg ' ? ■* ■ .■^■ " 'I-TIli." « ■ ■: ■■■■' 



hill would permit, the bridge and street bejond being in Ibll 

'' The British did not delay the attack. They were formed 
in two columns, the one marching down Greene street to carrj 
the bridge, and the other down Main [now Warren] street to 
ford the creek, near where the lower bridge now stands. 

'' From the nature of the ground, and being on the left, this 
attack (simultaneous with the one on the bridge) ( was not able 
to see. 

'' It was repelled ; and eye-witnesses say that the creek was 
nearly filled with their dead. The other column moved slowlj 
down the street, with their choicest troops in front. When 
within about sixty yards of the bridge, they raised a shout and 
rushed to the charge. 

'' It was then that our men poured upon them from musketry 
and artillery a shower of bullets, under which however, they 
continued to advance, though their speed was diminished ; and 
as the column reached the bridge it moved slower and slower 
until the head of it was gradually pressed nearly over, when our 
fire became so destructive, that they broke their ranks and fled. 
It was then that our army raised a shout, and such a shout I 
have never since heard ; by what signal or word of command, I 
know not The line was more than a mile in length, and from 
the nature' of the ground, the extremes were not in sight of each 
other, yet they shouted as one man. 

''The British column halted instantly; the officers restored 
the ranks, and again they rushed to the bridge ; and again was 
the shower of bullets poured upon them with redoubled fiiry. 
This time the column broke before it reached the centre of the 
bridge, and their retreat was again followed by the same hearty 
shout from our line. 

''They returned the third time to the charge, but it was in 
vain. We shouted after them again, but they had enough of it. 
It is strange that no account of the loss of the English was ever 
published ; but from what I saw it must have been great.** 

Trenton, at the time of the capture of the Hessians, was a per- 
fect triangle; Warren street formed the western side of the 


m^tmmmmmt,mitmtit^ti^MtimmjS^^tiAiammmmtiiammii^iii^mm\m\ **■■ n •■• i r riiii 



triangle, Greene street the eastern side, and Front street the 
southern side. 

The present citj of Trenton, capital of the state of New Jer- 
sej, b situated on the east side of the Delaware, opposite the 
falb or rapids, and is in forty degrees, thirteen minutes north 
latitude, and seventy-five degrees, forty-eight minutes west longi- 
tude, from Greenwich, and two degrees, sixteen minutes east 
longitude, from Washington. 

The first settlements, as already stated, were made about the 
year 1676, one hundred years before the capture of the Hessians 
at the same place. These settlements were made at the Falls of 
the Delaware by the Friends, and were on both sides of the 

The city of Trenton is sixty miles southwest of New York, 
' thirty miles northeast from Philadelphia, ten miles southwest 
from Princeton, twenty-six miles southwest from New Brunswick, 
and one hundred and sixty-seven miles from Washington. The 
city b at the head of sloop navigation, on the Delaware. In the 
spring of 1852, a steamer plied past the city, on the Delaware, as 
high up as Easton, Pennsylvania, fifty-two miles north of this city. 
Thb was the first steamer that ever navigated above the falls. 

In the year 1822, on Thursday, the 21st of February, at nine 
o'clock in the evening, the bridge in Warren street, leading 
from Bloomsbury to Trenton, fell in consequence of the freshet 
in the river. And on Friday morning, the 2 2d of February, 
between eleven and twelve o'clock, the old bridge in Greene 
street fell with a mighty crash. The first was comparatively a 
new bridge, having been erected but about eighteen years, while 
that in Greene street had stood nearly half a century. It b related 
of this latter bridge that a funeral procession had crossed but a 
few minutes before it fell. 

*The Indians called the (alls and its vicinity Saulchiccan, whick included 
both sides of the river. The name was derived from a gun or firelock, and 
was given by the Delawares to a tribe of the Mohawks who occupied this 
section of country, they being the firjt who were supplied with mnskeU by the 
Eniopeans. That 00 the eastern side of the river, (Trenton) they called 
Ii<Ueivor<A, in consequence of iu low situation, being liable to he carried 
away by floods in the DeUware, which subsequently occurred. 


I 'lin— II -— -1 -■ ■ ri I ■■■•■■• J-1 III 



In the year i843» ^^ ^ K^^^^ fl<xxl ^n ^^ Assanpink, the water 
came down with such tremendous force as to entirely alter the 
course of the creek. It took a southerly course, and, tearing the 
street away, left a chasm some sixty feet wide and about twenty 
feet deep, and carried away about one-half of the old stone mill, 
built by Mr. Stacy in 1680, foundation walls and alL The mill 
had for a number of years previous to its destruction been used 
as a cotton factory. Gideon H. Wells was the proprietor of it. 
It afterwards, together with other mill property in the same 
neighborhood, came into possession of the Wain family — ^William 
Wain acting for a number of years as agent for the family. He 
afterwards left the city, and William P. Israel was appointed 
agent to carry on the business, but in 1839, ^hen the cotton 
manufacturers were failing in all parts of the country in conse- 
quence of the pressure in the money market and the tremendous 
competition upon all cotton fabrics, they were induced to sus- 
pend operations. 

In the year 1S49, Henry McCall, of Philadelphia, purchased 
of Mrs. Wain, of the same place, the land upon the north side 
of the Assanpink creek, and also the mill site on the south side, 
together with the water privileges connected therewith. In 1 850, 
he erected the present stone mill for the manufacture of paper. 
This mill is now occupied by John G. Burke, as a paper milL 
It contains eight steam engines and two paper machines, and 
turns out one and a half tons of paper daily, which finds a 
market in the cities of New York and Philadelphia. The water 
for bleaching is carried in iron pipes from a spring on the west 
side of the canal, down the north bank of the creek until within 
about fiAy yards of Greene street, when it crosses the creek just 
above the dam. 

A few rods south of where the mill now stands was the old 
" True American Inn,"* destroyed by fire in 1843. 

* This inn was kept by Mrs. Richmond, and was \VashingtcMi*s headqvar* 
ten. During the baUle, Mrs. Richmond handed General Washington a cop of 
coffee out of the window 00 a waiter. This waiter is still in existence, haWof 
been for a number of years in the Vandenreer family, and at the tale of the 
effects of George Vanderveer, this venerable relic was purchased by a geade- 
man of thb city, and b now in his possession. It should be deposited other 
with the historical society or the state department, as a relief 




The following ag:otint is copied from the ** State Gazette" of 
Tuesday, the 28th of March, 1843, wl^ich I believe to be cor- 
rect, except that part which states that General Washington 
held his council of war there the night preceding the battle of 
Trenton, whereas he held it at the old Douglass house, in Broad 
street: '"^' 

"The old *Tnie American Inn/ on Mill Hill, was destroyed 
by fire this (Tuesday) morning. The (ire began, it is said, in 
the bar-room, but it was not discovered until the lower part of 
the house was in flames, and the upper story filled with fire and 

"The morning was«very stormy, and no one, we suppose, was 
passing in the streets; on which account it was not sooner 

" The name of the keeper of the inn is Henry Katzenbach. 
When the persons asleep in the house were awakened, the smoke 
was so dense that they could scarcely stagger their way out. 
John Bozer, a boarder, had barelj time to escape with his life, 
after running to the front room and awakening two men who 
were lodging there. These men did not escape, and their black, 
crisped remains were taken from the ruins this morning. The 
trunks of the bodies, a shapeless and most shocking sight, 
without the legs, and one of them without a head, are all that 

"We learn from the person who first reached the fire that 
those who escaped from the house were so terrified that they 
rushed to the bam, fastened themselves in, as if pursued by a 
demon, and shouted frantically for help. 

"At this time, a woman appeared at a window of the third 
story,* shrieking for help, and crying out that she could not get 
down the stairs for the smoke and flames. 

" No ladder could be found by the few persons present, and 

* This house was originally but two stories high, and frame. The sidewalk 
was four steps above the street, the ascent to which was bj stone steps, and 
was cut down in 1859, when the street wu graded, which gave an additional 
atoiy to the house, making it three stories high, the lower one being built of 

,tm rtrii w" -' "-- ~ '^' -'~- "■'-"■' .. . ^ajAi^^Mt^i 



the woman jumped from the window and was severely injured in 
the hip by her fall. She was lying an hour ago in a very paiin- 
ful, delicate, and dangerous situation, in the tavern opposite, in 
great need of the attentions of the charitable. 

'' If supplied with those things that are necessary to her she 
may recover, and we implore for her the attention of some chari- 
table females. 

'' In the same room with this woman was a little girl, a daugh- 
ter of Mr. Katzenbach, about nine years old, who, it is saidy 
promised. the woman to jump out after her. She did not, how- 
ever, and was burnt to death. The remains of her little body 
have also been rescued from the ruins — ^a shapeless, horrid sight. 

''The inn-keeper, and, we believe, the inmates of the house, 
were Germans. The two men were strangers here, having been 
in the town but a few days. The name of one is unknown. The 
other's name is Anthony Heiden, and he was employed in a pot- 
tery near the Eagle tavern. 

'' Four persons escaped — H. Katzenbach, the keeper of the 
house, his wife and son, and John Bozer, a laboring man. They 
lost everything but one or two articles of dress. Their destitu- 
tion and distress appeal loudly to our citizens for alleviation. 

'' The night was so stormy that the engines reached the spot 
very slowly, and but for the heavy rain, the fire would probably 
have communicated to the Eagle factory, on the one side, and 
the dwelling-house of Timothy Abbott, Jr., Esq., on the other- 

"The wind blew directly upon the factory buildings. The 
tavern was very old. It stood up on the hill, just over the As- 
sanpink bridge, and is known in the history of the country as 
the headquarters of General Washington on the ad of January, 
1777, being the place where the council of war was held which 
decided upon the march upon Princeton. 

'' The fire was discovered between one and two o'clock. Mr. 
Katzenbach also jumped from the third story window, and fell 
80 as to injure his back and ribs very much. He suffered great 
pain in consequence. Both he and the woman are recovering. 
The house was insured for one thousand dollars, in the Bucks 
County Company." 

The ''Gazette" of Thursday, March 30th,. 1843, <^^ records 






><-«ej»r. »^-^^- . ..^o. .^^---j 



'< Just before it fell, people were crossing frequently, and Mr, 
Gaddis, keeper of the prison, drove over but a few minutes 

*' At ten o'clock the southeastern part of the stone mill fell. ' 
The channel of the water was washed wider and wider through 
the night, and increased towards the south so far as to carry 
away a building adjoining the rear of the factory store. 

''As the cut deepened, the quantity of water passing through 
it of course became greater, until the larger part of the creek 
rushed through in a very tumultuous stream, which, setting 
across the old channel of the creek, struck against the northern 
shore with great violence, and swept away the gardens lying 

'' We hear that the meadows lying on the Assanpink a few 
miles east of Trenton have been much overflowed. The Dela- 
ware has not risen a great deal. 

'' The snow still lies upon the gravel islands.'* 

f .1 



• • •• • 

■*■ ^1 ■fc. 

— ''Ml 

*fc''-- *■! Ill 

-^- I'f 

'*'*'_ ^ ^ '■*' *' •^ ' ■■ •J'^i*- *< . ., J»^.»_„, 


Washingtoris reception at Trenton, in 1789 — An unpublished note 
of General Washington to the I(uiies of Trenton — Population of 
the city in 18 10, *20, '40, '50, .'55, '60, '70 — Capital invested 
in arts and manufactories — Roads ^ travelings etc. — Blazing 
Star Ferry — Delaware and Raritan Canal and Camden and 

r Amboy Rculroad. . 

AFTER the contest was over, in which these United States 
were engaged with the mother country, and they had 
shaken off the yoke of oppression, and the British government 
had acknowledged their independence. General Washington was 
chosen the first chief magistrate of the confederated union, to 
preside over the interests, administer the laws, and guide the 
counsels of the infant republic And who more competent than 
he who had fought and achieved those liberties, to protect them 
and guide ihem from abuse. 

On the i4lh of April, 1789, Mr. Charles Thompson presented 
to General Washington, at Mount Vernon, the certificate, signed 
by the president of the senate, stating that he was unanimously 
elected chief magistrate of the United States. 

On receiving this communication, the General said: ''I wish 
that there may not be reason for regretting this choice, for 
indeed all I can promise is to accomplish that which can be 
done by an honest zeal.*' 

He immediately left Mount Vernon for New York, to take 
upon himself the responsibilities devolving upon him as presi- 
dent of the United States; and in every place through which 
he passed he was received with the strongest demonstrations of 
gladness and respect — the heart-felt gratitude of a grateful people 






• ^ ..- mJ" Jfcw^**"™^ 



to one who delivered his country from the iron hand of mon- 
archy and despotism. 

Marshall says, in his Life of Washington, vol. 5, page 159, 
" At Trenton, which had beeiv the scene of his deep anxieties 
and of his triumphs, he was welcomed in a manner as new as it 
was pleasing. 

''In addition to the usual demonstrations of respect and 
attachment, which were given by the discharge of cannon, by- 
military corps, and by private persons of distinction, the gentler 
sex prepared in their own taste a tribute of applause, indicative 
of the grateful recollection in which they held their deliverance 
twelve years before, from an insulting foe. 

" On the bridge over the creek,* (Assanpink), which passes 
through the town, was erected a triumphal arch, highly orna- 
mented with laurels and flowers, and supported by thirteenf 
pillars, each entwined with wreaths of evergreens. On the front 
of the arch was inscribed, in large gilt letters — 

'The Defender of the Mothers 


will be the 
Protector of the Daughters/ 

" In the centre of the arch, above the inscription, was a dome 
or cupola of flowers and evergreens, encircling the dates of two 
memorable events, which were peculiarly interesting to New. 

" The first was the battle of Trenton, and the second the bold 
and judicious stand made by the American troops at the same 
creek, by which the progress of the British army was arrested on 
the evening preceding the battle of Princeton. 

"At this place, General Washington was met by a party of 
matrons, leading their daughters, dressed in white, who carried 
baskets of flowers in their hands, and sang, with exquisite sweet* 
ness, an ode of two stanzas, composed for the occasion, (it is be* 
lievcd by Governor Howell), as follows: 

* In Greene itrecC 

t Representing (he thiiteen original stateil 

\ • 

t Mil iJt 

l»irfii I I « ill»*.«»fc»j— M—-»^^— . 1 ,- 


^ ' Welcome, mighty cbief* oace rnoie-^ 
VTelcome to this grateful shore; 
Nov no mercenaiy foe 
Aims again the fiUal blow-* 
Aims at thee the fatal blow. 


** ' Viigins lair and matrons grave-^ 
Those thj conqaering anns did save; 
Bnild for thee triumphal bowen» 
Strew, ye fair, his way with flowers- 
Strew your hero's way with floweis.* 

And at the end of the last line, the flowers were strewn before 

On the north or Trenton side of the bridge, (the south at that 
time being called Mill hill), over the Assanpink, and near the 
triumphal arch erected on the bridge, were arranged the ladies 
of the city. In front of these were the young ladies who were 
to sing the ode prepared for the occasion; and others, still 
younger, were ready with the flowers they were to strew in the 
path of the hero, whose approach they waited to greet. 

In passing the arch, and as the choir began their song, Wash- 
ington turned his horse's head towards them, took off his hat, 
and listened evidently with the deepest emotion. 

After the ceremonies at the arch were concluded, he halted at 
one of the hotels* in the city, where he received the visits of the 

He then proceeded to Princeton, accompanied by a number 
of gentlemen, among whom was the Rev. J. F. Armstrong,f an 
intimate and personal friend of General Washington throughout 
the war. 

While in Princeton, Washington gave Mr. Armstrong the fol- 
lowing note : 

** General Washington cannot leave this place without express- 
ing hb acknowledgments to the matrons and young ladies who 
received him in so novel and grateful a manner, at the triumphal 

*The Gty hotel, on the comer of State and Warren streets, where the 
Mechanics Bank now stands, kept at that time fay Joseph Broadhnist 

f Mr. Armstrong was at diat time. p««tor of thci Firil Preshylerian C3ini^ 

>■» i »*»->.», ._>• . 



arch in Trenton, for the exquisite sensation he experienced in 
that affecting moment. 

'''The astonishing contrast between his former and actual sita« 
ation at the spot — the elegant taste with which it was adorned 
for the present occasion, and the innocent appearance of the 
white-robed choir, who met him with a gratulatory song, have 
made such impressions upon his remembrance as he assures them 
will never be effaced. Trenton, April 21st, 1789." 

''This note," says a late writer, " brief, but graceful and ele- 
gant, depicting most vividly the whole scene and its impressions, 
was read to the ladies of Trenton, called together for the purpose, 
at the house of Judge Smith. It was then deposited in the hands 
of Mrs. Smith. At the death of the judge, it passed into the 
hands of his adopted daughter. Miss Lydia Imlay, who preserved 
it with the care due to its origin and associations until shortly 
before her death, when she gave it^ as a valued legacy, to the 
late Chief Justice Ewing. By his care it was placed in a hand- 
some frame, and is now preserved by his family as a sacred relic" 

The arch was preserved on the premises of the Misses Barnes, 
in Warren street, near the Episcopal Church, until 1824, when 
it was placed in front of the capitol, at the gate of entrance, to 
grace the reception of General Lafayette when on his way to the 
assembly room, where he was addressed by the 'mayor, Robert 
McNcely, Esq., and exchanged congratulations with the citizens. 

The remnant of this arch was again used on the loth of May, 
1855, when it wa^ erected across Chancery court, on the occa« 
sion of a grand firemen's parade in honor of the visit of the 
Phoenix Hose Company, of Easton, Pennsylvania, to this city. 

The remains of the arch are now in the possession of the 
Misses Armstrong, of this city. 

Mr. Benjamin S. Disbrow has made several elegant boxes and 
other small articles, which are inlaid with a part of the wood 
of the arch. 

In 1810, the total population of Trenton was three thousand, 
proportioned as follows : 

• ■ 

■^^fcOi^fci*— Afc—^ ■ ■ mm-^m^i^^^^^tiA^t^rimm^^^a^m 



Free while males, 1,28a 

Free white females, ..... 1,265 

Total whites, - - - • 2,547 

All other persons, except Indians, not taxed, - 279 

Slaves, 181 

Total population, - - - • 3,000 

In 1820, the total population was three thousand nine hundred 
end forty-two, proportioned as follows: 

Free white males, - • '• - - i>598 
Free white females, - - - ' - - i,744 

Total whites, ... 3,342 
Free persons of color — males, ... 221 
Free persons of color — females, ... 294 

Slaves — ^males, ...... 39 

Slaves — females, - 46 

Total population, . . • 3f942 

This number was sub-divided as follows: 

Foreigners, not naturalized, .... 40 

Engaged in agriculture, .... 227 

Engaged in manufactures, .... 433 

Engaged in commerce, * c * * 43 

In 1843, ^^^ population of Trenton, including the borough of 
South Trenton, was upwards of six thousand. Of this number 
there were in the city proper four thousand and thirty-five, the 
remaining one thousand nine hundred and sixty-five being in 
South Trenton. 

In the city proper, in 1840, there were one hundred and three 
persons engaged in commerce, five hundred and seventy-one in 
manufactures and trades, and forty-one in the learned professions. 

In 1845, i^ ^^^ <^i^7 proper, stood the old capitol building, 
one hundred feet front by sixty feet deep, built of stone, and 
stuccoed in imitation of granite. Thb building was erected in 
I794t together with the governor's residence and two banks. The 

»- M^l « ' 



Trenton Bank, which is next to the oldest in the state^ was incor- 
porated in 1804, with a capital of two hundred and ten thou- 
sand dollars, which was afterwards increased to four hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. The Mechanics and Manufacturers Bank 
was incorporated February ipth, 1834, with a capital of one 
hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. In 1854, the capital 
stock was increased to two hundred and twenty-five thousand 
dollars, and again to five hundred thousand dollars. 

The State Library was establbhed in 182 1, and contained five 
thousand four hundred volumes of law, state legislative, judicial^ 
and congressional documents, besides two thousand miscella- 
neous works, making in all, seven thousand four hundred volumes. 
In 1837, a City Hall was built, and a lyceum established, called 
the Trenton Institute, and seven churches, (now increased to 
twenty-four), divided at that time as follows: one Presbyterian, 
one Dutch Reformed, one Episcopal, two Friends*, one Metho- 
dist, and one African Methodist. 

South Trenton, at that timCy contxuned the Mercer County 
Court-house and offices pertaining to the same, the State Prison, 
State Arsenal, and three churches— one Baptist, one Reformed 
Baptist, and one Catholic 

There were in Trenton proper, fifty retail stores, with a capital 
of one hundred and ninety-six thousand dollars. Four lumber 
yards ; capital, four thousand nine hundred dollars. Three tan- 
neries, one brewery, one pottery, and three paper mills, with 
a capital of three hundred thousand dollars. One rope-walk, 
two flouring mills, two grist milb, three saw mills, three printing 
. offices, three newspapers — two of which were published weekly, 
and one tri-weekly — two book-binderies, four academies, with 
one hundred and four students, and ten schools, with three hun- 
dred and fourteen scholars. 

In 1850, when the census was taken, Trenton proper was 
divided into two wards, designated as the east and west wards 
of the city of Trenton. 

In the east ward there were six hundred and eighty-four 
dwellings, and five thousand one hundred and nineteen inhabi- 
tants, consisting of seven bundled' and' twenty-seven fiunilles. 
There were:flfty«four deaths during.the year- 

"^ — ' «-- - ■ - ■ - - nil-- ■ - ^ - --: -.. - , -■*•■-■ - - - -- '- .-.■-- t - -I _j| 

■ ■ ' 


There were one hundred and fifty-two acres of improved land 
in the ward, and fifteen acres unimproved, making a total of one 
hundred and sixty-seven acres, the value of which was, at that 
time, twenty-two thousand five hundred dollars. Value of farm- 
ing implements and machinery, one thousand two hundred and 
seventy dollars. Amount invested in marble and stone yards, 
eleven thousand dollars. Amount of yearly sales, nine thousand 
dollars. Amount invested in saw mills, planing mill, and sash 
and blind factory, thirty thousand five hundred dollars, and a 
yearly business amounting to sixteen thousand eight hundred 
dollars. Amount invested in nurseries, eight thousand dollars, 
with a yearly business of two thousand dollars. Amount inveited 
in woolen factory, two thousand dollars. In iron manufactory, 
forty-three thousand three hundred dollars. In machinery, 
twelve thousand dollars. In the book business, seven thousand 
dollars. In the paper business, two thousand dollars. In blank 
book manufacturing, five thousand dollars. In the tobacco busi* 
ness, twenty-five thousand dollars — in leaf tobacco, eight thou- 
sand dollars, and in segars, fourteen thousand seven hundred 
dollars. In the tin business, three thousand eight hundred dol- 
lars. Tin-ware and stoves, eleven thousand seven hundred 
dollars. In porcelain teeth manufacturing, two thousand five 
hundred dollars. In the shoe business, nineteen thousand five 
hundred dollars. In hatting, two thousand dollars. In cabinet 
making, two thousand dollars. In the clothing business, eleven 
thousand dollars. In confectionery, two thousand dollars. In 
upholstery, one thousand one hundred dollars. In brush making, 
three thousand two hundred and fifty dollars. 

These different branches of art gave employment to about two 
hundred male and one hundred female operatives. Total amount 
invested in business pursuits in the east ward in 1850, two hun- 
dred and eighty-three thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. 

In 1850, there were twenty-seven deaths in the west ward. 
Number of dwellings, four hundred and four. Number of fami- 
- lies, four, hundred and seventy-seven, and three thousand three 
hundred and eighteen inhabitants. In this ward was located the 
office of the Trenton Gas Light Company, with a capita! stock of 
one hundred thousand dollars — cash paid in, fifty-six thousafid 

■11 n- '- m nifci«-Bi>i " ■! ■ -I- 1 *■— • rt— ^ —^^ ' r- * *B--fc»l 


dollars. Amount invested in blacksmithing, one thousand two 
hundred dollars. In wheelnrrighting, one thousand dollars. la 
paper manufacturing, fifty-four thousand dollars. In saw milfa^ 
forty-six thousand dollars. In the manufacture of sash and 
blinds, six thousand dollars. In grist and flouring milby thirty- 
two thousand dollars. In upholstery, one thousand dollars. la 
tanneries and skin dressing, twenty*six thousand dollars. In the 
cigar business, two thousand dollars. In clothing, one thousand 
dollars. In shoemaking, two thousand dollars. In the cabinet 
business, six thousand five hundred dollars. In the soap and 
candle business, eight thousand dollars. In baking, one thoo- 
sand dollars. In cedar-ware, one thousand dollars. Total 
invested in business pursuits in the west ward, two hundred and 
thirty-eight thousand seven hundred dollars. 

The different branches of business in the west ward gave 
employment to about one hundred and fifty individuals. Besides 
the capital above enumerated, there was invested in farms located 
in the west ward, seventy thousand dollars, and in farm imple- 
ments, eight thousand dollars. 

Thus, in the city proper, including all north of the Assanpink^ 
the amount invested in the different industrial pursuits in 185O9 
was six hundred thousand dollars. Value of real estate in the 
city, three million dollars. Inhabitants, eight thousand four 
hundred and thirty-seven. 

Value of real estate in that part of Nottingham, afterwards 
forming the borough of South Trenton, and now forming the 
third and fourth wards of the city, one thousand three hundred 
dollars. Total valuation of real estate in the city proper and the 
borough of South Trenton, four million three hundred thousand 

Trenton, in 1855, contained seventy-nine streets, five alleys or 
small streets. Chancery court, and the Dark lane, with real 
estate amounting to about ten million dollars. 

The following is the population of Trenton according to the 
census of 1855 : 

Native males in first ward, nine hundred and eighteen, females 
one thousand and three, foreign males two hundred and fortjr- 
five, females two hundred-and forty^five, colored males Iwentjr^ 


females twenty-seven — ^total, two thousand four hundred and 
fourteen. Second ward, native males eight hundred and ninet/« 
six, females one thousand and two, foreign males three hundred 
and four, females three hundred and ninety-five, colored males 
ninety-three, females one hundred and thirty-four — total, two 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-four. Third ward,, native 
males five hundred and sixty-nine, females five hundred and eighty- 
nine, foreign males four hundred and five, females three hundred 
and dxty-six, colored males one, females two — ^total, one thou* 
sand nine hundred and thirty-two. Fourth ward, native males 
six hundred and fifty, females six hundred and seventy-three, 
foreign males four hundred and ninety-seven, females four hun- 
dred and twenty-eight, colored males seven, females fourteen—- 
total, two thousand two hundred and sixty-nine. Fifth ward, 
native males, four hundred and eighty-five, females six hundred 
and ten, foreign males two hundred and fifty-four, females two 
hundred ^and seventy-three, colored males thirty-nine, females 
sixty-nine — total, one thousand seven hundred and thirty. 

Total native males three thousand five hundred and eighteen/ 
females three thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, foreign 
males one thousand one hundred and sixty-one, females one 
thousand seven hundred and seven, colored males one hundred 
and sixty-one, females two hundred and forty-six. Total popu- 
lation, eleven thousand one hundred and sixty-nine. 

In i860, the population was as follows: First ward, males 
one thousand one hundred and four, females one thousand three 
hnndred and thirty-one, colored males twelve, females thirty-— 
total, two thousand four hundred and forty-seven. Second ward, 
males one thousand three hundred and ninety-eight, females one 
thousand six hundred and seventy-nine, colored males one hun- 
dred and forty-two, females one hundred and seventy-nine^ 
total, three thousand three hundred and ninety-eight. Third 
ward, males one thousand nine hundred, females one* thousand 
seven hundred and eighteen, colored males fifty-three, females 
seventeen — total, three thousand six hundred and eighty-eight. 
Fourth ward, males one thousand six hundred and fifty-three, 
females one thousand six hundred and seventy-five, colored 
males six, females sixteen — total, three thousand three hundred 


I jr t^ - — - ^l»M» «Ma^Mi*« 



and fifty. Fifth ward» males one thousand six hnndred and 
foar, females one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine, col- 
ored males, eighty-nine, females one hundred and twenty-»x — 
total, three thousand five hundred and sixty-eight. Sixth ward, 
males three hundred and eighty-seven, females three hundred 
and fifty-five, colored males one, females four — total, seven hun- 
dred and forty-seven. 

Total white males eight thousand and forty-six, females eight 
thousand five hundred and seven, colored males three hundred 
and three, females three hundred and seventy-two. Total popu- 
lation, seventeen thousand two hundred and twenty-eight. 

In 1870, the population- was. as follows: First ward, two thou- 
sand nine hundred and twenty-five ; second ward, two thousand 
six hundred and nineteen ; third ward, four thousand six hun- 
dred and eight ; fourth ward, four thousand one hundred and 
fifty-seven; fifth ward, four thousand one hundred and ten; 
sixth ward, one thousand one hundred and ten ; seventh ward, 
three thousand three hundred and ninety; total population, 
twenty-two thousand nine hundred and nineteen. 

The industrial pursuits are as follows: Agricultural imple- 
ments — capital invested ninety thousand dollars; hands em- 
ployed, forty-five. Anvils, fifty thousand dollars; hands, fifteen. 
Baking, seventy -eight thousand eight hundred dollars; hands, 
ninety-seven. Bleaching, one thousand dollars; hands, five. 
Bottling, thirty-nine thousand dollars; hands, ten. Boot and 
shoe making, twenty-six thousand three hundred and ninety-five 
dollars ; hands, one hundred and fourteen. Bow making, forty 
thousand dollars ; hands twenty-six. Brass founding, two hun- 
dred dollars ; hands, two. Blacksmithing, eleven thousand nine 
hundred and fifty dollars; hands, thirty-one. Brick making, 
sixteen thousand dollars; hands, forty. Bonnet making, one 
thousand dollars ; hands, three. • Broom making, six hundred 
dollars; hands, one. Brush making, eight thousand dollars; 
hands, six. Builders, eighty-eight thousand six hundred and fifty 
dollars; hands, two hundred and thirty-three. Cigar box making, 
three hundred dollars; hands, two. Car building, twenty-five 
thousand dollars; hands, thirty. Cabinet making, three. thoa- 
sand three hundred dollars ; hands, seven. Chain making, sixty- 

J - -.^ 




five thousand eight hundred dollars; hands, eighty-four. Carpet 
weaidng^ one thousand four hundred dollars ; hands, ten. Coffee 
and spices, thirty thousand dollars; hands, twelve. Confection- 
eries, eighteen thousand five hundred dollars; hands, twenty- 
six. Druggists, seven thousand five hundred dollars; hands^ 
nine. Fertiliiers, thirteen thousand dollars;* hands, seven. 
Floor mills, one hundred and three thousand five hundred dol- 
lars; hands, thirty. Flint and spar, five thousand dollars; 
hands, twenty. File making, five hundred dollars; hands, two. 
Glue manufacturing, one thousand dollars ; hands, two. Hand- 
stair railing, six hundred dollars; hands, one. Hat making, six 
hundred and fifty dollars , hands, two. Hoop skirt making, two 
hundred and fifty dollars; hands, six. Hosiery, five thousand 
dollars ; hands, twenty-two. Hay and straw pressing, onelhou- 
sand dollars; hands, two. Horse-shoe nail making, one hun* 
dred dollars;, hands, one. Iron railing, forty-five thousand 
dollars; hands, five. Iron founding, seventy-one thousand five 
hundred dollars; hands, one hundred and four. Illuminating 
gas, one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Lime burning, 
twenty-six thousand dollars ; hands, eleven. Locks and knobs, 
mXf thousand dollars; hands, forty. Leather belting, fifteen 
thousand dollars; hands, five. Locksmithing, one thousand 
dollars; hands, two. Lumber, fi^iy thousand dollars; hands, 
thirty. Marble cutting, twenty-three thousand dollars ; hands, 
ten. Matches, three thousand dollars; bands, six. Machine 
shops, twenty thousand one hundred and filly dollars ; hands, 
twelve ; ^lillwrighting, three thousand dollars ; hands, twenty- 
three. Millinery, two thousand dollars; hands, four. News- 
papersy sixty-one thousand two hundred dollars ; hands, twenty- 
six. Oak coopers, one hundred and fifty dollars ; hands, two. 
Oxyd zinc, one hundred thousand dollars ; hands, thirty. Paper 
bags, one thousand and fifty dollars; hands, ten. Plumbings 
one thousand three hundred dollars; hands, eight. Potteries, 
seven hundred thousand three hundred dollars ; hands, six hun- 
dred and twenty-one. Paper making, twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars; hands, twenty. Pump making, four hundred dollars; 
hands, two. Printing, sixty-one thousand dollars ; hands, fifty- 
one. , Ibulroad.iron, two hundred thousand dollars; hands, onct 


u_ -.l' ■ -.-rf-^ v."r» »^^«r«rj^ ^^gE-'»g. M.'^mf. ^-^^m— — ■— — m— ^i^efc—>— ^—M ■en^i^^— fcJMilifc^^ma 



hundred and eighty. Rolling mills, seven hundred and fiflj 
thousand dollars ; hands, five hundred and seventy. Sash and 
blinds, twenty-three thousand three hundred dollars; hands, 
thirty-one. Stone, ninety-six thousand dollars; hands, sixteen 
hundred and sixty-four. Segars, seven thousand five hundred 
and fifty dollars; hands, thirty-three. Silver plating, one hun- 
dred dollars ; hands, one. Soap making, eleven thousand five 
hundred dollars; hands, two. Tailoring, forty-eight thousand, 
eight hundred dollars; hands, ninety. Tin and sheet iron, 
thirty-one thousand and fifty dollars; hands, forty-three. Turn- 
ers, one hundred dollars; hands, one. Terra cotta, one hun- 
dred thousand dollars; hands, fifty-five. Upholstering, ten 
thousand dollars; hands, five. Undertakers, five hundred dol- 
lars; hands, one. Vise and tool making, one hundred and fifteen 
thousand five hundred dollars ; hands, eighty-two. Wheelwright- 
ing, three thousand nine hundred dollars ; hands, ten. Woolen 
and cotton goods, two hundred and eighty thousand dollars; 
hands, three hundred and twenty-nine. Windsor chairs, five 
hundred dollars; hands, two. Wool, twenty-five thousand 
dollars; hands, twelve. Total amount of capital invested in 
industrial pursuits, three million eight hundred and seventy- 
eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-five dollars. Hands 
employed, four thousand eight hundred and twenty-six. 

The following shows the streets of the city, alphabetically 
arranged : 

Academy, from Greene east to Canal street; Adelaine, from 
Edmund east to Hermann ; Allen, from Greene east to Mont- 
gomery ; Asbury, from Ferry east to Federal ; Assanpink, from 
Stockton east to the canal; Bank, from Warren west to Willow; 
Barberry, from Sweet's avenue southwest to Gordon; Barnes, 
from Quarry to Bank ; Belevue avenue, from Calhoun opposite 
Higbee, west to city limits ; Behm*, from Esher to Hermann ; 
Belvidere, from Fowler west to Calhoun ; Bond, from Princeton 
avenue to New Brunswick avenue ; Bridge, from Delaware river 
cast to Broad ; Broad, from Assanpink creek to White Horse 
road; Calhoun, from Delaware river to Pennington street; Cam- 
den, from Quarry to Passaic ; Canal, east from Perry to White 
Horse road; Canal, west from State to Perry; Carroll, from 


— '****^ , ' , ' ' . : V *' . ' V * **^* JL.-.. 5J !;".J !' . !'' L ' J .-L- r.n ' j' .u—juj-.j 



Edmund to State ; Carter's alley, from Montgomery to Stock- 
ton; CasSy from Union to the canal; Centre, from Broad to 
Riverview Cemetery ; Centre court, from Pike easterly ; Chan- 
cery, from State to Bank; Clay, from Market to Taylor; 
Chauncey, from Warren to the railroad ; Clinton, from Millham 
road to Sandtown road ; Coats, from Cass to Federal ; Com- 
merce, from Stockton to the canal ; Conover*s alley, from Market 
southerly ; Cooper, from Factory to Centre ; Cox's alley, from 
Union easterly ; Cross, from Carroll to Ewing ; Dark lane, from 
Montgomery to city line; Decatur, from Market to Bridge; 
Delaware, West State to Delaware river ; Delaware alley. South 
Warren to Fair; Dillon's alley. South Warren to Delaware river; 
Doane alley, from Centre to State Prison ; Donley's alley, from 
Lamberton westerly ; Drummond's alley, from South Warren to 
Fair; East Front, from Warren to the canal; East State, from 
Warren to city line; East Washington, from Warren to Greene; 
Edmund, from Millham road to Canal ; Elizabeth, from Ewing 
to Clinton ; Esher, from Southard to Hermann ; Ewing, from 
Perry to East State ; Factory, from Lamberton to Broad ; Fair, 
from Factory to Federal ; Falls, from Delaware river to Union ; 
Federal, from Delaware river to Thirds Ferry^ from Delaware 
river to Broad ; Feeder, (North) from Greene to Canal; Feeder, 
(South) from Greene to Canal ; Fountain avenue, from Prince- 
ton avenue westerly ; Fowler, from Spring to Higbee ; Franklin, 
from Ewing to Railroad ; Frazer, from Reservoir to Pennington 
avenue ; Front, from Delaware to East Canal ; Fuhrman, from 
Second to Lamberton; Grant, from rolling-mill to Lamberton; 
Greene, from Broad to New Brunswick avenue ; Green's alley, 
from Quarry to West State; Gordon, from Princeton avenue 
northerly; Hankinson avenue, from Perry to Woodruff; Hano- 
ver, from Warren to Stockton ; Henry, from Millham road to 
Canal ; Higbee, from Willow to Calhoun ; Howell, from Ed- 
mund to Hermann ; Humboldt, from Barberry westerly ; Jack- 
son, from Livingston to Railroad ; James, from Millham road to 
Canal ; Jefferson, from Ewing to Clinton ; Kossuth, from Clin- 
ton to Ewing; Lalor, from Lock No. 4 to I)elaware river; 
Lamberton, from Factory to the cemetery; Landing, from 
Third to Delaware river ; Lewis, from Clay to Canal ; Lincoln 





avenue, from Clinton to Assanpink creek; Livingston, from 
Broad to Assanpink creek ; Lodge alley, from Front to Wash- 
ington ; Market, from Warren {o Assanpink creek ; Mercer, from 
Livingston to Railroad ; Merchant, from Stockton to Canal ; 
Mill, from Market to Fair ; Millham road, from Clinton to citjr 
line; Model avenue, from Clinton to Assanpink creek; Mon« 
mouth, from Southard to Assanpink creek ; Montgomery, from 
Assanpink to New Brunswick avenue; New, (North) from Bank 
to Quarry ; New, (South) from Union to water power raceway ; 
New Brunswick avenue, from Warren to city line ; New Market, 
from Second to Delaware river ; North Feeder, from Montgom- 
ery to city line; Ogden, from Southard to Ewing; Passaic, from 
Feeder to Calhoun ; Peace, from Front to Delaware river; Pen- 
nington, from Warren to city line; Perry, from Warren to Clin- 
ton ; Pike, from East State to Front ; Princeton avenue, from 
Warren to city line ; Prospect, from West State to Pennington 
avenue ; Quarry, from Warren to Calhoun ; Quarry alley, from 
Willow to Calhoun ; Quintin avenue, from Mercer parallel with 
Assanpink creek ; Railroad avenue, from Belvidere J3elaware 
Railroad easterly; Reservoir, from Pennington avenue to citj 
line; Ringgold, from Pennington avenue to Tucker; Rose, from 
New Brunswick avenue to Feeder; Sandford, from Princeton 
avenue to New Brunswick avenue ; Second, from Broad to River- 
view cemetery; Sheridan avenue, from Clinton to Assanpink 
creek ; Southard, from Perry to Carroll ; South Feeder, from 
Greene to Canal; Spring, from Willow to West State; State, 
(Eait) from Warren east to city line; State, (West) from War- 
ren west to Cityline ; Smith's alley, from l^ont to State; Steam- 
boat, from Union to water power; Sterling's alley, from West 
Front to West State ; Stockton, from Perry to Assanpink creek; 
Sweet's avenue, from Princeton avenue northwesterly;' Taylor, 
from Broad to Mercer; Taylor's alley, from West State to 
Quarry ; Temple, from Second to Third ; Third, from Broad to 
Second ; Tucker, from Warren to Willow ; Turpin, from Fed- 
eral to Bridge; Union, from Market to Ferry; Union allej, 
from East Front to Assanpink creek; Wall, from Clinton to 
Assanpink creek; Warner's alley, iiom East Front northerly; 
Warren, from Assanpink creek to Princeton avenne; Washing- 


■>■ < 1 1 

■*■■■- ' ■■ " ■■ " ■ ■ > ■ i t ■ I ■ ,^ •- - ,1 ^^ 



ton, from Greene to Lodge alley; West Front, from Warren 
west to Delaware river ; West State, from Warren to city line ; 
William, from Clinton to Assanpipk creek ; Willow, from West 
Front to Pennington avenue ; Wilson, from Calhoun to Reser- 
voir ; Woodruff, from Greene to Canal ; Woodruff's alley, from 
Lamberton to Centre. ' ■ — 

This part of our history may seem to some a small matter, but 
there are very few of our citizens who have any idea of the 
extent of our city. If we had the exact number of buildings 
there were in this place in 1740, or even one hundred years ago, 
the contrast would be very great between then and the present 
time. Then, probably a half dozen small tenements comprised 
the town ; now they number about five thousand houses. How 
interesting this tabic would be could we preserve it half a cen- 
tury, or even a quarter of a century, and then behold the 
increase in the number of dwellings and the growth of our 

If even the same ratio of increase was carried on until the year 
1900, our city would contain nearly ten thousand dwellings and 
about seventy-five thousand inhabitants. 

Previous to 1675 and 1676, at which time the legislature 
adopted some general regulations for the opening of roads, the 
only road laid out by the Europeans within the limits of New 
Jersey appears to have been that by which the Dutch at New 
Amsterdam communicated with the settlements on the Delaware. 
It ran from Elizabethtown Point, or its neighborhood, to where 
New Brunswick now stands, and was probably the same as that 
now (widened and improved) known as the " old road," between 
those places. 

At New Brunswick the river was forded at low water, and the 
road thence ran almost in a straight line to the Delaware (above 
where Trenton is now situated), which was also forded. Thb 
was called the "upper road," to distinguish it from the 'Mower 
road," which branched off about five or six miles from the Rari- 
tan, took a sweep toward the east, and arrived at the site of the 
present city of Burlington. These roads, however, were ver/ 
little more than foot-paths, and so continued for many years, 
affording facilities to horsemen and pedestrians principally. 



Even as late as 1816, when a ferry had been established at 
New Brunswick for twenty years, provision was only made in 
the rates allowed by the assembly, for ''horse and man*' and 
. ''single person." Previous to that time, however, the road had 
been improved, and was considered the main thoroughfare to 
Pennsylvania; in 1695, the innkeepers at Piscataway, Wood- 
bridge, and Elizabethtown were made subject to taxation for 
five years, to prevent its " falling into decay.'* The sum required 
annually to keep this road in repair at that time, was only ten 
pounds, (forty-eight dollars). 

An opposition road was opened by the proprietors, in the hope 
of drawing the piincipal part of the traveling to their seat of 
government, but without success. 

They expressed a wish to Deputy Governor Lawrie, in July^ 
1683, that "it' might be discovered whether there may not a 
convenient road be found betwixt Perthtown [Perth Amboy] and 
Burlington, for the entertaining of a land conveyance that way.** 

This was done by Lawrie the ensuing year, and he connected 
with the road a ferry-boat to run between Amboy and New York, 
" to entertain travelers.** 

Finding, however, that the other road continued to be pre- 
ferred. Governor Basse, in 1698, was directed to bring the mat- 
ter before the assembly and have an act passed that would 
" cause the public road to pass through the post-town of Perth 
Amboy, from New York and New England to West Jersey and 
Pennsylvania;" but Basse's authority was of such limited dura- 
tion that nothing was done. 

Such were the two routes traveled between New York and 
Philadelphia, under the proprietary government ; but no public 
conveyance 'or the transportation of either goods or passengers 
existed on either. 

One Dellamin was permitted by Governor Hamilton, to drive 
a wagon on the Amboy road, but had no regular prices or set 
time for his trips. 

In April, 1837, the assembly, enumerating their grievances to 
Lord Combury, complained that patents had been granted to 
individuals to transport goods on the road from Buriington to 
Amboy, for a certain number of years, to the exclusion of otheriy 

■-. r Jt :Ms*j 



In October, 17509 a new line was established, the owner of 
which resided at Perth Amoby. 

He informed all gentlemen and ladies '/who have occasion to 
transport themselves, goods, wares, or merchandise, from New 
York to Philadelphia," that he had a << stage-boat,'* well fitted 
for the purpose, which, ''wind and weather permitting,'* (that 
never-forgotten proviso), would leave New York every Wednes^ 
day for the ferry at Amboy on Thursday ^ where, on Friday^ a 
stage- wagon would be ready to proceed immediately to Borden* 
town, where they would take another stage-boat to Philadelphia 
— nothing being said (very wisely) of the time they might expect 
to arrive there. He states, however, that the passages are made 
in " forty-eight hours' less time than by any other line." This 
was probably the case, for the route was so well patronized that 
in 1752, they carried passengers twice a week, instead of once, 
''endeavoring to use people in the best manner" — ^keeping them, 
be it observed, from five to seven days on the route. 

The success of this line seems to have led to an opposition in 
1 75 1, originating in Philadelphia, which professed to go through 
in twenty-five or thirty hours, but which, nevertheless, appears to 
have required the same number of days as the other- 
Great dependence was placed upon the attractions of the pass- 
age-boat between Amboy and New York, described as having a 
fine, commodious cabin, fitted up with a tea-table and sundry 
other articles. 

In 1756, a stage line between Philadelphia and New York, via 
Trenton and Perth Amboy, was established, intended to run 
through in three days. This was followed, in 1765, by another, 
to start twice a week ; but nine years had worked no increase of 
speed. . 

The following year a third line of "good stage-wagons, with 
the seats set on springs," was set up, to go through in two days 
in summer and three in winter. 

These wagons were modestly called "flying machines," 
and the title soon became a favorite with all the stage 

The^ lines ran, I believe, by the way of "Blazing Star 


Fcny/** that being preferable to the old Amboy route, thereby 
putting an end to the transportation of passengers by that route. 

From 1765 to 1768, attempts were made by the legislature to 
raise funds by lottery, for shortening and improving the great 
thoroughfares, but without success. Governor Franklin, allud- 
ing to them in a speech to the assembly in 1768, states that 
''even those which lie between the two principal trading cities 
in North America are seldom passable without danger or diffi* 
culty." Such being the condition of the rands, it was a great 
improvement to have John Mersereau's " flying machine," in 
1772, leave Paulus Hook (now Jersey City), three times a week, 
with a reasonable expectation that passengers would arrive in 
Philadelphia in one day and a half. 

This time, however, was probably found too short, for two 
days were required by him in 17 73-74* 

The m&ils being carried on horseback, moved at this time 
with greater speed than passengers, but they had been a long 
time acquiring it. 

To Colonel John Hamilton, son of Governor Andrew Hamil- 
ton, of New Jersey (himself at one time acting governor, as pre- 
sident of council), were the colonies indebted for devising the 
scheme by which the post-office was established. This was 
about the year 1694. He obtained a patent for it, and after- 
ward sold his right to the crown. It is presumed that an attempt 

*This fcny uas located a short distance below where the Delaware bridge 
now stands. The old feny-honses are still standing. Tlie one on this side of 
the river was the large brick building at the comer of Bloomsbury and Feny 
streets, and now used as a tavern. And the one on the Pennsylvania side b 
the large brick house directly opposite Feny street 

In the time of the Revolution, (when the river was clear of ice), troops and 
others, coming from Philadelphia, would cross this feny and proceed eastward 
to the Eagle hotel, on Mill hill, to Queen street, that being the only street 
tben open all the way through, (Bloomsbury street not being opened bs'ow 
Front street till 1 801). Persons coming this route would then proceed dirough 
Queen (now Greene) street, to the old York road, and thus to New York. 
Thb feny was the great thoroughfare between die cities of Philadelphia and 
New York nntil the Delaware bridge was opened In 1805, when penoni and 
merchandise were transported over the bridge. 


was soon made to carry the mails regularly ; but speed was little 

In 1704, "in the pleasant month of May," a New York paper 
saysy " the last storm put our Pennsylvania post a week behind, 
and is not yet com'd in." In 17179 advices from Boston to 
Williamsburg, in Virginia, were completed in four weeks, from 
March to December, and in double that time in the other months 
of the year ; but there is some probability that the mails south of 
Philadelphia did not continue to be carried regularly for some- 
time thereafter. About 1720, the post set out from Philadelphia 
every Friday, left letters at Burlington and Perth Amboy, and 
arrived at New York on Sunday night, leaving there Monday 
morning on its peregrinations eastward. 

In 1722, a Philadelphia paper states that the New York post 
was "three days behind his time, and not yet arrived." 

In 1729, the mail between the two cities went once a week in 
summer, and once a fortnight in winter ; this continued to be 
the case till 1754, when Dr. Franklin became superintendent, 
and improved the condition of the post-oflice materially. 

In October, notice was given that until Christmas the post 
would leave the two cities three times a week, at eight o'clock 
A. M., and arrive the next day at about five o'clock p. m., mak* 
ing thirty-three hours. 

After Christmas, ** being frequently delayed in crossing New 
York bay,"* it would leave only once a week. Further im- 
provements were made in following years, and in 1764, "if 
weather permitted," the mails were to leave every alternate day, 
and go through in less than twenty-four hours; and such was 
the rate at which they traveled until the revolution put a stop to 
their regular transmission. 

From this time up to 1800 we have no records we can rely 
upon as being accurate. But up to that date it does not appear 
that much advance was made in the speed of traveling. 

In i8oi, on the 13th of April, Thomas Porter "respectfully 
informs his friends, and the public in general, that he has fur- 

*The route was vta the lower Blazing Star Ferry to the Sandtown ro«d« 
and from thence to South Amboy, and across the bay to New Yoik. 

>^^alfcB^i^M>— ■^faO^aa— Mii^B*i*J—i^<— ■■Mto— — JU^lii I I . iMM^Bj^iaMh^hM^tolM^fcaMMIi—aM^*— — >«M«Mril—<^^J«lfcaM 


nished him with an excellent pair of Horses, and a good Coachee, 
and intends running it from John C. Huromeirs tavern,* in 
Trenton, to John Carpenter's, Philadelphia, three times a week 
throughout the summer season. He will leave Trenton every 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, and Philadelphia every Mon- 
day, Wednesday, and Friday. His long employment as a stage 
driver between the two cities, and his attention and punctuality 
in that capacity, (which shall not be diminished as proprietor), 
he flatters himself will secure a portion of the public patronage. 
A pair of Horses and Coachee will be furnished to go to any 
part of the Continent." . 

On the 2ist of April of the same year, Joseph Vandegrift, Sr., 
opened a stage office next to the Indian Queen hotel, then kept 
by Amos Howell, near the market-house. The building stood 
where Disbrow's cabinet ware-rooms (iron building) now stand. 

These stages ran to and from Trenton to Philadelphia, making 
one trip per day to either citj. 

In 1802, Peter Probasco and John Dean ran a coach between 
this city and Philadelphia every day in the week, (Sundays 
excepted). The office was two doors above the Indian Queen 

The same, year John C. Hummell and John Carpenter started 
the "Trenton accommodation line of coachee stages."* 

In 1807, John Mannington ran a line of "Coachee stages,'* 
which left Philadelphia every morning at eight o'clock, (Sun- 
days excepted), and arrived in Trenton to dine at the subscri- 
ber's tavern, next door to the City hotel, where the store of Isaac 
D. James now stands. Fare, one dollar and fifty cents; baggage 
as usual. 

In 1819, John Lafaucherie and Isaac Merriam ran a line of 
coaches to connect with the steamboat Philadelphia, at the 
Bloomsbury wharf, starting from Mr. Anderson's Rising Sun 

In 1820, Charles B. Carman and Lewis Thompson ran a line 
from Trenton to Philadelphia, via Bristol, by steamboat ; Captain 
J. Miller; fare, one dollar; breakfast, twenty-five cents. The 

*Qt7 tavern, corner of MTarren and Bank itrecti. 


boat ran every day, except Sundays ; application for passage to 
be made at Enoch Green's, Indian Queen tavern, John Voor- 
hecs' City hotel, and C. H. Vanderveer's hotel, Bloomsbury. 

The steamboat Philadelphia commenced running from Blooms^ 
bury, Tuesday, July 3d, 1820, at half-past five o'clock, until the 
ist of September, when it left at six o'clock k. hc 

December 31st, 1827, Joseph I. Thompson ran a mail stage 
between Trenton and New Brunswick, every day of the week, 
(Sundays excepted). It left Trenton at eight o'clock in the mom* 
ing, changed horses at Princeton, and performed the passage in 
as short a time as it could be done at that time by any other 
line on the road ; fare, one dollar. 

August 30th, 1828, the Union line>of Trenton hacks ran to 
Bloomsbury, to carry passengers to the steamboats Trenton, 
Cfiptain A. Jenkins; Burlington, Captain D. Martin; and Marco 
Bozzaris, Captain John B. Lane. These three boats were so 
arranged as to malce one trip each way ^stxj day« 

The coaches started from J. M. Bispham's Trenton House, 
taking passengers to the boats, to Princeton, New Brunswick, and 
New York. 

The same year C. H. Vanderveer ran a line of Trenton mail 
coaches between this city and New Brunswick ; (are for passage, 
one dollar. 

The same year a coach was run by J. L Thompson to the 
same place. 

In 1830, A. P. Atkinson was appointed agent of the Union 
line of stage coaches. This line continued in existence till the 
railroad commenced operations, when, a short time after, it was 

In 1840, a steamboat called the Hornet made regular trips on 
the Delaware, to and from Philadelphia. The fare was twenty* 
five cents either way. Persons, by leaving their names at the 
Rising Sun hotel the night previous, were called for by the omni* 
bus, free of charge. The company had two new and splendid 
omnibusses. John Payne was the agent of this line. 

Abner Mershon ran the Proprietor a short time in the year 

The steamer Edwin Forrest commenced making regular trips 

■■ ^ -i . ■ ■ ■„ .,. ■ ^ „ ..,., . , ,. . • - , . , > , , _,..:-.-..: . , 


between here and Philadelphia, in the ye^Cir 1850. She still- 
continues to run daily to and from Philadelphia, regulating her 
time of starting by the tides. The original owners were Joseph 
and Benjaviiin McMackin. 

In the message of Governer Mahlon Dickinson, sent to the 
two houses of the legislature, January 12th, 1816, he makes use 
of the following language : 

'' I must beg leave to call attention to a projected improve- 
ment of great national importance. I mean the construction of 
a canal to connect the waters of the Delaware river with those 
of the Raritan« 

" We have the most satisfactory evidence that the expense of 
constructing such a canal, on the most practicable route, would 
bear but a small proportion to the immense advantages to be 
derived from it. It would form an important link in that vast 
chain of internal navigation which our country admits of, and 
whicK will, at some future period, afford us security in war and 
an abundant source of wealth in peace, while it will form a 
permanent bond of union among the Atlantic states. 

''All local considerations should yield when put in competi- 
tion with an object so highly interesting, not only to this state, 
but to the Union at large.'* 

This part of the governor's message was referred to a commit- 
tee, who on the 25th of January reported in favor of the project.. 

Subscriptions were afterwards opened for the capital stock in 
this state, as well as in Philadelphia and New York. But partly 
from the extensive improvements then in progress, particularly 
in the erection of turnpike roads, partly from a conviction that 
the plan in contemplation, of using the beds of the several inter- 
vening streams, would, upon experiment, prove unavailing, and 
panly from a belief that the country was not yet prepared for the 
commencement of such great national objects, and that the tolls 
would pay but a very inadequate interest on the capital required, 
but few shares were subscribed, and the work was never com- 

Whatever, however, may have been the public sentiment at 
that period, subsequent events have demonstrated to the satisfac- 
tion of the most incredulous the immense utility and importance 


of such navigation, not only as a medium of commerdal inter- 
course, but as an object of national security. 

On the 19th of November, 1823, the committee of the Icgis- 
lature to whom was referred the subject of the Delaware and 
Raritan canal reported, '' that we have considered the subject 
with all that attention which its great importance demands, and 
are of opinion that 'such a canal, if it could be effected at an 
expense not too great for the resources of the state, and without 
imposing a burdensome weight of taxation, ought to be carried 
into execution by the state itselH 

''But, that in order to obtain further information before this 
plan is acted upon, it is expedient that the present legislature 
appoint commissioners, whose duty it shall be to report to the 
next legislature upon all matters connected with the practica- 
bility of said canal, its probable expense, and the revenue to be 
derived therefrom, as also upon any arrangement which might 
be made with the United States in respect to said canal, and 
upon the ways and means proper to be adopted for executing the 
same, and generally to report on every other matter which, in 
their opinion, would be useful to be understood by the legisla- 
ture in the premises. That, in order to give some public infor- 
mation of the method by which the New York and Erie Canal has 
been constructed by that state, the committee beg leave to report 
^ bill on similar principles in relation to the Delaware and Rari- 
tan Canal, to be laid over, nevertheless, after being printed, to 
the next legislature, and then to be acted upon, adopted, modi- 
fied, or rejected, as may be deemed expedient, which was read ; 
and Mr. Griffith presented a bill to provide for the improvement 
of the internal navigation of this state. Ordered to lie on the 
table and be printed.'* 

But it was not till February 4th, 1830, that the act of incor- 
poration of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company passed 
the council and general assembly of this state and became a law; 
and then it was vested in a private company instead of the state, 
as at first contemplated. The following persons were authorized 
to open books of subscription to the capital stock of said com- 
pany within six months after the passage of the act of incorpora- 
tion: <' James Parker. and James Neilson, of Middlesex; John 







Potter, of Somerset ; William Halsted, of Hunterdon ; and Gar- 
ret D. Wall, of Burlington, or any three of them, were appointed 
commissioners to receive subscriptions to the said stock at such 
times and places as they or a majority of them may direct, giving 
notice thereof at least twenty days prior to the opening of said 
books, by publbhing the same in at least three of the newspapers 
published in this state, three in the city of Philadelphia, and 
three in the city of New York." 

The capital stock was to be one million dollars, divided into 
shares of one thousand dollars each, which, when five thousand 
shares were subscribed for, the persons holding the same, were, by 
this act, incorporated into a company by the name of the 
*' Delaware and Raritan Canal Company," with all the powers 
and privileges pertaining to corporate bodies, and necessary to 
perfect an expeditious and complete line of communication 
between Philadelphia and New York, and to carry the object of 
this act into effect. 

This act required that the number of shares which was necessary 
to make '' the incorporation of said company [five thousand] 
should be paid in, in one year from the time of opening said sub- 
scription books, other^i'ise all the subscriptions under it should be 
null and void, and the commissioners, after deducting thereout 
their expenses, should return the residue of the money paid in, 
to the respective subscribers, or their representatives, in propor- 
tion to the sums paid by them." 

It was provided that at the yearly meetings of the company, 
the president and directors of the preceding year were to exhibit 
to the stockholders a full and complete statement of the affairs 
of the company during said term. 

They were empowered to make " a canal or artificial navigation 
from the waters of the Delaware river to the waters of the Rari- 
tan river, and to improve the navigation of the said riven 
respectively, as they may firom time to time become necessary, 
below where the said canal shall empty into the said riven 
respectively; which canal shall be at least fifty feet wide at the 
water line, and the water therein be at least five feet deep 
throughout; and the said company are hereby empowered to sup- 
ply the said canal with water from the river Delaware, by con- 

<«?'■' -^ --• — ■ -^ - - -^ -^<~».-^l.-i- l.,-^! 



stracting a feeder, which feeder shall be so constructed as to 
form a navigable canal, not less than thirty feet wide and four 
feet deep, to conduct the water from any part of the river 

'< It shall be the duty of the company to construct and keep in 
repair good and sufficient bridges or passages over the said 
canal or feeder, where any public or other roads shall cross the 
same, so that the passage of carriages, horses, and cattle on said 
roads shall not be prevented thereby ; and also where the said 
canal or feeder shall intersect the farm or lands of any individual, 
to provide and keep in repair a suitable bridge or bridges, as 
aforesaid, so that the owner or owners and others may pass the 


Power was given the stockholders to increase the capital stock 
to a sum not exceeding five hundred thousand dollars, by an 
increase of the number of shares, provided they found it neces-. 
sary so to do in order to carry into full effect the objects of 
this act. 

The canal and feeder were to be commenced within two yean 
after the passage of the act, and completed within eight years, 
otherwise the act should be void. 

At the expiration of thirty years from the time of completion 
of the canal and feeder, the legislature may cause, an appraise- 
ment of the same, to be made by six persons, three appointed by 
the governor, and three appointed by the company, to report to 
the next legislature, within one year from the time of their 
appointment, their appraisement in no case to exceed the first 
costs of said canal and feeder; and the privilege was extended to 
the state for the space of ten years to purchase the works at the 
appraisement. The company was to pay the state the sum of 
eight cents for each and every passenger, and the sum* of eight 
cents for each and every ton of merchandise so transported 
thereon, except the articles of coal, lumber, lime, wood, ashes, 
and similar low-priced articles, for which two cents per ton shall 
be paid. 

The bill incorporating the Camden and Amboy Railroad and 
Transportation Company was passed on the same day as that of 

■ ■ ^ Jl 




the Delaware and Raritan Canal bill, the 4th of February, 1830, 
and under similar restrictions as the canal company. 

The persons authorized to receive subscriptions were '' Samuel 
G. Wright, of Monmouth ; James Cook, of Middlesex ; Abraham 
Brow;n, of BurlingtoTi ; Jeremiah H. Sloan, of Gloucester ; and 
Henry Freas, of Salem." The books wejre to be opeiltd within 
six months from the passage of the act, the capital stock to be one 
million of dollars, divided into shares of one hundred dollars 
each. ''And when five thousand shares shall have been sub- 
scribed for, the company shall then be considered organized and 
incorporated by the name of the ' Camden and Amboy Railroad 
and Transportation Company.' " 

They were given power to increase the capital stock to any 
sum not exceeding five hundred thousand dollars, by increasing 
the number of shares for that purpose, provided the capital stock 
should be deemed insufficient to carry into full effect the objects 
of the act ; and that the road should be commenced within two 
years, and completed within nine years thereafter, otherwise the 
act to become void. At the expiration of thirty years from the 
completion of the said road, the state could purchase the same 
under like restrictions made in reference to the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal. 

On the 4th day of February, 1831, the legislature gave the 
railroad company power to transfer one thonsand shares of stock 
to the state. ' , 

On the 15th day of February of the same year, an act was 
passed consolidating the stock of the Delaware and Raritan 
Canal and Camden and Amboy Railroad and Transportation 
Companies, commonly called the ''marriage act" 

This consolidation enabled the two companies to construct 
their present works, which now afford a handsome revenue to 
our state. 

It was the duties paid by these companies that built our State 
Prison and Lunatic Asylum, of both of which structures our state 
may well feel proud; also our beautiful State House, which a late 
writer in Massachusetts observes, " is not surpassed by any in the 
United States." 

From the same source, our magnificent system of common. 



schools derives the principal part of its support. The revenue 
derived from these sources saves our citizens from an enormous 
yearly tax, which must have accrued through our internal im- 
provements did we not have some means of meeting the expen- 

That source is afforded by the Camden and Amboy Railroad, 
which pays not less than one hundred thousand dollars yearly 
into the coffers of our state. 

These works, though they benefit the whole state, are men- 
tioned here at length, because our city has been particularly 
benefited by them. Here are located many of the public build- 
ings erected by them, besides which they afford business facili- 
ties highly beneficial to our city. 

During the session of the legislature of 1854, an act was passed 
extending the time of purchase of the railroad by the state to 
18S8, and after January ist, 1869, the monopoly clause should 
be of no force. 

-*--"- In* ■■■> ,m III ■ „ ■■ ■ . . . , 


Uterary Institutions — Newspapers — New Jersey Gazette — State 
Gazette — True American — Emporium — People^ s Advocate — 
Union — Argus — Plaindealer — Sheet Anchor — New Jersey 
Temperance Herald — Weekly Visitor — Daily Newt — Clay 
Banner — Trentonian — Republican Privatetr — Reformer and 
New Jersey Temperance Advocate — Mercer Standard— Free 
Press — Trenton Academy — Public and Private Schools — Libra- 
ries — Apprentices Library — Trenton Library — Constitutionctl 
Library — Trenton Institute — Irving Institute — Mechanics Insti* 
tute — Trenton Lyceum. 

THE " New Jersey Gazette," published at Burlington, by 
Isaac Collins, was the first newspaper published in the 
state. It was a weekly paper, nine by fourteen inches in size^ 
the subscription price being twenty-six shillings, or five dollars- 
and twenty cents per annum, or ten cents per week. Advertise- 
ments were inserted at seven shillings and six-pence for the first 
week, and two shillings and six-pence for every additional week, 
and long ones in proportion. The first paper was issued Friday, 
December 5th, 1777. The first article appearing in the paper is 
as follows : 

''To enter into a minute detail of the advantages of a well* 
conducted newspaper would, at any time, be impertinent, but 
more especially at a crisis which makes a quick circulation of 
intelligence peculiarly interesting to all the American states. 
The publisher, therefore, thinks it will be more to the purpose 
to communicate to the public a brief account of the nature of his- 
plan, than to enter into any formal proof of its utility, which he 
esteems little less than self-evident 


r . 'miritn. : 


'' He proposes to print this '' Gazette" once a week, to con- 
tain a faithful account of remarkable occurrences, whether foreign 
or domestic ; materials for which he shall be amply famished 
with in consequence of a general correspondence he is estaUish- 
ing for that purpose. 

''Such proceedings of the legislature and courts of justice as 
may conduce to the benefit or entertainment of his readers shall 
find a place in his publications. 

«< Essays, useful or entertaining, schemes for the advancement 
of trade, arts, and manufactures, proposals for improvements in 
agriculture, and particularly in the culture of hemp and fUz, will 
be inserted with pleasure and alacrity. 

'' The interests of religion and liberty he shall ever think it 
his peculiar duty to support ; and, at the same time, to treat with 
disregard the intemperate effusions of factious zealots, whether 
religious or political, as injurious to virtue and destructive of 
civil order. With great care shall he reject every proposition to 
make his paper a vehicle for the dark purpose of private malicCt 
by propagating calumnies against individuab, wounding the 
peace of families, and inflaming the minds of men with bitter- 
ness and rancor against one another. 

'' In a word, he will spare neither cost nor pains to make his 
paper as useful and entertaining as possible ; and, while these 
objects are steadily pursued, the publbher will confidently rely 
upon the generosity and public spirit of the gentlemen of this 
state for their countenance and support to such a useful under- 

Then follows the names of persons in every county in the state, 
who are authorized to receive subscriptions, including all the 
members of the legislature, in all twelve counties, an agent at 
Bristol, Pennsylvania, and the printer. 

The first advertisement on the first page of the paper is as 

"To the printer of the "New Jersey Gazette"— Sir : Being 
informed that numbers of people, under various pretences, are 
passing from the state of New Jersey into the city of Philadel- 
phia, and returning back into New Jersey, without the permis- 
sion required by law for going into the enemy^s lines, to pre* 

jJBliBigahifciahKlaMiliia -* -- -r" ^ r - " t -yir -" W-— •^'-'— *■■-" ■■-->'"—— "■""^^—^—'-^-■» ■-—■——»— ^- -T- -*■*-— ——^'^^-'^*-*- 

2 1 a mSTOR Y OF TRENTOli. 

vent such delinquents from pleading ignorance whenever they 
may be apprehended, I would acquaint them, thro' the channel 
of your paper, that by an act of this state, it is felony, without 
benefit of clergy, in a man ; and, in a woman, three hundred 
pounds fine, or one year's imprisonment ; and that government 
is determined to be vigilant in causing such offenders to be 
apprehended and brought to condign punishment. 

'' I am your humble servant, 
"Princeton, November 25, 1777, W. !•.'• 

Items of news of August 6th, from Amsterdam; July 12th, 
from Deux Fonts, and August jolh, from Whitehall, is published. 

An advertisement appeared, offering a reward of five pounds for 
the return of a silver watch lost, which had a ribbon string, a brass 
key much worn, and a small red cornelian seal set in silver, with 
the compass and square in the silver work. 

The finder was requested to leave it with Mr. Robert Ramsay, 
in Newtown, Mr. Bessonet, in Bristol, Mr. Isaac Wood, in 
Mount Holly, or with the printer, and receive the above reward. 

'' N. B. — ^If the person into whose possession it may come, 
should be so ungenerous as not to return it to either of the above 
gentlemen, every watchman and others are requested to endeavor 
to expose the villainy." 

The next article, dated '' Camp near Ticonderoga, July 2d, 
1777," is a proclamation to the British troops in America, by John 
Burgoyne, Esq., lieutenant-general of his Majesty's armies in 
America, colonel of the queen's regiment of light dragoons, 
governor of Fort William in North Britain, one of the repre- 
sentatives of the commons of Great Britain, and commanding 
an army and fleet employed on an expedition from Canada^ 
&c, &C. 

Immediately following this is a letter from General Gates, 
. dated "Camp at Saratoga, October i8th, 1777," announcing the 
surrender of this same Burgoyne and his whole army into the 
hands of General Gates, and that they were on their march to 
Boston. This signal and important event, says Gates, "is the 
more glorious, as it was effected with so little loss to the army of 
the United SUtes." 

Then follows thirteen articles of convention entered into 






between Lieutenant-General Burgoyne and Major-General Gates, 
and signed by Bargoyne. 

On the 4th of March, 1778, the publication office was removed 
to Trenton, and located at the corner of East State and Greene 
streets, in a frame building which stood where Charles Scott's 
bookstore is now located. 

The publication of the paper was discontinued November ayth, 
1786, in consequence of the high price of paper and the want of 

On Tuesday the 5th of May, 1787, nearly six months after the 
"New Jersey Gazette" had suspended, "The Federal Post, or 
the Trenton Weekly Mercury," was started at this place. 

This paper was ten by sixteen inches, published weekly, at 
four-pence each, by Frederick C. Quequelle and George M. 
Wilson. It was published on the north side of Front street, 
opposite the English Church. 

The English Church is the present Saint Michael's Episcopal 
Church. At that time the name of King (now Warren) street, 
had been changed to Front street, and Queen (now Greene) 
street, to Back street. 

In the "Mercury," advertisements were inserted on the most 
reasonable terms, and subscriptions received at twelve shillings 
per annum. 

October 3d, 1788, on account of the scarcity of demy print- 
ing paper, the publishers were under the necessity of altering the 
size of their paper. It was then reduced to nine by fifteen 
inches, and printed twice a week, Tuesdays and Fridays, at two 
dollars per annum, and delivered to subscribers in the country 
free of expense, once a week, one-half of the above sum to be 
paid at the time of subscribing, and the other half at the end of 
\^ six months. It was the first semi-weekly paper published in 
^ the state. 

I On the 2ist of October it ceased to be a semi-weekly, and was 
published weekly, on Tuesday. 

On the 5 th day of March, 1791, George Sherman and John 
Mershon opened a printing office at the place formerly occupied 
hy Mathias Day, which was a two story frame building adjoining 

^ ^ ... ^ ...... ^ . ■-.-.- ^- -.-^. - ■■- . - ,. - ^M. 



the Trenton House on the south ; the store now occupied by 
James C. Manning stands upon the spot. 

In the prospectus which they issued at the time of starting the 
paper, they give as the place of publication, '' in the office oppo- 
site the Indian Queen hotel." 

At this time the paper was called the '' New Jersey State 
Gazette," and was published weekly. The publication Mras con- 
tinued under this title and by the same persons, until January 
3d, 1797, when Mathias Day purchased it, and changed the 
name to ''State Gazette and New Jersey Advertiser." 

On the 9th of July, 1798, it was purchased by Gershom Craft 
and William Black, the former a young lawyer, whose residence 
was on Mill hill, in the house now occupied by Robert^Dowling, 
and kept by him as a hotel. These gentlemen changed the 
name of the paper to *' Federalist and New Jersey Gazette." A 
short .time after, William Black retired from the concern, and 
the publication was continued by Gershom Craft. 

On the 26th of March, 1799, Craft retired from the establish- 
ment, and the publication was continued by Sherman, Mershon 
& Thomas. 

In July 8th, 1800, Craft again went into the concern, and the 
paper was published by Sherman, Mershon, Thomas, and Craft, 
but in September of the same year Craft again retired from the 
establishment, and the old firm of Sherman, Mershon & Thomas 
continued its publication. 

On the nth day of May, 1802, the name of the paper was 
again changed to ''Trenton Federalist," and conducted by 
Sherman & Mershon. 

On the 1 6th of December, 1806, upon the death of John Mer- 
shon, George Sherman assumed the whole control of the " Fed- 
eralist," and on the 4th day of July, 1829, he again changed the 
mune to " New Jersey State Gazette," which name it bore until 
it was changed to "State Gazette," its present name. Under 
its new title William P. Sherman became its editor, but on the 
2d of January, 1830, George Sherman again conducted it, and 
continued its publication until his death, after which time it was 
published for a number of years by the family, no publisher'i 
name appearing at the head of its columns. * 



On the ist of January, i^S^y the name of James T. Sherman 
appeared at the head of its columns as editor. At this time it was 
published in a two and a half story frame building, in an aHey, 
opposite Saint Michael's Church. On the 4th of January, 1339^ 
James T. Sherman associated with him Henry Harron, and the 
names of these two gentlemen appeared at the head of the paper. 
They shortly after removed the office of publication to the north- 
east corner of Warren and State streets. 

On the 14th of January, 1840, they commenced the issue of a 
tri-weckly; and on the 12th of January, 1847, they issued a daily 
paper, the publication of which is still kept up. It was issued 
by the same gentlemen until the ist of February, 1853, ^'^^^^ the 
paper was purchased by William Brown and Thomas C. Borden. 
In consequence of ill health, Mr. Borden retired from the estab- 
lishment on the ist of March, 1854. 

In the fall of 1854, Mr. Brown sold his interest in the paper 
to Edmund Morris. 

From July 30th, 1855, it was published by C. W. Tolles, who 
retired May 12th, 1857. 

The name of the publishers did not again appear at the head 
of its columns until July 17th, 1857, when it was published by 
Jacob R. Frcese, with Enoch R. Borden as associate editor. Its 
. name was again changed to '' Daily State Gazette and Repub- 
lican," and was removed to the office where the "State Sen- 
tinel" is now published. 

September 25 th, 1865, it was purchased by William Brook 
and Jonathan Vannote. 

July loth, 1869, John L. Murphy and Charles Bechfel became 
the owners and purchasers and removed it to the place where it 
is now published, corner of State and Greene streets. 

The first number of the "True American" was issued Tues- 
day, March loth, 1801, from the office in Market (now State) 
street, where the hardware store of F. S. Katzenbach & Ca.| 
now stands, in a small frame building. Mathias Day and Jacob 
Mann were the first publishers ; on the 28th.of June of the same 
year they associated with them James J. Wilson. 

On the 3d of November, 1S02, Mathia^ Day leaving the con* 
cern, its publication was continued by Jacob.Mann and James J. 

""•"^" - - ' 1 - - - I ■ I 

■ ■■ Mja^M. 




Wilson, until February pth, 1802, when Mann retiring from the 
establishment, the paper was conducted by Wilson & Black- 
well, and in 181 1, Blackwell retiring, it was published by James 
J. Wilson, who continued the same until his death in 1825, after 
which it was conducted by W. L. Prall, for Mrs. Wilson. 

On the 27th of May, 1826, Prall purchased the paper, and 
continued its publication until 1828, when it was purchased by 
George Sherman ; the two offices were united, and the publica- 
tion of the ''True American" was discontinued. 

When Wilson became associated with the "True American," 
the office of publication was removed up town to his residence, 
in what is now the Belvidere hotel, in Warren street, a few 
doors south of the feeder, and the office where the paper was 
printed was the frame building on the south of his dwelling- 

In 1809, he erected a frame building nearly opposite, which 
he occupied for his printing office. In 1810, he built a brick 
house, adjoining the office on the north, standing a little back 
from the street, with a yard in front, and took up his residence 

On the 23d of June, 1821, Stacy G. Potts and Joseph Justice 
commenced the publication of a religious and literary paper, 
called the "Emporium." 

It was published in a frame building, adjoining the residence 
of Joseph Justice, No. 107 Warren street, now occupied by 
Henry Thoene. 

This was continued as a literary paper until 1827, when it took 
sides with the administration, and came out in favor of General 

Mr. Potts continued to edit the paper until 1830, when, being 
appointed by the legislature clerk in chancery, his connection 
with the paper was dissolved, after which time Mr. Justice was 
the publisher and proprietor, and Joseph C. Potts editor. On 
the 28th of August, 1838, a tri-weekly paper was commenced by 
Joseph Justice, Jr.^ and Franklin S. Mills, for electioneering 
purposes. Its publication was continued until the 8th of 
October of the same .year, when, having fulfilled its mission, 
it was discontinued* 




On the 2d of December, 18399 they issued a daily from the 
same office, called ''The Trenton Daily," the publication of 
which was discontinued March 2dy 1840. The tri-weekly and 
daily published at thb office were the first of the kind published 
in this city. 

In 1843, ^^ '' Democratic Union ** was issued from the same ^ 
office, for the advocacy of the election of George T. Olmsted 
for sheriff of Mercer county, being the first irregidar ticket ever 
run in the county. He was accordingly elected. There were 
two Whigs in the field for the office. The Democratic party 
made no nomination, but entered into a combination with a 
number of dissatisfied ^Vhigs, which resulted in the choice above 

On the 24th of February, 1843, during the presidential term 
of John Tyler, the '' Emporium " changed hands, and was pub* 
lished by Joseph A. Yard until the year 1845, when it was united 
with the ''Newark Morning Post," and the publication con- 
tinued by Samud G. Arnold. 

It was, afterwards, in the year 1846, conducted by Brittain 
& Jones, after which time Samuel J. Bajrard published it ; about 
the year 1848 or 1849, Morris R. Hamilton purchased the estab- 
lishment, and took charge of the paper as editor, in company 
with William Magill as publisher* During the campaign of 
1852, and shortly after the termination of this campaign, David 
Naar became the owner and editor of the paper, with Franklin 
S. Mills as associate editor. 

July 2d, 1866, it was purchased by Messrs. Joshua S. Day, 
Joseph L., and Moses Naar, and still continues under the firm 
name of Naar, Day & Naar. 

When Morris R. Hamilton -first became publisher, he removed 
it to Greene street, next to the City HalL 

It was removed by Judge Naar to the comer of Warren and 
Front streets, its present place of publication. 

On the 25th of April, 1843, Franklin S. Mills commenced 
the publication of the '' Sheet Anchor,'* and continued the same 
until the 12th of July, 1845, ^^^ the paper was purchased by 
Robert Gosman, and its title changed to the " Trenton JoumaL*' 

''The Daily News" was published on the ad day of Maxch^ 





1846, at the office of the ** Trenton Journal/* but, in a short 
time, it was purchased by Brittain &. Jones and united with 
*'The Emporiunu" 

Ia 1345, Joseph C. Potts and John C. Webster commenced 
the pulication of the "Plain Dealer/' an anti-roonopoly paper. 
.This, too, was merged into " The Emporium," when Joseph C. 
Potts took charge of the last named paper. 

After Morris R. Hamilton took charge of the paper, he changed 
its name to ** True American.'* 

In 1835, a Democratic paper, called the "Argus,** was started. 
It was published by Peter Lott and B. F. Vancleve. This paper, 
however, had an existence of only about one year. It was pub- 
lished in the large brick building No. 9 East Front street.. 

In 1843, William M. Whitley published a paper called the 
" New Jersey Temperance Herald." It was issued for a short 
time from the office of the *' Sheet Anchor," No. 49 Warren 
street, now the residence of Joseph C. Mayer. The office 
of publication was afterwards removed to a frame house in 
East State street, between Lanning & Dunn's hardware store 
and the Mansion House. 

In 1844, Charles W. Jay published the " Clay Banner," which 
paper, as its name imports, was started to advance the interests of 
Henry Clay for the presidency of the United States, in opposi- 
tion James K. Polk. The office of publication was in the second 
story, back of C. B. Vansyckel's doig store. 

In 1848, Charles W. Jay, Franklin S. Mills, and Joseph Jus- 
tice, Jr., commenced the publication of a paper called the 
" Trentonian," on the southeast corner of State and Greene 
streets, over Scott's book store.* 

This paper was afterwards conducted by Charles W. Jay, 
Israel Wells, and Asher Beatty. Wells came into the concern 
about the year 1850, and continued as one of the publishers 
until the paper ceased to exist, about the year 1851. 
In 1846, James S. Yard commenced the publication of the 

*It is worthy of remark that for nearly three-fouiths of a century this comer 
has been used as a literary depot. Here, in 1808, Isaac Collins issued his 
memorable edition of the Bible, one of the most correct editions ever published. 


,^l.l1-« »fc- 


month, was increased in July following to forty-eight pages, and 
in January, 187I9 it appeared as an illustrated magazine, at one 
dollar per year. Its matter is all original contributions upon 
subjects of a practical character, and the ability displayed in the 
several departments hs^ attracted the attention of the press at 
home and abroad, and given it a place among the best literaiy 
magazines of the day. The '' State Gazette" said of the March 
number, 1871, ''This is, without doubt, the best number of 
Beecher's that has yet been issued, and this magazine is begin* 
ning to attract a great deal of attention in the literary world, 
and is taking a good position among the higher class of maga- 
zine publications. There are two articles in this number which 
would do credit to any magazine in America. We mean the 
biography of the late eminent engineer and bridge builder, John 
A. Roebling, and the article under the department of popular 
science, by Dr. James B. Coleman, entitled * Can the Human 
Leg and Foot be Improved ?' The biography of Mr. Roebling 
is by far the best that has appeared anywhere. It is written in 
a clear and pleasant, yet plain and unostentatious style, does 
justice to the high character and grand achievements 6f the sub- 
ject, and relates in an accurate and not tedious manner, all the 
incidents of his honorable and eventful career. The article by 
Dr. Coleman is a thoughtful and interesting one, that will do 
much to popularize that branch of studies and investigation. We 
trust that Dr. Coleman will have these fugitive pieces published 
in book form. They would be a valuable contribution to the 
literature of the day." 

In the year 17S1, a number of the most prominent and enter- 
prising citizens of Trenton formed themselves into a company, 
for the purpose of promoting the cause of education in our city. 
This was organized as a stock company, and a fund contributed 
to ensure the success of the institution. Its interests were com- 
mitted to a board of trustees, to be elected annually from the 

The operations of the academy have never been suspended, 
except for one or two short periods, from its foundation to the 
present time. 

The Trenton Academy was established February loth, 1781, * 


•M'-Jt^ — «■ -J^ 



by articles of agreement among sundry inhabitants of the town 
and vicinity, who associated themselves, ** sensible of the great 
importance of education to the well-being of individuals, and 
the good order of government, and of its peculiar use in early 
life, and judging the present means of it in this place inade- 
quate, and being met, agreed to purchase a lot, erect a com- 
modious building thereon, and form a permanent school, under 
proper regulations." 

The following were the names of the members of the associa- 
tion : Joseph Higbee, David Brearley, Joseph Milnor, Rensd- 
laer Williams, James Paxton, Stacy Potts, Isaac Smith, Isaac 
Collins, William Tucker, James Ewing, Conrad Kotts, Stephen 
Lowrey, Abram Hunt, Moore Furman, R. Neil, M. How, Jacob 
Benjamin, W. C. Houston, John Neilson, Francis WilL 

Mr. James Bumside was appointed the first teacher. 

On the 2d of March, 1782, the visiting committee reported, 
** that the teacher appears to be attentive to his duty, the school 
is in decent order, and an uncommon degree of emulation for 
improvement seems to prevail among the scholars; that good 
attention is paid to spelling, reading, and writing, and that 
Jacob Benjamin, Charles Higbee, William Pearson, Wilson 
Hunt, John Clunn, John Trent, Hill Runyon, John Hunt, 
Rensellaer Williams, Noah Davis, Samuel Dickinson, Rebecca 
Collins, Elizabeth Williams, and Elizabeth Crolius are learning 

On the 1 6th of March, 1782, the visiting committee reported, 
** that John Kotts and Joseph Jenkins are added to the arithme- 
ticians since the last visiting day." 

On the 2d of December, 1 783, Hon. David Brearley, ^loore 
Furman, Esqs., Messrs. Stacy Potts, Isaac Collins, and Conrad 
Kotts were elected trustees; Hon. David Brearley, William 
Churchill Houston, and James Ewing, Esqs., visitors of the 
grammar school; and Rensselaer Williams, Esq., Stacy Potts, 
and Conrad Kotts, visitors of the English school for the ensu- 
ing year. 

On Wednesday, the 3d, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, came 
on the quarterly examination of the grammar school at the 
'academy. His excellency the governor, many of the members 


of the honorable the council and general assembly, the trustees 
of the institution, and a number of respectable citizens of the 
town and vicinity, were present. The students acquitted them- 
selves to the great satisfaction of those present. 

In the afternoon, a crowded and polite audience was enter- 
tained with exhibitions in public speaking. The improvement 
of the students in this and the other branches of education 
taught here gave the most flattering presages of the success of 
the institution, and the highest pleasure to the lovers of science 
and the useful arts. 

On March ist, 17S5, the following names were found among 
the subscribers to the fund : S. W. Stockton, Nathan Beakes, 
William Smith, John Singer, Samuel Hankison, John Rossell, 
and Benjamin Pitfield. 

On Thursday, June 30th, 1785, the examination in the gram- 
mar-school of the academy was held. The Honorable Philemon 
Dickinson, vice president of the state, the Honorable Isaac 
Smith, second justice of the Supreme Court, Colonel Cox, James 
Mott, Esq., state treasurer, James Ewing, Esq., auditor of 
accounts, the Rev. Mr. Hunter, the trustees of the institution, 
and a number of respectable citizens of the town and vicinitj 
were present, who expressed their approbation of the perform- 
ances of the students. 

In the evening the scholars exhibited a specimen of their 
improvement in the art of speaking, in the presence of a polite 
and crowded audience, who appeared to be agreeably entertained. 

The friends and proprietors of this academy are endeavoring 
to establish a fund for the tuition of poor children, and in this 
laudable undertaking they have met with considerable encourage- 
ment, by the liberal contributions of a number of the inhabi- 
tants of this place and elsewhere, and hope to receive further .add 
from the generous and benevolent, wherever they may reside. 

The academy was incorporated November loth, 1785, by the 
name of the "Trustees of the Trenton Academy." 

On the 2oth of June, 1787, the Rev. James F. Armstrong was 
appointed to superintend the academy by attending the several 
schools occasionally, disposing the scholars into classes, direct- 
ing the number of classes, the particular studies of each class. 

~ '^" ■•' — !• r T- iTi tm iT^ ai 



attending to the government and order, observing how the 
several teachers conducted themselves, advising the manner of 
teaching, and presiding over public examinations. 

^Ir. Armstrong resigned this appointment on the 17th of 
January, 1791 — and as he, during part of the time in which he 
acted as superintendent, gave his services freely and without any 
prospect of salary or reward, the trustees granted him the privi- 
lege of sending two of his children to any schools of the academy, 
free of tuition fees. 

On the 15 th of February, 1794, an act was passed authorizing 
the academy to raise money by way of lottery. 

In 1847, owing to the necessity of more extended accommo- 
dations, the edifice was rebuilt, and many important improve- 
ments made in the internal arrangements, with a view to promote 
the comfort of the pupils and the convenience of the instructors. 
' In the meantime the original fund had so far accumulated by 
careful investment, that the trustees (in order to place the 
advantages of the institution within the reach of all who might 
wish to enjoy them), thought proper to reduce the terms of 
admission to the students, and to supply the deficiency to the 
academy from the interest of the fund. 

The principal of the academy, October ist, 1870, was Mr. 
Geerge R. Grosvenor. The trustees are Thomas J. Stryker, G. 
A. Pcrdicaris, Barker Gummere, Philemon Dickinson, and John 
S. Chambers. . 

The institution is flourishing and has an invested fund of two- 
hundred shares of the Joint Companies, besides their lot and 
building, and is out of debt. 

Besides the institution above mentioned, Trenton has some 
excellent public schools, as well as some of the best subscription 
schools in the state. 

From the report of the school superintendent of the city of 
Trenton, Dr. C. Shepherd, for the year 1870, we find there were 
in the city six thousand seven himdred and ninety>nine children 
between the ages of five and eighteen years, and about one-third 
of this number attended the public schools. The average attend- 
ance was one thousand seven hundred and thirty-six during the 



year. There are eight male and twenty-nine female teachers, all 
of whom are in every way comipetent. 

At the present time there appears to be a difficulty in regard 
to room ; more applications are made for the benefit of the public 
schools than they can find room to accommodate, and the si]X)er- 
intendent has made strenuous exertions to find some additional 
school room. 

In the year 1 851, Dr. Charles Skdton, late school superin* 
tendent, presented the academy in the first ward with a well- 
selected library of two hundred volumes of choice works. 

The public schools here are entirely free to all, the amount of 
money appropriated for that purpose, for the year 1870 being 
twenty-five thousand one hundred and sixty-six dollars and 
thirty-three cents. Of the school fund, two thousand three 
hundred and sixty-six dollars and thirty-three cents was received 
from the state, and the amount raised by taxation in the citj 
was twenty-two thousand eight hundred dollars. 

Besides the public schools, there are a number of boarding 
and day-schools in our city, in some of which the higher branches 
appertaining to an English education are taught ; and in others 
are taught the languages, as well as music and drawing. 

In the year 1750, there was a library established in Trenton. 
This was the first one of which we have any knowledge. The 
rules and regulations by which it was governed we are entirely 
ignorant of, as there are no public records in existence at the 
present time, that I am aware of. The only knowledge of its 
existence is the fact above enumerated, obtained from Smith's 
History of New Jersey. 

The Apprentices' Library was established in the year 1821. 
At the first annual meeting of the Apprentices' Library Com* 
pony of Trenton and its vicinity, held at the house of Joseph 
M. Bispham (Trenton House), on the evening^ of the 20th of 
April, 1822, Charles Ewing, president, and Zachariah Rossdl, 
seci'etary, the following gentlemen were elected officers for the 
ensuing year, r/s., Charles Ewing, president; Samuel L. Southard, 
vice president; Zachariah Rossell, secretary; George Watson, 
treasurer; Samuel Evans, librarian; James J. Wilson, Rer. 

^^iM»«^M^^^M^— ^^i^M^M^MlA»i^M^<>^^M^M.^fc*^««— ^W— ^**fcr*Ml^J—— iM^M*— ^M^i— ■ a m — m „ tt <■■ i H — ^ ■[■■tl. 


Abiel Carter, Rev. William Boswell, Thomas Gordon, Daniel 
Coleman, Charles Burroughs, and William S. Stockton, managers. 
The following report was received from the board of managers 
for that year, which was read, accepted, and ordered to be 
entered on the minutes and published: 

To the Apprentices^ Library Company of Trenton and its vicinity: 

The board of managers of said company respectfully report — 
that, immediately after their appointment, they entered upon the 
execution of the duties assigned them, with the hope and expec- 
tation of speedily putting the institution in full operation ; but, 
notwithstanding their earnest desire and consequent endeavors 
so to do, various circumstances concurred to produce delays, as 
imavoidable as they were unforeseen, and it was not until toward 
the close of the past year that they found themselves in readi- 
ness to open the library. 

That, on the evening of the 31st of December, at the request 
of the board, and agreeably to public notice, Charles Ewing, 
Esq., president of the society, delivered, in the Presbyterian 
meeting-house, to a numerous and attentive audience, an appro- 
priate and eloquent address on the utility and importance of this 
and similar institutions. 

That, on the evening of the ist of January, the library was 
for the first time opened, w*hen thirty-five volumes were taken 
out by apprentices and other young persons. 

That, from a report of the librarian to your board, it appears 
that the number of volumes taken out each week, since the 
opening of the library, has been, on an average, about seventy- 
five, ninety-three being the highest number in any one week, 
and fifty-five the lowest. 

From the same report, it appears that the whole amount of 
fines incurred, for the detention of books beyond the time 
allowed in the by-laws, is but one dollar and seven cents, of 
which all but fifteen cents have been paid ; that all the books 
borrowed (except two taken out two weeks ago, and those taken 
out on Saturday evening last, all of which will be returned, 
probably, this evening), have been returned, and all in good 
order. • . 

These facts are highly honorable to' our youth, and encouraging 


to this society. They prove that they properly estimate our 
motives, and set a just value on this institution, while they are 
a pledge to us that our continued and increased exertions to place 
useful knowledge within their reach will not be in vain. 

Let it be further observed, to their credit, that the library, 
from which they draw seventy-five volumes weekly, contains no 
novels, romances, or plays, which are so apt to captivate juvenile 
imaginations, but is composed of works of more sterling value 
and lasting usefulness — on religion, morality, and science, his- 
tory, biography, travels, voyages, &c It may be also renuurked, 
that the collection from which this choice is made consisted at 
first of but two hundred and fifty volumes, and now contains 
two hundred and sixty-seven ; of course, it could not tempt the 
taste by any great variety, nor long furnish the attraction of 

As respects the funds of the society, the board have only to 
report that, agreeably to a statement of the treasurer, the original 
subscriptions amounted to one hundred and. forty-six dollars, of 
which he has received but one hundred and twenty dollars^ 
leaving twenty-six dollars unpaid ; that of the one hundred and 
twenty dollars received by the treasurer, one hundred and seven 
dollars have been paid out on orders of the chairman of this 
board, for books, book-case, &c., leaving a balance of twdve 
dollars and forty-five cents in hb hands. 

Some copies of an excellent little treatise, lately republished 
in Philadelphia, entitled, ''A Present for an Apprentice,*Vhave 
been ordered, but are not paid for, and no part of the librarian's 
salary of twenty-five dollars a year has yet been discharged. 

Should the balance due on original subscriptions, and the 
annual installment of one dollar from each member, be promptly 
paid, as they ought, and as we trust will be, it will not only 
enable the board to discharge all arrearages, but to make such 
additions to the library as are essential to its prosperity and use- 

The board also indulge the hope that many who have hitherto 
withheld their aid, from a doubt of the utility of the institution, 
or a fear that it could not be supported, will now, when such 
doubts and fears can no longer be reasonably entertained, come 

H V fci n il. I r II. ■! «■■*»,., „ , , ,. .... . ■^. -. ... , . • ■ ... ■ ^^ 


forward, and, by becoming members of the company, and com- 
plying with the terms of admission, or by donations of money 
or books, contribute to enlarge the library and extend its use- 

On the whole, the board offer their cordial congratulations to 
the society on the experiment made and the prospect presented, 
and earnestly hope that none who have lent their aid to so good 
a work will become weary of well doing. 

By order of the board. * 

James J. Wilson, Chairman. 

Thomas Gordon, CVk. 

The books belonging to the Apprentices' Librar}' were for 
many years in the possession of the late librarian, Samuel Evans, 
who had them in charge at the time the society ceased opera- 
tions, but have since come into the possession of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, where they are accessible to all 
who choose to avail themselves of them. 

At the head of this library association we find such men as 
the Hon. Samuel L. Southard, afterwards, for a number of years. 
United States senator, and, at the death of President Harrison, 
acting vice president of the United States ; Hon. Charles Ewing, 
Chief Justice of New Jersey, who fell a victim to the cholera, in 
1833 ; General Zachariah Rossell, for many years clerk of the 
Supreme Court of New Jersey, which position he filled until his 
death; General James J. Wilson, editor of the "True American," 
and postmaster of Trenton. In fact, all the officers of that insti- 
tution have been prominent men in the commtmity, having held 
responable offices. 

In July, 1838, the Trenton Institute was formed; but it was 
not until the 4th of September of the same year that the associa- 
tion was formally instituted, at which time the following officers 
were chosen: George Woodruff*, Esq., president; Re\-.JohnW. 
Yeomans, Stacy G. Potts, Esq., and Seth Lukens, vice presidents; 
James Wilson, Esq., Dr. Francis A. Ewing, Charles Parker, 
Rev. Samuel Starr, and Andrew Allinson, executive committee; 
llmothy Abbott, Jr., secretary; John Mershon, treasurer | 
Charles C. Yard, Dr. James B. Coleman, Dr. John L. Taylor, 



Joseph Withenip, and Benjamin S. Disbrow were elected 
curators. They met on Tuesday evening of each week. 

Professor Henry, of the College of New Jersey, (now presi- 
dent of the Smithsonian Institute), delivered the first lecture 
before the Trenton Institute, on Tuesday evening, the 34th of 
August, 1838. The institute continued in successful operation 
until the 24th of March, 1844, when it ceased operations. The 
place of meeting was in the large saloon of the City HalL 

They were in possession of a complete set of philosophical 
apparatus, and, after they had disbanded, these were presented 
to the Trenton Academy. 

In 1842, Charles Moore, Dr. James B. Coleman, Benjamin S. 
Disbrow, and Henry M. Lewis established the Mechanics' 
Institute. They met every Saturday evening, in the upper 
saloon of the City Hall. Lectures on the arts and sciences 
formed the topics there discussed. This was intended for the 
benefit of apprentices ; hence the lectures were free to all. 

In 1845, ^^ Irving Institute was formed. Its officers were 
Lewis R. Justice, president; Christopher S. Hoagland, secretary; 
Charles C. Burroughs, treasurer; Lewis R. Justice, C. S. Hoag- 
land, Charles C. Burroughs, and Joseph Corlies, managers. 

This institute was only continued for a short time. Its meet- 
ings were held weekly, at the City Hall, during part of the 
winters of 1845 ^"^ 1846. 

The Trenton Lyceum was next formed, with Edward W. 
Scudder as president. 

In 1S52, the Trenton Library was thrown open to the public 
Its officers were Hon. Samuel D. Ingham, president; Alfred S. 
Livingston, secretary; Timothy Abbott, Charles Hewitt, James 
T. Sherman, Gregory A. P^rdicaris, A. S. Livingston, and 
Barker Gummere, directors; Jonathan F. Cheesman, treasurer 
and librarian. 

It was in successful operation several years, and had upon its 
shelves some of the choicest productions of the literary world. 

^^^len the library was first opened, in 1852, they rented the 
comer store in Temperance Hall, and continued there until 
Charles Scott finished his building in Greene street, near State 


-^^— *— " 1— ■ € w. - 

I fc»ii 11 ■■ a. 



Street, in 1853, when they removed into the second story of that 

The following report was presented by the board of directors, 
in 1855: 

"The number of stockholders to the Trenton Library Associa* 
tion is seventy-nine; of annual subscribers, fifty-one; and the 
annual revenue from these sources is two hnndred and twenty 
dollars and fifty cents. The number of volumes now in the 
library, as nearly as can be ascertained, is one thousand six hun- 
dred and six. 

''On the 26th of December last, the library was much injured 
by a fire, which broke out in the library room. The number of 
books actually destroyed was not great, and did not (together 
with those which, though not destroyed,' were not thought of 
sufficient intrinsic value to be ivorth rebinding), exceed one 
hundred and twenty; but one thousand one hundred and seventy 
were so damaged, either by fire or water, that it w*as necessary to 
rebind them. When the fire occurred, many of the books 
needed rebinding, and, therefore, although the expense of repair- 
ing so many volumes will amount to about four hundred and 
fifty dollars, the association are by no means losers to that 
amount. For, as the majority of its books will now be put in 
strong and substantial binding, the library will be, in that 
respect, in a much better condition than it was before the fire 

"The operations of the library association for the last year 
may be succinctly stated. At the commencement of the year it 
was in debt about one hundred and fifty dollars. Thb debt has 
been psud, together with all the current expenses ; one hundred 
and thirty new works have been Obtained ; an insurance of one 
thousand dollars on the books, for five years, has been effected 
in the Bucks County Contributionship ; our outstanding debts 
are about sixty dollars, besides the debt for repairing the books 
injured by the fire ; there is a balance in the treasurer's hands of 
fifty-three dollars and sixty-three cents, and twenty-three doOait 
are due from stockholders, and will, it is believed, be soon 
collected. This result has been effected by the current receipts, 
aided by the voluntary contributions of a few gentlemen. 



''The annual income of the association is now about two hun- 
dred and twenty dollars. Its expenses will reach about one 
hundred and seventy-five dollars, without including the salary of 
the librarian (one hundred dollars), which one of the directon 
has undertaken to raise by voluntary contributions. 

"The library is to be kept open daily, ftom ten o*^ock till 
one in the mornings, and from three till five in t^e afternoons^ 
and on every Monday evening from seven o'clock till nine. It 
is thus rendered accessible at all reasonable times, and furnishes 
a resort which is always open to those who desire intellectual 
entertainment or instruction. Such a place is a valuable addi- 
tion to the privileges of our citizens, and it is to be hoped that 
they will learn to make use of and prize it. 

''There are many useful books in the library, and it b to be 
regretted that the most useful are the least read. If the com- 
jnunity choose to sustain this institution, enlarge its resources^ 
and avail themselves of the instruction already contained in its 
sixteen hundred volumes, it will be both creditable and profitable 
to them to do so. 

" The present directors had, with the aid of some liberal gen- 
tlemen, succeeded in paying off the old debts and providing 
means for adding to the library when the fire of December last 
occurred. It will now be necessary for the association to pay 
for rebinding the books injured by the fire, and also for buying 
new books. This may be easily done if the community will 
take a proper interest in the prosperity of the library, and it is 
believed that the same public spirit which has raised the institu- 
tion will sustain it and carry it on successfully. 

"The following are the officers for the present year: James 
T. Sherman, president; Alfred S. Livingston, secretary; 
Samuel D. Ingham, C. C. Haven, A. S. Livingston, Timothy 
Abbott, Thomas J. Stryker, Barker Gummere and James T, 
Sherman, directors." 

These books afterwards came into the possession of the Young 
Men's Christian Association. 

The Constitutional Library Association was established in 
1853. It was composed of young men, most of whom were 

'*^"-*"~^'''^*— ^-"" •■^'~ •■"'"•-'- I Vt' ^MJaii f-" ■--* *- -•- 




under age. They held their meetings in the third story of tlie 

In the winter of 1855 ^^ "Trenton Lecture Association'* 
was founded* Its officers were William W. L. PhillipSi presi* 
dent ; William Howe, secretary ; and a board of directors. 

The Ypung Men's Christian Association has been in success- 
ful operation for about fourteen years, being organized in 1856. 
It has a splendid library of several thousand volumes, and the 
various newspapers of the day are to be found in its rooms. 
Through the winter season the association has occasional lee* 
tures upon various subjects. The rooms have been in Warren 
street, over John B. .Anderson's hat store, and over Charles B; 
Cogill's upholstering establishment, but are now located at 
Nos. 30 and 22 East State street, over Titus & Scudder's dry 
goods store. The present officers are Joseph T. Welling, presi* 
dent ; Rev. J. C. Brown, James H. Clark, Samuel Prior, H. V. 
B. Jacobus, and E. P. Knowles, vice presidents; Dr. William 
Elmer, recording secretary; James Buchanan, corresponding 
secretary; J. C. Titus, treasurer; AV. C. Taylor, registrar; and 
L. R. Chcesman, librarian. 

The Trenton Business College was established at Temperance 
Hall in October, 1865, by Messrs. Bryant, Stratton & Whitney^ 
as a branch of the Bryant & Stratton international chain of 
business colleges, then numbering forty-eight institutions, located 
in the principal cities in the United States and Canadas. 

The, college was in charge of J. S. Chamberlin as resident 
principal, with two assistant teachers, and Caldwell K. Hall as 
lectiurer on commercial law. Mr. Chamberlin conducted the 
institution till April, 1866, when he was superseded by Mr. G. 
A. Gaskell, who continued in charge only two months, and was 
superseded by Mr. A. J. Rider. August ist, 1866, Mr. J. A. 
Beecher purchased Mr. Whitney's interest in the concern, and 
took imjnediate charge of the institution. The aggregate attend- 
ance for the year succeeding the opening was fifty students, 
consisting mostly of young men from the city of Trenton. This 
aggregate was not materially changed in the year following. 

In October, 1866, the college was removed from Temperance 
Hall to its present location, Wilkinson's building, Nos. so and 

• ' ■ • 1 — — . — -i- .■**■—. • -«-»— '^■•'-=-^ >* '^ "" ' ■ «■'■■■■■ *■■ 



22 East State street, and a department added for ladies. In the 
same month C. K. Hall, Esq., resigned his position as lecturer 
on commercial law, and was succeeded by Judge Alfred Reed. 

October 15th, of the same year, a preparatory department 
was added, which increased the average attendance to nearly 
double what it had previously been. 

The year 1869 was an important one in the history of the col- 
lege. It witnessed the withdrawal of Mr. Beecher, leaving the 
institution again in charge of Mr. Rider. The building occu* 
pied by the college underwent a thorough overhauling and re- 
modeling, to meet the demand of the times and the growing 
wants of the institution. Additional furniture and apparatus 
were added for imparting the most thoroughly practical course 
of instruction. The number of lecturers and teachers was in- 
creased to five, and the aggregate attendance of students in the 
gentlemen's department was two hundred and sixty-Ave, and 
in the ladies' department fifteen, making a total of two hundred 
and eighty. 

In June, 1S70, this college was admitted to the International 
Business College Association, then in convention at the city of 
Boston. (An organization which grew out of the Bryant & 
Stratton chain soon after the decease of Mr. Stratton). 

In the reix>rts of the convention this, college stands in point 
of excellence, as to management and course of instruction, 
among the first colleges of the association. 

November, 1870, Mr. William B. Allen was admitted as a 
joint proprietor, and the business is conducted under the firm 
name of Rider & Allen. The aggregate attendance for 1870 
was three hundred students. The patronage, which was formerly 
local, has become so much extended as to embrace members from 
a majority of the states of the Union. The institution is ably 
managed, and its constantly increasing patronage indicates its 
growth in public favor and influence. 


' 4 -* **■' ' ' '■*'*■» <i**t*tow * < — ■ ■ ■ iii f .>, --•* - -I-'- <.>*.ij. v^.^ - — --.. JiMi».^.«^ ■^■■•- - I-.- ■ .. — 


MamtfactorUs — Stacy* s Mill Erected in xdZo— Steel Works of 
Stacy Potts in 1776 — Fithian*s Cotton Mill- — Converted info a. 
Paper Aftll— Subsequent Owners of Paper Mill — Coxe^s Mill^ 
1756 — Steel Works Built in 1769 — Belts and Pannly^s Mail 
Factory^ 1800 — Hall and Anderson* s Distillery ^ 1800 — Bil" 
lin^s Carding Machine in 181 7 — Mill of Larurence Huron in 
1 81 4 — SartorCs Calico Factory^ 1817 — Brister^s ^ fills ^ and the 
various Manufactories on the Trenton Water Power ^ etc.^ etc. 

AS before stated, the first mill built in Trenton was built on 
the Assanpink, in Greene street, in 1680, on the site where 
the paper mill of Henry McCall now stands. It was erected by 
Mahlon Stacy as a flouring mill. At that time there were but 
two mills in the whole of West Jersey, one at Crosswicks and 
one in Trenton. This mill was built of hewn logs, and was 
but one and a half stories high, with gable facing the street. 
About ten years after, in 1690, Major William Trent purchased 
it, tore down the old mill, and rebuilt it of stone, two stories 
high. This mill was afterwards converted into a cotton factory 
by Gideon^ H. Wells. It remained in the same condition in 
which it was erected by Mr. Trent until it was carried away by 
the flood of water in 1843. 

Stacy Poets b&ilt the steel works in 1776, in Front street, back 
of White Hall, on Petty's run, and near where the frame build- 
ing, used as a saw mill and owned by George S. Green and Ben- 
jamin Fish now stands. 

In 181 2, Josiah Fithian commenced the erection of a mill in 
Front street, and near the site of the steel works of Stacy Potts. 
He had completed the walls, put on the roof, and was about put- 

m^^^^>^ ^ 



ting in the machinery for a cotton mill, when a heavy rain 
undermined the foundation, and the mill fell with a terrible 
crash — a mass of ruins. He rebuilt it, put in machinery and com- 
menced the manufacture of cotton doth. He continued here, 
however, but a short time, when he sold out to General Garret 
D. AVall, who converted it into a paper mill, for which purpose 
it has ever since that time been used. About the year 1819, 
General Wall sold it to John Davisson, who continued the 
manufacture of paper in the mill until 1847, when he sold out to 
T. J. Ames, and in May, 1848, Ames sold the establishment to 
John G. Gummere. Gummere shortly after associated with him 
in the same business Henry VL Lewis. They manufactured to- 
gether for a number of years, when in 1855, Mr. Gummere with- 
drew from the. concern, and Mr. Lewis carried the business on at 
the old place until his death, since which time Horatio G. Arm- 
strong has carried on the paper business. 

Daniel W. Coxe built a stone paper mill on the north bank of 
the Assanpink, where it empties into the Delaware river. This 
mill was built about the year 1756. It was afterwards owned by 
George Henry and Isaac Barnes, and used as a manufactory of 
linseed oil, and also for grinding paints. The east end of It 
was afterwards converted into a saw mill, and owned by George 
Dill and Samuel Wright. The building was subsequently fenced 
in and was used as a pig-sty, when Hall and Ewing occupied the 
«ite where Furman & Kite's carpenter shop now stands, as a 
distillery. John Heaver also carried on this milL 

The steel works on the Assanpink, in the rear of the residence 
of G. Perdicaris, were built previous to the revolution, abont 
ihe year 1769. 

In 1800, Betts & Parmly, of New Haveq, Connecticut, built a 
one story frame building, where the iron railing establishment of 
Joseph B. Yard now stands. This building was used as a nail 
factory. Gideon H. Wells afterwards came into possession of it^ 
and used it as a store-house for the storing of cotton. 

In 1800, Henry Hall, of Monmouth, and a Mr. Anderson, 
built a distillery in Lamberton. 

Anderson leaving the concern, Hall afterwards associated with 
him in the business Dr. James Ewing, of Philadelphia. They 

'^^'-"-'TiriiTilir" 111 II -^' - • , -n,.. ,!■! — ^' 


carried on the distillery together for a short time. The water 
to supply the distillery was carried in a wooden pipe across the 
Asssanpink below the Greene street bridge, from a spring on the 
north side of the creek. The spring is now known as Rossell's 
spring, and is in the rear of No. 25 East -Front street, the house 
occupied by John D. Cochran. The pig-sty before mentioned 
was at Coxe's old mill, south of the Phoenix paper mill. The 
building in which they carried on business was a stone building, 
and stood where Furman & Kite's carpenter shop now is. 

In 1 81 4, Gideon H. AVells built a large cotton mill, five story 
brick, sixty by forty feet. This building was burned in 1845. ~ 

The ground was afterwards purchased by William Hancock 


and William M. Stetler, who erected steam soap and candle 
works on the site, and it afterwards came into the possession of 
Levi Furman and Peter Kite, who converted it into a carpenter 

Asa H. Billings commenced the hand carding business in a 
frame building on the northwest comer of Broad and Factory 
streets, opposite John B. Burke's paper mill. Shortly after, as* 
sociating with him a Mr. Denniston, they commenced a weave 
shop in 1818, in the Eagle factory, on the north side of the 
creek, in a stone building. In 182 1, the great flood which car* 
ried away the two bridges tore out the south end of the mill, 
which was afterwards repaired and carried on by Gideon H. 
Wells as a cotton mill. It was aftenvards used by A. & J. 
Dimn as a sash and blind manufactory, and in 1843 ^^ ^^^^s 
burned to the ground. 

In 1 81 4, Lawrence Huron & Co. built the brick mill in Fac- 
tory street, now occupied by Samuel K. AVilson as a woolen fac- 
tory. It was called the '' Trenton Manufacturing Company," 
and was afterwards carried on by John- Hoy. He associated 
with him his son, James Hoy, and the business was carried on by 
J. Hoy & Son. It was afterwards carried on by John P. Ken- 
nedy & Co. On the 14th of June, 1851, the building was con- 
siderably damaged by fire. It was afterwards purchased by 
Samuel K. Wilson, who, after fitting it up, commenced the mann- 
facture of woolen fabrics. He afterwards enlarged it by adding 

■rfb«^ ^k^ «* ■ 

ih ■ !■- 



about one-third more than its former size to its western end, and 
a short time after he built an addition in front,- extending to the 

The 'first calico factory erected in Trenton ii*as in the year 
1817. It was a frame building, built by John D. Sartori, in 
Federal street, on the the Delaware river. It was worked by 

On the same spot, in 1837, a company of gentlemen from 
Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore built a large building for 
a calico print works, and for a number of years this same com- 
pany carried on the business of calico printing. This mill 
passed through several different hands, and was burned to the 
ground one Sunday morning, in the year 1850, while in the pos- 
session of J. Shepherd, of Philadelphia. Tlie ruins of this 
building still remain, never having been rebuilt since the fire. 

In 1824, Daniel W. Cox built the stone mill at the foot of 
Mill street, on the Delaware river. He built it for a flouring 
mill, for which purpose it has ever since that time been used. It 
has been damaged by fire three different times, in i83S» 1844, 
and 1847. "^^s ^^^ passed through several different hands; 
David Brister owned it at one time, and at another it was owned 
by B. Titus, James Hunt, and Mr. Thomas. It was pur- 
chased by Robert D. Gary in 1S46. At one time it was 
owned by John Sager. James M. Redmond purchased it for 
five thousand dollars, at the time he purchased the water power. 
On Monday morning, December 22d, 1851, David Brister (who 
again carried on the mill), was killed while assisting in cleaning, 
the ice off the water-wheel. The wheel made one revolution, 
which literally crushed him to death. After the death of Mr. 
Brister it was carried on by Benjamin Fish, and afterwards by 
Jonathan S. Fish. 

The Trenton Delaware Falls Company was incorporated by an 
act of the legislature passed on the x6th day of February, 1831, 
the charter being perpetual. The capital stock was fixed at 
sixty thousand dollars, with the privilege of extending it at any 
time to two hundred thousand dollars, and the shares at fifty 
dollars each. At the time the work was commenced, ninety 
thousand dollars had been subscribed. The estimated cost of 

"*-*"- '* ^ "- -^- '-'- •' ^*- '^ a«i- I - ri ■ ■ 1 i I n I 



constructing the work was one hundred thousand dollars. The 
engineers were Messrs Benjamin Wright, Charles Potts, and Ste- 
phen H. Long, and this company commenced the Trenton water 
power the same year, but did not complete it until 1834. These 
works, although they have proved of vast benefit to our city, 
were at the start unprofitable to the projectors. They have since 
that time passed through different hands, and such improve- 
ments have from time to time been made to the works that I 
believe the stock at the present time to be profitable to the com- 
pany, and the works highly conducive to the prosperity and 
growth of our city. It has been the means of building up a 
large and prosperous business in our city, much of which we 
could not have had but for the facilities afforded by it. On its 
banks are erected many mills, some of which are very extensive. 
It is now owned by Messrs. Cooper & Hewitt. 

The first mill erected on the water power tv-as the Warren 
street city mills, on the east bank of it, at the junction of War- 
ren street and the Assanpink creek, except the saw-mill built by 
Dr. John McKelway, now occupied by Hutchinson & Brother. 
This mill is forty feet front on AVarren street, three and a half 
stories high, with three runs of French burr stones, and all the 
necessary machinery for a merchant mill. The mason work was 
done by the late Jasper S. Scott, and the millwright work by 
Seth Jones. The mill was built by our enterprising citizens, 
Samuel S. and Thomas J. Stryker. 

On the following year the brick, grist, and merchant mill in 
the rear was built. It is thirty by forty fee^ three stories high, 
with three runs of burrs, each mill being propelled by separate 
water-wheels, the former by a seventeen-foot breast-wheel, and 
the latter by a twelve-foot overshot, and is supplied by a per- 
petual water right, secured by the Messrs. Stryker from James 
M. Redmond, the principal owner of the water power stock. 

The mills were run for the first time by the late Dand Brister. 
S. S. Cooley, of Ewing, next took charge of them, after which 
they were run by the owners, the Messrs. Str}'ker, until 1847, 
when they were let to the present proprietor, Daniel B* Cole- 
man, in connection with his father, the late James G. Cole- 
man, and so continued until the death of the latter in 1855, 

-^'^ts-^^i^aA ••h < 

m-m. ^ h. Jf«:>^ ■ 1 ■ ■■ ■ 1 i* I 




after which time they were continued by D. R Coleman and his 
brother, Caleb Coleman, up to the present time. 

The brick mill was occupied in 1S39 by David Brister, then 
by D. B. Coleman, until 1847, then by the present occupant, 
William Lee — except the few years it was occupied by William 
and Joshua Coleman and S. S. Stryker. 

The mill on Warren street was damaged by lire to a small ex- 
tent in 1842. 

In 1835, William Grant, William G. Cook, and Charles Greea 
built a saw-mill on the eastern bank of the water power, in 
Front street, south of Delaware street, and near the spot where 
Edmund Craft and Henry T. White's bow factory now stands^ 
This building was burned in 1841. Benjamin Fish, George S. 
Green, and Charles Green built a saw mill on the western bank 
of the water power, a short distance south of the mill of Grant, 
Cook & Co., which was burned. The mill of Fish, Green & 
Co. was carried on by the same firm until the death of Charles 
Green in 184S, since which time it has been carried on by Ben* 
jamin Fish and George S. Green. 

In 1S30 John A. Hutchinson and Finder Antrim commenced 
the turning and bending business in Hoy's old mill, now owned 
and occupied by Samuel K. Wilson. 

K short time after they commenecd the above business they 
coupled with it the bow business. Their plan was to get out the 
stuff and take it across the creek to the shop of John Rossell, 
where it was bent in the form desired. In the year 1833, Antrim 
left the concern, and Mr. Hutchinson associated with him 
Xenophan J. Maynard, and they carried on the turning and bow 
business under the firm name of John A. Hutchinson & Co. The 
same year they removed to Coxe*sold mill, in Bloomsbury, occn- 
pying the third story. They erected steps on the outside of the 
mill, over the raceway, and all their material had to be carried 
up these steps to their shop in the third story. Their stuff was 
still taken to the shop of the Messrs. Rossell for bending into 

In 1834, they removed to McKelway*s saw-mill on the water 
power, in Peace street, occupying the iipper story, just then fin* 

''^^''■^^■'■"^-^-■^^-T*^-*"— - ■» ^-'-iri^fcM -^nM«M - 



In 1 8369 they changed the name of the firm to Maynard & 
Hutchinson. The same year the name of the firm was changed 
they removed to a building on the east side of the water power, 
and adjoining the saw-mill of Grant, Cook & Co. They re- 
mained here until the mill was burned, in 1S40, when they 
removed to a building in Potts' tan yard. They remained jn 
this building until 1844, when Maynard & Hutchinson pur- 
chased the saw-mill of Dr. John McKelway. They fitted this 
mill up, making a considerable addition thereto, and removed 
into it. 

In 185 1, on the 8th day of September, Mr. Maynard left the 
concern, and Mr. Hutchinson associated with him his two sons. 
The firm is now composed of William S. and Isaac S. Hutchin- 
son, and the business is carried on under the name and title of 
Hutchinson & Brother. 

^ 1834, Joseph ^loore built the flour mill on the comer of 
Warren and Factory streets, and the oil mill adjoining, in Fac- 
' tory street. Joseph Moore, Charles Moore, and Imlah Moore 
carried on the oil business until about 1844, when, Joseph 
Moore withdrawing from the concern, jt was carried on by 
Imlah and Charles Moore, and is still conducted by the 
same firm. 

The flour mill was leased by David Brister for ten years; 
but in about two years after commencing operations in it, he re- 
linquished his lease, and on the ist day of April, 1838, Imlah 
Moore associated with him Peter Crozer, and the mill ii'as car- 
ried on by them under the firm name of Crozer & Moore until the 
xst of October, 1854, when Mr. Crozer retiring from the firm, 
. the mills have since that time been carried on by Imlah and 
Charles Moore under the name of I. & C. Moore. The mill was 
damaged by fire in the month of August, 1839. 

In 1834, Dr. John McKelway built asaw-mill on the water power 
at the foot of Peace street. This mill was occupied by 
James Cook for several years. In 1839, ^^ ^^ damaged by fire. 
This b the mill now occupied by the Messrs. Hutchinson. 

To the southeast of the saw-mill is the Fhcenix paper mill, 
built by Bbhop Davenport and Ralzaman Belknap in 1837. 
They, however, never commenced operations. On the 2d of 

• .. . .... . • .-. ♦ 

• .. - - " ■ ^^^ 


■» ». 

June, 1837, they commenced the issue of tickets, and wiUi these 
they paid for the erection of the mill ; but, when these tickets 
were presented for redemption, in consequence of the pressoie 
in the money market, and the suspension of the banks to pay 
specie, they were compelled to relinquish their design of mana- 
fkcturing, and consequently the mill never was completed by 
them. In 1840, Jesper Harding, of Philadelphia, purchased 
the mill and commenced fitting it up; but before it was com- 
pleted it took fire, and \k'as very much damaged. He, however, 
put it in complete repair, and commenced the manu&ctare of 
paper on a large scale. 

\Vhen H. McCall had completed his large building on the 
Assanpink, in Greene street, Harding sold out his interest in the 
Phoenix mill, in 1850, to William Kay, James Dewar, and a Vix. 
Mein, three gentlemen from Newark; they fitted up the mill for 
the manufacture of letter envelopes. 

Kay, Dewar & Mein built an addition to the mill on the 
south side, and put in a large steam engine. 

In the year 1852, the steam boiler exploded, in the night, 
killing one man and dangerously wounding another. FortiH 
nately, the workmen, both men and women, had just left the 
mill for some purpose, or else many lives must necessarily have 
been lost. The proprietors of the mill were not to blame, how- 
ever, as the engine and boiler were new, and had been recom- 
mended to them as being all right. 

This explosion tore the new part of the mill, covering the en- 
gine and boiler, all to atoms. 

In the year 1855, Gaunt & Derrickson, of New York, pur- 
chased the mill, and for some time carried on the paper business 
in it. It was again damaged by fire on Monday evening, No- 
vember sth, 1855. 

Dr. John McKelway built a large machine shop in the rear of 
the Phoenix mill, on Peace street. This machine shop was occu- 
pied by Henry H. Bottom and Josiah N. Bird, and afterward 
for several years by Josiah N. Bird and Edward D. Weld. They 
carried on for some time, and finally purchased the mill and axe 
factory of Jonas Sinmions & Co., (now occupied by Charles Carr) 
who had already establbhed the manuEaicture of axes in the 

■^ « 

^ ■*■ " ■■«■ ■■ I ■ , T , , > 


above building. They did an extensive business, and in the 
year 1849, built the iron foundry adjoining their works. Their 
manufactory has been several times damaged by fire. 

In the year 1849, ^^^y commenced the manufacture of spikes, 
under the superintendence of Thomas R.. Wilson, and in the 
year 185 1, the latter gentleman erected his axe factory in South 
Trenton, on the Sandtown road. 

The iin;t building erected by him was a frame structure, 
which in the year above named was destroyed by fire. In re- 
building it he took the precaution to build it of brick, rendering 
it in a great measure a fire-proof structure. Bird & Weld, dis- : 
continuing the manufacture of axes, engaged very extensively 
in the manufacture of India rubber belting, and also of boilers 
and other heavy machinery and castings of all kinds. 

They were for a few years engaged in the manufacture of 
cooking stoves, but discontinued this, in order to enter more 
largely into that of machinery. 

They called their works the Phoenix Iron Works. 

In the year 1836, Daniel Lodor and Samuel Croft erected the 
button factory in Warren street, on the south bank of the Assan- 
pink, and commenced the manufacture of bone buttons, under 
the firm name of Croft & Lodor. 

On the 3d day of May, 1837, the building was destroyed 
by fire, but it was rebuilt by the same firm, and was subse- 
quently damaged to a small extent by lightning. 

On the 3d day of May, 1853, this factory was again injured 
by fire, damaging considerably the upper story, together with 
his stock, amounting in all to about one thousand dollxurs, on 
which there was no insurance, hb policy having expired a short 
time before. 

On the day the building burned, an agent was here for the 
purpose of effecting an insurance, but Mr. Lodor being out of 
the place, the insurance could not be effected, and the conse- 
quence was, the owners had to bear the loss. 

In 1847, OQ ^^^ ist day of January, John D. Byrne com- 
menced the manu&cture of door furniture, latches, and bolts, 
and brass castings of various kinds, in a frame building, where 
the sash and blind factory of Edward W. P^e now stands. 

-«^' t^w* 2a— ^ta^HiA^^««««^a^i^*«««^^M-A^ *j^^-^fc« m^ 



He carried on about sixteen months, and then removed to 
New Orleans. He subsequently returned to Trenton, and car- 
ried on the brass founding business, at Millham, in a building 
which was burned during his occupancy of it. 

In the month of May, 1849, Henry Ramp and Jared Hoyt 
commenced the business of iron founding in the same building 
first occupied by John D. Byrne. They carried on there until 
June, 1 85 1, under the firm name of Hoyt & Ramp. 

Immediately upon the vacation of the building by Hoyt & 
Ramp, Mr. Lodor erected a brick building for a foundry, and 
on the ist of September, 1851, Charles Deaneand John Valen- 
tine commenced the City Iron and Brass Foundry. They occu- 
pied the building some years for this business. Samuel Sim* 
mons, Daniel Bower, and William C. Vansant occupied part of 
the button factpry for the cutting of tobacco. 

In September, 1854, Daniel Moffat, machinist and die »nker, 
opened a shop in Lodor*s .building, for the manufacture of 
moulds and dies, and experimental machinery of every descrip- 

In July, 1855, Samuel Kennedy commenced the manufacture 
of saws, trowels, and squares, in the same building. 

In the same year, Joseph and James Dove commenced the 
stocking weaving business in the same building. 

In the year r852, Mr. Lodor built the brick building known 
as the City Iron and Brass Foundry, on the same site as that 
occupied by Hoyt & Ramp. 

Deane & Valentine commenced operations there the ist day 
of September of the same year. , 

Among the manufacturing interests of Trenton the manufac- 
ture of bricks, at present, is a very important branch, and, not- 
withstanding the fact that the art of brick making has been 
known and practiced since Pharaoh's taskmaster said unto the 
Children of Israel, ''Go therefore now, and work; for there 
shall no straw be given you ; yet shall ye deliver the tale of 
bricks," but little improvement has been made in the art. As 
it was in the days of Moses, and to the Children of Israel, a 
punishment, so it seems to be now. But I find I am digressing; 
I will therefore proceed to give a history of brick making in 

■■*■ "■ ■■■*■■- «• ■ ■^ fn .... ■ >i ,. W . • ■ , , >. .,. ■ .^,,.^..^,.^... o..^.,.,^.- -^1 

•- ' 



Trenton. Some of the first brick houses built in the city of 
Trenton were built of bricks brought from the city of Fhiladel« 
phia, but the greater part of the bricks used in Trenton, up to 
the year 1835, were made at or near Attleboro', Pennsylva- 
nia, on the ikrm known as Pearson's brick yard, in Hamilton 
Township, Bucks County, about six miles from Trenton. There 
were, however, some bricks manufactured by a Mr. Emly, a gen- 
tleman who came here from one of the Eastern States, about the 
year 181 7, and who continued the business several years. About 
the same time, Mr. John Smith, father of Charles B. Smith, manu- 
factured a few bricks each year, in connection with farming, 
about six miles north of Trenton, on the Pjinceton pike. About 
the year 1824, Morgan Beaks commenced the manufacture of 
bricks, in connection with farming, on what is still known as 
Beaks' farm. Beaks continued to manufacture about three hun- 
dred thousand bricks per year, until about 1843 or 1843, ^^^"^ 
he was succeeded by Samuel Mulford, who made about fifteen 
hundred thousand per year for one or two years, when he failed 
in business. Beaks again took the yard, for about a year, when 
Peter Grim and George Kulp took it and carried on the 
business one year. It again fell into the hands of Beaks. Peter 
and Daniel Fell then took the yard, and carried it on for about 
six or seven years, making each year about eighteen hundred 
thousand bricks. 

Peter Grim and Joseph Hymer came to Trenton from Phila- 
delphia the year the prison was built, and took the contract for 
furnishing two million bricks to the state for the building of the 
State Prison, and commenced to manufacture them on what 
is known as the Hayden farm, now owned by S. K. Wilson. 
They continued the business there until 1837. The partnership 
was dissolved by the death of Hymer. Peter Grim then bought 
the lot at the intersection of Calhoun and Pennington streets, 
and manufactured bricks there until about the year 1844 or 1845, 
when Grim & Kulp carried on the business on the Beaks place, 
and, at the expiration of one year, they dissolved, and Peter 
Grim commenced the manufacture of them on. what is now 
kiiown as Wainwright's flower garden or nursery. He continued 
tfiere until he concluded that the business was unprofitable, and he 





then built a hotel and commenced keeping the same. The manu* 
factory then came into the possession of Henry Nice and William 
King. All of those gentlemen, with the exception of Samuel 
Mulford and Morgan Beaks were practical brick makers. 

The average number of bricks manufactured in Trenton from 
1835 ^^ '^5^ was about two hundred thousand per year; from 
1850 to i860, about three hundred thousand per year ; and from 
i860 to 1871, about eight hundred thousand per year. 

All who have been engaged in the manufacture of bricks from 
181 7 down to the present day have failed, with the exception 
of two, Hymer and Christian Fell, who died after being two 
years in the business; Morgan Beaks, who had a large farm that 
supported him ; and Joseph Bond and Charles Gaunt, who both 
abandoned the business at the expiration of the first or second 
year ; and those that are now in the business. But what the next 
generation may have to record in regard to those now engaged 
in the business deponent sayeth not. 

Brick making in this city has gained a celebrity all over the 

A few years ago Philadelphia was celebrated for making the 
best pressed bricks in the country, but now Trenton ranks fully 
equal to Philadelphia, and our pressed bricks are eagerly 
sought for. 

About eleven thousand pressed bricks were made here during 
the year 1870, and forwarded to different parts of the country. 

In 1840, was commenced what was at the time a very small 
business — that of coffee roasting, for the grocers. In a few 
yexurs the grinding of spice was connected with it. • 

Mr. James Yates was the first to embark in this business, and 
therefore stands as the pioneer of what is now a large and exten* 
sive business in our city. 

Mr. Yates, when he first commenced this business, was unable 
to realize his board out of it for the first year, but in from ten to 
twelve years his sales amounted to from twelve to fifteen thou- 
sand dollars per year. 

There are at the present time four or five different parties en- 
gaged in the same occupation in Trenton, all of whom are doing 
a thriving and profitable business. 

*'^*"**-^ ■"' ~^ III rr"- - r r - - n 

** "^ -'-•-*■- 1 I ■ - - - * ■ ■ 

-■■—■■■■■■■ t.^,^^..,^^^ ,. ,^ ^^_, — ^^^^^ ■ . .^ ^ ^ 


The fire brick manufactory was established by Kir. Edward 
Davis, in 1845, ^^ ^ ^^^ small scale. It was first worked by borse 
power, its capacity then being but from six hundred to eight 
hundred bricks per day. It was gradually, increased, until Mr. 
Davis rebuilt and introduced steam power, and at that time its 
capacity was increased to twenty-five hundred bricks per day. 
O. O. Bowman & Co. purchased the works January ist, 1867, 
and since then they have introduced hew machinery, new kilns, 
&c., and its present capacity is seven thousand bricks per day. 

The terra cotta department was first built by Mr. Lynch, some 
fifteen or sixteen years ago. The works adjoined those of the 
fire brick works, and were only used for making vitrified pipe. 
As Mr. Lynch was unsuccessful, it fell into the hands of Mr. 
Davis, and after that both works were named together, Trenton 
Fire Brick and Terra Cotta Works. Bowman & Ca also pur- 
i^hased the terra cotta works with the brick works. 

In August, 1869, the old terra cotta establishment was 
destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt with much larger buildings 
and more steam power, of the best improved machinery, and 
three times its former capacity. It did not work over six months, 
when it again took fire from some unknown cause, July loth, 
1 870, and was entirely destroyed. It was agsun rebuilt, and is now 
in good running order, and fully equipped with the best of ma* 
chinery. Since Bowman & Co. have owned these works, they 
have introduced the manufacture of chimney tops, chimney' 
fines, garden vases, fountsuns, and other fancy terra cotta wsm. 
These works cover four acres of ground, and produce, when 
fiilly worked, two hundred thousand dollars per annum, and 
when in full running order give employment to eighty men. 

In 1848, iEIenry Taylor commenced the manufacture of leather 
belting at Na 30 Stockton street In 1865, he associated with 
him his son, Frank H. Taylor, under the firm name .of Henry 
Taylor & Son. They are bow manufacturing about axty thou- 
sand dollars' worth of belting annually, consuming eadi year 
about ten thousand sides of leather, and their business is con- 
stantly increa^g. The trade is diiefly a wholesale one, the 
goods being sold to jobbers in most of our large cities. 




The Trenton Agricultural Works were cx)nimenced in x855« in 
a small shop on Stockton street, by Messrs. Melick & Quick. 

In 1856, they removed their factory to the present location, 
on Carroll street, near State. The business, which rapidly 
increased ukider the above firm, passed successively into the 
hands of Melick, Withington & Co. and J. Melick & Co., and 
in the spring of 1869, was transferred to the present owners, the 
directors being Messrs. Bennington Gill, of Monmouth county ; 
(president); John S. Cook, of Burlington county; Philip P. 
Dunn and Hiram L. Rice, (secretary and treasurer), of this 
city. Their manu&ctory covers nine lots of ground, and givea 
employment to forty hands, and has a capital of sixty thousand 
dollars. The machines which they manufacture consist princi* 
pally of horse powers, threshers and cleaners, com shellers, grain 
fans, hay rakes, hay forks, and potato diggers, and are unrivalled 
for durability and superior workmanship. The improve- 
ments recently made by this company in perfecting the imple* 
ments manufactured by them should largely extend their increas- 
ing business, and, no doubt, will be fully appreciated bj the 
farming community. 

The Mercer Zinc Works, located on Third street, in the sixth 
ward, of this city, employ about one hundred hands, when 
in full operation, in the various departincnts of mining, teaming, 
and transporting of ore from the mines, situated in Wythe 
county, Virginia, and in manufacturing oxyd of zinc iGrom the 
ore. The business was originally commenced in 1861, by John 
S. Noble and Alexander C. Farrington, on the bank of the river 
Delaware, on the ground previously occupied by Potter, Van 
Cleve & McKean as a machine and locomotive works. After 
the expenditure of a large amount of money in the eriection of 
furnaces, buildings, and machinery, the water power attached to 
the premises was found to be insufficient to drive the necessary 
machinery, and in 1864, the present site of the works Was 
selected, and the building of furnaces was commenced. ^. 
Farrington's d^th led to the formation of a company, b^ some 
of those interested, having fiuled to perform the stipuli^ons 
entered into, Mr. Noble undertook to complete the works alone, 
but not having sufficient capital, an arrangement was made 

' ^ ' * * ' ■ *■ .-.i.. ' t , • 't-„-> 

liilirBr Mil mi II 11 r I 



with Mr. Joseph G. Brearley, and the entire concern passed into 
his hands as collateral security for heavy advances made by him, 
and subsequently Mr. Brearley became the owner of one-half the 
whole interest. The works, when driven to their full capacity, 
can turn out about three tons of oxyd of zmc^daily. The whole 
concern is under the management and supervision of John S. 
Noble and his son, Henry S. Noble, and at the present time is 
undergoing extensive alterations and improvements. Coal and 
ore are brought in vessels and canal boats, via Delaware and 
Raritan canal, to the basin communicating with the canal, 
directly in front of the worlcs. The establishment has to move 
annually about twelve thousand tons of freight in coal, ore, 
refuse material, and manufactured product, and when in full 
operation in the manipulation of the ore, &c., over fifty tons 
gross weight has to be handled daily. 

The American Saw Company was organized under the laws of 
New York, in January, 1866, with a capital of two hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. The manufactory is located at the foot 
of Broad street, in this city, with a general office in the city of 
New York. Its officers, at the date of its organization, were 
James C. Wilson, president; Henry G. Ely, treasurer; Samuel 
W. Putnam, secretary — ^all residents of Brooklyn, New York; 
and James £. Emerson, superintendent, of Trenton. 

No change in its officers occurred until January, 1869, when 
Mr. James £. Emerson resigned the position of superintendent, 
and was succeeded by William E. Brook, who still holds the 

The company was organized for the purpose of manufactur- 
ing movable tooth circular saws, an invention of Mr. Emerson 
while in California, in i860, but greatly improved in the more 
recent invention of September, 1865, and under which patent 
the company manufacture. 

During the summer of 1867, other improvements and inven- 
tions were made in the manufacture of saws, the principal one 
being the perforated patent. This invention being applicstble to 
saws of all descriptions, extends largely into the t>roductions of 
the company. 

. The saws, as manufactured by the company, are in use in eyery. 

. t 

. ■^,. w . ^••^ ^ - ^ ■ .- »',^«. ^-^.r .1 fc.^rtAWAi'll ri i itimmm^mi^it^^tmmi^S^^t^m^m^m^im^a 


state in the Union^ and orders are received from many foreign 

This has become one of the important branches of industryjol' 
our city, employing one hundred men, at an annual pay roll 
expenditure of sixty thousand dollars. 

It is worthy of note, that at this manufactory was made the 
largest saw the world has produced, it measuring seven feet four 
inches in diameter, the plate for which was rolled expressly {or 
the purpose, in Sheffield, England. This saw was manufactnred 
for the Exposition Universaille in F^iris, in the year 1867. 

The works were destroyed by fire on the evening of the 7tK 
of February, 1870, involving a loss of about one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, but in four weeks from the time it wai 
burned new buildings were erected, and the hands resumed work 
as usual. 

The pottery business at the present time b more extensively 
carried on here than in any other city of the Union. There is 
no kind of ware known but is manufactured here, frpm the most 
common to the finest variety. White ware, equal in quality and 
finbh to any ware in this country or Europe, handsomely 
gilded, with the name of the owners, or with any design fancy 
may dictate, is manufactured here. 

There are about twenty potteries located in the city and its 
immediate vicinity. 

Our manufactories are not surpassed by any city of the coun* 
try, of the same population — in fact, our facilities for ievery de« 
scription of manufacturing purposes are not surpassed by any 
other city. Railroads and water transportation from all parts of 
the country centre here, so that passengers and freight can be 
easily transported to any place on this continent, as well as upon 
the eastern continent, and the facilities for obtaining every- 
thing requisite for all manufacturing purposes are unsurpassed* 

We beg leave to give first a general history of the pottery 
business, from its commencement, before entering into any par* 
ticuiar branch of that important business. For this history we 
are indebted to a gentleman. in the business and fully conversant 
with it 

The rounding of the Cape of Cood Hope by the Portugvu 



in 1498, opened the riches of India. On returning, they 
brought among the curiosities of art, specimens of porcelain 
from China. This was its first introduction into Europe, and for 
along time its sole source of supply. About the middle of the 
sixteenth century, some French Jesuits brought specimens of 
Qiinese material to France for analysis, and at the same time the 
Chinese mode of manufacture, from which time its history be- 
gins in Europe. The history of porcelain in China dates 
back two thousand years before Christ. It is said to be their 
custom for a man to use the clay his grandfather prepared, and 
to prepare an equal quantity for some future generation. This 
custom is merely mentioned to show the strong probability of 
the correctness of the Chinese record. And yet, singular as it 
may seem, discoveries in this century show the present continent 
of Europe to have been possessed of great knowledge in the art 
at least twenty-five hundred years previous to the introduction 
of porcelain from China into Europe. Porcelain is now made 
in England, France, and Germany, with great success, and there 
is no natural reason why we should not prosecute the industry in 
this country with equal success. Indeed, it is being made at the 
present time quite successfully at Greenpoint, Long Island. 

It has been made in small quantities by nearly all our Trenton 
manufacturers, and even as far back as 1853, ^^ ^'^ report of the 
industries of the New York exhibition, in connection with some 
remarks on French porcelain, we find recorded : 

'' We would not overlook the existence of porcelain manufac- 
tured in the United States, as indicated by the specimens of the 
United States Pottery Company, of Bennington, Vermont. The 
results obtained are very encouraging, and the specimens sound, 
and seem in all respects of a most excellent quality." 

The above-named company failed a few years later, owing to 
bad management, and proved a serious loss to all interested, as 
Mr. S. H. Johnson, of our city, can testify. 

Porcelain differs from our present Trenton ware in being 
semi-transparent, or translucent, and is much more costly, the 
process of making being more difficult, and the loss in burning 
fiur greater. The tender nature of this material while in the fire, 
renders it almost impossible to find a perfectly straight piece. 




particularly flat pieces of ware, such as plates and oval dishes. 
The two kinds of ordinary white earthenware, (such as are 
manufactured in Trenton), are made in England. She is our 
great rival, and is doing her best to cripple our young industry 
by ruinously low prices, so that she can eventually step in and 
take sole control of the United States market, as she had pre- 
vious to our last war. While we do not make one-twentieth 
part of this kind of goods used in the United States, still, we 
exert a wonderful influence upon English prices. We could 
name many articles they export into this country in large quan- 
tities, where they have been compelled to reduce their prices 
fifty j)er cent. The incidental protection of gold, during the 
war, gave us probably the only opportunity we would or could 
have had in a long time to start the business with any reasonable 
chance of success. But we have made much progress in the 
last ten years, and profited by our experience sufficiently to be a 
very great thorn in England's side, and one destined to stab her 
to death eventually, so far as earthly life is concerned. It is 
hardly necessary to make mention of the great artistic vases and 
figures hoarded up in the various collections of Europe, and 
valued at hundreds of thousands of pounds, consisting of the 
most exquisite colors and figures of both ancient and modem 

Of it we will only say our materials in this country are fabu- 
lously abundant and wonderfully suited to enable us ere long to 
produce, with our Yankee perseverance, as great and as good 
specimens as the Old World has as yet shown us. 

England manifests pride in her pottery manufactures, and 
perpetuates her traditional pleasure, profits, and interest in them 
by her carefully-written histories and memoirs of the struggles 
and triumphs of her Wedgwoods,' Minstens, and other success- 
ful experimentists in the art. And shall we not, with propriety, 
have pride enough in our infant art of "pot making" to write 
at least a short essay, to leave one small landmark for 
the future historian of the Trenton potteries (when Trenton 
shall have become the American Staffordshire), to guide them 
somewhat in their labors, and to manifest to some extent oar 
small degree of interest and pride in the industry? 


«>aifc— ^*^ wt w ii« l^.-i.«...^yh.;.,.-.l. • . ^. ^ .^ 1- r . a M n i__ ^ . 


It is not our intention to disparage the abilities of the early 
manu&cturers of -earthenware in this country because they were 
not Yankees. Neither is it our intention to deny the fact of our 
being under very great obligations to them for their knowledge, 
and their imparted secrets in the art, but it is our firm convic- 
tion that we have been putting too much stress upon old foreign 
customs, and that the business will not be a complete success 
until it becomes thoroughly Americanized. The time has passed 
for ''secrets" in the business; they will no longer deter people 
from embarking in the business, and capitalists will seek the 
opportunity to invest as fast as they can feel safe in doing so. It 
is often asked why Trenton should have so many potteries. We 
answer, because we were fortunate enough Jto have the business 
started\itit\ because some of our business men saw the advan- 
tages it offered to them, as well as to the city; because we are 
central for our various kinds of clay, flint, feldspar, and coal ; 
and because we are central for trade between New York and 
Philadelphia, the two great markets of the country. Trenton 
will probably continue to take the lead, because the workmen 
prefer living where they have the greatest number of friends and 
associates in the trade, thereby rendering it difficult for isolated 
potteries to keep their hands. 

The troubles of England's early manufacturers will be a guide 
to us. Her ignorance of the composition and utility of her ma- 
terials, and her many hundreds of years of groping in the dark, 
(before her great Wedgwood experimented himself into the 
necessary knowledge), will be of all-important interest and ad- 
vantage to us in this country, although our materials differ some- 
what fit>m the English, still the knowledge naturally and easily 
obtained from the "mother country," as well as other countries, 
obviate any lengthy years of experiments before we can produce 
every variety of ware known. It b not a question of time and 
trouble with us, as it was with them ; it b only a question of op- 
portunity, and to make it a success in this country, it b for the 
masses of the people to say to the art, ''Go ahead; invest your 
capital, gather your skill, we will see your early existence pro- 
tected and fostered, ^o the end. that you may make the ceramic 
art in thb country the leading, most chaste, and ornamental of 

b ** ^^ ■ ** 


all the arts, blending as it does the deep research of the chemist 
with the sculptor and painter. It will be proper here to say thai 
the ware now- made in Trenton is sold and used with the 
foreign article from Maine to California, with entire satisfiic* 
tion to all, except to those fashionable and foolish few who 
turn up their noses to all goods not made in foreign lands. 

Like the iron interest, this industry will soon outlive these 
weak notions. 

There is no branch of art industry in this country more worthy 
of attention than this; none that will have a more* refining 
influence upon the people ; none that would redound more to 
the glory and profit of the nation. Is it any wonder, then, that 
France and China foster by government aid this branch of indus- 
try, and guard with a jealous care its secrets of manufacture? 

The Trenton potteries have made wonderful strides in the last 
two years, and it is evident we will at no very distant day be 
able to cope with the most thriving European nations. 

In closing this article it will not be amiss to ask a question for 
time and history to answer. Who is to be America's 'great 
Josiah Wedgwood ? Who is to be our great benefactor in the 
potter's art ? Who will have combined with Americanism the 
same inventive genius and knowledge of the arts? 

The pottery known as the City Pottery, located on Perry 
street, between East Canal and Carroll streets, was pur- 
chased by Mr. James Yates, of Trenton, and Nelson Large, of 
Lambertville, in 1856, being occupied at the time by William 
Young & Co., manufacturers of porcelain knobs. In 1859, 
Yates & Rhodes enlarged the works, and commenced the manu- 
facture of white earthenware, white granite, and cream-colored 
ware, being the first manufacturers in Trenton of that class of 

Since the organization of the firm of Yates & Rhodes there 
has been several changes. Higginson, Rhodes & Yates, and 
Yates & Titus have since carried on the business. 

l*he present firm is Yates, Bennett & Allan, the works having 
a capacity to manufacture from sixty to seventy thousand dollars 
worth of ware per year, and at a comparatively small outlay can 
double that amount 

-: -'• • 111 Br *t 

* ' *-'-~- - • 1 1 ■ I M 


Ralph H. and William I. Sbreve were the first to start what is 
now known as the Glasgow Potteries, situated at the corner of 
Carroll and Ewing streets. It was first started in 1859, as a 
yellow ware manufactory. - . 

In 1863, it was rented by John Moses & Co., for one year, 
with the privilege of buying it at the expiration of that time. 

On the first of January, 1865, they purchased the property. 
It had then two kilns and no machinery, all the work being done 
by hand, which caused a great amount of work in mixing the 
materials for the body of the ware. 

At the present time they have five kilns and a large amount of 
the most improved machinery used in the jnanufacture of crock- 
ery ware. 

In September, 1852, James Taylor and Henry Speeler estab- 
Ibhed the first yellow rock pottery built in Trenton, the firm 
being known as Taylor & Speeler. 

In October, i860, Henry Speeler disposed of his interest to 
Mr. Houdayer, and purchased the foundry and machine, shops 
of Bottom & Tiffany, which he converted into a pottery, and on 
January ist, 186S, he associated with him his two sons, Henry 
A. and William F., forming the present firm of Henry Speeler 
& Sons. They employ ninety hands, and, it is said, manufac- 
ture more yellow rock ware than any three potteries in America. 
The Etruria Pottery takes its name from ancient Etruria, 
noted for its pottery, as well as all the arts, having preserved 
its history through all the ruin and wreck of thirty centuries. 
At the foundation of Rome, Etruria, or Tuscany, as it is now 
called, was in its most flourishing condition. Etruria being near 
Rome, was a guide and father to her, both in politics and the 
arts. We give this little history because we are so often asked 
the meaning of the word Etruria. 

The original firm of the Trenton Etruria Pottery was William 
Bloor, Joseph Ott, and Thomas Booth, and was known by the 
firm name of Bloor, Ott & Booth. This copartnership was 
formed in May, 1863 — ground was broken the same month, 
and the first goods were turned out in November of the same 
year. . • ' 

Mr. Bloor was the practical member of. the firm, he having 

- /• 



had considerable experience for some years previous, in the firm 
of Taylor, Speeler & Bloor, but more recently in East Liver- 
pool, Ohio, where he had been interested in the manufacture of 
porcelain, but was unsuccessful, the opportunity for opening its 
manufacture being ill-timed, in consequence of insufficient capi- 
tal and inexperience, assisted by a total stagnation of businesiy 
about the time of the commencement of our late war of the 

The firm commenced to manufacture two kinds of white ware, 
called C. C, or cream-colored, and W. G., or white granite, 
and the manufacture of these two varieties is still continued. 

The firm of Bloor, Ott & Booth existed only one year, when 
Mr. Booth retired, having sold his interest to Garret & Bur- 
roughs, since deceased. 

Mr. Burroughs remained in the firm a little over a year, when, 
in consequence of ill health, he sold his interest to John H. 
Brewer, the firm then being, as it is at present, Bloor, Ott & 

In 1863, Mr. Charles Coxon commenced the Clinton Street 
Pottery, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars. 
Soon after, he associated with him Mr. J. F. Thompson, the firm 
name then being Coxon & lliompson. They manufactured 
white granite and cream-colored ware, and the business was 
conducted by them until the death of Coxon, July loth, 1868. 
Soon after, the firm closed, Mr. J. F. Thompson disposing of 
his interest to Messrs. James £. Darrah and Moses M. Bateman. 

The capital stock at the present time is about sixty thousand 

Since this time the business has been conducted under the 
firm name of Coxon & Co., the close of the year 1870 showing 
a decline in profits in the business, and the need of protection 
by our government of this branch of industry. 

Richard Millington and John Astbury commenced business in 
copartnership with William Young & Sons, as manufacturers of 
door furniture, in the year 1853, and continued as partners for 
the term of six years, but, in i860, they dissolved partnership, 
and then built the present Carroll Street Pottery, for the manu- 
facture of porcelain and white iron-stone china, and after a 


short time commenced the manufacture of white granite and 
queensware, which k in use throughout the country. These 
gentlemen claim to be the first manufacturers of white ware i|i 
Trenton. The works now consist of four kilns and workshops 
to carry on the manufacture of white granite and queensware, 
which is unequaled. 

The East Trenton Porcelain Company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary^ 1864, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars. 

The directors are Imlah Moore, president ; Fred. Dellicker, 
secretary and treasurer; Robert L. Hutchinson, Joseph H. 
Moore, and George Trimble. 

Ground was broken for the erection of their buildings June 
xst, 1864, and they commenced manufacturing ware in July, 
x866. The ware manufactured by them is of the white variety. 

There are four kilns, and four buildings two stories high, one 
hundred feet long by fifty feet deep, two kiln-sheds, forty by 
one hundred feet, and one story high, with an extension fifty- 
eight feet wide by one hundred and twenty-eight feet long. The 
mill room is one story high, with cellar. 

There are clay sheds, fret-kiln room and slip-kilns, one story 
high, about forty by sixty feet, three of which have brick parti- 
tions between, and all are under one roof. 

The packing room is built of brick, thirty-two by sixty feet. 

There is also a half basin belonging to the company, extend- 
ing from the canal along each side of the pottery buildings. 

Twelve brick tenement-houses, three stories high, with three 
rooms on each floor, and cellars under the whole, are also con- 
nected with' the works, and are occupied by the workmen and 
their families : these, with a barn eighteen feet high, forty by 
fifty feet, built of brick and used as a stable for horses and 
for storage, with a frame wagon shed adjoining, fifty by twenty- 
two feet, make quite a respectable village. 

These buildings cost about one hundred and thirty-five thou- 
sand dollars. 

A lot one hundred feet square is appropriated for a water 
basin, which is sixty feet square and five feet deep, with a supply 
pipe running nearly west one hundred feet, to a spring. Thb 
spring b capable of throwing water twenty feet high. 

M •Ai^ta.^B^te 




The capital stock subscribed and paid in is eighty-two thou* 
sand dollars, and the capacity of the works is about two hundred 
thousand dollars per year. 

They have the largest packing-house in Trenton, with cellar 
for hogsheads, and also a cellar under the northwest building for 
the storage of prepared clay. 

Theophile Frey, of Zuric, Switzerland, was the first to intro- 
duce the art of decorating with gold and colors in Trenton. 

He was also the first person who introduced decorating C. 
C. and granite in this country. He first settled in Bennington, 
Vermont, and in 1859 came to Trenton. 

At that time the only potteries here were those of William 
Young, Speeler & Taylor, and Rhodes & Yates, at the latter of 
which he introduced the art. He continued in the business 
until about 1865, when he relinquished it. There are now in 
Trenton about twenty persons engaged in that business. 

'•■••' • - • . V^I^M, m. ■ , .^.. . ~ . . . - ■-.. - --> -> ^^ 1 


New Jersey State Prison — First Opening in 1798 — Its Builder — 
The Guard-house^ or Sentry Box — Two Men^ Shot in an 
Attempt to Escape— One Killed^ the other Badly Wounded— 
Enlargement of Old Prison — Inscription on Old Prison — 
fCommencemeni and Completion of New Prison — New Jersey 
Arsenal — New Jersey Lunatic Asylum, 

PREVIOUS to the year 1 793, there was no place expressly 
appropriated for the confinement of offenders against the 

Those who were under sentence were disposed of in the same 
manner as those who were awaiting their trial. Hence, the con- 
victed were confined in the same jail with those who were only 
accused. Each county used its jail as a place of confinement, 
both before and after sentence, for all persons arrested as viola- 
tors against the laws an^ peace of the state. 

In order to separate those awaiting trial from such as had 
already received sentence, the legislature determined upon 
building one common jail, to receive convicts from all parts of 
the state, and this they denominated the State Prison. In the 
year 1795, this building was erected a few rods south of the 
present State Prison. 

Its builder was Jonathan Doane. The prison consisted of a 
main building about eighty feet front by two hundred feet deep, 
built of gray sandstone, and, with its wall, covered about three 
acres of ground. 

The wall was built of the same material as the main building. 

— - ■"■ - ---* — ■> • — ' \ — — — ^'"•^TrTJifiikMnaM riiinM-H ma-^ 


and, starting from either comer on the north and south of the 
main building, completely surrounded iL 

This wall was about twenty feet high, mounted with a wooden 
roller, the entire length, in which were driven sharp iron spikes, 
for the prevention of the escape of prisoners by scaling the walls. 

In the centre of the wall, and on the top, immediately oppo- 
site the main building, was erected the guard-house, so ar- 
ranged as to overlook the entire premises. 

In this house a man was constantly kept, whose duty it was to 
act as sentry, and throughout the whole day to travel this east- 
em wall, from north to south, to prevent the escape of the 

Previous to 1S34, solitary confinement was unknown in the 
New Jersey Penitentiary. 

All the prisoners there confined worked together, in a large 
frame workshop. They ate their meals together, and even at 
night, when they retired to rest, they were placed three and 
four in a celL 

Under these circumstances, it was necessary that a guard 
should be stationed in a position where he could overlook an 
their actions. And in order to be ready for any sudden emer- 
gency, he kept constantly at hand, in his little building on the 
wall, a formidable display of firearms^ heavily charged with 
the means of destruction. The object of all this was to be 
amply provided with the means of defence, in case of a precon- 
certed revolt of those confined within. 

One Sunday afternoon in midsummer, a revolt of this kind 
did occur, which, but for the vigilance of the sentinel, would 
have proved a serious affair. But the prisoners were foiled 
in the attempt. 

They had it arranged that one of their number should scale 
the wall and dispatch the guard, and at the same time gain pos- 
session of the sentry box, those below to keep up an incessant 
volley of stones and missiles, to prevent the guard from making 
his appearance to 3tay their proceedings. 

Notwithstanding their well-concocted plan, the guard, regard- 
less of his own safety, placed a musket close by the side of the 
wall and fired upon the convict, just as he was reaching up to 

J"! ._'[.' ' ..f ■•■ .MM ■ ■ .-^ ■■ --^^■■.■■- A. ■■ ^ 



take hold of the top of the wall, in order to gain possession of the 
sentry box. His shot took effect, killing the prisoner instantly, 
and wounding another very badly in the leg. This timely action 
saved the lives of many, for had they been able to cany 
out their plans, they intended to unlock the doors and liberate 
all confined in the institution, and it is probable that a great 
number would have been killed or wounded. 

This revolt happened in 1S32, after the enlargement of the 
old prison. 

In 1S20, the south wing was built. 

A short time before their attempt at escape was made, they set 
fire to the long row of frame buildings used as workshops, burn- 
ing them to the ground, expecting, no doubt, in this way ta 
gain their liberty. But, as soon as the fire was discovered, the 
prisoners were securely confined in their rooms. 

The number of convicts increasing with the rapid growth of 
'the state, it was determined that something must be done for the 
comfort as well as the security of the prisoners. Hence they 
determined to build a new prison, and abolish the old one. 

The following inscription is on the front of the old prison : 



Erected bv Legislative Authoritt, * 
In the XXn Year of Ai^ierican Independence, 


That those who are Feared for their Crimes, 
May Learn to Fear the Laws and be Useful. 


The plan of solitary confinement having been adopted in 
some of the states, and having been found to answer a good 
purpose, it was determined to adopt it in our own. Conse- 
quently, the legislature making an appropriation for this pur- 
pose, the building was commenced in 1832, and completed in 
1836. It is built of red sandstone, from the Ewing quarries* 

^■^^...^^_^_..^,.— ,ai»^ — :_: . 


Its architecture is Egyptian, with four columns upon the front of 
the main building. 

Its front is on the east, facing a handsome park, interspersed 
with evergreens, affording a delightful shade to the building, as 
well as imparting life to the gloomy walls of the prison. 

The prison consists of a main building, where the family of 
the keeper resides, and in which the offices of his assistants are 
located, and to this several wings have been added, from time 
to time, as required. 

The north wing of the prison was built in 1834, and the south 
and centre wings in 1835 and 1848, respectively. The north 
and south wings contain the cells where convicts are confined, 
and the centre is the culinary and laundry department 

The buildings are so arranged as to admit at any time, when 
the necessity of the case demands it, of two additional wings, 
making five in all, and in 1870 another wing was added. 

These buildings are surrounded by stone walls, twenty feet 
high and three feet thick, which enclose an area of four acres. 
Upon these walls are six stone towers or abutments, twenty- 
eight feet high. Four of them are upon the eastern wall or 
front of the building, and two upon either corner, in the rear. 

The prison is warmed by tubes of hot water, passing through 
the cells. In the coldest weather the cells can thus be warmed 
to a temperature of sixty-five degrees. They are ventilated bj 
apertures in the exterior walls, and also by a flue from each cell 
to the top of the roof. 

The air is pure, the outlet pipes perfectly ventilating the 
building. These pipes are cleaned by water, about fifteen 
thousand gallons being daily used for that purpose. 

The convicts are employed principally in making shoes, chairs, 
and in weaving. The provisions and clothing of the prisoners 
are, in all respects, suitable to their wants, and theif general 
health is good. 

The testimony of every succeeding year is accumulating in 
favor of this system of punishment. The prisoner condemned 
to solitary confinement^ at hard labor, has leisure to reflect upon 
the folly and wickedness which has consigned him to the walls 
of a dungeon, and to resolve upon a new course of action 

X I iV 

r ^ - I - n a i wi ■ n i t > - — —^ " - - ' - -^^ »■ - 


after his release. He is withdrawn from the contamination of 
guilty associations, and can hardly fail to deplore the errors by 
which he has been reduced to so pitiable a condition. 

Both as a means of punishment and reformation to criminals^ 
the committee believe that the present system is admirably 
adapted to fulfill the wishes of its friends and advocates. There 
is now attached to the prison a library of two thousand three 
hundred volumes, for the use of the convicts. The books are 
well selected, and the prisoners avail themselves of the privilege 
of reading them with great alacrity. 

Their minds are thus engaged and exercised, and they are 
prevented from falling into that besotted and stupid condition, 
which sometimes results from solitary confinement. 

The first keeper of the prison was a Mr. Crooks. Henry Bel- 
leijeau was his successor. Francis Labaw succeeded Belleijeau, 
and was keeper for a considerable length of time, 
r The keepers were for a long time appointed by the board of 
inspectors. Ephriam Ryno, being a member of the board, suc- 
ceeded in getting the appointment by having a majority of the 
board in his favor, and this, with his own vote, bestowed the ap- 
pointment of keeper upon himself. He held it for one year only, 
when Thomas Perrine was appointed. 

In 1835, ^"^ before the completion of the new prison, Joseph 
A. Yard was appointed keeper. He removed the prisoners 
into the new building in 1836. In 1845, Jacob B. Gaddiswas 
appointed, with Abram R. Harris, clerk. Dr. James B. Coleman, 
physician, and Mary E. Frazer, matron. For many years pre- 
vious to this, Charles Sutterly had been clerk. 

I have stated previously, that Joseph A. Yard was appointed 
keeper in 1835, ^^^ ^^^ Jacob B. Caddis succeeded Yard. 
Caddis was removed, and Yard was again appointed. Yard was 
removed, and John Voorhees appointed, who only held the 
office one year, when Jacob B. Caddis was again appointed, and 
continued in office till 185 1, when Mr. Vanderveer was 

New Jersey State Arsenat. — ^When the old prison became 
empty by the removal of the inmates into the new building, it 
was determined to convert the old edifice into a repository for 

• • « «• M^ - — Jm.^i.m^mA^i^tmtmmmmimmlbimimmtmimi^mit 

. . _- ^- •• - •-- j-.-.x /_■. ._ 


the state arms. They had previous to that time been kept in an 
upper room in the old State House. 

Samuel R. Hamilton, then quartermaster-general, appointed 
Captain Daniel Baker, of the city of Trenton, to take charge of 
the building and property belonging to the state kept there. He 
occupied that position until his death. 

There are in the arsenal two cannon captured at Yorktown, on 
the xpth of October, 1781, and another taken at the battle of 
Trenton. The building is not very well adapted for the keep- 
ing of fire-arms ; being built of stone, its walls are constantly 
damp, and it requires the utmost vigilance to prevent the arms 
being so much injured from the dampness and rust as to render 
them entirely unfit for service. 

New Jersey Lunatic Asylum. — Doctor Lyndon A. Smith, of 
Newark, \vas the first one who directed the attention of the pub- 
lic to the necessity of providing a suitable asylum for the wants 
and treatment of the insane in our state, in an address before 
the State Medical Society, in 1837. In 1839, & joint resolution 
passed the legislature, authorizing Governor Pennington to 
appoint commissioners to collect information in regard to the 
number and condition of the insane in the state, and if an 
asylum was deemed necessary, to ascertain the best locality for 
the same, the cost of its erection, &c - 

This commission consisted of Drs. Lyndon A. Smith, of New- 
ark ; Lewis Condict, of Morristown ; A. F. Taylor, of New Bruns- 
wick ; Charles G. McChesncy, of Trenton ; and Lucius Q. C 
Elmer, Esq., of Cumberland county. They were all physicians, 
except the latter gentleman, who was lately a judge of the Supreme 
Court. After having performed the duty assigned them, they 
reported the result of their observations to the legislature, adt 
their session in 1840-41. 

By their report, it appeared that there were at that time over 
four hundred insane persons in the state, many of whom were 
suffering for want of proper treatment. 

At the next session of the legislature the subject was referred 

to a joint committee, who reported in favor of an appropriation 

for the erection of an asylum, and here the matter was dropped. 

In 1844, Miss Dorotha L. Dix, of Massachusetts, vbited the 


various receptacles for the insane poor of the state, and, in a 
memorial to the legislature in 1845, urgently commended to- 
that body the subject of providing an asylum for their care and 
cure. Moved by the disinterested efforts and appeal of this 
distinguished and philanthropic lady, the legislature appointed a 
joint committee, which reported in favor of prompt action. The 
same year, commissioners were appointed to select a suitable site, 
and an appropriation made of ten thousand dollars to pay for 
the same, and twenty-five thousand dollars toward the erection 
of the building. These commissioners were Daniel Haines, 
Thomas Arrowsmith, John S. Condict, Joseph Saunders, and 
Maurice Beasley. 

The commissioners, after visiting various localities, deter- 
mined on the one upon which the building now stands, about 
two and a half miles northwest of the city of Trenton, on the 
Belvidere Delaware Railroad, and near the Delaware river. 

The tract of land on which the building is erected originally 
' consisted of one hundred and eleven acres of excellent land for 
farming and gardening purposes. The landscape view is one of 
great beauty and attraction, combfning the diversified land 
scenery of the valley of the Delaware, with a view of the river 
for two and a half miles, to the city of Trenton. 

During the summer of 1845, ^^* ^- Cooley, Calvin Howell^ 
and Samuel Rush were appointed commissioners by Governor 
Stratton to contract for and superintend the erection of the 
building; and after visiting various institutions for the insane in 
other states, and examining many plans, adopted the draft of 
design by Dr. T. S. Kirkbride, of the Pennsylvania Hospital for 
the Insane, from which a working plan was subsequently made 
by John Notman, of Philadelphia, the architect of the building.. 
The building was erected by William Phillips and Joseph Whit- 
aker, of Trenton. 

The asylum occupies a central position on the most elevated 
point of land belonging to it, and is directly in front of a beau- 
tiful grove of timber, thirty acres in extent, through which 
passes a winding carriage road, from the main highway to the* 

The grounds on the eastern front of the building are arranged 

mi^S^im smni r- -— ■■ ' . ••"'^" ■ ■ ■ '■ ■'■ ■ i ■ i^i^i^ 


with walks/planted with trees, floweriog and evergreen shrubs, 
etc, according to a tasteful design by the late A. J. Downing, 
landscape gardener. 

The building is constructed of reddish sandstone, (from the 
Ewing quarries,) laid in rouble and broken-range work, and 
pointed, with hamraer-dressed stone for base, the roof being cov- 
ered with slate, except the dome, which is of tin. 

The building was originally four hundred and eighty feet long, 
since which time two .wings have been added, on the east and 
west ends of the miin building, respectively, thereby consider- 
ably enlarging the same. 

These wings wc v built by William Phillips, of this city, one 
of the original builders of the asylum. They are intended for 
the more noisy patients, that they may be as remote as possible 
from those who are convalescent. 

The building is lighted throughout by gas made from oil, and 
manufac:i red on the premises. 

The fixtures connected with the manufacture of gas are situ- 
ated in the grove, two hundred and fifty feet from the rear 01 
the centre building. There are three hundred burners in the 
old building, of the bat-wing form. The average consumption 
of gas per night is about four hundred cubic feet. 

The house is supplied with water from a spring on the pre- 
mises. It is raised by two forcing pumps, one being driven by 
the surplus water of the spring, the other by steam power, and 
are capable of raising three thousand gallons per hour. The con- 
sumption of this essential article in the building ranges from six 
to nine thousand gallons per day, which, in fuel and Ittbor, is 
attended by an expense of about three hundred and sixty dol- 
lars per annum, or the interest on six thousand dollars. 

The government of the asylum is vestedxin a board of ten 
managers, originally appointed by the legislature, but whose. 
appointment in the future are to be made by the Supreme 
Court. Their term of service continues five years, and is to be 
performed gratuitously. They have the .appointment of the; 
superintendent and treasurer of the institution, and upon the 
nomination of the former, the assistant physicians, steward, and 

■M l w 1 II I i rr 1 fr I - i nr"- T - - i ^''" — , ■ " — -^ * —— ■ 


matron, and, with the approval of the governor of the state^ 
determines the annual salaries and allowance of the officers* 

Up to the year 1849, ^^^ appropriations of money by the state 
for the purposes of the institution, amounted to one hundred 
and fifty-three thousand eight hundred and sixty-one dollars and 
ninety cents, which sum includes the original cost of the farm, 
the erection of the building, the various fixtures heretofore de- 
scribed, the furniture, stock for farm, grading and improving 
grounds, making fences, &c 

Its present board of managers are Hon. Alexander Wurts, 
Flemington, president; Thomas J- Striker, Trenton, secretary > 
Rev. S. M. Hamill, D. D., Lawrenccville ; Hon. George F, 
Fort, New Egypt ; G. S. Cannon, Bordentown ; Hon. Henry 
K. Kennedy, Bloomsbury; Hon. Moses Bigelow, Newark; 
James B. Coleman, M. D., Trenton; C. S. Green, Esq., Tren- 
ton ; William Elmer, M. D., Bridgeton. 

Horace A. Buttolph is superintendent and physician ; Joseph 
Draper, M. D., assistant physician; John W. Ward, NL D.,. 
second assistant physician; Caleb Sager, steward; Miss Mary 
Tabor, matron ; Jasper S. Scudder, treasurer. 

The asylum was opened on the 15th of May, 1848, and there 
has been received from that time up to the year 1870, three 
thousand seven hundred and forty-six patients. The number of 
patients in the asylum' up to November 30th, 1869, was five hun- 
dred and sixty-seven. Received during the year two hundred 
and forty-seven, making the whole number under treatment dur- 
ing that period, eight hundred and fourteen. During the year, 
sixty-eight were discharged recovered, forty-three improved, 
forty-four died, and one escaped, leaving six hundred and forty- 
eight patients in the asylum on the 30th day of November, 1870, 
being eighty-one more than at the close of the previous year. 

The receipts from all sources during the year, including a 
balance of two thousand two hundred and forty-seven dollars 
and seventy-eight cents remaining on the 30th of November,. 
1869, amounted to one hundred and sixty-two thousand two 
hundred and seventy dollars and ninety-seven cents. 

The payments for the same period were one hundred and fifty- 
seven thousand and twenty-nine dollars and sixteen cents, lear* 

. •-I-'V' , m ' ■ " ' -ii ' •-^•-*-~- ,,. -' . ~ ■! 


ing a balance in the hands of the treasurer of five thousand two 
hundred and forty-one dollars and eighty-one cents — twenty- 
eight thousand four hundred and thirty-seven dollars of which 
were received from private patients; one hundred and three 
thousand and ninety-five dollars and ninety cents from the seve- 
ral counties, for the pauper and indigent insane; twenty-five 
thousand one hundred and twenty-nine dollars and forty-two 
cents from the state treasury, for the same class of patients ; and 
three thousand three hundred and sixty dollars and twenty-seven 
cents for convict patients. 


B. ■ 1i- «i»» « »^^ai»ji— .— ^^ ^_^.^»^_^^ ■_ _ , 1- 


Miscellaneous — First Post- Office in Trenton ^ where located and 
by whom kept — Each subsequent Posttnaster under the Different 
Administrations to the Present Time — Qucuiering of Troops at 
Trenton^ in iTSSr fy -f^ing George IL — Charter of Bridge 
Across the Delaware — To whom Granted — Erection of Bridge 
— Floods in the Delaware — Destruction of Bridges on the 
Same — Trenton Water Works — Charter ^ to whom Granted — 
Charter Transferred to the City— Officers Appointed by the 
City — Baf iking Institutions — Trenton Bank — State Bank — Me- 
ehanics and Manufacturers Bank — America Bank — Trenton 
Saving Fund — Lodges^ Masonic and Odd Fellows. 

IN 179 1 there were only six post-offices in the state of New 
Jersey, and these were at Newark, Elizabethtown, Bridge- 
ton, (now Rahway), New Brunswick, Princeton, and Trenton. 
The amount of receipts for the year ending October 5th, 1791, 
was five hundred and thirty dollars, of which sum the post- 
masters received one hundred and eight dollars and twenty cents, 
leaving four hundred and twenty-one dollars and eighty cents as 
the net revenue.* 

As to who the postmaster in Trenton was at this time we are 
in profound ignorance, as we can find no authentic records to 
give the necessary information. 

The first postmaster here, of which we have any knowledge, 
was a Mr. Pinkerton, who filled the office during General 
Washington's first administration. During Washington's second 

*IIowe*s Historical Collecdoiii. 


term of office, John Singer received the appointment, and con- 
tinued in office until 1801. The office at thiii time was kept ia 
the house once occupied by the late Dr. John Howell, on the 
corner of Warren and Hanover streets, and now the Franklin 

It is supposed that Pinkerton*s office was also at the comer of 
Main (now Warren) street and Decou*$ alley, (now Hanover 
street,) the second door south of where Singer afterwards kept it. 

The building was an old yellow frame, and stood about the 
centre of Hanover street ; it was afterwards used as a bakery, 
and previous to its removal, at the time the street .was opened, 
was occupied as a clothing store. 

Major Peter Gordon was appointed postmaster on the ist 
day of April, 1801, by Thomas Jefferson. He had his office at 
the comer of State and Warren streets. Major Gordon retained 
the office only during part of Jefferson's administration, when, 
on the 12th of November, 1804, having received from Governor 
Bloomfield the appointment of state treasurer, he at once re* 
signed the office of postmaster, and Charles Rice was appointed. 
He continued the office at the same place where Major Gordon 
had established it. He remained in office during the adminis- 
trations of John Adams and James Madison. 

In the year 1825, John Quincy Adams appointed James J. 
Wilson, Esq., postmaster of this city. His office was at 105 
Warren street, in the old brick building now owned by Henry 
Thoene. In 1826 Mr. Wilson died, and his wife served out his 
term of office. She removed the office into State street, on the 
corner of the alley opposite to Chancery court, now occupied 
by Charles Kraft as a shoe store, but did not long continue it 
there, the locality being unhandy. She was induced to move back 
into the street she had left, near the place once occupied by her 
husband. She continued in the office until General Jackson*s 
second term, when Joseph Cunningham received the appoint- 
ment on the 22d day of January, 1835. I^tiring his term the 
office was kept at No. 97 Warren street, in his own house, upon 
the spot occupied by William Dolton and Jonathan Blackwell as 
a wholesale grocery. He held the office during part of Jack- 
son's last term, and Martin Van Burtn's single^erm. 

■M ^1 .« ■■.—*» !■ I < I ^ ■ nil I m»ii^»mm^Ut. 



During John Tyler's administration, in 184I9 Dr. John Mc* 
Kelway, received the appointment His office was kept at No. 
I West State street, adjoining the Mechanics and Manufacturers 
Bank, in the house now owned and occupied by John O. Raum 
as a residence. In 1845, <)uring the administration of James K, 
Polk, the appointment was conferred upon Joseph Justice, Sr., 
and the office was again kept in the brick house in Warren street, 
opposite the termination of Quarry street, where it had pre- 
viously been kept by General Wilson. 

In 1S49 General Taylor conferred the appointment upon John 
S. McCully, who removed the office into East State street. No. 
15^, at the place now occupied by the heirs of David C. Mount 
as a confectionery. Mr. McCully continued the office here 
during the whole of his term. 

In 1853 General Pierce bestowed the appointment on William 
A. Benjamin. He opened his office in the same place where if 
had been kept by Mr. McCully, but only continued there for a 
few months, when he obtained a room in the City Hall, on the 
comer of State and Greene streets, where he fitted up an office. 
It was at one time kept at the corner of Warren and Front 
streets, and afterwards kept by Joshua Jones, at No. 35 Greene 
street, and removed by Frederick S. McNeely to Taylor Hall, 
nearly opposite, where Israel Howell, the present postmaster, 
still continues it. % 

About the year 1755, during the reign of King George II., of 
England, the country now occupied by New England, the five 
Middle States, and the four Southern States, lying along the At- 
lantic, embraced thirteen colonies, belonging to Great Britain, 
and all acknowledging the government of that country. None 
of the country lying west of the states above mentioned was then 
Ocmpied by English settlers. 

The !■ tench had settlements in Canada, extending from the 
mouth of the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario. They had estab- 
lished several forts and trading-houses along the shores of that 
lake, to promote their trade with the Indians. They had also 
laid out New Orleans near the mouth of the Mississippi, and 
liaving ascended the river, had laid claim to the beautiful and 
fertile valley through which it flows. They had also built, trad- 

r >«»^ II I « ■ < 



ing-houses on the Ohio river, and had finally determined to con- 
nect their northern and southern settlements by a chain of forts, 
extending from Lake Ontario to their establishments on the 
Ohio, and thence down the Mississippi to New Orleans. 

As this land was part of the colony of Virginia, the English 
claimed it as their possessions, whereas, the French having bailt 
their forts and trading-houses upon it, claimed it as theirs. The 
people appealing to Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, for redress, 
the governor thought it best in the first place to send a messen- 
ger to the commander of the French forces on the Ohio, and 
require him to march his troops away, and thus quit the country. 
For this important mission, George Washington, then but twen- 
ty-one years old, was selected. At that early age he began that 
public career which has endeared his name to every American, 
and rendered it illustrious throughout the world. Washington de- 
livered Governor Dinwiddle's letter to the French commander, 
which was altogether unsatisfactory to the governor; and 
the consequence of the encroachments of the French and their 
refusal to march their troops away was, a general war ensued 
between the English and French governments. 

This war continued from 1755 to 1763 eight years, when it 
was closed by a peace made at Paris, in which France ceded to 
England all her northern colonics, which still remain subject to 
Great Britain. 

During this war Great Britain had her troops stationed in dif- 
ferent parts of the country — quite an army was stationed here. 
At that time the buildings known as White Hall were erected bj 
the king as barracks for his officers. These buildings were 
erected in 1759; they were built in the spring of the year, and 
bear the inscription 3 M., 1759, meaning third month, the time 
when the walls were completed. This building commenced at 
Willow street, extended west toward the State House ; thence 
ran south, crossing Front street; thence taking an easterly direc- 
tion, terminated again at Willow street, forming three sides of 
a hollow square. But in x8oi, when Warren street was opened 
below Front, and Front street continued on through to the State 
House yard, the street ran directly through the old barracks^ 
making two separate buildings of it, instead of on^ as heretofore. 


•ffi i ri fc n-'-^tf.^. . ■ ■■ ■ ^.\^^^.. ... ■• ^_. •^■_..^; ■, ■ 

r.,..^.!.^ -^■— .1 ,- > - - ^■■ , . 



In excavating on the eastern bank of the Delaware, the re n ii<^s 
of individuab have been founds and considerable curiosity Vas 
been manifested to divine the meaning thereof. Much spec ula- 
tion has been made by the curious in such matters, some a*;; ert- 
ing that the place where these bones were found was the spoi*: 
where the early settlers, about 1676, deposited their dead; 
others, that they were Messians and English killed here in the 
American Revolution — neither of which, however, are correct, 
for they were English soldiers who died here in the time of the 
French war, about the year 1 760. 

As .stated jn a previous chapter, all persons traveling from 
Philadelphia to New York would cross the ferry at Bloomsbnry, 
and proceed east to the Eagle tavern, and thence north over 
Mill hill to New York. This ferry was continued in operation 
until the completion of the Delaware bridge, in 1806. 

The charter for a bridge across the Delaware river was granted 
in 1 80 1, but the bridge was not commenced till 1804, and fin- 
ished in 1806. The present piers are about one- fourth higher 
than was at first anticipated by the architect. The projectors, in 
planning the bridge, supposed it was of such height that no flood 
could reach the top. But in this they were mistaken, for before 
they had accomplished putting on the frame work or the floor, 
the river raised so high as to completely cover up the abutments 
and piers. Then it was that the company saw the necessity of 
building their work higher. 

The bridge is one thousand one hundred feet long. The 
stones in the piers are fastened by heavy iron rods, of serpentine 
shape, keeping them firmly together. 

There have been at different times several extensive floods in 
the Delaware, causing much damage to mills, houses, and bridges 
erected upon that stream ; but in consequence of the precaution 
taken in the erection of this noble structure, no fatal results have 
happened to it. 

In 184I1 during a freshet in the river, five bridges located on 
the Delaware above Trenton, were raised from their bed, and 
floated down the river. They were the following : Yardleyville, 
Lambertville, Taylorsville, Reiglesville and Phillipsburg ; each 
of these bridges passed directly under the Trenton bridge, tear- 

ir-r frj-- 



ing away some of the stays under the floor, but doing no farther 

The first freshet in the river of which we have any record, 
occurred in 1691. The largest freshet ever known was ia 
1 781 ; since that time nothing has exceeded the freshet of 1841. 
The piers of the present bridge are built of brown sand stone, 
taken from the Ewing quarries, in this county. 

November 29th, 1809, a bill was passed authorizing Samud 
Wright, Jr., and George Dill, to build a wing dam in the river 
Delaware, for the purpose of conveying the waters thereof into 
the Assanpink creek above their oil mill. 

November 13th of the same year, an act was passed to authorize 
the building of a lock in the river Delaware at Trenton, for the 
improvement of the navigation of the river. 

January 20th, 1814, William L. Prall and Jacob Lambert were 
authorized by legislative enactment to erect a wing dam in the 
Delaware river at Trenton. 

On the 9th of February, 1815, Daniel W. Coxe, Samud 
Wright, Jr., and Peter T. Smith, were authorized to build a wing 
dam in the river Delaware^ opposite Market street, and ''to have 
a lock in the same, where it crossed that part of the river on the 
east side of Yard's Island, of such size and dimensions that Dur- 
ham boats of the largest size and other crafl may pass up and 
through the same with ease and safety ; the lock to be not less 
than twenty feet wide." 

On the 24th of February, 1840, the legislature of Pennsylva- 
nia passed an act to incorporate the Trenton City Bridge Com- 
pany, and on the 8th of March, 1842, the act was passed by the 
legislature of this state ; the capital stock to be fifty thousand 
dollars, and divided into two thousand shares of twenty-five dol- 
lars each. This bridge was afterwards erected at the foot of 
Calhoun street. 

The terminus of the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad was for- 
merly at Morrisville, near the bridge ; from there a horse car con- 
veyed the passengers for Trenton and those going to New York. 
Those for New York took the cars at State street, while the 
Trenton passengers were conveyed down to where the Odd Fel- 
lows' Hall now stands, corner of Greene and Hanover streets. 
In a few years the trains commenced ninaing over the bridge. 



Streets of the city of Trenton." The preamble to which read 
as follows: "Wherkas, Stephen Scales hath represented that he 
hath purchased a spring in the city of Trenton, from which he 
can conduct the water through se\-eral of the streets of said city, 
thereby supplying the inhabitants with plenty of sweet and 
wholesome water, provided he can be authorized to lay his 
trunks through some of the intervening lots.'* 

This charter gave him power to ^* convey the water from said 
spring through any lots which he might find it necessary to pass 
in its way to the streets of said city, without let, trouble, hind- 
rance, or molestation of any person or persons whatsoever, and 
with laborers, carts, wagons and other carriages, with their beasts 
of burden or draught, and all necessary tools and implements, to 
enter upon the lands through which it is necessary said aquedtxrt 
should pass, and to dig through and lay trunks in the same, for 
carrying on the said work, and for repairing the same from time 
to time, first giving notice to the owner, if in this state, or to 
the tenant in possession thereof, doing as little damage thereto 
as possible, and repairing any breaches they may make in the 
enclosures thereof, and making amends for any damage that may 
be sustained by the owner or owners thereof,*' &c 

On the 1 8th of September, 1S03, James Ewing, Peter Gor- 
don, Thomas M. Potter, Gershom Craft and Alexander Cham- 
bers purchased of Stephen Scales his right to said spring, and 
by an act of the legislature, passed February 29th, 180S, the/ 
became a body politic and corporate, by the name, style, and 
title of '«The President and Directors of the Trenton Water 

The first charter granted to Stephen Scales gave him power to 
use only the water which should originate or rise from his springs 
or upon his said lot so purchased, but that he should permit all 
water not originating or rising upon his said lot or from his- 
spring, freely and uninterruptedly to pass for the use of the tan 
yards on the stream made thereby. 

The stock of the first company that purchased the spring oT 
Stephen Scales consisted of twelve hundred dollars, divided 
into sixty shares of twenty dollars each ; the company, when 
organized, to be at liberty to extend the number of shares if they 
found it necessary. 

ri— ■'— -■'^ **-1 ^ 'ini *f - --. --^fc^*-*.!— /■^^■~^— *— ^■>-^^^C».^*utjr^«y.-:t^«^— >^-M»- ...a.-^— ^.. 

>«ria*a^ .^mi«>*sAm 


James Ewing was chosen president, and Peter Gordon and 
Thomas M. Potter were chosen directors under the original 

At a meeting of the stockholders^ held on the loth of June, 
1839, the capital stock of the company was fixed at twenty thou- 
sand dollars, divided into shares of fifty dollars each. This was 
confirmed by act of the legislature, approved March 24th, 1852. 
At the same time, a supplement was passed to the act of the 
29th of February, 1803, granting to theai the privilege of taking 
the water, either in whole or in part, from the Delaware river, 
and to construct all suitable apparatus for that purpose, but not to 
obstruct, in any ^i-ay, the navigation. The first pipes laid by 
the company were constructed of wood. These were afterwards 
taken up and replaced by iron. These, in their turn, were 
taken up in 1850, and replaced by iron pipes of larger bore, 
and they have at different times been considerably enlarged. 
The officers of the company were, Jonathan Steward, president ; 
Samuel Evans, treasurer ; Thomas Hill, secretary. 

In 1854, an act was passed by the legislature, authorizing the 
purchase of the works by the city, if, at a special election, the 
people so determined. In accordance with the will of the 
people then expressed, the works were purchased, at a cost of 
eighty-eight thousand dollars. The following were the first 
officers appointed by council : William P. Sherman, president ; 
Alexander M. Johnston, secretary ; Robert C. Belville, treasu- 
rer. The capital stock of the company was increased to one 
hundred thousand dollars. 

In 1853, the company built their basin on the Pennington road, 
and after the works came into possession of the city, finding it 
too small, the directors caused a new basin to be built in 1855, 
and the same year caused cast iron fire plugs to be erected 
through the city. The amount of stock purchased by the city 
was eighty-eight thousand dollars, twelve thousand dollars worth 
still remaining in the hands of private individuals, which was 
afterwards purchased, and the works are now worth two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. The city issued bonds for the pur- 
chase of, and the various improvements on the works, amounting 
to two hundred and four thousand five hundred dollars. The 

^ 1 -r — - - 




income from the works not only pays all the interest on the 
bonds and all expenses of the management, but every year a 
handsome sum into the sinking fund, toward the liquidation of 
the debt. The last fiscal year, this sum amounted to three thou- 
sand five hundred dollars. The present commissioners are: 
Philemon Dickinson, president ; Albert J. Whittakdr^ secretary; 
John C. Miller, William Hancock, Isaac C. Gearhart, William 
Johnson ; and John B. Quigley, superintendent and treasurer. 

The Newark Banking and Insurance Company was the first 
bank chartered in the state, and is still in operation. It was 
chartered on the 17th day of February, 1804; and on the 3d 
day of December of the same year, the Trenton Banking Com- 
pany was chartered. The charter when first granted was to 
continue in force for twenty years, llie original act of the 
legislature authorized a subscription to be opened for three hun- 
dred thousand dollars, in shares of fifty dollars each, under hs 
direction of James Ewing, Joshua Wright, George Abbott, Pe er 
Hunt, and Abner Reeder. The affairs of the institution are 
controlled by a board of eleven directors, elected annually, any 
seven of whom can, at their first regular meeting af^er every 
general election, elect from among themselves, by a majority of 
the members present, by ballot, a president, who shall be aa 
inhabitant of the city of Trenton or Nottingham. In the ap- 
pointment of a cashier or treasurer, the vote of seven directors 
was necessary to a choice, who, when chosen, were required to 
give bond, with two or more sureties, to the satisfaction of the 
directors, in a sum not less than sixty thousand dollars, with 
condition for their good behavior. Each director, cashier, ov 
treasurer, before entering upon the duties of his office, was to make 
oath or affirmation faithfully to perform the duties of his office, 
agreeably to the provisions of the law and the trust in Lim 
reposed, to the best of his skill and understanding. 

An act was passed on the 14th day of November, 182 1, ex- 
tending the charter fifteen years, to expire on the 3d day of 
December, 1839. On the 20th of February, 1838, an additional 
act was passed, further extending the charter for the term of 
twenty years, from and after the 3d day of December, 1839. 

At the session of the legislature of 1854, a further extension 


-= cjj^jE—a-j-^-JU— ■■■...- .» .-ifcJ-t— i-.i.> '.^ ■■ _ •-■^•■■■far |,,n 1 -I I II 




was granted, and at the same time the stockholders and directors 
were made personally responsible. This last act seems to have 
given general satisfaction. Considerable feeling existed upon 
the subject of special banking privilegesy but since the liabilities 
have been thrown upon the officers of the institution, it has 
allayed all feeling upon that subject, and the people are satisfied 
that their money is perfectly safe in the vaults of such institutions 
as the one above. Isaac Smith was the first president, appointed 
in 1805 ; Pearson Hunt, cashier, and Josiah Fi^hian, teller. 
Jonathan Rhea, second president, was appointed in 1807. John 
Beatty, third president, was appointed in 18 15. Thomas L. 
Woodruff was appointed president in 1826, In 1828 Joseph 
Olden Clarke was appointed cashier, and John Thompson teller. 
In 1832 Philemon Dickinson was appointed president; the same 
year, John Titus cashier, and Jasper S. Scudder teller ; after Titus 
had resigned, Thomas J. Stryker was appointed cashier. 

In 1838 ihe new building was erected on the site where the 
old one had stood. The archiicct was Thomas U. Walter, of 
Philadelphia. 1 

The capital stock was two hundred and ten thousand dollars, 
with capacity to increase to six hundred thousand dollars ; it is 
DOW four hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Tlie state origi- 
nally owned one thousand two hundred shares of stock, which 
were purchased by the bank. The par value of stock is fifty dol- 
lars: thirty dollars per share was originally called in, the remain- 
ing installments having been ordered by the stockholders in 
1855. '^^^ present dirertors are, Philemon Dickinson, Charles 
S. Olden, Caleb S. Green, William G. Cook, Benjamin Fish, 
Jonathan Steward, Albert J. Whittakcr, Alexander Wurts, S. 
Moore Hart, Samuel S. Stryker; notary public, Charles C. 

The State Bank commenced operations in the year 181 1. 
Their first banking house was at No. 22 East State street, on the 
site now occupied by the stores of Bechtel, Davison & Dye, and 
Willet Hicks. The last officers of this institution were, Abner 
Reeder, president ; Lambert Rickey, cashier, and George Wat- 
son, teller. In 181 2 they built their banking-house on the comer 
of Warren and Bank streets. It ceased operations in the year 1821. 

^ - -- --ri^r -i r' -- - • ■ ■ ii ' Mi t i r i - \ ' ' - -* ...- ' ■^- »■■ » ^ 'i- ^— 



February ipth, 1834, the Mechanics and Manufacturers Bank 
was chartered. February i6th, 1843, ^" ^^^ ^'^ passed authorizing 
them to reduce their capital stock whenever they might think 
proper so to do» and on the 19th of March, 1857, they were 
authorized to increase it, making their capital stock five hundred 
thousand dollars. 

Their present officers are, Timothy Abbott, president; 
James S. Clark, cashier ; directors, Joseph G. Brearley, Samud 
K. Wilson, Daniel P. Forst, Frederick R. Wilkinsop, Edward 
W. Evans, Augustus G. Richey, Timothy Abbott, Imlah Moore 
and Ferdinand W. Roebling; notary public, Joseph H. Hough. 

In 1837 they built their present banking-house, having occu- 
pied the building No. 75 Warren street, as did also the Trenton 
Bank previously, while they were erecting their new building. 

On the 7th of March, 1844, the Trenton Saving Fund Society 
was incorporated. Its corporators were, Peter D. Vroom, John 
C. Redman, John Read, Stacy G. Potts, George Dill, Xenophon 
J. Maynard, Richard J. Bond, Thomas J. Stryker, Jacob Kline^ 
Jasper S. Scudder, Timothy Abbott, Charles Parker, and Henry 
W. Green. The present officers are, Caleb S. Green, president; 
Lewis Parker, Jr., treasurer and secretary; managers, Caleb S. 
Green, Thomas J. Stryker, Timothy Abbott, Benjamin Fish, G. 
A. Perdicaris, Joseph G. Brearley, Augustus G. Richey, William 
G. Cook, Albert J. Whittaker, and William J. Owens. Their 
deposits amount to about four hundred thousand dollars. 

March 2 2d, i860, the Merchants Bank was chartered, with a 
capital stock of three hundred thousand dollars, with power to 
increase the same to five hundred thousand dollars, to be divided 
into shares of fifty dollars each. The corporators were, George 
S. Green, Charles Scott, Robert C. Hutchinson, Ralph H. 
Shreve, Harper Crozer, Henry D. Phillips, Joseph Whittaker, 
Charles Brearley, Isaac Stephens, Theodore W. Hill, Albert J. 
Whittaker, Charles Moore, Samuel R. Smith, and Daniel R. 
Bower. On the 24th of March, 1862, its charter was repealed, 
and receivers were appointed to settle up the concern. 

On the 28th of January, 1864, the First National Bank was 
chartered. Its capital stock was five hundred thousand dollars 
They opened their banking-house in Greene street, in the room 

■*■■'■'■ "- ■ ••-^■^■^■^ *■— .. — fc-j..^.^...-— -..w ^...^ ^..-^^ ■^: ■■ ■ ^ ^ -^■. ^ ^, -.^ ■.^— ,^ -, 


occupied by the Trenton Savings Bank, and continued there until 
their new banking-house was erected. The present officers are, 
Philip P. Dunn, president ; Samuel R. Smith, vice president ; 
Charles Whitehead, cashier; directors, Philip P. Dunn, John 
K. Smith, Samuel R. Smith, Joseph Whiteliead, Mahlon Hutch- 
inson, Elwood Parsons, John S. Comfort, Jacob R. Freese, 
Joseph McPhersoD, Hudson S. Ellis, Charles Scott, and Wood- 
bury D. Holt, 
llie State Savings Bank was incorporated March 31, 1869. 

Its officers and managers are, Samuel K. Wilson, president; 

Jacob R. Frecse, vice president and treasurer ; Harry C. Freese, 

secretary and cashier ; board of managers, Samuel K. Wilson, 

Jacob R. Freese, Phillip P. Dunn, Caleb Sager, and Charles 

March ist, 1870, the Mercer County Bank, of Trenton, was 

incorporated, with a capital stock of two hundred thousand dol- 
lars, with the privilege of increasing it to five hundred thousand 
dollars, in shares of fifty dollars each. The corporators were, 
Alfred S. Livingston, Edward H. Stokes, William R. Titus, 
Baltes Pickel, Scudder H. Cook, Joseph B. Yard, Alfred Muir- 
heid, John Taylor and Thomas C. Pearce. 

March 17th, 1870, the Peoples Savings Bank was incorpo- 
rated. The corporators were, Frederick R. Wilkinson, Garret 
D. W. Vroom, John I-^ Murphy, Moses D. Naar, Baltes Pickel, 
Isaac Wood, Joseph MacPherson, Frank S. Katzenbach, Daniel 
B. Coleman, Henry S. Cox, Joshua S. Day, Alpheus Swayze, 
Charles Baker, William H. Barton, Alfred Reed, Crowell Marsh, 
and John W. Scudder. The first annual report rendered to the 
legislature January 14th, 187 1, showed the total deposits received 
since opening the bank, May 14th, 1869, to be two hundred and 
nineteen thousand one hundred and nine dollars and fifty-eight 
cents. Deposits withdrawn, one hundred and thirty-nine thou- 
sand six hundred and twenty-four dollars and forty-one cents, 
leaving balance on hand due depositors, seventy-nine thousand 
four hundred and eighty-five dollars and* seventeen cents. 
Accounts open at that date, five hundred and forty-nine. 
Amount of interest paid on accounts for year ending January 14th, 
1871, two thousand seven hundred and sixty-two dollars and 
«xty-nine cents. 

*■■*■•■■•■■ ■ ■ •■-•■■!■-■■■■-•--'» "li- 


The Trenton Insurance Company was incorporated March ad, 
1842. The directors were, James M. Redmond, Jacob Kline, 
Philemon Dickinson, Thomas J. Strylcer, Benjamin Fish, Charles 
G. Green, Crispin Blackfan, Richard J. Bond, John Whittaker, 
Isaac Baker, Emley Olden, John B. Mount, James T. Shermaiu 
The capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars, divided 
into shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The Trenton Mutual Life and Fire Insurance Company was 
incorporated February 5 th, 1847. "^^ directors were, Philemon 
Dickinson, Xenophon J. Maynard, John A. Weart, Jasper S. 
Scudder, Joseph C. Potts, Jonathan Fisk, and Eli Morris. * 

The Pacific Mutual Insurance Company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 19th, 1 85 1. Its incorporators were John F. Hageman, 
Xenophon J. Maynard, Philemon Dickinson, and William J. Ing- 

The Peoples Fire Insurance Company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 25th, 1 86 1. Its incorporators were, Samuel S. Stryker,* 
Imlah Moore, James T. Sherman, Alfred S. Livingston, Charles 
Scott, William R. Mcllvaine, Joseph Whittaker, William W« 
Norcross, Barker Gummere, Frederick R. Wilkinson, and John R. 
Tucker. The capital stock was not to exceed two hundred thou- 
sand dollars, divided into shares of fifty dollars each. 

The Capital Insurance Company was chartered April 9th, 
1867. The incorporators were, Frederick R. Wilkirson, John 
Taylor, Charles Bechtel, Benjamin O. Tyler, John O. Ranm, 
James Buchanan, and Daniel Peters. The capital stock mas fif^j 
thousand dollars, with power to increase it to one hundred ihoo- 
sand dollars, and was divided into shares of fifty dollsis each. 

The Standard Fire Insurance Company was chartered Feb- 
ruary 27th, 1868. The incorporators were, John C. Cook, William 
Boswell, Charles Bechtel, Robert C. Belville, John O. Raum, 
Benjamin O. Tyler, Daniel Peters, Henry Denison, W. D. Oli- 
phant. The capital stock was fifty thousand dollars, with power 
to increase it to one hundred thousand dollars. 

The Trenton Fire Insurance Company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1869. Its corporators were, William H. Potts, 
Charles Corr, Charles Swan, Henry Speeler, Watson- F. Van 
Camp, Peter C. Onderdonk, Charles B. Van Syckel, John L» 

2 A* 

1i - -^ ' .^ ->.^*^4.^.^ - . ■ . >. ■^■^x^.Witl^-. ^- ... ^-W..*--.i = i^. 



Murphy, Thomas J. Corson, Theodore W. Hill, Jonathan Cook, 
Baltes Pickcl, and Jacob R. Frcese. The rapitil stock was not to 
exceed two hundred thousand dollars, divided into shares of fifty 
dollars each. 

The Fire Association of Trenton was incorporated March 30th, 
1869. The incorporators were John Taylor, Lewis Parker, Jr., 
William H. Barton, George Furman, Charles B. Cogill, John O. 
Raum, Joseph Milburn, Charles Megill, William Johnston, Jr., 
Abraham Chamberlain, Henry C. Kafer, James S. Kiger, John 
G. Bigelow, Herbert N. Ryan, Robert Jackson, and William 
Roberts. The capital stock was fifty thousand dollars, with ' - 
power to increase it to one hundred thousand dollars. 

The Grand Lodge of New Jersey of Ancient Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons, was instituted by a charter from England, * 
December i8th, 1786, and meets annually in Trenton. The 
Hon. David Brcarly, Esq., chief justice of New Jersey, was 
elected worshipful master; Hon. Robert Lettis Hooper, vice 
president of New Jersey, deputy grand master; William Leddle, 
Esq., late high sheriff of Morris county, senior grand warden ; 
Daniel Marsh, Esq., representative in the assembly of New Jer- 
sey, junior grand warden; John Noble Cumming, Esq., late 
colonel in the army of the United States, grand secretary ; 
Maskell Ewing, Jr., Esq., clerk of the general assembly of New 
Jersey, deputy grand secretary; Joshua Corshon, Esq., high sheriff 
of Hunterdon county, grand treasurer. The present officers 
are, William E. Pine, M. W. grand master, Cresskill, Bergen 
county ; William W. Goodwin, R. W. D. grand maf^ter. Cam- . 
den; Nathan Haines, R. W. senior grand warden, Burlington; 
James V. Bently, R. W. junior grand warden, Morristown; 
William R. Clapp, R. W. grand treasurer, Trenton ; Joseph 
H. Hough, R. W. grand secretary, Trenton ; William D. Ru- 
' tan, R. W. D. grand secretary, Newark; William Mead, W. 
grand lecturer, Newark ; Leopold Kiesling, W. grand visitor 
to German lodges. 

Trenton Lodge, No. 5, of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, 
WIS chartered in 1787, and incorporated by an act of the legis- 
lature in 1826. The persons to whom the act of incorporation 
was granted were, Thomas L. Woodruff, master; Charles Bur- 



roughs, senior warden; Zachariah Rossell, junior warden; 
John Mershon, secretary, and William Kem'ood, treasurer, 
under the name, style, and title of "The Tiustees of Trenton 
Lodge, No. 5." 

A dispensation was granted by the Most Worthy Grand Mas- 
ter, David Brearly, dated July 4th, 5787, to Aaron Dickinson 
Woodruff, worthy master; Robert Lettis Hooper, senior n-ar- 
den, and Thomas Bullman, junior warden; upon which the 
work was commenced, and progressed until the meeting of the 
Grand Lodge at New Brunswick, on the 20th of December, in 
the year of masonry, 5787, when a warrant ^-as duly granted 
unto Aaron Dickinson Woodniff, W. M.; Thomas Bullman, S. 
W., and Anthony Reckless, J. W. The present officers are, 
Henry C. Case, W. M.; John Hunt, S. W.; John G. Box, J. 
W.; W^illiam D. Sinclair, treasurer, and George M. Mitchell, 

Mercer .Lodge, No. 50, was chartered January X3th, 1858. 
The present officers are, Isaac N. Hutchinson, W. M.; Henry 
J. Nicklin, S. W.; Augustus K. Forman, J. W.; N. D. William- 
son, treasurer, and H. E. Finch, secretary. 

Ashlar Lodge, No. 76, was chartered January 17th, 1866. 
The present officers are, Thomas S. Stevens, W. M.; Alexander 
C. Yard, S. W.; Wesley Crcveling, J. W.; William R, Clapp, 
treasurer, and Isaac N. Sn)der, secretary. 

Column Lodge was instituted April 3d, 1871. The present 
officers are, James Nicklin, W. M.; Levi J. Bibbins, S. W.; 
Lewis C. Wooley, J. W.; Samuel Stringer, secretary, and 
Joseph Stokes, treasurer. 

Thrce-Times;Thrce Chapter, No. 5, Royal Arch Masons, was 
chartered June 15th, 1858. The present officers are, Samuel 
Brackett, M. E. H. P.; Edward L. Campbell, E. K.; James T. 
Ginnelly, E. S.; John P. Nelson, treasurer, and George M. 
Mitchell, secretary. 

Gebal Council, No. 3, Royal and Select Masters, was char* 
tered May 29th, i860. The present officers are, Charles Swem, 
T. 111. M.; William Hewitt, D. 111. M.; Thomas J. Corson, I. 
C. of W.; John P. Nelson, treasurer, and Joseph H. Hough; 

■ ffTi -M-nw 111,1, - i iw , , . ^, _"^ ■ ■-.■.. • . ___.. ; 




Palestine Coinmandery, No. 4, Knights Templar, was char- 
tered September nth, 1862. The present officers are, J. W. 
Pressy, E. C; George M. Mitchell, Gen.; George N. Packer, 
C. G.; Rev. Albert U. Stanley, prelate ; John P. Nelson, treas- 
urer, and Samuel Bracket t, recorder. 

Mercer Grand Lodge of Perfection, A. S. R., was instituted 
April 23d, 1863. The present officers are, Thomas J. Corson, 
T. P. G. M.; John O. Raum, D. P. G. M.; John Woolverton, 
S. G. W.; Samuel M. Youmans, J. G. W.; William D. Sinclair, 
G. O.; William R. Clapp, G. treasurer, and Joseph H. Hough, 
G. S. and K. S. and A. 

Mercer Council, Princes of Jerusalem, was instituted May 
19th, 1864. The officers are, William R* Clapp, M. E. S. P. 
G. M.; David Naar, G. H. P. S. D.; W. T. Nicholson, M. E. 
S. G. W.; John F. Houdayer, M. E. J. G. W.; Joseph H. 
Hough, V. G. S., K. of S. and A.; John O. Raum, V. G. T.; 
Charles Bechtel, V. G. M. of C; Thomas Booth, V. G. M. of 
E.; Amos Howell, G. tyler. 

Trenton Chapter, Rose Croix, was instituted April 17th, 1868. 
The present officers are, Charles Bechtel M. W. and P. M.; 
William T. Nicholson, M. E. and P. K. S. W.; William R. 
Clapp, M. E. and P. K. J. W.; Thomas J. Corson, M. E. and 
P. K. G. O.; John O. Raum, R. and P. K. G. T.; Joseph H. 
Hough, R. and P. K. G. S.; Amos Howell, R. and P. K. H.; 
John. P. Nelson, R. and P. K. M. of C; William Hewitt, R. 
and P. K. C. of G. 

The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, of the state of 
New Jersey, was organized December 30th, 1856. 

The Grand Commandery of Knights Templar was organized 
in 1859. 

The Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters was organ- 
ized November 26th, i860, and the Grand Council of the Order 
of High Priesthood was organized September nth, i86f. 
These are the grand bodies of the state, and meet here annually. 

The Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
was instituted in the old Masonic Hall, in Front street, on the 
3d of August, 1833, by Thomas Wildey, the founder of thei 
order in this country, and. at that time the grand sire of the 
Grand Lodge of the United States, having held the position 

'■*« ■■*. 



thirteen years, assisted by Rev. John Pearce, of Pennsylvania, 
aftenn'ards deputy grand sire, and Howell Hopkins, of Penn- 
sylvania, afterwards grand sire. The present officers are, 
George W. Hubbard, grand master; Benjamin T. Bright, D. 
G. M.; Charles Ellis, G. W.; John O. Raum, G. S.; Joseph L. 
Lamb, G. T.; Dickinson Moore, G. Chap.; John Dunham, G. 
marshal; E. E. Protzman, G. C; Aaron W. Cattell, G. G., 
and Amos Howell, G. H. 

Tfenton Lodge, No 3, was instituted August 3d, 1833. The 
present officers are, Charles W. Street, N. G.; Charles Y; Bam- 
ford, V. G.; George E. WalUngton, secretary, and Joshua Jef- 
feries, treasurer. 

Concordia Lodge, No. 4, was instituted December 17th, 1833. 
The present officers are, Samuel T. Belleijeau, N. G.; Robert 
Leaver, V. G.; John O. Raum, recording secretary; William 
N. Nutt, permanent secretary, and John H. Choyce, treasurer. 

Mercer Lodge, No. 34, was instituted February 5th, 1846, but 
is now defunct. 

South Trenton Lodge, No. jfi^ was instituted February 5th, 
1846. The present officers are, Jacob Kugler, N. G.; Joseph 
R. Sweeney, V. G.; Robert W. Mull, recording secretary; 
James H. Hammond, permanent secretary, and John Crawford, 

Schiller Lodge, No. 80, was instituted August 3d, 1848. The 
present officers are, Charles W. Kruger, N. G. ; George F. 
Glauner, V. G. ; Bernhard Schnell, recording secretary; Chris- 
tian Janter, permanent secretary ; Martin Spiegel, treasurer. 

Chervsker Lodge, No. 151, was instituted in 1870. Its present 
officers are, Fred. I^ndoUit, N. G. ; Michael Gaiser, V. G. ; 
Christian Smith, secretary ; F. H. Enderbrok, treasurer. 

Fred. D. Stuart Lodge, No. 154, was instituted December 
19th, 1870. The present officers are, Alexander C. Yard, N. G. ; 
John W. Barber, V. G. ; James S. Kiger, secretary ; Richard R. 
Rogers, treasurer. 

The Grand Encampment, I. O. O. F., of New Jersey, was 
instituted by John H. Kennedy, grand sire, September 19th, 1843. 
The present officers are, John W. Matlack, G. P. ; Augustus S. 
Clark, G. H. P. ; John H. Vinson, G. S. W. ; John O. Raum, 

'*^***'^* " * ■■ * >*■■ ' 1*. !■•■■■ ■■■-■ . I — ^^w>^- - ^^. .. -^ _ ■ ■ - ^ — . ^.. - .^ ■ ■ .^__, ^.p.,^'... . 


grand scribe; David Campbell, grand treasurer; H. H. De 
Grofft, G. J. W. ; William Heisler, G. S. ; Amos Howell, D. G. S. 

Trenton Encampment, No. 2, was instituted October 2d, 1837. 
The present officers are, William E. Branin, C. P.; William 
Roberts, H. P.; Robert Leaver, S. W.;*WalterP. Wells, scribe; 
Lewis H. Brown, treasurer; Henry McCuUa, J. W., and Amos 
Howell, sentinel. 

Olive Branch Encampment, No. 4, was instituted September 
15th, 1 84 1, but is now defunct. 

South Trenton Encampment, No. 40, was instituted April 6th, 

1869. The present officers are, Frank P. Ferry, C. P.; Joseph 
R. Sweeney, H. P.; Enoch W. Case, scribe, and John Craw- 
ford, treasurer. 

Schiller Encampment, No. 44, was instituted, January 14th, 

1870. 'The present officers are, Martin Miller, C. P.; John 
Melcher, H. P. ; Richard Miller, scribe ; John Rochel, treasu- 
rer. Besides these connected with the Odd Fellows, are Mercer 
Degree I.x)dge, No. 3, and Concordia Rebekah Degree Lodge, 
No. 4. 

Trenton is well supplied with secret benevolent societies of 
almost every description. 

In addition to those above enumerated, wc have two lodges of 
Knights of Pythias — Spartacus, No. 10, and Trenton, not yet 

Improved Order of Red Men — Moax Tribe, No. 5; Red 
Cloud Tribe, No. 19, and Assanpink Degree Council, No. i. 

Independent Order of Red Men — Delaware Tribe, No. 84, 
and Assanpink Encampment, No. 16. 

Order of United American Mechanics — ^Trenton Council, No. 
18, and Union Council, No. 22. 

Temperance — Excelsior Division, No. 4; Mercer, No. lo; 
Chambersburg, No. 40; Trenton, No. 44; Emancipator, No. 
104; Seventh Ward, No. 146. Good Templars — Banner Lodge, 
^o. 37 ; Napoleon, No. 106 ; Crystal Fount, Temple of Honor, 
No. 3 ; Crystal Fount, Social Temple, No. s. 

In funeral societies there are the Odd Fellows Funeral Aid As- 
sociation, Temperance Funeral Aid Association, and Mercer 
Mutual Burial Society. 


«^*^^ *-w« *«, II ^ ai^ m.^ *■ ■ ■ ■ n ^ — "^ *~ ' "^ r— ^r * -^ - 


. There are also, among the ladies. Daughters of the Forest, 
Sons and Daughters of Liberty, and Lady Masons. 

Among the Germans they have a society called the Seven Wise 
Men, and another called Harrigarri. 

A few years ago a society was started here called Sons of 
Malta. This society was a secret one, and started with two 
objects in view — fun and charity. It was, however, but short- 
lived, as the ridiculous i>art of their ceremony was carried to 
such extremes, that the respectable portion of the community 
who were inveigled into it soon became disgusted with it, and 
in a short time the society ceased to exist. 

In 1840, during the Harrison cami)aign, the whole country 
became drunk on hard cider, and in 1841, a temperance society 
was started, called the Washingtonians. 

Their mode of o{)eration was to seek out the drunkard and 
reform him, and make a missionary of him for the reformation 
of other drunkards, and great good was accomplished among 
this class. 

During the summer months they held out-door meetings — 
sometimes in front of hotels — and by this means the}* could reach 
the very class they were laboring to reform. 

It was from this society that the different secret temperance 
associations were formed. 

They started to accomplish their work by moral suasion, and 
as long as they stuck to that principle, much good was accom- 
plished. But after a time an effort was made to bring it into 
the political arena, and to invoke the laws to put down the 
liquor traffic, since which time they have accomplished but little 

Bayard Post, No. 8, G. A. R., an association composed of 
honorably discharged soldiers and sailors of the late war, was 
duly instituted October 31st, 1867, by General Edward Jardine, 
then provisional commander of the department of New Jersey, 
by virtue of authority invested in him by said department. The 
objects of said association are charity, and mutual relief 
toward each other in sickness and affliction, as well as continuing 
those kind and fraternal feelings characteristic of the association 
while together as soldiers and sailors during the late rebellion. 

"** — ^^^^^^"^ fc ■ fciir ■■>.■..■ _ .■^■■■ — .^ .■^..■. .^..^ ^ ->.. - ^ -■ _ -- .^^ ^ ^ ...^j. , m i „ | ,1 , I , H i lt--- r' *H 





The petitioners for the post were, James S. Kiger, Francis C. 
Roberson, William W. L. Phillips, John W. Brown, James H. 
Comings, Gabriel Ten Brock, Abram G^ Staats, Edward M. An- 
derson, John H. Allen, Edgar Whitaker. 

No organization has higher or more praiseworthy objects than 
the G. A. R. What stronger friendship than that of the march, 
the battle-field, and camp fire ; what more charitable object than 
suffering brother soldiers, or the soldiers' widows and orphans in 
distress, and what more patriotic purpose than to perpetuate the 
memory of the heroic dead who fell in a spirit of devotion for 
their country, and what is better calculated to preserve a spirit 
of loyalty and patriotic devotion in the present than to remem- 
ber the sacrifices of the past ? 

In 1856, a loan association was started for the purpose of 
encouraging mechanics, laboring men, and others to save their 
money, and eventually secure themselves a home. 

This association expired in due time, and those who had bor- 
rowed money, and given mortgages to secure the same, found 
themselves not only in possession of a home, but the mortgage 
held by the association was canceled, and by small savings and 
through investing the same in this way, they were materially 
aided by the association in paying for their homes. 

On the loth of January, 1854, the Mechanics Mutual Loan 
Association was started, under the general laws of the state. 

This association is divided into four classes. The officers are, 
Charles B. Vansyckel, president ; Peter W. Crozer, secretary ; 
Urial T. Scudder, treasurer; E. Mercer Shreve, solicitor. 

The Mercer Mutual Loan Association, was started February 
loth, 1854. This association is divided into five classes. The 
officers are, William S. Hutchinson, president ; Peter W. Crozer, 
secretary; Joseph T. Welling, treasurer; Wesley Creveling, 

East Trenton Loan and Building Association — ^Joseph C. Mayer, 
president ; John Cahill, vice president ; Woodbury D. Holt, sec- 
retary ; Joshua Jones, treasurer. 

East Trenton Land Asssociation — Joshua Jones, president; 
John Cahill, vice president; William S. Middleton, secretary 

: ■■■. ■-'.- - - - > -,■. 'i - ■»_.• •" --.- *i 



and treasurer; Joseph C. flayer, superintendent; Edward T. 
Green, solicitor. 

Morrisville Grove and Land Improvement Association — ^Joseph 
Stokes, president ; Robert Bassett, vice president ; Peter Dehee^ 
treasurer ; Woodbury D. Holt, solicitor. 

The Trenton Typographical Union, No. 71, was organized 
March 4th, 1864. The charter members were, Chas. W. Alcott, 
Thomas Ustick Baker, John Briest, John M. Hough, William P^ 
^igh» John D. ^IcCormick, A. McGalliard. P. Preston Packer, 
and Charles B. Yard, who received a charter from the Interna- 
tional Typographical Union of North America, nnder whose 
jurisdiction the Trenton Union still works. The society is com* 
posed of journeymen printers of the city, and is devoted to the 
maintenance of a fair rate of wages, the encouragement of good 
workmen, and to the promotion of the interests of the craft in 
general. The meetings are held on the first Saturday evening of 
each month, and the annual election of officers takes place inr 
March. The present officers are, Manuel Kline, president; 
Matthew S. Austin, vice president ; Bishop W. Mains, financial 
secretary and treasurer ; David Seary, corresponding and record- 
ing secretary; Charles Briest, sergeant-at-arms ; Benjamin C. 
Laning, Henry C. Buchanan, Peter Howell, P. Preston Packer, 
B. Franklin Krier, and R. Fcnton Ward, business committee; 
Henry Houghtaling, delegate to International Typographical 



... , 

Meeting of Congress at Trenton — Visit of Lafayette — Congres" 
sional Buildings on the Delaware — /Jobbery of the Stale Trea* 
sury — Professor D* Ossiere — Contraband Goods Seized — First 
Almanac — Court of Admiralty— -Judge Trent s Plantation-^ 
Stage Boats — Dialogue Between Satan and Arnold — United 

' States National Bank— Ferries — Isaac Collins^ Quarto Bible-^ 
Church Lottery — Sand-Bar. 

ON the xst of November, 1784, the congress of the United 
States met at Trenton. All the states were represented 
except Maryland. New Jersey was represented by Hon. Wil- 
liam Churchill Houston and John Beatty. Richard Henry Lee, 
who was said to be the gentleman who originally made the mo- 
tion in congress for declaring the states of America independent, 
in the year 1776, was chosen president. The Hon. Samuel 
Dick and Charles Stewart, members of this state, arrived the 
next day after the assembling. 

The Marquis de Lafayette arrived here from the south on 
Thursday, the loth of December, 1784, and visited the congress 
of the United States, then in session, on the xith. 

The following proceedings were had in that body : 

''The committee to whom was referred a letter of the 6th from 
the Marquis de Lafayette report, that in the opinion of the 
committee, the merit and services of the marquis render it 
proper that such an opportunity of taking leave of congress be 
afforded him, as may strongly manifest their esteem and regard 
for him ; whereupon, 

** Resolved^ That a committee, to consist of one member from 

■ — ■ — -I • _g- • I ■■! 1 r ■ fnYT • —-'■"II -"imkHm r ifi 'r — --J- 


each state, be appointed to receive the marqub, and, in the 
name of congress, to take leave of him ; that they be instructed 
to assure him that congress continue to entertain the same high 
sense of his abilities and zeal to promote the welfare of America, 
both here and in Europe, which they have frequently expressed 
and manifested on former occasions, and which the recent marks 
of his attention to their commercial and other interests have 
perfectly confirmed ; that as his uniform and unceasing attach- 
ment to this country has resembled that of a patriotic citizen, 
the United States regard him with particular affection, and will 
not cease to feel an interest in whatever may concern his honor 
and prosperity, and that their best and kindest wishes wiD 
always attend him. 

** Resohuid^ That a letter be written to his most Christhm ma- 
jesty, to be signed by his excellency the president, expressive 
of the high sense which the United States, in congress assembled, 
entertain of the zeal, talents, and meritorious services of the 
Marquis de I^fayette, and recommending him to the favor and 
patronage of his majesty. 

"December 13th, i784-'* 

Mr. Jay, chairman of the committee consisting of a member 
from each state, appointed to receive and take leave of the Mar- 
quis de Lafayette, reported, that on the xith instant they re- 
ceived the marquis in the congress chamber and took leave of 
him, agreeably to the instructions given them on that subject ; 
that they communicated to him the purport of the resolutions of 
the 9th, and that he thereupon made the following answer : 

'' Sir : While it pleases the United States in congress, so kindly 
to receive me, I want words to express the feelings of a heart 
which delights in their present situation, and the bestowed marks 
of their esteem. 

''Since I joined the standard of liberty to this wished-for hoar 
of my personal congratulations, I have seen such glorious deeds 
performed and virtues displayed by the sons of America, that 
in the instant of my first concern for them, I had anticipated 
but a part of the love and regard which devote me to this rising 

' ^•" •*'*^ TV- i*W -*•■■*'■•• J< .- ■€*•:•■ I-"'* 



United States, he was also received by the legislature of the 
state, then in session in this city, and presented with the foUowr 
ing address: 

'' To the Honorable the Marquis Lafayette. 

" Sir: We, the representatives of the citizens of New Jersej, 
convened in council and assembly, cheerfully embrace the op- 
portunity which your present visit to this state affords, of paying 
you that public mark of respect which is justly due to your dis- 
tinguished merit. 

" With pleasure we recollect that, actuated by a love of libertj 
and a sacred regard for the rights of mankind, you left your oa* 
tive country, and all the endearments of domestic life, and vol- 
untarily engaged in the haz^ardous cause of America, in her late 
contest with Great Britain; and we acknowledge, with grati- 
tude, that the signal services which you have rendered this 
state, and the other states in union, have greatly contributed to 
the complete establishment of that freedom and independence 
which they now enjoy. 

''Your unremitted endeavors to support our national credit and 
character, and your generous efforts to promote our trade and 
commerce, afford us the strongest evidences of your attachment 
to this country, and for the interests of our federal republic 
Permit us, sir, to conclude with expressing our fervent wishes for 
your welfare and prosperity, and with answering you that the 
citizens of New Jersey will ever retain an exalted sense of joor 
disinterested friendship and important services. 

"Council Chamber, December nth, 1784, by order of the 

" WiL. Livingston, FresidenL 

" House of assembly, December nth, 1784, by order of the. 

"Benjamin Van Cleve, Speaker.** 

To which the Marquis made the following answer : 

" Sir : In the friendship and esteem of the state of New. Jersey^ 
so kindly expressed by your excellency, the council, and assenn* 
bly, I feel myself the more flattered, as I have had numeroos' 


r t lY IT 7*— ■s'"' "-'^:^'^^ ^ ■•'■ \ ~ , ' , ' , ^ 1 iii f " m „ "^ 

r^-rr^;;r-. .v«v ■».««< vs. 

294 HISTORY OF TREirroi<r. 

occasions to admire the spirit and patriotism of her citizens, to 
which, in trying emergencies, our cause has been so signally 

'' It was my fortunate lot, sir, to have been admitted among you 
in support of the great contest — it shall ever be my happiness, 
in zealous endeavors for the good of these states, to indulge the 
sentiments of my love and gratitude ; and while the blessings of 
this revolution, so nobly purchased, will be eternally secured in 
the united strength and wisdom of this federal republic, my 
heart feels deeply interested in the warmest wishes for the par- 
ticular welfare of the state of New Jersey. 

" Highly sensible of my obligations to your excellency, the 
honorable council and assembly of New Jersey^^ I beg leave to 
present you and them with most grateful acknowledgements, and 
the affectionate assurances of my respect. 
, "Lafayette. 


**Hi$ Excellency Ihe Governor^ the Honorable the Council and 
Assembly of the State of New Jersey y 

The "New Jersey Gazette," under date of January 3d, 1785, 
contains, under its items from New York, the following : 

" Last Tuesday evening arrived in this city, from Trenton, on 
their way to France, the Marquis de Lafayette, with his young, 
but very interesting companion and fellow-traveler. Monsieur de 
Caramon, a knight of Malta, and captain of dragoons, and 
Monsier de Grandchain, of the beautiful frigate La Nymphe, 
now in our harbor. Since the 4th of last August, the two former 
gentlemen have traveled upwards of eighteen hundred miles; 
viewed almost every remarkable military spot ; twice visited our 
great Cincinnatus, the matchless Washington, and assisted at the 
Indian treaty held at Fort Schuyler. Wherever they have passed 
they have been received with that warmth of friendship, that 
energy and gratitude and affection, which ever will be due by 
the true citizens of these states to that excellent young noble- 
man, whose military services in our cause, whose great exertions, 
weight, and influence, has been so sensibly felt during the most 
critical period of our late arduous conflict. May the winds safely 
waft over to his native country this new citizen of ours ; may 

. •^ ^ -1^r^ > ^•r^"^rf^^ i fri^*^^*^^"' ■■' -^*' *'-^ ^-^ ^- -'- u- .,.,.,^if.i 


Heaven long preserve a life which promises to be so eminently 

useful to both countries, are the earnest wishes and prayers of 


" Citizens or New York." 

By the above notice it appears that General Lafayette remained 
three weeks in this city. 

December soth, 1784, at the sesuon held in Trenton, con- 
gress passed the following: 

** Resolved f That it is expedient that congress proceed to take 
measures for procuring suitable buildings to be erected for their 
accommodation. . 

^^Resolved^ (by nine states). That a sum not exceeding one 
hundred thousand dollars be appropriated for the payment of 
the expense of erecting such buildings; provided always^ that 
hotels or dwelling-houses, for the members of congress repre- 
senting the different states, shall not be understood as included 
in the above appropriation. 

^* Resolved^ That it is inexpedient for congress, at this time, to 
erect public buildings for their accommodation at more than one 

On motion, 

*^ Resolved f lliat if it is expedient, congress should determine on 
a place at which they will continue to sit until public buildings 
for their proper accommodation shall be erected." 

On the 23d of December, 1784, the following was enacted: 

** Be il ordained by the United States ^ in Congress assembled. That 
the resolutions of the 20th instant, respecting the erecting of build- 
ings for the use of congress, be carried into effect without delay ; 
that for this purpose three commissioners be appointed, with full 
powers to lay out a district not less than two, nor exceeding 
three miles square on the banks of either side of th<e Delaware, 
not more than eight miles above or below the lower falls thereof, 
for a federal town ; that they be authorized to purchase the soil, 
or such part of it as they may judge necessary, to be paid at 
proper installments; to enter into contracts for erecting and 
completing, in an elegant manner, a federal house for the accom- 
modation of congress, and for the executive officers thereof; a 

» •■■ ■ T il m « * dk k m ^ M^^^i.^ „„ ; , 



house for the use of the president of congress, and suitable 
buildings for the residence of the secretary of foreign affairs, 
secretary at war, secretary of congress, secretary of the marine, 
and officers of the treasury ; that the said commissioners be em- 
powered to draw on the treasury of the United States for a sum 
not exceeding one hundred thousand dollars for the purpose 
aforesaid; that in choosing a situation for the buildings, due 
regard be had to the accommodation of the states with lots for 
houses for the use of their delegates respectively ; that on the 
24th day of December instant, congress stand adjourned to 
meet at the city of New York, on the i xth day of January fol- 

Samuel Tucker, Esq., was treasurer of the provincial con- 
gress of the colony of New Jersey. 

On being informed that the British army under General Howe 
r was on their march through this province, and that their design 
was to be at Trenton, he thought it most prudent to remove all 
his papers with his most valuable effects, out of Trenton, to- 
gether with the unsigned public money, which he accordingly did 
on the 30th day of November, 1776, and removed all his bonds, 
deeds, books of accounts, together with those belonging to sev- 
eral estates in his hands as executor, with all his plate, his and 
his wife's clothes, with other valuable effects, one horse and 
phaeton, some Maryland and New Jersey loan-office money, 
which he took to the house of Mr. John Abbott, about five 
miles from Trenton, in the county of Burlington, with about 
five thousand eight hundred and eighteen pounds sixteen shil- 
lings and three-pence of unsigned congress money, which he 
left under the care of John and Samuel Abbott. General Howe 
and his army arrived at Trenton on Sunday, the 8th of Decem- 
ber, and on Monday one Lieutenant Hackshaw, with a detach- 
ment of British troops, by order of Lieutenant Colonel Aber- 
cromby, went to the house of Mr. John Abbott, in company 
with Mrs. Mary Pointing, an inhabitant of Trenton, and seized 
all the effects at Mr. Abbott's, the property of said Tucker, 
with those in trust in his hands, together with the unsigned pub- 
lic money, and carried the same to the house of Mr. Randle 
Mitchell, showed the money to Mr. Mitchell, and afterwards 


- •— ^^- ^-^^ ■'v-.-JT- •'• -•?tf«rJi*1iiir<i<fih-ifcM>iWiiiaiiaM<i 



carried the same, or part thereof, to Princeton, and from thence 
to New Brunswick. Part of the clothes and linen were sent 
home, and his wife's watch was delivered to her by Lieutenant 
Colonel Abercroroby. On the 8th of December he lefk Tren- 
ton, and took with him the signed public money, amounting to 
one thousand five hundred and four pounds and four shillings 
with about one thousand pounds more in trust in his hands as an 
executor. The public money he paid to the treasurer, Mr^ 
Smith, and placed the other money in such secure places as were 
in his power, none of which was lost On Saturday, the 14th 
of December, he learned that his wife and £unily were in the 
most distressed condition with sickness; his wife sent him word 
begging he would return home. He set out for home, and when 
about one mile from Crosswicks bridge he was met by John • 
Leonard, Anthony Woodward, and about twenty others on horse- 
back. Leonard presented a pistol at his breast, and said he had 
General Howe's order to take him prisoner, and used very vio- 
lent language toward him, and detained him until Mr. Robert 
Pearson gave his parole that he should remain on his farm until 
they gave further orders. He remained at Mr. Pearson's until 
ordered home by one Mr. Brown, a Hessian lieutenant. He ap- 
plied for a protection, which was granted by Colonel Rahl, on 
the 17th of December. He then inquired after his papers, and 
found part of them in Colonel Abercromby's lodgings in Prince- 
ton, and afterwards received a part of them found by one Mr. 
Lester, and carried to Philadelphia. He sent a letter to Colons 
Abercromby, which was delivered by his niece, Elizabeth G. 
White, requesting he would return his property and papers, par- 
ticularly those belonging to Anderson's and other estates in 
trust in his hands, and received an answer that they could not 
be delivered with propriety until they knew the part he would 
take or act. 

The above facts were affirmed to by Samuel Abbott, before 
Ephraim Harris, on the 17th day of January, 1777. 

Handle Mitchell was also sworn, and upon his examination 
testified that Colonel Abercromby, with five hundred men, came 
to his house on Sunday, the 8th of December, and stayed there 
until the Saturday following ; on Tuesday or Wedn^day afker 

^nK-BT -^miu." 

t^mUmi lulii^ylkf t""^"'' ^^^ '^""^"^' ^ '■" '^^' ■■^-^.^^ij^..-:^^^-:^..^-^..-^^ — .^...^ ^ ^ .- ■ iiiii 


they first came, some officers in the room where he was showed 
him some letters directed to Mr. Tucker ; he asked them where 
they got the letters, and they told him they had information of 
Mr. Tucker's goods, and that they were concealed in Trenton ; 
the same evening he was called into Colonel Abercromby's 
room, who asked him if he knew one Samuel Tucker ; he an- 
swered he did ; the colonel then asked him about the character 
and situation of Mr. Tucker, and whether he was not a violent 
rebel ; he answered that Mr. Tucker was a man of character and 
considerable fortune as he understood ; that he was a member of 
the provincial congress, and had been president thereof; that 
he had formerly been sheriff of Hunterdon county and a mem- 
ber of assembly, but beh'eved he had never been a violent rebel, 
• for he understood he (Mr. Tucker) had been the chief cause of 
the last clause being inserted in the constitution of New Jersey. 
The colonel then showed him a square black trunk, with a great 
number of papers and parchment deeds, and said he must have 
been a man of considerable consequence. They asked him to 
look at some of the deeds, &c.; he told them there was no use 
in his looking at them ; they then pointed to a large parcel of 
printed paper on the floor, and told him to look what a fine par- 
cel of money they had got. It appeared to be about a ream o 
paper. They then took up some half sheets and counted how 
much a sheet amounted to. They contained twenty pounds and 
two shillings each. They then gave him some of the money 
and desired him to look at it, which he did, and found it signed 
by only two signers, and did not know it ought to be signed by 
more ; they asked him what he would give for it, and he said 
he would not give anything for it, and looked on it as not worth 
anything. He asked what they intended to do with Mr. Tuck- 
er's papers and money ; the colonel answered he would pack 
them in the trunk again and send them to General Howe. 

The state treasury, in 1803, was kept in the cellar of a build- 
ing wherethe store of Messrs. Dunn & Ashton now stands. No. 
74 Warren street. 

The first robbery of the state treasury occurred on the 21st of 
July, 1768. It was then kept by Stephen Skinner, at the city of 
Perth Amboy. The amount stolen at that time was six thousand 

— . -- • - - ...r 1 — i.^...^.*^*. ^Lk i»\f ill Mlinniiiiwifiiii 



five hundred and seventy pounds nine shillings and four-] 
The second robbery occurred on the 9th of December, 1776. 
The treasury was kept by Samuel Tucker, at Trenton. It was 
done by order of Colonel Abercromby. ' 

On Friday, the 21st of October, 1803, at two o'clock in the 
morning, occurred the great robbery of the state treasury, the 
particulars of which are hereby given. 

This was the third time it had been robbed within the pre- 
ceding twenty-five years — the time before this being by the 
British army, by order of General Abercromby. ' The house of 
assembly appointed Messrs. Joseph Cooper, William Coxe, and 
Ezra Darbly a committee to examine into the robbery committed 
on the treasury of this' state ; the council appointed Messrs. 
William Parret and Peter D. Vroom for the same purpose, on 
October 25th, 1803, and on the 9th of November they submitted 
a lengthy report, which was read and laid over, and on Friday, 
the nth of November, the report of the joint committee a^ 
pointed to examine into the robbery, together with several depo- 
sitions and statements thereunto annexed, was presented. 

The following was the affidavit of Mr. Salter, made before the 
committees of the two houses : . 

" James Salter, Esquire, treasurer of the state, maketh oath, 
that on the morning of Friday, the axst of October, 1803, 
about two o'clock, he heard a noise in the yard at the back part 
of the house; when he first heard it he was doubtful whether it 
proceeded from rats, with which the house is much infested, or 
from his mare in the stable. After a few minutes he got up and 
dressed himself.; he lighted the candle by a lamp which was 
usually kept burning in his chamber, and went down stairs with 
an intention of discovering the cause of the noise. He was pre- 
vented from awakening Mrs. Salter, from an apprehension of 
alarming her, as she had been frightened the night before ; on 
descending the stairs, and proceeding to the back door, he ob- 
served the door of the southwest back room (which was usually 
kept shut), to be open ; on entering this room he perceived a 
small window on the south side to be up, and the shutter open« 
He was then alarmed by an apprehension of thieves having en- 
tered the house, and at the same moment hearing a rustling noise 

'itfirV^ ^'l -'-'" — ■— '«--■' )■ -^" '■■ .-.'^-km— .fc>.-.,.U.^ r* It^lin*.- ■ ..r-, -• ■ I .. ■«.!■■■-■> 


behind htm, he turned around and discovered four men, who 
were within three feet of him. After a momentary pause one 
of them addressed him in a low tone of voice, cautioned him 
against making a noise, said the money was their object, and 
that unless he opened the iron chest, they would immediately 
put him to death, or words to that effect. Seeing no means of 
resistance or escape, he opened the office door and the iron 
chest, the keys of both being in his pocket, except one of the 
padlock keys of the chest, which was in a case in the office. At 
this time, the man who appeared to be the leader of the gang 
cautioned him against making a noise in opening the chest., 
which might awaken any of the family, under pain of immediate 
death. The same man then waved his hand for him to retire 
from the chest ; he moved back and sat down ; one of the men 
stood near him with a drawn weapon, and three others were em- 
ployed, with their backs towards him, in examining the contents 
of the chest. In a short time the leader came to him, and asked 
him if a bag which he held in his hand, together with a number 
of bundles of bank notes, contained all that description of 
money that was in the treasury. He told him it did, and by 
way of accounting for there being no more notes in the chest, 
told him that most persons preferred receiving payment in notes, 
from their being of more convenient carriage. The man then 
returned to the chest, and took out several bags, apparently five 
or six, containing from four to seven hundred dollars each, and 
placed them on the floor near the chest. After this, the same 
leader, turning to his comrades, demanded of them what ought 
to be done with him, (the deponent), to prevent him from tell- 
ing tales, as he expressed himself ; the man who stood as a guard 
over the deponent, turned towards a trunk cord which hung on 
a nail over the chimney, and took it down and handed it to the 
leader, who cut it in several pieces ; he then tied the deponent 
around the ankles, knees, and hands, with his arms behind him, 
and gagged him by putting the key stick used in opening the 
chest, through his mouth, with the ends tied by strings, which 
were fastened around hii neck. They then laid the deponent 
on the floor on his side, with his face towards the back part of 
the room. The deponent then heard them take up several of 


iwriadiM^Mi— M^— ■ ' I I ■ ■ 1 1 I 1 !■*! 



the bags of silv.T, with which they left the room, locking the 
door which comminicated with the entry, and went out through 
the back door, vvlvch the deponent thought he heard close after 
them. From the time the thieves first entered the house until 
they left it, the deponent thinks was about a quarter of an hour. 
They left the candle near the door, on a chest. After struggling 
nearly an hour, the deponent managed to change his position, 
and with difficulty got to the door, which he kicked some time 
with his stocking feet, until the noise awakened the family. 
When Mrs. Salter rame to the door, he was very much exhausted, 
and found great difficulty in conveying to her a knowledge of 
his situation, from the impossibility of articulating with the gag 
in his mouth. Mrs. Salter not finding the key in the door, went 
back to her chamber, the window of which she opened, and by 
loud and repeated screams, alarmed Mr. Hunt, the next neigh- 
bor, who came to his assistance, and broke open the door by 
knocking the lower panel out. Mr. Hunt and a negro woman 
(a servant in the house of the deponent), then untied and cut 
the ropes and strings which had been used to bind and gag him. 
His great weakness from the violence of his treatment, added to 
the impaired state of his health, obliged him to go to bed im- 
mediately after. Mr. Hunt, at his request, put a bag of silver, 
which the thieves had left on the floor, into the chest, which he 
locked, and the keys of which he took with him. 

'* The deponent has no knowledge of any one of the thieves, 
they having kept their faces hid by their round black hats 
and by their great coats; they uniformly spoke in a low, 
whisi)ering tone of voice. He fancied their leader's voice to 
denote him to be of German extraction, but of this he can form 
Lut an imperfect idea, from their extreme caution in speaking 
low. The deponent recollects that three of the men had on 
dark-colored great coats, and the other was without one. The 
person who acted as the leader appeared to be about five feet 
nine inches high, two about five feet eight inches, and the fourth 
about five feet six inches ; one of them had on half boots, and 
the others shoes. About ten o'clock on the day of the robbery, 
the deponent recollecting that a large sum, amounting to about 
sixteen thousand doU^^ in bank notes and about one thousand 


M ■ . . ■■ - ,■■ i, < , a m ■ ■■■ ■■■. .m,, i> K. . ^. ^ ■ .■■ -. ^-^ - 



dollars in gold, was deposited in the bottom of the till of the 
chesty requested Mr. Hunt that the chest might be examined, 
which was accordingly done, as he was informed, in the presence 
of General Beatty, Mr. Peter Gordon, and Mr. James Ewing, 
when the bag containing the notes was found under the bags of 
silver at the bottom of the till. 

" James Salter. 

'' Sworn to and subscribed at Trenton, this 2d day of Novem- 
ber, 1803, before me. 

" James EwiNG." 

The report of the committee was taken up the same day, and 
while under consideration a message u*as received from the house, 
through Mr. Wilson, their clerk, of the passage of a resolution 
offering two thousand five hundred dollars reward for the appre- 
hension and conviction of one or more of the robbers of the 
state treasury, in addition to the reward of five hundred dollars 
offered by Mr. Salter, in which the council refused its concur- 

On Tuesday, November 8th, 1803, James Salter resigned the 
office of treasurer, and Peter Gordon was appointed by the 
legislature in joint meeting. 

November nth, 1803, the following was passed by the house 
but the senate refused to concur : 


Resolited^ That the governor of this state be authorized to 
issue his proclamation, offering a reward of two thousand five 
hundred dollars, in addition to the reward already offered bjr 
the treasurer, for the apprehension and conviction of one or 
more of the robbers of the sute treasury.'* . 

February x8th, 1804, John Voorhees and Benjamin Yard pre- 
sented a petition in behalf of themselves and others, praying 
compensation for the expense, trouble, and loss of time su9> 
tained in their endeavors to apprehend and bring to justice the 
robbers of the treasury of this state, which was referred to a 

In the ''Gazette '* of March xath, 1783, is the following ad- 

"^ 't'^ ■—"-*-■■ - ^" - - 1 1 - •- -' -' - .~-^-^-^^-- 



'' On Wednesday, the sd of April next, will be opened a 
dancing school at the Arms of France, in this town, by Mr* 
D*Oisiere, a gentleman who attends the dancing school of the 
French Academy in Philadelphia. The character and abilities 
of this gentleman are so well established fn Philadelphia, that 
those who .shall have any desire to be instructed by him have 
only to inquire there themselves. The said school will continue 
a sufficient time to complete two or three quarters in that year, 
and the terms will be the same as in Philadelphia. The school 
will be alternately in Princeton, if any can be formed in that 
place. All sorts of dances, the most in fashion, will be taught, 
but principally the graces and manners. 

" If the inhabitants should have any desire, the director of 
the said academy will be very happy in procuring them also, for 
the same reason, a very able master in the French and other 
foreign languages." 

April 1 6th, 1783, the following appears: 

'' One of the dancing masters of the French Academy of 
Philadelphia has arrived at this place, and will have the pleasure 
to ooen the dancing school on Monday next, at three o'clock in * 
the afternoon, agreeable to the late advertisement of the direc- 

'' Those gentlemen and ladies that please to favor him with 
their custom will please to call at the Arms of France, where 
they may expect good attendance at one guinea entrance, and 
one half-joe per quarter." 

On the 24th of December, 1777, appears the following adrer- 
vertisement : 

''Just published and now selling, by John Dunlap, at his 
printing office, in Queen street, Lancaster, 

" Father Abraham's Almanack, 

" For the year of our Lord 177S. 

''The astronomical calculations, we are informed by the inge- 
nious David Rittenhouse, A. M., of this state, can be implicit]/ 
relied on." 

This we believe was the first almanac published in the United 

'■■■'"^"^^■-■^■'-■--"^'■-■^■^^^^-■■■■'"■''■■--^^'■--''-•--•^-*-^'^**^ ..— ^.^ . -^ ■ -UL-^^ — -^ ^, ^^^ '. ^.^ 



In the same year the Burlington Almanac was published. 

On the 31st of January, 1778, we find the Court of Admiralty 
was held in Trenton, at the house of Ranssalear Williams. 

September 33d, 1778, the following advertisement appears: 

" To be sold, the very valuable plantation whereon the Conti- 
nental Ferry is kept, about one mile below Trenton ; it contains 
between six and seven hundred acres, has a very great proportion 
of meadow and a sufficiency of woodland. It has every requi- 
site to recommend it to the gentleman or farmer; amongst 
which are its pleasant situation, rich meadows, ferry, orchards, 
fishery, large fish-pond, wherein one thousand sturgeon maj be 
kept, and great front on the river Delaware, a part of which is 
very suitable for a town, as it has beautiful high banks and lays 
below the falls. If the plantation is disposed of, all the stock 
and farming utensils, with part of the household furniture, all 
new and very elegant, will be sold. For terms, apply to the 

subscriber, on the premises. 

"William Trekt." 

This plantation of Judge Trent's covered the entire fourth 
ward, and part of the third ward, and extended north of the 
Assanpink to Front street 

"December 2d, 1778, Joseph Borden begs leave to inform 
the public that his stage-boat will sail from the Crooked Billet 
wharf, at Philadelphia, every Saturday evening or Sunday morn- 
ing, (as the tide may serve), for Borden-Town ; and that a wagon 
will proceed from thence to Brunswick, on Monday morning, 
and return to Borden-Town the day following, from whence the 
stage-boat will proceed on Wednesday to the Crooked Billet 

" Goods and passengers will be conveyed with care and con- 
venience as heretofore. 

"Joseph R^kdex.** 

February 25th, 1778, the printing office was removed to Tren- 

On the 25th of October, 1780, Isaac Collins advertises as 
just published, and to be sold wholesale and retail, at the prnt- 
ing office, a neat edition of the New Testament, printed from 
good type, and on good paper. 


^ ^, -. „,-. ^.- . ■ ^ ■^^t->>*«^,:^t--.:^^.:^. ''•■.■■ ■:J\r^'- fr «?-^"iiTJfcM 


In 1780, the f jllowing was published: 


^ Q to \ niin to Anio1<1, mj woithj good fellow, 
I love yi-i n ach better than ever I did: 
Yon live lik^ ^ prince, with HcX maj yet mellow; 
But mind that you both do just what I bid, 

** Quoth Arnold to Satan, mj friend, do not doubt me ! 
I wilt strictly adhere to alt your great views ; 
To yon I*m devoted, with all things about me — 
You'U pertnit me, I hope, to die in my shoes.*' . 

The following advertisement appeared November ist, 1780: 

''The public are hereby informed that the Continental Ferrj 
across the Delaware, at Trenton, is removed from the upper to 
the lower ferry; of which all persons in public employ having 
occasion to pass the said ferry are to take notice — where good 
boats and careful attendance is continued for the convenience 
of private travelers also. 

"Trenton, October 25th, 1780." 

This upper ferry was situated at the foot of Calhoun*s lane, above 
where the new Delaware bridge now stands ; and the lower ferry 
was below the present old Delaware bridge, at what is now the 
steamboat landing. 



''The subscribers take this method to inform the publick, 
that they have erected a compleat stage-waggon to go from this 
city to Trenton and Elizabeth-Town, passing through Bristol ; 
they flatter themselves that the mode they have taken to com* 
pleat the journey, with ease and despatch, cannot fail giving 
satisfaction to those who please to favor them with their custom* 
The stage to set off from the Conestogoe- Waggon, in Market 
street, betwixt Fourth and Fifth streets, Philadelphia, every 
Monday and Thursday moinings, precisely at six o'clock, and 
t J reach Princeton the same day, there to meet another stage, 
change passengers, and reach Elizabeth-Town the next day, and 
so compleat the journey in two days. 

" The price for each passenger is thirty sJiillings specie^ or the 


l? ^' -**^^ *** - * !! ' .*^? *! . ' * ** " ■* ■ '■ : ■ .' ■■ " *^!' >- ■ J l - " i '- — ^ - • "■■■ ■-:.— . -w, ■ , ■» - ■->. - _ . -^ - , . - -■, ^^, ^ ^ x , ^^ 


value in other money, and the same for any baggage weighing 
one hundred and fifty pounds. 

" Edward Young and 


" N. B. No run goods to be admitted in this stage, nor sealed 
letters, unless directed to gentlemen of the army of the United 

Here is another stage running to the same place. 


" The subscribers inform the Publick, that they have pro- 
vided a convenient Flying Stace-Wac:con, with four horses at 
the end of every twenty miles, suitable for carrying passengers 
and their baggage ; and to engage to go two trips in every week 
from Philadelphia to Elizabeth-Town, with this flying stage, 
after the 20th of May, 1781, and so continue till timely notice 
is given to the publick — will set out from the Bunch of Grapes, ' 
in Third street, between ^larket and Arch streets, in the rising of 
the sun, breakfast at the Four-Lanes-End, shift horses, cross 
the new ferry just above Trenton falls, dine at Jacob Bergen's, 
at Princeton, shift horses, lodge at Brunswick; the next day at 
Elizabeth-Town at ten o'clock in the forenoon. 

" The same, every Tuesday and Friday, will set out from Doc- 
tor Winan's tavern, in Elizabeth-To>Vn, precisely at three o'clock 
in the afternoon, for Brunswick ; the next days, every Wednes- 
day and Saturday, will breakfast at Princeton, dine at the Four- 
Lanes-End, from thence to Philadelphia. 

"The price for each passenger, from Philadelphia to Eliza- 
beth-Town, to be forty shillings in cold or silver, or the value 
thereof in other money ; and the like sum for one hundred and 
fifty weight of baggage ; and the same sum from Elizabeth-Town 
to Philadelphia, and so in proportion according to the length of 
the way and weight. 

" The subscribers beg leave to return their thanks to all gen- 
tlemen and ladies who have been pleased to favor them with 
their custom, and hope for a continuance of the same, and they 

II m -'- '. --..— ■^^■. - ^-^ ->>. >. ri ■■ I I •■ .•■■■fci*iT*>».jai«aafli^M»iJ 



may depend on the punctual attendance of their humble ser- 

''Gershom Johnson and 
''James Drake. 
"April 30th, 1 781." 

Thus, under the then existing mode of travel, two entire dajs 
were consumed between Trenton and Elizabethtown. The 
owners of this flying stage-wagon, however, returned their thanks 
to those who patronized them. 

June 19th, 1 781, Philemon Dickinson and Lambert Cadwala- 
der advertised to receive subscriptions to the National Bank for 
the United States of America. 

"The owner of the ferry known by the name of the Trenton 
Old Ferry, on the post-road leading to Philadelphia, and where 
the public cross, provided the said ferry with the best boats that 
have been constmcted for safety in the transportation of passen- 
gers and horses and carriages in time of freshets, wind, or ice, 
and employs a number of careful hands who work the boats, 
and who are always punctual on the spot. The rates of ferriage 
are as follows, viz,^ Wagon and four horses, five shillings; 
wagon and two horses, three shillings nine-pence ; a chair, three 
shillings six-pence; man and horse, six-pence; foot passengers, 
three-pence; and all other ferriages in proportion." 

July nth, 1 781, appeared the following: 

" The subscribers having furnished themselves with good boats 
at the new ferry, a little above the falls and almost opposite Tren- 
ton, and the distance being nearly the same from Bristol to 
Trenton to go by this or Colvin*s, all persons who will please to 
favor them with their custom, may depend on an easy and safe 
passage, at the following rates, which are as low as they were 
twenty years ago, tvs.. Wagon and four horses, four shillings 
six-pence; wagon with two horses, three shillings six-pence; 
horse and chair, one shilling six-pence ; man and horse, six- 
pence ; a footman, three-pence ; and all other ferriages in like 


'' Travelers who come from Bristol the new road are requested 

to turn to the left at the twenty-nine-mile-stone, which is about 

three-quarters of a mile from the ferry; and those from the 

'* .ii ■ v..i<T.;i.-£tJs»i.^-L>-^ .->.^. >^ — :^^ — - . . -■.■., ......_^ 

111 Wfc*»j—^«MiM «, 


eastward are to turn to the right at the market-house in Trenton, 
which is about a quarter of a mile." 

In the year 179I9 Mr. Isaac Collins issued from his printing 
office, corner of Second (now State) and Queen (now Greene) 
streets, a large quarto Bible, of nine hundred and eighty-four 
pages, uniform with the Oxford edition of the Holy Scripture, . 
to which was added an index, also scripture measures, weights, 
and coins. The price of the book was four Spanish dollars ; 
one dollar to be paid at the time of subscribing, and the remsun- 
der on delivery of the book. 

Three thousand copies were published. 

On Thursday, March 4th, 1761, the Presbyterian congregation 
of Hopewell, in the county of Hunterdon, represented to the 
legislature that their meeting-house in Pennington was In a 
ruinous state, and utterly unfit for public worship, and that their 
congregation was unable to raise money to^ repair the same, and 
therefore prayed that the house would grant them leave to bring 
in a bill to empower them to institute a lottery in order to raise 
sufficient funds to repair the said meeting-house. 

At this time this was a customary way of raising money for 
church and other purposes, for at the same session several acts 
were passed for raising money by lottery for building and re- 
pairing churches for other denominations as well as Presbyterian, 
and also for the College of New Jersey. 

In 1766, the stone bridge across the Assanpink, adjoining ^he 
mills of Robert Lettis Hooper, was built by the inhabitants of 
the county of Hunterdon and the township of Nottingham. 

Tuesday, October 31st, 1769, a petition was presented to the 
house of assembly, from the minister, church wardens, and ves- 
trymen of the Episcopal Church of St. Michael, in Trenton, 
and from the elders, deacons, and congregation of the Presby- 
terian Church of the same place, setting forth that the said 
churches had been built and supported for many years by the 
voluntary contribution of the members of each ; that they were 
wholly unable to support the ministers, purchase a house and 
glebe for each, and make the necessary repairs to said churches ; 
and praying an act to enable the petitioners to raise, by way of 
lottery, the sum of one thousand six hundred pounds, for the 



■ ■!i-^t « 


. dA ^. . ^ • 

*..•-■ w.. a. • 

■<■ a;-fcV 




purpose aforesaid, and that certsun persons in the petition 
named might be appointed managers. 

On Friday, November i8th, 1791, a bill was introduced into 
the house, empowering the trustees of the Presbyterian Church, 
and the minister, wardens, and vestry of the Episcopal Church 
of this place, to raise money by lottery, but it was rejected on 
Wednesday, November 23d. 

January 25th, 1813, a petition from the trustees of the Pres- 
byterian Church was presented to the house, praying to be 
authorized to raise a certain sum of money by way of lottery, 
which was referred to the committee on the subject of lotteries, 
and on the 28th they reported that it was inexpedient to grant 
their request. 

In the early part of the session of 181 1, sundry inhabitants of 
Hunterdon and Burlington counties presented a petition rela- 
tive to the removal of the sand-bar on Perriwig Island below 
Lamberton, which was referred to a committee of the house, 
who, on the 7th of February, reported that '* from the informa- 
tion the committee had received, it was evident that the said 
sand-bar was a considerable obstruction and injury to the navi- 
gation of the said river, and that, its removal would be of great 
public advantage; that towards the accomplishment of this 
object, legislative interference is solicited, first, in furnishing 
pecuniary aid to the undertaking ; secondly, in affording liberty 
to enter upon and remove the obstructions, the river being con- 
sidered a public highway under legislative control ; that with 
respect to the first, the sum necessary to remove the obstructions 
is estimated at from ten to fifteen thousand dollars; that the 
legislature can only furnish this in one of two ways, either by a 
^rant from the treasury, which, as the funds therein are raised 
by taxes equally from every part of the state, they do not believe 
the legislature would be willing to maVe to a purpose in which 
much the greatest part of the state can have no immediate inter- 
est ; or by a lottery, which, from the opposition already mani- 
fested to this mode of raising money for local objects, the com- 
mittee presume the house is not prepared to allow ; that with 
respect to the second point on which legislative interference is 
requested, the committee conceive it reasonable and right that 

i^mn ,f, ■; ■«! , .. .r^. r T ■ i t 1 11 

^X»*— — «M^i'*« ■> » ■ ii i »^*«i. mmtmtmm iA ■ 


the desire of the applicants should be granted, and therefore 
recommend that they have leave to present a bill, giving the 
liberty of entering upon the said public highway and removing 
the said obstruction." And on the nth a bill was introduced 
entitled ** An act for improving the navigation of the river Del* 
aware/* which passed the house unanimously on the 14th The 
bill was then amended and passed by council on the i6th^ and 
on the 1 8th it passed the house unanimously. 

^^ ■ r "* "^ 

..^ ,1i «*. 

■*««a«bBi ■ 11 * — - -' '^' 


State House — State Library — State Librarians — Government 
JIouse-^Encroachment upon State Property by Gfiztns of 
Trenton — Water Works— John Fitch^ the Inventor of the 
Steamboat ^^ City of Trenton — Wards— Borough of South 
Trenton — Congress — Elections — MoJei Message of the Goth 
crnor — Resolution Fire Company — Trenton and New BrunS'^ 
wick Turnpike Company — Lottery to remove Obstructions in the 

IN his message to the house September nth, 1776, Governor 
Livingston recommended the fixing of the seat of govern- 
ment in some convenient and plentiful part of the state, and on 
Wednesday, November i6lh, f^\» a bill was introduced in the 
house of assembly entitled *' hnrioX to provide suitable buildings 
for the accommodation of the legislature and public offices of 
the state." 

On the 1 8th of the same month the bill was taken up, and an 
effort made to amend it by striking out Trenton and inserting 
New Bnmswick and Woodbury, which was not agreed to, and 
on Saturday, November 19th, it passed the house, and on Tues- 
day, the 2 2d, it passed the council. 

November 25th, 1^9^ the seat of government was fixed at 

November 2 2d, 1791, Joseph Cooper, Thomas Lowery, James 
Ewing, Maskell Ewing, George Anderson, James Mott, and 
Moore Furman were appointed commissioners, with power to 
purchase or accept such quantity of land at the seat of govern- 
ment as they might deem proper for the use of the state, and pro- 
vide suitable buildings for the accommodation of the legislature of 
the state; and they were authorized to draw on the treasurer for 



»>1 .^^ul ..^*»-W-^,.^- ,, ^_^ ^.■. _,-_^..- ■_., 



any sums not exceeding fifteen hundred pounds, and were 
authorized to accept grants of money Tor the purposes, aforesaid. 
November i6th, 1792, the house appointed Benjamin Van- 
cleve, of Hunterdon, John Burgin, of Cumberland, and Joseph 
Stillwell, of Monmouth, and on the 17th, council appointed 
John Condict, of Essex, a committee to settle the accounts of 
the commissioners, who, on the 27 th of the same month, sub- 
mitted the following report : 

"Trenton, November 27th, 1791. 
'' We, the committee from the council and assembly for the 
purpose of examining the accounts and vouchers of the com- 
missioners appointed by a law of this state, passed the twenty- 
second day of November, one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-one, to provide suitable buildings for the accommodatipn 
of the legislature, having carefully inspected the same, do report, 
that the said commissioners have received at sundry times, out of 
the treasury of this state, the sum of three thousand five hundred 
pounds; and for several articles sold, belonging to the state, 
twelve pounds fifteen shillings and eleven-pence half-penny; and 
also from the inhabitants of Trenton and the vicinity, by subscrip- 
tion, the sum of three hundred pounds eighteen shillings and six- 
pence in cash, together with land and materials for building, to the 
value of three hundred and forty pounds nine shillings and five- 
pence, exclusive of the said materials. And it appears to the com- 
mittee, by the accounts of the said commissioners, and the vouchers 
produced to us from No. i to 129, and from No. o to 34, that they 
have expended in erecting the said building the sum of three thou- 
sand eight hundred and twenty pounds nineteen shillings and five- 
pence half-penny; and that there is a balance due to the said 
commissioners of five shillings. And further, it appears to the 
committee that there are demands against the said commissioners 
from sundry persons, for materials for said building and work- 
manship, to the amount of one hundred and seventy pounds 
eighteen shillings and seven-pence, specie. 

"John Condict, 
"Benjamin Vancleve, 
"Joseph Stillwell, 
"John Burgin.'* 

^ ■ 

J ;__ . .1 1- — — ' ' 11-" 


Which report was received and adopted by both houses. 
November 2d, 1796, Messrs. Peter De Vroom, of Somerset 
county, Stephen Burrows, of Hunterdon, and Peter Smith, of 
Sussex, were appointed a committee on the part of the house, 
for the purpose of settling the accounts of Benjamin Smith, 
Esq., commissioner appointed by law to build suitable offices 
for the secretary and clerk of the Supreme Court, and also the 
accounts of the commissioners appointed by law to erect suitable 
accommodations for the legislature; and Thomas Sinnickson, of 
Salem, was appointed on the part of council, and on November 
4th, they reported '* that the commissioner had expended in finish- 
ing the said offices, the sum of three hundred and ten pounds 
nine shillings and eleven-pence, and that the said commissioner 
hath received from the treasurer one hundred and twenty pounds; 
that he hath sold sundry articles belonging to the state, to the 
amount of twenty pounds twelve shillings and nine-pence, and 
that there remains a balance due the said commissioner of one 
hundred and sixty-nine pounds seventeen shillingsand two-pence. 

'' Thomas Sinnickson, 
" Peter De Vroom, 
" Stephen Burrows, 
"Peter Smith.*' 

On the same day the committee made the following report : 

" That they had examined the accounts of the commissioners 
appointed by an act to provide suitable buildings for the accom- 
modation of the legislature, passed the 2 2d day of November, 
1 791, and that the sAid commissioners have expended in finish- 
ing the State House, the sum of seven hundred and twenty-nine 
pounds and ten shillings ; ihat the said commissioners have re- 
ceived of the treasurer five hundred pounds ; that they have sold 
sundry articles belonging to the state to the amount of thirty- 
one pounds seven shillings and eight-pence, and that there re-* 
mains a balance due to the said commissioners of one hundred 
and ninety-eight pounds two shillings and four-pence. 

" Thomas Sinnickson, 
" Peter De Vroom, 
** Stephen Burrows, 
** Peter Smith." . 





November 4th, 17979 it was resolved by the house that a 
committee be appointed to inquire what repairs arc neressary to 
be made to the State House^ and whether it is expedient to en- 
close and level the lot belonging to the same^ and what sum 
ought to be appropriated for the said purpose. 

January ipth^ i7999 ^t the request of Moore Furman, who 
was appointed to enclose the State House lot,the following com- 
mittee was appointed to examine and settle his accounts : Messrs. 
Joseph Buddy of Burlington, Joseph Shinn, of Salem, and 
William Kunkle, of Sussex, on the part of the house, and Messrs. 
Peter De Vroom, of Somerset, and John Lambert, of Hunter- 
don, on the part of the council, and on the ^9th they made the 
following report: 

''That we have examined the vouchers of the said Moore 
Furman, commissioner, from No. i to No. 63, inclusive, and 
the account accompanying the same, and find a balance due to 
the said Moore Furman, (including his commissions of five per 
cent., amounting to thirty-seven pounds nineteen shillings and 
nine-pence, and deducting three hundred and seventy-five 
pounds, which he acknowledges to have received from the treas- 
urer), of three hundred and eighty pounds fourteen shillings and 
eight-pence ; that the sum necessary to complete the intention 
of the legislature in his appointment, according to his estimate, 
will be seven hundred and thirty-five dollars and sixty-six cents, 
and that a further sum of four hundred and ten dollars will be 
necessary for paving around the State House with brick, and for 
sand and gravel to raise the ground and stone to secure the 


" Peter De Vroom, 

"John Lambert, 

" Joseph Budd, 

" William Rukkle, 

** Joseph Shimn." 

On the 4th of February, the sum of two hundred and eighty- 
five dollars and sixty-six cents was appropriated for completing 
the parts of the work already begun. 

November 4th, Abraham Kitchell and Joseph Stillwell re- 
ported '' that they had examined the accounts and vouchers of 

' - - - ■ ■■ - 


Moore Furman, appointed by the act of February 19th last, to 
complete the State House yard, and find that there appears to be 
a balance due the said Moore Furman of twenty-eight pounds 
two shillings and one penny, equal to sieventy-four dollars and 
ninety-five cents," 

November loth, a resolution was passed by the house that 
David Wrighter should, in the recess of the legislature, have the 
grass on the State House lot as a compensation for taking care of 
said lot and watering the trees, and the council rejected it, and 
it was passed the second time, and again rejected by council. 

November 3d, 1801, Messrs. Peter Gordon, of Hunterdon, 
Samuel W. Harrison, of Gloucester, and Gershom Dunn, of 
Middlesex, were appointed a committee to examine what repairs 
are necessary to be made to the State House, and on the 4th they 
reported '' that the platform and banisters at each end of the 
house, the belfry, window*" frames, and sashes, all should be im- 
mediately painted over to preserve the wood from decaying, as 
they observe the paint chiefly washed off; also, new steps on the 
north side, and some small repairs to the steps on the south side, 
together with a new cellar door frame, which repairs, it is sup* 
posed by the best information they can obtain, will amount to . 
two hundred dollars." 

November 3d, 1803, it was resolved by the general assembly 
" that a committee be appointed to inquire into the cause and con- 
duct of the mob assembled in Trenton in the month of Febm- 
ary last, and also by whose direction or approbation the State 
House was occupied as a ball room on the 4th of July, and of 
the riot in Trenton in said month, and whether the magistrates 
of Trenton used all due diligence in suppressing said disorders; 
and likewise whether any and how many of the principal inhab- 
itants of said town, as far as can be ascertained, appeared at the 
time to approve or discountenance such conduct, and that they 
report to this house their opinion thereon, and what measures, if 
any, would be proper in order to prevent such disorders in the 
future; and that the committee have power to send for such evi- 
dences as they think necessary." 

November loth, the following was passed by the house, and 
on the same day by the council : ^ 

MitJX^wJl I •* — > I 

T*-'! ■-■*-- -- -r — — •-■-- - 

■ ■—ail 

-Artiki^M^ ^ Air 




^ 9 

• *' Resolved^ That on the adjournment of the legislature, the 
clerk of assembly and Moore Furman, Esq., or either of them, 
be requested to take charge of the State House, with directions 
not to permit it to be occupied for any other purpose than for 
the accommodation of the constituted authorities for which it 
was erected," 

November nth, a resolution was passed by both houses, 
placing the State House yard in the care of James J. Wilson, re- 
serving the use of the buildings in the said yard for the neces- 
sary occasions of the officers of government. James J. Wilson 
was clerk of the assembly. 

March 3d, 1806, a law was passed appointing commissioners 
to make certain repairs to the State House, to provide and hang 
a suitable bell, &c. 

November 3d, 1807, the commissioners reported ** that the 

ceiling of the council room had been repaired in such manner 

as appears durable and safe ; that the outside covering of the 

wings of the house being found defective, new coverings of 

boards have been put on, in such a manner, the commissioners 

believe, as to completely exclude the water for a considerable 

length of time ; had the appropriation been permitted, the 

commissioners would have thought it their duty to have had it 

covered with copper, and they would recommend that this 

should be done to make the coverings durable and water-proof; 

that the platform of the cupola has been covered, first with 

boards, and afterwards with copper, and all the leaks that could 

be discovered in the roof have been stopped ; that a bell has 

been procured and hung, the workmanship of which appears to 

be well executed, and is as large as the limits prescribed by law 

would allow, weighing three hundred and eighty-one pounds ; 

that the various expenses incurred in effecting these objects 

having employed all the money appropriated, and, indeed, 

rather exceeded the appropriation, they have not thought it 

their duty to procure a carpet for the Supreme Court room, as 

mentioned in the law. 

"Petex Gordon, 

** Ellet Tucker, 

" James J. Wilson, 

" Commissiontn.** 

. » 'm ,m r , t m JP-i^..MMia»ir' I —"it'.i. HI 4. '- ".JJ^fcABfcm— (fca— BBCoaiteWiPMifc— ■^1 fc— ^^— ^f ^^M^^^I^M^lJ— ^^^^— J^mM 


On the same day a resolution was adopted requesting them to 
proceed to the completion of the duties assigned them, by pro- 
viding a suitable carpet to cover the floor of the Supreme 
Court room. 

February ipth, 1813, a bill was passed by the house to pro- 
vide for the paving of the walks in front of the State House. 

A bill was passed by the legislature authorizing the constmc- 
tion on the comer of State and Delaware streets of buildings for 
the offices of the secretary of state and clerk of the Supreme 

These offices were one story brick buildings, located on the 
northeast corner of the State House yard, the entrance to which 
was on Delaware street, and the end office, towards the river, 
had an exit into the State House yard, near which was an iron 
gate leading into Delaware street. They were removed when 
the new building was erected, and provision was made in it for 
these offices. The clerk in chancery had a one story brick 
building in State street on the government lot, on the spot on 
the comer of State and Chancery streets now occupied by 
the Chancery Building. It took its name from the fact of the 
chancery office having previously occupied the same spot of 
ground. It was removed upon the completion of the new State 
House, when provision was also made in that building for the 
clerk of the Court of Chancery. 

On the 2oth, the house passed a resolution appointing Richard 
L. Beatty, the clerk of the house, to take charge of the State 
House, with its appurtenances, during the recess of the legisla- 

On October 29th a report was made to the house '' that the sum 
of two hundred and ten dollars had been expended by Mr. 
Richard L. Beatty for removing the dirt and completing the 
pavement in front of the offices, fixing the curb-stones on the 
same, and in some necessary additions to the offices of the secre- 
tary and clerk ; that said sum will be inadequate to the object, 
and that a further appropriation is necessary.** On the 30th a 
bill passed the house to provide the means to complete this im- 
provement, and on the 3d of November it passed the counciL 

February ad, 1815, a committee appointed to devise ways 


> .^-^ l ..^-.-. ^^^. . ..-- ■ — ^.M... ^■■. ■■.-..- ^. > ■■■^^--— ^»»- ^^.-^.^M^. ^-^--l., -■•■■■ 



and meansy and report a plan for rendering the hall in which the 
assembly sits for the discharge of public business, more com- 
fortable, presented the following report : 

'' That in the opinion of the committee, from a common six- 
plate stove placed under the floor of said hall, and enclosed 
with brick work, a column of heated air may be so introduced 
into the hall as to render it more comfortable, at a small ex- 
pense, and thereby effecting a material saving of fuel, and that 
this improvement may be made so as to be perfectly consistent 
with the safety of the whole edifice. Further, that by the addi- 
tion of two batten doors at the entrance of this hall, much cold 
air would be excluded." 

Whereupon they submitted to the house the following : 

'' Resolved^ That the treasurer of this state, as soon as may be 
practicable, procure a good six-plate stove, of cast iron, and 
bave the same so enclosed with brick work as to introduce into 
this hall a column of heated air, or make such other improve- 
ments for this purpose as he shall deem expedient; and that he 
further cause a double batten door to be placed at the entrance 
of this hall ; that the said treasurer employ suitable persons to 
make the said improvements, and, when finished, to lay the bill 
before this house. 

** Res^lved^ That the treasurer be authorized to employ proper 
workmen to examine whether any or all the pillars in the hall of 
the assembly room can be removed without material injury to 
the State House, and make a report to the next legislature of 
the result, together with an estimate of the probable expense." 

June 5th, 1820, the following resolution was offered in the 
liouse, but not agreed to : 

** Resolved^ That the Lombardy poplar wood in the State 
House yard be given to the door-keepers of council and assem- 
bly, they paying the expense of trimming the trees and cutting 
the wood." 

June 8th, the following resolution was offered in the house, 
and laid on the table : 

'* Resohed, That in order to aid Charles Higbee and Zacha- 

I ■ I I nil ■ ■ I 

. J Mirf* Mi ti n m' 

W JM ii'SBEL**i^*w 1 rnHk Hlfctliifc 




riah Rossell, Esq., in fulfilling the object of their appointment 
for planting trees in the yard of the State House, they be author- 
ized to make sale of trees and wood now standing and being on 
the premises, and after paying the exposes of cutting the same, 
to appropriate the residue of the proceeds for the objects of their 

April 2d, 1845, Samuel R. Gummere, Samuel R. Hamilton, 
and Stacy A. Paxson, were appointed commissioners ** to cause a 
good and substantial roof to be put upon the State House, and 
to cause the stucco work, or rough-casting, to be removed and 
replaced with new work, in the style of the Mercer Countj 
Court-House ; to cause neat porticos to be placed over the north 
and south doors of said house, and such other repairs as thej 
may deem necessary, and to have the grounds around the build- 
ing properly fenced, graded, and planted with suitable orna- 
mental tree&*' 

They were also to cause to be erected two buildings, fronting 
on Second street, of forty feet front by fifty-five feet deep, each. 
Each of said building to be divided into two offices, with suit- 
able fire-proof vaults, for the accommodation of the secretary 
of state, the clerk of the Supreme Court, the clerk of the Court 
of Chancery, and the state treasurer. 

In 1848, very extensive additions were made to the State 
House. The rotunda was erected, as well as the buildings in 
front of it facing the street. 

The architect was John Nottman, of Philadelphia, and the 
builders were Joseph Whitaker and William Phillips, of this 

At that time material and labor was very cheap, and the 
buildings were completed at a cost of twenty-seven thousand 

On the northwest corner of the State House lot stood a frame 
building and lot of ground, and on the 20th of February, 1849, 
the legislature passed an act for the purchase of the same, appro- 
priating the sum of four thousand five hundred dollars for that 

Samuel Mairs, state treasurer, Samuel R. Hamilton, quarter- 
master-general, and Charles G. McChesney, secretary of state. 


were appointed commissioners to purchase the same, with power 
to sell or remove the building from off the grounds. 

February 2othy 1850, a joint resolution was passed authorizing 
the treasurer to cause the necessary fixtures and apparatus to be 
put up for lighting the State House with gas. 

March nth, 1853, it was ordered by resolution that the court 
rooms be lighted with gas. 

Ma)ch 24th, 1863, the legislature appropriated ten thousand 
dollars to add a wing on the southerly side of the state capi- 
tol for a library and committee rooms, and the commissioners of 
the state library were appointed to have the work done. April 
X4thy 1864, an additional sum of sixteen thousand dollars was 
appropriated, and the act authorized, in addition to a library and 
committee rooms, an executive chamber, and rooms for other 
needful purposes. . 

April 6th, 1865, five thousand dollars u'as appropriated to- 
procure the necessary shelving and furniture for the new library 
room, and to make such alterations as may be necessary in the 
old library room for the accommodation of the United States 
courts, and to set apart some suitable room in the building for a 
jury room, and to procure the necessary furniture, carpeting, &c., 
for the new executive chamber and committee rooms, the same 
to be furnished in a neat and becoming manner. 

March 31st, 1871, an act was passed appointing Charles S. 
Olden, Thomas J. Stryker, and Lewis Perrine commissioners to 
erect an addition and make repairs to the State House. 

This addition is now being made, and is intended to extend 
the library, and build new rooms for the senate and general 
assembly, and to fit up the present legislative rooms for execu- 
tive chambers and for offices for the adjutant-general, quarter- 
roaster-geneial, comptroller, commissioners of the sinking fund, 
and attorney-general. 

The contractors for the stone work are Robert S. and William 
Johnston, of this city ; for the carpenter work, Frederick Titus 
and Robert M. Conrad, of this city ; for cast iron work, Samuel 
J. Creswell, of Philadelphia; for wrought iron work, John E» 
Thropp, Duncan McKenzie, and Peter Wilkes, of this city, and 
for the plumbing wprk, Stephen R. Philbin, and John E. Eyaa* 
son, of Philadelphia. 



Fifty thousand dollars was appropriated for this addition. 

Samuel Sloan, of Philadelphia, is the architect. 

The whole front of the State House lot is two hundred and 
forty-seven feet six inches, on State street. 

The whole depth from State street to low water mark is six 
hundred and sixty feet. 

Sold by Joseph Brittain and Susanna, his wife, to Joseph 
Cooper, Thomas Lowry, James Ewing, Maskell Ewing, George 
Anderson, Moore Furman, and Richard Howell, commissioners 
appointed by the legislature, November 22d, 1791, for five shil- 
lings, deed dated January X9th, 1792, containing two and a 
quarter acres. These lots are on the Delaware; 

Lot No. I, facing on State street, was sold by Joseph Brittain 
and Susanna, his wife, to Paul Thorp, for twenty-five pounds, * 
January 24th, 1786; and by Paul Thorp and Isabella, his wife, to 
William Reeder,*for seventy-five pounds, March 4th, 1790; and 
by William Reeder and Priscilla, his wife, to the state commis- 
sioners, for sixty-two pounds ten shillings, January I9th9 i79>» 
containing one-quarter of an acre. 

Lot No. 2, also fronting on State street, was sold by Joseph 
Brittain and wife to John Emmerson, for twenty-five pounds, 
March 13th, 1784; and by John Emmerson to James Emmer- 
son, for thirty pounds, March 13th, 1786; by James Emmerson . 
and wife to George Ely, for thirty-seven pounds ten shillings. 
May ist, 1 798 ; and by George Ely and Mary, his wife, to the 
state commissioners, for sixty pounds, January X9th, 1792, con- 
taining one-quarter of an acre. 

Lot No. 3, fronting on State street, was sold by Joseph Brit- 
tain and wife to James Emmerson, September X3th, 1784, for 
twenty-five pounds ; and by James Emmerson and wife to George 
Ely, May ist, 1788, for thirty-seven pounds and ten shillings, 
and by George Ely and wife to the state commissioners, for sixty 
pounds, January X9th, 1792, containing one-quarter of an acre. 

A lot was subsequently bought of Mrs. Mary McCall, eightj- 
two feet six inches front on State street, and running the same 
depth as the other three lots. 

The whole land contains three and three-quarter acres, and 

-^ ■ -ir- fi'"--^--"'-^*-— "- - ' - " - ■ "^ --*- ■~-'*=-^ ■^-..^.■. .^^^^.^..^.^^^ .^.-.^.^ .■ 


the entire cost was two hundred and fifty pounds and five shil- 

The whole length on State street is two hundred and forty* 
seven feet six inches ; depth on Delaware street to low water 
mark, six hundred and sixty feet, as surveyed by William C. 
Howelly September i6th9 1845. 

November 25thy 1794, a bill was introduced into the house, 
entitled '' An act for the removal and preservation of the public 
records of the state of New Jersey/' which bill was considered 
on the 27thy and referred to Messrs. Aaron Kitchell, of Morris 
county, Henry Southard, of Somerset, John Blackwood, of 
Gloucester, Joseph Stillwell, of Monmouth, and Daniel Frazer, 
of Hunterdon, and on the ist of December, the committee 
reported, '' that in their opinion a house to hold the public 
records ought to be built on the State House lot, in Trenton, 
the size of which shall be thirty feet by twenjy-four feet, with 
three rooms on the floor, two of which shall be arched, in order 
to secure the records from fire; which building shall be one 
story high, and built of brick or stone ; and that the treasurer 
of this state be requested to advertise for proposals for erecting 
and completing said building, and to lay such propos^ils before 
the legislature at their sitting, in order to give time to receive 
such proposals ; and your committee are further of opinion, that 
the records in the secretary's office, at Burlington, ought not to 
be removed until all the papers lodged in that office for record- 
ing be duly entered on record. 

" By order of the committee. 

"Aaron Kitchell." 

The bill was postponed until the next session, when it was 
again taken up, and referred to Messrs. Benjamin Manning, of 
Middlesex county, David Frazer, of Hunterdon, and Ebenezer 
Elmer, of Cumberland, who, on the i6th of February, 1795, 
reported the bill under the following title: ''An act for the 
renewal of the secretary's office, and for the preservation of the 
public records of the state of New Jersey;" and on the a7th the 
bill passed the house, and on the 4th of March it was passed by 

March i8th, 1796, it was resolved that Maskell Ewing, clerk 




of the house of assembly, be directed to enter on the minutes of 
the house this day, the titles and names of the several books 
now belonging to the legislature ; and that he be further directed 
to procure, at the expense of the legislature, a suitable case for 
the keeping and preservation of such boolcs ; and further also, 
that he be responsible to the legislature for the safe keeping and 
preservation of the same. 

The first mention we have of a state library is in the proceed- 
ings of the legislature of October 28th, 1796, at which time the 
speaker laid before the house a copy of the journals of the senate 
of the United States, in the first session of the fourth congress, 
which was at that time nothing more than a case which Maskell 
Ewing had prepared by order of the house, as above stated. 

February i8th, 1804, the clerk was directed to procure for the 
use of the legislature eight copies of Jefferson's manual relative 
to the mode of conducting business in legislative bodies. 

On the same day a resolution was passed by the house to ap- 
point a committee to report rules for the library belonging to 
the legislature, and for the preservation of the books; also, that 
they make out a catalogue of the same and cause it to be printed, 
and that they report what books, if any, are necessary to be 

Messrs. William Coxe, of Burlington, Ezra Darley, of Essex, 
and John A. Scudder, of Monmouth, were appointed. 

February 23d, 1804, Mr. Coxe, from the committee appointed 
to make a catalogue of the books in the library belonging to 
the legislature, and to draft rules for the regulation of the 
same, reported by name one hundred and sixty-eight volumes, a 
large number of which were the lan's of this and other states, 
journals of council and assembly, the minutes of the legislatures 
of other states, as well as the congress of the United States. 

They also recommended the following rules: 

** ist. That the books be put under the care of the clerk of the 
house of assembly, who shall provide a book in which each 
member of council or assembly shall enter the name or names 
of the books taken out by him, and the time of taking out 

** 2d. That none but the members of the legislature be per- 
mitted to take out books, and that the members consider them- 

tiiPih t ^^ — =" — ^ — - - -' u' • '- — '■-'' ■-' "* "-■' ■■»"■■—■'-■'■ -A ■i^i^.fc- 



selves bound not to take a book from the State House without 
entering the name of it in the library book. 

"3d. That a stamp be prepared with which the words New 
Jersey legislature be branded on each book, with a number to 
each set to be marked on the back. 

'' 4th. That the list of books shall be printed in the votes of the 
house of assembly, with these rules, for the information of the 

"5th. That the clerk of the house and the clerk of council be 
required to cause the copies of the laws of the United States, 
transmitted by the general government, and which have been 
retained by the two houses, to be bound in the same manner as 
the first four volumes, and to proceed in the same manner in 
future. * 

"6th. That the clerk of the house of assembly be required ta 
have the laws of this state, and journals and votes reserved for 
the use of the house, to be bound in the same manner, and that 
the secretary be requested to do the same with those of counciL 

" 7th. All the binding to be of leather, strong and neat, and as 
nearly as can be, similar to that of the laws of the United States." 

These rules were adopted by the house February 29th, 1804, 
and on the same day they were adopted by council. 

October 23d, 1804, Governor Blooihfield, in his message to- 
the house, informed them that the journals of the senate and 
house of representatives, the fifth volume of the laws of Penn- 
sylvania, and a copy of the acts of the legislatures of Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, and North Carolina had been received, and placed in the 
library of the legislature of this state. 

At the session of 1803, the secretary of council and clerk of 
the general assembly w*ere directed by a resolution of both 
houses to have the laws of the United States and of this state, 
and the journals of council and minutes of assembly, bound ; and 
at the session of 1804, on the 26th of October, they reported 
" that on examining the library they were able to find but one 
complete set of the laws of this state, which they have had 
bound ; that of the laws of the United States, five complete sets 
were found, which are also bound ; that of the journals of council, 
six sets, and of the minutes of assembly, eight sets, were com- 
pleted and bound. The binding is well executed, with good 

^ ^ - - — - ■- ^. • ■- .-'a.- ■•' : ■ ' -■- .w 



materials, and cost fifty cents per volmne, or ten dollars alto- 

In 1708, the laws and journals of congress, and the laws of 
sister states received during the year, were deposited in the 
library of this state, and three hundred and forty-two copies of 
the laws of the United States delivered to the treasurer for dis- 

October 29th, 18 13, Messrs. John Beatty, of Burlington, and 
Joseph Falkenbridge, of Cape May, were appointed on the part 
of council, and Jacob R. Hardenburgh, of Sussex, Mahlon Dick- 
erson, of Morris, and Ephraim Bateman, of Cumberland, were 
appointed a joint committee to examine the books and papers in 
the State Library, and report the same to the house, and make a 
catalogue of the same. 

On the 4th of February, 1813, the committee made the fol- 
lowing report : • • 

** That on examining the State Library they are of opinion 
that to execute the duty assigned them will require more time 
than they can devote to it, and at the same Ume attend to their 
other duties in the house; and your committee beg leave to sub- 
mit the following : — 

" Resolved^ That Richard L. Beatty, the clerk of this house, 
be requested to cause the books in the State Library to be 
assorted and placed in regular order on the shelves ; to inquire 
for and procure such books as may have been taken out of the 
same, and have them replaced in the library; and in cases 
where any volume or volumes have been lost, of any regular set 
of books, that he be authorized to procure others at the expense 
of the state, and that he be paid for his services by thb house." 

On the loth of February, 1813, the first act of the l^islature 
was passed by the house, entitled "An act concerning the 
State Library." 

October 26th, 1814, Messrs. Samuel Bayard, of Somerset, 
Nicholas Mandeville, of Morris, and Robert M. Holmes, of 
Cape May, on the part of the house, and Messrs. Andrew 
Howell, of Somerset, and Caleb Earl, of Burlington, on the 
part of council, were appointed a committee to consider what 
rules were necessary for the preservation of the library. 


liM^[fcaMihlfclihMMfciaMMtfatM*hw>Ml^M*MMdhMMi*lli^trffc^aiM^J>iM«^4M ■ I ■ l l iM**.— * I II ■■ illW^^i— aifc— 1^ 


This joint coramitteey on the 2d of November, reported the 

''i. That during the recess of the legislature, the library be 
confided to the special care of the secretary of state, whose duty 
it shall be not to suffer any book or books, pamphlets, maps, 
charts, or other documents to be taken therefrom, except by the 
governor or one of the members of council while sitting as a 
Court of Errors and Appeals, from whom respectively some 
memorandum in writing, signed by the person taking a book or 
other document from said library, be taken and reserved by ssud 
secretary until the book so taken be returned in like condition 
as when delivered out. 

**a. That during the sitting of the legislature, every member 
of the same desirous of a book or other document from said 
library is required to send or give a memorandum in writing 
containing the title of the book or document wanted, and 
signed with his hand, to the door-keeper of council, who is 
thereupon required to obtain such book or document, if in the 
library, for the person desiring the same, and to keep such 
memorandum until such book or document, if obtained, shall be 

'' 3. That at the close of the session of each legislature, it shall 
be the duty of the president of council to call on the door- 
keeper of council to ascertain whether [there are any books or 
documents in the hands of either of the members of said 
houses not returned. And if such be the case, said president is 
hereby authorized to take such measures as he may judge pru« 
dent and advisable for effecting the return of said books or 
other documents; and for the service by these resolutions re- 
quired, a compensation shall be allowed in the incidental bill.? 

January ijth, 1815, the rules were considered by the house, 
and amended by inserting '* the speaker of the house of assem- 
bly " after the words "president of council," and also to add 
''to remind the members of their respective houses having 
books belonging to the state to return the same prior to their 
leaving the seat of the legislature/* and on the i8th of Januarys 
the resolutions, as amended, were concurred in by councfl. 

November i6th, 1822, the legislature passed an act providing 

. ^^K^M^i^l^^^^^M^*^'^^"*^*^^^^'^"^"*'^^*'^^''***^"^'^**^^"^*'^'*'*^^^'^*'^'^^"*'"'''^'^"*'*'*^^'^^ 


r^T^jr-^^T^-^. • J 'i-i ■-■t. '•' " -i' ■ ■! *■>- 



for the appointment annually, by joint meeting, of a suitable 
person as librarian of the two houses. 

In 1836, the law library was kept in the Suprenie Court 
room, and in 1837 the legislature passed an act authorizing the 
librarian to fit up a room adjoining the library, with appropriate 
fixtures, for the reception of books and papers belonging to the 
State Library. 

The following is a list of the state librarians from the formation 
of the library to the present time. 

1. Not. 23, 182a. William L. Piall, Esq., appointed in joint mectiiig. 

2. Oct. 31, 1823. Charles Parker, Esq., •• •• 
Oct. 29, 1824. •* - re-appointed •■ 
Oct. 28, 1825. •«•«•••• 

Not. 9, 1826. " u m m ' 

Oct. 26, 1827. •* •• «« ^ •• 

Not. 8, 1828. •• •• •• m 

3. Not. 6, 1829. William Bovwell, E$q», appointed •« 
Not. • 9, 1831. m 4* u M 
Feb. 27, 1833. u u H M 

4. Oct 25, 1833. ^^^^ Forman, Esq., appointed ^ 
Oct. 31, 1834. •* •* re-appointed •• 
Oct 30, 1835. - •• _ •• «« 

Oct 28, 1836. •€ m m m ' 

5. Oct 27, 1837. Charles C. Yard, Esq., appointed , « 
Oct. 26, 1838. •• «• re-appointed •• 
Oct 25, 1839. " •* •• . •• 
Oct 30, 184a » u m m 
Oct 2, 1841. •• ** * » *• 

Oct 29, 1842. « urn* M 

6. Oct. 27, 1843. Peter Forman, Esq., appointed ^ 

7. Feb. II, 1845. William DeHait, Esq., appointed •• 
Jan. 29, 1846. « « re-appmnted •■ 
Jan. 19, 1849. . « « «• m 

8. Mar. 26, 1852. Sylvester VansicUe, Esq., appointed «■ 

[Resigned in May, 1853.] 

9. May 30, 1853. Hon. Charles J. Ihrie, appointed by GoTemor Foit. 
Feb. I, 1854. *• •• •• "in joint meeting. 
Feb. 19, 1857. - « « •• re-appointed « 

Mar. 15, i86a m « u m « 

Mar. II, 1863. MM M «s . M 

10. Feb. 21, 1866. Carence J. Mulford, Esq., appmnted « 

11. Mar. 25, 1869. Jeremiah Dally, Esq., «« m 

»i--^ *■ -■ ' '—^-^---^^^^ -■«-—-■'— ^ -^ -—^---— -- ■T „- a ill 


March* Sthy 17989 the house passed an act entitled "An act 
to provide a house for the residence of the governor of this 
state/' and on the 9th it passed the coundL 

March 4th, 180I9 Messrs. Benjamin Vancleve, of Hunterdon, 
Jonathan Bowen, of Cumberland, and John Hass, of Hunterdon, 
were appointed a committee to examine and report what repairs 
would be necessary to be done to the government house and 
property, and on the 5th they reported " that they had exam- 
ined the same, and were of opinion that provision ought to be 
made to make the said repairs. An estimate being made by a 
workman to answer the said ptu7)ose, amounting to forty pounds^ 
the committee recommend an allowance to be made in the inci> 
dental^bill to the amount of one hundred dollars to answer the 
purpose aforesaid. 

** By order of the committee. 

''Benjamin Vancleve." 
A bill was presented to the house on the 5th and passed on 
the 6th, and on the 7th it was passed by council. 

October 29th, Messrs. John Dey, of Bergen, Amo^ Harrison, 
of Essex, and Azel Fierson, of Cumberland, were appointed a 
committee by the house to inquire what sums of money had been 
drawn from the treasury, for making the necessary repairs to the 
house and lot now occupied by the governor, and also to in> 
quire into and report the propriety of selling the same, and on 
the 3d of November they reported that the sum of ninety-seven 
dollars and fifty-three cents had been drawn from the treasury 
by Abraham Hunt, agreeably to the law passed the 7th day of 
March, 1801, and that they deemed it improper at this time to 
sell the government house. 

Again, on the 9th of November, a committee of both houses 
was appointed to settle with Abraham Hunt, and to report the 
expediency of selling the government house. On the 12th they 
reported ''that Abraham Hunt had expended, in repairs to the 
government house, the sum of ninety-two dollars and eighty- 
nine cents, which, together with commissions at five per centum, 
makes th^ sum of ninety-seven dollars and fifty-three cents, which 
was the sum drawn from the treasury. 

" And the committee further report, that, convinced of the 

>. ■■ I »ll .^fc-. ■■* '* ■ « II* ■■ I I 11*1— 

■ '^ffVy^ ■!.-.»■■ LP .1^^ »■>■ m-n-wawyf 


propriety of having the governor, as well as the heads of depart- 
ments, to reside at the seat of government, the convenience 
which will necessarily result to persons having business in chan* 
eery, the immediate access which the executive at all times have, 
and the frequent necessity of recurring to the public documentSi 
are of such importance, and we trust so obvious, that the legis- 
lature will at all times hold out the inducement of a good and 
convenient house, for the immediate accommodation of the 
governor. For the above reasons it is the opinion of your com- 
mittee it would be inexpedient to sell the same at present. 

" By order of the committee. 

''Charles Clark^ 
"John Dky." 

Which report was adopted. 

Again, on the 8th of November, 1802, a motion was made in 
the house for the appointment of a committee to inquire into 
the expediency of selling the government house, which was de- 
cided in the negative. 

February i6th, 181 1, a resolution was again offered for the 
appointment of a committee to inquire into the expediency of 
selling the government house in the city of Trenton, which was 
agreed to. 

January 23d, 181 7, a bill was presented to the house, author- 
izing the sale of the government house and lot, in the city of 
Trenton, and on the 12th of February, it was decided in the 

January loth, 181 8, the house passed a resolution appointing 
Messrs. WiUiam Coxe, of Burlington, Robert McNeely of Hun- 
terdon, and John S. Darcy, of Morris, a committee to inquire 
if any, and what encroachments have been made upon the prop- 
erty of the state, in the city of Trenton, and empowered them 
to employ a surveyor, if in their opinion it was necessary to 
effect the purpose of their appointment. 

April 2d, 1845, Samuel R. Gummere, Samuel R. Hamilton, 
and Stacy A. Faxson were appointed commissioners to make 
sale of the house and lot on Second street, in the city of Tren- 
ton, conveyed to the state of New Jersey by Moore Forman, by 
deed bearing date March 12th, 1798. 


11* I'l ^ iMrtfcMl 1^ aaJM—MI^ ■■^■-i I • I *■ -...-■■ , -, i^TJi 



• On the 29th of February^ 1S049 the legislature passed an act 
incorporating the Trenton Water Works, by the name of "The 
President and Directors of the Trenton Water Works." 
, The original corporators were James Ewing, Peter Gordon, 
Thomas M. Potter^ Gershom Craft, and Alexander Chambers. 
James Ewing was chosen the first president, and Peter Gordon 
and Thomas M. Potter, directors. 

They were given authority to lay and extend their aqueduct 
through such of the streets of the city as they may think neces- 
sary, and to open and dig in such parts of said streets as may be 
convenient and necessary. 

They were, however, limited to having open not more than 
four rods at any one time, which should not be kept open more 
than six days, and it was to be filled up at the expense of the 
company, and rendered as good and safe for travel as though 
the surface of the street had not been disturbed. 

On the 8th of February, 181 1, an act was passed to incorpo* 
rate the proprietors of the Trenton Aqueduct Company. An- 
drew Reeder, Charles Rice, Stacy Potts, Joseph Broadhurst, and 
Peter Howell were the original corporators. 

The object of this company was the supplying of the city of 
Trenton with good and wholesome water. They were incorpo- 
rated as ''The President and Directors of the Trenton Aqueduct 
Company." Andrew Reeder was chosen president; Charles 
Rice, treasurer, and Stacy Potts, Joseph Broadhurst, and Peter 
Howell, directors. 

Their charter allowed them to open only four rods at a time 
in any of the streets of the city, not to be kept open more 
than three days at a time, and to be filled up at the expense of 
the company, and to be rendered as good as if the same had not 
been taken up and removed. They were not to lay their main 
trunk through the streets of Trenton upon the same level with 
the trunks of the present company of the Trenton Water Works, 
but either higher or lower, that they might not impede them in 
carrying off their cross trunks. The capital stodc was not to 
exceed three thousand dollars, and was to be appropriated ex- 
clusively to the purpose of supplying the city of Trenton with 
good and wholesome water. 



February 29th, 1848, a company was incorporated for 
more effectually supplying the city of Trenton and borough of 
South Trenton with water, with a capital stock of thirty thou- 
sand dollars, with the privil^e of increasing the same to fifty 
thousand dollars. The stock was divided into shares of fifty 
dollars each. The corporators were John McKelway, William 
Halstead, Samuel McClurg, Charles Wright, Xenophon J. May- 
nard, John Sager, and Alexander H. Armour. 

The corporation 11*33 called the Trenton^and South Trenton 
Aqueduct Company. 

TheyVere authorized to use the water of the Delaware river, 
or tfat Assanpink creek, below the dam. 

They were not to take away, divert, or in any manner injure 
or impair the supply of water in the fountains used by the Tren- 
ton Water Works Company. 

Thursday, March 2d, 1786, a petition from John Fitch was 
read in the house, setting forth his proposal of applying the 
force of a steam engine to the use of navigation, hj impelling 
vessels to go through the water with considerable rapidity with- 
out the assistance of wind or current, and many other useful 
purposes, and praying that a committee be appointed to 
examine his proposed plan, and grant him such encouragement, 
on the report of the committee, as his proposals may appear to 
deserve, which petition was dismissed, but on Thursday, March 
19th, the bill entitled '' An act for granting and securing to John 
Fitch the sole right and advantage of making and employing 
the steamboat by him lately invented, for a limited time,*' was 
introduced, read a second time, debated, and ordered to be en- 
grossed for a third reading, and on the same day it passed the 
house, thirty-three representatives voting in the affirmative, and 
one, (Mr. Jacob Tcrhune, of Bergen,) in the negative ; and on 
Saturday, the i8th of March, it was passed by the counciL 

On the 3d of November, 181 3, the l^islature passed an act 
concerning steamboats, the preamble of which was set forth as 

'' Whereas, the legislature of this state, in and by an act entitled 
' An act for granting and securing to John Fitch the sole 

km,' m \ "■ tf 1 1 ■ • ■ y a'.' Ti , ■ ■ I ■ m ■ • r ■ -.ibkMift«tf4<MkMA«iMa^4«a*Mia«*i4MMn*«U^BM!>.M«alM^aaM^Bj^^»MMMM«Ma^(rtaU««MMi*Mi«M^a 


and advantage of making and employing the steamboat by 
him lately invented, for a limited time/ passed at Tren- 
ton, on the 1 8th day of March, 1786; and in order to pro- 
mote and encourage an improvement and discovery so useful, 
and as a reward for his ingenuity, application, and diligence, 
did vest in the said John Fitch, his heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, and assigns, the sole and exclusive right and privilege 
of making and navigating boats impelled through the water 
by force of fire or steam, in all waters within the territories 
|ind jurisdiction of this state, for fourteen years then next to 
come ; which said John Fitch constructed a steamboat of con- 
siderable size, which ran on the river Delaware, . through the 
water, at the rate of about four miles by the hour at least; and 

. the said John Fitch, having departed this life without having 
received from his said exclusive right any adequate recom- 
pense or reward for his great expenses, ingenuity, application, 

. and diligence as contemplated by the law aforesaid; ofid 
whereas^ Qideon Hill Wells, of the city of Trenton, admin- 
istrator of all and singular the goods and chattels rights, and 
credits, which were of the said John Fitch, by an instrument 
of writing, under his hand and seal duly executed, hath 
granted, assigned, and conveyed unto Aaron Ogden, for good 

. and valuable consideration, all the right, title, and interest 
which was derived, or which ought now to be derived, to the 
said John Fitch, from the introduction of the improvements 
before mentioned," &c., &c. 

The same privileges were* conferred upon one Daniel Dodd, of 
this state, as had been previously conferred on John Fitch. 

December 5th, 1823, an act was passed giving Edward Clark, 
of Philadelphia, '' the privilege of navigating any or all of the 
rapids in the river Delaware, between the bridge at Bloomsbory, 
and the northwest comer of the state, the current of the river 
to operate on water or paddle wheels, and any other apparatus 
he might deem it proper to employ, to propel boats against 

Friday, August 20th, 1784, a petition was presented to the 
house of assembly from the inhabitants of Trenton and its vicin- 
ity, accompanied by a bill entitled " An act for erecting part 


- '-■'-'^^ 

-■1 ~7S- 



of the township of Nottingham, in the county of Burlington, ,.' 
and part of the township of Trenton, in the county of Hontei* « 
don, into a city, and for incorporating the same by the namejof 
the city of Trenton, and for declaring the same a free city and 
port, for the term of twenty-five year*.** 

This bill passed the house on Tuesday, November 15th, 1785, 
and on Thursday, the 25 th of February, 1786, the act was re* 
jected by the counciL 

Thursday, March 2d, 1786, a petition from sundry inhabi* 
tants of the townships of Nottingham and Trenton was pre- 
sented to the house, '' praying that a part of the township of Tren- 
ton and a part of the township of Nottingham may have the 
benefit of a corporation, with the power of making by-laws for 
their internal police and government ;*' whereupon leave was 
given them to present a bill agreeably to the prayer of their peti- 

Saturday, March 4th, 1786, a petition from sundry inhabitants 
of the township of Nottingham was presented to the house, 
praying that if a charter of incorporation should be given to the 
inhabitants of Trenton, the township of Nottingham may not 
be included, which was read and referred. * * 

May 23d, 1792, a petition from the inhabitants of Hopewell, 
Maidenhead, and Trenton, in the county of Hunterdon, was 
read, asking that a law might be passed for incorporating a 
borough, to consist of the said townships, for the purpose of 
holding courts, and establishing a gaol and court-hoose within 
the said borough. 

At the same session the inhabitants of Trenton presented a 
petition, praying leave to present a bill to incorporate said town, 
which was granted. 

The boundaries were as follows : 

" Beginning at the mouth of Assanpink creek, and running up 
the same to Bernard Hanlon*s mill-dam ; from thence along the 
road to the line between Trenton and Maidenhead; thence 
along the said line to the road leading from Trenton to Maiden- 
head ; thence on a straight line to the northwest comer of a lot 
late of David Brearley, deceased ; thence on a straight line to 
the northwest comer of the land of Lambert Cadwalader, 

r' ■im r r mi ^ I'lli mi ai ii • ilir<i ■■■ ii -i r* " '-rr T" ■^^^■■iri 


whereon he now lives ; thence down the same to the mouth of 
the Assanpink creek aforesaid, being the place oi beginning, 
shall be distinguished, known, and called by the name of the 
city of Trenton." 

A petition from a number of inhabitants of Trenton was also 
presented, setting forth irregularities in the said town which 
have taken place by sundry riotous and disorderly persons, at 
and near the Methodist meeting-house, and praying that some 
measure may be taken to prevent such disorders in future; 
whereupon a bill was introduced, entitled ''An act to preserve 
order and decency in places of worship," and on Wednesday, 
May 30th, 1792, the bill passed the house, and on Friday, June 
1st, it was rejected by the counciL 

The bill to incorporate a part of the township of Trenton, in 
the county of Hunterdon, was taken up June ist, and rejected. 
It was again revived at the following session, and passed the 
house November 5 th of the same year, and on the 12th of the 
same month it was amended and passed by council, and on the 
13th it passed the house, with the amendments made by council. 

May 2oth, 1793, a petition was received in the house from 
the inhabitants of that part of the township of Trenton not 
included within the corporation, praying that they may be set 
off from the township of Trenton into a township to be known 
bj the name of the township of Independence. They were 
accordingly allowed to bring in a bill for that purpose on the 
third Monday of the next sitting, they previously advertising 
the purport of said bill, with a copy of this order, in three of 
the most public places in the township of Trenton, and also for 
three weeks immediately preceding that time in the Trenton 

The bill to create the township of Independence was taken up 
January 27th, i794» when a remonstrance against it from the 
citizens of Trenton was read, but both parties agreed to submit 
the decision on the bill to the house; whereupon, on the 31st of 
the same month, it was passed by that body, but on the xith of 
February it was rejected by council. 

November 2d, 1796, a petition from a number of the citizens 
of Trenton was presented to the house, praying leave to present 


'■ • --— 



a bill to authorize the mayor, recorder, and aldermen to hold a 
court of quarter sessions within the said city ; whereupon a bill 
was introduced, entitled ** An act to incorporate a part of the 
township of Trenton," 

January loth, 1817, a petition from a number of inhabitants of 
Mill Hill and Bloomsbury, in the township of Nottingham, in 
the county of Burlington, was presented, praying to be incorpo- 
rated with the city of Trenton. 

At the same time a remonstrance was presented by a number 
of the inhabitants of said places against the same. 

March 6th, 1850, an act was passed providing for the election 
of a school superintendent and two trustees, and constituting 
the city of Trenton one school district. 

March i8th, 1852, the fifth ward was erected. 

February i6th, 1854, an act was passed requiring the city clerk, 
treasurer, clerk of the markets, street commissioner, and mar- 
shal to be elected by the people. 

February i8th, 1856, an act was passed authorizing the city 
to purchase lands for a public square, for which purpose they 
were authorized to create a loan not exceeding fifty thousand 
dollars, and to issue bonds payable in twenty years, said bonds 
to bear interest at six per cent, per annum, and to be exempt 
from city tax, and not to be sold at less than their par value. 

March 6th, 1856, the sixth ward \f2& erected from that part of 
Nottingham township designated by the name of Lamberton, 
and the balance of the township of Nottingham was annexed to 
and made a part of Hamilton township. 

^iarch nth, 1856, by joint resolution, the same privileges 
were granted to the clergymen of Trenton to use the books and 
papers belonging to the State Library as are enjoyed by the legal 

April 2d, 1867, the seventh ward was erected, and embraces- 
all that part of the city which lies north and west of the Dela- 
ware and Raritan Canal and feeder. 

February 28th, 1840, the act creating the borough of South 
Trenton was passed. 

The bounds were as follows: ''Beginning at the confluence of 
the Assanpink creek with the river Delaware, in the middle of 

1^ ■ ■■ ■ - ■- •• • f <-■■■■ ^ ■ ■- -^ ■ ■ — ■ ■ ■>.. .^ ■ . ■ .^ ■ ^. , ^ ^ . . ^.. 


ssdd creek; thence up the middle of said creek, the several 
courses thereof, to the middle of the Delaware and Raritan 
Canal ; thence down the middle of said canal till it intersects 
the road running westwardly along the south side of the State 
Arsenal; thence down the middle of said road to the end thereof, 
and continuing in the same direction in a straight line to the 
river Delaware, and thence up the river Delaware, the several 
courses thereof, to the place of beginning." James M. Redmond, 
was appointed first chief burgess ; James H. Sims and Bailey A. 
West, assistant burgesses ; Marshal C. Holmes, high constable, 
and Jacob B. James, borough clerk. 

February 25th, 1847, ^^ ^^^ ^^ passed giving the burgesses 
the like power, authority, and jurisdiction in all criminal mat- 
ters as the justices of the several counties. 

March 19th, 185 1, the borough of South Trenton was annexed 
to Trenton, that part lying to the east of the line running up the 
middle of Bloomsbury street, from the Assanpink bridge to its 
intersection with the middle of Lamberton street, and thence 
along the middle of Lamberton street to the line of the town- 
ship of Nottingham, to b^ called the third ward; and that 
part lying to the west to be called the fourth ward ; the ward 
called the east ward was made the first ward, and the ward called 
the west ward, was made the second ward. 

December 2d, 1801, the house resolved unanimously, ''that 
the members representing this state, in the congress of the United 
States, be and they are hereby requested, if congress should re- 
solve to move, for the purpose of better accommodation, from 
the city of Washington, to use their best efforts to procure their 
removal to the city of Trenton ; and they are hereby authorized 
to proffer, in the name of this state, the State House and other 
public buildings belonging to the state for the use of congress 
and their officers, for any length of time that the congress shall 
wish to occupy them, and that his excellency, the governor, be 
requested to transmit a copy of this resolution to the members 
of congress from this state, to be used by them as occasion may 

The same day it was passed by the council. 

November 4th, 1802, a petition was received from sundry 

i ^ ' -'^^^ ' *—"*—* — — " ■ '■ - i ?a^ii^— ' " ■■ ^-^-^"^^^"^■'^■*" 

i ( ■! • I ■ <i • ■ ^ ' *^« 


inhabitants of Trenton, stating further objections to the election 
held in said township, and praying to be heard before the house, 
which was referred to the committee of elections, and on the 
1 6th they reported, ''that in the petitions against the election 
in Maidenhead, three objections are stated, vh. : 

** ist. That citizens of Philadelphia voted. 

" 2d. That mirried women voted. 

*' 3d. That votes were given by proxy. 

" As to the first point, your committee are of opinion it was 
not supported. 

" As to the second point, it appeared to your committee that 
a married woman voted, whose husband had left her for several 
years, and she had retaken her former name, and under that 
name she voted and paid taxes. 

" As to the third point, it was proved to your committee that 
two votes were given in by proxy, and that this practice had 
heretofore taken place in this township. 

" That in the petitions and memorial tigainst the election in 
the township of Trenton, eight objections are stated : 

" xst. That the poll was improperly moved. 

" 2d. That the judge received votes in the open street from 

*' 3d. That persons under age voted. 

" 4th. That non-residents voted. 

" 5th.. That negroes and actual slaves voted. 

"6th. That aliens voted. 

"7 th. That persons not worth fifty pounds voted. 

**8th. That married women voted. 

"That in the opinion of your committee the first point was 
not supported. That as to the second point, the taking of votes 
in the street from carriages, your committee considering how 
much the practice may be abused, are of opinion that it was 
irregular, if not unlawful. 

"They further report, that it appeared to your committee that 
this practice had heretofore, in certain places, prevailed at elec- 
tions in Trenton. 

" That at the late election no objection was made to the mode, 
but that voters of all kinds, without regard to any political 


-"•~--"^~*~*'-- ---- ' -■— ■ - --' ' III I I- I 1 1- -I -■ l> 111 iiiii ■■ ■ I'l iB— 1i -| - II I '-I - I I ■ 'f I 


• - t 

cnce of opinion, presented votes on that mode ; and your com- 
mittee further report, that as far as such a mode of election could 
be, it was conducted by the judge and inspectors with fairness 
and correctness, the votes being received singly, in open view, 
and openly conveyed to the box. 

''That as to the six other points, your committee decided, at 
the hearing, that they would receive no evidence of such unlaw- 
ful votes being admitted unless they were challenged, or unless 
the judge and inspectors knew the votes to be unlawful. 

" Your committee being of opinion that unless the voter was 
challenged, or they knew him to be unlawful, the law compels 
the judge and inspectors to put the ballot in the box. 

" Your committee further report, that no evidence was offered 
to them of the judge and inspectors knowingly receiving unlaw- 
ful votes, which were not challenged ; and as to the votes which 
were challenged, your committee report, that the evidence 
offered does not warrant them to say that improper decisions 
took place. 

''Your committee are unanimously of opinion that it is not 
expedient, and would not tend to the public good to set aside 
the elections in the townships of Maidenhead and Trenton. 

** By order of the committee. 

** Frederick Frelinchuysen." 


Which report was sustained by the house. 

October 29th, 1802, a petition was presented from a number 
of citizens and electors of the county of Hunterdon, stating 
illegal proceedings had at the late annual election in the county 
of Hunterdon. 

At the assembling of the legislature, February ist, 1804, the 
following message, a model for brevity, was communicated to the 
house by the governor : 

^'Febrruary ist, 1804. 

"On the 17th of December last, I received from the president 
of the United States an attested copy of ' An article of amend- 
ments proposed by congress, to be added to the constitution of 
the United States, respecting the election of president and vice 
president,* and which is submitted to the consideration of the 
legislature of the state of New Jersey* 

'■-'•' ^•■- 



" The late revised laws of the state of New York, and a lai^ 
map of the states, have been presented by the legislature thereof 
and are herewith delivered. 

«« Joseph Bloomfield.*' 

February 6th, 1804, a petition was presented to the house 
from a committee of the '' Trenton Resolution fire Company/.* 
praying the house, as guardians of the public property of the 
state within the city of Trenton and its vicinity, to assist than 
in procuring an engine and other implements necessary to extin- 
guish fires. 

On the 14th of November, 1804, the Trenton and New Bruns- 
wick Turnpike Company was chartered. 

The original corporators were James Ewing, Joshua Wright, 
John Neilson, James Schuremann, and Thomas HilL 

The road was to be four rods wide from Trenton to New 
Brunswick, and they were to give security to the governor to 
pay the subscription money received by them to the treasurer 
of the company, and to be paid by the company for their ser- 

The subscriptions were two thousand shares, of one hundred 
dollars each, five dollars to be paid on each share at' the time of 

January 27th, 1814, the council passed the bill to incorporate 
the Trenton and New Brunswick Turnpike Company, and on 
the 28th it passed the house. 

Sundry petitions from a number of the citizens of Trenton 
and elsewhere were also presented to the house, praying, for 
reasons therein set forth, for a law authorizing a lottery for the 
purpose of removing the obstructions in the river Delaware, 
between Duck Island and the Pennsylvania shore ; and on the 
28th a bill was introduced in the house for that purpose, and on 
the 4th of November the bill was dismissed. '-^ 

. I II »^«ii tmtam M« ■ M]'m It -~ *— - "— - i- —-—» rr - -ii 1 — " '- 


ir^e Old Jail— State Bank — Trenton Aqueduct Company — War 
of x8i2 — Trenton Library Company — Mayof^s Court — Maun- 
facturing Companies — Mercer Cemetery — Riverview Cemetery 
— Temperance BeneficicU Society — Trenton Insurance Company 
— EvangeliccU Reformed Church — Trenton Monument Associc^ 
tion — Nottingham Schools, 

IN 1808 the old jail was converted into the banking-house of 
the Trenton Banking Company, and on the 2 2d of Novem* 
ber of that year the legislature passed an act empowering the 
mayor, recorder, and aldermen of the city, or either of them, to 
confine violators of the law in the work-house, which was at that 
time being erected on Academy street, declaring the same to be 
the common gaol of the city, the keeper of which was to be ap- 
pointed by common council. 

No magistrate was allowed to commit any offender to said city 
prison or work-house. 

By this act the mayor, recorder, and aldermen were empow- 
ered as justices of the peace for the city, and their territorial 
jurisdiction was made to extend to the city of Trenton only. 

On the 28th of January, 181 2, an act was^ passed establishing 
state banks at Trenton, New Brunswick, Elizabeth, Newark, and 

Stacy Potts, Peter Gordon, Charles Rice, William Scott, and 
John R. Smith were the corporators of the state bank in this 
city. They, in connection with Ellett Tucker, Reuben D. 
Tucker, Lucius Horatio Stockton, Evan Evans, Edward Yard, 
William Wood, Philip F. Howell, James J. Wilson, and Abner 
Reeder, were appointed the first directors. 

■ ■» - 1 « 



They were not allowed to issue notes of a less denominaticMi 
than three dollars. 

On the I St of November, 18 13, an act was passed allowing 
them to issue notes of a denomination not less than one dollar. 

On the 27th of March, 1845, an act was passed to extend the 
charter of the State Bank at Trenton for the purpose of enabling 
them to close up and settle its affairs. Twelve years were given 
them from the 28:h of January, 1842. 

During the extension they were privileged to issue any bills of 
credit, bank bills, or other circulation of money, by loan or 
othenii'ise, in the form or style of banking business, in order to 
enable them to fmally close up the concern. 

October 26th, 18 10, a petition was presented from a number 
of citizens of Trenton, praying for permission to bring in a bill 
to incorporate the proprietors of the Trenton Aqueduct Com- 
pany ; whereupon a bill was presented for that purpose. 

On the ist of November, remonstrance was presented against 
the same from the president and directors of the Trenton Water 
Works, praying that the legislature would not incorporate said 
company. On the 29th of January, 1811, it passed the house, 
was sent to the council, by them amended and passed, reported 
back to the house, and on the 8th of February passed with the 

On the loth of April, 181 2, congress* passed an act to author- 
ize a detachment from the militia of the United States of one 
hundred thousand men, and on the 15th of April the president 
called upon the executive of this state to take effectual measures 
for having five thousand of the militia of this state, being her 
quota, detached and duly organized and properly armed and 
equipped for actual service, and on the 25th the commander-in- 
chief issued his order to that effect, requiring them to be ready 
to march whenever called upon. 

War having been declared between the United States and the 
kingdom of Great Britain and the dependencies thereof since 
that time, it became the duty of the legislature of this state to 
put the state into the best posture for aiding in protecting the- 
country and carr}'ing on the war. The militia were to be pre- 
pared for actual service by their state governments respectively. 


« « ^ ■•■« 



Plve hundred men were called into active service immediately^ 
and provision was at once made for arming and equipping one 
thousand men. 

February 17th, 1813, a petition was presented to the house 
from a number of the stockholders of the Trenton Library 
Company, praying permission to erect a house on a part of the 
government lot, for the purpose of using the same as a library 
room, which petition was referred to Messrs. William Potts, of 
Hunterdon, Thomas H. Hughes, of Cape ^lay, and Silas Con- 
dit, of Essex, with leave to report by bill or otherwise. 

The committee presented a bill, and on the 19th it passed the 
house unanimously, and on the 20th it passed council. 

The size of this building was not to exceed twenty feet in 
width by thirty feet in depth. 

On the 28th of January, 181 7, an act was passed giving the 
mayor, recorder, and aldermen of the city of Trenton the 
power and authority of justices of the peace (for the time being) 
of the state of New Jersey, and the mayor, recorder, and alder-, 
men, or any three of them, of whom the mayor or recorder were 
to be one, were to constitute a court of general quarter sessions 
of the peace of the city of Trenton, with all the powers, author- 
ity, and jurisdiction within the said city of Trenton, except the 
granting of tavern licenses, and excepting, also, the hearing and 
determining of appeals in pauper cases with which the several 
courts of general quarter sessions of the peace of the several 
counties of this state are or may be vested. 

The former was left to the common council, and the latter to 
the overseer of the poor. 

This court was termed ** The Court of General Quarter Ses- 
sions of the Peace of the city of Trenton." 

It was a court of record, and held four sessions in each year, 
on the second Tuesday of the months of April, July, Septem- 
ber, and January, with power to adjourn from day to day, and 
to hold special sessions when the mayor, recorder, and aldermen 
should deem such special sessions necessary. 

The clerk of the city was clerk of said court, performed the 
same duties, and was entitled to receive the same fees and emolu- 
ments, and subject to the like penalties and forfeitures as the 



clerks of the courts of general quarter sessions of the peace of 
the several counties of this state. 

On the 2Sth of Febniary, i835> the Assanpink Manufacturing 
Company, for the manufacture of cotton or woolen cloth, or 
both, was incorporated. 

Its incorporators were l^ilemon Dickinson, I^wis Wain, 
William Grant, William Wain, and Thomas J. Stryker. 

The capital stock of the comjiany was three hundred thou- 
sand dollars, divided in shares of one hundred dollars each. 

March 5th, 1S36, the Union Manufacturing Company, for the 
purpose of manufacturing, bleaching, or printing articles of 
which cotton, flax, or wool were the principal parts, was incor* 

Dr. John McKelway, Thomas J. Stryker, and Xenophon J. . 
Maynard were the incorporators. 

The capital stock was three hundred thousand dollars, divided 
in shares of one hundred dollars each. 

March 9th, 1836, the Trenton Silk Manufacturing Company 
was chartered, with a capital stock not exceeding one hundred 
thousand dollars, divided in shares of fifty dollars each. 

The corporators were John Titus, John Mershon, William P. 
Sherman, Benjamin Chapman, Zarhariah Rossell, and George 

On the same day the Phoenix Manufacturing Company, for 
the purpose of manufacturing cotton, wool, and flax, and dye- 
ing, printing, and bleaching the same, \f2& incorporated, with a 
capital stock of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in shares 
of one hundred dollars each. 

February 4th, 1837, the Trenton Flax Company was incor* 
porated, for the purpose of dressing, bleaching, and manufactur- 
ing flax, with a capital stock of flfty thousand dollars, divided in 
share of flfty dollars each. 

Its corporators were Charles Green, Ralph H. Shrevc, and 
John R. Dill. 

^larch 3d, 1837, the Delaware Manufacturing Company was 
incorporated, for the purpose of manufacturing, bleaching, and 
printing articles of which cotton, flax, and wool are the principal 
parts, with a capital stock of three hundred thousand dollars, in 
shares of one hundred dollars each. 

._.jvi ' .a_n aaa' j . ._>_ i.u ■■ .im. »i fci 


The corporators were Dr. John McKelway^ Benjamin Coates, 
and Charles Wurts. 

On the 24th of February, 1838, an .act was passed to incor- 
porate the Mercer Cemetery Company. 

The corporators were Elisha Gordon, Ogden D. Wilkinson, 
Crispin Blackfan, Thomas Slack, Charles C. Yard, John D. 
Hester, Andrew Allison, Enoch W. Green, Henry N. Barton, 
David Wi^henip; Joseph Witherup, Charles Hunt, Thomas Gor- 
don, Jasper Scott, James T. Clarke, and John A. Hutchinson. 

Mr. Jacob M. Taylor (now deceased) having, sometime in the 
year 1857, conceived the idea of erecting a cemetery on the high 
lands in the southern part of the city, and at. that time owning 
an undivided half of about twenty-six acres, partly on the low 
and partly on the high lands, submitted his views to a number 
of gentlemen, when, on the i6th of January, 1858, a preliminary 
agreement was signed by Jacob M. Taylor, John R. Smith, Isaac 
Stephens, William M. Force, William S. Yard, and David With- 
erup to take what had been purchased by Mr. Taylor, and use 
their endeavors to purchase more, all to be vested in Jacob M. 
Taylor, until a sufficient quantity was obtained and a charter pro- 
cured from the legislature ; an application was made, and finally 
passed and approved February 26th, 1858, with the privilege to 
hold fifly acres of land. The charter was accepted by the cor- 
porators on the ist day of May, 1858. 

The work of fencing, laying out, grading, and planting trees 
was then commenced, and the first lot was sold to the lamented 
Captain William E. Hunt, on the 22d of February, 1859 ; at the 
date of this notice. May ist, 187 1, there are about eight hundred 
lot owners. 

The cemetery embraces about thirty acres, twenty-five of which 
are on the high lands, and is represented by fifteen hundred shares 
of stock at twenty dollars each, being about one thousand dol- 
lars per acre, with all its improvements. The stock is now held 
by sixteen persons. 

February 26th, 1838, the Trenton Gas and Insurance Com- 
pany was chartered. 

The ;:ommissioners appointed to open books of subscription 

- . 1.,- 


were Isaac Southard, Joseph Wood, Benjamin Fish, Joshua Hoi- 
llnshead, and Zachariah RosselL 

The first directors were Lewis P. Higbee, John Titus, Samad 
McClurg, Joseph Wood, Joshua HoUinshead, Zachariah Rossell, 
Jacob Kline, Philemon Dickinson, and William Grant 

The capital stock was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
with power to increase it to three hundred thousand dollars^ 
divided into shares of fifty dollars each. 

They were authorized to effect insurance on all kinds of prop- 
erty, as well as insurance upon the lives of persons, and to grant 

They were also empowered to engage in the manufacture of 
gas, and dispose of the same to the city of Trenton and indivi- 
duals, and all incorporated or other companies who might desire 
the same, and to carry their pipes through any of the streets of 
the city. 

March 9th, 1839, an act was passed allowing them to erect a 
reservoir, in or near the city, for the purpose of supplying the 
inhabitants of Trenton, Bloomsbury and Mill Hill with good' 
and wholesome water, provided they did not take their water 
directly or indirectly from the spring or fountain of the president 
and directors of the Trenton Water Works. 

February 23d, 1843, ^'^ ^^ ^^ passed incorporating the Mer- 
cer Cemetery at Trenton. 

The corporators were Charles C. Yard, Joseph C. Potts, Samuel 
Lloyd, Alexander H. Armour, David Witherup, and Joseph A. 

This is the present Mercer Cemetery on Clinton street and 
the Assanpink creek. 

February 26th, 1839, the Nottingham Manufacturing Companj 
was incorporated. 

The amount of capital stock was not to exceed two hundred 
thousand dollars. 

The company was incorporated to manufacture silk, cotton, 
wool, hemp, and twine. 

The corporators were George W. Halsted, John Whittaker, 
James Perkins, William Stevens, Zachariah Rossell, William 
Halsted, and James S. Green. 

.-.::^i- «.. - . ■« — ^ ^- ^ _ ..^ — ^^ . ^ _^ . ^.^ 



March 2d, 1841, the Temperance Beneficial Society was incor- 

The corporators were David Millcdge, Henry Pierson, Thomas 
MacPherson, Obadiah Howell, Jr., Thomas Gandy, Daniel B. 
Coleman, Franklin S. Mills, Andrew Newton, Amos Hutchin- 
son, and Charles C. Yard. 

Their clear yearly income was not to exceed two thousand 

March 2d, 1842, the Trenton Insurance Company was incor- 

Its capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars, divided in 
shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The first directors were James M. Redmond, Jacob Kline, 
Philemon Dickinson, Thomas J. Stryker, Benjamin Fish, Charles 
G. Green, Crispin Blackfan, Richard J. Bond, John Whittaker, 
Isaac Baker, Emley Olden, John B. Mount, and James T. Sher- 

They were to insure houses and other buildings and personal 
property against loss or damage by fire. 

March 4th, 1842, the New England Manufacturing Company 
of South Trenton was incorporated for the purpose of manufac- 
turing, bleaching, and printing all goods of which cotton or 
other fibrous materials form a part. 

The capital stock was five hundred thousand dollars, the shares 
to be divided as the proprietors might think fit. 

' The corporators were Stephen Hansen, David S. Brown, John 
H. Shortridge, Thomas J. Stryker, William Grant, John C. Ben- 
son, Benjamin Fish, Joseph C. Potts, and William R. Hansen. 

March 8th, 1842, an act was passed for the relief of the Evan- 
gelical Reformed Church of the city of Trenton. 

On the 9th of March, 1836, this church was incorporated 
under the general act to incorporate trustees of religious socie- 
ties, as the First Evangelical Reformed Church of Trenton. 

At that time it was united to the synod of the German Re- 
formed Church in the United States, but dissolving its connec- 
tion with that body in 1842, they made application, and obtained 
the above special act, giving them the privilege of obtaining a 
new certificate of incorporation from the clerk of the county. 

_ _ - - - mmamm ■- '' - --• ■ ■■■• ■ ■" 

.*- . ,c.-:r:::srirjgar£r::arc:;^crji:r:3t" rrrf. r 



On the 8th of March, 1841, the Trenton Monument Associa- 
tion was chartered. 

Its corporators were Garret D. Wall, William Pennington, 
Mahlon Dickinson, Joseph W. Scott, Robert D. Spencer, Peter 
D. Vroom, Joseph C. Homblower, Isaac H. Williamson, Robert 

F. Stockton, Philemon Dickinson, Dudley S. Gregory, Robert 

G. Johnson, Henry W, Green, Stacy G. Potts, and Charles 

This company was chartered for the purpose of erecting a 
monument at Trenton to commemorate the victory obtained by 
the revolutionary army under the command of General Wash- 
ington, on the 26th of December, 1776. 

Garret D. Wall, Joseph C. Homblower, and Heniy W. 
Green were empowered to call the first meeting of the corpora- 
tion by giving twenty da}V notice in a newspaper printed in the 
city of Trenton, and in one printed in the city of Newark. 

March 13th, 1844, the Trenton Improvement Company was 
incorporated, to manufacture such articles as were not prohibited 
by the laws of this state. 

The object of this company was to purchase property and 
erect a manufactory along the stream called Petty's run. 

The capital stock was to be two hundred thousand dollars, ta 
be paid in gold or silver coin, or current bank notes. 

They were not to go into operation until one-fourth of the 
capital stock was subscribed and paid in. 

No part of the capital stock could be employed or used, 
directly or indirectly, for banking purposes. 

The incorporators were Edwin A. Douglass, Joseph C. Potts, 
Moreau Delano, William P^ Sherman, and William H. Potts. 

March 15th, 1S44, ^n act was passed for the establishment of 
public schools in the township of Nottingham, in the county of 

The inhabitants of the township were authorized to raise, at 
their annual town meetings, any sum of money not exceeding 
six hundred dollars, for the support of common schools in said 

They were to elect five persons, inhabitants of said towbship^ 
as trustees, to serve for one year after their election, to have 


entire charge and control of the public schools within the town- 

In case the amount of money rabed was found to be insuf- 
ficient for the support of the schools, the trustees were author- 
ized to assess upon each scholar such sum of money not exceed- 
ing one dollar per quarter as might be found necessary, but they 
were authorized to remit the whole, or part, upon such scholar 
or scholars as circumstances might in their opinion require. 

March ist, 1849, ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ passed giving the inhabitants 
power to raise, at their annual town meetings, any sum of money 
they may think proper, not exceeding three thousand do% 
lars, for the purchase of land and erection of school-houses, and 
for the establishment and maintenance of common schools in the 

They were also empowered to elect four trustees, who, with 
the town superintendent, were to have the entire charge and con- 
trol of the public schools within the said township. ' 


Trenton Iron Company — Trenton Mutual Lift andJ^re Insurance 
Company — Trenton Gas Light Company — Union Heaith Insur- 
ance Company — Trenton and Lehigh Transporiaiiom Company 
— Pacific Mutual Insurance Company — Locomotive Worki— 
JVidoioi Home — Patent Promoting Company — Trenton Boai 
and Dockyard Company — Horse Railroad — City Bridge — 
Union Industrial Home Association — Masonic Hall Assoeich 

APRIL 15th, 1846, Peter Cooper was authorized to coostract 
a railroad from his basin on the Delaware and Raritao 
Canal, in the township of Nottingham, upon any public road or 
other land over which he has or may have the right of way, by 
the best and most eligible route, to his rolling-mill, on the race- 
way of the Trenton water-power, provided the same does not 
interfere with the ordinary travel upon any road. 

February i6th, 1847, ^^^ Trenton Iron Company was inoor- 
porated, for the purpose of manufacturing iron and other com- 
modities and articles of which iron formed a principal part, and 
for the transaction of such business as may be properly con- 
nected therewith. 

The capital' stock was five hundred thousand dollars, in shares 
of one hundred dollars each, the mills and manufactories to be 
located in the borough of South Trenton. 

The corporators were Peter Cooper, James Hall, Edward 
Cooper, and Abram S. Hewitt. 

March 25 th, 1852, their capital stock was increased to one 
million dollars, and that part of the act which confined the mills. 



and manufactories to the borough of South Trenton was re- 
pealed. « 

February yth, 1854, the capital stock was increased to two 
millions of dollars. 

February $i\ 1847, the Trenton Mutual Life and Fire Insur- 
ance Company was incorporated for the purpose of insuring all 
kinds of property from loss by fire, and to insure the lives of 

The corporators were Philemon Dickinson, Xenophon J. May- 
nard, John A. Weart, Jasper S. Scudder, Joseph C. Potts, Jona- 
than Fisk, and Eli Morris. 

February 19th, 1847, ^^^ Trenton Gas Light Company was 
incorporated for thirty years. 

The capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars, in shares 
of twenty dollars each. 

The corporators were Xenophon J. Maynard, Gregory A. Per- 
dicaris, John A. Weart, Jesper Harding, and Joseph C. Potts. 

February 2 2d, 1849, ^^^ Union Health Insurance Company 
was incorporated, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, in 
shares of twenty-five dollars each. 

• The corporators were Joseph G. Brearley, Philip S. Phillips, 
Jonathan Fisk, Benjamin W. Titus, Elias Cook, John B. Ander- 
son, and Joseph C. Potts. 

. February 28th, 1849, ^^^^ Trenton and I^high Transportation 
Company, for the purpose of transporting goods, wares, and 
merchandise to and from White Haven, in the state of Pennsyl- 
vania, to the cities of Philadelphia and New York and all inter- 
mediate places, was incorporated. 

• Elias Cook, Jonathan Fish, and Jonathan Cook were the incor- 

The vessels and barges, eleven in number, constituted the 
capital stock of the company, and said stock was to be divided 
into shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The company were authorized from time to time to increase 
their capital stock to an amount not exceeding fifty thousand 
dollars. The office and records were to be kept in the city of 

February 19th, 185 1, the Pacific Mutual Insurance Company, 



for insuring houses and other buildings and merchandise against 
loss or damage by fire, was incorporated. 

Its capital stock was two hundred and fifty thousand doliars, 
in shares of fifty dollars each. 

. John F. Hageman, Xenophon J. Maynard, Philemon Dickin- 
son, and William A. Ingham were appointed commissioners. 

February xpth, 1851, the Temperance Hall Assaciation was 
incorporated, with a capital stock of ten thousand dollars 

Jacob S. Yard, John A. Hutchinson, James Hamilton, Joseph 
G. Brearley, Xenophon J. Maynard, Joseph Hannum, Theodore 
L. Cuyler, Charles T. Allaire, Charles B. Smith, Herbert F. Yard, 
Charles Skelton, John D. Hester, Samuel H. Lake, Richard 
Thomas, Reuben Groves, Peter Obert, and Henry B. Howell 
were the first corporators. 

March 3d, 1854, the Trenton Locomotive and Machine Manu- 
facturing Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of one 
hundred thousand dollars, in shares of five hundred dollars each. 

Its corporators were Aaron H. Vancleve, William R. McKean, 
Isaac Dripps, and Joseph C. Potts. 

They were incorporated for the manufacture of locomotives, 
steam engines, railroad cars, trucks, carriages, and other vehicles. 

Their charter gave them the privilege of increasing their capi- 
tal stock to two hundred thousand dollars. 

February 6th, 1855, ^^ Merchants Transportation Company 
was incorporated, to carry freight on their vessels through the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal, between the city of Trenton and 
the cities of New York and Philadelphia. 

The vessels and other property of said company constituted 
their capital stock. 

Thomas J. Stryker, William G. Cook, and Jonathan S. Fish 
were the corporators. 

February 19th, 1855, the Indigent Widows' and Single 
Women's Home Society of Trenton was incorporated. 

Subscription to the funds of the same, to the amount of three 
dollars annually, constitutes membership in the association. 

The object is to provide a home for destitute females. 

March 3d, 1855, ^^ Trenton Oil Cloth Manufacturing Com- 


pany was incorporated, with a capital of one hundred thousand 

They were empowered to carry on the manufacture of oil' 
cloths, from the lightest to the heaviest fabrics, in all their varie- 
ties, whether for floor, furniture, carriage, or other coverings. 

The incorporators were B. W. Titus, Isaac V. Brown, X. J. 
Maynard, T. Abbott, and Joshua Jones. 

March 6th, 1857, (he Trenton Patent Promoting Company 
was incorporated for the manufacture and sale of such articles as 
they may have the right, or may hereafter secure the right of 
manufacturing under any patents, as well as such articles of 
wood, metal, iron, or minerals as may be advantageously con- 
nected therewith. 

The capital stock was not to exceed two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, divided into shares of fifty dollars each. 

The corporators were William I. Shreve, William H. Inskeep, 
John D. Lloyd, William Howe, and John W. Murphy. 

February 4th, 1858, the Trenton Boat and Dock}'ard Com- 
pany was incorporated, for the purpose of carrying on the busi- 
ness of building, constructing, altering, and repairing boats or 
vessels, and erecting and constructing buildings, basins, and such 
other improvements on their lands as may be useful or necessary 
for the purpose aforesaid. 

The capital stock was fifteen thousand dollars, divided into 
shares of twenty dollars each. 

The corporators were Garret Schenck, William H. Norcross, 
Thomas P. Johnston, William I. Shreve, and Robert C. Belville. 

February 21st, 1858, the Union Manufacturing Company was 
incorporated, for the purpose of manufacturing, casting, and 
working iron and other metals, and erecting and constructing 
such buildings on their lands as may be useful or necessary for 
the purposes aforesaid. 

The corporators were Liscomb R. Titus, John Valentine, Wil- 
liam Howe, William I. Shreve, and J. Weigand Lloyd. 

The capital stock was seventy-five thousand dollars, divided 
into shares of fifty dollars each. 

February 26th, 1858, the Riverview Cemetery Company was 




The incorporators were Isaac Stephens, John K. Smith, Wil- 
liam S. Yard, and David Witherup. 

March 8th, 1859, the name of the Trenton Monument Associ- 
ation was changed to that of the New Jersey Monument Associ- 
ation, and a large number of corporators were added firom tytxj 
county in the state. 

March Sth, 1859, the Trenton China Company was incorpo- 
rated, for manufacturing and selling porcelain, china, chemical^ 
drugs, and other articles of which clay, sand, and other earthy 
substances form the basis or principal ingredients. 

The capital stock was fifty thousand dollars, divided into 
shares of fifty dollars each. 

The corporators were Isaac Stephens, Joseph Whittaker, 
George James, Jesse M. Clark, and Albert J. Whittaker. 

March 9th, 1859, the Trenton Horse Railroad Company was 
incorporated, with a capital stock of thirty thousand dollar^ 
with privilege to increase the same * to one hundred thousand 
dollars, and to be divided into shares of twenty-five dollars each. 

The incorporators were Timothy Field, Robert Aitken, Wil- 
liam M. Force, Lewis Perrine, Thomas' P. Johnston, Jonathan 
S. Fish, Charles Moore, Joseph Whittaker, and James T. Sher- 

March 15th, 1859, by an act of the legislature, John Kirk- 
bride, Mahlon Kirkbride, James H. Farrand, John Hendrick* 
son, David Taylor, Elisha Reeves, and Mahlon Moon, of the 
state of Pennsylvania, and Thomas J. Stryker, John L. Taylor, 
William A. West, Thomas P. Johnston, Barker Gummere, Greg- 
ory A. Perdicaris, and Jonathan Steward, of the state of New 
Jersey, were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to 
the capital stock of the Trenton City Bridge Company, in the 
place of the commissioners theretofore appointed^for that pur- 

March 17th, 1858, the name of the Trenton Patent Promoting 
Company was changed to the Mercer Manufacturing Company. 

February 14th, i860, the Excelsior Iron Manufacturing Com- 
pany was incorporated, for the purpose of carrying on a general 
manufacture of all articles of which iron or steel formed the 
principal part 




The corporators were Thomas P! Johnston, Orrin Waterman, 
James S, Lynch, J. Harris Cogill, James L. Gibson, Edward T. 
Green, and Joseph D. Hall. 

The capital stock was twenty thousand dollars, with power to 
rncrease the same to the sum of fifty thousand dollars, divided 
into shares of fifty dollars each. 

February 21st, i860, the Union Industrial Home Association 
for destitute children of Trenton, New Jersey, was incorporated, 
the object of which is to provide and sustain a home for desti- 
tute children, and to afford them the advantages of moral and 
religious training. 

The corporators were Mrs. Caroline E. Roney, Mrs. Elizabeth 
H. Clarke, Mrs. Mary D. James, Mrs. Kate Dill, Miss R^ebecca 
S. Potts, Miss Mary E. Beatty, Mrs. Elizabeth Street, Mrs. Fan- 
nie H. Darrah, Mrs. Margaret H. Wilson, Mrs. Sallie Gause, 
Mrs. Huldah M. Tyler, Mrs. Eliza J. Hunt, Mrs. Julia Darrah, 
Mrs. Hannah W. Sterling, Miss Catharine L. Beatty, Mrs. 
Amanda Bond, Mrs. Emma Forst, and Mrs. Elizabeth Jones. 

March ist, x86o, the Masonic Hall Association of the city of 
Trenton, was incorporated, with a capital stock of fifty thousand 
dollars, divided into shares of twenty dollars each. 

The corporators were Jonathan S. Fish, David Naar, Joseph 
H. Hough, William R. Clapp, John Woolverton, Thomas J. 
Corson, Edward W. Scudder, Harper Crozcr, William T. Nich- 
olson, Andrew Dutcher, Elias Phillips, and James S. Aitkin. 


J L. 


Trtnton Anns Company — Trenton Car Works — Normal and 
Model Schools — Trenton Chain Manufactory — Normal Schaoi 
Boarding-House — Trenton Co-operative Benefit Society — Sol- 
diers^ Children's Home — Trenton Lock Company — Delaware 
Manufacturing Company — Trenton Hall and Building Associa" 
lion — New Jersey Silver Mining Company — East Trenton 
Land and Building Association. 

MARCH nth, 1862, the Trenton Arms Company was incor- 
poratedy with a capital stock of ^one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, divided in shares of five hundred dollars each, ^ 
with power to increase it to four hundred thousand dollars. 

The corporators were Aaron H. Vancleve, Charles Moore, • 
Joseph G. Brcarley, Joseph C Potts, and Andrew G. VL Pre* 

March i8th, 1863, the Trenton Car Works was incorporated, 
for the purpose of manufacturing railroad cars of all descrip- 
tions. The capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars, in 
shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Joseph G. Brearley, Thomas J. Stryker, 
and Andrew G. M. Prevost. 

February 2d, 1865, the sum of thirty-eight thousand dollars was 
appropriated by the state for the purchase of the Normal and 
Model Schools, together with the grounds, fixtures, furniture, 
library, apparatus, and personal property connected therewith. 

March 22d, 1865, the Trenton Chain Manufacturing Company 
was incorporated, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand 
dollars, in shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Louis Chevrier, Charles N. Chevrier, 


Henderson G. Scudder, Samuel J. Rl Salter, Voorhees Vannest,. 
and Frederick Rippart. 

March 22dy 1865, the Normal School Boarding-house Associa- 
tion was incorporated, with a capital stock of twenty thousand 
dollars, with liberty to increase the same to fifty thousand dol- 
lars, in shares of fifty dollars each. 

The corporators were William White, Jonathan Steward, 
Charles Brearley, Henry B. Pierce, and Elias Cook. 

February 15th, 1866, the Trenton Co-operative Benefit So- 
ciety, Number One, was incorporated, with a capital stock of 
forty thousand dollars, in shares of ten dollars each, with the 
privilege of increasing it to eighty thousand dollars. 

The corporators were William Wood, John Lee, Joseph 
Firth, John Brelsford, John Albert, Thomas Whitehead, Ssunuel 
Mellor, George Lever, Benjamin Buckley, and Thomas Fish. 

March 7th, 1866, the Soldiers' Children's Home was incor- 
porated. / 

The corporators were John K. Smith, Abraham O. Zabriskie, 
and Samuel K. Wilson. 

March 9th, x866, the Trenton Lock Company was incorpor- 
ated, with a capital stock of sixty thousand dollars, with the 
privilege of increasing the same to two hundred- thousand dol- 
lars, divided into shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Joseph G. Brearley, Charles Gregg, J^ 
Harris Cogill, Francis B. Pye, Lewis Maney, J. N. Junken, and 
Elias Cook. 

March 13th, 1866, the Delaware Manufacturing Company was^ 
authorized to increase their capital stock to an amount not 
exceeding one million dollars, and the charter of the company 
was extended twenty-five years longer. 

March 15th, 1866, the Trenton Hall and Building Associa- 
tion was incorporated, with a capital stock of sixty thousand 
dollars, in shares of one hundred dollars, with power to increase^ 
their capital stock to a sum not exceeding seventy-five thousand: 

The corporators were Joshua Jones, John Taylor, John H^ 
Creveling, Joseph G. Brearley, John C. Cook, John L. Murphy,. 
Charles Scott, Daniel Temple, Philip Smith, John Bamett, and 
John Man. 


April 4thy 1866, the New Jersey Silver Mining Company was 
incorporated, with a capital stock of five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, in shares of fifly dollars eac:h. 

The corporators were J. Harris Cogill, Andrew Dutcher, and 
Joseph Tucker. 

April 6th, 1866, the East Trenton Land and Building Company 
was incorporated, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand 
<Iollars, with the privilege of increasing it to five hundred thousand 
dollars, and divided in shares of one hundred dollars each. Its 
corporators were Imlah Moore, Jonathan Fisk, Charles Moore, 
A. \V. Chceseman, and Augustus G. Richey. 

The amount of capital was one hundred thousand dollars, 
*with the privilege of increasing the same to five hundred thou- 
sand dollars, divided into shares of one hundred dollars each. 

This company was empowered to let, rent, lease, mortgage, and 
sell such lands and real estate as they may have and hold from 
time to time, in whole or in parcels, and to improve the same 
by erecting, or causing to be erected thereon, buildings of every 
name, kind, and description, and for all proper and legitimate 
purposes, or by laying off said lands and real estate into lots ; 
and to use the same for agricultural purposes, or in any other 
lawful way that the said corporation may deem necessary or 
advisable ; and to purchase, make up, manufacture, sell, and dis- 
pose of all materials pertaming to the erection of such buildings. 


. > 


Trenton Skating Park Club — Trenton Gold and Silver Mining 
Company — Ransome Patent Stone Company — Trenton Vise and 
Tool Company — Yuma Silver Mining Company — Central Mar^ 
ket — Mercer Gold and Silver Mining Company — National Pot- 
tery Company — Trenton Agricultural Works — New Jersey Pot- 
tery Company — Union Pottery Company — Trenton Woolen 
Company — Trenton Ice Company — Continental Saw Company 
— Washington Market Association — Merchants and Traders 
Protective Ufiion. 

APRIL 5th, 1867, the. Trenton Skating Park Club was incor- 
porated, with a capital stock of ten thousand dollars, with 
the privilege of increasing the same to a sum not exceeding thirt7 
thousand dollars, and divided into shares of ten dollars each. 

The corporators were D. Cooper Allison, J. Beatty Lalor, 
Isaac Weatherby, and G. Allen Anderson. 

April 6th, 1867, the Trenton Gold and Silver Mining Com- 
pany of Colorado was incorporated, with a capital stock of 
fifty thousand dollars, with the privilege of increasing it to two 
hundred thousand dollars, divided into shares of not less than 
five dollars each. 

The corporators were Daniel Peters, Samuel Prior, Jacob Sny- 
der, George F. Brown, W. D. Holt, Israel Howell, and John 
L. Murphy. 

March 5th, 1867, the Ransome Patent Stone Company, of 
New Jersey, was incorporated, with a capital stock of fifty thou- 
sand dollars, with the privilege of increasing it^to one hundred 
thousand dollars, and which was divided into shares of one hun- 
dred dollars each. 



This company was incorporated for the purpose of manufac* 
turing Ransome's patent concrete stone, from sand and other 
earths and chemicals, and for the transaction of such bqsiness as 
may be necessarily connected therewith. 

The corporators were George S. Norris, Charles H. Higgin* 
son, John F. Houdayer, Samuel Prior, Gregory A. Perdicaris, 
Samuel K. Wilson. Simon Donau, David Naar, Charles Moore, 
Amos Robbins, Pnilemon Dickinson, William G. Cook, Harry 
McCall, and Thomas J. Stryker. 

March 5th, 1868, the Trenton Vise and Tool Company was 
incorporated, with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, with 
the privilege of increasing the same to any sum not exceeding 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, divided into shares of 
one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were J. Howard Murray, Thomas S. Murray, 
Daniel P. Forst, James E. Darrah, Edwin G. Stores. 

March loth, 1868, the Yuma Silver Mining Company was in- 
corporated, with a capital stock of two hundred thousand dol- 
lars, with the privilege of increasing the same to two millions of 
dollars, divided into shares of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Philemon Dickinson, Liscomb R. Titos, 
John H. Phillips, Daniel Temple, Frederick P. Auten, Symmes 
H. Reading, John L. Taylor, Uriel T. Scudder, and John C. 

April 7th, 1868, the Central Market Company was incorpo- 
rated, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, with 
power to increase the same, from time to time, to a sum not ex- 
ceeding two hundred thousand dollars, divided . into shares of 
one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were John Taylor, William Wood, John C. 
Cook, Daniel B. Bodine, John Barnett, Samuel Prior, Charles 
Brearley, William R. Titus, Alpheus Swayze, Charles Scott, and 
William S. Hutchinson. 

April 7th, 1868, the lilercer Gold and Silver Mining Com- 
pany, of Colorado, was incorporated, with a capital stock of 
fifty thousand dollars, with the privilege of increasing it to five 
hundred thousand dollars, which was divided into shares of 
one hundred dollars eaclu 




The corporators were Jacob Snyder, James P. Davies, Daniel^ 
Peters, John H. Norris, William Lee, Lafayette Seaming, and 
William H. Skirm. 

March 3d, 1869, the National Pottery Company was incorpo- 
rated, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, with 
the power to increase the same, from time to time, to an amount 
not exceeding two hundred thousand dollars. 

The corporators were Theodore W. HilF, Charles Mayer, 
Charles Hewitt, Timothy Abbott, and George S. Green. 

March 9th, 1869, the Trenton Agricultural Works was incor- 
porated, with a capital stock of fifty-five thousand dollars, with 
the privilege of increasing the same to any sum not exceeding 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in shares of one hundred 
dollars each. 

The corporators were John Melick, Bennington Gill, John 
Butterworth, John S. Cook, and Amos Laning. 

March x8th, 1869, the New Jersey Pottery Company was in- 
corporated, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, 
with the privilege of increasing the same at any time, to a smxt 
not exceeding two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in shares 
of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Elias Cook, John Woolvcrton, Caleb S.. 
Green, Barker Gummere, and Nathaniel £. Britton. 

March 30th, 1869, the Union Pottery Company was incorpo- 
rated, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, with 
the privilege of increasing it to fifty thousand dollars, in shares 
of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Baltes Pickel, William White, Henry 
Smith, Joshua Jones, and Elias Cook. 

March 31st, 1869, the Trenton Woolen Company was incor- 
porated, with a capital stock of two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, with the privilege of increasing the same to an amount: 
not exceeding five hundred thousand dollars, divided in shares 
of one hundred dollars each. 

The corporators were Isaac Weatherby, Augustus G. Richey,. 
Theodore Emery, John Taylor, Henry Ivey, Ferdinand W. 
Roebling, and Symmes H. Reading. 

April ist, 1869, the Trenton Ice Company was incorporated^ 



with a capital stock of thirty thousand dollars, with power to 
increase the same to a sum not exceeding fifty thousand dollarsy 
divided in shares of twenty-five dollars each« 

The corporators were Robert C. Belville, Alexander M. John- 
ston, and John P. Nelson. 

April ist, 1869, the Continental Saw Company was incorpo- 
rated, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, with 
the privilege of increasing the same to any sum not exceeding 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, divided in shares of 
twenty-five dollars each. 

The corporators were George W. Rowley, Gotleib Maulick, 
Thomas P. Marshall, Imlah Moore, and Jacob R. Freese. 

March 17th, 1870, the Merchants and Traders- Protective 
Union was incorporated. 

The corporators were Peter Spracklin, Michael O'Neal, John 
P. Garey, Joseph Lanning, Barclay N. Stokes, John Crawford, 
Anderson Horner, and Daniel S. Thompson. 



Swearing by the UpHfied Hand— Trenton Academy — Two Crim- 
inals pardoned under the Gallows — Sale of Stills at Beattfs 
Ferry — Lower Trenton Ferry — Association to Prevent Trade 
with the Enemy — Ratification of the Treaty of Peace. 

OCTOBER ist, 1778, the general assembly, sitting at Prince- 
ton, passed an act for the ease and relief of such persons 
as are scrupulous of taking an oath with the ceremony of touch- 
ing and kissing the Book of the Gospels, by allowing that of 
holding up the hand in lieu thereof, and making them guilty of 
perjury by taking a false oath in this way. 

The publisher of the " Gazette '* advertised to be sold at the 
printing office drugs of every description, and '' that he would 
put up doctors' prescriptions ; also on sale, tea, coffee, choco- 
late, sugar, pepper, ginger, soap, pins, needles, and a variety of 
queensware, &c., diaper and damask table cloths, frying-pans 
and tar" — ^by which it appears that he kept everything neces- 
sary for family use. The paper also contains a number of adver- 
tisements for runaway '' niggars and wenches,*' ranging from 
four dollars to four thousand dollars reward, continental money. 

William Churchill Houston was the receiver of continental 
taxes in the state of New Jersey in 1782. 

On the 1 8th of September, 1782, the Trenton Academy was 

The following advertisement appears in the " New Jersey 
Gazette," published by Isaac Collins, comer of Queen (now 
Greene) street and Second (now State) street. 



<< Trenton Academt. 
'' A number of the inhabitants of Trenton and the comitry 
adjoining, in order to render the means of education more easy 
and certain, have formed a regular permanent establishment for 
that purpose. A commodious, handsome stone building has 
been erected, and is now open for the reception of scholars. A 
school, in which reading, writing, common arithmatick^ and 
book-keeping are taught, has been formed some time, under the 
care of an able teacher, and is carried on with great propriety 
and success. To improve the system, another is now opened, in 
which are taught the English, Latin, and Greek languages gram- 
matically ; geography, practical mathematicks, the principles of 
natural philosophy and astronomy, public speaking, and the 
rudiments of any other branch of useful education, either to fit 
pupik to finish a course at college, or to go immediately into 
business. The subscribers, the present trustees of this instita- 
tion, are determined to spare no pains to render it as beneficial 
as possible ; to which end they have put it under the care of 
George Merchant, B. A., a gentleman graduated at the Collie 
of New Jersey several years ago, who has, from the time he com« 
menced his studies, been engaged in teaching, and whose pru- 
dence and ability have been highly approved. The situation of 
the place is pi easant and beautiful ; boarding may be had in gen- 
teel, reputable families, and on reasonable terms; and strict 
attention will be paid to the morals and behavior of the youth. 
A school for the study of the French language will be opened as 
soon as a sufficient number of scholars to support a teacher are 

''It is not the intention of the subscribers to trouble the pub- 
lick with strained and pompous representations in favor of this 
. academy — they are persuaded the success and usefulness of it 
will soon recommend it more effectually. 

''Moore Furmak, 
"Stacy Pons, 
" WiLUAM C. Houston^ 
"James Ewino, 
"Isaac Coluns." 
December nth, 1782, James Ewing, the clerk of the board of 



trustees, advertised for a writing master and accountant in the 
academy at Trenton, as follows : 

"Any person well qualified to teach writing, arithmatick, and 
book-keeping, and who can be well recommended for sobriety, 
industry, and capacity, will meet with generous encouragement 
by applying to the trustees of the academy in Trenton. 

** By order of the trustees. 

"James Ewing, ClerV^ 

On the 23d of December, 1 782, at nine o'clock in the fore- 
noon, the examination of the grammar school, at the academy in 
this place, occurred. 

The scholars acquitted themselves greatly to the satisfaction of 
the trustees and other gentlemen present. 

" In the afternoon several of the scholars of both sexes exhibited 
a specimen of their improvement in the art of speaking, in the 
presence of a crowded assembly of ladies and gentlemen of the 
town and neighborhood, several members of the honorable the 
court of commissioners now sitting here, and other strangers of 
distinction, all of whom expressed the highest approbation of 
the performances. 

"We cannot but remark that the proficiency of the youth 
exceeded anything that could have been expected from the 
shortness of the period since they have engaged in these studies, 
and that the conduct and success of the institution reflect honor 
upon the abilities and care of the teachers.'* 

David Brearley and Isaac Smith were added to the board of 
trustees, in the place of Moore Furman and William C. Houston. 

September 25th, 1782, we find the following item: 

"Yesterday Joseph Davison and John Mulliner, who were 
sentenced at the last Supreme Court to be hanged here for horse- 
stealing, were pardoned under the gallows." 

We find the following advertisement, October 9th, 1782 : 


" A set of large stills are now completed at Mr. Beatty's ferry, 
at the head of Trenton falls ; also, a large set of fomenting tubs, 
containing five hundred gallons each, to receive the cyder of 


any person who favors the subscribers with their custom; the 
convenience of emptying the cyder into those laige tubs, will 
enable all persons immediately to take back their hogsheads. 
From the size of the stilk and their construction, spirit of a verj 
superior quality will be produced than from small stills, or stilb 
of any other construction, no copper being made use of in this 
distillery, which ever throws up verdigrb that is prejudicial to 
the spirit. 

'' The terms for distilling are one-third of the spirit ; cash lor 
cyder at one dollar and a half per barrel, or two gallons of high 
proof cyder spirit in exchange for each barrel of cyder, which 
will prevent any delay by the publick's humble servants. 

<' Lynch, Neil, and Poou 

**N. B. The publick may be supplied by the loth of October 
with excellent cask beer, Irish stingo, and porter; also, bottled 
beer at twelve shillings per dozen ; Irish stingo at fifteen shil* 
lings, and porter at fifteen shillings; empty bottles to be brought 
in exchange, by applying to Neil and Pool, at their store in 

In the same issue appears the following : 

"The publick are hereby informed that American porter, 
assembly beer, Irish stingo, and table beer are now ready for 
sale at the i>orter brewery in York street, Burlington. 

" N. B. The assembly beer is a choice, pretty liquor to smoke a 
pipe with ; the Irish stingo is a strong, excellent beer, prescribed 
by the faculty, is a balsamic to the stomach, and a never-fisdling 
remedy to an uneasy mind ; the porter gives vigor to the body, 
animation to the face, and occasions a healthy, blooming coun- 
tenance, if drank regularly a few months. 

"October 8th, lySa.'* 

The following advertisement appears in the " New Jersey Ga- 
zette" of November 6th, 1782: 


" The road on each side of the river Delaware to the landing 
is now completed ; the best attendance and quickest dispatch 
will be given to all persons who may please to favor it with 




custom. In this part of the river there are no obstructions^ the, 
water Is deep and smooth, and the shores gravelly, so that the 
boats may at all times be brought so near the shores as to land 
their passengers without wetting the soals of their shoes." 

On the iith of July, 1782, a number of the inhabitants of 
Trenton met together on short notice, for the purpose of con- 
sidering a plan of association to prevent trade and intercourse 
with- the enemy, and a draught being proposed, was agreed to, 
and subscribed by all present. 

A committee was then appointed to take measures for offering 
it to the inhabitants of the tomni and neighborhood, to devise 
the best means of rendering it effectual, and to call a general 
meeting of the inhabitants of the town and country adjoining, 
on Friday, the 19th inst., in order to determine upon such 
things as were necessary to be done. The following is a copy 
of the draught : 

" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, being convinced 
that the king and ministry of Great Britain, their agents and 
adherents, despairing of the conquest of these states iy force, 
are resorting to the arts of duplicity and intrigue ; that among 
other devices, they are endeavoring by means of those among 
us who are opposed to the present revolution or devoted to sor- 
did gain, to introduce into the country large quantities of British 
goods, and to draw off our money in payment for them ; thus 
they expect to disable us from paying our taxes, rob us of a 
medium of business, and put an end to our opposition, in the 
support of which money is indispensably necessary; that care is 
taken to send out such species of goods as are not only useless, 
but are likely to have the greatest effect in corrupting the man- 
ners of the people ; that the better to insure success, the highest 
encouragement is afforded to such as will engage in the traffick, 
either personally or by connexion in interest ; and, on the other 
hand, every effort is made use of to shut up, as far as possible, 
all the channels by which goods have been, during the war, im- 
ported among us, or the produce of the country sent out to mar- 
ket ; that those among us who favor this trade, either from the 
malignity of principle, or the inordinate love of gain, are doing 
everything in their power to secure it under the feigned appear- 


ance and cover of the law, and that they have but too far and 
too often succeeded ; that they are endeavoring to slacken the 
bands of those who are disposed to be active and vigilant in 
putting a stop to such intercourse and traflick, by propagating 
an opinion that interference of this kind is mean and dishonor- 
able; that notwithstanding the salutary measures taken by the 
legislature, the evil is become so dangerous and inveterate that 
it will not be in the power of the magistrates to correct and re- 
move it, unless the citizens in general exert themselves to bring 
offenders to justice ; that to approve, connive at, or not to use 
every means to destroy such intercourse and trafllick with the 
enemy, is not only unworthy tfie character of men of principle, 
but a mark of disrespect and ingratitude to a nation from which 
we have derived the most seasonable and effectual aid in the 
progress of this revolution, and whose exertions and sufferings 
in our favor claim from us every possible acknowledgment and 
preference; that such clandestine traifick is a discouragement 
and injury to the fair and upright trader, and has a banefol ten- 
dency to lead away others by the example. And being also con- 
vinced that it b the duty of every good citizen to recollect the 
glorious principles which gave rise to the revolution, and to recor 
to those principles, which, under Providence, have brought it 
to the present state, and will be the most powerful means of 
bringing it to a happy and successful termination, we have asso- 
ciated ourselves for the following purposes : 

." I. We will, to our utmost, detect and bring to justice all 
who may be in any wise concerned in this pernicious traffick, 
and use every lawful means to prevent and suppress it. 

''2. To which end we will, to the utmost of our power and 
influence, strengthen the hands of all of&cers, civil and military, 
in the discharge of their duty, and support the full and vigorous 
execution of the laws. 

" 3. We will give every assistance to those who arc vested 
with authority, to restrain and punish all suspicious persons trav- 
eling without proper passports or certificates, or carrying British 
goods or other property made seizable by law. 

'' 4. We will avoid, as far as possible, all intercourse, commu- 
nication, and dealings with such as have been or may be con- 



cerned in trading with the enemy, or who have been or may be 
justly suspected of being so concerned. 

" 5. We will give every support and assistance in our power 
to those who shall exert themselves to detect and bring to jus- 
tice persons concerned, either directly or indirectly, in trading 
with the enemy, and treat as mean, false, and designing every 
insinuation that such endeavors are in the least degree inconsis- 
tent with honor and good citizenship, or that they are not highly 
becoming and praiseworthy. 

" 6. In prosecution of these objects, we will, at the same 
time, discountenance and oppose all acts of oppression and vio- 
lence, and whatever may be inconsistent with the peace and good 
order of the community, being determined not ^o resort to 
force, except where the same may become indispensably neces- 

'' Subscribed by one hundred and fifty-three inhabitants of 
Trenton and the neighborhood. Trenton, July nth, 1782.** 

They issued the following address : 

"Friends and Fellow Citizens: We cannot too often 
recollect the principles which gave rise to the present revolu- 
tion : principles as pure and dignified as ever actuated a people. 
As long- as they remain, this country cannot be conquered; the 
moment they become extinct, we are gone. There has been a 
time when the infamous traffick and intercourse pointed to in 
the above association would not have been suffered to exist a 
week ; we hope to see that time revived. We are all convinced 
of the pernicious effects produced by it. We see it destroying 
that simplicity of manners which is the glory of a republican 
government. We see it poisoning the principles and -morals of 
the community. We see it draining off that money with which 
we ought to pay our taxes, and without which all the publick 
movements must stop. We see it increasing the number of our 
secret enemies, by means of the powerful allurements of gain* 
That the system of the war is changed from force to cunning, is 
known to all ; that the latter is the more dangerous, is equally 
known ; one secret enemy is worse than ten open ones, particu- 
larly in the present posture of affairs. As friends and fellow 
citizens, we request your exertions. In times of peace it is com- 

pwyyiP^ i wi WH B II II I . I I iw j I , nm ■ I I I ■111 , 1 J . Ill B ^ ii w i I t ■1 1.. m ii iW 



paratively easy to support good order; in times of publick com* 
motion, the exertions of every individual are more necessary. 
Every one can do something ; and every one ought to do all he 
can. The vigorous and attentive execution of the laws against 
vagrant and idle people, of the act passed twenty-fourth of June 
last, to prevent illicit trade and intercourse with the enemy, and 
of the act of the tenth of June, 1779, ^^ prevent persons travel- 
ing through the state without the proper passports, seems par- 
ticularly requisite. This we ought especially to do, and at the 
same time to leave nothing else undone. The labor is great, 
but the object is greater. The safety of our country calls loudly 
upon us. Let us recollect who we are. Let us recollect wluut 
we contend for; perseverance, prudence, and resolution will 
insure us success. 

'* On behalf of the committee. 

''Robert L. Hooper, Jr. 

'* Trenton, 12th July, 1782." 

''The inhabitants of Trenton, and of the country adjoining, 
will please to meet at the court-house,. on Friday the 19th inst., 
at four o'clock in the afternoon, upon business respecting an 
association to prevent trade and intercourse with the enemy. 

" PursudTnt to the above notice, the inhabitants of this place;, 
and the country adjoining, met at the court-house on Friday 
the 19th instant. 

" Samuel Tucker, Esq., was appointed duurman. 

" The association to prevent illicit trade and intercourse with 
the enemy being read and considered, the fourth article was • 
altered to read as follows: 

' " We will avoid, as far as possible, all intercourse, communi* 
cation, and dealings with such as may be concerned in trading 
with the enemy, or who may be justly suspected of being so 

" The whole being then unanimously approved, was subscribed 
by all present. 

" A committee of nine was appointed for the purpose of carry- 
ing the objects of the association into the most effectual execn- 
tion, to continue two months, and to meet for the first time on 
Monday, the 2 2d instant. 

i«lini«. "I^ 


''The gentlemen elected were Samuel Tucker, William C. 
Houston, Robert L. Hooper, Jr., Esq., Colonel John Neilson, 
Mr. Robert Neil, Mr. Benjamin Smith, Captain John Mott, 
Captain Israel Carl, and Mr. John Reeder. • 

'' The committee were authorized to call a general meeting of 
the associators, whenever circumstances, in their opinion, render ^ 
it necessary. 

"Samuel Tucker, Chairman.** 

Monday, July 22d, 1782, the committee met. Robert Lettis 
Hooper, Jr., Esq., was appointed chairman. 

''Agreed, that such parts of the laws of the state to prevent 
persons from coming into, or traveling through the same, with- 
out proper passports, as may appear most immediately necessary, 
be published in the ' New Jersey Gazette' as soon as possible, to 
the end that all may be informed thereof. 

** Resolved, unamnumsly^ That it is the duty of all, and particu- 
larly of this committee, and of every associator, to be vigilant 
and active in putting the laws in execution against suspected 
persons and others, traveling without proper passports ; in giving 
information, assistance, and support to those who are vested with 
proper authority, for restraining and furnishing such as do not 
pay proper attention to the laws, or encourage, in the remotest 
degree, directly or indirectly, any trade or intercourse with the 
enemy; and that the greatest care ought to be taken, on the 
other hand, to avoid everything inconsistent with prudence, 
good order, and the vigorous execution of which is the great 
object of the association. 

" By order, 

"Robert L. Hooper, Jr., Chairman^ 

Saturday, the 28th of September, the period for which the 
committee of the associators were appointed, having expired, a 
meeting was called by the chairman, at the court-house, at three 
o'clock in the afternoon of said day, which was adjourned to 
the next Saturday, October 5 th, at which time the committee 
again met, with Mr. Stacy Potts in the chair, when it was re- 
solved unanimously, "That we will, to the utmost of our power 
and influence, discourage the use of all Britbh manufactures 



whatsoever, except prize goods legallj condemned, and encour- 
age the use of those of such nations as are in alliance with the 
United States, and friendly to their cause ; regarding this not 
only as the best means of putting a total stop to all traffick and 
intercourse with the*enemyy but as a great political duty, and a 
just tribute of gratitude to those who have given us their assist- 
ance in the day of our distress. 

'' Resolved^ unanimously^ That we look upon a punctual pay- 
ment of our taxes as one of the best means, under Providence, 
to put a speedy end to the present war, and disable the enemy 
from making further attempts upon our liberties; and that we 
will, to our utmost, promote and further the same. 

** Resolved^ That the committee first chosen be continued, and 
in order more fully and certainly to carry the design of this 
association into effect, that six members be added. 

'' The following are the names of the members added : Messrs. 
John Bell, Charles Axford, Jr., Conrad Kotts, Ebenezer Rose^ 
John Howell, and Joseph TindalL 

'* By order of the association. 

" Stacy Potts, Chairmatg.** 

The ratification of the treaty of peace caused the most un- 
bounded enthusiasm throughout the country. Public meetings 
were held, bonfires and beacon lights illuminated the heavens 
from one end of the country to the other. As hostilities had 
commenced on the 19th of April, 1775, in many places the 
peace, so happily concluded, was celebrated on the 19th of 
April, 1783. 

At Princeton, the people met in the college hall, where an 
excellent discourse, suitable to the occasion, was delivered by 
the venerable Rev. Dr. Witherspoon, to a very numerous 
audience. Entertainments were prepared at the houses of Mr. 
Hyer 'and Mr. Beekman, at three o'clock in the afternoon of 
that day, at which time the company divided and repaired to 
each house, and after dinner numerous toasts were drank, and 
cannon discharged. , 

At seven o'clock in the evening the houses in the town 
were splendidly illuminated, in many of which great taste was 
displayed in the arrangement of the lights. 



At eight o'clock the infantry company of the town fired 
thirteen volleys, with great regularity and exactness, after . 
which the company retired, having spent the day with that fes- 
tivity, decency, and good order which characterize a free and 
virtuous people. 

The thirteenth toast was as follows: 

'* May the recollection of the xpth of April, 1775, the 4th of 
July, 1776, and the 3d of February, 1783, prove a terror to 
tyranny and oppression throughout the world.". 

On the same day the glorious peace was celebrated at Borden- 
town, at Colonel Okey Hoagland*s, at twelve o'clock. The 
governor's proclamation was read, after which thirteen cannon 
were fired, succeeded by three huzzas of the people, with every 
expression of real joy. 

At three o'clock they dined at Colonel Hoagiand's, when 
thirteen toasts were drank, accompanied by the discharge of 
artillery and small arms. 

At seven o'clock in the evening the houses were beautifully illu- 
minated, more particularly the house and academy of the Rev. 
Burgis Allison, whose windows were ingeniously decorated with 
the following transparent paintings : 

ist. The sun, in its meridian splendor, shedding his rays on 
the segment of a globe comprehending North America, with 
this motto — "Shine on this Happy Land." 

2d. The portrait of His Excellency General Washington, 
encompassed with thirteen stars, representing the United States 
of America, with this motto — "Independent, United, and 
Free," above; and " Success to our Allies," below. 

3d. Peace, represented by implements of husbandry, and a 
dove with an olive branch; motto — "They shall beat their 
Swords into Plough-shares, and Spears into Pruning-hooks." 

4th, Plenty, represented by two cornucopias of fruit and 
flowers, the cornu supporting a festoon, two wheat sheaves, and 
a basket of fruit 

5th. The crown of France, in the middle of three fieur de . 
lis, with this motto — " Long live Louis XVL" 

6th. A trophy adorned with British arms, drums, and inverted 



standards; motto — "The Spoils of our Foes;** over which was 
Fame, flying, with a trumpet, and the words, ''America shall be 
Free/* issuing from it 

7th. Britannia, sitting in a disconsolate posture, pointing at 
her broken spear, ^nd saying, (by a label), ** Alas ! I*ve lost 
America.'* Mars, standing with his sword extended over her, 
saying, (per label), ** I've Humbled thy Pride.** 

8th. America, in the figure of an Indian, with his bow and 
arrow by his side, and the British crown carelessly lying at his 
feet ; Mercury standing by him, presenting him with a laurel 
crown, saying, (per label), "The Laurels Thou Hast Won.** 

The evening closed with a ball for the further entertainment 
of the ladies.. 

At New Brunswick, the same day was celebrated ; the morning 
was ushered in by the display of colors and the ringing of bells. 

The foot militia, under Captain Guest, and the artillery, under 
Captain Supp, paraded the streets and marched to the conunon^ 
attended by a numerous concourse of citizens. Thirteen can- 
nons were discharged, followed by the musketry. 

Rev. Israel Reed, of the Presbyterian Church, delivered a 
discourse in the Dutch Church, from Ecclesiastes, vii., 14, 
" In the day of prosperity be joyhil.'* In the afternoon an en- 
tertainment was served up at AVliite Hall tavern, and at the 
house of widow Haffert ; thirteen toasts were drank. At half- 
past six o'clock the companies retired. 

A curious and magnificent bonfire was lighted up in the even- 
ing, consisting of sixteen tar barrels, supported by separate poles 
of a great length, all of which being set on fire at the same in- 
stant, together with a large quantity of combustibles collected 
around the tallest pole, really exhibited a splendid and brilliant 
appearance, which could only be exceeded by the superior taste 
displayed by the ladies in illuminating the town. 

At Cranberry the celebration took place on Tuesday evening, 
the 15th Inst., at the Sign of the Thirteen Stars, present among 
whom was Rev. Thomas Smith. An elegant entertainment was 
served up at the house of Mr. Thomas Nixon, of which all pres- 
ent partook. After the cloth had been removed, the usual num- 
ber of toasts (thirteen) were drank. 





On Wednesday, the i6th, the inhabitants of the township of 
Amwell assembled at Snyder's tavern. At noon thirteen can- 
nons were discharged, succeeded by the cheers of the people* 
After dinner the usual number of toasts were drank. 

At Woodbridge, New Broomley, ^f oimt- Pleasant, and other 
places similar demonstrations were held. 

The celebration at Trenton came off on Tuesday, the isth of'' 
April. His Excellency Governor Livingston, the honorable the 
vice president of the state, with several members of the legisla- 
ture, the judges of the Supreme Court, and other magistrates, 
together with a great number of the inhabitants of the town and 
vicinity, met about eleven o'clock, at the house of Mr. Wil- 
liams, from whence they, with the trustees, directors, aund stu- 
dents of the academy, went in procession to the court-house, 
where the governor's proclamation, declaring a cessation of hos- 
tilities, was publicly read, after which thirteen cannons were fired, 
succeeded by the cheers of the people. 

At twelve o'clock, divine service was attended, where a dis- 
course adapted to the occasion was delivered by the Rev. Elihn 
Spencer, D. D., before a very numerous audience. At three 
o'clock p. M., his excellency the governor, with a number of 
the gentlemen of the town, repaired to the house of Mr. Fran- 
cis Witt, where, as well as at the houses of Mr. Williams and 
Mr. Cape, entertainments were provided for the occasion. Afler 
dinner the following toasts were drank : 

i, "The Glorious Peace of the 3d of February, 1783." 

2. "The United States of America." 

3. "His Most Christian Majesty.'* 

4. " The United Netherlands." / 

5. " The General and the Army.'* 

6. " General Greene and the Brave Troops under his Com- 

7. "The American Commissioners at Paris.*' 

8. ** Count de Rbchambeau and the French Troops who served 
in America." 

9. " The Marquis de Lafayette, and all such Distinguished 

10. "All the AVhigs in America.'* 

' a4iai««ai*nmpi"w< 

•T«iCTaqH«a*iVWnHa>H|ll L. ■ III ■■■' 



11. ''Agriculture, Trade, and Navigation. 

12. ''The Memory of all those who have lost their Lives in 
Defence of our Liberties." 

13. "The state of New Jersey, may she ever stand distin- 
guished as a pattern of Virtue, Public Spirit, and Strict Justice to 
all who have generously supported her in the hour of difficultj.*' 


Every Man a Soldier — To Provide Himself a Musket^ and all 
the Necessary Ammunition — JFirst Organized Military Compa^ 
nies — Names of the Different ^filitary Companies and their 
Officers t from 1776 /t? 1870 — The Late Rebellion — Number of 
Men Liable to do Military Duty in the State — Number of Men 
Sent into the Field — Excess Over all Calls Made by the Ex* 
ecutive of the United States — Expenses of Fitting Them Out--^ 
Soldiers* Children* s Home. 

PREVIOUS to the American revolution we know but very 
little of the military of our state — in fact, we can find no 
state records that there were, previous to that eventful struggle, 
any organized companies in our city. Every man was consid- 
ered, under the old English law, as enrolled for military duty. 

Under the grants by Berkley and Carteret, in the year 1664, 
every freeman was *' to provide himself a good musket, bore twelve 
bullets to the pound, with ten pounds of powder, and twenty 
pounds of bullets, with bandiliers and match convenient." 
Every able man servant he should carry with him, was to be 
armed and provided in the same way. 

And although the military spirit was fully aroused during the 
revolution, we cannot learn from the state records that more 
than two regularly organized military companies existed in Tren- 
ton, until the year 1806. 

The following were called the first battalion, foot militia of 
Hunterdon county, Isaac Smith, colonel. 

The first company here mentioned was organized June 17th, 
1776. The of&cers were John Hunt, captain ; Henry Mershon, 


m ^ii w i 



first lieutenant; Ralph Laning, second lieutenant; Eli l^loore, 

The second company was organized June xpth, 1776. Wil* 
liam Tucker, captain ; John Fitch, first lieutenant ; Isaiah Yard» 
second lieutenant ; Joseph Clunn, ensign. 

Between the years x8o6 and 1808, there were five regularlj 
organized military companies in what is now comprised in the 
cifty of Trenton; three of these were in Hunterdon county, north 
of the creek, and two in Burlington county, south of the creek, 
although at that time the two sections comprised less than five 
thousand inhabitants. 

In the toiiiiiship of Nottingham, now comprising the third, 
fourth, and sixth wards of Trenton, was the second company of 
the second regiment of the first battallion. This company was 
organized April 26th, 1806. Its-ofEcers were Samuel Redman, 
captain ; John Sutterly, lieutenant, and William Lloyd, ensign. 
This company, although located in the township of Nottingham, 
was attached to the Hunterdon militia. 

The officers of the third company were Jonathan Stevenson, 
captain; William Chambers, lieutenant; Willjam Hancock, 

The commissions of the officers of this company were *dated 
^lay 5th, x8o6, about two weeks later than those of the second 
company above mentioned. 

On the 24th of May of the same year a company was started 
north of the creek, called the fifth company of the regiment. 

The officers were James J. Wilson, captain ; Samuel T. Bel- 
lerjeau, lieutenant ; John Hollingshead, ensign. 

January 23d, 1 807, the Second Light Infantry was started. Its 
officers were John Beatty, captain; James Agnew, lieutenant, 
and Josiah Fithian, ensign. 

May 24th, 1808, the third company was started. * Its officers 
were John Sunderland, captain ; Alexander Witherup, lieuten* 
ant; Peter Van Cleve, ensign. June 27th of the same year 
James Agnew, was elected captain ; Josiah Fithian, lieutenant, 
and Alexander Wright, ensign, of the first company, third fo- 
ment. December 21st, 1809, Josiah Fithian was commissioned 
captain ; Alexander Wright, lieutenant, and Israel Fish, ensign* 




A second company, called the Light Infantry, was organized 
April dthy i8ii. Its officers were Samuel T. Belleijeau, captain; 
Joseph McCulley, lieutenant ; William Sanderson, ensign. 

The seventh company was organized February 5th, 1813. Its 
officers were Archibald McCain, captain ; Joseph Yard, ensign ; 
and on the 27th of March of the same year Joseph Yard was 
promoted to a lieutenancy, and Jasper Scott, made ensign. 

April 15 th, 1 81 4, the Jersey Blues, or eighth company, was 
organized. The officers were James Wilson, captain ; William 
Sanderson, lieutenant, and James Hillman, ensign. 

August 2oth of the same year, the Union Light Infantry was 
organized. Its officers were Charles Moore, captain; Samuel 
T. Belleijeau, lieutenant, and Thomas McCulley, ensign. 

September 19th of the same year, the Phcenix Company was 
organized. Its officers were Garret Dorset Wall, captain ; Israel 
Fish, lieutenant, and Daniel Baker, ensign. 

March 25th, 1816, the Jersey Blues were organized. The 
officers at the time of organization were Zachariah Rossell, cap- 
tain; afterwards John B. Potts was elected captain; John 
Woolley, lieutenant, and William Southwick, ensign. April 
29th, Thomas McCully, was elected lieutenant September 
17th, 181 7, Thomas McCully was elected captain, and David 
Hutchinson, lieutenant. 

April 19th, 1819, David Hutchinson was elected captain; An- 
drew M. McCully, lieutenant, and Jacob Yard, ensign. 

June 24th, 1838, the Pike Infantry was organized. Its officers 
were Samuel TDickinson, captain ; Joseph Witherup, first lieu- 
tenant ; Richard Brandt, second lieutenant ; Henry C. Boswell, 
third lieutenant. 

December loth, 1842, the National Guard was organized. 
The officers were James W. Wall, captain ; Richard Brandt, first 
lieutenant; Anthony Rowley, second lieutenant; David S. An- 
derson, third lieutenant. June 26th, 1843, Captain Wall re- 
signed, and Samuel Dickinson was elected captain; James W. 
Wall, first lieutenant ; William Napton, second lieutenant, and 
William H. Rossell, third lieutenant 

December ist, 1843, the Flying Artillery was organized. 
Samuel R. Hamilton, captain; Jacob Kline, first lieutenant; 

^^*'**^'y^' '■ ■ * -■— ^?yff1 III 1^ n ■■r^<>^^^pii>^^^www 


William Snowden, second lieutenant; William R. Mdlyaincy 


December 19th, 1845, Samuel Quicksall was elected third 
lieutenant of the National Guard. . 

January 27th^ 1846, the Jersey Blues were organized, with 
William Napton as captain; Barker Gummere, first lieutenant; 
David S. Anderson, second lieutenant ; Samuel Mulfordy third 
lieutenant April 4th9 1867, Samuel Mulford was transferred to 
first lieutenant, and Barker Gummere, third lieutenant. April 
^isty 18481 Samuel Mulford was elected captain; David S. An- 
derson, first lieutenant, Charles J. Gummere, second lieutenant ; 
John W. Nealy second second lieutenant. 

January 30th, 1846, Heathcoat J. Disbrow, second lieuten- 
ant National Guard — ^June 26th, 1847, ^^^ lieutenant; Samuel 
Quicksall, second lieutenant ; Emerick Walton, third lieutenant. 
June 1 2th, 1848, Sylvester Vansickel, captain; Samuel B. Scat- 
tergopd, third lieutenant. June ist, 1849, Samuel McClurg, 
Jr., second lieutenant. 

June 2 2d, 1848, the Trenton Jersey Blues were organized. 
Samuel Mulford, captain; John W. Neal, first lieutenant; 
Charles J. Gummere, second lieutenant; Joseph C. Hill, third 
lieutenant, who was promoted to second lieutenant February 
27th, 1849, upon the resignation of Charles J. Gummere, when 
Albert G. Enos was elected second lieutenant, and on June 6th he 
was promoted to first lieutenant, and Barnet T. Slingerland, 
third lieutenant, was promoted to first lieutenant; December 
14th, John L. Gordon, second lieutenant, Benjamin M. Ander- 
son, third lieutenant. 

January loth, 1850, the Washington Artillery was organized, 
with the following officers : John W. Neal, captain ; Jeremiah 
R. Wilgus, first lieutenant ; John N. Lindsay, second lieuten- 
ant; Job M. Bennett, third lieutenant. 

January 21st, 1850, the South Trenton Rifles were organized. 
William Napton, captain ; Adolphus Combs, first lieutenant ; 
Thomas D. Hutchinson, second lieutenant ; Joseph Hill, third 
lieutenant. September i6th, 1852, Thomas C. Branin, first 
lieutenant; Samuel E. Branin, second lieutenant; John J. 
Mundy, third lieutenant. 


November 23d, 1852, the Trenton Irish Volunteers were organ- 
ized. Hugh McQuade, captain ; William Smith, first lieuten- 
ant; Richard Killian, second lieutenant; Patrick Redman, 
third lieutenant. March 23d9 1858, Patrick McMickle, first 
lieutenant ; Stafford Downey, second lieutenant ; James McCor- 
mick, third lieutenant. 

December ist, 1852, the Republican Rifles were organizedr 
Simon Kahnweiler, captain ; Joseph Ruellius, first lieutenant ; 
Martin Dapper, second lieutenant ; Frederick Mauer, third lieu- 

September 7th, 1855, ^^^ Trenton Rifles were organized. 
George P. Fuhrman, captain; Joseph Ruellius, first lieutenant; 
Martin Dapper, second lieutenant ; Frederick Mauer, third lieu- 
tenant. November 24th, 1854, Martin Dapper, first lieutenant ; 
Frederick Mauer, second lieutenant; John Haws, third lieu- 
tenant. April 30th, 1857, Martin Dapper, captain; Frederick 
Mauer, first lieutenant ; John Ha^vs, second lieutenant ; Albert 
Bentz, third lieutenant. March 25d, i860, John Haws, first 
lieutenant ; Henry Thcene, second lieutenant ; John Winter, 
third lieutenant. 

March i3lh, 1854, the Irish Volunteers were organized. John 
Gibbons, first lieutenant ; Dugald Frael, second lieutenant; Pat- 
rick Martin, third lieutenantl 

March 13th, 1854, the Sarsfield Guards were organized. 
Richard Killian, captain ; Charles Lyons, first lieutenant ; Wil- 
liam Tyrrell, second lieutenant ; John Gallagher, third lieuten- 
ant. June 29th, 1857, Charles Harley, captain; William 
Anglin, third lieutenant. 

September 8th, 1854, the Trenton Sarsfield Guards were 
organized. John Travers, captain ; Charles Lyons, first lieuten- 
ant ; William Tyrrell, second lieutenant ; John Gallagher, third 
lieutenant. , 

September 2 2d, 1854, the Trenton City Guards were organ- 
ized. William H. Rossell, captain ; William Halsted, Jr., first 
lieutenant ; William F. Pitcher, second lieutenant ; William I. 
Shreve, third lieutenant. 

December 72th, 1854, the Stockton Artillery was organized. 

_ I 


Sylvester Vansickel, captain ; Heathcoat J. Disbrow, first lieu- 

October 8th, 1855, the Trenton Volunteers were organized. 
John B. Gribbon, captain ; Anton MuUer, first lieutenant ; F^- 
rick McMickle, second lieutenant ; William P. Kane, third lieu- 
tenant. June 29th9 1857, Thomas L. Hanley, third lieutenant. 

June lothy 1856, the Liberty Rifles were organized. Thomas 
D. Hutchinson, captain ; Aaron S. Lovett, first lieutenant ; John 
W. Cook, second lieutenant ; Joseph R. Roberts, third lieuten- 

• February loth, 1858, the Jackson Guards were organized. 
Charles Harley, captain; Charles Lyons, first lieutenant; 
Thomas Hanley, second lieutenant. 

November 30th, x86o. Company A, National Guard, was 
organized; William R. Murphy, captain; Robert C. Belville, 
first lieutenant ; Joseph Ott, second lieutenant Captain Mur- 
phy resigned, and Robert C. Belville was appointed captain, 
Joseph Ott, first lieutenant, and Charles H. McChesney, second 
lieutenant. August 27th, 1867, William H. Skirm was dected 
in the place of Charles H. McChesney, resigned. 

Eighty-six members of this company were in the three months* 
service, under the proclamation of the president of April isth, 
1861 — from April i6th to July i6lh, i86r. Seventy-two were 
emergency men of 1863, called out by proclamation of Governor 
Curtin, of Pennsylvania, under date of June X7th, 1863. They 
were in service in Pennsylvania from June 19th to July xpth, 
1863, and forty-three were officers in the army, navy, and marine 


•corps of the United States. 

August 1 2th, 1861, the Wilson Zouaves were organized. Wil- 
liam Scudder, captain; Robert S. Johnston, first lieutenant; 
John B. Warren, second lieutenant. 

October 17th, 1861, Company C was organized. Charles 
H. Dean, captain; John Poland, first lieutenant; Charles H. 
Knowles, second lieutenant. 

October 17th, 1861, Company D was organized. William 
C. Vansant, captain ; Christopher Wentz, first lieutenant ; Ed- 
ward C. Flock, second lieutenant. 

October 19th, 1861, Company E was organized. John Clow- 



ney^ captain ; Thomas E. Boyd^ first lieutenant ; Samuel Cam- 
inade^ second lieutenant. 

October ipth, 1861, Company F was organized. Bamet T. 
Slingerland^ captain ; Thomas Francis, first lieutenant. 

October 19th, 1861, Company G was organized. Jasper A. 
Lloyd, captain ; Alfred R. Lloyd, first lieutenant 

October 19th, 1861, Company H was organized. Hugh 
McQuade, captain ; Patrick McMickle, first lieutenant. 

October 17th, x86i. Company I was organized.. William 
Valentine, captain ; George F. Vanhart, first lieutenant. 

October 17 th, 1861, Company K was organized. Joseph J. 
Hawk, captain. 

October X7th, 1861, Company A, second regiment, was organ- 
ized. Joseph W. Bond, captain ; John O. Raum, first lieuten- 
ant, promoted to captain ; Simon B. Conover, second lieutenant. 

October 17th, x86i. Company B was organized. Joseph B. 
Becker, captain ; William M. Yard, first lieutenant ; John Glenn, 
second lieutenant. 

June 29th, 1 86 1, Company C was organized. Charles Bech- 
tel, captain. 

December 24th, 1861, the Woolverton Infantry was organized. 
Ephraim R. Cook, captain ; George F. Vanhart, first lieutenant; 
John Moran, second lieutenant. 

December 14th, 1861, the Hunt Guards were organized. Jacob 
D. Joslin, captain; John C. Branin, first lieutenant; Lewis 
Lenox, second lieutenant. 

September 24th, 1861, the Union Light Infantry was organ- 
ized. Benjamin F. Craig, first lieutenant; Budd S. Bodine, 
second lieutenant. 

April 2 2d, 1 861, the Olden Guards were organized. Joseph 
A. Yard, captain ; Robert S. Gould, first lieutenant ; Charles 
Ewing, second lieutenant. 

April 22d, 1861, the Wilkinson Volunteers were organized. 
Isaac Paul Lykens,[captain ; John W. Neal, first lieutenant; John 
R. Beatty, second lieutenant. 

April 23d, 1 86 1, the Jersey Blues were organized. Samuel 
Mulford, captain ; Franklin S. Mills, first lieutenant ; Henry K. 
Zehner, second lieutenant 

||9Wr^ffl»V!l'<l '• W •!■■»• 

I" WJ iiw L. ^iF'irm^mwiv^yirr''''^^''^^^'^ 



April 24thy 1861, Company B, National Gtiardy was oi^gan* 
ized. Sylvester Vansyckle, captain ; William H. Tantum^ first 
lieutenant; John Parker, second lieutenant. 

May 39th, 1861, the Constitutional Guards were organized. 
Andrew Dutcher, captain ; John N. Lindsay, first lieutenant ; 
Lewis H. Vanhom, second lieutenant. 

August 7thy i86iy the Stevens Guards were organized. Heath- 
coat J. Disbrow^ captain; Calvin T. Speer, first lieutenant; 
Robert W. Roberts, second lieutenant. 

June 25thy x86i , the Trenton Rifles were organized. John Haws 
captain; Henry Thoene^ first lieutenant; John Winter, second 

August 2oth, i86it the Livingston Guards were organized. 
Charles Ewing, captain ; William C. McCall, first lieutenant ; 
Aaron C. Wilkes, second lieutenant 

August 2oth, 1 86 1, the Lewis Guards were organized. Robert 
S. Gould, captain ; DeKlyn Lalor, first lieutenant ; Henry H. 
Woolsey, second lieutenant. 

August 2 2d, 1 861, Company C, National Guard, were organ- 
ized. Charles F. Howell, second lieutenant. 

October i8th, 1861, Company K was organized. John Cart- 
mill, captain ; William F. West, first lieutenant; John C. Titus, 
second lieutenant. 

October 1 8th, 1 86 1 , the Belville Guards were organized. John 
J. Willis, captain; Aaron Bennett, first lieutenant; Dennison 
Davis, second lieutenant. 

August 1 2th, 1 86 1, the Jersey Blues were organized. Barzilla 

Ridgway, first lieutenant ; John M. Pearson, second lieutenant. 

May 30th, 1 86 1, the Trenton Artillery was organized. Charles 

P. Smith, captain; Ogden W. Blackfan, first lieutenant; James 

P. Stephens, second lieutenant. 

October 29th, 1861, Company B was organized. Alexander 
M. Johnston, captain ; Alfred W. Packer, first lieutenant ; James 
B. Gray, second lieutenant. 

October 29th, 1861, Company E was organized. Frederick 
R. Maucf, captain ; William Moore, first lieutenant ; Frank D. 
Holmes, second lieutenant. 
October 29th, 1861, Company F was organized. John Tay- 




lor, captain ; Lafayette Stradling, first lieutenant ; John G. Stout, 
second lieutenant. 

October 29th, 1861, Company G was organized. Simon 
Kahnweiler, captain; Spencer S. Bower, first lieutenant; Ben- 
jamin F. Britton, second lieutenant. 

October 29th, 1861, Company H was organized. Orrin B. 
Faussetty captain; Christian Fell, first lieutenant; Patrick 
O'Neil, second lieutenant. 

November 7th, 1861, Company A was organized. John R. 
Beatty, captain ; F. Augustus Auten, first lieutenant 

November 7th, 1861, Company I was organized. Joseph C, 
Mayer, captain; George W. Paulley, first lieutenant; James 
Ronan, second lieutenant. . 

November 7th, 1861, Company C was organized. Job Moore 
Bennett, captain ; Thomas S. Stephens, first lieutenant ; James 
H. Wilson, second lieutenant. 

November 15th, 1861, the Jackson Guards were organized. 
James O. Sullivan, captain; John Cahill, first lieutenant; 
Michael Spain, second lieutenant. 

November 2 2d, 1861, Company D was organized. Michael 
Dewan, captain ; William K. Bendel, first lieutenant ; William 
G. Middleton, second lieutenant. 

November 7th, 1861, the Trenton Rifles were organized. 
John Winter, first lieutenant ; Frederick Manheck, second lieu- 

December i8th, 1861, the City Guards were organized. 
Simon Kahnweiler, captain; Henry Thcene, first lieutenant; 
John Thines, second lieutenant. 

December ' nth, 1868, Company B, National Guard, was 
organized. John Dobbins, captain ; John W. Barber, first lieu- 
tenant ; John Zehner, second lieutenant. Captain Dobbins re- 
signed, and John Schofield was elected captain on January x 7th, 
1871. July 2ist, 1871, James C. Manning was elected captain, 
and Ambrose Hendershot, second lieutenant. 

August 19th, 1869, Company C was organized. Henry A. 
Speeler, captain; Sheffield Tuesday, first lieutenant; Henry • 
Lawton, second lieutenant. 

August 2oth, 1869, Company D was organized. John H. 

H^HJ i n i - ■ 




Leary, captain ; Edirard Mullen, first lieutenant ; Michael Cant- 
well, second lieutenant. Captain Leary died, and Robert SL 
Johnston was elected captain on November 15th, 1870, and 
James Campbell, second lieutenant, September 14th, 1869. 

Of the companies formed in 1861, the Wilson Zouaves, Union 
Light Infantry, Olden Guards, Wilkinson Volunteers, Jersey 
Blues, Company B, National Guard, Stevens Guards, Livings- 
ton Guards, l.e«'is Guards, Belville Guards, Jersey Bines, sec- 
ond, and Company H, took part in the suppression of the rebel- 

There was no state in the Union that showed a clearer record 
during the last war than New Jersey. Out of ninety-eight thou- 
sand eight h ;ndrcd and six men liable to do military duty, she 
sent into th^ field during the struggle eighty-eight thousand 
three hundred and five, being an excess over all calls made bj 
the executive of the United States of ten thousand and fifty- 
sever, r.nd within ten thousand five hundred and one of her 
entire mllit:2. 

'f'l e expenses were as follows: 

Accoutrements, -----.- ^16,035 Po 

Arresting deserters, .... - ^02 85 

Arms and ammunition, • • - - - • 9t7oi 59 

Advance pay, ) 60,278 00 

Army transportation, - - ... . - 74^032 09 

Barracks and quarters, - . - - . 131,593 99 

Books and stationery, SAZ^ 3« 

Bounty, 5,950 00 

Commandants in charge of camps of rendezvous, X7>7i3 54 

Commissioners to conduct the draft, • • 3>974 37 
Camp and garrison equipage, • - • -161,16364 

Qerkhire, 135*825 42 

Carting and freight, - •- - . . • 19974096 

Clothing, . - , . ^ - . - 889,448 96 

Equipments, - 18,074 03 

Enrolling, ^^363 6a 

Examining surgeons, 4,364 95 

Expenses of volunteer surgeons and nurses, • 655 84 

^^rage, 40,099 6x 

2 K 



Hospital expenses, - - . - - - - J^T^T*^ S^ 

Horses, '--.-.-.- 310,420 00 

Miscellaneous, .-.-.- 3SiS48 72 

Ordnance and ordnance stores, - - - - 499f905 37 

Organizing militia preparatory to draft, - - 7iOi8 62 

Pay, - -^ 39»S77 3^ 

Premiums, 16,376 00 

Printing, - 4*1 79© ^7 

Postage' and telegraphing, - • . - 8,805 75 

Recruiting, 5I9618 84 

Subsistence, 174,290 81 

Transportation, 88,442 4^ 

Total expenses, $2,894,384 99 

There were, no troops in the field better supplied with every- 
thing that contributed to their comfort and effectiveness than 
\rere those from our state. 

On the 23d of March, 1865, an act was passed to incorporate 
the Soldiers' Children's Home, and upon its being determined 
to locate it here, the sum of five thousand dollars was appropri- « 
ated towards its maintenance. 

The home was located near Millham, but the building! were 
soon found to be too small, and a site was purchased on the 
Sandtown road, and commodious buildings were erected thereon.. 

The institution was established originally in Jersey City. An 
appropriation of five thousand dollars was granted by the legis- 
lature. When the home was removed to Millham, Mn. W. L.. 
Dayton was chosen president ; Mrs. J. S. Davenport, and Mrs. 
A. G. Richey, vice presidents ; Miss M. A. Hall, treasurer, and 
M. F. Johnson, secretary, with a board of directors residing in 
Jersey City and Trenton. 

Their house at Millham being uncomfortable, and a consider- 
able distance from the city, and being unable to rent a suitable 
building, they purchased the house No. 92 Warren street, for 
four thousand dollars. The average number of children in the 
house up to 1866, was about forty. 

At the suggestion of Governor Parker, the Camden and Am* 


boy*Railroad Company gave them the munificent donation of 
eight thousand dollars. 

From the second annual report made to the legislature in 
1867, we condense the following: 

" While reviewing the past year, we would offer most earnest 
thanksgiving to our Father in Heaven for his unnumbered bless- 
ings. Unusual sickness has prevailed in the city among chil- 
dren : the joy of many a household has been taken away, but no 
serious illness visited us. The death angel passed by the home. 
We have to-day an unbroken circle of healthy, happy children 
—orphan children, whose fathers fell on almost every battle- 
field, consecrating the soil of every southern state. 

'' Though the graves of these patriots may not be decorated 
with beautiful but perishing flowers, they are not forgotten. 
Their memory is green in the hearts of our people, and the 
principles for which they sacrificed their lives form yet the 
foundation of our government, and, like the sturdy oak, are bat 
more firmly rooted by the fierce and stormy trials of the last few 

The new home was completed in January, 1867, and up to 
this time has cost the state sixty thousand five hundred dollars. 
It is exceedingly plain in its external appearance, while in its 
interior everything has been done in its arrangement to make it 
a comfortable, pleasant home. There is connected with it seven 
acres of land, upon two of which is a delightful grove, giving 
abundant room for garden, play-grounds, &c It will only be 
occupied for its present purpose ten years from the time of its 
first occupancy, when it will be turned over to the state, and 
can be turned into a reform school for juvenile offenders, or 
be devoted to some other charitable purpose. 

The house contains spacious and well-arranged school rooms, 
dining rooms, dormitories, and play rooms, those for the boys 
and girls being in different wings. They are together in school 
and at meals; there being many brothers and sisters among 
them, the managers desire to cherish and cultivate a fraternal 

The building is of brick, two stories high, with attic and base- 
ment. The centre building contains class rooms, committee 


and matron's room, two nurseries, sewing room, kitchen,, and 
laundry. 'In the basement of the east wing is a play room ex- 
clusively for girls, and an ironing room. On the first floor is a 
school room fifly by forty feet, furnished with desks for one hun- 
dred and forty pupils, piano, black-boards, maps, cards, &c. 
On the se<;ond floor there are dormitories for girls, and bath 
room, £c. In the basement of the west wing there is a store 
room and boys' play room. Opening from each play room is 
the wash room, with basins, towels, glasses, combs, &c. On 
the first floor is the dining room, fifty by forty feet, with tables 
and seats for one hundred and fifty, each child having its own 
place. The house is heated by furnaces and lighted with gas. 

From the report for the year ending 1870, we learn that they 
have had under their care in the institution, two hundred and 
forty-eight children, but at the time of rendering the report 
there were two hundred and twenty-two. Of this number one ^ 
hundred and twenty-seven were boys, and ninety-five girls, sev- 
enteen being entire orphans ; one hundred and sixty-nine have 
no fathers, and thirty-six have both parents living, in which case 
the father is either disabled by wounds or illness, or is, from 
other causes, unable to provide for his children. 

They have a Sunday-school, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Thomas }. Stryker, with a suitable library, and on one Sunday in 
each month services are held by some of the various clergymen 
of this city, at the home ; on the intervening Sundays the chil- 
dren are taken by their teachers to the different churches. 

There are five teachers in the school, who instruct the children 
in the fundamental branches of a plain English education. 

Miss Campbell is matron, and Drs. Charles Hodge and Rich- 
ard R.- Rogers have given their services as physicians, gratui- 
tously, ever since the opening of the home. 

The 4th of July is usually celebrated with appropriate ad- 
dresses from friends of the institution, and songs and dialogues 
by the children. 

On Thanksgiving day an excellent dinner is usually provided, 
and Christmas is pre-eminently the children's day, as it is made, 
as far as possible, a pleasant day for them. A Christmas tree, 
with a gift for each child, constitutes that part of the ceremo- 
nies of the day which renders the little ones happy. 


■^Jl ? *Vi»- y ^ ' ^J- ■ ■ ■■■ -■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ m9m % n . m j ^ . i j.^w f ii ^. — . " 


Fire Departm:nt — Fire Association for the Relief of Disabled 
Firemen — Finmerfs Beneficial Association — Fire Companies 
— Union — Restoration — Hand-in-Hand— Resolution — £a^lt-^ 
Delaware — Good Will— Harmony — Trenton Iliose, iWr. x— 
America Hose^ No. 2 — Hook and Ladder Companies — J^roiec* 
lion — Trenton Hose. 

THE first ordinance organizing and regulating the fire de- 
partment was passed May 5thy 1846. 

It provided that the department should consist of a chief 
engineer, two assistants, eight fire wardens, and such firemen 
and hosemen as were then, or should thereafter become, attached 
to the several fire engine and hose companies of this citj. 

The members of the several companies were to meet on the 
third Monday of May in each year, at the City Hall, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, for the election of a chief engineer and 
two assistants. This ordinance not being satisfactory, they did 
not all come under its provisions, but continued to act indepen- 
dent, until October 9th, 1854, when common council passed 
a new ordinance, which provided for a chief engineer 
and as many assistants as there were companies connected 
from time to time with the department, who constituted a board 
of engineers. The several companies connected with the de- 
partment were to meet in their several engine-houses on the first 
Monday of November in each year, and elect an engineer .to 
represent them in the board. 

The board were to elect a chief and two assistants, within one 
week after their election. 

The chief engineer was, at fires, to have sole and absolute 


( ^ 


control and command over all the engines and persons con- 
nected with the department^ and in his absence the assistants 
were to act by seniority. 

This ordinance, for a while, seemed to be satisfactory, and the 
several conipanies in due time availed themselves of its pro- 
visions by signifying their assent to the board of engineers, and 
sending a representative to that body, with authentic credentials. 

Through what was considered by some of the companies un- 
warranted action on the part of the board of engineers in 18599 
in regard to the companies located in the southern part of the 
town, the ordinance became a dead letter, the firemen refusing 
to act under it, and failing to elect representatives to the toard 
of engineers. 

In 1866 the different companies appointed delegates, who met 
in convention, and drew up an ordinance, which they presented 
to common council, and asked that body to adopt it as a satis- 
factory one, wl)ich is the law which now governs the depart- 

The mpde of electing the board of engineers is similar to 
that prescribed by the ordinance of 1854, but it differs from that, 
as it gives one assistant north and south of the creek. 

The following persons have held the office of chief engineer: 
John P. Kennedy, William J. Idell, Jonathan S. Fish, Charles 
Moore, John G. Gummere, Samuel P. Parham, A. S. Livings- 
ton, Levi J. Bibbins, Charles C. Yard, and John A. Weart. The 
last named is the present efficient chief, and has held the posi- 
tion since 1866, with the exception of the years 1869 and 1870. 

On the 1 2th of November, 1855, a meeting of the board of 
engineers and the presidents of the different fire and hose com- 
X)anies was held at the Union engine-house, for the purpose of 
organizing an association under an act of the legislature entitled 
" An act to incorporate benevolent and charitable associations,*' 
approved March 9th, 1853, for the relief of the members of the 
fire department organized under the ordinance of the city, who 
may become sick or disabled in the discharge of their duty as 
firemen, and to provide for the decent burial of such as may die 
without leaving sufficient means for that purpose. 

The name adopted was ** The Fire Association for the Relief 
of Disabled Firemen of the City of Trenton." 

i'y*'*^Wi ^. 'T » W H 11 . ■1 :^ 1 n i l j i I I . J. I U.. I H I , lym ^1 If f f 



The officers elected were A. S. Livingston, president ; Joiui- 
than S. Fishy vice president ; Charles Moore, secretary ; Joseph 
G. Brearley, treasurer. 

On the X3th of November, Mr. Livingston addressed a letter 
to the president of the Commonwealth Fire Insurance Company 
of New York, concerning a donation for the association from 
the underwriters, upon the fire at the mill of Gaunt & Derrick- 
son, on the water power, and on the 24th received the following 
reply, which formed the nucleus of the association. He says : 

''Yours of the 13th inst. would have received an earlier 
reply but for the absence of Mr. Wilmarth, chairman of the 
committee that settled the loss of Messrs. Gaunt & Derrickson. 

'' At his request I now have the pleasure to inform yon that 
the amount contributed by the insurance companies of this citj 
(New York) interested in the loss (say four hundred and thirty- 
seven dollars and fifty cents), has been paid to me, and your 
treasurer's draft for that sum will be honored. 

** I doubt not the Delaware Mutual will gladly add their pro- 
portion, sixty-two dollars and fifty cents, making the snm five 
hundred dollars for your 'Fire Association for the Relief of Dis- 
abled Firemen of the city of Trenton.* 

" It affords me peculiar pleasure to be the organ of communi- 
cation with you on this subject, and to assure you of the high 
estimation in which your fire department is held by the insurance 
companies of this city interested in the loss. 

" Hoping that your fund may always be equal to any and all 
demands made upon it, 

" I am, with great respect, your obedient servant. 

"Joseph Hoxie.** 

The above communication was presented to the association 
December loth, by Mr. Livingston, and at the same meeting he 
reported that he had also received twenty-five dollars, from the 
Bucks County Contributionship. 

The first funeral benefit was fifteen dollars paid on account of 
funeral expenses of Henry Nice, March 12th, 1856, since which 
time the expenses of thirteen have been paid, amounting, in the 
aggregate, to two hundred and fifty-one dollars and thirty-eight 


cents. The invested fund amounts at the present tims to fcur 
thousand six hundred dollars. 

The present officers of the association are George Furman^ 
president; Edward Steepy, vice president; Charles B. Cogill, 
secretary; IV. S. Livingston, treasurer. 

The funds of the association are derived from the tax on all 
foreign insurance companies, whether fire^ life, accident, marine^ 
•or live stock, doing business in this state. 

Under the act of the legislature, approved April 9th, 1867, 
each foreign insurance company b required to pay the secretary 
of state a license of fifty dollars, and a tax of two per centum 
on all premiums received by said companies in this state for the 
preceding year, for the support of the fire association located in 
the town where the agency exists. 

The usual certificate was made out and filed in the county 
clerk's office, and the association became incorporated under the 
above act. 

The credit of organizing this association belongs to A. S. 
Livingston, Esq., at that time our worthy and efficient chief 

A. S. Livingston and J. S. Fish were appointed a committee 
to draw up a constitution and by-laws for the government of Ihe 
association, to be submitted to the next meeting, which was 
adopted December xoth, 1853.' 

In 1870, the firemen formed an association called "The Fire- 
men's Benefit Association," the object of which was to con- 
sider any and all matters that would tend to benefit the depart- 
ment. It was through the influence of this association, all the 
companies working in concert, that the present mode of support 
of the department was inaugurated. They also attend to getting 
up benefits, as their name implies, for the good of the entire 
department. This association was originated by the whole de- 
ixirtment, and is composed of three delegates from each com- 
ixiny, who hold monthly meetings at the different engine and 
hose-houses. They meet for the purpose of exchanging senti- 
ments upon matters relating to the department, and any question 
proposed relating to the same is decided by a majority of the 

-^ -•- .- ^^ ■ — — >— --m ^r_- . ..-^it^ 


This association has done more to reconcile the various con« 
flicting interests in our department than anything previously 
devised, and tends to unite the members more closely together 
as a band of brothers working for the common good, than any« 
thing else previously devised could do. 

The association was organized at the Good Will engine-house 
in January, 1870. 

The delegates from the Union Company were Harvey Ham« 
mill, Peter Mutchler, Stephen O. Lanning ; Hand-in-Hand — 
James S. Kigcr, Peter M. Kafer, Charles W. Biles ; America Hose 
—William McGill, James Connell, Charles C. Yard ; Eagle — 
Robert S. Johnston, Charles S. Jones, Charles Dougherty ; Good 
Will, William H. Barton, Frank H. Taylor, William M. Van 
Sickel ; Delaware — ^Walter Fagin, John B. Warner, John Tyr- 
rell ; Harmony — Frank Pashley, Oliver Howell, Charles Zehner. 

The following are the present officers: William H. Barton, 
president ; Robert S. Johnston, vice president ; Frank Pashley, 
secretary ; Charles W. Biles, assistant secretary ; James S. Kiger, 

The pride of our city is our fire department. We have now 
seven steam fire engines, fully equipped with everything neces- 
sary to insure effectiveness, one hose company, and one hook and 
ladder truck ; in addition to this, each steamer runs a hose car- 
riage, all of which is done at an average expense to the city of 
about ten thousand dollars per year. An elective paid depart- 
ment would cost about double this sum. 

We can l>oast of having the oldest company in the United 
States, which has kept up an unbroken organization from 1 747 to 
the present time, a period of one hundred and twenty-five years. 

On the evening of the 7th of February, 1747, Mr. Obadiah 
Howell, George Ely, John Hunt, William Plaskett, and Thomas 
Tindall met at the blacksmith shop, situate on the corner of 
Greene and Front streets, (and afterwards occupied by Jacob 
Warner), for the purpose of forming a fire company. At this 
first meeting they appointed Mr. Obadiah Howell a committee 
to procure buckets, baskets, fire-hooks, and ladders. Messrs. Ely 
and Flasket were appointed a committee to draft a constitution. 


After talking over the matter of organization, they adjourned 
to meet the next evening, at which time William Plaskett was 
appointed chairman, and Thomas Tindall, clerk. 

They again met on the 8th, at the same place ; the articles 
were read "and discussed, ^md a question arose as to the name of 
the company — Mr. Ely advocating the name of Union, in con- 
sequence of there being at that time a company in Philadelphia 
by that name. 

It was then resolved that the name should be Union Fire 

Mr. William Plaskett was elected treasurer, the office at that 
time being captain and president, and Mr. George Ely was 
elected clerk. 

These gentlemen continued to act in that capacity until 175X9 
when Obadiah Howell was elected president. 

The regular meetings of the company were held once a year, ' 
and a special meeting was held on the Monday night next after 

The oldest complete constitution of the company in their 
possession was adopted February 13th, 1792, and commences as 
follows : 

" Articles of the Union Fire Company of Trenton, instituted 
the 8th day of May, 1747; revised and corrected the 5th day 
of May, 1783; revised and amended the 13th day of February, 

The original constitution was signed by the following mem- 
bers : Hezekiah Howell, Conrad Kotts, Charles Axford, Benja- 
min Smith, Joseph Milnor, John Singer, Abraham Hunt, Isaac 
Barnes, George Ely, James Ewing, Moore Furman, Samuel 
Leake, Samuel W. Stockton, Maskell Ewing, James F. Arm- 
strong, Samuel Taylor, Joseph Brumley, William Tindall, Rob- 
ert L. Hooper, Pontius D. Stelle, John Potts, and James M. 

From the above names it will be observed that the Union Fire 
Company was composed of some of the very best citizens, men 
prominent in public life, and also members, of the Presbyterian 
Church, of which Rev. James F. Armstrong was pastor at that 

^y^^ry \ \ w*\t l a wi imii i i m , i m i n. ■ ^ ■^ ^ > ■ m^ ^i hu b — i^ i ■ ^^wy^w^*^"^*^— *" 


- 39S 

The company was incorporated by an act of the legislature, 
December 29th9 1824. 

Its incorporators were Isaac Barnes, Samuel McClurg, Daniel 

BellcrjeaUy John R, Tucker, James Hillman, and John D. Green. 

In 1772, the company purchased a small engine of James 

Gibbs, of Philadelphia, which was worked by two men, they 

being Peter Smythe and Joseph Milnor. 

In 1786, they purchased a larger one of Parmel Gibbs, ako 
of Philadelphia, for one hundred pounds. 

June 5th, 1786, the'president informed the company that Mr. 
Parmel Gibbs, who made the new engine, was in town, and that 
they were called to determine about said engine, which engine 
not being satisfactory to the company, Mr. Gibbs agreed that 
the company should keep the same on paying him fifty pounds 
now, until he could make one that would be satisfactory. Mr. 
James Ewing and Charles Axford were appointed a committee 
to settle with Mr. Gibbs. 

August 7th, it was ordered that ** Mr. Barnes do purchase ma* 
terials to repair the little engine, and that the treasurer do pay 
for the same." At the same date, M. Ewing and Charles Ax* 
ford, Jr., reported that they had waited on Mr. Gibbs, and paid 
him fifty pounds, as directed, and had entered into an agree- 
ment with him to make a new engine for the company, for one 
hundred pounds, and to use the present engine until the new one 
was completed. 

November 6th, 1786, Isaac Barnes, who was ordered to pur- 
chase materials for finishing the little engine, reported that he 
had complied with the order, and the treasurer was directed to 
pay the account, one pound seventeen shillings and four and a 
half pence ; but that in his opinion an addition to the pipe was 
necessary ; when he was ordered to get the pipe lengthened. 

August 6th, 1787, the clerk reported that one of the pumps 
belonging to the large engine was out of order, and Mr. Barnes 
had repaired the same at the cost of five shillings. 

February 5th, 1791, it was ordered that "Messrs. Armstrong 
and Taylor be a committee to have a good trail rope put to both 
engines, and a necessary harness for one horse for the large en- 
gine." The members being at one time required to give an 
account as to whether they had done their duty, it is entered 

Ti a^^ 

^ H Pii m\\* 

■ III ■■ . ■■ g ym^P^i^^^Wfiw 


that ''Mr. Armstrong, the ladder man No. i, attended and 
brought forth hb ladder and Tiook to the late fire. 

August 6th, X788, the company having no house for their 
small engine, Mr. Hezekiah Howell offered them ground to 
build one on, adjoining his house and church lot, and Mr. 
Charles Axford, Jr., agreed to undertake the building of the 

February 4th, 1788, Mr. Axford reported that, agreeably to 
the order of the company, he had built a house for the small 
engine, and that it wanted a lock. 

November ist, 1790, the small engine-house was removed 
opposite, on the lot of Miss Barnes. This house was built on 
the comer of the lot of St. Michael's Church, and afterwards 
removed opposite, near where the Third Presbyterian Church 
now stands. 

The following gentlemen subscribed the sum of one pound 
ten shillings each, for the purpose of purchasing a new en- 
gine in July, 1785: Samuel Leake, Samuel W. Stockton, 
Maskell Ewing, James Mott, Aaron Dunham, James F. Arm- 
strong, Samuel Taylor, Joseph Brumley, William Tindall, Rob- 
ert L. Hooper, John Potts, James M. McKinley, Pontius D. 
Stelle, Thomas Atkinson, Peter Gordon, Randle Rickey, George 
Ely, Peter Payan, Philip Fester, Albert M. Collins, Lewis 
Evans, Roger Parmele, Jonathan Doane, John Rickey, Jr., 
John Raum. 

In 1798, James-Ewing was elected president, John Sutterly, 
secretary, and Peter Gordon, treasurer. At that time the com- 
pany was composed of thirty-two active members. The annual 
expenses at this time were about four hundred dollars, exclusive 
of the cost of fire buckets and extraordinary expenses. The 
company had two engines, one stationed in Trenton and one 
on Mill Hill. Ellett Tucker was captain of the large engine, 
and John Sutterly of the small one. 

In 1810, Benjamin Smith was elected president, the number 
of members being forty-three. 

In 18 1 3, Isaac Barnes was elected president, the number of 
members being twenty-eight. This year the company added 
six fire ladders and seven fire hooks to their apparatus. The 


gip^^ppB^wpywir^i H 1 1 . M I M l w m iip i B m ji»i^^iPi^P— ^^ii^«y^pyfP^W^wg*^fy?' 


same year the company resolved to pay one dollar to the person 
who should first ring the Presbyterian and State House bells for 
an alarm of fire. 

Up to the year 1822, all the members of the company were 
required to be house-holdeis in this city.. In this year the con* 
stitution was so amended as to admit young men as members. 
The same year the two engines were sold^ and the one now in 
Pennington was bought by the company. 

In 1823 the company built a house in State street, near the 
Government House, at an expense of three hundred and fiftj 

In 1832, they purchased their double-decker of the Reliance 
Company, of Philadelphia, and on October 3d, 1848, they had 
it rebuilt by John Agnew, of Philadelphia, and in July, 1849, 
they had a new suction put in it It was sold in March, 1855, 
to a company in Belvidere, for four hundred dollars. In 1836, 
they removed their house from the government lot to Academj 
street, near the old buttonwood tree. 

In March, 1856, the company purchased a hand engine, piano 
style, of Mr. Button, of AVaterford, New York, at an expense of 
twelve hundred dollars. 

In August, 1864, the company sold this engine to the Union 
Fire Company, of Lambertville. 

October 3d, 1865, they received the steamer now in use bj 
the company. 

It was built by Mr. Button, of AVaterford, New York, and is 
a third-class engine. 
June 14th, 1870, they purchased their iron-gray horses. 
The company at present has dxty-four active members. Its 
officers are Jacob R. Freese, president; Daniel Lodor, vice- 
president; James F. McQuig, secretary; Joshua Jefieries, trea- 

Among the members of the Union Fire Company we find the 
following who have held prominent positions among their fellow- 

Rev. James F. Armstrong, pastor of First Presbyterian 
Church in 1787, and chaplain in General Sullivan's brigade in 
'777i John. Beatty, physician, commissary-general of prisonen 


I W-,„^- . I . I 11 II P ~"~""~ 


in the revolutionary war, president Trenton Bank, president 
Delaware Bridge Company, member of continental congress in 
1776, and member of house of representatives at Washington; 
Isaac Collins, publisher "New Jersey Gazette" in 1777, printer 
of the iii^t Testament and Bible issued from the press in this 
country; Thomas] Cadwalader, the first chief burgess of Tren- 
ton in 1746; Joseph Clunn, captain in a state regiment in 1776; 
John Dag worthy, Jr., was a merchant; Maskell Ewing was 
clerk of the assembly twenty years ; James Ewing, auditor in 
1785, member of the legislature in 1774, and mayor from 1797 
to 1803; Moore Furman, deputy quartermaster-general, and 
first mayor of Trenton in 1792; Peter Gordon, captain in the 
revolutionary war in 1777, commissioner on damages sustained 
by the inhabitants of this state in 1781, and state treasurer 
eighteen- years; Abraham Hunt, merchant; Robert Lettis 
Hooper, vice president of council, and the man who first laid 
out Mill Hill and Bloomsbury for a town ; AVilliam Churchill 
Houston, receiver of continental taxes from 1782 to 1785, derk 
of the Supreme Court from 1781 to 1788, professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy in Princeton College, five times' 
elected member of Congress, first in 1779, one of the commis- 
sioners at Annapolis who suggested the convention which 
formed the constitution ; John P. Kennedy, chief engineer of 
the fire department ; Samuel Leake, counselor-at-law ; Joseph 
Milnor, merchant; James Mott, state treasurer in 1785; Imlah 
Moore, chief engineer ; Rev. John Mott, captain in the revolu- 
tionary war; William Boswell, shcriflTand United States assessor 
of internal revenue; William Napton, sheriff, member of assembly, 
and mayor ; Joel Parker, governor ; Samuel P. Parham, chief 
engineer ; Jonathan S. Fish, member of assembly, city treas- 
urer, and chief engineer ; Andrew Reed, treasurer of Trenton ; 
Cornelius Ringo, adjutant-general continental army; Samuel 
Witham Stockton, secretary of the American commission to 
the courts of Austria and Prussia, alderman of Trenton in 1792, 
and secretary of state in 1794 ; William Tindall, clerk in com- 
missary department in the revolutionary war, commissioner to go 
east to exchange prisoners with the Indians, collector of revenue 
' for this district ; Samuel Tucker, sheriflT of Hunterdon, mem- 

fw^yy^ p I I np- ii I i i iiiiii| . I m i wj m'jmfmsmmmmm 



ber of assembly, president of continental congress, justice of 
the Supreme Court, state treasurer, and chairman of the provin- 
cial committee of safety ; James W. AVall, United States senator. 
After the organization of the Union Fire Company, and j»e* 
vious to that of the Hand-in-Hand, there was a company in ex- 
istence called the Restoration, but we have been unable to get 
any history of it, from the fact of not being able to find any 
records relating to it. The only knowledge we have of it is 
contained in the records of the Hand-in-Hand Company, when 
in 1 789 they gave up their engine to the Hand-in-Hand Com? 
pany, upon condition that they put it in repair, in which case 
they were to keep it until the Restoration Company reoq 
when they had a right to demand their engine, paying the 
penses of repairing; and at the time of fire they expected an 
equal benefit from said engine. 

^ The Hand-in-Hand Fire Company was organized April 2d, 
j^ '1 7 7 2, at the house of Renssalaer Williams. The original mem- 
bers at'the date of organization were Joseph Tdy, David Cowell, 
^f. D., Renssalaer Wiljiams, Isaac Pearson Rodman, Arc^bald 
William Yard, Joseph Clunn, Richard Borden, and Samuel Bel- 

The constitution adopted at the date of organization pro- 
vided in the first article, "that each member, within the space of 
three months from the date of the adoption of the same, should 
provide himself, at his own proper cost and charge, two leather 
buckets, one bag, and one convenient basket ; the bag to be 
made of strong osnabergs or wider linen, to cont^dn at least 
three yards, with a running string at the mouth ; which buckets, 
bag, and basket shall be marked with the name of the person to 
whom they belong and company, and shall be hung up near the 
front door, as conveniently as may be, for view, in each mem- 
ber's house, to be ready at hand, and to be applied to no other 
use than for preserving our qtkvl and our fellow-townsmen*s 
houses, goods, and effects from fire; that each new member 
who shall be hereafter admitted shall provide themselves in like 
manner, within three months aAer his admission.** And in 
case they were not provided, or, after being provided, were not 
kept in order, a fine of two shillings was imposed for each 


ip H I ■■ I ■■ 

■ ^ '■ I 






backet ^ neglected, and for bag or basket, one shilling each, 
unless they were lost or rendered useless by a fire, in which case 
the loss was to be made up as soon as possible by the treasurer/ 
out of the^company's stocks. 

On the first notice of fire, ''they were immediately to repair to 
the place, with their buckets, bag, and basket, and there employ 
their best endeavors to extinguish the same; and if any house or 
houses, goods, and effects belonging to any member of the com- 
pany were likely to be consumed, two of them were immedi- 
ately to repair to the door of each such house or fire, there to 
stand and deliver such goods as may be saved into the hands 
of such persons as they shall think proper to intrust them with, 
to be carried to some place appointed by their owner," where 
one or more was to attend them until they could be conveniently 
restored to or secured for the owner ; and the others members 
should, if there be occasion, divide themselves as near as may be 
to be equally helpful, and that they were to be ready and will- 
ing to help and assist all others. And in case of default in 
doing this duty, they were to forfeit and pay five shillings, unless 
they could give a sufficient reason to the company at its next 

• On the first alarm of fire in the night-time, every member 
was to cause two or more lights to be set up in his windows; and 
sudi of the company whose houses might be thought in danger, 
were required to place candles in every room to prevent confu- 
sion, and that their friends might be able to give them the more 
speedy and efiectual assistance. 

They held their meetings on the first Thursday. in every other 
month. The clerk served two months, commencing at the top 
of the roll, and each one in rotation acted as clerk, and for re- 
fusal to serve they were fined five shillings. They met, in addi- 
tion, on the first Thursday evening after each fire. 

The treasurer was elected by ballot, at the regular meetings in 
April and October, and was, in addition, president of the com- 

They possessed fire hooks and ladders, which were purchased 
immediately upon their organization. 

August 6th, 1773, a proposition was made to raise money to 

1 • 

^■■ii j 1^ I iiiwT .1 ^ 1 , , j„ . . ,, „i ,p, I . , mi II I !■, uLL P j p l y ii^i i f 



assist the company in purchasing a fire engine, and that a scheme 
be set on foot to be called the '' Fishing Island Lottery," and 
for that purpose Messrs. Chambers, Co well, and AVilliams were 
appointed managers to report to the company. 

On the expiration of the first six months, the treasurer re- 
ported stock on hand to the amount of five shillings ; number 
of persons joined during the year, twelve. 

June 3d, 1773, Alexander Chambers, Isaac Pearson Rodman, 
Joseph Clunn, and Josiah Appleton, Jr., were appointed a- com* 
mittee to settle the lottery account with the managers of said 
lottery, and on the 25th of the same month they reported as 
follows: "Balance in hands of David Cowell, twenty-five pounds 
two shillings four-pence ; Joseph Toy, nine pounds fourteen 
shillings four and a half-pence; Archibald William Yard, 
twelve pounds five shillings.'* 

The first fire the company attended was November 25th, 1773, 
which was a building owned by Hezekiah Howell. 

From the date of organization till the regular meeting in 
December, 1776, the company kept up its regular meetings^ 
until the war of the revolution, when the enemy was quartered 
here, and those favoring the cause of America had to flee, and 
the company ceased to hold meetings until February nth, 

At the first meeting in 1779, ^^ treasurer reported that he 

had in hand thirty-one pounds six shillings and four-pence. At 
the same meeting, Alexander Chambers and Renssalaer Wil* 
liams were appointed a committee to wait on the Restoration 
Fire Company, to ascertain whether they would unite with 
them, or whether they would give their engine up to this com- 
pany, upon condition that they put it in repair. On the 4th of 
March, 1779, the committee reported that they had waited on 
the Restoration Company, and that they agreed that "the 
Hand-in-Hand Company shall take the engine and keep it till 
they form a company, and then they have a right to demand the 
engine, paying the expenses of repairing the said engine, and at 
the time of fire they expect an equal benefit of said engine.*' 

Jacob Benjamin was appointed to provide a pipe for said 
engine, and at the next meeting he reported that said pipe 


■^y .y i . i 1^ !■ !" ■ ' ^ 




done at Philadelphia, and presented a bill of one hundred and 
seventy-five pounds for the same, which was more than the stock 
of the company; a subscription was started for the purpose of 
raising thd amount, and Jacob Benjamin and Josiah Appleton 
were empowered to go about and receive the same. 

In April, 1780, the treasurer reported that, on account of the 
depreciation of currency, he had not been able to collect what 
was due the company, whereupon it was unanimously agreed that 
the debts should be paid double what they were at the time. 

It was not till June, 1780, that the company had doors and 
locks to its engine-house, and in August a bill for a lock was 
presented to the company for sixteen pounds seventeen shillings 
and six-pence. At this time the first continental money, to the 
amount of eight pounds, was received for fines,* and bills were 
presented for repairs to engine, for new engine pipe, and re- 
pairing engine-house doors, to the amount of two hundred and 
thirty-two pounds; also for putting a new bottom in the engine, 
forty-one pounds five and shillings. 

In 1782, the clerk was authorized to hire out the ladders of 
the company at the rate of one shilling per day. 

In 1784, Mr. Isaac De Cou presented the company with a 
new ladder, for which he received a vote of thanks, and the lad- 
der was ordered to be hung up at the house of Mr. Chambers, 
where William Reeder then resided, and the clerk was ordered 
to notify the members of the company to give their assistance 
in removing the engine-house from the place where it then stood 
to the lot of Abraham Hunt. In those days it was customary to 
locate an engine-house on any vacant lot, and for it to remain 
there until the owner desired possession of the lot. 

The engine must have been a very small one, for in April 
1789, James Machett and Isaac De Cou, were appointed to work 
the engine at fires. 

In August, 1 793, Richard Howell, then governor, became a 
regular active member of the company, and in April, 1796, he 
was chosen treasurer. 

Permission was given the company to hang up one of their 
ladders in the market-house. 

In June, 1798, it was ordered ''that the engine-house be re- 

\ \ HW li jM ii ju. i \ \ . 11 ii . > 




moved from the road, and placed on stone pillan close by the 
house where Mrs. Taylor lives, (in Stale street, where ** Manning*! 
Building '* now stands,) over the old cellar, and flush with the 


In February, 1801, General John Beatty reported new rules 
for the company, separating the offices of treasurer and presi- 
dent, and making a director who was to (ill the position of presi* 

Under the new articles, in April, 1801, General John Beatty, 
was elected director ; Alexander Chambers, treasurer; Jonathan 
.Rhea, derk, and Alexander Witherup, engineer. 

In January, 1804, the director was instructed to make inquiry 
for what sum a good engine might be procured, and that a sub* 
scription list be circulated to raise money to procure a good and 
competent engine, and in February he reported proposals from 
Philip Mason^ of Philadelphia, whereupon he was instructed to 
contract for a competent engine, the price not to exceed four 
hundred dollars, and in April he reported that he had contracted 
with Philip Mason, for a third-class engine, at the price of three 
hundred and sixty dollars, which was delivered in June of the 
same year, whereupon a committee was appointed ** to have a 
suitable house built on'the spot where the old one now stands on 
the government lot, and have the old house and engine moved 
and fixed in some convenient spot on the side of Warren street, 
above the tavern-house now owned by the heirs of Mark Thom« 

The new engine required six persons to manage iL 

This year application was made to the common council for 
fifty fire buckets, to be deposited around town for use in case of 

At the fire on the 7th of January, in the buildings occupied 
by Thomas Potter, P. Douglas, and Thomas Cain, a number of 
buckets belonging to the company were lost, whereupon the 
clerk was ordered to set up two or three advertisements, giving 
a description of the lost buckets, which were finally found in a 
brick-pond, considerably damaged. 

In July, 1805, it was proposed by thd Hand-in-Hand Company 
to bring the two engines together for trial. At the same time a 
committee was appointed to wait on the other fire companies to 

_ ^ Ae 


know whether they would join in procuring new hose, and to in^ 
quire the price of the best quality. The committee reported 
that they could do nothing in consequence of the prevalence of 
the yellow fever in Philadelphia. 

In January, 1806, they again reported that the other compa- 
nies would not join them in procuring new hose ; they, there- 
fore, did not purchase any at that time, but in January, 1808, 
they purchased fifty-two and a half feet, at a cost of nineteen 
dollars and ninety-seven cents. This was the first hose the 
company ever had. 

In 1804, the old engine and engine-house were removed from 
the government lot, and a new house was built for the new 
engine, and the old house was removed to the comer of John 
Chambers' lot, in Warren street, near where the feeder of the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal now is. 

On the 7th of July, 1804, General John Beatty resigned as 
president of the company, having filled the position eight years. 

In January, 1810, the subject of building one or more cisterns, 
or erecting pumps for the purpose of securing a more sufficient 
supply of water in time of fire, was agitated. The other com- 
panies failing to take action in the matter, nothing was at this 
time done. 

In January, 1814, the company thinking it necessary for a 
more speedy and general alarm in case of fire. Garret D. Wall, 
Jacob Hester, and Thomas Ryall were appointed a committee 
to cause the academy, Presbyterian Church, and State House 
bells to be rung immediately upon an alarm of fire ; this was also 
adopted by the Resolution Company, and a premium of one 
dollar was ofifered to the person who should first ring either of 
the above bells, and fifty cents to the person who should ring 
the second or third bells. The clerk was also ordered to pro- 
cure an iron bar for the purpose of raising the cover of the cis- 
terns, and also two chains to be affixed to the plugs of the logs. 

April, 1815, it was resolved to strike out the article in the con- 
stitution requiring members to keep buckets, and in January, 
1816, the clerk was ordered to procure for the use of the com- 
pany twenty-one leather buckets, to be kept in the engine-house, 
and lettered with the words '^ Hand-in-Hand," but in October 



he was ordered to get the backets numbered and to distribute the 
same among the members, keeping a register of the persons and 
numbers of the same. 

Upon the resignation of General Beatty as president, in 1S089 
Aaron Dickinson Woodruff was. elected, and held the position 
until his death, in 1818, when Gideon H. AVells was elected to 
the position. 

. In October, 1821, Richard L. Beatty requested permission to 
withdraw his name from the company in consequence of his 
appointment as president of the Delaware Fire Company, of 

In June, 1821, Gideon H. Wells withdrew from the company, 
having been elected president of the Eagle Fire Company, of 
Mill Hill, on the 15th of June of that year. 

On the 29th of December, 1814, the company was incorpo- 
rated by an act of the legislature, with the usual corporate pow- 
ers. The capital stock was not to exceed two thousand dollars, 
but this was increased, in 1867, to ten thousand dollars. 

During the summer of 1825, Alexander Chambers, who had 
been president of the company nearly three years, and treasurer 
about seventeen years, was removed by death. 

October 2d, 1828, a resolution was adopted to admit jroong 
men under twenty-one years of age, this being the first company 
that admitted minors. Joseph G. Brearley, being under the age 
of twenty-one, was the first one admitted under this rule. 

In January, 1837, Dr. John McKelway and John Titus were 
appointed a committee to sell the small engine at private sale. 

Previous to 1839 the meetings had been held at the houses of 
the members, but that year common council set apart a room in 
the City Hall for the meeting of the different fire companies. 
There were at this time three companies, the Union, Hand-in- 
Hand, and Resolution. 

This year they appointed a committee of three to organize 
the boys who had volunteered to take charge of the small engine, 
under the control and general supervision of the company. The 
boys called their engine the Hibemia. 

The same year the Union Company organized the boys in 



like manner to take charge of their small engine, under the 
name of Union, No. 2. 

In July, 1848, they procured a new suction engine of Mr. 
John Agnew, of Philadelphia. 

In March, 1850, they, by their own request, were accepted 
under the city ordinance regulating the fire department, passed 
in 1847. 

In June, 1851, they purchased a hose carriage from the Nep- 
tune Hose Company, of Philadelphia, at a cost of between four 
and five hundred dollars, and on the ist of July, the carriage 
was brought home by the company. This carriage was run as 
the Neptune, the company being divided, one portion running 
the engine the other the carriage, though both under the same 
government. They continued these two organizations until 
1354, when the Neptune was merged into the Hand-in-Hand, 
and the engine and carriage were run as one company. 

In June, 1854, the engine purchased of John Agnew, in 1848, . 
was sent back to the shop of Mr. Agnew, to be thoroughly over- 
hauled and rebuilt, and on the 7th of February, 1855, ^^Y '^* 
ceived it, thoroughly repaired and repainted. 

In February, 1859, they jKissed stringent resolutions against 
the action of the board of engineers in numbering the different 
companies, and instructed their engineer to use his best endeav* 
ors to have said resolution repealed, or to take any other action 
his judgment might dictate to restore harmony and good feeling 
throughout the department. 

In March, 1867, they purchased a bell weighing nine hundred 
pounds, at a cost of about two hundred dollan. 

The 2d of April, 1867, being the ninety-fifth anniversary of 
the organization of the company, James S. Kiger collated firom 
the minutes a lengthy and highly-interesting history, which was 
read on that occasion, in the presence of a number of promi- 
nent citizens. 

The Hand-in-Hand Fire Company may be said to be the 
mother of four companies at present in existence in our city. 

First, they fiirnished the president of the Eagle, Gideon H. 
Wells, organized in June, 1821. The same year, and about four 
months later, they furnished a president for the Delaware Hre 

' I I ■ ! ■ I ■ J .■■ w iwmm9m^99 ^ mi*m i w— — ^l 


Company, in the person of Richard L. Beattj. In 1839 thej 
organized the boys into a company, who volanteered to take 
charge of the small engine, and be under the control and gen« 
end supervision of the Hand-in-Hand Company. 

This was the original organization of the Good Will Fire 
Company, and in 1859, a number of the membeis withdrew and 
formed the America Hose Company. 

The engine-house stood on the government lot, where the 
residence of Mrs. William £. Hunt now stands, aAcr which it 
was removed into Academy street, on the southwest comer of 
the academy lot. 

In June, 1850, it stood on Isaac Heulings' lot, in the rear of 
the American Hotel, at which time the board of directors re- 
ported they had sold the said house for eighty dollars. At this 
time the company entered into a contract with Joseph C. Potts 
for the use of the building in Chancery street, in the rear of 
the Chancery buildings, at an annual rental of fifty dollars for 
ten years. They remained here until the year 1861, at which' 
time the city built the house in Willow street, now occupied by 
them. The company took possession, and moved the property 
and apparatus into it on Tuesday afternoon, September loth, 

The present steam fire engine was built by Messrs. Cla]^ & 
Jones, of the city of New York, and was received by a public 
parade July 3d, 1868. It is a horizontal motion engine, with 
one steam cylinder, eight and three-quarter inches in diameter, 
with nine inch stroke; the pump is five inches in diameter, with 
nine inch stroke. The boiler is of a drop tube, constructed 
under Peter M. Kafer's patent of March loth, 1868, is thirty- 
five inches in diameter, and four feet eight inches high, contain- 
ing one hundred and twenty-eight one and a half inch drop 
tubes, also twenty-two two inch, and thirty-three one and a half 
inch smoke flues. This engine weighs four thousand five hun- 
dred pounds, light, and five thousand two hundred and thirty 
pounds, loaded, ready and complete for service, and will com- 
mence working with fifteen pounds of steam, which can be 
generated in six minutes. 

In the early part of the winter of 1868, a heating apparatus 
was erected in the engine-house, built under the patent of Peter 

• • 

pjpip ajv 

■^^PHP*"~«^Ff»»^^»H"^i-""?^— •^■^**^'^''^**" 



M. Kafer and Joseph M. De Lacy, bearing date May 7th, 1867, 
and January 7th, 1868. The object of this arrangement was to 
keep the water in the boiler of the engine at any degree of tem- 
perature'desired, even boiling, as it has often occurred that the 
engine was worked from steam generated by this heater. This 
kept the engine at all times ready for service at fires in the im- 
mediate vicinity. It consisted of a furnace or stove, on which 
was arranged a small amount of tubing. This tubing being 
connected with the engine by two pipes to the boiler of the 
engine, the connecting cock was so well arranged that when 
the engine was pulled ahead, all were operated by the forward 
motion of the engine, and during its absence at a fire, the water 
would be heated in a small tank. This apparatus required no 
no other attention than to be supplied with two hods of coal 
every twenty-four hours. 

The hose carriage purchased by the Neptune Compa&y and 
run under that name, has been in constant use ever since it was 
purchased, but being now nearly used up, the company are 
about negotiating for the purchase of a new one Such a one is 
now being built by Messrs. Kafer & Swan, of this city, members 
of the company, and known as a three-wheeled tender, con- 
structed on principles both scientific and practical, and intended 
to meet the wants of the department by being light, and easily 
managed and controlled. 

The hand engine built by John Agnew, of Philadelphia, was 
sold about the ist of June, 1867, to Charles Megill, of this city, 
as agent for a newly-organized company at Owensboro', Ken- 
tucky, which, on reception of the engine, retained the old name. 
About the 27th of January, 1870, the company purchased a 
team of horses, which were accepted after due trial, and they 
were placed on duty February nth, 1870. 

Number of active members since date of organization, four 
hundred and thirty; contributing members, three hundred; 
active members transferred to honorary list after five years' ser- 
idce, seventy-five ; number of fires attended, of which a record 
has been kept by the company, three hundred and ten. 

The following persons, members of the Hand-in-Hand Fire 
Company, have held prominent positions in our city, and in our 
state and national government : 


HffgTW!^' iw i^ iJ* p Hill* ■ ■ 

■■■.>Ulf."^" 'ii Pi ' ■ ^"VPnBHWW 


David Cowcll, II. D., was a senior physiciai 
military hospitals; Renssalaer Williams was 
peace, librarian of the Trenton Library Comp 
one of the Tounders of the TrentOD School Ca 
emy; Joseph Clunn, captain in one of our si 
the American Revolution, and kept an inn, wh 
of "Alexander the Great;" Alexan^ler Chai 
directors of the school-bouse in 1765, the 
Bloomsbury as a port for sloops ; Bernard I^Ianli 
mill at Millham, and was also engaged in the 
John Yard was a captain in the revolntionary 
was a lieutenant in the continental line, it 
William Douglass was a celebrated phj'sician, 
entitled "A Summary, Historical and Pollt 
Planting, Progressive Improvements, and Pre 
British Settlements in North America, from 
William Tucker, captain in the revolutioi 
DeCou, high sheriff of Hunterdon county, 
Nicholas Bellville was at the head of ,the m< 
William Smith kept the hotel where Fitch, tl 
steamboat, hired a room, where he carried < 
silvcismi thing, and the manufacture of silver i 
for peddling ; Aaron Dickinson Woodruff wm 
of the stale twenty-four years, mayor of Tren) 
member of the legislature, and was instrui 
.Trenton selected for the state capital ; Richan 
an active member of the company during tlie 
the gubernatorial chair; George Holcomb w 
revolutionary army, and ancrwards member 
representatives at \ya5hington; Jonathan Rh« 
the revolutionary army j John Beatty was a eel 
commissary-general of prisoners in the re' 
president of the Trenton Bank from May, il 
Hay 30th, 1826, president of the Trcntoa 
Company, and laid the foundation stone of 
3ist, i3o4i was a member of the continental 
and aflernrards member of the house of 


Washington ; Joseph Brittain was the principal owner of the lot 
on which the State House is built ; Rev. Nathaniel Harris ; 
Lucius H. Stockton was district attorney of the state, and nomi- 
nated Sy President Adams as secretary of war; Samuel T. 
Machett, city treasurer; Garrett D. Wall, United States senator; 
Samuel L. Southard, United States senator, governor and chan- 
cellor of the state, secretary of the navy, attorney-general of 
the state, associate justice of the Supreme Court, and acting 
vice president of the United States. . 

The following were the ofHcers of the Hand-in-Hand Fire 
Company in July, 1871 : 

President, Charles B. Cogill; vice president, Joseph M. 
DeLacy; secretary, James S. Kiger; assistant secretary, 
Thomas A. Dempsey ; financial secretary, Charles W. Biles ; 
treasurer, James A. Howell; foreman, Abram Swan; first 
assistant foreman, Charles W. Biles; second assistant foreman, 
Michael Campbell; engineer, Andrew S. Groves; assistant 
engineers, Joseph Nolen and Thomas A. Dempsey. 

The Resolution Fire Company was organized on the 4th day 
of February, a. d. 1804, and incorporated on the 28th day of 
December, a. d. 1824. The minutes relating to the organization 
do not contain anything of special importance. They simply 
refer to the organization and its object, without even giving the 
names of those who took a prominent part in the organization. 
From what we can gather from the minutes we conclude that 
Zachariah Rossell was called to the chair, and that he con* 
tinned to be the president of the company for many years 
thereafter. The ink with which the secretary's name was 
written has grown so very pale that we are not able to make 
it out. The minutes of the Resolution, from the date of 
its organization until 1805, do not make mention of anything 
more than trials of the engine, and the mere (act that meetings 
were held. Among the most prominent members of the Reso- 
lution were Zachariah Rossell, president; Samuel Evans, secre- 
tary ; John R. Smith, Lambert Rickey, Timothy Curlis, Robert 
McNeely, Charles Ewing, William Hise, William Boswell, John 
Buckman, John Probasco, William Vanhart, Jasper S. Hill, Wil- 

I II 1 1 1 . _ I I II I ■ ii,i_j II I . ■ II I I 



Ham Kcna-ood, William Closscn, John Rossell, James J. Wilson, 
William Gould, Peter Forman, Israel Taylor, Seth Wright, 
Daniel Coleman, Evan Evans, David Johnson, Thomas C Ster- 
ling, John Howell, Joseph M. Bispham, Charles Burroughs, Wil- 
liam Pptts, Samuel R. Hamilton, Thomas J. Stryker, Timothy 
Abbott, Jr., Stacy G. Potts, Philemon Dickinson, William C 
Brannin, Henry B. Howell, Edward *\V. Scudder, Jasper Scud* 
der, James B. Coleman, and Charles Parker. Many of the 
above-named gentlemen have long since died, while some are 
still with us, and are engaged in the active pursuits of life. 

The rules and regulations of the Resolution Fire Company 
were very different from what they are now in the various fire 
companies. The membership was divided into committees^ 
namely, the ladder committee, the alarm committee and the 
bucket committee. Each committee was required, under penalty 
of a fine, to attend strictly to the duties assigned it 

This company had one very peculiar rule, which was that 
of holding a meeting one week after every fire. This was done' 
in order to give the members who were absent from fires an 
•opportunity of explaining their absence. 

Zachariah Rossell seems to have occupied the position of 
president of the Resolution during nearly the whole of its 
existence, and the office of secretary was filled by Samuel Evans^ 
Charles Burroughs, Charles Parker, Edward W. Scudder, Charles 
Moore, and Benjamin Moorehouse. • The company at first haJ 
wh&t was called a bucket engine, which in 1839 was given to a 
party of boys who pulled it to fires until the Good Will Company 
came in possession of it. 

In the minutes of July 6th, 1837, we find the following: 
^'The committee appointed to inquire of the expense of a suc- 
tion engine made the following report : ' Mr. Famum, of New 
York, offers to furnish an engine, possessing the combined 
powers of a suction and propelling engine, for the sum of four 
hundred and fifty dollars. He guarantees the engine to throw 
water one hundred and fifly feet horizontally, and to be worked 
with perfect ease by ten men. By means of an engine of this 
construction the water may be drawn from any reservoir in the 

iw. ^ I ■ n ^p— i^l'^^F^WT^ 



city, and propelled to any point that the length of hose will 

" 'R(»piect fully submitted. 

*** Thomas J. Stryker, 
" * William C. Brannin.* 
'' The committee are authorized to accept the proposition of 
Mr. Farnum, and purchase the engine and sell the old one to 
the best advantage possible.'* 

The engine, when completed, was received by the company 
in due form. It was a mahogany engine, and was much admired 
by the citizens. In those days an engine of that kind was con- 
sidered a big thing. 

The only bill we find unpaid by the Resolution Fire Company 
was a bill of Stacy Potts for seventy-five cents, for oiling hose ; 
the company thinking the bill too large, referred it l^k to 
Thomas J. Stryker for correction. We presume this bill still 
remains unpaid, as there is nothing on the minutes to show that 
it was ever satisfied. 

The initiation fee of the Resolution Fife Company was three 

In the minutes of October 2d, 1848, we find the following 
resolutions, which were unanimously adopted : 

" FirsL That Resolution Fire Company do hereby agree to 
recognize the members of the Good Will Fire Company as 
associate and constituted members of this company, they con- 
senting thereto, to enjoy all the privileges and be subject to all 
the duties of this company. 

. " Second. Ecsolvcd^ That the united members be divided into 
three sections ; that the duty of No. i section, on the alarm of 
fire, be to take charge of the Resolution fire engine ; No. 2 to 
take charge of the Good Will engine ; No. 3 to take charge of 
the hose carriages and apparatus. 

"Third. Resolved^ That the first meeting of the united com- 
panies be held at the call of the Resolution Fire Company. 

" Fourth. Resolved ^ That the secretary be requested to pre- 
sent these resolutions to the Good Will Fire Company at their 
meeting this evening, and^ report at the next meeting of the 


ft'.- ^- ^V.' 



The minutes of December 8th, 1848, contain 

" A resolution from the Good Will tm Comf 
ered and accepted and ordered to be placed on 
lieu of those passed at the meeting of this cc 
secretary of this company gave the Good Will 
notice of the same. . The following was the resc 

' Jtesohed, That this being an auxiliary comp 
lution f^re Company, its members be admitted 
leges of the members of the Resolution Fire Co 

" On April ad, 1S49, the mcmbeis of the 
Company severally resigned, and the secretary 
to hand all the boolcs and effects to the presid< 
Will Fire Company. 

"Benjamin MoOKEHot^si 

The Good Will ^re Company was formally c 
24th of January, 1848, but having become auxili 
lution Fire Company, dates its organization froi 
1804. Previous to this organization a number ol 
formed themselves into a company, calling then 
Will Company, and used the old. bucket ei 
called, this being the same engine that was used 
tion Company previous to the one which was p 
Famura in 183}. 

Charles Ifoore presided at the meeting held 
on the 24th of January, 1848, and Peter B. Ge 
retary. At this meeting Charles Moore, Willin 
and Benjamin K. McClurg were appointed a co 
a constitution and by-laws. 

The next meeting was held 00 the 7lh of Fe 
the City Halt, Charles Moore in the chair; Fett 
retary. At this meeting a committee, consist! 
^IcClain, and Cray, was appointed to procure 
On motion, the secretary was requested to prep 
present to common council, asking for the sun 
dollars, to make repairs on engines. The cn{ 
Good Will Company after it had formally qt, 
same one used by the gentlemen above alludet 
themselves the Good Will Company. The said 


five dollars was granted by council, which, together with the 
money raised by subscription, was used in having the engine 
changed into a suction engine, and in making other repairs on 
the same. 

At the meeting held on the *4lb of February, 1848, a consti- 
tution and by-laws were adopted. This meeting was held at the 
printing office of B. F. Yard. The following persons signed the 
CDnstitution : Charles Moore, John McMilnor, William B. 
McClain, Benjamin K. McClurg, David Pullen, Peter B. Geary, 
James F. Starin, George E. Curslys, Richard Callls, John M. 
Tunison, Jacob S. Yard, and Aaron Dansbury. 

At the meeting held on the 3d of April, 1848, the committee 
on hats and capes made a report that the hats and capes were ta 
cost two .dollars and sixty-four cents per pair, which report was 

Peter B. Geary held the position of secretary until October * 
2d, 1848, when Benjamin K. McClurg was elected to fill the 

At the meeting held October 9th, 1848, the following resolu- 
tion was adopted : 

*^ Resolved^ That this company, being an auxiliary com- 
pany to the Resolution Company, its members be admitted to 
all the privileges of the members of the Resolution Fire Com- 
pany." » 

This resolution, it will be remembered, was received and 
adopted by the Resolution Fire Company. 

The following supplement to the charter of the Resolution 
Fire Company was passed by the legislature February 9th, x86o : 

*' Whereas, By resolution passed at a regular meeting of the 
Resolution Fire Company, held October 2d, 1848, it was 
resolved that all the rights and privileges of the said Reso- 
lution Fire Company be extended and transmitted to the 
Good Will Company of Trenton— 

" 1st. And he it enacted by the senate and general assembly (f 
the state of New Jersey^ That the corporate name of this com- 
pany be changed to the Good Will Fire Company of Trenton, 
New Jersey. 

. t 


" 2d. And he it enacted^ That the said company may increase 
the number of its members to one hundred and fifty, and may 
increase its capital stock to one thousand dollars. 

«* 3d. And be it enacted^ That all provisions to the act to which 
this is a supplement, inconsistent with this act, be and are hereby 

The first regular election of officers in the Good Will Fire 
Company was held on Thursday evening, February loth, 184S. 
The following persons were elected officers: Charles Moore, 
president; P. B. Geary, secretary; John M. Millnor, treasurer; 
Charles l^Ioore, Benjamin K. ^IcClurg, William B. McClain, 
Richard Callis, and James F. Starin, directors. 

In August, 1850, the company purchased a new engine, bailt 
by Young & Son, Philadelphia, at a cost of two thousand dol- 
lars. The color was red, and it was then considered a very hand- 
some engine. On receiving the same the company paraded 
ninety men, fully e(][uipped with red hats, red shirts and black 
pants. This engine they used until they procured their present 
steamer, which was built at the Amoskeag works, Manchester, 
N. H., and received on the 20th of February, 1864. The 
steamer cost thirty-two hundred and fifty dollars, and is consid- 
ered one of the best steam engines in Trenton. 

The first engine-house occupied by the Good Will Company 
was situated on Front street, near Willow. It was an old one 
story house. The next house occupied by them was situated on 
Warren street, on the north side of Coleman's mill. This was 
also an old one story house, with two i^lanks for a floor to run 
the engine on ; an old stove was rolled against the door for a 

In 1849, application was made to council by the company for 
a new house, and in the same year one was built on Washington 
street, which, at that time, was considered a beautiful, building 
for an engine company. It occupied this house until i86i. 

Before removing therefrom, the company purchased a lot of 
land on Warren street, where it is now located, from Samuel 
K. Wilson, which was afterwards conveyed to the city in con- 
sideration that the city would put up a new house on said 
land. This the city agreed to do, and until it was completed. 


the company housed its apparatus in the building occupied by 
Casper Martino, on Greene street. The house it now occupies 
is a two story brick building, large and convenient, and is one 
of the'best and finest engine-houses in the city. The company 
has spared no expense in furnishing the rooms in this building, 
the parlor being fitted up as neatly and beautifully as any pri- 
vate parlor in the city of Trenton. The building has been re- 
cently enlarged by the addition of a stable. This addition 
makes a fine meeting room on the second story, and avoids the 
necessity of using the large parlor. 

The large tower in the rear of the engine-house was com- 
menced in November, 1869, and was completed in the course of 
four or five months thereafter. It is seventy feet high, and sup- 
plies a much-needed want. The alarm bell hanging therein was 
purchased by the company January ist, 1870, of Meneely & 
Son, of Troy, New York, at a cost of eleven hundred dollars. 
It weighs nineteen hundred and ninety-seven pounds. The 
tone of this bell is unsurpassed by any bell in Trenton. It can 
be heard in any part of the city, and whenever it strikes it is 
the signal for fire. The Good Will Fire Company deserves a 
good deal of credit for procuring such a bell. The members of 
this company pulled their engine by hand until the 4th of July, 
1 87 1. Before this date, however, they had purchased two large 
and beautiful black horses, at a cost of six hundred and seventy- 
five dollars, but did not put them into service until the 4th of 
July, 1 87 1. The membership of the company is three hundred, 
of which number one hundred and thirty-three are fully equip- 
ped, active members. The remaining number is made up of 
honorary and contributing members. 

The present officers of the company are — president, Charles 
Moore ; vice president, William H. Barton ; secretary, Charles 
G. Hillman ; assistant secretary, Charles W. Krier ; treasurer, 
A. K. Perry; collector, Sylvester Van Syrkel, Jr.; foreman,' 
Frank H. Taylor ; assistant foreman, Richard Degraw ; steam 
engineer, Thomas Boyd. 

Charles Moore has filled the office of president since the or- 
ganization of the company, and the office of secretary has been 
filled respectively by Peter B. Geary, Benjamin K. McClurg, 
Charles Megill, Frank H. Taylor, and Charles G. Hillman. 

V"!^P^V" \}% lliPWMiP-|H«i^p^>.qwg««lpaW«V^ 


Among the oldest members of the Good Will Fire Company, 
now living, are Henry B. Howell, Charles Moore, James Kelly, 
Thomas E. Boyd, James £. Hillman, James H. McGuire, Felix 
McGuire, Jacob Langstine, William Pearson, John R. Pearson, 
James H. Morris, Charles ^legill, Charles Bechtel, John L. Gor« 
don, David Campbell, James Wylie, Jphn W. Cassidy, Franklin 
S. Mills, John Clowney, Henry J. Bennett, and Harvey HowclL 

The Good Will Company was the first equipped fire company 
in Trenton, and no one can or will deny that it did very 
much toward creating a spirit of emulation in the department ; 
and through its earnestness and activity, and the co-operatioa 
of the other companies, the department grew and became the 
pride of every fireman and every citizen. 

Since their organization, the members of the company have 
taken five regular excursions : two to Easton, Pa.; one to Phila- 
delphia, on which occasion they took part in the great firemen's 
parade as guests to the Hibemia Fire Company, No. i ; one to 
Providence, R. I., as guests of the whole fire department ; and the 
last to Charlestown, Mass., and Newport, R. I. In Charlestown 
they were the guests of the Howard Fire Company, and at New- 
port the guests of No. 5. Upon all these occasions they were 
heartily received and kindly cared for. They have received 
many visiting fire companies, and have always extended to them 
their hospitalities in the largest degree. 

The Good Will Company wore the Philadelphia style of fire 
hat until sometime in 1863, when it made a change for the 
New York style, which style has been adopted throughout the 
whole country. 

During the war, one whole company was made up of members 
of the Good Will Fire Company. Some, after the war, returned 
to mingle again with their friends, while others fell upon the 
field of battle while manfully fighting for their country's rights. 
The assets of the company are worth about five thousand dollars. 

This is in brief a history of the Resolution and Good Will 
Fire Companies. A good deal yet remains to be written, but 
wc have not the space here in which to write it. 

Gideon H. Wells, Robert Chambers, William Aitken, William 
Hankinson, Fairfax Abell, Wollaston Redman, John Abom, 


Lewis Evans, Foster Hart, Lamar G. Wells, Richard J. Bond, 
Charles Stevenson, John Mount, Jacob Raum, John Ingleton, 
Jesse Redman, James Hope, Thomas W. Morgan, Charles M. 
WellsJ Welling Napton^ Thomas Dearth, and George D. Abra- 
ham were the original organizers of the Eagle Fire Company. 

They met at the house of John Hutchinson, on Friday even- 
ing, the 15th of June, 1821, completed their organization, and 
adopted a constitution, which sets forth in its preamble, the fol- 

** We, the subscribers, inhabitants of Mill Hill and its vicinity, 
for the greater security of our own and our neighbors' property 
from loss by fire, do associate and form ourselves into a company 
to be known and styled the Eagle Fire Company of Mill Hill." 

At their first meeting the following officers were elected : 

Gideon H. Wells, president; Lewis Evans, vice president; 
Thomas W. Morgan, secretary; Jesse Redman, treasurer; Robert 
Chambers, inspector. 

Their second meeting was held at the same place, Friday 
evening, June 2 2d, when a bill was presented by Welling Napton, 
for seventeen dollars and sixty-seven cents, for lumber for build- 
ing the engine-house, and five dollars for labor, whiqh was 
ordered paid ; and a bill of R. Chambers for repairs done to the 
house, one dollar, was also ordered paid. Thomas Dearth and 
Welling Napton were elected engineers, and John Mount, Jacob 
Raum, Wollaston Redman, Robert Chambers, James Hope, and 
Fairfax Abell, assistants. 

Messrs. Bond, Mount, and Abom were appointed a committee 
to make the necessary inquiries respecting the procuring of 
buckets for such members as wished to purchase them. 

February 22d, 1822, Richard J. Bond was authorized to have 
the constitution printed in pamphlet form, and each member 
supplied with a copy at twelve and a half cents each. Lewis 
Evans and Jacob Raum were appointed a committee to have the 
front of the engine-house painted and the name of the com- 
pany placed over the door, and on November 7th they reported 
that it was unnecessary to have anything further done to the 
house at that time, and were thereupon discharged. 

I ^li i w p mvm^ ^ ■ g iP' fi i I II WH P. J H U M . w»; mli w wj " "" i " !" ■i jp m il 


At a meeting held at the house of John Pearce, Thursday, 
^lay 2d, Stacy G. Potts, James Martin, Cornelius Raum, and 
John Pearce were elected. 

Lewis Evans, Robert Chambers, and Welling Napton were 
appointed a committee to procure a ladder, and on the 6th of 
February, 1823, they reported a bill of nine dollars and twelve 
and a half cents for the same, and were authorized to find a 
proper place for keeping it, and also to procure hooks for hang- 
ing it up. 

November 7th, 1822, Lewis Evans presented a bill of two 
dollars and thirty-four cents for painting the engine-house, 
which was ordered paid. 

The company then adjourned to meet at the house of John 
Pearce, Thursday, February 6th, at six o'clock, at which time 
supper was to be prepared for it 

May 6th, 1824, James R. Tomlinson, the secretary, was au- 
thorized to have a good and sufficient covering put over the lad- 
ders, and attend to the necessary repairs of the same, and on 
the 4th of November he reported the same complete, and 
presented a bill for two dollars and ninety-three cents, which 
was ordered paid. ^ 

Fairfax Abell and Richard J. Bond were appointed a conunit- 
tee to procure fire hooks. 

Mr. C. Raum was authorized, May 6th, 1825, to let out the 
ladders at twelve and a half cents per day for the large one, and 
six and a quarter cents for the small one; February ist, 1827, 
they were ordered not to be loaned to any one. 

February 2d, 1826, John Whittaker was fined twelve and a 
half cents for not having his buckets painted. 

February 7th, 1828, Charles M. Wells and Fairfax Abell were 
appointed a committee to purchase eight feet of hose. 

August 6th, 1829, the engineers were authorized to purchase 
four pairs of buckets for the use of the company, which was done 
at an expense of twenty dollars. 

February 5 th, i8jo, a committee was appointed to apply to 
the legislature for an act of incorporation for the company, which 
was accordingly passed on the 26th of the same montL The 
incori)orators were Robert Chambers, Fairfax Abell, Richard J« 


Bond,3Vollaston Redman, John AVhittaker, and William Wain. 
The capital stock was two thousand dollars, which was afterwards, 
by a supplement approved March nth, 1864, increased to eight 
thousand dollars. 

The meetings of the company were held usually at the hotel 
of Mrs. Gordon, and the members were in the habit of indulging 
in the use of liquors, as appears by the following resolution offered 
by William C. Howell, November 4th, 1830. 

^* Resolved^ That in future the company abstain from the use of 
ardent spirits in meetings of business ; and that our usual mode 
of throwing in our sixpences be continued, and be given for the 
use of the house." - 

This resolution was laid over from one meeting to the next, 
until May 5th, 1831, when it was considered and losL 

February 2d, 1832, the committee appointed at a previous ' 
meeting reported that they had purchased two sections of hose, ' 
at an expense of sixty-seven dollars. At the same meeting 
Richard J. Bond, John A. Hutchinson, and Henry M. Lee were 
appointed a committee to purchase a tender for carrying the 
hose, and on the ist of November they reported that they had ' 
purchased one at a cost of fourteen dollars and twenty-five cents. 

November 13th, 1833, Richard J. Bond and Fairfax Abell 
were appointed a committee to have a new ladder made, and on 
February 6th, 1834, it was resolved that the old ladder be sold, 
and that Joseph Whittaker be the auctioneer. The ladder was 
accordingly put up at auction, and purchased by John Whitta- 
ker for two dollars and fifteen cents. 

. The house of the company was a small one story building 
about sixteen by thirty feet, and located on the lot where the 
court-house now stands, and in front of the southerly end of it, 
on Broad street. North of the engine-house, and adjoining the 
same, the hooks and ladders were located, having a covering 
over them, chained fast to the fence, and locked with a padlock, 
the key of which was kept by Cornelius Raum, who occupied 
the house on the corner of Broad and ^larket streets, immedi- 
ately in front of the surrogate's office, and adjoining the engine- 

awpy^*^ M l I ■ ■■! II i j i I ■ mi.. iii .Li iM . — ^ m, m n w smt'^m 


August 4th, 1836, a proposition was made to fit up the lower 
story of the Mill Hill school-house for an engine-house^ and 
Messrs. Joseph Whittaker, Robert Aitken, and Wollaston Red- 
man were appointed a committee to inquire into the expediency 
and probable cost of fitting up said building, and report to the 
compa#iy and citizens of Mill Hill, at the school room, on Wed- 
nesday evening, the 17th instant 

August 17th, 1836, the company met, together with such citi- 
zens of Mill Hill as were disposed to attend, in the school room, 
at which time the committee appointed to ascert:un the probable 
cost of fitting up the lower story of the school-house for an en- 
gine-house reported that to build it with a nine inch wall would 
cost eighty dollars, and to build it with inch boards, plowed and 
grooved, would cost about forty dollars. Horace Smith and 
Joseph ^Vhittaker were appointed a committee to collect money 
from the citizens and members to build the house, and at the 
meeting of August 24th, the committee reported that they had 
collected funds enough to warrant the undertaking, and Wollas- 
ton Redman, Robert Aitken, and Joseph Whittaker were ap- 
pointed a committee to have the work done, at an expense not 
exceeding fifteen dollars, and instructed that the same be com- 
pleted in thirty days, and to remove the engine to the new house. 

The committee appointed at a previous meeting to have the 
engine painted reported that the work was now done, and that 
a place had been left for the purpose of inserting a motto. 

The question now arose as to what motto they should adopt— 
a number of which were proposed by different members, and 
were all rejected. The following, proposed by Wollaston Red- 
man, was unanimously adopted, m., "EPFiaENX Aid,** which 
has stood as the motto of the company ever since. 

The committee on building were also authorized to ascertain 
what they could sell the old engine for. 

The meetings of the company were then changed firom the 
hotel to the school room. 

The cost of fitting up the new house was forty-six dollars and 
eighteen cents. 

February 2d, 1837, Horace Smith, Richard J. Bond, and 
Wollaston Redman were appointed a committee to dispose of 


llp^liW I ■ i^i m ^y-^^^*^ .! i^^^Bi 



the oM engine-house by public sale^ to the highest bidder, on 
Monday, the 13th, between the hours of twelve and one o'clock. 
May 4th, 1837, the committee reported that they had sold the 
old engine-house to John Whittaker, for sixteen dollars and fifty 
cents, and also that during the month of March, the cooper 
shop of Jared L. Cool, adjoining the engine-house, ha(] been 
destroyed by fire, and in order to save the engine-house it was 
removed, and in removing it, it was broken to pieces, and Mr. 
Whittaker having demands against the company for twelve dol- 
lars and fifty cents, asked the company, in consideration of the 
loss sustained, to accept his claim as an off-set against it, which 
was agreed to. 

A committee was appointed to inquire the cost of firemen's 
hats, who reported that they would cost from one dollar and 
thirty-seVen and a half cents to one dollar and eighty-seven and 
a half cents. 

Joseph Whittaker and Robert Waddell were appointed a com- 
mittee to procure thirty leather badges with the words '^ Eagle 
Company" painted on them, to be worn on the hat. The com- 
mittee procured twenty-five at eighty-one cents each, being one 
for each member. The members were required to wear their 
badges at all fires, and at every quarterly meeting to \rork the 

May 3d, 1838, Joseph Whittaker and Henry Page were ap- 
pointed a committee to prepare a place to hang the ladders. 

November 5 th, 1841, the custody of the ladders was placed 
in the hands of Gqorge James, with the privilege of hiring them 
out at twelve and a half cents for one or two hours, and twenty- 
five cents per day, and if they were retained over night, fifty 
cents, without respect to persons, and that he be accountable 
for them, and receive twenty-five per cent, on all mone}*s col- 
lected for their use. 

February ist, 1844, four torches were procured at one dollar 

May 2d, 1844, Joseph Whittaker, John Bucknum, and -Ed- 
ward W. Page were appointed a committee to select a location 
to build an engine-house, and also to ascertain the probable cost 
of the same. 

^«Hnni«^qp?a^vfifiii ■«■ iiii*^M^*««iWM^i^vi«w«iVMMPw«qpi«w^pt«»i^pnii 


December 24th9 18469 Joseph Whittaker and Richard J. Bond 
were appointed a committee to solicit donations for the purpose 
of purchasing a new engine, and Robert Aitken, Joseph A* 
Bond, and James A. Howell were a committee to raise funds for 
building a new engine-house ; and on the 4th of February, 1847, 
Richard J. Bond and Joseph Whitaker were appointed a com- 
mittee to purchase a new engine. 

The first engine used by this company was built by Pat. L.yoD^ 
of Philadelphia, at that time the most celebrated engine builder 
in the country. The next one was made by John Agnew, of 
Philadelphia, in 1847, who was, in his day, also celebrated as an 
engine builder. This engine was six and a half inch cylinder, 
ten and a half inch stroke, with suction and side stream, the cost 
of which was seven hundred and seventy dollars. 

The engine built by Pat. Lyon worked from the ground, with 
two arms, while that of Agnew*shad a gallery and four anns. 

At a special meeting held December 30th, 1847, suitable reso- 
lutions were adopted on the death of Richard J. Bond, who had 
been president of the company since May, 1830, a period of 
seventeen years, and who was one of the original members at its 
first organization, and at the time of his death the only reniaia- 
ing one of that number. 

May 3cl, 1849, ^^ ^'^ ordered that the members of the com- 
pany equip themselves with hat and cape at a cost of two dollars 
and fifty cents ; device, a spread eagle on hat, with the figures 
182 1, and the letter £ on the back. 

The engine-house was removed from the academy, and a small 
house erected in Market street, near Jackson, which the company 
continued to occupy until the city built the present house in 
Broad street, in 1858. 

In 1859 a difficulty occurred in the department in conse- 
quence of the board of engineers numbering the different com- 
panies. Those in Trenton proper were given the first numbers, 
and those in that district which had been annexed were num- 
bered last. This created considerable dissatisfaction among the 
companies affected thereby. The Eagle Company rebelled, on 
the ground that its rights were interfered with, and this was 
carried to such an extent that the sheriff closed up the house. 


iwi n I ^ ^.i^awp— 



leviecL on the property, and sold the hose carriage and other 
property at public sale, to pay the expenses of the suit. 

During this year the Delaware Company was fitting up a new 
house, and had its engine and apparatus housed with the Eagle 

Upon closing the house they removed their apparatus to a 
stable, where it was kept until the Hand-in-Hand Company ten- 
dered them the use of their house, Septeinber, 1859. 

The new house of the Eagle Company was dedicated July 
5th, 1858, and was the first house built by the city, since which 
time the city has supplied all the companies with good engine- 

The Eagle Company .purchased the first steamer that was 
brought to this city, in 1864, which underwent considerable 
repairs in 1869. 

From time immemorial it had been the custom for the mem- 
bers of the company to pull the engine to fires, but when the 
steam engines were introduced this mode was found to be 
entirely too slow, too much labor, and not in accordance with 
the progressive times ; consequently, it was found necessary to 
have some greater motive power, and horse power was substituted 
for human muscle. 

The Eagle Fire Company at present wears the New York style 
of equipments, about one hundred members being fully equipped. 

The first presidents of the Eagle were Gideon H. Wells, 
Richard J. Bond, and Joseph AVhittaker; then followed John O. 
Raum, who has filled the position about thirteen years, and is 
the third oldest active fireman now on the rolls of the company. 

The company has made several excursions, one to Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, and another to New Haven, Connecticut, at which 
cities they were received in the best possible manner, the most 
unboimded respect being shown towards them — ^particularly ia 
the latter city, where receptions, illuminations, and other marks 
of congratulation were extended to them, not only by the fire- 
men, but by the city officers and people generally. * 1 

The Eagle at the present day ranks second to no company in 
the city. She has had her trials in days gone by, but the more 
she has been tried the greater has proved her glory, and the 

^' . " J M " ^ LU > . »' ^l| l ■ i p^ i m P Hu y^l ■ !. I H III T 



EagU has arisen from the fiery ordeal, with her plumage 
unruffled, only to soar higher up, and perch herself ux>on the 
loftiest pinnacle. 

On the 15th of June, 1S71, the Eagle celebrated her fiAieth 
anniversary by a supper at the engine-house, prepared by John 
J. Ford. 

Among those present were three of the oldest members — John 
Bucknum, who has been a member thirty-two years, William D. 
Laning, who has been a member twenty-seven years, and John 
O. Raum, who has been a member twenty-six years. Interest- 
ing remarks were made by the above gentlemen, contrasting the 
present prospects and condition of the company with its humble 
origin fifty years ago. Remarks were also made by other mem- 
bers of the company, and invited guests. 

Some years ago an addition was built to the engine-house by 
the city, which gives the company, in addition to their meeting 
room in the second story, a handsome large parlor, fitted up in 
grand style. 

The present membership of the Eagle company is a little over 
three hundred; the officers are, John O. Raumj president^ 
William Johnston, Vice president; Jesse Thornley, secretary; 
John Dobbins, assistant secretary ; Charles S. Boyd, financial 
secretary ; William Ossenberg, treasurer. 

We have no record of the date when the first meeting was 
held for the purpose of organizing the Delaware Fire Company. 
It must have been, however, prior to April 5th, 1821, because 
in one of the old minute books we find a list of the actual and 
honorary members under the above date. We give this list as a. 
matter of some interest to our citizens, since in it will be found 
some of our veterans, whose span of life has been extended far 
beyond the ordinary limit, and two or three of whom are to-day 
among our most active and energetic business men. 

The following is a Ibt of the actual members of the Delaware 
Fire Company, April 5th, 1821 : 

Benjamin Fish, John Phares, James F. Rock, James FhareSj. 
Lewis Parker, J. H. Mershon, Isaac Yard, John McMackin^ 
Aaron O. ShufT, William Cook, William Briggs, James Short, 
Charles Holland, Morris Jackson, Thomas Hamilton, Isaac 



Blackford, James Bell, Abner Mershon, David Schenck, Matu- 
rin Redway, Wilson A. Coleman, Alexander C. Wood, John 
Drummond, John Sunderland, Jr., John Laing, John B. Abbott. 

The following Is a list of the honorary members at the above 
date : 

Philip F. Howell, Samuel Crowell, Charles B. Carman, Rich- 
ard McGannon, Clark Chambers, Lamar Phares, James G. Van- 
syckal, Caleb Carman, Thomas McKean, Daniel D. Moore, 
Lawrence Fagbli, Jacob W. Lupardus. 

We also find that soon after their organization, they made 
arrangements for procuring an apparatus. A subscription was 
started^ and they collected three hundred and forty-five dollars 
and fifly cents. They bought two engines, paying for them two 
hundred and thirty dollars ; and after these entries in the trear 
surer's books, without date, we find the balance of fifteen dollars, 
and fifty cents carried to a new account, and charged to the 
treasurer June 25th, 182 1. 

Many of our citizens will remember the old ' hand engine 
owned by this company for many years. Although built in the 
simplest manner possible, without any of the gay trappings which 
decorate the engines of our day, she was yet considered a very 
efficient apparatusy'and always performed her duty when circum« 
stances required it.* 

The engine-house at that time was a small one story frame 
building, situated on the southerly side of what is now Bridge 
street, near Warren. It was long since removed to make way 
for other improvements. 

During the month of March, 1856, the company bought a new 
hand engine, made by Button, of Waterford, New York, for one 
thousand one hundred dollars, and at the same time purchased 
another engine-house, w*hich was located on the north side of 
Bridge street, near Fair. 

In the fall of 1865, it was resolved to purchase a second-class 
steam engine of Mr. Button, the maker of their engine then in 
service, and early in the following year the present engine was 
received. During the past winter (1870-71) she was thoroughly 
overhauled, and several improvements were added. 

In the fall of 1868, the company left the building in Bridge 



street and occupied the new engine-house built by the citj, in 
Warren street, just above Bridge, where they are at present 

Soon after getting the steamer the company found it necessary 
to procure horses — the weight of the apparatus proving too 
severe a task for human muscle. Since then the company has 
not been without a team, which is hired out in the city for vari- 
ous kinds of work, and thus made to yield a small revenue. 

The company ^-as incorporated by act of the legislature, Janu- 
ary 31st, 1833. The corporators were Benjamin Fish, John B. 
Abbott, Maturin Redway, Jacob B. James, Charles Skelton, 
Thomas N. Hamilton, William R. Howell, John Phares, and 
John Sunderland. 

The capital stock was originally one thousand five hundred 
dollars, but this was increased on February i8th, 1856, to two 
thousand five hundred dollars. > 

It is gratifying to look back over the past history of this com- 
pany and note the changes that have taken place. From very 
humble beginnings, this company is now on an equality in every 
respect with the other fire companies of the city. 

To the great number of fires which occurred during the winter 
of 1838-39, and the \i*ant of sufficient apparatus for their extin- 
^ishment, does the Trenton Hose Company owe its existence. 
Trenton, at this time, was well supplied with fire engines, and 
in a manner supplied with the necessary apparatus for carrying 
hose ; yet there was ample room for improvement, and an excel- 
lent op]>ortunity afforded for man to display his willingness to 
help his fellow mortal in his hour of need and danger. And 
to give to the citizens of Trenton the aid of a suitable apparatus 
for carrying hose and all its necessary adjuncts, and to insure its 
speedy arrival at the scene of conflagration, a number of gentle- 
men, actuated by the best of impulses, assembled at the house of 
John Van Fleet, in Warren street, on the evening of February 
25th, 1839. A. P. Atkinson, Esq., was elected chairman, and 
the following resolution was adopted : 

** Whereas, The numerous cases of fire occurring in the city of 
Trenton renders it necessary, and the undersigned, actuated 
by a sincere desire to assist their fellow-citizens in the hour 


of danger, have resolved to form themselves into an organi- 
zation or company, to be denominated the Trenton Hose 
Company, No. i." 

This resolution was signed by A. P. Atkinson and others. 

Nothing of much importance was done that evening, and they 
adjourned to meet on Friday evening, March 8th, 1839, ^^ 
which time the Trenton Hose Company was organized, and the 
following gentlemen elected as its officers for the ensuing year : 

A. P. Atkinson, president ; George Furman, vice president ; 
Charles C. Bellejeau, secretary ; Samuel F. Hart, assistant secre- 
tary; George W. Van Hart, treasurer; Charles W. Johnston, 
John R. S. Barnes, and David S. Anderson, directors. 

The organization being without a hose carriage, a committee, 
consisting of Benjamin T. Howell, David S. Anderson, A. P. At- 
kinson, R. W. Furman, and George W. Van Hart, was appointed . 
to wait upon the Resolution Fire Company, and request the loan 
of their hose carriage until one could be procured ; this request 
was cheerfully complied with. With the proper apparatus and a. 
full complement of men, they were without a hose-house, and 
the members were compelled to hold their meetings at private 
houses, hotels, auction rooms, or wherever they could find a. 
suitable room for the purpose. In the course of a few months 
they purchased a new hose carriage, and secured a hotise in 
Warren street, opposite the Third Presbyterian Church. This 
house afforded scarcely room enough to accommodate the mem- 
bers and hose carriage at the same time, but by using the car- 
riage as a presidential chair and for seats, it was considered suf- 
ficiently large ; no doubt the gentlemen who were then members 
of the company were actuated by, and possessed warm and noble 
impulses, for they had many difficulties to contend with, but 
labored earnestly for the worthy cause in which they were en- 
listed, and overcame all obstacles. 

No change of officers occurred until January, 1841, when 
death invaded their ranks and claimed their much-loved- and 
highly-respected president. It was a sad blow to the organiza- 
tion, for to him and their worthy vice president belonged much 
of the honor of adding this branch of the service to the fire 
department. George Furman, Esq., was elected president, and 


ypwgwweilP lH I ji i I i i ii y ■i^i .nji i ^i ii jI i .H yyiwnHPyrTgffyfffWPi^ 


shortly after, John B. Johnston was selected a 
and ever «nce, except for a short period, thejr t 
same positions; other changes in the board of e 
place, but it would be tedioos to mention th 
manjr changes have occurred, both as to memb< 
cial condition of the company. Some of its mm 
grey in the service — while many have passed an 
cares of life. That energy which mariced the 
the company and caused them to remove from 
Warren street to a better one in Hanover str* 
a new hose carriage, and again remove to the c 
and Greene streets, and again purchase a new 
highly appreciated by the present members. 

During this lime they visited Easton and N 
an organization, and won the high esteem an 
citizens and firemen of both cities. 

In 1859, that celebrated organization, the ' 
ciaiion," visited Trenton, and were the guest 
Hose Company. Too much cannot be said of] 
never before had such a gentlemanly body < 
Trenton, and the citizens were indeed thankfiil 
Hose Company had afforded them the opportui 
the hand of welcome and firiendship to so nobl< 

At the breaking out of the war of the rebel] 
Hose Company nobly responded to the call o: 
for a time the organization was almost withoni 
who aided their country in her hour of need, 
themselves as to reflect honor on their state anc 
close of the war many returned to us wearing th 
rank, won only through true bravery; and as cii 
gone forth from the organization to occupy posil 
trust in the affaii^ of the state and city. 

In 1865, when it was deemed bet to re- 
department of this city, and when the city c( 
ordinance for its proper government, from 
Trenton Hose Company was selected as chi( 
A. Weart, Esq. ; how well he has fulfilled tli 




the citizens, the present excellent condition of the department 
unmistakably shows. 

XJntil 1866, the Trenton Hose Company had been almost self- 
sustaining; being the owner of its apparatus and hose-house, 
it only required the city to supply it with the necessaries 
incident to a fire organization to protect the property of the 
citizens from fire. At this time a new building was needed, and 
the city purchased its property and erected thereon the present 
building, and before it was completed, the organization, in order 
to enlarge its sphere of usefulness, had purchased a hook and 
ladder truck, the money with which to make this purchase being 
jointly contributed by the company and the citizens in general, 
thus proving that they were willing to give both labor and 
money for the welfare of the city. 

To the year 1868 was given the honor of presenting the. 
brightest page in the history of the Trenton Hose Company. 
In that year the company made its famous trip to Boston and 
Lynn— the " Hub" and the " City of Soles." Here again did 
it display its indomitable energy, for at the time, it resolved to 
make the journey, the company was in possession of apparatus 
fit only for use at hres. Nevertheless, before three mofiths rolled 
around it was the owner of one of the finest hose carriages in the 
state, fully one-half of the purchase money having been contrib- 
uted by individual members at a single meeting ; the balance 
was the gift of the citizens of Trenton. To those who had been 
entrusted with the arrangements of the excursion, the morning 
of the loth of August came only with fear, for they were far 
from being sure that success would crown their efforts. 

At Jersey City the excursionists were the recipients of many 
honors at the hands of the fire department, under the direction 
of Diligent Hose Company, No. 3, and aflcr a day's sight-seeing 
in and around New York harbor, they left for Boston, arriving 
there on Tuesday morning, expecting to find only a small body 
of firemen in -waiting to escort them across the city, but found 
Chief Damrell, a full board of engineers, a representative from 
each company of the city, and a vast concourse of people to 
welcome them. To Melville, No. 6, of Boston, is much honor 
due for this kind greeting, and for the oration which followed. 


ffi^^^g^wm>mmmm \ u \ wi M\mm m t 1.J. 1 Fill I i i^ .i. 1 1 1^ 1 1 I j i^w mm f i^ m^mu^trmw'ur 


During the company's march throogh the dt 
by cheers and roundi of applause. The stre 
cTOA-ded, and doora and windows held their fa 
glad and smiling Taccs. Arriving at the Americ 
Shurtleff and the board of aldermen were in w 
them in the mamc of the city. A banquet ha 
at which Mayor Shurtleff presided; and amonj 
of welcome, none felt upon the ears of the Tr 
much meaning as those of the mayor and chi 
stated that in their recollection of the city gi 
extended hack over twenty jears, it had never 
dom of the city and a public reception to a 
until the coming of the Trenton Hose Compai 
At two o'clock that aflenioon the company 
where an ovation awaited it which far surposse 
pectations — in fact, its coming had giren to'1 
The visitora were met at the depot by the entir 
and by thousands of citizens, whose countenai 
a genuine welcome. Bunting floated from i 
place, and buildings, both public and private 
rated. Lynn's citizens in general vied with e. 
the visit as pleasant as possible, and in everj 
sustain the lime-honored and oft-quoted Y: 
The doors of the rich and the poor were alii 
cordial welcome to the Trentonians. They n 
strange land, and right nobly were they taken 
While yet in Lynn, the board of aldermen 
special meeting and passed a series of resolu 
company to become the guest of that city for 
and also placing at its command steamboats 
that it might visit points of interest in and an 
present this invitation to the company for 
committee, composed of the mayor, chief ei 
aldermen, was appointed to visit Lynn to i 
acceptance; but circumstances were such t! 
to decline this more than generous olTer of 
Boston, not, however, without assuring the 
appreciated the honor tendered. The da 



departure from Lynn, and the mayor, with thousands of the 
citizens, had come to speak the parting word. After returning 
thanks to the citizens of Lynn for the many courtesies received 
at Ehe hands of the people, the company with difficulty reached 
the cars, and soon were far distant from Lynn. The Trenton 
Hose Company would be derelict in duty did they not accord to 
Lynn the praise of giving them such a hearty welcome. 

On its return to Boston the company found the mayor, alder* 
men and fire department awaiting its arrival, and it was escorted 
at once to the American House, where, in the name of the city 
of Boston, it was invited to partake of a banquet already pre« 
pared. . A few short hours were spent in merry-making and a 
general good time, when the hour to start on the journey home- 
ward arrived. Boston was still loth to part with the company, and 
marched it through the principal streets, while the train which was 
to bear it away was detained at the request of the city authorities 
until a long time after the hour named for its departure. Ar- 
riving at the depot, it quickly embarked and was soon speeding 
homeward. And thus terminated a most brilliant visit. Feted 
and welcomed on all occasions, the Trenton Hose Company 
may justly feel proud. 

On its return, the Trenton firemen gave them a most cordial 
welcome. From that time until the present the members have 
preserved their character and reputation as firemen, and are 
numbered among the most useful and efficient in the city. And 
it is to be hoped that the record of the past which has added so 
much to the bright history of the Trenton Hose Company will 
never be tarnished by any act or deed in the future. 

The present officers are, George Furman, president ; John B. 
Johnston, vice president; John G. Bigelow, secretary; Wm. H. 
Titus, assistant secretary; A. W. Phillips, treasurer; John G. 
Bigelow, foreman ; G. A. Bennett, assbtant foreman ; Wm. C« 
Dunn, assistant foreman. 

The Harmony Fire Company was organized May 9th, 1849. 
The first meeting was held at the house of Daniel T. Beller* 
jeau, in Warren street, above the Feeder bridge, for the purpose 
of forming a fire company in the northern part of the city. 
Edward H. Brown was chosen chairman, and Charles R. Faus- 


fycppwiwr i m u f m i ■!■!■ m. i w.wy w i ^mm^mn^ 




sett, secretary. It was resolved, '' that this meeting believe it to 
be essential to the citizens of the northern part of the city to 
have a fire engine, as all the engines are situated in the lower 
part of the city." Edward H. Brown, Charles R. Faussett, John 
B. Creed and Samuel Belleijeau were appointed a committee to 
solicit the aid of the citizens for the purpose of purchasing an 
engine and house. 

The next meeting was held May 14th, at the house formerly 
occupied by Dr. Walker, above the Feeder bridge in Warren 
street, for the purpose of hearing the report of the North Tren- 
ton engine committee, but the committee were not ready to 
report at that time. It was, however, resolved that Edward H. 
Brown, Samuel T. Bellerjeau, and George P. Fuhrman be a com- 
mittee to look after an engine. 

At the meeting of May 22d, they reported an appropriation 
from common council towards purchasing their engine, for which 
they tendered to that body a vote of thanks. Samuel McClurg, 
Jr., and Thomas J. Combs were appointed a committee to look 
after an engine. 

At the meeting held May 25th, the company resolved to come 
under the city ordinances. At this meeting it resolved to purchase 
an eight hundred dollar engine, and on motion of Thomas J« 
Combs the name of Harmony was adopted. A committee on 
constitution was appointed, who reported the same, which was 
adopted on the 31st day of May, in which the admission to mem- 
bership was fixed at one dollar. 

June 7th, the following officers were elected : John Chambers, 
president ; Edward H. Brown, vice president ; George J. Miller, 
secretary, and John Covert, treasurer. John Chambers declin- 
ing to serve as president, and John Covert as treasurer, Edward 
H. Brown was elected to fill the former. S. T. Bellerjeau was 
elected vice president, and Thomas J. Combs, treasurer, at the 
meeting held November 24th ; and at the meeting held Novem- 
ber 30th, George J. Miller having declined as secretary, Thomas 
J. Combs was elected to fill the vacancy. 

The first engine was received January 22d, 1852, and in 
August the rope-walk of Batten Brown was burned, and the en- 
gine-house being on the same lot, was utterly destroyed by the 




fife. Mr. Andrew Crozer, residing directly opposite, in the 
house now occupied by the Children's Home, gave the company 
permission to put its engine in his carriage-house in Greene street, 
in the rear of his dwelling, until such time as it should get its 
new house built 

The engine built by John Agnew, of Philadelphia, was re- 
ceived January 2 2d, 1852, on which occasion an escort was given 
by the Union Fire Company, and the department generally. - 

In 1854, a resolution was adopted fining any member found 
intoxicated in the house, one dollar and fifty cents, and any one 
bringing liquor into the house, under any pretence whatever, 
shotild be expelled. 

May 3d, 1855, it was resolved that all bills should be paid 
by the city council. 

Thomas Cain wanted to drain his property through the prop- 
erty belonging to the engine-house lot, when it was, on motion, 
resolved that he be allowed the privilege upon the payment of 
one thousand five hundred dollars. This Mr. Cain thought was 
too much, and declined the offer. 

In 1855, a committee was appointed to ascertain the cost of 
a bell weighing two hundred and fifty pounds, and on the 2d of 
August it reported that a bell could be purchased for thirty 
cents a pound, and that thirty-one members had subscribed one 
dollar each for that purpose. 

January 4th, 1855, a vote of thanks was tendered Protection 
Hook and Ladder Company, for the presentation of two axes, 
and George P. Fuhrman, Jr., was instructed to convey the same 
to the company. 

February ist, Samuel T. Bellerjeau and John B. Creed were 
appointed a committee to proceed in a legal manner against all 
persons damaging or destroying any property belonging to the 
company; also against all persons behaving in an indecent or 
disorderly manner about the house. At this meeting two mem- 
bers were expelled for violating this rule. 

Samuel T. Bellerjeau, George W. Sunningshine, James S. 
Robinson, Samuel D. Bellerjeau, and John B. Creed were ap- 
pointed a committee to obtain an act of incorporation, which 
was passed on the 2d day of March of the same year. The in- 




corporators were George W. Sunningshine, Samuel T. Belleijean, 
James S. Robinson, John B. Creed, Samuel F. Price, Matthew 
Moses, Samuel D. Bellerjeau, Charles Meyer, John Brades, 
Charles Sweet, and John Haws. The capital stock was not to 
exceed four thousand dollars, and was to be applied ''to the par« 
chase and holding of real estate, to the procuring, maintain- 
ing, and repairing such fire engine, hose carriage, hose, ladders, 
buckets, fire-hooks, engine-house, or other property, and such 
implements and machines, and to such other incidental expenses 
as shall to the said company appear best calculated to secure 
the property of their fellow-citizens from injury or destruction 
by fire." 

April 5th, 1855, the finance committee were instructed to 
have the deed of the engine-house transferred to the company. 

At the meeting of July 20th, 1857, they adopted as their 
motto " We Strive to Save." 

On Monday, July 27th, they brought their engine home after 
having had it repaired and repainted. 

January 7th, 1858, the committee reported that the bell was 

January 13th, ^859, three members were fined twenty-five 
cents each for swearing in the meeting, and it was resolved that 
if the fine be not paid by the next meeting that they be expelled 
from the company. 

February 3d, 1859, two of the members were fined fifty cents 
each for creating a false alarm by ringing the belL ' 

February 3d, 1859, a hs^ndsome bible was presented by Mrs. 
Theodosia Hammell, and a beautiful hymn book by Miss Eliza 
Hunt, which were received with appropriate resolutions of thanks, 
which were ordered to be published in the daily papers 

In i860 they furnished their house in a splendid manner, 
reflecting great credit on the company. In 1861 they adopted 
the New York style of equipments, which are worn by them as 
well as all the other companies of this city at the present time ; 
the same year they had their engine repaired and newly painted* 
.During the year 1861, while the Harmony Company's house 
was being built, its apparatus was housed with the Good Will, 
but learning that it would have to leave those quarters, it made 

K. ^^i W ■!■ II I I w il ■lll LI 'w^^iW^pi^ 


application to the Hand-in-Hand-Company to house the appara- 
tus with thenL 

May ist, 1862, the company petitioned common council for a 
new hose carriage, whereupon the sum of one hundred and thirty 
dollars was appropriated. It was ascertained that it could not 
get the kind of carriage it wanted for that sum, and the com- 
mittee was instructed to procure one at the cost of two hundred 
and twenty-five dollars. The carriage was built by William H. 
Cook, and was received by the company about April ist, 1864, 
at a cost of two hundred and seventy-five dollars. 

April 27th, 1863, a committee of five was appointed to meet 
similar committees from other companies, to procure from the 
city an annual appropriation to defray the expenses of the difier« 
ent companies, which object was accomplished in 1871, each 
steamer being allowed twelve hundred dollars per year, and hose 
and hook and ladder companies one-half of that sum, to cover all 

January 7th, 1864, the company acted as escort to the Eagle 
Company upon the reception of its steamer from the builder in 

February 27th, 1864, it resolved to purchase a steamer, and 
appointed a committee for that purpose, and instructed them to 
employ the Amoskeag Company to build the same, which was 
received October 6th, 1864. 

Alay 5th, 1864, the building committee was ordered to peti* 
tion common council to enlarge for the reception of 
the steamer. 

September 24th, 1865, the company made an excursion to 
Wilmington, Delaware. 

September 8th, 1865, the company escorted the Union Engine 
Company on its arrival from an excursion to Easton. 

The same year the company acted as escort upon the reception 
of the Eagle Steam Fire Engine Company upon its return from 
the excursion to New Haven, Connecticut. 

October 24th, 1865, the company appointed a committee to 
meet with committees from other companies to re-organize the 
fire department 

On the 26th of December, 1865, the company participated in 
the reception of the Delaware steam engine. 

■p^pp>«!P^"^^«w"*P I 111 i.ia «iiini^M«^^w^^piT«nn««!!mi«v«^^Ti 



December 7th, 18659 the company purchased a bell weighing 
about five hundred pounds, at a cost of three hundred dollars.. 

The same year the company's stable was completed, and on 
the 13th of February, 1866, the company purchased a handsome 
team of horses, at a cost of five hundred and thirty dollars, and 
on the ist of March it purchased a set of harness at a cost of 
sixty dollars, and on the 5th of April it purchased a wagon at 
a cost of one hundred and twenty-five dollaiB. 

November ist, 1866, the company sold its old hand engine for 
two hundred dollars. 

In 1869, the company procured a bell cast by Wm. Holmes^ 
of this city, at a cost of thirty-seven cents per pound. 

In 1 87 1, while the addition was being made to its house, the 
engine was housed at the Good Will engine-house. 

The following are the present ofHcers of the company : John 
Taylor, president; Francis Pashley, vice president, Oliver 
Howell, secretary; William Zchner, assistant secretary, Wil- 
liam W. Fell, treasurer. 

The Harmony Fire Company commenced erecting .its first 
building at the forks of Greene and Warren streets, on the lot 
occupied by the blacksmith shop of James S. Robinson, but 
when the cellar walls were up, at the request of Mr. Robinson, 
and upon the payment of ten dollars to the company, it aban- 
doned the site, and erected a frame building upon the same spot 
where its present house stands. This house was burned down in 
1852, when the company erected a house on Princeton aveno^ 
a few doors north of Pennington street, which it continued to 
occupy until the city built the present house. The number of 
active members at the present time is fifty-three; honorary mem* 
bers, ten ; contributing members, one hundred. 

In 1850, the Protection Hook and Ladder Company was 

The truck was housed at the Good Will engine-house, in 
Washington street. 

This company, although it had but a short existence of about 
five years, proved of inestimable value in aid of the fire depart-^ 

It was composed of some of our German citizens, nearly all of 
whom were members of a military company in existence at that 



. . I, ■ ■ 1 — I n — ri 1 1 


time, under the name of the Republican Rifles. The president 
of the company was also captain of the rifle company. 

When the company disbanded about 1855, all the property 
was turned over to the Good Will Company, and is still in their 

The officers were, Simon Kahnweiler, president; Joseph 
Ruelius, vice president ; Joseph C. Mayer, secretary, and Wil- 
liam Pheyl, treasurer. 

The America Hose Company was organized January 19th, 
1859, by members from the Hand-in-Hand Fire Company, and 
was incorporated February 14th, i860. 

Its incorporators were William T. McDowell, James Madison 
Drake, William H. Booz, George W. Brindley, James Wayland, 
Joseph W. Margenim, Charles T. Girten, George A. Smith, 
John R. I-«igh, Abner Warner, John R. Bcatty, David B. Fair^ 
brother, Henry K. Hcidweilcr, Charles J. Hankinson, William 
P. Conard, John Robbins, Benjamin Skirm, Samuel Mulfbrd, 
Charles C. Yard, Marcus Klarks, Samuel I. Lewis, Thomas Mul- 
lineux, Edward S. Pullen, Asa B. Warner, John C. Rumpf, 
George W. Heston, James Harding, Peter F. Anderson, James 
B. Ellis, Frank P. Patterson, George Moll, Richard R. Rogers, 
and Miles Stitt. They were incorporated as the America Hose 
Company, No. 2, of the city of Trenton, with a capital stock 
not to exceed three thousand dollars, " for the purpose of pro- 
curing, maintaining, and repairing such hose carriage, hose, lad- 
ders, buckets, iire-hooks, carriage-house, or other property, and 
such implements, machines, and apparatus, and for such other 
incidental expenses as shall to the said company appear best 
calculated to secure the property of their fellow-citizens from 
injury and destruction by fire." 

The company purchased its first carriage from the Hope Hose 
Company, of Philadelphia, at a cost of two hundred dollars, 
which, in consequence of the company having no house of its 
own, was housed at the Good Will engine-house, then located 
in Washington street, where C. B. Wainright now has his car- 
riage factory. 

The city then erected for the company a frame house in 
Montgomery street, near Perr}' — the same building now occu- 

PffPinMPf^^^*'^*!^ I"' ' ■! ■»**<^>«>wr«Mi«>«w>vi^niM>««Mm«p>«>^iManBHi^r<««i 



pied by the Social Tarnverien Association. The hodse at pres- 
ent occupied by the company, in Perry street, east of the canal, 
was bailt by the city in 1870. 

The company having sent its hose carriage to be repaired, it 
was received in December, 1S63, and in January, 1864, the 
company participated in the reception of the Eagle steamer. 

The America having resolved to procure a steam engine, ap- 
pointed a committee of eight to collect money for the purchase 
of the same, thus being the first company in our city to suggest 
the adoption of steam fire engines. The committee had received 
subscriptions amounting to two thousand dollars; but in conse- 
quence of the war then raging, and most of the members having 
enlisted, by which the company was almost broken up, the pro- 
ject was abandoned for the time being. 

In 1866, the matter of building a new house was agitated^ and 
a lot was offered to the company for that purpose. 

February 17th, 1867, Messrs. Drake, Ryan, and Pearson, were 
appointed a committee to petition council for the erection of a 
new house. 

On the 3d of June, 1867, the company held a pic-nic in Het- 
zel's grove, and invitations were extended to the Weccacoe Fire 
Company, of Camden, and the America Hose Company, of. 
Philadelphia, on which occasion the former company presented 
the America with a handsome picture, upon the reception of 
which appropriate resolutions were adopted. 

The hose carriage was rebuilt in 1867, by Messrs. Gardner & 
Fleming, of Philadelphia, and carries on the side-badges a beau- 
tiful oil painting of Chief Weart 

On the 1 8th of January, 1868, the Clark Fire Zouaves, of 
Elizabeth, Captain J. Madison Drake, visited this city, and were 
the guests of the company, and in the evening a grand compli- 
mentary hop was given them. 

On the 25th of August, 1869, Chief Engineer John A. Weart 
presented the company with a beautiful silver fire, horn, after 
which a collation was given by the company at the First Ward 
Hotel, William McGill, proprietor. 

In February, 1870, the company procured a bell of Mr. 
William Holmes, of this city, weighing six hundred and sev- 
enty-five pounds, and costing three hundred dollars. 

l y ■■ ■■■^> ■>■ ■ *■ ■ « ■■ ■ ■»■■ ' ■ ■^ ■^ ii iw ^^ 


The company has a second-class improved Amoskeag engine, 
which was purchased of the Shiffler Steam Fire Engine Com« 
pan)r| of Camden, at a cost of four thousand dollars. This 
engine weighs, light, five thousand eight hundred and forty 
pounds, and about six thousand five hundred pounds when 
loaded. It has a double pump, and a condenser for salt water. 

On the X4th of November, 1870, the company purchased a 
team of horses at the sale of French's circus, in this city, the 
cost of which, including harness, was four hundred and ten 

There are now on the rolls of the company forty-three fully- 
equipped active members, and sixteen honorary members. 

The present officers of the company are, Thomas Mullineux, 
president ; William Taylor, vice president ; James Connell, sec- 
retary; Edward Whalen, assistant secretary; William McGill,. 

The company has in its house the first Union colors that 
crossed the long bridge, at Washington, during the rebellion, 
and which were planted on Fort Runyon, in Virginia. It also 
has a miniature hose carriage, about twelve inches long, made 
by a member of the company from a piece of spar of the Cum- 
berland, which was sunk by the Merrimac, in Hampton roads* 

Company C, known as the ''Wilkinson Guards." (named ia 
honor of Frederick R. Wilkinson, Esq.,) was organized by J. 
Madison Drake, foreman of the America Hose Company, No. a, 
thirty-two members of which organization attached themselves 
to the third regiment, within two hours after intelligence of the 
fall of Sumter was received. Drake declined to lead the com- 
pany to the war, but served faithfully as ensign of the third 
regiment during the term of enlistment — three months. Lieu- 
tenant Franklin S. Mills asserts that Drake unfurled the first flag 
on the enemy's soil. 

With this sketch of the America Hose Company we complete 
our history of one of the oldest and most efficient fire depart- 
ments in the country, on the rolls of which have stood the names 
of many prominent men — ^governors, legislators, philosophers, 
and statesmen— "-and which have been written, in never-fading 
characters, on the scroll of fame and honor. 




Additional Manufactories Omitted under their AppropriaU 
Heads — Shoemaker's Almanac — Thomas ChalkUfs Narrative 
of Travel— Blazing Star Hotel— BuWs Head Hotel— Indiau 
King and Indian Queen Hotels — Trenton Directories — Veto of 
Mayor Hamilton — Indigent Widows^ and Single IVomet^s Home. 

IN 185 3y the frame machine shop, on the west bank of the 
water power, was erected by Charles T. Allaire, and in the 
same year Peter Obert built his large two story blacksmith shop, 
north of it. 

In 1849, Messrs. Fisher & Norris built a factory for the manu- 
facture of their superior cast iron anvils, on the water power, 
north of the Phoenix Iron Works; and in 1851, the same firm 
erected the building immediately opposite, for a machine shop; 
but visitors being positively forbidden admission thereto, I have 
never even had a look into these manufactories. I am satisfied, 
however, of the superiority of the Trenton anvils, and of the 
new mode of the manufacture of them, from the fact that they are 
in the daily receipt of orders from all parts of the United States, 
besides Great Britain and the European continent. 

The Orleans Mill was built by James M. Redmond, in the 
year 1841. It is a ytry extensive building, and was intended 
for the manufacture of carriages ; but, finding that work of that 
kind would be too heavy for the building, it was converted into 
a cotton mill, and occupied by General Godwin, of Paterson ; 
it was subsequently occupied by Bela Badger and l^lr. Brady, of 
Philadelphia, for the manufacture of cotton febrics. 

In 1848, it was purchased by James Bruere, and shortly after 
his purchase it was burned. 

qjwimHi "III I I'vmamwti^mmf 



In 1853, Mathias Keeler fitted it up as a violin manufactory, 
under the name of the Cremonia Mills. 

The mill north of the Phoenix Iron Works was fitted up for a 
paper mill, and occupied by Jesper Harding tmtil 1850, when 
he moved into the mill on the Assanpink, associating with him 
H. H. Bottom, under the firm name of H. H. Bottom & Co. It 
was afterwards used as a paper mill by Messrs. T. Kelly & Co. 

In the year 1842, Sutton & Crooks built the foundry after- 
wards occupied by Vancleve & McKean, and the latter gentle- 
men purchased the works, and made very extensive additions 
thereto. They employed about two hundred workmen, and 
made some of the largest kind of castings, which were sent to dif- 
ferent parts of the United States. They have also manufactured 
some of the largest of locomotive engines, and they built the 
works on the Sandtown road, in the third ward, for the purpose 
of entering largely into the manufacture of locomotive engines. 
In the latter mill they had a front of about four hundred feet, 
and employed about five hundred men. During the war it was 
used for the manufacture of ordinance, and some very heavy 
cannons were furnished from this establishment. 

Messrs. Grice & Long, of Philadelphia, erected works in the 
rear of it for the manufacture of cars of various descriptions, 
sending their manufactures to different parts of the world. The 
cars made by them are acknowledged to have no superiors. 

In 1845, Peter Cooper, of New York, built the large rolling 
mill immediately adjoining the print works on the south. 

This mill has since that time been very extensively engaged in 
the manufacture of railroad and other iron. 
' It employs about nine hundred hands, and daily consumes, 
when in full blast, sixty tons of coal. This gentleman has also 
very extensive iron works at Easton, Pennsylvania, where, own- 
ing an iron mine, and having two blast furnaces, he manufactures 
his own pig iron. 

The mill is now carried on by Messrs. Cooper, Hewitt & Co. 
It was considerably enlarged in 1856, for the purpose of enter- 
ing more extensively into the business. ' 

South of Cooper, Hewitt & Co*s mill is the Saxony Mill, 
built in 1846, by Andrew Allinson, as a cotton mill, but after* 



'■ ..m 



PHJI If i p N ■ I I V 


wards converted into a mill for the manu£u:ture of shirts and 
drawers. It was occupied for a number of years by Samuel H. 
Wheeler, and was at one time used as a shirt manufactory by a 
Mr. Hubbard, of Philadelphia, afterwards by James Brooks, and 
now by Isaac Weatherby. 

I have been thus particular in describing the mills above- 
named, only because they are located oa the water power, and 
merely to show to what a great extent the above works have 
been beneficial to our city and its interests. 

In 1848, the wire mill, located in the third ward, was built bj 
a stock company, but not realizing their expectations in it, thej 
abandoned it ; it was then stopped for two years, till it came 
into possession of Peter Cooper, since which time it has been in 
constant operation. 

In 1849, John A. Roebling erected in the township of Ham- 
ilton, immediately across the canal, a mill for the manufacture 
of wire rope and chain cable, which business has been carried 
on very extensively. 

He built across the Niagara river a heavy wire suspension 
bridge, over which rails are laid for the passage of cars,^^ This 
was pronounced by Professor Stevenson (who erected the tubular' 
suspension bridge across the Menai straits), an impossibility, yet 
our townsman so far succeeded in accomplishing his object, as to 
ensure entire success. He also erected several large bridges, 
and at the time of his death was building the suspension bridge 
across the East river. New York. 

In 1849, Bottom, Tiffany & Co. erected their large iron 
foundry and machine shop on the Assanpink, west of the canal. 
They here made some of the largest of castings, among which 
were iron fronts for houses, in which line they did quite an ex- 
tensive business for the short time in which they were in opera- 
tion. They were in constant receipt of orders from all the large 
cities for their superior iron fronts for houses, as well as other 
heavy castings. 

In the rear of this, in 1852, Rossell & Co. erected a mill for 
the manufacture of anvils ; and they obtained a premium, for 
their manufacture at the world's fair held at New York in 1853. 
The number of anvils turned out daily was twelve. 



In 1848, Louis Chevrier commenced the manufacture of spring 
mattresses and beds, on [Mill Hill, but in 1850 he moved his 
manufactory to Willow street 

In the year x 788, Abraham Shoemaker published an almanac 
called the New Jersey and Pennsylvania Almanac The pub- 
lishers were Sherman, Mershon & Thomas, opposite the Indian 
Queen tavern, in the building which stood on the same site as 
the store now occupied by James C. Manning. 

The almanac was published regularly for several years. 

In the one published in 1800 is an advertisement that Samuel 
Paxson, apothecary and dry goods dealer, opposite the Eagle 
tavern,"^ Warren street, has constantly on hand, drugs and medi- 
cines, dry goods aiid stationery. 

Thomas Chalkley, a preacher of the Society of Friends, trav- 
eled extensively through this country, preaching wherever .he 
went. He published a narrative of his travels from 1685 to 1 735. 
His book has been kindly loaned me by Dr. C. C. Abbot, of 
this ci(y. From his harrative,*it would appear that this section 
was known in the year 1725 as the Falls of the Delaware. He 
says:t'/ About the 20th of the eighth month (August), I went for 
Long Island, being drawn in true love to make a general visit to 
Friends there. • . . On the fifth day of the week, Thomas Mas- 
ters and I set out from Frankfort, and in the evening we got to 
a Friend's house near the Falk of Delaware. . . . From the Falls 
of Delaware, we traveled next day toPiscataway," etc 

In 1736, he says he ''visited the meetings of Friends at Bris- 
tol, Burlington, Trenton and Borden's Town." 

In 1737, he also speaks about going with Isaac Brown, his son- 
in-law, and several Friends, to Trenton. 

The Blazing Star hotel was located on the comer of Warren 
and State streets, where the Mechanics Bank now stands. It 
was kept by James Witt, in 1785. It was afterwards kept by 
Jacob Bergen, and called the French Arms hoteL 

The Bull's Head was located where the Mansion House now 

*This tavern was a frame building, formerly occnpied by Judge Trent, of 
Philadelphia, as his summer residence, and stood where the Third Pkeshy- 
terian Qiurch now stands. 

ijli^mfy^ I im Hii I *\i\\v^^i^fmm0mii^\*wimm^mr'^m^'m'9r^rm^mmmm^ 


Stands, in State street It was at one time kept by a man by the 
name of Atkinson. It was afterwards kept by Charles Green, • 
and called the Fanners' Inn. 

The Indian King hotel was located on the spot where Benja- 
min Disbrow's iron building now stands, and was kept by Wil« 
liam Yard. 

The Indian Queen hotel was the one now called the United 
States, in Warren street At the time it was kept by Edmund 
Burke, a Fourth of July dinner was held there, for which Joseph 
Yard, Sr., furnished forty-eight pounds of rock-fish, caught by 
himself in the Delaware river that morning. 

The first directory of the city of Trenton was published in 
1S54, by Jesse VL Clark, Randolph H. Moore, and John O. 
Raum. It contained the names and locations of all the streets 
and alleys in existence in the city at that time, numbering 
eighty-seven, a short history of the city, from whom its name 
was derived, the first settlements by Friends, the original act of 
incorporation, the situation of the city at the head of tidewater 
on the Delaware river, its latitude and longitude, a description 
of the Delaware bridge, the Assanpink creek, and the battle of 
Trenton. It also contained the boundaries of the city at that 
time, the boundaries of the several wards, five in number, the 
state, county, and city officers, churches and their pastors, the 
hotels, offices, offices in the state house, city hall, public build- 
ings, halls, &c., practicing physicians, dentists, fire department, 
banks, loan associations. Temperance Hall Association, Trenton 
Library Association, Trenton Water Power Company, Trenton 
Water Works, Trenton Gas Light Company, Widows* and Single 
Women's Home, officers of Lunatic Asylum, Delaware Bridge 
Company, and a general directory of the names, residences, and 
occupations of the inhabitants. It contained one hundred and 
thirty-six pages, including advertisements, three thousand eight 
hundred and twenty-one names of inhabitants, one hundred and 
forty-three of whom were colored persons, who occupied a 
separate portion of the work from the white residents. 

The next directory was published in 1857, by William H. 
Boyd, of New York. It contained two hundred and seventy- 
eight pages, and four thousand four hundred and thirty-eight 


lip^^i»<i»"iiiw ^>i»« !■»■<■■ ■ w ^ M «»i iiiw «i m ii > I II ■ | i i^t^a^i^^^^^fmm^^r^m^imimm^imim^ 



names, a business directory, about fifty pages of the history of 
Trenton, furnished by the compiler of this work, together with 
^ state, county, and city matters. 

The third directory was published in 1859, by William H. 
Boyd, and contained two hundred fifty-five pages, and five 
thousand three hundred and twelve names, and a business direc- 
tory of Burlington and Mercer counties, together with state, 
county, and city officers. 

The fourth directory was published in 1865, by J. H. Lant, of 
Albany, New York. It contained one hundred and eighty pages, 
and the names of four thousand seven hundred and seventy-four 

The fifth directory was published in 1869, by William F. Cros- 
ley, of this city, it contained two hundred and fifty-nine pages, 
and the names of six thousand one hundred and thirty-eight 
inhabitants, a business and street directory, state, county, and 
city officers, a history of the public schools, together with the 
different institutions of our city. 

The sixth directory was published in 1870, by Messrs. Webb 
Brothers & Company, of Providence, Rhode Island. It con- 
tained three hundred and thirty-one pages, and six thousand five 
hundred and eighty-six names, a street directory containing one 
hundred and thirty streets, a Trenton business directory, and a 
business directory outside of Trenton, national, state, county, 
and city officers, time of holding courts, banks, fire department, 
various incorporated companies, insurance companies, churches, 
secret societies, newspapers and magazines, &c., &c. 

In the first directory, published in 1854, the name of Jones 
appears nineteen times, and that of Smith forty-nine times, 
while in the directory of 1870, the name of Jones appears seven- 
teen times, while that of Smith appears eighty-six times, showing 
a decrease in the former name and a large increase in the latter 
in sixteen years. 

In 1848, when Samuel R. Hamilton was mayor, the common 
council passed an ordinance to raise by tax four thousand dollars. 
The mayor vetoed the bill, and gave as his reason for so doing 
that the amount was excessive. The amount now raised annually 
is about one hundred and eighty thousand dollars. 

■ y >' 


H I f *■!■ 





h . 


The Indigent Widows' and Single Women 
organized in 1854. The first managers W 
Mrs. Edward I. Grant, Mrs. Thomas J. Strj 
Ihris, Mra. Jonathan S. Fish, Mrs. Louisa \ 
Gatk, Mre. John R. Dill, Mrs. William 
Parker, Mrs, Samuel R. Hamilton, Miss M 
William A. Benjamin, Miss Mary Johnstt 
Ingham, Mrs. Helen T. Paul, Mrs. Editt 
James 5. Sterling, Mrs. Joshua Jones, Mrs. 
Henry W. Green, Mrs. Lew b Perrine, Mr 
Miss Juliet Phillips. 

The society was incorported by act of the 
19th, 185s, for the humane and charitable 
. assisting, and supporting widows and singh 

The subscription and payment of three 
stiiutcs membership, and the payment of tl 
life membership. 

The present officers are Mrs. Lewis Pa 
Miss Mary M. Armstrong, second direct 
Green, treasurer ; Miss Mary F. Johnston, 
John A. Roebling bequeathed to the ho 
thousand dollars, the interest of which \\ 

From the very able report of Henry D. 
gist, made lo the legislature February iitl 
following relating to our city, which will b 
"The very extensive belt of stratified | 
foIloK's a line nearly parallel with the Allan 
western limit of the tide in the rivers of 
Delaware, and Pennsylvania, crosses the I 
after having been regularly and gradually 
Ijrom Georgia io this point, where it soon e 
" Where it crosses the Delaware, this b 
three and a half miles broad ; narrowing 
north -northeast, it almost disappears at th< 
Delaware and Raritan Canal. 




** The triangular area which it forms has the valley of the 
Assanpink very nearly for its southestem boundary. 

^* The mineralogical character of the rock is extremely well 
marked. It is most usually a triple mixture of quartz, feldspar, ' 
and hornblende, or, in place of this, frequently mica. 

** In the valley of the Assanpink, it is often a greenish sand 
and gravel, derived from the quartz and hornblende, and is 
there rather sterile. 

** The varieties of this rock at Trenton are those of the gneiss 
formation of the Schuylkill. 

** A little north of Trenton, and near its border, there is a 
quartzose variety of the rock containing a little mica, sufficient 
to divide it into the laminated form ; but the mass of the rock 
is a close-grained, stratified mixture of feldspar and quartz, al- 
most a petro-silex in aspect. 

''This land consists, in places, of an intimate mixture of 
quartzose and feldspathic matter fused together ; splitting into 
rather well-formed large slate, and having a smooth surface, it 
furnished a very good flagstone for the walks and steps in Tren- 




3 2044 024 349 425