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Judge of County Courts, and Member of the Historical Society of Nova Scotia. 

SScrtraucti im ®ott. 


** Follow me 
Back through a hoary century." 




•Montreal: C. W. COATES. Halifax: S. F. HUESTIS. 


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1/1/",,. -p_ ^^^^^ 

Entered, according to the Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety •five, by Mathbr Bvlbs DesBrisay,' BridKewater, Nova -Scotia, 
in the office of the Minister of Agriculture, at Ottawa. 

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To THE Inhabitants of the County op Lunenburg : 

I have for some time given to the preparation of the following 
history of my native county, the leisure left me by my professional and 
public duties. 

I am indebted for information to the works of Haliburton, Dawson, 
Murdoch, Aikins, and others ; and to important public and private 
documents. I have examined all the places of special historic interest 
referred to, and heard from the lips of many of the most aged resi- 
dents, four of whom have attained respectively to ninety-five, ninety- 
six, ninety-eight, and over one hundred years, their personal recollec- 
tions, and statements made to them by their ancestors. 

To each one who shall peruse the work, I beg to say, in the words 
of an ancient author, " I wish thee as much pleasure in the reading 
as I had in the writing.'' 

I am, your Friend and Representative, 

Mather B. DesBrisay. 

Bbidobwateb, La Have, Fthrtuiry, 1870. 

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In England, where county annals are highly valued, a writer has 
said, " Local histories are always welcome, even beyond the districts 
which they immediately concern. They preserve for us the past." 

Since the publication, in 1870, of the first edition of this work, I 
have received numerous applications for copies, which could not be 
supplied, and I have been several times advised by friends to publish 
another edition. 1 have also had from many of its readers very 
encouraging words, some of which are the following, from a letter 
written to me in August, 1889, by one living in a far away Province : 

" I remember well the first appearance of your history, at which 
time I read it with pleasure and much interest, for it gave a good 
account of our antecedents. I have often wondered how and where 
you got all the material for its composition. I regard it as one of 
the most valuable of the collection of books I possess. I am proud 
of my county, its antiquity, its early pioneers, its present inhabitants, 
and its advancement in that which pertains to perfect civilization." 

I have revisited many districts, conversed with the oldest people, 
perused additional historical documents, and no pains have been 
spared in the endeavor to make the book a complete county record. 

Mather B. DesBrisay. 
Bridoewatkb, October, 1895. 

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Situation of the County — Indian Names — La Tour Grant — Com- 
wallis at Merliguesche — Township of Lunenburg — Obtaining 
Settlers from Germany — Arrivals at Halifax — ^Description of 
Luneburg in the Fatherland — Opinions about Germany and 
the Germans 



Arrival at Lunenburg — Captains Cobb and Rous — First Birth — 
Military and Civil Authority — Block-houses — Rebellion — 
Commons — Stock, Houses, Huts, Crops, Mills, and Vehicles 
—First Ferry— First Shop 27-42 


Town Plot — Allotments and Registry of Land — First Deeds — 
Letters, Petitions, Orders, and Official Returns — Boundaries 
of Township — Jessen Expedition — Boundaries of County — 
Townships established — Bounties — Settlers and Stock — First 
Civil List — Governor's Praise of Germans — Inhabitants, Stock 
and Crops— Governor's Letter to Earl of Dartmouth — Inven- 
tory of Property of C. B. Zouberbuhler - . . . 43-59 


Councillor Creighton — Bulkeley's Letter and Orders — ^Leave Asked 
to Dig Coal in Cape Breton — First Court-house— Block-houses 
— Captures — Impressment — Invasion of Lunenburg — Grant 
of Township — Militia Officers named in German Almanac — 
Lieutenant Rudolf's Letter to Queen Victoria's father — Cap- 
ture of Vessels — Amended County Line . - - - 


Churches of different Denominations in the Town of Lunenburg, 
and Notices of Clergymen who have resided there - 



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Biographical Notices of prominent persons, other than Clergymen, 

who have lived in the Town of Lunenburg - - - - 107-124 


Distinguished Visitors and Public Celebrations — First Mayor and 

Council — Town of Lunenburg 125-130 


Kingsburg, Ritcey's Cove, and adjacent Settlements - - 131-134 


The Ovens, and Gold Discoveries there, with accounts of other 

Settlements 136-139 


Cross Island, near the Entrance to Lunenburg Harbor, and other 

Islands in the same vicinity 140-142 


Early Settlement at Mahone Bay, with History of its Churches 

and Clergymen, and other matters of interest— Indian Point 143-152 


Northfield — Maitland — Riversdale — New Cornwall - - - 153-155 


New Germany — First Settlers— Churches — Clergymen and others 

who have resided there — Manufactories . . _ - 156-165 


Arrival of I'Escarbot, French Lawyer and Poet, at La H^ve, in 
1607 — Subsequent Settlement of French near Getson's 
Cove, with account of Fort, Garrison, and Chapel - - 166-180 



British Settlement in the Township of New Dublin - -^^-^18^1^187 

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Bridgewater — Its Early Settlement — Churches and other build- 
ings — Clergymen — Manufactures 188-210 


Biographical Notices of Persons who have Conducted Business 

and Resided at Bridgewater 211-222 

Settlement at Hebb's Mills— Gold Discovered at Mellipsigit - 223-225 


La Have River — Its Rise, and Course to the Ocean — Poems on 

the River, by different authors 226-235 

La Have Iron-bound Island 236-239 


Settlements and Places between Getson's Cove and Vogler's Cove 

— Churches and Clergymen — Biographical Notices - - 240-252 


Arrival at Chester of Settlers from Boston, August, 1769 — Grant 

of Township — Registry of lots — Progress made - - - 253-277 


■Churches Built at Chester — Clergymen of Different Denomina- 
tions 278-291 

Biog^phical notices of persons who have lived at Chester - - 292-299 


Islands in Chester Bay, and incidents connected with the same, 
including searches made for **Kidds treasure'' at Oak 
Island 300-315 

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Blandford — Bayswater — Aspotogon — Deep Cove — Mill Cove- 
Fox Point 316-320 


New Ross — Its Settlement by Disbanded Soldiers — Rations 

allowed — Churches and Clergymen— Settlement at Sherwood 321-330 

Rivers in the Township of Chester — Gold Deposits at Gold River 331-334 

Scenery in different parts of the County 336-340 


The Aborigines— Murders and Scalpij^gs by them — Burial-places 

— Interesting Incidents - - - - - - - 341-351 


Diiry of Rev. James Munroe, and Recollections of Several 

Aged People 352-378 


Remarkable Instances of Longevity — Epitaphs — Old German 

Bibles 379-390 

Baptisms, Weddings, and Fu erals in Early Times ... 391-395 


Education— Progress made in different parts of the County — 

Teachers— Uardsliips endured by some of them - - 396-406 


Temperance — Early and coiitinut'd cffoits to secure Total 
Abstinence — Temperance Societies organized and at work 
in the County 407-412 

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Geological and Mineralogical Deposits, with Reports on the same 413-417 


Natural History of the County— Mammals. Birds, Reptiles, 

Molluscs, Fishes— Flowering and Flowerless Plants - - 418-430 


Census Returns from earliest dates, with Comparative State- 
ments 431-440 


Men returned, appointed, and called as Representatives in 
Parliament, from 1758 to the present time — Wardens and 
Councillors for Lunenburg and New Dublin, and Chester - 441-447 


Agriculture and Horticulture — Work done by Men and Women 
in the County, and Improvements made from time to time 
in the Raising of Crops and Fruits 448-4G0 


Fisheries — Kinds and quantities of Fish caught— Vessels, Boats, 

and Men engaged— Deep Sea and other Fishing - - 461-471 


Manufactures in the Town of Lunenburg, with Vessels and 

Boats Built there and elsewhere in the County - - 472-484 

Exports and Imports 486-490 


Celebration at Bridgewater of the Jubilee Tear of Her Majesty 

Queen Victoria 491-493 

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Tragical events which have happened in the County - - - 494r-50& 


Tales of Shipwreck suffered by Mariners and others belonging 

to the County — Chase and explosion of ** Young Teazer " - 509-^21 


Rescues of Persons in Peril on the Sea, and Presentations made 

for Deeds of Bravery, and as Tokens of Esteem - - - 522-531 


History of the Nova Scotia Central Railway ... - 532-639 

Visit of New England Journalists to the County in 1891 - - 540-545 


Lighthouses — Rivers and Lakes — Heights of different places — 

Tables of distances with old routes of travel - - - 546-552 

Miscellanea 553-575 

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Situation of the County — Indian Names — La Tour Grant — Cornwallis at 
MerligueBche — Township of Lunenburg — Obtaining Settlers from Ger- 
many — Arrivals at Halifax — Description of Liineburg in the Father- 
land — Opinions about Germany and the Grermans. 


LUNENBURG is one of the counties situated on the south 
shore of Nova Scotia, and is bounded inland on the 
north-east by the counties of Hants and Halifax ; on the south- 
west by Queen's county; and on the north-west by Annapolis 
and King's counties. 

It is a most valuable and important part of this " little 
Province by the sea," which our distinguished fellow-country- 
man, Sir William Dawson, has declared to be " the richest place 
on the face of the earth, for the size of it ;" and which another 
clever Nova Scotian, the late Attorney-General Wilkins, said 
in the House of Assembly, "came from the hands of the 
Creator, endowed with greater natural advantages than any 
territory of equal dimensions on the face of the globe." 

*' Fair land of river, lake and stream, 

Of forests green through all the year^ 
Of valleys that Arcadian seem, 

Of homes that love and plenty cheer ; 

No other land could be more dear 
'Neath all the overarching skies, 

And doubly blest is he who here 
Contented lives — contented dies.'* 

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18 history of the county of lunenburg. 

Town of Lunenburg. 

What is now known by the above appellation was first called 
Merliguesche, and by many Malegash. 

In 1880, the writer was told by the Rev. Dr. Band, that the 
name M&lllggeak was, according to the best information he 
could receive, applied by the Indians generally, not to one 
particular harbor, but to the whole coast along by Lunenburg. 
Malegash, he thought much nearer to it than the English 
usually come, in their murdering of Indian names. " The word 
is compounded of mal (bad, loose, unsteady, idle, good for 
nothing), with a common grammatical termination, denoting 
that the evil is inherent, and the object inanimate. As to why 
the name was given, is not so easy to solve. There is often not 
the slightest connection between the thing named and the 
meaning of the name. Names are often given from some 
accidental circumstance, of which no history survives. The 
name Malllggeak means * loose,' * not firm,* In the spelling, 
I and g are doubled, to give, as near as possible, the exact 

Information w^as subsequently given by the same authority 
as follows : " Haliburton gives the best solution of Malegash I 
have yet seen. He calls Lunenburg Merliguesh, or Malegash, an 
Indian word signifying 'milky bay,' in reference to its appear- 
ance in a storm. Now, he is so far correct, that the Indian word 
for milk is Mileg^ch, and this comes nearer to Malegash than 
any word I have seen. But milky bay is wrong, and I do not 
believe the bay was ever called milk by the Indians. I cannot 
find one who ever heard of Lunenburg, or any other place, being 
so called. But the word suggests a clue to the blunder of the 
original discoverers. The Indians, of whom they endeavored, 
by signs, to learn the name, mistook their meaning, I can well 
suppose, and gave them what the white foaming billows looked 
like, namely, MUegich-m^Uh. Let anyone who does not under- 
stand Indian, attempt to collect Indian names or words from 
an Indian who does not understand English, and see what 
blunders he will make." 

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The first record of that part of the county now occupied by 
the town of Lunenburg, is connected with the date 1630, in 
which year Sir William Alexander gave, by letters patent, to 
Sir Claude de St. Etienne, Lord of La Tour, and his son 
Charles, certain "country, coasts and islands," part of the 
description of which was, " unto the Port de la Tour, formerly 
named L'Omeroy, and further beyond the said port, following 
along the said coast, unto Merliguesche, near unto and beyond 
the port and cape of La Hfeve, with power to build towns and 

On the 9th August, 1656, Cromwell granted to La Tour, 
Thomas Temple, and William Crowne, the country contained 
within the following bounds : " Commencing at * Merliguesche,' 
and extending from thence to Port La Hhve, following the 
coast to Cape Sable ; and thence by other described courses to 
Pentagoet " (or Penobscot), " and the River St. George ; and 
further on to the first habitation made by the Flemmings, or 
French, or by the English of New England." The rent re- 
served was twenty beaver skins and twenty moose skins 

In 1723, seventeen fishing vessels were captured at Canseau 
by Indians, who obtained a large number of prisoners. Some 
of the vessels were retaken, and several Indians having been 
killed, it was decided to avenge their deaths by sacrificing 
twenty of the remaining prisoners, who had been carried to 
** Merleguesh." The usual preparations were being completed, 
when the Indians were surprised by the arrival of a sloop with 
Captain Blin, who made proposals for ransom, which were 
accepted, and the prisoners set free. 

Samuel Daly, of Plymouth, master of a fishing-sloop, put 
into Malegash (Lunenburg) harbor for water, in August, 1726, 
and invited on board John Baptist, a Frenchman, whom he 
took into his cabin to drink. Daly and his mate, with three 
men, went ashore, and Baptist's son, with two Indians, boarded 
the vessel. The Baptists and the Indians took possession, and 
hauled down the British ensign. Baptist wound the flag 
around him and placed a pistol in it. Other Indians joined 

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the party, and threatened Daly with their hatchets when he 
tried to get the sloop back. He was ordered by Baptist to 
sail the vessel, and watching his opportunity, with the help of 
his men, recaptured it. He made prisoners of Baptist, his son, 
and several Indians, the rest of whom threw themselves into 
the sea. Taking them to Boston, Baptist, his son, and three 
Indians were tried in the Admiralty Court, condemned and 

Colonel the Hon. Edward Cornwallis was gazetted Governor 
of Nova Scotia, May 9 th, 1749, and sailed from England the 
14th of the same month. He called at Merliguesche on his way 
to Halifax in June of the same year. In a letter dated the 
22nd of that month, he wrote : ** We came to anchor in Merli- 
gueche Bay, where I was told there was a French settlement. 
I went ashore to see the houses and manner of living of the 
inhabitants. There are but a few families, with tolerable 
wooden houses, covered with bark ; a good many cattle, and 
clear ground more than serves themselves. They seem to be 
very peaceable, say they always looked upon themselves as 
English subjects ; have their grants from Colonel Mascarene, 
the Governor of Annapolis ; and showed an unfeigned joy to 
hear of the new settlement. They assure us the Indians are 
quite peaceable and not to be feared." 

Murdoch says : " Colonel Cornwallis came out in H. M. sloop 
Sphinx, which made the coast of Acadie on the 14th June (old 
style), but, having no pilot on board, cruised off the land until 
the 20th, when they met a sloop having two pilots, on her way 
from Boston to Louisburg. He decided to go to Chebucto, for 
which he had a fair wind. Before he went there he had 
visited Merligueche Bay, where there was then a small French 
settlement, Malagash, now called Lunenburg." 

Cornwallis, in a letter dated Chebucto, July 24th, 1749, wrote 
that Monsieur Ramsay (de Ramezay)*had passed Merlegoch 
a few days before he put in there. 

Traces of old French cellars have been discovered in the 
town of Lunenburg, and at the comer near King's hotel there 
were found some years ago, several feet under the surface, part 

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of an old fireplace, a leaden weight of one pound and one 
ounce, present standard, several staves of a cask that had been 
used in a well, and a stout piece of oak timber. 

In 1720, Governor Phillips recommended that a settlement 
should be formed at Merliguesche, and it and La Hfeve were 
named as places conveniently situated for the seat of Govern- 

At a meeting of H. M. Council, held at Halifax, August 23rd, 
1750, the following localities were named as suitable for a pro- 
posed new settlement : La Have, Malagash, Head of Chebucto 
Bay, North-west River, and opposite side of Halifax harbor. 

On the 16th October, 1752, Grovemor Hopson wrote to the 
Lords of Trade that " Merleguish, by Margaret's Bay," was a 
place to which it was intended to send settlers. 

Township of Lunenburg. 

At another meeting of Council, May 10th, 1753, it was "Re- 
solved, that the settlement to be made at Merligash be called 
the township of Lunenburg, the district thereof to be hereafter 
ascertained ;" and a commission to Colonel Lawrence, dated 
May 28th, directed him " to settle a township by the name of 
Lunenburg, lying on the harbor of Merligash, in this Province.'' 

The township of Lunenburg is stated by Haliburton to be, 
next to Halifax, " the oldest settlement formed by the English 
Government in Nova Scotia." 

Lunenburg was named from Ltineburg in Germany, whence 
many of the original settlers came. 

The name was also given to a town in Virginia, United 
States ; a county in the same State ; a town in the State of 
New York ; a town in Worcester county, Massachusetts ; a 
town in the White Mountains, New Hampshire, fifteen miles 
north of the beautiful village of Bethlehem ; and to a post on 
the left bank of the Pongolo River, in South Africa, where 
Germans settled, many of whose farms were destroyed in the 
Zulu war of 1879. 

The word is spelled Ltineburg, in an office book prepared for 

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the Lutheran Church in this county, by the late Rev. Ferdinand 
Conrad Temme, then pastor, and published at Philadelphia, 
A.D. 1816. 

The first emigrants who settled at Lunenburg under the 
protection of the British Government came to the Province in 
consequence of a proclamation, published in Germany in 1750. 
Public notices were also posted in several populous towns. 
Those who should avail themselves of the terms offered, were 
to receive (so states the proclamation) fifty acres of land each^ 
free from all rent and taxes for ten years, with ten additional 
acres for each member of a family, and further privileges in 
proportion to the number of acres of land cultivated and im- 
proved, and were to be maintained for twelve months after 
their arrival in the Province. They were to be provided with 
arms and ammunition, and a sufficient quantity of materials 
and implements for housekeeping, clearing and cultivating 
their lands, erecting habitations, and promoting the fisheries. 
They were informed that the climate of the Province was 
healthy, the soil productive and fertile, yielding an abundance 
of everything necessary to support life, with a sea coast 
abounding in fish, well situated for shipping and trade, and 
furnished with secure and convenient harbors. 

They were also told to " apply to Mr. John (Johann) Dick, 
or to his agent, in Frankfort-on-the-Mayne, who may be found 
by inquiry of John Adam Ohenslagen, shipmaster, who resides 
at the Saxenhausen bridge." 

A large number applied, and secured passages for themselves 
and families. 

Besides those of the original settlers who came from the 
district of Ltineburg, there were some from Switzerland. Others 
were from Montbeliard, the chief town of an arrondissement in 
the department of Doubs, France, at the confluence of the 
AUaine and the Lusine, on the canal between the Rhine and the 
Rhone. Cuvier, the great naturalist, was bom there. It was 
part of a territory which had been claimed by France and by 
certain German duchies, and of which France secured possession 
shortly before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The 

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people have been referred to as the " Lutherans of Mont- 
beliard." The word is pronounced Mong-bilyar, 

One hundred and thirty persons embarked at Rotterdam, on 
a long voyage for this — to them, strange — country, and arrived 
at Halifax, in the good ship Anne, John Spurrier, Master, in 
1750. Between the date of this first arrival and 1753, an 
additional number were brought out by the Pearl, Gale, Sally, 
Betty, Murdoch, Swan, and other ships, making in all 1,615. 
We can imagine them, having been led hither in safety by the 
guiding hand of protecting Providence, touching what was to 
them a foreign shore, and looking back on the vessels they had 
just left as the last outward and visible links in the chain 
between the Old World and the New. 

Mrs. Beechner, who came from Germany some time after the 
first settlers, and who died in Lunenburg at the age of ninety- 
six years, described the manner in which some of them left 
home, as witnessed by herself. They assembled together at 
Klein Heibach, whither they were accompanied by friends and 
relatives. On the morning of their embarkation the church 
bell summoned them to special religious services, and great 
lamentation was manifested at their departure. 

Though it must always be a cause of sorrow to part from 
kindred and friends and encounter the trials and privations, 
incident to beginning a new life in an unsettled country, and 
though we may well believe that the brave and undaunted 
Germans and Swiss had this feeling in all its intensity, on 
leaving their dear fatherland, yet, in the prospect of happy 
homes for themselves and their children, and the enjoyment of 
those peculiar privileges which belong to British subjects in the 
colonies of the Empire, they bade adieu to the loved associations 
which had clustered round them from infancy, and with fare- 
wells on their lips, and sadness in their hearts, embarked to 
cross the intervening ocean. 

The following was signed by those who came in the Sally : 

"We, the underwritten passengers on board the Sally, John 
Bobinson, Master, bound from hence to Halifax, in Nova Scotia, 
in North America, do hereby acknowledge and declare that we 

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are justly and truly indebted to Mr. John Dick, agent for the 
colony of Nova Scotia, at Rotterdam, the several sums below 
mentioned and set opposite to our names, in Dutch currency, 
for ourselves and for our families, freights, etc., from hence to 
Nova Scotia aforesaid, which several sums we do hereby oblige 
ourselves jointly and severally to pay, by immediately going 
upon such work as His Excellency the Governor shall think 
proper to employ us upon, at the rate of one shilling sterling 
per day, until the whole we owe is paid. In witness whereof, 
we have signed three of these of one tenor and date ; the one 
accomplished, the others to be void and of no force. 

" Rotterdam, 30 May, 1752." 

Similar obligations were probably made by emigrants in 
other ships. 

Governor Hopson, in a letter to the Lords of Trade, dated 
Halifax, 16th October, 1752, writes: "The people in general 
who were sent over this year by Mr. Dick, complain of his 
having persuaded them at their embarking to sell everything, 
even the little bedding they had, by which means they have 
lain on the bare decks and platforms during their voyage, and 
are still destitute of all kinds of bedding. This has caused the 
death of many both on the passage and here ashore since they 
were landed. ... It looks as if it was done to give room 
for crowding in a greater number of people into the ships that 
brought them." 

The following description of Luneburg in Germany may be 
interesting to descendants of early settlers in this county. The 
facts have been gathered from "Meyer's Conversations Lexicon," 
'' Chaml^ers' Encyclopaedia," and " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

Luneburg is the chief town of a district in the Prussian 
Province of Hanover, which was formerly an independent 
kingdom, and in ancient times part of Saxony. The town is 
near the foot of a small hill called the Kalkberg, and on the 
River Ilmenau. 

It was once strongly fortified, and is divided into four dis- 
tricts or quarters, called Market, Water, Sand, and Suelz 
(Brine) quai'ters. Through the old walls and fortifications. 

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HOW turned into promenades, led six gates, one of which was 
Newgate, of the fourteenth century. These were removed to 
make room for additions to the town. The oldest of the four 
churches (Johannes Kirche) is of purest Gothic style, has a 
steeple 360 feet high, an artistic stone pulpit, and other sculp- 
ture. In the St. Michael's Church is the vault of the Ltineburg 
Princes, who ruled from 1369 to 1705, when the last Prince 
died. The earliest mention of Ltineburg is in 795. 

Through the disturbance of the War of Succession, the town 
obtained its independence, for which it had long been striving. 
In 1367, Liineburg joined the Hansa, a union of diflferent 
merchant cities, known as " The Hanseatic League." In the 
seventeenth century it was the depot for all the merchandise 
exported from Saxony and Bohemia to the mouth of the Elbe. 
In 1714, George Louis, the Elector of Liineburg, ascended the 
throne of Great Britain, as George I. The German war of 
liberation, in 1813, was begun by an engagement with the 
French, under General Morand, near Liineburg. 

Liineburg ow^es its importance chiefly to the gypsum and 
lime quarries of the Kalkberg, which aflbrd materials for its 
-cement works, and to the productive salt spring at its base. 
Its industries also include the making of ironware, soda, and 
haircloth. The soil of the district bears wheat, rye, barley, 
oats, peas, buckwheat, flax, hemp, garden vegetables, and dif- 
ferent kinds of foliage and needle trees. The raising of horses 
and homed cattle is in some parts unimportant ; in others — for 
instance, in the marshlands — very considerable. Among the 
manufactures are yam spinning, linen weaving, stocking 
knitting, and woodenware making. The commerce of Liine- 
burg is confined to the sale and transport of the country's 

Liineburg gives its name to the Liineburger Haide, or Liine- 
burg Heath, an immense tract of moorland occupying the 
greater part of eastern Hanover. On this heath graze numer- 
ous herds of a poor quality of sheep, mostly black, with long 
and coarse wool, called " Heidschnucken." This and other 
extensive heaths afford good sheepwalks, and when the heather 

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is in blossom, they are resorted to by the keepers of bees, 
who tend their hives with much care and considerable success. 
In one year there were 200,657 hives, chiefly in the LUneburg 
district, yielding honey to the value of £40,000. 

Mark Twahi has written that " Germany, in the summer, is 
the perfection of the beautiful." 

Jerome K. Jerome says, in his " Diary of a Pilgrimage" : " I 
like the Germans. They are a big, square-shouldered, deep- 
chested race. They do not talk much, but look as though they 
thought — easy-goings and good tempered. 

" The Germans are hearty eatera, but they are not fussy and 
finikin over their food. . Their stomach is not their god, and 
the cook with his sauces, and pates and ragoMa, is not their 
high priest. So long as the dish is wholesome, and there is 
sufficient of it, they are satisfied. 

" In the mere sensuous arts of painting and sculpture, the 
Germans are poor. In the ennobling arts of literature and 
music they are great, and this fact provides a key to their 
character. They are a simple, earnest, homely, genuine people. 
They do not laugh much, but when they do, they laugh deep 
down. They are slow, but so is a deep river. A placid look 
generally rests upon their heavy futures ; but sometimes they 
frown, and then they look somewhat grim. 

" The Germans believe in themselves, and respect themselves. 
The world for them is not played out. Their country, to them, 
is still the * Fatherland.' They look straight before them, like 
a people who see a great future in front of them, and are not 
afraid to go forward to fulfil it." 

Joseph Howe said . " The Germans everywhere are lovers of 
freedom, manliness, and fair play." 

Dr. Richard Ely, of the University of Wisconsin, says: 
" The Germans are generally admitted to be, perhaps, the best 
immigrants we have : and if not the hftst. undoubtedly among 
the best. Our indebtedness to Germany, for material and 
intellectual enrichment, is clear to the historical student of 
our institutions." 

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Arrival at Lunenburg^-Oaptains Cobb and Rous— First Birth — Military 
and Civil Authority — Block-houses — Rebellion — Commons — Stock, 
Houses, Huts, Crops, Mills and Vehicles — First Ferry — First Shop. 

THE following letter was written by Governor Hopson to 
the Board of Trade and Plantations, previous to the 
departure from Halifax of intending settlers at Lunenburg : 

" Halifax, May 25th, 1753. 

" My Lords, — I last night received an express from the 
ofiBcer commanding at Pisiquid (Windsor), advising me that he 
is credibly inform^ that there are three bodies of Indians dis- 
posed of in those parts amounting to about three hundred, who 
lie there in readiness, as they give out, to oppose the settlement 
of Merlegash, and intend to begin their march there as soon as 
they have information when the settlers are to sail, which in- 
formation they propose to get by intercepting our courier ; but 
as I had intelligence before the couriers were despatched, I 
have sent letters by them calculated to fall into the hands of 
the Indians, acquainting the officer that I have sent a large 
party to Ck)bequid to see how the Indians are disposed, and 
that I had deferred the expedition until their return. 

" However, the first embarkation of them will sail as soon as 
the wind is fair, and will consist of about 450 persons, armed 
and fit for service, the troops included ; the rest will follow as 
soon as 1 hear these have got a footing. 

" The only vessel of force we have nere is the Albany sloop 
of war. Captain Rous, commander, whom I have been obliged to 
request to countenance the new settlement, which he has most 
heartily undertaken." 

Of those who arrived at Halifax, as above named, 1,453 em- 
barked there on the 28th of May, 1753, in fourteen transports, 
the largest being 98 tons burthen, and the provincial sloop York^ 
Captain Sylvanus Cobb, which were employed to convey them 
to Lunenburg, and 92 regular troops and 66 rangers were also 

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sent there, under command of Colonel Lawrence, in whose 
charge the settlers were placed. He was to lay out the cleared 
land adjoining the town among the people by lot, and to reserve 
the beach to the Crown. Each family building a house was to 
receive from him materials not exceeding seven hundred feet of 
boards, five hundred bricks, and a proportionate quantity of 
nails. They arrived at Lunenburg (then called "Merliguesch") 
on the seventh day of the following month. 

Leonard Christopher Rudolf wrote that they "went to work 
to clear the wilderness on the 7th June." 

Captain Cobb, above named, was engaged in the removal of 
the French Acadians, and in 1758 he conveyed the immortal 
Wolfe to a reconnoitre of Louisburg. In 1759, he was ordered 
to Lunenburg in the York, He afterwards settled and built a 
house at Liverpool, N.S. His daughter married Colonel 
William Freeman. Cobb died at Havana, 1762. 

The landing of the settlers, and the work referred to by 
Mr. Rudolf, were the starting-point in the British settlement 
of the county, called, as was the town whose foundations were 
then laid, Lunenburg. An immortal poet has written " What's 
in a name ?" but this name of Lunenburg would act as a con- 
stant reminder of the country to which these adventurers had 
said good-bye. This part of the coast was selected for them 
on account of the safety and beauty of the harbor, which 
affords excellent anchorage, and is sheltered by several head- 
lands, and by Cross Island; the apparent fertility of the soil, 
and its nearness to Halifax. Owing to a brook which emptied 
into the harbor, and to their desire to perpetuate the name 
of the captain under whose safe conduct they had come thither, 
they called the spot where they stepped from the boat " Rous's 
Brook." There was close by a cleared piece of ground which, 
on being turned up, was found to be very rich from the decom- 
position of clam shells, immense quantities of which had been 
left there, either by the French or Indians. Another place of 
the same kind was discovered near the head of the harbor, and 
in its immediate neighborhood an old burial-ground. 

Captain John Rous was, in 1744, master of a Boston priva- 

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teer, and took eight French vessels laden with mud-fish into 
St. John's, Nfld. In the following year he was engaged in the 
expedition against Cape Breton, and was subsequently sent to 
England with news of the capture of Louisburg. In 1754, he 
was made a member of His Majesty's Council for Nova Scotia. 
In 1758, he was in command of the Sutlierlandy fifty guns, at 
the second siege of Louisburg, and in 1759, at the siege of 
Quebec. It was from the deck of this ship that Wolfe issued 
his last order before he ascended the Heights of Abraham. 
Captain Rous died in 1760. His daughter married the Hon. 
Richard Bulkeley. 

The brave pioneers were referred to in the following lines, 
which were part of an address in verse, read at the celebration, 
June 7th, 1886, of Lunenburg's natal day, by Rev. R. C. CaswalU 
M.A., then rector of St. John's Church. 

** Oh, Lunenburg people, I nm sure you don't know 
Half the toil or the labor, the grief or the woe 
Encountered of old by those worthies so brave. 
Who faced every peril of tempest and wave, 
Who landed right here in the midst of red savages, 
And were often exposed to their murderous ravages ; 
Oh, surely you'll honor those brave men and true 
Who founded this town and prepared it for you ; 
Who prepared it for you at the risk of their lives, 
Not fearing the tomahawks, axes and knives, 
The spears and the arrows, the bullets of lead, 
Which assaulted them waking, or slew them in bed ; 
Oh, then, honor the brave, and like them be brave, too. 
If your numbers be great, or if they be few, 
For God helps the weak, if their cause it be dear, 
And He will defend you though danger be near." 

On the 23rd of June, 1753, an order was passed for a review 
of the militia and choice of sergeants, corporals, etc. 

The first jail was built by Government and called the "King*s. 

A pay list, dated September, is preserved, showing 4a 6d. 
paid to German and Swiss overseers for raising frame of east 

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block-house, with items and vouchers therefor. Also another, 
dated in November, for building chimney in jail. 

Arms called in — 451 firelocks. 

A second jail was built in 1816, and torn down in 1894. 
Sills, timbers, and shingles were found to be sound and good. 

The sum of £10 yras voted in 1753 to the captain of a 
schooner for the passage of two Indians, one of whom was a 
chief, from Lunenburg to Halifax and back. 

The following is an extract from a letter written by Gover- 
nor Hopson to the Lords of Trade and Plantations, dated July 
2grd, 1753 : 

" . . . I pitched upon Merlegash for the outsettlement of 
the foreigners. It was preferable to Musquedoboit, as there is 
a good harbor, which is wanting at Musquedoboit. Had it been 
possible to have sent the settlers by land, it would have been a 
great satisfaction to me to have saved the expense of hiring 
v^sels, but on inquiring, found it absolutely impossible, not only 
as they would have had at least fifty miles to go through the 
woods, but there is not any road." 

The first birth in the new community was that of Jane 
Margaret Bailly, which occurred during the night following the 
landing, in a rude camp built among the bushes, in the rear of 
what is now the residence of Mr. Charles Myra. 

Preparations were made to secure shelter, and huts and log- 
houses were erected as fast as circumstances would permit. 

Owing to the presence of deadly enemies, in the persons of 
the native Indians, who murdered or cArried ofl* every settler 
they could find absent from home, it became necessary to 
provide, as soon as possible, means of defence. 

A militia regiment was formed, of which Patrick Sutherland 
was Lieutenant-Colonel, and Leonard C Rudolf, Major. Block- 
houses were built as defences outside the town; and the new 
settlement was enclosed with " a fence of pickets, sharpened ^t 
the points, and securely fastened in the ground." 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 31 

Memo, op Block-houses, etc., 1753. 

Garrison block-house, on Gallow*8 hilL 

A block-house by the burial ground. 

A block -house on back of shore below Labroane's garden. 

A block-house on back harbor, opposite Mason's. 

A picket fence from Fort to Fort, from front to back harbor. 

A block-house on Windmill hill. 

A block-house on Battery Point, called ** Fort Boscawen." 

A block-house at Mush-a-Mush. 

A block-house at Morriott Brook. 

A block-house at North- West Range. 

A block-house at Lower La Have. 

A block-house at Upper La Have. 

A block-house at Jacob Hirtle's mills. 

Fort Boscawen, Battery Point, cost £219 lis. 3d. 

Civil, as well as military authority was required ; and this 
was present in the persons of Patrick Sutherland, Sebastian 
Zouberbuhler, and John Creighton, who were, on the 26th of 
May, 1753, two days before the embarkation at Halifax, 
appointed the first Justices of the Peace for Lunenburg. 

Murdoch says: "The soldiers and settlers at Mirligash (Lunen- 
burg) are stated, October 1st, 1753, to amount to 650 men, well 
armed. Hopson says they might fall into the same kind of 
neutrality claimed by the Acadians, unless care be taken. He 
approves of the idea suggested by the Lords of Trade, of giving 
them live stock and hogs ; and thinks £2,000 would be well 
laid out on that purpose. Some of them he has employed as 
overseers, besides English in the same capacity. The Justices 
Zouberbuhler and Creighton were also paid for their services. 
The people of Lunenburg began to be uneasy at having neither 
church nor clergyman, except the Swiss, who have a French 
minister, Mr. Moreau. The church was put in the estimate for 
1754. The people there were very industrious." 

Tradition says that during the earliest year of the settle- 
ment an incident occurred which caused much excitement. 
When the ice broke up in the spring, some of the boys were 
amusing themselves by moving pieces from the beach and 
taking a short pleasure excursion. Two of them got into deep 

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water and were " outward bound," with a fair wind. Boat» 
not being yet built, trees were fastened together and propelled 
by boards or sticks, by which means the boys were overtaken 
near Battery Point and brought safely back. 

It was necessary that men surrounded by Indian foes should^ 
when obliged to go any distance from home, have one of their 
number in whom they might confide as leader ; and they were 
well supplied in the person of Henry Maxner, who, with his 
resolute spirit, and a compass to guide him, would lead the 
party venturing into the woods. It would have been fortunate 
for old Mr. Hornish to have had his services, when, having lost 
his way near Lunenburg, he found himself, to his great sur- 
prise, after long travelling and " beating the bush," on a sand 
beach at Lower La Have. 

The severe labor exacted from the men at Lunenburg, in 
their duties at and between the different forts, in defending^ 
stockaded houses and resisting the attacks of Indians, made 
them ill-prepared to bear any additional gi'ievance; and in 
December, 1753, a riot occurred, under circumstances thus^ 
described in the original record : 

" Memo, of the Rebellion. 

" December 15th, 1753. 
" A report was circulated that John Peterquin, a Frenchman,, 
had received a letter from London, wherein it was stated that 
Parliament had directed that each person should receive one- 
pound of bread, meat, pease, rice, hulled oats, molasses, one 
pint of rum, stockings, shoes, shirts, clothing, all necessary 
household utensils, and also implements of agriculture, and five 
pounds in cash. On hearing this the people went in search of 
Peterquin to get the letter, and when they found him they 
imprisoned him in the cellar of the block-house. ' When this 
came to the ear of Colonel Sutherland, he went with Mr. Zouber- 
buhler, Mr. Strasburg, and Major Rudolf, and released Peter- 
quin, but he was rescued from them by the mob and again 
confined in the block-house, under a guard of ten men within 
the building, and a number outside. Here he was detained 

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until Sunday, when he endeavored to effect his escape, but 
having been discovered by the guard, he was removed from 
the cellar into the body of the block-house, bound hand and 
foot, and threatened, if he did not produce the letter. On Sun- 
day morning he declared that Mr. 2k)uberbuhler harl received 
the letter from him. In consequence of this the inhabitants 
were required to assemble on the parade at nine o'clock, to 
take measures for getting the letter from Mr. Zouberbuhler, or 
to imprison him, too. Then the people deliberate^! the whole 
day, and sent hourly messengers to the Colonel for the letter 
or Mr. Zouberbuhler, and this state of things continued during 
several days. Mr. Zouberbuhler retired for protection to the 
west block -house, which was on Callow's hill, and called the 
Star Fort, from the shape of the fence by which it was enclosed* 
There was a variety of opinions and a great uproar, Home 
desiring one thing and some another. They wished to force 
the soldiers to compel Mr. Zouberbuhler and the Frenchman 
to appear on the parade, and undergo a public examination. 
At the same time it was reported to the Colonel that the 
Indians were near the town, and, in conseriuence, he took tlie 
precaution of providing the storehouse with large guns But 
messengers from the inhabitants immediately repaired to him 
and demanded to know whether he would remove the guns 
again or not. In fine, it is evident that they have taken the 
command in their own handa 

"On Wednesday, the nineteenth of this month, Peterquin 
was examined by the Colonel, and declared that he ha<l given 
the letter to Zouberbuhler, and the time and circumstances of 
the delivery, and professed that he had nothing against the 
Colonel, but entertained for him all due honor and respect. 
The people were somewhat pacified when Peterquin made this. 
declaration. All possible pains were taken by Colonel Monck- 
ton to ascertain the rights of this affair ; and Peterquin made a 
«liscIo(sure of the whole transaction to the Colonel, by which it. 
Appeared that Mr. Hoffman showed a letter of a similar import, 
to that first mentioned, to Peterquin, on the parade, and told 
him that he had received it from a sailor, and that Hoffmanj 

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gave Peterquin directions how to proceed. In short, from 
Peterquin's declaration Hoffman was the instigator and cause 
of the whole mischief. The Colonel, hearing that Hoffman was 
at Harshman's house, sent an officer with a party of soldiers, 
who immediately arrested and carried him to the block-house. 
The following day he was brought before the Council, and from 
thence sent on shipboard under a guard of twelve men, com- 
manded by Captain Trickett." 

" John William Hoffman " (above referred to) " who had 
previously been a Justice of Peace at Halifax, was sent up on 
a charge of having been concerned in the mutiny, and was 
committed to jail, by Governor Lawrence, with strict orders 
tliat he should not be allowed to converae with, nor write to, 
anybody, nor even have the use of pen, ink or paper. An 
indictment was preferred against him for high treason, but 
there being only one witness, the Grand Jury rejected the 
l)ill. He was then indicted for high crimes and misdemeanors, 
found guilty of some of the charges, and sentenced to fine and 
two years' imprisonment, which he served on George's Island, 
Halifax. Governor Lawrence described him as a mischievous 
fellow, and declared that the immediate consequences of his 
liberty would be the destruction of the peace and harmony 
which prevailed at Lunenburg, and wished that the colony was 
well rid of him." 

An account of this transaction, in Murdoch's "History of 
Nova Scotia," p. 220 (1753), gives the following additional 
particulars : 

" Lieut-Colonel Sutherland sent Lieutenant Adams to Halifax, 
with a letter to PresidentLawrence,to inform him of his situation. 
Adams arrived on the evening of Monday, the 17th December. 
Lawrence applied at once to Mr. Henry Baker, Commander of 
H. M. sloop Wdsp, for twenty of his seamen, as he intended to 
send the two sloops belonging to the Government to Lunen- 
burg immediately ; and on Tuesday he collected the Council at 
his house, Messrs. Green, Steele, Collier, Cotterel, and Monckton 
being present ; and the letter being read and Lieutenant Adams 
examined, it was decided to send two hundred regular troops to 

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Luneuburg, whom Colonel Monckton volunteered to command. 
Tlie Council advised that the inhabitants there should be dis- 
armed. Four vessels were at once sent to Lunenburg, with 
Monckton's detachment. The vessels were got ready in a few 
hours, and sailed as soon as the wind would peniiit. The garrison 
of Halifax was thus reduced to thi'ee hundred men, and Law- 
rence had two militia guards mounted every night in addition. 
The soldiers arrived in safety, and the militia block- house was 
abandoned to them on Monckton's demand. In two or three 
days he succeeded in disarming the people peaceably. Monck- 
ton stated that he observed a strong disposition in them to 
throw off all subjection to any government, and to affect the 
same kind of independency that the French inhabitants have 
done. They had always insisted that the Indians would distin- 
guish them from the English, and never interrupt them, which 
notion he believed had been privately propagated among them 
by the French emissaries. There was no proof, however, that the 
French had instigated them in this mutiny. Monckton advised 
that as the people there were so generally implicated, the better 
course would be to grant a general forgiveness. Lawrence, 
however, desired to punish the ringleaders, and it will be seen 
hereafter that one prominent actor was tried and sentenced.** 

By the 15th of January, 1754, the disturbances at Lunenburg 
liad subsided, and Monckton, leaving one officer and forty men 
there to take charge of the block- house, returned to Halifax 
with the rest of his detachment, leaving the people perfectly 

Lunenburg Common. 

" Articles about the commons, made for the year 1754 : 

" The great or horn cattle shall go by turns, one time to the 
west, and the other time at the east side. 

*• The small cattle shall go from the town pickets to the first 
garden lots northward of the town, but not higher than the 
1>ack of the town. 

•* It is proposed and found very necessary to have forthwith 
hired, a herdsman, one for the horn cattle, and another for the 

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small cattle, and the inhabitants are to agree with tlie said 
herdsmen for the payment, and to bind them to do their duty. 

"It is proposed about the dogs, that a law should be made tliat 
such as have dogs going over the common shall keep them in a 
line, and everybody is to take care that no mischief may 
happen by the dogs. 

" It is proposed that next year some proper expert person be 
chosen to visit the commons and see what number of cattle 
they are able to sustain." 

In 1760, an Act was passed bythe Legislature, reciting that 
the Governor had granted and set apart a tract of land lying 
in the peninsula of Lunenburg, to serve as a common for the 
inhabitants of said town, and requiring the Grand Jury at the 
Sessions in March (and annually in the same month), "to make 
regulations for the common," to be approved of by the Justices. 
On the 17th of April, 1761, a grant was signed by Governor 
Lawrence, giving to the inhabitants of Lunenburg two thousand 
acres near the town for a common, and registered on the 18th 
of August in the same year. A grant was also made on the 
7th of February, 17«5, of land to be held as a common. 

In 1818, an Act was passed '*in addit on" to the Act of 1760, 
empowering the inhabitants, at their annual town meetings, to 
vote moneys for running, ascertaining and renewing the marks 
of the original boundaiy lines of the common as often as should 
be found requisite. The General Sessions of the Peace were, 
by the same Act, authorized to make regulations for gathering 
sea manure on the shores of the common or public lands. This 
Act wad made perpetual by Chapter 7, of Acts of 1820-2 L 

An Act was passed in 1826, enabling the trustees of the 
common to make leases of parts of it for ten years ; and in 
1828, the term was extended to ninety-nine years. By enact- 
ment in 1862, power was given to the trustees to sell cert*iin 
portions of the common, and to execute conveyances in fee 

Under this Act, John Creighton, William Metzler, William 
N. Zwicker, Henry S. Jost, John Young, James D. Eisenhauer, 
and Benjamin Berringer, were elected May, 20th, in the same 

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year, trustees for the improvement of the common near the 
town of Lunenburg. 

On the 3rd of June, fifty-nine lois of 70 x 79 feet, were sold 
at prices from £2 15s. to £25 5s. The sales of the fifty-nine 
lots realized £474 18s. 

In 1754 the Government, carrj'^ing out a suggestion previously 
made by the Lords of Trade and Plantations, sent to the inhabi- 
tants, **74 cows, 967 sheep, 114 pigs, and 164 goats, besides 
poultry.*' One cow and one sheep, or six sheep, one pig, and 
six goats, \tere allowed for two families. Sheep and pigs were 
divided between single men, according to their respective char- 
actei-8, the most deserving of whom received the largest share. 

In an estimate " for the service of Nova Scotia for the year 
1754," among other items appear the following : 

" Lunenburg £768 5 0." 

" Church at Lunenburg 476 16 6i." 

The following item is included in " sums disallowed " : 
*' Stone jail at Lunenburg £282 10 0." 

The people of Lunenburg, taken as a community, were then 
considered as having made some praiseworthy progress in 
improvement. Besides the erection of 319 houses and ten 
huts, much industry had been shown in the tillage of town 
and garden lots. One hundred German families went to settle 
on their farm lots in the country. Before the end of May, 
" barley, oats, turnips, potatoes, and flax had been planted ; 
timber, staves, and hoops had been cut," and canoes and boats 
wei-e afterwards built. The price of labor was not over " a 
shilling a day," and firewood was supplied to vessels at " two 
shillings a cord." At the end of the year five saw-mi. Is had 
])een erected on diflerent streams, and gi*ain crops are said to 
have been plentiful. 

An aged inhabitant described to the writer the style of the 
houses built in early days. Some were constructed of round 
poles, and were about six feet in the post, and eighteen or 
twenty feet square outside. Others were of hewed timber, 

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about six inches through. The roofs of many were thatched. 
The doors and shutters were made of two-inch plank, when it 
could be had, and fastened with iron bolts. The oldest house, 
still standing in Lunenburg, was built in 1757. It was origin- 
ally occupied by a Gennan brewer named Kailer, who used it 
as a brew house. He may have been the man called Koehler 
in the list of grantees. The house, which has been added to, 
is the residence of Mr. John Robar. It is nine feet in the post, 
and the old part is about 26 x 14 feet. The walls in the lower 
rooms were only six feet in height. Six steps led to the rooms 
above, which were still lower. The doors were of plank, with 
massive iron hinges and bolts. Robar, on repairing the house, 
had new sills taken there, but the old ones were found to be so 
well preserved, that they were not removed. They were made 
of the best pine, free from sap. The walls were filled in with 
hewed timber, between the shingling and inside boarding. 
There was a well in one of the rooms over thirty feet in depth, 
in which, tradition says, money was placed in troublous times. 

The writer was told by an aged resident of Chester, that 
some of the earliest settlers in different parts of the county 
built the chimneys of their log-houses of sticks, the spaces 
between being filled in with clay kneaded with straw. What 
would be called a brazier in our days, was constructed of hard 
beaten clay, about a foot or more in height, and slightly 
hollowed in the centre. In this were placed coals brought from 
the clay oven, in which the wood was burnt, to heat the room. 

The supply of rations, except for the aged and infirm, was 
discontinued June 14th, 1754, and some of the people being 
very poor, their domestic comforts, already few, were thus 
rendered even less. Their aged descendants yet speak of this, 
and mention that sea shells were substituted for wooden spoons 
brought from Germany, many of which had been lost or injured, 
though specimens are still to be seen. Some were without light, 
and did not know how to obtain 'it, when one Herman told his 
neighbors to cut under the fin of the dog-fish (then caught in 
large quantities), and take out the liver, and the oil thus pro- 
duced would supply them with light This plan was eagerly 

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adopted, and proved successful. Tea, coffee and " sweetening " 
were luxuries to which many were strangers, while potato 
soup formed a chief article of diet. The men wore stockings, 
and breeches fastened with buckles at the knee, and round 
jackets, made of rough cloth, or homespun. Hats with small 
crowns and large rims, and wooden shoes completed the outer 
clothing. The hair was frequently plaited, and fastened 
behind with ribbon, a fashion described to the writer by persons 
who remembered it. The women wore petticoats of linen made 
from native flax, with gowns of calico or red baizCi The head- 
dress was a calico cap or handkerchief, bonnets being unknown. 
Shoes or clogs, made of wood, and sometimes partly of leather, 
and ornamented with buckles, covered the feet, and were 
similar to those worn by peasants in the north of England, or 
the sabots of the French. In France, wooden shoes are made 
both by machinery and by hand. The best are made of maple. 
In the provinces many ladies possess a pair of the finer sabots, 
for wearing out in damp weather. These have monograms and 
other designs carved on the vamps, and they are kept on the 
foot by ornamental leather pieces over the insteps. • When the 
shoes or clogs brought from Germany were no longer service- 
able, they were replaced with new ones made by M. Jeanperin 
and others. Those used for festive occasions were described as 
having been very neat in appearance. 

A writer in a British magazine states that wooden shoes are 
used in Germany, " in the plains and near the sea coast." He 
adds that birch is generally used, as it is " the toughest, most 
elastic and least liable to split. Farmers in remote districts 
often employ themselves and their men during the long 
winter evenings, in sawing, boring and scooping out wooden 
shoes for their households ; in the same way as they chop up 
their firewood, make their ladders, and the wheels and axles of 
their wagons. The manufacture of proper wooden shoes is 
quite a separate trade. Makers of them abound in the villages 
of Lower Saxony. We recognize their small dwellings at once 
by the piled-up blocks of birch wood, and the heaps of shav- 
ings outside of them. The scooping out, the most important 

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part of the work, requires tools of peculiar form, which have 
been used in the remote villages on the moors and heaths of 
Germany since the earliest ages. One shoemaker can make 
four or five pairs of wooden shoes in a day, about the number 
which a peasant requires in the coui-se of a year." 

" LoOwse cotton" w^as purchased, and carded and spun at home, 
as " spun cotton " could not be otherwise obtained. It was cus- 
tomary for the women to divide their work, more than is done 
at present. In a small settlement, or amongst a lot of neigh- 
boi*s, some w^onien would do the spinning, some the weaving, 
and others the knitting. Firewood was carried home by hand. 
Grain was frequently threshed, and rocks draw^n from the land 
by night, after the day had been spent in hard work. 

The firat style of vehicle used for conveying wood and other 
articles was made of native beech or birch, the wheels being 
sections of the trunks of trees, with holes bored to receive the 
wooden axles. As for a travelling conveyance, none was seen 
until about fifty years ago, when the late Rev. Thomas Shreve 
drove the fii-st gig, the first four-wheeled carriage having been 
imported by the late Dr. Bolman. Previous to this the ladies 
were more accustomed to horseback exercise than those of the 
present day. They frequently rode many miles on a pillion 
behind their husbands. • Those of the people who depended on 
water travel for their visits to Lunenburg, and w^ere unable to 
afford the whole expense of a boat, joined with their neighbors 
in their efforts to build one for their common use. To remedy 
the want felt by some of those who were not thus provided 
for, a ferry was established between " South " and Lunenburg 
by one Kolp. The distance was about three miles, and the fare . 
charged, four pennies for going and returning. It is related of 
Kolp that . on one occasion he had to regret the loss of his red 
cap, which was sent into the harbor by the wind of a cannon 
ball, which passed unpleasantly close to his head. 

Many of the original settlers had a superatitious belief in 
omens, charms and witchcraft. It is not to be wondered at, 
however, when it is remembered that the same notions pre- 

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vaileil in Germany. Hauber says that 157 peraons were burnt 
-at Wui-tzburg, in two years, as witches, some pf whom were 
vicai-s of cathedi^als, and others sons of senators and noblemen, 
and as late as 1749, only four years previous to the settlement 
of Lunenburg, Maria Kenata was executed at the same place 
for the like offence. 

The CSrermans were not the only persons among whom these 
superstitions were cherished. Some of the English military 
settlei-s also brought w^ith them ideas of this description. The 
log hut of one contained sufficient crosses of witch hazel, as 
well as horse-shoes, to drive away as munj^ witches as ever 

As the districts outside of the town became more thickly 
settled, footpaths, with stiles at the different fences, led from 
one house to another, and in truly primitive style all lived 
happilj' together. They were poor, honest, true-hearted, God- 
fearing, self-reliant, industrious people, and worthily represented 
the nations from which they emigrated. The simple habits 
and languages of their forefather were long retained, and when 
the Rev. C. E. Cossmann came to the county, in 1835, he could 
distinguish by the different dialects, the places in Germany to 
which many of their ancestors belonged. We cannot under- 
stand the haixlships and privations to which these early adven- 
turers were subjected, nor can we sufficiently estimate their 
indomitable energy of character. They had to contend day by 
day with obstacles which, under less adverse circumstances, 
might have been deemed almost insurmountable, and were often 
obliged to go forth, carrying in one hand the axe to fell the 
forest, and in the other a suitable weapon of defence. 

One of the curiosities of esLvly times is a trunk made of 
heavy })irch plank, 4 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet in height, 1 foot 
9 inches in width, with a till 9 inches wide and 1 foot in depth, 
and having iron hinges of great strength tind a massive German 
lock. It is said to have been the first shop in Lunenburg, and 
was kept by Mr^. Born, wife of Martin Bora, in a log-house 
built by him, nearly opposite the site of the Presbyterian 

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church. This trunk was a depository for calicoes, ribbons, 
needles and other goods supplied by Mrs. Born s sisters, residing 
at Halifax. The German lassies of those days went, we may 
believe, with as much pleasure to purchase from Mrs. Born, as 
our modem belles now take in their visits to the more attrac- 
tive establishments of the present day ; and we can imagine 
with what satisfaction that good old lady put aside what she 
daily received, as an addition to her accumulating treasure in 
that " deep till." 

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Town Plot — Allotments and Registry of Land — First Deeds — Letters, 
Petitions, Orders and Official Returns — Boundaries for Township — 
Jessen Expedition — Boundaries of County — Townships established 
— Bounties — Settlers and Stock — First Civil List — Governor's Praise 
of GermaJis— Inhabitants, Stock and Crops —Governor's Letter to 
Earl of Dartmouth — Inventory of Property of C. B. Zouberbuhler. 

THE town plot of Lunenburg was laid out, according to a 
plan approved of at Halifax by Governor Peregrine T. 
Hopson, in six divisions, namely : Zouberbuhler s, Creighton's, 
Morreau's, Rudolfs, Straesburgher s, and Steinfort's divisions, 
named after the officers in command. Each division contained 
eight blocks, and each block was divided into fourteen town 
lots of 60 X 40 feet. 

The principal streets wei'e named Cornwallis, Duke, King, 
Prince, Hopson, Lawrence (the continuation of which takes in 
" Kissing Bridge "), York, Fox, Townsend, Cumberland, Lincoln, 
Pelham, and Montagu. 

Mrs. Kaulbach, who died at the age of 102, told the writer 
that she could remember when there were only two streets in 
the town. 

Each settler was allowed a town lot, a garden lot, a three- 
hundred-acre lot, and a thirty-acre lot. Over five hundred lots 
were drawn, and registered in a list marked " examined and 
approved," and signed by Patk. Sutherland. Each man was 
required to enclose his town lot. and erect suitable buildings 
without delay. Cards were used for drawing the lots, some of 
which have been produced in court as evidence, in part, of 
title. One was received in the case of Boutilier et al. vs. Knock, 
tried before Young, C.J., at Lunenburg, October, 1865. It 
was alleged to have been drawn by Jacques Boutilier in 17()7» 

Doubts having arisen as to whether the registry of lots of 

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land imported a conveyance in fee simple (having be3n granted 
merely as lots, without any formal conveyance under the seal 
of the Province), an Act was passed in 1760, 34 Geo. II., cap, 
81, reciting the doubts above named, and decl^-ring "that all 
and every person having a right to claim by virtue of such 
registry, shall be entitled to a full and absolute estate in fee 
simple, in the lands so registered." 

The first deed executed at Lunenburg, was dated December 
3rd, 1753, and was made by Henrich Kolbach to Wendel Wust 
The consideration money was £1, and Wust became entitled to 
the grantors right and claim to garden lot No. 11, in 4th 
division, letter E ; measuring 70 feet in front, and 165 in depth. 
The witnesses were Sophia Wust and Benjamin Bridge. 

In 1752, the name " Wenel Wust" was entered in the list 
of persons employed in His Majesty's works in and around 

The first conveyance of land from one of the settlers, re- 
corded at Lunenburg, was a deed dated November 16th, 1759, • 
from Johan Casper Hoffman to Johannes Haas, of two house 
lots in Zouberbuhler's division, for the sum of fifteen pounds 
ten shillings. The witnesses were Gotlieb Kochler and Andreas 
Spannagel. The document was registered on the 20th of the 
same month. 

Among the earliest documents is the last will and testament 
of Hans Adam Eisenhauer, which is in the writers possession. 
It bears date March 26th, 1757, less than four years after the 
settlement of Lunenburg. One of the three witnesses was 
*' Joseph Howe." 

Tlie following letters were sent to the commanding ofl[icer at 
Lunenburg : 

" Secretary's Office, March 18th, 1754. 

"... Captain Floyer desires me to acquaint you that 
he has given a pass to three Frenchmen to go to Lunenburg, 
under a pretence of hunting : but he has reason to suspect 
they are employed by Le Loutre to entice away the Germans, 
and therefore thought this intimation might be useful to you. 

" (Signed) Wm. Cotterell. 

" CoL. Sutherland." 

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Paul Boutin, Julian Bourneuf, Charles Boutin, Francois 
Lucas, Sebastian Bourneuf, Joseph Gedri, Pien-e Gedri, Pierre 
Erio, and Claude Erot, with their families, in all twenty -five 
persons, having been brought from Cape Breton to Halifax, 
took the oath of allegiance and came to Lunenburg in the 
autumn of this year. 

" Secretary's Office, August 24th, 1754. 
" Dear Sir, — . . . The bearers hereof, being in all 
twenty-five persons, are just arrived here from Louisbourg, 
from whence they made their escape to avoid starving. Some 
of them were formerly inhabitants of this country and are 
nearly related to old Labrador ; they have all taken the oaths ; 
the Colonel desires you would treat them kindly, order them 
to be victualled, to have tools given them, and land laid out 
for them where you shall see most convenient. 

'* I am, Dear Sir, 

" Yours, etc., 
" To Col. Sutherland, " Wm. Cotterell. 

** Commanding at Lunenburg." 

The following appeal's in a document headed, " Remarks 
relative to the Return of the Forces in Nova Scotia, March 
30th, 1755," mentioning the several posts occupied : 

" Lunenburg is the place where the Palatine settlers have 
been set down. It is situated upon a neck of land which forms 
a peninsula, having the harbor of Mirleguish on the south-west 
and a branch of Mahone Bay on the north-east, distant from 
Halifax by water about sixteen leagues — we have as yet no 
communication open with it by land. There is great necessity 
for the troops at that place, both to protect the settlers, and to 
awe those of them that are of a turbulent disposition." 

In the same year a petition was sent from Lunenburg to 
Governor Lawrence, for a further supply of provisions, and 
praying him not to punish "the good and industrious with 
the seditious and idle." 

In a letter from Governor Shirley to Governor Lawrence, 
dated Boston, March 13th, 1756, he writes : " As to the settle- 
ment of Germans at Lunenburg, if the end of posting the 152 
men there, which I find by your return of the cantonment of 

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the troops are placed there at present, is to be a guard upon 
the inhabitants of that town, tlie Province liad better be with- 
out the settlement, unless an equal number at least of settlers, 
whose fidelity to His Majesty's government may be depended 
on, can be soon introduced among them ; otherwise the more 
that settlement increases, the more dangerous and burthensome 
it will grow to the Province ; and this instance seems to show 
the risque of making entire settlements of foreigners of any 
kind in so new a government as Nova Scotia, without a due 
mixture of natural-born subjects among them." 

Murdoch writes, that although the conduct of some of the 
people may have been rash, still unacquainted, as most of them 
were, with the language or laws of our nation, allowance 
should be made for the errors they were led into. He refers 
to the general industry and uprightness the people had always 

General Order. 

" By Col. Patrick Sutherland, Esq., Commanding Officer of His 
Majesty's Troops in the Township and Garrison of Lunen- 

** Whereas, the number of troops under my command are not 
sufficient to defend the frontiers of this settlement, I have 
thought proper that two officers of the militia, with twenty 
men, should be ready on the parade, Monday morning at eight 
o'clock, in order to march to the Mush-a-Mush block-house, 
to remain there one week, and then be relieved by another 
detachment, and thus to continue till His Excellency's farther 

" And in consideration of most of the inhabitants' circum- 
stances, I have, without the governor's instructions, ordered 
every man for this time a full allowance of provisions for one 
week, over and above what is allowed for himself and family, 
and everyone is hereby warned to provide haversacks to caiTy 
their provisions with them. Ana in case anyone named is 
absent, or refuses to appear, the same shall be prosecuted with 
the utmost rigor of the law. This detachment shall be chosen 
out of those who dwell in the town, and those whose habita- 
tions are nearest the block-house, and I shall augment, or lessen 
the number, both with regard to the apparent danger and the 

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necessity of the season for cultivating the land, and order it 
f i-om time to time ; and in order for signals to the disappoint- 
ment of our enemies ; and, after this manner, I hope when the 
guard is appointed, the people will l)e more easy in their minds, 
and when the orders are made known to them everyone will 
know his turn for guard, and manage his affairs so that it may 
be little or no detriment to him. I recommend to those who 
go upon guard, particularly- that dwell in the country, that 
their families retire in the night time to such houses where 
most people are assembled. 

" And whereas, the intent of the last signals was not rightly 
understood, I find it necessarj' to acquaint the inhabitants, that 
on firing two guns in Mush-mush, or in the town, in one minute, 
that the town inhabitants directly appear with their officers on 
the parade, to attend and wait my orders ; and those men at 
the Mush-mush block -house, to receive orders from the com- 
manding officer there; but those who are distant both from 
town and block-house, shall, among their owti habitations, meet 
together and remain on their defence till the cause of the alarm 
be made known to them, and to hinder false alarms, no one 
shall dare to fire a piece in this settlement, unless upon the 

" Lunenburg, May 15th, 1756." 

*' On July 30th, 1756, Captain John Steignfort, with fifty 
armed men, went from Lunenburg to the Basin of Minas, and 
drove away 120 head of homed cattle and a number of horses, , 
being part of the confiscated property of the French Acadians. 
The party returned to Lunenburg, September 3rd, with sixty 
oxen and cows, the rest having perished on the way — all the 
horses included." 

This was truly a hazardous journey, made through an 
enemy s country ; an enemy who, though uncivilized, was not 
wholly ignorant of some of those resources by which successful 
generals have been largely aided on modem fields of warfare. 
The cattle were * dravna for in the jail-yard, in the presence of 
the commanding officer and other gentlemen useful thereto.' 
The above enterprise is referred to by Grace Dean McLeod, in 
*• The Cow-bells of Grand Pre." 

Captain Steignfort came to Halifax in 1749, and with the 
settlers to Lunenburg, in 1753. He had been a lieutenant in 
the Salamiander, and was appointed a captain in the milit^ole 


In 1756, Qovemment authorized the building of a block- 
house at La Have 'River, and another half way between that 
and Mushamush (now Mahone Bay). A private one had been 
erected at the latter place by Ephraim Cooke. Rations were 
granted for such of the Germans as would occupy these build- 

On the 3rd of January, 1757, it was decreed by the Governor 
and Council that until the Province was divided into counties, 
twelve members of Assembly should be elected for the Province 
at large, and ten for the townships, that of Lunenburg to have 
two ; and it was resolved that the last-named township should 
" comprehend all the lands lying between La Have River and 
the easternmost head of Mahone Bay, with all the islands- 
within said bay, and all the islands within Mirliguash Bay, 
and those islands lying to the southward of the above limits." 

Extracts from the Minutes of H. M. Council 
AT Halifax. 

"February 19th, 1757. — Appeared before the Council a num- 
ber of the German inhabitants of Lunenburg, who proposed to 
undertake to cut the intended road from Lunenburg to Halifax, 
and who had marched hither by land in order to view the 
country through which the said road is proposed to be cut. 

" They were informed that they were to make the ix)ad a 
rod wide, and were offered to be paid at the rate of six pounds, 
per mile, which they would by no means accept of, but, on the 
contrary, insisted on so exorbitant a price that no agreement 
could possibly be made with them. 

" Wherefore the Council did advise that the Lieutenant- 
Govei'nor should write to Colonel Sutherland at Lunenburg,, 
and direct him to endeavor to agree with those men, or any 
other of the said Germans, for the cutting of the road at the 
said rate of six pounds per mile, which the Council did esteem 
a very handsome recompense for their labor." 

" May 20th, 1757. — Mr. Peniette appeared before the Council,, 
and undertook the work. The road was to be ten feet wide. 
The Government was to provide a guard for the workmen,. 

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who were also to have their arms with them. The price was 
to be six pounds per mile. The contractor was given an 
advance of fifty pounds, and he was to be paid afterwards as 
each ten miles was cut" 

In 1757, the Lunenburg settlers were compelled to do " much 
militia duty, which, added to a dry and hot season, causing 
scanty crops, left them still dependent on Government for 
provisions." Governor Lawrence commended their industry 
in high terms. 

" A return of the settlers at Lunenburg, with the alterations 
from the 28th of May, 1753, being the time of embarkations to 
the 22nd of January, 1758 : 

Original namber 1,453 

Dead 152 

Discharged 854 

Deserted 19 

Bom 440 

Entered and re-entered 506 

Total number 2,399 

Remaining at Lunenburg 1,374 

(Signed) D. Christopher Jkssen." 

In 1758, the people of Lunenburg were much alarmed by 
the movements of Indians, and requested " aid from Govern- 
ment to put up a block-house between every ten families by 
furnishing them with boards and nails," which request was 
granted on the 22nd of April. 

The industry of the settlers had been much interrupted by 
the Indians, and some of them had been killed, and others 
taken prisoners. 

It was ordered at a meeting of Council on the 20th of May, 
that 50,000 pounds of pork, 14,000 pounds of beef, and 136,000 
pounds of flour, should be purchased for their use, and that 
rations of flour should be furnished until July, 1759. 

On the same day it was resolved that sixteen members of 
Assembly should be elected for the Province at large, with four 
for the township of Halifax, and two for the township of 


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In the same month, Captain Fesch, 3rd Battalion Royals, 
was sent with a detachment to Lunenburg, to relieve Captain 
Sutherland and the troops there. 

Copy, Verbatim et Literatim, of an Old Journal. 

" A Journal book kept gan hounting after the Indians, Septem- 
ber 8th, 1758, under the command of Capt. Christopher 
Jessen and Lieut. Campbell, of the Regular Troops : 

" 1758. Sept. 8th. — This morning a party of twenty-three 
men, regular troops, and one Lieut. Campbell, and one captain- 
lieutenant, four lieutenants, six sergeants, eight corporals and 
sixty-one private men of the militia, being in the whole one 
hundred and four, under the command of the officers, Lieut. 
Campbell, of the regulars, and Capt. D. Christopher Jessen, of 
the militia, went away in the morning at six o'clock to La Have 
block-house, close to the road, and came there at about ten 
o'clock and a half. Cut about four miles from the block-house. 
Close to the road we found two soldiers scalped, and bare naked, 
except one coat lying upon them — they were going to town for 
provisions, and about seven of the clock in the morning they, 
hearing two guns firing off, and this finder poor fellows where 
scalped. From the block-house we stood W. by N. About ten 
miles from the block-house we encamped. Nothing extraor- 
dinary. About five o'clock we found the place where the 
Indians had rested themselves about two hours. 

" 9th. — We steered away from hence N.-E. about five miles, 
then made a halt to breakfast, but in the morning made some 
tracks of the Indians, and the different divisions were ordered 
to be ready to. At ten o'clock we steered E. N.-E., and about 
eleven o'clock we found a place where the Indians had encamped, 
but could discover nothing. A little after five o'clock we came 
to encampment. Nothing extraordinary, except we found the 
place on the La Have River where the Indians got over, and 
the road was to be seen at the other side. 

" 10th. — At six o'clock we went away from our encampment, 
steered E. S.-E., and about eight o'clock we came down to 

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Mush-mush River, eight miles from the block-house, and from 
thence we went down by the river and arrived at eleven o'clock 
At the block-house at Mush-mush, and about two o'clock we 
went to Baker 8 in Oakland, and was rainy weather, but met 
nothing extraordinary. 

'*lltlL — From the 10th in the afternoon to the 11th day, 
rainy weather. Encamped by Baker's till about twelve o'clock, 
when, clearing up, went to Mush-mush, and from thence to 
N.-W. Range block -house, where we got intelligence from 
Pierre Jean, who sent his son last Friday to No. 24 L. B. between 
•eight and ten o'clock, and in coming back he was carried off by 
the Indians, being ten years old. From the block-house we 
stood S.-W. for about three miles, then stood S. S.-E., where we 
•encamped. Nothing extraordinary. 

" 12th. — About eight o'clock went from our encampment and 
steered E. S.-E. about six miles, and from thence stood W. S.-W. 
about five miles, where we encamped between La Have and 
Centre, about five miles from the block-house, . . . for 
^ard before we came to Centre, at the back of N. W. Range, 
we found a ladder of four steps high. Nothing extraordinary. 

" 13th. — From our encampment between or at the back of 
Centre and La Have, and stood through the woods to the La 
Have settlement. Came there about four o'clock. Nothing 

" 14th. — From La Have we marched to the head of Rose Bay 
to old Meyer, and from hence to Old Miller, . . .and 
-encamped behind F. Heyberger s lot, but nothing extraordinary. 

" 15th. — We went away from our encampment about six 
o'clock in the morning, and about twelve o'clock arrived at 
town, in Lunenburg, and dismissed our men, and gave them 
thanks for their good services." 

Among those who went on the above expedition were : Cap- 
tain D. C. Jessen, Lieutenant J. Donig, Captain H. Meixner, 
Daniel Hiltz, Mathias Fener, Mathias Langille, George Boutilier, 
Frederick Emonaud, Michael Morash, Heinrich Ernst, Frederick 
Arenberg, Frederick Rhuland, George Tanner, Henrich Oxner, 

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Leonard Hartlin, Jacob Moser, Andreas Young, and Henry 

The watch, in solid gold case, carried by Captain Jessen on 
the above expedition, is in possession of Mr. James Jessen 
Rudolf. It was made by Thos. Bray, London. Lost for forty 
years, it was found by Mr. John M. Watson and his sister, in 
the house commonly known as " the old barracks." 

December. — Indians still infested and harassed the promising 
settlement of Lunenburg, and Governor Lawrence wi"ote to the 
Lords of Trade, that they " had just destroyed a whole family 
remarkable for their industry, and that in so bloody and bar- 
barous a manner as to terrify and drive three parts of the 
people from their country lots into the town for protection." 

In La Have block -house. May 13th, 1759: 

2 loaded swivels. 3L^ pounds of powder. 1 griudstone. 

20 cartridges. 1 powder horn. 1 bucket. 

10 balls. 3 axes. 1 lamp. 

12 packs of small balls. 1 spade. 1 horn glass. 

258 small balls. 1 pot. 1 spear. 

Bed and blankets. 

" A return of the births and cradles in the different barracks 
at Lunenburg, May 23rd, 1759 : 

In the Fort barracks 13 births, 12 cradles. 

In the block-house 8 ** 3 *' 

In Fort Sutherland block-house 10 ** 1 

In the Royal barracks 33 ** 

In the Parade barracks 20 *' 5 '* 

In the hospital 14 *' 5 

Tt)tal 98 26 " 

On August 17th, 1759, the Province was divided into five 
counties, of which Lunenburg was one, and its boundaries were 
thus defined : " Beginning at a brook at the bottom of Mahone 
Bay, and on the easterly head thereof, and thence to run 
northerly till it meets the lake called Long Lake, and to be 
bounded easterly by the said lake, and north-westerly by the 
County of Annapolis, and King's county, south-westerly by the 

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River Rosignol, and Port Senior, and south-easterly by the sea- 
shore to the first limits, comprising all the islands southward 
of the same." Three townships were afterwards established in 
the county : Lunenburg, Shoreham (now called Chester), and 
New Dublin. 

In a letter from Governor Lawrence to the Lords of Trade, 
dated Halifax, September 20th, 1759, referring to the incur- 
sions of "the Indians and scattered neutrals," he writes: "Your 
lordships ivill perceive from such strokes as these " (taking of 
vessels) "how enterprising these people must be, and how diflS- 
cult the poor settlers at Lunenburg must find it to keep their 
ground and maintain themselves on their farm lots, scattered 
as they are in a circle of little less than forty miles." 

A petition "from German settlers at Lunenburg for a 
minister, German or English, and for an English school-master," 
was received in the House of Assembly, December 27th, 1759. 

Peace was made with the Indians at Halifax, in March, 1760 
(Paul Laurent, chief of La Hfeve, being one of the contracting 
parties), and then began to dawn that happy period when, 
with only occasional interruptions, every man could sit under 
*' his own vine and fig tree," and when, instead of the wild 
whoop of the Indian, his ears became accustomed to sweeter 
sounds — the cheerful voices of his wife and children calling 
him from toil to the rest and quiet of his home. Additional 
acres were cultivated, mills erected, and shallops built to carry 
produce to market. President Belcher, writing to the Board of 
Trade, in December of the same year, states : " I must not omit 
to mention to your lordships that the settlement of Lunenburg 
is in a very thriving condition, and that none are in want there, 
except the sickly and infirm ;" and Andreas Young, in a letter 
to his relatives in Germany, about the same time, informed them 
that provisions were plenty, and that all he and his people 
then wanted was an evangelical Lutheran minister. 

In March, 1760, the following bounties were given in the 
township of Lunenburg : 

Good hay raised on cleared upland — for one year 28. per cwt. 

Hay cut and made within four years Is. ** 

Oats, each bushel raised in two years 2d. ^ ^ 

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" November 20th, 1760. 
" A return of the number of inhabitants, and stock of cattle, 
within the settlement of Lunenburg, in the Province of Nova 
* Scotia, with an account of its progress from the year 1753 to 
the present time : 

Number of men 360 

** " women and children 1,114 

Total 1,464 

Number of cattle — milch cows 600 


" 1753. — Inhabitants employed in building on and enclosing 
their town lots, it being deemed expedient to settle them in a 
compact manner, to prevent any attempt that might be made 
on them by the Indians. 

" 1754. — Employed in cultivating and enclosing their garden 

" 1755. — Employed on their farms, in erecting houses, and 
clearing land. 

" 1756. — Little progress could be made as some of the inhabi- 
tants were killed, and others carried off by the Indians. 

" 1757. — More of the inhabitants were killed and taken 
prisoners, by which many were too much exposed, and others 
apprehensive of danger. The people much discouraged, and in 
great distresa 

"1758. — The settlement much disturbed, many being killed. 
Yet notwithstanding the people exerted themselves, and were 
extremely vigilant of the approach of the enemy, and by 
assembling many families together in stockaded houses, the 
timorous were encouraged to abide on their lands, and much 
grain was raised. 

" 1759. — No disturbance from the Indians, — a prodigious 
quantity of grain was raised, almost equal to their bread, and a 
sufficiency of roots to supply the fleet, the army and the inhabi- 
tants of Halifax. 

" 1760. — A peace being established with the Indians, a vast 
progress is made in agriculture, and a great increase of cattle. 

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by means of which they are in a capacity of subsisting them- 
selves, excepting such as are afflicted with sickness and 
infirmity of age." 

March 11th. 

CJourt of Special Session being opened in the usual form. 
Present, Seb. Zouberbuhler, Leonard Christian Rudolf, Esquires. 
A number of inhabitants having produced certificates of their 
having taken the holy sacrament and desiring to be qualified 
(by taking the oath of allegiance, etc.) they were accordingly 
sworn, as by law, required. 

The court then adjourned to eight o'clock next morning. 

Lunenburg. March 12th, 1761. 

Present, S. Zouberbuhler, Leonard Christian Rudolf, Esquires. 
After the Court having qualified some present that offered 
themselves for that purpose, it was adjourned without day. 

In a letter, dated New York, April, 15th, 1761, Governor 
Amherst thanked President Belcher for the directions he had 
given for the immediate hire of transports to proceed to Lunen- 
burg for receiving the troops of Montgomery's regiment, that 
were posted in that part of the Province. 

On the 6th of June, 1761, fifty pounds was voted to Leonard 
Christopher Rudolf, Esq., for his services as a Magistrate at 

On the 9th of November, 1761, 'a treaty of peace was signed 
with Francis Mius, then chief of the tribe of Indians at La Hfeve. 
In the following year a sloop was ordered to Lunenburg for its 
protection, in consequence of " the insolence of the Indians." 
There is no doubt that the causes of disturbance between the 
Indians and settlers sometimes originated with the latter. In 
this same year we find that thirty La Hhve Indians had 
assembled at Lunenburg, with others from Cape Sable, to meet 
M. Maillard ; and that one of the inhabitants " stole a keg of 
rum out of a canoe," and was ill-used by the Indians in 

Owing to information that the French had landed a body of 
troops at the " Bay of Bulls,*' in Newfoundland, a council-of- 

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war was held at the Governor s house in Halifax, on Saturday, 
July 10th, 1762. The council, fearing " that the enemy might 
make some attempts on this town and harbor," agreed to 
several resolutions, one of which was : 

" That the militia of Halifax be forthwith arrayed ; and that 
Major Sutherland be required to make a detachment of two 
hundred men from the militia of Lunenburg, and to march 
them to Halifax, as soon as possible, or bring them by water 
as shall seem to him most convenient." 

A remonstrance was forwarded from Lunenburg, and on 
account of the insolence of the Indians there, the above order 
was countermanded ; and one sloop being deemed sufficient to 
protect the boom at the North-West Arm, Halifax, the other 
was ordered to Lunenburg, to protect the settlement. 

The following is a copy of an account, endorsed : 

No. 1— First original civil list, June 30th, 1764. 
The Government, Dr. 

To the following persons : 
To Adolph Wiederholt, quarter salary — "j , .,7. , , , 

91 days, at Is 6d per day £6 16 6 | Ad. Wiederholt. 

To Gottlob Newman, quarter salary — ^ 

Shoal master, 91 days, at Is per day 4 11 >G. Newman. 

To ditto, quarter house rent 1 6 0./ 

To Maria Moser, midwife, quarter salary . 3 15 Maria Moser. 

To Maria Tatteray, midwife, quarter salary 150 Maria x Tatteray. 


£17 12 6 

A petition had been sent to Government for the appointment 
of midwives. 

The Lieutenant-Governor, writing to the Lords Commis- 
sioners of Trade and Plantations, April 30th, 1765, refers to 
the Germans as a frugal, laborious, and industrious people, who 
will not only improve and enrich their property, but pertina- 
ciously defend it. 

The following information is given in a general return 
(signed by Michael Franklin, Lieutenant-Governor) of the 
several townships in the Province of Nova Scotia, January 
1st, 1767 : 

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340 Men. 9 Irish. 6 Saw-mills. 

416 Boys. 25 Americans. 6 Fishing boats. 

1 Negro man. 1417 Germans and other 6 Schooners & sloops. 

294 Women. foreigners. 158 Bushels wheat 

416 Girls. 44 Horses. 3486 Bushels rye. 

1 Negro woman. 218 Oxen and bulls. 683 Bushels pease. 

1468 Persons in the 610 Cows. 5315 Bushels barley. 

township. 527 Young neat cattle. 2990 Bushels oats. 

1464 Protestants: 224 Sheep. 86 Bushels flax seed. 

4 Roman Catholics. 16 Goats. 3 Hundreds hemp. 

13 English. 443 Swine. 23 Hundreds Flax. 

4 Scotch. 3 Grist-mills. 400,000 Feet boards. 

Alteration of inhabitants since last year : 

Bom Males, 33 Females, 37 Total, 70 

Died n 2 n 3 .. 5 

Arrived n 2 u 2 n 4 

Left the Province , None 

The following letter, besides its local interest, is of value as 
affording an example of the delay consequent upon doing busi- 
ness through the authorities in England, and of the desire 
there was, even in those early days, to get hold of, and keep 
tied up, immense tracts of Crown land. 

Letter of Oovemor Francis Legge to tfte Earl of Dartmouth, 
Secretary of State : 

" Halifax, Sept. 28th, 1774. 

" My Ix)RD, — His Majesty's order-in-council to the Governor 
of this province, for granting 5,000 acres of land to Mr. Sebas- 
tian Zouberbuhler, has been lately presented to me. It is 
dated the 17th of February, 1766, and had not been presented 
to the late Governor. 

"Mr. Zouberbuhler died a year and a half ago, and left all 
his estate, i-eal and personal, to his daughter. She died within 
these few months, and by will left her possessions to Mr. 
Franklin and Mr. Pemette, who were appointed by Mr. Zouber- 
buhler his executors, and who, finding this order among the 
papers of the deceased, have applied that they may be intituled 
to the benefit. No mention is made in the will of this order. 

" I beg leave to observe to your Lordship that the late Mr. 

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Zouberbuhler obtained a grant of 20,000 acres the year before 
this mandamus, in 1765, with the rest of the Council, and then 
memorialized the Board of Trade for a confirmation, with other 
members of the Council. Their obtaining these grants was 
disapproved of, but they were allowed to take up 5,000 each, 
on mandamus, which each of the councillors received : where- 
upon Mr. Belcher and Mr. Morris reconveyed their 20,000 acres 
back to the Crown, and have taken their 5,000 acres agreeable 
to their mandamus. But Mr. Zouberbuhler, in his lifetime, 
conveyed his 20,000 acres to James Boutineau Franklin, as it 
stands on record, which I suppose is the true reason for his not 
applying for this in his lifetime." 

Some of the property referred to in the foregoing letter is 
included in a very lengthy " inventory of the late Catherine 
Barbara Zouberbuhler's effects, found November 5th, 1778,*' 
and of which the following forms part. It is interesting as 
showing old-time prices, and the use of articles not in much 
demand at the present day. 

Money — 

In a canvas bag, silver £1 19 4^ 

In a green purse in said bag, gold 16 12 10 

In another green purse, among her trinkets, gold 410 

£23 2 2i 
Platb-^ oz. dwt. gr. 

Silver coffee pot 42 14 16 7 4 

Handle 26 

2 silver pint cans 

2 silver half -pint cans 42 7 15 4 6 

2 silver salvers 14 3 5 5 10 

1 silver punch ladle 2 4 18 14 4 

1 silver soup ladle 6 4 115 8 

Fashon 16 6 

1 silver soup spoon 7 10 2 50 

F. 8 18 18 12 5 13 6 

12 silver table spoons, P. 4 9 10 12 2 17 1 

12 silver table spoons, new fashion, F. 8 18 11 6 9 10 

P 4 19 16 3 8 7 

12 silver tea spoons, F. 8 3 3 ,12 19 

1 pair silver tea tongs, P. 4 2 14 16 2 

177 9 13 £62 14 10 

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Jewels and Trinkets — 

1 diamond ring in a case, left by will to Mrs. Franklin. 

1 gold watch, with a steel chain and white stone seal £25 

1 pair women's stone buckles 1 

1 pair men*8 knee buckles 2 6 

1 pair men's silver shoe buckles 10 

1 pair women's silver shoe buckles 8 

2 pairs black mourning shoe buckles, Is., and 6d 1 6 

1 yellow knee buckle 1 

2 stone brooches: gold, 208.; silver, 4b 1 4 

1 pearl Marcasite hair-pin, in a case 10 

1 garnet hair-pin 5 

1 white stone hair-pin 2 6 

1 pair white paste negligee ear-rings 10 

Others in black drop, white stone, garnet, and white French bead. 

Necklaces in white stone, mock garnet, white French bead, and black 


1 paper snuff-box. 

2 china snuff-boxes. 

1 Cornelian seal of arms. 

1 Indian bark box for dressing table, with nine inside boxes. 

Indian looking-glass, etc. 

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Councillor Oreighton — Bulkeley's Letter and Orders — Leave Asked to dig 
Coal in Cape Breton — First Court-house— Block-houses — Captures — 
Impressment — Invasion of Lunenburg — Grant of Township — Militia 
Officers named in German Almanac — Lieutenant Rudolf's Letter to 
Queen Victoria's father — Capture of Vessels — Amended County Line. 

ON the 6th of May, 1775, John Creighton, Esq., was sworn 
in as a member of Council, under the king's mandamus, 
having been strongly recommended by Governor Legge, and 
subsequently John Newton, Esq., took the seat which had 
become vacant in the Assembly. 

Light Infantry companies of two hundred men were directed 
in this year to be formed at Lunenburg. Hon. Mr. Goold was 
colonel of the militia there. He offered to take command in a 
mission to Argyle, to settle differences, and received the thanks 
of the Council. 

(Circular.) " Secretary's Office, 

" Halifax, July 6th, 1775. 
** Gentleman, — I am to inform you that, in consequence of the 
rebellion now in New England, the Governor requires that you 
will be watchful and attentive to the behavior of the people in 
your county ; and that you will apprehend any person or per- 
sons who shall be guilty of any opposition to the king's 
authority and government, and send them properly guarded to 
Halifax. " I am. Gentlemen, 

" Your most humble servant, 

"Richard Bulkeley. 
'* The Justices of the Peace for 

the County of Lunenburg." 

In August two hundred Light Infantry were ordered to be 
in readiness at Lunenburg, to march to Halifax, and in Sep- 
tember four companies, forming at Lunenburg, were ordered to 

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march immediately to town (probably to Halifax). Another 
record states : " Four hundred militia from Lunenburg, ordered 
to march for protection of Halifax." 

In October, the Council and House of Assembly were peti- 
tioned that people of Llmenburg might be allowed to dig coal 
in Cape Breton. 

The first court- house was built in this year. 

In 1776, seventy men at Lunenburg volunteered to serve 
under Colonel Creighton, on a rumored invasion of the Province.. 

In June, 1779, the House of Assembly complained to the 
Governor that money had been paid without Act or vote of 
Parliament, and that it included hire of crew for schooner 
Loyal Nova Scotia to convoy Lunenburg vessels. 

In the same month Colonel Creighton s request for block- 
house and guard, at Lunenburg, was sent by the Governor to 
the House of Assembly, and £50 was voted " out of the money 
to be borrowed for the defence of the sea coast," towards. 
building the block-house. 

It was ordered in 1780 that Lunenburg, and nine other 
districts, should furnish one-sixth part of their militia for three 
weeks' service on the public works at Halifax. 


In 1780, the American brig SaUy, from the French West 
Indies, bound to New England, laden with rum, sugar and 
molasses, -came to anchor near Lunenburg harbor on the night 
of the 24th February. In the morning a boat went from the 
vessel to the shore, the crew of which were secured at a farm- 
house. As the boat did not return a gun was fired from the 
brig, and the American flag hoisted. She was attacked by two- 
boats from the town, with twenty-one (officers and men) of the 
militia, who quickly made her their prize. 

In 1781, several persons belonging to Lunenburg were pressed,. 
at Halifax, into the Royal Navy. Their hands were '* tied 
behind their backs ; they were carried through the streets like 
malefactors, lodged in guard-houses, and carried prisoners on 
board ships of war." The Court of Quarter Sessions was then 

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sitting, and the Grand Jury, on the 8th of January, made a 
presentment, in which they stated how largely the town had 
been supplied with the necessaries of life by Lunenburg and 
Chester, and expressed their wish for some more satisfactory 
mode of impressment. The gentlemen of whom the jury was 
composed, were: William Meany, William Graham, Robert 
Killo, Peter McNab, John Boyd, William Mott, William MiDett, 
jun., John Moore, William Carter, James Creighton, John 
Creighton, John Cleary, Richard Jacobs, and Charles Hill. On 
the 15th the justices in session concurred, requesting the 
Governor s interference ; and on the 22nd Sir R. Hughes issued 
his proclamation, declaring that " impressing men for the king's 
service, without the permission of the civil authority, is con- 
trary to, and an outrageous breach of, civil law," and calling 
upon all magistrates and other public officers " to resist all such 
attempts and bring offenders to justice." 

On the 15th of March, 1782, a privateer sloop of six guns 
from Boston (Captain Potter) took the schooner Two Sisters off 
Green Island, and released her for £80 in money, 10 bushels 
of potatoes, 20 pounds weight of butter, and two barrels of flour. 

Invasion of Lunenburg. 

On the 30th day of June, 1782, Captain Weiderholt, who had 
just arrived at Lunenburg from Halifax, warned Leonard 
Schwartz and others, of the probable arrival of an enemy, and 
said: "The Yankees are coming to-morrow." Mr. Schwartz 
lived on what was afterwards called Myra*s Island, a little over 
a mile from the town, and connected at low water with the 
mainland. Magdalena Schwartz, Leonard's wife, went out early 
to milk the cow. Hearing a noise, she looked up, and seeing 
the invaders, who had landed at the " Blue rocks," coming over 
the hill, she dropped the milk-pail and ran into the house with 
the alarming news. Mr. Schwartz started for Lunenburg, and, 
though fired at while passing Rous' brook, managed to reach 
town safely. The following is a copy of the statement sent to 
the Government at Halifax, by Leonard C. Rudolf, Esq. : 

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" Minuies of the Invasion and Surprise of ttie Town of Lunen- 
burg, on Monday, July 1st, 1782. 

"At the rising of the sun the town was alarmed by the firing 
of a number of small guns near the block-house and Mr. 
Creighton's. The case was, that Mr. Creighton's servant, having 
perceived a large company of armed men coming on the road 
from the commons, had acquainted his master thereof. The 
night guard being already gone off, Colonel Creighton, with 
only five men, got into the block-house, and at the approach of 
the enemy they fired at and wounded three men of the enemy. 

" The rebels directly divided in several parties, two of which 
ran to our two batteries, spiked the guns, broke everything, 
turned the guns and balls down to the water. Some i*emained 
at Mr. Creighton's, spoilt and burned his house and effects. 
They took himself with the five men ; and their vessels being 
now come round to the Point, they carried the colonel, with the 
others, prisoners on board their vessels. In the meantime other 
parties had oveiTun all the town, entered every house, seized 
all arms, which they either beat to pieces or kept, particularly 
the silver-hilted swords and regimentals, to themselves. When 
their vessels were in, which were in all six, viz., one brigantine, 
a large schooner, a row galley, a sloop and two small schooners, 
they landed more men with some small carriage guns, which 
they carried up and placed near the old fort, with a main 
guard to secure themselves against our countrypeople that 
might come in that way. Now they fell a-plundering the chief 
houses and the shops, which they cleared. The sufferers are 
chiefly : Mr. Creighton, his house robbed and burnt ; Mr. 
Creighton, the store on the wharf cleared ; Mr. Foster's store ; 
Mr. Jessen's house spoiled and robbed; Knaut's heirs* stores 
robbed; Mr. Bohlman's store robbed; Mr. Woolenhaupts stores; 
Mr. Donig's shop ; John Christopher Rudolf's shop ; Mr. 
Munich's and several other small shops. 

" These are to my certain knowledge, but there are many 
more robberies and damage done whereof I am not yet informed. 
I am not able to value the whole loss, but think it will nearly 

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amount to " (The sum is not named in the paper kept by 

Mr. Rudolf, but Haliburton states it to have been £12,000.) 

" For town we are at present almost without arms, ammuni- 
tion, provision and merchandise; besides, I hear they have 
carried off from some houses money — gold and silver. 

" The surprise was so sudden that we had no alarm, except 
by the report of the firing at the block-house. - 

" When I saw that Colonel Creighton was carried off, I ven- 
tured to expose myself by going from house to house to see 
matters, and if anything could be done. I was also with Mr. 
De La Roche, to beg his advice, who afterwards ventured, with 
some principal inhabitants, to go on the vessel to try what he 
could do for Mr. Creighton, but without success." 

Murdoch thus refers to the enemy: 

" On Monday, July Ist, 1782, they landed a force of ninety 
men (stated in one account to have been commanded by Captain 
Badcock, and in another to have been under Lieutenant George 
Bateman) at a place called Redhead, aboyt two miles from 
the town of Lunenburg. . . . They landed some ship guns, 
and put them in position in the streets. They then plundered 
the little town of all they deemed worth taking, and threatened 
to bum it all down unless it were ransomed. Some of the 
townspeople, to avoid this, gave them a document for ransom 
of £1,000. Colonels Rudolf and Jessen exerted themselves to 
defend the place, but the men were, if all there, insufficient; 
and had chiefly left the town. . . . They also stripped the 
town of all kinds of provisions. There were in it, of regulars, 
a corporal and six soldiers. Of these they took the corporal 
and four men. Two had concealed themselves, and so escaped 
capture. They burned Mr. Creighton*s house and a block-house^ 
and sailed out of Lunenburg harbor on the same day, July Ist, 
five o clock p.m. The town of Lunenburg, at this time, con- 
sisted of about forty or fifty dwelling-houses. The male popu- 
lation of men and lads — say, males from sixteen to sixty — were 
about sixty in number. Of these about twenty were constantly 
absent, trading to Halifax. Twenty more were useless for 
militaiy purposes, including the three clergymen, clerks, school- 

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masters, the old, sick and lame, so that, according to a letter 
officially written at the time, the effective militia force of the 
town, officers and men, on the morning of the surprise, did not 
amount to twenty, and their officers, several of whom, as they 
came out of their houses singly, were disarmed by the enemy/' 

The inhabitants were in great consternation. While some 
were resorting to measures of defence, others were fleeing from 
before the enemy; and several were trying to make a safe 
deposit of their money and valuable goods. Colonel Creighton, 
Mathew Ernst, Ferdinand Miller, Frederick Blysteiner, and two 
others went into the block-house, to defend the same. 

A message was sent to Major Joseph Pemette, La Have 
Ferry, who reached town in the evening with ninety or one 
hundred men ; but owing to the lateness of the intelligence and 
bad roads, he was not in time to afford relief. Had he arrived 
a little earlier, there is no doubt he and his brave companions 
would have made the escape of the enemy rather a difficult 

Mr. Pemette wrote the following letter to Mr. Franklin at 
Halifax : 

•' La Have, July 3rd, 1782. 

" Dear Sir, — I have the mortification to acquaint you with 
a melancholy affair that has happened at Lunenburg, the 
circumstances of which are as follows : 

"Last Monday morning, about half an hour after sunrise, 
about ninety men who had been landed in the night by six 
rebel privateers at an uninhabited, woody place called the Red 
Heads came suddenly upon the town and surprised it. Colonel 
Creighton, whose house they wanted to surround first, made 
his escape, and with three men that remained of the guard (the 
rest having, unfortuixately, left it at sunrise), shut himself up 
in the block-house, which he defended for some time, I suppose, 
in expectation that the country militia would assemble and 
come to the relief of the place, but the privateers who by this 
time had got into the harbor and landed more men — a strong 
detachment of them — with four field -pieces, took possession of 
the Block-house hill, which commands the whole neck of land 
that leads from the country to the town, so that the communi- 
cation with the country being cut off, and the militia in town 
taken and disarmed, he was obliged to surrender. All this 

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having been effected without firing a single cannon, the people 
who lived at a distance from the town were not alarmed, 
and knew nothing of what had happened till it was handed 
from one neighbor to the other, and it was near twelve o'clock 
before the news of the disaster reached me. As soon as I heard 
of it I went down in a boat to the five houses, where I ordered 
the guns (say, two 12-pounders) to be fired, in order to alarm 
the militia in this harbor, and as soon as I had assembled 
twenty men, I marched with them, leaving orders for the rest 
to follow as fast as possible ; and as I had in my way to the 
five houses received a message from Major Jessen, acquainting 
me that he had early in the morning escaped from the enemy 
just as they were breaking open his house, that he had since 
assembled a number of the country militia, and posted himself 
on a hill at the back of the town, I directed my march thither; 
but notwithstanding I made all possible despatch, it was past 
four o'clock before I could join him. Immediately on my 
arrival, I consulted with Major Jessen and some other officers 
in order to form a plan for the relief of the town ; but whilst 
we were deliberating a message came out from our friends, 
acquainting us that the commander of the privateers had not 
only demanded a ransom for preserving the town, but had 
threatened that in case the militia made the least motion 
against them they would immediately set fire to it and burn 
every house in the place, that to prevent such a calamity they 
had actually begun a treaty with them, and begged that the 
militia would not, by an untimely attempt, prevent the negotia- 
tion; and immediately after another message came out to 
acquaint us that the inhabitants had agreed to pay a thousand 
pounds for the ransom of the town, and at the same time we 
saw the privateers under sail, going out, deeply loaded with 
plunder, they having before their departure nailed up the guns, 
taken away all the powder and burned the old block-house 
upon the hill. Indeed they have swept the town pretty well ; 
all the shops, which were full of spring goods, are now empty, 
and few private houses escaped being plundered either of 
furniture, clothes or money, and amongst the last our friend 
Mr. Jessen has been a very great sufferer. They took away 
the greatest part of his best furniture, his plate and all his 
clothes, except what he had on his back, besides a good deal of 
his own and the public money. They were more severe upon 
him than anybody else, because he fired at them and defended 
his house till they had almost broke in upon him, and was 
obliged to make his escape through a back door. They broke 

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most all his windows by the shots which they fired and by 
endeavoring to get into the house, and he thinks the loss he 
has sustained will amount to near seven hundred pounds. In 
short, this has been a heavy blow, which falls all upon the 
inhabitants of the town : as to the countrypeople, they have 
lost nothing. I have not yet been able to learn what the whole 
loss will amount to ; but from the different reports I think the 
amount of the plunder which privateers have carried off cannot 
be less than £8,000. By what I could learn, this armament — 
consisting of three schooners, one brig, one small sloop and a 
small row galley (the largest of the six being a topsail schooner 
of fourteen guns, some say sixteen) — was fitted out in Boston, 
on purpose to come and plunder Lunenburg. Before I conclude 
I must not forget to tell you the privateers have carried off' 
Colonel Creighton, and two of the militia-men that were found 
in the block-house with him, and also that a lieutenant and four 
of the privateer s men were wounded. Two of the five were 
wounded by our militia whilst they and some more were 
attempting to plunder a house on the common, near the town, 
which prevented them going further. 

" Being uncertain whether this will find you in Halifax, I 
have sent it open to Mr. Dight, for his perusal, desiring him to 
forward it by the first opportunity. Please to communicate 
this to Dr. Head, and tell him not to be uneasy about us, for 
we are all well and suffered no damage — ^that I had not time to 
write him by this opportunity, but shall do it by the next. 
Mine and Mrs. Pemette s respectful compliments wait on you, 
Mrs. Franklin and the young ladies. 
" Believe me to be, dear sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

"Joseph Pernette." 

Sylvia, a colored servant of Colonel Creighton, carried cart- 
ridges in her apron from the house to the fort. She must have 
been busily employed, for she was part of the time engaged in 
protecting the Colonel's son. When the house was fired at, 
she covered him with her body. A number of valuable coins 
and a quantity of plate were put in a bag, which Sylvia placed 
in the well, and which was taken out when the enemy had 

. Mr. Bom was urged by his daughters, through pardonable 
fear, to deliver up his money, and it is said they were about 

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doing it for him, when he called out, " Don't give it up for 
your lives/' and it was safely deposited in the garden. The 
house once occupied by Mr. Lewis Hirtle, as a hotel, was then 
the residence of D. C. Jessen, Esq.; and musket-balls were fired 
in the rear of it, making two holes in the partition boards, 
inside of the back door, one of which was seen by the writer. 

Two men, of whom it is said George Boehner was one, started 
from the back harbor, in an open boat, on the morning of the 
enemy's arival, reaching Halifax in the evening, and the next 
day a ship of war was off Lunenburg; but the privateeni 
had disappeared. On the latter leaving Lunenburg, Christian 
Wambolt ajid others were forced to pilot them out of the 

The House of Assembly, on November 22nd, 1783, voted 
" that there be paid to John Creighton, Esquire, Colonel of 
Militia, for the County of Lunenburg, for himself, a non-com- 
missioned officer, and one private (who were made prisoners at 
Lunenburg and carried to New England, and who were after- 
wards set free), the sum of £106 19s. out of the arrears of 
the land tax due from the counties of Lunenburg, and Queen's 
county, when the same shall be paid into the treasury." 

A gentleman who, in Boston, met Captain Stoddart, formerly 
of the Scammell, the leader of the privateer fleet already 
mentioned, stated, on his return, to Halifax, that he had 
inquired particularly about the family of Colonel Creighton, 
and said that he had a " great regard for the old gentleman." 
Captain Stoddart, in the same year that he attacked Lunen- 
burg, assisted in taking ofl^ the crew of H.M.S. Blonde^ lost on 
the rocks ofl* Seal Island. 

After the departure of the invading force above named> the 
privateers continued to visit the coast and annoy the inhabi- 
tant's ; and Captain Bethell arrived at Lunenbui^ in the same 
year, with a detachment of troops, who took up their quarters 
in the windmill battery. Several armed vessels were also sent 
by Governor Hammond, for which he received the thanks of 
the Council, Assembly, and principal inhabitants of Lunenburg. 

Peace having been made between England and America, the 

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inhabitants of Lunenburg were relieved of their anxiety. A 
marked advancement was made in material prosperity, and in 
1791 there were in the township of Lunenburg " 388 families, 
numbering 2,213 persons," many having removed to other 

It is recorded that a grant of the township of Lunenburg 
was agreed to August 18th, 1761. On June 30th, 1784, one 
was passed as follows: 

To aU to wlumi these presentn fihaU come. 

Greeting. — Whereas the settlement of the township of 
Lunenburg commenced in the year one thousand seven hundred 
and fifty-three, and was carried on progressively by laying out 
and locating plantations to the inhabitants as they advanced in 
cultivation and improvement, until the location of the whole 
was completed in the year one thousand seven hundred and 
sixty-five, at which time a grant of the said township, for and 
in behalf of the said inhabitants, passed the seal of this pro- 
vince, which grant from various causes was not accepted nor 
taken out of the office of the Secretary of this province. And 
WHEREAS, many of the said inhabitants do now pray that the 
lands so laid out and assigned to them heretofore may be 
granted to them in due form and the possession thereof con- 
firmed to them. Know ye therefore that I, John Parr, Esquire, 
Captain-General, Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and 
over His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia and its depen- 
dencies. Vice- Admiral of the same, etc., etc., etc., by virtue of 
the power and authority to me given by His present Majesty 
King George the Third, under the Great Seal of Great Britain, 
have given, granted and confirmed, and do by these presents, 
by and with the advice and consent of His Majesty's Council for 
the said province, give, grant and confirm unto 


John Creighton, Esquire 800 

L. Christopher Rudolf, Esquire 540 
D. Christopher Rudolf, Esquire 300 

Joseph Pemette, Esquire 810 

J. Christopher Rudolf 30 


Casper Wollenhaupt 930 

John Bollman 420 

John Donig 50 

Philip Herman, sen 714 

John Becker 375 

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John Deaupbinee, sen 180 

Andrew Jung 1307 

Just Shup 360 

Henry Ernst 334 

Babitt Bachman 405 

John Bachman 100 

Michael Morash 330 

Philip Winter, sen 360 

Jacob Heid 300 

James Vienot 1020 

Philip Scweinheimer 330 

Jacob Hirtle. sen 1530 

Peter Low 450 

Adam Acker 57 

George Bohner, sen 160 

Mathias Fihner 390 

John Rufus, sen 390 

Christopher Veinot 660 

Frederick Lery 120 

Valentine Whitman 430 

Philip Heniricii 720 

Philip Schmeldzer, sen 454 

Frederick Emounot, sen 360 

Peter Wambolt, sen 330 

George Frank, sen 330 

John Gerhart 360 

Casper Zinck, sen 750 

Nicolaus Glassen 100 

Christian Fehr ;i30 

George Tanner 70 

John Berringer 495 

Gotlib Berringer 495 

Henry Wagener 700 

John Eisenhauer 520 

Christian Greflf 320 

Ulerick Bohliver 130 

Christian Eicherd, sen 30 

George Frederick Bailly 300 

Henry Meichszner 500 

Wendel Wust 1025 

Ulerick Hablich 125 

John Vogely 42 

Frederick Weil 360 


Henry Becker 300 

George Bom 200 

George Arenbei'g 690 

George Philip Brothenhauer . . 630 

Michael Lohnes 410 

John Henry Fehder 518 

James Leangille 300 

Joseph Contoy 360 

Philip Triffian 150 

Leopold Leangille 660 

Jacob Rufus 260 

Assimus Dhill 345 

Peter Schner 80 

Ludewick Schner 45 

Peter Masson 95 

Jacob Mosser 420 

John Richard Halter 194 

George Mosser 75 

Peter Klattenberger, sen 75 

George Eisenhauer 145 

Mathias Ernst 30 

John Mehder 349 

Casper Meisner, jim 535 

John Hildtz 30 

Henry Mosser 62 

Samuel Mosser 249 

Conrad Knochell 330 

George Knockell 30 

Chiistopher Nasz 735 

Jacob Schller 330 

Jacob Colp 30 

Frederick Bufus ! 30 

Lorendz Conrad 795 

George Michael Schmit 50 

John Jodery 130 

Nicolaus Berghaus 60 

Alexander Lai 495 

John James Bissansa 445 

Alexander Kedy 737 

William Kedy 1608 

Conrad Krass 345 

Francis Thimon 630 

Frederick Rhuland 318 

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Frederick Beantillier 90 

George Beautdllier, jun 120 

Unto the heirs of Creorge 

Beautillier 735 

George Meirer 170 

George Koch 2 

Frederick Rigolow MiUer .... 330 

The heirs of Martin Eaulbach. 778 

John Smith 330 

Uryanus Bender 34 

JohnDhiel 360 

Valentine Dhiel 3S0 

Jacob Westheffer 380 

Gotlib Hamish 615 

Jacob Bolback 30 

Charles Bolwer 460 

John Meisner 660 

Christopher Lohnes 410 

John Bargett, sen 360 

Casper Jung 30 

Frederick Finck 338 

Ktien Harriet 480 

Nicolaus Wolf 675 

NicolauB Reinhart 330 

John Michael Smith 168 

Henry Oxner 59 

Conrad Ramge 177 

John Dheibert 30 

AdamBuhler 330 

George Conrad 1065 

Thomas Reicherd 390 

Philip Peter Dhiel 255 

Peter Joseph Wolf 210 

George Wolf 180 

George Himelman 510 

Jacob Kraus 360 

Peter Arenburg 366 

Albrecht Mausser 210 

JohnMorash 322 

Peter Kaulback 45 

Geoige Casper Brickbouer 300 

Henry Waner 30 

Leonard Jung 155 


Casper Hickman, sen 300 

John George Deithoff 360 

George Deithoff 5 

Conrad Deithoff 5 

Henry Koch 2000 

Christian Bom 264 

Nicolaus Bust 20 

Thomas Pinnel 30 

Jeanhurben Jeanperin 330 

George Walter 14 

Henry Lohnes 66 

Christopher Rust 300 

Unto the heirs of Jacob Bom . 214 

Bernard Mehder 65 

Frederick Jodrey 320 

Marcus Leslie 390 

Christian Ernst .' 410 

Peter Ernst 30 

Michael Peck 135 

Philip Heison 675 

Frederick Hann 30 

Jacob Moser 373 

John Risser 360 

Leonard Neufahrt 390 

The heirs of Baltaszer Weinacht 270 

Henry Wagener, sen 120 

Nicholas Hamm 806 

Jacob Schenekel 187. 

John Brum 172 

The heirs of Valentine Musler 330 

Melcher Zwicker 60 

Henry Landz 190 

David Burgoyne 173 

MarkBurgoyne 360 

Nicolaus Eisenhauer 410 

Melcher Brum 330 

Peter Gorckum 330 

Mary Barbara Metier 67 

John Landz 130 

Unto the heirs of Daniel Hildz 460 

John Andreas 30 

Conrad Wentzel 655 

James Darey 275 

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Peter Leangille 110 

Deodores Nau 60 

Jacob Speidel 170 

George Zwicker 264 

James Sertie 90 

George Sharp 75 

Lorendz Wentzel 225 

Martin Minich 60 

Peter Zwicker, sen 3^ 

The heirs of Adam Wambolt . . 330 

Frederick Lott 366 

John Wynacht 140 

John Arenburg 90 

Frederick Rigolow 165 

Leonard Arenburg 90 

George Bimby 15 

Urvanus Heiner 415 

Peter Zwicker, jun 1140 


Adam Hebb 380 

The heirs of Philip Jacob 

Heisler 360 

Michael Keizzer 110 

Michael Zeller 60 

John Lohnes, jun 60 

The heirs of George Evalts . . 325 

Cornwallis Morreau 30 

Nicholaus Conrad 724 

John Matthew Blystner 480 

Richard Jacobs 300 

Henry Kitohn 330 

The heirs of Frederick Otts .. 315 

John Seburger 110 

Jacob Getz 80 

Ludewick Spindler 60 

Martin Wagner 330 

And unto Jonathan Benny, Esq. 345 

Containing in the whole of said allotments and parcels of land 
seventy-one thousand four hundred and six acres. Situate, 
lying and being within the County of Lunenburg and compre- 
hended within the limits hereinafter described, to wit : 

Beginning on the western side of the River La Have, at the 
first falls, and at the upper bound of land granted Joseph 
Pemette, Esq. Thence to run noith thirty-three degrees forty- 
five minutes west by the magnet, one hundred and twenty 
chains (of four rods each). Thence south fifty-six degrees west, 
four hundred and eighty chains. Thence north thirty-four 
degrees west, eight hundred chains. Thence north fifty-six 
degrees east, fourteen hundred and forty chains, or until a 
line produced south, thirty-three degrees forty-five minutes east, 
will come to the centre of the first falls on Salmon River, being 
the old bounds between Lunenburg and Chaster, thence to be 
bounded by said line, and by said river, down stream and by 
the seashore of Mahone Bay running westward and southward 
round to La Have River aforesaid, and the several courses of 
the said river up stream to the bounds first mentioned, con- 
taining in the whole district by estimation one hundred and 
eighty thousand acres more or less. 

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A reservation was made of mines of gold and silver, lead, 
copper and coals, and the land was subjected to a yearly quit 
rent of one farthing per acre. The grantees were bound by 
the terms of the grant, " to clear and work within three years 
from its date, three acres for every fifty granted, in whatever 
part of the land they may deem most advantageous ; or clear 
and drain three acres of swampy or sunken ground ; or drain 
three acres of marsh, if any such should be within the bounds 
of the grant ; or put and keep on the said lands within three 
years from the same date, three neat cattle, to be continued 
thereon until three acres for every fifty be fully cleared and 
improved. But if no part of said tract be fit for present 
cultivation, without manuring or improving the same, then 
the said grantees, their heirs and assigns, shall within three 
years from date, erect on some part of their said lands one 
dwelling-house, to contain twenty feet in length by sixteen in 
breadth, and to put on said land three neat cattle for every 
fifty acres, or if said grantees shall within three years after the 
passing of this grant begin to employ thereon, and so to 
continue to work for three years then next ensuing, in digging 
any stone quarry or other mine, one good and able hand for 
every one hundred acres of such tract, it shall be accounted 
a sufficient seating and improvement ; and every three acres 
which shall be cleared and worked as aforesaid, and every 
three acres which shall be cleared and drained as aforesaid, 
shall be accounted a sufficient planting, cultivation and improve- 
ment, to save forever from forfeiture, fifty acres of land in any 
part of the said tract hereby granted." Proof of these im- 
provements was to be allowed in any court of the county, 
district or precinct. The grant was signed by John Parr, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief ; countei-signed by Richard 
Bulkeley, Secretary; registered by A. Gould, Registrar, and 
entered by W. A. Shipton, Deputy Auditor. 

The following is an extract from a volume, entitled " The 
Present State of Nova Scotia," printed for William Creech and 
T. Longman, London, 1786 ; dedicated to " The Right Honorable 
John, Lord Sheffield," and republished in several numbers of the 
Halifax Morning Chronicle, in 1884 : r^ T 

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" Lunenburgh is a fine town and respectable colony, founded 
by some Germans in the year 1753. It is 70 miles north- 
east from Shelburn, and 36 south-west from Halifax, which 
place it supplies with cordwood for fuel, having a great 
number of small vessels employed in that and the cod fisheries. 
It also sends some lumber to the West Indies, and no place in 
the peninsula, notwithstanding the unpromising appearance of 
the lands at their first settlement, is in so prospeix)us a way, 
excepting the two places above mentioned (Port Matoon, or 
Gambler Harbor, and Liverpool). Industry and perseverance 
have rendered it highly flourishing, while the primitive sim- 
plicity of manners, which remain uncorrupted to the present 
time, have very much endeared them to all their neighbors. 
The lands about Lunenburgh are greatly improved, and their 
population, which was at first about three thousand persons, 
may be estimated at nearly three times that number at present. 

" Le Have is a settlement that ought to have been mentioned 
before Lunenburgh. It had a number of inhabitants upon its 
river in detached situations some time before the war, who have 
been greatly increased, and whose settlements appear to be well 
adapted for carrying on a trade with the British West Indies 
for fish and lumber." 

In 1793, the people of Lunenburg, hearing of an apprehended 
attack on the Province, by the French fleet, applied for cannon, 
small arms and ammunition. 

The following names of officers of Lunenburg militia are 
taken from a German almanac, the title page of which, 
translated, is : 


For the year after the Holvatum bringing birth of (nir Lord Jestu Chrint^ 


Which is a common year of 365 days, etc., etc., etc. 


Published and sold by Anthon Hekrich, in Sackville Street 

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Lieutenant' Cdoiiel 

John Creighton. 
Joseph Pernette 

Jonathan Prescott 
John Donig. 
Wendel We«t. 
Comwallis Moreau. 

George Koch. 
Henry Vogeler. 
Johan Arenberg. 
Christopher Bom. 
Johan Pernette. 
Benj. Knaut. 

Johan Wooden. 
Charles Creighton. 
ThomaA Akins. 


Gasper Wollenhaupt. 
Francis Rudolph. 
Thomas Pinnele. 
John Prescott 
John Christ. Rudolph. 


L. M 


Wilhelm Mervin. 
Mathias Eamst. 
Johan Henry Jacob. 
Antony Thickpenny. 
Nicholas Reinhard. 

Philip Rudolf. 

Johan N. Oxner. 

Franc Rudolph, Adjutant, 

A letter from Lieutenant Charles Rudolf, to Queen Victoria's 
father, may be of interest: 

" Halifax, February 28th, 1799. 

" May it please your Royal Highness. — I embrace the earliest 
opportunity to express my grateful and most respectful regard, 
and most humbly congratulate your Royal Highness on your 
safe arrival in your native country, and your happy reception 
by His Majesty and the Royal family must have been a 
peculiar satisfaction to your Royal Highness, better to be felt 
than my pen could describe. 

" 'Tis a singular regret to me in particular, as well as to 
every loyal subject within this Province, that your Royal 
Highness will not return to this countiy, which is most sensibly 
felt by all ranks and well-wishers of this colony. Neverthe- 
less, though at a distance from us, I have confidence in your 
Royal Highness' benevolent and princely philanthropy, so 
conspicuous in your Royal breast, especially to those officers 
who have met your Royal Highness' approbation when punctual 
in discharging their duty (in which number I humbly hope 
your Royal Highness has been graciously pleased to arrange 
me), and in the assurance given my worthy uncle. Colonel 
Jessen, of Lunenburg, when he had the honor to pay his 

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dutiful respects to your Royal Highness at the Lod^e, whose 
exertions have been indefatigable in promoting the welfare and 

f)rosperity of its inhabitants since the year 1753, to bring those 
oreigners to the knowledge of the English laws and institu- 
tions» both in and out of the Courts of Justice, and he is 
looked upon as a father by them, and in all cases they flock to 
him for advice, and otherwise. Indeed, he has been a mere 
slave, and he never had a salary from Government all the time. 
He says he is sure to receive a reward hereafter, where every 
good deed will be amply rewarded, who lives in hopes of your 
Koyal Highness' patronage, which I humbly crave your Royal 
Highness* continuance of. 

" In full assurance of which, I shall think myself perfectly 

"May it please your Royal Highness that I have the honor, 
to be, with profound respect, your Eloyal Highness' most dutiful 
and most devoted humble servant, 

"Charles Rudolf, 

** Lie^UenafUy Royal Nova Scotia BegimenL 

^* Lieut. -General His Royal Highness Prince Edward. 
"Castle Kensington." 

Erection of New Block-houses. 

War having been again declared in 1812, former fears were 
renewed, and those much-dreaded enemies, privateers, were 
again on the coast, ready for their destructive work. A long 
continuance of peace had been looked for, and the forts and 
block-houses had fallen to decay. Four new block -houses were 
now erected — one on the hill near the town, the site of the old 
fort, mounting two 9- and four 12-pounders, two small guns 
and two brass field-pieces ; another on the site of old Fort 
Boscawen, Battery point, built of stone and wood, and mounting 
four 12-pounders ; a third at Lower La Have, and a fourth at 

The hill above referred to, was, in early days, called "Wind- 
mill Hill,'* from the fact that there was a mill on it for grind- 
ing corn. It was afterwards known as " Block-house Hill." 
The last block-house was moved from its position in the great 
gale of October, 1871, and set tire to and destroyed in 1874. 

The men at work on the hill in 1889, digging a cellar for 

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Captain F. Geldert's house, found, about four feet below the 
surface, a ladder and cask, supposed to have been put there by 
persons in charge of the block-house. 

Capture of Lunenburg Vessels. 

During the war just referred to, a number of Lunenburg ves- 
sels were making a voyage home from the West Indies, a brig 
belonging to John N. Oxner, commanded by Captain Robert 
Bremner, being convoy to the fleet. Bremner had arranged to 
fire a gun every morning at sunrise, and the report was one 
day heard by an American privateer, which bore down, took 
the whole fleet and carried them to American ports. One of 
these vessels was a large topsail schooner, of which John Aren- 
berg was captain and part owner. Christian Born, Frederick 
Rhuland, Conrad Rhuland and Philip Arenberg — names still 
well known in the county — were also owners. The crews of 
these vessels were exchanged for Americans, who had been 
taken prisoners by English ships. This disaster was a severe 
loss to the owners, most of whom were young and enterprising 
men. They had, under the circumstances, however, to experi- 
ence, with others, the " fortunes of war." 

Some of the Lunenburg merchants, in order to redeem their 
losses, purchased a privateer in Halifax, that had been taken as 
a prize, called her the Lunenburg, and appointed Joseph Fait 
captain. She has been described as a long, low craft, and a 
very fast sailer. A number of vessels were taken by her, but 
she failed to make good the damages her ownei-s had previously 
sustained. Among her prizes was a large American schooner, 
the Minerva, which was afterwards new-topped and changed 
into a brig at the late Charles Rudolf's, La Have River, and 
called the Lord Exmoutk, She sailed for Halifax to load for a 
port in the West Indies. When outside the river, an American 
privateer, called the Fox, met her off* Rose Head. The crew of 
the Lord Exmoutk were told by the captain to *' bundle up " 
their clothes, as he would run his vessel ashore if the Fox came 
too close. The position of the two ships was seen from Lunen- 
burg, and about thirty men went out in three large boats. The 

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Fox retired, and the Lord Eamwuth was taken into Lunenburg 
harbor, and lay there three days, as the former vessel was seen 
from Block-house hill during that period, as if waiting for her 
prey. The Lord Exmouth escaped by running down to Halifax 
in the night. 

Lunenburg coasting vessels were taken by American priva- 
teers and sometimes burned, after being robbed of what was on 
board. The people at Moser s Island once witnessed a grand 
sight in the burning of two vessels at night while drifting sea- 
ward. The Americans were very troublesome to the people 
inhabiting this and other islands. Being less protected than 
those on the main, they were frequently obliged to leave their 
houses. They hid their money under old stumps of trees and 
carried the rest of their goods to Ritcey's Cove, and other places 
for safety, and from time to time took them back in small 
quantities. The crews of the privateers were so bold in their 
visits to these islands, that they removed the cattle and emptied 
the cellars. At Iron-bound, they once acted as if determined to 
secure everything within reach, and were only persuaded to 
desist on being assured by Mr. Wolf, that a member of his 
family was dangerously ill. 

A Lunenburg vessel, returning home from Halifax, was chased 
by the privateer Sweat. Having an experienced pilot on board, 
she ran in among the ledges at Heckman's Island, and was 
followed by her pursuers. The latter went ashoi'e and was 
never got oflf. She had heavy guns on board, which were seen 
on the island many years after. 

A shot fired from another privateer anchored off Oxner s 
shoal, entered the dwelling of Mr. Reinhardt, at the " Five 
houses,'* and cannon-balls, and chain and grape shot have been 
dug out in the neighborhood, and at other places on the sea- 
coast within the county. 

In 1823, an amended boundary line between the counties of 
Lunenburg, and Queen's, was surveyed, and laid down on a plan 

The following is a description of the tract of land which, by 

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said amended line, was taken from Lunenburg and added to 
Queen's: Beginning at a rock in Port Medway harbor, thence 
running north, 33° 45' W., thirty-two and a quarter miles to 
the Annapolis county line, thence north 60° E. by said line 
seven miles and twelve chains, thence by the several courses 
defined on said plan, to the place of beginning. 

The line as so changed was confirmed, and the boundaries of 
the County of Lunenburg, were in 1826, defined as follows : 
" Commencing at a large rock in the harbor of Port Metway 
{alias Medway), marked with the initials L and N D, being the 
ancient bound and landmark between the County of Lunen- 
burg, and Queen's county ; from thence ninning north 26° W. 
twenty-four miles and sixty-four rods to Pleasant River; thence 
following the courses of said river to the entrance of Shingle 
Lake, to tha eastern bounds of land granted to Zehas Water- 
man; thence northerly along the eastern bound of said Water- 
man s land, and the line of land granted to John Payzant, Zenas 
Waterman, junior, and John Ringer, 777 rods; thence north 
26° W. seven miles to a spruce tree marked N. W. angle, thence 
north 60° E. thirty-seven miles to a post and pile of stones 
placed on the western side line of the township of Horton ; 
thence southerly along that line to the end thereof; thence 
easterly along the line of Horton township until it comes to 
the rear bound of the township of Falmouth to a blazed tree, 
marked on four sides ; thence in a right line to a square post 
surrounded by a pile of stones, standing on the public ix)ad 
leading from Chester to Windsor, and marked on the northern 
side * Hants county,' on the south * Lunenburg county,' and on 
the south-east 'Halifax county'; thence to run south 27° E. 
twelve and a quarter miles to the sea-shore of St. Margaret's 
Bay, at the western side of the entrance into the cove called 
Harness Cove, to a square post surrounded by a pile of stones 
and marked on the eastern side * County of Halifax,' on the 
western side * County of Lunenburg ' ; thence southerly and 
westerly, by the several courses of the sea-shore, to the eastern 
side of the entrance of Port Metway ; thence northerly up said 
harbor, to the rock and place of beginning, comprehending all 
the islands in front of said limits." 

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Churches of different Denominations in the Town of Lunenburg, and 
Notices of Clergymen who have resided there. 

Church of England. 
." T N April, 1749, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 

A was informed by the Lords of Trade and Plantations, 
that in each of the several townships to be formed in Nova 
Scotia, a particular spot would be set apait for building a 
church, and four hundred acres granted in perpetuity, free 
from quit rent, to a minister and his successors ; in pursuance 
of which the church (called St. John's), 60 x 40 feet, was built 
in Lunenburg, at the expense of Government, A.D. 1754, and 
was the first English church built in Nova Scotia, after the 
erection of St. Paul's, at Halifax." The frame of the building 
was first put together in Boston. The cost was £476 16s. 6.Jd. 

The sum of £224 9s. 9d. being required to repair and furnish 
the church at Lunenburg, the House, of Assembly, in 1762. 
refused to grant it, and mentioned to the Governor, as a reason, 
" the great load of debt due by the public." 

On the 5th of July, 1870, the church was moved twenty-five 
feet forward, to add that much to its length at the rear. 

The first service in the building, as enlarged, though not 
finished, was on Thanksgiving Day, November 23rd, 1871. 

Further improvements have been made, including a large 
addition at each side, giving over forty more pews. 

The parish register is a book which, from its date and first 
entries, must have been commenced in Halifax ; and as it Ls 
continued in the same writing, without remark, it is difficult to 
tell when the Lunenburg registiy began. The fii-st entry after 
the date of the landing of the settlei-s, is "1753, June I3th, 
baptized Charles, son to Johannes and Gertrude Van Hoboken/' 

The first registered marriage after the same date : " July 
10th, 1753, ITlrick Hubley to Anna Cath. Treffian." 

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The first death recorded after same date : " June 20th, David 

Under the registry of baptism of " Franklin Bulkeley Gould, 
son to Rev. Peter Ue La Roche, and Ann his wife, May 27th, 
1773," the fact is noticed that he was the first child inoculated 
for small-pox (September 25th, 1775). 

The only three deaths recorded in 1773, were Hon. Sebastian 
Zouberbuhler, January 31st, aged 68, one of the first magistrates 
at Lunenburg, and who for some years received a pension of 
fifty pounds out of the Parliamentary vote ; Rev. Paulus Bry- 
zelius, April 9th, being Good Friday, aged 60 ; and Frederica 
C. Jessen, November 23rd, aged 16. They were all buried 
under the church. 

The Rev. Jean Baptiate Morreau, ** formerly a Roman Cath- 
olic Priest, and Prior of the Abbey of St. Mathew at Brest, 
had been received into the communion of the Church of Eng- 
land," and appointed a missionary of the S. P. G. He was 
entered in a list as " Gent and School-master," and came with 
his w^ife, and two male and two female servants, to Halifax, in 
1749, in the frigate Canning, Captain Andrew Dewar, with 
the Comwallis expedition. He first preached at Halifax, 
September 9th, 1750, and afterwards accompanied the original 
settlers to Lunenburg, in 1753, and had service every Sunday/ 
on the parade (where the Holy Communion was administered, 
" under the blue sky, to two hundred at a time "), until the 
church was erected. There were then more than two hundred 
regular communicants, German and French. Mr. Morreau, in 
writing to Halifax, spoke of "the great mortality that had 
befallen his people," and stated that " fifty-six families of 
Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyterians, and Anabaptists, had (; 
become worthy members of the Church." Mr. Morreau min- 
istered in three languages to his congregation, and also acted 
as " Missionary to the Indians, several of whose children he 
baptized." It is recorded that he "discharged the duties 
assigned him with fidelity and. success." Governor Hopson 
commended him as " an example in the several duties of piety, 
charity, and humanity." He was in Lunenburg seventeen 

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years, and diied in 1770. Mr. Morreau was the father of 
Comwallis Morreau, the first male child bom in Halifax, and 
named in the Lunenburg grant. 

In his report for 1757, Mr. Morreau gave an instance of eccle- 
siastical discipline. " On Easter Day one of the congregation 
was put to public penance, because he had been one of the 
chief conspirators in a recent plot against the Government; 
after' a humble prostration of himself in the church, the 
penitent rose up and humbly asked pardon of God, of the king 
and of his Christian brethren, whom he had offended by his ill- 
conduct and disobedience. After a suitable exhortation from 
the pulpit to a sincere repentance and amendment of life, he 
was readmitted to the Holy Communion with 149 others." The 
behavior of the congregation in general is described as being 
marked by great piety and devotion. 

A head-board under St. John's Church contained the follow- 
ing epitaph : 

" Here 
Lyes the Mortal Part 
• OF the Rev. J. B. E. L. Morreau 

FOR 20 ODD years 

^ A Missionary of a French 
Congregation at Lunenburg. 
Who departed this Life 
THE 25th February 

1770, AGED 59 YEARS." 

Rev, Robert Vincent — The following minutes were recorded 
at Halifax : 

" 1761. August 7th. — Advised, that Rev. Robert Vincent be 
appointed to minister at Lunenburg. Salary, seventy pounds, 
and twenty pounds per annui]^ as school-master there." 

"August 13th. — Advised, that Rev. R. Vincent be admitted to 
celebrate divine service in the church at Lunenburg, and there 
perform all rites and ceremonies, according to the usages of the 
Church of England, alternately with the Rev. Mr. Morreau ; and 

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that Colonel Sutherland be requested to adjust all matters 
relating to the church between them." 

The above-named clergyman commenced his duties as mis- 
sionary and school -master in 1762. Of him it is stated that ^ 
'* he was remarkable for indefatigable application and moderate 
conduct in the course of his mission." It was believed that " his 
persevering in his duty, even beyond his strength, shortened 
his days." 

Rev. PavZus BryzditLS (formerly a Lutheran minister) had 
been " ordained by the Bishop of London to the charge of the 
German mission at Lunenburg," and was for a time contem- y 
porary with Mr. Morreau. He received warm encomiums from 
Governor Franklin and Chief Justice Belcher for the success of 
his labors, particularly among the young. 

The oldest magistrate in Lunenburg wrote a letter to Gover- 
nor Franklin, w^hich he sent to England, saying of Mr. Bryzelius, 
" It is scarcely to be expressed how much our people are satis- 
fied with his behavior and preaching. He has given them last X 
Sunday and Monday most excellent sermons, insomuch that 
most of the people were shedding tears. The breast-work of 
the upper galleries was in danger to break down on account of 
so many people." 

At Elaster, 1768, forty-six young persons were for the first 
time brought by him to the Holy Communion. He held 
three services on ea»h Sunday, in English, French and Ger- 
man respectively. Prayer-books in Geiman were sent out from ^ 
home for his congregation, and he translated Lewis* Catechism. 
In September, 1769, he returned ** the number of children in 
his mission under twelve years of age, at 684, of whom he had 
himself baptized 129. At Easter, 1770, his English, French 
and German communicants were 201, of whom thirty were ^ 
then admitted for the first time.- This faithful servant of God 
was struck with apoplexy while preaching on Good Friday,. 
1772 or '73, and expired in half an hour. He was " buried 
exactly under the pulpit wherein, indeed, he died." He was 
sixty yeara of age. His widow and several children were left in; 

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very disti'essed circumstances. Lord William Campbell recom- 
mended that the remainder of the year's stipend should be given 
to them. 

On the death of Mr. Bryzelius, it was determined to dis- 
continue the German mission, and to maintain instead an 
itinerant missionary. Mr. William Ellis, having been selected 
and ordained by the Bishop of London, embarked for this 
Province, via Boston, in 1774. Small-pox broke out in the 
vessel, which led to difficulties in landing at Boston, or Salem, 
on being ordered from one port to the other. Having made 
their way to Quarantine Island, and complied with the regu- 
lations, Mr. Ellis and his wife proceeded to Boston, but " must 
have lain in the street, had not an old woman, tempted by 
their money, have giveVi them a lodging." Shortly after his 
arrival in Nova Scotia, Mr. Ellis' destination was changed, and 
he was sent to Windsor. 

The Bev. Peter De La Roche, a native of Geneva, was 
^X)rdained to "the cure of Lunenburg, in 1771." About this 
time, the Rev. Mr. Muhlenburg (President of the Lutheran 
Synod, Philadelphia) had been applied to by Calvinists and 
Lutherans to supply, them with a missionary. He advised 
them " still to adhere to the Church." For this advice he was 
thanked by the Halifax Committee, who requested *' that no 
declaration or measure should be at any time used to distjirb 
or prevent the Calvinists and Lutherans in the full exercise of 
their religious principles and mode of divine worship." Mr. 
De La Roche studied German, and in 1775 was able to officiate 
in German, French, and English. At Easter in the same year, 
his communicants in those tongues were, respectively, 120, 
50 and 30. Lord W. Campbell wrote that Mr. De La Roche 
could speak English sufficient to perform se^jvice, and that he 
thought it best to abandon services in German. He felt with 
his people " the want of provisions during the American war ; " 
the assistance then received from the people being Very small. 
During his residence at Lunenburg he " published several 
excellent sermons and a commentary on the four gospels. One 
of these sennons was entitled ' The Gospel of Christ preached to 

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the Poor/ * Repent ye/ etc. — St Peter in Acts iii. 19 ; printed at 
the author's expense ; to be given, and not to be sold : * Freely 
ye have received, freely give.' — Jesus Christ in Matthew x. 8.' 
It was dedicated " To all the Settlers and Inhabitants of the 
township of Lunenburg, in Nova Scotia, and especially to the 
Poor, whether bound or free." 

Mr. De La Roche removed to Guysboro* in 1787, and died 

In 1773, Mr. De La Roche prevailed upon his people to 
establish a school for the French, and to make a yearly allow- ^ 
ance, in aid to the master, of forty bushels of grain and twenty- 
four cords of wood. 

This master, Oeo. Fredk, Bailly, was born in Franche Comte, 
and came to the county as teacher and lay reader to the French. 
One of his books has written in it, " Maitre (VEcole and Clerk , 
de VEgliae Francaise de Lunenburg" He taught school for 
the French at North- West Range. There is still extant a 
sermon on the fifth commandment, written in French, in his 
own manuscript, and read by him on the 21st of March, 1775. 
A book of sermons in French, also in his own hand-writing, 
which is remarkably legible, is entitled " An abridgement of 
sixteen discourses on the redemption of man by the death of 
Christ" His French Bible is still preserved, and bears date 
1702. Mr. Bailly died in Lunenburg at the age of eighty-two. 
Several of his grandchildren still reside in the county, and one 
of them, Henry Bailly, Esq., now Registrar of Deeds, represented 
it in the Provincial Legislature for eight years. The widow of 
one of his sons spoke of the old gentleman with gi'eat affection, 
and pointing to the chair he occupied during his five years* 
blindness, said, with much feeling, to the writer, " He tvas an 
old Christian." ♦ 

The Colonial Churchman said: " Mr. Bailly behaved worthily 
and with great pains in his office." 

In 1787, Rev. Richard Money, B.C.L., Oxford, was appointed 
missionary at Lunenburg. He had a paralytic stroke in 1800, 
and was for some months laid aside from work. He resigned 
in 1803, and was succeeded by Rev. Thomas Shreve, who had 


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been stationed at Parrsboro*, and began his work at Lunenburg 
in 1804. He died August 21st, 1816, in his sixty-second year, 
and Rev. Robert Ferryman took charge for twelve months. 

In 1817, Rev. Roger Aitken,oi the Scotch Episcopal Church, 
and a missionary of the S.P.G., came to Lunenburg. He was 
sent by Sir John Sherbrooke in October, 1814, as garrison 
chaplain to Moose Island, on the boundary line between New 
Brunswick and Maine, where he remained for three years. 

Bishop Charles Inglis wrote to him a very kind letter, intro- 
ducing him to brother clergjnnen in the neighborhood, and 
expressing his assurance that the reverend gentleman and his 
family would receive all the kind attention to which they were 
fully entitled. Mr. Aitken was Rector of Lunenburg until his 
death on the 21st of November, 1825, in the seventy-third 
year of his age, and the forty-eighth of his ministry. 

The late Doctor Charles C. Aitken^ of Lunenburg, was a 
grandson of the deceased clergyman. 

Rev, James C, CochranrM.A., became rector in 1825, and held 
the position until 1852. He was bom in Kings College, Wind- 
sor, September 17th, 1798, his father. Rev. William Cochran, 
D.D., being then vice-president. He took his B.A. in 1825. He 
had been a short time in mercantile life, which he abandoned 
for the ministry. As a travelling missionary he worked labori- 
ously in his large district, which included outstations now in 
charge of their own clergymen. In 1835, he commenced the 
publication at Lunenburg, of the Colonial Chwrchtrian, and 
edited it for five years. He was afterwards associated with 
Mr. William Gossip in editing and conducting the Church 

Mr. Cochran removed to Halifax in 1853, and had charge of 
the mission of Terence Bay, the scene of the great shipwreck 
of the steamship AtlantiCy and of the adjacent settlements. 

He officiated at Salem Chapel, Halifax, 1854 to 1866, and 
was incumbent of Trinity Church there until 1»75, and chap- 
lain to the House of Assembly for nineteen years. His labors 
in behalf of many benevolent institutions can never be for- 
gotten, and the Temperance boilies had good reason to be proud 

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of him. He was a total abstainer, and did grand work in this 
county and in Halifax. 

He was a man of herculean frame, and his strong constitution 
carried him through many and great hardships in his minis- 
terial work. 

Dr. Cochran died at his residence near Trinity Church, 
Halifax, on Sunday, June 20th, 1880, and the interment took 
place at Windsor on the following Wednesday. On the morn- 
ing of that day, fifty-nine pupils of the institution for deaf 
mutes marched in the procession to the railway depot, to show 
their respect for the beloved clergyman who had been one of 
the original founders, and who had never ceased his efforts in 
its behalf till death. 

A memorial window has been placed in St. John's Church, 

The next Rector of Lunenburg was the Rev, Henry L. Owen, 
M.A., who came in 1852. He was bom in Halifax, December 
24th, 1809. His father was John Owen, Esq., a native of 
Wrexam, in Wales, who removed with his family from Halifax 
to Lunenburg, about 1819. He held in the last-named town, 
the offices of Collector of Customs and Excise, and Justice of the 
Peace until his death, November 22nd, 1824, at the age of forty- 

Rev. H. L Owen had been a scholar at the famous Blue Coat 
School, London, founded by Edward the Sixth, where he 
received most favorable testimonials. His education was further 
pursued at King*8 College, Windsor, where he graduated in 
1833, afterwards proceeding to M.A., and D.D. Among his 
classmates were the late Rev. C. J. Shreve, B.A., of Chester, and 
Rev. W. H. Snyder, B.A., of Mahone Bay. He was ordained 
■deacon, and in 1834, advanced to the priesthood, at St. Paul's, 
Halifax, by the late Bishop Inglis. Mi\ Owen was appointed 
Rector of Aylesford, and took duty temporarily at Yarmouth, 
and at St. Andrew's, N.B., where he married Anna, daughter 
of S. Fry, Esq., M.D. He preached his first sermon as Rector 
of Lunenburg, in St. John's Church, on Sunday, June 13th, 1852, 
from Philippians iii. 13, 14. He was a well-read theologian, a 

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fine specimen of the Christian gentleman, of an affectionate and 
loving disposition, noted for his piety, a true comforter in 
trouble, and at all times a sincere and faithful friend. Dr. Owen 
preached his last sermon on Easter Sunday, March 25 th, 1883, 
and entered into rest on Saturday, May 31st, 1884. He had- 
oflSciated at 1,701 baptisms, 302 marriages, and C44 burials. 

Notwithstanding very unfavorable weather, great crowds of 
people from town and outside settlements attended the funeral 
services. In the hand of the deceased was a paper, which he 
had requested should be put in his coffin. On it were the words, 
" Be kind to the children." This was a last expression of his 
love for the " little ones," who were most sincerely attached to 
him. A memorial window has been placed in the church at 
Lunenburg. While Rector of Aylesford, Dr. Owen sometimes 
officiated in Christ Church, Dartmouth. His visits were very 
acceptable to pastor and people. 

" His race well run. " 
'* His work well done." 
** Now rest." 

Edward H. Oweniy one of the sons of the above-named clergy- 
man, was educated at King's College, Windsor, and was for 
several years principal of the academy at Lunenburg. He was 
a clever, well-informed man, and wrote a history of the county, 
for which he received the Aikins prize. He died in November^ 
1893. His brother Beverley, also deceased, was a very estim- 
able young man. 

One of the brothers of Rev. Dr. Owen is Daniel Owen, Esq.,. 
Barrister, who was born in Halifax, and came to Lunenburg in 
1819. He was admitted an attorney in April, 1833, and now 
stands nearly at the head of the list. Mr. Owen is in his 
eighty-ninth year, and very active for his age. 

Dr. Owen was, in 1884, succeeded in the rectorship by Rev. 
Robert C. Caswall, M.A., of Toronto, who resigned in 1886, and 
was followed in 1887 by Rev. George Haslam, M.A., of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and a native of County Dublin, Ireland. He was 
formerly a Fellow of Trinity College, Toronto, and lecturer in 

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natural science, and is now a Governor of King's College, 
Windsor, and lecturer in apologetics. 

Much credit is due to Rev. Mr. Haslam and his co-workers 
for making *' St. John*s " one of the handsomest and most 
spacious churches in the diocese. 

The late Mrs. Eaulbach, widow of Sheriff Kaulbach, gave the 
beautiful brass eagle lectern, and the organ was presented by 
the late John William Y. Creighton, Esq. 

Mr. John Burke, who had been sexton for forty years, died 
very suddenly, October 29th, 1864. 

The curates have been : Revs. Dr. Drumm, Hodgson, Padfield, 
Wainwright, Ellis, Brenton, Groser, Skinner, and G. D. Harris. 

On Sunday, May 23rd, 1869, Rev. George W. Hodgson, M.A., 
preached his farewell sermon at the evening service from 1 Cor. 
iii. 7. He was a zealous and faithful clergyman. The congre- 
gation presented him with an address on the 24th, and a number 
of parishioners, in eight carriages, accompanied him for some 
distance on the road to Halifax. 

The lay readers were (afterwards clergymen) : J. O. Ruggles, 
G. Hodgson, and G. Osborne Troop. 

On June 17th, 1871, there arrived at Lunenburg, Rev. Wm. 
Boss, of the American Episcopal Church, and stationed at Spring- 
field, Kentucky, son of the late Wm. Ross, Esq., of Lunenburg. 
On Sunday, June 18th, Mr. Ross preached to the congregation 
of St. John's in the Lutheran church, which was kindly loaned 
for services during the repair of the English church. 

On Thursday, January 21st, 1886, the new Church of St. 
Bcunabas, Blue Rocks, in the parish of Lunenburg, and four 
miles from the town, was opened for divine service. 

The Rural Dean, Rev. W. H. Snyder, preached an earnest, 
practical, extempore discoiu^e on Psalm xciii. 5, " Holiness 
becometh thine house, O Lord, forever." 

The church is built of wood, clap-boarded, in pointed Gothic 
style. Inside measurement, 44 x 22 feet; cost, $1,540. The site 
was presented by Mr. Joshua Knickle. 

Rev. Theodore E. Dowling, M.A., Chaplain to Bishop Blyth, 
in Jerusalem, preached in St. John s Church in September, 1891, 
on " Missionary Work among the Jews in Palestine.'* 

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The frame of a church,af terwards consecrated as St. Matthew's, 
was raised at Upper La Have, near the residence of Mr. Charles 
Rudolf, on Monday, July 8th, 1839. The day was " rarely fine." 
After the singing of the 100th Psalni, Rev. James C Cochran, 
M.A., Rector of Lunenburg, offered up appropriate prayers, and 
the work pixxseeded. The situation was described as "pleasant, 
near the margin of the beautiful River La Have." This was the 
seventh church of the same body erected in the county, and 
was then in the parish of Lunenburg, as was also St. Bartholo- 
mew's, at East La Have Ferry, built in 1836. 

In September, 1884, a separate parish was formed, which 
included the churches above named, and of which Rev. George 
D. Harris, still there, became the first rector. Another church, 
St. Alban*s, was built in the Wynacht Settlement, in 1890. The 
old St. Matthews Church was taken down in 1891, and a new 
•church, which bears the original name, was erected partly on 
the former site. 


Among the first settlers were " a number of persons belonging 
^ to the Dutch Reformed Church," who were for some time with- 
out the services of a specially appointed minister. A church 
was built by subscription in 1769. A delegate who was sent to 
Germany brought back some money, and also a communion 
service, which is still in use. Application was made to the 
Church in Philadelphia for a minister, but there were congre- 
gations there requiring pastors, and the Church at Halifax was 
requested to supply the ^ant at Lunenburg. Mr, Bruin Ramcas 
Comingo (commonly called Brown — his name was curiously 
altered in one of the newspapers to Rev. Brum Ran-kino 
Commingo) was ordained in Halifax, July 3rd, 1770 — " Mr. 
Kaulbach and Mr. Shupley having there renewed the call of 
the congi'egation," joined in by sixty families. He was then 
forty-six years of age. 

Objection was made to the ordination because Mr. Brown 
was not a thoroughly educated man. The Church at Halifax 
fully considered the objection, declared themselves justified. 

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under the circumstances, in what they were about to do, and 
<;ited from " the minutes of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, A.D. 1768, the ordination of the Rev. Philip Quaque, 
as a missionary, catechist, and school-master, for the Gold Coast." 
They said : " We do not mean that oui- procedure in this affair 
should be made a precedent of, or brought into usage in this 
infant colony or elsewhere, unless in cases of necessity, as above 

The Right Honorable Lord William Campbell, then Governor, 
and several members of His Majesty's Council were present 
during the ordination services, which were conducted by Revs. 
Murdoch, Lyon, Seccombe, and Phelps, the latter a Congrega- 
tionalist, in a building called " The Protestant Dissenting Meet- 
ing-house, afterwards St. Matthew's Church." 

The sermon was preached by Rev. John Seccombe, M.A., of 
Chester, from John xxi. 15, 16, and was said to be the first 
delivered in this Province on such an occasion. It was published, 
and dedicated to Malachy Salter, Esq. An appendix contains 
the reasons for the ordination, by Rev. Mr. Murdoch. Rev. 
Mr. Lyon addressed the candidate, and the right hand of fellow- 
ship was given by Rev. Mr. Phelps. It is recorded that Mr. 
Brown was the first Presbyterian minister ordained in the 
British North American Provinces. 

He was bom at Leuwarden, in the Province of Groningen, 
in Holland, October, 1723, and came to Halifax with the first 
German settlers. His name is included in the original list of 
grantees at Chester. Mr. Brown lived in Lunenburg as pastor 
for about half a century, preached regularly to the end of his 
ninety-fifth year, and died January 6th, 1820, in his ninety- 
sev'enth year, after a life of faithful service to his Master, 
having largely aided the advancement of religion, and being 
universally respected and beloved. His remains were interred 
under the Presbyterian church in that town. 

His name is signed to a recorded deed, dated September 21st, 
1767, " Bruein Rumkes Comango." 

Mr. Brown was succeeded byiiet?. Adam Moschell (so spelled 
in his own German Bible), who was bom at Manheim, in 

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Germany, and who was sent for by Rev. F. C. Tenime, the 
Lutheran pastor. He was married in Lunenburg, April 20th, 
1820, by Rev. R. Aitken, to Mary Ann, fourth daughter of 
Edward James, Esq. 

{Mr, Davis, a probationer, was in Lunenburg in 1828.) 

Mr. Moschell returned to Germany with his wife in 1837, 
and died at Hohensachsen, near Heidleberg, aged fifty-three 
years. His widow came back to this county, and lived at 
Bridgewater, where she died December 5th, 1888, in her eighty- 
seventh year. Up to the very last she retained the full use of 
her mental faculties. 

Mr. Moschell's successor was the Rev. Donald A, Fraser, of 
the Church of Scotland, who arrived at Pictou in 1817. He 
was a native of the Island of Mull, of which his father was the 
minister. In 1837, he removed from New Glasgow to Lunen- 
burg, and from there, in 1842, to St. John's, Newfoundland, 
where he founded St. Andrew's Church, in connection with the 
Church of Scotland. He died there, highly esteemed, Febiniary 
7th, 1845. Mr. Eraser was a man of great energy, "in labors more 
abundant " ; and exercised his ministry, not only at Lunenburg, 
but in many of the outside settlements, and travelled between 
three and four thousand miles a year. Mr. John Brown Com- 
ingo, son of Rev. Bruin Romcas Comingo, was one of his eldei-s. 

The next pastor was the Rev, William Duff, who was born 
at Berry Hill, near Perth, Scotland, September 15th, 1808, and 
came to Lunenburg in 1843. He received his preparatory 
education at the Perth High School, and took his collegiate 
course at St. Andrew's University, where he graduated in Arts 
and Divinity. His proficiency in college work is attested by 
the many class prizes still in the hands of his family. In 
theology he had the advantage of sitting under the teaching of 
Dr. Chalmers, for whom he ever cherished the highest regard. 

Like his long-time neighbor and friend. Rev. Dr. Cossmann, 
he had to minister to an immense district. The work of a 
pastor in those days was excessively difficult and wearisome, 
but like " a good soldier," he endured " hardness " cheerfully. 
He made himself fully acquainted with all the interests of bin 

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people, for whom he lived and labored. It has been truly said 
that he was a man of the most amiable disposition, the ideal of 
a Christian gentleman, and that to know him was to respect 
and love him. His sermons were full of wise counsel, and 
most earnestly and affectionately delivered. Among them was 
that preached at the funei-al service of the late Mrs. Kaulbach, 
who died at Lunenburg, aged 102 years, from the text, " This I 
say, brethren, the time is short." " Even in the case of our 
deceased friend who lived to such a very advanced age, how 
tnie is the statement," said the preacher, " that the time is 

Mr. Duff died at his residence near Lunenburg, May 5th, 1888. 
The procession on the day of intennent was led by nine clergy- 
men, including three rectors of the Episcopal Church. An 
impressive service was held in the church where the deceased 
had so long ministered to his beloved flock, who sincerely 
mourned his departure. His successor, Rev. E. D. Millar (now 
of Yarmouth), gave a very interesting account of Mr. Duff's life 
and labors, showing, among other things, that " he was the first 
Moderator of the United Synod of 1867," and that " after 
nearly thirty-seven years of arduous labor he retired from 
active duty in 1879." 

It may here be added that he was an agriculturist and 
orehardist, and kept his property in a high state of cultivation. 
He took great interest in all such work by his fellowmen, and 
in the Lunenburg Agricultural Society's efforts for improvement. 

Mr. Duff was married to a daughter of the late Hon. John 
E Fairbanks, of Woodside, Dartmouth. One of his daughters 
is the wife of Rev. John Forrest, D.D., President of Dal- 
housie College and University. There are two sons — one, 
William M. Duff, Esq., residing at Bridgewater, and Kenneth, 
living with two of his sisters at the old home near Lunenburg. 

Mr. Duff's successor was Rev. Ebenezer D, Miliar, who was 
inducted April 15th, 1880. He resigned June, 1891, and Rev, 
Daniel McGillivray became pastor in May, 1 892. 

The Late Mr. Alexander Goiv, — Mr. Gow was born at Auch- 
tergaven, Perthshire, Scotland, in 1789, and there man-ied 

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Margaret Dow. They came to Lunenburg in 1846, where Mr. 
Gow was for nine years employed as a catechist and assistant 
to the pastor of the Presbyterian Church, and where he died in 
July, 1855. 

He used to hold Bible-classes and expound the Scriptures in 
the country districts, and often walked to the Hebb settlement, 
beyond Bridgewater. He was summoned to conduct the ser- 
vices at the interment of John George Hebb, and was notified 
that Mr. Hebb had selected the text from which he wished the 
funeral sermon to be preached : " Rejoice not against me, oh 
mine enemy ; when I fall I shall arise ; wjlien I sit in darkness, 
the Lord shall be a light unto me " (Micah vii. 8). The Rev. 
W. Duff, being unable to attend, used this text on a subsequent 
day. Mr. Gow hap been described as a very holy man, and most 
friendly to everybody. One of his old associates said, " He was 
ever talking of the goodness of God, and turned everything to 
the Lord's account." A member of another denomination said, 
" That man seems to me to be always in close communion with 
God." It is not to be wondered at that he was greatly 
respected and beloved by all who appreciated his worth. He 
had two sons (Andrew and John), referred to elsewhere in this 
work. His widow, a lady highly esteemed, died at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Stephen Fink, Lunenburg. January 13th, 1895, 
aged ninety years. 

The present church was built by one Grant, a Scotchman, in 
the time of Rev. Adam Moschell, according to a plan sent from 
Halifax by Mr. Dechman (father of James Dechman, who lived 
at Mahone Bay), and by free subscription, at a cost of £1,200. 

The chuixsh was remodelled in 1879, which gave a length of 
83 feet, and a breadth of 40 feet. A new and handsome spire, 
118 feet in height, was added. A very interesting service was 
held at the reopening, December 19th, in the same year. The 
sermon was preached by Rev. E. D. Millar, then of Shelbume,. 
from 2 Chronicles vi. 40. Addresses were also delivered by the 
pastor (Rev. William Duff), Rev. Mr. Toland, agent British and 
Foreign Bible Society, Rev. Mr. Sutljerland, and Rev. D.S.Frasen 

On the 1st of March, 1885, a neat Presbyterian church, 27 x 46- 

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feet, to accommodate 250, was dedicated for divine worship at 
the Rocks, near Lunenburg, Revs. E. D. Millar and D. S. Fraser, 
assisted by Rev. W. Bums (Methodist), conducting the opening 
services. The building was the first place of worship built in 
the locality. It cost $950. 

In October, 1890, a new Presbyterian church, of 74 feet in 
length, with an auditorium 60 x 40 feet, was opened for service 
at Cross Roads, Lower La Have. Rev. E. D. Millar preached at 
the morning service from Isaiah Ix. 1, and Rev. John McMillan, 
of Chalmers' Church, Halifax, in the afternoon and evening, 
from Isaiah xi. 10 and James iii. 17. The total cost was about 
$6,000. The collections on the day of opening were about $200. 


In 1760, the Lutherans secured a school-master, by whom 
their children were taught. He also conducted religious ser- 
vices in private houses. 

The first Lutheran church was built by German settlers. The 
frame was raised May 22nd, 1770. The first sermon was read / 
in the church by a layman on the twenty-fourth Sunday after 
Trinity, 1771. In 1772, a parsonage was erected, and the con- 
gregation received a German Lutheran minister through the 
Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg, who was considered the father of the 
Lutheran Church in America, having been sent out by the * 
celebrated Professor Franke. This first clergyman was the 
Rev, Frederick Schultz, who preached his first sermon Novem- 
ber 1st, 1772. The church was dedicated by him as "Zion 
Evangelical Lutheran Church." He resigned his charge in 
1782. His successor was the Rev. Johann Oottloh Schmeisser^ 
*' of blessed memory," from Sorau, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
Germany. He was bom March 22nd, 1751, studied in Halle, 
was ordained in Wemigerode, and commenced his ministerial 
duties at Lunenburg, May 1st, 1782, and died, after arduous 
labor, December 23rd, 1806. Rev. Thomas Shreve, Rector of 
Lunenburg, mentioned Mr. Schmeisser's death, and, at request 
of the elders, preached the funeral sermon from the text Mr. 
Schmeisser had selected, Psalm ciii. 13-18. A sermon preached 

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by him in German in Lunenburg, in 1797, on " The Holy Com- 
munion," from Luke xxii. 19, 20, has been translated by Rev. 
D. Luther Roth, M.A., and printed for circulation. 

The next pastor was the Rev, Ferdinand Conrad Temme, 
the only son of the Rev. Daniel Temme, Evangelical Lutheran 
minister in the Duchy Braunschweig, Ltineburg, and his wife, 
Marie Antoinette. He was bom March 12th, 1763, and baptized 
on the 15th of the same month. His sponsors were His Highness 
Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig, Luneburg, General Field- 
Marshal of the King of Great Britain, and the child's grand- 
mother, the widow of the late Rev. Prior and Prebendary Jacob 
Albrecht Temme. He was confirmed in his father s parish in 
1777. After he had studied theology at Halberstadt and 
Gottingen for three and a half years, he was examined in the 
Consistorium of Wolfenbuttel on March 12th, 1783, and ordained 
as minister of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1787. In 
1790, after defending his thesis in the great auditorium of the 
University of Gottingen, he was, at the expense and desire of 
His Highness the Duke Ferdinand, appointed Professor of 
Philology and Philosophy. Thereupon he founded, with the 
approval of the ruling Duke, an institute of learning for fourteen 
sons of the nobility, and at the same time served the Church as 
" vacancy minister " for nearly seventeen years. He then set 
out on a visit to the United States, arrived in Philadelphia in 
November, 1807, accepted temporarily a charge in Pennsylvania, 
and there received an invitation from the Church at Lunenburg. 
His work in that town was commenced on May 5th, 1808. In 
December, 1809, he was married to Marie Barbore Schmeisser, 
V daughter of his predecessor. He died in 1831. His daughter, 
Conradina, was married to the late William V. Andrews, Esq., 
Bridgewater, and died there in 1883. 

A request for another minister was sent to the University 
of Halle, and the Rev, Carl Ernst Coasmann came out to 
fill the vacancy. He was bom at Sachsenburg, in Saxony, 
1806; frequented the colleges of Frankenhausen, and Qoerlitz; 
studied in Halle, under Tholuck, Gesenius, Uhlmann, and Thilo; 
was ordained in Merseburg, September 16th, 1834; arrived at 

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Lunenburg, January 17th, 1835, and preached his first sermon 
on the fourth Sunday in that month, from Romans xiii. 8. 
He has baptized 3,966 ; married 622 couples ; buried 1,041 ; 
has preached 11,000 sermons, and travelled 200,000 miles. 

The following is taken from a letter in the Acadian Recorder ^ 
written by one who attended morning service in '* the little 
Dutch Church," on Brunswick Street, Sunday, October 17th, 

" Once a year the Rev. Charles Cossmann, a retired Lutheran 
minister living in Lunenburg, comes to Halifax and preaches 
in the German language, and administers the communion to 
the German residents of the town, residing principally in the 
north end. 

" Yesterday was one of these occasions, at which I happened 
to be present, and I was much impressed with the simplicity 
and solemnity of the services. The quaint little church, with 
its weathercock surmounting its small spire, was built in 1755, 
just six years after the settlement of Halifax, and a few years 
before St. Pauls. 

" The little church, which holds about fifty persons, was well 
filled. The preacher was impressive and earnest in his manner, 
and held the attention of his audience throughout his sermon. 
After this the Lord s Supper was administered in the primitive 
style of the Lutheran Church. A plain, earnest man reverently 
knelt before what was probably a common deal table, covered 
with a pure white cloth, and then broke bread, and gave of the 
symbolic wine to devout recipients, very much after the fashion 
of the great Master himself, when He instituted the Supper in 
that upper room in Jerusalem, something over eighteen cen- 
tui-ies ago. The scene was impressive to a degi'ee — rendered 
more so by the associations and suiTOundings of the place. 

" I spent a pleasant morning, as no doubt did those descend- 
ants of the old German settlers, and other residents of the 
town speaking the language, who once a year, at all events, 
are privileged to hear the Word preached in the beloved tongue 
of the Faderland." 

In the Halifax Herald, of September 26th, 1892, reference 
was made to Rev. Dr. Cossmann's sermon in the same church, on 
the day before — Sunday. The sermon was on the right way 
to live, and set forth the eternally destructive consequences of 
evil courses. 

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" The reverend gentleman is now eighty-four years old. He 
has a grand command of language, and for one so old his dis- 
course was an exhaustive and a great attempt. He left Ger- 
many in 1835. He has preached regularly twice every Sunday, 
in one place or other. In the early days of his ministry he 
travelled annually about four thousand miles, the most part 
in the saddle. This evidently did not do him harm, as he looks 
well and hearty at the present day." 

On the 25th of June, 1880, the Lutherans of the county 
celebrated, at Lunenburg, the three hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary of the presentation of the Augsburg Confession, before 
Charles the Fifth. 

The bell of Zion Church rang out at six o'clock in the morning. 
People came from all directions, and every available place was 
occupied, so that the church was literally crammed. 

The Lutheran service was read, and Luther's grand old hynm, 
" Ein* Feste Burg Ist Unser Gott," was sung with great force 
and feeling. 

An address of welcome was delivered by the pastor, Rev. 
D. L. Roth, who traced the course of the Church in the county 
from the coming of the first settlers, and asked his hearers to 
see the great change from early days, in his announcement : 
" Now we have 4 ministers in the county, 14 churches, 1,400 
communicants, and fully 5,000 people." In closing his remarks, 
he said : " Before we leave this church, allow me to read to you 
the names of the noble men who, as elders and officers in the 
church, so well served their day and generation when the con- 
gregation was organized here at the beginning of this town. 
Here are their names : Freidrick Arenberg, Jacob Maurer (now 
Myra), Michael Houptman, Andreas Jung (now Young), Henry 
Ernst, George Conradt (now Conrad), Melchoir Bromm (now 
Broome), Wendel Wust (now West), Philip Rodenheiszer (now 
Rodenhizer), Leon. Anton Trober, Christoph. Naasz (now Naas), 
Heinrich Vogler. 

" Only two of those names are unknown among us to-day. 
God has fulfilled to His people His gracious promise of long 
life and blessing to the faithful. The memory of the just is 
blessed. Let us rise up to-day and call these worthies of the 

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past blessed, and let us imitate and emulate their faithfulness. 
Allow me now to conclude by repeating the names of four men, 
the servants of God who, in an unbroken succession of more 
than one hundred years' duration, have honorably filled the 
position and discharged the labors of ministers to God s people 
in this church. Those men are the Rev. Frederick Schultz, 
Rev. Johann Gottlob Schmeisser, Rev. Ferdinand Conrad 
Temme, Rev. Charles Ernst Cossmann. 

" Grey-haired and venerable, the last-named father in Christ 
now sits among us. He is the living link which connects us 
to-day with the proud historic past. All honor to his honest 
faithfulness. May God's rich mercy crown his declining years 
with holy peace and gladness. We pray God to spare him long 
to bless us with his counsel and presence — and let all the 
people say, Amen." 

Reading the Confession. 

" Father Cossmann now ascended the pulpit, and read, in the 
original German language, the immortal document whose doc- 
trines he has set forth through more than forty years — the 
Augsburg Confession. Although many in the audience could ^ 
not understand the German tongue, yet the older people, and the 
better educated, could, and a respectful hearing was obtained 
to the close." 

An immense procession was then formed, and was headed by 
the fine 75th band. After a march around town the walk was 
continued to the "Head," where dinner was enjoyed, in the 
shape of a great basket picnic. This over, " All hail the power of 
Jesus' name," was heartily sung, and Rev. J. A. Scheffer, of 
Mahone Bay, addressed the immense assemblage upon " The 
Causes which led to the Reformation." He was followed by Rev. 
A. L. Yount, of Bridgewater, who spoke about " The Reformers." 
The closing address was by Rev. D. Luther Roth,, of Lunen- 
burg, on " The Influence of the Augsburg Confession." 

Closing exercises were held in the church as follows: "A 
prayer of thanksgiving to God, for Ijhe blessings of the day and 
for the glory and good of the Church ; a chorus in unison with 

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the band to render 'God Save the Queen/ the Doxology, * Praise 
God from whom all blessings flow/ and the final benediction." 

The four hundredth anniversary of the biiih of Maiiin Luther 
was celebrated at Bridge water, on Saturday, November 10th, 
1883, by Lutherans from all parts of the county. There was 
an immense procession, headed by the band of the 75th Battalion. 
Very interesting memorial services were held, and addresses were 
delivered by the pastors of the several Lutheran congregations 
in the county. Luther's hymn, "Erhalt uns Herr bei deinem 
Wort," was sung. Dr. Cossmann pronounced the benediction. 

On the same day, at the union service of the Old Souths 
Central and Berkeley Street churches of Boston, there were on 
the platform a •* chained Bible," printed in 1480, and a copy of 
Luther's translation, printed at Ltineburg, in Gennany, in 165G. 

The bell of the old church at Lunenburg "was originally 
brought from France, and hung in the chapel of the fort at 
Louisbourg. Upon the dismantling of that stronghold in 1 758^ 
it was taken out and carried to Halifax. There it lay stoi'ed 
away, with other spoils of victory, until 1776, when it was pur- 
chased from the Government by the Lutherans at Lunenburg, 
and hung in their newly erected church." It was i-ung for the 
first time, August 11th, 1776. Total cost, £27 16s. 5d. 

A second church was built 1840 and 1841, by free sul)scrip- 
tion; and was named the ** German Luthei'an Zion Church." 
It was 42 X 62 feet, and cost about $5,000, besides a large 
amount given in labor and materials. 

The money chest, which was kept in the old church, and 
brought from Germany, is quite a curiosity. It is alx)ut four 
feet long, by fifteen inches wide, made of veiy hard wood, and 
lined with iron. The comers, on the outside, are also covered 
with iron, and bands of the same material are placed round the 
front, ends, and part of the back. It is fastened with three 
locks, two of which are of peculiar construction. Through a 
hole in the cover was passed the collection made on each Sun- 
day. The chest is stamped in the four comers and centre of 
the top, and in other places with an ornament of cuxular design. 
The hinges and lock fastenings are secured with heavy rivets. 

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Two blackboards, and tickets of large size, pasted on wood, with 
numbers from one upwards are still to be seen. The boards 
were formerly placed, in accordance with an old custom, on the 
aides of the church, and the numbers of the hymns to be sung, 
with the verses, were put on them by the sexton before the time 
for service, so that the whole congregation might know where 
to find the words, without waiting for their announcement by 
the minister. 

The plate used in the celebi*ation of the Holy Communion 
was presented to the Church, at different times, by D. C. Jessen, 
and Philip Rudolf, Esquires. 

St. Luke's Church, nearly midway (on the main road) 
l>etween Lunenburg and Bridge water, was dedicated for divine 
.service on the first Sunday in Advent, 1879. The clergy present 
were Revs. D. Luther Roth, A. L. Yount and J. A. Scheffer. 
The building is in Gothic style, 28 x 41 feet, with a neat spire. 

On the 30th of September, 1880, the comer-stone of a new 
Lutheran church in Upper Branch, was laid, with appropriate 
ceremonies, and a copy of the Bible and other articles were 
deposited within it. 

The pastor, Rev. A. L. Yount, of Bridgewater, led the services, 
assisted by the Rev. Chas. E. Cossmann, and Rev. D. Luther 
Roth, of Lunenburg ; the former delivering in German, and the 
latter in English, addresses suited to the occasion. 

The building, 30 x 40 feet, was soon completed, and named 
** Mount Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church." 

On the fourth Sunday in Advent, December 23rd, 1888, a 
new Lutheran church in Feltzen South, was dedicated, with 
special services held by Revs. Rankin, Scheidy, Kohler, Maurer, 
and Schweinsburg. An address in German was delivered by 
Rev. Dr. Cossmann. 

The Lutherans and Congregationalists built a union church, 
32 X 45 feet, at Hemford, Ohio. 

In 1888, it was decided to take down the second, and erect a 
third church, at Lunenburg. The comer-stone was laid in July, 
1890, and the building, which is 109 x 73 feet, reflects the highest 
credit on pastor and people. 

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On Saturday, February 14th, 1891, a service was held pre- 
paratory to the administration of the Lord's Supper. The first 
sermon was preached by Rev. A. C. Sweinsberg, of Midville, from 
Exodus iii. 5. On the next morning the sermon was preached 
by Rev. J. H. Orr, of Bridgewater, from 1 Cor. xi. 23-25. 
The dedication sermon was preached in the afternoon by Rev. 
H. W. Roth, D.D., of Chicago. Rev. G. L. Rankin, pastor, R«v. 
C. E. Cossmann, D.D., Rev. Messra. Orr, Maurer, and Sweinsberg, 
took part in the service. The preacher in the evening was 
Rev. J. Maurer. 

Among the beautiful windows is one in remembrance of the 
life-long work of the Rev. Dr. Cossmann. It was said by 
the late Rev. W. H. Snyder, rector of Mahone Bay, " If ever a 
man served a people faithfully, Mr. Cossmann has done it." 

The sixtieth anniversary of Dr. Cossmann's ordination was 
celebrated in the church on Sunday, September 16th, 1894. The 
building was richly adorned with flowers and densely packed 
with people. The services were very interesting, and an eloquent 
address on Dr. Cossmann's labors was delivered by Rev. A. C. 
Sweinsberg. Resolutions were submitted by the pastor. Rev. 
G. L. Rankin, who read an address to the aged clergyman. A 
most touching reply was made by Dr. Cossmann, who was 
moved to tears, and asked all present to pray with him. Hymn 
276 having been sung, he pronounced the benediction. 

Bev. D, Luther Roth became pastor of the Lunenburg Church 
in July, 1876, and resigned in 1885, in which year, on the 9th 
of September, he was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. 
George Luther Rankin. These clergymen belong to the Pitts- 
burgh Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, in connection 
with the General Council of North America. Both are natives 
of Pennsylvania. 


The first church at Lunenburg was erected in 1813. Rev. 
Oeorge Orth, who preached in German, was the earliest settled 
minister. The church was for some time unfinished, with rough 
tenches for seats. There was a young assistant named Snowball. 

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Mr. William T. Waterman, of Queen's county, said, shortly 
before his death, that he was led to a Christian life by a prayer 
offered by Mr. Snowball in a service at Lunenburg. 

The following appears from a statement published in 
November, 1894: 

"On the 24th of January, 1817, Jacob Hamge and wife 
deeded to Rev. George Orth, lots 6 and 9 alongside the church 
property for £50, upon which the Methodist parsonage was 
erected. This property came into the hands of the trustees on 
the 1st day of November, 1831. 

" In 1819, there were only ten circuits in Nova Scotia, which, 
with three in New Brunswick and two in P. E. Island, made 
one district under the English Conference. Lunenburg was 
the last circuit formed, and at this time had a membership of 
seventy-five, including Petite Riviere and the surrounding 

*' In 1821, the renowned William Black, founder of Meth- 
odism in Nova Scotia, spent some weeks in Lunenburg. Many 
of his sermons were repeated in German to the congregation by 
the minister. On one Sabbath morning Mr. Black administered 
the Lord's Supper to as many as one hundred communicants, 
but only ten of these w^ere residents of the town. 

" Dr. T. W. Smith (' History of Methodism in E. B. America ') 
shows that by 1822 the Lunenburg Circuit included Petite 
Riviere, La Have, Ritcey's Cove, Mahone Bay, and the sur- 
rounding country. 

" Rev. Thomas H. Davis was the second minister stationed 
here, and he will ever be remembered as the man who tried to 
have all the services and business meetings conducted in the 
English language." 

Rev. Matthew (afterwards Dr.) Richey was in Lunenburg 
for a few months in 1824. 

"In 1865, during the second year of Rev. J. J. Teasdale's 
ministry, the church proved too small for the increasing congre- 
gation, and after considerable discussion it was at last decided 
to saw the church down through the middle, and removing one 
part ten feet from the other, add that length of space in the 

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centre of the church. Again, on the 20th of February, 1871, an 
agreement was made for the enlargement of the church by 
extending it twenty feet at the north end ' with a circle thereto 
for the choir.* 

" This was during the pastorate of Rev. Joseph Ga^tz. Then 
on June 2nd, 1882, a meeting was held for the purpose of fixing 
upon a site for the present church. Rev. A. S. Tuttle in the 

"The comer-stone was laid October 17th, 1883. After the 
formula had been read by the pastor, Rev. Wm. Brown, and 
stirring addresses delivered by Revs. Fisher, Lockhart and 
Miller, and inspiring singing by the Sunday School children, 
under the leadership of Mr. Joseph Selig, the comer-stone on 
Cumberland street was well and truly laid by the pastor's wife, 
Mrs. Wm. Brown. The church measures 56 x 112 feet, and is 
amply fitted with a basement and class-rooms. 

" On Sunday, March 15th, 1885, the church was opened, when 
appropriate sermons were preached in the morning by Rev. J. 
Gaetz, in the afternoon by Rev. J. J. Teasdale, and in the even- 
ing by Rev. Wm. Brown. Crowded audiences greeted each 
speaker, but more particularly in the afternoon, when it is sup- 
posed that fully fifteen hundred were accommodated in the 
spacious edifice." 

The following ministers of the denomination have also been 
stationed at Lunenburg: Revs. George Miller, Henry Pope, 
John Marshall, Wm. E. Shenstone, Wm. Webb, John Snowball, 
William Wilson, Roland Morton, Joseph Hart, Charles Stewart, 
Richard Weddall, James Buckley, John Teasdale, G. O. Huestis, 
Joseph Gaetz, Richard Smith, Thomas Rogers, M.A., A. S. 
Tuttle, Wm. Brown, John Johnson, W. H. Langille, J. J. Teas- 
dale, and J. L. Batty. 

Rev. John Marshall, above named, grandfather of Wm. E. 
Marshall, Esq., Barrister, Bridgewater, died at Lunenburg, July 
12th. 1864. 

The centenary celebration of the death of the Rev. John 
Wesley, M.A., was postponed from 2nd of March, 1891, on 
account of election meetings, and held in Lunenburg on the 

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17th of the same month, in the Methodist church, which was 
well filled An eloquent sermon was preached by Rev. A. W. 
Nicholson, of Liverpool, district chairman, from Deut. xxxii. 
11, 12. In the afternoon, a great crowd of people were enter- 
tained by speeches, band music, and singing of hymns. Rev. 
Mr. Nicholson took the chair, and gave the opening address. 
He was followed by Rev. S. F. Huestis, of Halifax, on "The 
nature of the celebration being held;" Rev. J. L. Batty, of 
Ritcey's Cove, on "Personal Reminiscences of Ep worth and other 
Associations of Wesley ; " Rev. W. H. Langille, of Lunenburg, on 
*' Wesley among his Contemporaries ; " Judge Chesley, on " The 
Mission and Achievements of Methodism in the Nineteenth 
Century," and Rev. Joseph Gaetz, of Halifax, a former Lunen- 
burg pastor, on " Methodism and Money.*' 

In the evening a very large congregation gathered in the 
church for an evangelistic service. Addresses were delivered 
by Revs. Nicholson, Huestis, Gaetz, Williams, and Batty, and 
several laymen, including Mr. Solomon Mackey, of Northfield. 
A comet and clarionet well played were a great assistance to 
the choir with their fine organ. The singing was heartily joined 
in by the whole assembly. 

Roman Catholic 

The Chapel at Lunenburg (St Norbert s) was completed about 
1840, in the time of the Rev. Edmond Doyle, who succeeded 
Rev. Mr. Kenney. A glebe house was also built. Over fifty 
years ago. Father O'Reilly lived in Lunenburg. He had been a 
missionary among the Indians in the West, and for three years 
had not seen the face of a white man. The districts these 
priests had to serve were very large, extending into several 
adjacent counties. Rev. E. Doyle drove a pair of small ponies, 
with which he made long journeys to Caledonia and other 

The county was for many years visited by priests who lived 
elsewhere. Rev. David O'Connor was the officiating priest in 
1851. He left in October, 1862. 

Rev. P. Danaher came from Liverpool in 1861, and Rev. 
Jas. Kennedy, from Windsor in 1862. 

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Rev. E. Kennedy, who resided in Liverpool, visited this 
county, commencing in October, 1865, and continued his visits 
for five years, with an interval, during which Rev. J. R. Love- 
joy lived in Chester. 

Rev. David O'Connor again ofiiciated in this county (coming 
from Livei-pool) about 1871. 

The names of other priests are given in those parts of this 
work which relate to Chester, and Bridgewater. 


The history of this Church in the county, referred to else- 
where in this work, states : " In 1812, the Lunenburg Baptist 
Church was organized at North- West, and the Chester Church 
and this church are to be regarded as the parents of all the 
other Baptist churches in the county. New Ross, Chelsea, 
Bridgewater, New Germany, Tancook, Dayspring, New Corn- 
wall, Pleasantville, and Lunenburg town. 

" The La Have (now Dayspring) Baptist Church is an off- 
shoot from the North- West, or Lunenburg Baptist Church, and 
was organized on the 16th of November, 1853. When the 
pastorate of the Lunenburg Church was settled in charge of 
Rev. Maynard Parker, the La Have Church was formed, under 
the pastoral care of Rev. Bennett Taylor, who continued to 
cherish it during his life." 

The Baptist church in the town of Lunenburg was built in 
1884. The resident pastors have been Revs. S. H. Cain, J. W. 
Brown, J. S. Brown, and E. N. Archibald who is now in charge. 

A very great improvement has taken place in church archi- 
tecture. Some of the churches in this county, erected or 
reconstructed in recent yeara, are highly creditable to the 
people. Those have nearly become things of the past which 
answered to the description of M. Diferville, who, in 1708, 
writing of one at Port Royal, said, it was more like a barn than 
a temple of God. 

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Biographical Notices of prominent persons, other than Clergymen, 
who have lived in the Town of Lunenburg. 

JOHN CREIGHTON, the first person named in the Lunen- 
burg grant, was bom in 1721, at Glastonbury, in England, 
(a town famed for its " ruinous remains " of one of " the 
great abbacies of the Middle Ages"), and came to Nova Scotia 
in 1749, with his wife and four servants, in the Cliarlton frigate. 
Captain Richard Ladd, in the expedition with Governor Com- 
wallis. He was a lieutenant in the army, and served under 
George II. and III., saw some hard service on the Continent of 
Europe, and was wounded in the battle of Fontenoy. He was 
" among the officers discharged at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
in 1748, and was placed on the half -pay of Colonel Warburton's 
Regiment of Foot." 

Colonel Creighton was sent by Lord Comwallis to settle a 
number of the first emigrants from Germany at Lunenburg ; 
and was commanding officer of the block-house, then situated 
in Cook's lot, when the town was invaded ' by American priva- 
teei's. As Colonel of the militia he was much respected by 
the men who served under him. He was a Justice of the ' 
Peace, Judge of Probate, and a Judge of the Inferior Court, 
waa esteemed a shrewd and clever magistrate, and was generally 
consulted on matters of public importance. In 1798, he gave 
£100 to the funds raised by " loyal subscriptions " in aid of 

Lord William Campbell, in a letter dated September 17th, 
1767, wrote: "Mr. E. Crawley is returning to England, and 
resigns his seat in the Council ; " and he recommended in his 
place "Mr. John Creighton, who served as an officer in the 
army until the reduction of the troops in 1749, and since that 
time in this province, as a magistrate and Justice of the Court 
of Common Pleas, with a fair character and reputation : and I 

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further recommend him to your Lordship as a person perfectly 
attached to His Majesty's person and Government, and very 
capable of advising in the Council of this province." 

Mr. Creighton was appointed, and took his seat in the Upper 
Branch. He died at Lunenburg, on the 8th of November, 1807, 
aged eighty years. His children were, John, father of the late 
Hon. John Creighton, QC, M.L.C., a lieutenajit in the 19th 
Regiment, and afterwards captain in the Nottingham Fencibles, 
who served with the Duke of York in Holland; Joseph, a 
colonel, formerly residing at Halifax ; and Charles, a lieutenant 
in the army ; Sarah, wife of the late Judge Wilkins ; Lucy, 
who married the Hon. H. N. Binney ; and Jane, unmarried. A 
monument was erected to his memory by his children, in St. 
John's Church, Lunenburg. 

Leonard Christoplier Rudolf, the second proprietor named in 
the original grant, was the son of John Christopher Rudolf, 
gentleman, a descendant of the old family of Von Rudolf, of 
Thuringen, and was born at the village of Illesheim, three miles 
from the Imperial city of Windsheim, in Francony, Germany, 
where his father was secretary to the Ancient Free Barons of 
the Empire. 

When seven years old he was sent to school at Windsheim, 
where he remained eight years, attending the various classes in 
the Gymnaaium lUuatve. After being some two years in a 
business establishment at Roegen, he entered the service of the 
private secretary to the Duke of Wirtemburg. Several years 
after he became secretary to Prince William Von Durlach, who 
finally appointed him lieutenant in an infantry regiment. In 
1746, he attained the rank of Captain. 

In 1751, having been persuaded by his friend Dr. Erad, he 
came with him and his family to Nova Scotia, under the pro- 
tection of Lord Halifax. He states in his journal (which, as 
showing his recognition of the Supreme Being, he commenced 
with the following ascription : " Glory, honor, praise, thanks 
and adoration to the almighty, everlasting God, through Jesus 
Christ — Anaen") that he was appointed overseer, and his friend, 
medical adviser, to a company of immigrants. He was nomin- 

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ated a Justice of the Peace, for his services in which oflSce £50 was \ 
voted to him, June 6th, 1761, and he was connected with the first 
settlement of Germans and others. He wrote : " I built in four 
months a small, but strong house." His son, Francis J. Rudolf, 
father of the late John Joseph Rudolf, and grandfather of J. 
Jessen Rudolf, was bom in this house, May 18th, 1761. It was 
moved back on the same lot and added to, and is now occupied 
by Captain John Hebb. Mr. Rudolf was a Judge of the Inferior 
Court, first Registrar of Deeds, Colonel of Militia and Member 
of the House of Assembly for many yeara. He died in Lunen- 
burg, May 20th, 1784, aged seventy-four years, and was buried 
under the Lutheran church, of the congregation of which he 
was a member. 

DetLtb Christophei' Jessen was born at Holstein, in Germany, 
on the 25th of February, 1730 ; came to Halifax in 1752, and 
soon afterwards to Lunenburg. He was a Justice of the Peace^ 
Judge of the Inferior Court, Registrar of Deeds, Lieutenant- 
Colonel of Militia, Member of the House of Assembly, and a 
Commissioner to distribute the fanning implements and rations 
sent out for the early settlers. In 17S5, he was appointed 
Collector of Impost and Excise. He held the office in 1791. 
Mr. Jessen was a liberal benefactor to the Church of England, 
having subscribed £140 in aid of the funds of St. John s Church. 
The Lutheran Church is also indebted to him for a silver paten 
and two chalices. He died at Lunenburg, August 12th, 1814,. 
in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and a monument was 
erected to his memory in St. John's Church, Lunenburg. 

Mr. Jessen, shortly before his death (August 9th, 1814), 
requested the attendance of the rector and wardens at his 

house, and addressed them as follows : 


" The kind providence of God has been pleased to spare my 
life till this happy moment, wherein I have it in my power to 
manifest my love and high regard for the Established Church 
in this place, by presenting it with a bell for the steeple and a 
complete set of plate for the altar, for the sole use of said 

" I am now upon my death-bed, and, perhaps, to-morrow may 

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be in eternity (the awful sense of which is now deeply impressed 
upon my mind), to appear before God to give an account of my 
stewardship both as a public oflScer and private member of this 
society. With these the few last breaths of my life, I pray the 
peace of God upon you, and that when you hear the bell per- 
forming its duty in calling you to assemble at the house of 
God to worship Him, and that when you see the plate displayed 
at the altar for the administration of His Holy Sacrament, you 
may remember the prayer of this your brother and fellow- 
member of this chuixh. That the peace of God which passeth 
all human understanding may rest upon you, and that each 
member in his vocation may adorn the doctrine of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, as taught and preached in this 
church, is the fervent and devout prayer of your affectionate 
arid dying brother, D. C. Jessen." 

The whole cost of the articles named above was £133 19s. 3d. 

Philip Augustus Kmaut came from Saxony. .He and Otto 
W. Schwartz arrived at Halifax in the frigate Canning. At 
the first settlement of Lunenburg he was a coroner, and per- 
formed the duties appertaining to the office of sheriff. He 
was also a Justice of the Peace, kept one of the earliest stores 
opened in Lunenburg, and represented the county in the first 
Nova Scotia Parliament. He dealt largely in furs, purchased 
from the Indians, and it was said "that is the way he made his 
riches.'* Mr. Knaut left three children: Catharine, who married 
• Mr. Newton, collector at Halifax ; Sarah, and Benjamin who 
became Sheriff of the county. Some of Mr. Knaut s descendants 
still reside in the counties of Lunenburg, and Queen's. 

Among the earliest settlers at Lunenburg, was Martin Katd- 
bach, who came from Germany, and whose heirs are included in 
the list of original grantees. His son, Henry Kaulbach, was 
appointed Sheriff of Lunenburg in 1798, and was succeeded in 
that office by his son, the late John H. Kaulbach. One of 
Martin Kaulbach's great-grandsons, Hon. Henry A. N. Kaulbach, 
Q.C., was returned in 1863 to represent the county in the 
Provincial Legislature, and was afterwards called to the Senate, 
and another gi'andson, Charles E. Kaulbach, was first returned 

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in 1878, as representative for the county in the Dominion House 
of Commons. Martin Kaulbach was a voter at the first Lunen- 
burg election of Members of Assembly. 

Robert Bethel was one of the most worthy of the early 
inhabitants of Lunenburg. He was bom in Chester, England, 
in 1753, the year of the settlement of his afterwards adopted 
home. Before coming to the county he had been employed in 
the service of the Customs in Boston, New England. When 
war broke out between England and the United States, he 
joined the Orange Rangers, and after four years' service as 
lieutenant was promoted to the rank of captain. On the 
reduction of that corps he came to Nova Scotia, and settled in 
Lunenburg, where he held several important public offices. He 
was much esteemed, and bore the character of a truly honorable 
man. His death occurred at Lunenburg, Febi-uary, 1816. 

Edward James was one of those intimately connected with 
the advancement of the county at a later date. He was bom 
at Southampton, England, in 1757, and came to Lunenburg 
from New York, about the year 1780. Mr. James entered the 
Navy as midshipman at Portsmouth, in H.M.S. Dunkirk, sixty 
guns, and went to the West Indies. He also served on board 
the Resolution, and the Centaur (an old French ship), and 
afterwards came to America in the Roebuck. His ship and two 
others having been ordered to cover the landing of a body of 
troops, he was severely wounded and taken to New York^ 
where he remained six months. There he left the navy, by 
permission, and joined the army, obtaining a commission in 
the King's Orange Bangers, a regiment raised in New York, 
and commanded by Colonel John Bayard. He was at the 
taking of Fort Washington, where he was wounded ; also at 
the taking of Fort Lee, and afterwards came to Halifax with 
British troops commanded by Sir Henry Clinton. Mr. James 
served His Majesty faithfully during the revolutionary war in 
America, and was with the troops detached from New York by 
the above-named officer, and sent up the ^lorth River to reinforce 
the army under General Burgoyne. The Orange Rangers were 
disbanded at Halifax, and in that year Mr. James was put on 

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half -pay. He held the office of Sheriff of Lunenburg, was a 
Justice of the Peace for over fifty years, and Gustos of the 
county from 1823 to the time of his death. 

He married Sarah, daughter of Philip Knaut. They had six 
sons and six daughteiu Mary Ann married Rev. Adam Mos- 
chell, and Eleanor mamed the late John Koch, of Upper La 
Have. Mrs. Koch was a widow fifty-two yeara, and died in 
1880, in her eighty-eighth year. They had one son and seven 
daughter. One of the latter is Mrs. James Grinton, living at 
East Bridgewatei'. Arthur James, one of the sons of Edward 
James, was the father of Edward James, who formerly repre- 
sented this county in the House of Assembly, and of the late 
Mrs. John N. Hebb, of Bridge water. 

Jt»hn ITarley, Esq., M,D., was born in London, educated in 
Dublin, and studied medicine in that city with his uncle, 
Richard Glarke, during an apprenticeship of seven years, 
receiving, in 1797, from Andrew Thynne, M.D., a certificate 
of his diligent attendance on the lectures prescribed. After 
gi^aduating, he went to Portchester Castle, where there were 
five hundred French prisoners, many of whom were ill with 
typhus fever, to which disease he paid particular attention. 
He was persuaded by a brother, who was coming to America^ 
to accompany him, but he was so disappointed with the country, 
that if he had not written for his wife to come out, he would 
have returned. His sons John and Thomas, and his daughters 
Mary and Gharlotte, came with him. They had a very ix3Ugh 
passage of sixty days, and suffered much with sea-sickness. 
Three years were spent in Boston, where Dr. Harley heard 
from a gentleman who lived in Lunenburg, that typhus fever 
prevailed in the town, and that there was only one resident 
doctor, and he decided to remove there. In dealing with the 
disease, he was very successful, and it is said he lost but one 
patient — a man who, when becoming convalescent, went into 
his garden and ate green cucumbers. Dr. Harley lived in 
Lunenburg many yeare, and had a veiy extensive pi-actice. 

Owing to want of proper roads, much of a doctor s travel 
had to be done in the saddle, and Dr. Harley had many long^ 

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and hard journeys in that way. He once nearly lost his life 
by his horse breaking thix)\igh the ice, while returning from a 
visit to Martin Henneberry, of Chester. In 1832, Sir Peregrine 
Maitland appointed him surgeon in the Lunenburg militia. 
He died October 12th, 1846. His wife died January 14th^ 
1858, aged seventy-eight years. The Harley house in Lunen- 
burg was on the site of the present imposing residence of James 
Rudolf, Esq. The last of the family who lived there was Miss 
Charlotte Harley, who died in Qeneseo, Illinois, U.S., April 
I7th, 1894, aged ninety-three years. 

Hon. WiUiam Budolfy son of John Christopher and Elizabeth 
Rudolf, and grandson of Leonard Christopher Rudolf, one of 
the earliest settlers, was born at Lunenburg, June 6th, 1791. 
He was in early life in a West India business, in the firm of 
William Rudolf & Co. A member of the Church of England, 
he engaged actively in promoting its interests. He was elected 
a member of the House of Assembly in 1827, and served in 
that capacity until 1837, when he was appointed to a seat in 
the Legislative Council, holding that position until his death, 
January 1st, 1859, in his sixty-eighth year. Mr. Rudolf was a 
Justice of the Peace, Lieutenant-Colonel of Ist Battalion Lunen- 
burg Militia, Postmaster, Registrar of Deeds, isind held at dif- 
ferent times other public offices. He was twice married — first 
to Catharine Stevens, of Halifax, who died at the early age of 
twenty, and second to Anna Matilda Oxner (a daughter of 
John Nicholas Oxner and Anna Barbara Kaulbach, a sister of 
the late Sherifl^ Kaulbach), by whom he had six children. 

Anna M. Rudclf, widow of the late Hon. William Rudolf, and 
for many years Postmistress at Lunenburg, died December 14th„ 
1886, in the seventy-sixth year of her age. She was ill for some 
time previous to her decease, waited for her summons in quiet, 
submission to God's will, and passed away without suflTering 
Mrs. Rudolf was a willing worker in the interests of the 
Church of England, to which she belonged, giving cheerfully 
pecuniary and other aid, as required. She was a loving and 
devoted wife and mother, and a very kind and warm-hearted 
friend. Those who visited at her house can well remember- 

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the coixiial welcome they received. The surviving members 
of her family were three sons, W. Norman Rudolf (England); 
James Rupert Rudolf, of Lewis Anderson & Company ; J. M. 
Moyle Rudolf, Manager of Dominion Savings Bank; and one 
daughter, Louisa, wife of Charles Gray, Esq., M.D., Mahone 

On the day of the funeral, a cablegram announced the death 
on the same day of her son, W. Norman Rudolf, who had been 
engaged in business in Pictou, N.S., and afterwards in Glasgow, 
and Liverpool, G.B. He was a man of good business ability, 
upright an<i honorable, " kind and considerate to the poor and 
needy," and ready to all good works. The writer had personal 
experience of his kindness on his first visit to Pictou. 

Anna B. Oxner, mother of the late Mrs. William Rudolf, 
and sister of the late Sheriff Kaulbach, was bom in Lunenburg. 
She was married twice, had a family of seventeen children, and 
lived for many years at Lower La Have, in what is known as 
" Big House," from which a very beautiful view is had, where 
the warmest hospitality has always abounded. 

A privateer once came in by " Oxner's shoal," off the entrance 
to La Have River. Mrs. Oxner was in the garden picking 
cherries, and heard cries from the crews of three small coasting 
vessels, which were being closely pursued. She called her 
husband, and bravely followed him with a fire-brand to the 
fort on the hill above their house, where they fired a gun and 
hoisted a flag, as signals for the people to assemble. A shot 
from a 12-pounder, tearing up the water, hit the enemy 
under the bow, when she turned about and sailed towards 
Ironbound Island. 

When eighty-four yeara of age, Mrs. Oxner, with her son 
Ephraim, walked eight miles of the way to Lunenburg, and went 
the remaining two miles in a boat. He stopped, thinking she 
required rest, and heard her say, " Come along, you are only 
playing on the road." They had left home at an early hour, 
and arrived in time for breakfast at Sheriff Kaulbach's. In 
the forenoon she went to Hon, J. Creighton's and spent the 
day, and in the evening was one of the guests at a large party 

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at Mi's. George Oxner's, where she remained till two o'clock the 
next morning. Telling this, she said, " I didn't mind it." She 
was wonderfully erect and vigorous, even in advanced age, and, 
as she always had been, noted for great kindness. Two of her 
children (Joshua and Arabella) still reside at the old homestead. 
Her sister, Mrs. George Oxner, died at Lunenburg in 1887, aged 
ninety-three years. She was a very active old lady, and was 
only sick for about three weeks before her death. 

, Godfrey Jacobs, Esq,, M, D,, who was bom at Halifax, died at 
Lunenburg, May 28th, 1863, aged sixty-nine years. He was 
skilful in his profession, which he practised in Lunenburg and 
the surrounding country for forty years, and was highly and 
deservedly esteemed. His wife was Mary Ann, eldest daugh- 
ter of Rev Thomas Shreve. Three sons of the Doctor became 
members of the same profession. One of them, James Stan- 
nage Jacobs, M.D., called after Rev. John Stannage, ^practised 
in Lunenburg thirty-one years, and died there, February 3rd, 
1891, aged fifty-four years. He married at St. John, N.B., 
Henrietta, daughter of Lieutenant Samuel Huyghue, 60th 
Regiment. Their daughter Florence Edith is the wife of 
Charles W. Lane, Esq., Barrister. 

John Heckman, bom in Lunenburg, and who died there, April 
21st, 1871, aged eighty-six years, was an upright and straight- 
forward man, very highly and deservedly esteemed. He sat 
for twenty-eight years as a representative in seven Parliaments, 
from 1819 to 1847, and was called the Father of the House of 
Assembly. He held high rank in the militia, and was Gustos 
Rotulorum, and Registrar of Deeds for many years. 

Adolphus Gaetz, Esq,, was bom in Wertheim, River Main, 
Germany, May 13th, 1804, and came to Lunenburg in August, 
1832. He was in business there for some years as a dry goods 
merchant ; filled the office of Registrar of Probate for eight 
years, and was County Treasurer for fourteen years. He died 
April 12th, 1873. 

Mr. Gaetz was an honorable and upright man in all the 
relations of life. He kept a very neatly written journal of 
events as they ^occurred, from 1855 to 1873, to which, through 

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the kindness of his son, William A. Gaetz, Registrar of Probate, 
the writer is indebted for information. 

Hon, John Greighton, Q.C., M.L.C., grandson of the Colonel 
Creighton who was one of the earliest residents of Lunenburg, 
was born in Somersetshire, England, and came to Halifax when 
quite young. He has been described by those who knew him 
there, as a remarkably neat and gentlemanly lad. He studied 
law at Halifax, in the office of the first Judge Wilkins, and was 
admitted an attorney in 1816. In 1825, he was made a Queen's 
Counsel, and had for his circuit as Crown Prosecutor, the south 
shore from Lunenburg to Yarmouth. He continued to discharge 
his professional duties up to the time of his last illness. He 
was a member of the House of Assembly for many years, and 
was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1859. He was one 
of the Provincial Government when the late Hon. Judge 
Johnston was Premier; and President of the Legislative Council 
at the time of his death, which occurred at Lunenburg, March 
16th, 1878, at the age of eighty-four. His decease was noticed 
in the House of Assembly, on the 18th of March, by the Hon. P. 
Carteret Hill, Premier, who refeiTed to "his great professional 
knowledge and industry, his wisdom, sound judgment, and 
unbending integi-ity,'* and moved that the House should, as a 
mark of respect, adjourn until the next day at three o'clock. 
S. H. Holmes, Esq., Leader of the Opposition, seconded the 
motion, and, in closing, said: "It is appointed unto men once to 
die, but the Hon. Mr. Creighton has departed full of years, and 
full of honors, and I heartily concur in the propriety of adopt- 
ing the resolution moved by the Hon. Provincial Secretary." 
It passed unanimously. 

In the Legislative Council, on the same day, Hon. Robert 
Boak referred to the death of their late Pi'esident, and expressed 
the esteem in which he had held the deceased. He moved that 
the House do adjourn. This was seconded by Hon. Samuel 
Creelman, who said that Mr. Creighton had occupied the 
position of a teacher in the Council. He could say that he had 
learned much at his feet. For some years he had been the only 
legal member of the House, and the correctness of much of the 

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legislation during the time he sat here, was the result of the 
keen insight which he bestowed upon the various measures 
which came before the House. He was sure that they all felt 
grieved and sorrowful at the death of their late friend. The 
motion was supported by other gentlemen, and passed unani- 

JohTi H, Kavlhach, Esq., was the grandson of Martin Kaul- 
bach already referred to, and was bom in Lunenburg, April 10th, 
1797, and died there, February 25th, 1879. His father, Henry 
Eaulbach, who died in 1833, held the office of High Sheriff for 
thirty years, and resigned it in 1828, when the subject of this 
notice was gazetted to fill the same. Father and son held it for 
eighty years. The predecessors of the Kaulbachs in the office 
of Sheriff, were, in the order of appointment, Philip Knaut> 
Benjamin Knaut (Philip's son), William Dalton (1784) and 
Edward James (1788). 

The last Sheriff Kaulbach married, in 1826, Sophia Frederica, 
daughter of the late Adolphus Newman, Esq. She was a most 
estimable lady, and died at Lunenburg, August 14th, 1889, aged 
eighty-seven years. They left four children, Hon. Senator Kaul- 
bach, Archdeacon Kaulbach, Charles E. Kaulbach, M.P., and 
Sophia, widow of the late Hugh M. Moyle, Esq., Collector of 

Mr. Kaulbach was very closely attentive to the duties of his 
office, and bore throughout the Province the reputation of an 
excellent sheriff. He frequently stood between the poor and 
the removal of the property on which he had to levy, and w^as 
a kind-hearted man. At the same time he looked out well for 
his rights, and acquired a considerable fortune. He was a 
"total abstainer,'* and in his correct style of living set a 
good example to all who knew him. He was always active 
and vigorous, and performed many of his longest journeys 
on horseback, even to an advanced age. An attached member 
of the Church of England, he was a constant attendant 
on her services in his native town. He was a man of fine 
presence, and when presiding at the court-house on election 
days, with his cocked hat and sword, made a very imposing and 
martial appearance. ^ . 

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During the election riots in Pictoii, Sheriff Raulbach held a 
commission as sheriff for that county. 

Mrs. Charlea J. Rudolf, a sister of the late sheriff, died at 
Upper La Have, April 2nd, 1882, aged eighty-one years, greatly 
esteemed and regretted. 

Robert Scott was bom in Halifax, and died at Lunenburg, 
September 7th, 1879. He was for many years engaged in 
mercantile business, and was a prominent citizen, much esteemed 
in the community. His wife was a daughter of the late John 
Heckman, M.P.P. 

One of the best men who have lived in the county, was Jtulge 
George T, Solomon, He was bom at Halifax, N.S., A.D. 1800, 
and was the youngest son of John Solomon, Captain in the 
Duke of Kent's Nova Scotia Regiment. Three of his brothers, 
John, Edward and Charles, received commissions in the army 
through the influence of the Duke, who was a great friend of 
the family. One of his sisters, Charlotte, married Colonel 
McKenzie, of the 4th King's Own Regiment, and died in 
Australia. Another sister, Caroline, married Hon. Hibbert 
Binney, grandfather of the late Bishop of Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Solomon was educated at Windsor, studied law with Hon. 
Richard J. Uniacke, was a fellow-student of the late Beamish 
Murdoch, Q.C., admitted a barrister in 1822, and held the oflice 
of Judge of Probate for many years. He married Jane, second 
daughter of the late John Pemette, Esq., West La Have Ferry, 
and they lived to celebrate their golden wedding. 

On the 1st of September, 1863, Mr. Solomon commanded the 
1st Regiment of Lunenburg Militia, called out on that day for 
drill, none having been held for ©ver twenty years. 

In March, 1864, he received the distressing news of the death 
of two sons. A telegram came at noon that John, his eldest 
son, master of a ship owned in Canso, had been drowned. 
When last heard from, he had arrived at Philadelphia, and was 
loading there for another port. A few hours afterwards Mr. 
Solomon heard that his son George had been lost overboard 
from the ship Tecumseh, bound for Liverpool, England, four 
days after the voyage commenced. The sympathy felt for the 

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good old man and his family in their great grief, was deep and 

Mr. Solomon died August 19th, 1882, and his wife, February 
I7th, 1892, aged eighty-six yeara 

He was a typical gentleman, " one of the olden time." In 
his professional duties and in all his relations to God and his 
fellowmen, he was just and true in the strictest sense. During 
his long life in Lunenburg he was universally esteemed, and 
the large concourse of clergy and laity who attended the inter- 
ment, showed how great was the loss sustained by his death. 

Robert Lindsay, Esq,, died at Lunenburg, December 11th, 
1883, aged sixty-five years. He was a native of Castle Doug- 
lass, Kircudbrightshire, Scotland. 

The notice of his death, published at Lunenburg in the 
above-named year, stated that " he was one of our most highly 
respected merchants and citizens. He came to Nova Scotia 
over forty years ago, and established himself in a general dry 
goods business in this town. 

" The tidings of his death will be heard with regret by his 
numerous friends in Lunenburg and the county generally. As 
a citizen he was ever ready to advocate and support anything 
calculated to advance the interests of the town. As a business 
man he bore a reputation for sterling integrity. He was kind 
to the poor — in him there beat a kindly and generous heart." 

Mr. Lindsay was engaged in shipping, in fishing and foreign- 
going vessels. He was an enthusiastic amateur farmer, and 
improved a tract of about twenty acres near the town. 

The following additional biographical notices have been taken 
from local newspapers : 

Dr, Joseph Steverman, an old and highly respected resident 
of this county, passed away on September 24th, 1886, at the 
advanced age of seventy-seven years and ten months. The 
deceased was a native of Westphalia, a Province of Pruasia, 
where he studied medicine, emigrating to Nova Scotia in 1830. 
For five years he practised his profession in Halifax, removing 
to Lunenburg in 1835. In 1836, he obtained an additional 
diploma in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, 

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He married Mary Ann Schrage, daughter of a former promi- 
nent and wealthy citizen of Halifax. After about forty years 
of practice in Lunenburg, he retired, and lived a quiet and 
secluded life on his beautiful property at Lily Dale. He left 
two sons and four daughters. 

Mr, Cfuirles T, Godfrey, an old and esteemed resident of 
Lunenburg, died there in December, 1886. He was bom in 
London, England, September 3rd, 1816, and was a son of the 
late Thomas Godfrey, and came here with his parents some 
sixty-five years ago. His father held the position of Collector 
of Customs, having previously been purser in the British Navy, 
and prize agent at Halifax during the war of 1812. At the 
close of the war he was recalled to England, taking with him 
his young bride, and remained there until his appointment of 
collector for this town. The eldest son, William, was also bom 
in England, and was educated for the Church in this Province, 
and held the position of Rector of Clementsport, in Annapolis 
county, for over forty years. The third brother, Arthur, was 
a projector of the Intercolonial Railway. During his early 
life Mr. Godfrey occupied many positions of trust, and was 
postmaster for a considerable length of time. He was honest, 
sober, and respected in the community. 

Stephen Finck, Esq,, died at his residence on Friday after- 
noon, October 21st, 1887. The deceased was bom November 
8th, 1838. He was a magistrate, and was for several years 
High Sheriff of the county. Trustee of Common Lands, a fire- 
ward, an honorary member of " Relief " fire company, and 
several times trustee of the public schools, taking a special 
interest in the well-being of the county academy. Mr. Finck 
was also agent at Lunenburg for the Merchants* Bank. He 
was for several years captain in the 75th Battalion, Canadian 
militia, was subsequently appointed paymaster, and afterwards 
attained the rank of major. He took a keen interest in rifle- 
shooting, and was one of the best shots in the country, often 
attending the annual competitions at Bedford, where he won a 
number of prizes. He was at one time a warden of St. Jolin's 
Episcopal Church, and for several years teacher in the Sunday 
School connected with that church. 

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Gentle and pleasing in manner, refined in feeling, warm- 
hearted and genial, though somewhat retiring in disposition, 
and always most generous towards religious and charitable 
objects, it is not sui-prising that he had many friends, and few 
men in this town would be more generally missed or more 
sincerely lamented. The simplicity of his life, the rectitude of 
his character, his unswerving honesty and his sterling worth, 
gained him universal esteem and affection. 

He was buried with military honors. The funeral cortege 
consisted of a firing party of forty-four men of the 75th 
Battalion, who fired three volleys over the grave ; the band of 
the battalion, which played " Webster's Funeral March " after 
leaving the church, and "Pleyells Hymn" at the grave; a 
number of his brother ofiicers in uniform, clergymen, doctors, 
and a veiy large number of citizens. 

Another well-known citizen and upright man, Mr. Michael 
Anderson, carried on a boat-building business for many years. 
Those who knew him well say that he was scrupulously honest 
in all business transactions, the best of fathers, a true friend, 
and was always considered one of the leading citizens of 

John Joseph Rv/iolf, grandson of Leonard Christopher Rudolf 
{before referred to) was bom in Lunenburg, November 19th, 
1807. He had only one brother, Francis Jessen, who died in 
1837. He received his education at the Grammar School, 
Lunenburg, and at the Collegiate Academy, Windsor. He was 
engaged in the shipping business for many years in partnership 
with different relatives, and subsequently kept a general store, 
moving into his late residence and place of business, one of the 
largest and most commodious in town, early in 1883. He was 
attentive to business, and was generally liked by those with 
whom he came in contact. -He always manifested great interest 
in matters connected with the welfare of his native place. He 
was one of the thirty-two original members of the Lunenburg 
** Crown" fire company formed in 1829, only three of whom are 
now living; also Justice of the Peace for the county, and 
Lieut. -Colonel of the 2nd Battalion of Lunenburg Militia. He 

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was made a Master Mason in 1828, but was not actively con- 
nected with the Masonic body during the latter part of his life. 
He passed away calmly and peacefully on the afternoon of 
Sunday, the 20th of November, 1887. His widow, Mary Caro- 
line, died in April, 1890, in her eightieth year. 

Lewis Anderson, Esq,, died at Lunenburg, on the evening of 
Wednesday, April 11th, 1888. 

The deceased gentleman had for many years occupied a most 
prominent place amongst the leading townsmen of Lunenburg, 
being known throughout the surrounding country as a man of 
sterling qualities. His remarkably clear judgment and keen 
foresight enabled him to plan and carry out successfully, the 
most extensive undertakings connected with the chief business 
in which he was engaged for more than a quarter of a century, 
as a West India merchant. 

Withdrawing from the firm of J. D. Eisenhauer & Co., he 
purchased the property known as Anderson s wharf, taking 
into partnership Mr. James R. Rudolf to assist him in his new 
venture, under the name of Lewis Andei*son & Co. 

A man of the strictest integrity and honor, he was respected 
and esteemed by all. He was courteous, affable and easily 
approached. A true friend, large-hearted, sympathetic, kindly, 
he was ever ready to give advice or to relieve distress when- 
ever it was brought to his notice. 

On Monday, April Ist, 1889, Henry S. JostyE8q.,B,n aged and 
venerable citizen, was taken ill, and at 7.30 o'clock the same 
evening, died of congestion of the lungs. Mr. Jost was bom in 
the city of Halifax, on the 28th of May, 1804, and, consequently,, 
was in the eighty-fifth year of his age. In 1826, he removed 
to Lunenburg, being in the mercantile trade here for more than 
forty years. Before leaving Halifax, Mr. Jost joined the militia 
as a private, and after coming here worked himself, step by 
step, into the office of Lieut.-Colonel, a rank which he held in the 
reserve militia at the time of his death. In 1848, he was made 
a magistrate, and in 1851, was fii'st elected to represent Lunen- 
burg in the Parliament of this Province. He contested the 
county in 1855 and 1859, and was defeated both times, but was 

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successful in 1863, defeating the Hon. Joseph Howe. The 
deceased was a warm supporter of Confederation, and for a 
decade or more was Gustos of this county, until the law was 
changed. He was a Free Mason of sixty years* standing, and 
was also District Deputy Grand Master. He filled the office of 
Overseer of Fisheries for the County of Lunenburg, to the 
satisfaction of the public. 

One of Mr. Jost's daughters is the wife of Mr. Daniel J. 
Rudolf, of Finck & Co. A son, Mr. H. M. Jost, was postmaster 
at Lunenburg, and died there, May 28th, 1891. 

On Thursday, September 15th, 1892, Oeorge Acker y the 
oldest person in or around Lunenburg, was called away. " He 
was bom April 20th, 1799, and was therefore ninety- three 
years of age last April, and up to within a day of his death he 
was hale and bright, and his intellect vigorous. His memory 
was excellent, and he could relate many of the notable events 
since 1815, and often spoke of hearing the explosion at the 
blowing-up of the privateer Teazer in Mahone Bay on the night 
of the 13th of June, 1813, He lived in two centuries, and 
under four -sovereigns, viz., George III. and IV., William IV. 
and Victoria. He was very intelligent, and was an active 
business man before most now living were bom, having begun 
packeting between Lunenburg and Halifax eighty years ago, 
which business he continued fifty-four years. He was married 
sixty-five years, and left a wife eighty-five years of age, thirteen 
children, thirty-two grandchildren and thirteen great-grand- 
children. The homestead which he always occupied was 
granted to his grandfather in 1754, and has been left to his 
son George, who worked on it from boyhood, so that it still 
remains in the hands of George Acker, he being the fourth one 
of that name to hold it. 

Charles C. Aitken, Esq., M.D. — The Frogress of August 14th, 
1895, contained the following notice of the decease of the 
above-named gentleman : " About two months ago. Dr. Aitken 
remarked to a friend that he was not feeling well. He, how- 
ever, kept on practising till some two weeks later, when he was 
compelled to take to his bed and become the patient of Drs. 

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Mack and Gray. In the face of their best efforts, seconded by 
<5areful nursing, he gradually sank, expiring at eleven o*clock on 
Saturday evening at the age of seventy -one. Deceased was a 
son of Lieutenant Roger Aitken, of the Royal Navy, and 
grandson of the Rev. Roger Aitken, who came from Scotland to 
Lunenburg in 1816, and for eight ye^rs performed the duties 
of rector of St. John's Church. While his father was rector. 
Lieutenant Aitken visited Lunenburg, married a daughter of 
Dr. Bolman, and afterwards resided here. Unto this couple 
were born two children, one being Charles C, who, after 
obtaining a good common school education, became a 
student at King s College, Windsor. On finishing a collegiate 
-courae he went to Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, and there studied 
medicine with Dr. Goff, and a few years later on he graduated 
at Harvard. Shortly after becoming an M.D. he settled in 
Pictou, where he practised for some time. Eventually he moved 
to Biidgewater, and two years later returned to his native 
town, where he built up a wide practice, made hosts of warm 
friends, and enjoyed the confidence of the community at large 
till the last moment of his life. This will be apparent when 
it is known that all through Sunday, and up to the closing of 
the casket on Monday, men and women in numbers from the 
outlying sections came to town to take a parting look at one 
who had been their family doctor for well on to forty years." 
The funeral was attended by seven clergymen, five medical 
men, the resident barristers, and a large concourse from town 
and country. 

In the cemetery at Lunenburg, near to handsome monuments 
erected for members of the Kaulbach family, is one in memory 
of the historian of Nova Scotia. On one side is the inscription: 
" In Memoriam. Beamish Murdoch, Esq., Q.C., of this Province, 
and D.C.L. of Kings College, Windsor. Bom August 1, 1800. 
Departed this life February 9, 1876. Requiescat in pace,'* On 
the other sides are the mottoes respectively: " Celebrated in 
Law," " Celebrated in Politics," " Celebrated in Literature." 

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DiBtinguished Visitors and Public Celebrations — First Mayor and 
Council — Town of Lunenburg. 

IN 1821, Sir James Kempt, Lieut-Governor, visited Lunen- 
burg in the Chebucto (Lieutenant Stewart, commander). He 
was accompanied by Lord Frederick Lennox, and Lieut- 
Colonel Arnold. 

Amongst the notabilities who have from time to time resided 
in Lunenburg, was the late General Sir John E. Inglis, who was 
sent by his father, the last venerable Bishop of that name^ 
in 1832, to St, John's rectory, to pursue under Rev. James C. 
C!ochran, until he should obtain his commission, those studies 
which might be of service to him in his future profession. 
While there, he received his commission in 1833. His horse, 
dog and gun afforded him that recreation with which he was 
most pleased. He endeared himself to all with whom he was 
acquainted. He afterwards became, by his deeds of valor, the 
hero of " immortal Lucknow s tale." 

On the 28th of June, 1838, there was a celebration at Lunen- 
burg in honor of the coronation of Queen Victoria. Bells were 
rung and cannon discharged at sunrise. A grand procession 
was formed. Militia under Major Hunt as marshal, and Captain 
Anderson, with music and colors ; Sherift' Chief Justice, Clergy- 
men, Custos and magistrates, gentlemen of the Bar, Doctors of 
medicine, and people from town and country. A bountiful 
lunch was enjoyed in " Mrs. Oxner's long room." An eloquent 
speech was made by the Chief Justice. The proceedings ended 
with a fine illumination. 

Centenary Celebration. 

The 7th day of June, 1853, was the centenary of the found- 
ing of Lunenburg. The following programme of proceedings 
was prepared ; 

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Decided that twenty-five rounds be fired from Barrack Hill. 

Twenty -five rounds at Rous's Hill, after the oration by the 
Hon. Wm. Rudolf. 

Twenty -five rounds at 4 p.m., at block-house. 

Twenty-five rounds at sunset, at block-house. 

That John Ernst promise to get men to attend field-pieces 
and make cartridges. 

Pbocbssion at 10 o'clock a.m., from Court-house. 

Ist Artillery Company. 


Volunteer Company. 

Sheriff, mounted on horseback. 

Ministers, robed. 


Gentlemen of the Bar. 




Final fireworks at 8.30 p.m., from Block-house Hill. 

On the Sunday previous, Rev. H. L. Owen preached a sermon 
in St. John's Church, having reference to the event to be 
celebrated on the following Tuesday, on which day the inhabi- 
tants of Lunenburg and the surrounding country kept high 
fe^ival in commemorating the landing of those who gave 
Lunenburg '* a local habitation and a name," and laid the foun- 
dation of that wealth and prosperity which, in the short space 
of one hundred years, became on every side so clearly discern- 
ible. Men they were who well deserved to be thus held in 
remembrance by a grateful posterity. May each succeeding 
centenary find the county advancing still more rapidly than it 
has hitherto done. At sunrise on the day named a salute of 
twenty-five guns was fired from Block -house Hill, accompanied 
])y the ringing of all the bells in the town. Appropriate ser- 
vices were held in St. John's Church at ten o'clock, after which 
a procession of the inhabitants, headed by the sheriff, magis- 
trates and other county ofiicials, marched to ** Rous's Brook," 
where an oration was delivered by Hon. Wm. Rudolf, in which 
he gave an account of the landing of the first settlers on the 

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spot where they were then assembled, after a long and tedious 
voyage, and also of the perils and hardships they had endured 
through the early years of the settlement. At noon twenty- 
five rounds of cartridge were fired, and the procession re-formed 
and marched through the town. A third round of twenty-five 
guns was fired at one o'clock from Gallow's Hill by the artillery 
company, and the assembled thousands amused themselves in a 
variety of ways until sunset, when the last round of twenty- 
^ve guns was fired from Block-house Hill, and a display of 
fireworks at the same place closed the deeply interesting 
proceedings of the day. To commemorate the occasion an oak 
was planted on the hill where the Academy had been recently 

June 9th, 1856, was recommended by the Governor to be kept 
as a public holiday " to celebrate the peace." Four guns were 
fired at sunrise, and at noon twenty-one, both from Block-house 
Hill, Lunenburg, with ringing of church bells. Flags were all 
about the town, and from the masts of vessels in port. " Fiddles, 
fifes, drums, tambourines, and penny whistles were played by the 
band through the streets, at which time numerous flags were 
<jarried, and followed by nearly all the boys in town, each one 
endeavoring to make as much noise as his lungs would allow 
him." A salute at 7.30 o'clock, and fireworks from the church 
square closed the proceedings. 

August 9th, 1858. — The Earl and Countess of Mulgrave 
landed at Lunenburg, from H. M. S. Styx (Captain C. Vesey), 
under a salute from Block-house Hill. An address was read to 
the Earl at the court-house by Rev. H. L. Owen. A drawing- 
room reception was af terwaixis held by the Countess at the 
house of John Creighton, Esq. Escorted by a party of ladies 
and gentlemen, their Excellencies drove to Mahone Bay, and 
returned to Mr. Creighton's residence. On re-embarking, the 
Countess observing two gigs in the harbor, offered a prize to be 
rowed for at 6 p.m. One boat was disabled, and returned ; the 
other went round the course and received the purse of $10, 
which would have been much larger but for the accident. A 
great number of persons were present, who were disappointed 
in not seeing an actual contest. ^ j 

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On the 3rd of August, 1861, H. M. S. Nimble arrived with the 
Honorables Joseph Howe, John H. Anderson, and Adams G. 
Archibald to settle disputes at the Ovens. 

The Nimble arrived again on the 12th of August, with 
Lieut-Governor the Earl of Mulgrave, some members of his 
Council and Vice- Admiral Milne. 

June 7th, 1862. — One hundred and ninth anniversary of the 
landing of first settlers at Lunenburg. There was a salute at 
6 a.m., ringing of bells at eleven o'clock, and a procession to 
the court-house, headed by the Sherifl; mounted, and thence to 
the landing-place, where the crowd was addressed by the Gustos, 
John Heckman, Esq., and Rev. H. L. Owen, after which a salute 
of eighteen guns was fired, and the procession re-formed and 
marched to the court-house. Three hearty cheers for the Queen. 

April 14th, 1863. — Day appointed to celebrate the marriage 
of the Prince of Wales. There was a great display of flags at 
Lunenburg, and a procession of volunteera, school children, 
clergy, lawyers, magistrates. Free Masons, and hundreds of 
others to Block-house Hill. A royal sabite was fired by the 
artillery, followed by the ringing of bells, and a march through 
several streets in town. A halt was made in front of the 
court-house, the children were feasted, and three cheers were 
given for the Queen. 

The Confederation of the British North American Provinces 
was celebrated in Lunenburg, July 1st, 1867. The proceedings 
were commenced with a salute of twenty-one guns before 
sunrise, by the Volunteer Artillery Company, followed by 
the ringing of all the church bells. Flags were displayed in 
many quarters. The artillery company, preceded by a band, 
marched to the square in front of the Academy, after service, 
numerously attended, had been held in St. John s Church. The 
High Sherifl^, wearing his official hat and sword, read Her 
Majesty's proclamation ; which done, hearty cheers were given 
for the Queen and the Dominion. The National Anthem was 
rendered, and a great gathering of children sang an ode pre- 
pared for the occasion. Additional cheers were given for the 
Queen and the Dominion, followed by a second salute, the band 

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finishing with " God Save the Queen." The people were then 
treated to good music, as the band paraded through the town. 
High holiday was kept, and a salute of twenty-one guns ended 
the day's rejoicings. 

On the 1st day of September, 1891, the coi-ner-stone of the 
handsome new brick building for court-house and public 
offices, in Lunenburg, was laid with Masonic ceremonies, by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles J. McDonald, Grand Master. He 
was presented with a trowel of solid silver, which he used on 
the occasion, manufactured by J. Cornelius, of Halifax, and 
suitably inscribed. 

The churches, the court-house and post-office buildings, 
with the provisions made in the two latter for the several 
departments of the public service; the Academy and other 
buildings, with the steps being taken to supply the town with 
pure water, place Lunenburg well in the foreground, as one of 
the most advanced towns in Nova Scotia. 

In 1888, Lunenburg was incorpomted under Chapter I., Acts 
of same year, and Augustus J. Wolff, Esq., was, on November 
20th, elected first mayor. He was bom near the city of StraJ- 
sund, in Prussia, Germany. Mr. Wolff followed the sea, and 
having pa&sed the Board of Trade at Liverpool, G.B., received 
a master s certificate, being then mate of the barque Mary, 
in which vessel he came to Bridgewater the following year. 
Among the vessels commanded by him were the Jura and 8i. 
KUda. He left the latter ship in 1880, and in 1881 settled at 
Lunenburg, becoming ship broker and insurance agent. He 
was, at two elections subsequent to the first, returned as mayor, 
by acclamation, and was re-elected in 1895. 

The councillors returned at the first election were: David 
Smith, S. Watson Oxner, Charles Hewitt, Allan Morash, Daniel 
J. Rudolf, and James A Hirtle, Esquires. 

S.'Watson Oxner, Esq., was elected mayor in 1891, and at 
each election thereafter, until 1895. 

" Rising Sun Lodge," of the Order of Oddfellows, with brethren 
of " La Have Lodge," assembled on the 18th February, 1894, at 
St. John's Church, Lunenburg, where a sennon was preached 

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by Rev. H. How, B.A., Rector of Annapolis. Next evening, a 
social entertainment was held, presided over by the Mayor, S. 
Watson Oxner, Esq. The preacher of the previous day was 
presented with a handsome gold-headed ebony cane. Addresses 
were delivered by the Chairman, Thos. Howe, and W. A. Letson, 
Elsqs., Rev. J. L. Batty, A. K. McLean, Elsq., Rev. Messrs. Brown, 
and Archibald, and a reading was given by Judge Chesley. 

" The Right Worthy Grand Orange Lodge of Nova Scotia " 
held its thirty-sixth annual session in Lunenburg, on Tuesday, 
February 20th, 1894. There were forty-eight delegates in 
attendance, of whom thirteen were from different parts of this 
county. After the reception of the annual report, oflScers for 
the ensuing year were installed, and among them S. D. Grand 
Master, Lewis Church, Chester. 

On Wednesday evening, the Orangemen marched with the 
band of the 75th to the drill shed, where addresses were 
delivered by the Grand Master and others, including Revs. J. L. 
Batty, D. McGillivray, and E. N. Archibald, and W. A. Letson, Esq. 

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Kingsburg, Ritcey's Cove, and adjacent Settlements. 

KINGSBURG, upper and lower, was settled originally by- 
families named Mossman, Keizer, Knock, and Hautman. 
The last mentioned sold their property and removed to other 
districts. Many descendants of the settlers above named still 
reside at Eangsburg and elsewhere in the county. They liave 
always been a frugal, saving people, which has often enabled 
them to loan money freely. Kingsburg was called, at one time, 
" a bank for Lunenburg ; " and a number of young men have 
been enabled to start in life by assistance there obtained. Per- 
haps there is no place in the county where the sterling virtues 
of the first settlera are more fully displayed than at Kings- 
burg. The simple habits of the people have ensured to many 
of them a good old age. 

Rose Bay, near to Kingsburg, is prettily situated. Small 
islands, with white sand beaches, which form a pleasing con- 
trast to the green trees above them, make up, with the 
village itself, a charming picture, as it meets the eye of the 
traveller, on his emerging from the woods lying between the 
two settlements. 

On the 3rd day of June, 1794, the brig Falmouth (William 
Corran, master), which sailed from Port Royal on the 24th of 
March, bound for Belfast, Ireland, anchored in Rose Bay. 
Joseph Porter, passenger, had been murdered by the captain, 
who was carried on shore, committed to prison, and taken to 
Halifax. He was convicted in the Admiralty Court, Governor 
Wentworth presiding, and suffered death at Point Pleasant. 
Having been a man " distinguished by the generaUquietness and 
inoffensiveness of his manners," temporary insanity may, it 
has been thought, have led to the deed. 

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132 history of the county of lunenburg. 

Ritcey's Cove, Creeser's Cove, and Five Houses. 

The coves above named are inlets of the La Have Riveiv 
and, with the Five Houses, are situated on its eastern side, 
nearly opposite Fort Point. They are places of some impor- 
tance, on account of the fishing business carried on in vessels 
owned there. Excellent farms add to the means of wealth 
enjoyed by the people. In these settlements, as well as at New 
Dublin, busy scenes are witnessed on the return of the fisher- 
men; and the flakes which line the shores are often covered 
for miles with choice codfish and haddock. 

Ritcey's Cove is crossed by a bridge six hundred feet long. 
There have been great improvements in dwellings and stores at 
the Cove and vicinity, and much taste is evinced in the display 
of handsome flowers in houses and gardens. The stime may be 
said of the whole river side. 

The Methodist Church at the Cross Roads, near Ritcey's- 
Cove, was built about the year 1870, and took the place of one 
built at the Cove many years before. The church at Middle La 
Have was opened during the ministry of the Rev. Joseph Gaetz 
(Lunenburg), and the church at Feltzen South, in the last year 
of the ministry of Rev. R. Williams. 

In 1879, a separation was made from the Lunenburg Circuit: 
and La Have Ferry, Ritcey's Cove, Rose Bay, Upper and •Lower 
Kingsburg, Middle South, and Feltzen South, were formed into 
the Ritcey's Cove Circuit. The following are the names of the 
clergymen who have resided at the Cross Roads, where a, 
parsonage was completed in August, 1879 : Revs. Ai*thur 
Hockin, D. B. Scott, G. O. Huestis, R. Williams, J. L. Batty, 
William Ainsley, and Oskar Gronlund. 

Rev. Frederick A. Bowe7% who lives at the Cross Roads, is 
the pastor of the Lutheran Church. He is a son of the first 
Lutheran pastor of Bridgewater, and a grandson of Rev. Dr. 
Cossmann. The church, St. Matthew's, was built in 1846. Mr. 
Bowers also ofiiciates at St. John's, Feltzen South, and St. 
Mark's, Middle La Have. His predecessor was the Rev. George 
W. Scheidy. This district ceased to be a part of the Lunenburg 
Mission, January 3rd, 1890. 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 133 

Incident at Creeser's Cove. 

In the early part of this century two Frenchmen and an 
Englishman went to the house of George Creeser, Lower La 
Have. They left Halifax in a ship's long boat, intending to 
escape to the United States, and were wrecked near La Have, 
at which place they became a cause of annoyance to the inhabi- 
tants. In endeavoring to get from the beach to Mr. Creeser's 
shallop, of which they meant to take possession, the boat upset 
and one of the Frenchmen was drowned. He was buried at the 
Five Houses. The others remained at Mr. Creeser s for a day 
or two, and were taken to Lunenburg and thence to Halifax. 
The surviving Frenchman placed his hand on his side and made 
signs to Mr. Creeser to take out something, and he removed a 
double-barrelled pistol, which was afterwards in possession of 
James Creeser, Creeser's Cove. The body of the deceased 
Frenchman was, it is said, disinterred by persons from another 
district in hopes of finding money, which it was believed had 
been buried with him, as the survivor had a belt filled with 
gold pieces. The result of the search is unknown. Mra. George 
Creeser, who saw the runaways, said that one of them wore 
epaulettes, and that they were all above the position of ordinary 

The settlement of Five Houses, which for many years had 
five dwellings, but now has eight, is prettily situated. On a 
hill above it may be seen the mounds of an old defence, and a 
cannon formerly used for alarms when privateers were at hand. 
A most extensive view of land, river and bay is here aflforded. 

Oxner's Beach. 

The largest sand beach in the county is directly in front of 
Five Houses. It was found on measurement by Mr. Lawson, 
formerly Crown Land Surveyor, to contain seventy-five acres. 
It was much used in old times for militia drill. 

At low water it is travelled on foot or in carriages, whereby 
much of the main road is avoided and thfe distance materially 
lessened. When the tide is in it is crossed in boats. 

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Close to this beach is the Presbyterian manse, which has been 
occupied successively by Rev. Donald McMillan, Rev. Isaac 
Simson, and Rev. George A. Leek. It has been sold, and the 
minister will occupy a new manse at the Cross Roads, near the 
church which was built in 1890. The other church is a union 
building at Middle La Have, erected in 1870. This mission 
was formerly visited by Rev. A. Moschell, and Rev. W. Duff. 

Parks* Creek. 

William Parks, son of James, one of the early settlers at 
Petite Riviere, went to La Have River when the land was 
covered with woods to the water's edge. The place at which 
he settled is one of the most prettily situated and flourishing 
districts on the river, where the descendants of Mr. Parks still 
reside and worthily represent the good old stock from which 
they sprang. He died November 12th, 1838, aged eighty-six 
years. The same age was attained by Miss Ann Parks, who 
lived in the house built by William, and died there in 1875. 
She was afflicted with blindness for eight years, but was con- 
tented and cheerful, and well remembered the events of early 
days. Her brother William was the father of William now 
residing at Parks' Ferry. Stedman Parks, son of the latter, 
was drowned in the Bay of Fundy. He did excellent work in 

Parks' Creek is crossed by a substantial bridge which shortens 
very much the old route to Ritcey's Cove. 

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The Ovens, and Gold Discoveries there, with accounts of other 

THE "Ovens" are situated on a peninsula a mile and a 
half in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth, 
distant four miles by water, and twelve miles by land, from the 
town of Lunenburg, and have long been objects of attraction to 
strangers visiting the county. They are deep caverns worn in 
the sides of the rocky cliff, the largest of which is about eighteen 
feet in height, and forty or more in depth. The sea, when 
moved by a storm, rushes into them with a noise like the report 
of heavy cannon. There is a legend that an Indian who entered 
the largest oven in his canoe made his exit at Annapolis. Some 
years ago a party went into the same oven at low water, and 
the tide returning faster than they expected, upset their boat 
and rendered their escape diflBcult. 

The northern side of the peninsula " is a ridge formed chiefly 
of quartzite and slate," and its southern side " is principally 
composed of metamorphic slate containing thin seams of quartz." 

The Ovens were brought more prominently into notice on the 
discovery there of auriferous quartz, by James Dowling, Esq., 
on the I3th of June, 1861, in a vein three-quarters of an inch 
thick on the "bluff"; and in July following, John Lawson, Esq., 
then Government Surveyor for the county, discovered gold in 
the sand on the shore. Claims were eagerly sought after; 
many persons went earnestly to work, and the result gave 
promise of a plentiful supply of the precious metal, and imparted 
a stimulus to the prosperity of Lunenburg. 

The leads of quartz at the surface are generally small, being 
composed of a number of veiy thin veins. As their depth 
increases the leads increase in size and richness. Veins of 

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three-quarters of an inch at the surface, have, at a depth of 
twenty feet, increased to the thickness of five inches. 

The official returns from 1861 to 1864 gave 1,282 ounces of 
gold from the Ovens district, of which over 1,000 ounces were 
from alluvial washings in 1861 and 1862. These were found 
in a cove " formed by the rapiij disintegration of the slates, into 
which the sand of the shore and debris of the slate Avith gold 
had been collected." It is said that a few lots on this beach 
were " sold for $4,800, with a reservation of one-quarter, and 
after, as it is believed, a large amount of gold had been removed." 
The gold appears in "jagged grains and scales, as if it had been 
melted and suddenly cooled." Several nuggets were obtained. 
The largest was attached to a piece of reddish-colored quartz, 
and weighed one ounce and a half. 

An assay of gold gave from 100 parts : 

Gold 93.06 

SUver 6.60 

Copper 0.09 

Iron— a trace ; 


It was estimated that the quantity of gold obtained gave a 
slight average over one ounce per month to each miner employed. 

It has been declared by scientific men that gold abounds at 
the Ovens, but capital and labor are required to a much greater 
extent than has yet been supplied. 

The following is from a report to the Government, by Henry 
P. Poole, Esq., in 1861: 

"The gold district is at present confined to the peninsula 
known as the Ovens, from the caves of which I counted four- 
teen in the cliffi? on the shore, and which are constantly forming 
and washing away by the action of the sea at high tide. Dur- 
ing storms in particular, the waves dash with great violence 
against the cliffs, which are about fifty feet high, and composed 
of alternate bands of hard and soft laminated slates, with quartz 
veins, and cubical iron, and arsenical pyrites bands intermixed. 
At these Ovens the coast section shows these bands dipping to 
the north at an angle of 75°, and strike S. 75° W., to N. 75^ E., 

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while the slaty cleavage is about vertical. The constant action 
of the salt water decomposes the pyrites and crumbles the 
softer slates and decayed quartz away. ^ 

" The following claims appear to be rich : Nos. 1 to 7 (Cunard, 
Benjamin, etc.), also 53 to 68 ; No. 58 on the ** Fish House " 
point, particularly so. The largest piece of gold was found on 
No. 107. Very rich washings were also obtained at Nos. 117, 
118, and 119. On Bowling's claim the gold was found in the 
cross veins of quartz ; but in the other claims the gold was 
principally found in the veins running parallel with the slates, 
varying in thickness from the eighth of an inch up to one inch, 
while some of the cross veins are six inches in thickness." 
From Report of Commissioner of Mines for 1869 : 

" The works in this district, principally carried on by Smith, 
McKay, and associates, by whom a considerable amount of 
labor was performed, have not as yet been attended with very 
satisfactory results. The Waddelow mine at Indian Path has 
been to a large extent idle, at which I am the more surprised, 
as, from the appearance of the lode when visited by me in 1868, 
I had every i-eason to believe it would pay a handsome profit ; 
and I strongly suspect that the want of success is largely due 
to the crushing and amalgamating apparatus, particularly the 
latter, which, like the appliances generally used in the Province, 
is only adapted to secure the coarse free gold/' 

The following are from entries made by the late Adolphus 
Gaetz, Esq.: 

" 1861. July 4th. — Great excitement in consequence of gold 
found at Ovens. Beautiful specimens. 

" July 16th. — About one hundred gold-hunters arrived. 

" July 22nd. — Ovens attracting attention of whole Province. 

" August 2nd. — Within few days gold discovered in sand on 
sea-shore. Some taken up by a lad of this town, of value of 
two dollars. A young lady picked up two or three dollars* 

" August 3rd. — Messrs. Howe, Anderson, and Archibald, came 
to settle disputes. 

" August 6th. — Steamer Osprey arrived, with workmen, 
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" August 8th. — Town full of strangers. Hotels full. Some 
had to pitch their tents on the common. 

" August 9th, — Whole talk is gold, gold, gold. Excitement 

" August 10th. — Steamer Neptune arrived with seventy-five 
passengeiTs. Packet from Halifax, with 104 additional. 

"August 31st. — Upwards of six hundred now at work. 
Shanties erected, and grocery shops and restaurants opened. 

" September 3rd. — One Crowell took a nugget from his claim 
valued at $26. 

" December 12th. — Rich specimens found. 

*' 1862. April 14th. — Schooner Lion^ from Eastpoi-t, with 
twenty passengers for Ovens. 

"April 16th. — Schooner Alma from Boston, with sixteen* 
passengers for Ovens. 

"May 12th. — ^Two vessels from United States, with large 
number for Ovens. Becoming quite a town. 

" June 9th. — Governor — Earl of Mulgrave — landed at Ovens 
from a gunboat. 

"August 12th. — Arbitration between land pix)prietors at Ovens 
and Government, to settle disputes under an agreement made 
by them. Attorney-General for Government, and John W. 
Ritchie for proprietors. 

"August 15th. — Proceedings closed. Award in favor of 
proprietors. Will cost about £4,000." 

" November 26th, 1861. — A tragic scene took place this fore- 
noon at the Ovens gold diggings. Soiue persons there had been 
amusing themselves firing at a target with a revolver 
which contained five charges. Mr. Traunweiser had the pistol 
in his hand, and supposing that all the charges had been fired 
out, called to a friend of his, a Mr. James McDonald, who was 
coming along the road, to clear the way or he would fii'e at him, 
to which McDonald immediately replied, " fire away." Traun- 
weiser pulled the trigger, and, to the consternation of all around, 
McDonald fell dead, the ball having entered his head near the 
eye. The report of the pistol and the death of McDonald 
caused quite a sensation among the bystanders; neither Traun- 

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weiser nor any of the party had the least idea of another 
charge being in the pistol. Both parties were very respectable, 
and connected with the gold diggings. McDonald was from 
Rctou, where he left a wife and other relatives to mourn their 

There are several other interesting settlements within short 
distances of Lunenburg, and among them the following: 

First Peninsula, about half a mile from town and about one 
mile long. 

Second Peninsula, about a mile and a half from town and 
about five miles long. 

On these are many small, productive farms. 

Black Bocks, six miles from town. The families of Tanner 
and Allen were the first settlers. Thirty-eight families now 
live there. 

Blue Rocks, five miles from town. The first settlers were 
people named Knickle and Heinich, There are sixty-two 

The people at the Rocks are chiefly engaged in fishing, and 
are generally in comfortable circumstances. 

Also, Martin's Brook, North- West, South, Garden Lots, and 

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Cross Island, near the Entrance to Lunenburg Harbor, and other 
Islands in the same vicinity. 

CROSS ISLAND lies near the entrance to Lunenburg har- 
bor, south-east from Lunenburg about eight miles. 
Haliburtdn says: " Lunenburg harbor is sheltered by Cross 
Island, which is about 30 feet high, containing 253 acres." 

In one of the early years of the county history, Randal S. 
Crawley was here employed in the fishery, with thirty-seven 
males and one female as assistants. 

" Lunenburg, September 6th, 1782. 
" Comes before us Mr. John Newton, Mr. John Arenberg, Veil 
Blysteiner, Mathias Blysteiner and George Sharpe, and informed 
that one Seidler, being a prisoner to some American privateer 
boats now upon Cross Island, and saith that said Seidler is still 
on Cross Island naked and in irons, and is likely to perish in 
that condition ; wherefore we beg to have leave jointly, with 
some other volunteers, to go armed in a shallop to redeem and 
endeavor to take said Seidler off from Cross Island. 

" (Signed) John Newton, Jun. 
John Arenberg. 
J. M. Blysteiner. 
George Sharpe, 

" On the above representation, being so laudable to release a 
fellow-subject now in danger of losing his life in his present 
deplorable situation, and in consideration of which leave is 
hereby granted to any persons who will voluntarily, upon their 
own risk, go in any boat or shallop to endeavor to retake and 
redeem said Seidler from his imprisonment, taking all possible 
care to run no risk of the enemy, being now on Gross Island, 
but not to go farther than said island or thereabouts, and from 
thence to return as soon as possible; and in case they meet with 
an enemy whom they judge not to be too strong for them, they 
are to defend themselves, or take them if they can. 

"(Signed) L. Christopher Rudolf. 
D. Christopher Jessen." 

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Jacob Smith, aged eighty years, and for a long time keeper 
of the lighthouse, died on the island, August 2nd, 1869. 

Israel Tanner, of Elastei-n Point, caught near the island, in 
1888, a halibut 7 feet long, weighing 300 pounds ; and in 1893, 
Stephen Smith caught one in the same locality which weighed, 
when dressed, 230 pounds. It was 6 feet 7 inches in length 
and 9 inches thick. 

Great quantities of seaweed are thrown ashore on the island. 
In the spring of 1893, more than seven hundred cartloads were 
obtained by people from Tancook. 

The other islands in the vicinity of Lunenburg are Corkum s, 
Ekistem Point, Blue Rock, Herman's, Mason's, Heckman's, Fifty 
Acres, and Ross. All are inhabited except the last two. 

The Hon. William J. Stairs and family have for some years 
lived in the summer months on Herman s Island. Their house 
is most pleasantly situated. 

Search for Money at Hobson's Nose. 

In or about 1830, a party of pleasure went from Lunenburg 
to Heckman s Island, where they were told by Mrs. Heckman 
that a strange vessel had anchored off the island a few days 
before, that the crew had landed at Hobson's Nose, and that 
she could see them at work with crowbars, as if searching for 
a place in which treasure had been previously deposited. After 
examining several spots, they left a crowbar standing in the 
ground near a broken tree, and walked round the point out of 
sight. Shortly afterwards they returned on board, and in the 
course of the day landed at Heckman's Island, made various 
inquiries of Mrs. Heckman about the different parts of it, and 
went again on board. In the night they revisited Hobson's 
Nose, and commenced to dig at the place where they had left 
the crowbar, then went round to the point with lanterns and 
were again hid from view. They left the bay about daylight 
the next morning. The islanders then examined the place, and 
saw blocks and ropes left in the trees, and underneath a hole 
which has been described by others as sixteen inches in depths 

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lined with paving-stones from the beach. There were indis- 
putable marks of the removal of a box or cask. On the point 
before referred to was found a second hole, from which a pot 
or vessel of some kind had been taken. Mrs. Heckman was a 
person of undoubted veracity, and the visit of the strangers is 
corroborated by an old inhabitant, who told the writer that he, 
with his father and brothers, were on board their vessel off 
Long Island when the schooner referred to passed close along- 
side, and they saw the crew land at Hobson's Nose and walk 
up the beach, as described by Mrs. Heckman ; that they visited 
the island after the strangers left, and saw the holes above 
mentioned. If the treasure-seekers at Oak Island had made 
Hobson's Nose their centre of operations, they might perhaps 
have there discovered what they have searched for in vain at 
the former place. 

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Early Settlement at Mahone Bay, with History of its Churches and 
Clergymen, and other matters of interest— Indian Point. 

Mahone Bay. 

IT has been said that this name was originally given to the 
bay, because it was a place much resorted to by pirates, 
and as their vessels were low crafts, often propelled by long 
oars, called sweeps, the French word MahonTve, which means 
"a Venetian boat," was very appropriately employed to 
designate the bay, and was subsequently anglicized, and 
extended to the village on its shores. Being, as it is, so inti- 
mately connected with the earliest history of the place, to say 
nothing of its euphony, it is to be hoped that no further 
attempt will be made to change it. 

A public meeting was held in Victoria Hall, April 13th, 1857, 
to establish boundaries for the village and give it a name. It 

Resolved, — That the bounds take in the front row of thirty- 
acre lots, coming southerly at Mader s bridge, running north- 
westwardly to Lantz's comer, and eastwardly as far as Brume s 

Several names were submitted, spoken to, and voted upon, 
and ** Kinbum " was adopted by a considerable majority. It 
means " relative or kindred streams," and there are two rivers 
or streams emptying into the bay. 

This name fell into disuse, and the original name " Mahone 
Bay " has been shortened to " Mahone." The old appellation 
will probably continue to be largely used. 

There is much that is exceedingly beautiful about the place, 
which makes it specially attractive. Strangers think it one of 
the charming spots of the county. 

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In May, 1888, Mr. A. J. McDougald thus wrote of it : " On 
the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, sixty miles to the westward 
of Halifax, is situated the most charming town of Mahone Bay. 
Its population, principally of German extraction, is in the 
neighborhood of two thousand. It is pleasantly nestled at the 
head of a bay of the same name, which in grandeur of scenery, 
facilities for bathing and fishing, defies competition. It is 
studded with innumerable islands, and teems with fish, is free 
from fog, and its surface is always unruffled. The inland 
scenery from the surrounding hills is unsurpassed in grandeur.*' 

Captain Ephraim Cook, who commanded one of the ti'ans- 
ports that brought out the original settlei-s, and who had 
expended a large sum of money in the improvement of land 
at Halifax, proposed, in 1754, to establish a settlement at 
Mahone Bay, and took with him a block -house. " A Govern- 
ment sloop was furnished for his assistance ; a party of I'angers 
was sent for the protection of the settlement; and, at his 
request, his friend Captain Lewis was appointed to command 
them. Colonel Sutherland, at Lunenburg, was directed to 
supply him with such aid as he might require, and to reserve 
any land he might wish to retain." He was probably the same 
Ephraim Cook who, as master of the schooner Snow Edtvard, 
was engaged fi*om October, 1755, to June, 1756, in assisting to 
conv^ey the French Acadians out of the Province. 

The following were orders and directions for the officer com- 
manding the party at Mush-mush Block-house, 1 757 : " You 
are to send out detachments of your party, who are to range 
every day near the inhabitants' houses on Oakland and Mahone 
Bay, which the guards will show you, to protect them while 
they are out at their work ; and at night they are to be 
quartered in their houses, as may be found most convenient 
for their own accommodation, and the safety of the settlers. 
You may, if you should see occasion, send out a party to 
reconnoitre, and range a little outside the settlement, taking 
all necessary precautions to prevent a surprise, and always 
leaving a sufficient number of men for the defence of the 
block-house. Great care must be taken of the ammunition 

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and utensils in the block-house, and that none of your party 
fire away their ammunition, unless on real service, under pain 
of being punished and payiag for the same. You are to 
mention in your report the quantity that shall be used on 
service, and the time of its being expended. 

" Upon any alarm, or appearance of an enemy, you are to 
send notice thereof to your commanding oflScer; and in the 
meantime you are to act with the utmost vigor in attacking 
the enemy, defending your own position, or sending reinforce- 
ments 'to any other party that may be attacked. 

" You are to use your best endeavors to prevent any diffi- 
ciQties arising between your men and the inhabitants, that 
they may be always ready to join for the common defence of 
the settlement. 

" The alarms from the different posts are : 

" From the town — two guns at the fort, to be answered by 
two from Boscawen's battery. 

" Fromi La Have block-house — two swivels. 

"From North- West Range— two swivels." 

In 1778, " 250 acres of land on the east side of Mahone Bay 
were granted to David Ellis, who fled from ' Rhode Island in 
1776, rather than renounce his allegiance to the British Crown." 

One of the original settlers at the bay was John Kedy, who 
came with his father from London, and with his brothers, 
Alexander and William, bought the mill-site on Mush-a-mush 
Rivei*, afterwards occupied by their descendants. Zwicker, 
Elmst, Rooder, Loy, Ham, Mader, Smeltzer, Swinehammer, 
Moser, Eisenhauer, Lantz, Keizer, Vienot, and Hyson, were 
among the first settlers on the west side of the bay. 

The first dwelling built on the same side was erected by 
Peter Zwicker, grandfather of Valentine Zwicker, sen., of 
Block-house, near the site of the hotel afterwards owned by 
Mr. Alexander Zwicker. 

It has been said that a man was once offered many acres of 
land on the west side of the bay for forty dollars, and replied 
that he would not be such a fool as to throw away his money. 
This land became part of the village site. 

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Old men can remember when (sixty years ago) the west side 
of the bay, where the village is, was forest, and when there 
was only one building from where Arthur J. Vienot resides to 
the road from the bay to Faubourg. One informant recollects 
when (fifty years ago) the land where are now the residences 
of Dr. Gray, James M. Metzler, John McLean, and John W. 
Mills, was covered with pine wbods, in which owls were heard 
hooting at night. 

As the name " Oaklands " indicates, the land on the east side 
of the harbor was formerly covered with beautiful groves of 
oak. On the same side one Kneiss built a mill on or near the 
site of that owned by the late John Kaulbach, Esq. ; and in 
order to obtain sufficient force to drive it, the early settlers dug 
an outlet from the lake, a distance of a quarter of a mile, 
through which water was furnished in plentiful supply. 

The Indians were formerly as troublesome at Mahone Bay 
as elsewhere, and piles of wood and inflammable materials 
were always ready for lighting on the surrounding hills, to 
give warning of their approach. Communication was kept up 
between the forts at the bay and La Have, for which the 
militia had often to work day and night. 

The writer was informed by an aged inhabitant (Mr. Valen- 
tine Zwicker) that when some of the first settlers were buried, 
there was no road to the graveyard, and they were taken 
thither in boats from what is now the village. He also described 
a snow-storm in those early times, and said that on one occasion 
it stormed for nine days successively ; that in many places the 
snow had drifted to the depth of fourteen feet, and was four 
feet deep on a level in the woods, where, the tops of the small 
trees or saplings having been cut oflf, oxen travelled without 
difficulty, and that persons were unable for some time to get 
to their bams to feed the cattle. This man was obliged to go 
shortly afterwards to Lunenburg, and called at the house of 
Joseph Selig, the front rooms of which were darkened from the 
windows being blocked up with snow. The boys were coasting 
from some of the chimney tops to the street, and the weather 
was so intensely cold that men skated over the frozen surface 

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of the drifts, from the bay to Lunenburg. The dead were 
carried on hand-sleds to the place of interment. He also spoke 
of the hard work that had been done by the people, and said he 
used, by laboring into the night, to get out one hundred cords 
of wood in a season ; and that it was quite a usual thing to cut 
and haul two loads, or to haul six loads, in one day from the 
block-house to the bay, a distance of two miles. Wood some- 
times sold for $6 and $6.50 per cord, and flour at $20 a barrel. 
Grain and other crops yielded plentifully. The writer's informant 
further stated, that in one year he raised 97 bushels of rye, 100 
bushels of oats, and an immense quantity of potatoes, which 
were so generally abundant that they sold for sixpence a bushel, 
He had some so large, and with so many " prongs," as he called 
them, that he offered to wager that he would tie half a bushel 
of them together with a rope and carry them half a mile ; but 
that he could not find a man to accept the challenge. 

Mahone Bay is a great emporium for cord- wood ; and that, 
besides the lumber furnished by the numerous saw-mills in the 
surrounding country, forms a chief article of export. The bay 
has for some time been justly celebrated for its shipbuilding, 
and ow^es its superiority in this art chiefly to the Langilles and 
the Zwickers, who may be called self-made men, and who, if they 
had followed their occupation on wider fields of action, would 
have won a far larger share of fame. 

Mahone Bay is a rapidly improving village. Much taste is 
shown in the style of the buildings erected within the last few 
years. With a fine agricultural country in the rear, and 
excellent lumbering and shipping facilities, it must make still 
greater progi-ess. The beautiful scenery of the bay is elsewhere 

Mush-a-Mush River, emptying into the bay, is connected with 
Big Mush-a-Mush Lake, distant from the salt water between 
ten and twelve miles. This lake is fed by several small lakes. 
There is half a mile of still water on the river, about six miles 
from the bay. Langille s Lake, in the rear of Block-house, and 
Long Lake, northward of the main stream, empty into it. 

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Fourteen mills are in operation on the Mush-a-Mush, and ten 
on branches of the same. 

Martin's River, a few miles east of the bay, at the boundary 
betweeii the townships of Lunenburg and Chester, has its source 
in Big Lake, distant twelve miles from the sea, and is connected 
with several smaller lakes, one of which is called Western 
Lake. There are some falls or rapids on the main stream, and 
three mills are in operation. 

On the 19th of March, 1871, the schooner Phebe (Jacob- 
Laybolt, master), sailed from Mahone Bay, laden with lumber, 
for Halifax. Joshua Zwicker, and R McLellan, merchants, and 
Joshua Eisenhauer, and A. Boutilier, were passengers. When 
half-way up Halifax harbor, a sudden squall upset the vessel, 
and all were drowned, except the master, who managed to get 
on the bottom of the schooner, where he remained until day- 
light, and was then taken off. Mr. Zwicker's body was recovered 
the same day, the only one of the five ever found. 

Westhaver's, Andrews and Strum's islands are prettily situ- 
ated near the entrance to Mahone Bay. 

The first church erected in Mq^hone Bay was a union build- 
ing, commenced July I7th, 1833. The trustees were : Valentine 
Zwicker, sen., for the Presbyterians ; Peter Strum, sen., for 
the Lutherans; John Andrews, for the Baptists; and Frederick 
Mader, on behalf of the Methodists. The utmost harmony pre- 
vailed among these bodies. This building became too small for 
the increasing number of worshippers, and separate churches 
were built. The old church has been changed into a dwelling- 

Church of England. 

The next church (St. James') wa« erected on the hill above the 
graveyard, in 1835. On the 14th of July, Rev. J. C. Cochran, 
Rector of Lunenburg, preached the first sermon from Genesis 
xxviii. 17. This church was taken down in 1888. The new 
church (also St. James') was opened September 27th, 1887^ 
architect, W. C. Harris, Elsq., A.C.R.A., brother of the present 

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rector; cost, $8,000; length, 103 feet; nave, 42 feet wide; 
chancel, 26 feet wide. 

Rev. J. C, Cochran was the first visiting clergyman. Rev. 
P. J. Filleul (now Dr.) was first resident missionary, 1845. The 
second was Rev. Wm. H. Snyder, B.A., 1852. He left the 
parish in 1874, and returned in 1875. Between these dates he 
was curate in charge at Weymouth, he and Rev. Mr. Filleul 
having made an exchange. After his return, his rectorship 
<5ontinued until his death, October 15th, 1889. 

Rev, Edward A. Harris, M.A., appointed curate, March 19th, 
1884, and elected rector, November 25th, 1889. 

Curates in order named: Rev. P. H. Brown, Rev. (now 
Archdeacon) D. Smith, Revs. A. C. McDonald (Rev. E. H. Ball, 
vicar), G. Maynard, C. E. ChurchwaiHl, D. S. Sutherland, and 
E. A. Harris. 

In September, 1892, Rev. Dr. Filleul visited his old parish, 
and preached there and at other places in the county. For one 
of his advanced age, he was remarkably active. The agent of 
the Bible Society published the following account of the Doctor s 
attendance at a meeting of the Weymouth Branch : " It was a 
scene most touching and one worthy of the brush of art, as that 
venerable and staunch churchman wended his way with staff 
and lantern along bluff and beach to attend our annual Bible 
Society meeting in the distant Baptist Church. Beautiful 
indeed must be the soul and lion-hearted the frame of that 
Christian patriot, who, while the young and stalwart shrank 
from leaxong their firesides on that night, joyously ventured 
out to aid by his voice a Society that deals out the bread of 
life to a hungry world." 

Christ Church, at Maitland, in the parish of Mahone Bay, 
was erected in 1866, and St. Martin's Church, at Martin's River, 
in 1888. 

Rev. Williara H. Snyder (Rural Dean) was bom in the 
historic to^n of Shelburne, on June 21st (Nova Scotia's 
natal day), 1812, and died at the rectory, Mahone Bay, October 
15th, 1889. He took his B.A. degree at King's College in 
1832, and was ordained, by Bishop Inglis, deacon in 1835, 

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and priest in 1836. In the latter year he was married to Ann 
Freeman DeWolf (daughter of James R DeWolf, Esq., of Liver- 
pool, N.S.), who died in October, 1878 ; and in 1880, to Caroline 
A. Mills, daughter of John Mills, Esq., of Granville Feny. 
Seven of his children died before him, and five were living at 
his decease. At the commencement of his ministry Mr. Snyder 
was for a while curate at Lunenburg, and went thence to 
Weymouth, where he remained seventeen years. He was 
stationed at Mahone Bay for over thirty-five years. He was 
partly of German descent. One of his ancestors, Simon 
Snyder, came from Heidelberg, and was Governor of Penn- 
sylvania. His great-grandfather, on his mother s side, was an 
admiral in the British Navy. 

The bishop of the diocese (Right Rev. Dr. Courtney) thus 
alluded to Mr. Snyder in his address to the first Synod held 
after he had been called away : 

** The venerable rector of St. James* Church, Mahone Bay^ 
was one of the oldest of the Nova Scotia clergy, of a type that 
I fear is gradually disappearing. He was a zealous, faithful, 
energetic, spiritually-minded man, desirous of promoting the 
cause of the Church, while endeavoring to live in friendly 
neighborliness with all : a peaceable man, yet withal bearing 
himself courageously in disputes, being confident that victory- 
would light upon his banners. Struggling against the creeping 
infirmity induced by age, and seeking to do what little he 
could while life should last, he yet bowed in lowly submission 
to the chastening of the Lord, and humbly accepted his enforced 
withdrawal from the active life to which he had so long been 
accustomed. A strong, forceful nature was that of the Rev, 
W. H. Snyder, and I am sorry to think that I shall not again 
be welcomed by him, nor be able to learn from him more lessons 
of faith and resignation to the perfect will of God." 

The deceased clergyman was author of a " Catechism on 


The church was built in 1861, on the Clearland Road, on a 
hill above the bay, and near the old Episcopal church. It was 

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removed to its jpresent site in October, 1885. By means of 
heavy jack-screws it was lifted two feet from the foundation. 
Heavy timbers were placed crosswise under the building, and 
two runners its whole length. Timbers made into rollers and 
other appliances were used, and also a heavy chain with large 
double block and tackle, connected with a capstan, to which a 
horse — sometimes two — was attached. The rollers were 
replaced by others as fast as they dropped out. The removal 
was effected by J. B. Chute & Son, of Bear River, County of 
Annapolis, and the distance was about one-quarter of a mile. 
The time occupied was ten days. The church, with spire and 
everything just as it stood before, was moved and placed on the 
new site without any injury. The cost of removal was $800. 
and for the groundwork and new foundation, $250 additional. 
The church is now close to the manse, and for pastor and people 
conveniently situated. 

Rev, Ebenezer MacNah was the first pastor ordained and 
settled in Mahone Bay, May 19th, 1867. He was followed by 
Rev. D. Stiles Fraser, ordained and inducted to charge of the 
mission, November 30th, 1877. 

Rev. John W. Crawford was ordained and inducted May 

28th, 1889. 


The Methodist church was completed and opened for regular 
services in 1873, prior to which date the mission was a part of 
the Lunenburg Circuit, and so continued until the Conference 
of 1884. 

The first clergym^ was the Rev. C. Lockhart, succeeded by 
Rev. A. C. Borden, B.D. Rev. J. L. Batty was the first pastor 
after the separation from Lunenburg. He was followed by 
Rev. R. Williams, and Rev. R. McArthur. 


The Baptist church was erected in 1874, previous to which 

services were held in Ham's Hall and the Union House. This 

mission was originally a branch of the old Church, founded at 

the North- West in 1812. The visiting ministers were: Revs. 

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R S. Morton, R. Davis, P. Shields, Walker, Shaw, Archelus, 
Barss, De Long, and others from the North-West. 

The ministers resident at Mahone Bay have been : Revs. 
A. E. Ingi-am, J. Williams, L. B. Gates, A. W. Barss, D. W. 
Crandle, J. W. Williams, W. J. Rutledge, and H. S. Shaw. 

Indian Point. 

The settlement of Indian Point, in the township of Lunen- 
burg, takes its name from the Miemacs, who had made it one 
of their headquarters. Further reference to Indian Point is 
made in this work in the chapter on the scenery of the county. 
It is about live miles from Mahone Bay, and the same from 

Among its firat settlers were Haverstock, Lohnes, Frederick 
Ernst, William Wentzel, Mathias Ernst, William Hyson, Nicolas 
Eisenhauer, and Peter Zwicker. 

It is situated on the sea-shore for a mile, and has neat and 
tastily arranged dwellings and fine farms. The soil is good, 
excellent crops are raised, and the vegetable gardens are very 
productive. There are in the vicinity beautiful oak trees and 
many stumps of very large ones cut down. The islands close 
to the settlement are Nathan Ernst s, formerly owned by Peter 
Young, who died at Bridgewater, July, 1895 ; Heisler's, Beller, 
Zwicker\s, Spectacle, Ernst's, Young s, Stevens, Sheep, Goat, and 
Misener's islands. There are good farms, and seventeen families 
on them. 

Many of the men at Indian Point are deep-sea fishermen. 

Martin's River and Murderer's Point lie between Indian Point 
and the western shore. They are improving settlements, and 
the people are busy and entei'prising. 

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Northfield — Maitland — Riyendale — New Comwal] . 

NORTHFIELD, an important and improving agricultural 
settlement, is about eight miles from Bridgewater, and 
about half-way between there and New Germany. The first 
settlers were Peter Mackay, George Ramey, George Fancy, Fred- 
erick Ramey, Philip Wagner, and George Tibert. Mr. Mackay 
had been a British soldier, and was paid off at Halifax in golden 
guineas at the close of the American war. He wanted bread 
during the embargo, and meeting a man with two loaves he asked 
him to sell one. The request was refused, even on the offer of 
a guinea, the man giving as a reason that his children were 
starving. In telling the story, Mr. Mackay said : " What's the 
good of money when there's no bread ? " He settled on and 
cleared the farm at West Northfield, foot of WentzeVs Lake, 
now occupied by the widow and children of the late Nathaniel 
WentzeL Councillor Heli Mackay is one of his grandchildren. 
Mr. Mackay died about 1861, aged seventy-eight years. 

A union church for Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Presby- 
terians, was built in the above-named year. 

The Methodist body erected a church in Upper Northfield, 
which was opened for service, Sunday, June 12th, 1881. 

A mill for sawing lumber and staves, and threshing grain, 
built by Mr. Casper Feener in 1882, has been of much service 
to the surrounding country. 

Maitland is an agricultural district on the railway line 
between Bridgewater and Block-house. Good farms and com- 
fortable dwellings furnish evidence of a thrifty people. 


This settlement is about ten miles from Bridgewater, on the 
line of the Nova Scotia Central Railway, between Northfield 

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and New Germany, and near to Wentzel's Lake. It is an 
advancing agricultural district, through which flows the La 
Have River. The original settlers were Daniel Mossman, 
Jacob Mossman, Edward Knock, William Knock, and John 
Eisenhauer, who came thither from Kingsburg about fifty 
years ago. 

The large quantity of cultivated intervale and the beautiful 
elm trees which are about Riversdale, the character of the soil 
and the comparatively small amount of stone, cause it to 
resemble what one sees in the rich valleys of the western 

A Presbyterian church and manse were erected about 1880, 
during the pastorate of Rev. Thos. H. Murray, who resided 
there from that year until 1883. He was followed in 1884 by 
Rev. Henry Crawford, who remained about four years, and 
was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Stephen G. Lawson. 

New Cornwall. 

This is a large and improving settlement, between Block- 
house and New Germany. 

About ninety years ago a settlement was made at the head 
of little Mush-a-mush Lake. Andrew Rafuse, Michael Brum, 
and Thomas C. Hallamore, were the first settlers. John and 
Nicholas Spidle moved in from Noi-th-West about 1821. 

The late Lewis Langille, Esq., who moved to New Cornwall 
in 1838, wrote that when the settlement was first commenced 
New Cornwall was a wilderness and but little known, except 
by the Indians as a hunting-ground. Moose, caribou, bears, 
and other fur-bearing animals abounded. There was no road 
within four or five miles of where these people moved, and 
they were obliged to haul their oak staves and other produce 
across the lake in boats, and then on sleds through the woods 
to the nearest road, to get them to market. 

Mr. Langille *' moved into the woods below little Mush-a- 
mush Lake, about two and a half miles nearer town than the 
first settlers. It was then almost all wilderness. Salmon and 
alewives were very plentiful in the lake and the sunx)unding 

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lakes and rivers/' He used to catch " from fifty to seventy 
salmon in one season, and the people could catch as many ale- 
wives as they wished/* 

When Mr. Paulus Langille, father of Lewis and Gideon 
Langille, moved, in 1841, from Covey s Island, the scene of the 
Payzant massacre, to New Cornwall, gaspereaux were so plenti- 
ful that " the river was alive with them." Salmon were also 
abundant. These fisheries have been destroyed for twenty 
years. A few small trout and some eels are left. Fanning 
and lumbering are the chief pursuits of the inhabitants. 

The first Baptist church was erected in 1849, up to which 
time the members of the denomination had been connected 
with the North- West or old Lunenburg Baptist Church. 

A union church for Church of England, Presbyterians, and 
Lutherans, was raised in 1861, and opened for divine worship 
in 1863. 

A second Baptist church, erected in 1879, was used for some 
time in an unfinished state, and dedicated in August, 1889. 

Miss Louisa Zwicker, daughter of Mr. James Zwicker, ob- 
tained in 1889 a prize of " Macaulay^s History of England," in 
five volumes, from the proprietors of the Montreal Witness, for 
an original story relating to the early settlement of New 

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New Germany — First Settlers— Churches — Clergymen and others who 
liave resided there — Manufactories. 

NEW GERMANY is one of the most thriving agricultural 
districts in the county. The first settlement was made 
to the noi-th of what is now known as Chesley's Corner, by 
persons from La Have, principally of German origin, between 
eighty and ninety years ago, and is distant eighteen miles from 
Bridgewater. John Fiendel built the first log-house. His son 
George was the first white child bom in New Germany, and is 
now eighty-eight years old. One of the earliest settlers was 
John Michael Vamer (grandfather of Elisus and Mathew 
Varner), who came from Germany. Other early arrivals were 
John Mailman, William Woodworth, and Thomas Penny. The 
latter was a very robust man. He carried a bushel and a half 
of potatoes on his back from Bridgewater to his new home, 
when there was only a pathway chopped out. 

The first settler at Chesley's Comer was one Condore, followed 
by a German named Gross. About sixty yeara ago, Messrs. 
John Chesley and othera moved there from the County of 
Annapolis. Nathaniel Morgan built a saw and grist mill at 
Morgan's Falls, previous to which the inhabitants had to carry 
grain on their backs to Kaulbach's mill, more than twenty 
miles, and bring back flour. John Chesley afterwards built a 
mill on the site of the one now owned by his grandson, John 
Chesley. Men and boys used to come to it, carrying grain on 
their backs long distances. Five sons of an Ohio settler were 
often sent by him so laden. He apportioned each boy's load to 
his age and strength. They were short, stout and strong. 
Nathaniel Morgan, above named, was fond of visiting places 
away froih home. He was travelling towards Liverpool, and 

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it is supposed he became bewildered and lost his way in a 
storm. His dead body was found by Mr. Avard Wile, not far 
from where Aaron Hebb now lives. His son Edward was a 
Justice of the Peace and merchant in New Germany. 

Nelson Chesley, Esq., son of John, first above named, lived in 
New Germany for over sixty years. He was a County Magis- 
trate and postmaster for a long time, and died, much respected 
by all who knew him, April 3rd, 1894, in his eighty-eighth year. 

What is now known as the back settlement of New Germany,, 
distant about eighteen miles from Mahone Bay, was commenced 
by Messrs. Simpson, Ramey, Hawksworth, and others, about 
seventy years ago. Farming and lumbering are the principal 
occupations of the people. Those who took possession of the 
forest were men well fitted to convert the ground it covered into 
the fertile fields which now greet the traveller's eye, and to 
substitute for the temporary habitations at first erected, those 
substantial dwellings which give evidence of their owners 
comfort and independence. 

Among the early settlers was Richard Trethewey, who was 
bom in Cornwall, England, February 2nd, 1799, and died in New 
Germany, December 24th, 1875. His wife Catharine was also 
bom in Cornwall, March 25th, 1796, and died in New Germany,. 
June 6th, 1893. She told the writer how bitterly she cried 
when she looked on the widespre€wiing forest and thought of 
all she had left behind. 

Foster Settlement. 

In April, 1848, David Kaulbach, now living at East Bridge- 
water, and his brother Edward went to what is the Foster 
Settlement, about ten miles from Chesley's Comer. Ezekiel 
Foster and family were living in a small log-house, the only 
building there. His brother Henry lived temporarily some 
distance away, in a house built by Nelson Chesley, near Whet- 
stone Laka These Fosters were the first settlers. When the 
Eaulbachs went in there was no road — only a narrow path. 
Bams had not been built, and the grain was stacked until it. 
could be threshed. 

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Foster Settlement is now one of the most improved agricul- 
tural districts in the county. The soil is good and many of the 
farms are first-class, while the dwellings and outbuildings show 
how well the farmers have succeeded. The farms of the 
Fosters, Wentzels, Fronks, and others are highly cultivated 
and yield good returns. One cannot drive through the settle- 
ment without being struck with its fine appearance and the 
wonderful advance which has been made since the brothers 
Foster first went there. 

Church of England. 

The fii*st service at New Germany was held by Rev, J. C. 
Cochran, in 1828 or *29, in the bam of Mr. John Fiendel. On 
his visits in those early days he sometimes slept on a moose- 
skin placed on the floor. He frequently officiated in Mr. Wood- 
worth's kitchen, with light from a candle and a fire. The first 
building for divine worahip was erected in 1844, part of the 
lumber for which was taken from Bridgewater. It was conse- 
crated by Bishop Inglis, and called the " Church of St. John in 
the Wilderness." This name is in the front of the Prayer-Book 
used at the desk, and is in Mr. Cochran s writing. 

A rectory, commenced in 1892, has been built on a site gener- 
ously given by Mr. Paulus Vamer, near Vamer's Bridge, and com- 
manding a beautiful view of lake and river. It was occupied 
first by Rev. E. D. P. Parry, until he left in April, 1895, on a 
visit to his old home in Wales. 

The resident clergymen have been : Revs. Philip Brown, 
T. R. Gwillym, Pany, and the present incumbent, Samuel J. 
Andrews, a native of Newfoundland, who came to New 
Germany in June, 1895. 


The Church was organized April 14th, 1842, with twelve 
members, and a church erected in the same year, in the time of 
Rev. Thomas De Long. The present church was built in 1860. 
The congregation have enjoyed the labors of earnest and zealous 

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pastoi-s — Revs. Nathaniel Viditoe, Thomas De Long, W. H. 
Caldwell, Robeiii Morton, Bennet Taylor, W. E. Hall, M. W. 
Brown, W. P. Anderson and G. P. Raymond, B.A. Messrs. 
Enoch Sweet, Bigelow, W. H. Newcombe, and L. M. Weeks, 
licentiates, also labored here. 

The Baptists of New Germany held their Jubilee, September 
21st, 1892. There was an immense assemblage of people, and 
pastors from other places were also present. Beautiful wreaths 
and bouquets, and appropriate scriptui'al and jubilee mottoes 
adorned the church, and the " Jubilee Bell " summoned all to 
worship. In order to purchase this bell the infant class of the 
New Germany Sabbath School gave $17.17, which they earned 
by raising vegetables and poultry, and by trading in general 

From statistics submitted, it was shown that in 1812, the 
Lunenburg Baptist Church was organized at the North- West, 
and that this, and the Chester Church, are to be regarded 
as the parents of all the other Baptist churches in the 
county, viz.: New Ross Chui-ch, organized 1831 ; Chelsea 
Church, organized 1835 (reorganized 1853); Bridgewater 
Church, organized 1837 (reorganized 1848); New Germany 
Church, organized 1842 ; Tancook Chui-ch, organized 1855 ; 
Day Spring Church (La Have), organized 1853; New Cornwall 
Church, organized 1856 ; Pleasantville Church, organized 1876, 
and Lunenburg Town Church, organized 1885. It was further 
shown that the Baptists, who started in this county in 1811, 
with one church with a membership of only thirty-two, 
numbered ten churches with a total membership of 1,600 and 
upwards, while the Census Report of 1891 gave a Baptist 
population of 5,584. 

Among those present was ** Mi's. John Mader, sen., widely 
known as * Grandma Mader.* She was baptized sixty-seven 
years ago at North- West, and is now (date of the meeting) 
ninety years old, and in possession of all her faculties, walks a 
mile to Conference Meeting at New Canada once a month, and 
has rarely missed one of these meetings in sixty-seven years." 

Greetings were received from Rev. Robert Morton, a former 

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pastor, confined to his house by sickness for the last twenty- 
three years. He sent verses, some of which were as follows: 

*' Just fifty years ago 

This Church was organized, 
None then could see nor know 

What now is realized ; 
'Twas then a dimly shining star, 
Lo ! now, its radiance streams afar ! 

*' Those noble pioneers 

From us are passed away. 
But one alone remains 

To greet us here to-day ; 
And soon he too with joy will rise 
To join the saints in Paradise. 

** O Lord, accept the praise 
Which now we offer Thee ; 
O be with us to-day, 

Let us Thy glory see ; 
That we may all, with sweet accord, 
Adore our Gracious Sovereign Lord. 

** This is our jubilee. 

And so we raise our voice 
In songs of praise to Thee, 

And in Thy name rejoice ; 
But when in heaven Thy face we see, 
We'll sing a sweeter jubilee." 

The following are part of lines by Mr. Whitman Morton the 
first Baptist settler in New Germany, and read at the jubilee 
services : 

'* In the history of Germany 
Some fifty years ago, 
A little band joined heart and hand, 
To frame a church below. 

** They met in private dwelling-house. 
And there with prayer and song 
The little Church was organised 
By Elder T. £>e Long. 

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^* Though fifty years have come and gone 
And many heads laid low, 
The little band is stronger now 
Than fifty years ago. 

^* May Heaven's blessing on it rest, 
Though many go and come ; 
And may the band be stronger still 
In fifty years to come." 

Rev. William H. Caldwell was the fii-st person to he buried 
in the new cemetery, beside the church which he had so recently 
framed with his own hands, and in which he had just commenced 
to preach the Word of Life. 

Rev. William E. Hall was the first Baptist minister ordained 
in New Germany. 


The church was built in 1850. The resident clergymen have 
been: Revs. S. B. Martin, John Johnson, Benjamin Johnson, 
B. Needham, Caleb Parker, James Scott, Arthur Hockin, John 
Gee, James Sharp, John W. Howie, J. R. Downing, W. H. 
Edy vean, Joseph A. Hemeon, and J. R. Downing. 

The clergyman stationed at New Germany has under his 
charge the churches at Northfield and New Canada. 

There are some very remarkable rock formations in the 
vicinity of New Germany. 

West Cliff is about six miles from Vamer's Bridge, and is 
well worth a visit. Immense masses of granite of great height 
and extent form the cliff. 

The writer visited it with Elias Vamer and others, in an ox- 
team. A man walked ahea^d to find the best way, and the oxen 
followed, bending down and passing over the young trees. 
Many obstructions were met, and the place was arrived at with 
difficulty; but the sight was reward sufficient. Great blocks of 
stone had been detached from the main body and removed quite 
a distance, suggesting that mighty forces had been some day 
there at work. One piece was found to be over 18 feet 
long, 12 feet 4 inches wide, and 16 inches thick. It had 


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.a perfectly flat surface, and one of the men remarked, "You 
could not plane it better." Another large block had two 
of the sides faced. Near the cliff was a smooth carpet of the 
most beautiful moss. Two red pines, about twenty-five ' feet 
high, were growing on the top of the granite, where there did 
not seem to be any soil. Some of the disjointed masses had 
so fallen as to form a larg^ and very deep well-shaped cavity. 
On one side of it was a ledge or shelf, and on this stood a 
large circular mass of earth, as if some hand had placed it there. 
From it were growing very handsome ferns. A most enjoyable 
hour or two was spent in rambling about the locality. There 
is now a shorter and better way to the cliff from the railway 
track, near the property of Jacob Meisiner. 

Little Bluff is about a mile south-west of West Cliff, and five 
miles from Varner's Bridge. It is only visible when close to it, 
as the approach for the last half-mile is by a gradual ascent, 
which brings the visitor nearly to the top. Passing to the 
valley below, the front of the bluff is in full view. It is about 
seventy feet high. There is a projection of the rock upwards, 
forming a complete roof over a space of about 60 x 20 
feet, where the shade is most enjoyable. Close by the ixxik 
was found a pool of the purest water, refreshingly cool after a 
warm tramp through the woods. In the winter, icicles ten feet 
or more in length, and of immense thickness, hang from the 
projection, presenting a magnificent appearance. 

About half-way to the top is a cavity, twenty feet or more 
in width at the front, and gradually narrowing for about six- 
teen feet inwards, while on the top, and nearly covering it, is a 
thick, flat stone. One part of the bluff is peak-shaped, and 
much higher than the rest. In one place there are layers of 
rounded rock. Two of these are like the trunks of trees, of 
great length and thickness. The crevices between many of the 
layers are fringed with delicate ferns. The summit of the mass is 
higher than the tops of the forest trees, and is not very diflScult 
of access. Here is a very fine and extensive view. West Lake 
in the distance, and, away beyond, the district of Pleasant 
River, farm-houses on the hills fifteen miles off, the hilltops 

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at Springfield, and the New Germany railway station, with 
adjacent buildings, are all in sight. A thrifty white pine is 
growing on the top, where no soil is to be seen, and at the foot, 
on a flat, moss-covered rock, are three healthy spruce trees. 

There is so much massiveness and grandeur about the whole 
blufl* as to lead the beholder to use the words of the Psalmist, " O 
Lord, how great are thy works." One of the party, who had 
been there several times, said that when under this projection 
he always thought of the passage in the Revelations, " And said 
to the mountains and rocks. Fall on us, and hide us from the 
face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the 

A boulder about twenty feet from the bluff* was found, by a 
measuring tape, Jo be ninety-one and a half feet round. Out of 
<me part of it, which has a flat surface, blocks twenty-seven 
feet in length could be taken. It is about twenty-two feet 
high. Ten feet from it ar^ two others, not quite so large, and 
about two feet apart. 

If a good road were made to the bluff, it would become a 
place of resort, as none privileged to see it could ever fail to 
recommend others to visit a spot so full of interest. 

Mount Vamer is another elevated and extensive mass of rock 
on the property of the late Mr. Elias Vamer, and situated two 
miles and a half north-east of West Cliff, in what is known as 
the Robar Settlement, and adjoining land called " The Jessen 

Besides Morgan Falls, which are referred to in the descrip- 
tion of the La Have River, there are others on Solomon's Brook, 
in the back settlement, which are, when there is a good supply 
of water, about twenty -five feet pei-pendicular, and well worth a 

H. S. Poole, Esq., visited New Germany in 1861, and wrote 
that he " found quartz at Indian Brook, some being very promis- 
ing, but no gold was visible." 

A pulp mill was erected in New Germany in June, 1893, by 
the Morgan Falls Pulp Company, composed of Hon. A. G. Jones 
and sons, and Joseph S. Hughes, Esq., the latter gentleman 

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being manager at the works, which are near the falls above 

During the first week in May, 1895, 1,206 bales of pulp, of 
200 pounds each — a little more than twenty tons a day — were 
manufactured. Fourteen cords of wood are requii*ed for each 
day's run. Spruce is the material chiefly in demand, the 
obtaining of which gives employment to many persons. 

Mr. Edward Zwicker, of Upper Cornwall, has built a large 
stave and shingle mill below Vamer s Bridge. The work is 
chiefly done by him and his five sons. No intoxicating liquor 
or tobacco is used by any of them, and they set a good example 
of industry and close attention to business, which is widespread - 
ing and profitable. 

Whetstones (scythe and other stones) of a superior kind are 
manufactured at Whetstone Lake by Mr. George McFadden, of 
Bridgewater. They have been introduced into Scotland, and 
the United States, and are considered a good article. 

Mr. Otto Wile, of Bridgewater, opened a factory at New 
Germany, July 8th, 1895, and cheese of excellent quality is 
being there manufactured. This is the commencement of a 
business which Mr. Wile intends to enlarge, as opportunity 
offers in New Germany, and elsewhere in the county. 

A large number of straw hats have been manufactured for 
many yeai-s, and met with ready sale. Tl^ose made of the 
best material display very neat handiwork. 

New Germany is the birth-place of Rev. J. Hibbert Langille, 
M.A., of Buflalo, N.Y., son of the late Caleb Langille, Esq., and 
brother of Mr. Nathaniel Langille, carriage builder, Mahone 
Bay. He is the author of an illustrated work, entitled " Our 
Birds in Their Haunts : a popular Treatise on the Birds of 
Eastern North America," 624 pages, published in Boston, 1884, 
and dedicated to Dr. Elliott Coues, an eminent authority on the 
subject of which it treats. It is written in a very interesting 
and elevated style. 

" William Sumner Robertson, whose death occurred at liis 
residence in New Germany, on the morning of June 12th, 1888, 
was bom at St. John, New Brunswick, and at the time of hia 

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decease was in his fifty-second year. He was for some years 
a student at Sackville, N.B., and afterwards entered the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, where, in due course, 
he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. One of his 
lecturers was the late celebrated John William Draper — a man 
of world-wide reputation on a^ccount of his scientific researches 
and philosophical writings. Through the influence of Thad- 
deus Sumner, a connection of his through his mother, the 
Doctor obtained a position in the Federal Army, as assistant 
surgeon, and was attached to the 5th corps under General 
Warren. The Civil War was then in full progress, and the 
Doctor was in five engagements before Petersburg and at the 
Crater — which latter action was called 'The Tragedy of the 
Crater.' He remained in active service for two years, and was 
twice wounded. After the close of the war he returned home, 
and fourteen years ago settled in New Germany, where he 
practised his profession and devoted his leisure time to farming 
and meclianical inventions, for which latter he had a great 
fondness. As a man he was genial and warm-hearted, and at 
the beck and call of all who needed his services. He had a 
fund of varied knowledge, and was a pleasing conversationalist 
and forcible debater. Dr. Robertson left a widow and a large 
family of children.*' 

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Arrival of TEscarbot, French Lawyer and Poet, at La H6ve, in 1607 — 
Subsequent Settlement of French near Getson's Cove, with account 
of Fort, Garrison, and Chapel. 

THE Micmac Indians were the only inhabitants of this 
county, so far as records or traditions show, until the 
arrival from France of M. De Monts and M. De Champfein. 
De Monts and his associates having been granted the exclusive 
trade in furs and other merchandise in territory which included 
all the coasts of Acadie, he and Champlain sailed from Havre de 
Grace, France, in March, 1604. They called the first land i-eached 
by them " Cape de la Hfeve." The lighthouses which show to the 
mariner the position of Havre, the great seaport of western France, 
are on the " Cape de la Hfeve," in the suburb of Sainte Adresse. 
We may see in the similarity of its position, the probable reason 
for the name they gave to our own cape, which has been 
shortened to Cape La Have. The arrival above referred to 
was about three years in advance of the first permanent English 
settlement in America, made at Jamestown, Virginia, May 13th, 
1607, and is mentioned in the " Encyclopedia Britannioa,'* Vol. 
XVII., p. 603 : " Nova Scotia was first visited by the Cabots 
in 1497, but it was 1604 before any attempt at colonization by 
Europeans was made. This was the expedition headed by 
De Monts, a Frenchman, which tried to form settlements at 
Port Royal, St. Croix, and elsewhere." 

The cape, which is part of La Have Island, rises in the form 
of a clifF or bluff 107 feet above the sea. It has been supposed, 
from old clearings, that part of the island had been at an early 
period settled by the French. Champlain described Cape de la 
Hfeve as " a place where there is a bay, where are sevei-al islands 
covered with fir-trees, and the mainland with oaks, elms and 

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birches." " It is on the shore of Acadie, in 44** 5' latitude (N.), 
and 16° 5' declination of the magnet, distant 18 leagues from the 
entiunce to Halifax, and from Cape Breton (N.E.), 65 leagues." 

De Laet, in 1633, describing " Cadia," says : " Near Cape de 
la Hfeve lies the port of the same name, 44° 5' north latitude, 
with safe anchorage. A small island is near, long but narrow, 
clothed w4th trees, to the east of which the bay runs into the 
continent, embracing some smaller woody islands in its bosom.** 

La Have Island was granted by His late Majesty King George 
IIL, A.D. 1785, to Joseph Pemette, Henry Vogler, Mathew 
Park, Joseph Whitford (named in the grant of the township of 
Liverpool), George Grieser, and John Baker, or the survivor or 
survivors of them, and their several and respective heira, " in 
trust for the use and benefit of the inhabitants of the township 
of New Dublin, and of all those persons who were then settled 
on the eastern side of the River of La Have, extending from 
Parks' farm, so called, up to the falls of the said river, and 
their several and respective heirs and assigns, for a common for 
feeding and depasturing their cattle, and for no other use or 
purpose whatever." 

The first man to live on the cape is said to have been one 
Porter, at Seal Cove. Thomas Crooks settled at Halibut Head. 

Many years ago it w^as deemed advisable to remove from 
Cape La Have a number of persons who had settled there. 
They included one Porter, from the United States, Thomas 
Crooks, Joseph Moser, James Johnston, Edward Fanning, Frank 
(a colored man), and others. These men had built houses, 
cleared land and fenced in hay lots, and claimed the right to 
sell sea manure from the beaches. Two of them kept ten head 
of cattle for several years. Measures were taken for their 
removal by authority. The trustees, with Sheriff Kaulbach, 
and Hon. John Creighton, went out and. warned them to leave 
in three or four months. When this time had expired, no 
attention having been paid to the warning given, Alexander 
Bell, Nicholas Wolf, Joshua Wolf, Garrett Romkey, and othei-s 
were sent to eject them. Crooks had so placed guns in his 
house that when the door was broken the contents miglit be 

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discharged, but no serious results ensued. All the articles in 
the houses were taken out and piled up carefully, and the 
buildings were torn down, after which the ti'espassei'S departed. 
They had set the law at defiance, and seriously interfered with . 
the rights of the whole people of the township. The latter paid 
the expenses of the removal. 

Cape La Have is a most interesting place for a visit in the 
sununer season. 

McLeod's harbor, a rendezvous for fishermen, is a beautiful 
canal-shaped inlet, extending to a beach which separates it 
from the waters of the bay, and is a most ix)mantic spot. The 
fishermen have small huts as temporary places of abode. A 
picnic party, of which the writer was one, were here regaled 
with freshest herring and new potatoes, finely cooked and 
served by Reuben Bushen. There are veiy pretty beaches 
from this harbor to Seal Cove — about two miles. The highest 
part of the beaches is formed of the finest paving and other 
stones, of varying shapes and sizes, many perfectly round; 
while the lower part is, in many places, composed of pebbles of 
every form and size, and of different coloi-s. They are tosseil 
about in thousands by breakei-s on the shore — the waves, 
advancing and receding, making a loud rattling noise. In 
other places the lower part of the beach is formed of the 
whitest sand. At Seal Cove a good view is had of the actual 
headland, or Cape La Have. Large quantities of marsh grass 
are mowed on the island annually, in the month of September. 
A signal is given by one of the trustees, and the assembled 
mowers, sometimes numbering over two hundred, begin their 
work ; each man, with a few sweeps of his scythe, first mark- 
ing out grass which he intends to cut for himself. The mowing 
is generally finished in a few horn's, and the hay is removed on 
the same day. Women and children accompany the party, and 
spend part of the time in picking cranberries, which grow in 
al)undance. There is another privilege, that of cutting fii'e- 
wood, for which a small sum yearly is paid. Huts, for use 
during the fishing season, are built at sevei'al localities on the 
island. Mosquitoes are very numerous, and often force the 
people out of the tents erected for shelter. ^ ^^^^ ^ GoOqIc 


Near McLeod's harbor, and just above the beach, is the lone 
grave of a man who was some years ago drowned at Liverpool, 
in attempting to get from a tug boat into a skiff. The body 
drifted to the cape, and was found there three weeks after the 
sad occuiTence. An inquest was held, and the remains interred 
near whei*e they were found. Two brothers of the deceased 
enclosed the grave and set up a stone slab, inscribed " W. P. 
Dolan, drowned 1856, August 11th." The grave is inside of a 
bank of sand, surmounted by tall grass. There, though lonely 
be the place of his interment, " after life's fitful fever he sleeps 
well " — as well as those who are laid to rest in the best kept 
cemetery. A kind-hearted fisherman, who pointed out the 
place, said he would return and nail up boards that had fallen 

Indian Island lies about a mile south-west by south from 
Seal Point, Cape La Have. It is about half a mile long. The 
brigantine Diadem (Sponagle), from Boston for Lunenburg, 
struck on this island, at midnight, June 18th, 1894, in thick 
fog. The next day " the vessel was found bottomless, and the 
cargo beyond saving." 

Black Rock is six feet above high-water mark, and about 
one hundred feet long, and lies one mile south-east of Green 
Head — the actual cape. The schooner Rose Standish (Crowell, 
Master), of and for Barrington, with 450 quintals of fish, struck 
on this rock in August, 1880, and went to pieces. The crew 
were saved. 

The First Landing. 

The fii-st actual landing in what is now the County of 
Lunenburg, of which any account is given, was that of Marc 
TEiscarbot, a French lawyer and poet, and advocate of the 
Parliament of Paris, who called at I^ H^ve in July, 1607, on 
his way from Port Royal (now Annapolis) to Canseau, and who, 
it is said, found there "a mine of marcasite of copper." 

In 1613, a French lady, Madame la Marquise de Guercheville, 
wife of the Sieur de Liencourt, first estjuire of the King, and Gov- 
ernor of Paris, fitted out an expedition, the command of which she 
gave to M. de Saussaye. The captain of the vessel,/which wjus 

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100 tons burthen, was Charles Flory de Hableville. The queen 
supplied four tents and some ammunition. One years allow- 
ance was given for the settlers, and horses and goats were also 
sent. The whole party, crew and passengers, numbered 
forty-eight, among whom were two priests, Gilbeiii du Thet, 
and P&re Quantin or Quentin. The former was afterwards 
killed on board a French vessel attacked by Captain Argal, of 
Virginia. They sailed from Honfleur, March 1 2th, and made 
land at Cape La H&ve, on the 16th of May. Airived at the 
harbor and river La Hfeve, they planted a cross with the 
armorial bearings of their patroness affixed, and mass was said. 
This was probably the first Christian service held in the county. 
They went on to Port Royal. 

Isaac de Razilly, Knight Commander of St. John of Jeru- 
siilem, and Commander-in-Chief as lieutenant -genei-al for the 
king (belcmging to a family allied to that of Richelieu), a 
captain in the navy, who had distinguished himself under 
Admiral de^ St. Luc in 1621, and was made chef d'Escadre in 
Br^tagne in 1629, and selected to take possession of Acadie 
from the English, was so charmed with La Hfeve that, by an 
arrangement with La Tour, he obtained possession of it, foi-tified 
it, and fixed his residence there in 1632. 

In the same year, he sent a French man-of-war to Pemaquis, 
and took the ti*ading-house and goods at the post established 
by the Plymouth colonists for commerce with the Indians. He 
commenced preparations for carrying on the fisheries, brought 
settlers from France, to whom he gave lands, and at his decease, 
suppased to have been in 1636, had esttiblished thei'e forty 
families of agiiculturists. In 1634, he " built a foiii on a 
hillock of land of three or four acres." This was doubtless the 
defence of which the iniins are now seen at Foil; Point. A 
large chapel was also built. " He treated with great kindness, 
while resident at La Heve, a crew of Connecticut seamen who 
were wrecked on the Isle of Sable in 1635," and sent them to 
their homes. After his death, his property went to his bix>ther 
Claude, by whom it was transferred to Charles de Menon, Sieur 
d*Aulnay Charnise, who was Isaac's successor in the Government 
of western Acadia, while La Tour still govejini^ji^g^^mstem 



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part. La Heve was under the Government of La Tour, though 
occupied by Chamise, who received instructions from his King, 
February 10th, 1638, not to change anything in the settlement 
of La Hfeve, or the ports thereto belonging. The document was 
signed " Louis," and below was the signature of "Bouthillier," 
Secretary of State. It was addressed to " Monsieur d'Aulnay 
Chamisay, commandant of the forts of La Hfeve, Port Royal, 
Pentagoet, and the coasts of the Etchemins, in New France." 

D'Aulnay Chamise, in 1643, went to war with La Tour, by 
whom he was conquered. This caused him to flee to Port 
Royal, whither he had already removed the thirty or forty 
families fi-om La Hfeve. Ferland says : " They were the begin- 
ning of the French Acadian race." Chamise was drowned in 
the river at Port Royal. In 1651, La Tour received a new 
commission as Governor and Lieutenant-General of Acadie, and 
La Hfeve was again settled. 

Emmanuel Le Borgne, a creditor of Chamise, who died in 
1650, obtained in 1654 an order from France to take the lands 
of the deceased, and a party of his men, in passing by La Hfeve 
on their way from Cape Breton to Port Royal, by his direction 
set fire to all the buildings, including the chapel. The property 
then destroyed was valued at one hundred thousand franca 

"After the surrender of Port Royal to the forces of Cromwell 
under Sedgewick, which caused La Hfeve among other places to 
revert to the English, a son of Le Borgne returned to Acadia 
with a Rochelle merchant named Guilbaut, and erected at La 
Heve a wooden fort for its defence." 

" The English, on receiving notice of Le Borgne's movements, 
went to dislodge him. The latter fled to the woods, while 
Guilbaut remained at his post, and so well defended his position 
that many of the English, including the commanding officer, 
were slain. Guilbaut having been warned of a second intended 
attack, and having no special interest at La Hfeve beyond the 
preservation of the property brought from France, surrendered, 
he and his men being allowed to retain that propeity." 

In 1657, Le Borgne was appointed Governor of Acadie by 
the King of France, and in 1658 he was made prisoner at La 
Hfeve by the English, and sent with other prisoners to LondcJ^. 


La Heve seems to have been esteemed in those early days a 
place of much importance, judging from the frequent mention 
made of it in negotiations for possession of lands in Acadie. 

In 1667, the whole country was ceded to France by the treaty 
of Breda, between Charles II. of England and Louis XIV. of 
France. The tenth article required restoring and giving up of 
Acadie, in North America. 

The following condensed items are of historical interest, iks 
connected with La Hfeve, and show what a lack there was in 
early days of clearly underatood territorial boundaries : 

1667. December 31st. — Sir Thomas Temple ordered by 
King Charles II. to surrender Acadie. Temple objected ; said 
some places in the order were in Nova Scotia and not in Acadie. 
Nova Scotia not named in Treaty of Cession. La Heve and 
Cape Sable the only places of all named that belonged to Acadie. 

1668. August. — Temple ordered by King not to deliver up 
country till his further pleasure was known. 

November. — Temple wi*ote Lords of Council that Acadie was 
but a small part of Nova Scotia. 

Morillon du Bourg wrote about this time from Boston, that 
Temple made a great difference between Acadie and Nova 
Scotia, which he claimed as his own property, extending from 
Mirliguesche (now Lunenburg) as far as Pentagoet, and stretch- 
ing from the coast of Cape Breton as far as the River of Quebec. 

"Thus, gentlemen," wrote Du Bourg, " one is misunderstood, 
and you see thereby that Pentagoet, St. John, Port Royal, and 
La Hfeve, specified in the orders, are not in Acadie, but in Nova 

1669. March. — King Charles referred to his letters of 
December, 1667, and August, 1668, and ordered Temple to 
obey first letter and give up possession. Acadie named in this 

August. — The King referred to Temple's scmples and ordered 
unconditional delivery of forts named, of which La Heve was 

1670. July 6th. — Herbert d'Andigny, Chevalier de Grand- 
fontaine, gave the order to Temple at Boston, and showed him 
commission from French king to receive possessioi 

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July 7th. — Temple, who, it is said, was sick, gave written 
order to Captain Richard Walker to deliver Acadie to M. 
Grandfontaine, naming the forts, and among them La Hfeve. 

1680. February. — The French king granted to the Sieur 
Bergier, of Rochelle, and others, lands which they should find 
suitable along the coast of Acadie, to establish there a shore" 
fishery and all other tirade. 

16X4. April 14th. — Bergier commissioned as Lieutenant du 
Roi, in Acadie, under Sieur Perrot, the Governor. 

July 15th. — Bergier wrote an order from La Hfeve to Michael 
Boudrot (Judge) and Mius Sieur d'Entremont (Attorney-Gen- 
eral), at Port Royal (Annapolis), to register there a royal order 
of April 10th, forbidding La Valliere to act as commandant in 
Acadie or to grant fishing licenses to foreigners. 

July 20th. — Order certified by Claude Petipas, Secretary. 

M. Perrot, who had been Governor at Montreal since 1670,. 
was transferred as Governor to Acadie in 1684, and the next 
year he asked the French minister to grant him La Hfeve " as 
a seigneurie, with a frontage of twelve leagues on the sea-coast,, 
beginning at Port Rosignol (now Liverpool) on the west, and 
ten leagues in depth inland, with * high, middle and low 
justice,' and all rights of fishing, trading and hunting, under 
the quit rent of a gold crown on each change of property." 
He asked for " fifty soldiers (including fifteen seamen), with 
the thirty then in garrison, to be maintained at the kings 
expense; a corvette of ten guns (8- and 12-pounders), a 
coast pilot, and a missionary, to be likewise supported.. 
Cannon were to be furnished for the fort, with the requisite 
ammunition and utensils of war ; also tools to rebuild the fort,, 
with twelve barrels of tar, and three hundred blocks or pulleys 
of all sizes." Perrott further requested permission to " collect 
vagrants and compel them to settle in the country, and stipu- 
lated that the soldiers should be allowed to marry, giving them, 
as in Canada, fifty livres or^n equivalent." On these conditions 
" he offered to put the fort of La Have in a state of defence; to 
build there a dwelling-house, storehouses, cazemes, and a guard- 
house ; to erect a mill, settle a village, and collect inhabitants. 

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for the shore fisheries by the advances he would make them ; 
and further agreed to build a church." He described the place 
as " most convenient for his purpose, and within three days' 
journey of Port Royal and Minas, the most populous places in 
Acadie. In order to incite the people to the culture of the 
land he promised to buy their corn, and assured them of the 
profit to result from the fisheries." It is not recorded that any 
reply was made to this request More, in his " History of 
Queen's County," writes : " On the western side of Beaver Brook 
I discovered part of the old Acadian road, which formerly led 
from Annapolis Royal to La Have." 

In 1690, David Basset, who was called " a dangerous man," 
and who had been guilty of bad conduct at Port Royal, came to 
La Heve, where he robbed and cruelly treated a resident family. 
He was sent by Villebon to France. 

M. de Brouillan, Governor of Placentia, was appointed 
Governor of Acadia, on the death of M. de Villebon. He 
visited La Heve in 1701; recommended building a fort there: 
said it was "already fortified by its happy situation;" and 
ought to be "immediately occupied, and become the principal 
place in the Province." He also planned to have a road made 
to La Heve from Minas. 

At a later date he again urged on his Government "the build- 
ing of a fort at La Hfeve, for which he was very anxious, as the 
pii'ates were ruining the people on the coast. He also planned 
the establishment of a look-out party, to speak men-of-war in 
the spring, and give him news from La Belle, France." 

Brownell, in his work, "The English in America," and refer- 
ring to 1701, writes: ..." Extended schemes for emigra- 
tion and fortification were projected, but were soon laid 
aside. Orders were, however, sent to the Governor, Brouillard 
(Brouillan), to do all in his power to enlarge the trade of La 
Hfeve, to strengthen its fortifications, and to keep the New 
Englanders out of the fishery. Brouillard receiving no forces 
to execute these orders, either from France or Canada, had 
recourse to the pirates, who were then quite numerous all along 
the Atlantic coast of America, and succeeded in inciting them 

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to depredate upon the New England trading vessels. They 
made La Hfeve their depot, and the money and merchandise 
they brought in enabled Brouillard to pay the Indians whom 
he set on to attack the English by land, so that he managed to 
make his two branches of warfare self-supporting. To avenge 
these hostile acts, Colonel Church was again sent to invade 
Nova Scotia, in 1704, with a fleet and five hundred and fifty 

In 1702, a store-ship was taken at La Hfeve. M. Bonaventure 
wrote to the Minister, in 1704, that Brouillan had granted him 
a piece of land near La Hfeve, and he wished to have it con- 
firmed to him. In 1706, he asked for leave to reside at La 
Hfeve, if it should be again fortified, so as to be close to his 

In 1705, a small privateer from Boston, " burned the dwell- 
ings, and almost the inhabitants, who had then begun to settle 
at La Have." 

The late P. S. Hamilton, in "Old New World Stories," 
referring to the attack on Port Royal by New Englandera, 
under Major Wainwright, August 20th, 1707, Subercase in com- 
mand there, states that there was also a body of Micmacs from 
Chebucto, and Metis from La Have, under one Le Jeune dit 
Briar, courier du boia.'* A. Martin le Jeune lived at La Hfeve 
in 1686. 

Subercase, who was Governor of Acadia, proposed La Have, 
in 1708, as a chief port and place for building vessels; and said 
the people were " excellent workmen with axe and adze, and 
only wanted a few master shipwrights and caulkers " to super- 
intend them. " He urged on the Government, as Brouillan had 
done, the erection of a fort : requested that a swift sailing man- 
of-war, of fifty-six guns, should be sent out to cruise on the 
coast. She would make a million yearly in prizes, and would 
probably capture the Boston frigate. It was believed that if 
La Hfeve was properly fortified, and settlers came there in con- 
sequence, Rhode Island could, with such helps, be captured, and 
the fact was mentioned that it was inhabited by rich Quakera. 
He added that the Bostonians had a project to seize La Heve 

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and make a station there, and but for the high price of pix)- 
visions, he thought they would have done so. 

" The English again obtained Acadia in 1710, and Ponchar- 
train, in a letter to the Intendant of Rochelle and Rochfort, 
pointed out the necessity of expelling them and forming exten- 
sive depots at La Hfeve and Chedabucto, and con-esponded for 
that object among others with the most opulent traders of St. 
Malo, Nantes, and Bayonne." 

In early days La Have made its influence felt at headquartei's, ' 
as may be judged from the following report of a council held at 
the Lieut. -Governor's house, Annapolis Royal, May 11th, 1720: 
"The Council considered certain objections of the French 
inhabitants of Annapolis River, to send two delegates in place 
of two previously sent but not qualified." It was athased and 
agreed " that it is for His Majesty's service that means be 
found out to send to La Have for Monsieur Petipau with all 
expedition, who it is thought may be of gi-eat use and service to 
this Goveniment in the present circumstances of aflairs, and 
that Mr. John Broadstreet, a volunteer in this garrison, is 
thought the most proper pei-son to send on that expedition." 

Paul Mascarene, in his description of Nova Scotia, 1720, 
named La Have and Marligash as conveniently situated for the 
chief seat of Goveniment. 

La Have and Canseau were represented, says Haliburton, as 
" suitable places for the main military position.'* 

Governor Philipps wrote in 1720 : " My voyage from Boston 
hither (Annapolis) has fully confirmed me that this country 
will never be of any consequence in trade until the seat of 
Government be removed to the eastern coast, either at Port 
Rosway (Razoir, now Shelbume) or La Have." 

In April, 1753, an Indian named "Claude Gisigash, who 
styled himself Governor of La Hfeve, appeared before the Gov- 
ernor and Council to make peace, and signed a document to 
that effect." 

The agricultural capabilities of La Have must have been 
immense, if the following account given by Charlebois could be 
accepted as truth : 

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" Near the harbor of La Have one single pfrain of wheat pro- 
duced 150 ears of com, each of them so loaded with grain that 
they were forced to enclose all the ears in a ring of iron and 
support them by a pole ; and near the same place there was a 
field of wheat where every grain of the seed, even the least, put 
forth eight stalks, every one of which had an ear of at least 
half a foot long." 

Historic records and traces of former occupancy remain to 
show that the French were here, and owned and dwelt upon 
the coast from Lunenburg to Petite Riviere. Like the British 
settlers, by whom they were followed, they exiled themselves 
from home and friends to spread their nationality over a wider 
field. They endured the severance of the same loving ties and 
encountered the same difficulties, and as fellow-members of the 
one great human family, all that pertains to their history is 
replete with interest. At Fort Point, now strewn with ruins, 
how many happy hours were passed in days of yore by those 
whose bodies mingle with the dust beneath. There the glad- 
some voices of merry children were heard, and all the endearing 
attractions of home were known and felt. The hills and vales 
at mom and even echoed the sound of the. bugles from the 
garrison, and the solemn music of the chapel bell mingled with 
the incessant praise of ocean, and turned heavenwards the 
thoughts of those who, in obedience to its summons, " all sounds 
of labor silenced," entered to worship " the one living and true 

The French language was here spoken, and the people wore- 
the old-time dresses, and retained the habits and customs of 
their forefathers. The men plied their avocations, bearing 
" the burden and heat of the day ;" and " matrons and maidens 
in snow-white caps, and in kirtles of scarlet, blue, and green,, 
wore the ear-rings brought from France, and spun the golden 
flax." There were heard the "fragments of song, and the 
carols of Christmas, such as were sung in Norman orchards 
and bright Burgundian vineyards." Evangelines and Gabriels 
sat and whispered together " in the twilight gloom of the 
window's embrasure," and exchanged in the dance the " hurried 

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words of love," and "the sweet good-night on the doorstep." 
Beautiful lilies were doubtless then, as now, growing in the 
pond, and were often gathered by stalwart youths and maidens 


* * The tranquil skies of sunny France, 
The peasant's harvest song and dance, 
The vines around the hillside wreathing, 
The soft airs midst their clusters breathing," 

and all else that made the 'Fatherland so dear, were held in 
loving memory. 

The French have gone — we hope to " the glory of regions 
celestial," but Fort Point, on which stands the harbor light- 
house, and the rivers retaining the names they gave them, will 
always remind us of our predecessors in possession. 

The ruins of the fort and of the chapel are distinctly visible. 
The outer bank of the point yet contains a portion of the wall 
built up by the French, and judging from what is left, it must 
have been a substantial piece of masonry. In the face of this 
wall, about ten feet from the top, was a circular aperture, 
walled round with stone, which the inhabitants, who saw it 
before it had fallen, suppose to have been a drain leading from 
the fort. The latter is described as having been about .one 
hundred feet from high-water mark. A great part of the bank 
has been since washed away, so that the lines of the works 
inside cannot now be accurately defined. One who has lived 
long in the vicinity says that a slope of land, part of the 
point, and on which several hundredweight of hay had been 
cut, has disappeared. 

It would seem, from the mounds still visible, that the fort 
must have been of large size, and that other buildings had 
been erected in its immediate neighborhood — perhaps the 
residences of the Governor and other officers of State. Inside 
the fort wall, on the side nearest the sea, were seen some years 
since the walls of the magazine. About ten feet from the 
south-west corner of the fort walls is a well, two feet in 
diameter, very neatly made, walled with smooth stones, and 
evidently a work of great care. It has been partly filled up. 

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but can be seen to the depth of several feet. All the work 
that has been exposed was of very superior quality. 

Alx)ut three hundred yards distant from the fort walls, in a 
northwardly direction, are the foundation walls of the chapel, 
seventy feet in length and twenty -three feet in width. There 
is a division wall crosswise, thirty feet distant from the western 
end, which was probably used to support a chancel arcL The 
enclosure nearest the river has been converted into a graveyard, 
in which repose the mortal remains of James Norris, Patrick 
Power, Nicholas Power, Douglas, Hunt, Mr. John Oakley, and 
eight children, with their kind-hearted mother, Mary Oakley, 
w^ho died May 28th, 1894, aged seventy-eight years. 

Trees have, since the chapel was burnt, grown out of the 
walls. They were cut down about twenty-five years ago, some 
distance above the roots, and their trunks measured from teu 
to fifteen inches across. Nine feet from the south wall is 
another well, similar to the one near the fort. It was cleaned 
out in a search for money believed to have been hidden there, 
and found to be twenty-one feet in depth. A third well has 
also been discovered. 

The stump of an old tree, called the "French appletree," 
stands a short distance from the chapel wall. It is about two 
feet in height, and the same in diameter, and has a large num- 
ber of shoots almost hiding it from view. Several apple and 
willow trees remain. The old French burial-ground is in the 
neighborhood of the chapel site, and although many were 
interred there, the stones are without inscriptions to show who 
lie beneath. Here are the graves of Benjamin Reinhardt, a 
former county representative in the House of Assembly, after- 
wards Collector of Customs at Getson's Cove, who died Sep- 
tember 27th, 1880, aged sixty-three years; and his wife, who 
died July 11th, 1892, aged sixty-two years. There is an 
inscription in memory of their son Alfred, who was lost at 
sea, with his entire crew, in the Cashier, August 21st, 1892, 
aged thirty-two years. 

Many other English-speaking people are here interred, and 
among them Henry, son of late John M. Oxner, who died March 

27th. 1828. DigitizodbyGoOgle 


Nicolas Reinhardt, the great-grandfather of Nomian and 
Henry N. Reinhaixit, Getson*s Cove, and W. Augustus Reinhardt, 
Vogler's Cove, came from Germany, being then in his thirteenth 
year, and arrived at Halifax and Lunenburg in 1753, and moved 
to La Have in 1754. He sailed from Rotterdam in a vessel 
named Goefd, with 261 others, of whom fifty -three died on the 
passage. Mr. Reinhardt died at the Five Houses in 1800, in his 
sixtieth year. 

Some years ago, an old key, which from its size was supposed . 
to have belonged to the chapel, was found by a Squaw, and 
given to Mrs. John Getson, as the only return she could make 
to her for kindness received. It was afterwards obtained by 
Rev. P. M. Holden. 

Plates, pipes, hoes, picks, axes, hatchets, a large brass button 
of a soldier s coat, leaden pipe, a glass ornament, a circular 
piece of lead with inscription, bath-brick and other articles have 
been removed from the earth. 

Mr. David Wile, of Pleasant River road, and Mr. Adam 
Farrell, of Lower Dublin, found there in a circular cavity, at a 
depth of over twenty feet, two French picks, one of them with 
a short oak handle, well preserved. These had evidently been 
used in digging the hole, which was probably intended for 
another well. 

The point of land on which these ruins ai'e situated contains 
about four or five acres, including a pond of fresh water one 
hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred in breadth ; 
abounding in summer with beautiful lilies, and having a small 
island near its southern extremity. It is said that the chapel 
bell, candlesticks, several brass cannon and other treasures wei-e 
thrown into this pond, where they still remain, and that they 
could be taken out by not very expensive work. 

On the western side of the point, the land has a gradual 
ascent, and one cannot look at the whole place without sharing 
the opinion of the early settlers, both French and English, that 
it would be a most desirable site for a town. 

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Brifcisli Settlement in the Township of New Dublin. 

A SETTLEMENT was made at Lower Dublin by people ^ 
from Ireland, in 1762. Hence the name of New Dublin. 
These immigrants left from time to time for places promising, . 
as they thought, more inviting prospects. 

A grant was given to 260 proprietors, who had emigrated 
from Connecticut, of which grant no further notice need here 
be taken, as the grantees made but little attempt to cultivate 
the soil, and in a few months had quite abandoned their lands, 
which were subsequently regranted to Germans and others. 

As the following papers show, a large grant was made to 
Joseph Pemette, Esq. ; 

" At the Court holden at Saint James's, London, the 11th day 
of July, 1764, at which were present His Majesty the King, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ijord Chancellor, Duke of Ancaster, 
Marquis of Granby, Lord Steward, Earls of Sandwich, Litch- 
field, Halifax, Hillsborough, Bishop of London, and James 
Oswald, Esquire, an application made by Mr. Pemette to the 
Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations for a grant 
of lands in Nova Scotia, was considered. 

" The Governor or Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's 
Province of Nova Scotia was authorized to cause 20,000 acres 
of land to be surveyed in one contiguous tract, ' in such part on 
the continent of said Province as the said Joseph Pernette or his 
attorney shall choose.' " 

On the 20th day of June, 1765, a grant was made to Joseph 
Pemette, his heirs and assigns, of "a tract of land on the 
La Have River, beginning on the western side of said river, at 
the first falls, at Lunenburg boundaries ; thence running north 
33"* 45' west, 120 chains ; thence running south 56° west, 240 
chains on Lunenburg line, and thence keeping the same course 
140 chains on ungranted lands ; thence south 34° east, 880 
chains on ungranted lands; thence north 45° |^ajst^^380 chaiipg 


on ungranted lands, when it meets the river, and from thence 
up the river by the course of the same, until it meets the first- 
mentioned bounds of the township of Lunenburg, at the first 
falls of said river, containing in the whole, by estimation, 
22,400 acres, wherein is also included an allowance for 2,400 
acres, laid out on said river into twelve lots of 200 acres each, 
reserved for the following persons, namely : John Cunningham, 
Richard Cunningham, Gotlieb Kohler, John Crook, Frederick 
Rhuland, Benjamin Leigh, John Sloane, Robert Porter, Thomas 
Little, John Benjamin Bridge, Patrick Hiltz, and Casper Hick- 
man, more or less, with allowance of lakes, waters, hills and 
roads, where it shall be judged necessary, with all and all man- 
ner of mines unopened, excepting mines of gold, silver and coals." 

The grantee bound himself and his heirs to pay a quit rent 
of one " farthen " per acre for one-half of the granted premises 
within five years, the whole to be payable within ten years 
from the date of the grant, and so to continue payable yearly 
forever. And the said grantee bound and obliged himself, his 
heirs and assigns, to plant annually five acres of said land with 
hemp, and the grant was upon this further condition : that if 
the said grantee should not settle the said tract of land with 
Protestant settlers, in the proportion of one person for every 
two hundred acres within ten years, then the grant should 
revert to the Crown ; and the Governor, Lieut.-Governor, or 
Commander-in-Chief of this Province, for the time beings 
might at his pleasure grant the same to any other person or 
persons. The grant was signed by M. Wilmot, Governor, and 
Richard Bulkeley, Secretary, and recorded on the 23rd July, 
1765, by John Collier, Registrar. 

Mr. Pernette, before obtaining the above-named grant, drew 
his allotment at Ramshag (now Wallace), in the County of 
Cumberland; but in going through the woods to Liverpool, 
with an Indian as a guide, he was so struck with the beauty of 
the La Have, that he decided, if possible, to effect an exchange 
of grants with a brother oflScer, which he succeeded in doings 
and established his home at West La Have Ferry. 

In pursuance of the tenns of the grant, Mr. Pernette settled 
many families of Germans and others on the banks of the 

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river ; and to him is due the credit of making, under British 
authority, the first settlement of any importance in the town- 
ship. He built the first saw-mill, and carried on an extensive 
business, having at one time as many as thirty men living with 
him. Large ships, including one of eight hundred tons, called 
the Dvke of Cumherland, came from England every year to 
carry Imck ton timber, which he supplied. 

Mr. Pemette was bom at Strasburg, educated at Bonn, and 
came to Nova Scotia an ensign in H. M. 42nd Highlanders. He 
was aide-de-camp to one of the generals at the taking of Quebec. 

The "good service" certificates of the brothers "Pemete" 
or " Pemette," with whom Mr. Pemette was connected, have 
been seen by the writer. These are in French. 

One, bearing date January 5th, 1746, is signed by " Le Baron 
de Bergh,'* and states that Mr. Pemete served eighteen months 
with all possible distinction, and only left the German regiment, 
in which he was a volunteer, to enter the Breton volunteers as a 

The second bears date January 19th, 1749, is signed "Le 
Baron du Blaisel," and testifies that Mr Pemete had served two 
years as lieutenant in his brother s company of the Breton 
volunteers with honor and distinction. 

The third, signed by the same Baron du Blaisel, certifies that 
Captain Pemete of the Breton volunteers always served with 
honor, and distinguished himself on all occasions. This is 
dated October 21st, 1748. 

Mr. Pemette built the homestead, occupied a few years ago 
by his granddaughter. Miss Mary Ann Pernette ; gave it to his 
son, and then built the house near St. Peter's Church, which 
afterwards became the property of his son-in-law, the late 
Garrett Miller, Esq. He was a Justice of the Peace, Judge of 
the Inferior Court, and was returned for the county as a 
member of the third General Assembly, which met at Halifax, 
July 1st, 1761. 

Many persons were married by Mr. Pernette, at his residence, 
before a clergyman went to live in the district. Becoming 
tired of country life, he removed to Halifax, and subsequently 
returned to the county and lived at Lunenburg until his death. 

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His descendants still reside on each side of the river, at and 
near the old homestead which he first erected. 

Charles Russel Pemette, only son of the late Lieutenant 
Michael Pemette (King's Royal), was a grandson of Mr. Pemette. 
He was born in Halifax in the year 1803. His mother was the 
widow of Lieutenant Knox, Royal Navy, and only child of the 
late Colonel Russel, England. He died at Middle La Have, 
January 3rd, 1889, in his eighty -sixth year, highly esteemed 
by all who knew him. ' His widow, residing at East La Have 
Terry, attained her ninety-first year, February 15th, 1895, and 
on that day received some of her friends at her home. 

The idea of having a town at Lower Dublin was also enter- 
tained by those settlers who followed Mr. Pemette. One of the 
chief men among them was John Sloane, above named, and a 
piece of land at the contemplated site is still known as 
" Sloane s Point." It helps to form Getsons Cove. John 
Crooks moved from Lunenburg to Park's Creek, on the oppo- 
site side of the river, intending to establish a feny. but Mr. 
Sloane died, many of the people became poor and moved away, 
and Mr. Crooks engaged in farming 

A steam saw-mill, 110 x 40 feet, with chimney about ninety 
feet high, was built on Sloane's Point by McCleam, Morton Sd 
Co., about the year 1871. The business was afterwards con- 
ducted by Morton, Collie & Spencer. 

There were two unfortunate boiler explosions, by the firat of 
which one man was killed. The second explosion, a few years 
afterwards, destroyed the lives of three men. The mill was in 
operation for several yeare, and manufactured a large quantity 
of lumber for shipment to British, South American, and other 

A steam mill, 100 x 50 feet, three and a half stories high, was 
erected by Mr. George Boehner near West La Have Ferry, in 
1870. A large quantity of lumber, varying from one-half to 
one million feet per year, has been there manufactured, besides 
church, store and house furniture of various kinds. Large 
ordera have been filled, and much work done in buildings 
required in St. John^s, Nfld., owing to the late disastrous fire. 
The finn, for some time known as George W. Boehner & Sons, 

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with this work and the executing of home orders, have been kept 
busy, and have aided considerably in the employment of others. 

St. Peter's Church, West La Have Ferry. 

This church was built in 1818, on land given by Garrett 
Miller, Esq. (who married Catherine Pemette), part of the beau- 
tiful property on which he lived, and on which his son, Garrett 
Miller, now resides. This is one of the most lovely spots on the 
La Have, and commands extensive and attractive views up and 
down stream. A pretty, shaded pathway led from the river side 
through the orchard to the old church, to accommodate the 
parishioners coming from the south and across from La Have, 
while another way led from the main ferry road to accommo- 
date the people from up river and the country in the rear. 
The church had a double row of windows on each side and a 
gallery at one end. It was taken down in 1872. 

To this old church belonged two pieces of solid silver com- 
munion plate given by Rev. Roger Aitken, who brought them 
from Scotland. The chalice was made of hammered silver, 
w^ithout handle, having straight sides and a naiTow rim. The 
bottom bore the date 1663, and had this inscription, " For the 
•church at Ke[a]m " — supposed to be Keam, in Aberdeenshire. 
The paten was also of hammered silver, ten inches in diameter, 
with a scalloped edge and inscribed on the bottom, "Communion 
plate, 1776." To provide communion vessels for two churches, 
the above articles were offered for sale, purchased by Hon. 
Senator Almon, and by him presented to the Hensley Memorial 
Chapel, Windsor. 

A Bible, date 1701, backed with sealskin and bossed with 
brass, was given by "Lord Viscount Waymouth and Aberdeen." 

The Rev. Joshua Wingate Weeks, missionary of the S.P.G., 
who long officiated in the old church, lived in the house near 
by, now occupied by Louis S. Miller, Esq. He was born in 
Weymouth, where his father (also Joshua Wingate) was incum- 
bent for a few years. There was a Joshua Wingate Weeks, 
rector of St. Michaels Church, Marblehead, Mass. (built in 
1714), for whose outspoken loyalty to the king the church was 
closed. He then came to Nova Scotia, and was probably the 

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grandfather to the clergyman first above named. Mr. Weeks 
married Ann E., daughter of the late John Koch, of Upper La 
Have. His work in New Dublin commenced in 1827 (until 
which time the Rector of Lunenburg sometimes officiated), and 
was carried on for many years. He died in 1852. He was 
called " the pious missionary of La Have," and it was said of 
him that " he was as good as any human being could be." A 
distressing complaint was endured by him for seven years with 
exemplary patience and submission to the divine will. He 
relinquished a large part of his income to secure an assistant 
clergyman for his extensive parish. Rev. E. B. Nichols, after- 
wards for many years Rector of Liverpool, was stationed in the 
parish, and lodged with the old Pernette family. He once 
remarked that the days he passed in N ew Dublin were among 
the happiest in his ministry. 

Another clergyman called away from his work in New Dublin 
by illness and death was the Rev. Abraham Jordan, who was 
bom at Marlesford, Suffolk, England, July 23rd, 1811, and came 
to Nova Scotia as a catechist and school-master for the Colonial 
Church and School Society. He was the first teacher in the 
mission at St. John's near the Three-mile House, Bedford Basin, 
and resigned that position in May, 1843, to become one of the 
Society's missionaries. He went to Malta, where he was ordained 
deacon by Rt. Rev. Dr. Tomlinson, Bishop of Gibraltar. There 
he filled the office of chaplain to Her Majesty's forces. On his 
return to Nova Scotia, he was ordained priest by Bishop Binney, 
and was stationed successively at Country Harbor, Caledonia 
(Queen's), six years; Barrington, six years; and West La Have 
Ferry, eighteen years. He was a fine-looking man, with a high 
intellectual forehead, a great lover of books and well informed 
on general subjects, a painstaking theological student and most 
devoted to his clerical duties, in which he never spared himself. 
Some of his parishioners have said that on many a Sunday, 
when they considered the weather too severe to venture out, 
he passed their houses on his way to keep the appointments he 
had made. Indeed, his close attention to his work led to the 
illness which resulted in his death. His visits to the sick and 
suffering were warmly welcomed, as he was a tru^ comforter^ 

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and when he left them they expressed an anxious hope for his 
speedy return. He was greatly esteemed by his flock, and the 
aged and poor knew that in him they had a sincere and loving 
friend. In his reading of the church services, he brought out 
their full meaning ; and as a preacher he was earnest, affec- 
tionate, and impressive. 

To win souls to Christ was the great end for which he 
labored and prayed, and he will doubtless have many as his 
"joy and crown of rejoicing." He died in Bridgewater, where 
he had lived in retirement for two years, in February, 1888. 
On the 1st day of March, his mortal remains were conveyed 
from his late residence over the frozen La Have to Qetson's 
Cove, at the mouth of the river, and thence to St. James' 
Church, Lower Dublin, where a service was held and a sermon 
preached by Rev. G. D. Harris, from Numbers xxiii., last part 
of verse 10; after which the interment took place in the 
adjoining churchyard, in presence of an immense concourse of 
sorrowing people, gathered from all the surrounding countr3\ 
There, by the waters of the beautiful Dublin Bay he had so 
often admired, lie the ashes of this devoted soldier of Christ. 

*' Servant of God, well done ! 

Rest from thy loved employ." 

The Rev. C. Easton succeeded Mr. Jordan, and in 1887, Rev. 
Charles P. Mellor became incumbent. He having removed to 
Petite Riviere, Rev. Klement Richardson, M.A., T.C.D., took 
charge in November, 1892. 

A union church, in which Rev. Mr. Richardson also officiates, 
was erected at Mount Pleasant, about three miles from the 
ferry, in 1859, by the Church of England, Methodist, and 
Baptist bodies. 

The Methodists have since built a separate church. 

John A. Barry, who was at one time a merchant in Halifax, 
married a daughter of Rev. W. Black. In 1830, he was elected 
to represent 8helbume, his native county, in the House of 
Assembly. His second wife was Sophia, daughter of the late 
John Pemette, Esq., of West La Have Ferry, between which 
place and Pleasantville, Mr. Barry lived for a number of years, 
and died in 1872. He was a man of superior ^a]t)ilj|i^QQQ[^ 


Bridgewater — Its Early Settlement — Churches and other buildings — 
Clergymen — Manufactures. 

BRIDGEWATER, very appropriately named, is the chief 
place of business on the La Have River, Its rise and 
rapid progress are full of interest. 

Many visitors to Bridgewater who have travelled a great 
deal, have been loud in their praises of its pretty situation on 
the La Have, and the beautiful scenery surrounding it. One 
of these, after enjoying an excuraion by boat, published the 
following : " What a spectacle is this glorious La Have River ! 
Bridgewater is unquestionably one of the prettiest places in 
Nova Scotia, and this whole river down is a marvel." 

Professor De Sumichrast, who came with his wife in the 
summer of 1890, by the Bridgewater, Captain Oakes, thus 
wrote : " We had passed Ironbound, and New Dublin Bay was 
smiling before us, with its lighthouse on the site of the old 
French fort, and the La Have winding on beyond. In twenty 
minutes I was charmed, in twenty-five delighted, and the 
rest of the time I became a perfect nuisance to the party, 
because I would insist on their trotting from one side to the 
other, now forward and now aft, to see this or that point, to 
admire this or that view. A lovely river and no mistake ; and 
this for the reason, among others, that it has sense enough not 
to be too big, but manages to keep within easy-looking range 
fore and aft and on either hand. You can take in the scenery 
in comfort without looking through a glass, and that is a 
sensible kind of river. How long it takes to go up I have not 
the faintest idea ; all I know is that I want to go back to 
Bridgewater another season, and take as many friends with 
me as I can ; American friends, Americans who are convinced 

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that there is nothing worth looking at outside their own 
countiy. I want to hear what they have got to say when 
they first get a glimpse of Bridgewater from the river — the 
hills rising on either side, the town perched on the wooded 
bank, the picturesque bridge spanning the gorge, the road, 
shadow-checkered, vanishing under the green copse, and a 
black-hulled, white-sailed schooner slowly dropping down with 
the tide." 

Of the view from the top of Fairview hotel, he added : " Well, 
it is a fine one. You look right down upon the town, and the 
river winding in and out between the wooded hills, and across 
at the picturesque buildings of the Nova Scotia Central, and 
you see church spires rising amid the trees, and houses nestling 
in groves, and great spots of color where the gardens show out, 
and away down a schooner on the stocks, and far ofi* another 
schooner apparently sailing among the tree-tops ; and there is 
the gleam of the water and the vapoix)us blue haze on the hills, 
and altogether you delight in the lovely scene. For Bridge- 
water is uncommonly pretty, whether you look at it from that 
precarious point of vantage on the top of Fairview house, or 
from the steamer's deck as you approach, or from the bridge, 
or from the hill on the opposite side, where nature has made a 
slope expressly for the photographer. The air is so pure away 
up on the hill, the breeze is so cool, and the prospect so fair, that 
Bridgewater should become a very popular summer resort." 

One might travel long distances in the most beautiful parts 
of the world, and see nothing finer of the kind than the views 
up and down the La Have, from the bridge which spans it at 

A lady, who has been quite a traveller, viewing the pictures 
here presented by moonlight, said that she had only once 
beheld another bit of water scenery that could be compared to 
it, and that was the far-famed Lake Windermere. 

By an Act of the Local Legislature, passed in 1874, a survey 
was made by Mr. J. W. Andrews, Crown Land Surveyor, of 
land to comprise the town plot of Bridgewater, A committee 
was appointed to join in the work, consisting of H. S. Jost, Esq.> 

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Gustos of Lunenburg; D. Dimock, Esq., Gustos of Ghester, and 
Mr. Thomas Waterman, of Bridgewater. The boundaries were 
defined as follows : '* Gommencing on the western shore of 
La Have River, at the north angle of the property of John 
S. McKean, thence running south 55° 30' west, 2,950 feet, more 
or less, to a post standing at the distance of 2,750 feet from the 
western side of the main road leading along the margin of said 
river ; thence north 34° 30' west, 7,320 feet ; thence north 
54° 30' east, 3,822 feet, to the shore of said river; thence 
southerly by said shore to the place of beginning." 

The streets north and south are : Gommercial, by the river ; 
Pleasant, from Dufierin street to Victoria street ; Queen, from 
Beardsley street to Victoria street; Slocomb, from DufFerin 
street to Maple street ; and Ghurch, from Dufferin street past 
Trinity church. 

The streets east and west are : Maple, beginning at the resi- 
dence of Mr. G. T, G. Taylor ; Dufferin, known as Liverpool 
road ; Beardsley, by the Temperance Hall hill ; Letellier, from 
residence of Mrs. Edward Waterman ; and Victoria, from the 
corner property of Mr. W. J. Wentzel, through Sebastopol. 

Other streets have been made in different directions, but are 
not yet named. 

The first sale of land on the town site was of an acre by 
Nicolas Gonrad to Ralph Hotchkiss, a shoemaker, for £5, 
which was paid in boots and shoes. On it, where now stands 
a building erected by Mr. Aaron E. Rhodes, next to the post- 
office, Mr. Hotchkiss built the first house in Bridgewater, the 
frame and part of the lumber for which were sawed at Frideaux 
Falls, in Lower Northtield, by William Galdwell and David 
Wile, of John. 

It is described by one who was often in it, as a small building 
of two low stories, with a kitchen and porch attached, through 
the latter of which was the main entrance. The house was 
erected with the side right on the street, and one end so much 
in the street as to be plainly noticed. There was a stairway 
two feet wide, from the kitchen to two very small rooms in the 
second story, with a third room so small as to look like part of 

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a very narrow hall. The house was enlarged by Mr. Philo 
Beardsley, the next occupant. Mr. Bufus A.. Newcomb pur- 
chased the property in May, 1867, and occupied it eight years, 
keeping the post-oflBce in it for four years and a half. It was 
taken down in the summer of 1875. There are no really 
authentic records to show the exact date of its erection, but it 
is supposed to have been only a few years previous to the build- 
ing of the second house, next mentioned. 

Mrs. Catharine Ramey, since deceased, was, on April 6th, 
1894, within two days of being ninety- one years old, and said 
that when she was nine years of age, she carried dinner daily 
to John Vienot, while he was framing the dwelling-house in 
Bridgewater, built by Garrett and Frederick Wile, on the site 
of the present residence of Councillor W. J. Wentzel, comer of 
Commercial street and Pleasant River road, and taken down 
by him in 1874. The date of its erection would be about 1812. 
This was the second house built in Bridgewater, but the first 
one suitable for a good-sized family. It was about 26 x 34 feet. 
The first story was of split stone. The chimney was a massive 
one, and commenced in the centre of the ground floor, about 
two feet f i-om which was a spacious brick oven ; and on one 
side of the house, opposite this oven, was a large closet, built 
in the same kind of brickwork. The stone story was about 
seven feet high, and above it another story of wood and a 
pitched roof. Very little frame wood was used, for which planks 
were substituted. There were five posts of hewed timber, about 
a foot square, on each side. The spaces between the posts were 
filled in with planks of clearest pine, spiked and nailed. The 
partitions were not studded, but stout, clear pine boards two 
feet wide, some wider, were placed perpendicularly from floor 
to ceiling ; and on these the laths were nailed. Timbers, about 
seven inches square, were laid on the walls for the first upper 
floor, about four feet apart, to which the flooring was fastened 
with sharp-pointed, large-headed nails, four or five inches in 
length, and so close together that the hammer used to remove 
them could hardly be placed between them. The stone wall of 
the first story was extended for about forty feet from it, and 

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used to support part of the garden. The house was for many 
years occupied by George Michael Fancy, and was called the 
" Michael Fancy house." 

In 1815, there were no houses in Bridge water (except the 
Hotchkiss, or first house) between the house of Mr. John Hebb, 
south of the shipyard, and the Wile house, last described. The 
nearest house on the Pleasant River road was George Him- 
melman's, on the hill where Mr. Dean Wile now resides. 

The first hotel in Bridgewater was kept by James Stari'att^ 
on the upper side of the main street, nearly opposite the site 
of the bridge. It was first ei-ected on Bolman's hill, by Peter 
Hirtle, and after some years* occupation by him, taken down 
and re-erected in Bridgewater. 

There were not more than three or four houses on the east 
side of the river opposite Bridgewater. These included " Glen 
Allan," the present residence of Mrs. Joseph P. Miller, and a 
house still standing near the carriage factory of Mr. Jacob 
Wentzel, which was occupied by a Welshman named Davis. 

The only street in Bridgewater was much more crooked than 
it is now. There was no crossing as at present over the brook 
by Dawson's wharf. The roadway was close to a small saw~ 
mill some distance above. The bank near the residence of 
Mr. Alexander Stewart extended to the river, and travellera 
had to pass to the west of it. 

When Mr. William Cix)nin came to Bridgewater in'1853, the 
dwelling-houses on the street by the river were those of Messrs. 
Wile, Waterman, Tobin, Andrews, Porter, Harley, Starratt, 
Hebb, Manning, Beardsley. Hyson, Mrs. Bandall, Slocomb, 
Sheppard and West ; a house at the comer of the Alley road 
(since named Maple street), built by Alexander Sim, who came 
from Scotland, one of whose eight daughters married the late 
Mr. William Geldert, and the house now occupied by Mr. 
Howard Hall. 

A blacksmith's shop, in the rear of which there was a forest, 
was built and used by Mr. Angus McDonnell, on the site of 
the house at the comer of Commercial street and Victoria road, 
opposite Mr. Keeflers store. Mr. McDonnell is now in his 

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ninety-second year, well and active, and takes long journeys 

There were no streets parallel with the one by the river side. 
A rough pathway led from it where Letellier street now is, 
and was called " Hardscrabble." 

Joseph Pemette, Esq., who had a saw-mill at La Have Ferry, 
wanted Andrew Baker, father of Mr. Solomon Baker, Bridge- 
water, to work in it for a month, and offered to give for that 
much labor all the land from the shipyard to Newcombes 
brook, and extending quite a distance westerly from the river. 
Mr. Baker thought the land was not worth it, and the offer 
was declined. Andrew said, when he saw people buying lots 
and building on them, that if Mr. Pemette's proposal had been 
accepted, he would have been a rich man. 

Country folks who lived in the neighborhood had to contend 
with many difficulties. Men carried bags of giuin on their 
backs to Jacob Slaughen white's mill, at North- West, and 
rettimed with the flour the same evening, frequently doing 
the journey barefooted. 

" When we had shoes," said the writer s infoimant, " we got 
them at Lunenburg, or down the river at Bagley's. * Hop into 
Lunenburg to old McGregor,* his father used to say, ' and get 
shoes, and be back in the evening in time to milk the cows.* " 
Bagley lived a few miles below Conquerall Bank. In a dispute 
he had with one Falkenheim, his nose was bitten off by the 

People used to walk from the country outside what is now 
Bridgewater to Lunenburg to attend divine service Sunday 
after Sunday, and return in the evening. There were no 
churches nearer home, and no school buildings. The children 
were instructed by itinerant teachers in private houses. 

Only two horses were owned in those early days, one by 
John George Hebb, at Hebb's Mills, and one by Nicholas Hebb, 
on the same road. 

The first vehicles were owned by John George Hebb, John 
Wile, and Henry Koch. They were two-wheeled, and had 
wooden springs so placed as to make them comparatively easy. 

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James Nicholson kept a scow ferry below " Glen Allan." 
Two men, who had been to Lunenburg on horseback, once 
oame to the ferry. They were rather lively, and in crossing 
upset the scow, from which all were summarily discharged, 
and land was reached with some difficulty. Nicholson's was 
a place of call for travellers to and from Lunenburg, and much 
liquor was consumed and money wasted there. 

The styles of dress and materials differed much fix)m those 
now used. Men wore shirts of coarse, homemade linen, without 
flannel undershirts. 

Many of the women wore handkerchiefs on their heads 
when visiting among their friends at home, but when they 
went abroad they wore " the old-fashioned scoops." " There'd 
be no end of laughing now," said an aged lady, " if they went 
with such bonnets." " Bonnets," said another, " which could 
be kept for Sunday-best for twenty -five years." 

Homemade skirts were worn, and " bedgowns," as they were 
called, of printed cotton, formed the outer covering. Large, 
blue-spotted handkerchiefs were pinned down like shawls. 

The winters in old times were intensely cold. Snow was often 
so deep as to render it impossible to move for any distance, and 
sometimes to get even fix)m the house to the bam. When hay 
was short, the cattle had to suffer. George Hebb, father of 
Abraham, once took his vessel to Halifax, and among other 
things, brought back hay. With great trouble some of it was 
hauled out at different times, on hand-sleds, until the oxen, 
reduced in strength for want of food, were sufficiently recovered 
to take home the remainder. When hay was scarce, it com- 
manded very high prices. Nicolas Conrad paid £9 ($36) in 
Spanish dollars for a ton. No receipt was taken, and the seller 
having died, it was found charged against the purchaser, who 
paid for it a second time. George Hebb and Nicholas Hebb 
paid the same price for a ton delivered at Five Houses, from 
whence they had to bring it in their vessel to Bridgewater, 

Wood was sometimes sold for $6 per cord. None was brought 
in for a long time from the country north of Bridgewater. It 
came chiefly from the west. Most of the people living north 

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made ton timber, and rafted it to Messrs. Cook and Rudolf, 
where it was shipped by large vessels (which came for it) to 
England. The snow-storms in March were so heavy that it 
was often impossible to haul wood, and a supply sufficient 
for that month was generally secured in February. 

Among the early settlers in New Dublin township was one 
Muirhead, who came from Scotland, and lived on the property 
afterwards occupied by the late Frederick Haine,near Conquerall 
Bank. His style of living and working was truly primitive, and 
his sustenance cost him little, as the river was full of fish and 
there was no potato rot ; and he is described by an old inhabi- 
tant as " a man who knew how to live upon nothing.'* Horn 
spoons and pewter plates were used by the family, and he had 
a cap brought from Auld Scotia, which turned up every winter 
of his long residence, and was always fit for wear. He bought 
a pair of three-year-old steers, and worked them fifteen years, 
until he moved from the county ; and doing without a wheeled 
vehicle of any kind while on the farm, he used sleds in winter 
and summer, and " looked out for wet weather to make easiest 
hauling." He also cut out a roadway through his best wood- 
land, on which he placed skids, six feet apart, and over these, 
with oxen and sled, he hauled firewood for home, and the cord- 
wood which he shipped from the river. 

Other instances are given in this work of the use, in summer, 
of sleds instead of wheeled vehicles. 

Writers on early days in Canada hav6 referred to roads on 
which wheels had to be dispensed with, and where "jumpers " or 
ox-sleds were used for conveyance of goods. 

The first bridge was built about seventy years ago, by Messrs. 
Archer and Nicholson. The commissioners wer^ Gteorge Hebb, 
John Wile, and John Vienot. Garrett Miller, Esq., and his son, 
Joseph P. Miller, were inspectors. The stringers were round 
timber, hewed on one side to receive the plank roadway. 
They were sixty feet long, and ten inches at the small end, and 
were cut in a hemlock forest on the hill in rear of Mr. Solomon 
Hebb's house, near the foundry, and land adjoining. The farm 
of the late 'Robert Whitman was then covered with the same 

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kind of trees, of immense size and perfectly sti*aight. Other 
timber for the bridge was rafted down the river by John Wile. 
The newel posts in the house of the late Benjamin Wile, near 
the Pleasant River road, were turned from pine timber used in 
this first bridge. It was a very strong and serviceable structure, 
with neat side-rails. There were but few of the many men at 
work who did not use intoxicating liquor freely. It was found 
that too much time was lost in bringing it from the tavern, 
some distance away, and a small room, purposely for rum, was 
partitioned off in a shed erected near the bridge for the safe 
deposit of tools. On the evening the work was finished, an old 
soldier, Goudo, who was with others on a spree, got into the 
shed, and in smoking, set fire to it, consuming many valuable 
tools and a quantity of rum. The liquor used by workmen wa.s 
charged against their wages, and often the wages were not 
sufficient to pay for it. A man there employed told the writer, 
a few years ago, that between morning and evening he could 
drink a gallon. 

Persons were often assisted across the river by men working" 
at the bridge. On one occasion a man was seen up stream 
trying in vain to get an ox into a scow. One of the men said 
to John Wile : " He'll be down here for us to help him over, 
and when he speaks to you, tell him I am the man that helps, 
and 1*11 bargain with him for a gallon of rum." The man 
came, sure enough, and said he must get across, as he had an 
ox for Lunenburg, and the people there were looking out sharp 
for beef. The bargain was made, but the ox was no sooner in 
the boat than he was out again. Conrad, the ferryman pro 
tern., said : " That's only one start. You get in the boat, and 
hold the rope,»and I and two more will push him in with a 
plank." This they did, and the ox having been safely landed 
on the east side, the gallon of rum was forthcoming. 

James Grinton, Esq., a thoroughly reliable man, said that he 
knew fourteen puncheons of rum were purchased, and thirteen 
used in the vicinity, during the building of the bridge. Every 
person who came along, and wanted it, was treated. 

The bridge stood for about twenty years, when the upper 

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woodwork was found to be decayed, and it was rebuilt from 
high- water mark. 

Some time after the completion of the first bridge, a wharf 
was built close by it, as a foundation for the erection of 
buildings by Messrs. James Starratt and John N. Hebb. The 
logs were cut by William Francis, a colored man, on the land 
in front of the present store of Dawson & Sons, from which 
they were hauled by him and David Wile, of John. Francis 
occupied a house south of Davison's upper mill, built and used 
by William Hartlin before the erection of the Hotchkiss house 
in Bridgewater. It was burnt, and Francis built another closer 
to the road, and occupied it for many years. 

In 1869, the bridge was rebuilt from the piers, the height 
of it somewhat increased, and it was otherwise improved. The 
contractors were the late John E. Pack and Joseph R Wyman, 
and Charles H. Chase was tlie commissioner. 

The present bridge was built by the Dominion Bridge Com- 
pany, and completed in 1891. 

It is a " Warren girder deck bridge." The abutments are of 
solid granite masonry, and the piers are formed of filled tubes, 
three to each pier. The length is 300 feet, with a roadway of 
18 feet width and two footways of 6 feet each. 

The total cost was $23,342. It is considered as likely to last, 
with proper care, for a hundred yeara. The materials are of 
excellent quality, and it is one of the best bridges of its kind 
in Canada. ' ' 

Garrett and Frederick Wile had a saw -mill where W. E. 
Vienot now has his carriage factory. 

A saw-mill was built about fifty years ago by David Morgan 
<son of Nathaniel) for James Nicholson and John Hayes, near 
where now stands the upper mill of Davison & Sons. It was 
finished and ready for work. Morgan was called to repair a 
mill at Pleasant . River, and gave orders to have the building 
ballasted for safety. This was neglected, and a heavy rain was 
followed by a freshet, which removed the mill from its place 
into the river. It floated down stream, turned over, and went 
to pieces. Morgan was a fine workman, and the mill, with 

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which he had taken great pains, was the best then in the county. 
This was a great loss to the owners, as there was in the neigh- 
borhood plenty of good timber, including the finest quality of 

One of the principal vessels employed in the coasting trade 
from Bridgewater, was owned by a Mr. Cunningham, of Halifax, 
and sailed by Christian Snyder. 

Michael Himmelman, of Lower Dublin, took lumber to Hali- 
fax. As others have done, he built and sailed his own vessel. 
Schooners and boats were constructed by him at wliat is now 
Himmelman's Ferry. He was a very ingenious man, but had 
been very little at school. It has been said of him and others, 
"They learnt between themselves." Many articles of iron 
required for his vessels, and shoes for his oxen were made and 
placed by him. Finding that copper nails he bought for his 
boats would not clinch, he purchased copper and made nails 
that would. He also made barrels for sale, and the hoops and 
staves required. One of his vessels took lumber brought in from 
HebVs miUs, and he often walked there with his returns in 
silver dollars tied up in stout handkerchiefs. He used to say 
that those walks were hard ones. 

To avoid the long journey by coach, passages were very 

often taken to Halifax in the coasting schooners. Delays at 

*the mouth of the river for days together, from fogs and adverse 

winds, were not uncommon, and made the voyage one little to 

be desired. 

Improved accommodations were at length provided by the 
sailing to and from the capital, of the trim, yacht-like Parisy, 
in charge of Captain Joshua Oakes, so favorably known to the 
travelling public. This vessel averaged thirty to thirty-one 
trips per season until the close of the river, canied about five 
hundred passenger from spring to winter, and was so employed 
for four years. Captain Oakes had been in other vessels for 
nine years in the like service. . The Pansy was superseded by 
the steel steamship Bridgewater, built by A. McMillan & Son, 
Dumbarton dockyard, Scotland, 1889. Captain Oakes, who saw 
the building of the vessel, came out in her, and has been ever 

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since in command. The worthy engineer, William Cuthbert, also 
came out in the ship and has remained at his post. The Bridge- 
water arrived at Halifax, August 27th, 1889, in eleven days, 
thirteen hours from Greenock. Her work is performed with 
almost clock-like regularity, and she is extensively patronized. 

The towing of vessels connected with the business of Bridge- 
water was first done by oxen, generaUy from Haines' Point to 
the town, about two and a half miles. Mr. William Oakes was 
owner of the teams. Three schooners were often towed at once. 
The payment for towage was from one to two doUars for each 
schooner, with more for larger vessels. Five yoke of oxen were 
sometimes employed. A man walked on the river side, about 
one hundred feet from the oxen, to keep the ropes clear of 
rocks. The sons of Mr. Oakes, including Captain Oakes, of the 
BridgewateVy were frequently engaged in towing during the 
night, while the father was resting from the labors of the 
previous day. The work above described came to an end by 
the arrival of the steam tug Gypsy, Captain Robbins Coming, 
in 1869. She was followed in 1871 by the steam tug La Have, 
with the same captain, until Captain James Ross took charge. 
He gave place to Captain G. H. Burkett, and he in turn to 
Captain William H. Cashon, who has been so employed for 
over fifteen years. The La Have was built by the Burrill- 
Johnson Iron Company at Yarmouth. 

Bridgewater has now a daily mail, but there are those stiU 
living who can remember that the first mail between Lunenburg 
and the former place was established with the express under- 
standing that the Government should be reimbursed for any 
loss sustained by the undertaking. 

In the House of Assembly, February 10th, 1842, a petition 
of George Michael Fancy and others, was presented by Mr. 
Creighton and read, praying for the establishment of a weekly 
mail between Lunenburg and the District of Bridgewater. 

Ordered, — That the petition be referred to the Committee on 
the Post-office Department, who reported : " An allowance for 
opening a new route, once granted, is rarely, if ever, withdrawn 
— it comes therefore to be a permanent charge upon the^evenue. 

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and ought not to be too easily or hastily conceded. ... A 
grant should in no case pass till the necessity of it has been 
made apparent, by the inhabitants supporting it at their own 
expense, with the aid of the postage thereon, for two years." 
The petition was not granted. 

The first mail was carried on horseback once a week by John 
Vienot (father of Elkanah), who, after a while, had a waggon 
built at his farm, Pine Grove road, by John Williams, a Welsh- 
man then living at Lunenburg, from wood grown on the place. 
The oak spokes were boiled in a large iron pot, to get them 
clear of sap. 

The mail from Halifax to Liverpool was formerly conveyed 
via Lunenburg and the La Have Ferry. This route was dis- 
continued on the opening of the road from Mahone Bay to 
Bridgewater, and its extension towards Mill Village. The 
latter was laid out about 1858, by Surveyor Thompson, with 
Henry Bailly, M.P.P., and others. 

The lumber mills of the Messrs. Davison, at Bridgewater, are 
at the head of the manufacturing establishments of the county. 
They employ about 350 men and fifty ox-teams ; and their sale 
of lumber, the output of which averages twelve million feet, is 
about $120,000 yearly. They import from forty to fifty 
thousand dollars' worth of goods annually, and the volume 
of business passing through their books amounts to over 
$200,000 per annum. 

There are also the steam sawing and planing mill of Mr. J. 
Arthur Miller, the inventor of " Miller s patent bam-door 
fastener"; the steam planing and edging mill of Dawson & Sons, 
the planing mill and carriage factory of Mr. W. E. Vienot, and 
the carriage factories of Messrs. Reuben Durling and Jacob 
Wentzel. Hunter s iron foundry, Waterman's tanyard, Wile & 
Sons' carding mill, and Whitman Brothers' grain mill and plough 
factory are in that part of the town plot called SebastopoL 

The works of the electric light company, and Mr. G. J. Kelly's 
marble and granite works are on Commercial street. 

What a contrast is presented when we compare the busy 
scene we now witness in and around Bridgewater, with the ' 

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state of things which existed in early days. The town and 
the adjacent settlements show a remarkable development of 
resources and steady advancement in material prosperity. 

First-class manufacturing facilities abound in and around 
Bridgewater, and the same may be remarked of the county 
generally, the wiU^r-power in which is sufficient to put in 
motion all kinds of machinery and give employment to a large 

The writer never looks at the drift-wood about the river, or 
at the great piles of edgings, large and small, being burnt near 
the mills, which would keep hundreds of families from the go1<^ 
without thinking of the poor whom he has so often seen in the 
city, gathering arms and aprons f uU of whatever they could 
collect that was fit for fuel. 


The first place of worship erected in Bridgewater was one 
used as a union church. After its erection it remained for a 
long time unfinished, and was so open that sheep were some* 
times found inside. Mrs. Calvin Wheelock taught in it what 
is said to have been the first school in Bridgewater. The 
scholars were placed in one end. A large portion being without 
proper flooring, an old inhabitant tells how the boys used to set, 
in this part, traps made by themselves, in which they occasion- 
ally caught some of the squirrels that were about the premises. 
The public school was once kept in this church during repair 
of the old school-house. 

The following verse was composed by the late John Harley, 

** This Church a paradox affords 
In saving wicked people — 
Old Hariy furnished half the boards, 
And old Nick built the steeple.'' 

Henry Cook and Nicolas Conrad were the men referred to. 

The building was purchased by the Baptists, and is still used 

by them. When it was erected there was no house between it 

and Mr. John Hebb's beyond the shipyard. It has been very 

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much improved, and a neat parsonage built on the adjoining 

From " Early History of the Baptists in Lunenburg County," 
by Rev. S. March: "In 1848, on the 8th of May, the Baptist 
Church in Bridgewater waa reorganized with fourteen members 
(only two of whom survive), and in the same year it was 
received into the Association held at Liverpool, N.S. Services 
in Bridgewater were conducted for several years in the ' Old 
School-house,' a building used for school purposes long after 
the writer took charge of this field. It stood on lands now in 
possession of R Dawson & Sons, and nearly opposite their 
store on the hillside. The house of worship now occupied by 
the Church was originally designed as a ' Union House,' to be 
used by the Episcopalians, Presbyterians and Lutherans, but 
was never by them completed. It stood so long in an 
unfinished condition that the cattle often took shelter in the 
basement, and it was designated by some the 'Lord's Bam.' 
It was at length sold, and much to the surprise of the original 
claimants, was purchased by the Baptists, then indeed a feeble 
band; but with energy and pluck they finished and opened the 
building for worship in 1854. Quite a number of ministers 
have occupied the pastoral office here, and done good work — 
Revs. Jas. Stubbert, Walter Q. Goucher, James V. Tabor, I. J. 
Skinner, L. M. Weeks, S. March (for nineteen years and a half, 
and six years additional, with portion of Church outside town 
of Bridgewater), John Williams, A. J. Cogswell, E. Roberts, S. H. 
Cain, C. R. B. Dodge, C. W. Corey, and Jas. W. Brown. From 
among those who had been instructed in the Sabbath School 
here, may be named Revs. J. W. Manning and Isaac Wheelock, 
now of the United States. 

"The Pleasantville Baptist Church was a branch of the 
Bridgewater Church, and was for many years supplied by its 
pastors with the preached Word. The Church was organized 
in 1875. Rev. Frederick Crawley was ordained as its first 
pastor. A few of its members were originaUy from North- 
West Lunenburg Church." 

Rev. James W. Manning, M.A., above referred to^ was bom 

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in Bridgewater,. He was for seventeen years pastor of the 
North Baptist Church at Halifax, and is now Secretary of the 
Foreign Mission Board, residing at Carleton, N.B. 

Church of England. 

The Rev. Joshua W. Weeks, who lived at West La Have 
Ferry, conducted divine service semi-monthly in the Union 
Church, now owned by the Baptist body. He also prea-ched 
at times in the house at present occupied by Mrs. J. McKean, 
and in the house of Mr. John Hyson, which stood on the site of 
the residence of Dugald Stewart, M.D. 

Occasional services were afterwards held in the old public 
school-house, by Rev. J. C. Cochran, M.A., and others. 

In and after 1852, Rev. H. L. Owen, M.A., of Lunenburg, 
held service once a month when convenient. 

At a meeting in the school-house, in March, 1854, it was 
resolved to adopt means for the erection of a church, and col- 
lecting and building committees were appointed. Thanks were 
voted to the managing committee of the Lutheran Church, for 
offering the use of their building, and it was intimated that 
the Sunday collections would be for their benefit. Fourteen 
candidates were confirmed there, by Bishop Binney, in May, 
1855. A site was kindly given for a church by Joseph P. 
Miller, Esq., but the present site, given by the late John N. 
Hebb, Elsq., was preferred. The frame was erected in October, 
1855, in the time of Rev. Henry De Blois (first resident clergy- 
man), and blown down by a gale in December. In July, 1856, 
a new frame was raised. Funds were obtained by subscriptions, 
society grants, and the inevitable bazaar, leaving a debt which 
was soon paid. 

The church was opened for divine service on Sunday, Feb- 
ruary 22nd, 1857, and consecrated by the name of " The 
Church of the Holy Trinity," on Saturday, the 12th of June, 
1858, the following clergymen, besides the Bishop, being pres- 
ent : Revs. H. L. Owen, W. H. Snyder, H. M. Spike, and the 
Incumbent, Rev. J. H. Drumm, M.D. One adult was baptized, 
and twenty-four candidates were confirmed. An able sermon 

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was preached by the Bishop, from John ii., last part of the 
16th verse. The Holy Communion was administered to thirty- 
two persons, including most of the newly -confirmed. 

Rev. H. De Blois commenced his labors in Bridgewater, in 
1854, and remained about three years. 

J. H. Drumm, M.D., who had been practising at Bridgewater, 
was ordained and appointed to the mission early in 1858. He 
was followed in the latter part of the same year by Rev. John 
T. Moody, son of a former rector of Yarmouth, who was in 
<;harge three years and a half. For two years and a half after 
his removal to Tusket, Rev. H. L. Owen and George W. Hodgson, 
Esq. (afterwards Rev. G. W. Hodgson), then lay reader and master 
of the Grammar School, Lunenburg, officiated at intervals. 

Rev. Wm. H. E. Bullock, B.A., became incumbent in 1865, 
And here commenced his ministry. He removed in 1868 on 
his appointment as Assistant Garrison Chaplain at Halifax. 
The reverend gentleman was noticed by the Aldershot News in 
the following terms, when about to leave England for Nova 
Scotia : 

" After five years of useful work at Halifax he was posted 
to the cavalry brigade at Aldershot, being afterwards trans- 
ferred to North Camp. He next served in Dublin. and the 
Currah for twelve months, and was retransferred to the old 
Iron Church in South Camp, in succession to Rev. Dr. Edghill. 
In 1880, he was appointed Senior Chaplain at Gibraltar, at 
which station he remained five years. He is well remembered 
in connection with the " Rock," as being the means of starting 
the pleasant steamer trips to the African side of the water. 
Active service came to his lot in 1885, when he was appointed 
Senior Chaplain to the expeditionary force, under Sir Gerald 
Graham, to Souakin. He distinguished himself in that 
campaign, received special mention in despatches, and was 
promoted into the first class, receiving also the medal and clasp 
and Khedive s star. On returning home he spent four years in 
Chatham, and was sent to Ireland as Senior Chaplain, and 
remained in the sister isle for three years. He has occupied 
his present post for two years, and is proceeding on leave prior 

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to his departure for Nova Scotia, his native place, which in 
all probability will be his last appointment before he retires. 
The reverend gentleman will be much missed in the division, 
for his helping hand haa been ever at the service of thosQ who 
needed it." 

Rev. Mr. Bullock was followed at Bridge water, in 1868, by- 
Rev. David Christmas Moore, of St. Bees College, England, 
whose successor was the present Rector and Rural Dean, 
Rev. William E. Gelling, a native of the Isle of Man, and edu- 
cated at St Augustine's College, Canterbury. He preached his 
first sermon on Sunday, August 13th, 1871, on the Saviour*s 
holy work and example, from Luke ii., last part of verse 49. 

The comer-stone of the rectory was laid July 15th, 1868 
(St Swithin's Day), by Rev. W. H. E. Bullock, then Assistant 
Garrison Chaplain at Halifax, who preached an appropriate 
sermon, and referred feelingly to his former connection with 
the parish. Revs. Messrs. Moore, Owen, Hodgson, and Kaulbach 
took part in the services. 

At different periods the late Rev. Dr. Almon, and Rev. Charles 
G. Abbott acted as lay readers, and Revs. Edward Parry, and 
Eldward Lawlor, M.A., as assistant clergymen. Mr. Alban B. 
De Mille, B.A., has been lay reader in the parish since October, 

Elizabeth D. Breading (a native of Bermuda), widow of late 
Rev. James Breading, and mother of Mrs. W. E. Gelling, died 
at the rectory, Bridgewater, on the morning of Sunday, Janu- 
ary 11th, 1891, at the age of eighty-five years. Mrs. Breading 
was a most estimable person, and a fine example of the highest 
Christian character, abounding in gentleness and in kindness 
to all who knew her. She was well described as " a lovely old 

Rev. Theodore E. Dowling, M.A., of Jerusalem, preached 
in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Bridgewater, in September, 
1891, on "Missionary Work among the Jews in Palestine." 

During recent years several improvements have been made 
in the church. The old and contracted chancel gave place to 
the present large and handsome one, and the main body of the 

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building was subsequently renovated. New pews were put in, 
and a tower placed on the north comer, changing for the better 
the whole appearance of the church. Neat stained glass win- 
dows were given by Hon. W. H. Owen, and a bell by another 
member of the congregation. 


The old church (St. John's) was built in 1848, and the first 
sermon was preached by Rev. William Dutf. 

A new and commodious church (also St. John's) was erected 
in 1874. It is a fine addition to the architectural ornaments of 
the town. 

The tower and pews were removed from the old church, and 
the building was made into a comfortable hall for the Sunday 
School and public meetings. 

The resident ministers in Bridgewater have been: Revs. 
Howard D. Steele, John Morton (now Rev. Dr., a most success- 
ful missionary in Trinidad), Peter M. (now Rev. Dr.) Morrison, 
William Robertson, John Cameron (who has passed the jubilee 
year of his ministry), John Ferry, John F. Dustan, and Fred- 
erick C. Simpson the present pastor, who came in July, 1892. 
Mr. Simpson is a native of Hull, Yorkshire, England. He is 
assisted by Mr. Daniel McG. Gandier, student of Queen's College, 
Kingston. The first manse was built about 1857, and exchanged 
for the present one in 1879. 

Among the visiting preachers in the church at Bridgewater 
have been two of the best missionaries sent to heathen lands. 
Rev. H. A. Robertson, in 1884, described among other things 
the last administration of the Lord's Supper, and the farewell 
by his people on the beach when he and his wife were leaving 
on furlough. In the following year. Rev. Joseph Annand gave 
an account of his work on Aneityum (the scene of Dr. Geddie's 
labors), and of the people to whom he ministered. These were 
among the most interesting addresses ever heard in Bridgewater. 

Rev. Edward Roberts, retired from active duty, resides in 
Bridgewater and gives occasional assistance in church work. 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 207 


The church was built about forty years ago. Before it was 
erected, Rev. C. Cossmann preached in the Presbyterian Church 
loaned for the purpose, and afterwards in the Lutheran Church. 

Rev. William W. Bowers, who came from Philadelphia in 
1859, was the first resident English minister, and for him the 
parsonage was built. The other resident clergymen have been : 
Revs. Hutchinson, Hunton, Yount, Kohler, and Orr, the latter 
succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Albert R. J. Graepp, 
who came from Greenville, Pennsylvania, and was installed 
with appropriate services, on the evening of Wednesday, July 
24th, 1895. Revs. Sweinsberg, Maurer, D. K Roth, Rankin, and 
Rev. Dr. Roth took part in the services. Rev. Theophilus B. 
Roth, D.D., is President of Thiel College, Greenville, and Rev. 
D. L. Roth, a former pastor at Lunenburg, lives at Albany, N.Y. 

The Bach Amateur Orchestra formed the choir for the 
occasion. The proceedings of the day terminated on the 
grounds of the Lutheran parsonage, which were handsomely 
illuminated under the tasteful direction of J. W. Andrews, Esq. 

Rev. R. J. Graepp was bom near Strahlsund, in Pomerania, 


The church was erected in 1873 and finished in 1876. Ser- 
vices had been previously held in the old school-house, in 
the Temperance Hall, and other places in town. A lot for a 
parsonage was purchased in 1884, and after the cellar was com- 
pleted, the generous offer of the late Edward D. Davison, Esq., 
to build the house was accepted. 

While Bridgewater was part of the Lunenburg Circuit, it was 
visited by Revs. Dr. C. Stewart, J. F. Bent, Joseph Hart, James 
Hart, R. Smith, J. J. Teasdale and others. 

Mr. A. H. Clayton, a probationer, came in 1873, and was 
succeeded in 1875 by Rev. C. W. Swallow. The other resident 
clergymen have been : Revs. John Cassidy, Wm. Brown, God- 
frey Shore, David Hickey, J. C. Ogden, J. R. Borden, J. W. 
Prestwood, C. H. Huestis, and R. S. Stevens the present pastor. 

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The clergyman resident in Bridgewater oiEciates at Summer- 
side, and in a union church at Conquerall Bank. 

Roman Catholic. 

The handsome St. Joseph's Chapel was dedicated by Arch- 
bishop O'Brien, on the Feast of the Patronage of St. Joseph, 
Sunday, May 12th, 1889. His Grace, in addressing those 
present referred to the exceeding beauty of the building, to the 
zealous labors in its behalf of the priest in charge. Rev. Edmond 
Kennedy, and the praiseworthy effoi-ts of all who aided in the 

The church is 70 x 30 feet, with end gallery for the choir, 
and is iBnely finished. Mr. Dumaresq was the architect, and 
Mr. R. H. Lamb, of Bridgewater, the chief carpenter, while the 
decorative painting was done by Mr. Richard Hurley, ably 
assisted by William, son of Mr. Stephen Messer, whose work 
with his biTish in many ways has been highly creditable for a 
young man. The natural grain of the woods used — oak, white 
and black ash, birch, and rock maple — is well brought out and 
worthy of inspection. 

It was fortunate for the Roman Catholics of Bridgewater 
that they had as their priest a man of uncommon push and 
energy, with all required devotedness to the work, for it was 
mainly by these qualities that the church, an ornament to the 
town in its exterior and interior, was carried to completion. It 
must give great satisfaction to priest and people. 

Father Kennedy is a native of Waterford, and came to the 
county in 1883. He was appointed first resident priest in 
Bridgewater in 1885. 

During his residence here he took a warm interest in the 
fidvancement of the town, and was esteemed a valuable citizen. 
He several times delivered interesting addresses to the children 
of the public schools on Arbor days, and was himself a great 
lover of trees. 

On the 15th of May, 1893, he was presented, on his departure, 
by a committee on behalf of his parishioners, with a gold-headed 
cane and a well-filled purse, in appreciation of his ten years* 
labor in the county. Digitized by Google 


He left Bridgewater for Windsor, and was succeeded by Rev, 
John Walsh, a native of Kilkenny, Ireland, who in August, 
1894, was transferred to Annapolis, his place here being filled 
by Rev. Walter J. Doody, also a native of Kilkenny. 

Rev. J. J. Sullivan, who has been stationed at Pubnico for 
eight years, was once in Bridgewater for some months during 
the absence of Rev. E. Kennedy. 

In addition to the churches of Bridgewater, the large and 
conveniently arranged music hall, court-house, and exhibition 
building add much to the appearance of the town. 

There is also a large drill shed, which was formerly used for 
militia purposes, and for public meetings and entertainments. 
A well-appointed fire-engine house was erected some years ago. 

The Bridgewater Cemetery is close to the town, on Victoria 
road, and is a most beautiful spot. It would be hard to find a 
place more suitable for the purpose, or for which nature has 
done so much. The undulating surface has given opportimity 
for a succession of fine terraces. The old pines, with the trees 
and shrubs planted on hill and valley, add greatly to the 
attractiveness of the cemetery, which has afforded lovely resting- 
places for the departed, and which is admired by all visitors. 

The care taken of the graves by relatives and friends, and 
their loving remembrances in the deposit of beautiful flowers, 
are highly creditable. 

Winter, 1869-70. 

The mildness of the weather during the " winter months " of 
1869-70 was quite unusual. In midwinter the ice in the lakes 
was too thin for travelling, and the rivers were open, the La 
Have having been closed to navigation only for a few hours. 
On the 11th of January, the schooner Frank Newton^ Captain 
George Burkett, arrived in the river from Halifax, and dis- 
charged cargo at the village. On the 18th of the same month 
the schooner Stella, Captain Robert Loy, arrived from Lunen- 
burg to be laden with staves. On the 21st, the three-masted 
schooner Zebras Daniel Adams, Master, arrived from Boston and 

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discharged a cargo of flour and meal. The schooner Templar, 
Caleb Dauphinee, Master, arrived from Halifax on the 28th, 
and the cargo was unloaded. On the 29th, the Zebra cleared 
for Providence, Rhode Island. The river was subsequently 
closed for a short time, but was clear of ice on the fourth day 
of Mai-ch, and continued open to navigation. During the whole 
season it was only closed for one month. 

Late in January farmers ploughed newly-broken land, and 
the same work could have been done in February. One of the 
oldest inhabitants declared that he had not known such a winter 
in seventy-two years. 

Bridgewater is surrounded by a fine agricultural country. 
The important settlements of Conquerall, Campertown, Lapland, 
Baker Settlement, Waterloo, Chelsea, Midville Branch, Lower 
Branch and others, furnish it with staple articles for consump- 
tion and export. 

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Biographical Notices of Persons who have Conducted Business and 
Resided at Bridgewater. 

JAMES STARRATT (son of John Starratt, who emigrated 
from the north of Ireland), born May 24th, 1799, and Eleanor 
Morse, bom August 7th, 1808, were married June 19th, 
1828, at Paradise, County of Annapolis, and came in that year to 
Bridgewater, Mrs. Starratt performing the journey on horseback. 
The site of the present town was then chiefly forest to the river's 
brink. Mr. Starratt, a pushing, enterprising man, was a house- 
"Carpenter and carriage-builder, and erected several houses for the 
Messrs. Koch on the New Germany road, and for others. He 
built the third house in the village, and kept the firat hotel. The 
latter business was continued by him for many years, and after 
his decease, by Mrs. Starratt. The house was always well patron- 
ized. Mr. Starratt died June 20th, 1865, and his widow, Feb- 
ruary 22nd, 1889. Mrs. Stairatt was much respected by all 
who knew her. She was a very warm-hearted woman, and 
exceedingly kind to the poor. She died without the least pain 
or suffering, and as if going quietly to sleep. 

Calvin Whedock was bora at Granville, and came to Bridge- 
water about sixty-five years ago. His son and two daughters, 
who followed him, had a horse but no vehicle, and they " rode 
tie " (that is, by . turns) over a very bad road from Nictaux. 
Mr. Wheelock taught in Lunenburg, what is said to have been 
the first regular singing school held in the county, and also kept 
a day school in Chester, and other districts. He had a school 
in the house now occupied by Mrs. McKean, and for some time 
lived on the Nicholson property, East Bridgewater, where 
he made brick, in company with his son Calvin, and his 
son-in-law, Amherst Martin. His daughter, Mrs. Benjamin 

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Wile, tells of the assistance given by her and her sisters in 
" edging the bricks," placing them on end to dry. Mrs. Wile 
gave the writer one of the bread-dishes formerly much in use. 
They were made by John Deidrich, a German, who travelled 
about the country and supplied such articles, and Ijaskets, when 
required. The dishes were bowl-shaped, and formed of neatly- 
made straw ropes, coiled one above the other, and kept in place 
by small withes worked between and over them. 

In these dishes the prepared loaves were carried to the oven, 
and there turned out. The one referred to was used by three 
generations, for over a hundred years, and looks as if it would 
last for another century. 

Mr. Wheelock died at Aylesford, King's, N.S., where some of 
his relatives lived. 

Benjamin Ramey, bom near Conquerall Bank, November 
19th, 1818, worked for several years in the lumber business at 
Lapland, and afterwards established himself as a merchant at 
East Bridgewater. He was known as an honest, upright man. 
The words on his tombstone, " A man of truth," are deservedly 
placed there. Mr. Ramey died suddenly, November 7th, 1871. 
He belonged to the Presbyterian Church. 

One of the most honorable and upright men who have been 
in business in Bridgewater was the late John N. Hebb, son of 
Nicholas Hebb. He resided for about thirty years on the farm on 
Liverpool road, afterwards owned by his son Simeon, and was 
for about forty years engaged as a merchant in Bridgewater, 
where he died January 8th, 1875, aged seventy- seven. He 
first married Elizabeth, daughter of the late Henry Cook. His 
secdnd wife was Eliza Ann James, who was bom at Block- 
house, and was a granddaughter of Edward James, who entered 
the Royal Navy as a midshipman on board H.M.S. Dunkirk, at 
Portsmouth, and on promotion served in the Resolution and 
other vessels, and was transferred to the army, with a commis- 
sion in the King's Orange Rangers. Mrs. Hebb died in Bridge- 
water, March 13th, 1890, aged seventy -three years. 

John Harley, eldest son of the late Dr. Barley, of Lunenburg, 
was a native of Farham, England. In the early days of 

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Bridgewater he carried on a mercantile business. CJonveyances 
were hard to get, and he often walked to Lunenburg on 
Saturday evening, and came back on Monday morning. He 
subsequently made Bridgewater his home, and was for many 
years Collector of Customs. He had been a captain in the Si-d 
Battalion of Lunenburg Militia, and became lieutenant-colonel, 
commanding at Bridgewater. Mr. Harley was strictly upright 
and honorable in all his dealings, a total abstainer, and one of 
the chief promoters and supporters of the first temperance 
society organized in Bridgewater, and he frequently spoke and 
lectured in aid of the cause. Being a man of good abilities 
and a great reader, with a poetical turn of mind and much 
ready wit, his converaation was always interesting and profit- 
able. He died at Bridgewater, September 7th, 1875, aged 
seventy-one years. His wife (who was a daughter of Zenas 
Waterman, Esq., a former representative for Queen's county 
in the House of Assembly) died on the 29th of December in the 
same year, aged 57. Mr. Harley*s three surviving sons are, 
respectively. Postmaster of Lincoln, the capital of Nebraska, 
U.S., Rector of Digby, N.S., and Rector of Liverpool, N.S. 

A braham Hehh, Esq., son of John George and Rebecca Hebb, 
was bom at the old homestead, Hebb's Mills, and was one of 
the most highly respected men in the county. He was a noble 
specimen of manhood, and had always been most industrious 
in his calling as a farmer and orchardist. Nature had many 
charms for him, especially round about his home ("Indian 
Garden," not far from his birthplace), where it gave him great 
pleasure to receive visitors, and extend to them a warm welcome. 
He took much pride in his farm, which, all things considered, 
is the besf in the county, and paid great attention to his 
orchards, in which he was ever grafting choicest varieties. 
Much valuable advice was cheerfully given by him to others 
similarly engaged, and he sometimes addressed the people of 
the country districts, to their great advantage, on matters con- 
nected with their special work. Mr. Hebb was a really good 
man, and set a fine example to all. He was a fearless total 
abstainer, opposed to the use of tobacco, and a well-wisher to 

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everything that promoted the best interests of his fellowmen. 
He was elected to fill the vacancy in the House of Assembly 
caused by the death of Dr. Slocomb, and when he was con- 
ducted to the clerk's table to be sworn in, his fine presence 
was much admired. 

Mr. Hebb died at his residence, September 18th, 1880, in his. 
sixty-eighth year. An immense concourse of people followed 
his remains over the farm to the place of interment, inside the 
entrance gate. It was truly said in the press, "For sterling 
honesty and conscientious adherence to principle, he has not 
left his superior." 

Joseph P. MUler, Esq,, son of the late Garrett Miller, Esq.^ 
M.P.P., was the owner of much land in Bridgewater and its 
vicinity. He lived on the east side of the La Have, at " Glen 
Allan," which some of his family still occupy. The beauty of 
this place has been greatly marred by the two tracks of the 
Nova Scotia Central Railway, made through it. 

The situation of the property near the river, the forest trees, 
the rows of willows and hawthorns, the brook, and the roads 
and pathways through the woods, with the pretty views from 
the hill-tops, give to " Glen Allan " a peculiar attractiveness. 

Mr. Miller once carried on business in a large store near the 
bridge. He was a well-informed man, and for a long time held 
the office of Justice of the Peace. His death occurred April 
14th, 1881. 

The following notice of the death of ATulrexv Gow, Esq., 
appeared in the Lunenburg county TiTnes, October 17th, 1883 : 

" It is our melancholy duty to record the demise of our late 
respected townsman, Andrew Gow, Esq., which event occurred 
on Friday morning last from the effects of the carriage accident 
of the 26th ult., previously noticed in our columns. His remains 
were conveyed to the new cemetery on Saturday afternoon, 
escorted by a large concourae of people of both sexes, many of 
whom came from other parts of the county. 

" The deceased gentleman was a native of Scotland, bom in 
Perth in 1838. In 1846, he migrated with his parents to Lunen- 
burg. He entered Taylor s drug store, Halifax, as a clerk in 
1852, where he remained about four years. OoooIp 

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" In the fall of 1858, he settled at Bridgewater, and by his 
energy and ability soon acquired a prominent position in the 
commercial community. He early turned his attention to the 
building and sailing of vessels, in which business he became 
an adept, and at his death was ship's-husband to quite a fleet of 
barques and brigantines employed in both the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans. 

" He held the position of agent of the Merchants' Bank of 
Halifax, from the spring of 1871, or since the agency was first 

"The deceased was singularly candid in expressing his honest 
conviction about men and things; in social life, was a cheerful 
companion; and in business matters, bore a high character for 

Mr. John Gow, brother of the deceased, is a graduate of 
Dalhousie College, and has been for several years engaged as a 
school-teacher. He is the author of a valuable illustrated 
history of Cape Breton. 

James Orinton was bom at Corstorphine, near Edinburgh, 
Scotland, December 31st, 1798, and came to Nova Scotia in 
May, 1819. He bought land at what was known as the Grinton 
Settlement (Springfield, Annapolis), from whence he removed 
to East Bridgewater, and built the house now occupied by his 
widow, in part of which he did a mercantile business for many 
years. He was a member of the Baptist Church, to which he 
gave liberally. The poor always found in him a kind friend. 
Jn all his transactions he was honest and upright, and much 
respected by his fellowmen. He was a Justice of the Peace. 
Mr. Grinton died March 8th, 1884. 

SaTfivA F. Barney (brother of Benjamin previously noticed) 
was bom near Conquerall Bank, and carried on a mercantile 
business at East Bridgewater for more than forty years. Like 
his brother, he was noted for his integiity and honest dealings. 
He was a member of the Lutheran Church. Mr. Ramey died 
July 25th, 1884, in his sixty-seventh year. 

William Henry Broivnrigg, barrister-at-law, died in Bridge- 
water, April 5th, 1888, at the age of thirty-two. 

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"He was educated at the Pictou Academy and Dalhousie 
College, where he took high rank in his classes, and he supported 
himself by his own industry and unaided efforts. He was a 
bom athlete, 'and excelled in cricket, foot-ball, and all manly 
sports. Those who knew him only in his later years, when a 
lingering disease had broken down his once magnificent 
physique, can form but a slight conception of what he was a 
few years ago, when, as captain of the Dalhousie foot-ball club, 
he led his team to victory against the best city and military 
clubs. After leaving college Mr. Brownrigg became Principal 
of the Stellarton High School, and subsequently of the Guys- 
boro' Academy, and more recently of the Bridge water High 
School. He was an able and successful teacher, and always 
esteemed and beloved by his pupils. He subsequently studied 
law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1886. 

" In the death of Mr. Brownrigg, our town has lost one of its 
best and most promising citizens. He was one of Nature's 
gentlemen, and his many friends will not soon forget his kind 
and unobtrusive disposition, his genial and unassuming manner, 
his innate love of truth and justice, and above all, that rich vein 
of quaint, original humor which not even disease and suffering 
could subdue." 

Mr. Brownrigg married Amelia F., daughter of the late K D. 
Davison, Esq. 

Robert West died suddenly at; Bridgewater, October 7th, 1891, 
aged seventy-one. 

He had resided here for nearly fifty years, having removed 
from King's county about 1843. He was engaged in a general 
mercantile business, in which he continued to the time of his 
death. The Baptist Church had in him a prominent member, 
and he was a Justice of the Peace, and a son of temperance. 
His strictly honorable conduct in all his dealings ensured for 
him univei-sal respect. 

One who had extensive transactions and frequent settlements 
with him, said that " his accounts were always right to a cent," 

Joseph Whitford was summoned away by death, April 19th, 
1893, " after an illness lasting only a few days. The deceased 

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gentleman was bom at Chester, N.S., in 1827, and was the 
second son of Thomas Whitford, Esq., a much respected resident 
of that place, who died there about five years ago. Mr. Whitford 
<5arried on a large business at Chester, for many years shipping 
lumber and ships' knees, etc., to the United States in his own 
vessel, but about twenty years ago he moved to Bridgewater, 
and accepted the responsible position of postmaster, which he 
held at the time of his death. He waa also a Justice of the 

"As a citizen he was widely known and respected, and 
whether in his magisterial capacity, or as postmaster, he was 
most painstaking and courteous in the discharge of his duties. 
It was largely his close and constant attendance upon the postal 
work which eventually undermined a vigorous constitution, and 
<»used his death. 

" Mr. Whitford brought up a large family of sons and daugh- 
ters creditably, all of whom, save one, survive him." 

A son and daughter reside in Bridgewater. 

The death of Robert Dawson, Esq,, occurred at his residence, 
Bridgewater, January 18th, 1894. 

" The deceased gentleman was the senior member in the firm 
of R. Dawson & Sons, the oldest business concern in Bridgewater, 
and one of the oldest in the county. He was born at Port Mouton, 
Queen's county, in the year 1825, being in his sixty-ninth year 
at the time of his death. He was the only son of a young 
Scotch trader of the same name, who came to this country from 
Aberdeen, but who was accidentally drowned when Mr. Dawson 
was only a few months old. As a youth he entered the 
employ of the late Joseph Jennings, merchant, of Halifax, 
where he remained as clerk for several years, during which 
time he succeeded in so favorablj?- impressing his employer that 
Mr. Jennings opened a business in Bridgewater under his man- 
agement in the year 1848. Shortly after he was able to buy 
out his employer, and established himself on his own account, 
and by strict attention and thorough honesty in all his trans- 
actions he soon placed himself among the foremost and most 
reliable business men in the county. Early in his career he 

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engaged in shipping, and became interested in a number of 
large sailing vessels, which he managed with marked success. 
He was married in 1856, to a daughter of the late John N. 
Hebb, of Bridgewater, and leaves a widow, one daughter and 
two sons to mourn their loss. A man of sterling integrity, 
high principle and gentlemanly manners, he succeeded in 
impressing all who knew him most favorably, and his death 
makes a gap in our community that cannot easily be filled. 
The esteem in which he was held by his fellow-townsmen is 
seen in the many offices he was called to fill. At the time of 
his deceiise he was Chairman of the Board of Fire Wardens, 
Commissioner of Schools, Treasurer of the Bridgewater Agricul- 
tural Society, and of the Masonic lodge, which positions 
he held for many years, discharging the duties most faith- 
fully. Any appeal on behalf of the suffering and distressed 
met with a ready response from him ; he was given to deeds of 
charity. Mr. Dawson was a consistent member, a most liberal 
supporter, and a manager of St. John's Presbyterian Church, 
where he will be greatly missed." 

The above tribute will be heartily joined in by all who knew 
Mr. Dawson. 

"i/. Edward Waterman passed away quietly on Sunday 
evening, February 18th, 1894. He was one of the most enter- 
prising and public-spirited men in our town. His voice was 
always raised, and his purse perhaps too often opened, to 
further any enterprise that promised to develop the industries 
of the county or benefit the condition of the community. A 
man of a sympathetic nature — as long as able — he spent much 
of his time and means in ministering to and helping the unfor- 
tunate. He did not herald his good deeds, but rather concealed 
them — they are written, however, upon the hearts and memories 
of many. He materially aided in moulding the history of this 
county for the past forty years. Every step in the way of 
reform received his regard and intelligent support. He was 
associated for some years in an extensive mercantile business 
with the late John N. Hebb, whose daughter Eliza he married, 
and who survives him. Subsequently with his brother Josepli, 

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and his cousin Thomas Waterman, under the firm name of J. E. 
Waterman & Co., he carried on a large tanning and shoe manu- 
facturing business, and took great interest in, and materially 
aided the development of, our mining industries. He was a 
consistent adherent of the Presbyterian Church, and most broad 
and charitable in his religious views." 

Edvmrd Doran Davison diedat his residence, East Bridge- 
water, February 21st, 1894. The following is a condensed 
statement from accounts published in local papers : " He was 
bom at Mill Village, in Queen's county, in the month of June, 
1819. There he became the head of a flourishing lumbering, 
farming and fishing industry, and prosecuted his affairs with 
untiring zeal until about 1865, when, owing to destructive 
forest fires, he removed to Bridgewater. Here he founded the 
well-known firm of E. D. Davison & Sons. 

" At the time of his death he had fairly earned the proud 
distinction of having the largest lumber business in the Pro- 
vince, and one of the largest in the Dominion. 

" In 1854, he was elected to the Provincial Parliament, as 
member for Queen's county, and sat in the House during the 
palmy days of Johnston, Howe, and Young. 

" Socially, Mr. Davison was an exceedingly interesting person 
to meet. He always had a fund of anecdotes concerning old 
times, and the men who helped to build up Nova Scotia. He 
was a veritable encyclopsBdia of reminiscences, and seemed a 
link between the old and the new. No one in need ever went 
away from him empty-handed, and the monuments of his 
benefactions are numerous." 

Mr. Davison was a fine-looking man, and even in his later 
years there seemed to be no lessening of his abundant energy. 
" He was fond of out-door life, and always superintended the 
management of his mills, having a thorough knowledge of, 
and great liking for, machinery. He has in the past twenty- 
five years given more than any other twenty men in the 
county towards the erection of churches. We have learned 
from outside sources of his charitable excursions, spending two 
or three days at a time, visiting needy families of former 

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friends, employees and old family retainers, cheering them with 
his hearty laugh, and hope-inspiring presence, and leaving with 
them such substantial assistance as would fully meet their 

The writer can warmly unite in the praise of which the 
deceased has, by others, been deemed worthy. 

Instances of Mr. Davison's generous dealings have been told 
to him, but in accordance with what would have been the wish 
of the giver, they are not here specially named. They stamped 
him, however, as a noble-hearted man. He was very fond of 
reading and hearing about the discoveries from time to time 
of pre-historic relics, and he was also a great lover of scientific 
study, and followed with the greatest, interest the marvellous 
improvements of the nineteenth century. 

About a month before his death he referred, in conversation, 
to the great loss the community had sustained in the decease 
of Robert Dawson, Esq., little thinking that his own departure 
was so near at hand. " He was twice married. His first wife, 
to whom he was united at the early age of twenty, was Desiah 
Mack, daughter of Elisha Mack. She died some years ago. By 
her he had a family of ten children, seven of whom are living. 
His second wife, who survives him, was Martha, daughter of 
the late Hon. John Campbell, of Liverpool, N.S." 

Miss Bertha L. Simonson died at Bridgewater, March 19th, 
1894, aged nineteen years and eleven months. 

" Miss Simonson was a young lady very highly esteemed. The 
floral offerings after her death were the finest and most exten- 
sive ever seen here. 

" A short funeral service was held at the house, after which 
the body was conveyed to the Methodist chapel and placed in 
front of the platform amidst a profusion of flowers left there 
by loving hands. The services at the church were conducted 
by Revs. R. S. Stevens, J. W. Brown, and F. C. Simpson, and 
at the grave by Revs. Stevens, and Gelling. No words of ours 
can do justice to the intelligence, understanding, and general 
merit which characterized this bright young girl's life." 

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The following lines on Miss Simonson's death, were written 
by William E. Marshall, Esq., barrister : 

*' Into a garden, soft, a shadow stole 
And looked upon a flower, the loveliest there ; 
It was a Morning Glory, bright and fair, 
Uplifting to the Sun its yearning soul, 
Seeking more light and life while yet 'twas day. 
Drinking such beauty from the earth and sky. 
The Rose and Lily made a bower close by, 
And sang that Night and Death were passed away ; 
The shadow nearer crept, then sweetly smiled. 
And lo ! the spirit of that flower was free, 
And all the air was hushed, as if beguiled 
By some most subtle, dreamlike, mystery — 
Perchance it was an Angel in disguise ; 
For now the flower doth bloom in Paradise.'' 

Captain Joseph H. Wade died March 26th, 1894, aged sixty- 
four years. 

" Captain Wade came to Bridgewater some twenty-five years 
ago and engaged in mercantile business, and was at one time 
in partnership with C. H. Chase, now of Portland, Oregon. He 
was shipping master for this port for nineteen years and collec- 
tor of customs for four years. He resigned these positions a 
few months before his death, and was succeeded by N. C. 
Owen, Esq. Captain Wade had been a sufferer for four 
years, and ofttimes attended to his business when under the 
influence of great pain. He leaves a widow and two daughters.** 
The interment was with Masonic honors, joined in by many of 
the brethren from Lunenburg. Captain Wade had been in his 
younger days an eager and successful moose hunter. 

Since his decease, one of his daughters, Miss May Wade, has 
been called away, at the early age of twenty-two years. She 
was much esteemed in the community. The illness which 
caused her death was said to have been partly the result of close 
and faithful attendance on her father during his long sickness^ 

Robert Whitman died at his residence near Bridgewater, on 
Saturday evening, April 14th, 1894, aged seventy-two years and 
three months. He was the son of David Whitman, of Round Hill, 

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County of Annapolis, came to Bridgewater at twenty-one 
years of age, and remained till his death. He waa twice 
married — first to Lydia, daughter of the late James Waterman, of 
Pleasant River, and many years after her decease, to Sophia, 
daughter of the late Michael Himmelman, of New Dublin. Mr. 
Whitman was engaged in the building of the first hotel erected 
by James Starratt at the Bridge Corner, the Slocomb house, 
and many other buildings in and outside of Bridgewater. He 
built the Methodist church at the Cix)8S Roads, and the light- 
house at Foi*t Point. He had the highest regard for what was 
right and true, and was strictly honest and upright in his 
dealings with his fellowmen. Whatever he promised could be 
depended upon, and no bond could make more certain its per- 
formance. He was a lover of the beautiful in nature, with a 
strong sense of the greatness and goodness of God, and took 
every opportunity to speak of and admire them. 

Mi*. Whitman left, besides his widow, five sons and three 

"John Allen Tupper died at the age of sixty-five years, on 
Friday, August 9th, 1895. He was a native of Queen's county, 
born, we believe, at Pleasant River, came to Bridgewater about 
forty years ago, and has ever since made this town his home. 
For a long time he was in the employ of E. D. Davison & Sons 
as foreman of one of their mills, but latterly he superintended 
the mechanical department of the Nova Scotia Central Railway. 
Mr. Tupper was a hardy, strong man, and never incapacitated 
on account of illness. He was conscientious and energetic in 
the performance of his duties, and enjoyed the esteem and con- 
fidence of his employers. As a citizen Mr. Tupper possessed 
the regard of the community, and had many staunch friends, 
who testified their appreciation of his integrity by attending 
his funeral in a body." 

Mr. William S. Tupper, manager and agent at Bridgewater 
of the Merchants' Bank of Halifax, is a son of the deceased, 
and one of his daughter is the wife of Henry T. Ross, Esq., 

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Settlement at Hebb's Mills — Gold Discovered at Mellipsigit. 

H EBB'S MILLS are two and a half miles from Bridge- 
water, on the Liverpool road. Adam Hebb, the first 
settler in this locality, came from Germany with his widowed 
mother when he was about twelve years old, and was brought 
up by her second husband, a Mr. Eisenhauer, at Lunenburg. 
Mr. Hebb built a schooner named the Savrpit, from the locality 
in which she was constructed, and afterwards moved to an island 
near Lunenburg. He took up a tract of land and built a log- 
house in the front of the property now occupied by^Mrs. John S. 
McEean, at Bridgewater. His name was included for 380 acres 
in the grant of the township of Lunenburg. One of his sons, 
John George, came from the island and erected a log-house 
and mill at the place now called Hebb s Mills. He subsequently 
put up part of the large frame house which still stands there. 
The provisions at first required in his new home were taken 
from the island in a boat, which he sometimes rowed around 
to La Have River, and at other times to Lunenburg, whence 
he proceeded, with his load on his back, to Centre, and from 
there a distance of several miles by a footpath. People used to 
hoot at him, and say he was going out of the world. He and 
another man canied on their backs an iron mill-crank of over 
300 lbs. weight from Bridgewater to the mill before a road was 
made. There was no road then to Pleasant River. He went 
there through the woods, with blazed trees for guides, to buy a 
horse, and returned with him the same way. About seventy 
years ago, he had a shallop built by Jacob and John Randall at 
the mills in front of the old homestead, and it was hauled thence 
to the river at Bridgewater by seven or eight yoke of oxen. 

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He and one Deidrieh went in it on trading voyages to Halifax. 
By hard work he established himself comfortably, and was at 
length enabled, out of other lands he purchased, to give seven 
farms to as many sons, on which they settled and brought up 
large families. He also gave to each son a German familj^ 
Bible. Several of his sons had John for their first Christian 
name. In such a case, the two names would be used together, 
as John Nicolas, or John George. Sometimes men of the same 
first Christian name and surname would be known by adding 
their places of abode. Thus John George Hebb was called 
" Shore John " when living close to the river, to distinguish him 
from " Beech Hill John," and other Hebbs named John. Mr. 
Hebb died at the advanced age of over eighty years. Of his 
family (himself, his wife, seven sons and three daughters), Mr. 
Solomon Hebb, living on the Pleasant River road, now in his 
eighty-sixth year, is the only survivor. 

In the old days when business was brisk at Hebb's MiUs, there 
was a forest of first-class pine close at hand, of which the 
Hebbs had 2,700 acres, called the mill grant. It was quite 
usual to find trees from two to three feet, and sometimes three 
to four feet, through. Many of the stumps are now to be seen. 
A union mill was built by thre^ Hebbs, which gave place to 
three separate mills. Much money was made there, and large 
loans were obtained from the Hebbs. Fifteen hundred pounds 
and six hundred pounds, in gold, were two of the many sums 
lent. Extensive fires destroyed the remaining timber and the 
business connected with it. 

The farms between the mills and Bridgewater have been 
chiefly owned by Hebbs. It used to be said that there were 
miles of Hebbs on that road, and miles' of Kochs on the opposite 
side of the river, on the road from Bridgewater to New Ger- 
many. The descendants of all still largely occupy the ground. 
John, David, Enoch, and Henry Koch were sterling men, as 
were John, Abraham, Jacob, and others of the Hebbs, strictly 
straightforward and true in all their transactions. Their 
memory is honored. 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 225 


The Mellipsigit gold-fields are about nine miles from Bridge- 
water, and three miles from Hebb's Crass on the Liverpool road. 

A writer in the Progress, in 1883, stated that he had visited 
the Owen pit, and other claims, in their infancy, and had then 
recently revisited them. Three leads had been opened up, one 
from 14 to 16 inches thick, all three gold-bearing. At a depth 
of 80 or 90 feet, another lead had been struck, 6 to 9 inches 
wide, showing gold and other metals, as well in the slate 
as in the quartz lead. He was informed that the work, so far, 
was only one of development. 

Another account was given of a lode which had increased 
from 8 inches in width at the surface, to 15 inches at a depth 
of 80 feet, carrying an unusual quantity of gold. 

Other leads promising well have been discovered fix)m time 
to time, but have not been suflSciently worked. It is believed 
that this district would, with a wisely directed expenditui-e of 
capital, prove to be one of the best in the country. 

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La Have River — Its Rise, and Course to the Ocean — Poems on the 
Ri\'er, by different authors. 

THE La Have is the most beautiful river in Nova Scotia. 
It Ls also the largest, as has been proved by actual com- 
parisons and measurements. 

The surplus waters of Lake Paul, Oak Lake, Frog Lake, 
Shellcanip Lake, Cloud Lake, Joe Simon Lake, and Lake Spry, 
all on the south mountain, the two last in Annapolis county, 
and the rest in King's county, reach the La Have ; tributary 
also to which are several lakes and streams in the timber lands 
of Davison & Sons. 

A dam three feet high, at the outlet of Cloud Lake, has turned 
the water down the north side of the mountain into the 
Annapolis 'River, some of the sources of which are not more 
than half a mile from Lake Le Marchant, near Joe Simon Lake. 
A road intended for direct travel to Lunenburg, which was com- 
menced about seventy years ago, passes by the two last-named 

Forty-seven River rises at Cloud Lake, and flows through 
Dalhousie near Falkland ridge. On this stream are the Dog 
Falls, about fifty rods above the sink spout, which is half a 
mile from the Cherryfield railway station. This spout is a 
narrow gorge, with perpendicular rock on each side, thirty feet 
high. There is a whirlpool or eddy here, which tosses the logs 
in wild confusion. Before the roll dam was put in by the 
Messrs. Davison, to cut off part of the falls and make a sluice- 
way, a log would sometimes get fixed crosswise, and had to be 
cut out to relieve the jam of logs it had occasioned in their 
passage. Mr. John Morrison, of Springfield, was once so 

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?s > 
S < 

i w 

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4?ngaged, when away went the " key log," with othera, and he 
disappeared. It was supposed that he was drowned, but a log, 
coming end first, lifted him up on logs which were in the eddy, 
and he was caiight by fellow- workmen and saved. Men similarly 
employed have from that time been secured by ropes. 

Forty-seven River continues its course through still waters, 
and marshes which cut about three hundred tons of hay. 

The North River has its rise at Oak Lake, and inins through 
East Dalhousie in King's county, and on near to Stanboume in 
Lunenburg county. 

When nearly opposite Jacob Meisiner*s house, New Germany, 
Forty-seven and North rivers unite in the La Have, which flows 
on into New Germany Lake (where also empty the waters of a 
considerable stream, known as Westbrook), and thence to 
Morgan's Falls, a most attractive spot, especially when there is 
high freshet, and the logs in transit to the mills below are pass- 
ing over. The water under the falls is very deep. A stone 
was once fastened to a fifty-foot line, and did not reach the 
bottom. A spar sixty feet long has gone down out of sight, and 
reappeared some distance off. The river pursues its way from 
the falls on to Wentzel's Lake, through the pretty settlement of 
Riversdale, where another stream, connected with the La Have, 
is seen, the course of which will now be traced. 

The Sherbrooke River flows from Lake Paul, where there is 
an important settlement. The Gully River rises about five miles 
above Nine-Mile Lake, or "Big Sherbrooke Lake," which is in 
Lunenburg county, and receives the waters of both these rivers. 
On the Gully River there are several very beautiful views, of 
which photographs have been taken. In the Nine-Mile Lake 
are caught the " grey lake trout " referred to in another part of 
this work. About three and a half miles south of this lake is 
Indian Lake, at the inlet of which is a " reserve," where the 
Hammond family live. The Kedy River flows from this point 
until it passes under the railway bridge at Riversdale, and a 
short distance below empties into Wentzel's Lake, a mile and a 
quarter long, round the shore of which travels the iron horse of 
the Nova Scotia Central Railway. At the south end of the 

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lake, the La Have passes out near the finely situated and pro- 
ductive farm of Mr. Stephen Wentzel, where luscious grapes are 
grown in the open air. Its course, thence, is by lovely camping 
grounds, and past Governor's Island, a former tenting-place of 
the Earl of Mulgrave, about nine miles in all to Bridgewater, 
where it meets the tides of ocean. Koch's Falls, or rapids, ai^ 
on the river, about two miles above the town, and are very 
pretty. Below the bridge, by boat, and along either shore by 
carriage, most enjoyable excursions may be had. 

The distance ivom Bridgewater to Fopt Point is twelve miles. 

Good views are obtained from the river of the different places 
of interest on either side. 

CJonquerall Bank, on the west side, about three miles and a 
half from Bridgewater, has steadily advanced and is quite a 
village, having considerable trade and commerce. Two miles 
farther on is Pleasantville, where many fine vessels are built. 
A few miles beyond it is West La Have Ferry, one of the river 
shipping-places. Near Fort Point, with its old French ruins, is 
Getson's Cove, a place of call, as is also Conquerall Bank, for 
the steamer Bridgewater, 

Summerside is on the left hand, about three miles below La 
Have bridge. Here are the busy shipyards of Mr. Stephen F. 
Leary and othei-s. A short distance on is Koch's Point, where, 
and in the vicinity, the late John Koch and John C Rudolf, and 
Charles and William Rudolf, once carried on business and loaded 
English ships chiefly with ton timber purchased for SI 6 per 
ton. Merchantable pine was $10 ; pine shingles, 20 inches long, $3 ; 
hemlock lumber, $6 ; flooring boards, 60s.; clapboards, 80s. per 
thousand. Rudolf's store was for a long time the only one on 
the La Have River. 

Mr. Koch erected, and in 1820 moved into, the house now 
occupied by Rev. G. D. Harris. The old Rudolf homestead is 
near St. Matthew's Church, and occupied by Josiah Rudolf, Escj., 
son of the late Charles Rudolf. 

Tradition says that a soldier who in early times was stationed 
at the block-house in this vicinity, strayed into the woods, and 
being missed in the evening, a party went out and searched for 

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him in vain. Many years afterwards parts of liis knapsack and 
gun were found near what is now called the Mullock Settlement, 
whei-e it is supposed he perished. 

Arenberg's Island, which the Misses Arenberg also called 
Paradise Island, about four miles from Bridge water, is a beautiful 
place, where many an enjoyable picnic has been held. 

Below Summerside, on the eastern shore of the river, are the 
Bear Hills, Wilkie s Cove, East La Have Ferry, Walter s Cove, 
Parks' Creek, and Ritcey's and Creeser's coves, the fine resi- 
dences around which attest the well-to-do position of their 
owners. Passing Foi-t Point, which is on the western side, the 
mouth of the " Rhine of Nova Scotia " is reached. 

Other \news, both extensive and charming, are to be had 
a,bout the river. One of the finest is from a hill in rear of "The 
Five Houses," near to and opposite Fort Point, taking in several 
miles of the river, Ritcey's, Ci'eeser's and Getson's coves, Dublin 
Bay and shore, the " Big House," and Oxner's and Mosher's 
heads, the Spectacles and other islands, and away in the dis- 
tance. West Dublin and Crescent Beach. There are no more 
delightful drives in the country than those along the banks of 
the river, on roads over which it is a pleasure to travel. 

In 1826, £25 was voted in Parliament to George Chipman, 
E8(|., of Horton, to enablo. him to complete his survey of the 
practicability of an inland water communication between the 
Gaspereau River and La Have River, and for clearing out 
certain runs and falls. 

Haliburton wrote in 1829 : " There are upwards of thirty 
saw-mills fed by this (La Have) river, and a number of vessels 
are annually loaded here for Great Britain with timber, lumber, 
and staves. Codfish, sturgeon, halibut, salmon, shad, alewives, 
hen-ing, etc., are caught in great abundance here." 

A minute and careful survey of the coastal portion of La 
Have was made by Captain Shortland, under order of the British 
Goveniment, in 1862. 

In December, 1863, during the civil war in the United States, 
the Chesapeake, a wooden steamship of 495 tons. Captain Millet, 
which had been plying as a packet between New York and 

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Portland, and was taken possession of by Southerners, who 
were on board, with Lieutenant Braine as leader, came into the 
river, and was reported at the Custom House under the name 
of the Retribution. She remained in the vicinity of Conquerall 
Bank for a few days, and made her exit from La Have previous 
to the arrival of the steamer Ella and Annie, belonging to the 
United States Government, and commanded by Lieutenant 
Nichols, by which vessel she was afterwards captured. 

The harbor inside of Fort Point is one of the finest in America, 
free from shoals, and in which .vessels are safe from everj^ wind 
that blows. It is generally as smooth as a mill-pond. Hali- 
burton says : " It is unquestionably one of the best harbors in 
the Province." 

This river furnishes, at sunset and by moonlight, exceedingly 
beautiful pictures. It is in itself so charming that it is matter 
for regret there are so many in Nova Scotia who have not seen it. 

The La Have River. 

By Mary J. Katzmcm (Mrs. W. Lawaon). 

The tinted robe of Autumn was folded round the land, 
And beauty, like a girdle, the quiet country spanned. 
Meadow and sloping hillside where grazing herds were seen, 
In soft October sunlight, wore glance of summer green — 
The rosy apples ripened beneath the golden ray, 
Within whose mellow radiance the pleasant orchards lay, 
While the iris clouds bent downward to kiss the laughing wave 
That sparkled on the bosom of the broad and blue La Have. • 

On swept that noble river, the beautiful— the free — 

Till its shining waters mingled in the far-off sounding sea ; 

Itself a mimic ocean, where snowy sails were spread. 

Whose depth gave back the shadow by barques at anchor shed, — 

Its dimpled waves resounded to music from the oar. 

As stalwart boatmen guided their skiffs from shore to shore — 

The pleasant shore, whose margin slopes gently down to lave 

Forever in the ripple of the beautiful La Have. 

How gracefully the shadows fell through the mellow air 
From quiet forests stretching on either headland there : 
That grand old limner Nature, with variegated dyes, 
• Had draped the quivering branches in robes of royal guise — 

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So duskily the fir-tree shot up with spiral cone — 
So gorgeous gleamed the maple with scarlet maiitle on — 
And sloping to the river they donned their vesture brave, 
Beside the liquid mirror of the flashing bright La Have. 

Miles, miles of rushing water forever grand and free ; 
On sweeps the mighty river through Time's eternity — 
Fresh as when erst it bounded from God's creative hand — 
A never-failing fountain to bless a lonely land. 
So long a silent watcher, with the distant stars that shine. 
And droop their golden shadows in Acadia's forest Rhine, 
So long a voice and witness from the Past's eternal grave — 
Unshadowed and unfettered — O glorious La Have ! 

Chant not thy waves a legend, as they wander to the sea. 
Of the Micmac race who journeyed beside, and like thee, free — 
How the bright and glancing arrow o'er the shining waters flew. 
As they cut the dimpled billows in their fairy -like canoe ? 
Did not bright Indian maidens bend down with eager glance, 
And braid their dusky tresses beside thy blue expanse? 
Did not the chieftain's wigwam shoot up from forest glaive. 
And his war-song wake thy echoes, beautiful La Have? 

Where are those dusky warriors ? A failing, feeble band — 

Wanderers, and almost exiles, in this their fatherland. 

No longer curls the smoke-wreath from birchen tent at eve — 

No more the dark-browed maidens the motley network weave, 

Within the pine-tree's shadow, oh, river of the west. 

No longer doth the Micmac beside thy waters rest. 

For tyrant voices drove him from the soil he sought to save. 

From the hunting-ground of kindred, beside the blue La Have. 

And stranger tones have fallen where meet thy drooping trees. 
And foreign songs have lingered all homesick on the breeze — 
Thy waves have caught the cadence, and seen the merry glance 
Of the peasant sons and daughters from vine-clad La belle France — 
Thou hast heard their ringing laughter — a sweet melodious din — 
Seen bodice, cap and kirtle, and beaded moccasin ; 
But the old regime is over — for arms and conquest gave 
Acadia's soil to England, with thee, thou proud La Have. 

And thus thou rollest ever — bright, peerless, uncontrolled — 
The peaceful sky above thee — around, the forest old — 
Stretching in vast magnificence on to the mighty sea — 
So beautiful in slumber — so grand in liberty — 

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So solemn and mysterious beneath the tone of night — 
So gorgeous in thy raiment of glad effulgent light ; 
Bright living type of freedom in nature's temple brave — 
Rejoicing ocean's youngest bom— thou beautiful La Have. 
December, 1859. ^ 

Extracts from Lines on the La Have. 

By Ada A. DeHBriaay. 

Thy winding way is perfect in its grace, 
A thousand diamonds sparkle on thy face ; 
Blue are thy waters, lovely islands there 
Add charms to what already was so fair. 
Thy banks are hung with branching oak and pine, 
Here maple, fir and ash their arms entwine, 
And midst them rises some romantic peak, 
While through the leaves the breezes seem to speak 
In voices mournful, if our hearts are sad, — 
In merry tones, if haply we are glad. 
Small villages on either side are seen, 
With scattered dwellings all the way between ; 
Like some continuous suburb of a town. 
On hillsides sloping to the river down ; 
Stretches of forest sometimes intervene, 
And tall church spires arise amidst the green. 
A resting-place for those who've passed away, 
Lies where my feet were often wont to stray. 
Secluded spot, whose solemn tombstones seem 
Forever watching thy swift-flowing stream ; 
Few sounds will mar its quiet till the time 
When God shall call the dead with voice sublime. 
On summer eves, when dusty heat has flown, 
And zephyrs cool thy surface sport upon. 
By oars or paddles moved, or left to float 
Down with the tide, we see some well-filled boat ; 
Sounds of gay laughter wafted to the shore. 
With sweet songs mingle, echoed o'er and o'er ; 
The rising moon a stream of radiance casts 
Across the water, while the vessel's masts 
Catch on each point a gleam of silver light. 
Which shadows only serve to make more bright. 
The lighted windows peeping here and there, 
Are scarce espied, so bright the outer air ; 

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And happy rest alone appears to reign — 

We think thou ne'er hast witnessed care nor pain. 

Sorely thou couldst relate a different tale, 

Of crowds with anxious hearts and faces pale, 

Who found thou treacherously wouldst form a grave 

For children loved, they vainly tried to save ; 

Of wearied ones, whose reason fled its throne, 

Tired of the sci^lding tear, and sighing moan, 

Worn by the struggle with the demon Drink, 

Would wander restlessly utK)n thy brink. 

And, tempted by thy promises of rest. 

Plunge life and woes at once beneath thy breast ; 

Of sudden gales from thy encircling hills, 

Which swept unnoticed o'er their trees and rills, 

Till some frail skiff, with jaunty sails all set, 

Receives them, and is helplessly upset 

With all its freight ; and oh, to some how dear 

May be the forms which find a death-bed here I 

But still I love thee, wander where I may. 

No other stream can tempt my heart to stray ; 

Content to dwell in sight of thee forever, 

And sleep at last beside thee, beauteous river. 

The Beautiful La Have. 

By Rev. G. 0. HueMiis. 

Let others of Saint Lawrence sing, 

Or Mississippi grand ; 
My muse would fain a tribute bring. 

To one in Scotia's land. 

Not muddy Shubenacadie, 

Nor Avon's classic shore. 
Nor of the streams of Cumberland, 

Dear in the days of yore. 

But of La Have the beautiful, 

As fair and lovely now 
As when the French explorer's ship 

First upward turned its prow. 

Enchantment seized them on that day. 

No scenery more grand : 
A home long sought, at last was found, 

In fair Acadie's land. 

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Briefly Razilly viewed the scene, 

Death closed the Governor's eyes ; 
And soon the little band removed, 
To dwell 'neath other skies. 

The footsteps of the sons of Gaul 
Are scarcely seen to-day ; 

While Celtic and Teutonic crowds 
Here live, not merely stay. 

Hail, Scotia's most delightful stream ; 

Tourists no finer crave ; 
Here let me live, and sing and dream. 

Beside the fair La Have. 

The La Have River. 

By Rev. William Almon DesBrisay, 

Oh, what would I give for a sail to-night, 

On the beautiful river of dreams ; 
On the peaceful breast of the calm La Have, 

Where the magic of starlight gleams. 
Oh, the bright green vales and the hillsides fair, 

Are the fairest the wide world knows ; 
And the picture I love is a pure white sail. 

Where its whispering water flows. 

From its source where the gliding brooklet sings. 

To the spray of old Iron-bound ; 
Sweet nature her loveliest landscapes took, 

And strewed them over the ground. 
Oh, I wonder to-uight how the music swells. 

And the wild pine forest seems ; 
With the moonlight deep in its weird paths. 

On the beautiful river of dreams. 

O memory's isle, are you happy yet ? 

Are you minding a dipping oar ? 
Do you think of the golden summer days. 

And the greetings that come no more ? 
Oh, never a twilight on tender wing. 

Comes tinted with purple beams. 
But memory hallows the matchless scene. 

On the beautiful river of dreams. 

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Dream on, O bouI of the longing night, 

O heart of the prayerful past ; 
Some days must in shadows descend to earth, 

Some nights must be overcast. 
O spirit of love that must sometimes bring 

A sorrow the Father deems 
Is best for a life ; keep faithful watch 

On the beautiful river of dreams. 

O wings of the faces that come and go, 

Float back from your golden clime; 
And waft me the musical voices still, 

In the leaf-strewn isles of time. 
Oh, bring me the language love hallows yet, 

As the sweetest of all life's themes ; 
And sing with me when the night winds sleep, 

On the beautiful river of dreams. 

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La Have Iron-bound Island. 

LA HAVE Iron-bound Island, so-called to distinguish it 
from Chester Iron-bound, was granted in 1778 to 
Leonard Christopher Rudolf. It is about five miles from 
Fort Point, and has one of those superior lights with which 
the coast is well supplied to increase the safety of mariners. 

In the summer of 1879, the writer, with seventeen 
others spent a few weeks on the Dublin shore, and visited the 
places of interest in the neighborhood, two excursions being 
made to Iron-bound. One of these will be here described. 

The start was made at 8 a.m., in the Lobster Seeker, Captain 
Ephraim Oxner, the party numbering eighteen. The expansive 
sheet of water was sparkling beautifully in the beams of the 
morning sun. Whale-boats and small flats were sailing out 
for fish. When the island was neared there was a heavy sea- 
roll on, and a whaler not far off was now and then hidden from 
view by the bounding billows. The wind failing on a closer 
approach, some of the ladies asked permission to " man the 
oars," and so helped us to reach the island. We soon entered 
a snug little cove, formed by two small islands of granite, 
where fishing-boats were moored, and, trying to put our craft 
on shore, found the surf too heavy, and returned to the 
anchorage. A son of Mr. Enos Wolfe, the light-keeper, kindly 
put off his large boat, and took us, in two trips, safely to shore. 
As some of us were waiting our turn, a clerical friend who was 
of our party, Rev. D. McMillan, now of Sydney Mines, nar- 
rated the terrible experience of himself and several others in 
once attempting to land at this island, A huge wave upset 
their boat, and they were in deep water and in great peril. 

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One had a limb broken, but othejrwise they were unhurt, and 
reached land with hearts full of gratitude for their deliverance. 

We received a warm welcome at the home of Mrs. Frederick 
Wolfe, and went thence to the lighthouse. After a short visit, 
Mr. Enos Wolfe and some of his family accompanied us on 
a walk about the island. We had a most extended ocean 
view, and saw the mighty waves rolling in grand style upon 
the rocky shore. The keeper showed us rocks, weighing many 
tons, which had been moved long distances by the sea. We 
found on the beach pretty wild-flowers, one resembling the " for- 
get-me-not." Attached to the lighthouse was a neat and 
comfoiiiable home. There we saw a handsome sofa, and chairs, 
made by Mr. Wolfe, of yellow ash, and finely finished, with 
fruit very neatly carved in the top of each piece, the upholster- 
ing being done in scarlet cloth. Having dined, we went to the 
lantern, and enjoyed from the balcony a widespread view of 
sea and land, the fisher-boats in the distance looking like toys 
on the crested waves. In the parlor we listened to music fi'om 
an organ played by a daughter of the keeper, accompanied by 
her brother with a violin, and one of her sisters with a home- 
made tambourine, and songs by the whole party. 

We had another walk, this time to the " grey rocks " on the 
opposite side of the island, passing large fields of fine grass and 
potatoes. Immense masses of granite were piled heap upon 
heap^ including square blocks of huge size, as if nature would 
laugh to scorn the puny efforts of man in putting great stones 
together. One large square rock, in a very elevated position, 
with a flat and even surface round w^hich a number of men 
could stand, was pointed out. It is called " the fishermen's card- 
table," used sometimes when waiting for the appearance of fish. 

While we were on these rocks a vast shoal of herring came 
close in shore. A large grampus, judged to be over thirty feet 
long, was seen plunging into the midst of them and scattering 
them on all sides. And now the cry was, " There he is ! there 
he is ! " as he several times gave us a fine view of his noble 
proportions, when, rising from the water, he dived into the 
moving mass, and was evidently making a satisfactory evening 

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meal. The whole thing was a splendid sight, such as the keeper 
said he had never seen, though he had been on the island a long 
time. Similar sights are sometimes witnessed on the other side 
of the ocean. Hugh Miller tells of one in Cromarty Bay, which 
was literally covered with herrings and birds, while no fewer 
than seven whales, apparently of a large size, were seen within 
the space of half a mile. 

Returning to the beach, we re-embarked. Passing Mosher's 
Head, the eastern end of a beautiful island, to which, as a choice 
spot, the Bridgewater firemen have sometimes gone on their 
annual picnics, we neared the Spectacle islands, appropriately 
named, as at low tide a strip of sand, used as a roadway, unites 
the two. Opposite to these we had in view Oxner s Head, pro- 
jecting boldly seaward, like a smaller Blomidon, and in front 
the mainland from Foi-t Point to Bell's Cove ; altogether making 
up a beautiful picture, as in smoother water, and with song and 
story, we made our way to our temporary home on the New 
Dublin shore, where a grand spread of creature comforts ended 
the proceedings of this long-to-be-remembered day. 

Over forty yeai-s ago, and before the erection of the light- 
house, the schooner Jack Hilton^ of Livei-pool, owned by 
Charles and William Gooseley, was wrecked on the west side of 
the island. The vessel and cargo were totally lost; but the 
crew — Thomas, James, and William Gooseley, with two others, 
Richardson, and Falls, and a woman from Shelbume — ^were 

The bank near the lighthouse is forty-seven feet above sea level, 
and the waves have often gone over it in boisterous weather. On 
the 15th of April, 1881 (Good Friday), there was a heavy gale 
with rain during the day, and about 9 p.m., the wind blowing 
violently, a tremendous sea, which the keeper thought was 
about fifty feet high, broke over that part of the island where 
the lighthouse then stood, and in which he and his family lived. 
When he first saw it coming it looked like an immense white 
cloud. Miss Maude Wolfe was in the kitchen, and her screams, 
caused by the sudden bursting in of the water, were heard by 
her father, who rescued her with some difficulty from her peril- 
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ous position. The wave which covered the cooking stove, took 
in a quantity of sand and stones. A large portion of the 
foundation wall was torn out, ajid part of it carried twenty feet 
away. The oil store was struck on the gable end and shifted 
five feet, ten feet of the shingling being removed. The wood 
and lumber lying about were carried as with a flood, about an 
eighth of a mile. This was the wildest storm Mr. Wolfe ever 
witnessed there. 

In 1892, for greater security, the lighthouse was moved sixty 
feet fai'ther from the sea to its present position. 

On the 18th of April, 1893, during a heavy gale, the schooner 
A'ma/ada, Captain Spright, coal laden, went ashore on the 
north side of the Spectacles, and the schooners Isabella, Cap- 
tain Pettipas, and Lillian, Captain Sangster, went ashore at 
Mosher's Island. The Amanda and Isabella were broken to 

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Settlements and Places between Getson's Cove and Vogler's Cove — 
Churches and Clergymen — Biographical Notices. 

GETSON'S COVE is a place of importance on account of its 
very excellent harbor, and the business done in con- 
nection with the fisheries and home trade. It has a customs 
house for the entry and clearance of vessels resorting thither. 
Great impi'ovements are l)eing made in the dwellings of the 

Between Getson's Cove and Petite Riviei-e lie the settlements 
of Lower, and Upper or West Dublin. They are supplied with 
churches, school-houses, stores, and temperance halls, There 
are many neat and comfortable houses all along the shore. 
Picturesciue inlets from the sea meet the traveller at every turn. 
Close to the beach at Lower Dublin, with only the post road 
between, is the commodious house of Mrs. Susan McFarlane, a 
kind and attentive hostess. The situation is very fine, and 
commands an extensive bay view, away to Iron-bound and 
other islands, taking in the vessels entering and leaving the La 
Have, and the boats of the island fishermen with their red and 
white sails, and rowing skiffs passing to and fro. Many a 
beautiful marine picture is here presented. There have been 
none finer than the one seen on a bright day in May, 1895, 
when forty American fishing-vessels (mackerel seiners) set sail 
together from New Dublin Bay. 

About a mile farther west, near the pretty Bells Cove, is the 
summer boarding-house of Mr. William Oxner, which is well 
spoken of, and is a pleasantly situated place. American and 
other visitors enjoy outings in this section of the county. 

One of the best views on this shore is from a hill on the farm 
of Mr. Nicolas Oxner, including Dublin Bay, the settlements 

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near it, and some of the La Have islands. On this farm once 
lived Nicolas, and Anna Margaret Oxner, parents of the above- 
named Nicolas, and of J. Levi Oxner, Esq., of Bridgewater. 
Mr. Oxner was an industrious, kind-hearted man, " given to 
hospitality." His wife was noted for her kindness to all, espe- 
cially the poor and needy — a ti'ue friend, one who never spoke 
ill of anybody. In her advancing years she looked like a lady 
of the olden time, with her hair arranged in cannon curls 
around her handsome face. She died at the age of eighty-four 

The lobster canning business was here engaged in by James 
Young, a Scotchman, in 1854. He was succeeded in the work 
by J. L. Oxner, and he, in turn, by the brother's Waddelow, of 
England, who were followed by Oxner brothers. 

Large deposits of clam shells have been found some distance 
below the surface, westward of Foii Point, marking the resorts 
of Indians or French. 

The churches at Lower Dublin are " St. James'," erected in 
1861, in which Rev. Element Richardson, M.A. (T.C.D.), of West 
La Have FeiTy, officiated; and two Presbyterian churches. 
One, erected in 1859, has, in gilt block letter, over the door, 
" Gloria in Excelsis Deo." The manse was erected in 1879, and 
near it is a new church, built in 1893. New Dublin was in 
early times visited by the Presbyterian clergymen at Lunen- 
burg, and subsequently by Revs. H. D. Steele, of Bridgewater, 
and D. McMillan, of La Have. A separate charge was 
established about 1876; and the pastors resident at Lower 
Dublin have been Revs. D. McGregor and Archibald Brown 
(since deceased), followed, Januaiy 1st, 1888, by the present 
pastor. Rev. Henry Crawford. 

The ministers at West Ferry and Lower Dublin officiate in a 
union church at West Dublin, where there is also a Methodist 
church, served by the pastor resident at Petite Riviere. 

Apple-trees, planted by the French at West Dublin, now two 
feet and a half in diameter, still yield their fruit ; and hops, 
growing from roots said to have been planted by people of the 
same race, can be seen among the alder bushes at a brook on 

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Loveley's Point, now Risser's, where there are traces of ancient 
clearings. Some of the bushes were removed, and poles having 
been placed there, the hop vines embraced them, and wound 
their way to the top. 

Account of Disaster to Schooner "Industry," 
December, 1868. 

" West Dublin, County of Lunenburg, 
" March I7th, 1869. 
" To M. B. DesBrisay, Esq., M.P.P. 

" Dear Sir, — We proceed to give you, as nearly as possible, 
a correct and minute account of the disaster that we met vdth, 
and the privations that we endured, while on board the In- 
dustry ; and, furthermore, an account of the kindness that we 
experienced at the hands, and through the instrumentality, of 
persons who, at the time, were perfect strangers to us. 

" We sailed from West Dublin in the schooner Industry, of 
thirty tons burthen, on Friday, the 11th of December, A.D. 
1868, about 7 a.m., having a crew of five men, including our- 
selves, viz.: Captain Lewis Sponagle, and R. B. Currie, owners ; 
Henry Wolfe, Daniel Wambach, Henry Le Gag, jun., all of 
West Dublin ; and two passengers. Miss Angeline Publicover, 
of West Dublin, and Went worth Murphy, of Lawrencetown, 
County of Halifax. 

" Our cargo was dry and pickled fish and wood, and our port 
of destination, . Halifax. We had light westerly winds and 
moderate weather, until one o'clock at night, when the wind 
veered to the north-east, and was accompanied with snow, 
rendering the land invisible. At that time, Sambro light bore 
north-north-west from us. Deeming it dangerous to make any 
further attempts to gain the harbor, we commenced preparations 
to return to La Have ; but just prior to our doing so the force 
of the wind caused our foresail to split. We, however, stai'ted 
for La Have, and having* run for some time with the wind as 
aforesaid, until we judged that we were in the vicinity of Cross 
Island, we were confronted by a breeze from the north-west, 
which increased in vehemence until it blew a perfect gale. Our 
foresail, which was badly damaged in the first instance, was 
now rendered valueless as a means for propelling our little craft ; 
and being unable to lay her to, we had to put to sea, and 
scudded for three days and nights under bare poles. While 
running off, we cleared our decks, and unfortunately a cask of 

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water was thrown overboard, and another one accidentally 
crushed so badly that we managed to save only two gallons of 
its contents. On the fifth day we spoke an American schooner, 
but the sea was so boisterous at the time that the captain was 
unable to render us any assistance. At our request, however, 
he gave us the course for Bermuda, and we proceeded upon it 
for three days, with favorable w^inds, in the vain hope of rescu- 
ing ourselves from our perilous position. A strong breeze which 
sprang up from the westward drove us back again, and lasted 
for a similar length of time, namely, three days, during which 
we suffered severely. The wind was so high as to cause a 
heavy sea, which made a perfect breach over our little craft, 
tearing her bulwarks, rails and stanchions away, and flooding 
our cabin, so that it was with diflSculty that we kept her free. 
The tarpaulin was beaten off our forward hatch, and we had to 
secure over it a cowskin that was on board. Our paraffine oil 
was spilled the first night we were out, and on the fourth day 
our stove was broken, and rendered almost useless. We were 
<X)mparatively without water, having only about two gallons 
that we saved from the cask, and a teakettle full of hailstones 
that we gathered in a remnant of the foresail. We dared not 
eat any of our salt fish, because of our want of water, and there 
was nothing eatable on board that was not saturated with salt 
water. We had a bag of oats which we roasted on the stove, 
though it was, as before stated, in a very shaky condition. 
From the date of our departure from New Dublin, we were in 
all eighteen days on board the vessel, and for the last six days 
^subsisted upon seven hard biscuit. Not once, but many times, 
<luring these eighteen days, when in the height of despondency, 
And we saw, as we supposed, grim death staring us in the face, 
did we bid each other farewell. 

" At last, on the 29th of December, when we were altogether 
despondent and exhausted, in short, in such a state as can be 
more easily imagined than described. Captain Hiram Coalfleet 
■came to our assistance w4th the barque Providence, which hailed 
from Windsor, but belonged to Hantsport. The sea was running 
high. Captain Coalfleet, perceiving the danger of the task he 
was about to undertake, ran his barque alongside our disabled 
■craft, and during the time the vessels were together, which could 
not have been more than a few minutes, his mate, Abel Coalfleet, 
who was also his brother, gallantly hazarded his life to save 
ours. He ran out on the mainyard of the Providence, which 
wa.8 caught in our rigging, by which he speedily lowered him- 
self on board our schooner, and, having first rescued Miss Public- 
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over, aided some of the rest to ascend the side of the barque. 
We were assisted also by Captain Coalfleet's crew, who, although 
not on our deck, still were at the scene of action. This was done 
most expeditiously, and the schooner's rigging was cut to dis- 
entangle her from the barque and to prevent further damage 
being done to her hull, as both vessels were injured by coming 
in contact. This no doubt caused the Industry to sink sooner 
than she would have done. About three-quarters of an hour 
after our rescue she disappeared. 

" When we first got on board the barque our tongues were 
swollen, and we were in such an emaciated and exhausted con- 
dition that we were almost unable to articulate ; and it cannot 
be wondered at, being but the natural sequence of the fatigue,, 
together with the want of both food and water. 

" Our preservation while on board the Industry was perfectly 
miraculous, and the manner in which we were relieved almost 
as wonderful, comprehensible only by an eye-witness, and both 
must be attributed to the providence of an all- wise God. Were 
we to state all that we endured, and were w^e able to descril>e 
graphically the intensity of the gale that our little craft sur- 
vived, our story would appear, even to some of the most experi- 
enced navigators, a fiction ; but the accounts received from other 
quarters with reference to the severity of the weather on the 
Atlantic during the time referred to, and the number of wrecks, 
that occurred, will go far towards corroborating our statements. 

" We cannot speak in terms sufficiently commendable with 
respect to the conduct of Captain Coalfleet and his crew. He 
treated us hospitably until we arrived at his port of destination, 
London, England ; but notwithstanding his kind treatment, we 
still had hardships to endure. The barque was laden with 
paraffine oil, and the strength and flavor of it had penetrated 
everything that was eatable. Even the w^ater was contaminated 
by it, so that whether we ate or drank we had to experience an 
unpleasant taste. We found that although it produced an almost 
ravenous appetite, it sometimes caused excessive vomiting, and 
at other times violent dian*hoea. 

" When we arrived in London we met with kind and sympa- 
thizing friends, who tendered advice and material assistance. 
Conspicuous among our benefactors were Captains Harrington, 
Wilson, and Henderson. We thence by an overland route pro- 
ceeded to Liverpool, where we again met with friends, prominent 
among whom were T. C. Jones, Esq. (a Nova Scotian and a rela- 
tive of Alfred Jones, Esq., M.P. for Halifax), and William Inman, 
Esq., proprietor of the Inman line of steamera. The latter- 

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gentleman gave six of us free passages (two in the saloon and 
four in the steerage of the steamship Etna) to Halifax, N.S., 
where we again found friends, who were ready not only to con- 
gratulate us upon our return to the Province, and to hear of our 
hairbreadth escape, but also to forw^ard us to our respective 
homes, where we amved to find our relatives and friends 
waiting in anxious anticipation, and ready to welcome us with 
tears of joy. 

" With compliments, we remain, 

" Yours respectfully, 

" R. B. CURRIE. 

" Lewis Sponagle." 

The brave conduct of Captain Hiram Coalfleet and his brother, 
Abel Coalfleet, above detailed, was brought by the writer to the 
notice of the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Hastings Doyle, by whose 
command the facts were communicated to the Governor-General. 
A handsome gold watch and a binocular glass, each bearing a 
suitable inscription, arrived from England, and were given 
respectively to the captain and mate. 

At West Dublin, and about eighteen miles from Bridgewater, 
by an excellent road near river and sea, and sixteen and thir- 
teen miles respectively, by other routes, there is one of the most 
attractive beaches in the Dominion — formerly known as Rom- 
key's, now called Crescent Beach. It adjoins the main highway 
and is more than a mile in length, separating Dublin Bay from 
Petite Riviere Bay. The sand is very smooth, and the wheels 
of carriages, of which a large number can travel abreast at low 
tide, leave but a faint impression. Surf and other bathing can 
be there enjoyed. As a watering-place, it is quite equal to 
some of the best in the United States. It should, in the near 
future, with suitable hotel accommodation and improved facili- 
ties in travelling, attract hosts of visitors. Part of this beach 
was the subject of a famous law suit, tried at Lunenburg, about 
fifty years ago. The late Sir William Young, C.J., and John 
Creighton, Esq., Q.C., were opposed by the late Judge in Equity, 
Johnston, and George T. Solomon, Esq. The trial lasted from 
Tuesday till Saturday, and ended in non-suit. The jury retired 
in the evening of the last-named day, and came into court at 

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midnight. Benjamin Legge, Esq., of Mahone Bay, was foreman. 
The contentions of the parties were afterwards settled. 

At the end of the beach there is a long bridge, forming quite 
a promenade and connecting it with the nearest of the La Have 
islands, George's Island. 

The other islands are named, Cape La Have Island, Bell's, 
Wolfs, Tumblin (2), one of which is also called the Knob, 
Bushen 8, Thrump Cap (3), Round, Baker's, Walfield*s, Outer, 
Bush's, and George's, and are inhabited by sixty-one families, 
eighteen of them living on Bell's Island. The channels and pas- 
sages add much to the beauty and romantic nature of the scenery. 
Standing, on a Sunday morning in summer, by the church on 
Bell's Island, the sail and row boats laden with i-espectably 
dressed people coming from all directions to service, or retuni- 
ing when it is over, make up a lovely picture. The islanders 
are very kind to visitors, who fail not to remember the warm 
welcomes they receive. Those who go there from Bridge water, 
in the steamboat of the brothers Munroe, on pleasure bent, are 
often much indebted to the kindness of Mr. George C. Bui'ton, 
who manages, on Bell's Island, the branch business of J. D. 
Sperry, M.P.P. He came from Dominica, when a lad, and has 
lived in Petite Riviere for over thirty years, and borne an 
excellent character. He built a yacht {Ivy), which is " a thing 
of beauty," noted for speed and safety, and which carries him 
to and from his home on the main. The spars and sails were 
also made by himself. The handsome brass-mounted wheel 
was presented to him by Robert Hunter, Esq., of Bridgewater. 
Round the shores of these islands can be heard 

** The surges lapping on the shallow sand, 
The sea-bird's wail." 

There one can 

** See the fallins; wave, 
Foam-fretted, flashing — the sunlight clear 
Through its blue crystalline curve. 

* '■ Can watch the blessed waters lave 
The sea-weed girdled boulders — feel the spray. 
Breathe the soft breeze, taste the Atlantic brine." 

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The first settlers were Wendel Wolf, Benjamin Tumblin, and 
Michael Publicover. 

Alexander Bell, who is in his ninety-third year, lives on . 
Bell's Island. He was bom at Bell's Cove, Lower Dublin. Mr. 
Bell is in the enjoyment of good health and strength, and has 
the use of his hearing and other faculties in a remarkable degree. 

The house and premises at the entrance to Crescent Beach 
were purchased a few years ago by F. B. Wade, Esq., for a 
summer resort. West from this place, other white sand beaches 
are passed over, up which roll "the great waves that come 
arched and majestic to the shore." 

The Petite Eiviere hills are in full view. 

While travelling along this shore by moonlight, with a picnic 
party conveyed in a decorated ox- waggon, a large fire was noticed 
seaward. A yoimg man who passed was asked about it. " Oh, 
that," he said, " is the burning ship, and she comes every seven 
years, goes up the bay, and then returns ; and you can hear the 
screams of the men on board." He said he had seen it twice, 
and that it had been there often. This story amused the party, 
especially when it was afterwards ascertained that the fire was 
one consuming rubbish on Cape La Have. 

A similar tale, the burning excepted, has been told of the 
Teazer, in Chester Bay. 

Cotton Mather, Bryant, and Longfellow have written of 
" spectre ships," and Irving, refera to the pilgrim superstition 
of a missing ship that reappeared on the coasts in bad weather, 
as " a faith more or less common in all the colonies." It has 
been said that " the legend of the spectral ship is cherished in 
almost every quarter of the globe.' 

Petite Riviere. 

The river from which this village takes its name, flows from 
Wile's Lake at Lapland, passes through large lakes in the rear 
of Hebb's Mills, and other lakes at Conquerall, and meets the 
salt water near the village, which lies chiefly at the base of 
steep and pretty hills. The water between Cape La Have and 
the beaches at Petite Riviere, commonly called Petite Riviere 

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Bay, is refen'ed to by Haliburton, who says : " Behind Cape La 
Have is situated Pahnerston Bay, at the head of which is Petit 
River, whose waters take their rise at a great distance in the 
country. There are many valuable farms on the borders of 
this river." The writer has been unable to find the origin of 
the name " Palmerston Bay.'* It has been laid down on recent 
charts and maps as " Green Bay." 

As the name Petite Riviere suggests, the French settled near 
the mouth of the river. Isaac de Razilly, Commander at La 
Hfeve, sent some of his countryinen there. Denys wrote, in 
1672, that the entrance to Petite Riviere was good for barques; 
that the river did not extend far inland, but there was a fine 
and excellent country ; that De Razilly had established a port, 
and had families there, by whom a large quantity of wheat 
had been gathered. 

In or about the year 1700, M. Bonaventure, who had com- 
manded the king's vessels on the coast, asked the French Gov- 
ernment for a grant to himself of Petite Riviere. 

Beauhamois and Hocquart wrote, September, 1745 : " Again 
west of La Heve, at the place called the Little River, are two 
more settlers. Germain le Jeune, one of these, is intimately 
acquainted with the coast." 

Remains of some of the old clearings and cellars are still to 
be seen. 

More, in his " History of the County of Queen's," says that 
" Benjamin Harrington was the first settler at Petite Riviere, 
and removed early to Brooklyn." He was the first British 
settler. He engaged in the shore fisheries at Brooklyn and 
La Have. 

James Parks, a native of Ireland, who was there a yam 
merchant and farmer, and carried on the business of weaving 
and spinning, established himself at Petite Riviere in 1769. 
His descendants still live at Parks' Creek, La Have. 

Church of England. 

In June, 1812, Rev. Thomas Shreve, of Lunenburg, visited 
Petite Riviere, and held service in a bam. There were about 

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three hundi-ed persons present. Fifteen infants and one adult 
were baptized, as the beginning of the mission. Petite Riviere 
was set off as a separate parish in 1868. It had been part 
of St. Peter's Parish. 

The churches are St. Mark's, Broad Cove, built in 1842 ; St. 
Alban's, Vogler s Cove, 1879 ; St. John's, La Have islands, 
1885 ; St. Mathias, New Italy, 1887 ; and a church at Cherry- 
Hill, 1894, not yet consecrated. 

The old church, St. Michael's (first intended for a school- 
house), Petite Riviere, was built about 1853. It was taken 
down, and a new church, with the same name, first opened 
September 29th, 1886, was consecrated February 27th, 1889. 

The resident clergymen have been Revs. R. F. Brine, J. 
Ambrose, H. M. Spike, J. S. Smith, J. Spencer, and the present 
rector, Rev. Charles P. Mellor. Rev. J. S. Smith, after ten 
years' residence, removed to Dartmouth, where he died, and 
where his son and daughter reside. 

A handsome font was presented to the New Italy Church, by 
Hon. W. H. Owen, M.L.C. 

Methodist Church. 

Petite Riviere was formerly part of the Lunenburg Circuit, 
and was visited by the pastora resident in that town. A 
separation took place in 1842. 

The church which was first built at Petite Riviere, stood for 
about fifty years. The present " Wesley Church " was built in 

The ministers who have resided in Petite Riviere, were Revs. 
Henry Pope, jun., Charles de Wolfe, John S. Addy, Joseph 
Hart, George Johnson, Christopher Lockhart, John J. Teasdale, 
S. W. Sprague, Thomas Rogers, Paul Prestwood, John Johnson, 
C M. Tyler, James Sharp, William Purvis, J. C. Ogden, John 
Gee. The latter clergyman is assisted by Mr. John W. Aikens. 

Churches were built at Broad Cove, 1844 ; Bell's Island, 
1882 ; Vogler's Cove, 1886 ; and Crouse Town, 1887. 

Rev. Jonathan C. Ogden, the then resident Methodist pastor, 
died at Petite Riviere, Sunday morning, July 8th, 1894. 

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He was bom in Yorkshire, G.B., June 3rd, 1849. He finished 
his education with a four years* course, at the Wesleyan College, 
Mount Allison, N.B., and was ordained at Truro, in 1880. He 
occupied several circuits, never sparing himself in his work, 
and was more than once laid aside by illness. Mr. Ogden lived 
three years in Bridgewater, where he was very highly esteemed. 
His last sermon was preached On June 17th, 1894, from the 
text, " Unto you therefore which believe, He is precious." It 
was described as an able and impressive discoui-se. 

He was twice married — first to Mrs. Curry, of Falmouth, N.S., 
by whom he left one daughter, and afterwards to Miss Bessie, 
daughter of the late John H. Mulhall, Esq., of Liverpool, N.S. 

Mr. Ogden once lived in Haworth, the parish of which Rev. 
Patrick Bronte, father of Charlotte and Emily, the celebrated 
authoresses, was rector. He knew the family, and often heard 
Mr. Bronte preach. 

There is a burying-ground near a sand beach at Petite 
Riviere filled with gi-aves. In one comer of it, twenty or thirty 
were once visible, but they are now covered to the depth of 
over five feet, with sand blown from the beach. The head- 
stones, many of which are of immense size and rounded at the 
top, are without inscriptions. A stone wall over four feet in 
height was built to enclose the place of sepulture, but much of 
it has fallen down, and is hidden by sand. In the same vicinity 
are the graves of shipwrecked Americans, and others, including 
the crew of a vessel wrecked at Indian Island, and the captain 
of a Norwegian barque. There, far from home, 

** They keep 
The long, myHterious exodus of death," 

awaiting reunion with those they loved on earth, in that eternal 


** Where every severed wreath is bound." 

The foundations of buildings fonnerly, it is supposed, occupied 
by the French can be distinctly traced on the grounds adjacent. 
It is said that a small chapel once stood there, and that Indians 
in large numbers encamped on and alK)ut the old site for more 

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than forty years, and spoke of it as a sacred spot. They had 
a canoe-shaped hole in the earth, where they framed the boats 
of bark, with which they so skilfully breasted the restless waves. 
Old cellars, and the remains of a fort, are seen near the resi- 
dence of the late John C. Sperry, Esq.; and cannon-balls and 
chain-shot were taken from the ground by him. He said that he 
found on his premises, at a depth of two feet below the surface, 
a deposit of clam shells, over half an acre in extent. 

Mr. Sperry, who was the father of J. D. Sperry, M.P.P., 
carried on a large mercantile business in Petite Riviere for 
about thirty years. He died September 13th, 1884, aged sixty- 

Lemuel W. Drew, Esq., was also engaged in business for 
many years. He died May 23rd, 1895, aged seventy-three. 
His son, Lemuel W. Drew, is the worthy High Sheriff of 
Queen's county. 

Mr. Sperry and Mr. Drew largely aided in the advancement 
of the place where they lived. 

Mary Ann Drew, mother of Mr. Drew first above named, died 
January 27th, 1892, aged ninety-two years. 

Petite Riviere is very prettily situated, and from the hills 
near the main roads, some of the most charming views in the 
county can be obtained. Shipbuilding has been carried on, and 
fine vessels have been added to the county fleet. 

There is good hotel accommodation, and there are many 
visitors during the summer months. 

Grouse Town is a settlement bordering on Petite Riviere, part 
of it near the river from which the latter village takes its name. 

New Italy is situated between Grouse Town and Conquerall. 

Broad Gove lies about four miles west of Petite Riviere. It 
is a thriving village, having good lands, and extensive fishing 

Grand ocean views are afforded from the road to Gherry Hill 
and other points, taking in the many sailing ships and steamers 
passing up and down the coast. 

The first settlers at Broad Cove were John Michael Smith, 
Martin Teel, Nicolas Reinhardt, and Jacob Smith. Leonard 
Reinhardt came there, after them, in about 1810.^.^^^^ GoOqIc 


Vogler's Cove is an important settlement at the western end 
of the county, opposite to Port Medway in Queen's county, and 
seven miles from Mill Village. 

The first settler, one McDaniel, or McDonald, an old soldier 
from Scotland, who had a grant, lived near the present 
residence of Enoch Conrad. He had his house picketed for 
protection from Indians. His brother, who lived at La Have, 
and left there to visit him, was drowned by the upsetting of his 
boat, and the one at the Cove returned to Scotland. 

Nicolas Conrad, who lived in the township of Lunenburg, 
settled his sons George, Frederick, and Casper at the Cove. 
One Pedley took a grant, and sold to Parks. The next settler 
was Frederick Vogler, who came from Prussia. Many of his 
descendants made the Cove their home, and this accounts for 
the name it bears. It has long been a busy entei'prising place, 
and many of the finest vessels launched in the county have been 
built there. 

Part of Great Island, on which is an Indian burial-gix)und, 
and the island known as Selig s Island, are in Lunenburg cdtmty. 

John Mann was the first discoverer of gold in the neighbor- 
hood. He took some from a boulder ten yeara ago, and a 
year later, Hiram, Martin, and W. Augustus Reinhardt found 
gold, but did not then discover the right lead. About six yeare 
ago the same parties prospected with greater success, and met 
with gold in considerable quantity. A house and barn were 
erected two and a half miles from the Cove, and also a crusher. 
The Reinhardts took other parties in with them, and owing to a 
difference of opinion as to obtaining more machinery, the work 
was not vigorously prosecuted. It is said that the indications 
were excellent, and that specimens to the value of several 
hundred dollars were taken to the United States and elsewhere. 

Rev. W. M. Alcorn a most highly esteemed minister of the 
Methodist Church, died at Vogler's Cove, Sunday morning, 
March 11th, 1893, aged sixty- four years. He was ordained in 
1856, and before coming to this county had been stationed at 
Baie Verte, Bathurst, and Sussex, N.B., Parrsboro\ Springhill 
Mines, River Phillip, Sydney, and other places in the Province, 

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Arrival at Chester of Settlers from Boston, August, 1759 — Qrant 
of Township — Registry of lots — ProgreBB made. 

** Here, where my infant joys were found, 
To me is ever holy ground.'' 

CHESTER is forty-five miles from Halifax, thirty-seven 
from Windsor, twenty-four from Lunenburg, and twenty- 
six from Bridgewater. 

This part of the county is justly celebrated for its beautiful 

A writer refers to Chester and its surroundings as " the 
bright and lively scenes which Nature has so profusely planted 
on that arm of the sea — ^the soft harmony and gay brilliancy 
with which she has there decked her gently waving hills and 
green-wooded islands." 

In an account of a sail from Mahone Bay to Chester, the 
latter is thus described : " This is one of the most delightful 
places in the country. There is a brightness and gladness 
about the beauty of Chester, which you cannot find anywhere 
else. For a magnificent ideal blending of land and water, 
Chester is unsurpassed. Every island is a perfect picture in 

The late Professor de Mille said, that " the scenery around 
Chester might safely be classed among the most beautiful in the 

Another wrote of " beautiful Chester, with its lovely bay and 
countless islands." 

Still another wrote, " Kissed by the restless waves of the 
broad Atlantic, and veiled by the moonlight shadows of Mount 
Aspotogon, nestles the paradisaical and attractive watering- 
place of Nova Scotia — Chester. 

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" Chester, with its 365 emerald-carpeted isles — one for each 
day of the year — is a veritable elysium. During my rambles I 
travelled through Mexico, British Columbia, thirty-three States 
and territories, including Alaska, and I never saw a more 
picturesque spot than Chester. Words are inadequate to 
portray the exquisite scenic attractions of Oak Island, Deep 
Cove, Gold River, and the kaleidoscopic view from the summit 
of old Aspotogon." 

Chester has long been a favorite resort for United States 
tourists, and has proved attractive to many from the interior 
of this Province and other parts of Canada. It has a remark- 
ably fine harbor, of sufficient depth for large vessels. 

The hotel accommodation is pronounced to be very good, and 
there are excellent facilities for sea bathing and boating, with 
good fishing and smooth roads for carriage driving. It ought 
to be more largely visited by those in search of health or 
pleasure. Railway communication should be opened up be- 
tween it and the capital, and thereby with the continent, 
making it easy of access and giving it the advanced position to 
which it is entitled. 

Far, far away in happy Acadie 

Stands a quiet village by the laughing sea ; 

By the light waves singing, sunny islands round, 

Islands bright and vernal, sleeping in the sound ; 

Sleeping in the moonlight, passing fair to see ; 

O peaceful dreamland ! Happy Acadie ! 

—Rev. W. A. DesBrisay. 


Jemima Penelope, 

'Tis here the heart of Nature sleeps 
'Mid those calm islets of the bay, 
Where I have loved, and lived my life 

From day to day. 
From day to day have dreamed sweet dreams, 
Which long I hoped to realize, 
Sweet hopes engendered in the heav'n 

Of two blue eyes. 

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How oft I've watoh'd the boats outside, 

Amid those islands ever fair, 

And fancied they were birch canoes 

That glided there. 
Where now the smiling fields are green. 
And homesteads fair enliven all. 
The forest and the hut were seen. 

The Indian's hall. 

Towards silver shores the ocean creeps, 
And pats the stones with gentle hands ; 
Or draws the pebbles to her lap 

From out the sands, 
To fling them back in sportive play. 
Like children sated with their toys, 
Unconscious proving day by day 

How pleasure cloys. 

About fair Chester stand the hills 
As erst they did in days of yore. 
Clad in green robes, but forests then 

Fringed her lone shore. 
The Indian lov'd those woodland haunts 
Where rov'd at will the cariboo. 
Those coves where flashed the finny tribes 

Thro' waters blue. 

Cer all the spirit of Repose 

Folds her white wings — and here is rest ; 

For here the weary city child 

Is surely blest. 
Fair art thou, Chester, in thy sleep. 
Bathed in the moonbeam's silv'ry rays ! 
• The painters brush, the poet's pen 
But faintly praise. 

My native soil ! I kiss thy ground ! 

I love each pebble on thy shore ! 

Each dimpling wave, each wild wood flow'r 

I do adore ! 
Wherever I my steps may turn, 
Where'er in other lands I roam. 
Still, still for thee my heart will yearn — 

For home, sweet home ! 
Ohssteb, August 28th, 1893. 

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The coming of some of the early settlers to Chester is con- 
tained in a journal kept by Rev. John Seccombe. 

The pai-ty left Boston, Mass., on Thursday, July 30th, 1759, 
at nearly noon, and arrived at Chester on the following Tues- 
day. The name of the vessel is not given. Robert McGown 
was captain. The others on board were : Robert Montgomery 
(mate), Robert McGown (captain s son), Walter Bourk, Thomas 
Partridge, Captain James Nichols, Gregory Bass, Stephen 
Greenleaf, Jonas Cutler, Ebenezer Cutler, Captain Timothy 
Houghton, wife and three children, Aaron Mason, wife and five 
children, Joseph Whitmore, wife and two children, Robert 
Melvin, John Houghton, and Sarah Birley. 

The following are entries in the journal : 

July 31st. — Mr. Houghton's calf jumped overboard, but was 
saved. Three dishes of tea for breakfast. Dined on bi'oiled 
pork and cucumber. 

August 3ixl. — First saw land, viz., Cape Negro. Saw two 
whales and fishing- vessels. Chocolate for breakfast. 

The arrival is thus noticed : 

Tuesday, August 4th. — Saw divers islands. Arrived at 
Chester and anchored in a most beautiful harbor. A hot day. 
Many guns fired at our arrival. Went on shore and refreshed 
oui-selves at Mr. Bridge's. Took a view of saw-mill. Very hot. 
At night there was an Indian dance. 

5th. — Fair, hot day. Dined on pork and squash, cucumber, 
cheese, etc. P.M. — Went to Prescott's Island for gooseberries. 
Fried tom cod and cunners for supper, with cucumbers, etc. 

6th., p.m.— Went to view the country lots, and had a most 
pleasant time and prospect. A fine spring up Middle River. 
Salmon jumped out of water. John Houghton killed three 
gulls at once. 

7th. — Two Indian squaws brought in a birch canoe five salmon 
and eighty salmon trout. One of the salmon weighed twenty- 
two pounds, and one dozen of the trout weighed fourteen pounds. 

9th, Lord's Day. — Preached a.m., 2 Sam. vii. 10 ; p.m., Luke 
vii. 34. 

10th. — Dutch people from Mush-a-Mush brought to sell tur- 

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nips and beans. Butter at 6^d, a pound. Fired guns at going 

11th. — A dinner of cod's sounds and tongues fried, and 
cucumbers. A superexcellent dish. 

14th. — Fair this morning. Went in company with Captain 
Houghton, Aaron Mason, Robert Melvin and John Houghton to 
view the eastern bay, etc. Saw Prescott s lands. Viewed 
Fhineas Willard*s farm lot. Caught some pond perch at the 
beaver dam and at the poi^d adjoining thereunto. Abundance of 
lilies in the pond. Dined on soused eels and salmon. Found 
divers good springs of water. 

17th. — Saw several Indian wigwams at Gold River. 

24th. — Town meeting day. Chose Captain Houghton, Mod- 
erator, and adjourned. 

27th. — Dined on stewed pigeons. 

29th. — Two squaws brought seal-skins to sell. 

30th. — Mush-a-Mush people brought pigeons to sell. 

September 2nd. — ^Dined at Adolphus Weiderholt*s, Lunenburg, 
on soup made of a fowl, with little dumplings in it. Klose- 
suppe : Roast leg of mutton, roasted pigeons, boiled pork, pota- 
toes, carrots, green peas, and cucumbers with salad oil. 

To show, with the above, the style of living in some quarters, 
the following entry is here given of a dinner at Mrs. Clapp's, 
Qoreham's Point, enjoyed by Major Shepherd, Captain Hough- 
ton, and others on their way from Lunenburg to Chester : 

September 3rd. — Dined on a pudding with raisins and plums 
in it, boiled pork and pigeons, carrots and Spanish potatoes, 
beans, squash, cucumbers, new cheese, boiled com, good claret 
and beer, currant jelly, etc. 

7th. — Mr. Melvin and Mr. Houghton caught a salmon in 
Middle River with their hands. 

16th. — Paul Labrador, an Indian, bought five partridges to 
Mr. Bridge's, and lately killed four moose and two bears; brought 
also dried moose and tallow. Indian squaws brought mink- 
skins and a large bear-skin, and sold them for a quart of wine. 

27th. — Supped with Mr. Melvin and Captain Houghton on 
baked beaver. It was extraordinarily good. 

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29th. — Caught at mill-pond, one trout one pout, one shiner, 
twelve pond perch. 

October 7th. — Esquire Craton gave me a razor, and Mrs. 
Clapp a pair of black silk stockings, cost $6. 

9th. — Mr. Johnson caught a skate at the wharf — a curioas- 
made creature. 

13th. — Went to view land lying north-west, with Houghton 
and Bradshaw. Travelled about seven miles. Saw much good 
land and good pine timber. 

ITth.^Up Middle and Gold rivers. Saw two wigwams, and 
Indians, and apple-trees. 

20th. — Went to Halifax. Caught codfish and mackerel. 
Killed a penguin. Two Indians came alongside with ducks and 
\ 28th. — Received £4 15s., Halifax currency, for preaching last 

30th. — Visited the Governor, who made very kind offers to me. 

November 5th. — Visited the Governor. Dined on boiled 
mutton and sauces, roast duck, celery, apple and cranberry 
tarts, etc. Supped on squabs, duck, neat's tongue, tarts, etc. 

2l8t. — Supped on moose steaks and dried meat. Indians 
brought in wild-fowl, beaver, etc. 

22nd. — Indians brought in a moose, killed this morning. 
Abundance of ducks, coots, etc. 

25th. — Thomas Grant appeared as a deserter from Captain 
Wall, of the Grenadiers. 

29th. — ^Preached all day ; Psalm xxvi. 9. Dined at Mr. Fair- 
bank's on boiled beef, roast veal, apple tarts, etc. 

December 8th. — A Highlander stabbed a sailor to-day with 
his sword. 

10th. — Hasty pudding, made of New England meal — a great, 
rarity in these parts. 

12th. — Mr. Bridges came from Chester to Halifax in six 

20th, Lord's Day. — Visited James Morrison in the morning, 
being under sentence of death for desertion. Preached all day 
from Titus ii. 11. 

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Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, visited the poor prisoner. 
Attended him to the place of execution, where he was shot at 
twelve o'clock. 

The saw-mill referred to under date August 4th stood near 
the outlet from Stanford's Lake, on the property where Mr. 
Benjamin Mills resides. The lower timbers are still to be seen. 

" Shoreham," afterwards changed to " Chester," w^as, in pur- 
;suance of an application made by Timothy Houghton and 
William Keyes, for themselves and others, granted by Charles 
Lawrence, Esquire, Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief, 
on the 18th day of October, A.D. 1759. The tract of land 
erected into a township was described in the grant as follows : 
"Situate, lying and being at the bottom of Mahone Bay, 
and thus abutted and bounded: Beginning at the east side 
of a small river, called Martin's River, and bounded westerly 
by said river, and to proceed up said river to the first falls ; 
from thence north 28 degrees west, and there measuring fifteen 
miles ; thence east 28 degrees north, measuring eleven miles and 
a half ; thence south 28 degrees east, measuring fifteen miles ; 
and thence west 28 degrees south, 200 chains, to a head- 
land toward the bottom of Mahone Bay, on the east side 
thereof, and by the said Mahone Bay to the bounds first 
mentioned, comprehending all the islands included in a line 
from Murderer's Point to the point on the east side of Mahone 
Bay, above mentioned, as one of the boundaries of the said 
township, containing in the whole by estimation 100,000 acres, 
more or less, according to a plan and survey of the same here- 
with to be registered, which township is to be called hereafter 
and known by the name of the township of Shoreham." 
. The tract above described (with the reservation of gold, 
silver, precious stones and lapis lazuli) was granted unto 
Timothy Houghton, William Keyes, David Samson, Phineas 
Willard, David Dickenson, Jonathan Samson, Miles Putnam, 
Solomon Samson, Ephraim Stone, John Hastings, Jonathan 
Nicholls, Nathaniel Butler, Levi Whitcomb, and fifty-two others, 
of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, one share ; Francis 

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Guildard, Patrick Sutherland, jun., and Kenneth Sutherland, 
all of the Province of Nova Scotia, one share each; and to 
Alexander McCulloch, Adam McCuUoch, Murdoch Stewart, 
George Young, and Thomas McLanen, of said Province, half a 
share each (saving previous rights of any person or persons), 
" each share and right of said granted premises to consist of 500 
acres, to be hereafter divided into one or more lots to each 
share or right, as shall be agreed upon." 

A free yearly quit-rent of one shilling sterling for every 
fifty acres granted, was to be paid for His Majesty's use on 
Michaelmas Day, and so in proportion for a greater or lesser 
quantity of land so granted. The first payment was to be 
made in ten years from the date of the grant, and so to con- 
tinue yearly thereafter for ever. Should three years' rent be 
at any time unpaid, and no distress found, the grant was to be 
forfeited. No alienation or grant of the premises was to be 
allowed witlun ten years from the date of the grant, except by 
will, without license from the Governor or Commander-in- 
Chief. The grantees were to plant, cultivate, improve, or 
enclose one-third part of the land within ten years ; one-third 
part within twenty years; and the remainder within thirty 
years from the date of the grant. It was recorded at Halifax 
on the 27th July, 1792. Shoreham contained about tliree- 
fifths of the territory comprised in the present township of 

The following bounties were granted by Government in 

Bounty on Dry Codfish, per quintal £0 13 6 

Any Pickled Fish, per barrel 9 

Hay, per cwt 18 

Potatoes, per bushel 4 6 

Turnips, per bushel 2 3 

Wheat, Rye, Barley, Peas, per bushel 13 6 

Hemp and Flax, per lb 10 

Stone Wall, per rod 1 2 6 

" N.B. — This bounty is varied and altered, at the pleasure of 
the Governor and Council, for the encouragement of settlers," 

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The sums named above were calculated in " old tenor," which ^ 
was one-sixth of sterling. 

Barrel staves were sold at Halifax in the same year, at £12. 3s. 
per thousand, and shingles at £5. 8s. per thousand, also in " old 

President Belcher, writing to the Board of Trade, in 1760, 
said that " persons of considerable substance " were engaged in 
the township. 

In 1761, £30 was granted to aid in the conveyance of settlers "^ 
to Chester. 

Returns for 1763 showed that Chester had 30 families and 
30 cleared-up acres. 

The earliest birth in Chester is thus recorded by Rev. John 
Seccombe, Presbyterian minister: "A.D. 1762, July 11th. I ^ 
baptized Lucy, a child of Benjamin and Anna Bridge, being 
the first child born in Chester." 

The first male child bom in Chester is said to have been 
William Shires. In his youth he was very fond of astronomy, 
and afterwards went to England and studied that science. 

A list was kept by Mr. Seccombe of those who " publickly 
renewed their baptismal covenant, in order to the baptism of 
children," followed by this entry : " Dinah, my negro woman- ^ 
servant, made a profession and confession publickly, and was 
baptized July 17th, 1774." 

Solomon Bushen, a son of Dinah, and who was brought to 
this country as a slave, died near Chester, on the 24th of June, 
1855, in the ninetieth year of his age. 

" Salmon, a servant boy, bom in my house, April 4th, 1767, ^ 
commonly called Pompey." There are entries of baptisms of 
children of Melvin, Houghton, one marked " a 7th son," Brad- 
shaw, Greenlaw, Webber, Marvin, CoUicut, Frail, Lynch, 
Dimock, Fitch, Millett, Gorkum, Prat, Walker, Ellis, Crandel, 
Levy, Pulcifer, Baker, Thompson, Smith, Stout, Eldridge, 

1778. October 11th. — Benjamin, son of Jonathan and Anna 
Prescott, baptized by Rev. B. R. Comingo. 

The first marriage was that of Jeremiah Rogers and Eliza- 
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beth Harlow, widow, on the 20th day of January, 1765. Fees 
paid, 08. 

Among others : 

1770. November 18th. — Ebenezer Fitch and Hannah Sec- 

1786. June loth. — Andrew Bargelt and Rebecca Gardner. 

October 4th. — Zadock Weston and Mary Prat. 10s. 

The first recorded death was that of William Fitch, son of 
Ebenezer and Hannah Fitch, two years, seven months, and 
eleven days old, on the 27th November, 1775. Entered by 
Ebenezer Fitch, Town Clerk, on the 29th of the same month. 

The names of other settlers, and of those who obtained lots of 
land, were,jJohn Shepherd, Benjamin Bridge, Samuel Waters, 
Ralph Nesham, Bruin Romcas Comingo, Benjamin Lary, Isaiah 
Thomas, Nathan Woodbury, Samuel Jenison, David Miller, 
Jeremiah Rogers, Thomas Rogers, Simon Floyd, Thomas Floyd,. 
Jno. Records, Isaac Weston, Nathaniel Turner, Joseph Turner, 
Thomas Grant, Patrick Sutherland, John Mason, Eleazer Ham- 
len, Israel Lovett, Thomas Armstrong, Nicholas Comey, Jona- 
than Prescott, Philip Knaut, Adolph Wiederholt, John Lonus, 
George CoUicut, Captain Jno. Atwood, Jno. Crook, Abraham 
Bradshaw, Edmister Hammond, and Nathaniel Leonard. They 
came from Boston, Kingston, Hanover, Pembroke, Plymtown, 
J Shrewsbury, Marlborough, Concord, Lexington, Casco Bay, 
Piscataqua, Lancaster, Stoughton, Rochester, Middleberry, and 
Littleton, in New England ; and from Lunenburg and Halifax. 

Several of these people brought with them a stock of cattle, 
and were better furnished with means of support than those 
who first settled at Lunenburg. 

For the defence of the town, a block-house, furnished with 
twenty small guns, was built near its southern extremity. At 
Freda's Point, a part of which is still retained by Government, 
earthworks were thrown up, and preparations were made to 
build a fort ; but this was abandoned. A guard-house was kept 
on the hill near the site of the old Baptist meeting-house. 

The block-house was, when there seemed to be no further use 

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for it, given by the Government to the late Dr. Prescott, who 
made it his dwelling-place ; and it afterwards became the 
property of the late George Mitchell, Esq., who, by adding to 
it, made of it a large and comfortable dwelling-house. The 
street leading from it northwards was called Fort street. 

The streets now in Chester, running north and south, are 
Water, Duke, Queen, King, Central, Prince, Victoria, Granite, 
and Brunswick ; and those running east and west are North, 
Main, Tremont, Regent, Union, Pleasant, and South streets. 

The oldest building in Chester is the north end of the house 
so long occupied by the late Charles L. A. Church, Esq. It 
was built 135 years ago by Captain Bangs, for one of the first 
settlers, named Houghton. 

William O'Brien built the house where Mr. Andrew Murphy 
lived (now occupied by Mr. Henry Cole) and kept a tavern. 
He had a swinging sign, with a painting on it of a maid 
milking a cow, and under this the words, 

**" Come in, good friends, and you will see 
What beautiful milk my cow gives me.** 

The comer near this house was a sort of battle-ground, 
where disputes were settled by fists, without gloves. 

The following is a copy of an address from the inhabitants 
of Chester to the Lieutenant-Governor, in 1763 : 

*^To the Honorable Montague WUmot^ Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor 
amd Commander-in-Chie/ of His Majesty^s Province of Nova 
Scotia, or Acadia, and Colonel of His Majesty^ s Eightieth Regi- 
ment of Foot, etc., etc. 

"The humble address of the Minister and principal inhabi- 
tants of the township of Chester. 

" May it please your Honor, — We, the minister and principal 
inhabi^nts of the township of Chester, beg leave to congratu- 
late your Honor on your safe arrival at this your seat of gov- 
ernment : and at the same time to express the great pleasure 
and satisfaction we have in His Majesty's most gracious cai-e 
of this his Province, in appointing, at so critical a juncture, 
your Honor to the command of the same. 

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" When we reflect on your distinguished virtues, we flatter 
ourselves with the pleasing hope that every measure will now 
be pursued that can make us a flourishing and happy people ; 
and we beg leave to assure your Honor that it shall be our 
constant study and endeavor to conduct ourselves in such a 
manner as to merit your favor and protection, and to do every- 
thing in our power to make your administration agreeable and 

3y order and in behalf of the town of Chester. 

" (Signed) Timothy Houghton. 
Jonathan Prescott. 
" Chester, November 20th, 1763." 

To the above address, His Excellency was pleased to make 
the following reply : 

" Gentlemen, — I return you my thanks for this obliging 
address. Your approbation of me, and the affectionate manner 
in which you express it, is the most flattering acknowledgment 
I can hope to receive for my constant endeavors to promote 
your welfare." 

" Chester, April 1st, 1766. 
" We, the subscribera, do by these presents agree to have a 
public road laid out and established from the head or bottom 
of the cove commonly called and known by the name of Scotch 
Cove, westward to the town of Chester, running as straight as 
may conveniently be done, in and by the judgment of us, the 
"(Signed) Josiah Marshall. 
Thomas Floyd. 

"(Signed) Robert James. 

William Harvey. 
Asa Dimock. 
John Umloch. 
John Hutcheson." 

From Governor Franklin's Return for January 1st, 1767. 


76 Men. 17 English. 42 Cows. 

54 Boys. 17 Scotch. 42 Youn^ neat cattle. 

51 Women. 11 Irish. 25 Sheep. 

49 Girls. 175 Americans. 21 Swine. 

1 Negro woman. 11 Germans and other 2 Saw-mills. 

Total, 231. foreigners. 8 Fishing boats. 

227 Protestants. 1 Horse. 5 Schooners and sloops. 

4 Roman Catholics. 14 Oxen and bulls. 153 Bushels>wheat.T 

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647 Buahels rye. 23 Bushels beans. 174 Barrels salmon, 

54 Bushels pease. 10 Bushels flaxseed. mackerel, etc. 

131 Bushels barley. 1 Hundred flax. 12 Barrels oil. 

735 Busheb oats. 374 Qtls. dry codfish. 70,000 Feet boards. 

Alteration of Inhabitants Since Last Year. 

Malet. Females. Total. 

Bom 3 6 9 

Arrived 10 8 18 

Left the Province 8 8 

1772. June 6th. — A great fire occurred in the neighborhood 

of Chester and Lunenburg, which consumed sixty houses and 

buildings, and a large quantity of valuable timber. " Rev. Mr. 

Wood was ordered by the Governor to preach at Halifax, in 

behalf of the sufferers." 

Return of Settlers, Farm Lands, Stock, Produce, etc., 
AT Chester, in 1783. 

When Family. 

SetUed. Male. Female. 

Mrs. Abraham Bradshaw 1762 1 2 

John Bradshaw 1782 1 

Joseph Bradsliaw 1768 3 1 

William Bradshaw 1781 1 2 

James Butler 1765 2 2 

Georffe Collicut 1760 4 6 

Elijah Crocker 1779 2 2 

Owen Cornelius 1760 2 

Adam Fader 1782 1 

Ebenezer Fitch 1764 2 4 

Simon Floyd 1761 5 7 

EHjah Fitch 1763 2 1 

George Frail 1771 3 3 

Thomas Floyd 1761 3 6 

James Greenlaw 1760 3 4 

William Harvey 1760 1 3 

Gotleib Hawbolt 1782 1 3 

Henry Hatt 1762 6 3 

Mrs. Timothy Houghton 1760 8 3 . 

William Knowlton 1775 2 3 

Timothy Lynch 1765 5 4 

George Willett 1760 4 2 

WiUiam Marvels 1765 5 4 

Comwallis Moreau 1782 2 6 

Ralph Neasum 1760 1 1 

Henry Neal 1765 2 3 

John Pulsifer 1778 1 2 

Peter Rudolph 1778 2 4 

Anthony Vaughan. 1772 5 2 

Daniel Vaughan 1772 3 

John Vaughan 1768 3 7 

James Webber 1760 ,,^4^,,^C^ogle 


These persons occupied farm lands, varying from 40 to over 
200 acres, amounting in all to 4,593 acres, many of them 
having islands, or shares of islands, in the bay. The number of 
acres cultivated by them was 41 4 J. Dwelling-houses, 34; bams, 
25 ; shop, 1 (Timothy Lynch, blacksmith) ; mills, 2 ; lumber, 
230,000 feet ; oxen, 38 ; cows, 72 ; heifers and steers, 54 ; sheep, 
173; hogs, 49; wheat, 99 bushels; barley, 344 bushels; oats, 
78 bushels; com, 213 bushels; peas, 50 bushels ; potatoes, 2,025 
bushels ; hay, 205 tons. 

Cabbages do not appear in the above return. They were first 
introduced by Jacob Clattenburg, in the year 1800, and grown 
on the fann afterwards occupied by William .Hennabeny, at 
East Chester. 

" A General Description of Nova Scotia," printed at the Royal 
Acadian School, Halifax, 1823, says: "In 1784, a few Loyalist 
families came to Chester, with some property; but, being 
unacquainted with farming, they expended their money on 
buildings and unprofitable pursuits. Discouraged and dis- 
appointed, most of them abandoned the settlement, and returned 
to the United States." 

The following are extracts fix)m original papera : 

" The township, from east to west, is about eleven miles by 
water. Around it, at high water, is thii-ty-three and a half 
miles, containing thii-ty islands." 

" The farm lots of the old proprietoi's of this township, in the 
grant under the name of * Shoreham,' and those admitted as 
proprietors under said gi-ant, in the place of the absentees con- 
tained therein, by a committee appointed by the Governor and 
Council for that purpase, are here registered to the present pro- 
prietor, according to such of their claims as appeared legal and 
just, by a careful inspection and examination of William Morris 
and Jonathan Prescott, Esquires, appointed by Government to 
examine the same, and make their report to the Governor, 
which was accordingly done, March 5th, 1784." 

Present Proprietora. Claims. Aorta. Entitled unto. 

1.— GotliebHawbolt. Purchased. 60 500 

(Then follow in all 101 lots.) 

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Twelve farm lots on the west side of the bay, from Gold 
River southwards, were also registered. 

Present Proprietors. Claims. Acres. Entitled unto. 

1. — Anthony Yaughan. Original proprietor. 200 600 

(Additional names given.) 

Charles Morris, Esq., by letter dated January 7th, 1785, made 
the following suggestion : 

" Suppose, for instance, the man who has a grant for 500 
acres, to draw 100 in the first division ; the man who has 100, 
to draw 20 in the first division ; this would bring them into a 
compact settlement : the land would be the sooner laid out, and 
everybody set to work making improvements immediately — the 
after division may be made at leisure." 

The Governor's approval was signified in the following terms: 

" I approve of the above plan, and strongly recommend the 

laying out of the land near the town of Chester, into small lots, 

that is to say — no lot to be above 100 acres, within the distance 

of six miles of the town. 

"(Signed) J. Parr." 

This was followed by a letter from Mr. Morris : 
" I am directed by the Governor to inform you that he in- 
tends the money which has been collected from sale of lots shall 
be laid out on the Windsor road. 

"(Signed) Charles Morris." 

The proprietora made application for a meeting, January 13th, 
1785, " to act upon the following articles : 

"1. To choose a moderator. 

" 2. To ballot for seven men as Committee of Reference. 

" 3. To consult on most equitable measure for distribution of 

" 4. To ballot for two men to be recommended to Governor, 
as additional magistrates for this county. 

" 5. To act in all such matters as may be legal and neces- 

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This was signed by twenty proprietors, and addressed to 
Jonathan Prescott, Elsq., Proprietors Clerk, who issued " a 
warrant " on the same day, requiring all the proprietors to meet 
at the house of William Kennedy, Inn-holder, on Monday, the 
thirty-first day of the same month, at ten o'clock ; and naming 
the articles to be. considered at the meeting. 

The meeting was held, and Josiah Marshall chosen Moderator, 
and the following as agents for the proprietary: Jonathan 
Prescott, Anthony Vaughan, William Nelson, Franklin Etter, 
John Martin, Samuel Morehead, and Josiah Marshall. 

On the 25th of February, 1785, Mr. Morris addressed a letter 
to Jonathan Prescott, Josiah Marshall, and Franklin G. Etter, 
Esquires, in which he expressed the satisfaction of the Gover- 
nor with the proceedings taken by the proprietors; thanked 
them for their approval of his own endeavors for the public 
good; promised to continue his exertions "in promoting the 
welfare of the rising settlement ; " and wished the inhabitants 
" all the success and prosperity they can wish themselves." 

The late Mrs. William Lawson, whose mother was Martha 
Prescott, says, in her history of Preston: " John Prescott was the 
eldest son of Dr. Jonathan Prescott, and brother of the late 
Hon. Charles R. Prescott. Dr. Prescott came from Boston, 
Mass., in 1758, and settled in Chester, where he died January 
21st, 1807. He had five sons. One, Joseph, was a doctor in 
the United States army, and afterwards a physician in Halifax. 
The eldest, John, purchased Maroon Hall, in 1811. He had 
been engaged for some years in fanning, at Zink s Point, 

Miss Anna Prescott, daughter of John, above named, married 
the late Hon. John E. Fairbanks, of " Woodside," Dartmouth. 
The Misses Dufi^, of Lunenburg, and W. M. Duff, Esq., of Bridge- 
water, are her grandchildren. 

Capture of Schooner " Pattv." 

" Friday, September 13th, 1776. — At 10 o'clock a.m, we.saw a 
small schooner coming into the harbor of Chester. She came 
to anchor off Quaker Island, alongside of Jonathan Prescott's 

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schooner. At 2 o'clock p.m. the captain (John Leach) and his 
lieutenant (Brookhouse) came up to the town of Chester, and 
alongside of our schooner Patty (which was ashore in order for 
hknging our rudder), and asked us several questions concerning 
our schooner Patty and her cargo, and from that went alongside 
Captain Morris's schooner, which was then ashore to be graved. 
The said Leach and Brookhouse told us they had been taken by 
the MUford and sent into Halifax, and were there set at liberty. 
There they had bought the said schooner above mentioned, and 
had got thirteen men on board who were going passengers with 
them to New England, and that they left Halifax the day before. 
From Captain Morris's they went about the town till sunset or 
thereabouts. When the schooner got under sail in order to 
come up to town, the captain and lieutenant went on board, 
brought the schooner to anchor within pistol shot of us, fired a 
swivel shot over us, then manned out their boat and came on 
board of us, with their men all armed, and took us a prize, and 
when the schooner floated they hove up the anchor and went 
out of the cove where we had hauled in for convenience of the 
above-mentioned business ; next morning, ballasted the schooner 
and took her away, after letting us, the subscribers, and 
Nathaniel Beal, take our clothes and other things belonging to 
us, on shore, but carried with them the boy Francis Lassey. 
The above is, to the best of our knowledge, the particulars as 

" (Signed) Nehemiah Webb, 
John Morse." 

"Province of Nova Scotia, 
" County of Lunenburg, 

" Chester, September 16th, 1776. 

"This day personally appeared Nehemiah Webb and John 
Morse, and on path testify that the above Protest is according 
to the above proceeding, to the best of their knowledge. 

" Sworn to before me, 

" (Signed) Timothy Houghton, J.P. 

" N.B. — It would have been attested to before, but my being 
absent, was not done." 

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" Chester, December 3rd, 1779. 

" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do acknowledge 
to have received of Timothy Houghton, Esq., two shillings and 
sixpence (each of us) out of thirty shillings generously given by 
Joseph Pemette, Esq., for encouragement in cutting a road from 
Chester towards Windsor. 

"Timothy Houghton. 

On behalf of David Houghtx>n 
and Charles Houghton. 

" Simon Floyd, 

On behalf of James Butler. 

" GuTLip X Walker, Jun." 


It was resolved, on the 4th of June, 1779, to send a sergeant, 
corporal and twelve men of the troops to Chester to be added 
to militiamen there, as several Chester vessels had been cap- 
tured by rebels, whose depredations might continue. 

In June, 1799, it was resolved to " send a sergeant, corporal 
and twelve men to Chester, to join the militia there, as several 
vessels belonging to that place had been taken by American 
rebels, and they were exposed to injury." 

Visits of Privateers. 

Chester was frequently visited by American privateers, and 
the people were robbed of their cattle, poultry and other goods. 
Many persons who had been taken prisoners, were landed from 
privateering schooners, and on the inhabitants remonstrating, 
they were told : " You may be glad to get them. Suppose we 
had thrown them overboard." 

In 1782, three American privateers, under the pilotage of a Mr. 
Umlah, who was taken out of a fishing schooner, went into the 
harbor of Chester, and commenced firing at the town. Captain 
Prescott had the guns at the block-house loaded, but the powder 
being bad, the shot failed to take effect, and it was feared the 
enemy would enter and gain possession. Better ammunition 
having been obtained, one of the privateers was struck, which 
caused them all to retreat behind Nass's Point. -The crews, 
fully armed, then went ashore, and crossed the point as if 

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prepared for a land attack. Seeing Captain Pi'eseott on the 
opposite side of the harbor, they called to him, and asked per- 
mission to bury their dead, which it is believed was only a feint. 
He replied that if they would stack their guns, and advance in 
front of them, he would go down and make the necessary 
arrangements. The end of the conversation was an invitation 
given to the captains of the privateers to take tea with him. 
During the latter part of the evening, and while they were 
enjoying themselves under his hospitable roof, a loud knock was 
heard at the door, which was followed by a son of the captain 
asking him, in a very audible voice, where he should billet one 
hundred men sent from Lunenburg by Colonel Creighton. 
** Billet them," the old gentleman replied, "in Houghton's bam," 
and turning to his guests, he said, " Gentlemen, I will be ready 
for you in the morning." This of course was a inise, and well 
served its purpose, although the himdred men never made their 

Grey cloaks lined with scarlet were fashionable in those days, 
and were often worn with the lining outwards. Some of the 
women of Chester, as has been told of the women in Wales, on 
the occasion of a landing made by the French, near Fiscard, in 
1797, showing the military color, were at a distance supposed 
by the privateers to be " regulars," and were considered, with 
the " arrival from Lunenburg," too formidable a force to en- 

Cannon-balls that had been fired by privateers were ploughed 
out on Barry's lots, and other places, many years ago. 

1805. — "Deserters from His Majesty's sei^vice and French 
prisoners were understood to be hovering and concealed about 
Aspotogon and Limenbui'g. A party of Chester militia ten- 
dered their services to take those who were possessed of arms. 
Sir John Wentworth requested Lieutenant-General Bowyer to 
issue seven stand of arms to Lieutenant Covey of the Chester 
Artillery Company. He stated that more than two hundred 
men in the district of Chester were unarmed, the regiment 
having increased more than that number since arms had been 
issued to Colonel Creighton." 

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The following is an extract from a report of the situation: 
" One company of forty men, under Captain Thomson, reside 
near Chester, and, from their position, may discover the approach 
of an enemy before it can be known here. This company will 
in a few hours be able to join York Redoubt." 

1806. December 19th. — " The House of Assembly, in an 
address to the Lieutenant-Governor, asked him to give a 'repre- 
sentation to Chester, pursuant to Provincial Statute V., George 

1807. — Freemasons' lodge, on the registry of Nova Scotia, 
No. 9, called " Chester," held at Chester. 

1816. — " Admiral Sir John GriflBth arrived at Chester, on his 
way to visit the new military settlement of Sherbrooke." 

May 24. — Snow fell at Chester, and remained until noon next 

This was " the year without any summer. Rains, frosts, and 
fogs. Ci'ops grew a little, and were frozen." 

1817. April 16th. — People walked on the ice from Chester 
to Misinger s Island, a mile from the tow;i. 

1820. March 6th. — A road from Halifax to Chester was 
recommended by the Lieutenant-Governor ; also, a road through 
the military settlement in the County of Lunenburg. 

Town House and Lock-up House. 

In the House of Assembly, February 17th, 1842. 

A petition of Michael Schmitz and others was presented by 
Mr. Zwicker, and read, praying that a law may pass to 
authorize the (Jrand Jury and Sessions for the County of 
Lunenburg to vote and assess moneys in the said county for a 
town house and lock-up house at Chester. 

Mr. Zwicker, pursuant to leave given, presented a bill in 
accoixlance with the petition. 

On the 21st of February, Mr. Creighton moved that the further 
consideration of the bill to provide a lock-up house and town 
Iiouse at Chester be deferred until this day three months, 
which, being seconded and put, and the House dividing thereon, 
there appeared for the motion, eight ; against it, twenty-eight. 
The bill passed in both Houses. GooqIc 

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The Cunard steamer Unicorn arrived at Chester, in 1848, 
with a large party from Halifax. 

In 1854, H. M. S. Argus, Commander Purvis, came to 
Chester, having on board Sir J. Gaspaixl le Marchant, Lieut.- 
Govemor, and Hon. Lewis M. Wilkins, Provincial Seeretaiy. 
An address was presented to His Excellency in the Temperance 
Hall, to which he replied at some length, and this was followed 
by an interesting speech from Mr. Wilkins. A great many 
people were in attendance. 

A grand regatta was held at Chester, Thursday, September 
4th, 1856. 

First race — Gigs of four oars. Prize, ladies' puree, with gold 
— $27.70. Won by First-step. Built in Chester by David 
Millett — his first attempt to construct a race-boat. Rowed by 
Benjamin, Joseph, and Thomas Nass (brothers), and William 
Coolen. Distance, four miles. Time, twenty-eight minutes. 

Second race — Whale-boats of four oars. Won by Betsy. 

Third race — Flats. Winners — Lucy Short, Lucy Long, and 
Eastern BeUe. 

Fourth race — Punts, rowed by boys under eighteen years. 
Winnera — Alma, Flirt, and Silver Tip. 

Fifth race — Sail-boats. Twelve miles ; nine started. Fii-st, 
Katy Darling (E. J. Robinson), silver cup, $24. Second, Secret 
(Dr. Pearson), $16. Third, Star (B. McLachlan), $8. 

Sixth race — Canoes. First, Thomas Hammond and others. 
Second, Nicholas Paul and others. 

Seventh race (September 5th) — Eleven open boats stai-ted 
(twelve miles). First, Secret (Dr. Pearson), silver cup, $20. 
Second, Quickstep (John Hyson), $12. Third, Mayflower 
(Nathan Isnor), $4. 

More than three thousand persons were present. Terminated 
with general illumination, fine torchlight procession, and a 
beautiful display of fireworks. 

In or about the year 1858, a race came off* in the harbor of 
Chester between two boats rowed by ladies. The crew of the 
winning boat were Annie Richardson Bessie Garrison, Mary 
Jane Smith, and Belle Barry, dressed in white, trimmed with 

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blue. Charles E. Church (now Commissioner of Works and 
Mines) was steersman. 

The other crew, dressed in pink, were Helen Richardson, 
Mary Kearney, Ellen Barry, and Annie Porter, with John 
Richardson as steersman. The rowing of both crews was 
excellent. The course was from Mitchell's wharf to a boat 
moored aljout half a mile distant, and return. Much interest 
was excited, and a large crowd assembled. 

A ball, numerously attended, was given in honor of the win- 
ners, with a grand supper, at the Mulgrave House. 

A small canal or passage-way for boats was constructed in 
1864-65, at the town end of Freda's Peninsula, making the latter 
an island. This gives a shorter way of approach to Chester for 
people from different places, and has been a great public con- 

On the 12th of October, 1871, there was a tremendous storm 
— a great gale from the south-east — which carried away Charles 
Hilchey's boat-shop, two or three hundred cart-loads of stone 
from the bank, William Robinson's wharf and store, only a 
waggon being saved; all the other wharves, and those of Thoa. 
Nass, and James Bond, on the east side of the harbor. It tore 
out the bottom of David Whitford's store by his wharf, and 
washed away flour and other goods. William Evans* schooner 
was driven up into the street, and a fortnight's work was 
required to get her off. Boats were carried into Mr. Evans' 

The water came up by Mr. Thomas Whitford's house, in the 
lower street, and was about six feet deep. The harbor was filled 
with drift stuff to Thomas Nass's wharf. Several acres of land, 
with a bam and wharf, were washed away from Quaker Island. 
The stonn lasted about two hours. 

William Dominey, who lived between Chester and Hubbard s 
Cove, tried to fasten his boat at James Corkum's Lake, and was 
carried to the head of it and to a swamp in the woods, where 
he was found the next day, dead. He was over seventy years 
of age. 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 275 

Chester Common. 

An Act was passed, May 7th, 1874, which provided for the 
appointment, by the Qovemor-in-Council, of three or more 
trustees, who were required, under the direction of the General 
Sessions of the Peace, or of a special Sessions, to divide the 
Common into lots, set apart a portion for a public cemetery, 
lay out roads, and otherwise improve it, and make suitable 
arrangements with persons who were in possession of lots 
thereon, with power to sell or lease said lots. It was also 
enacted that an annual return should be made to the Sessions 
of the work done and of the sums received and expended, the 
moneys received to be paid to the District Treasurer, and 
expended by order of the General Sessions, or of any special 
Sessions called for that purpose. 

1876. November. — Jacob Stevens and two sons, one married, 
went from Elast Chester to Lunenburg. While returning, it 
blew very heavy. They landed at one of the Sand islands for 
ballast. All were afterwards lost. Nothing was found but 
oars, hats, and a bundle of cotton warp, which were washed up 
at Tancook. 

In June, 1878, Cornelius Bezanson, aged 19; Samuel B. Eisen- 
hauer, 16; George Shaffer, 15, and Albert Dimmel, 14, were 
•drowned by the upsetting of a boat near Borgald's Point, 
-Chester Basin. Four others of the party were saved. 

1^*82. Friday, December 8th. — Two young men, sons of 
Oeorge Graves, left Chester for Woody Island, to get sea-weed. 
The boat was found on Saturday morning, on the water, bottom 
Tip, and the caps of the men were floating near by. Three 
other brothers of the same family, and a brother-in-law, were 
drowned during a collision, while bank-fishing, the previous 

In the summer of 1888, a boat returning from Chester to 
Tancook capsized, and George Mason, John Wilson, and David 
Langille were drowned. They left widows, and six, seven, and 
five children, respectively. Isaac Mason (brother of George), 
William Thomas, and. George Cross were saved. 

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On the 14th of June, 1892, there was a heavy rain-storm, 
with loud thunder and sharp lightning — the latter very brilliant 
in many places, forked, and lighting up the whole heavens. 
The house of William Eldridge, Chester Basin, was struck by 
an electric flash and part of the roof bix)ken in. He was injured, 
and a son was paralyzed. Two large bams and a piggerj^ were 
also struck and damaged. Mrs. Eldridge got her husband from 
the house to the bam, and returned for the children, and after 
placing them by their father, went to her neighbors, who put 
out the fire and saved the house, in a damaged condition. In 
the same storm, the bam of Ezekiel Eisenhauer and son, Windsor 
road, was struck and consumed, with all the farming tools, 
waggons, sleighs, three cows and several head of young cattle,, 
etc., a loss in all of over $1,000. 

Scotch Cove, now called East Chester, two miles from Chester 
on the Halifax road, was originally settled by John Hutcheson, 
John Duncan, Thomas Thomson, and others, most of whom came 
from Glasgow and Edinburgh. Some of the grants were given 
for service in the British army, and were made by Lord Williani 
Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor, consisting of about 250 acres 
each, subject to a quit rent of one farthing an acre. John 
Duncan came from Edinburgh. Six brothers left there at 
different times for America, and emigrating to various places,, 
never heard of each other afterwards. Two descendants of Mr, 
Duncan (John and George) — both lately deceased — good and 
worthy men, long resided at East Chester. They spoke to the 
writer of the diflBculties that were encountered when they 
were without roads and the people had to cany their provisions 
on their backs. George Duncan was one of those drafted for 
service at Halifax during the American war. As his mother 
was largely dependent on him for support, he was allowed a 
chance of escape, but was again drafted, and was absent from 
home from November until April. He and his comrades were 
employed in getting out fascines and hewing timber for forts. 
Having obtained leave of absence for a mouth, he returned 
home by land, when for much of the journey there was not 

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even a foot-path. In those days the mails from Halifax to 
Chester were candied via Hammond's Plains, sometimes on 
horseback, and at other times on foot. Pitts, Sullivan, and 
Johnson were mail-carriers on this route. One of them (Pitts) 
was once taken by Mr. Duncan in a schooner to Indian harbor, 
because it was impossible to travel the intervening distance by 
land. The mail was carried in a small knapsack, and the whole 
package did not exceed five pounds in weight. 

Chester Basin is about five miles from Chester on the post- 
road to Mahone Bay. It has churches, a school-house, several 
stores and a large hotel, and is very prettily situated, giving fine 
views of the bay and islands. A number of handsome vessels 
have been built there. There are gold-fields in the immediate 
vicinity, which are elsewhere described. 

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Ohurches Built at Chester — Clergymen of Different Denominations. 

THE first church in Chester was Congregational and 
Presbyterian, with Rev. John Seccombe, minister. He 
was bom at Medford, Mass., May 6th (N.S.), 1708. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1728, and continued for some time 
to reside at Cambridge. On October 10th, 1733, he was 
ordained as pastor of a church at Harvard, a small Massachusetts 
town, and held the position until 1757. He married, March 
10th, 1736 or '37, Mercy, daughter of Rev. William Williams, of 
Weston. Her mother was a cousin of Jonathan Edwards. 

The following verses are from a humorous poem, in the shape 
of a will, written by Mr. Seccombe : 

** To my dear wife, 

My joy and life, 
I freely now do give her 

My whole estate, 

With all my plate — 
Being just about to leave her. 

*' My tub of soap, 

A long cart rope, 
A frying pan and kettle, 

An ashes pail, 

A threshing flail, 
An iron wedge and beetle." 

There are thirteen additional verses. 

On Sunday, August 9th, 1759, the first Lord's Day after the 
arrival of the settlers, Mr. Seccombe preached in the morning 
from 2 Sam. vii. 10 : " Moreover, I will appoint a place for my 
people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a 
place of their own, and move no more." The text for the after- 
noon sermon was St. Luke vii. 34. 

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When the town and farm lots were laid out, Mr. Seccombe 
received a share. He lived for some years on an island west 
from Chester, which has been known as Seccombe s Island. 

In a deed of lot No. 2, the east half of the island, September 
21st, 1767, to John Seccombe, it is called Gold River South-east 
Island. Consideration, £2. The deed is signed, "Bruein 
Rumkes Comango. WUneaaea: Timothy Houghton. Philip 

By deed of same date, Mr. Seccombe, for love and good- will, 
conveyed to his son John, half of said island, lot No. 1, on the 
west side. 

The following letters are connected with early ministei'ial 

"Halifax, Febmaiy 20th, 1771. 

" Rev. and Dear Sir, — I saw Mr. Flekes this day, who in- 
forms me that you and your family were well when he came 
from Lunenburg, which I was very glad to hear, and thought I 
would embrace this opportunity of writing to you, to inform 
you that I am, through the goodness of QokI, in a comfortable 
state of health, though I have lately been exercised with a cold. 
I wish you would write a few lipes to me any opportunity. I 
don't know when I shall go to Chester again, I suppose not till 
the beginning of May. So you need not fear or the letter 
finding me here. I would be glad to know how the ordination 
sermon and services were approved of by the people at Lunen- 
burg, and whether you meet with any discouragements in your 
ministerial work, and whether you have i^eason to think your 
labors have been made profitable among your people, and 
whether brotherly love yet continues. May the God of peace 
be with you, the God of all grace strengthen you, and succeed 
you in the great and important work whereunto He hath 
called you, and make you instrumental of bringing many sons 
and daughters to glory. I have no time to enlarge at present, 
being in great haste. My kind regards to Mrs. Bi'own, Mr. 
Knaut, Shupley, and Mr. Colbauck, with their wives best. 


" Your sincere friend and fellow-labourer, 

" J. Seccombe." 
" To the Rev. Bruin Romkes Comingoe, 
" Lunenburg." 

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In a letter to Mr. Comingo, September 6th, 1786, Mr. 
Seccombe wrote : " Doubtless you have heard of the awaken- 
ing and concern which some among us are under here, and of a 
beginning of reformation in several families. Probably a work 
of grace is begun in some few of them. But we must wait and 
see what good fruits they bring forth — fruits meet for repen- 
tance — for further proof." 

He did a great deal of ministerial work in Halifax, where the 
Governor was very kind to him. In mentioning his pay for 
one Sunday's work, he said, " The Governor gave a Johannes." 
He was in Halifax in 1774, 1775, 1779, 1780, and 1781, as 
noted, and probably oftener. 

The sermon lie preached on the death of the Hon. Abigail 
Belcher (wife of the Chief Justice), at Halifax, October 29th, 
1771, was pj'inted at Boston in 1772, with an epistle by Mather 
Byles, D.D. 

In 1778, he preached a funeral sermon from 1 Cor. xv. 56, 57, 
on the occasion of the death of the wife of the Hon. Benjamin 
Green, which was printed by Anthony Henry. 

There is a manuscript seraion by Mr. Seccombe, on small 
note paper (four pages lost), from St. Luke v. 31, preached at 
Halifax, June 22nd, 1777, and April 28th, 1782, and at Chester, 
May 28rd. 1784. 

He died at Chester, October 29th, 1792, aged eighty-four 
years and five months. Rev. Bruin Romcas Comingo preached 
the funeral sermon from Hebrews vi. 11, 12. 

Mr. Seccombe had preached the sermon at the ordination of 
Mr. Comingo (the first Presbyterian minister ordained in the 
British North American Provinces), in Halifax, July 3rd, 1770, 
from St. John xxi. 15, 16. 

He was taken before the Council in December, 1776, charged 
with having preached a seditious sermon in September, and in 
January following he was again before that body, when an 
affidavit was produced that he had prayed for the success of 
the " rebels." He was ordered to find security for good be- 
havior in the sum of five hundred pounds, and to cease 
preiiching until he signed a recantation. SuflBcient particulars 

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are not given to show that he was intentionally guilty. From 
other accounts of him, he appeara to have been a very worthy 
man, and Chief Justice Belcher had confidence enough in him to 
appoint him as preacher of the funeral sermon already men- 


A history of the Baptist Church in this county was prepared 
hy Rev. Stephen March, for many years the worthy pastor at 
Bridgewater. It shows that "the first church, and out of 
which grew the present Baptist Church, was established in 
Chester town in 1788. In 1793, this church called to the pas- 
torate Rev. Joseph Dimock, who was afterw^ards well and 
familiarly known, not only in Lunenburg county but throughout 
the Province, as "Father Dimock." On the 4th of May, 1811, 
this church was reorganized after the present order with a 
membership of thirty-one, and so became the first strict com- 
munion Baptist church of the county. From this time until 
the death of Joseph Dimock (June 29th, 1 846, in the seventy- 
eighth year of his age), this church took a leading part in the 
development of the Baptist denomination of this Province." 

Rev. J. Dimock) referred to by Mr. March, was bom in New- 
port, Nova Scotia, December 11th, 1768. His father, Daniel 
Dimock, was a minister, and also his grandfather, Shubael 
Dimock. In his journal he says : " My honored father gave me 
a common education. Though my attainments were small, they 
were beyond any of my age in the village where I lived. A 
thirst to excel in education was in my nature implanted, so 
that I do not remember ever to have been so taken up with 
exercises or pastimes, but I would willingly leave it for a book 
of instruction. This was from God, for which I desirfe to be 
thankful. My parents taught me to read my Bible daily. 
When in my seventeenth year, God, by His Spirit, was pleased 
to show me my state, and I could find no rest till I found rest 
in Jesus, and saw that He was able to save all that came to 
God through Him." 

"Mr. -Dimock was baptized in Horton, May 6th, 1787, and 
joined the church there. In December, 1789, he accompanied 

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V his uncle, Joseph Bailey, who was a Baptist minister, on a 
visit to Chester, to which they travelled, as was customary, 
on snow-shoes. They stopped there a short time, and their 
labors were greatly blessed among the people. Mr. Dimock 
began to preach in 1790. He spent part of the year 1791 
in Annapolis county. In the autumn of that year he went 
through different parts of the Province, sometimes enduring 
great privations. At one time he was travelling through 
the woods from Windsor to Chester, and night came on before 
he could reach a place of shelter. It was in the depth of 
winter, and the blazed trees were his only guide, there being 
no road. It was therefore imprudent for him to proceed 
farther in the dark, and, aware of the danger of sitting down 
lest he should fall asleep and perish with cold, he adopted the 
only expedient that could save him. He walked backward 
and forward for a short distance the whole night, partaking 
from time to time of some refreshment, which providentially 
he had in his pocket. As soon • as morning came, he fastened 
on his snow-shoes and resumed his journey. He continued 
laboring among this people, proclaiming the Gospel with much 
acceptance. In 1793, he was laboring in Queen's county, when 
he received a call from the church at Chester. He returned 
with the messenger, and a blessing seemed to attend his labors. 
On September 10th, 1793, he was ordained. Mr. Dimock was 
always ready to engage in a good work. Sometimes he met 
with opposition, but that did not daunt him ; he was willing to 
endure hardness in his Master's cause. 

" At one time about a dozen men were sent from a neighbor- 
ing tavern to lay hold on Mr. Dimock and drag him thither. 
When they returned to their comrades without the preacher, 
they were laughed at as cowards, but they replied, ' You could 

"^ not touch him ; there he stood like a child without any resist- 
ance.' Sometimes the people threw stones at him, sometimes 
they went armed, but always missed their aim. The last time 
he was molested in this way was at North- West, three miles 
from tlie town of Lunenburg, and Colonel Creighton, an influ- 
ential gentleman and magistrate in the town, saw that it was 

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his duty to interfere ; accordingly he put a stop to it. Three 
years after Mr. Dimock's settlement in Chester, he went to the 
United States, and landed at Boston, November 21st. He con- 
tinued there about three years, preaching with good acceptance 
among the people. On the 21st of August, 1798, he was 
married, and immediately started for Nova Scotia. He em- 
barked at Salem, October 27th, and that day week landed at 
Liverpool, N.S., the length of the voyage having been occa- 
sioned by an error in the captain's reckoning. They got as 
far as Halifax before they discovered their mistake. After 
spending some time in Liverpool with Christian friends, 
endeavoring to stir them up to duty and zeal in the Master's 
work, Mr. Dimock proceeded to Chester, where he and his wife 
received a hearty welcome. Mr. Dimock always lived in 
Chester, except when on missionary labor or away on business. 
He travelled much in diflFerent parts of the Province, yet was 
pastor of that church until his death, which took place at 
Wilmot. He died at the house of his son-in-law, Mr. George 
Starratt, on the 29th of June, 1846, after a few days' illness. 
This venerable and beloved servant of Christ was in his 
seventy-ninth year. Upwards of fifty years he labored in 
the service of his divine Master in the Christian ministry. It 
might be truly said of him, ' Behold an Israelite, indeed, in 
whom is no guile.' " 

Mr. Dimock's wife was his cousin, Betsy Dimock. 

On Friday, the 3rd day of July, 1846, " from a distance of 
many miles around in every direction, the inhabitants congre- 
gated in eager, solemn groups. They met to pay their last 
tribute of respect to their dearly beloved pastor. Business had 
been largely suspended from the first reception of the startling 

The funeral sermon was preached by Rev. Theodore Harding, 
from Isaiah xxv. 8. 

On the next Sunday, Rev. Mr. Harding took the services in 
the morning, and preached from Hebrews iv. 14. Rev. Anthony 
V. Dimock (son of the deceased) preached in the evening, from 
Revelation iii. 20. The last-named clergyman was bom 

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at Chester, January 2l8t, 1810, educated in Acadia College, 
ordained December 11th, 1831, and sent as missionary to the 
Indians. In 1847, he went to the United States, and served 
churches in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jei-sey, and 
was for many years Secretary of the American and Foreign 
Bible Society. He was referred to in the New York Herald, 
as " a noted Baptist preaxjher of Elizabeth, N.J., and founder of 
Lincoln Division, Sons of Temperance." He died in the latter 
city in March, 1888. 

The following lines were sung at the funeral of Rev. 
Joseph Dimock : 

** The voice at midnight came, 
He started up to hear, 
A mortal arrow pierced his frame, 
He fell, but felt no fear. 

'* Tranquil amid alarms, 

It found him on the field, 
A veteran, slumbering on his arms, 
Beneath his red cross shield." 

His portrait was presented " by friends in Chester " to the 
historical collection in Acadia College. 

Daniel Dimock, Esq., J.P., who was bom in Chester, and 
lived there for many years, was a son of the deceased He died 
in Stonington, U.S. 

Rev. D. W. C. Dimock, of Truro, is also a son of the deceased. 
He was ordained at Chester, December 6th, 1841, his father 
offering the ordaining prayer, and preaching the sermon from 
2 Timothy ii. 1. The right hand of fellowship was given by 
Rev. A. V. Dimock, brother of the candidate, while the latter 
gave the concluding prayer. 

In the same year " the Baptist Association of Nova Scotia 
met at Chester, Lunenburg county. Among the business trans- 
acted was its first contribution to foreign missions. A 
beginning was made, and some interest excited on behalf of the 
heathen. Upwards of $34.60 was sent to the Treasurer of the 

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Auxiliaiy Bible Society, Halifax. This was the commencement, 
of the foreign mission enterprise of the Baptist body in the 
Maritime Pi'ovinces." 

At the same meeting, Revs. Joseph Crandall, and Samuel 
Bancroft were sent to the poor on the east shore of Chester, 
and were to receive five shillings a day each, for three months. 
This was the beginning of the home missionary movement. 

" So deep and intense was the interest taken in educational 
matters by some of the sisters of the Baptist churches of this 
county, that in 1828, besides the delegates sent from Chester 
Church to attend the Association, six sisters walked through the 
woods from Chester to Horton Road, now Wolf ville, to be in 
attendance upon the sessions ; the leader, of whom was 
Elizabeth Roach, afterwards Mrs. Edward Heckman, and nick- 
named " Joshua " because she conducted her sisters on towards 
the promised land. The names of the other five were: 
Catherine Roach (a sister of the first named) Mrs. John Mader 
(then Annie Emino), Regina Lloyd (afterwards Mrs. Philip 
Andrews), Sophia Spidle (afterwards Mrs. Philip Corkum, of 
New Cumberland), and her sister, Elizabeth Spidle, of North- 
West. These sisters were all kindly entertained during their 
stay by the late Judge DeWolfe, an Episcopalian." They 
remained over night with Mrs. Susanna Pulciver, midway 
between Chester and Windsor. 

The new church in Chester was erected in 1872. 

Rev. Dr. James C. Hurd, who was stationed in Chester for 
about three years, died in Burlington, Iowa, December 22nd, 
1879, aged fifty years. " He ranked among the ablest men of his 
denomination, and as a preacher and platform speaker had few 
equals." He was pastor of the First Baptist Church in 
Burlington. In Nova Scotia and abroad he fought well for the 
temperance cause. 

The Sunday School convention of the Baptist Church held 
its first session in Chester, September 15th and 16th, 1890, 
Charles A. Smith, Esq., President. Reports from twenty 
schools were read. 

At a large evening meeting, Miss Hannah Church conducted 

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a " model class," which was highly instructive to all present. 
Addresses were delivered by Rev. C. W. Corey, and Rev. J. S. 

The ministers resident at Chester have been Revs. Joseph 
Dimock, Munroe, George Armstrong, (who had been a teacher 
in the old school-house), Stephen DeBlois, James Spenser, 
Sutherland (a Scotchman), Thomas Crawley, J. C. Hurd, I. J. 
Skinner, John Weeks, J. F. Kempton, George Taylor, Norman 
McNeil, and H. N. Parry. 

Services were conducted by Mr. John Bezanson, of Marriott's 
Cove, in the absence of Mr. Dimock and succeeding ministers. 

Ebenezer Munroe came from Scotland. He was married at 
Chester, afterwards ordained, and became pastor of a church 
at Onslow. He attended an association meeting at Chester, 
and was taken ill and died there. 

Revs. Nutter, and Rees, preached in Chester in early times. 

A church was erected at Blandford in June, 1895. 

Church op England. 

On the arrival of the Rev. Thomas Lloyd, missionary of the 
Society for the Propagation of the* Gospel, a meeting was held 
on September 21st, 1794, to establish a church at Chester. 

" St. Stephen's " church, forty feet long, by thirty broad, was 
erected, in 1795, by "the liberal subscription of friends to 
religion, and to the Church of England as by law established." 
The list of subscribers was headed by His Royal Higlmess 
Prince Edward, father of our gracious Queen, for five guineas. 
Then followed Sir John Wentworth (Lieutenant-Governor), 
Charles, Bishop of Nova Scotia, General Ogilvie, Admiral 
Murray, Admiral Vandeput, Major DesBrisay, Royal Artillery, 
Hon. Captain Cochran, and other officers then serving in the 
garrison at Halifax ; also Hon. John Haliburton, Hon. Charles 
Morris, and others. The liUtheran Church at Lunenburg, Rev. 
Mr. Schmeiser, D. C. Jessen, Esq., and many more subscribed 
liberally ; while the parishioners of Chester gave sums ranging 
from £8. 13s. downwards. 

Jonathan Prescott, and Robert Bethell were appointed the 

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first churchwardens, and Franklin G. Etter, John Stevens, and 
Thomas Thomson were the first vestrymen. 
• The following particulars relative to the lamented death of 
Eev. T. Lloyd, are extracted from the vestry book : 

" The Rev. Thomas Lloyd, missionary from the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel, came to reside in Chester in the 
month of September, 1794. This worthy and respectable mis- 
sionary perished in an attempt to go through the woods from 
Chester to Windsor. Having engaged a young man as a guide 
for the journey, he set out on Tuesday, the 24th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1795, and proceeded about nine miles, when a dreadful 
storm of snow, hail, and rain came on, which continued all the 
day and most part of the night. The next morning about 
eight o'clock, he told his guide to go back to Chester as fast as 
possible and bring him assistance; who, about three in the 
afternoon, reached a house two miles from that place, nearly 
exhausted and quite confused, imagining he was still proceeding 
to Windsor. A message from him to the town caused a party 
to go off" immediately to Mr. Lloyd's relief, who, after extreme 
fatigue, exploring their way all night by the help of a candle, 
found his body frozen as hai'd as a rock, on Thursday morning, 
about fourteen miles from the town. It is supposed that he 
perished about noon the preceding day, as he had travelled but 
s. short distance from the place where the guide had left him. 
His remains were brought back and decently interred, amidst 
the groans and lamentations of the people of the township. 
They were all inconsolable for him, and were persuaded they 
had lost their best guide and director to a future happy life." 

Another account says : " He went off with two others, who 
were determined to accompany him as far as a horse which he 
rode was able to travel. When they had proceeded about nine 
miles they were obliged to part ; but not before the returning 
persons used every effort in their power to persuade him to 
come back." — From a letter dated Chester, March 2nd, 1795. 

Rev. Robert Norris, missionary of the S.P.G., came to Chester 
in July, 1797, and remained until 1801. For some years from 
this date there was no resident clergyman. Mr. George Weidle, 

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by permission of the Bishop, regularly used the church service 
and read a sermon of Bishop Wilson, or Seeker, or Sherlock, in 
the morning ; and in the afternoon (as many of the congrega- 
tion were Germans) one from Eisleus in German. This worthy 
churchman died in 1815, aged 81, having enjoyed for four or 
live yeara before his death the ministrations of the Rev. Chas. 

Chester was formed into a parish, February 9th, 1800. 

From 1801, occasional visits were made by Rev. Mr. Money,, 
and Rev. Thomas Shreve. * 

Rev. Charles Ingles, B.A., was inducted rector, December 13th, 
1812. Captain Ingles, H.M. 17th Regiment, is a son of this 

In September, 1817, Rev. Joseph Wright took charge, and, 
after his removal to Hoi-ton, Rev. James Shreve, B.A., was sent 
as missionary, April Ist, 1822, and inducted April 20th, 1826. 

The last service in the old church was held June 2l8t, 1840, 
and it was taken down next day. The comer-stone of the new 
chui-ch, also " St. Stephen's," was laid on the 25th of June, in 
the same year, and the frame was raised on the 27th of the 
same month. The building cost £1,100. 

Rev. W. Weinbeer, a native of Berlin, was curate to Rev. Dr. 
Shreve, and died in Chester, after a brief ministry, July 13th, 
1845, in the twenty-eighth year of his age, fix)m disease con- 
tracted on a passage of ninety days to Nova Scotia. He was a 
very devout Christian, a learned scholar, and a fine musician, 
and in all the work of his holy office, most devoted. His early- 
death was gi-eatly deplored. 

Rev. Dr. Shreve was chosen Rector of Dartmouth, and was 
succeeded at Chester by his brother. Rev. Charles Jessen Shreve, 
B.A., then Rector of Guysboro' (June 18th, 1854), who was bom 
in Lunenburg (of which pai-ish his father was rector), April 
9th, 1808. He died in Halifax, where he had lived for one 
year, April 5th, 1878, and where his widow and daughter now 
reside. He had been a missionary in charge of Harbor Grace, 
and Carbonear, Newfoundland, and was on the island from 
1833 to 1836. Mr. Shreve and his brother James were very 

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hard-working men, and had extensive and trying fields of labor 
They were good preachers and readers of the chnrch services. 
It was said of Rev. C. J. Shreve, that " he always prayed the 
prayers," and he conducted the services with great seriousness 
and devotion. He used before the sermon, with a slight altera- 
tion, the second last Collect in the Service for the Ordering of 
Priests. His son Selwyn was a very useful member of the 
Church, and, as licensed lay reader, did good work at the 
North- West Arm, Halifax, and elsewhere. A commemorative 
tablet has been erected in the church at the Arm. Another 
son, Thomas C. Shreve, Esq., is Mayor of Digby. 

Rev. John Manning was appointed vicar at Easter, 1875, and 
resigned April, 1877. 

Rev. Andrew Merkel was then elected vicar, with right of 
succession to rectorship. 

Rev. C. J. Shreve resigned May 2nd, 1877, and Mr. Merkel 
was inducted rector. 

Rev. George H. Butler, M.A., took charge June, 1880, was 
inducted July, 1884, and resigned December 31st, 1890. 

Rev. Theodore Wood Clift, a native of St. John's, Newfound- 
land, took charge of the parish, June, 1891, and was inducted 
rector, February 18th, 1892. He had been incumbent at 
Carbonear, Newfoundland. 

Rev. Samuel J. Andrews, of Heart's Content, Newfoundland, 
was in charge during the temporary absence of the rector, 
from November 15th, 1894, to Easter, 1895. 

On the 2nd of July, 1895, Rev. Edward H. Ball, of Tangier, 
was elected rector. Rev. Mr. Clift having resigned in conse- 
quence of his wife's illness requiring residence in a warmer 
climate. They were very much beloved. 

The bell which was placed in the first St. Stephen's Church, 
at Chester, was cast in France, A.D. 1700, and iLsed in 
an ancient monastery. It bore a long Latin inscription, and 
the outer rim was encircled with a wreath of flowers finely 
wrought. A larger bell having been obtained for the new 
church, the old bell was used for a fog alarm on board a fishing 
schooner on the banks of Newfoundland. 

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It was again on shore at Chester, where it rang in the New 
Year, and sometimes gave greetings to a newly-married couple. 
The sleepy watch were often called by it on a gallant ship, to 
which it had been transferred, the Peerlesa, Captain J. M. Allen, 
and of which Captain E. D. Lordly, now residing at Chester, 
was for three years a chief officer. After leaving this vessel. 
Captain Lordly did not see the bell again for fifteen years, 
when it was still hanging at the pawl-post in the same old ship, 
then a coal hulk in Valparaiso. 

St. Mark's Church, Western Shore, was erected in 1878 : St. 
James' Church, Chester Basin, in 1883, and St. Georges 
Church, Indian Point, in 1889. 

Rev. Henry Stamer was rector of Hubbard's Cove for over 
thirty years. Fox Point and Mill Cove, in Lunenburg county, 
were in his mission. He was a faithful, hard-working clei^- 
man. His widow is a daughter of the late Colonel Poyntz, of 
Windsor, to which town Mr. Stamer retired when he became 
incapacitated for work, and where he died, in December, 1894. 
On the 7th of that month his body was taken to Hubbard's 
Cove, and inteiTed, in accordance with his own desire, in the 
cemetery by the parish church in which he had so long minis- 
tered, in the presence of a large assemblage of mourners, who 
well remembered how for so many years he had broken to them 
the Bread of Life. 

Rev. Mr. Stamer has been succeeded in the rectorship by 
Rev. J. W. Norwood. 

Rev. Thomas H. White, D.D., in his ninetieth year, and the 
oldest Church of England clergyman in Canada, still doing duty 
at Shelbume, with Rev. W. S. H. Morris as his vicar, worked 
in St. Stephen's Parish, Chester, for some months in 1829. Dr. 
White is a delightful old gentleman, and his memory is stored 
with reminiscences of early days, which he tells to his visitors 
in the most interesting manner. He was always considered a 
superior reader and preacher, and the clearness of his voice, 
even in his advanced age, adds to the impressiveness of his 
delivery. It is a privilege to hear him. 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 291 

Roman Catholic. 

A subscription list for the erection of a Roman Catholic church 
in Chester, was commenced in 1844, and was headed by William 
O'Brien, sen., for £7. 10s. The contributions were very liberal. 
The Rev. Edmond Doyle, of Kilkenny, Ireland, was then the 
priest officiating in the county. Archbishop Walsh, who gave 
generously to the fund, was present at a meeting of the congre- 
gation held in the church (8t. Augustine's) on September 7th, 
1846. He made an entry in the church register, of which the 
fpUowing is a copy : " I was informed, on making inquiry, that 
Mr. Michael Schmitz contributed a very lai-ge amount towards 
the erection of the church. I regret that I cannot state the 
precise sum, as he never wished to make it known, but I deem 
it an act of justice to him to record the fact here." The church 
was completed and consecrated by the name " St. Augustine's." 

Rev. Father Lyons, and other priests visited Chester from 
time to time. Those who have resided there were Revs. Holden, 
Danaher, Walsh, Lovejoy, McCarty, and Kennedy. 

Rev. Edward J. McCarty, who is most kindly remembered in 
the county, came to Chester in 1877, and remained six years. 
He was bom in Halifax in 1850, and was educated at St. Mary's 
College there, and St. Sulpice Seminary, Montreal. Previous to 
his appointment here he had been assistant priest at Kentville. 
His mission, while in this county, embraced parts of King's and 
Annapolis counties. He was transferred to Yarmouth in 1883. 

A Methodist church was erected in Chester in 1881, and a 
Lutheran church in the following year. 

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Biographical notices of persons who have lived at Chester. 

ALEXANDER PATTILLO settled in Chester in 1783. He 
married the widow Bartlett, whose maiden name was 
Roberts, of Livei-pool, N.S. He was tall, stout, and very mus- 
cular and powerful. Lime-burning engaged his attention, and 
he was owner of a vessel. At that time there was no road 
between Chester and Windsor — only a foot path. He stai-ted 
on one occasion, with his horse, to go to Windsor, and was lost 
in the woods. On the ninth day his horse was tired out, and 
he took off the saddle and bridle, and hung them on the limb of 
a white birch tree, on the west side of Nine-Mile Lake, distant 
from Chester about eleven miles. He then left the horse and 
proceeded as best he could without him. After being in the 
woods for nineteen days he was discovered by Indians, near 
La Have River. He said if he had not found some birds' eggs 
and berries, he nmst have died of hunger. He was badly bitten 
by flies, and it was some time before his face healed. 

In the summer of 1822, two sons of Lot Church, while in the 
woods searching for cattle, picked up the stirrups and other 
parts of the saddle, and the bit, which were on the ground near 
the tree above mentioned. 

Mr. Pattillo was a Scotchman, a native of Aberdeen. He 
died at Chester, December 31st, 1833, aged ninety years, and 
was interred in the burial-ground of St. Stephen's Church. 

Captain James Pattillo, bom in Chester, died in North 
Stoughton, U.S., in 1887, aged eighty years. He is said to have 
been the first man who placed a platform over the ballast of a 
fishing schooner. He was described as " stalwart, brave, gener- 
ous, and true, and the grasp of his hand might almost crush the 
handle of an oar. One of the most successful fishermen of his 

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Captain Pattillo was a man of great size and strength. One 
who knew him well, a gentleman now residing in New York, 
and who believes he was one of the stronger men ever bom on 
this continent, says that he was one day standing on Miteheirs 
wharf in Chester, and saw Pattillo lift several barrels of pickled 
fish by the chimes, from the hold of his vessel to the deck, and 
support one of the barrels on one of his broad shoulders, and 
then lift it backwards over his head, and lay it on his neck and 
shoulders. Having had them properly placed, he carried a 
barrel of the fish on each shoulder into Mitchell's store. 

George Bethune Mitchell, one of the principal business men of 
Chester, was a native of Londonderry, Ireland. He was ap- 
pointed a Justice of the Peace, which office he held for many 
years. His death took place on the 3rd September, 1855, at the 
age of seventy years, after a life in which " the strictest integ- 
rity and the most active benevolence endeared him to the 
community." Mrs. Mitchell and several children occupied the 
old homestead for many years. The former died July 6th, 
1877, aged seventy-six years. 

Michael SchviitZj also a merchant in Chester, was bom in 
Germany, November 11th, 1787, and became a resident of the 
former place in 1817, where " unobtrusive and retiring, fearing 
God and assisting mankind, he lived universally respected, and 
was lamented in the end." He died June 11th, 1848. His 
widow, Mary M. Schmitz, died September 18th, 1857, aged 
sixty-two years. 

Anthony Thickpenny was bom in England, and had been a 
British officer. He was a great lover of fun, generous and oflF- 
handed. The house now owned and occupied by James E. 
Whitford, Esq., was built by him. He used to read the service 
of the Church in the absence of the clergyman. When Chester 
was visited by privateers, he buried his money under an old 
stump, near what is now the residence of Mrs. Timothy Gorman. 

Thomas Tliomson died February 14th, 1821, in his eighty- 
third year. He had been a Bombardier in the Artillery, and 
was always fond of military display. He lived near Chester, 
and used to ride in on his white horse "Cato," on His Majesty's 

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birthday (when a grand salute was fired), and when annual 
militia drill took place. 

David Evans was bom in Swansea, Wales, and came to 
Chester in 1805. He had served in the British navy, and was 
on board the BeUerophon (called, also, by the sailors, " Ball of 
spun yam "), Captain Thomson, at the battle of the Nile ; was 
also at Copenhagen, and Trafalgar, and styled himself " one of 
Nelson's bull-dogs." He was with the 

• ** Stout veterans who battled and bled 

Where Nelson expired, and where CoUingwood led." 

Mr. Evans was accustomed for many years to go from 
Chester to Dover, in the County of Halifax, fishing, in an open, 
flat-bottomed boat about fifteen feet long. The year before his 
decease he went alone in his boat as usual, and, when the fish- 
ing season was over, returned in the same way. He died in 
Chester (where his son William now resides), in 1864, aged 
eighty-seven years. 

Franklin 0. Etter, formerly a resident of Chester, was a 
Loyalist. He had been a glass manufacturer in Massachusetts, 
and subsequently a lieutenant in the British army. On his 
arrival at Chester he was appointed a Justice of the Peace, and 
was esteemed a most useful and worthy man. One of his eight 
daughters was Mrs. Amos Lovett, of the well-known Chester 

Thomas Belcher DesBrisay, At.D,, son of Captain and 
Adjutant Thomas DesBrisay, Royal Artillery, and grandson of 
lieut-General DesBrisay, at one time Commandant at Halifax, 
practised his profession for some years at Chester, and in 1832, 
removed thence to Dartmouth, of which parish his brother, 
Rev. Mather Byles DesBrisay, M.A. (King's), was rector, where 
he continued to practise until his decease in 1869. In Dart- 
mouth, as in Chester, he was highly esteemed. He proved 
himself, both in his profession, and outside of it, the good 
Samaritan to the poor and the suffering, and died deeply 

Captain Samuel Gowan, one of the most worthy inhabitants 

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of Chester, perished, with all his crew, in the schooner Sophia, 
off Cape Sable, N.S., in the great gale of October, 1871. 
Wallace Geldert, and Israel Moser, of Bridgewater, were among 
the crew. 

Charles Lot Church was the son of Charles Church, and was 
bom on Rhode Island (then a British colony), March 13th, 1777, 
and went with the Loyalists to Shelburne, in 1783, from whence 
he removed to Dover, County of Halifax, and subsequently to 
Chester, where he married Hannah Millett, granddaughter of 
Timothy Houghton, the first person named in the Chester 
grant, and settled on the Windsor road, ten miles and a half 
from Chester, which distance he was ten hours in travelling 
with his family, the road being then scarcely cut out. He 
inherited the loyalty of his father, who refused to take up 
arms against his King, though much persuaded so to do — 
having been offered a commission first in the land, and then in 
the naval service of those opposing the Government. When 
afterwards asked to send to Halifax his claim for losses, he 
replied that he could not " add to the loss the British Govern- 
ment had already sustained." Mr. Church was elected, in 
1820, a member of the House of Assembly, and travelled 
through ten counties that he might make himself moi*e fully 
acquainted with the wants of the people. He had excellent 
natural abilities, and being a great reader and very observing, 
he became a most useful public man, and was re-elected to 
Parliament. His conduct in the , Legislature on several public 
questions was considered very patriotic, and he was highly 
applauded by the people without reference to party. "As 
honest as Lot Church," passed into a proverb. In 1824, he was 
received at Windsor with great applause, and a public dinner 
was given in his honor. 

Mr. Church, in a memorial to His Majesty George IV., asked 
that the quit rents which, owing to the poverty of the people, 
had largely accumulated, and which pressed heavily upon their 
industry, might be remitted. 

He died April 14th, 1864, in his eighty-eighth year. His 
family numbered five sons and eight daughters. 

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Miu Churcli died within ten months of his decease, aged 
eighty-two years. 

The last surviving son, Charles L. A. Church, Esq., died in 
Chester, December 22nd, 1889, in his eighty-fifth year. He 
was the father of Hon. C. E. Church, Commissioner of Public 
Works and Mines. 

One of the earliest settlers in the district where Lot Church 
lived, was John Hutchinson, a native of old England, some of 
whose descendants still- reside on the road l)etween New Ross 
and Windsor. He went into what was then a wilderness. For 
several years, in common with other settlers, he had to carry 
all his provisions home from market on his back. He was over 
six feet in height, stout in propoi-tion, and uncommonly strong. 
Once he was attiucted by a noise among his sheep, and seeing 
a lai'ge bear about to destroy one, he ran to his house, seized an 
old Queen Anne musket, and killed the bear with a few blows 
from the butt end. He was a great moose hunter, and used to 
describe graphically his journeyings in the forest. 

William A, Kearney, M,D., was bom in Waterford, Ireland, 
came to this country in 1831, and took up his residence at Guys- 
boro\ He soon decided to return home, but was ad\ased by 
the late Garrett Miller, Esq., to remove to this county, and 
practised at Chester for seven years. He was married in 
Halifax to Lucy, daughter of John Creighton, Esq., who now 
resides at Chester with her daughter. Dr. Kearney died there 
suddeidy in 1 840 from a severe cold, which he took on a visit 
to Tancook. 

James S. Wells, Esq,, was bom in Comwallis in 1789, and 
was sent to school in London, G.B. At sixteen years of age, 
he entered the Royal Navy as captain's clerk, and was made 
purser two years afterwards. He was below the age required, 
but his heavy whiskers made him appear older, and he was 
entered as having attained twenty-one years. Mr. Wells served 
in several ships, the last one being the Centurion, which was 
the receiving ship at Halifax when the Shannon- arrived with 
the Chesapeake. Captain Ross and Quartermaster Kiens, with 
whom he was intimate, persuaded him to reside in Sherbrooke, 

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now New Ross. He removed thence to Chester in 1830, where 
he was a Justice of the Peace, and filled several other public 
offices, and where he died May 10th, 1846, in his fifty-seventh 
year, from a severe fall among rocks, caused by a runaway 
horse. His son, James S. Wells, resides in New York. Two of 
his daughters live in King's county, and one in London, G.B. 

Charles W, HiLtz, M.D., son of the late John F. Hiltz, Esq., 
practised his profession in Chester for some years. He had 
beeil formerly engaged as a teacher, and succeeded Mr. Lawson 
in the office of Inspector of Schools. He died in Chester, 
January 31st, 1882, much regretted. His ability was admitted 
both as teacher and doctor. 

Mr. John Stanford was bom at Maidstone, Kent, England, 
and came to Nova Scotia about 1840, and to Chester in 1845, 
where in the latter year he established a tanyard near the town. 
He married Mary Jane, daughter of the late Alexander Lynch, 
and built a neat residence not far from the pretty lake known 
since as Stanford's Lake. The family included six boys and 
five girls. Two of the former and one of the latter still live 
with their mother at the old homestead. Another daughter 
(Annie) is the efficient postmistress at Chester. 

Mr. Stanford had also a grist mill and carding mill. He was 
a very busy and enterprising man, and the goods manufactured 
by him were much sought after, owing to their superior quality. 
His death occurred June 30th, 1883, in his seventy-third year. 

The two following notices are from local papers of 1887 : 

" The death is reported of Thomas Whitford, of Chester, 
which occurred at his home on Saturday, May 28th, at the ripe 
age of eighty-nine years. Mr. Whitford was bom at Chester, 
in March, 1798. Until a few weeks since he enjoyed compara- 
tively good health, and for more than half a century was 
remarkable for his robust form and fine physique. He leaves 
a widow, five sons, thirty-three grandchildren, eleven great- 
grandchildren, and a very large circle of friends to mourn 
their losa" He was a man of great hospitality, and his house 
was always open to the people from the country around, and to 
the stranger. The large farm which he cleared and improved 
is occupied by his son, James E. Whitford, Esq. ^ i 



"Died. — At Chester, December 7th, Mrs. G. Corbiny aged 
ninety-one years and six months. Charitable and kind-hearted 
to the sick, generous to a fault, she now reaps the reward of a 
spotless, well-spent life. With lips sealed with perpetual silence, 
she sleeps beneath the shadow of the very sanctuary where for 
yeai-s she knelt and adored her God." 

Charlea Lordly, Esq., was bom in Chester. He removed to 
Terence Bay, County of Halifax, and lived there for some yeara 
He was largely instrumental in the erection of the church, and 
aided in other improvements. In Chester he was a public- 
spirited citizen, kind-heai-ted, and always ready to assist in 
matters affecting the general welfare. He was a Justice of the 
Peace, and Clerk of the Municipal Council. For several years 
he owned, and had a number of men employed in, a limestone 
(juarry at Indian Point. Mr. Lordly died in Chester, September 
11th, 1889, aged sixty-nine years. One of his daughters 
(Lillian), now at Bi-ownsville, California, is a bright writer of 
poetry and prose. Some of her sketches appeared in the Halifax 

Sever in W, Wielobycki, M.D., was bom in the Province of 
Volbynia, Poland, January 8th, 1793. " After his university 
career he fought for Polish independence in thirty-six battles, 
often sleeping with his horse in the open when the snow was on 
the ground. When Russia, Prussia, and Austria divided Poland 
amongst them, lie was allowed to choose between going to 
America or Great Britain." He passed through ten years of 
gi-eat privations in Edinburgh, where he graduated in medicine, 
and decided to pi-actise in Nova Scotia. He came to C'hester 
about 1842, after the death of Dr. Kearney, and remained for 
some years. Much of his travelling was done in the saddle, and 
he is remembered as a very expert horseman, and skilful in his 
profession. He spent the latter part of his life in London, where 
he died September 7th, 1898, aged one hundred years and eight 
months. He attributed his great age to "No alcohol, no 
tobacco, and very little animal food." His centenary was cele- 
brated in the rooms of the Medical Society, London, January 
10th, 1893. Dr. Norman Kerr presided, and among the many 

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(listinfTuished pei-sons present were Canons Duckworth, and 
Leigh, Dr. Dawson Bums, Lady Henry Somerset, and Miss 
Willard. Congratulatory messages were received fi-om Lady 
Frederick Cavendish, Dr. B. W. Richardson, the Bishop of 
Marlborough, and a host of others. 

The Rev. Fi^derick J. Tomkins,M.A.,D.C.L.,of London, G.B., 
now a prominent member of the English Bar, referred to Dr. 
Wielobycki, as " this distinguished and very remarkable man," 
in a letter dated Halifax, October 2nd, 1893, and added : " He 
was a patriot, a man of rare ability as a physician, a devoted 
advocate of the temperance cause, and a sincere Christian. 
Some years ago I was with him at a meeting in the town of 
Gravesend, and his genial countenance, his wholesome look and 
the healthy bloom upon his cheek gave evidence that temper- 
ance and strict observance of the laws of diet are indeed next to 
godliness. He lived, I am happy to say, in comfort. I have a 
grateful remembittnce of this kind man s hospitality. The late 
John Creighton, Esq., Q.C.,of Lunenburg, was his trusted friend, 
and I was the bearer to London of the proceeds of the fidelity 
of our departed friend's integrity. Allow me to place a garland 
on the tombs of these two old friends, whom I expect to meet 
beyond the cold obstruction of the grave." 

John Butter, father of Mr. Edward Butler, was bom in 
Halifax, January 20th, 1795, came to Chester about 1820, and 
was in business there for over fifty years. He died September 
15th, 1876, in his eighty-second year. Mr. Butler was of a 
quiet, retiring nature, a good citizen, honorable and just in his 
dealings, and highly esteemed. 

WUlifim Henry Robinsony a native of Chester, was there 
engaged as a general dealer for twenty-five years. By close 
attention to his business, which extended over a large field, he 
made it a profitable one. He died January 20th, 1882, aged 
fifty-six years. Mr. Robinson was one of the sons of Wm. H. 
Robinson, Esq., a man of excellent character, who lived at the 
junction of the Lunenburg and Windsor roads, and was for many 
years a Justice of the Peace, and a Commissioner of Schools. 

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Islands in Chester Bay, and incidents connected with the same, including 
searches made for " Kidd's treasure *' at Oak Island. 

MAHONE BAY, as laid down on the chart, includes the 
water to the shore of the Blandford Peninsula, but 
that part of it which is in the vicinity of Chester is called 
Chester Bay, and is celebrated for the number and beauty 

of its 

** Fairy crowds 
Of islands, which together lie, 
As quietly as spots of sky 

Among the evening clouds." 

Many of them are inhabited and well cultivated. Islands 
between " La Heve " and " Sesambre " were called by Cham- 
plain, '* The MartjTs," on account of Frenchmen killed there 
by Indians. He also wrote : " The islands and shores are full 
of pines, firs, birches, and other inferior timber. The catch of 
fish there is abundant, and so is the quantity of birds." 

The names of some of the Chester islands are : Green, The 
Tancooks (2), Iron-bound, Big and Little Duck, Anshutz, Mark, 
Lynch, Mountain, Saddle, Snake, Greaves, Big and Little Fish, 
Gooseberry (2), Clay, Birch, Grassy, Oak, Frog, Apple, Sand 
islands. Star, Mason's, Rafuse, Barkhouse, Flat, Calf, Quaker, 
Meisinger s, Hume's, and Borgald's. A few of these will be 
referred to more at length. 

Among the islands, none is more widely known than Oak 
Island, four miles from Chester, so called from the beautiful 
oak trees, some of which remain. 

It has become famous for the searches from time to time 
made for treasure supposed to have been buried by the noted 
pirate. Captain Kidd. The first settlers were John McMullen, 

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and Daniel Mclnnis, father of Mrs. Thomas Whitford, of 
Chester. One of the early residents was Samuel Ball, a 
colored man, who came from South Carolina, where he had 
been a slave to a master whose name he adopted. His wife 
had been a domestic in the house of Treasurer Wallace, at 
Halifax. Their union is thus recorded in his family Bible : 
" Samuel Ball and Mary Ball was married, 1795." The farm 
of thirty-six acres, on which he lived and which he cleared, is 
now occupied by Mr. Isaac Butler, who resided with him. 
Silhouettes of Mrs. Ball and others are seen in one of the rooms 
of the house built by Mr. Ball. He died there, December 14th, 
1845, aged eighty-one years. He was known as " a good man." 
The other occupants of the island are James Mclnnis, and Enos 

The pits hereinafter referred to were dug on the farm for- 
merly owned by John Smith, who was bom in Boston, Mass., 
August 20th, 1775, and died on the island, after a residence 
there of seventy-one years, on the 29th of September, 1857. 
He brought up his children very respectably. His daughter 
Mary lived in the family to which the writer belongs for 
sixteen years, and he takes pleasure in here mentioning her 
name, remembering with gratitude her faithful attention in the 
days of his childhood, at Chester, and afterwards at Dartmouth. 

Several accounts have been given to the writer of work from 
time to time done on the island, and some of it he has himself 
witnessed. The leading facts are embodied in the following 
condensed statement from lengthy papers published December 
20th, 1863, and subsequently, by a member of the " Oak Island 
Association," who said that more than a century before, an old 
man died in what was then known as the British Colony of 
New England, who on his death-bed confessed to having been 
one of the crew of the famous Captain Kidd, and assured those 
who attended him in his last moments that he had many years 
previously assisted that noted pirate and his followers in bury- 
ing over two millions of money beneath the soil of a secluded 
island east of Boston. This news having been widely spread, 
many searches were made, but all in vain. 

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Three men — Smith, Mclnnis (grandfather of James Mclnnis) 
and Vaund (should be Vaughan) — emigrated from New Enfr- 
land to Chester. Smith, and Mclnnis took up land on Oak Island, 
and Vaughan settled on the adjacent mainland. Mclnnis one 
day discovered a spot that gave evidence of having been visited 
by some one a good many years earlier. There had been cuttings 
away of the forest, and oak stumps were visible. One of the 
original oaks was standing, with a large forked branch extend- 
ing over the old clearing. To the forked part of this branch, 
by means of a treenail connecting the fork in a small triangle, 
was attached an old tackle block. Mclnnis made known 
his find to his neighbors. Next day the three visited the place, 
and on taking the block from the tree it fell to the ground and 
went to pieces. They found the remains of a road ivom the 
tree to the western shore of the island, and they concluded that 
if Kidd had buried money it was probably hei'e. The ground 
over which the block had been had settled and formed a hol- 
low. They cleared away the young trees, and removed the 
surface soil for about two feet, when they struck a tier of flag- 
stones, which they found differed from the island stones, and 
concluded they had been brought from the vicinity of Gold 
River. On removing these, they saw they were entering 
an old pit that had been filled up. The mouth was seven 
feet in diameter, and the sides were of tough, hard clay ; but 
the earth which had been used in filling was loose, and easy 
to be removed. Ten feet lower was a tier of oak logs, tightly 
attached to the sides, and the earth below them had settled 
nearly two feet. The logs were very much decayed on the 
outside. Removing these, they went fifteen feet farther down. 
To get below this they required help, but none seemed willing 
to assist. 

About fifteen years afterwaixis, Simeon Lynds, of Onslow, 
visited Chester, and saw Vaughan, to whom his father was 
related, and the next day they went to the place, and, as a 
result, he and many of his friends, with tools and provisions, 
came to the island, and were joined by Smith, Mclnnis and 
Vaughan. The pit was found to have caved in, and mud had 

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settled at the bottom. On taking this away they came to the 
three sticks which had been put in the mud by the three first 
men on leaving off work. They went on, and struck a second 
tier of logs like those first found. Ten feet lower they came 
to charcoal, ten feet below it to putty, and farther down to a 
flag-stone about two feet long and one foot wide, with rudely 
cut letters and figures which they could not decipher. The 
engraved side was downwards. 

On reaching a depth of ninety feet, the earth in the centre 
became softened, and water began to show itself. At ninety- 
three feet, it increased, and they took out one tub of water to 
two of earth. Night coming on, they, as usual, probed the 
bottom with a crowbar, to see if they could strike anything. 
At the depth of ninety-eight feet, five feet below where the 
bar entered, they met a hard impenetrable substance, bound 
by the sides of the pit. They expected the mystery to be 
solved in the morning, but on returning, they found sixty feet 
of water, and their bailing buckets failed to lessen the depth. 
They discontinued the work, and sent a committee to Mr. Mosher, 
of Newport, considered the best man for such purpose in the 
Province, to provide a way for removing the water. He pre- 
pared a pump, at a cost of £80, and it was lowered to 
the depth of ninety feet, but before the water reached the 
surface it burst. Robert Archibald, Esq., uncle to the late 
Master of the Rolls, then had charge. In the following spring, 
a new shaft was sunk to the depth of 110 feet, and water then 
came in imtil it was sixty-five deep. 

In 1 848, work was resumed, the old pit was reopened, and 
twelve days afterwards, the men were down eighty-six feet. 
On a certain Saturday evening, everything was so far satis- 
factory, but on returning from morning service at Chester, on 
the following day, there was sixty feet of water in the pit, and 
level with that in the bay. A great deal of additional work 
was done. The water rose in a new pit to the same height as 
that in the old one. 

In 1861, a new shaft was made ; but the men were driven 
out by the coming in of water and mud. 

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In 1863, further work was performed; but it was found 
impossible to keep out the water. 

The work was afterwanls carried on by Halifax members of 
the company, under special a^rreement with the Asvsociation. A 
new shaft was sunk, and there was confidence in ultimate 
success ; but no discovery of treasure was made. 

The writer above referred to stated that he was for fifteen 
years a member of the " Oak Island Association," occasion- 
ally actively engaged at the works on the island, and thus 
gained information which enable<l him to write with confidence 
on the subject. From all he saw, with what he believed in the 
experience of others, he had no doubt that the " money pit," 
and the drains on the island, were purely works of art, con- 
Htructed at a very early period in the history of the country ; 
but for what pui-pose he could not say, and as to whether 
Kidd's buried treasure lies at the bottom of the " money pit," or 
whether, as more believe, it does not, he did not feel it safe to 
offer an opinion. 

Sixty men and thirty horses have been at one time engaged 
on Oak Island. 

Many years ago, a day was named when all who should visit 
the island would see Kidd's treasure brought to the surface. 
Schooner and boat loads of people gathered f ix>m all directions. 

An old German, looking at the work, said, " the deeper they 
dig, the deeper it sinks." ' 

Pai-ties from abroad have continued the search at intervals, 
and as recently as 1892 and 1893 new pits were dug. Those 
who were employed in one of them were told that the ground 
would cave in, but they were not inclined to believe it. They 
soon had an indication of the tiiith, and had been out only 
about five minutes, when several cai-t-loads fell in. This ended 
the attempt then made, and the party left the island. Another 
pit was afterwanls dug, but not to any great depth. Tliese 
latter workings, with others, are said to have been prompted 
by the dreams of a man in an eastern coimty, to whom certain 
spirits appeared, by whom he was taken to the island, and 
shown the long-coveted deposits of gold and silver. 

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Some of the most advanced counties in the Province have 
furnished many of the stockholders in the companies from time 
to time formed to prosecute the search, and notwithstanding the 
repeated failures, men of much intelligence express their belief 
that success will yet be achieved. 

Henry S. Poole, Esq., who in 1861 was visiting different locali- 
ties on behalf of the Government, wrote in his report : " I crossed 
to Oak Island and observed slate all the way along the main 
shore, but I could not see any rock in nitu on the island. I 
went to the spot where people have been engaged for so many 
years searching for the supposed hidden treasure of Captain 
Kidd. I found the original shaft had caved in, and two others 
had been sunk alongside. One was open and said to be 120 feet 
deep, and in all that depth no ixxsk had been struck. The exca- 
vated matter alongside was composed of sand and boulder rocks, 
and though the pit was some two hundred yards from the shore, 
the water in the shaft (which I measured to be within thirty- 
eight feet of the top) rose and fell with the tide, showing a free 
communication between the sea and the shaft." 

There are many who know all about Oak Island and the 
searches made there for Kidd's treasure, who have little know- 
ledge as to what he really was and did. It is deemed right to 
intixxiuce here, especially as of interest to people in this county, 
some information on these points. Perhaps it may help to a 
decision as to the probability or otherwise of his having been 
in this vicinity, or of having buried any of his spoils on this 

Kidd was sent out in the Adventure, a galley of 287 tons, 
against vessels which had not only attacked the French, but the 
English as well. He left Plymoutli, G.B., April, 1696, and 
reached the American coast in July. He entered New York 
harbor from time to time, and the Assembly gave him £250 
sterling. He sailed for the East Indies, and on the way resolved 
to become a pirate, and on anival off the Malabar coast, he 
bumed settlements, and captured ships, selling one, the Que- 
dagh, with her cargo, for $40,000. He exchanged for a larger 
ve.ssel, and robbed whatever ships he met. In 1698, he arrived 

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at New York with a large amount of spoil, much of which he 
buried on Gardiner's Island, at the east end of Long Island, 
dividing the rest among his crew. He was aiTested by oixler 
of Bellamont, Governor of Massachusetts, and sent to England, 
where he was tried for the murder of a gunner, whom he killed 
with a heavy iron-hooped bucket. There were six indictments 
against him. He was convicted, and hung in chains at Execu- 
tion Dock, on May 12th, 1701. 

Searchers sent by Bellamont to Gardiner's Island discovered 
a box containing 738 ounces of gold, 847 ounces of silver, 1 bag 
of silver rings, 1 bag of unpolished stones, and a quantity of 
agates, amethysts, and silver buttons. 

All the property found as above, with that on the person of 
Kidd, and in his ship, the San Antonio, was in value $56,000. 

This find induced the belief that other deposits must have 
been made, and repeated searches have been set on foot, but so 
far in vain, on the coasts of New York and Massachusetts. 

The " Gold Bug," written by Edgar A. Poe, has reference to 
the buried ti^easure of Kidd. 

The late Professor de Mille used the early incidents con- 
nected with Oak Island, as the foundation of his novel, " Old 

Green Island. 

'* No whirl of worldly tumult here is known, 
Hither, across the wave, the ocean bii*d 
Flies homeward and alone." 

This island is distant fi'om Chester about sixteen miles, and 
lies from the north-east point of Big Tancook, six and a half 
marine miles. It measures from north to south, 103J rods, and 
its greatest width is 47 rods and 15 links. The highest part is 
about forty-three feet above high water, and the height at the 
lighthouse a little more than twenty -three feet. 

The writer had long wished to visit this outlying lonely isle. 
On the 15th of June, 1876, he met at Chester, Walter Pearl, a 
worthy old resident of Big Tancook, who kindly offered to take 
him there. We sailed to Tancook that afternoon, and leaving 

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the next morning at six o'clock, rowed three miles to Blandford, 
from whence, after a brief delay, we pursued our voyage to 
Iron-bound Island, where we dined in the lighthouse on simdry 
substantial, among them a massive " plum-duff," prepared by 
Mrs. Yormg, the keeper s good wife. Thus refreshed, we went 
on towards Green Island, sailing and rowing alternately. On 
reaching our destination, gi-eat care had to be taken to avoid 
being upset, as there was a run, or race ; that is, " a strong ripple, 
a tossing, breaking sea, when there is anything of a swell on." 
Mr. Pearl stood facing the bow, and watching his chance when 
the waves were nearly spent, had to be quick with his oars. A 
long-handled hook, held on shore by his son Albert, the light- 
keeper, helped to steady the boat and give us a dry landing. 
We were very fortunate, as visitors have been obliged to return 
after repeated attempts to get on shore. 

The island comprises about thirty acres in all, and is destitute 
of trees or shnibs, twenty -five and a half acres being covered 
with very short grass and sorrel. Under the grass there is a 
brown turf, from six to eighteen inches deep. Beneath the turf 
there is about an inch of whitish clay, over hard rock, chiefly 
slate. The turf is almost completely honey-combed, even close 
to the lighthouse, with the holes or resting-places of " Mother 
Carey's chickens " (stormy petrel), of which there are countless 
numbers. Their noise is distinctly heard in walking over the 
island, and they sometimes fly out as the disturber approaches. 
They generally remain in the holes during the day, leaving them 
at dusk, when they seem to fill all the surrounding space. Their 
size is nearly that of a robin; color, blackish, marked with white 
<;lose to the tail. They live chiefly on squid, shrimps and other 
fish found on the shore. Attracted by the light, they often fly 
against the lantern, as the writer heard, while resting under 
it for the night. 

''The sea-bird wheeling round it with a din 
Of wings, and winds, and solitary cries, 
Blinded and maddened by the light within, 
Dashes himself against the glare and dies." 

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A large Newfoundland dog, owned by the keeper, maintained 
himself in good condition by scratching out and devouring the 
occupants of the holes referred to. These birds visit the island 
about the 15th of April, and leave about the middle of 
October. They come and go gradually, taking in all about two 
week^ The strong smell they cause is plainly perceived some 
time before the island is reached. The keeper said that this 
and the loneliness of his position were affecting his health. 

Haliburton says, that on the American coast these birds are 
called Mother Carey s chickens, after a celebrated New England 
witch of that name ; and they are said to have derived their 
designation of " petrels " from St. Peter, on account of their 
singular habit of running upon the water. 

Pennant relates, that the inhabitants of the Feroe Islands 
make them serve the purpose of a ca-ndle, by drawing a wick 
through their mouth ctnd body; which being lighted, the flame 
is fed by the fat and oil of the body. 

A writer describing the Washington Museum says: " You 
will see the little bird with the wick pulled thi-ough his fat 
body, serving as the luminary of some arctic igloo." 

One of these birds, nicely mounted, and some eggs, were 
kindly sent to the writer by the keeper, Mr. Pearl. 

Thei-e is only about seventy feet of gravelly beach on the 
island, the sea being elsewhere met by rocky cliffs. Table- 
shaped masses of slate perfectly smooth extend in a gradual 
ascent for about two hundred feet from the shore, and are fifty 
feet or more across, separated by narrow fissures, at the bottoms 
of which are veins of quartz, of about the same width as most 
of those at the Ovens, and about four inches apart. On the 
shore below these slates are others of great thickness, in a level 
position, grooved by the combined action of sea and storm. 
Only two pieces, or boulders, are seen — one at the south-west 
landing, and one farther southward. 

The Dominion Government erected a lighthouse on the island 
in 1873, at a cost of about $1,800, with $1,600 additional for 
illuminating apparatus and oil tanks. The lantern is ten feet 
in diameter, having twelve squares of glass. The light is said 
to have been seen from Sarabro — twenty-four miles^y 

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• Seven coast lights are in sight from the balcony. On a clear 
day the spire of the old Methodist church at Lunenburg could 
be plainly seen. 

It was of course necessary to provide the inhabitants of the 
island, Albert Pearl, wife and seven children, with pure water. 
That which was found at a depth of three feet was of a reddish 
color and brackish taste. To secure a good article, the Govern- 
ment built a brick tank, covered with hydraulic cement, and 
holding one thousand gallons. This tank received the rain 
water from the roofs of the buildings, and it was filtered by 
two iron sieves, passing through charcoal and sand. The supply 
lasted about seven months. In the winter, snow was often 
melted for making tea. 

The only landing-place was a small natural inlet, situate at 
the northern extremity of the island. A bar of solid cliff, about 
seven feet high, lay across the middle of it, at half tide, with 
only a small crevice at its eastern side, barely deep enough to 
admit a rowboat at the same tide. The upper part was filled 
with large loose rocks ; in the outer part lay two sunken rocks. 
These were found to be extremely dangerous in landing. The 
matter was brought to the notice of the Minister of Marine, and 
money was granted for improvements. The work began in 
the summer of 1874, and was continued, as smooth water would 
allow, until completed, in the fall of 1878. It was performed 
by the keeper and his assistant. A large quantity of powder 
and dynamite were used in blowing out the cliff. 

A more lonely place for a residence can hardly be found on 
this coast. Mr. Pearl said he had lived there for over two 
years, and that during that time the Government steamer had 
twice landed stores ; that, besides his father and brothers, and 
fishermen passing occasionally to and from their nets, the writer 
had been the only visitor. 

He referred to the deprivation of church services and 
educational privileges, and said, with a smile, that he was 
never called upon by agents for sewing machines and other 
modern improvements. 

A cow had been taken to the island, but seeming ill-satisfied 

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with the change thus made in her life, she tried to get into a 
boat leaving for Taneook, and persisted in the attempt till 
beaten back by the waves. She followed the keeper and 
the writer around the island as if she thought we must be 
going away from it and was determined to accompany us. He 
said he would have to exchange her for goats. 

A man in Mr. Pearl's situation should be very handsomely 
remunerated for his services, especially one so intelligent and 
so capable of rendering valuable assistance in cases of distress 
as he is. 

On returning from the island the fog was very thick. The 
old man placed his compass on the seat in front of him, and, 
using his spectacles, set his course for the eastern head of 
Taneook, which was made exactly, and in an hour and forty 
minutes. Rounding the point, Mrs. Pearl's hospitality was 
again extended, and in the afternoon we returned to Chester. 
This was the last the writer saw of his kind old friend, and he 
was grieved to notice in the Morning Chronicle, of April 11th, 
1882, the following account of his death : 

" Several days ago, Mr. Walter Pearl, aged 65, and his 
youngest son Benjamin, aged 35, left their home at Taneook, in 
a centre-board squid boat, for Mason's Island to obtain manure. 
About ten o'clock they were returning, and when half-way 
across Chester Bay the boat was seen to disappear. It is sup- 
posed that, as she was probably heavily laden, she sprang a 
leak and sank. The old man has seven or eight children living, 
and the son, a wife and three children " — ^a striking instance of 
" the changes and chances of this mortal life." 

The Tancooks. 

The largest island, commonly called " Big Taneook," is about 
seven miles from Chester, and near to another island known as 
" Little Taneook." It is three miles long and one mile wide. 
Its original name was Queen Charlotte's Island, and it was 
granted to Patrick Sutherland, Esquire, but was escheated for 
non-performance of the conditions imposed. 

On the 19th of December, 1792, a grant was passed which 

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gave to John Henry Fleiger, and George Grant, the two Tan- 
cooks and Starr Island, adjacent, as follows : To Mr. Fleiger 
the western part of Great Tancook, bounded as in the grant 
described, and comprising 279 acres; also the north-eastern 
half of Little Tancook, as described, containing fifty €icres, 
and the whole of Starr Island — one acre — in all, 330 acres. 
To Mr. Grant was given the eastern part of Great Tancook, 
as described, 280 acres, and the south-western half of Little 
Tancook, fifty acres — in all, 330 acres: "the whole of the said 
islands being wilderness lands, and now granted agreeable to 
a former promise made by the late Lieutenant-Governor." 

A memorandum as follows, dated June 1 1th, 1788, is annexed 
to the original plan of the islands: 

" Great Tancook Island contains 550 acres of land. It is in 
general good hardwood land — ^beech, birch, and maple, and some 
oak, and ash. There are several small rivulets and springs, 
which afford good water. It has no harbor, and water is shoal 
on the Mahone Bay side, so that there is no anchorage within 
two hundred yards, even for small schooners. 

"Upon a moderate calculation, there may be about ten 
thousand cords of wood, and some timber trees for building." 

In 1821, the bay was frozen from Chester to Tancook, and 
loaded teams passed between the two places. Frederick Clat- 
tenburg, who lived at East Chester, left Chester late in the 
afternoon, and was found the next day lying dead between the 
Tancooks. It is supposed that he became fatigued, and was 
unable to reach the island. 

During this winter persons skated from Zink's Point, near 
Chester, to Tancook; and from thence to Murderer's Point, 
Winter's Island, and Young's landing near Lunenburg. The 
ice is described by one of the skaters as having been very thick 
and as smooth as glass. Vessels belonging to the county were 
at anchor outside of Green Island. This happened on Friday, 
and on the following Tuesday the bay was free from ice. 

Puncheons of molasses and barrels of flour were hauled in 
1846 from Aspotogon to Blandford, and thence on the ice to 
Chester. Lot Church went to Tancook, March 28th, and to 

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Blandfoixl, April 7th, with a horse and sleigh. In Febraary, 
Charles Lordly, Esq., had goods hauled from Shoal Cove by 
three pairs of oxen and two horses. The ice was cut w^ith axes 
to a depth of two feet without finding water. In March, John 
Corkum hauled hay with oxen from Tancook to Chester ; and 
on the 15th of April, hay was hauled from Nass s Island to 
Chester. Once since then, persons left Tancook intending to 
go to Chester, but when they reached Mark Island, necu* the 
latter place, they were obliged to return owing to an opening in 
the ice. On the 17th of February, 1875, John Pearl and sixteen 
others walked over the ice-bound bay from Tancook to Chester 
in one hour and forty minutes. Of late years the winters have 
been much less severe, and the ice has not been sufficiently 
strong to admit of travelling over it, except for short distances. 

Haliburton wrote, in 1829," The great Tancook is settled, and 
contains thirty families, who derive their subsistence wholh' 
from tilling the land." 

The population in 1845 was 310; in 1871, 490: in 1881, 572: 
and in 1891, 570. These figures relate to Tancook as one of 
the thirteen districts named in the census returns, and not to 
Big Tancook alone. On this island there were seventy children 
attending the public school in 1845. In 1895, the population 
of the same island is about 465, with 120 children attending 
school. There are 119 voters on the island, and 130 in the 
polling district. The voters living on the Tancooks, Iix)n-bo\md, 
and the Sand islands, elect one of the municipal councillors. 

The island of Little Tancook is half a mile from Big Tan- 
cook, and is about three-quarters of a mile long and half a 
mile in width. It has fifteen families, and a school attendeil 
by about eighteen children during half the year. 

" The Baptist Church on Tancook was constituted in 1855, 
but its foundation was laid in the labors of Rev. Joseph 

The following have been resident ministers: Revs. Nelson 
Baker (a native), Shaw, De Long, Foster, Whitman, Bentley, 
Huntley, Arthur Baker (son of Nelson), Parker, Gullison, 
Henderson, Marple and Porter. Revs. Dr. Welton, I. J. Skinner 
and others have from time to time visited the islaiiSoOQlc 


A breakwater was built at Big Tancook in 1872. It is 190 
feet long, and 30 feet wide, with a key 60 feet long, at an 
angle from the head, and cost $4,000, one-half granted by 
the Dominion, and half by the Provincial Legislature. The 
commissioners were George W. Richardson, and Albert Pearl, 
Elsquires. In 1885, $2,500 was voted for repairs. 

Great numbers of wild-fowl have been killed about the Tan- 
cooks. It wavS reported that two thousand were shot by two 
or three men in 1864. 

The Tancook people, having excellent land, which yields 
plentiful crops, coupled with facilities for fishing, have advanced 
in prosperity, and many of them are independent. 

Big Tancook is the birthplace of Hon. C. E. ChuYxjh, M.P.P., 
Commissioner of Public Works and Mines. 

The Tancook boats are noted for their fine qualities, and the 
men for the ability with which they handle them in rough 
weather. The following is from the Progress, June 20th, 1894 : 
" A whaler, built last winter by Mr. Amos Stevens, of Tancook, 
was recently bought by the officera of the Royal Engineers, 
Halifax, for the sum of $300. She will become a member of 
the Nova Scotia yacht squadron. Last year Mr. Stevens sold 
one to the officers of the Royal Artillery. She sailed a number 
of races last summer, several of which she won. She has 
sailed but one race so far this season, coming in an excellent 

Quaker Island. 

Quaker Island, a little over a mile from the town of Chester, 
received its name from the circumstance that a number of 
Quakers emigrated from New England, and wishing to prose- 
cute the whale fishery, were anxious to purchase it and make it 
headquarters for fitting out their vessels. Having been unable 
to secure it, they abandoned the scheme and returned home. A 
very fine view of Chester and the bay is obtained from the 
highest point of the island. The shore fronting the town is 
formed by a shelving sand beach, on which shells are found. A 
lighthouse, to give a harbor light, was erected on this island in 
1883, and is kept by Mr. William Whalen. * 

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Many years ago, Henry Heckman, who lived in Chester, went 
to Lunenburg on business, returned over the frozen bay, and 
when near Quaker fell in among ice cakes. He rettched the 
shore, where his dead body was found by the late John Cole. 

Clay and Sand Islands. 

Clay Island, a short distance from Quaker Island, furnishes 
superior material for brick-making, and Mason's Island, near 
Tancook, supplies builders at Halifax and other places with 
sand of good quality. Thousands of bushels of gravel are 
obtained for garden walks in the city, and some of it is used in 
the public gardens there. 

One of the islands which serve as breakwaters to the harbor 
of Chester, was originally called Nancy's Island. It is about a 
mile from the town. A Mr. Bethel once lived on it. John 
Wendel Nass, who was bom at sea on passage from Germany, 
became owner of it, and there brought up a large family. 
About the year 1823 they were thrown into deepest mourning. 
The mother, daughter and sons were at home, except two of 
the latter (Joseph and David), who had gone with their father 
to the western shore. One of the sons, Mathias, had become 
somewhat deranged in mind. Though he was occasionally 
the cause of trouble, and had the family sometimes in great 
fear, he did a share of the labor required, and in the forenoon 
of the day to which this sad story refers, seemed well and was 
engaged in farm work. Those about him had little idea that 
anything dreadful was so soon to happen. 

Thomas, then in his fourteenth year (now the only survivor 
of the family, residing at Chester, and in his eighty-fifth year), 
and his brother Benjamin were getting stones to place between 
the poles of a water- fence. George, the eldest brother, aged 18^ 
was twisting a withe around two of the stakes, and was struck 
by Mathias on the back with a heavy crowbar and instantly 
killed. A second brother, Benjamin, was also killed by a blow 
on the head with the same implement. Thomas was pursued 
by Mathias and escaped into 'the woods. Mathias returned 
and dragged the dead bodies into the water, and then disap- 

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peared. When the boat of the absent father and brothers 
neared the island, Thomas hailed them and told them to hasten, 
as Mathias had murdered two of his brothers. He was searched 
for and found behind the bam. Though it was done with much 
difficulty, he was captured. One of the brothers so engaged was 
in height six feet and three inches, and the other, six feet and 
one inch, and both were of great strength. The struggle must 
have been desperate on the part of Mathias, who was also tall 
and strong, as his captors were roughly handled, and one of 
them had both eyes badly blackened. 

This slayer of his brethren was a very fast walker. He left 
Chester once at earliest dawn on a summer morning and walked 
to Halifax. There he was met in the street by Timothy Smith, 
of Chester, who found him much overheated from his rapid 
travelling. He dined with Smith on board his vessel, and said 
he must get home again that night. He accomplished the whole 
journey before the morning of the next day. 

Had there been then, as there is now, a suitable place in which 
to " minister to the mind diseased," this and other tales of sorrow 
might not have been written. 

In this Nass family there were nineteen children. The father, 
his eldest daughter, and Thomas, above referred to, the youngest 
son, all had for their birthdays the 7th of June. Mr. Nass was 
a wealthy man. He owned a number of islands and a large part 
of the town plot of Chester. 

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Blandford— Bayswater— Aspotogon— Deep Cove— Mill Cove— Fox Point. 

THE first inhabitants of Blandford were Irish people, named 
Murphy, Carroll, HoUehom, Keating, Fannen, Riley and 
othei-s. They lived on both sides of the peninsula ; made fishing 
their occupation in summer, and spent the winter in cutting 
cordwood. The foundations of some of their huts can still be 

The following is taken from Governor Franklin's return, 
January 1st, 1767 : 


41 Men. 22 Irish. 4 Schooners & sloops. 

19 Boys. 11 Americans. 608 Quintals dry codfish. 

19 Women. 3 Oxen and bulls. 1109 bbls. salmon, mack- 

16 Girls. 8 Cows. erel, etc. 

72 Protestants. 10 Young neat cattle. 1 bbl. of oil. 

23 Roman Catholics. 60 Swine. 

62 English. 18 Fishing-boats. 

In or about the year 1809, persons belonging to the families 
of Publicover, Seaboyer, Misinger, Zink, Gates and others, at 
Rose Bay and Lunenburg, purchased land from Hon. Mr. Cochran 
(who had obtained a grant from Aspotogon southwards), and 
removed to Blandford. The first German settlers at Sandy 
Beaches, on the eastern side of the peninsula, were Richard, and 
Knickle, who went thither from Lunenburg. 

By an Act of the Legislature, passed in 1865, Sandy Beaches, 
North- West Cove, South-West Cove, Coleman's Cove, and Aspo- 
togon Harbor, on the western side of St. Margaret's Bay, were 
all included under the appropriate name of " Bayswater." White 
sand of finest quality, for sanding floors, is taken from Sandy 
Beaches. It is so used in part of the Hospital for the Insane at 

The inhabitants of the peninsula retain the primitive sim- 
plicity and warm hospitality of their forefathers. 

It is asserted that a ship was once wrecked at Herring Cove, 


on the south-east point of Blandford ; that the sailors, having 
escaped to the shore, left some women on board, who perished ; 
and that a loud noise frequently heard, as if proceeding from a 
horn blown with great power, is connected with the above inci- 
dent. It is well known, however, that in many places on the 
coast there are holes worn in the rocky cliffs, through which 
the sea dashes and the wind roars with ifremendous force, the 
noise of which probably gave rise to the superatition referred to. 
H. S. Poole, Esq., visited Blandford, and wrote : " At Blandford, 
strong bands of ironstone slate were visible for some distance 
in the banks of the shore, with a moderate dip of 20° N. and 
strike N. 80° W. Diluvial scratches, or strise, were very visible 
on the surface of the rocks, bearing S. 30° E. The rock was of 
a dark blue color, with a good deal of copper pyrites running 
through it. It might be worth while to make search for a 
copper lode at this place." 

The brothers Revs. James, and Charles J. Shreve, successive 
rectors of Chester, held occasional services at Blandford. 

The first resident clergyman was Rev. Richard Payne, an 
Englishman, who commenced his work there June 19th, 1859. 
He had been curate, and a most efficient teacher of the Grammar 
School, at Chester. 

He died at Blandford, in February, 1877. Two churches 
were built during his incumbency — " All Saints," at Bayswater, 
in 1865, and "St. Barnabas," at Blandford, in 1867. These 
churches are on opposite shores of the peninsula, and about two 
miles apart. 

Mr. Payne was succeeded by Rev. John Manning, who 
resigned in 1884. Rev. Edward Roy took charge in June, 1885. 
Revs. Wm. A. DesBrisay, Edward Softley, and Alfred A. V. 
Binnington have officiated for short periods. Rev. Frank W. M. 
Bacon took charge July 1st, 1895. 

A chapel school-house was built at North- West Cove, in 1882. 

Mill Cove and Fox Poixt. 

Between Bayswater and the post-road to Halifax, lie the 
settlements of Mill Cove and Fox Point, inhabited by persons 


who chiefly depend on the produce of the fisheries, sometimes 
doing well, and at other times meeting with reverses. 

Mill Cove is four and a half miles, and Fox Point two and 
a half miles, from Hubbard's Cove. 

A church named "St. Mark's," was built at Mill Cove, in 


Aspotogon rises on this peninsula to a height of between 
four and five hundred feet, and is a noted landmark to navi- 

From a boulder referred to by Mr. Poole in his Geological 
Repoii), one of the most extensive views in Nova Scotia is 

He wrote, " The summit of Aspotogon, I found by aneroid, 
was 450 feet (mean of ascent and descent), and wherever the 
rock was visible, it showed hard ironstone slate, bearing 
S. 80° W. Granite boulders were frequently passed, and on the 
very summit was a large triangular mass, upwards of eighteen 
feet on eveiy side." 

"Aspotogon, the highest land on the south shore of Nova 
Scotia." Such is the usual reply to the traveller's inquir5% 
*' What is that blue hill away over there?" In clear weather it 
can be seen from many pai-ts of the county, and with the 
beautiful blue distance tint so much admired by artists. 

Near the base of Aspotogon, on the west shore of St. Margaret's 
Bay, is a miniature harbor, called the " chimney comer," from 
the position of the rocks which form the entrance. There is a 
gi-anite boulder in the vicinity, of about forty tons' weight, 
which formerly rested on three smaller boulders on the side of 
the cliflf. After several vain attempts, it was at last dislodged 
by fishermen, and rolled down into the water. 

Deep Cove. 

There is on the Blandford side of the peninsula an arm of 
the sea which iiins up to the base of Aspotogon, called " Deep 
Cove," about a mile long, the water of which, at the head, is of 
sufficient depth for a large ship to lie close to the shore. It 

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is here about nine hundred feet across, and of varying width 
to the mouth. The road to Blandford passes between this deep 
water and the western end of Aspotogon, and presents from 
its small breadth a somewhat dangerous appearance to the 
traveller. A solid bridge, with massive iron supports, has been 
recently placed there. No difficulty is, however, experienced, 
except when the road is very icy. Hundreds of tons of stone 
have rolled down the face of Aspotogon, which is covered with 
''destruction's splinters," suggesting from their position that, 
in the words of the poet, they had been 

** In nature's rage, at random thrown." 

A tourist, who was in this very interesting part of the 
county under most favorable circumstances, says : 

" To see Deep Cove in all its glory, one must be there in the 
early morning or evening. Starting at 4 a.m., I climbed the 
steep path that leads to the summit of Aspotogon ; on either 
side, dark spruce trees and tangled bushes marked the course 
very plainly. Here and there some giant trees, unable longer 
to stand erect against the winter s gale, had fallen prone across 
the path, and the occasional whine of the partridge, startled by 
the unusual intrusion, reminded one that this would be a pai'a- 
dise indeed for the sportsman. After a long struggle I reached 
a table-land overlooking the bay, from whence, if possessed of 
a good nerve, one can look down a sheer precipice of some 
hundreds of feet into the cove beneath. One glance around 
banishes all feeling of fatigue. Looking toward the mountain, 
one sees the dark background of the evergreens intersprinkled 
here and there with the gayer, lighter tints of the deciduous 

" There is promise of gi-eater beauty in the autumn, when the 
finger of the frost king shall transform them to scarlet and 
gold; and above, on the summit, the slanting rays of the morn- 
ing sun are gilding the lighter feathery fringe of the Hack- 
matack. Turning about one gazes upon a magnificent panorama. 
There, spread out beneath, lies beautiful Mahone (or Chester) 
Bay, dotted in all directions with its hundreds of islands. Not 
a breath of wind disturbs the surface, and every islet is repro- 

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duced in shadow in the adjoining water ; whilst, far away on 
the western shore (ten miles at least), the steam from the mill 
at Gold River rises into the morning air like a pillar of cloud. 
The sun is not yet visible over the mountain, but l(X)king down 
upon the cove beneath, one sees that every tree and tiny leaf 
upon the mountain-side is clearly and faithfully min-ored in the 
silent depths below." 

The "close covered with water," called Deep Cove, was 
granted July 6th, 1799, under the great seal of the Province, to 
Thomas, James, and William Cochran, and was described as 
follows : " The waters round Deep CJove, in Mahone Bay, to wit : 
the water and the land under the water, or the shore of Deep 
Cove in Mahone Bay, beginning at the extreme point or head at 
the entrance of said cove or harbor, until it shall come to the 
other extreme point or head at the entrance of said cove or 
harbor, and measuring all round said cove, directly into said 
cove or harbor, one hundred feet from the high-water mark or 
line." The premises so described, " together with the fishery 
and liberty of fishing, commonly called Deep Cove fishery," 
were conveyed by deed, November 5th, 1838, to John Meisner 
and John Seaburg. 

The Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, in Easter Term, 1842, 
held, in a judgment delivered by Hill, J., touching right of 
fishery in Deep Cove waters, that " the Crown cannot grant the 
waters of a navigable arm of the sea, so as to give a right of 
exclusive fishing therein." The learned Judge said, the Crown 
" might as well grant the air around the Cove." 

Deep Cove has long been a place of resort for fishermen, and 
there are many small lodging-places which they occupy while 
there. Mackerel have frequently visited it in gi*eat numbers. 
In 1S52 there were so many in the Cove that they smothered 
and died. In every seine that was shot they lay dead at the 
bottom. As many as would fill twenty barrels would rush 
together against the rocks on the side of the Cove, and be killed. 
" Every time," said a fisherman, " I put out my oars, I put 
them on their backs. We dipped a seine-boat full with dip 
nets, between the nets that were set in the Cove." It was 
estimated that there were about ten thousand barrels^ j 

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New Ross — Its Settlement by Disbanded Soldiers — Rations allowed — 
Churches and Clergymen— Settlement at Sherwood. 

NEW ROSS Settlement was formerly called Sherbrooke, 
after Governor Sir John Coape Sherbrooke ; but as 
great inconvenience was caused by two places in the Province 
bearing this name, the one now under consideration was 
changed to " New Ross," during the administration of Lord 
Mulgrave, in honor of his Lordship, whose second title was 
derived from the town of New Ross, in Ireland. 

A large part of the information here given is from a journal 
kept by Edward J. Ross, Esq., who died at New Ross, April 6th, 
1894, aged seventy -eight years. 

New Ross Cross, where the roads to Lunenburg, King's, and 
Annapolis intersect each other, is fifteen miles from Chester 
Basin, twenty-six miles from Kentville, and twenty-eight miles 
from Windsor. " The Grant " is four miles, and the " Dutch 
Settlement " ten miles, from the Basin. 

From the Cross there is a charming view of Gold River, and 
Lake Lawson, into which it empties, w^hile not far from Rose 
Bank lies the pretty Lake Darling. 

New Ross is a truly pastoral settlement, where much enjoy- 
ment can be had by those who like to get away for a time from 
town or city life. It has gooil hunting-gix)unds, and lakes and 
streams for fishing, and, best of all, a kind and warm-heai-ted 

In 1816, the Earl of Dalhousie was Governor of Nova Scotia, 
and took a deep interest in agricultural matters. 

" The tract of land which lies between the south shore and 
the Comwallis and Annapolis valleys, was then almost a terra 

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ivcognita. Its only denizens were the moose, caribou, bear, 
and other wild animals, and a few Micmac Indians, of whom 
the family of Penalls appeared to be chief. The Earl thought 
that, with his paternal care, and the assistance of a united 
body of settlei-s, this wilderness could be m«ide ' to blossom as 
the rose,' and he pei-suaded Captain William Ross to take charge 
of the skeleton of the regiment of Nova Scotia Fencibles, and 
undertake the arduous task of clearinsr the forest upon a sterile 
soil. Captain Ross had been a Lieutenant in the 16th Regiment 
of Infantry, stationed in Canada, and exchanged for a captaincy 
in the Nova Scotia Fencibles, which was under onlei-s for 
Halifax to be disbanded." 

Some of the settlei*s, including Captain Ross and family, 
when on their way to Halifax, in the Archduke Charles, were 
wrecked in the Gut of Canseau. On their arrival, in another 
vessel, they were most hospitably entertained by the late John 
Lawson, Esquire, and from him the lake near Captain Ross s 
residence was, in gratitude, named " Lake Lawson," while as 
a further mark of respect, the first white child born in the 
settlement, being a son of Captain Rass, received for one of 
his Christian names, Lawson. The Ross family previously 
suffered shipwreck in 1812, off the Tuskar rock, south coast of 
Ireland, at which time the works were in progress for the 
erection of a lighthouse. Captain Ross's eldest son, William 
Henry, was saved (by workmen on the rock) in companionship 
with a monkey, both being tied in the same bag. A son, after- 
wards bom, received as one of his names, Irlam, in remem- 
brance of the ship which then perished. 

" On the 7th of August, 1816, Captain Ross, having arrived 
at Sherbrooke with 172 disbanded soldiers, cut down the first 
tree, probably the first ever felled by him. It w^as a rock 
maple, and at the request of the Earl of Dalhousie, he sent the 
butt junk to Halifax. His Excellency had a dozen egg-cups 
made from it, and beautifully rimmed with silver. A dining 
table and a mounted egg-cup, made from the wood of the same 
tree, are still preserved at New Ross, as are also a drawing by 
Captain Ross of the house built by him — the first one erected in 

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the settlement — and the whip-saw used in cutting out the 

" For three years all went on satisfactorily. The disbanded 
troops were amply pix)vided with rations, and ration biscuit, 
i-ation beef, and ration pork supplied the rational wants of the 
new settlers, while ration rum, arriving in puncheons, kept 
their spirits from flagging. The number of settlers was 
increased by disbanded soldiers of the 60th or German legion, 
who had seen active service on the Continent of Europe, under 
the great Napoleon ; by some of the Newfoundland Fencibles, 
and a straggling few from the Ist and 14th Foot. 

" As long as the rations continued to arrive, it was all * high 
day, and holiday, and bonfire night.' There were no roads in 
those days, and the only method of conveying the much-coveted 
ititions from the sea-shore at Chester to the expectants in 
Sherbrooke, was either on sledges in the winter season, or on 
horse's backs or men's shoulders in summer. 

" Sometimes, when the supplies were long in coming, there 
would be almost mutiny in the camp ; the soldiers would use 
strong adjectives to the sergeants, and the latter would indulge 
in earnest remonstrances to their superior officers. 

" But the three years expired, and one fine morning the unfor- 
tunate settlers awoke to the fact that their daily rations were 
among the good things of the past, and that for the future they 
must depend solely on their own resources. Some left in 
disgust, threw up, sold for a trifle, or deserted their claims. 
Others manfully stemmed the torrent of privation and poverty. 
A few had their little cabins burned, and sought assistance from 
the charitable to repair their losses." 

Captain Koss, and Paymaster Wells having settled on oppo- 
site sides of Lake Lawson, they had a code of signals by 
which they communicated with each other — ^now in possession 
of James S. Wells, Esq., New York. 

A proposed road from Sherbrooke to Kentville was deemed 
impracticable. At length a line was blazed, and Mra Wells, 
wife of Paymaster Wells, went through on horseback. The 

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feat of this daring horsewoman having been reported at head- 
quarters, money was supplied and the road made. 

On the 22nd day of December, 1819, a grant from the Gov- 
ernment passed to Captain Ross and sixty-seven others, as 
follows : 

" Nova Scotia. 

" (Royal Anna) 
" (Signed) Dalhousie. 

" George the Third by the Grace of God, etc., 

" Greeting. 
" To all to whom these presents shall come : 

" Know ye that we, of our special grace, certain knowledge, 
and mere motion, have given and granted, and by these presents 
for us, our heirs and successors, do give and grant, unto Cap- 
tain William Ross, and sixty-seven others of the disbanded 
troops, thirteen thousand acres of land, situate, lying, and 
being on both sides of the new public road leading from 
Halifax, through Hammond's Plains to Annapolis, to be divided 
among them in the following proportions, to wit: unto the 
said Captain William Ross, eight hundred acres ; Captain John 
Evans, eight hundred acres; Lieutenant Edward Enwright, 
five hundred acres ; James S. Wells, five hundred acres ; 
Quartermaster - Sergeant John Hunt, five hundred acres ; 
Samuel Steele, three hundred acres; Sergeant-Major James 
Brown, three hundred acres; Sergeant Joseph Gates, three 
hundred acres," etc. 

Minerals were reserved to the Crown, and the land granted 
was subjected to a yearly quit rent of two shillings sterling 
for each one hundred acres after the expiration of two years ; 
three acres were to be worked in five years for every fifty 
granted ; three neat cattle were to be kept for every fifty acres 
of barren ; one able hand was to be kept for three years in 
cutting wood, clearing, or digging stone quarries for every fifty 
acres of rocky land ; and if the soil w^as fit for the purpose, a 
proportionable part was to be sowed with hemp or flax. 

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The following was published in the Gazette in the latter part 
of 1816, or the beginning of 1817 : 

" To the Editors of the ' Gazette ' : 

"In July last (say, 1816), when the Newfoundland and Nova 
Scotia regiments were disbanded in Halifax, lands were offered 
by the Government to such of the officers and soldiers as were 
disposed to cultivate them and remain in the Province ; and also 
agricultural implements and provisions. Forty-three persons, 
who had belonged to the above regiments, immediately set out for 
the County of Lunenburg, and by great and persevering exer- 
tions have formed in it an interesting, friendly, and happy 
settlement, and have given to it the name of ' Sherbrooke,' in 
compliment to our late very worthy Governor. The following 
verses, dedicated to William Ross, Esq., late of the Nova Scotia 
Regiment, are the hasty effusion of John Harris, Esq. (sur- 
veyor), who lately visited the settlement, and was much 
gratified to witness the improvements made there. 

" A. B." 

Rose Bank. 

Well nigh upon six thousand years 

Obscure this maiden country lay, 
Till Sherbrooke deigned to pierce the gloom, 

And give its beauties to the day. 

Since ancient Noah*8 time of old. 

When earth and air absorbed the flood. 

This pleasant stream has onward rolled, 
Obscurely murmuring through the wood. 

All-bounteous nature strewed the seeds. 
And bade the waters wash them down, 

And all the margin of the shore 

W^ith grass and fragrant roses crown. 

And fate decreed in time of yore. 
That Boss should nurse the rising fame 

Of Rose Bank,* on that water's shore 
So fondly called by Lawson'st name. 

' Captain Ross's residence. t Name of Lake. 

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Ha ! whence that voice which loudly calls, 
And strikes the air with keen surprise ? 

The lowing kine from Rose Bank's stalls. 

Ha ! that's the source whence wealth must rise. 

From Sherwood's lodge ♦ to Sherbrooke's lake, 

The hardy sons of war are found ; 
Here they their peaceful dwellings make ; 

Here herds and flocks shall graze around. 

Oh, while they cultivate the soil. 

May sacred friendship bear the sway, 
Ameliorate their daily toil, 

And plenteous crops their cares repay. 

The Governor conceived a warm attachment to Captain Ross 
and family, and bestowed upon them many substantial tokens 
of regard. He presented to Miss Mary Ross, a handsome piano 
(Broadwood, London), the first one brought into the township. 
It was carried from Chester Basin to Sherbrooke by four stal- 
wart soldiers, and is still in the house of George Ross, Esq., at 
Rose Bank. Whenever business called Captain Ross to Halifax, 
the Governor insisted on having him as his guest. 

Captain Ross was the first Justice of the Peace appointed 
at Sherbrooke. Many are the tales of hardships undergone in 
the early settlement of the place. Strong arms and brave 
hearts were required to face the difficulties of the new position. 
Henry Windrow, father of George H. Windrow, Esq., was once 
nearly lost in the woods, and lived for eight days upon berries 
and such other food as nature provided. 

"When the settlement was formed, the Earl of Dalhousie 
promised the settlers a direct road to Halifax, a distance of 
forty-two miles, through Hammond's Plains. In the autumn 
of 1821, Captain Rovss visited Halifax, and after reminding the 
Governor of his promise, undertook, with an Indian as guide, 
to locate the road through the pathless forest. They got 
benighted in the woods, and were overtaken by a violent rain- 
storm. The captain lay all night exposed to the fury of the 
elements, with naught but a wet log for his pillow. He was 

• Captain Evans' reaidence. ^ t 

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taken very ill and had to remain for a few days at Sherwood 
Lodge, his sickness culminating in violent disease, from the 
effects of which he died at Halifax, May 2nd, 1822, leaving 
his wife, with a young family, to buffet the world, thousands 
of miles away from her relatives and native land. Captain 
Ross's remains were interred, with military honors, in the old 
St. Paul's burial-ground, near Government House." Mrs. Ross, 
who was bom in "that beautiful city called Cork," as were 
also her husband and their daughter Mary, died at her son's 
residence in New Ross, July 31st, 1876, aged ninety-two years. 
In her eighty-ninth year, she gave a touching account of some 
of the hardships she had passed through, ending it with these 
words : " Thanks to my heavenly Father, I have outlived it all, 
and am able, at the advanced age of eighty-nine, to write this 
sketch for you." 

Many were the long lonesome walks she had to Chester, for 
horses were scarce in those parts then, numbering only two — 
one belonging to the parson at Chester, and a one-eyed mare 
owTied by the innkeeper. Old Charlie Greenland, a venerable 
relic of " Boney's " guard, afterwards obtained a sort of nonde- 
script nag, which was in great request, and often bore on his 
back ladies of high degree — among others, Miss Nancy Prescott. 

George Ross, Esq., son of Captain Ross, remains at New Ross, 
and cultivates the pateiTial acres of Rose Bank, on the borders 
of the lake *' so fondly called by Lawson's name." His brother, 
the only other family survivor, Henry Lawson Ross, resides in 
the United States. 

None of the original grantees are living. Among the oldest 
people who died were Mrs. Keizer, aged 96 ; Robert Russell, 
84; Christopher Boy Ian, 81 ; Edward J. Ross, 81: James Lantz, 
81 ; Benjamin Lantz, 78. 

John Kiens, Quartermaster 5th Battalion, 16th Regiment, 
came to Sherbrooke with the troops under Captain Ross. He 
was grandfather of Mrs. Henry C. Bamaby, of Bridgewater, 
who is the daughter of Mary Kiens, formerly Mary Ross, to 
whom the Earl of Dalhousie gave the piano already mentioned, 
and who died September 25th, 1850. 

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Among the pioneers of the improving Glengarry settlement, 
which is two miles from the Cross, and a little south of Lake 
Darling, w^ere Patrick Skerrj'-, Christian Clements, Lawrence 
Price, Charles Meister, F. Lees, and Lewis Gaspard. 


The settlement of Sherwood was included in the same grant 
with Sherbrooke, Captain John Evans, the father of the late 
Charles Evans, Esq., of Chester, having been in charge of the 
district, which is situated ten miles nearer Halifax on the old 
military road. Captain Evans was bom in Manchester, Eng- 
land, and held commissions from His Majesty King George IIL, 
in the 35th and Slst Regiments, in the Royal Liverpool Volun- 
teers, and the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles. Lieutenants 
Enwright, Harris, and Beatty went to Sherwood w^ith Captain 
Evans. Sergeant Hazlitt, one of the settlers who was going to 
Sherwood from Chester, was found under a tree frozen to death. 
Sherwood is now known as the Le\'y Settlement. 

Governor Lawrence, a military man, in writing to the Lonls 
of Trade and Plantations, and referring to the settlements made 
by disbanded troops, gives the following as his opinion : 
" According to my ideas of the militaiy, which I offer with all 
possible deference and submission, they are the least (}ualified, 
from their occupation as soldiers, of any men living to establish 
a new country, where they must encounter difficulties with 
which they are altogether unacquainted.'' 

The Church of England at New Ross. 

Services were conducted by lay readena and others for several 
years, with an occasional visit from the Rector of Chester. 

The first sermon preached in New Ross was by the Rev. 
Charles Ingles, in the house of Captain Ross, from the appro- 
priate text, Isa. ii. 4 : " And they shall beat their swoixis into 

The firat church was erected about 1824, and received the 
appellation of Christ Church. The mission ceased to be an out- 
post of Chester in 1854, when Rev. Thomas D. Ruddle, M.A. 

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(T.C.D.), became the first resident clergyman. His successors 
were Revs. Walter S. Gray, David C. Moore, Philip H. Brown, 
Joseph Norwood, H. W. Atwater, and Wm. H. Groser. 

Mr. Groser was succeeded by Rev. E. T. WooUard in July, 
1889. He resigned in October, 1893. Rev. Charles De Wolfe 
White, B.A., took charge in July, 1894. 

The new church was consecrated September 25th, 1879, and 
the old name was retained. It is 26 x 60 feet, and the chancel 
18 X 26 feet. It was commenced by Rev. J. Norwood, with 
Mr. Joseph Skerry as builder. Some work was done by Rev. 
H. W. Atwater, and the building was completed by Rev. W. H. 
Groser. The rectory was commenced in 1864, by Rev. D. C. 

The first school was conducted by James S. Wells, Esq., a 
retired naval officer. Mrs. Wells collected quite a sum of money 
from Halifax friends in aid of the building fund for the church. 

Rev. William H. Groser, son of Thomas W. Groser, who 
came to Brooklyn, N.Y., from Jamaica, and great-grandson 
of General Sir John F. S. Smith, H. M. Forces, was bom in 
New York, May 24th, 1845. He was educated at St. Stephen's 
College, Annandale, N.Y., graduated M.A., was ordained in 
1871 by the Bishop of Nova Scotia, and was curate at St. 
Margaret's Bay till November, 1879, from which date until 
his death, March 26th, 1889, he was Rector of New Ross. Much 
of the work on the exterior and interior of the new church 
(commenced by Rev. J. Norwood) and on the grounds adjoining 
w^as done by Mr. Groser. He was a very zealous clergyman — 
of great perseverance in all church work. The congregation 
was largely added to during his ministry. He was greatly 
beloved, and sincerely mourned by his flock. On the 28th of 
March his mortal remains were interred, in the presence of an 
immense concourse of people of the different denominations, 
close by the church where he had performed so many labors of 
love. He left a widow and an adopted daughter. 

Mr. Groser s brother, Rev. Charles E. Groser, sometime curate 
at Lunenburg, who was ordained by Bishop Whipple, of Minne- 
sota, is now the Rev. Canon Groser of Beverley, West Australia. 

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A Roman Catholic chapel was erected in 1827-28. It was 
named " St. Patrick's." 

Rev. John Laughlin was then the visiting priest. His suc- 
cessors were Revs. Dempsey, Lawler, Kennedy, Power, H olden, 
Lovejoy, McCarty, Brown, Kennedy, Walsh, and Doody. 

A new chapel was erected on the site of the old one in 1877. 
Rev. P. H. Holden was then priest in charge. 

Rev. Joseph Dimock, of Chester, was the first minister who 
preached to the Baptists at New Ross. 

Eleven members left the Chester Church " to form a church 
at Sherbrooke, now called New Ross. The organization took 
place in November, 1831, under the special supervision of 
Eldera Joseph Dimock, and Maynard Parker,* and consisted of 
the eleven persons just referred to." 

A church was erected in 1862. Among the ministers have 
been Revs. Archibald, Langille, and Whitman. 

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Rivers in the Township of Chester — Gold Deposits at Gold River. 

THE eastera, or main branch of Eastern River empties out 
of Timber Lake, which is over tlii*ee miles in length, and 
of almost equal breadth. It flows south-eastwardly through a 
chain of lakes until it meets the western branch, which has its' 
source in Kanaw Lake, of about the same size as Timber Lake, 
and runs thence south- westwardly to Queen's Cove, nine miles 
from its source, at the bottom of Chester Bay, six miles east of 
the town of Chester. 

Middle River has its source in the rear of the Levy Settle- 
ment, between the road to New Ross and the road to Windsor, 
and flows through a number of lakes on its way to, and at the 
Grant Settlement ; continues its coui-se al)Out twelve miles in 
a southwardly direction, and empties into Chester Bay, three 
miles west of Chester. 

Gold River commences at Island Lake, on the new road 
from New Ross to the Windsor road, and flows through several 
small lakes and Nine-Mile Lake ; thence through Hams, and 
other lakes to Lake Lawson, and emptying out of the same, 
flows about twelve miles in a serpentine course until it reaches 
Chester Bay at the western shore, six miles west of the town 
of Chester. On a branch of this river, about eight miles from 
its mouth, there is a waterfall some twenty feet in height. 
Below it are large round holes like wells, called "the pots," 
worn in the rocks by the action of the water. The noise of the 
fall can be heard at some distance. There are also falls on the 
main river. 

Gold River Gold Mining District. 

There is a tradition that gold was originally found at the 
river by early French settlers, and hence its name. Another 

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authority asserts that the name was " Gould River," and 
became changed to its present appellation. The first discovery 
of gold of whicli we have positive information w^as made by 
Messrs. Daniel Dimock, and David Whitford, on June 20th, 
1861. Some very fine specimens were obtained in the same 
year. Subsequently, Messi*s. Crane, and Briscoe, gentlemen 
from the United States, engaged in gold mining, and incurred 
much expense in making a road and erecting a steam crusher. 
The enterprise was abandoned, but not fix)m the w^ant of an 
encouraging supply of the treasure sought for. 

Mr. Poole visited Gold River in 1861, and in his report to 
Government, said : " A great many white quartz boulders were 
scattered over the ground. One quartz vein was fifteen inches 
wide, and had thick beds of quartzite rock above it, and several 
feet of thin laminated slates below. The vein bore N. 60° W., 
and dipped 38° North. Some gold had been got out of this 
quartz, and I recommended an exploring cut to be made 
across the slates for other quartz veins — as at Tangier the slate 
is found to overlie the gold-bearing quartz. The ancient bed 
of the river appeal's to have been changed at the * Bend,* and it 
would be worth while to try for gold washing at that point." 

The following are extracts from the official report on the 
mines of Nova Scotia for 1869 : 

" At Gold River, near Chester, extensive explorations have 
been carried on during the year by Mr. Michel, by whom I have 
been furnished with a report of their extent and results. Up- 
wards of two thousand feet of trenching has been dug, and ten 
shafts have been sunk to depths varying from fifteen to thirty 
feet, and tunnels driven between them. The following from his 
report is a stixtement of the result of the operations : 

" Five leads discovered measuring from two to five inches, all 
containing visible gold. 

" Assay by Dr. Dana Hayes of specimens where no gold was 
visible, gave mean yield of $20 per ton. 

" Bouldei-s on surface and below, with visible gold ; some, 
when powdered and washed, very rich. 

" Washing by rocker, of gravel from vicinity of leads, sepa- 
rated quantity, more or less considerable, of specks 9^g}\§:^*]^ 

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p£ gold.V 



The following extract is from Dawson's " Acadian Geology," 
page 635 : 

" The Chester Mining Company have opened shafts on some 
of their gold veins on Gold River, which are said to be very 
promising, one sample tested having given 77 dwt. gold and 
12 oz. silver per ton. Alluvial sand from the banks of Gold 
River is said to have afforded to Professor How, gold at the rate 
of 14 dwt. 10 grs. to the ton. This last fact is of some interest^ 
as indicating the possible occurrence of auriferous alluvia, which 
seem to be rare in Nova Scotia ; but perhaps might reward 
more careful search, more especially in the lower part of the 
boulder clay, and in the bottom of the beds of more recent 
alluvial sand and gravel. Even poor deposits of this kind might 
be made to pay by the methods of hydraulic washing on a large 
scale, now in use in California." 

Several persons from the United States had sunk a shaft on 
the " Bay State lead " previous to 1879, when Mr. Charles Mills 
began his prospecting work. The quartz was reported as carry- 
ing gold fairly well. Othei*s made searches, and abandoned the 
place. Mr. Mills did a large amount of work, and discovered 
several rich leads. 

In September, 1893, the writer visited the Foster Mine, about 
a mile and a half from the Basin. The shaft was 176 feet, with 
incline of 60°. At the clearing up for June, 84 oz. of gold were 
reported as obtained from seventy tons of quartz. One piece of 
quartz had a nugget of 4 oz. and gold like a wreath around it. 
An effective crusher was at work. Some very rich finds have 
been made in the vicinity. 

Effective works are now being carried on by several companies 
on the eastern side of Gold River. The Victor Mine has six- 
teen men at work underground. It has a concentrating plant 
(six concentrators for ten-stamp plant) for saving gold from 
other associated metals, and is said to be the only complete plant 
of the kind in the Province. The quartz has yielded well. The 
works are under the management of Mr. W. S. Houdlette, of 
Maiden, Mass. F. W. Hanright, Esq., barrister, of Halifax, is 
solicitor for the company. 

Mr. Don C. Butterfield, of California, commenced^^fiojkJi^e 


about two years ago. He is engaged as superintendent for, and 
a member of the Lincoln Gold Mining Company ; office, Boston, 
Mass. A shaft has been sunk 110 feet, the quartz from which, 
with a lead (the captain) of twenty-two inches, gives good i-e- 
tums. An ounce per ton has been taken from sixty or seventy 
tons of quartz. Preparations are making for a ten-stamp mill. 

The Picayune is another lead on the same property, where 
there is a shaft of 182 feet. The quartz yields 2J oz. to the 
ton. This shaft will be sunk to a depth of 250 feet or moi-e. 
A third lead has been opened, which also promises well. 

Twenty-two men are employed at these mines. 

About a half mile north-west from Mr. Butterfield's ground 
is the North Star Mine, with a two-stamp mill, worked by Mr. 
T. C. Baker, of Dartmouth. The lead here is from three feet 
to six inches. A shaft is sunk to the depth of thirty feet, to 
be increased as gold is developed. Four barrels of selected 
quartz from this property, crushed at Oldham, yielded very 
handsomely, and the balance of the lot from which it was taken 
gave an ounce per ton. 

There seem to be good reasons for believing that Gold River 
District will yet prove one of the richest in the Province. It 
wears a busy aspect. Twenty-seven loads of material for 
building pui-poses were received in one day. 

In 1887, Messrs. Alexander Chisholm, Charles Anderson, Esra 
Ernst, and Albert H. Zwicker built the steam saw-mill at Gold 
River. It is 146 feet long, and 26 feet wide, and in it lum- 
ber to the amount of about 4,000,000 feet .is cut in a year. 
Some of the logs are bix)ught from the Hant's county line, 
thirty miles away, and it is said the company have enough to 
last for twenty years. The lumber shipped is taken chiefly to 
Europe. The selling of lumber at this mill has been a great 
boon to the people of the surrounding country, saving them 
long travel and much expense. 

Haliburton says : " There is a chain of lakes situated between 
the source of the Gaspereaux, in King s county, and that of 
Gold River, in the County of Lunenburg, which nearly unites 
them." He mentions a similar connection " between the head 
of the Avon, and Chester Bay." ^ j 

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Scenery m different parts of the County. 

THE County of Lunenburg abounds in scenery of exquisite 
beauty. The following from Milton well describes the 

surface : 

'"' Sweet interchange 
Of hill, and valley, rivers, woods, and plains, 
Now land, now sea; and shores with forests crowned." 

The inhabitants cannot point, like those of Halifax, to former 
abodes of royalty, now fallen to decay; nor have the hills and 
vales, streams and harbors been immortalized like the Grand 
Prfe, and the Basin of Minas, by the graphic pen of a Longfellow. 
Its landscapes cannot fail, however, to arrest the eye and call 
forth the admiration of the beholder, being rich in loveliness and 

The water scenery is almost matchless. In the summer 
months, when 

** The early mom lets out the peeping day," 

during the advancing hours, or in the roseate hues of a golden 
sunset, the pictures presented are really beautiful. This will 
be acknowledged by visitors to Chester, Mahone Bay, Lunen- 
burg, and La Have. The fishermen's boats moored in line, the 
nets covered with tarpaulins, and everything in readiness for 
the expected shoals of mackerel and herring ; the larger crafts, 
of superior models, being either prepared for, or having returned 
from fishing, coasting, or foreign voyages, each one so clearly 
reflected beneath as to realize the words of the poet, 

** The shadow of her masts 
Checkered the deep below ; 
You might trace the line of her slenderest spar 
On that azure mirror's glow ; ** 

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the whale-boats, all neat and trim, famed for speed and safety, 
breasting the white caps; the torches of birch bark burning at 
night in the canoes and boats, which are gently moved along by 
the spearmen in the bows; and the merry songs of parties out 
for pleasure in the bright moonlight — all these, and more that 
might be named, make doubly charming a home by the sea in 
this highly favored county. 

The views presented during a drive from Hubbard's Cove to 
Bayswater, and Blandford, and thence to Vogler's Cove at the 
western end of the county, taking each town, village and settle- 
ment on the way, are most attractive. The expansive Bay of 
Chester (properly speaking, part of Mahone Bay), with its 
numerous islands, as seen from several hills, Webber s, Wickup, 
and others, is truly magnificent, and is unexcelled in this par- 
ticular kind of scenery. Haliburton mentions the " unrivalled 
beauty " of this bay. The shore road winds around almost 
every little inlet, and across several rivers, passing sometimes 
through thick woods, 

'* Where the trees, with looks of love, 
S j)read their whispering leaves above ; *' 

and giving an occasional fresh glimpse of the sea and islands, 
until Mahone Bay is reached, nestling among hills. There the 
traveller sees, spread out on each side, wealth-producing farms; 
and below, the busy, rapidly gi-owing, and, as it has been justly 
called, "charming village." He follows the road around the 
bay, meeting beauty everywhere. After a few miles further 
travel, he comes to a large common (now vastly improved, and 
adorned with neat cottages), passing which, he enters Lunen- 
burg — not the Lunenburg of olden time, of huts and log-houses, 
with thatched roofs, but a comfortable-looking town, with 
dwellings and public buildings which are creditable to the 
inhabitants, who, for genuine hospitality and kindness, are not 
surpassed in any part of Nova Scotia. Lunenburg is better laid 
out than most towns in the Province. The harbor, nearly 
circular in shape; the "ovens" and cape beyond; the ocean 
view, and the white sails of the passing ships in the extreme 
distance, with the gently sloping fields of green, and snug farm- 
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houses on every side, form a scene worthy the trial of an artist's 
skill. Ascending Block-house Hill above the town, a still more 
extended view is presented to the eye. The back harbor, vying 
with, if it does not equal in beauty, that in front of the town ; 
the numerous small creeks, with the adjacent islands ; Chester, 
in the distance, and the peninsula on the opposite side of the 
bay, where 

*' Breezy Aspotogon lifts high its summit blue/' 

make up a delightful picture. 

The observatory of the Rev. Dr. Cossmann is a favorite resort, 
on account of the pleasing prospects it affords, adding much of 
the country inland. 

A fine view of the town and its surroundings is had from the 
hill long known as " The Sheriff's Head." On it is a large piece 
of forest called Cannon Park, the property of C. E. Kaulbach, 
Esq., M.P., by whom it is generously loaned for picnics and 
public purposes. Two large cannon are placed at the entrance 
gate, and two others are mounted at the edge of the woods. In 
the grove is an arch formed of large bones of a whale. There 
is a good foot-road through the park to the shore. Much 
money has been spent by the owner on the park property and 
the adjoining land. 

The following lines in connection with Lunenburg were 
written by Rev. George 0. Huestis : 

'* A farewell once more to the Germans, 
With sorrow the thought we conceive, 
The Morashes, Heckmans, and Hermans, 
And others whose names we could give. 

** Midst kindness we longer would linger, 
And the air of true friendship inhale. 
But duty has lifted her finger 
And must o'er enjoyment prevail. 

*' Adieu to a region romantic 

With scenery noble and grand, 

Looking out on the broad Atlantic, 

Encircling so much of our land. 


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'* How varied thy pictures of beauty. 

Entrancing the mind through the eye, 
Were it not for the prompting of duty. 
We could willingly tarry to die." 

After 'seven miles' travel from Lunenburg, the La Have Ferry 
is reached, and proceeding up the eastern side of the river to 
Bridgewater, thence down its western shore to Lower Dublin, 
the traveller has all the way a succession of lovely little views, 
made up of steep banks, gi-een fields, groves of pine and spruce, 
substantial dwellings, and churches almost hid in forest trees ; 
rustic bridges, over brooks that run across the road to meet the 
river, which flows amid all with graceful bends, and reflects on 
its blue surface of mirror-like smoothness ever}'' object near it. 

At New Dublin appear the rougher watera of old ocean, 
beating against the " Spectacles," and other islands, where have 
been sometimes cast ashore, 

^* The shattered fragments of the midnight wreck." 

Driving through the improving settlement of Western Dublin, 
and over the sandy beach, as firm and smooth as a pavement, 
and white as fleecy clouds, with the fresh breeze blowing from 
the sea, and the waves dancing nearly to the horse's feet, an 
enthusiastic admirer of nature (as who would not be, surrounded 
by such scenes) is drawn into an ecstasy of delight. Thence to 
Petite Riviere, whose lovely hills are covered with fields of 
plenty, from the tops of which extensive views are presented, 

'* Streams, hills, and forests, fair variety !" 

to be largely repeated a few miles farther on from beauteous 
Broad Cove. Some of the fine views which these hills aflFord 
(especially the one from the residence of the late Lemuel W. 
Drew, Esq.), command the entrance to La Have River, with the 
vessels passing out and in ; and also " Iron-bound," and many 
other islands. 

The last settlement westward, on the coast line, is Vogler's 
Cove, a pretty little village, near Port Medway (Queens 
county), from which it is separated by the harbor of the latter 

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Retracing his steps to Petite Riviere, let the traveller strike 
into the interior, and pass through Grouse Town, New Italy, 
Conquerall, Campei-town, Lapland, Waterloo, Chelsea, and 
Ohio, large and flourishing districts, and again cross the La 
Have at New Germany, from whence a trip may be taken 
along the river's bank to Bridgewater ; or, keeping farther 
inland, he may drive on a parallel road, out of sight of the 
river, to Mahone Bay ; and all through this latter journey he 
will pass streams and lakes of various sizes, some of the former 
little rivulets that 

^' Leap and gush 
O'er channelled rock, and broken bush/' 

and witness most enchanting bits of woodland scenery. 

The lover of the beautiful can take the right-hand road 
after crossing Mush-a-Mush Bridge, and proceed around the 
shore of the bay to the Indian Point road, and secure a little 
farther on, from elevated ground to the left, a most magnificent 
view ; then passing through the picturesque settlement, he can 
€njoy all that is to be seen from the hill above it. 

He may add to the variety and beauty of what his eyes 
behold, if he gets away to some of the lakes, when the wild 
pear is in full blossom ; and cruising about in boat or canoe, 
see for miles round the white flowers interspersed with the 
tender shades of green and brown. When the autumnal tints 
are finest, let him stand in front of some wide wilderness tract, 
where the maple is abundant, and look at 

^* The fading leaves, 
That with their rich variety of hues 
Make yonder forests, in the slanting sun, 
So beautiful,'' 

and he can repeat feelingly the words of Whittier, " The Lord, 
in His loving kindness, has hung His wonderful pictures on all 
our hills and woods." 

From a hill about two miles west of Conquerall Bank, on the 
road to Inner Conquerall, and six miles from Bridgewater, one 
of the most extensive views in the country is obtained. Away 
on the- left are Aspotogon, and Chester Bay, the entrance to 

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Lunenburg Harbor, and the settlements near it. In the front 
is a long stretch of the La Have River, showing point after 
point, in itself a very beautiful piece of scenery. On the right 
are the hills about Petite Riviere, and the intervening farms, 
with pretty forest-covered hills and homes in the rear. 

The town of Lunenburg can be plainly seen on a clear day 
from Slater's hill, a mile from West La Have Ferry. 

On February 26th, 1890, there was a heavy rain-storm, after 
which the trees, vines, and fences were covered with ice. When 
the sun shone out on the morning of the 27th, the scene was one 
of surpassing beauty. All the fruit and ornamental trees — every 
branch and fibre — looked as if encased in brightest silver. 
The telegraph and telephone wires were like large ropes of ice, 
and from them were suspended fringes of iciclea The pines 
were immense masses of gorgeous frost-work, and the stretches 
of forest revealed the most lovely pictures. Swamps and 
other places, covered with low bushes, were turned into fields 
of crystals and diamonds ; and where they were touched by the 
sun's rays, all the colors of the rainbow could be seen. Such 
displays are occasionally repeated. They were notably so in 
January, 1895, when, with many other attractions, the roads in 
the country districts were like lanes walled in with silver 

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The Aborigines — Murders and Scalpings by them — Burittl-places- 
Interesting Incidents. 

** The land was ours — this glorious land — 
With all its wealth of wood and streams ; 
Our warriors strong of heart and hand ; 
Our daughters beautiful as dreams. 

** When wearied at the thirsty noon, 

We knelt us where the spring gushed up, 
To taste our Father's blessed boon — 
Unlike the white man's poison cup." 



HE late Rev. Dr. Silas T. Rand, Micmac missionary, gave 
the following Indian names and their meanings: 

** Lunenburg, Aseedlk, * clam land.' 

*^La Have Riyek, Ptjenoolskftk, ' having long joints.' 

*' Chestee, Menskwaak, ' I go to bring him.' 

^'AsHMUTOouN (better known as Aspotogan), UkptlddskftkHn, *when 
they blockade the passage-way, viz., wJiere th^ aeaU go in and <yiUy in order 
to kill them. KSbejo-koochk, 'a closing of the passage,' is another name 
for Ashmutogun." 

The Indians were Micmacs, or, in their own language, "Migga- 
amacks," belonging to the Algonquin family, and were called 
by the French in 1608, " Souriquois," or salt water men. Brown- 
ell says the Melicetes called the Micmacs " Salt water Indians." 
They were named " Mikemaks," by Baron de Lahontan. 

Brownell sajrs that the dialect of the Micmacs is Iroquois. 

M. Mene, a French priest who had learned the Micmac 
language, said it was " full of excellence and beauty." 

Murdoch wrote of the skill and judgment of the Nova Scotia 
Indians shown in their construction of articles required, and 
added : "Although they possessed no written alphabet or letters, 

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yet the structure of their language is complex, and it is so 
musical and refined as to lead to the inference that they had 
long been a civilized and thinking race of people." 

The chiefs of the Souriquois (Micmacs) are said by Denys to 
have been great at telling of tales and laughing. " When the 
pipe went round in company, the practised story-teller began. 
The bowl of the pipe was a lobster's claw, or else was made of 
a red or green stone. The tube was worked with care and 
decorated with porcupine quilla The tobacco was of a small- 
sized plant, which they raised themselves.'* 

The territory of the Micmacs, or " Miggumahghee," Micmac 
land, was described in Villebon's letter to M. de Lagny, dated 
September 2nd, 1694, as extending " from Isle Percde, and 
even higher up the river on the way to Quebec, and through 
the Bay des Chaleurs, Ristigouche, Richibouctou, Bay Verte, 
Cape Breton, Campseau, and all along the coast to Cape Sable, 
Port Royal, Minas, and Beaubassin. They look on all these 
places as their settlement at all times." 

The Micmacs were " of a reddish brown color, with high 
cheek bones, large lips and mouths, long black coarse hair, and 
fine, intelligent, penetrating eyes, and were >often of surprising 
size, strength, and quickness." 

They are described as having been naturally possessed of 
many virtues. Murdoch says : " As far as our records can 
serve, it appears that they have usually been honest, frank, 
brave, and humane ; and they exhibited these qualities as well 
before as since their conversion to the Christian faith." 

In blaming them for their former excesses, we must make 
due allowance for the fact that they had been taught to look 
upon British settlers as enemies, and were too often paid for 
the ravages they committed. Their arms were chiefly guns 
and long sheath knives, the latter being sometimes fastened to 
the wrist by a cord. They generally secreted themselves by 
day, and went on their errands of cruelty by night. We may 
form some idea of the number of their murders, from the fact 
that the increase of the population in seven of the earliest 
years was only seven persons. One can hardly travel through 

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any part of the county without hearing of lives lost through 
their deeds of violence. 

In 1745, a boat belonging to an English vessel came ashore 
at La Have for wood and water, when Indians killed seven of 
the crew, and took their scalps to Sieur Marin. 

An island, then nameless, near that known as Heckman's, 
was the scene of a dreadful massacre — the hempen cables of 
seven American fishing schooners having been cut at night, and 
their crews murdered after the vessels had drifted ashore. A 
large number of human bones have there been disinterred. It 
is said that a white child was also oifered up on the island in 
sacrifice, and by the name of "Sacrifice" it has since been 

A point between Mahone Bay and Gold River was also a 
place of much slaughter, and thus earned the name, " Murderer's 
Point" The crew of a fishing vessel once went ashore there, 
leaving a boy on board. The Indians made signs to the latter 
to land, but he, shortly afterwards, seeing that his companions 
were being murdered, saved himself by cutting the cable, and 
running down to Clay Island, where other Americans were 

On the evening of March 23rd, 1758, James Olix, his wife 
and two children, and Mrs. Roder, living at North- West Range, 
were scalped by Indians. Intelligence was sent to Lunenburg, 
where alarm-guns were fired. Next morning a sei^ant and 
corporal, with twelve men, were despatched in pursuit of the 

On July 13th, 1758, two men, named Tanner and John 
Wagner, with some boys, were swimming in the La Have, near 
what is now the site of Hartlin's mill. Hearing a dog bark, 
and seeing Indians approaching, they dressed w^ith all speed, 
and attempted to escape. Wagner was killed, and a musket- 
ball passed through Tanner s waistcoat and shirt. The name 
of the Indian who shot Wagner was Labrador. Years after- 
wards, when Tanner lived on Heckman's Island, Labrador 
encamped there for the purpose of catching mink, and went to 
Tanner 8 house, where he boasted of the large number of men 

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he had killed. The writer owns a very finely made and 
decorated brass and steel tomahawk, which Tanner got from 
Labrador. After the occun-ence at the river, Tanner could not 
bear the sight of a red man, and went several times to shoot 
Labrador, but always returned without so doing, his conscience 
never allowing the deed. So strong, however, was his feeling 
against the Indians, that whenever he spoke of one, he called 
him " Teufel " (Devil). Tanner was over six feet in height, 
and a very powerful man. He was bom at SchafiTiausen in 
Switzerland, and at his decease had lived 95 yeara, 9 months, 
and 10 days. 

Two of the guard on duty at the block-house near where 
Wagner was shot, wei'e sent to Lunenburg for provisions. 
Reaching Darey's Lake, I'ound which a foot-path had been made, 
they were tracked by Indian dogs, and having climbed into the 
trees, were shot down by the savages. The firing was heard at 
the block-house, and a painty went out and discovered their 
comrades, from whom life hml just depaiiied. They buried 
them,- and passed on to Lunenburg. On their return they 
found that the bodies had been disinteired and cut in pieces. 

" On the 24th of August, 1758, at about daybreak, eight 
Indians came into Mahone Bay to Joseph Lay's house. A 
woman went to the door, when two of them laid hold of her, 
and, notwithstanding her cries, bi-utally murdered her on the 
spot. The men on the stairs discharged their firearms, but to 
no purpose. Then Joseph Lay jumped out of the loft in order 
to rim to his neighbors for assistance, but, being seen, he was 
shot and so badly wounded that he died the next morning. 
The Indians fired several shots at the house of Joab Brant, 
which was close to that of Mr. Lay's. They then went their 
w^ay without getting any scalps or taking any person alive." 

Extract from burial register of St. John's Church, Lunenburg, 

" August 27th. — Joseph Stye. Scalped. 
" — Coni-ad Hatty. '' 
" " — Rosina, his wife. " 

" Buried by Rev. Jean Baptiste Morreau." 

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On August 22nd, 1762, Francois Mius, chief of the Indians at 
La Have, and four others waited on the Lieutenant-Governor 
and Council, and asked that they might have a priest, as they 
had been without one since M. Maillard s death. They tvere 
assured that their request would be complied with as soon as 
possible, and having received the usual presents they took their 

An Act was passed in the same year, with a preamble which 
stated that many mischiefs might arise by frauds and other 
injuries in trade with the Indians, and referred to their ignor- 
ance of the pi^ovincial laws. Pix)vision was made for prosecu- 
tion by the Attorney-General on complaint of Indians that they 
had been wronged or cheated in trade and dealing with other 
of His Majesty's subjects. 

A tailor at Faubourg was shot by an Indian while making a 
pair of breeches for a Mr. Zwicker, of Mahone Bay, and some 
of his blood was seen on the buckskin after the work was sent 

A hoirible murder was committed among the Indians 
encamped at Clearland, Mahone Bay, about seventy years 
ago. One of the wigwams was occupied by Captain Cope and 
his two sons, Joseph and Thomas. During the absence of the 
young men on a hunting expedition, two squaws who were in 
the camp, one being the wife of Francis Labrador, quarrelled. 
The altercation at length waxed so warm that Captain Cope 
thought it his duty to interfere, and endeavored to separate 
them. Labrador's wife seized a large knife and thrust it into 
his heart, killing him instantly. She then fled to the house of 
a Frenchman named Boutilier, and hid herself in the upper 
story. The Boutiliers, fearful that she might be discovered, 
tried to persuade her to leave the place, which she refused 
to do. 

Joseph and Thomas Cope having returned, and hearing from 
the other squaw how their father met his death, went in pur- 
suit, and tracked Labrador's wife to the house of Boutilier. 
Seeing the rage they were in, and believing that if they 
obtained possession of the fugitive they would instantly murder 

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her, the Boutiliei-s denied that she was in the house. The 
Copes lingered about the premises for some time, and then went 
home. In the night the guilty squaw effected her escape, and 
was not af terwaixls taken. 

The Indians had several places of burial in the county. At 
Indian Point, near Mahone Bay, there is a graveyard, to 
which Captain Cope's remains were taken, and the bodies of 
others who died at La Have and other settlements. Thither 
were brought from Gold River the remains of Fi'ancis, Newell, 
and Peter, father and bixjthers of John Penall, who lived near 
Gold River bridge, and who was a most expert fly-fisher for 
salmon, while Joseph, another brother, who also dieii at Gold 
River, " sleeps his last sleep " in the Roman Catholic burial- 
ground at Chester. 

Captain Chearnley erected over the grave of his forest guide 
a neat stone with the following inscription : 

** In Memory of Joseph Penall, Indian. 
By William Chearnley, A.D. 1869. 
Gone to death's * Call ' is Indian Joe. 

Moose-deer, rejoice ! 
Here, buried, rests your deadliest foe." 

The grandfather of these Penalls was Captain Penall, a 
Micmac, who at the age of fourteen years went with the British 
forces to the capture of Quebec. He said that many bodies of 
the dead lay close together, and showed how near they were to 
each other by holding up his fingers. 

The last Indian burial at Indian Point was about twenty- 
five years ago. The man was taken sick in the woods, and was 
cari-ied into the porch of John Andrews' house, where he died. 
It is said that some of the graves w^ere opened a few years ago, 
and bones taken away. This offence is made severely punish- 
able by the criminal code of Canada. 

There is an old Indian burial-ground near where Edward 
James, Es(i., now resides, between Block-house and Mahone 
Bay. It is on land formerly owned by the late Joseph Zwicker. 
Several families of Indians lived in that vicinity betw^een 

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eighty and ninety years ago. They were largely cut off by 
small-pox, and the rest moved away. 

The Indians had also a place for interment near WentzeFs 
(formerly Mackay's) Lake, on the New Germany road, in 
which was a cross about six feet in height, and having in the 
centre a plate of metal with some inscription or device. It 
was once removed, and almost as quickly restored, on notice 
sent by the Indians to the party trespassing that if it were not 
put in its place he would be shot. 

It is said that a squaw, who died intoxicated, was refused a 
place in the burial-ground of her fathers, and was interred on 
a small island in Mahone Bay. 

The skull and bones of an Indian, with a crucifix of copper, 
were dug out two feet and a half below the surface, near the 
site of the church at Conquerall, in 1868, by men working on 
the highway, of whom Solomon Eikel, comer of Pleasant 
River road, was one. The body is supposed to have been 
interred previous to the first settlement, and seemed to have 
been inclosed in birch bark. The Indian died in that vicinity, 
while on his way to or from his traps at Conquerall. 

Remains of pottery, parts of pans or other vessels (with 
curved rims, full of marks or indentations, each different from 
the rest), a stone pipe, lead (of two pounds' weight), a very small 
clay bottle, with fluted sides and rude glazing at the mouth,, 
and a lot of arrow-heads were discovered (some of them by the 
writer) in 1877, at Koch's Falls, near Bridgewater. 

A nicely made axe and a long chisel of stone were found 
respectively by Carl Wentzel, and Ebenezer Jodrey, near the 
bridge, on the east side of the river. 

Pieces of copper and needles of that metal have been 
found with arrow-heads at Bachmann's Beach, six miles from 
Lunenburg. The copper was obtained among the rocks at 
Cape d'Or. Mascarene wrote of " bits of copper spued through 
the crevicea" 

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348 history of the county of lunenburg. 

Petition of Joseph Soulnow. 

" New Germany, November the 11th, 1829. 
*' To HIS Excelencye's pleasure : 

"This petition is of grate concernment to me, poor Ingin, 
because if nobody care for poor Ingin what shall I do for the 
land that my Grate Granfather first oned before anybody was 
in Nova Scotia, was after his dead given to my Grandfather, 
from him to my father, then to myself and my brother, and 
now, it is gave away, and now, what shall I do. 

" If our Goveme new that I, poor Ingin, was a sober man, and 
he did no that poor Ingin whould have to starve, because he 
got no land, I think it whould please him to give him a peace 
to make a farm, if he could not give him my own land again, 
that was given me from our Govemer long ago, and layd out ; 
and the Govemer did sine my plan and me luse it, but we had 
cleared on it and planted appel trees, and fenced a gardin, had 
a sellar, an now me want to farm and nother man dont let me, 
but plenty Kings land if the his Excelency whould have mercy 
on poor Ingin, because no hunten in Nova Scotia he must all 
Die, so please to give poor Ingin only 100 each that we can 
plant and stick to our King, then we will all love our King and 
pray for God to Bless him, so Do not let poor Ingin starve 
Suner please to give him Land to work on then your humble 
petitioner will ever pray. 

"Joseph Soulnow. 

" Germy:* 

The Soulnows lived at Church Hill, near the New Germany 

The Micmacs were possessed of much native cunning. An 
illustration is afforded in the case of an Indian who once went 
to a country store in the township of Chester to purchase 
tobacco. Having obtained it, and being without money, he 
requested permission to leave his gun as a pledge for a short 
time until he should return with the cash, which was granted. 
A day or two afterwards, he entered the store in great haste, 
and pointing outside, shouted in a loud voice, and with as much 

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excitement as if he fancied himself already in pursuit of the 
animal, "Bear! bear! gun! gun!" Not wishing to deprive 
him of so good a chance to capture bruin, the storekeeper 
handed him his gun. The Indian, as if unwilling to be encum- 
bered in the chase upon which he seemed to be entering, left 
a small box and withdrew. On opening it a few beads were 
found, which was all the storekeeper's pay for his tobacco, 
while the Indian never returned to replace the gun, or tell 
whether he or bruin had the best of it. 

In 1861 there were thirty-eight Indians in the county. In 
1891, though there had been many deaths, there were fifty -nine 
returned as " all Micmacs." 

*^ The memory of the red man, 
It lingers like a spell, 
On many a storm-swept headland, 
On many a leafy dell. 

*' The memory of the red man, 
How can it pass away, 
While their names of music linger 

On each mount, and stream, and bay.*' 

The Micmacs are a much neglected people. While the bene- 
fits they derive from the civilization around them are small, 
their hunting-grounds have been destroyed, which has de- 
prived them of the means of living enjoyed by their forefathers, 
and they have been made familiar with vices to which they 
were formerly strangers. They are furnished, as if by way of 
acknowledging their changed situation, with a few blankets in 
winter, and in times] of great scarcity, with some additional 
provisions. We would fain see more done to place them above 
want and make their lives happy. A reminder of the Indians 
comes to us at least once a year, when, ere " pale concluding 
winter " sets in, we are favored with that brief but pleasant 
season, known to all as the Indian Summer. 

''Indian Summer! how like magic, 
Memories cluster at the name! 
Memories of a race long blighted, 
Of a wild, yet princely fame. 

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Fancy views the lowly wigwam — 
Dark-eyed maidens of rare charms, 
Sable chieftains in grave counsel, 
Dusky warriors, clad in arms." 

The Micmac is not the robust and energetic being he was 
when Nova Scotia was "Migguinahghee" — Micmac land — ^while 
the change in his dress and style of living would almost prevent 
his recognition by relatives of olden time. Seldom now, on 
beautiful bank or shore of rolling river or placid lake, is seen 
his cone-shaped dwelling of poles and bark, with the smoke 
gracefully curling from its summit, or near by, the "birch 
boat," which he and his propelled so swiftly on his native 
waters. His present habitation is generally a rudely constructed 
hut, or small house, close to a town or village, and he makes 
axe-handles, mast-hoops, • and other articles of woodenware, in 
which work he shows much neatness and skill, leading a life in 
a great degree incompatible with the desires natural to his race 

The following lines, written by a lady, a native of the county, 
may appropriately close these pages of Indian history : 

The Micmac's Wish. 

When our chiefs reigned alone, and the Indian was free. 

Then we owned all the soil, every river, and tree, 

And the woods had no path but our wQd hunter's track ; 

Oh ! I would that those days might forever come back ! 


All unnoticed we dwelt, underneath the deep shade, 
Had our choice of bright hillside, or green grassy glade ; 
Or we built our rude camps by some swift flowing stream, 
And our years were there quietly passed like a dream. 

The fierce beasts of the forest, wild birds of the air, 

And the fish of the river we had and to spare ; 

We could pluck the ripe berries, and smell the sweet flowers. 

And knew nothing of hunger, for all things were ours. 

When the cold winter came, we were sheltered and warm, 
For our brave pine trees vanquished the wind and the storm, 
While the beaver and bear furnished clothes without pay, 
And our fathers in peaceful old age passed away. 

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But alas, what a change ! now the white man is here, 

He has taken our lands, all our forests so dear ; 

His axe has demolished our sheltering pines. 

And his mill-dams have frightened the fish from our lines. 

Still it was not enough that usurpers should come, 
But they brought us those curses, tobacco and rum ; 
We have madly for those lost contentment and health, 
And for them we have bartered our food and our wealth. 

Now our people are scattered, our chiefs are all poor. 
And our little ones beg at the white stranger's door ; 
Oh ! we weep for the days when Acadia was ours, 
And when plenty and happiness reigned in her bowers. 

JBridgewatet. A. A. D. 

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Diary of Rev. James Munroe, and Recollections of Sevei-al Aged 


THE following description of Lunenburg and some of the 
outlying districts, and of cei-tain customs, as they 
appeared to a \'isitor a century ago, may be of interest to 
the reader. It was written by the Rev. James Munroe, a 
travelling missionary of the Church of Scotland, who w^as 
for some time settled at Newport, and who, when he died, 
was pastor at Antigonish. The date of the paper is indicated 
by a statement in one part of it, that an event occurred " in 
the year 1783, twelve years ago." This would connect it 
with 1795. 

" Lunenburg, so called from town of same name in Germany, 
the chief of the settlers being from that country. They began 
to settle here in the year 1753. They speak the high Dutch, 
and likely to continue the language, as divine service is per- 
formed in that tongue both in the Lutheran and Calvinist 
churches, which is the best mean to preserve the language they 
could have fallen upon, though possibly not designed for that 
purpose but because they best understood it, and it being fami- 
liar to them. The town of Lunenburg itself is but a small 
place — about seventy-three dwelling-housea The town is 
nearly a square, about a quarter of a mile long, and something 
less the other way, lying about north-west to south-east, in 
streets crossing each other at right angles along the head of the 
harbor, which is but indifferent. The houses are commodious 
enough, but not elegant. There are three places of worship in 
this small town near to one another — the Church of England, 
the Dutch Calvinists. and the Lutherans, and are all supplied 
with ministers. The minister of the Church of England is paid 

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from home, as the other clergy of that description are, but the 
other two are supported by their people by a voluntary sub- 
scription. The Lutherans are the most numerous; next to them 
the Calvinists. The Dutch Calvinists cleave to Calvin's doc- 
trine, or in other words the doctrines of the Scriptures, and are 
of the same persuasion as the Church of Scotland or the doc- 
trines contained in the Westminster Confession of Faith, larger 
and shorter Catechisms, though they do not treat of them in 
the same order in their form of sound words. They have also 
three orders of church officers — ministers, elders, and deacons. 
However, the Church in Lunenburg, I apprehend, is agreeable 
to the churches of that description in Germany ; differs a little 
from the Church of Scotland in dispensing the Lord's Supper. 
They dispense it four times in the year, but give no tokens of 
admission, so that the minister doth not know who is to com- 
municate till he or she comes forward to partake. But great 
pains are taken with the young people previous thereto to have 
them well instructed in the doctrines contained in their cate- 
chisms, which they must have upon their minds, and are obliged 
to attend upon their minister for that purpose for some time. 
In entering upon the solemnity there is a discourse suitable to 
the occasion preached upon the Saturday, and upon the Sabbath 
a sermon answering the end of the day. Then the minister 
reads the form appointed to be read at the time, and which 
contains warnings to such and such characters not to come for- 
ward, as it would add to their guilt and, of course, heighten 
their condemnation ; and on the other hand, encourages those 
whom they think have a right to come. This form as to matter 
may be said exactly to correspond with what the ministers of 
the Church of Scotland, according to their directory, deliver 
previous to their dispensing the elements, only the Dutch differ 
in this, in that the clergy are obliged to read this form, while 
the ministers of the Church of Scotland are left at discretion to 
deliver themselves agreeably to their directory. While this 
form and consecration prayer is read, the people stand in a 
decent and considerable solemn manner. Then, when this done, 

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the minister proceeds to dispense the elements, he himself 
communicating first. There is a table upon which the elements 
are placed, which stands in the area before the pulpit, and the 
people come forward in a regular, orderly manner and receive, 
all standing: 1, the minister; 2, the elders; 3, the deacons: 
4, the old men ; 5, the men of middle age ; 6, the young men ; 
7, then the old women, and so on, as was observed with the 
men, the young unmarried women coming last. This order 
they carefully observed, coming in a decent manner, coming 
up on one side of the table, till there may be about twelve or 
sixteen at a time standing round the table; the minister 
serving them with the bread out of his own hand, speaking a 
few words to each, as he sees their case requires. Then he 
gives the cup in like manner, and when the first hath received 
the cup, then he retires, so the second in order. And while 
they are retiring, others are coming on the other side of the 
table ; so that after the first table, they all know their place 
so well, that there is a constant coming and retiring till the 
whole are served, and that in a most regular and comely 
manner, without ever being disorderly. All the while they were 
communicating, which was, I suppose, about three-quarters of 
an hour, the congregation were singing hymns suited to the 
service, so that the whole congregation were employed ; so that 
the manner, though different from the churches of Scotland, 
was orderly and agreeable, and the whole gone about with 
considerable solemnity. A few might not retire with such 
gravity as others, or as might quite answer such a solemn 
service, yet this is the case, less or more, in every Society upon 
the same occasions. There would have been one hundred 
communicants. They have also a particular order as to the 
sitting in the church. The women sit all below. No men sit 
below save the deacons and elders ; the elders on one side of 
the pulpit, and the deacons on the other. The other men all 
sit in the galleries. And what is further to be observed, the 
young unmarried people are on one side of the church, and the 
married on the other. There are 143 families belonging to 
this congregation, scattered here and there. There are more 
families than these belonging to the Lutheran ^Ghurchi and 

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about seventy to the Church of England; though I am not 
certain as to the exact number of families either in the 
Lutheran Church or the Church of England, though I am not 
far from the truth. These three are the only denominations 
that are in the township, no doubt partly owing to the lan- 
guage, but more so to the aversion they have to these runners 
that drive through the country seducing the weak, credulous, 
and ignorant, for which they are to be highly commended. 
Had others behaved so, they would not have got such footing 
in the country. 

" Though the town of Lunenburg be but a small place, so 
is not the township; it is both extensive and populous. It 
extends from the River Le Have on the westward, and to 
Mush-a-Mush River, which will be about twenty miles, and 
reaches considerable back in the country; and is said to contain 
four hundred families, and near three thousand souls. There is 
this to be observed of Lunenburg, that it is not settled along 
any river or bay, as the most of the other towns in the Pro- 
vince are, but reaches back into the countiy. It is said to be 
settled nine miles back, and the farther back the better the 
land. There are several high ridges of land that reach back, 
and are the best land. Upon these ridges they have built their 
houses, and their farms about them. I allow that along the 
shore there are islands, or necks of land jutting out, which are 
settled, as well as back ; and upon the whole, to stand upon ah 
eminence, which ye soon come at, ye will observe an agreeable 
irregularity; that is, farms here and there, and under good 
cultivation, making an agreeable appearance. Indeed, when 
vegetation puts forth its strength, and nature clothes the 
fields with grass and grain, and the pastures with herds of 
cattle and flocks of sheep, all which are here to be seen in 
abundance, all the farms, as far as my eye could reach, seemed 
to be in good order. They have not dyke or marsh lands, as 
some other townships in the Province, as far as I know ; yet 
their land appears to be well suited for bearing good crops of 
grass. They do not raise much wheat, as it doth not answer, 
being subject to be blasted, excepting when sown with barley, 

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which they sometimes do, and then it answers better. Whether 
the barley be a repeller, to keep off the mildew, or whether it 
serves for a brush to clean it, I cannot say, yet I am well 
assured that, allowing there was a field of wheat entirely 
wheat, and another field alongside of it consisting of barley and 
wheat mixed together, that the wheat field should be blasted, 
while the wheat that was sown .among the barley, though 
alongside of it, should be safe. They sow rye upon their new 
land, but chiefly barley, which they make use of for bread. 
The Germans are an industrious people, and economists also, 
or saving. They may be said to work hard, and live hard, 
and their victuals, or way of living, is something peculiar 
to themselves, considerably simple fare in general. They in 
common seem to be a heavy sort of people, or phlegmatic; 
have not that liveliness as some others, nor do I think they 
have so strong passions, or capable either of sensations of 
mind, whether pleasant or painful, as some other people are. 
Nor do I think that their affection is so strong even towards 
the tender sex, because that they allow them to work at the 
hardest labor along with the men, such as hoeing, mowing, and 
reaping, and it hath been said upon them, that a man will sit 
in the stern of a boat smoking his pipe and let his wife row. 
These things would lead me to think that their affection for 
the tender sex is not so strong ; because if it was, they would 
not suffer them to undergo such hard labor, which, among the 
generality of people, falls to the man's share. Possibly neces- 
sity might first put them to it, and custom may give it sanction, 
and incline the women to this kind of labor, which many think 
should fall to the stronger's lot. They are commonly of a 
dark complexion, and a great many, even of the women, have 
but coarse featurea With respect to the women, no doubt it 
must be in some measure owing to their working out-of-doors, 
and at such hard labor, which may give a turn both to the 
features and color. They are plain and simple in their dress, 
for common, both men and women, though they be getting a 
little more gay than formerly. There is one thing said of 
them, that I mention with regret, and that is that some of 

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them are immoral in their lives, such as swearing and drink- 
ing, and profaning the Sabbath ; even drinking and quarrelling 
upon the Sabbath after divine service. But it's what hath 
been a grief to others of them, and means have been taken 
to prevent such things. They have also been charged with 
bringing things to sell, or to market, upon the Sabbath day — 
such as butter and eggs — and give for excuse that they live at 
a distance. But it's hoped they will see their error, and that 
those who have the execution of the laws respecting these 
matters will be resolute and faithful in the discharge of their 
duty, as a little resolution and perseverance, under the blessing 
of God, may conquer their obstinacy. It is not to be supposed 
that the people of this township in general behave so — not at 
all ; they are decent and sober, and it's said what hurt the 
morals of the people, the young people especially, was some 
settling among them after the American war. When the 
Germans first settled here, they were much indulged by Gov- 
ernment — had provisions, clothes, and laboring utensils given 
them. Provisions, it is said, were continued with some of 
them for the space of seven years ; though they might not be 
all faithfully served out by commissioners. For they seem to 
have much complained, which is a sordid, mean, base way of 
getting wealth, and a breach of trust, when they would detain 
from new settlers what Government was kind enough to 
bestow, and they doubtless had need of ; but such a covetous 
disposition are some that they stick at nothing, and ought 
to be held in abhorrence. The Germans are loyal subjects, and 
stood true to Government during the time of the American 
war, so that they have, in some good measure, recompensed 
Government for their trouble. Industrious, saving, loyal sub- 
jects are excellent subjects, and a great support to the con- 

" In Lunenburg town there is both a court-house and jail, 
and, which is to their honor, they are said to settle a great 
part of their matters by arbitration. The judges are careful 
to advise them to settle their matters in an amicable manner, 
which sometimes hath the desired effect. The cases that come 

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before the court are but few ; sometimes, indeed, eight or ten, 
at other times only two or three, which is a thing greatly in 
their favor, considering they are so very numerous ; and sure 
there cannot be a more hurtful thing, either to the peace of a 
society or its interests, than vexatious lawsuits ; though some 
are obliged to make use of the law in their own defence. 

" From Lunenburg nine miles to the westward, is Le Have 
River, dividing Lunenburg from New Dublin. This is a con- 
siderable large river, arising out of a large lake about sixteen 
or eighteen miles back in the woods. This river is a mile over 
for about five miles up, and abounds with salmon and alewives. 
The former come in the beginning of April, for common, and run 
a little more than two months. The latter come in May, and 
run about five weeks. The salmon is said not to be near so 
plenty as they were, owing, ^people think, to so many saw-mills 
upon the river. No doubt the sawdust, for one thing, and the 
dams, for another, prevent them getting up the river to the 
lake to spawn, or their catching them about the time they 
spawn. Whatever cause it may be owing to, the salmon are 
not near so plenty as they were in the rivers along the coast, 
and the people in general assign the above reasons for it. This 
river is navigable for about ten miles for vessels of forty tons 
burthen, and vessels of about five hundred may go up five 
miles, as the channel is about thirty feet deep, but on the bar 
only eighteen. There is a good harbor in the inside of the 
point where ships of five hundred tons burthen may ride 
safely, there being good holding ground and free from stones. 
There are seven saw-mills on this river, and pretty much 
employed. Of course there's a great deal of lumber shipped 
down the river. The river is settled on both sides a considerable 
way up, and makes an agreeable prospect. The lumber is getting 
scarcer, or is upon the decline, as the timber is getting scarce 
for several reasons, and people must go far back for it, and of 
course it makes it more inconvenient and expensive ; and this 
is the case all over the Province where I have been'. The fur 
trade is on the decline greatly, so is the fishing said to be, not 
only in the rivers, but along the coasts. Those that fish along 

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the coast say they do not catch them in such plenty ; this may 
be owing to the increase of those that catch them, who may be 
said yearly to increase. Though the above may be on the 
decline, yet I am certain agriculture is on the increase, and will 
be improving, as the country is but new. Of course we shall 
increase in what is more suitable for man's support. 

" Coming from Lunenburg to the westward and crossing Le 
Have River, ye come directly into New Dublin township, so 
called from Dublin, in Ireland. This township was settled, in 
general, by the Irish, about the year 1762. But these leaving 
the township by degrees, it came to be settled by the Germans. 
There was a town designed, and lots laid out for the purpose, 
on the south side of the river, and west side of the harbor, or 
upon the point facing the north, as you cross the river. But 
as people left their lots the design was dropt, though there 
is a good harbor where vessels of considerable burthen might 
lie at anchor with great safety. It's true the river freezes 
some part of the winter, which makes it inconvenient. This 
township extends from River Le Have to Port Medway, 
from north-east to south-west, which is about sixteen miles. 
It was taken up in different grants ; and one gentleman is said 
to have twenty thousand acres himself, which is a disad- 
vantage to it, in preventing its being settled; and when 
settled, will be of different people, who may be able to purchase 
of him. They are employed both in fishing and farming. They 
of Petit la riviere, or small river, which is a part of this town- 
ship, live chiefly by farming, having good farms and in good 
cultivation. The inhabitants of this small settlement are Irish, 
in general. The grain seems not to grow so long or high as I 
have seen it in other places ; and the bread is darker, but well- 
tasted. The mildew hurts the wheat ; but here, as well as in 
Lunenburg, when they sow it with barley, it is safe. However, 
it grows better here by itself than in Lunenburg, and as they 
sow wheat and barley together, so they grind them together for 
bread. Oats grow well in this township, and the barley still 
better. They have excellent potatoes and good English hay upon 
the cultivated fields. Cabbage grows well here, much better 

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than to the westward ; and still better do they grow in Lunen- 
burg. They send them to Halifax, and sell them by the dozen, 
at two shillings and sixpence, and three shillings, and some- 
times will sell at four shillings the dozen, if they are of a good 
quality. They send also to the same market, veal, lambs, 
butter, cheese, and poultry, such as fowls and geese, also oats 
and potatoes. Their fish are salmon, gaspereaux, eels, cod, 
mackerel, and dog-fish. The eels are taken in great plenty on 
the flats. The gaspereaux conie in May, and run about three 
weeks. Salmon come in the end of April, and run till about 
the middle of June, but chiefly in May. They begin to fish for 
cod also, in the latter end of April, and continue to October. 
The mackerel comes in the middle of June, and continues also to 
October, but not so constant. The dog-fish come about the 
middle of August, and run about two months, and are excel- 
lent for oil, but the fish is of no use, unless for dung to the 
land, or to give to their pigs. It will take about six hundred 
of them to make a barrel of oil. The baiTel sells at six or seven 
dollars. Two men in a season will catch as many as will amount 
to twenty barrels of oil, if the fish is anything good. Two men 
will catch about sixty quintals of codfish during the sea<son, 
and the quintal sells at twelve, thirteen, sometimes fifteen 
shillings. The haddock is also caught here in great plenty, and 
is much larger in this country than in Scotland, but neither so 
sweet nor so fat, neither have they in them any liver for oil, as 
in Scotland. The pollock is also caught here, much of the size 
of a salmon, rather larger. Scale fish, such as the haddock and 
pollock, sell for seven or eight shillings the quintal. 

" The inhabitants, especially of Petit la riviere, have got good 
dwelling-houses, and those of them that are industrious and 
saving, live comfortably. They have got no glebe, no place of 
worship, no minister of any religious persuasion, unless they go 
to Lunenburg. Nor have they school lot, nor burying-ground 
public ; some of them bury in their own land, and when any of 
them are interred in the neighboring burying-ground their sui'- 
vivors pay a small sum for it. When this is the case, they 
must be in a pitiable condition, in different respects, as their 

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children and themselves in general must be very ignorant. The 
number of families in this township is eighty-four — at five in 
the family, will be 420 souls. They may be divided into the 
Lutheran and Presbyterian persuasions. 

" From Le Have River to the little river, eight miles. From 
Small River to Broad Cove, where there are about five or seven 
families, four miles, all considerable good road. From that to 
Port Medway, more than four miles, indifferent road and small 

The Rev. Mr. Munroe refers to the hard work performed by 
women in this county. Men then needed all the help they could 
get to ensure aretum of the fruits of the earth, on which they 
depended for subsistence. They were following the custom of 
their fatherland, where women do too much of tbe men's work 
on farms, canals, and in other ways. There is a case referred 
to by a recent traveller, which very much resembles the one Mr. 
Munroe states he had heard of. " In the smaller or market 
boats it is not an uncommon sight to meet the woman with the 
loop of the tow-rope over her shoulders as she tugs along the 
tow-path, while the stout husband sits at the helm steering the 
craft and comfortably smoking his pipe." 

While it is true that many of the young women of our agri- 
cultural districts render material assistance in haying and other 
outside work, they are often seen playing nicely on some musi- 
cal instrument or working fine embroidery, and can take a 
creditable part in intelligent conversation. 

Hundreds of the men of the county, owners of small farms, 
are absent in the summer at deep-sea fishing. During their 
absence the women employ themselves hoeing potatoes and 
doing other farm work. This they supplement by the assistance 
they give on the return of the fishermen in spreading the fish 
for " making." It cannot be said that out-door work does not 
agree with them so far as health is concerned, for they are 
very strong and fresh-looking. A stranger, on seeing them, 
might exclaim: 

** How could such blossom grow on salted soil, 
Such bloom and beauty from a race of toil, 
Such grace and color near the deadening spr^^g^" GoOqIc 


The harder labor of the field can hardly be called a desirable 
occupation for women. The necessity for their engaging in it 
is fortunately all the while becoming less, and among the more 
enlightened of the people it is not now expected of them. 

Recollections of Early Days by Aged People. 

The following interesting account of his early life was given 
to the writer by Mr. Peter Zink — a man of remarkable vigor 
for his years — ^at his residence, Rous's Brook (the place where 
the first settlers landed), in December, 1878 : 

" I am over ninety-one years of age. I was born at Rose Bay, 
July 10th, 1787, and had seven brothers and one sister, who are 
all dead. My great-grandfather and grandfather came from 
Germany together. I lived at Rose Bay when the Teazer was 
blown up. She came from the westward. The men-of-war 
kept her in till she came to Flat Island, and then she passed up 
by the west end of Tancook, and boats were after her. The 
blowing up made a most awful crack, and everything shook at 
Rose Bay, about eighteen miles ofl^. 

" Fish used to be very plentiful in those days, a mile or so 
from shore. Many were caught near Rose Head and Grass 
Island — oftenest in shoal water. A man could catch three or 
four quintals of codfish in a day. Mackerel were very abundant 
— ^good large ones and fat. My brother and me, with four 
nets, caught 110 barrels from the last of June till September, 
and attended to the farming besides. The herring fishing was 
also good. If men had then laid out for fishing as they do now, 
they would have caught more than they could put away. Mr. 
Oxner, who lived atf the Five Houses, used to buy the fish 
caught and send them to the West Indies in a brig and a 

" I never was sick in my life, and was always a poor friend to 
the doctors. I belonged to the Lutheran Church. Mr. Schmeiser, 
from Germany, was the first minister who preached to me. 
People went from Bridgewater and beyond it, Mahone Bay, 
Kingsburg, Dublin Shore, and the islands, to church in Lunen- 
burg. Horses were not used then, and the people walked to 

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service and home again. There was no preaching round the 
country except at a funeral. When I was a boy there was only 
a path cut out from town to Rose Bay. My father was poor, 
and I often walked in barefooted. The people used to be so thick 
in the taverns they would tramp on my feet and hurt me. At 
last I gave up going in till I got shoes. If a man would not 
drink then he was not thought much of a man. The ministers 
did not check people enough for drinking. Every man kept 
liquor ; it was thought more of than wages. 

" In those days we had German schools. It was my hurt going 
to them ; I should have had English. The school-master was 
one Draver, from Germany. He spoke only German. He kept 
school in my grandfather Conrad's house, and had about forty 
scholars. We went early in the morning, and left at five 
o'clock. The master was very strict, and would not allow any 
noise. The Bible was read every day. I can read it in English. 
I learned it from my children. All the preaching used to be in 
German ; there is very little of it now. The old settlers brought 
their large family Bibles from Germany. My father could read 
well in German. 

** Wedding .times were kept up a day and a night — some- 
times longer. The people often walked many miles to town 
to be married. 

" I took great delight in clearing land, and used to work very 
hard, but I was never crazy at it like some folks, working day 
and night. People were much stronger in the early days than 
they are now, and wore less clothing. No flannels were worn, 
and linen for shirts was very coarse. There was no such thing 
as a fine Sunday boot. Low shoes, sharp in the toes, were used 
in walking; I have worn them in the snow. Short jackets 
were the fashion, and coats were not much used. I got my 
first coat when I was married ; it was a rather short coat with 
a split tail. In those days a coat had to last a long time. I 
often wonder how the people stood it with the clothing they 
wore, but if they had used the same we see now, the place 
would not be properly settled yet. They could stand the hard- 
est work with the clothing and food they had, and be strong 

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and healthy. Now there must be cakes and pies, and everjiihing 
good, where before there was barley bread." 

Mr. Zink died at Lunenburg, July, 1882, in the ninety-sixth 
year of his age. 

In the year 1880, the writer met with Hannah LangiUe 
(daughter of Frederick and Elizabeth Dauphinee, and mother 
of Gideon Langille, Esq., New Cornwall), bom at First Penin- 
sula, May 24th, 1790. The death of her husband was referred 
to, and she remembered the text from which Rev. Mr. Hurd 
preached the funeral sermon (Ecclesiastes viii., latter part of 
12th verse), and a hymn sung on the occasion, though more 
than twenty years had elapsed. She had twelve children, fifty- 
seven grandchildren and sixty great-grandchildren. Having 
been the oldest in the family she had to work hard, and had 
little time to receive public instruction. During a month's 
attendance at Mr. Newman s, in Lunenburg, one of her school- 
mates was the late Sheriff Kaulbach, whom she described as full 
of mischief, but a good boy. She thought there had been a 
great increase of pride and foolishness among the young folks 
since she was a girl. Her relatives said she was still an early 
riser and walked much about the place ; took delight in knitting 
(which she did well, without glasses) and other easy employ- 
ments ; read much, and was well informed in the Scriptures. 
Mrs. Langille was evidently a devout and humble Christian, 
enjoying a well-gi'ounded hope and patiently awaiting the 
summons for release. She was blest with good health until a 
few days before her departure, suffered very little pain, and 
died July 12th, 1884, in her ninety -fifth year. 

In 1887, two of the oldest women in the county, sisters, passed 
away from earth — Miss Catharine A. Arenberg, at Bridgewater, 
January 10th, in her eighty-ninth year ; and Mrs. Sarah Hubley, 
on Arenberg*s Island, June 5th, in her ninety-second year. 
They had both, with their sister Charlotte, lived on the island, 
which is a delightful spot in the La Have, a few miles below 
Bridgewater. They called it " Paradise Island." Their father 
and mother died there, each in their ^eighty-sixth year. Their 
two brothers also died, so that they had to work hard and 

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provide their own living. In speaking of the house, one of the 
sisters said : " The wall is four feet thick and eight feet high. 
Two of us women and a nephew about twelve years old carried 
stones on a hand-barrow and a wheel-barrow to help build it. 
I helped to shingle this house, and they said I did it as good as 
the carpenters. We sowed, reaped, and threshed wheat — 
threshed three-quarters of a barrel in one day. I planted 
the first tree. I wove that cloth that's on the table thirty-three 
years ago, and it's good yet. I wove a plaid dress twenty-two 
years ago, and that's good yet. We worked hard and were very 
saving, and the Lord was very, good to us. He said He would 
be the husband of the widow, and the father of the fatherless, 
and a good husband and father He is. He will provide if we ask 
Him in the right way. I was confirmed in the Lutheran Church. 
I respect any Church, and any minister, if he is good. There is 
one Bible, and one way to heaven. My grandfather, Frederick 
Jonas Arenberg, was born in Germany, and kept the firat house 
of entertainment in Lunenburg town. He had nineteen children 
by one wife. My father, mother, cousin, and niece are buried 
on this island. I carried so much hay on hay-poles with my 
sister that I started something, but I never was much sick. I 
caji cut and saw wood like a man. My uncles Henry and 
Frederick were coming from Halifax and were lost. Some of 
their books and a dog were found on Duck Island." 

Charlotte Arenberg, a sister of the women above named, 
living near Bridgewater; was seen by the writer in March, 1894. 
She said : 

" My father, George Arenberg, came from Germany. I will 
be ninety-one years old next May. Before we went to the 
island we lived on the main, a little below Josiah Rudolf's. My 
father had thirteen brothers and several sisters. I had five 
sisters and two brothers, and I am the only one of the family 
living. When I was yoiing there used to be a great deal of 
small-pox, measles, and slow fever about the country, but they 
don't seem to come so much now. Dr. Harley came out from 
Lunenburg to see the sick. He had a great run. He vacci- 
nated me, and three days afterwards he came along and saw me 
out-of-doors, and boxed my ears and told me to go to bed ^^t^ 

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"In those times we all walked to Lunenburg, over eight miles, 
to church, and came back in the evening. I was confirmed in 
the Lutheran Church by Mr. Temme. He asked me a question 
in German and I couldn't answer it, and he got cross. He was 
s, touchy old fellow. There were three ministers in Lunenburg. 
Aulenbach — I think he was a Lutheran — used to come out from 
town and bury people who died in the countrJ^ 

" All my friends of those days are dead. I have never had 
much sickness. I feel very well now, only a dizziness in my 
head when I have a cold. I can read and sew a good deal of 
the time without glasses. My sister Sally died on the island. 
She took her dinner and tea, and had been well as usual. After 
a while she asked me what o'clock it was, and I said it was six. 
Then she fell in the doorway dead. My sister Catharine, who 
died in Bridgewater, had never been much sick in her life. I 
don't think father ever paid much doctor's bills for his children. 
In June, 1893, 1 had been across the river, and walked about 
among my friends the Mullochs and others, and when I came 
back to this side Mr. Alexander McDonnell took me in his 
waggon ; but I could walk all right. I can walk to Conquei-all 
Bank like nothing. Just before last Christmas I walked from 
Bridgewater to my nephew's, William Hebb's, a mile and a half. 
I walked down here to-day to mind the children while Mrs. 
Oakes went to the Bank." 

John Thompson. 

" Bridgewater, November 8th, 1888. 
" I was bom in Loughborough, Leicestershire, England. I 
came from Annapolis to Waterloo, through the wild woods. 
Michael Wile was then the only man in the back settlement. 
George Wile had a small clear farther out. Charles Himmel- 
man lived about a mile in from Pleasant River road. Waggons 
were not owned. Sleds were used in summer, with runners of 
rock maple hewed with an axe. The Dutch yokes used then 
were very roughly made. Lumber was sawed at Lapland, the 
next settlement. It was piled at the mill, and left for a year, 
to make it lighter to haul to market. I lived with Michael 

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Wile when I first came. On starting for myself, I had a small 
log-house thatched with straw. I cleared land for five years 
before settling down, and I'aised my own provisions. At first 
we used herb tea. We steeped branches of hemlock, and drank 
it as tea, sweetened with maple sugar, and also used the box 
berry. I had my first grain ground at George Hebb's mill, the 
only gi-ist mill this side the river. I used to take it in bags, on 
a sled. I raised fine root crops, and had splendid wheat in 
the burnt land. Wheat would do well still, if the soil was 
drained. We often went to church at Lunenburg, over twenty 
miles from home. I had to walk there to post letters for 
England, and when I expected any, had to go there for them. 
The first mail from Lunenburg was brought on horseback. 
Timber of gi'eat size grew in the forest. There were trees more 
than two feet across the stump, and over sixty feet high. There 
are none so large now. We used to dress like the Germans, and 
had woollen sleeves knit by the women and caps of the same 
material. What was called "petticoat and bed-gown" was 
worn by females, and they had something like a handkerchief 
for the head. There were no spinning-wheels but of the rough- 
est kind. The thread used was made at home. Men wore 
moccasins made of moose-skin, which was washed and dried, 
and pounded with a mallet of wood, to make it as much like 
leather as possible. All the clothing I have on to-day was made 
by my wife. The girls used to go to Lunenburg, with eggs in 
withe baskets made by themselves. They walked barefooted to 
the Spectacle lakes, where they washed their feet, and put on 
stockings and shoes made together, out of old woollen petticoats 
axid bed-gowns. Rudolf was the only merchant in Lunenburg 
then. I have paid $10 a barrel for rye flour and corn-meal 
at Lunenburg. The third year I was in Waterloo, we brought 
flour up the river by a raft, or roughly formed boat, to where 
Miller's store was. Four of us had been to Lunenburg with 
treenails, for which we got $10 a thousand. From Miller's to 
Lunenburg the stumps had been taken out of the road. Much 
of the way from Waterloo was over cradle hills and stumps, 
and I have hauled out oakstaves in the summer with cattle 

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and sled. The roads made at first were rough and very narrow. 
We had often to cut notches in the large stumps when waggons 
were first used, to let the hubs pass through. The winters were 
very severe in those times, but we did not mind it as much as 
we do cold weather now. When we were hunting, and some- 
times in travelling, we cut down branches and made a bed on 
the snow, with a big fire in front. I came from Waterloo to 
Miller's store many times, with a basket of eggs on my head, 
and another in one hand, and one of butter in the other ; and 
returned home the same day, or at night. Times are not as 
they used to be. It is a pity that young people do as they do 
now about dress. There is too much pride, and too much care- 
lessness in the way of working." 

John Adam Fiendel. 

"Bridgewater, February, 1889. 
"I was bom near Bridgewater, March 19th, 1800. Will be 
eighty-nine next month. My father was John Fiendel. He 
and my grandfather, George, came from Germany. I was four 
years old when I went with my father to New Germany. The 
road was rough. He wrapped me in a blanket and took me on 
horseback. We had to ford the river by James Mossman's, 
Riversdale, where the railway bridge is now. The horse 
struck a rock and threw us in the water. My father moved to 
where Ephraim Fiendel now lives by the lake. He dug a 
trench, or hole, in the side of a hill, and covered it with 
spruce boughs and birch bark. Poles were put down for a 
chamber floor, and these were covered with ground. When 
they moved about below, the earth would fall through. The 
lower floor was made with poles. Sometimes they split them 
— they had no boards. William Woodworth moved there a 
few days after, near father. We lived there a spell, and got 
out of provisions, and had nothing to eat for three days but 
fish, caught in the lake, and milk. The fish were caught with 
hooks made of pins ; they were white and yellow perch, and 
trout. The Indians (Solnows, Jeremies, and others) used to 
dip salmon, sometimes as many as eighty in a day, at Indian 

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Falls. Lohnea and my father once put a net in an eddy under 
the falls. It sunk, and they did not find it till the water fell 
away in the summer. Bones of salmon were left in the meshes. 
Salmon would try to jump over the falls, and would strike the 
rocks and fall down helpless, and then come to again. In 
dipping, three salmon would often be got at once. Alewives 
would get up to the falls, and the people would dip them in 
large quantities. They were taken in ox-teams to Lunenburg 
and other places. In planting potatoes, the Indians used as 
manure the shad and alewives which they could not eat. 

"The meadows gave hay for cattle. This induced people 
to move in. My father used to winter cattle from Bridgewater. 
He turned his cattle out the last week in March, and they made 
their own living in the woods. 

" We had to go sometimes to Lunenburg to church, and would 
get to La Have on Saturday, and to town on Sunday morning. 
Parson Cochran used to preach at New Germany, sometimes 
in Joseph Morton's barn, near Barss's comer, and at other times 
in John Fiendels barn. He used to come even in snow-storms, 
and often stopped all night at my house. Once he was much 
hurt by a fall from his horse stumbling. After many years a 
church was built. Bishop Inglis consecrated it. Great crowds 
were there. 

** Thomas Penny went to New Germany a year or two after 
us. He was a very large and strong man, and would carry a 
bushel and a half of potatoes on his back from Bridgewater 
to his home. It was a good while before there were waggon 
roads. We had to take butter to Lunenburg, our nearest 
market, for some years in baskets by hand. 

" Men and women wore home-made clothing. My wife spun 
flax and wool, and I carded it with hand cards. Sometimes 
we had a piece of check for a woman's dress. My wife wore 
one in Bridgewater. An officer from Halifax heard that a 
woman there had such a handsome dress on ; he saw it, and 
admired it much. It was of different colors, and looked fanci- 
ful and well. 

" Father took us to old Mr. Henry Cook's, and he was very 

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kind to us. He asked me if I could make him a wooden hat 
I stripped yellow birch with a jack-knife and braided it for 
the hat. My mother sewed it. I took it down, and Mr. Cook 
put it on, looked in the glass, and told his wife to pay me. It 
was quite light. A bear came out and killed one of Mr. Cook s 
lambs, and my father said I could make a trap. I built it with 
stakes and weight. Mr. Cook said, ' How many ways did you 
leave for him, sonny ? ' I said two, because I had built it with 
two doors so that a bear could go in either way. One was soon 
caught, and Mr. Cook sent a paw and a piece of meat to show 
that the trap had succeeded. 

" I had a fine farm, one of the best in New Germany, after 
much hard work. I cut from twenty to thirty tons of hay, 
and kept eighteen or twenty head of cattle, two yoke of 
working oxen, and three horses. We made butter and cheese 
in large quantities. A man came *once from Liverpool for 
cheese, and bought eight, sweet and good. I did the shoe- 
making and wove plenty of homespun. I made £9 in cash with 
a hand loom, in one winter, working for different persona I got 
sixpence and sevenpence a yard for weaving. It was a long 
time before stoves were used. We had big fireplaces, and used 
to pack in logs enough in one to heat the whole room. La Have 
bridge was built long after we moved to New Germany. I 
can remember when there was no street in Bridgewater, only a 
path through the bushes. 

" Melchior Broom, who was frozen to death in the woods, 
had a store where old Mr. Newcomb afterwards lived. He had 
no goods for sale, but used to keep what coasters brought for 
the people till they could haul them home. 1 can also remem- 
ber when there was not a single building of any kind where 
Bridgewater is. James Nicholson came over here and built 
one of the finst houses — the one Mr. Harley had afterwards. 

" In those times people used a great deal of rum, and it 
killed lots of them, "as it has done in other places. I saw a man 
killed at Lunenburg from rum. He was a Niforth, Clerk of 
Militia. A Conrad killed him. They were drinking all night, 
and at daylight they came to blows. Niforth was from 
Kingsburg ; he died in an hour after he was struck. Conrad's 

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brother told him to strike Niforth under, and in doing so the 
blow killed him. When the militia were drilled at Lunenburg, 
many used to stay all night in the tavema You could find but 
few people who didn't drink. There was not so much drinking 
at New Germany as outside of it. What afiects the brain 
injures the system. 

" When I was fourteen I went partridge hunting, after a 
little fall of snow. I found a moose lying down ; I put in a 
bullet I had and killed him. He weighed about four hundred 
pounds. We had moose meat instead of partridges. Flint- 
locks were used then altogether. I went with a Waterman, 
who was making ton timber with my father to be rafted to 

" I saw eighteen caribou, twelve in the first lot, and half an 
hour afterwards six moi:e, travelling on the ice down the New 
Germany Lake, just walking in the middle of it. They went 
into the woods — a pretty sight. It was a good show. One day, 
when the ice was quite smooth, we saw a large otter and a 
wild-cat. The dogs went after the otter ; he got away in the 
woods, then they followed the wild-cat and killed him. A 
neighbor's dog (Carver s) went in the woods and brought out 
the otter on the same track it went in, and the dogs killed it 
on the ice. The wild-cat had its teeth broken on a steel trap I 
had set. It was a very exciting time ; they were about twenty 
rods apart. The otter seemed to be going down, and the wild- 
cat up, the lake .The wild-cat was very large. The otter-skin 
brought fifteen shillings. We used to catch lots of bears, 
moose, otters, wild-cats and other animals. Simpson's and 
Ramey's cattle were killed by bears. I set two traps and 
caught two beara. I killed seven moose. A little dog I had 
scratched at a hole returning from the woods, and an otter 
came out and killed him. I went out one evening and called a 
moose. He answered me. Then I called too much, and he 
detected my deceit. He was quiet ; no more sound ; couldn't 
get Aim." 

Mr. Fiendel died at the residence of his son, Mr. Ariel Fiendel, 
Bridgewater, January 10th, 1891, in his ninety-first year, and 
on the twentieth anniversary of the death of hi^^^^C^OOQlc 

372 history of the county of lunenburg. 

Michael Wile. 

" Waterloo, April 4th, 1894. 
" I am a son of Andrew Wile who lived where David Wile 
now resides, near Bridgewater, and was eighty-five years old, 
6th of February last, I was the first man who came to what 
is known as Waterloo Settlement, and I built the first house, 
the lumber for which I hauled from George and Michael Hirtle's 
mill, at what is now Newcombville. Michael was my wife's 
father. We lived here for three years without any neighbors. 
George Hirtle was the next man who came in, followed by 
John Hirtle. I was five or six years without any road. At 
first I used long sleds. When I went to Lapland for boards in 
the summer, I took a sled. We had no regular roads or waggons. 
John Heckman, M.P.P., gave road money to old Mr. Frossel. I 
had the first horse, but it was after I had been here over twenty 
years. Mathias Wentzel, at Bridgewater, made my first ox- 
waggon. When we came here, Bridgewater was nothing. There 
were no shops there but Hotchkiss's shoe shop ; I went to Lunen- 
burg to do my shopping. After the road was made, I brought 
my goods with horse and waggon to my father's, and from there 
with an ox-team. There was no post-oflSce, and we had no 
letters nor papers. We went to Bridgewater and hefud Rev. 
Joshua W. Weeks preach in several places ; one was John Hyson's 
house. He was a fine, clever, good man. Rev. H. DeBlois 
preached here in William Wile's house, nearly forty years ago. 
I used to buy biscuit from Mr. Eaulbach, in Lunenburg, baked 
by him, for five dollars a barrel The first flour I used was 
from my own wheat. I raised one hundred bushels in a season, 
and sold a lot of it for two dollars a bushel. John Frossel had 
a log-camp about two miles north-east from me, but not in the 
Waterloo Settlement; still it was called Waterloo. He came 
from Germany. The land grew hardwood when I settled here. 
There was much rock maple, two and three feet through. I can 
show you the stump of an old black birch three feet across ; oak 
and ash were of immense size. I made half a thousand puncheon 
staves out of one tree. Captain Hines came out here some years 

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ago, and got a piece of oak thirty feet long and fourteen inches 
square. In old times we had ash two and two and a half feet 
through. We often had boards of those widths. The top of 
this table, in use over fifty years, is twenty-six inches across, 
made of one pine board. I helped to cut down a pine in Lap- 
land four feet through. We could easily get thi'ee barrels of 
sap out of one large maple, and used to have six barrels of sap 
standing at once. We made two hundred pounds of sugar in a 

" For light, in early times we had lamps with fish-oil, the 
wicks placed in spouts at the sides. Over the lamp was a funnel, 
big at the bottom, and above a barrel was turned over it, in 
which lamp-black was gathered, and which was sometimes sold. 

" I was quite a moose-hunter. I shot my first one about three 
miles away, the second year of my residence here, and got the 
hide tanned with alum at Lunenburg, out of which I had a pair 
of trousers, and wore them in the burnt land. The women cut 
them out, and I made them. This was a great moose country, and 
it was while I was hunting that I saw this hill and took a fancy to 
it. Some of us were out once, and my brother George and I were 
together, away from the rest. I fired and struck a moose twice, 
and he turned on us. We had to get up trees, and had our 
fingers full to save ourselvea When he moved a little away, we 
came down, and I killed him with the third shot. He weighed 
about eight hundred pounds. Sometimes men would kill ten 
in a season. There were also plenty of caribou and bears. 
When I had a camp, the bears stole my provisions while I was 
off to my old home. After I had my first house built, I left a 
lot of things for food tied in a bag, which I hung up when I 
left to go to father's place. The bears tore out the sashes and 
carried all away. Indians used to camp on the brook near this, 
and catch otter, mink, and other animals for fur. Fine trout 
were caught in the streams, but the mills have interfered with 
the fishing. 

" Mr. James Dowling s father taught school in my house for a 
couple of winters. He walked out from Lunenburg. He was a 
good teacher and a fine man. Our first school-house was built in 

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a hurry. There were not many children, and we decided to have 
a building 18x20 feet. Four of us went into the mill on Monday 
morning to saw the frame. While some were sawing, the rest 
were framing outside. We put it up, roofed it, and boarded it 
in, so as to be dry and comfortable, and on the next Wednesday 
morning the teacher and scholars met in it and commenced the 

Mr. Wile died at Waterloo, April 8th, 1895, aged eighty-seven 

Mrs. Wile said : " I used to be much alone when I first came 
here. The third day after arrival, while Mr. Wile was hunting, 
I heard the cry of a cat-owl, a sound I had never heard before, 
and I was terribly frightened. I looked out, and after a while 
I saw my husband's leather cap, and knew he was coming 
through the woods. When he came in I was white as a sheet, 
and he told me what made the strange noise. On the evening 
of that day fifteen moose-hunters arrived, and went off the next 
morning. When I lived at Summerside I saw a woman from 
New Germany going to Lunenburg on horseback, dressed in 
petticoat and bed-gown (a sort of loose calico jacket). This was 
Mrs. John Fiendel, mother of John Adam Fiendel. She used to 
go in that way alone to Lunenburg. John Zwicker, an Oxner, 
and a Rudolf were the only merchants in Lunenburg as early 
as I can remember. 

" When we made maple sugar in old times the sap would now 
and again get slimy and wouldn't come to sugar, and then it 
was boiled for candy. We had a pot which held six pails of 
sap, another four, and others one and two pails. Three were on 
the crane in the big fireplace at one time. We sometimes boiled 
two barrels of sap at once. 

" I used to take my little children in a big basket to the field 
where I was reaping or doing other work, and spread a quilt in 
between the stumps and put them on it, and place another 
quilt above them for shade. We had to work hard in those 
days, but we were very happy." 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 375 

Catharine Ramey. 

" Lakeville, Lapland Road, April 6th, 1894. 

" I am the widow of John Ramey, and daughter of Leonard 
Nagler, who lived near Conquerall Bank. He and another man 
left the river in a schooner, many years ago, for Halifax. They 
were never heard from, and it was believed they perished in a 
terrible storm. I will be ninety-one years old on next Sunday, 
April 8th. I had eight children. I have living thirty-one out 
of thirty-four grandchildren, and none of my twenty-seven 
great-grandchildren are dead. When I was a young girl I took 
care of John Vienot's children ; he used to frame buildings. 
Melchior Broom lived on the place where James Hirtle lives, 
opposite the Exhibition Building, Bridgewater ; Mr. Vienot, near 
where James Tobin lives, and Nicholas Conrad on property now 
occupied by James Heckman. When I was about nine years 
old, I and a little boy carried dinners to Mr. Vienot, when he 
was working at the house Frederick and Garrett Wile built on 
the place where Joshua (W. J.) Wentzel now resides. There 
was only one other house in Bridgewater, a small one by the 
river, in which old Mr. Hotchkiss lived ; and there was a store 
down by Newcomb's Brook to keep goods in till the people for 
whom they were brought could haul them home. There was 
no bridge then. I saw horses sometimes wade across near where 
the dam is now, and I have seen them swim aci*oss below. I 
used to wade over and go to my Uncle Peter Hirtle's, who lived 
on Bolman's Hill. There was only a rough roadway cut out by 
the river on the Bridgewater side. We had to walk to Lunen- 
burg to church, and the road was very lonely, with but few 
houses. Michael and Jacob Hirtle lived at Summerside ; John 
Hirtle, on the hill this side of the mill ; then there was John 
Koch's, and Philip and John Crouse lived farther on. John 
Wentzel kept the Half-way House. 

" I was confirmed in Lunenburg by Parson Temme. I walked 
in with others once a week during the summer to be taught by * 
the minister for confirmation, and the last month I stayed at 
his house. Mr. Temme was cross when we didn't know our 

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lessons. His wife was Parson Schmeiser's daughter, and a fine 
woman. There were no schools about the country where I was. 
My father taught me my A B C's, and then I learned to spell. 
When I was a young woman I lived in Lunenburg ten years. 
I was at Dr. Bolman's. He used to have friends come from 
Halifax. One was a lawyer — Sawers. I also Jived with his 
son, a doctor, and with Charles Bolman the lawyer. The Bol- 
mans were fine people. Mr. Aitken was the Church minister : 
Temme, Lutheran : Moschell, Presbyterian, and Pope, Methodist. 
I lived a year at Mr. Temme's. When he was going into the 
country, he would get into his covered waggon in the bam, and 
I would take dow^n the bar and let him out. He was coming 
one day to the Branch with his daughter Augusta, for a mar- 
riage and some baptisms, and I w^as all ready to walk out home. 
After he left the bam. I ran down over Gallows Hill and trav- 
elled behind his carriage. He got out at Charles Rudolf's, 
eight miles from town, and saw me close by, and said, ' For 
goodness* sake, girl ! how did you get here V I came out pretty 
fast. My brother, apprentice to Newcomb, put me across the 
river, and I had a short visit home, when old Mr. Haine put me 
over again and I walked back to town, and was there before 
the parson. 

" When I lived home, clothing was of material woven there. 
We made our own thread, except a little very fine. I had to 
spin for upper and under clothes. People thought they were 
well dressed from their own weaving. The firat dress I l)Ought 
was from John Zwicker, in Lunenburg. It was cotton, and 
eight yai-ds for four dollars. White cotton was from two to 
three shillings a yard. Women's bonnets had a flat round 
piece behind, and were up high, with a small forepart. Shoes 
were made at first by patching the soles of thick stockings 
with pieces of old bed-gowns, or such like stuff, and sometimes 
tanned sheepskin was used. Low shoes were worn afterwards, 
and we also had buskin shoes. Some had shoes with buckles. 
The first shoes I had were made by Mr. Packley, below Con- 
querall Bank. They cost ten shillings, and I paid for them by 
planting and hoeing potatoes at fifteen pence a day. 

" Mr. Moschell was the first minister I heard preach at 


Bridgewater. He buried old Mrs. Honicle Conrad, and 
preached in the house. 

" I was at the first wedding Mr. Coasmann had. He came 
out to Bridgewater and married Nicholas Conrad to his fourth 
wife. Weddings in old times lasted often a day and a night, 
and part of next day. They had fiddles and dancing and 
great feasts, with plenty to eat and drink. Some had more 
drink than they should have had. 

"George Hebb had the first horse. Old Mr. Haine below 
the shipyard had the next one, and then old Mr. Harry Koch 
had one. John Wile got two, and he and his wife each had 
one to go together on horseback to Lunenburg. They lived 
where Norman Wile lives now. 

" I was up all last week. To-day I had to stay in bed, on 
account of rheumatism in my back. I can read in this German 
Bible. I put my trust in the Lord. I see all the old people 
going, and I feel as if I should go too. I am ready to die, but 
must wait till the Lord comes for me." 

She died February 23rd, 1895, in her ninety-second year. 

John George Fiend fl. 

"Farmington, New Germany, Au2:ust 16th, 1895. 
" I was the first white child bom in New Germany, and will 
be ninety years old if I live to January 5th next. When I was 
a boy, there were no roads in this part of the country. I saw 
John Pemette survey the first lines. We had to meet many 
difficulties. Our house was a very poor one, covered with hem- 
lock bark. My father built a saw-mil! where James Fiendel 
lives. We took grain to Kaulbach s mill, at North- West, and 
went in by Steverman's Corner, and on to the mill, where Kaul- 
back sent us rations to eat. We took a day to go, arriving 
about sunset, and one to return. The grain was ground at 
night. I once took about four bushels of rye on the horse's 
back, and at Birch Hill, back of Riversdale the bags fell off. I 
brought the horse alongside a tall stump, and rolled the bags 
up it, and on to his back. There was no road for a waggon, 
and there was not a carriage in this part of the country. Our 
comforts were few. I made many a meal of potatoes and sa|fe 


and potatoes and milk. We had woods tea, and some made of 
garden herbs. My mother once bought a pound of shop tea for 
a dollar, and put it in her trunk, and got it out when friends 
came along. I wore shirts and trousers made of tow. Weaving 
was generally done plain, with one thread ; now it is twilled 
with two threads. I had shoes made of rawhide. We used to 
walk to Bridgewater by a rough path full of stumps and 
stones. We went to church in Lunenburg, reaching Bridge- 
water Saturday evening. My father and mother brought 
things out to the foot of Wentzel's Lake. My mother walked 
along the shore with a tow rope, and ray father stood in the 
boat, and with an oar kept it from the shore, and by drawing 
and rowing they came to Morgan's Falls. We used to take 
people up the New Germany Lake, and land them on the 
other side, before there was a road. When I was a boy, 
I took a half bushel of potatoes on my back a mile, and 
planted them in the burnt land, and dug thirteen bushela 
In early days wheat grew well. I sowed a bushel and 
a half, and raised thirty-three bushels. The next spring I 
sowed three bushels, and had eighty-three bushels. You can't 
get such crops now. The woods were full of wild animals. 
I have killed twenty moose — the first one when I was fifteen 
yeara old. I have seen twenty-four caribou in one flock. One 
day a gang of seven or eight men went after a moose. I saw 
him near where Lewis Arenberg lives, and was setting the dogs 
at him, when he made for me. I got on a tree that was partly 
broken off My brother Michael came along with an axe, 
and the moose was disabled. Arenberg, Michael, and I sat on 
'him, and when the men who stai-ted him arrived, I asked them 
where he was, as they did not see him till we got up. 

" There was plenty of the finest timber, and every man could 
cut it where he liked. 

" I have been married twice, and am the father of thirteen 
children, ten of whom are living. I have enjoyed good health 
through life, but my hearing is not now as it used to be." 

The above statement was made at the house of a relative, to 
which Mr. Fiendel and his wife had driven, about five miles 
from their own home. Digitized by GoOglc 


Remarkable Instances of Longevity — Epitaphs — Old German Bibles. 

AMONG those who have been laid away to rest in the church- 
yards of this county, a very large number have attained 
to great age, and some of them were centenarians. Many 
exhibited to the dying hour a wonderful retention of health 
and enjoyment of their faculties. 

Charlotte Regina Douglas, daughter of the late John Moss- 
man, of Kingsburg, died many years ago, aged 100 years and 
10 months. Her only sister died at ninety-six, and their 
youngest brother at over eighty years of age. 

Johanna Barbara Kaulbach, wife of the first and mother of 
the last Sheriff Kaulbach, attained the age of one hundred 
years on the 11th day of February, 1869. Of her descendants, 
119 were then living, while forty- four had preceded her to 
rest. The whole number included fourteen children, sixty-one 
grandchildren, eighty-three great-grandchildren, and five great- 
great-grandchildren. She retained the use of all her faculties^ 
except that she w^as in some measure deprived of hearing; 
recollected the events of her early years, and could read and 
knit without glasses. On the above-named anniversary of her 
birth, she received at her residence in Lunenburg more than 
one hundred visitons, and in the evening entertained a large 
number of her relatives. Before the latter separated, prayers 
were oflTered by the Rev. H. L. Owen, with thanks for God s 
extended goodness to His aged servant. On the day on which 
she attained 101 years, she went out for a sleigh-drive and 
(lined with the Hon. John Creighton. She died April 21st, 
1871, aged 102 years. 

Mrs. Kaulbach had seen part of the picket fence which the 
early settlers had erected from the front to the back harbor, 
to help protect Lunenburg from the Indians. Digitized by GoOqIc 


A few weeks before her death she was out driving with her 
grandson, H. A. N. Kaulbach, Esq. (now Senator), who says she 
was then active, required no help in getting into the carriage, 
was a fluent talker, and was possessed of all her faculties in an 
extraordinary degree. 

Thomas Cotton Hallamore, a native of Falmouth, England, 
died at New Cornwall, April 18th, 1875, aged 102 years, 7 
months and 13 days. He came to this country in the brig 
Jane, with General Bowyer, when he was sent out to relieve 
General Ogilvie. When he was over ninety-six years of age, 
the writer saw him in his son s barn removing straw, the grain 
from which had just been threshed out, and in reply to an 
inquiry about his health, he said, " Oh, I am very well, you 
know ; only a little deaf." He spoke of John Wesley, whom he 
knew intimately. He had heard him preach, and met him 
frecjuently at his father's house. 

Margaret Lohnes died at the home of her son, by New Ger- 
many Lake, Februaiy 9th, 1882, aged 101 years, 1 month and 
15 days. Mrs. Lohnes had always been free from serious illness 
until seven years before her death. During these years she 
was confined to bed, having lost the use of her limbs. Before 
this affliction came, she could spin and knit and do other work 
as w^ell as in earlier life. She could not read English, and spoke 
it only to a limited extent, but she was able to read her German 
Bible, and without glasses. Her memory was exceedingly 
good. She suflFered much from severe pains in her limbs, and 
expressed a desire to be taken to a world where there was no 
sickness. On the day of her death she lay from early morning 
until about two o'clock, as if asleep, and then parsed very 
quietly away. She was a member of the Lutheran Church, and 
while unable to attend public worship, she was visited by 
Rev. C. Cossmann, who held services and preached in the 
house, which was to her a source of great comfort. 

Elizabeth Reynolds was born on an island near Chester Basin, 
and was first married at Halifax, in 1812, to Joseph Bruin 
Comingo, a grandson of Rev. Bruin Romcas Comingo, commonly 
called Brown ; and was again married, in 1827, to Worden 

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Beck with, of Comwallis. He died March 25th, 1840. Mrs. 
Beckwith lived with Robert A. Smith, Esq., of Chester, for 
nearly half a century, until her death, December 9th, 1893, 
at the age of 100 years, 11 months and 22 days. Mrs. Smith, 
whose maiden name was Eliza Brown (Comingo), was a 
daughter of deceased — ^bom at Lunenburg, June 29th, 1820, and 
died at Chester, March 11th, 1894. Mrs. Beckwith was con- 
sidered quite a belle in her younger days, and had always a 
lovely face, which was shown in a well-executed portrait on 
ivory. She was of a bright and cheerful nature, had no serious 
sickness for fifty years, and altogether did not keep her bed for 
a month. Mrs. Smith said that of all the persons in the house 
she had given the least trouble. Her memory was remarkable. 
She gave, in a conversation with the writer, in August, 1893, the 
particulars of an incident connected with his early school-days, 
over sixty years before, and which she remembered as clearly 
as if it had been of recent date. About four years previous to 
her death, she made for her great-granddaughter, Miss Pearl 
Smith, a quilt of several thousand pieces. The work was of the 
best and done without glasses. 

Michael Barkhouse, son of Jacob Barkhouse, was bom near 
Gold River, township of Chester, and when a young man lived 
with Valentine Zwicker at Block-house. He moved thence to 
Lower Cornwall, and afterwards to Upper Cornwall, where he 
resided nearly fifty yeara He was twice married, and was the 
father of a large family. In May, 1890, he was 103 years old, 
and died on the 20th day of June in that year. His health 
was always very good, and he retained the use of his mental 
faculties until within a very few days of his death. 

Died at Lunenburg, on February 2nd, 1882, Elizabeth, relict 
of the late Joseph Bailly, aged 99 years and 326 days. 

Mrs. Bailly was the mother of Henry Bailly, Esq., Registrar 
of Deeds. During her long life she always enjoyed good health, 
and almost to the last could do any kind of work without 
glasses. When over ninety years of age, she did fine hemming 
in silk. Even when her memory was failing, her sight was 
wonderfully good, and she could read in her German Bible and 

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in English. There is a well-executed painting showing her in 
her wedding-dress, with her hair in straight bangs, wearing 
gloves reaching above the elbows, and holding her first child on 
her lap. She was confined to bed a few weeks before death, 
which was caused more by a general breaking-up of the system 
than by illness. 

About 1883, Sarah Vienotdied at Block-house, in her ninety- 
ninth year. 

1886. July 5th. — Mrs. Lowe, widow of P. G. Lowe, New 
Canada — 99 years and 17 days. 

1»87. October 7th. — Frederick Knickle, Lunenburg, ninety- 
nine years. Served in the garrison at Halifax, in 1812. Pen- 

1890. February 14th. — Elizabeth, widow of Leonard Rho- 
denhizer, Summerside — 99 years and 3 days. 

The united ages of these ten persons, six of whom were one 
hundred years and over, make 1,007 years, 6 months, and 20 

Frank Suldenia, known as "Frank the caulker," born in Italy, 
died in the house of Mr. John Dowling, Lunenburg, about 1869, 
at the age of 105 years, as found after his death, by Mr. Peter 
Cantelope, with whom he had lived for twelve years, in a book 
which recorded the date of his birth. He had the use of all his 
faculties to the Ifiust, except that his eyesight was somewhat 
dim. It is said that he fought under Lord Nelson, and served 
in the ship in which he died. 

In 1891, Mrs. Susanna Catherine Zwicker departed this life 
at Oakland, near Mahone Bay, at the age of 98 years, 8 months 
and 23 days, leaving fifteen children, ninety-six grandchildren, 
178 great-grandchildren, and thirty-two great-great-grand- 
<;hildren to mourn her departure. 

Valentine Zwicker, brother of Mrs. Kaulbach (centenarian), 
died at Block-house, September 20th, 1871, aged 97 years, 8 
months and 11 days. His nine children were all living at his 
death. He once carried a ten-gallon keg of molasses and a 
dollar s worth of sugar two miles, from Mahone Bay to Block- 

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1888. December 23rd. — Sophia C. Rodigast, La Have Road, 
in her ninety-eighth year. 

John Henry Hiltz, who lived at the Narrows, near Martin s 
River, died about the year 1860, aged ninety-five years. He 
had several gi^eat-great-grandchildren, and about 340 descen- 
dants, in all, living at the time of his death. 

1878. June. — Mi-s. Annie Kedy died at Martins River, 
92 years and 7 months old. In the spring of the same year, 
while spinning, she rocked a cradle with one foot, and her 
wheel with the other. 

September 24th. — Susanna E. Fiendel (wife of Andrew Wile), 
aged ninety-three. 

1879. December 29th. — Catherine Ramey,92 years, 6 months. 

1880. December 16th. — Christina C. Penny, of Branch, aged 
ninety-four years. This aged lady was the mother of fifteen 
children, and these were the parents of eighty-nine children, 
to whom were bom 209 children, and they in turn were the 
progenitors of eighteen children, making a family of 331 souls 
bom during the lifetime and from the issue of this aged mother. 

Died at Clearland, Mahone Bay, on the 5th day of July, Mrs. 
Philip Lantz, in the ninety-sixth year of her age. The old lady 
had remarkably good health all her life, and was only sick a 
few days before her death. It is said that she never wore 
glasses, as her sight never failed her. Her next sister, Mrs. 
Jacob Lantz, was then in her ninety-third year, and a hearty, 
active old lady. Her youngest sister, Mrs. Melchior Zwicker, 
died the previous year, at the age of eighty-six. 

1883. March 6th. — Ann Silver, Upper Branch, in her ninety- 
third year. Iii 1882 she walked alone, by easy stages, more 
than twenty-five miles to Eastern Points, to visit her daughter, 
and returned after three weeks' absence, walking all but seven 
miles. Up to her death she had the use of all her faculties. 
Never wore glasses. Hair black, with slight tinge of grey 
in one place. Hemmed handkerchiefs in the fall of 1882. 
Spoke distinctly just before her departure. 

1884. April 10th. — At Five Houses, Mary, relict of late 

Digitized by 


384 HISTORY or the county of LUNENBURG. 

Jolin Romkey, 94 years, 5 months and 15 days. Had l>een a 
widow fifty years. 

June 15th. — At Pentz Settlement, Michael Wilkie, in his 
ninety-sixth year. 

November Ist. — Christiana Conrad (of original family of 
Teals), aged 94. She was in perfect health, read without 
glasses and could walk with ease any ordinary distance up to 
three weeks before her death, when she met with a fall from 
the effects of which she did not recover. 

1885. April.— Mrs. William Turner, Northfield, 92. 

June 6th. — Martin Sperry, West Dublin, 97. 

June 26th. — Mary E., widow of late William Eisenhauer, and 
mother of J. D. Eisenhauer, Esq,, Lunenburg, 93. 

Thursday, September 10th. — George Boehner, Martin s River, 
in his ninetieth year. Buried the next Sunday. His sister died 
at New Ross, the Thursday before his death, and was interre<l 
the following Sunday. 

In 1886 or 1887, Annie, widow of John Knock, died in New 
Germany, in her ninety-eighth year. 

1887. January 10th. — Catharine Arenberg, Bridgewater, in 
her eighty-ninth year; and on June 5th, her sister, Sarah 
Hubley, in her ninety-second year. 

1888. July. — Andrew Himmelman, New Dublin, 94. 
July. — Mrs. Anna Baker, Baker Settlement, 95. 

1 889. April. — Margaret, widow of Conrad Wentzel, of Bridge- 
water, in her ninety -fifth year. 

1891. May 22nd.— At New Italy, John Herman, 92 ; and on 
the 24th, his widow, 83. Married sixty years before. 

December 30th. — At Newcombville. Catharine, relict of late 
John Wile, in her ninetieth year. She had a wonderful retention 
of all her faculties. Walked about the room day before she 
died. Had no sickness or suffering. Read German Bible and 
prayer-book. Said she was dying, folded her hands, prayed, 
and passed away. 

1893. February 19th. — Mrs. John Langille, Mahone Bay, in 
her ninety-fifth year. 

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2l8t. — Mrs. Jacob Cook (nee Elizabeth Hahn), Indian Path. 
Bom at Back South, January 21st, 1812. Although all her 
children, and the people around her, could speak English, she 
could not understand or speak that language. 

1894. April 1st. — Mrs. Mary A. Webber, Chester, widow of 
late John Webber, Windsor Road, in her ninety-fourth year. 

November 2nd. — John Crouse, Baker Settlement, in his 
ninety-fourth year. 

Many of both sexes, besides those who have been named, have 
attained at death to over ninety years. A complete list of 
those of very advanced age would fill a volume. 

As a proof of the vigor and health which many of the inhabi- 
tants retain in old age, the writer may mention that he met on 
the 24th of June, 1869, at WentzeFs Lake, two sisters, Mrs. 
Penny, aged eighty -five, and Mrs. Wentzel, seventy-three years. 
They had walked from the Branch, a distance of eight miles, 
and had still to walk two miles before reaching their destination. 
The heat was the only inconvenience they seemed to feel. 

In August, 1889, Mrs. Jacob Mason, eighty-four years old, 
walked from Eastern Points to Lunenburg, about five miles, 
and had her photograph taken. 

In 1891, Lewis Hirtle, of Indian Path, aged 90, helped his 
son make the hay, and attended to other farm duties. 

On November 17th, 1892, Thomas Jodrey, of Block-house, 
near Mahone Bay, then ninety-one years old, drove a pair of 
steers into Lunenburg. 

Leonard Hirtle, of Indian Path, ninety-two years old, in 
October, 1893, was described to the writer as "a strong-looking 
man, straight as a fir-tree, rosy-cheeked and soft-skinned, hear- 
ing good, sight failing. On ninety-second birthday, which fell 
on Sunday, he walked from Indian Path to Cross-road Lutheran 
church, and home again, four and a half milea" 

1894. March 30th. — Mrs. Jacob Himmelman, of Middle 
South, aged 92, bright and active ; memory, hearing and eye- 
sight good. Reads her German Bible and prayer-book. 

Gotleib Moser, Kingsburg, was eighty-five, November 1st, 
26 ^ 

Digitized by 



1894. Memory and hearing good; eyesight remarkable. A 
daily reader, without glasses, of his German Bible and prayer- 

There are living in this county a large number of very aged 
people, many of whom are to be seen in their houses busily 
engaged in reading religious German books, especially the 
heavily bound Bible, which their ancestors brought from "dear 
old Vaterland ; " evidently preparing for that last journey, on 
which the lengthening shadows warn them they must soon set 

On the first day of June, 1895, the following, among others of 
advanced age, were living in the county : 

John Silver, of Martin's River, ninety-two years. ** Fairly 
well and hearty." 

Mrs. George Jodrey, Mahone Bay, ninety-three, on March 22nd, 

Mrs. Charles Hughes, Faubaux, ninety-one, in September, 1894. 
"Well and hearty." 

MiTS. David Ernst, Block-house, ninety-three years. " Walks 
three miles to Mahone Bay." 

Mrs. Leonard Mader, Mahone Bay, ninety years. "Quite 
hearty ; keeps house, and attends to her business yet, with 

Mrs. Frederick Boehner, Martin's River, about ninety-five. 
" Well and hearty." 

Mr. Frederick Hyson, ninety-five last birthday. " Can walk 
well to attend church ; hale and hearty." 

In July, 1895, Elizabeth, widow of late David Langille, and 
daughter of the late Adam Mader, of Mader's Cove, was living 
on Big Tancook Island, where she has resided for more than 
sixty years. Mrs. Langille is in her ninety-sixth year, her 
health is quite good, and she is in the enjoyment of all her 

Jane Simpson (widow of John) lives at Ohio, five miles from 
New Germany. She is in her ninety-sixth year, and has the 
use of all her faculties, except that her sight is somewhat dim. 

Digitized by 


history of the county of lunenburg. 387 

There are in the cemetery at Lunenburg, inscriptions which 
have become illegible. The following are some of old date : 
On a slate stone, with flowers cai-ved at the top — 

Here lieth the body of George Jung, 

Bom February 19th, 1770, 

Died January 7th, 1793. 

Here lies the body of Mary Elizabeth Jung, 

Born April 23rd, 1763. 
(The rest of the inscription is underground.) 

Here lieth buried Gasper Heck man, 

Bom 30th December, 1761, 

Died 2nd January, 1S02. 

Hier ruhet in God. 

Johannes Behfus, 

Geboren in Jahr Christy, 

1720, 29th December, 

Gestorben In 22nd May, 1798. 

The inscriptions on the oldest grave-stones in the parish 
churchyard, Mahone Bay, cannot be all deciphered. They 
commence with the following line : 

** Hier Ruhet in Gott." 

From one we learn that a person (name illegible) was bom in 
1709, and died in 1787; while on another stone it is recorded 
that a birth was in 1714, and the death in 1789. 

The following is a copy of an inscription on one of the 
grave-stones in the burial-ground near the Cove Marsh, two 
miles below Bridgewater : 

In memory of Adam Heb, 
Who died October 17th, 1803, 
Aged 64 years. 

Kom o tod du schlafes bruder, 

Kom und fuhre mich nur fort. 

Lose meines schifleins ruder, 

Bringe mich in sichern port. 

Es mag wer da will mich scheuen, 

Du kanst mich viel mehr erfruen : 

Son durch dich kom ich hinein, 

Zu den schonsten Jesulein.-AMBK^,^,^,^^^ byGoOglc 


Come, O death, thou sleep's dark brother, 
Come and lead me forth to Go I — 
Loose of my soul's sh.p the rudder, 
Guide me safely into port. 
Let him persecute who will. 
Thou canst soothe and cheer me still, 
For through Thee alone come I 
To my Saviour's home on high. 

After the interment, an oak sapling was planted beside the 
grave by John N. Hebb, son of the deceased. In the summer of 
1878, it measured in circumference, three and a half feet from 
the ground, 54 inches, and in July, 1895, the girth at the same 
height was 66 inches. It is a very tall, widespreading, and 
handsome tree. 

Mr. Heb was named Hebb in the grant of the township of 
Lunenburg, dated June 30th, 1784 He bought land from Mr. 
Pemette, and built a house and saw-mill near the present 
shipyard at Bridgewater. He also built a shallop and engaged 
in the coasting trade. In both cases he was the master-builder. 

Another stone, not far from the grave of Mr. Heb, is inscribed 

as follows : 

John Boleivvr, 

Died September 4th, 1855, 

Aged 74 years, 10 months. 

Neither am I so desirous to live, but yet I am willing and heartily 
content to remove out of this body, that I may be with my Lord, freed 
from these restless temptations.— Amen. 

Catherine— wife, 

Died May 6th, 1854, 

Aged 64 years, 7 months, 23 days. 

The place where these interments were made was used as a 
public cemetery before burial-grounds were opened in Bridge- 
water. The approaches to it from the Lunenburg road are by 
romantic paths covered with pine-needles which fall from the 
overhanging branches of the trees. This cemetery is well kept, 
and the flowers about the graves show that the dead are not 

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history of the county of lunsnbt7rg. 889 

Old Bibles. 

The following paper refers to several Bibles, among a number 
of others seen by the writer. 

German Bible of Eev. Adam Moschell. Stuttgart: Johann 
Benedict Mezler. 1758. 

One of these Bibles was owned by Wendel Wtist, who came 
with the original settlers. On the title page is the following: 







Martin Luther began Anno Ohristi, 1522, to translate into our German 
Mother-tongue, and completed Anno, 1534. 


Besides not only a picture of M. Luther and family, Copied from original 

paintings, and a biography ; but also at the end of the Bible, a 

short account of the Augspiurger Confession, as it was 

presented in the year 1530, to Kaiser Karl Y. 

Printed at Nurnburo, mdcclxx." 

The following is written : " Im Jar Criisti, 1777, Januari den 
15, hab 'ich dise biibel gekauft bei Martin Kolbach, vor drei 
Funt— Sage drei funt.— Johann Wendel Wtist." 

Translation : In the year of Christ, 1777, January the 15th, 
have I bought this Bible from Martin Kolbach, for three 
pounds — say three pounds. — John Wendel West. 

Another of these old Bibles belonged to John P. Hyson, one 
of the early settlers. It was printed at Stuttgart, 1777. The 
following is a translation of entries in German : 

1737 — I, John Philip (Fihlip) Heyson, was bom October 
20th, in District Ushberg, in the Kur Palatine. The town was 
called Hering; and, 1751 — moved to this country. 1759 — 
married Magdalene Zwicker, March 4th. 1760 — March 19th, 
are my two sons bom into the world, and March 2l8t, brought 


to holy baptism, and the names of Frederick Heison, my 
father, and of my father-in-law, Peter Zwicker, given to them. 
Then follow the names of Lissabet (Elizabeth), 1762; Philip 
Wender, 1765; Wilhelm Gorkum, 1768; Melchior Zwicker, 
1770; Liesa Fronika (Veronica) Kochin, 1771 ; Jacob Hirtling, 
1773; John Heinrich Lantz, 1776; and 1779, son called by 
the name of my father's father, Johannes Heyson. 

A second book of Mr. Heyson's, containing sermons and 
other religious matter, has the following on a front leaf : 

1797 — Fihlip Heyson bought this book, and gave 23s. 
therefor. The title page has — 


(Formerly Gen. S^q>t. qf the Principality Liineburg) 

Six Books op True CHBiSTiANirr, Tooetheb with 


There was a Bible in the house of William Parks, Parks' 
Creek, which belonged to his grandfather. 



Observations on Each Chapteb, 

composed by 


One of the MinisterB of the Church at Neuschatel, in Swisserland. 

Dlustrations of the Flight into Egypt, and Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 

Another of these German Bibles was owned by John Hebb, 
son of George. It was printed in Numberg, 1738. It is heavily 
bound with brass mountings, and weighs twelve pounds. There 
is a fine engraving of Luther and his family, with eleven 
engravings of German dukes, and several of Old Testament 
personages ; and it is illustrated throughout. The Augspuiger 
Confession and other ecclesiastical documents are added to it ; 
and the book contains in all 1,181 numbered pages, of very- 
large size, and many without numbers. 

Two Bibles like the one above described, with the same num- 
ber of pages, and similarly bound and illustrated, are owned 
respectively by Captain Isaac Mason and Mr. Isaac Hirtle, of 
Lunenburg. The date is MDCCLV. One side of the cover 
of Mr. Hirtle's Bible weighs one pound and a half. 

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Baptisms, Weddings, and Funerals in Early Times. 

BAPTISMS and weddings were not, in olden times, as 
summarily disposed of as they are at present When 
the people became blest with sufficient of this world's goods, 
these events were made occasions for friendly greetings and 
rejoicings on an extended scale. 

Baptisms were celebrated with feasting. The godfathers and 
godmothers, with the guests, met at the house of the parents, 
after the ceremony, and passed the rest of the day "right 

The modem style of being married by license, if known, was 
not then in favor. On the second publication of the banns, 
those about to be united attended service. When the wedding- 
day arrived, the party walked to church in procession, led 
by the bride and groom elect. The ladies were dressed in 
white, with white caps and ribbons, the men wearing white 
trousers and round blue jackets. At the conclusion of the 
marriage ceremony they all adjourned to a tavern (as inns were 
at that time called), and partook of refreshments before return- 
ing home, where several days were often spent in dancing and 
other amusements. 

These lengthened festivities were in accordance with ancient 
customs, as the following extracts from the book of Tobit show: 
" And he kept the wedding-feast fourteen days." " And Tobias' 
wedding was kept seven days, with great joy." And see Judges 
xiv. 12. 

The wedding festivities of a burgomaster in the old land have 
been thus described : " All the relations of the bride and groom 
were entertained for three days of uninterrupted enjoyment. 

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The bill of fare included forty-eight oxen, forty-six pigs and 
sheep, sixty-seven calves, and several hundred gallons of wine," 

The provisions once laid in for a wedding in this county 
included several sheep, eighteen geese, soups, hams, puddings, 
pies, cake, and wines in abundance. The services of the best 
" fiddler " were secured, and the performer, a boy fifteen years 
old, received £8 for furnishing the music at this and a subse- 
quent wedding. 

A resident of East Bridgewater was a guest at five of these 
protracted wedding-feasts in one autumn. He went to the first 
one on a Thursday morning, and reached home on Saturday 
evening. From twenty to twenty-five gallons of liquor would 
be used at one feast, and sometimes men would be drunk before 
the arrival of • the minister. This is another proof of the 
extent to which liquor was used in early days. 

It must have been for such weddings that there was an old 
recipe for wedding-cake, which is referred to in "Glimpses of an 
old Dutch town " : " It must be mixed in a wash-tub, and 
contain twelve dozen eggs.'* 

It is related of one wedding-party, that, having crossed to 
La Have from an island in Dublin Bay, they walked to Lunen- 
burg and back again, a distance of over twenty miles, and on 
reaching home sent to Ironbound Island for a " fiddler," who 
went with his wife and child. It was snowing and very cold, 
and when they arrived the child was almost frozen. From 
forty to fifty persons were present. Dancing was kept up all 
night and during the next day. The party had scarcely left 
the island when the bay was closed up with ice, and so con- 
tinued for a week. 

A fashion prevailed at weddings which caused much amuse- 
ment. Shortly before supper, on the first day of the rejoicings, 
a member of the party whispered to the bride that one of her 
shoes would be removed while at the table. This was done ; 
the shoe was handed round the room, and each guest placed in 
it whatever coin he could spare ; it was then, with its contents, 
handed to the bride. Sometimes the shoe was offered at auction, 
sold to the highest bidder, and by him returned, with the pur- 

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chase money, to the fair owner. In later years each male gaest 
gave one dollar, which, being added together, became the 
property of the bride. 

The host and hostess generally insisted upon the guests 
remaining until the eatables were disposed of. ** Those were 
days," remarked an old inhabitant to the writer, '* when a man 
could keep a wedding." 

^he following are copies of published notices of marriages : 

1820— By Rev. Mr. Orth. Mr. Garrett Richard to the 
amiable Miss Elizabeth^entz. 

1821 — Dr. Sterling Niblett to the amiable, accomplished, and 
exquisitely beautiful Miss Ann, daughter of James McFairland, 
Esq., all of Lunenburg County. 

November 12th, 1865 — Leonard Rhodenizer, of Upper La 
Have, eighty-two years old, to Mrs. Fraser, in her seventy-first 
year, widow of the late James Fraser, of La Have. 

December 6th, 1882 — Married, at Lunenburg, Frederick 
Conrad, aged 82, and Sarah Conrad, 28, both of Rose Bay. 

Sorrowful seasons were also observed in a manner' differing 
from present practice. The dead were carried some distance 
for interment at Lunenburg, and the funeral procession was 
met by friends, at or near the entrance to the town, from 
whence to the grave singers preceded the corpse, and in' 
sweetly appropriate German hymns gave expression to the 
general feeling of grief for the loss of the departed. 

*' A sad proceBsion issues forth, 
And yet not wholly sadness 
Their mien bespeaks, the while they raise 
Sweet hymns of solemn gladness." 

The same custom in old Germany is thus referred to: "As the 
body was carried from the house, the voices of unseen singers 
lifted the German funeral chant — 

" * Go forth ! go on, with solemn song, 
Short is the way, the rest is long.' " 

In this county the procession was often halted, and hvmns 
were sung at different places on the way to the churchyard, j 

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When children were buried, artificial flowers were made by 
the girls, which, being fastened round hoops, and otherwise 
arranged, were carried in the procession ; and, after the inter- 
ment of the body, were laid on the grave, stones being placed on 
them to keep them from being blown away. 

Died— At North-West Range, on July 13th, 1836, EKza- 
beth, wife of Mr. Jacob Eisenhauer, aged thirty years ; and on 
Friday following, her husband, aged thirty-five years — leaving 
a large family of young children. Their funerals took place on 
Sunday the 17th, and they were both interred in one grave. 

January, 1884. 

At Ironbound, Lunenburg, 3rd inst., Edward Young, aged 61. 

At Blandford, Lunenburg, 5th inst., Mrs. Cyrus Young, 
aged 22. 

At Tancook, 5th inst., Viola L., daughter of Joseph Pearl, 
aged 5 years and 3 months. 

The above were all interred at one time on Big Tancook 
Island by Rev. J. F. Kempton. After the three graves were 
filled he preached in the church to a large congregation from 
2 Cor. V. 9, 10. 

Public holidays were always observed, and the Germans visit- 
ing the county town on such occasions, made good use of their 
vocal powers, frequently singing in concert, as is customary in 
old Germany. A traveller in that country, who visited Heidel- 
berg, writes that "two peasant girls carrying home their 
bundles of wood, were singing as they went some simple 
national song ; they sang in parts, and with perfect ease, and 
their voices sounded sweetly on the hillside." 

The Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse, wrote from 
Nierstein : " This house is quite close to the Rhine, and this 
instant our pioneers have come by from Worms, on their pon- 
toon bridge, singing a quartette — about twenty or thirty men. 
It kx)ks so pretty, and they sing so beautifully. On their 
marches the soldiers always sing, and they have so many beau- 
tiful songs, such as ' Der gute Kamerad.* The Germans are 
such gemathlich (simple, kindly, sociable) people, the more 
one lives with them, the more one learns to appreciate them." 


In many of our county churches singers of German descent 
form excellent choirs. There are some who, with great lung 
power and hearty good-will, render hymn and chant in fine 
style. A good sample of such a choir is the one in the church 
at Martin's I^iVer, where there is no instrument, and where 
one is considered to be wholly unnecessary. 

An English traveller who attended service in " the great old 
church, in every comer full," in the quiet country town of 
Gunzenhausen, said. " the people sang lustily, as only Germans 
can sing." 

The descendants of our old settlers have the same fondness 
for music, and in many houses a variety of musical instruments 
are used, while even in some of the back settlements, the melo- 
deon or organ, played by the fingers of the farmer's daughter, 
and accompanied by the sweet tones of her voice, often adds 
materially to the enjoyments of home. 

There are seven fully equipped brass bands in the county. 
Lunenburg and Mahone Bay have two each, and Bridgewater, 
Ritcey's Cove, and Petite Riviere one each. A band was organ- 
ized at Chester in 1872, and was kept up for four years. It was 
reorganized in 1885. Owing to removal of some members and 
other causes, it is not at present in working order. 

Rev. Albert R. J. Graepp has organized and trained at Bridge- 
water the " Bach Amateur Orchestra," which, with its musical 
talent, bids fair to win popular applause. 

Teachers in the public schools of Germany must be able to 
play the violin. Singing is taught in them with the aid of that 
instrument, the penetrating tone of which appeals best to innate 
talent. The descendants of those who came from the " broad 
faderland" show marked ability in vocal and instrumental 
music. This ability would be more largely developed were the 
means above referred to adopted throughout the county. 

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Education — ^Progress made in different parts of the County — Teachera — 
Hardshipe endured by some of them. 

** Rich is the harvest from the fields 
That bounteous Nature kindly yields. 
But fairer growths enrich the soil 
Ploughed deep by Thought's unwearied toil 
In learning's broad domain. 

** . . . The growing mind demands 
The patient care, the guiding hands, 

Through all the mists of mom." 

— Holmes. 


f T N days when common schools such as are now established 
A were unknown, and when the education of the children of 
the Province depended to a large extent upon the efforts of 
various religious bodies, there were to be found in different 
districts industrious and painstaking men and women employed 
in teaching the young. Some of these will be referred to in 
this chapter. 

Many parts of the county were settled at a comparatively 
recent date by persons who, like others of earlier times, were 
unable to obtain help from abroad, and were obliged to make 
use of all they could procure within their own domestic circles. 
The natural result of this state of things was that unless a 
" travelling teacher," often ill qualified for his work, offered his 
services for a short time in the winter, they were without any 
educational advantages. The people have not been generally 
indifferent to a cause with which their best interests are so 
intimately connected. Those who, from the force of circum- 
stances, were prevented from receiving instruction, have been 
anxious that their children should occupy a more favorable 

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position, and that the blessings of a sound education should be 
generally diiiused in their respective neighborhoods. ) 
( In 1811, an Act was passed to establish grammar schools in 
several counties, including liunenburg. Each master was to 
receive £100 a year from the treasury, and an assistant £50, 
when more than thirty scholars attended. 

On the 4th day of July, 1826, a meeting was held in the 
court-house, Lunenburg, in order to establish a district school. 

An Act relating to school lands in the township of Lunenburg 
was passed in April, 1863. / 

At a meeting held in the school-house at Lunenburg, October 
25th, 1864, it was resolved to build a County Academy in the 
town, and assessors €md a board of trustees were elected. On 
the erection of the frame, in 1865, James Dowling, Esq., 
Captain of the Artillery Company, having loaned cannon, a 
royal salute was fired from Block-house Hill, and festivities 
were engaged in by and for the workmen employed. The 
building was completed in 1866. The main academy was 
50 X 90 feet, with an L 50 feet square. The cost was about 
$12,000. It was destroyed by fire, September 28th, 1893, and 
$25,000 was voted for the erection of a new building. 

The annual report of the Superintendent of Education, for 
the year ended July 31st, 1894, refers to the new County 
Academy. " Lunenburg has already commenced to lay the 
foundations of a building for its academy and common schools, 
which will be an ornament to the town and a credit to the 

In its size and situation, and in all its appointments, it is one 
of the best-equipped institutions of the kind in Nova Scotia. ) 

There were in the county in 1893 twenty-three, and in 1894 
thirty-four. Normal trained teachers. At the Minimum Profes- 
sional Elxamination of teachers, there were eleven in the second, 
and twelve in the third rank. None failed. 

There are 146 school sections, and 171 schools. Number of 
teachers, 180; academic teachers, class A, 2 ; number of pupils 
registered at school during the year, 7,552 — ^boys, 3,915; girls, 
3,637. Value of all school property, $63,412; teachers* saJaries 
paid during the year, without provincial grant, $15,690. t 

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The report of the County Inspector (H. H. Macintosh) states 
that " every settlement in Lunenburg County has now its public 
school, and every one of the 146 sections is organized and active." 

"Lunenburg Academy has 12 departments; Bridgewater 
school, 7 ; Mahone Bay, 5 ; Chester, 3 ; Petite Riviere, West 
Dublin, Conquerall Bank, Summerside, Ritcey s Cove, and Big 
Tancook Island, two each." 

Biographical Notices of Teachers — College and 
OTHER Prizes. 

Margaret Hawbolt was a daughter of James Smith, who 
came from Glasgow, Scotland, in 1784, and died in Chester in 
1844, at the age of eighty-one years. When sixteen years old, 
she began to assist her father in his night school, and this led 
to her establishing a day school, besides continuing his good 
work with a night school for those who could not attend by 
day. Married men and women were among her scholars. 
While instructing others was her main business, she used every 
opportunity to improve herself. 

She would refer with great pleasure to a visit once made to 
her school by the Countess of Dalhousie, Miss Cochrane, Earl 
Ramsay, and others. 

A copy of the Free Press, published at Halifax, by Edmund 
Ward, dated June 30th, 1818, contains the following: 

"His Excellency the Earl of Dalhousie, and the Countess, 
accompanied by Miss Cochrane, went in the Fortk to Chester. 
We understand her Ladyship will remain at Chester for a short 
time. His Excellency returned in the Forth on Sunday." 

Mrs. Hawbolt said: " The Countess asked, ' What do you get 
for all this work ? ' and she replied that the people paid her as 
they could — many were poor. Then the Countess said, 'If 
you ever want a favor, come to me?'" Mrs. Hawbolt added, 
" She was a lady, I tell you, and she was Scotch, and that was 
all the better. She sent me from Halifax a box of books, 
slates, pencils, and other things." 

On another occasion, Mrs. Hawbolt said: " I was sent for by 

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the Rev. Mr. Wright, was engaged to teach for the Society in 
England, and began in my own house with quite a number. I 
was examined by Rev. Charles Ingles, and was in receipt at 
one time of ten pounds sterling yearly from England. I was 
bom in Chester, and am the oldest living descendant, of Timothy 
Houghton, one of the first settlers." She became so much 
attached to her work that she determined to continue it so 
long as God should give her health and strength, and carrying 
out her intention she was able to say at the close, that she had 
taught school in Chester for more than sixty years. 

Many have been indebted to her as their only teacher. She 
entitled herself to the epitaph found on the tombstone of 
Benjamin Giles, " I taught little children to read." How could 
a lifetime be more usefully employed ? 

The good old lady's summons came on May 7th, 1886, when 
she had attained the age of 92 years and 7 months. She 
was conscious to the last, and quietly fell asleep. The 
writer always felt a warm interest in her, as she was his first 
school-teacher. He had many an interesting visit with her, and 
owns the pin-cushion, with an old-fashioned pin in it, which 
was presented to her by her husband on their wedding-day. 

George Fredk. Belvidere flourished in Lunenburg, as school- 
master, in the early part of this century. He was an English- 
man, had once been a British officer, and was a strict disciplin- 
arian. The "oaken towel," as he called his instrument of 
correction, did for him what he esteemed good service on the 
aching palms of refractory school-boys. He was well educated, 
and wrote an excellent hand. His school was for some time 
kept in the court-house. He died at a very advanced age. 
^Mr. James Maxwell, afterwards of the National School at 
Halifax, taught with much success at Lunenburg. He was so 
engaged in 1828. ) 

Mr. John Robert Hall, who died in Brooklyn, Queen's 
county, November, 1889, taught school in this county for 
several years up to 1847. 

f Mr. Wm. M. B. Lawson, bom at Chatham, near London, G.B., 
was principal of the Grammar School at Lunenburg, until 

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the enactment of the new education law, and had then been 
engaged in teaching for forty years, thirty-three years of the 
time having been spent in that town. He was appointed 
Inspector of Schools for the county, and filled the oflSces of 
Prothonotary and Clerk of the Crown. Mr. Lawson died at 
Lunenburg, November 17th, 1879./ 

George Turner was bom at Horton Kirby, in the County of 
Kent, England, June 30th, 179», and arrived at Halifax on 
August 7th, 1817. Mr. Turner taught the first English school 
opened at North- West Range, near Lunenburg, and was also 
engaged in teaching at Upper La Have, Marriott's Cove, and 
other places in the county. In order that he might be better 
qualified for his important work, he attended the National 
School at Halifax, and made himself acquainted with the 
Madras system. On December 26th, 1826, he commenced a 
school at Chester in a private residence, no public school- 
house having been then built. In 1832, Mr. Turner went to 
England in the barque Lunenburg, Captain Henry Pemette, 
and having returned to Chester, reopened his school in June, 
1833. A public school-house was built in 1834. In 1839, Mr. 
Turner left Chester and went to Maitland, where he taught 
school. ) He was likewise subsequently engaged at Tancook, 
from whence, in 1«45, he removed to New Ross (then Sher- 
brooke), where he kept a common school and a Simday-school, 
and performed, as he had done at Tancook and elsewhere, the 
duties of a lay reader. His useful services in the latter capacity 
were acknowledged from time to time by grants from the 
Church societies. ^Mr. Turner was engaged as a teacher and 
catechist upwards of forty-five years. He died in Bridgetown, 
September 11th, 1872. at the age of seventy-four years, j 
' John Thomas was bom in Halifax, and at the age of nine 
years entered the Royal Acadian School, established and taught 
by Walter Bromley, formerly captain and paymaster H. M. 23rd 
Regiment, in which he at length became a pupil teacher, and 
finally assistant, and was adopted by Mr. Bromley as one of his 
family. Mr. Thomas was subsequently assistant teacher in the 
National School at Halifax, and was engaged in the work to 

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which he devoted himself, at Stewiacke, Rawdon, Ship Harbor, 
and St. Margaret's Bay, and in the County of Lunenburg, at 
Chester, Blandford, Windsor Road, Beech Hill, and Gold River. 
Like his early teacher and friend, Mr. Thomas was " zealous of 
good works," and performed the duties of lay reader and 
^Sunday-school teacher in places which would otherwise have 
been largely destitute of religious instruction. After a term 
of service of almost half a century, he ended his labors as a 
teacher in 1880, and died neai' Chester, May 19th, 1881, aged 
eighty-three years. He walked five miles the day before his 
death. *) 

( Teachers in early days were often subjected to great hard- 
ships. The following extracts from one of Mr. Thomas's letters 
may be of interest : 

"You are aware that teachers at the present day are more 
cared for than teachers formerly. I have in some sections had 
for food, in poor families where I boarded, nothing but Indian 
meal, without milk or sweetening. In other families, fish and 
potatoes, and mangel tops for my dinner ; slept on hay and 
straw beds on the floor, where mice, fleas, and bugs could be felt 
all hours of the night. I have frequently found one, two, and 
three mice crushed to death lying under me — the straw not 
even put in a sack, and my covering old clothing. I suffered 
all this, so great was my wish to give instruction to the poor 
and rising generation. Yea, many families of poor children 
have I educated and never received one farthing." ; 

Mr. Thomas, when writing the above, had almost reached the 
age of eighty-one years, and was crippled with rheumatism. 
He received the teacher s bonus — one hundred acres of forest 
land — the special provincial acknowledgment for long service 
in the education of the young. He had for many years $40 
per annum from one of the Church societies for his services 
as lay reader and catechist. 

Extract from a letter of another teacher, received by the 
writer in May, 1875 : 

Referring to Rev. R. Payne, a former rector of Blandford, he 
said : " He, knowing the distressed state to which age and 

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partial decrepitude in the lower extremities have reduced me, 
has, with characteristic benevolence, interested himself in my 
behalf, by addressing you. Tis my misfortune to be homeless, 
having no fixed residence or surviving relations, but very dis- 
tant, in Nova Scotia. I have a little in reserve for present 
support. Could I be enabled to procure any little office in a 
store where the pen, or other than manual labor, were in 
demand, I could still be enabled to eke out an existence." 

Caroline. Wambolt, granddaughter of Timothy Houghton 
(first in the list of original settlers at Chester), and widow of 
Daniel Wambolt, a descendant of Adam named in the grant, 
was a teacher in the township of Chester for more than twenty 

Rev. Robert Murray, Editor of the Presbyterian Witness, 
was a teacher in the town of Chester, in 1853, and was so 
employed in the old school -house on the hill near the first 
Baptist Church. 

The report of the School for the Blind, at Halifax, published 
1892, stated tliat FreglQveJCaulbach, of New Germany, obtained 
the following marks : 

Attendance, 194 days. Number in term, 194. 

School— Literary 977. Possible number 1,000. 

Music 954. I. M 1,000. 

Deportment 998. .i n 1,000. 

On the 26th of June, 1893, Miss Louise B, Bobinson, of 
Chester, received at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, Halifax, 
a gold Maltese cross ; and on the same day, Archbishop 
O'Brien's gold medal for geography. 

Miss Edna C. Wile, daughter of Mr. Avard Wile, formerly of 
Bridge water, was a school-teacher at Ritcey's Cove. She after- 
wards became a missionary of the Free Baptist Church, and 
went to India. A very interesting letter was published, written 
by her, from Midnapore, February 6th, 1894. 

Bertha B. Hebb, daughter of Solomon and Anna M, Hebb, 
was bom in Bridge water. Making the most she could of the 
educational advantages afforded, she became a licensed school- 

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teacher, and did good work in that capaxiity, at Block-house, 
Cook Settlement and Bridgewater. In 1889, she entered the 
High School in Halifax, under Dr. MacKay, where she remained 
eight months, and went thence to Dalhousie College. Out of 
the five who, at the High School, stood best for scholarships, 
Miss Hebb was No. 2. She won two Munroe Bursaries at the 
CtJlege, worth respectively $100 and $200. On the 24th April, 
1894, Miss Hebb was one of a class of twenty -seven, including 
five other ladies, on whom was conferred the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts of Dalhousie College and University, and was the first 
lady from this county to attain that honorable distinction. She 
then applied for, and obtained, a grade A, Provincial license, 
and was appointed Principal of the High School at Maitland, 
Hants, N.S., where she has been doing excellent work. 

Miss Mary Eaulbach, daughter of Mr. Francis Kaulbach, of 
Conquerall, published in April, 1894, a well-written and inter- 
esting paper on " Patriotism — How to develop it in the Public 
Schools." If her suggestions were generally followed, the love 
of country would necessarily increase. 

Among the gi*aduates at-Mount Allison, Sackville, N.B., May, 
1894, in commercial shorthand writing and special writing, Mr. 
Aubrey H. Sperry, son of J. D. Sperry, Esq., M.P.P., of Petite 
Riviere, obtained a silver medal. 

At the conferring of the degree of B.A. at Acadia College, 
Wolfville, N.S., in June, 1894, the graduating class included 
Messrs. Archibald Mason and Lindsay S. Slaughenwhite, of Big 
Tancook Island. The oration of the first named was on '* Civil 
Liberty," and that of the last named on " The Christian Element 
in Plato." 

Dr. Alice L. Ernst is a fine example of the advantage that 
can be taken of the opportunities now afforded to women. She 
is a daughter of Christian and Sophia E. Ernst, and was bom 
at Upper La Have, near Bridgewater, where she attended the 
public school, and obtained a C common school license, teaching 
afterwards at Maitland, Middle La Have, and Ritcey's Cove. She 
attended the Normal School at Truro for nine months, and 
secured a B license. Giving up school teaching, she studied 

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medicine with J. S. Calder, M.D., at Bridge water, for six months, 
and spent three years at the Woman's Medical College in Phila- 
delphia, from which she graduated in March, 1888, receiving an 
appointment as assistant physician to the College Hospital, 
which position she filled for one year. She then sailed from 
New York with missionaries for the far East in the magnificent 
steamship City of Rome, and enjoyed a short holiday in London, 
seeing the places of note, and hearing Farrar and Spurgeon — 
getting from the latter an expression of his wish for abundant 
success in her work in India. In a letter dated Calcutta, July 
17th, 1894, Dr. Ernst says that she was sent out by the Woman's 
Union Missionary Society (headquarters at New York) as a 
medical missionary, and has been so engaged for over four years. 
There is a large orphanage connected with the mission, of which 
she is physician. Her work is medical, with eVangefistic teach- 
ing as opportunity offers. She has a large dispensary, attended 
by more than one hundred patients daily, with a hospital for 
widow patients, and in her work uses the Bengali and Hindu- 
stani languages without the need of an interpreter. Specimens 
of the patients' tickets, in each tongue, were enclosed. 

Miss Isabel D. Knaut, daughter of Lewis Enaut, Esq., Coun- 
cillor, Mahone Bay, taught school in different parts of this 
county for over eight years. She has been engaged since in 
teaching at Warren, Mass. An account of examinations held 
in a large hall in the summer of 1894, in the presence of over 
four hundred visitors, thus referred to her department : 

" Miss Knaut had some of the finest work in drawing of the 
whole exhibition. One collection of language papers was notice- 
able, entitled * Helps to Mariners,* and illustrated at will, by 
those of the class who chose, with drawings of lighthouses, 
bell-buoys, etc. For year commencing September 4th, 1894, 
Miss Knaut has been appointed teacher of the Second Grammar 
School of Warren." 

At the Christmas closing of Whiston's Commercial College, 
Halifax, in 1894, the silver medal for the best all-round student 
was won by Mr. William B. Freeman, of Bridgewater. The 

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diploma of the College commercial department was presented 
to Mr. Freeman by Hon. W. S. Fielding, Provincial Secretary. 

Miss Mary C. Pemette, of West La Have Ferry, was engaged 
as a teacher in this county in all for seven years and a half. 
She has been since similarly employed at Sunapee, East Deering, 
and Croydon, in New Hampshire, and was presented with a 
handsome gold chain and other tokens of esteem. 

Miss Florence Anna Crawford, daughter of Rev. Henry 
Crawford, of Lower Dublin, won at the Normal School, Truro, 
the Governor-Generals bronze medal for essay on "School 
Premises as an Educator." Miss Crawford has been engaged as 
a teacher in several sections in this county. 

The following teachers are employed at the places named : 

/ Lunenburg County Academy. 

Principal, Burgess McKittrick, B.A,, Dalhousie. Provincial 
License, Grade A. 

Agnes H. Roop, B.A., Acadia; S. Amanda Hirtle, Mary E. 
Leary, Minnie C. Hewitt, E. Lelia McLachlan, Laura M. Kaul- 
bach, J. Ethel McLachlan, Marie Stoddart, Ellie Zink, and Jessie 

Annie E. Scott and Louisa J. C. Selig are teachers at New 
Town. Their schools belong to the Academy, and are subject 
to its rules. 

All the above-named teachers have Normal School diplomas. 

Bridgewater High School. 

Principal, Henry B. Hogg, B.A., Acadia. Normal School 
diploma, and Provincial license. Grade A. 

Helen Q. Gordon, Teresa Daniels, Mary Tobin, Ellen Tobin. 

Miss Gordon and Miss Daniels have Normal School diplomas. 

Ethel Emeno and Agnes Wynacht are teachers respectively at 
the Shipyard and the North End, and their schools are under 
the supervision of Principal Hogg. 

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406 histort of the county of lunenburg. 

Mahone Bay High School. 

Principal, John T. Quinlan, First Class license. 

Louise Kedy, Normal School diploma. 

Mary Strum, Ellen K. James, and Lois Kennedy. 

The last-named lady is a graduate of a kindergarten schooh 

Chester High School. 

Principal, Rupert F. Morton, B.A., Dalhousie, Grade A. 

Miss Macmie Butler. Miss Jessie L. Hiltz, Normal School 

Mr. Morton is the successor of Mr. Charles E. WiDiams, a 
native of Chester, who was the efficient principal for thirteen 
years, and retired in July, 1895. 

Miss Hannah Church, telegraph operator at Chester, also a 
native of that town, holds a First Class Normal School diploma, 
and was a teacher in that institution for ten years — 1873 to 
1883. , 

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Temperance— Early and continued efforts to secure Total Abstinence — 
Temperance Societies organized and at work in the County. 

** Inflaming wine, pernicious to mankind, 
Unnerves the limbs and dulls the noble mind." 

—Ecymer ("Iliad," Book VI.). 

ONE of the greatest blessings to the county has been the 
spread of total abstinence. A temperance society was 
established in Bridgewater about the year 1826 by Henry 
Stafford, who had been a school-master at Lunenburg, which, it 
is said, was the first one organized in the county ; but, after 
doing some good, from want of energy on the part of its mem- 
bers it ceased to exist. It was, however, soon followed by 
another, and increased interest was taken in the cause until 
the Sons of Temperance met with greater favor. In later 
years the sister society of British Templars was introduced, 
and both enlarged their lists of members and established 
branches of their respective orders. Temperance principles 
were publicly recognized in all the towns and villages and in 
many of the smallest settlements. 

The really wonderful change which has taken place can be 
fully understood only by those who remember the free use of 
intoxicating liquor on battalion days ; when the terms of the 
different courts were held ; at breaking frolics, and at raising 
and hauling parties. One of the arguments used in those days 
against temperance societies was that men could not be hired to 
work without the customary allowance of rum. To drink was 
fashionable, and in this way was worse than wasted much of 
the hard earnings of the people, which would, under present 
circumstances, be used to increase 

*' Domestic happiness, the only bliss 
Of Paradise that has survived the Fall." 

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There is no more lionored name in the list of those who have 
labored in this good work than that of the Rev. James C. 
Cochran, M. A. During many years, while Rector of Lunenburg, 
he publicly advocated total abstinence, with ability and earnest- 
ness, in different districts, and enforced it by his own example. 
Many persons have felt themselves indebted to him, under God, 
for having led them back from the drunkard's downward path 
to sobriety and usefulness. 

The late John Harley, Esq., was a zealous co-worker, and by 
public lectures and other means gave material aid in the 
advancement of temperance principles ; as did also Elder W. 
Ashley, of Yarmouth. 

There was great necessity then, as there is now, for the most 
strenuous opposition to the use of intoxicating liquor. A 
very respectable inhabitant of this county said : " I knew a 
man who would sit by the table to read his Bible and have a 
bottle of rum near him, so that when he was thirsty he might 
use it. He would put the bottle on his knee, and trot it up and 
down and sing to it as if it was a child. There were men who 
hardly ever went to bed sober. Some when about to make a 
bargain would get the other party fuddled so as to have the 
best of it. To drink a lot was thought no harm in those 
days. I was at a barn frame-raising where there was a bucket 
of rum and a tin half-pint on the sill to dip it out with. The 
rum was so strong that when it was somewhat watered and 
sugared it was too strong for me." 

Haymakers used to be bountifully supplied with rum by their 
employers. At lunch-time they would deal out to them liquor 
and bread, with cheese made from curd. 

'* He was held a laggard soul 
Who shunn'd to quaff the sparkling bowl.*' 

On one page of a store-keeper's book for 1808, thirty-three 
items out of Wf ty-six charged against one customer are for mm ; 
and on another page of items against one man, fifty-five out of 
seventy-two are for the same article. Three quarts of rum, a 
pack of cards, and a New Testament are charged together in 
another man's account. ^ j 

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The animal meeting of the Lunenburg Town and County 
Temperance Society was held on November 17th, 1834, when 
they re-elected Rev. J. C. Cochran as President; John Creighton, 
Esq., barrister, Vice-President; Mr. William M. B. Lawson, 
Secretary ; and also Messrs. Thomas Hrady, Henry Jost, Adol- 
phus Gaetz, Matt. Ernst, Charles Bum, John Scott, James 
Bayers, J. B. Comingo, John Blair, William Morris, Charles 
Owen, and Daniel Owen, as the Executive Committee. 

A branch was formed at Upper La Have, with Mr. William 
Newcomb as President; Mr. Michael Fancy, Vice-President, 
and Mr. Harley, Secretary. 

Mr. Cochran wrote, in a letter of December 9th, 1834, that 
four store-keepers in Lunenburg, and others in the county, had 
abandoned the sale of ardent spirits, although to all of them a 
source of profit, and had joined the society. " There appears 
also to be an increasing conviction in this community that the 
cause is good, and several are adopting its principles in some 
degree who do not yet feel prepared to become members. The 
pernicious practice, for instance, of giving spirits to laborers in 
addition to their wages, which was at one time universal, and 
which in every place has been the root and nourishing cause 
of dininkenness, has been much diminished, and in some cases 
entirely given up. 

** We have upon our list about forty persons who have been 
exceedingly intemperate, but have now given evidence, some 
for more than two years, of their being reclaimed from the pit 
of destruction that was open bef.^re them. We may reckon 
about fifty others who were what is called free drinkers, with- 
out being confirmed drunkards but who were doubtless 
advancing with rapid strides to that state of degradation; 
while we have, perhaps, near one hundred youths and others 
ill whom no such habit has been formed, but who we trust are, 
humanly speaking, far more secure than before from its danger. 
It is, indeed, among the young that most active endeavors of the 
friends of temperance should be used, and with good hopes of 
success, since it cannot but be easier to prevent than to eradicate 
the great moral distemper against which our eiforts are directed. 

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"Several merchants have instructed their ship-masters to bring^ 
back no rum from the West Indies if they can sell their cargoes 
for any other returns. I am happy to add that more than once 
the Dispatch, of this port, Captain Neale, has performed her 
voyage without any ardent spirits on board. The same vessel 
was built without the use of any, and Mr. Geo. Walker, one of 
our members, a ship-carpenter by trade, when employed to 
sheathe her, steadily refused any spirits to his men, who after 
some opposition came into his terms." 

Mr. Cochran closed the letter, from wliich the above is taken,, 
with the following good advice, which is still worthy of being 
followed : 

" The temperance cause is surely good, and can only be injured 
by the misconduct or intemperate zeal of its friends. Let those 
friends be united, firm and consistent in their own engagements. 
Let a single eye be kept upon our great object, namely, the 
banishment of intemperance from our land. Let no unseemly 
or unreasonable means be resorted to for bringing about a 
consummation so much to be wished. 

" Let not ridicule or hostility be unnecessarily courted, but let 
every argument which experience, and reason, and religion can 
supply, be offered with all kindness and candor to those who 
may stand aloof. And above all, let the blessing of God l:>e 
unceasingly and devoutly implored, without which whatever 
we do is but lost labor, and which is most especially necessary 
in this war with the corrupt passions, habits, and prejudices 
of man. And then, who can doubt our success ? Who will bo 
found to speak evil of a cause so good in itself, embracing the 
best interests of mankind, conducted with zeal according to 
knowledge in the faith and fear of God, and in good-will to 
man ? " 

Chester Total Abstinence Society. 

The above-named society was founded February 26th, 1841, 
with thirty-two members, and eleven new members were added 
the same year. George Mitchell was President ; James Mosher, 
Vice-President; and John Stewart, Secretary. The following 

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year, 184 members were added, including a number of influen- 
tial persons. In 1843, two hundred members were added ; and 
in 1844, there were forty-six new members. 

Judge Marshall made several visits to Chester, and many 
were by his addresses induced to join the society. In 1845. 
there was an increase of ninety-one membera. At a meeting 
held on " Big Tancook Island," about sixty of the inhabitants 
became members. 

In April, 1846, the officers were : President, Rev. Joseph 
Dimock ; Vice-Presidents — J. S. Wells, George Mitchell, J. S. 
Thompson, and J. Mosher ; Treasurer, George Mitchell ; Secre- 
tary, James Mosher. Committee — John Webber, Peter Corkum, 
J. E. W. Crandall, John E. Melvin, David Hume, Joseph Corkum, 
John Frail, J. L. Corkum, and John Bezanson. 

Chester Division, No. 32, Sons of Temperance, was formed 
September 12th, 1848. 

In an old account book, kept at Chester, were found the fol- 
lowing entries : 

" Reformation. 

"February 19th, 1812. Left off drinking for twelve months 
from this date from all spirituous liquors, except cyder. Amen. 

" March 14th, 1813. Left off drinking spirituous liquors for 
twelve months. Amen. 

"This is to certify the subscriber has left off drinking of 
spirituous liquors for twelve months. As witness my hand. 

" Chester, September 18th, 1827." 

The following is the result of the voting in the county, in 
1894, for and against Prohibition : 

Yea. Nay. 

Lunenburg Drill Shed . . 113 27 

Court-house. 103 37 

—Newtown. 128 if 6 

Garden Lots 66 31 

Lilydale 59 38 

Ritce/s Cove 136 14 

Cross Roads 92 44 

Oakland 55 85 

Yea. Nay. 

New Cornwall 47 16 

East Bridgewater 71 26 

Upper La Have 64 45 

Northfield 61 27 

Chesley's Comer 87 29 

Barss's Corner 99 5 

Midville Branch 56 14 

Chester 90 10 

Mah«>neBay 196 29 East Chester 69 26 

Block-house 32 64 New Ross 68 27 

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Yea. Nay. 

Petite Riviere 86 15 

Dublin Shore 83 51 

Vogler's Cove 94 8 

Bridgewater-South 73 23 

North.... 160 29 

Newcombville 132 19 

Tancook 72 4 

Yea. Ni^. 

MiUCove 21 31 

Sandy Beaches 34 64 

Couquerall Bank 56 28 

Chester Basin 75 24 

Maj. for Prohibition— 1,651. 


Divisions of Sons of Temperance, in the County, in 1895: 

32 Chester Chester George Redden, Deputy. 

116 Phcenix Bridgewater. . . T. K. Cragg, 

337 New Germany Barss's Comer . George W. DeLong, 

639 Lunenburg Rock . . Lunenburg 

672 Living Stream Chester Basin . 

732 Unity Mahone Bay. . . 

775 Atlantic Wave Broad Cove 

Andrew Gardner, 
Hiram Hennigar, 
Mrs. Alex. Keddy, 
Elkanah Conrad, 

Bands of Hope. 

132 Cheerful Workers. . Ritcey's Cove. . 

136 Bee Hive New Germany. . 

143 Palm Leaf Vogler's Cove. 

202 Ocean Spray Dublin Shore . 

Rev. W. Ainley, Superintendent 
Kate A. Lewis, * * 

Mrs. Woodbury, 
E. S. Crawford, '* 

Lodges of British Templars, and Independent Order of Good 
Templars, were established in the county, and flourished for 
some years. La Have Lifeguard Lodge, E. Mortimer Reinhardt, 
Cliief Templar, was organized eighteen years ago, and has one 
hundred members. It meets at Getson's Cove. 

A branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
formed in Bridgewater, in December, 1889, opened a reading- 
room and a coffee-room, which were successfully kept up until 
June, 1891, when, the Young Men's Christian Association wish- 
ing to establish a reading-room, the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union resigned that part of their work, and presented 
them with the literature then on hand or subscribed for. There 
being much competition, the coffee-room was also closed. The 
Union is chiefly engaged in keeping the Temperance cause before 
the public by meetings of various kinds, distribution of litera- 
ture and contributions to the press. They formed a few years 
ago a Loyal Temperance Legion, to instruct and interest the 
children in the promotion of total abstinence. 

A Union was formed at Lunenburg in 1890, and is a very 
useful and flourishing society. 

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Geological and Mineralogical Deposits, with Reports on the same. 

THE County of Lunenburg is included in the firat of the 
four geological divisions of the Province, and is occupied 
by the primary system, which, says Dawson, consists of granite^ 
quartz rock, clay slate, and mica slate. 

The following is a list of specimens obtained in the county 
by Henry Poole, Esq., in 1861. 

Lunenburg District — Hornblende. Slate with quartz. Man- 
ganese. Quartz crystals. Araenical pyrites. Thin laminated 
slate. Pyritiferous slate, decomposed. Auriferous quartz in 
same. Slate with cubical pyrites. Basaltic ti'ap six feet wide. 
Jasper (loose.) Talcose slate. Quartz with pyrites — vein five 
or six feet wide. Slate with striae and pyrites. Ferruginous 
(quartz. Micaceous quartz. 

Bridgewater DUtrict. — Quartz with pyrites. Pyritiferous 
slate. Quartz and slate. Quartz and talcose slate. Hard 
slate with steatite. Micaceous quartz. Granite vein. Man- 
ganese bog ore. Quartz ridge, seventeen feet with pyrites. Bog 
iron ore. Grey slate and quartz. Chlorite slate. Quartzite. 
White quartz and micaceous. Blue slate, gold bearing. Smoky 

Of his visit to "Semone's Farm," Mr. Poole wrote: "Men 
were digging in an ochreous ground, in which I obtained bog 
iron ore. ... I came to the north-east side of Branch 
Lake, where I was shown a wide and deep trench, cut through 
quartz veins in slate. This lode is evidently a continuation of 
the quartz veins which I had previously seen about three miles 
distant on the Lapland road. There were four main veins of 
quartz, with slate between, about three feet wide each, in a 
breadth of fifteen feet. The strike was east and west, veins 

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vertical, and full of arsenical pyrites and mica ; other veins of 
ferruginous quartz showed in the trench. The people had spent 
about £70 in looking for silver, for which they had mistaken 
the pyrites. I advised them to pan the dirt in the trench for 
gold, as all the indications were encouraging. I obtained from 
the walls of the slate, interesting specimens of silicious stalag- 
mites, or pseudo-moi'phous crystals." 

Mr. Poole visited West Dublin, and got quartz containing 
arsenical pyrites fi*om the hill at the rear of Mr. Publicover's 
farm, and the late R. B. Currie, Esq., gave him a cube of pyrites 
from one of the Thinimp Caps, very perfect and large, being an 
inch on the square, and one inch and a half in length. It was 
placed by the late Professor How with minerals sent abroad for 

Chester District. — Carboniferous limestone with terebratula. 
Umber and calc. Micaceous gneiss. Hornblende. Granite 
lx)ulder on summit. Felspar vein. Clay slate with pyrites, and 
ilitto with copper, and iron pyrites. Ferruginoas quartz, and 
in veins. Prismatic mica in breccia. Arenaceous slate. Pris- 
matic mica in ditto. Pipe clay or kaolin. Manganese bog ore. 
Auriferous quartz, fifteen inch vein, and ditto with arsenical 
pyrites. Chlorite slate. Micaceous quartz. 

Haliburton wrote, in 1829 : " Indications of coal have been 
discovered about a mile from Chester ; and lime, yellow ochre, 
and pipe clay are found in several places." Limestone (brown) 
of superior quality, is obtained at Indian Point, near Eastern 

Mr. Poole wrote : " I visited Frail's lime quarry, three miles 
east of Chester, on the side of a lake, and also in the bank of 
Beck's Cove it dipped about thirty degrees W. S. W., with a 
general strike of N. thirty-three W., and contained a great manj' 
fossils, casts of shells — terebratula. I also obtained crystals of 
calc spar. It is a good strong lime, and has been shipped in 
considerable quantities to Halifax. From the range of this 
limestone and direction of its dip, should there be any coal in 
this neighborhood, it should be found between this point and 
the town of Chester ; but that is not likely, as the top of the 

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hill between the two places consists of the ironstone slate, and 
which formation is observable all the way down into Chester. 
It is therefore to be feared that the coal measures have been 
removed by the upheaval and obtrusion of the slate rocks. 

" I went round by Stanford's tannery to examine a hill near 
where coal was reported to have been found ; but I could not 
find any indications of a coal formation. The ridges o£ iron- 
stone slate bore S. twelve degrees E., dipping fifty degrees S., 
no quartz being visible. 

" I went to Douglasville, where Mr. Bradshaw showed me 
loose pieces of dark limestone cropping up in his field, which 
decomposes and forms a dark brown umber. I could not get 
enough exposed to discover the strike, but it was in a line 
between the limestone at Frail's Cove and the bouldera showing 
at the Middle River. 

" I then proceeded to Eisenhauer's hill, which is three hundred 
feet above the level of the sea, where the ridges of ironstone 
8late are much contorted. I was given a sample of kaolin, or 
pipe clay, of very fine quality, and very white, which is obtained 
from the banks of the Sabbattee Lake, four miles from Chester, 
but the water was too high for me to make a personal exami- 

Search for Coal at Chester. 

It was thought probable, by some persons who had been 
engaged in coal mining, that coal might be discovered near 

In 1874, a public meeting was held in the Town House, which 
resulted in organizing the "Chester Mining and Prospecting 
Company." The papers necessary for a right to search were 
obtained from the Department of Mines, and correspondence 
was had with J. D. Eraser, Esq., of Pictou, and others, relative 
to machinery for carrying on the work. 

In 1875, an agreement was made with Mr. James Pitblado, 
sen., of Truro, to superintend the work required in searching 
for coal and other minerals. The machinery used was chiefly 
a mineral auger, made at Truro, and worked with a crank by 

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Borings were made near the entrance of the wood road 
leading to Spectacle Lake, at the foot of Huckleberry Hill ; and 
on lands of W. M. Jackson, formerly part of the Feader 
property. The greatest depth of the borings was about forty 
feet. Prospecting waa also carried on at the " Spring," near 
the tan-yard of ilr. John Stanford, and at other places. 

Mr. Pitblado was of opinion that coal could not be found, but 
he thought that iron ore, specimens of which, it is said, were 
obtained, might be discovered in paying quantities, if sufficient 
capital was invested. 

The search was abandoned after the expenditure of consider- 
able money and labor. Though it resulted in disappointment, 
great credit is due to the company for the work done. 

The " Spring " above referred to, is the so-called " Thermal 
Spring, Chester, Lunenburg county, which is said to afford a 
slightly bitter water, probably alkaline in character." 

Dawson, in his " Acadian Geology," writes : " At Chester 
Basin " (or as it should be, Chester Bay), " the lower carbon- 
iferous rocks appear still more distinctly, and contain thick 
beds of limestone of various qualities. One of the beds is 
said to be a good hydraulic cement, and another, in weathering, 
leaves an umber of a rich brown color, which is manufacture*! 
and sold under the name of Chester mineral paint. The lime- 
stone at this place contains several of the shells already 
mentioned, as characteristic of the carboniferous system. 

" Clay slate occupies the County of Lunenburg as far as 
Cape Aspatogoen, and inland as far as I have any acquaintance 
with its structure. 

"The slates of this county are usually blue or black, and 
often charged with iron pyrites, which, when weathered, gives 
them an intense rusty yellow color. This appearance is espe- 
cially prevalent in some places in the western part of the 
county. Their strike is S.W. and N.E. 

"It is on the margin of this slate district of Lunenburg, 
and at the bottom of a deep bay penetrating into it, that the 
limited tract of lower carboniferous rocks, already noticed as 
occurring at Chcvster Basin (Bay), appears. These carbon- 

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iferous beds dip at a moderate angle S. S. E., and give no 
evidence that this metamorphic district has suffered any con- 
siderable disturbance since their deposition. At Mahone Bay, 
however, I observed a large quantity of fragments of reddish 
amygdaloidal trap, which cannot be far from their original 
site, and probably belong to some trappean eruption of the 
carboniferous period." 

" Aspatogoen," which is a rocky promontory, about five hun- 
dred feet in height, separating Mahone from Margaret s Bay, 
" consists," according to Mr. Poole, " principally of quartzite 
and slate with granite, and is apparently at the extremity 
of a thick dyke or ridge of the latter rock, extending to the 
northward across the stratification of the country. It is the 
highest land on the south Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia." 

Dr. How, in his work on Mineralogy, states : " In the brown 
paint of Bridge water, Lunenburg county, I found 11 per cent, 
peroxide of manganese ; in that of Chester Basin, about 20 
per cent. Petite Riviere and Bridgewater are named among 
places furnishing * umbers, ochres, or wad.' " 

The following places in the county were many yeai-s ago 
stated as likely to be gold producing: Long Island, Cross 
Island, Cross Roads, Conrad's farm (La Have River), Rudolf's 
Mills, Indian Brook, New Germany Lake, Conquerall Lake, 
Lapland, Publicover's farm, Thrump Cap, Coot's Rocks, Petite 
Riviere, Eisenhauer's hill, Deep Cove, Aspotogon, Martin's 
River, Peter Langille's farm. 

The gold discoveries at Gold River, Chester Basin, the Ovens, 
Mellipsigit, and Vogler's Cove are described in other portions 
of this work. 


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Natural History of the County— Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Molluscs, 
Fishes — Flowering and Flowerless Plants. 

^T^HE county affords to the naturalist an extensive field for 
A investigation and study, which is largely opened up by 
the following lists: 

Order, Carnivora. — Bat (VeapertUio). Star nosed mole 
{Condylura Longicaudata), Shrew mice {Sorex). Bear ( Ursus 
Americanus), sometimes attaining the weight of over four 
hundred pounds. 

Thomas Fisher and Martin Uhlman, of Chelsea, discovered a 
bear s den, into which shots were fired. Bruin came out, and 
placed his head between his f orepaws. Uhlman said he seemed 
as* if dead. Fisher advised him not to go too near, but he 
pointed a stick at his nose, when bruin showed that he was wide 
awake by seizing it. He was, after a while, captured. Uhlman, 
travelling on horseback, saw a cub and secured it. In a short 
time the mother was in pursuit and gaining oti the horse, when 
he dropped the cub and stopped the chase. 

The writer was once driving with two ladies, from Mahone 
Bay to Bridgewater, when a cub walked leisurely across the 
road. He wanted to get it, but the ladies feared an attack from 
the old bear. Perhaps there would have been another chase 
and a release of the prisoner, had the capture been made. 

Raccoon {Procyon Lotor), of the weasel family (MuatelidcBy 
Ermine {Mustela Erminea). Weasel {M, Communis), Martin 
{M. Martea), Fisher (M. Canadensis). Skunk (Mephitis Amen- 
cana). Mink {Mustela bison). Otter {Lutra Canadensis). 
Lynx or wild-cat,and Loupcervier,or Lucifee(FeZi« Canadensis), 
Fox {Ganis Falvus). Cross (Canis Decvssatus). Black or 
silver grey (C. Argentatus). The furs of the black, silver grey. 

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and cross fox, the mink, martin, and otter are the most valuable. 
Seals (Phocidoe), The latter are often seen in the neighborhood 
of Blandford, and some have been shot above the bridge at 
Bridgewater. One was on the reef there, Sunday, April 24th, 
1841, and another was on the shore opposite the town, Sunday, 
April 22nd, 1894. 

Order, Rodentia. — Hare {L&pua AmericanusX known as 
the rabbit. Porcupine {Hystrix Dorsata), This animal lives 
on the cleanest food, and the flesh of the young porcupine is 
by many esteemed for its delicacy. They are found in dens or 
holes, under rocks and stumps. Eight were taken from one 
den on Kedy s brook, back of Mahone Bay. The quills, which 
supply its defence against enemies, are dyed in various colors 
and much used in Indian ornamental work. Squirrels: Ground 
squirrel (Sicunia Liateri), Common squirrel (S. Hvdaonicus), 
and Flying squirrel (Ptoremys Sabrimus), Beaver (Castor Fibre 
Americanvs), These animals, with the remarkable construc- 
tion of their habitations, and the adaptation of the entrances 
to the waters where they are built, form an interesting subject 
for study. 

In 1869, the writer visited one of these habitations at Shingle 
Lake, in company with John McLean, sen., an old emigrant 
from Ballycastle, Ireland, who settled in the neighborhood many 
years ago. After a w^alk of about two miles through tangled 
thicket and swamp, showing the fresh tracks of the moose, the 
beaver's dwelling was reached. It was situated in a wild 
meadow, about one hundred yards from the lake, near a brook 
which forms its outlet. By actual measurement it was found 
to be sixty feet in circumference at the base, and six feet in 
height. Mud had been carried up on the roof and worked in 
with the other materials of which it was composed. Branches 
of birch trees, about fifteen feet in length, with the small twigs 
remaining, and their leaves still green, were on the house, which 
at a short distance looked like a large heap of bushes thrown 
promiscuously together. It was, however, so solidly built that 
though three persons walked over it, and stood together on the 
top, it showed no sign of yielding, and proved that it was indeed 

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the handiwork of master mechanics, acting under the direction 
of infinite wisdom and goodness. 

Very large trees have been cut down by beavers for dams, 
and to supply bark for food. A popple tree, about fourteen 
inches in diameter, was cut through at Rhodenizer s Lake, near 
Bridgewater. The late E. D. Davison, Esq., had one about 
twenty -two inches. The writer has a section of hardest oak so 
cut, thirteen inches and a half. One of our Indians, in a talk 
about beavers, said, "You could think not the way beaver 
works ; not many animals more sense than beaver." And 
another said, " He's a keen ; knows as much as people." 

In 1879, John Labrador, of Bridgewater, obtained a beaver, 
three feet nine inches long, two feet four inches wide, and of 
sixty poimds' weight. 

Abraham Hebb, Esq., and others, while removing marsh mud 
from a meadow a few years ago, found, three feet below the 
surface, a section of a white birch tree, showing at each end the 
marks of the beaver s teeth. When it had heen a short time 
exposed to the air it crumbled to dust. 

Mr. Hebbs man afterw^ards removed from the meadow a 
section of an oak tree cut by beavers, which it was believed 
from facts known to Mr. Hebb, must have been so cut nioi^. 
than a hundred years before the piece was found. 

In earlier times the fur of the beaver formed quite an article 
of export. It is not now so easily procured. 

Musk Rat, or Musquash (Fiber Zibethicus,) This animal 
lives in a house of somewhat similar construction to that of the 
beaver, about two feet high, and nine feet round. From four 
to seven occupy one house. They generally build by a rock or 
stump, and occupy the dwelling until a freshet sweeps it away. 

**The musk-rat plied the mason's trade, 
And tier by tier his mud walls laid." 

Burrowing field mouse (Arvicolci PeuTisylvanica). 

Order, Ruminantia. — Moose, or Elk (Alces Americana). 
Caribou, or Reindeer (Cerviis Tarandus,) 

In early days moose and caribou were very abundant here 
and all about the Province. A German poet named Seume, 

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who was in Halifax in 1781-82, referring to the Indians wrote : 
*' They very often came in great numbers into the town to sell 
their game, which consisted chiefly of moose, birds, and some- 
times fish, principally eels;" and again, in mentioning the 
moose he added; "One may conjecture what numbers there 
must have been in the forests, when entire English regiments 
had knapsacks of moose hide.", 

There were many famous hunting-grounds in this county, 
some of which have become populous settlements, such as New 
Germany and Waterloo. Eighteen or twenty caribou have 
been frequently seen together ; and ten or fifteen moose yards 
have been found in a comparatively small district of country. 
These are often, yet, but slightly removed from human habita- 
tions. A drove of caribou, supposed to have numbered thirty, 
was once seen crossing the New Germany lake on the ice. 
" They used to be as plenty as sheep are now " was the expres- 
sion of an old sportsman still living. 

Moose are often found alone, as well as in paira. Not more 
than five or six are at any time seen together. The wanton 
destruction of moose and caribou, for many years, caused their 
numbers to be sensibly diminished ; but the close seasons, which 
have been secured by legislation, have had a marked efiect in 
the increase of these animals. Moose hunting is a sport in 
which farmers, among whom are very expert marksmen, still 
indulge. A party of them once started a moose near Lapland, 
and chased him towards Ohio, at the upper part of the Branch, 
from whence the hunted and the hunters turned back to 
Mellipsigit Lake ; from thence to the Carver Settlement ; and 
then went on to the still water at the foot of Wile's meadow, in 
which the moose was attacked by several of the dogs belonging 
to the party. They caught him by the ears and sides; but 
after a severe struggle he escaped from his tormentors, and 
shortly afterwards, this being the fourth day of the chase, was 
brought down by a ball fired by George Hebb, sen. One of 
this party, Abraham Hebb, Esq., late M.P.P., killed and helped 
to kill -fifty-five moose and eight caribou. Two of the moose 
stood six feet and six inches in height. 

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As many as nine have been shot in one hunt While being' 
pursued they seldom run long in the same direction, and a 
hunter will cross his own track three or four times in a day. 
From ten to fifteen miles' travel on snow-shoes in pursuit of 
moose is called a good day's work. They have been captured 
by snares, made of rope fastened to spring poles; and in pits 
dug across their path to the depth of seven or eight feet, and 
covered with sticks and moss. 

A party of ten (George Wile, and others) were out moose 
himting, when five or six became separated from the rest, and 
were attacked by a bull moose, and driven into trees. As Mr. 
Wile was climbing one, the moose, making a dash, knocked the 
gun out of his hand. Some of the party, not far off*, killed the 

Benjamin Wile came upon a moose in a pit eight feet deep. 
He was greatly enraged, and in his attempts to escape made 
the water in the bottom of the pit fly in all directions. There 
was a terrific battle before he was captured. 

The writer has been told by an old moose hunter, that about 
fifty years ago he and several others found a moose in one of 
their deep pits, of which they had five. He was what they 
called " a king moose," and weighed nearly one thousand pounds. 
They could not kill him with a bullet, so they made a huge 
wooden mallet, with which they took his life by heavy blows 
between the horns. 

Parties of moose hunters have been sometimes exposed to 
great suffering on being overtaken by bad weather. Two men, 
Melchior Broom and John Wile, were once out in a severe storm 
of snow and hail, and were found frozen to death near a lake 
since known as Broom's Lake, within a mile of Hebb's Mills. 

Moose have been taken alive in the county and tamed. One 
caught by Frederick Wile frequently entered the house and 
lay on the kitchen floor. It roamed about the farm with the 

About fifty-three years ago, Mr. Isaac Romkey, of West 
Dublin, and others saw on Cape La Have Island, in January or 
February, a large moose, which eluded capture for several days, 
but was at last shot by Mr. Jacob Publicover.^.^g^^yQoOQlc 


On July loth, 1895, a moose, supposed to be about two 
years old, was seen on the " Head," opposite Lunenburg. 
He took the water and swam three-quarters of a mile to the 
shore near Rous's brook. On the way he was captured by a 
rope, and after a struggle on landing, was taken on a truck to 
the town. He was purchased by Dr. Polly and Mr. Robert 

Order, Cetacea. — The whale (Balcena Myaticetvs) has been 
taken in the waters of the county. One of large size was 
found at sea dead, and towed in by fishermen of La Have 
Islands. Grampus (Phoccena Orca). Porpoise {PhocoBna 
Communis), often killed by Indians for the oil they supply. 


'^ Poorly, at best, can pen or tongue display 
The fulness of the beauty and the bliss 
Cast by the birds on this our earthly way." 

Order, Birds of Prey. — Falcons (Falconidce), including 
bald eagle, fish hawk, hen hawk and sparrow hawk. Owls 
(Strigidce), Grey owl, horned owl. 

A very fine specimen of the American bald-headed eagle was 
shot a few years ago near Hebb's Mills by Mr. Angus Hebb. 

Order, Perchers. — Shrikes (Laniadce). The only species 
known in Nova Scotia has been found in the county — the 
American shrike, or butcher bird. Thrushes (MervZidce). Of 
these the robin, cat-bird, wood-thrush and black-bird are 
common to the county. 

Mr. Samuel Fancy killed on his farm, near Bridgewater, a 
white (Albino) robin. 

A few years ago, Mr. James R. Russell, conductor on the 
Nova Scotia Central Railway, found a robin's nest with three 
eggs underneath the body of a passenger car. 

In June, 1895, Conductor Maurice Fitzgerald noticed some 
straws, and watched the building of a robin's nest on a truck- 
beam of a car running between Bridgewater and Lxmenburg. 
Three eggs were laid, and the young were hatched. The old 
bird would leave the nest at, or shortly after, the departure of 

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the train for Lunenburg, and would be seen by the conductor, 
on his return in the afternoon, waiting for the train on a bush 
or a flat-car, and sometimes on the top of a building at the 
station. Had the nest been let alone all would have been 
well, and the conductor repaid for all his kind attention, but 
mischievous boys having interfered, and loosened the nest, he 
was saddened when, on a trip to Lunenburg, he saw the nest 
and the young birds carried aw^ay by the wind. 

Warblers (Sylviadw). Yellow birds and black-cap. Fly- 
catchera (Mvscicapidoe). King bird, redstart, and wood pewee. 
Chatterers {Amjyelidce). Cherry-bird. So destructive are these 
birds in the county, that during one season the owner of a 
valuable orchard, having several large cherry-trees filled with 
fruit, gathered only ten quarts. Finches (Fringillidce). Snow- 
bird, and grey and red linnet. Grosbeak, crows {Corvuice). 
Common crow, and blue-jay. Creepers (Certhiadce). White- 
bellied nut-hatch, and brown creeper. Humming-birds {Trochi- 
lidce). Ruby-throated humming-bird. King-fishers {Halcyon- 
idee). Belted king-fisher. Swallows (HirundinidcB). Bam, 
chimney, and blue swallows. Night-hawks (Caprimulgidce). 
Night-hawk and whip-poor-will. 

Order, Climbers. — Woodpeckers (Picidce). 

Order, Scrapers. — Grouse {Tetr(wnid<B\ Ruflfed grouse, or 
birch partridge, and spotted grouse, or spruce partridge. Pigeons 
(Columbidce). Wild pigeons. The latter were formerly very 
abundant, but are now rarely seen. 

Order, Waders. — Herons (Ardcidce), Great blue heron, or 
crane. Snipes {Scolopacidce). American snipe and woodcock, 
sand pipers and curlews. Phalaropes (Phalaropidai). Hyper- 
borean, or browTi phalarope. Plovers (CharadriadcB). Golden 
ring and black bellied. 

Immense flocks of plover and curlew, often numbering thou- 
sands, once roamed over the Lunenburg common, afibrding fine 
sport ; and an occasion is recorded when a bushel basket full 
were shot in a short time. 

Order, Ducks and Geese. — (Anatidca.) Wild goose, brent, 
black dudk, and teal. Wood ducks are also found in the 

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county. The drake is a very handsome bird, and the colors 
about the head and neck are exceedingly brilliant and varied. 
Divers (Colymhidce). Great northern diver or loon. Auks 
{Alcidce). Auks and sea doves. Gulls (Laridce), Tern, grey 
gull, and petrel. Grebes (Podiceidce), Red-necked grebe and 

The English sparrow is seen in the county in large numbers. 
It is said that the origin of these birds in the Province was the 
bringing of two or three of them to Falmouth, in Hants county. 

Most of those named are birds of passage. Some varieties, 
including the crow, blue jay, partridge, and woodpecker, remain 
through the coldest seasons. A solitary robin is also frequently 
seen during our milder winters. 

Birds resembling those known in the north of Britain as 
"cock of the wood," black, and with lyre-shaped tails, have 
been seen in the county. 

Many of the birds sing very sweetly, and may be heard from 
early spring to late in autumn. 

** They tell of birds in other climes, 
With plumage bright and gay, 
In gorgeous tints outrivalling 
An eastern king^s array — 
Strangers to song — more dear to me 
The linnet, modest grey, 
That pipes in sweetest summer woods 
His glad heart-thrilling lay. 

** Sweet birds of this my native land, 
I loved you when a boy. 
Your names are linked unto my heart 
With dreams of vanished joy ; 
And I could wish, when death has stilled 
For aye this heart of mine, 
That o*er my last low bed of earth 
» Might swell your notes divine. " 


Fresh water tortoise (Eifni/a), sometimes found of large size. 
Snakes, lizards, frogs, toads, and newts. 

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426 history of the county of lunenburg. 

Articulated Animals. 

Worms — EIai*th worms and leeches. 

Crustacea — Lobster, crab. 

Spiders — Centipedes. 

Insects — Of different orders. 

Order, Coleoptera. — Beetles, water beetle (Dytiscus). Fire- 
flies (Elater), Turnip fly (Altiai). Lady bugs (CocdneUa). 

Order, Orthoptera. — Crickets and grasshoppers. 

Order, Neuroftera. — Dragon flies (LibelivUa), and day flies 

Order, Hymenoptera. — Wasps (VespidcEi). Bee (Apis), 
Humble bee {Bomhus). Ichneumons. 

Order, Homoptera. — Singing locusts and plant lice. 

Order, Heteroptera. — Bug (CiTrux), Frog spittle insects 

Order, Lepidoptera. — Butterflies, moths, and millers. Cater- 
pillars, grubs, cut worms, apple worms, and pea worms. 

Order, Diptera. — Mosquitoes and gnats (GvleGuice). Crane 
flies or Harry long legfi (Tipalidce). Horse flies ( /W>ani#te). 
Bot flies ((E»^ri<ycc). Flesh and house &ies (Mtbscidce). VVheat 
fly, improperly called " weevil." Hessian fly {Gecidomyia\ 


Squids, or cuttle fish. Land snails, and slugs. Of the shell 
fish, there are found in the county. Mussel {MylHun E'tufis), 
Sand clam {Mya Arenaria). Razor fish (SolenEnsia), Scallop 
(Pecten Magellanicus). The latter is found in Chester Bay> 
Mahone Bay, and at Lohnes* Island, Gorman's Point, and other 
places near Lunenburg. 

Radiated Animals. 
Sea Urchins, star fishes, and jelly fishes. 

Mackerel (Scomber Scombras). Tunny, or Albercore. Blue 
perch (Labrus Coricus). Sculpin {Coitus), Sucker (Cobitis). 
Salmon (Salmo Salar), Trout (SoLmx) Fontinalis), Sea and 

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lake trout. The latter, of large size, are caught in the spring, 
in many parts of the county; and also in winter, through 
holes made in the ice. Salm/> Ferox, or Scotch grey lake trout, 
are found in the large lake between New Boss and New 
Germany, commonly known as Sherbrooke Lake. 

In 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel Sinclair took a number of these 
fish, while on a visit at New Boss. Some of them were of 
large size. In the spring of 1892, Mr. Arthur C. Bamaby, of 
Bridgewater, and friends, caught eleven at the " Narrows," the 
largest weighing five pounds. They were taken by sinking 
bait (pieces of perch) to quite a depth. After the return of 
this party, Messrs. B. H. Porter and G. M. Huggins caught 
some, the largest of which weighed seven pounds. They have 
been taken of much larger size. This fish is considered 
excellent for table use. 

Smelt (Oamerua Eperlanue). Herring {Clupea Elongata). 
Alewives (Clupea Veimalia), Shad (Alosa). Cod (Morrhua 
Arnericana). Hake (Phycis). Haddock (Morrhua jEglifiniis), 
Tom cod, or frost fish {Morrhua Pruinoaa). Flat fish (Platessa), 
Halibut {Hypoglo88U8 Vulgaris). Eel (Anguilla). 

Sharks (SquaZides). The basking shark (Selache Ma^imus) 
is but seldom seen. The dog-fish, a small species, is caught itl 
large quantities, and is of value for the oil it furnishes. It is 
also dried, and used during the winter in some districts as food 
for hogs. 

Skate or Bay (Raia Balis). Sturgeon (Accipenaer), 

Flowering Plants. 

The following and many other varieties are found in the 
county : 

Order, NYMPHiEACE^ — White pond lily (Nymphcea Odor- 
ata), and yellow pond lily {Nuphar Ad vena). Some of the 
smaller lakes in the county are almost completely covered with 
the first-named beautiful flower. 

Order, Sarracenia. — Indian cup or pitcher plant (Sarra- 
cenia Puipurea). These are often found filled with water. 
They are handsomely veined, and are of difierent coloi^ 
Crimson is the most common. Digitized by GoOgle 


Order, ARALiACEiE. — Sarsaparillas (Aralia), of different 

Order, GROSSULACEiE. — Wild Gooseberries (Ribes Oxyacan- 
thoides). Of this order there are also found wild black and 
red currants. 

Order, Acerin^. — Sugar or rock maple {Acer Sacchari- 
num). Black maple (A. NigruTn). White or soft maple {A, 
Dasycarpum). Moose wood, or striped maple (A. Striatum). 
Maple syrup and sugar are obtained from the one first named. 

Order, RosACEiE. — Wild rose, and sweet briar (Rosa Porvi- 
fiora, and Rubiginoaa). Wild raspberry, blackberry, and dew- 
berry (Rubus Strigo8ii8y etc.). Wild strawberry {Fragaria 
Virginiana), so much esteemed for its delicious flavor. Of 
this order there are also found a variety of other fruit-bearing 
plants, whose flowers embellish the wayside and the forest. 

Of the apple family, the medlar or wild pear (Aronia Botry- 
apium), the delicate blossoms of which furnish an additional 
charm to the landscape, and the fruit of which is eagerly 
sought for. Passing over the lakes in the interior in spring, 
long stretches of forest are seen, in many shades of green, 
fringing the water, and with the delicate blossoms of the 
wild pear everywhere intermixed, making up most beautiful 
pictures. Chokeberry (A. Arbutifolia). Rowan, or mountain 
ash {Pyrus Microcarpa), and the wild hawthorn {Cratas^us). 

Of the cherry family, the wild cherry, and choke cherry 
(Gerasua Pennsylvanica and Serotina). 

Order, ANACARDiACEiE. — The sumach (Rhus Typkina), and 
the poison vine {Rhus Toxicodendron). 

Order, CupuLiFERiE. — White and red beech (Fagus Sylvat- 
ica and F. FerriLginea), Red and grey oak {Quercus), and 
the hazel (Gorylua America^iia), Witch and nut hazel are 
found. Oaks, over thirty feet in height, and ten inches in 
diameter, were, in 1870, growing in the township of New 
Dublin, where the forest was destroyed by fire in June, 1840. 

Order, BETULACEiE. — Yellow birch, black birch, white canoe 
birch, and poplar leaved birch (Betula Excelaa, Lenta, Papyracea 
and PopvZifolia), and alders (Alnus Sert^lata, etc.). 

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Order, IJLMACEiE. — Elm (Ulmua Americana), found on the 
intervales near La Have and Gold rivers. 

Order, SALiCACEiE. — Willows (Salix), and poplars. Aspen 
(Populus Tremuloides). Tree poplar (P. Grandidendata), and 
white leaved poplar (P. Candicans). 

Order, OLEACEiE. — White ash (Fraodnus Acuminata). 
Black, or swamp ash {F. Sambucifolia). 

Order, Conifer^e. — Evergreens, or soft woods. White pine 
{Pinue Slrobus). Pitch pine (P. Resinosa). Hemlock (P. 
Canadensis). Black spruce (P. Nigra). Red spruce (P. Rubra). 
White spruce (P. Alba). Black larch or hackmatack (P. Pen- 
dula). Red larch or juniper (P. Microcarpa). Cedar or arbor 
vitse {Thuja Occidentalis.) The last-named is found in the 
forest on the peninsula between Chester Bay and St. Margaret's 
Bay, near Aspotogon. Among other species in this order are 
the fir (P. Balaimvaea), one of the prettiest ornamental trees 
among the evergreens. Scrub pine (P. Banlcsiana). Ground 
hemlock (Taxtcs Canadensis) y and ground juniper {Juniperus 

Order, ERiCACEiE. — Red and grey cranberries (Oxycoccus). 
Blueberries and whortleberries (Vaccinium). Wintergreens 
or teaberries (Gaultheria). The fragrant may flower (Epigcea 
Repent). Sheep and swamp laurel (Kalmia). Rhodora (R. 
Canadensis), and the Labrador tea (Ledum). 

Order, Caprifoliace^. — Cornels (Cornus). Dogwoods and 
others of the shrubs, and pigeon-berries of the herbaceous 
plants. Black and red-berried elder (Sambucus Canadensis 
£uid Pubescens). Moose bush ( Viburnum Lantanoides). Tree 
cranberry (V. Oxycoccus). Twin flower (Linnea Borealis), and 
the bush honeysuckle (Diervilla). 

Order, Leguminos^e. — Clovers {Trifolium), and the ground 
nut (Apios). 

Order, Composit^e. — Star flowers (Aster). Golden-rods 
(Solidago). Dandelion, white weed, thistle, and burdock. 

Order, Labiat^e. — Self-heal or blue curls (Prunella). Spear 
mint (Mentha). Ground ivy (Olechoma). 

Order, Orchidace.e. — Ladies' slippers (CypHpedium). Grass 
pink {Cymbidium). Digitized by Google 


Order, LiliacEuE. — Solomon's seal and wild lily of the valley 

Grasses (Grcmiinece) and sedges. Of these there are many 
irarieties, and most of them are very pretty. 

Flowerless Plants. 

Equiseta. — Horsetails, with hollow-jointed stems. 

Lycopodia. — Club mosses and ground pines. 

Filices. — Ferns or brakes. Some of these are very delicate, 
and all are very beautiful. 

Musci. — Mosses and lichens (Lichenes), These are in great 
variety, and many of them are much admired. 

Fungi. — Mushrooms, esteemed a great delicacy, and much 
used in the making of catsup. Puff-balls, touch-wood, etc. 

Alg^e. — Sea-weeds. Many of these found on the shores of 
the county are very pretty. The larger and coarser species are 
used for manure on farms near the sea-coast. 

Soda, used in making soap, is obtained from the ashes of 
some of the sea- weeds, and a species of moss is found which is 
used instead of isinglass, or corn-starch, in making blanc-mange 
and jellies, after being deprived of its saline particles by 
washing and bleaching. 

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Census Returns from earliest dates, with Comparative Statements. 

JACQUES DE MEULLES, Ki, Seigneur de la Source, the 
Intendant of New France, visited all the French settle- 
ments in Acadie, in 1685 and 1686, and found them in a 
neglected and desolate state. He caused a census to be prepared 
in 1686, which showed for La Hfeve : Six families — 6 males, 
6 females, 5 boys, 2 girls, 9 fusils, 1 pig, 3 arpents under culture. 
{An arpent is nearly an acre.) 

Another return, in the same year, gave for La Hfeve and 
Merliguesche : Nineteen souls, 3 acres tilled, 1 pig and 9 fusils. 
The following names were mentioned : Provost, Labal (Petite 
Riviere) Vesin, Martin Le Jeune, his wife Jeanne, an Indian 
woman and two children, Michel, Gourdeaux, La Verdure and 

Messieurs Beauhamois and Hocquart, in a letter to the Count 
de Maurepas, dated Quebec, September 12th, 1745, wrote : "At 
Mirligueche, a small harbor five leagues east of La Heve, are 
only eight settlers ; among the rest are Paul Guidry, aliaa 
Grivois (jovial or jolly), a good coast pilot." 

At Merligueche, a few French families. 


Paul Boutin, Charles Boutin, Julian Boumeuf, Sebastian 
Boumeuf, Francois Lucas, Joseph Gedri, Pierre Gedri, Pierre 
Erio, and Claude Erot, with their families, in all twenty-five 
persons, having been brought from Cape Breton (where they 
said they could not find subsistence) to Halifax, took the oath 

Digitized by 



of allegiance, and came to Lunenburg in the autumn of this 


Number of persons assembled at Lunenburg — Germans, Swiss, 
and othera — on the 1st of Noveml)er, as certified by returns, 


A return of the settlens at Lunenburg, with the alterations, 
from the 28th of May, 1753, l>eing the time of embarkations, to 
the 22nd of January, 1758 : 

Original number 1,453 

Deatl 152 

Discharged 854 

Deserted 19 

Bom 440 

Entered and re-entered 506 

Total number 2,399 

Remaining at Lunenburg 1,374 

(Signed) D. Christopher Jessen. 


September 9th. — Fifty-nine Germans and Swiss arrived at 
Lunenburg from Louisburg, after nineteen days* passage. Four 
were discharged, and the rest received provisions for fourteen 
days— eight pounds of pork and ten pounds of bread to each 


November 20th. — A return of the number of inhabitants, 
and stock of cattle, within the Settlement of Lunenburg: 

Number of men 350 

Number of women and children 1,114 

Total 1,464 

Number of cattle — milch cows 600 

Digitized by 


Acres under 











Lunenburg 300 

New Dublin 50 

Cheater 30 


The same number of families were returned for the several 
townships, as given above. A note annexed to the census table 
states that they were composed of English settlers — meaning as 
distinguished from FrencL " Acadian families are not included." 

Acres under Acres of 

Cultivation. Woodland. 

Lunenburg 6,000 134,000 

Chester 30 99,970 

New Dublin 200 99,800 


The following return of the population for this year was 
included in a report for the whole Province, made at the request 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society : 

Lunenburg '. . . . 1,600 

New Dublin 100 

Chester 100 


Population . . . : 1,901 

Males 1,007 

Females 894 

Of English origin 102 

Of Irish origin 63 

Of Scotch origin 24 

Americans 271 

Germans 1,451 

Protestants 1,866 

Roman Catholics 36 

Population of Nova Scotia this year 11,779 

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July 25th. — A return was made by Mr. Zouberbuhler, to the 
Lieutenant-Governor (Lord William Campbell), of "the number 
of families at Lunenburg, their increase in children," etc., which 
contained the following: 

Families 30O 

Men and women 5S9 

Boys 469 

Girls 452 

Total persons 1,610 

Bom last year 43 

Died ** *' 10 


Population, 3,247. 

Townships. Families. Persons. 

Lunenburg 383 2,213 

Chester 110 691 

New Dublin 86 443 

Population, 6,628. 


Population 9,405 

Males 4,846 

Females 4,659 

Lutherans 2,897 

Church of England 2,119 

Presbyterians 1,916 

Baptists 1,192 

Methodists 844 

Rohian Catholics 437 

Acres under culture . . 13,476 

Wheat (bushels) 3,117 

Other grains ** 33,146 

Potatoes " .... 334,163 

Hay (tons) 10,577 

Horses 202 

Homed cattle 8,978 

Sheep 11,238 

Swine 5,331 

Comparative statement of live stock for years 1808 and 
1827 : 

1808. 1827. 

Horses 209 202 

Horned cattle 5,380. 8,978 

Sheep 4,416 11,238 

Swine 5,781 /- 5,331f^ 

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Return of stock and crops for the several townships in 1829 : 

Lunenburg. New Dublin. Chester. 
Acres of cultivated land 

Homed cattle 



Bushels wheat 

" other grain 
** Potatoes... 

Tons hay 





























Population 12,065 I Males 6,209 

Families 1,882 | Females 6,856 


Population 16,395 I Males 8,083 

Families 3,016 | Females 8,312 

Church of England 4,768 

Lutherans 4,011 

Presbyterians of Lower Canada 2,168 

Church of Scotland 39 

Reformed 568 


Baptists 2,727 

Methodists 1,565 

Roman Catholics 479 

Universalists 49 

Congregationalists 20 

Quakers 1 


Houses inhabited 2,761 

*' uninhabited 51 

'* building 73 

Shops, stores and barns 3,439 

Acres impn^ved 29,396 

Horses 669 

Neat cattle 9,142 

Cows 3,744 

Sheep 11,934 

Swine 2,98^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Wheat (bushels) 4,892 

Barley ** 60,361 

Bricks manufactured 259,400 

Soap (pounds) 

Candles *' 

Deaf and dumb — 



Of unsound mind — 






Fisheries — 

Vessels 186 

Tons 2,478 

Men 669 

Boats 468 

Men 640 

Nets and seines 5,610 

Vessels being built 50 

Boats '' " 743 

Grist-mills 64 

Saw-mills 156 

Tanneries 10 

Lumber and leather manufactured in 1860 : 

Deals 639,000 superficial feet. 

Pine boards 6,265,000 

Spruce and hemlock boards 7,476,000 ** 

Staves 1,182,000 

Square timber 99 tons. 

Leather, amounting in value to $22,424 

The county manufactures one-fifth of fall the spruce and 
hemlock boards sawed in the Province. 





Houses inhabited 

»» uninhabited 

II being built 

Bams and other buildings 


Shops and stores 

Church of England 



Presbyterians, L.P., 2,381 
Church of Scotland, 3 


Roman Catholics 

















Uther denommations 
Not given 


Deaf and dumb — 








Of unsound mind — 




From 80 to 90 years of age- 
Males - 

. 37 



From 90 to 100 years 

of age- 

. .. 3 


... 8 

Digitized by 




Grist-mills 56 

Saw-mills 168 

Carding mills 2 

Othermills 26 

Hand looms 999 

Tanneries 4 

Bricks made 90,000 

Lime (pounds) 3,100 

Carriages built 82 

School-houses 83 

Churches — 
Church of England. ... 13 
Baptist 10 




Roman Catholic . 
Other Churches. , 



Cultivated upland. 
Cultivated intervale 

Salt marsh 

Dyked marsh 


Neat cattle 





Other roots 


43,844 acres. 
2,904 " 
204 " 
17 '' 
153,954 bush. 
12,593 " 
20,012 tons. 

Lumber — 


Pine boards 

Spruce and hemlock . 

Square timber 



Butter 200,813 lbs. 

Cheese 8,418 " 

Maple sugar 2,068 ** 

Meat 3,730 

Barley 71,078 

Rye 11,082 

Oats 19,231 

Buckwheat 2,269 

Peas 957 

Com 149 

Turnips 42,203 

Timothy seed 148 

539,000 feet. 
5,265,000 M 
7,475,000 „ 

99 tons. 
1,182,000 feet. 

Fisheries — 

Vessels 158 

Men 1,380 

Boats 969 

Men 1,107 

Nets and seines. . . . 3,038 

Dried fish (i5,791 qntls. 

Mackerel 5,992 bbls. 

Herrings 28,665 

Gaspereaux 1,177 bbls. 

Salmon 46 ** 

Shad 43 ** 

Smoked salmon 1,178 *' 

Fish oil 47,067 gals. 

Assessed value of 

real estate $2,415,032 

Personal property. $990, 000 

An examination of the returns for all the counties shewed 
that the County of Lunenburg raised the largest crop of barley, 
the second of rye, the third of apples, and the third of roots, 
other than potatoes and turnips. Digitized byGoOQlc 



Comparative statement of 
for the years 1851 and 1861 

Hay . : 






Indian com 






Neat cattle 

Milch cows 



agricultural produce and live stock 


17,638 tons. 

4,892 bushels. 






96,626 pounds 

1,424 •' 





20,012 tons. 
3,730 bushels. 
71,078 " 
2,269 " 
19,231 " 
11,082 " 
149 '• 
163,954 ** 
42,203 " 
200 813 pounds. 
8,418 " 






Census of 1891.^. - 

Population, Lunenburg County, 31,076. 

By Districts — 

Bayswater 608 

Block-house 4,153 

Bridgewater 3,936 

Chester 3,060 

Oonquerall 1,41 8 

Lunenburg 4,894 

Mill Cove 619 

New Germany 3,838 

New Ross 1,127 

Petite Riviere 3,416 

Ritoe/s Cove 1,9 4 

Summerside 1,513 

Tancook 670 


Number of families 6,808 

Dwellings occupied 6,266 

*' uninhabited 87 

** under construction 70 
Males 16,944 

Femnles 16,131 

Conjugal condition — 

Married 10,996 

Males 6,496 

Females 6,600 

Widowed 1,078 

Males 312 

Females 766 

Children and unmarried. . 19,001 

Males 10,136 

Females 8,866 

Total can read and write . 
Oannot read or write . . . 


19,782 I Can only read 2,439 

8,864 I Indians (all Micmacs) 59 

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Roman Catholics 629 

Church of England 10,030 

Presbyterians 3,536 

Methodists 5,577 

Lutlierans 5,450 

Baptists 5,304 

Congregationalists 357 

Disciples 12 

Adventists 16 

Unitarians 5 

Universalists 2 

Salvation Army 31 

Quakers 3 

Not specified 124 


Land owned 683,013 acres. 

** occupied 346,269 ** 

** improved 114,973 " 

** under crop 64,516 *' 

Land in forest 231,296 acres. 

** in pasture 58,616 *' 

* * in garden and or- 
chards 1,842 ** 


Wheat 158 acres. 2,261 bushels. 

Barley 1,980 *' 52,085 

Oats 1,464 ** 36,900 

Rye 597 " 12,246 

Peas 38 '* 604 

Buckwheat 4,634 ** 1,449 

Hay 36,505 '* 35,656 tons. 

Corn 4 ** 199 bushels. 

Potatoes 2,544 ** 268,619 *' 

Turnips, etc 688 *' 78,578 ** 

Hops .... 2,309 pounds. 

Flax fibre .... 9,850 ** 

Hemp fibre 699 ** 

Maple sugar 2,886 ** 

Apples .... 96,431 bushels. 

Qrapes 12,919 pounds. 

Horses 1,213 

Colts and fillies 261 

Sheep 20,098 

Working oxen 5,050 

Milch cows 6,734 

Other homed cattle 8,856 

Swine. 4,260 

Product of saw-mills $242,384 

7 steamers . 

Ybssbls Owned. 
512 tons. I 210 sailing vessels . . 25,002 tons. 

The returns of the Fisheries Department show engaged in 
the fisheries 169 vessels, with 2,344 men; tonnage, 13,836 tons; 


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value, $812,400. Boats number 1,603, manned by 1,670 men, 
and possessing a value of $46,615. 

The nets, weirs, pounds and traps had a value of $116,391, 
and the value of the catch was $1,496,115. 

Respecting the kinds and quantities of fish caught, the 
returns show as follows: 

Cod 205,137 cwt 

Cod tongues 477 bbls. 

Pollock 3,974 cwt. 

Hake 1,250 '* 

Haddock 19,091 ** 

Halibut 221,365 lbs. 

Salmon— fresh 17,185 " 

Salmon— smoked . . 987 ** 

Mackerel 20,463 bbls. 

Herring 23,733 " 

Shad 16bRs. 

Trout 1,556 lbs. 

Squid 282 bbls. 

Smelt 6,736 ft». 

Eels 167 bbls. 

Lobsters 293,600 cans. 

Fish products — 

Fish oU 39,781 gals. 

Fish bait 2,065 bbls. 

Fish for manure . . 2, 950 * ' 

( Statement of the Population at Different Periods. 

1686. La H^ve and Merliguesche 19 

1745. Mirligueche. Settlers, heads of families. 8 

1756. At Lunenburg. Germans, Swiss and others 1,279 

1758. Remaining at Lunenburg 1,374 

1760. Within the Settlement of Lunenburg 1,464 

1770. At Limenburg. Return of Mr. Zouber- 

buhler 1,510 

1795. In township of New Dublin. Families . . 84 

For thb County. 

1753 1,453 

1760 1,464 

1762 1,800 

1767 1,901 

1791 3,247 

1817 6,628 

1827 9,405 

1838 12,065 

1851 16,395 

1861 19,632 

1871 23,834 

1881 28,683 

1891 31,076 ') 

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Men returned, appointed, and called as Representatives in Parliament, 
from 1758 to the present time — Wardens and Councillors for 
Lunenburg and New Dublin and Chester. 

First Lunenburg Election for House of Assembly. 

THE names of the candidates, together with the names of 
the voters for said candidates, July 31st, 1758 : 

Anton Treber, 
Martin Usler, 
C. Schauflfelberger, 
John Young, 
Ludwig Spindler, 
Pierre Sauner, 
Andreas Young, 
Aimier Thiel, 
Jacob Sporry, 

Adam Pieler, 
Jacob Tanner, 
Peter Wambolt, 
Martin Kolbach, 
John Behfier, 
Paul Anshutz, 
Jacob Phaffhauser, 
Caspar Lary, 
Conrad Hatt. 

Candidates — Philip Ejiaut and Alexander Kedy. 
Voters — 

Gotlieb Seidler, 

Fred. Arenberg, 

John Ix>ni8, 

Henry Claessen, 

John Simon, 

Godfrey Terple, 

Jacob Moser, 

Jacob Smith, 

Fred. Weile, 

Conrad Ramuhen, 

Candidates — Sebastian Zouberbuhler and Philip Knaut. 

Voters — 

Louis Beloud, Michael Lay, Jean Mange, 

Guilliam Bosty, Joseph Lay, Ad. Weiderhold. 

Christopher Bosty, Ben West, 

Candidates — Sebastian Zouberbuhler and John Creighton. 
Voter — Bruin Bontier. 

Candidates — Sebastian Zouberbuhler and Joshua Maugher. 
Voters — 

J. Donig, Edward Smith, D. C. Jessen. 

Thomas Littlejohn, 

Candidates — Philip Knaut and P. Anshutz. 
Voters — Gelle Gertzens and Anton Coch. 

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Candidates — Sebastian Zouberbuhler and Alexander Eedy. 

Voters — 

Joseph Howe, B. Nessom, John Padnell, 

J. Creighton, William White, J. B. Morreau, 

J. Turner, John Gammon, John Cunningham, 

J. Crook, Williatn Grant, J. Phillips. 

Ca7idida4;es-'Joshu& Maugher and Alexander Kedy. 

Fo^er— Sebastian Zouberbuhler. 

Candidates — Sebastian Zoubevbuhler and Leon Rudolf. 

Voter — Alexander Kedy. 

Candidates — Joshua Maugher and Alexander Kedy. 

Fo/er— George Fancy. 

Lunenburg, July Slst, 1758. 
An account of candidates which have put up to represent 
the town of Lunenburg: 


Sebastian Zouberbuhler, Es-j 26 

John Creighton, Esq 1 

Maj. Le ^n Chris. Rudolf 1 

Mr. Philip Knaut 38 

^'r, Alexander Kedy 42 

Mr. Joshua Maugher 6 

M r. l*aul Anshutz 2 

Total 116 

Mr. Kedy and Mr. Knaut were elected. 

(Mr. Kedy's name is spelled " Kedie " in the journals of the 

'* Notice for Second Election. 

" Proimice of Nova Scotia, S. S. 

" By virtue of His M ajesty's Writ to me directed ; I hereby 
notify the freeholders of the Town and County of Lunenburg, 
qualified in the manner as by the resolution of the Governor 
and Council the 22nd day of August, 1759, is prescribed, to 
meet at the church in Lunenburg, on Friday, the Slst instant 
(August) at six o'clock in the forenoon, then and there to elect 
two members for the Town of Lunenburg, and two members 

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for the County of Lunenburg, in a General Assembly to be 
holden at the Court-house in Halifax, on Tuesday, the 20th 
day of November next. 

" (Signed) D. Christopher Jessen, D.M. 

" The Poll to be opened at six o'clock in the morning, and be 
closed at six in the evening. 

*' Lunenburg, August 27th, 1759." 

Members of the House of Assembly for Lunenburg, 
FROM 1758 TO 1895. 

1st Assembly met at the Court-house in Halifax, Monday, 
October 2nd, 1758. Members returned for Lunenburg : Philip 
Knaut, Alexander Kedy. 

February Ist, 1759, Archibald Hinshelwood took his seat in 
the Assembly, having been elected at Lunenburg for the Pro- 
vince at large. He was* unseated on petition of Richard Bowers, 
April 9th, 1759. 

Sebastian Zouberbuhler and Philip Knaut were returned 
December 4th, 1759. 

2nd. "July 1st, 1761.— Members returned for County : A. Hin- 
shelwood, Joseph Pemette, Township: S. Zouberbuhler, P. 

Mr. Hinshelwood was one of the Clerks of the House. He 
came to Halifax as Governor s clerk, in 1749. 

In 1763, S. Zouberbuliler was sworn in Councillor. 

3rd. May 28th, 1765.— County : Joseph Pemette, Philip 
Knaut. Township : Archibald Hinshelwood, 

4th. 1770. — County : Archibald Hinshelwood. Township : P. 

5th. 1774. — County: John Creighton, Otto W. Schwartz. 
Township : Philip Knaut. 

1775. — John Creighton sworn in Councillor. John Newton 
took the vacant seat in the Assembly. 

1776.— County: Otto W. Schwartz. Township: Philip 

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1777. — County: Otto W. Schwartz. Township: John New- 

6th. June 11th, 1782.— County : Otto W. Schwartz, Casper 
Wollenhaupt. Township : John Newton. 

First division in Assembly, November 23rd, 1784. 

7th. December 5th. 1785. — County : Detleb C. Jessen, John 
W. Schwartz. Township : Casper Wollenhaupt. 

8th. March 20th, 1793.— County : J. W. Schwartz, Edwani 
James. Township : John Bolman. 

9th. February 20th, 1800.— County : C. Wollenhaupt, Lewds 
Morris Wilkins. Township : John Bolman. 

10th. November 18th, 1806— County : Lewis M. Wilkins 
(elected Speaker) and Edward James. Township : John Bol- 

11th. February 6th, 1812.— County : L. M. Wilkins, Francis 
J. Rudolf. Township : John Creighton. 

Mr. Wilkins was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court, and 
Mr. Creighton elected in his place in 1818. The Judge had 
practised law at Lunenburg, where he married a daughter of 
Colonel Creighton. The late Mr. Justice Wilkins and Attorney 
General Wilkins were his sons. 

12th. February 11th, 1819.— County : F. Rudolf, John Heck- 
man. Township : Edward James. 

13th. November 12th, 1820.— County : John Heckman, Lot 
Church. Township : Edward James. 

14th. February 1st, 1827.— County : Lot Church, William 
Rudolf. Township : John Heckman. 

15th. November 8th, 1830.— County : William Rudolf, John 
Creighton. Township : John Heckman. 

16th. January 3 1st, 1837.— County: William Rudolf , Garrett 
Miller. Township: John Heckman. 

17th. Februarj^ 3rd, 184?1. — County : John Creighton, Edward 
Zwicker. Township : John Heckman. 

18th. February 8th, 1844. — County: John Creighton, Charles 
B. Owen. Township : John Heckman. 

19th. January 22nd, 1848. — County: George Ernst, Henrj^ 
Mignowitz. Township : John Kedy. 

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20th. November 4th, 1851. — County : John Creighton, Benja- 
min H. Zwicker. Township : Henry S. Jost. 

21st. January Slst, 1856. — County: Benjamin Reinhardt, 
George Geldert. Township : Henry Bailly. 

22nd. January 26th, 1860. — County : Benjamin Wier, Henry 
Moseley. Township : Henry Bailly. 

23rd. February 4th, 1864. — County : Henry S. Jost, Henry 
A. N. Kaulbach. Township : William Slocomb. 

Dr. Slocomb died in 1865, and Abraham Hebb was elected to 
fill the vacancy. 

24th. January 30th, 1868. Returned : James D. Eisenhauer, 
Mather B. DesBrisay. 

25th. February 22nd, 1872. — Returned by acclamation, J. D. 
Eisenhauer, M. B. DesBrisay. 

26th. March 11th, 1875.— Returned : J. D. Eisenhauer, M. B. 

In 1876, Mather B. DesBrisay, then Speaker of the House of 
Assembly, was appointed County Court Judge for District No. 2, 
and Charles H. Davison, Esq., was elected to fill the vacancy. 

27th. March;6th, 1879.— Returned : Charles A. Smith, Edward 

In 1882, after the General Election, Charles E. Church, Esq., 
was appointed Provincial Secretary, and was re elected by 
acclamation. In 1884, he was transferred to the Depaiiment 
of Public Works and Mines, which office he still holds. 

28tL February 8th, 18S3. — Returned: Charles E. Church, 
George A. Ross. 

29th. March 10th, 1887.— Returned: Hon. Charles E. Church, 
George A. Ross. 

Mr. Ross died in 1888, and John Drew Sperry, Esq., of Petite 
Riviere, was elected by acclamation to fill the vacancy. 

30th. April 2nd, 1891.— Returned : Hon. Charles E. Church, 
John D. Sperry. 

31st. January 3lHt, 1895. — Returned : Hon. Charles E. Church, 
John D. Sperry. 

The following gentlemen who have been meml)ers of the 
Provincial Legislature are still living : Henry Bailly, Senator 
Kaulbach, James D. Eisenhauer, M. B. DesBrisay, Charles E. 


Davison, Charles A. Smith, Edward James, Charles E. Church, 
and John D. Sperry. 

At the election held in 1855, votes were given by John 
Langille, of Block-house, his ten. sons and two sons-in-law, and 
by James Mills, of Chester, and his nine sons. 

Gentlemen appointed from the County of Lunenburg to seats 
in the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia : 

1838. February 1st.— Hon. WiUiam Rudolf. 

1859. February 3rd. — Hon. John Creighton. Appointed 
President of the Council, March 9th, 1875. 

1881. April 6th.— Hon. William H. Owen. 

Gentlemen returned to represent the county in the Dominion 
House of Commons : 

1867. Edward M. McDonald. 
1872. Charles E. Church. 
1874. Same. By acclamation. 
1878. Charles E. Kaulbach. 

1882. Thomas T. Keefler. 

1883. Charles E. Kaulbach. 
1887. James D. Eisenhauer. 
1891. Charles E Kaulbach. 

Hon. Henry A. N. Kaulbach, Q.C., was called to the Senate 
of the Dominion, Mai-ch 27th, 1872, and still occupies the seat. 

James A. McLean, Esq., Q.C., is the Revising Barrister for the 

Wardens and Councillors. 

The following Councillors for the Municipality of Lunenbui^ 

and New Dublin, were returned at the first election held 
November, 1879 : 

Benjamin Berringer, Heli MacKay, 

John Lohnes, John D. Sperry, 

James H. Wentzel, Thomas K. Cragg, 

Edward Langille, James A. Curll, 

Azariah Zwicker, Philip Cross. 
Joseph Mullock, 

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The present Councillors, besides Warden DeLong, are : 

James H. Brown, James E. Dauphinee, 

David Lohnes, Heli Mac Kay, 

Thomas S. Howe, William S. Drew, 

James H. Wentzel, George H. West, 

Lewis Knaut, W. J. Wentzel, 

George A. Pickles, M.D., George A. Boliver. 

The several Wardens have been : Thomas K. ('ragg, 1880- 
1887, Jas. H. Brown, 1887-1891, George H. West, 1^^91-1893, 
Wm. H. DeLong, 1893 (still in office). 

Edward H. Solomon, Esq., has been Clerk-Treasurer since 
January 8th, 1884. 

The first election for the Municipality of Chester was held 
November, 1879, and the following Councillors were returned: 
George W^. Richardson, Daniel Duncan, James Hiltz, Peter 
Boutilier and George Shatford. Chester Basin was then 
included in another district. 

The Councillors last elected, besides Warden Hiltz, are : 
Burton Hennjgar, David M. Turner, George Shatford, Henry 
Boutilier, and Nathan W. Keddy. 

The office of Warden has been filled by George W. Richardson, 
Robert A. Smith, James E. Whitford, and Henry A. Hiltz (now 
in office). 

Charles Lordly, Esq., was appointed Clerk in 1880, and held 
the position until his death in 1889. His son. Captain Edwin 
D. Lordly, has been Clerk since January, 1890. 

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Agriculture and Horticulture — Work done by Men and Women in the 
County, and Improvements made from time to time in the Raising of 
Crops and Fruits. 

*' Happy the man who tills the field, 

Content with rustic labor ; 
Earth does to him her fulness yield. 

Hap what may to his neighbor. 
Well days, sound nights — oh, can there be 
A life more rational and free ? " 

THE surface of the county is undulating, and the produc- 
ing capabilities of the soil are excellent. Among the 
most valuable lands there are many thousands of acres of wild 
meadow, capable, by proper drainage and cultivation, of yielding 
abundant crops. 

Agricultural societies have been long established in several 

In a letter dated Halifax, November 19th, 1818, *' Agricola," 
father of the late Chief Justice Sir William Young, in acknow- 
ledging letters from different quarters, relative to agricultural 
societies, wrote : " This last week, too, I have heard that a few 
leading characters at Lunenburg are bestirring themselves to 
found one there, a place highly suitable, as being surrounded 
by a well-cultivated district." 

At a meeting of landed proprietor and farmers of the 
county, held in the court-house of Lunenburg, upon the 28th 
day of December, 1818, resolutions were moved by the Rev. 
Roger Aitken, and being seconded, were unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, That the grain pixxiuced in the County of Lunen- 
burg is not suflBcient for the subsistence of the inhabitants : 
while the practice of importing flour, and other articles of 

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necessity from the United States, not only creates a dependence 
upon a foreign power, which, under certain circumstances, may 
l>e used as a measure of annoyance against this province ; but 
tends to impoverish the country, by draining it of its cash, 
which never returns to it in the course of trade. 

Other resolutions followed relating to clearing of land, sup- 
plying of food, and the introduction of an improved system of 
husbandry. It was fuHher 

Resolved, That the surest method of introducing such a 
system into genei'al use throughout this county will be the 
estjiblishing an agricultural society, to be called " The Lunen- 
burg Fanner Society." 

Arrangements were made for the appointment of a committee 
to draw up rules, and to i-eport them to another meeting in 
January, to which landed proprietoi-s and farmei-s generally 
were to be invited. 

The resolutions were signed, " Francis Rudolf, Chairman." 

1819. January 30th. — The committee appointed on the 28tli 
December, consisting of the Rev. Roger Aitken, Fi*ancis Rudolf, 
John Creighton, and John Heckman, Esquires, having submit- 
ted to the meeting a set of rules for the regular governance of 
the Lunenburg Farmer Society, they were unanimously adopted, 
and the following gentlemen elected office-bearers : 

President : Rev. Roger Aitken. 

Vice-President : Francis Rudolf, Esq. 

Secretary : Henry WoUenhaupt, Esq. 

Treasurer : Edward James, Esq. 


John Creighton, Esq. (J.P.), Philip Rudolf, Esq., 

John N. Oxner, Esq., William Rudolf, Esq., 

Henry Kaulbach, Esq. (H.S.), Mathew Ernst, Esq., 

John Heckman, Esq., Mr. Gasper Ernst, 

Mr. Jacob Boehner, Mr. George Oxner, 

John C. Rudolf, Esq. (J. P.), Mr. Philip Arenberg. 

A letter to " Agricola," embodying what had been done, was 



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sent by the Secretary, in reply to which the following was 
received : 

" I am truly glad that Lunenburg has given this declaration 
of the interest felt there in the general prosperity ; and that 
county, from being long engaged in the pursuit of husbandry, 
is well calculated to give us practical lessons in this art, which 
lies at the foundation of national independence, wealth, and hap- 
piness. That industrious settlement is a model to all others : 
by a careful cultivation of the soil, and by attending to the - 
products of the garden, it has amassed more real opulence, and 
has a gi'eater command of cash, than any other county, and is a 
public example of what can be achieved in Nova Scotia by the 
plough and the spade." 

To AgHcola, 

Rose Bank Cottage, Sherbrooke, March 26th, 1819. 
Sir, — From your laudable exertions to promote agriculture 
in this province, I take the liberty of enclosing you the pro- 
ceedings of a society formed in the New Military Settlement of 
Sherbrooke. The settlement is still in its infancy, and com- 
posed of men who are very little versed in farming, and quite 
unacquainted with the nature or even the names of roots ; and 
also with what grasses and seeds they should use, having 
passed the most of their days in the service of their country. 
Any advice you may be pleased to give on this subject will be 
gratefully received. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

W. Ross. 

P.S. — I have the pleasure to infonn you that we have two 
hundred and one bushels of winter gi-ain at present in the 

The Proceedings of the Sherbrooke Agricultural 
Society and Committee. 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of Sherbrooke Military' 
Settlement, called for the purpose of taking into consideration 

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the necessity of forming an agricultural society, it was unani- 

Resolved — 

First: That Williaui Ross, Esq., should be President. 
J. S. Wells, Esq., Vice-president. 
Mr. John Hunt, Treasurer and Secretary. 

Secondly : That a committee should be formed to act in 
concert with the above officera for the good of the society, and 
the following were nominated for that purpose : 
D. W. Crandal, Esq. (J.P.), James Walker, Esq. (J.P.), 

Mr. Joseph Gates, Mr. Robert Patterson, 

Mr. Samuel Steel, Mr. George Perrier, 

Mr. James Brown, Mr. William Griffin, 

Mr. William Larder, Mr. William Light. 

At a meeting of committee, held at the house of Mr. Gates, 
February 27th, 1819, it was, among other things. 

Resolved, That a reward of five pounds shall be paid out of 
the funds of the society, to any peraon or persons who may 
find a bed of limestone in the settlement ; and that the society 
should receive, gratis, whatever quantity they may want for 
their own use for twelve months from the proprietor. 

Resolved, That D. W. Crandal, Escj. ( J.P.), and James Walker, 
Esq. (J.P.), of Chester, should form a part of the committee, 
and act for the society in their neighborhood when occasion 

J. Hunt, Secretary. 

At the first Provincial Exhibition, held at Halifax in 1854, 
prizes amounting to $87 were awarded to Dr. Steverman, Mrs. 
William Rudolf, Miss Cossmann, and Miss Maiy Geldert, Lunen- 
burg ; and Frederick Levy, and Sarah Zwicker, Mahone Bay. 

The county has taken a good position at subsequent Pro- 
vincial and county exhibitions, with its products of field, 
orchard and garden ; and many prizes have been secured. 

In 1861, the county was visited by the army worm. It was 
about an inch and a half in length, black on the back, sides 
striped, legs aimed with sharp claws, and mouth large. An 

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immense amount of damage was done to growing cropa Whole 
fields of grain were in many places destroyed. 

In 1879, a half bushel of peaches were grown by Mr. Simeon 
Hebb, near Bridgewater, in a position open to the south, and 
sheltered on the north by spruce trees. Mr. Hebb was also 
successful in 1881. The fruit referred to was pronounced as 
good as that imported. 

In the summer of 1895, Mr. Charles Hall picked in his 
garden, Bridgewater, peaches of very large size and fine flavor. 

Apples of all the choice varieties grow well in the county. 
The late Abraham Hebb, M.P.P., who lived near Bridgewater, 
had an excellent orchard of sonie years' bearing, and another 
of more recent date. Of these he took the greatest care, for 
which he was well repaid. Fine grapes and luscious peaches 
have been grown on the same farm in the open air, and on 
other fanns in the neighborhood. Fruit culture is all the time 
increasijig in the county, and there is a gi'owing demand for 
trees of the best kinds. 

By the death of Mr. Hebb, " Indian Garden " passed to his 
son; Mr. William A. Hebb, who has given special attention 
to the orchards, from which he gathers an abundant crop. He 
took, in one season, fifteen barrels of Baldwins from one ti-ee, 
and thirty-six barrels from four other trees — fifty-one barrels 
from five trees. In 1892, he gathered 550 barrels, including 
all the best kinds. Some years ago, his father cut off a very 
young apple-tree in order to graft it, and put the part removeil 
into the ground. It rooted, and is now the largest tree in the 
orchard. On one bi'anch of it, thirty feet long, the pi-esent 
owner grafted a lot of scions. These are growing up from it 
like a row of separate trees, and bearing quite a lot of fruit. 

Provincial Exhibition Hkld at Halifax, 1879. 

The Morning ChroniclCy October 2nd, referring to the display 
of apples, said : " Lunenburg's collections are very fine, two of 
them being almost equal to anything shown. The third is 
slightly bruised, but the whole three are highly creditable." 
Speaking of " dozens of apples of various varieties," Duchess 

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of Oldenburg was named, of which it was said : " Two dozen 
indifferent and by no means equal to others of the same variety 
shown in county collections, least of all to the Lunenburg 
specimens, whose excellence has already been commented on." 

The Morning Herald, of same date, said of the apples : 
" Lunenburg county sends three lots, and evidently, from the 
fine appearance of those that are exhibited, the fruit-growers 
of this county are paying more attention to this branch of 
farming. In fact, the collections are almost equal to those 
shown by Annapolis county." 

" In the report for 1887, of the Fruit-growers' Association for 
Nova Scotia, Lunenburg county is thus noticed : 

" R W. Starr — I saw larger fruit in some of the small 
orchards in the valley of Upper La Have than I have seen in 
the Annapolis valley. I might say the same of New Germany. 
In Bridgewater the various kinds of fruit looked as well as 
those we have here under ordinary cultivation, and there is no 
reason why the whole of that central portion of the country 
should not be equally successful with Annapolis in this industry. 
They do not require any more drainage than we do, and their 
soil is naturally better than ours, though they have not the 
same facilities for manuring." 

At the closing exercises of the School of Agriculture at Truro, 
in October, 1889, Mr. Henry Koch, son of the late Joshua Koch, 
of East Bridgewater, read an interesting and highly instructive 
essay on the "Cultivation of Strawberries." He was introduced 
by Prof. Herman W. Smith. 

The Moiling Chronicle^ reporting the annual meeting of the 
Halifax Agricultural Society, in November, 1891, had the 
following : 

"Dr. Lawson placed on the table a basket of fine Bishop 
pippin apples, perfectly clean well-formed fruit of nearly 
uniform size, weighing from 7 to 7f ounces each, that had been 
sent by Judge DesBrisay, grown on his grounds at Bridgewater, 
in Lunenburg county ; also several beautiful and well -flavored 
Gravensteins fix>m the orchard of Mr. W. A. Hebb, near that 
town. These samples of fruit were commented upon as affording 

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striking evidence of the suitability of Lunenburg county for fruit 

Mr. Justice Weatherbe wrote of Bishop pippins sent to him 
from Bridge water, that he had " seen nothing better in what is 
called our famous fruit belt." 

The summer meeting of the Fruit-growers* Association for 
1892 was held at Bridge water in " the unique Music Hall," on 
the 7th of July. 

Addresses were delivered by President Bigelow, R W. Starr, 
C. R. H. Starr, Prof. Lawson, Rev. W. E. Gelling, and Rev. S. 

President Bigelow spoke of the pix)fit of fruit growing, and 
the prospects of Lunenburg yet rivalling King's or Annapolis 
counties in the production of fruit for the English market. 

C. R. H. Stan', Escj., said : " There was no question as to what 
could be done in fruit growing in this section of the Province, 
if only the people would give the matter proper attention. 
That was practically demonstrated by a visit' to Mr. W. A. 
' H ebb's place this morning, whose orchard would rival most 
orchards of its age in the Annapolis valley. This orchard has 
produced seven hundred barrels in one season. Mr. Hebb did 
not complain that he had no market. Quantity and quality 
would find a market every time." 

Prof. Lawson said that he remembered twenty years ago 
seeing a collection of apples exhibited at Halifax by Mr. Hebb, 
father of Mr. W. A. Hebb, then a member of the House of 
Assembly, as fine fruit as he had ever seen. There was no doubt 
about the capabilities of Lunenburg county as a fruit-growing 
district. Bridgewater should be the centre of a vast orchard. 

In 1893, an apple-tree injured by a storm was cut down on 
the farm of Mr. David Wile, of Andrew, near Bridgewater. 
It was 105 years old, and nine feet in circumference. One of 
the main branches was eighteen and a half inches through. 
The tree was cut off close to the ground, and in the centre of 
it an iron hatchet, a prong of a stable fork, and a piece of brick 
were found. Fifteen barrels of fruit have been taken from the 
tree at one picking. The year it was removed it yielded four 

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barrels of well- flavored apples of about the size of a hen s egg. 
It made more than a cord of wood, and a large part of it was 
sold at the Bridgewater Foundry as material for ship's wheels. 
Thfe report of the Fruit-growers' Association, 1895, contains 
an address by Prof. Faville, in wliich he said : 

" Bridgewater and its surrounding country, I am sure many 
of you will bear me out in saying, by climate and position, is 
naturally as well adapted to finiit growing as any part of Nova 
Scotia. Here we find peaches, apricots, plums, apples, etc., of 
the known commercial varieties, growing with success. Mr. 
Hebbs orchard during the last season produced over eight 
hundred barrels of apples. The Diana grape ripens here. The 
La Have valley is being slowly planted to trees. Progress is 
needed in spraying and care of orchards. A large quantity of 
vegetables is produced near Lunenburg, and at New Gennany 
fruit tracts are bearing well." 

Very fine apples were grown on the grounds of Councillor 
Lewis Knaut, at Mahone Bay, in 1895. The Gravensteins 
were very superior, and some of the Emperors were ten inches 
in circumference. 

Commodious and well-appointed exhibition buildings have 
been erected and used at Mahone Bay and Bridgewater. 

In 1880, Mr. Charles Fritze, of Lunenburg, sent a number of 
articles to the Halifax Exhibition — among them one squash 
measuring 7 feet 2i inches in circumference, a mangel-wurzel 
weighing twenty pounds, and a cauliflower weighing fourteen 

Mr. Henry*Dauphinee, of Lunenburg, brought to the exhibi- 
tion in Bridgewater, in 1881, six squashes weighing in all 
1,000 pounds. The largest weighed 214 pounds, and measure<l 
80 x 97 inches. 

A pair of three-year-old steers, at the same exhibition, 
weighed 2,850 pounds ; and a pair two years old, 2,104 pounds. 

A pig eighteen months old weighed 700 pounds. 

In July, 1882, very large garden strawberries were shown 
by Mr. E. B. Hyson, Mahone Bay, one 5| inches in circumfer- 
ence. Mr. John Anderson, of Lunenburg, had several of 5 
inches, and one oi inches. r^r^r^r^]r> 

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In the fall of 1883, Mr, Charles Eikle, of Grouse Town, fix>m 
12 i quarts of wheat sowed on a well-prepared piece of land, 
containing three-tenths of an acre, realized the magnificent 
yield of 18i bushels. This, it will be seen, is a return of over 

In 1885, among the cattle for Easter l)eef, exhibited in 
Halifax, were the following : Two steera, three years and nine 
months, 1,900 pounds, raised by Benjamin Westhaver, Martin's 
Brook, Lunenburg: one steer, five years, weighing 914 pounds, 
raised by Francis Kaulbach, Conquerall ; one steer, five years, 
910 pounds, raised by Charles Zwicker, Mahone Bay. 

In March, 1885, Mr. William A. Hebb, of Indian Gai-den,near 
Bridgewater, sold for the Halifax market a pair of beeves 
weighing 4,360 lbs. One of them was 8 feet 4 inches in girth, 
and 9 feet 2 inches in length: and in 1887 he sold in Halifax, 
for 8310, a pair of oxen, fatted by himself, which weighed 4,700 

Mr. Charles Hewitt, of Lunenburg, received fix)m Philadel- 
phia, in 1886, prizes amounting to S60, for two squashes which 
weighed respectively 262 and 223J pounds, and a pumpkin of 
206^ pounds. 

Mr. Hewitt, in 1883, raised the "largest squash on record," 
weighing 293 pounds. 

In 1888, ex-Councillor Philip Cross, of Conquerall, took forty 
barrels of fruit from his cranbeny patch. He sold them for 
J6 dollars a barrel, or $2 per bushel. 

Several others have been successful in raising cranberries, 
and more attention is being given to their culture. 

At the exhibition held in Lunenburg, in 1889, Benjamin 
Morash showed two squashes, weighing 214 and 182 poiinds 

In 1895, gooseberries 3 x 3i inches were grown in the garden 
of Mr. Daniel J. Rudolf, at Lunenburg. 

One great drawback to a more successful prosecution of 
agriculture, has been the too general endeavor to unite farming 
and lumbering — pursuits which are incompatible. It is gi-ati- 
fying to know that many persons, having become fully aware 

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of this fact, have devoted themselves exclusively to farming, 
and have not only made " the wilderness " to " blossom as the 
rose," but are becoming independent. 

The county furnishes notable instances of what can be done 
by close attention to agriculture, one of which may be men- 
tioned. Solomon Vienot, who died in July, 1895, became 
owner of 250 acres of forest land, in what is now Hemford. 
He felled the first tree, and shortly afterwards built a small 
log house, in which he lived alone for several years, beiAg his 
own cook and housekeeper. All the chopping was done by 
him, and he had only occasional assistance when piling the 
logs for burning. Ninety acres were cleared, and he had a 
large poiiiion under the plough and well cultivated. He 
gathered in one season twenty to twenty-five tons of English 
hay, nine * tons of meadow hay, and large quantities of wheat, 
barley, oats, corn, rye, potatoes, turnips, carrots, pumpkins 
and cabbages. Having received instructions from an Indian 
(Simon Glode), he made the buckets, butter firkins, tubs and 
other articles of woodenware required on the farm. He was out 
of debt and had a comfortable home, enjoyed good health, and 
boasted that he could do his own " doctoring." The farm, in 
walking over which he could feel much honest pride, is now in 
the midst of a large and flourishing settlement, where, as else- 
where in the county, are many more visible proofs of the 
returns which may be expected from a diligent tillage of the 

Mrs. Vienot makes a superior article of maple sugar. In 
the forest belonging to the farm, there are many hundreds 
of sugar-maple trees, from several of which have been taken 
fortj^ pails of sap each. The sugar sold by Mrs. Vienot, in one 
season, besides all that was used, realized $20.32. 

Mr. Emmanuel Hebb, who lives about three miles from 
Bridgewater, has a fine productive farm, to which he and 
some of his family have been paying great attention. He 
has built a well-finished barn of 102 feet in length, and most 
-conveniently arranged. Besides the usual farm crops and 
good fruit, he raises a large supply of choice market vegetables, 

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for which he finds ready sale. Samuel Fancy, James William 
Hebb, Ephraim Hebb, Joseph Newcomb, and other farmers in 
the vicinity have been making great improvements on their 
properties, and reaping the rewards which follow a faithful 
tillage of the soil It would be well if many more would do 

This county has long been celebi-ated for the abundance and 
(|uaHty of its cabbages. Schooner loads have been shipped for 
ports abroad. Some of the largest are grown on Big Tancook. 
In November, 1894, Mr. Sylvester Baker, of that island, pulle<l 
two from his field, one of which weighed 25 i, and the other 
23 i pounds. Cabbage is a staple article of food, especially 
among the people of German descent; and when made int4> 
sauerkraut, is also very much used. This dish has been the 
subject of many jokes, at the expense, as has been foolishly 
supposed, of •* Lunenburghers," who may in their use of it 
derive satisfaction from the fact that "The Augsburgh Beauty,'* 
Philippine, wife of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, had a 
passion for sauerkraut, and was advised to eat it with jx>rk» 
rather than with fat capon. 

The people are generally fond of flowers, and in the ganlens. 
especially in those about the old homesteads, the more showy 
flowers seem to have the preference. Sometimes the most 
l)eautiful flowering house-plants are found in the dwellings of 
thase who have least of this world's goods ; and the " ivy 
green " is occasionally seen winding its way around the whitest 
of walls, in rooms the windows of which are adorned with 
rcxses, fuchsias, calceolarias, balsams, and several varieties of 

Many of the women of the county manufacture various kinds 
of linen and woollen cloth, and also yam and sewing thi-ead. 
The introduction of carding machines has been the means of 
siiving them much labor in getting the wool ready for 
spinning. Flax is wholly prepared by hand. In the autumn 
it is broken. A hole or kiln is dug in the ground, generally on 
the side of a hill, all but the front being walled up. Small 
poles are laid across the top. On these the flax is placeil, and a 

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fire mode underneath. When dry it is taken to the brake, 
where it is scutched or bruised, the outer covering being partly 
removed from the fibre. It afterwards goes through the 
process of swingling, by which the remainder of the outer 
shell is thrown off. It is then hackled, or as the Germans call 
it, hetchelled, which takes out the refuse called tow, and causes 
the fibres of the plant to lie evenly together, after which it is 
twisted up into small bundles, and put away for spinning. 
Very superior flax is raised in the county. The first prize for 
" best skutched flax," and the second prize for " best bundle of 
flax in raw state," were awarded to Abraham Hebb, Esq., at the 
Provincial Exhibition held at Halifax in October, 1868. 

Parties composed of men and women, boys and girls, the fair 
sex generally predominating, are willing and cheerful guests at 
" breaking frolics.*' The noise of the instruments can be heard 
at some distance. The gathering-in of the flax is followed by 
a genuine merry-making and a feast of good things, at which 
kind-hearted mothers and " cherry-cheeked maidens " do the 
honors to the satisfaction of all concerned. 

A great many warm knitted woollen drawers, socks, gloves, 
and mittens are taken by the women to market in the towns 
and villages. Their " home-made " dresses are often so well 
woven, and striped or plaided with so much taste, that unless 
closely inspected they can hardly be distinguished from im- 
ported fabrics. 

Ruskin says: "After Agriculture, the art of Kings, take 
the next head of human arts — Weaving, the art of Queens, 
honored of all noble women." Some of the carpets and mats 
manufactured for domestic use are very beautiful in colors and 
design ; and the linen table-cloths and towels, when nicely 
bleached, are by many housekeepers preferred to others, and 
are often eagerly sought for by strangers visiting the county. 

Lunenburg county women also know well how to make the 
famous feather beds used as coverlets, a fashion brought from 
the Fatherland. It is very amusing to listen to stories told by 
those who have for the first time been treated to this — often 
too comfortable — kind of bed-clothing. One asserts that he 
emptied the sack and used the latter as a sheeteigitizedbyGoOQlc 


The industry of the women in the country districts Ls very 
commendable, and to them may with truth ])e applied the words 
of the Book of all books : 

*' She seeketh wool, and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 
** She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff." 
*' She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread 
of idleness." 

The late Hugh M. Moyle, Esq., Collector of Customs at Lunen- 
burg, gave cheerfully his valuable assistance to further the 
agricultural interests of the county, and in this, as in other ^ 
respects, his decease was a public loss. He died at Lunenburg, 
June 16th, 1868, aged fifty years. 

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Fisheries — Kinds and (|uantitieK of Fish caught — Vessels, Boats, 
and Men engaged— Deep Sea and other Fishing. 

'* The fields that no man sows, 
The farm that pays no fee." 

THERE is no body of men in this county who deserve to be 
held in higher regard than the fishermen. The farmers 
are a hard-working class, and contribute very largely to the 
general prasperity. They have, indeed, their days of toil, but 
they have also their nights of sweet repose. The fishermen 
must work by day and watch by night : and they have to labor 
in the midst of difficulties and dangers of which landsmen know 
only by hearsay. The deep sea fishermen especially contribute 
immensely to the wealth of the county and Province. 

The gi-eat American statesman, John Quincy Adams, well said: 
" There is something in the very occupation of fishermen, not 
only beneficent in iti^elf; but noble and exalted in the qualities 
of which it requires the habitual exercise. In common with the 
cultivators of the soil, their labors contribute to the subsistence 
of mankind, and they have the merit of continual exposure to 
danger, superadded to that of increasing toil. Industry, frugal- 
ity, patience, perseverance, fortitude, intrepidity, souls inured to 
pei'petual conflict with the elements, and bodies steeled with 
unremitting action, ever grappling with danger and familiar 
with death — these are the qualities which are called forth by 
the daily labors of the fisherman's life." 

Villebon ivrote, in 1699, in reference to the fisheries and com- 
merce of Acadie, that "if rightly managed, this Province is 
a Peru." 

The shore and river fisheries of this county were formerly 
very productive. The earliest account connected with them is. 

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that Razilly (previously mentioned as Commander-in-Chief 
residing at La Hfeve), Denys, who came out with him, and a 
Breton merchant called Dauray sent fish from La Hfeve to 
Bretagne. which sold well. They afterwards sent the Catharine, 
a vessel of two hundred tons, commanded by Denys' brother, 
to Portugal, with a cargo of codfish, of the proceeds of which 
they were there defrauded. These exportations were made 
between the years 1632 and 1636. 

The coast fisheries excited the astonishment of Lord Com- 
wallis, who, on his visit in 1749, wrote that those on board his 
ship caught fish every day, since they were within forty leagues 
of the coast : and that ** the harbor " was " full of all kinds of 

The following is stated in a letter dated Halifax, August 
21st, 1749: "A man may catch as much fish in two hours as 
will serve six or seven people for a whole week, such as cod, 
halibut, turbot, salmon, skate, haddock, herrings, smelts and 
lobstei-s ; and they lie as thick as stones in Cheapside, so that 
Billingsgate is but a fish-stall in comparison to it." 

Strange as it may now appear, American fishermen used to 
** kill voyages " between Tancook and Long Island. An aged 
inhabitant told the writer that he and his brothers often went 
out in a boat sixteen feet long, in early morning ; and in the 
immediate neighborhood of Heckman's Island, with hook and 
line, loaded it with mackerel larger and fatter than any now 

In the month of October, boats from the Blue Rocks would 
come into Lunenburg, laden with No. 1 mackerel. They w^er^ 
so abundant that men were engaged along the shore, day and 
night, in splitting and curing them. The price, when in prime 
sliipping order, was from three to four dollars per barrel ; and 
they could be bought at the stages (taken from the puncheons), 
split and salted, at the rate of one dollar for each hundred- 

In those days the waters literally teemed with fish. Great 
quantities of salmon were caught in the La Have River, in 
March and in May. Shad were also very abundant, and of the 

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finest quality. Three hundred and fifty shad were not thought 
much of a catch for one day. 

In the month first named, nets were set through holes cut in 
the ice, and the fishermen were accustomed to say that if they 
did not get more fish than they could carry home without their 
ox-carts, it was not worth while to go to the river. The 
McLeods, fi'om Liverpool, caught in one season at Cook's Falls 
1,800 barrels of alewives. Cook and Moser brought down the 
river in one day 1,500 barrels. Moser loaded his brig with 
alewives, and exchanged them in the United States for flour, 
barrel for barrel. Sometimes a man endeavoring to pull out a 
square hand-net would find the quantity of fish enclosed to 
be so large that he was unable to lift them to shore. It was 
no uncounnon thing for twenty or thirty salmon to be taken 
from a net at a single haul. Parties, on going to the river, 
frecjuently found their nets sunk with the weight of the fish. 

Melchior Broom sometimes took seventy -five or eighty fine 
shad, and ten or more salmon, near Miller's Wharf, by the bridge 
at Bridgewater. Andrew Wile and others frequently filled their 
box-carts with alewives at Sandy Brook in a short time. 

Two men went to Cook s Falls on one occasion, and, standing 
above them, they saw a bear on a rock below eating alewives, 
and shot him in the back. Another then appeared in sight, and 
he also was fired at and wounded, when both took to the river 
and went down into the still water. The men, fearing lest they 
should escape, ran quickly below the falls, fired again, and killed 
them. They saw two cartloads of the remains of alewives left 
by bears, of which the backs only were eaten. 

Many salmon were formerly caught at New Ross and other 
places in the back country. 

About seventy years ago, James S. Wells, Ksq., took a salmon 
in Lake Lawson (at Sherbrooke) which weighed twenty-one and 
a half pounds, and Captain William Ross took another, in the 
same lake and about the same time, that weighed twenty-three 

Codfish and sea-trout, of very large size, have been taken in 
nets at Bridgewater. 

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A brig and a large schooner, belonging to Rudolf, Sponagle 
and others, wei'e both loaded at one time at Bridgewater with 
fish caught in the La Have. 

In 1818, there were shipped at Lunenburg, between the 12th 
of January and the 25th of March, in addition to other exports, 
5,320 (juintals of drieU cod and scale-fish, 453 barrels and 24 
half-barrels of pickled fish, and 1,300 gallons of fish-oil. 

The returns from all the counties, 1851-61, showed that 
Lunenburg had the largest number of nets and seines, the second 
largest of vessels, and the third largest of boats. It furnished 
the greatest quantity of dry fish and oil, the thinl largest of 
herrings, and the fifth largest of mackerel. The exports of fish 
from Lunenburg during the five years from January 1st, 1881, 
Ui December 31st, 1885, were : 


Codfish, dry ((luintals) 533,931 $2,289,870 

wet (pounds) 49,500 11,400 

Mackerel (barrels) 20,708 115,797 

Herring (barrels) 29,131 115,492 

All other kinds 6,580 

Fish-oil (gallons) 31,483 16,080 

Tobil 82,554,228 

In August, 1886, Captain Freeman Geldert, of Hand Line 
schooner N. P. Christian, weighed off* his spring catch, 1,177 
([uintals, and had 1,400 more, in all 2,577 quintals. He hail 
weighed oft* the previous season, 2,474 quintals. He was twenty - 
two years old, and the youngest of five brothers, all masters of 
fishing vessels. 

" The Ottaiva, yarci^its, Glenola, Aubrey ^, and Dnnzella 
have each landed from 2,200 to 2,300 quinteds at one time. A 
quintal of dry fish means 112 pounds, and 2,200 quintals, there- 
fore, amount to 246,400 pounds. But it takes about 170 poun<ls 
of green fish to make a quintal of dry fish ; and our vessels, 
therefore, when bringing home fares of 2,200 quintals, and 
upwards, have actually landed upwaixls of 374,000 pounds of 

In 1888, the fisheries of Canada were, in value, $17,418,510.76, 


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Nova Scotia's share, $7,817,030.42, of which there was credited 
to the County of Lunenburg, $1,779,821.90. 

The county had engaged in the fisheries in the same year 193 
vessels and 4,842 men. Value of vessels, $564,700. Also 1,931 
boats, valued at $34,366. 

The first arrival in Lunenburg in this year, from the summer 
fishing, was the Hand Line schooner J. A. HirtlCy Captain 
Geldert, with 1,000 quintals, sixty of which fish, it was said, 
" fresh from the sea, would load a dory " — meaning a single- 
handed dory. 

The Argus, of December 30th, 1891, had the following state- 
ment : 

Number of Vessels and Boats Engaged in Fishing. 

Numberof vessels, 169; tons, 13,836 ; value, $812,400; num- 
ber of men, 2,343. Number of boats, 1,603 ; value, $46,640 : 
number of men, 1,672, Nets and traps, value, $120,191 ; 

fathoms, 675,465. 


Codfish 205,137 cwt. 

Mackerel 20,463 bbls. 

Herring 23,733 „ 

Pollock 39,174 cwt. 

Haddock 20,091 „ 

Lobsters 293,000 i, 

Dressed salmon 17,185 lbs. 

Smoked salmon 987 lbs. 

Halibut 210,850 .. 

Trout 1,656 .i 

Alewives 692 bbls. 

Squid 282 „ 

Smelts 6,755 lbs. 

Eels 167 bbls. 

The above is as nearly correct as could be obtained from the 
customs and other sources. The same paper, on October 24th, 
1894, stated : 

" The last vessel of the banking fleet arrived here last week. 
The total catch for the season amounts to 7,252,000 pounds of 
codfish. In addition to this there are 16 vessels from Ritcey\s 
Cove, which landed a catch of 2,212,000 pounds. Schr. Nyanza, 
Captain Elias Walter, is high line, having nearly 200,000 pounds. 
The fleet, excluding Ritcey's Cove, numbers 66 vessels, averag- 
ing 108,000 pounds each." 

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The Progress, of same date, contained the following compara- 
tive statement of catches for 1893-94 : 

1883. 1894. 

Milo 1400 1200 

Dora 900 

Lottie B 25 

Acalia 250 

Ontario 1400 1500 

Atlanta 1200 1350 

Director 700 550 

Union 900 1200 

Glad Tidings 1150 1000 

M. B. Smith 1300 1300 

Bona Fidea 550 1200 

Britannia 900 900 

Nonpareil 600 1000 

Werra 950 1000 

Vivian 700 1100 

Tyler 725 600 

Maggie M.W 950 950 

Burnham H 800 1050 

Clara E. Mason 1200 1200 

Howard Young 1 100 1100 

Orinoco 550 

J. A. Silver 700 

Gleaner 1200 1300 

L. E. Young 800 900 

Oddfellow 900 800 

Urania 1500 1600 

Molega 1000 1050 

J. W. Young 1200 

J. H. Emst 1000 500 

Erminie 550 900 

Malabar 1300 1100 

O. P. Silver 700 1200 

Jennie Miller 850 900 

Minerva 900 1000 

Argosy 1000 1100 

Alaska ICOO 1000 

1893. 1S94. 

Panama 850 

Charlotte E. C 500 

Nokorais 1300 

Energy 700 

Sadie 900 1000 

Dictator 1100 950 

Mystic Tie 500 

J. C. Schwartz 1200 1350 

Melrose 900 700 

Arcana 850 925 

Secret 1050 1000 

Florence M 700 7<X) 

LaFrance 800 1000 

J. W. Geldert 1000 900 

Samoa 1000 1000 

G. A. Smith 700 900 

Bertie C.H 700 1200 

Robert F. Mason 700 800 

Irving G 1000 

Merino 500 

Monarch 650 1100 

White Cloud 1000 

Bonanza 800 900 

Valenar 800 

C. U. Mader 1000 

Galatea 1800 1500 

Magnolia 800 900 

Yucatan 700 

Argo 300 500 

Mabel B 500 

Lawrence 1200 1200 

Leopold 90') 1200 

Laura M. Ejiock 1050 1000 

Vivian 700 100<» 

M. C. Geldert 900 800 

Nyanza 1000 1700 

In Februaiy, 1888, Captain Benjamin Anderson, of Lunen- 
burg, gave a large amount of valuable information relative to 

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the fisheries, which was published in the Progress, and from 
which the following is taken : 

"Comparatively speaking, this town had no fish business 
forty years ago. There were scarcely ten fishing vessels sailing 
out of this port in 1850, and if I remember aright they did not 
average over forty-five tons each, nor did they carry more than 
ten men and two boats. For the fun of the thing we will call 
them up. There were the John Henry, Brothers, Rambler, 
Peri, Dolphin, and — and — ^they have slipped my memory, but 
there were two or three more, 'i'hat was our fishing fleet forty 
years ago, and it was captained by Paul Bum, Wm. Brown, 
Casper Maxner, Casper Schwartz, Leonard Eisenhauer, George 
Burn, Christian Tanner, Jacob Allen, and Christian Heckman. 
As a general thing, this fleet left our harbor about the first of 
June for Labrador, arriving a week or so later. 

" The vessels when loaded sailed for Lunenburg, Cape Breton 
or Newfoundland, where the fish were removed from the hold, 
washed thoroughly, and spread on the beach to be * maxle * by 
the sun. As a general thing, it took about a fortnight to 

* make ' fish, at the close of which they were returned to the 
vesstjl, taken direct to Halifax, and sold at from $1.50 to $2.50 
per quintal. After marketing, we returned home to spend our 
money, and wait for the next season to come around. This 
is about all there is to be said, except that we prosecuted 
fishing on this line until as late as 1870, or thereabouts. 

" It was at this period that Lewis Anderson, senior member 
of the firm of Lewis Anderson & Co., advised David Seaboyer, 
who was then skipper of one of Anderson's vessels, to use a 

* seine ' when the fish refused to take bait. This advice was 
acted on, resulting in a big catch the first season. About this 
time our fleet became considerably larger in tonnage, as well as 
in the number of vessels. We had some vessels of eighty tons, 
carrying a proportionate number of men and boats, and as I 
have already shown, improvements were being made in the 
mode of catching fish. But the ' seine ' was abandoned a little 
later on, because the fish refused to school, and the ' trap ' was 
substituted at the instance of skipper Charles Loye. 

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" The ' trap ' was an ordinary net arranged into four sides, 
with gateways and a bottom. Fish swam through the gate- 
ways and the netted floor was raised ; thus they were taken 
from the sea at certain times during the day. It wajs an ea**5y 
affair to operate, and accomplished big things for a couple of 
seasons. Later on, however, the fish became frightened of the 
trap, and we discarded it. This occun-ed about fifteen years 
ago, when the Labrador cod-fisheries refused to offer profitable 
returns to Lunenburg fishermen. 

"I think it was early in the spring of 1873, when our fleet had 
reached fifteen veasels and 175 men, that five skippers sailed 
out of this harbor, to engage for the first time in deep sea, or 
bank fishing. We reached the banks, and opened up business. 
At first tlie etfoiii was not crowned with success. In fact, by 
the first of June, four of the five had become so thoroughly 
dislieartened that they set sail for Labrador, leaving me on 
the Grand Banks in command of a 58-ton scho^mer, the 
DielytHs, four boats and thirteen men. I fished the season 
through, however, returning with 1,850 quintals of diy fish. 

" When we caught 1,200 quintals at Labrador, in the same 
time and with the same appliances, we reckoned that givat 
things had been iiccomplished. This achievement of the 
Dlelytris inspired Chas. Loye, the late Edmund Hirtle, Janie.^ 
Geldert and another skipper whose name I cannot recall at this 
minute, to paas the sejuson of 1874 on the banks with me. 
With the same vessel, boats and men, 1 again captured l,^SoO 
quintals, and the other skippers also secured big fares. In 187.'). 
Lunenburg town sent out ten bankers, all hands reaping a rich 
reward. Owing to a scarcity of bait, we did not do so well in 
1876, but that circumstance did not frighten anyone, as will 
be clearly seen when I say that in 1873 we had one 58-tim 
sail speculating on the banks, while we now have a fleet 
comprising sixty home-built schooners, averaging ninety -five 
tons, canying all modern appliances, and prosecuting the deep 
sea undertaking .with enviable vigor and success." 

Salted fish form so large an item of trade in this county that 
the following will be of interest here : 

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William Buckels was a Zealand fisherman, and in 1386, he 
discovered that salt would "keep" fish to that degree that 
they could be packed for export. In that year he salted 
herrings and packed them in barrels. The discovery was a 
great thing for the world, and, at that date, for Dutch commerce. 

Charles V. erected a statue to his memory. Queen Mary of 
Hungary, while living in Holland, sought out his tomb, and 
seated upon it, ate a salted herring — and the people of Bierwick 
celebrated the five-hundredth anniversary of the event. 

Beautiful yacht-like models, attesting the skill of the native 
buildei-s, may be seen in Lunenburg harbor and at the outports, 
when our fishing vessels return from their spring and summer 
trips. Many of them make a grand exhibition in the former 
harbor during the winter. 

Rev. George Grant, writing in August, 1892, said : " I visited 
Lunenburg county the other day, and was delighted to find 
what a noble fleet of vessels was owned there, and to learn that 
almost every fisherman in that fleet of more than one hundred 
vessels shared in the profits as well as in the labor and risks." 

It was reported in May, 1895, that the schooner Maiy Carhral 
landed in Boston a fish taken on La Have Bank, which is sixty 
miles from Cape La Have. It was described as " about five 
and a half feet long, with a round, snake-like body, surmounted 
the whole length by a fin eight inches in height. It has an 
enormous tail. The jaws, about seven inches long, contain 
three rows of teeth, the first being about an inch long and 
different from any teeth which any of the fishermen have ever 
se^en. They are flat and blade-like, sharp at the points, almost 
translucent and slightly flexible. The reptile was taken on a 
trawl on La Have Bank after a desperate fight." 

The Progress^ oi August 28th, 1895, stated that "the fishing 
schooner Minnie J, Smith sailed out of this harbor on April 
22nd last, and returned on June 5th with 600 quintals of fish. 
After taking in outfits, she again sailed away on June 13th, 
returning on August 16th with 1,900 quintals, making a catch 
of 2,500 quintals in three months and twenty-four days." 

On September 11th, 1895, Mr. George Young, of Blandford, 

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caught a halibut weighing 260 pounds, which he secured with- 
out assistance, being then seventy-four years of age. 

Fishing Bounties, Lunenburg CJounty, 
1882 TO 1893. 

Ykas. VnsKLs. Boats. Totals. 

1882 «16,161 03 $3,112 00 $18,273 03 

1883 17,658 00 1,850 00 19,508 00 

1884 19,648 24 3,162 00 22,810 24 

1885 17,315 34 2,947 00 20,262 34 

1886 16,755 64 3,122 00 19,877 64 

1887 16,164 33 3,761 60 19,905 83 

1888 13,893 81 3,794 00 17,687 81 

1889 17,184 42 3,577 00 20,761 42 

1890 15,957 09 4,606 00 20,563 09 

1891 14,664 68 4,793 00 19,457 68 

1892 31,260 36 4,057 00 35,317 36 

1893 31,588 21 3,996 00 35,584 21 

9270,008 65 

The receiving of claims for bounty, and paying the same, is 
attended to by Fishery Officers William M. Solomon, Esq., of 
West La Have Ferry, who kindly furnished the above infor- 
mation, and David Evans, Esq., of Chester. 

The Breton fishermen frequently use this prayer, standing in 
their boats ready to leave the harbor : " Have mercy upon me ; 
my boat is so little, and thy sea is so great " — or, rendered into 

** LoLxl, ere we go, to thee we trust our all, 
Thy sea is mighty, and our boats are small." 

Doubtless the same prayer, in substance if not in woixis, is 
offered up from the hearts of many of our own fishermen. 

During their absence at their work, long intervals must pass 
when their families cannot hear from them. The howling 
wind and the roar of the ocean frequently sadden the inmates 
of their sea-girt homes, by reminding them that those they 
love may be lost amidst the contending elements ; but Faith 

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whispers the comforting assurance that they are under the 
protection of 

*' . . . Him whose sacred fomi 
Once walked upon the sea ; 
Whose voice allayed the angry storm 
On holy Galilee." 

It is cause for thankfulness, that being not only expert 
iisherraen, but skilful mariners, and having vessels generally 
"tight and trim," accidents are few in proportion to the 
number of men employed. 

Looking back, however, over years that are gone, a long list 
can be made of homes to which loved husbands and sons no 
more return. 

" How often, oh, how often," has the signal referred to in 
the following lines been seen : 

** Half-mast high the signal floats ! 

She's coming in from sea ; 
Some sailor of her crew is gone, — 

Who may the lost one be ? 
The landsmen gaze as she draws nigh, 

With trembling sad concern, 

The vessel's name to learn. 
That comes with colors half-mast high." 

Vjujant places there are by many a cottage fireside, but 'not 
in the hearts of those to whom the lost were. dear. Their 
memory is kept forever green in the broken family circle, to be 
again complete when the sea shall give up its dead. 

** *Tis well to find our last repose 

'Neath the churchyard's sacred sod ; 

But those who sleep in the desert or deep, 

Are watched by the self -same God." 

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Manufactures in the Tuwii of Lunenburg, with Vessels and 
Boats Built there and elsewhere in the County. 

THE Lunenburg Iron Company, incorporated December,, 
1891, of which Charles E. Patterson is President, and 
William T. Lindsay, Secretary and Manager, carries on a busi- 
ness which has an output of about $30,000 per annum. 

The goods manufactured include all kinds of cooking and 
heating stoves, ship castings in brass and iron, mill and general 
machinery, and bells weighing from one hundred to seven 
hundred pounds. 

The foundry is equipped with the most improved machinery, 
and occupies an area of over 12,000 feet of floor space. 

Frank Powers (business established 1874), manufactures 
mechanical fog alarms, ships' signals, lanterns, bicycles and hot- 
water heating apparatus. Yearly output, about $20,000. 

Hewitt and Adams, sailmakers. Established 1865. Annual 
output, $10,000. * 

C. Albeiii Smith. Established 1883. Manufacturer of sashes, 
doors, mouldings, etc. Threshing mill. Yearly output, $8,000. 

Peter Loye & Co., blockmakers. Established 1850. Manu- 
faxsture all kinds of blocks, dead-eyes and pump-boxes. Annual 
output, $1,000. 

John A. Eisenhauer. Manufacturer and dealer in stoves, 
tinware and kitchen furnishings. Established 1887. Yearly 
output, $3,000. 


Elias Silver. Established 1881. Output, $11,000. 
George Townshend. Established 1874. Output, $6,000. 
Wilber Sawler. Established 1874. Output, $4,000. 
S^aboyer & Son. Established 1892. Output, $4,000. 

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history of the county of lunenburg. 473 

Ship-building in the County. 

In August, 1787, a handsome brig, built at Lunenburg, arrived 
at Halifax. 

In 1829, Lunenburg had upwards of one hundred vessels 
engaged in foreign trade, coasting, and the prosecution of the 

There were owned in Lunenburg, in 1832-33, 1 ship, 6 brigs 
and 68 schooners ; in all, 75 vessels of 3,488 tons. 

In 1838, Lunenburg had 17 square-rigged vessels. These 
included : 

Brig Durhnmy owned by Win. and Michael Rudolf. 

** Frederica, '* 

** John Z wicker & Co. 

** Mary, 

(i (i U it 

** Gomvierce, " 

** Chas. and Joseph Rudolf. 

Brigt. WUliamy " 

"• J. Zwicker&Co. 

*' Good Jntent " 

** Sponagle&Co. 

** Emerald, " 

'* John Heckman. 

— with top-sail schooners Magnet, Brothers, Rambler, and 

There is no place in the Province more suitable for ship- 
building than this county, owing to the nearness of all kinds 
of timber required ; and some of the finest vessels of the classes 
to which they respectively belong, whether for model, sailing 
qualities, or beauty of finish, have been here constructed. 

The vessels launched in 1860 numbered 22, amounting to 
3,138 tons ; and on March 30th, 1861, there were 18 vessels on 
the stocks, estimated at 1,306 tons. 

John F. Leary, grandfather of Stephen F. Leary, of Summer- 
side, built a number of schooners in Lunenburg many years ago. 

David Smith, bom in Lunenburg, has been engaged in sliip- 
building twenty-eight years. He built 5 brigs, 59 schooners ; 
rebuilt 6 brigs, 5 schooners. Since he and Mr. John Smith 
became partners, they have built 36 additional schooners. 

David Smith s father, Gasper Smith, built a schooner on the 
Common range, and took her half a mile to the sea-shore. 

John and Hibbert Young (both dead) built a number of 
vessels at Lunenburg. 

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John Young built, among others, brigs Buay and Italia, 
brigan tines Oddfellow and i'hiliav, schooners Victor, Ripple, 
and Friend. Among those built by Hibbert Young were the 
brigantines W. iV. Z., Elsie, Ocean Bride, and Mary. The 
writer has been unable to get a full list. 

Peter Young, Ixjrn on Steven's Island, between Lunenburg 
and Indian Point, employed as shipbuilder for thirty years, 
built in Lunenburg, 49 schooners Mr. Young also built in 
Shelburne, 2 ships, largest 1,2J)0 tons; 7 barques, largest 1,240 
tons ; I full-rigged brig, 4 brigantines. 

Joseph Young, born at Mahone Bay, engaged in shipbuilding 
twenty-six years. He built at Lunenburg, 10 brigantines. 70 
schoonei-s. He also built at Chester, 1 schooner. 

James Maxner built 2 large schooners at Lunenburg. 

William Morash built 4 schooners in the county. 

Stephen Morash, of Lunenburg, built, at Chester Basin, 2 
brigantines and 10 schooners for J. Levi Oxner; at Mahone 
Bay, 2 schoonei's ; at Lunenburg, 4 yachts for Halifax, and 300 
fishing and other lioats ; at Chester, 1 schooner and 20 boats. 
He built a four-oared row boat, " Miners Delight," which came 
in fii-st at Chester Regatta, 1894. He modelled the steamer 
Lunenburg. A prize of $30 was obtained by him at Halifax, 
for a fishing boat, and a prize for a schooners model in 1881. 
In 1884, he received two medals for models of brigan tine and 
schooner, and a meilal for a model of a schooner, and one for a 
canoe at Halifax, 1894. 

The schooner Geneva, built in Lunenburg by Mr. James 
Maxner, sailed from Halifax, N.S., November 11th, 1890, in 
charge of Captain H. F. Sieward. On the fifth day out, there 
Wiis a terrific storm, which lasted twelve hours, with a moun- 
tainous sea. The equator was crossed when thirty-one days 
out. On January 9th she anchored in San Vincent's Bay, 
Terra del Fuego, for water and repairs and left next evening. 
At noon of Januaiy 16th, she was considered to be safely 
around Cape Horn. The passage from Halifax to Vancouver 
Island, 14,000 miles, was made in 110 days, including the stop 
referred to, and broke all sailing records at the latter port. 

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The Geneva was called " the fastest sailing vessel on the Pacific 
coast." Captain Sieward s wife was with him on the voyage. 

The Victoria (B.C.) Colonist, from which the above facts were 
taken, referred to another schooner, the Ocean Belle, built in 
Lunenburg by Mr. Peter Young, and stated : "Captain O'Leary, 
who brought her from Nova Scotia, has the satisfaction of 
knowing that he has not been beaten by an outside schooner." 

A writer from Victoria, B.C., said of the schooner Otto, built 
by Abraham Ernst, Mahone Bay : " She is probably as saucy a 
looking ci'aft as ever sailed these seas. These eastern boats are 
all beauties." 

In 1888, the brigantine Sceptre, Captain King, owned by 
Messrs. Zwicker, of Lunenburg, made the round voyage from 
that port to two ports in Porto Rico, thence to Turk's Island, 
and home in thirty-two days. The same vessel and captain 
made eight round voyages to West India Islands inside of 
fourteen months. 

The brigantine W, E..Stowe, Captain Smeltzer, left Lunen- 
burg, February 27th, 1892, arrived at Kingston, Jamaica, 
March 14th ; left that port, March 24th, and reached Lunen- 
burg in fourteen days — making the round trip in forty days. 

Built at Mahone Bay. 

Several fine schooners were built at Mahone Bay previous to 
the last American war. The following are among those which 
have been constructed since that date : 

Built by McLeod and Copeland. Contractor, Jacob Zwicker 
— Barque Lunenburg. 

Built by Elkanah Zwicker — Barque i?oi/cti -4 rc7i; brigantine 
A, A. Chapman; schooners Golden Rule, Seaman* b Bride, 
JoVy Tar, Alice Rogers, Blue Nose (bows planked with elm), 
Hector, In/juisitive. 

Built by the late John Hiltz — Brigantine Queen of the Wtst. 

Built by the late John Young — Brigantine Active 

Built by Joseph C. Morgan — Brigantine Argo, 

About sixty years ago, Frederick Hiltz built the schooner 
James William, at Clearland, three-quai-tera of a mile from 
Mahone Bay. Thirty-six pairs of oxen were attachedHx) a sle^ 

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constructed for the purpose, and the vessel was thus conveyed 
to the salt water. 

Many fine vessels have been built by the Messrs. Hiltz, at 
Murderer's Point, between Mahone Bay and Gold River. 

John H. Zwicker has built in his yard at Mahone Bay : One 
full-rigged ship of 1,400 tons ; 3 barquentines, about 500 tons 
each ; 7 brigantines, from 150 to 300 tons ; 132 schooners, from 
50 to 150 tons ; 3 whalebacks, 300 tons each, to carry coal for 
the Little Glace Bay Mining Company ; 1 schooner, built at 
Bridgewater. The above vessels were owned in the West Indies, 
Halifax, Lunenburg, Chester, St. Margaret's Bay, Martin's Point, 
Mahone Bay, Dublin Shore, Port Le Bear, Lockeport, Shelbume 
and Yaimouth. Among the schooners built by Mr. Zwicker 
was the Star, launched in 1869, constructed for missionary pur- 
poses connected with the Church of England in the Diocese of 

Peter Langille, blacksmith, of North-West, near Lunenburg, 
had seven sons, five of whom — Titus, Calvin, Aaron, Stephen, 
and Enoch — became shipbuilders. Titus was born on January 
22nd, 1832, and died December 7th, 1892. He carried on his 
business at Mahone Bay, and built in this county, 3 barques, 
7 brigantines, 56 schooners, and 2 steamships — the Lunenburg, 
plying between Lunenburg and Halifax, and the Ralph E. &, 
owned at Sambro. The Lunenburg is 124 feet long ; breadth, 
25 feet 5 inches ; depth, 12 feet 5 inches ; gross tonnage, 265 ; 
net, 113. She is a fast traveller. Among other vessels Mr. 
Langille built are the barque Bxisy, brigantines Mirella, Express^ 
Tenser, schooners Friend, Flash, Active, Zephyr. Ar-^^ow, Brisk, 
Two Brothers, yacht Squirrel, barquentine Elizabeth. He 
also built four schooners in other counties. 

Calvin Langille, who recently resided at Bridgewater, built 
in this county 1 barque, and moulded, laid down and helped 
to build two others ; 3 barquentines, 1 brig, 8 brigantines, 31 
schooners. He also built 2 brigantines and helped in the 
building of 20 other vessels outside of the county. 

Stephen Langille, living at North-West, built at Lunenburg, 
1 brigantine, and at Mahone Bay and other places in the county, 
18 schooners, 4 of which were built on Herman s Island. , 

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Aaron Langille built, as mentioned under " Vessels Built at 
Petite Riviere," 1 brigantine and 30 schoonera. 

Enoch Langille, now living at C!onquei*all Bank, built the 
following number of schooners between the years 1856 and 
1876 : At Vogler's Cove, 5 ; West Dublin, 5 ; Broad Cove, 3 ; 
Petite Riviere, 2 ; Parks' Bay, 1 ; Dublin Shore, 1 ; Getson s 
Cove, 1 ; Herman's Island, 1, or 19 in all ; and outside of the 
county, 2 — a total of 21. Mr. Langille was engaged previous 
to 1856 in the building of many vessels, but not as master- 

Vessels Built at Beidgewater. 

The fii-st was the brig Five Brothers built where Davison's 
wharves are, over seventy years agp, by Nicolas Wentzel, who 
lived near Lunenburg. 

By Nathan Randall — Barcjues Josephine, Kdtldeen, brigan- 
tine Defiance. 

By William Bigelow — Brigantines BeUe, Bridgexcater. 

By George Walker — Brigantine Nautilus^ near Dawson's 

By Elkanah Z wicker — :Brig Grand Master, schooner Ivy. ' )| 

By Benjamin Harrington — Barque Belvedere : brigantines 
MiC'Mac, Volant, schooners Viator, Juniata, La Have, Templar. 

George Michael Fancy had built, about fifty-five years ago, a 
brigantine and a schooner alx)ve the bridge, near the foot of 
Victoria road. Joseph Moi-ton, of New Germany, was builder. 

About fifty yeai-s ago, Mr. John Vienot built a coasting 
schooner for Mr. Nicolas Oxner, on the east side of the La 
Have, near Davison's Mills. Circumstances made it necessary 
to launch the vessel sideways. The locality was chosen that 
the building might be as near as possible to the land of Mr. 
Vienot, from which the timber was obtained. 

John Miller, Esq., built at '*Glen Allan," in 1845, the sloop- 
rigged yacht Grace Darling, 28 feet keel, and 9 J tons measure- 
ment. The material used was chiefly oak, and the vessel was 
copper fastened. She made two or three voyages in each year 
to Halifax, once taking first prize at a regatta, and might be 
called a coast cruiser, as she visited everj^ harbor from Port 
Mulgrave to Cape Sable. Digitized by Google 


The firm of Ebenezer and Henry Moseley came to Bridge- 
water in 1853, and carried on the shipbuilding until 1864. 
They built 2 barques, 2 brigs, 2 brigan tines, 1 revenue schooner 
— Daring, 4 merchant schooners, 6 fishing schooners, 7 yacht 
schooners, 2 yacht sloops. 

Among the vessels built by Messrs. Moseley were the beauti- 
ful banjue Stag, brigs Chanticleer. Beauty, Eclipse, packet 
schooner Friend, and schooner Mystery, 

Many handsome models have been made by Mr. E, Moseley. 
One of the barque Stag, built at La Have, 1856, obtained a 
prize at the World's Fair, 1893, " for the symmetry of her fine 
lines. During her career she made several successful voyages 
to the East Indies and other ports. On two occasions she made 
the run from Halifax up to the line in twenty-one and twenty- 
two and a half days per log. This performance has never been 
excelled since by any sailing vessel." 

The full-rigged ship W, J. Lewis was built by James Allen, 
who was killed by falling down the hold of the same ship at 
Getson's Cove. The brigantine Mystic Tie was built by George 
Laiuoreaux. The building of these two vessels was superin- 
tended by Captain R. P. Trefry. 

Levi Hewitt, born at Summerside, built at Bridgewater, 
bar<|ue Scotia (in 1874), 1 barquentine, 2 brigantines, 10 
schocmers ; and at Summerside, 4 schooners. He also built 2 
schooners at Port Medway, Queen s. He modelled and tim- 
bered out the bar(|ue St. Kilda, afterwards in charge of Thomas 
Ryer, of Shelburne. In 1890, she sailed from New York to 
Valparaiso and Iciuique, and was called ** the clipper of the 
fleet, having led the last two voyages by some weeks, making 
the passages in seventy-two and seventy days, respectively." 

On the Launch of the Bauque "St. Kilda," at Bridge- 
water, Co. Lunenburg, N.S., October 3rd, 1879. 

The hull complete, the masts erect, 

The bowsprit in its place, 
Receive St. Kilda, sweet La Have, 

With all thy wonted grace. 

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And as thy waters down to sea 

The smaller craft convey, 
So give the good ship consort kind, 

To meet her ocean way. 

With captain true, and faithful crew. 

To roam the billows t»'er, 
And in the commerce of the earth, 

To touch at many a shore. 

A '* white- wing'd messenger " of peace. 

With Britain's flag unf url'd. 
To spread her fame, extend her name, 

And blessings to the World. 

Watch Thou, O sovereign Lord of all. 

Her progress to the end. 
And all on board, whate'er the storm, 

For those they love, defend. 

— M. B. D. 

The barque Scotia, above mentioned, made the quickest 
passage on record, from New York to Dunedin, New Zealand, 
in ninety-eight days. In July, 189.5, she was loaded at Bridge- 
water with lumber for Buenos Ayres. 

Levi Hewitt and John McLean built 7 schooners. 

Hibbert Young built 2 schoonera. 

Built by Isaiah Wagner — Barquentines Earnscliffe and 
Stranger. Also 2 three-masted schooners, and 1 schooner. 

The Stravger, 142 feet keel, built for Captain Thomas A. 
Wilson, C. H. Davison, and others, was launched Oct. 21st, 1893, 
in presence of an immense assemblage of people, many of whom 
came from Lunenburg and Mahone Bay. The vessel was named 
by Frances Eugene Wilson (then aged eleven years), a daughter 
of the principal owner, and shortly after launching, was loaded 
with lumber for Buenos Ayres. 

The late Charles and William Rudolf had a brig, Lord 
Exmoufh, topped at Rudolfs Point, in 1820, and also had built 
the following vessels : 

At Koch's Point, in 1827, a full-rigged ship, Du/.e of Clarence; 
and in 1828, brig Mary. On Rudolfs Point, 1835, brigantine 
William; 1836, top-sail schooner Rambler; l8*SS,hrig Durham; 
1848, brigantine Flora. ^ , 

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Jacob Conrad had a schooner called Union built by Nicolas 
Wentzel, near the site of Suninierside rectory. 

James Weagle built 8 schoonei-s at Summerside, about eighty 
years ago. His son George built there 25 schooners, and his 
grandson Jacob now residing there, has built at the same place, 
30 schooneiTS. William, uncle of Jacob, also built there 12 
schooners ; and Simeon, cousin to Jacob, 4 schooners. 

Stephen F. Leary, l>orn at Garden Lots, near Lunenburg, has 
built, at Suunnerside, 40 schoonera : 6 at other places ou the 
La Have, and 1 at Port Medway. 

George Cleversey built 7 schooners at Summerside. 

William Weagle built 10 schooners at the same place. He 
died January 13th, 1890. 

Simeon Weagle has built there 7 schooners. 

A schooner called Sir Peregrine Maitland was built in 1826 
or 1827, near where Daniel Rafuse resides at Conquerall Bajik. 

Mathew Weagle built at tlie Bank 25 schooners. 

A top-sail schooner was built in the yard of Mr. J. N. Rafuse. 
at the same place, about fifty-five years ago. 

George and Charles Cleversey built at the Bank 16 schooners, 
and Charles built 1 schooner. 

Angus Weagle, son of Mathew, built a schooner at the Bank 
in 1892. He also built for Mr. J. N. Rafuse, in his yard, up to 
August, 1895, 21 schooners. Two schooners were also built 
there for Mr. Rafuse, by William Weagle, and one by Stephen 

The following vessels have been built in the shipyard of Mr. 
Albert McKean, at Pleasantville, on La Have River: 

By Calvin Langille — 1 schooner. 

By Jacob Weagle — 9 schooners. 

By James Himmelman — 1 schooner. 

By William Weagle — 25 schoonei*s (2 building). 

Mr. John McLean built 2 schooners near West La Have Ferry. 

Six schooners have been built at Getson's Cove, 2 of them by 
James Himmelman, and 1 each by R. McLeod, Michael Richard 
and Michael Himmelman. The rest are included in other lists. 
A brigantine was also built at Getson's Cove. 

Four schoonera were built near Mr. JeflTrey Publicoxer s, Lower 

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Dublin, 1 each by James Himirielman, John McLean and Elkanah 
Zwicker, and 1 is in another list. 

Mr. James Bell had built at BelFs Cove, 1 brigantine and 16 
schooners. Titus, Stephen and Enoch Langille built 1 each* 
John McLfeod 1, and Aaron Langille, the rest. 

VksseLvS Built at West Dublin for late R. B. Currie, Esq. 

By Calvin Langille — 3 brigantines, 8 schooners. 
By Enoch Langille — 1 brig, 3 schooners. 
By Samuel DoUiver — 1 brig. 
By Robie McLeod — 1 schooner. 
Two other schooners were built. 

Aaron Langille built at West Dublin, 1 schooner for M. J. 
Sperry, and 3 schooners for A. Romkey & Sons. 

Vessels Built at Petite Riviere. 

By Aaron Langille — 1 brigantine and 30 schooners. 
By Enoch Langille — 2 schooners. 
By other builders — 28 schooners. 

Twelve of the above schooners were built for the late John C. 
Sperry, Elsq., and eight for his son, John D. SpeiTy, Esq., M.P.P. 

Nicolas Reinhardt & Sons had several schooners built at 
Broad Cove many years ago. One of the master-builders was 
a man named Shaw. The first vessel was named the Triah 
built about 1825. 

Martin Reinhardt, and Enoch and Aaron Langille also built 
several schooners there. A brigantine was built by Mr. Rein- 
hardt about 1848. 

Martin Reinhardt was bom in Broad Cove, and died October 
27th, 1892, in his seventy-ninth year. He was engaged in ship- 
building for over thirty years, and built at Vogler's Cove, 
2 barques, 7 brigantines, and between 50 and 60 schooners. He 
also built a brigantine and a schooner at Liverpool 

Martin Rhynard, jun., son of the above-named, built in 
Vogler s Cove, 7 schooners, and has built vessels at Liverpool. 

John DoUiver built 1 schooner for William Vogler, 

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William Weagle built 1 schooner for Eldred Vogler. 
Robie McLeod built a schooner each for James Selig, Eldred 
Vogler, and William Vogler. 

James Leslie built a schooner for William Vogler. 
Henry Morash built 3 schooners. 
Stephen Langille built 1 schooner. 

Built at Chester. 

Barque John Broivn, about eighty-five years ago, two brigs 
at Western shore, and one at Marriott's Cove at subsequent 

Built by Charles Walther — Brig Neris, brigantine Cliffdii, 
schooner Indiuttry. 

Built by W. Hume — Brigantine Jairvea A, Moren. 

Built by Mr. Wilkins — Schooner Good Intent 

Built by Charles Walther and Joseph C. Morgan — Schooners 
John M. Watson, Prairie Flower. 

Built by Enos Moreland — Brigantine Mary M. Sckmitz, 

Built by Joseph C. Morgan — Schoonera Morning Star, Dar- 
linQy Weathergaivge, Saucy, Cheater, Volunteer, Dayspring, 
Bella Barry, Enivia, Daisy and others; also launched in 
1869 — Brigantine Faugh-a-Ballagh, 80-feet keel. 

Brigantine Ocean Bride, built at Chester Basin in 1854, by 
the late Hibbert Young, was considered one of the handsomest 
vessels that had been seen in Nova Scotia. She was lost on a 
voyage to England. 

George Young built on Young s Island, near Indian Point, 5 
or 6 schooners. 

Peter Young built 2 schooners on Steven's Island. 

William Wentzel built 2 schooners at Indian Point, and 

Edward Eisenhauer, 1 schooner, and 

Nicolas Eisenhauer, 2 schooners. 

Jacob and Fritz Hiltz built 4 or 5 schooners at the Narrows, 
and John Hiltz about the same number at Indian Point. 

If all the vessels above enumerated could be assembled in 
one of our capacious bays, under sail, in a sort of naval review, 
what a magnificent marine picture would be presented ; and 

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what a splendid representation would it be of the genius and 
skill of the men who, in this county, have been in the front 
rank of the shipbuilders of the country ! 

From returns received, it appears that thirteen thousand 
boats — whalers, dories, skiffs, flat, keel, and centre-board boats 
of all the kinds required — have been built in Lunenburg town, 
the principal builders of which were James Maxner, William 
Morash, Stephen Morash, Arthur Oxner, Conrad and Anderson, 
William Whitney, and Alexander Anderson. A large number 
were built by the late Mr. Joseph McLachlan. 

Charles Hilchey, who died at Chester in 1877, built there 
about three hundred boats. He was a famous workman. His 
son Samuel, who worked with him, has carried on the same 
business, and built one hundred boats and repaired about a 
thousand. He built twenty centre-board and seine boats and 
twelve dories in 1894. 

William Marvin, who died in 1872, and Charles Walther, 
who died in 1894, built a great many boats in Chester. Mr. 
Marvin built over 350. 

The " Stanford Boat Building Company," organized 1894, 
have built fifty dories, and twenty-eight other boats. Many 
of these were among the finest that have been seen in the 

Many of the best fishing boats are built on Tancook Island. 
About thirty centre-board boats (whalers and yachts), and a 
few dories, are built yearly. 

A large number of fine boats have been built at the La Have 
islands by Robert Wolfe, Esq., and others. 

From Progress, October 30th, 1889 : " Mr. Hibbert Richard, 
a young fisherman residing at Parks* Creek, passed his leisure 
hours last winter in making a miniature schooner, which was 
one of the leading attractions at the Industrial Exhibition held 
here a few weeks ago. The craft is about four feet long, and has 
been pronounced an almost perfect model by many of our skip- 
pers. Her cabin contains berths, table, stove, etc., while the other 
parts are supplied with all those things that aid in making up 
a handsome hull.* At present Mr. Richard .is engaged in rigging 

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her after the two-topmast fashion, and when his task is finished 
will hand her over to anyone who will give him $25." 

" Lunenburg can boast of having one of the most ingenious 
and skilful boys to be found in any part of the world," says the 
Progress. " The young man referred to is William Heisler, a 
painter, and the above assertion can be verified by inspecting 
his last production. This piece of ingenuity is a miniature 
steamboat, in every particular like the steamship Lwneninirg. 
She is timbered, planked and decked, having all the aooommo- 
dations and apparatus of a large steamer. She is 4 feet 7 
inches long, 11 inches deep and 9^ inches beam, and is run by 
a spirit-engine. Mr. Heisler intends, if the weather proves 
favorable, to try the boat on Lunenburg harbor in a fortnight's 
time." Completed in 1892. 

From Hants Journal, 1892 : " A pretty little model of a 
steamship, named the Windsor y has just been completed by Mr. 
James E. Rafuse, of Lunenburg, on which he has been at work 
for about a year past, mainly in the evenings. It is looked 
upon as one of the finest specimens of miniature steamship 
architecture shown anywhere. The model is about five feet 
long. No detail has been omitted to present a full and complete 
model of a regular steamship. The state-rooms are all under 
deck, each being lighted in the ordinary waj'. There are two 
cabins below the main-deck, the forward cabin being reachetl 
by a stairway leading irova the house on deck, and the after- 
cabin from a stairway in the saloon, which is on the main- 
deck. The cabins and saloons are all finished in pine and 
walnut, only a portion of which can be seen. The forwanl 
(juarters for the crew are equipped with bunks and table, and 
are also finished in pine and walnut. The rigging is complete, 
with the exception of a few finishing touches to be given after 
Christmas. Four neat-looking little boats are seen hanging at 
the davits, and other details have also received attention. The 
steamer is equipped with engine and boiler of sufficient power 
to pix>pel her through the water. The model is quite a gem in 
its way, and is greatly admired by all who inspect it." 

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Exports and Imports. 

IN the year 1818, there were shipped at Lunenburg, between 
the 12th of January and the 25th of March, on board 
three brigs and four schooners, for the British West Indies, 
150,000 feet of pine lumber, 24,850 oak and ash hogshecui 
staves, 8,500 hogshead hoops, 1,300 gallons of fish-oil, 453 barrels 
and 24 half-barrels of pickled fish, 5,320 quintals of dried cod 
and scale fish,' 220 bushels of potatoes, 15 bushels of tiimips, 
53 shooks, 20 spars, and 11,000 shingles. 

Dutiable goods imported into Lunenburg, from 1st January 
to 31st December, 1818: 32,685 gallons of spirits, 6,360 gallons 
of molasses, 1,922 cwt. of sugar, 1,000 cwt. of coffee. 

During the month of October in the same year, nine vessels 
arrived at Limenburg — two of them from Halifax, and the rest 
from other ports. Forty-eight coasters had made in the same 
time two or three trips to Halifax, with wood, vegetables, sheep, 
butter and other articles, from different harbora in the county, 

List of vessels arrived at the Port of Lunenburg, in 1822. 
from the coast of Labrador, with the quantity of fish and oil 
imported in them; also their tonnage, and the nmnber of persons 

Quintals Barrels 
Names of Vessels. Tons. Men. Boys. Dry Fish. of Oil. Masters. 

John and Eliaa 61 7 1 708 21 T. McGrath. 

William 29 4 1 378 11 G. McLeod. 

Morning Star 69 8 3 881 30 J. Garkort. 

Dove 42 5 1 450 16 John Hayes. 

Dolphin 68 8 650 20 S. Cohoon. 

Lady 56 10 920 28 G. Tanner. 

Total 314 42 6 3987 126 

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Exports and Imports of Lunenburg during 1826. 


Dry fish 19,799 quintals. 

Mackerel 2,879 barrels. 




Smoked herrings. . 
Tongues &> Sounds. 



557 *' 

78 ** 
8 '* 

24 boxes. 
7 barrels. 

68 ** 

Staves 158,375 

Shingles .730,500 

Pine plank 3,986, 

Birch plank 14,554 

Pine timber 1,348 

Birch timber 809 

Oak timber 18 

Hemlock 20 

Deals and ends 7,334 

Spars 64 

I^thwood 46 oords. 

Beef 61 barrels. 

Pork 51 " 

Hams 384 

Cattle 7 head. 

Bread 10 barrels. 

Potatoes 880 bushels. 

Cheese 24 

Cheese 420 pounds. 

Butter 19k^8. 

Beets 14 barrels. 

Apples 460 *' 

Cabbages 1,200 

Candles 4 boxes. 

Furs 18 puns. 


Bum 37,956 gallons. 

Brandy 119 ** 

Port wine 2 qr. casks. 

Lime juice 4 puns. & 1 cask 

Molasses 33,018 gallons. 

Sugar 1,253 cwt. & 2 qrs. 

Coffee 14 cwt. 

Salt 9,348 bushels. 

Cordage 159 coils. 

Paint 155 kegs. 

Oil 50 jars. 

Coal tar 42 bairels. 

Spikes and nails ... 61 kegs. 

Iron 382 bars. 

Iron 334 bundles. 

Canvas 6 bales. 

Pimento 131 pounds. 

Cottonwool 100 

Hides 308 

Dry fish 

Sounds & Tongues . 


Crown glass 

Spun yam 

Russia duck 


Fishing tackle 

Chain cables (and 

Seal skins 



Oranges &> lemons. 

Boxes and barrel 

Straw hats and bon- 

4,538 quintals. 
2 bb]s&6keg8. 

30 boxes. 

5 coils. 

1 truss. 

1 truss. 
1 cask & 1 box. 


2 tons. 
4 boxes. 


The above goods were brought to Lunenburg from Bermuda, 
Demerara, Berbice, St. Lucia, Grenada, Antigua, St. Kitts, 


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Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Martins, Liverpool, G.B., New Bruns- 
wick, and Newfoundland, in the following vessels: 

Veflsels. Tons. Ownen. 

• Dove ,. . 42 William Rudolf & Co. 

Rambler 105 Michael Rudolf & Co. 

Rival 97 William Rudolf & Co. 

Ann 85 Philip Sponagle. 

Five Brothers 97 Casper Oxner & Co. 

British Tar 266 Aikenhead & Co., Whitby, G.B. 

Hero 48 Joseph Fait and others. 

Lady 55 Chas. and Henry Ernst. 

Dolphin 57 Jacob and Martin Pentz. 

Wellington 98 Geo. and Fran. Boehner. 

John Eliza 68 

Mary 51 Geo. Metzler and M. Frederick. 

Eliza 28 Samuel Nickerson, Barrington. 

Rival 51 Foster, Port Medway. 

John Henry 42 John Zwicker and W. Rudolf & Co. 

Victory 99 John Heckman & Co. 

WilHam 28 John C. Rudolf & Co. 

Aurora 99 William Rudolf & Co. 

In 1827, the duties paid at the office of Excise amounted to 
£3,709 12s. 5d. There were in the town of Lunenburg, twenty- 
two stores, containing general stocks of British and West India 

In 1832-33, the exports were valued at £9,044, and the 
imports at £7,460. 

Lunenburg was declared a free port in 1839. 

Exports from County for half year ended 
March 31st, 1867. 

Fire and lath wood, 361 cords, value $1,145 00 

Lumber, 1,273,056 feet, ** 11,835 00 

Shingles, 94,000, ** 133 00 

Spars and knees, 41, ** 31 00 

Herrings, 1,524 packages, ** 3,853 00 

Apples, 130 packages, '' 215 00 

Leather manufactures, 264 pkgs, *' 90 00 

Molasses and treacle, 4,413 gals, ^' 1,475 00 

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Salt, 5,866 bushels, value $529 00 

Tea, 75 pounds, ** 30 00 

Tobacco, 90 pounds, ** 36 00 

Codfish, 275,726 pounds, " 9,222 00 

Shad, halibut & mackl, 1,084 pks, '' 8,884 00 

Scale fish, 91,444 pounds, '* 2,257 00 

Vegetables, 1,032 bushels " 526 00 

Staves, hoops and shooks, 466,828, '' 66,630 00 

Fish-oa, 175 gallons, " 96 00 

Unenumerated, '' 272 00 

9107,259 00 

Imports into County during half year ended 
March 31st, 1867. 

Silk and wool, cotton and linen 

manufactures 11 pkgs f2,404 00 

Cotton warp J. ** 194 00 

Flour 76 bbls 656 00 

Beef and pork 9 ** 173 00 

Butter and lard 550 lbs 110 00 

Pish 7 bbls 4 00 

Grain 1,200 bush 496 00 

Vegetables 5,340 bush, and lbs 1,432 00 

Coffee 744 lbs 123 00 

Molasses 7,585 galls 2,161 00 

Spirits 821 ** 404 00 

Sugar 5,304 lbs 336 00 

Salt 9,402 bush 1,173 00 

Fruit 2 pkgs 22 00 

Hardware 15 " 258 00 

Oil 1,033 galls 331 00 

Woodware 65 pkgs. and pes 579 00 

$10,856 00 
La Have. 

Flour 265 bbls $2,113 00 

Beef and pork 15 ** 207 00 

Butter and lard 324 lbs 50 00 

Fish 730 bbls 1,290 00 

Grain 1,600 bush 690 00 

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Vegetables 2,170 busU. and lbs. . . . »284 00 

Coffee 408 lbs 57 00 

Molasses 6,6»4 galls 1,128 00 

Sugar 4,412 lbs 156 00 

Salt 270 bush 18 00 

Fruit 8 pkgs 8 00 

Hardware 114 ** 957 00 

Oil 1,140 galls 377 00 

Woodware 139 pkgs. and pes . 

Unenumerated 8 *' 

Stone, lime, etc 45 

Tea 670 tba 

Tobacco 788 '* 

Bacon and hams 31 ** 

Bread 46 " 

Candles 91 '' 

Clocks 1 

Earthenware, glass, etc 2 pkgs 

Ginger and pepper 99 lbs 

Naval stores 2 pkgs 

Confectionery 4 ** 

Groceries 95 ** 

Cordage and canvas 101 ** 

Hides, etc 40 ** 

Mahone Bay. 

Flour 46 bbls 

Beef and pork 2 " 

Butter and lard 1,000 lbs 

Fish 650 bbls 

Grain 1,760 bush 

Vegetables 5,300 bush, and lbs . 

228 00 

242 00 

32 00 

213 00 

202 00 

4 00 

5 00 

12 00 

2 00 

12 00 

18 00 

4 00 

13 00 

312 00 

, 3,788 00 

42 00 

912,463 00 

. «209 00 

30 00 

185 00 

1,300 00 

775 00 

1,310 00 

93,809 00 

Exports and Imports, 1869. 


Nine months, commencing July, 1869 — Exports 965,492 00 

Imports 13,659 00 

Bridgewater, La Have. 

For year 1869— Exports 9127,450 00 

** ** Imports 51,860 00 

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Mahone Bay. 

For year 1869— Exports $14,243 00 

** ** Imports 7,629 00 


For year 1869— Exports $2,040 00 

Imports 2,776 00 

Mahone Bay, 1869. — Cleared — 22 schooners and 3 brigan- 
tines. Arrived — 25 schooners and 3 brigantines. Owned at 
and sailing from the bay — 23 schooners and 1 brigantine. 

La Have. — Trade of port from Ist January to 31st Decem- 
ber, 1809, Oviiuards — To United States, 150 schooners, 5 
brigantines ; South America, 3 barques, 2 brigantines ; New- 
foundland, 2 brigantines, 5 schooners; Prince Edward Island, 
1 schooner; British West Indies, 1 barque, 10 brigantines, 2 
schoonei-s; total, 181. Imvards — From United States, 128 
schooners, 1 barque, 5 brigantines ; Newfoundland, 2 brigan- 
tines, 1 schooner ; Prince Edward Island, 1 schooner; Foreign 
West Indies, 1 schooner; total, 139. Total, inwards and out- 
wanls, during the year, 320. 

All the figures given above relate exclusively to foreign trade. 

Exports from comity, for year ending June 30th, 1874. 
S557,029. Increase in value of exports in two years, 8206,915. 

Expoi-ts from county, for year ended June 30th, 1875, $61 0,897. 

Exports and imports for the county, for the year ended 
June 30th, 1895 : Exports, $932,499 ; imports, $114,299. 

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Celebration at Bridge water of the Jubilee Year of Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria. 

THE jubilee year of " our noble Queen " Victoria's reign was 
celebrated at Bridgewater, on Tuesday, June 21st, 1887. 
So many people were never before assembled in the town. 
There was a great profusion of bunting, and handsome arches 
were erected, one of them designed by Mr. C. O. Foss, railway 
engineer. All the bells rang at 6 a.m., and a royal salute was 
fired under the direction of Captain Brown of the 75th Bat- 
talion, Lunenburg, and Municipal Warden. A calithumpian 
procession, organized by the Bridgewater Crescent Club, 
included many amusing features. 

A second procession was formed of different societies and 
clubs from tow^n and country, with handsome regalias. Three 
bands furnished good music. This procession, marshalled by 
Messrs. K. A. Logan, William M. Duff*, George A. Wade, and 
Arkanas Wile, started at Temperance Hall, and marched through 
the principal streets on each side of the river. 

Of all the processions and displays of this memorable day 
none was so fine or inspiriting as the turnout of the children, 
headed by the Lunenburg Civilian band. They were marshalled 
by Messrs. T. R. Pattillo, P. W. Harding, G. A. Dudley, and J. L. 
Oxner. Each boy carried a small Union Jack, and each girl a 
bunch of wild daisies and grasses. The girls wore white dresses 
and caps, and the boys were attired in black. They were formed 
in line at the drill-shed, and, accompanied by the ladies who had 
trained them, marched around the town, joining the grand pro- 
cession at the upper end of Pleasant street, and keeping with it 
until they reached the bridge, which they crossed to a large 
gallery in the Pines, constructed mainly of borrowed railway 

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sleepers, and put up under the direction of C. H. Davisou, Esq. 
There they gave the National Anthem in grand style, followed 
by ringing cheers. This was a perfect picture gallery. Nothing 
handsomer has ever been seen in the county than those four 
hundred children so arranged. Our Sovereign Lady would 
herself have enjoyed it. The day was a red-letter one in the 
life of each boy and girl. 

The ladies' committee spared no pains on behalf of the children, 
and were well rewarded in the success attending their efforts. 

A circular course for foot-races, and used also for other sports, 
was provided on Miller's Flat, and boat-races were held on the 

The following is part of the published account of the day's 
proceedings : 

" To describe Bridgewater, illuminated as it was on Jubilee 
night, cannot be properly done. No pains were spared by the 
citizens to make the houses, stores and hotels show up well, 
and their efforts were crowned with success. The procession 
was, in itself, a grand display. No. 1 Hose Reel was ornamented 
with a beautifully covered palanquin chair, in which were seated 
two little Japanese fairies, Bertha Simonson and Lottie Vienot. 
No. 2 Hose Reel carried an imperial crown in crimson and gold, 
the jewels of which were finely represented by diamond-shaped 
colored glass ; this rested on a cushion tastefully gotten up for 
the occasion, in crimson and an imitation of gold cord. The 
bar of this fine ornament was a square, on the sides of which, 
I'espectively, were No. 2 s motto, * Always on Time,' the mono- 
gram V.R., surmounted by a crown, and * 1837 — Victoria — 1887/ 
The engine was appropriately decorated with flowers and made 
a fine show. The torch-light procession, accompanied by three 
bands, started as soon as dusk set in, and was a grand affair. 
After this came the fireworks, which were set off at the end of 
the bridge on the eastern side. For over an hour the heavens 
were a beautiful scene, and altogether the pyrotechnic display 
was a highly creditable affair, and would have done justice to 
some of our cities. It was after twelve before the last rocket 
was sent up, and still the crowds on the street did not seem to 
diminish." ^ . 

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The day was all that could be desired. There was no dis- 
turbance of any kind whatever. The enjoyment was of the most 
rational nature throughout. All who were present seemed to 
remember that the occasion demanded right conduct in every 
particular, and not a single instance could be noticed of depar- 
ture from it. It seems much to say, considering the immense 
assemblage, but it is strictly true. Long live the Queen. 

Lines Composed for the Queen's Jubilee — 1887. 
M. B. I). 

Our country's flags are all unfurled. 

Soul-stirring music meets the ear, 
And musket roll and canon boom 

Honor the Queen whom we revere. 

Hear, Lord, a grateful nation s song 

That echoes loud from sea to sea, 
And make the people one in heart 

To hail, and keep this jubilee. 

Great fifty years — Victorian age. 

Which ever shall remembered be 
For blessings to the human race 

In fullest measure given by Thee. 

God save the Queen, glad children sing, 

As they the gay iirocessions see, 
And older voices swell the strain 

To one rejoicing symphony. 

We thank Thee, Lord, that thou hast saved 

Our good Queen's valued life till now, 
And pray Thee still to guard her throne. 

Till heavenly glory decks her brow. 

Add to her years — her strength maintain, 

Continue to her subjects peace, 
That so her £mpire!s well- won fame 

May throughout all the earth increase. 


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Tragical events which have happened in the County. 

IT has been remarked, to the credit of the Province, by those 
who have inquired into the subject, and compared Nova 
Scotia in this respect with other countries, that, considering the 
population, the criminal cases before the courts have been few. 
Occasionally, however, the most atrocious crimes have demandeil 
investigation, and this county, unfortunately, has not been 
wholly exempt even from these. 

The first crime here referi'ed to is an Indian massacre, fol- 
lowed by other cases of murder. 

In or about the year 1754, Lewis Payzant, a native of Caen, 
in the Department of Lower Normandy, whose father left 
France on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, came with his 
family from Jersey to Halifax. He was recommended by Mr. 
Pownal, Secretary to the Lords of Trade, to President Lawrence, 
who, to secure his protection in the vicinity of Lunenburg, gave 
him a letter to Colonel Sutherland. 

Mr. Payzant obtained a grant of an island in Mahone Bay, 
not far from Rous's Island, and since known as Covey's Island. 
A bnish-wood cabin, erected for the shelter of those engaged 
in clearing the land, gave place to a comfortable log hut, in 
which the family resided. Boxes and bales of goods were stored 
in it with a view to future sales. A two-story dwelling was 
nearing completion, and a field of wheat had been sown and 
other things done, in the hope that a comfortable and happy 
home would be established, when the following dreadful events 
occurred, commencing on the eighth day of May, 1756. 

The laborers and mechanics had gone home, and the darkness 
of night had gathered round the lonely dwelling. An unusual 

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noise aroused the family as they were prepai'ing to retire. 
They supposed it to come from evil-minded persons near the 
house. Mr. Payzant had been told by the Governor that if he 
was molested he should fire upon the intruders. Fearing trouble, 
he seized his musket, and going out, discharged it, hoping, but in 
vain, to frighten the new-comers. They were Indians who had 
taken a boy from Eous s Island, tied his hands, and forced him 
to guide them to Mr. Payzant's residence. They murderously 
attacked him, whereupon Mrs. Payzant rushed out, threw her 
arms around her fainting husband and begged him to go in ; 
but death had seized him. She heard his half -choked utterance, 
" My heart is growing cold — the Indians," and he fell lifeless at 
her feet. The terrific war-whoop and the advance of the Indians 
confirmed her worst forebodings. Resistance was out of the 
question, and she retreated to the house and barred the door. 
Baffled in their attempts to force it, she saw them deliberately 
preparing to bum the houvse over the heads of herself and her 
little ones, and she resigned herself to her fate. She requested 
her eldest son Philip, aged about twelve years, to open the door, 
and the Indians rushed in like so many tigers. This boy sprang 
upon the table shaking his fist, and was evidently willing to do 
all he could against the enemy. A poor servant- woman, with 
her infant child, had occupied an apartment entered by a 
separate door. The Indians had killed the woman and her babe 
before they made their way into the room of Mi*s. Payzant. 
They mimicked her cries, and her voice and manner. 

The boy who had acted as guide was murdered by the savages, 
and his scalp added to their booty. 

When the captives — the mother, three boys and a girl — were 
all secured, the plunder placed in the canoes, and all was ready 
for leaving the island, the torch was applied to the dwelling. 
The flames shot high in the air and shed a lurid glare far over 
the waters. Sudden and awful was the change to the wrctched 
prisoners, who turned a last sad look toward their late happy 
home, and then rapidly glided away into the dense gloom. 
Many a cup of affliction had that stricken woman tasted before, 
but others were in reserve. So intense was her grief on this 

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trying occasion that tears would not come to her relief. There 
was, however, an Almighty arm to protect her, her only support 
in this time of need. 

The party landed at Chester, and travelled across the countiy 
to the head of the St. Croix River, and passed what is now 
Windsor on the following night. They could distinctly see the 
sentry on his beat. The canoes drew in close to the shoi-e, 
moving noiselessly along, while the captives were terrified into 
silence by the flourishing of a tomahawk over their heads. 
Their next landing-place was Cape Chignecto, where there 
was a French settlement. Thence they were hun-ied on to 
Fredericton, then called St. Ann's, where the French governor 
resided. The Indians expected to obtain there the promise<l 
reward for prisoners and scalps. It is said that on their way 
they took the scalps of two young Frenchmen, knowing that 
they would not be distinguished fixjm those of British subjecta 

During the terrible voyage Mrs. Payzant noticed her wed<iing 
shoes among the articles the Indians had taken, and was 
anxious to gain possession of them. In their eyes they were 
worthless, but her entreaties were met by a loud insultin<: 
laugh, and they were thrown overboard. 

The question " Upon what did they feed you ? " was put in 
after years to Mr. Lewis Payzant, one of the captured boys. 
" Feed us upon ? " was the reply ; " why sometimes they fed us 
upon berries, sometimes upon bread, and sometimes upon — 
nothing." He remembered that the Indian to whom he was 
assigned, on a division of the spoil, had a son about his own 
age — four years. As they travelled through the wood they 
were carried alternately by the old Micmac. " He would take 
me by the shoulders," said he, " and swing me round upon his 
back." He thought that the Indians did not ordinarily subject 
them to ill-ti'eatment beyond what would naturally arise from 
the circumstances of the case. He recollected one exception. 
A piece of bread given him for his supper was so bad that he 
could not eat it, and he threw it away. For this he was 
sentenced to go without food for the night. It happened that 
a larger portion than was necessary for the time being had 

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fallen to the lot of his tawny companion. As the latter fell 
asleep it dropped from his hand, and was eagerly taken and 
eaten by the hungry white boy. The young Indian awoke in 
the morning and looked for his bread. A complaint was lodged 
against Lewis to the boy's father, who was starting on a fishing 
excursion. He seemed greatly enraged, and threatened him in 
a tone which left no doubt on the child's mind that he would 
sacrifice him on his return. Whether he really intended to do 
so or not could never be known, as he became intoxicated that 
day, fell out of his canoe, and was drowned. 

At St. Ann's, Mrs. Payzant was separated from her children 
and sent on to Quebec. They were retained by the Indians. 
Months of suspense and anxiety passed before she heard from 
them. News at length arrived that two of them w^ere in the 
hands of the French, while the other two, the eldest son and 
only daughter, were still with the Indians, w^ho refused to part 
with them on any terms. The sorrowing mother went to the 
Roman Catholic bishop and implored his aid. He instructed 
the priest at St. Ann's to demand the children, and to refuse 
absolution to those in whose hands they were, xmless the 
demand was complied with. This was effectual, and they 
were forthcoming at once, and after a time airived with other 
British prisonera at Quebec. Hearing of their arrival, the 
mother was transported with joy, and eager to go and meet 
them. This, how^ever, was denied her. A military guard 
obliged her to remain at the door of her lodgings until a gix)up 
of children were brought up and she was directe<l to select her 
ow^n little ones, which was easily done. She again " pressed 
her precious darlings to her bosom, covered them with kisses, 
and bathed them with her teara." The taking of the city l>y 
the English gave the captives their full liberty. They returned 
to Nova Scotia, but Mrs. Payzant could never think of revisit- 
ing the island. 

Lewis Payzant, above mentioned as one of the boy prisoners, 
lived afterwards in Falmouth, Hants county, and died there at 
the age of ninety-six. When ninety-five years old he gave a 
graphic account of the stirring scenes he liad passed thix)Ugh in 

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his youth. He mentioned that his father owned thi-ee veaseLs 
in Jersey, where he sold two, and that he came in the third with 
his family to Halifax. He had the most vivid recollection of 
the attack of the Indians and of all the incidents of his capti\'ity. 

" I can never forget his animation," wrote his listener, " and 
no words can do justice to his manner as he describeil, after 
conversing a while on the subject, the rush of the Indians into 
the house. He said that while he was a clerk in Halifax a 
number of Indians came into the store, among whom he recog- 
nized one of those who murdered his father, and chargeil him 
with the deed. * You,' said he, ' are one of the Indians who 
killed my father.* * Well,' said the Indian, 'I am; but it was 
war then.' " 

John Payzant, one of the brothers, was educated chiefl3' in 
Quebec. In 1793, he married in Hants county, Mary AUine, a 
sister of Rev. Henry Alline, wlio was called the " Whitefield " 
of Acadia. They had nine children — a daughter and eight sons. 

Mr. Payzant became a Congi'egationalist minister, and the 
church at Liverpool sent a vessel to Hoiion, or Comwallis, for 
him and his family. They arrived on the 23rd of April, 1793. 
Mr. Payzant remained until his death, at the age of eighty-five 
years, April 10th, 1834, having been pastor over forty years. 
He preached his last sermon on the preceding Eiister Sunday. 
While residing at Liverpool he visited his father's gi'ave, in a 
beautiful spot under oak and beech trees, on Heckman's Island. 
A large portrait in oils of the deceased clergj^man (by Sylvester 
F. Jeimings, an American artist) is in the house of Nathan 
Payzant, Esq., ex-Waixlen of the Municipal Council, Liverpool, 
one of his grandsons. Another was Henry Alline Payzant, 
who lived with Nathan, and died January 1st, 1895, in his 
ninety-second year. He was bora at Liverpool on Christmas* 
Day, 1803. 

Philip, the third of the boy captives, went to the United 
States and has never been heard from. 

Mary, the daughter taken away b}" the Indians, man'ie<l 
after the return to Nova Scotia, John James Juhan, a native 
of Switzerland, with whom Rev. John Payzant finished his 

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education. A daughter of Mary, in a letter dated Charleston, 
S.C., 1804, wrote, that after her mother was married they went 
to Boston, from there to Charleston, and thence to the French 
islands, where she died. This letter, written to her uncle John, 
and sent by Captain Freeman, of Liverpool, she signed '* M. 

Elizabeth, called Lizette, the second daughter of Lewis 
Payzant, bom after the other children had regained their 
freedom, married a Mr. Jess. Some of her descendants live in 
King's county, and others in the Western States. 

The foregoing has been compiled from an article published in 
a Halifax newspaper many years ago, pasted in a scrap-book, 
and from thence republished in the Liverpool TiTnes by the 
then editor, the late Edwin C. Parker, a great-grandson of the 
clergyman above named, and also from statements made to 
the writer by Nathan Payzant, Esq., and Mrs. Joel Payzant, of 
Falmouth, and from other sources. 

On the day of the murder of Lewis Payzant at his island 
home, an old man and his grown-up son were killed by Indians 
at Rous's Island. 

Colonel Sutherland despatched a command of thirty men 
from Lunenburg to visit the islands, where they found that the 
reports of the murdera and house-burning were true. 

The following proclamation was issued, owing to the cruel 
work of the Indians here and elsewhere, and after consideration 
by the Council of letters the Governor had received from Colonel 
Scott, in command at Beausdjour, and Colonel Sutherland at 
Lunenburg : 

By Charles Lawrence, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia, 
or Accadie. 

Whereas, notwithstanding the gi-acious offer of friendship 
and protection made by us, in His Majesty's name, to the Indians 
inhabiting the Province, and the treaty of peace concluded 
with a tribe of the Micmacks, bearing date November 22nd, 
1752, the Indians have of late, in a most treacherous and cruel 

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manner, killed and carried away divers of His Majesty's subject^s 
in different parts of the Province. 

For these causes we, by and with the consent of His Majesty's 
Council, do hereby authorize and command all officers, civil an<l 
military, and all His Majesty's subjects, to annoy, distress, take 
and destroy, the Indians inhabiting the different parts of this 
Province wherever they are found, and all such as may be 
aiding or assisting them, notwithstanding the proclamation of 
November 4th, 1752, or any former proclamation to the 

And we do hereby promise, by the advice and consent of His 
Majesty's Council, a reward of £30 for ever}'' male Indian 
prisoner above the age of sixteen years brought in alive : for 
a scalp of such male Indian £25, and £25 for every Indian 
woman or child brought in alive. Such rewards to be paid by 
the officer commanding at any of His Majesty's forts in this 
Province immediately on receiving the prisoners or scalps 
above mentioned, according to the intent and meaning of thLs 

Given at Halifax this 14th day of May, 1756, in the twenty- 
ninth year of His Majesty's reign. 

By His Excellency's command. 

Chas. Lawrence. . Wm. Cotterell, Sec'y. 

God save the King. 

Murdoch says : " It is impossible to read such documents jv« 
the above without strong sensations of pain and 
English and French alike adopted the Indian plan of scalping, 
and added to it a I'efinement unknown to the Indians, in giWng 
a pecuniary i-ecompens^ for the scalp of an enemy." 

While not attempting to justify the killing of the innocent 
with the guilty, it must still be remembered that the Governor 
and Council knew that other families were liable to be butch- 
ered at any moment, and probably felt that severe measures 
must be adopted. 

It may be mentioned here that in or about 1763, John Peini, 
Governor of Pennsylvania, issued a proclamation offering for 
every captive male Indian, of any hostile tribe, SI 50, and for 

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every female, $188 ; for the scalp of a male, $138, and of a 
female, $50. 

After the members of the Payzant family, whose lives had 
been spared, were carried off, a man named Covey lived on the 
island. He was followed in succession by Adam Heckman, 
Paul Langille, Peter Herman, and Casper Meisner. 

In the winter of 1791, one of those terrible tragedies, which, 
coming suddenly, startle communities, occurred at Lunenburg. 
George F. Eminaud, aged seventy years, who had brought up 
a family respectably, and secured for himself and his partner a 
competency for their declining years, lived on the first penin- 
sula, not far from the town. Two men, George Frederick 
Boutilier and John Boutilier, one of them being godson to 
Mr. Eminaud, went on a visit to him, intending to rob him of 
his money. Like many others, who, checked by conscience, 
cannot bring themselves at once to the actual commission of 
crime, they left him, and subsequently returned to his house, 
where they had always been most kindly treated, and were 
invited to i-emain for the night. Mr. Eminaud went to the 
bam for some straw, with which to make them a bed, and 
when near the house on his return, was brutally murdered by 
the elder Boutilier, with a hatchet or axe. 

The two BoutUiers then re-entered the house and killed Mrs. 
Eminaud in the same manner. The only other inmate was a 
granddaughter of Mr. Eminaud, who, trying to escape, was 
half way through the window, when she was dragged back 
and also murdered. 

The Boutiliers carried the old man's body into the house, to 
which they set fire, in order to bum up, as they vainly hoped, 
all traces of their guilty deed. They then reversed their snow- 
shoes to make detection impossible, but " murder will out," and 
blood being found on the premises, aroused suspicion. The 
Boutiliers were pursued, and captured in a hut near Bedford 

A few hours before the murder, Mr. Eminaud and his son 
Frederick, who lived a short distance from him, were working 
together, and divided between them a piece of red chalk. The 

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elder Boutilier, after the murder, transferred to his pocket all 
that was about the person of Mr. Eminaud, the piece of chalk 
included, which, when found, fitted exactly with the piece in 
possession of young Eminaud ; and this formed a strong link 
in the chain of circumstantial evidence, on which the prisoners 
were found guilty. 

A special commission of oyer and ternii/ner and jail deliven* 
was held at Lunenburg, on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. 
the 3rd, 4th, and 5th days of May, 1791, before the Hon. 
Thomas Andi-ew Strange, Chief Justice, and Mr. Justice 
Brenton; with John Creighton, and Christopher D. Jessen, 
Esquires, Justices of the Peace and Judges of the Inferior 
Court, named in the commission, for the trial of George Fred- 
erick Boutilier and John Boutilier, charged with the murder 
of Frederick Eminaud. 

The commission was read at two o'clock, p.m., May 3rd, and 
the grand jurymen were called: E. James, foreman; James 
Paterson, Casper Gloshen, Edward Keighly, John Anderson, 
Robert Lord, James McDonald, Adolf Newman, Casper Heck- 
man, Thomas Pennell, Christian Boen, Andreas Young, John 
Morash, sen., Peter Morash, John Morash, jun., Theodore Naw, 
Gotliep Hamish, Peter Arenburg, Seth Bailey, Wendell Wiist. 

The learned Chief Justice addressed the jury sworn, on the 
grave and important duty they were assembled to discharge ; 
the necessity of coming to the inquiry with no passions, but a 
desire for public justice ; nor with any worse sentiment than 
an honest indignation at a supposed oifence of the deepest 
dye ; and entreated them not to let that indignation which, as 
applied to the crime, was laudable, transport them too far 
against any who might be innocent of it. He described murder 
as "that crying offence that will not sleep, but will have 
inquisition made of it in open day ; " and ended his remarks 
by saying, ** With this charge only, I dismiss you to your office ; 
and God direct you in your inquiries, and us in the issues of 

The Court was then adjourned till six o'clock p.m., when the 
grand juiy returned a true bill charging the Boutiliers with 

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having on March 19th, 1791, with tei*tain large sticks and a 
tomahawk, inflicted upon Frederick Eminaud mortal strokes, 
woxmds and bruises, of which he then and there instantly died. 
To tliis charge the prisoners on an-uignment pleaded not guilty. 

The following petit jurymen were sworn : Alexander McNeal, 
Martin Minick, John Meisener, John McGregor, John Hiltz, 
George Bickler, Christian Tanner, James Dorcas, Leonard 
Young, Edward Mullock, Joseph Bailey, and Leonard Arenberg. 

Mr. Stewart opened the case for the Crown, showing the 
evidence to be submitted, which he explained was purely circum- 
stantial, but which after the fullest consideration had left in his 
mind a violent pi'esumption that a murder had been committed. 
The witnesses examined on behalf of the prosecution were, 
Joseph Contoy, Nicliolas Eisenhauer, William Cheney, Susanna 
Cheney, John P. Boutilier, Joseph Boutilier, David BoutiUer, 
George M. Smith, George Bobner, Casper Heckman, Andreas 
Young, Peter Langille, George Titafl*, John Bachman, and John 

Then followed the examination of the prisoners at Halifax, 
taken before John Newton and William Taylor, two of His 
Majesty's Justices of the Peace. 

No evidence was offered on the part of the defence, and the 
Chief Justice proceeded to deliver his charge to the jury, enter- 
ing fully into the evidence and the law applicable thereto,' 
among other things stating as follows : " The desirable thing 
IS, in every case, civil as well as criminal, to have direct demon- 
strative evidence of the fact to be proved, but particularly in 
criminal cases ; and more especially still where they touch life. 
But wickedness often devises such secret times and ways to 
perpetrate its evil designs, that if nothing but positive evidence 
could be received for juries to go upon in determining facts, 
crimes would forever go unpunished, and the condition of 
society be rendered most insecure. 

" Presvmiptive evidence, therefore, has been let in, and that 
which is positive not being to be had, circumstances are resorted" 
to. For when the fact itself cannot be demonstratively evinced, 

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that which comes the nearest to a pixx)f of the fact is a proof of 
such circumstances as either necessarily or usually attend such 
facts ; and in propoHion as these turn out in number and appli- 
cation, the strength of the presumption arising from them 
becomes more or less forcible and persuasive. If the presfump- 
tion arising from such evidence be but light, it is none at all. 
and ought not to weigh on your minds in the least, but to be 
dismissed entirely from them as that upon which no reliance 
ought to be had. On the other hand, the presumption arising 
from circumstances merely, may be so strong as to be iiTesistible. 
and, if possible, even more conclusive than a simple testimony 
of the fact itself, which is the natui'e of direct evidence. Thus, 
to put a familiar instance that hafl relation to the prasent case : 
' Suppose a man hav